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The Indians' Book

The Indians' Book

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The Indians' Book

759 Seiten
8 Stunden
Nov 7, 2013


Lore, music, narratives, dozens of drawings by Indians themselves from an authoritative and important survey of native culture among Plains, Southwestern, Lake, and Pueblo Indians. Standard work in popular ethnomusicology. Features 149 songs in full notation. Includes 23 drawings and 23 photos.
Nov 7, 2013

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The Indians' Book - Dover Publications


Painted by Hiamovi (High Chief) and his wife Wowesta (White Buffalo Woman). Cheyenne Indians.












Copyright © 1907, 1923, 1934, 1950 by Paul Burlin.

All rights reserved under Pan American and International Copyright Conventions.

Published in Canada by General Publishing Company, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario.

Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd.

This Dover edition, first published in 1968, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the second edition, published by Harper and Brothers in 1923. The colored plates of the second edition are here reproduced in black and white.

Standard Book Number eISBN 13: 978-0-486-14859-5

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 68-19547

Manufactured in the United States of America

Dover Publications, Inc.

180 Varick Street

New York, N. Y. 10014

This Dover edition is dedicated to the memory of Natalie Curtis Burlin

born, April 26, 1875 —died, October 23, 1921


Natalie Curtis (Mrs. Paul Burlin) died in Paris, October 23, 1921, almost immediately after being struck by a motor car while crossing a street. Shortly before her death she had planned to return to her study of Indian music, which she had laid aside temporarily to fulfill an urgent request that she record in similar manner the Negro folk-songs of our South and the songs and legends of some of the native Negro tribes of Africa. The completion of her collections in that field, Negro Folk-Songs, published in 1918, 1919, and Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent, published in 1920, left her free to take up the preparation of a re-issue of The Indians’ Book, to which task she would have brought an even greater knowledge of the Indian and an even deeper insight into the art of primitive man.

Her untimely death makes impossible the revision which she would have undertaken and the inclusion of new material which she had gathered since the first publication in 1907. A few notes, however, as well as new drawings made by Indians especially for the purpose, have been added to this edition, and new illustrations from photographs have been supplied to replace some which have become unserviceable by repeated reproduction.

A creation myth of the Yuma Indians, recorded by Miss Curtis, and the record of her conversation with Chiparopai, one of the leaders of that tribe, have been reprinted in the appendix with the kind permission of the successor of the Craftsman Magazine, in which they were originally published. A Yuma Indian lullaby and a Hopi Indian Owl Katzina Song, recorded by Miss Curtis, have also been appended. These songs first appeared in her article on American Indian Cradle Songs published in the Musical Quarterly, to which acknowledgment is due for the courtesy of republication. Except for those additions, the book remains as it was.

It is a satisfaction to realize that the purpose of the work to which Miss Curtis gave so many years of unselfish effort has so largely been fulfilled. In the introduction to the first edition she expressed the hope that in music, art, and letters, as well as in history and archæeology, The Indians’ Book should find a place. It has done so. Widely reviewed both here and abroad, it won instant recognition not only for the amazing accuracy of the musical transcriptions, but for the revelation of the Indian’s artistic genius and for the light which it shed on the inner thought and aspirations of primitive man. Indeed, with the passing years, The Indians’ Book has become a treasury to musician, artist, poet, and ethnologist alike, and the historian of the future will owe a debt of gratitude to the young woman who made her rare musical gifts and wide knowledge, her spiritual understanding, intellectual penetration, and flashing artistic intuition the medium through which the Indian’s contribution of art and creative thought should be recorded for all time. Nor did the service of the book end there; for she made, as one writer has said, art the means of a ministry of service in human advancement ; and the book was but a part of a broader appeal for a humane treatment of a deeply misunderstood and gifted race, and for some method of adjusting the primitive Indian to the alien civilization around him, not by stamping out all that was native to him in the futile belief that he might thus be transformed into a white man, but by developing his character through the preservation and fostering of all that was valuable in his own distinctive culture.

Incredible as it now seems, when Miss Curtis first began her self-imposed task of recording Indian music, native songs were absolutely forbidden in the government schools. On one reservation she was warned by a friendly scientist that if she wished to record the Indian songs she must do so secretly, for if the government official should hear of it, she would be expelled from the reservation; and on another the Indians were afraid to sing to her lest it should bring them into disfavor with the authorities. At that time, except for the notable work of Miss Alice C. Fletcher and her Indian collaborator, Francis La Flesche, and for a few cursory gleanings here and there, and for purely scientific treatises (unknown, for the most part, to the general reading public), the wealth of indigenous music, poetry, and legend was not only neglected, but was being rapidly obliterated by the steady pressure of the government’s effort to crush the Indian as rapidly as possible into the white man’s mold.

Miss Curtis’s direct appeal to Theodore Roosevelt, then President, brought not only his official sanction, without which the recording of the Indian songs on the reservations would have been almost impossible, but his warm personal interest in her undertaking. His influence, with the added impetus created by the wider dissemination of a real knowledge of the Indian, resulted in the shaping of an enlightened policy in the administration of Indian affairs which led finally to the adoption of many of the reforms which Miss Curtis advocated.

Thus, for example, the singing of Indian songs in the Indian schools came to be not only officially permitted, but encouraged. The talented Indian artist, Miss Angel de Cora, of the Winnebago Tribe, who designed the lettering of the tribal title-pages of this book, was appointed art instructor at the government’s school for Indians at Carlisle, and for a time at least was given a free hand to develop the art of her race and apply it to the useful industries taught there. Even Congress, which could appropriate sufficient funds to preserve the natural beauties of America, but had never thought of the value of preserving the art of the original American, found funds sufficient for a short-lived effort to record officially the music of the various tribes. At last the Indian child in the government school and the adult on the reservation were allowed a freedom of racial consciousness and a spiritual liberty theretofore almost tyrannically denied. That this change in policy came too late to benefit the older generation of Indians or to preserve their distinctive qualities of character in the younger, was a matter of regret to Miss Curtis ; but she was happy in the knowledge that the labor of compiling the book was completed just in time before much of the material held only in the memory of the older Indians should with their death be forever lost to the world. The full history of Miss Curtis’s endeavors for the Indian is yet to be written, but for those who care to follow in outline her effort to preserve Indian art a brief list of some of her contributions on the subject to various periodicals is appended in a note.

Each people, says Professor Michel, of France, through its great artists, affirms its intimate faith, reveals its manner of understanding and loving life, and enriches just so much the patrimony of the world. It was Miss Curtis’s belief that the art of the native race, whose utterance springs from our very soil, could enrich our patrimony, and that if the striking characteristics of; that art should eventually be absorbed into the artistic expression of our country, we should, in her own words, have woven into the fabric of our national culture a strand of color instead of adding to the monotone of gray. Much of what she hoped for has already come to pass. The paintings of the colony of artists who have settled at Taos and elsewhere have sought to reveal Indian life in the primitive beauty of our own Southwest. In Santa Fe a new museum has been dedicated to the preservation of the culture of that region. Indian designs have found their way into our textiles. Anthologies of Indian verse have been compiled, both here and abroad. Poets have begun to experiment with the idiom and pattern of the Indian song-poem form. And musical compositions based on Indian themes are heard in our concert halls. Truly, at last, we have awakened to the artistic riches which, as Dr. Lyman Abbott said, lay hidden like the gold in the rocks of our native land.

Those who believed with Miss Curtis in the essential unity of mankind, who felt, as she expressed it in the preface to her study of African folk-songs, . . . that only when we admit that each race owes something to the other, only when we realize our vast mutual human indebtedness, may we hope for that interracial and international tolerance, understanding, and co-operation which can at last bring permanent peace—those who felt beneath the tragedy of the World War a strengthening of the right of each people to racial self-expression, and a quickening of the impulse toward an understanding exchange of cultural gifts, must find in the closing paragraph of High-Chief’s foreword to this book a quality of prophecy and the vision of a great leader of men :

There are birds of many colors—red, blue, green, yellow—yet it is all one bird. There are horses of many colors—brown, black, yellow, white—yet it is all one horse. So cattle, so all living things—animals, flowers, trees. So men: in this land where once were only Indians are now men of every color—white, black, yellow, red—yet all one people. That this should come to pass was in the heart of the Great Mystery. It is right thus. And everywhere there shall be peace.

To those who shared Miss Curtis’s ideals and to the Indians of the various tribes who contributed to the preparation of the original volume and who held their friend, Tawi-Mana—the Song-Maid, as they called her, in affectionate remembrance, the labor of the present editor is dedicated. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Rev. Winfred Douglas for his friendly counsel, and to Mrs. Osgood Mason, whose help made possible the original undertaking, and without whose continued devotion the present edition could never have been accomplished.

B. C.

August, 1922.


The Perpetuating of Indian Art. The Outlook, November 22, 1913.

Folk-song and the American Indian. Southern Workman, September, 1915.

The Indian’s Part in the Dedication of the New Museum. Journal of Art and Archœology, January, 1918.

Mr. Roosevelt and Indian Music. The Outlook, March 5, 1919.

Our Native Craftsmen. Southern Workman, August, 1919.

Theodore Roosevelt in Hopi Land. The Outlook, September 17, 1919.

An American Indian Artist. The Outlook, January 14, 1920.

A Plea for our Native Art. Musical Quarterly, April, 1920.

Pueblo Poetry. The Freeman, January 25, 1922.


By Hiamovi (High Chief)

(Chief among the Cheyennes and the Dakotas.)

To the Great Chief at Washington, and to the Chiefs of Peoples across the Great Water

This is the Indians’ Book

Long ago the Great Mystery caused this land to be, and made the Indians to live in this land. Well has the Indian fulfilled all the intent of the Great Mystery for him. Through this book may men know that the Indian people was made by the Great Mystery for a purpose.

Once, only Indians lived in this land. Then came strangers from across the Great Water. No land had they; we gave them of our land. No food had they; we gave them of our corn. The strangers are become many and they fill all the country. They dig gold—from my mountains; they build houses—of the trees of my forests; they rear cities—of my stones and rocks; they make fine garments—from the hides and wool of animals that eat my grass. None of the things that make their riches did they bring with them from beyond the Great Water; all comes from my land, the land the Great Mystery gave unto the Indian.

And when I think upon this I know that it is right, even thus. In the heart of the great Mystery it was meant that stranger-visitors—my friends across the Great Water—should come to my land; that I should bid them welcome; that all men should sit down with me and eat together of my corn. It was meant by the Great Mystery that the Indian should give to all peoples.

But the white man never has known the Indian. It is thus: there are two roads, the white man’s road, and the Indian’s road. Neither traveller knows the road of the other. Thus ever has it been, from the long ago. even unto to-day. May this book help to make the Indian truly known in the time to come.

The Indian wise-speakers in this book are of the best men of their tribes. Only what is true is within this book. I want all Indians and white men to read and learn how the Indians lived and thought in the olden time, and may it bring holy-good upon the younger Indians to know of their fathers. A little while, and the old Indians will no longer be, and the young will be even as white men. When I think, I know that it is the mind of the Great Mystery that white men and Indians who fought together should now be one people.

There are birds of many colors—red. blue, green, yellow—yet it is all one bird. There are horses of many colors—brown, black, yellow, white—yet it is all one horse. So cattle, so all living things—animals, flowers, trees. So men: in this land where once were only Indians are now men of every color—white, black, yellow, red—yet all one people. That this should come to pass was in the heart of the Great Mystery. It is right thus. And everywhere there shall be peace.

The Indians are the authors of this volume. The songs and stories are theirs; the drawings and title-pages were made by them.

The work of the recorder has been but the collecting, editing, and arranging of the Indians’ contributions.






Organizations of the Plains Indians

The Holy Han or Medicine Man

















The Pueblo Indians


San Juan







The songs in this book are written after a new manner in that corresponding musical phrases are placed one beneath another like lines of verse. This system makes the form of the song to flash before the eye like the form of a stanza in poetry. For this idea, the recorder is indebted to Mr. Kurt Schindler.

A general characteristic of Indian singing is a rhythmical pulsation of the voice on sustained notes. This pulsation is expressed in this book wherever tied notes have vocables or syllables written out beneath them.

A rhythmical peculiarity of Pueblo music is a sudden holding back of the time during one, two, or more bars. This effect is in no sense a rallentando. It is an abrupt change of tempo with no loss of rhythmical precision. At the end of the slower bars the first tempo is resumed with the original impetus. Such change is merely a leap from one tempo to another and back again. As it was impossible wholly to express this peculiarity in the usual musical symbols, brackets have been placed over the slower bars, that the eye may catch at a glance the change of time. The exact tempi are designated by metronome marks. For further details in regard to Indian music, see Introduction, page xxvi.


(The left-hand column of figures refers to pages of printed text or of explanatory description, the middle column to pages of music, the right-hand column to pages of text with interlinear translations, in the appendix.)


Penobscot Song of Greeting.—I 7 14

Penobscot Song of Greeting.—II 7 15

Passamaqtioddy Song of Greeting 7 16

Penobscot Barter Dance-Song 8 17

Penobscot War-Dance Song 8 18

Penobscot Dance-Song 9 19

Penobscot Medicine-Song 9 21

Maliseet Dance-Song 10 23 535

Passamaquoddy Dance-Song.—I 10 24 535

Passamaquoddy Dance-Song.—II 25

Passamaquoddy Dance-Song.—III 26

Maliseet Love-Song 13 27 535


Wanagi Wacipi Olowan. Song of the Spirit-Dance (Ghost-Dance Song).—I 47 65 536

Wanagi Wacipi Olowan. Song of the Spirit-Dance (Ghost-Dance Song).—II 48 66 536

Wanagi Wacipi Olowan. Song of the Spirit-Dance (Ghost-Dance Song).—III 48 67 536

a-Atawan Olowan. Song of the Seer 49 68 536

tuka Olowan. Song of the Dog Society 50 69

unke-ska Olowan. Song of the White-Horse Society 50 71 537

Tokala Olowan. Song of the Fox Society 51 73 537

Tokala Wacipi Olowan. Dance-Song of the Fox Society 51 75 537

Wakan Olowan. Holy Song (Medicine-Song) 53 77 539

Sungmanitu Olowan. Wolf Song 54 78

Olowan. Song 55 79 540

Omaha Wacipi Olowan. Omaha Dance-Song.—I 55 80 540

Omaha Wacipi Olowan. Omaha Dance-Song.—II 56 81 540

te Olowan, Love-Song.—I 56 82 540

te Olowan, Love-Song.—II 56 83 540

te Olowan, Love-Song.—III 57 84 540

te Olowan, Love-Song.—IV 57 85 541

te Olowan, Love-Song.—V 58 86 541

unka Olowan. Song of the Dog-Feast 59 88 541

Okicize Olowan. War-Song 60 89 541


Tawi’ Kuruks. Song of the Bear Society.—I 105 117 541

Tawi’ Kuruks. Song of the Bear Society.—II 108 120 542

Iruska. Song of the Iruska.—I 109 121 542

Iruska. Song of the Iruska.—II 110 122 542

Iruska. Song of the Iruska (War-Dance Song).—III 110 124 542

Iruska. Song of the Iruska (Song of the Corn-Offering).—IV. . 110 126 542

Hao-Wari. Lullaby 128

Skiriki. Coyote Warrior-Song 112 129 542

Sakipiriru. Young Dog Dance-Song 112 131 543

Kisaka. Song of Rejoicing and Thanksgiving 113 133 543

Kisaka. Woman’s Song of Rejoicing 135

Kitzichta. Song of the Lance Ceremony 114 136 543

Kehare Katzaru. Song of the Spirit - Dance (Ghost - Dance Song).—I 114 139 543

Kehare Katzaru. Song of the Spirit - Dance (Ghost - Dance Song).—II 115 140 543

Kehare Katzaru. Song of the Spirit - Dance (Ghost - Dance Song).—III 115 141 543

Kehare Katzaru. Song of the Spirit - Dance (Ghost - Dance Song).—IV 115 143 544


Ohwiwi No-otz. Song of the Offering Ceremony (Sun-Dance Song) 151 166

Mahoeva No-otz. Buffalo-Dance Song 152 168

Wuchtchse Etan No-otz. Song of the Red Fox Society 153 169 544

Hinimiyotzu. Song of the Bow and Arrow Society 171

Hohiotsitsi No-otz. Horning Song 153 172 544

Aotzi No-otz. Song of Victory.—I 155 174 544

Aotzi No-otz. Song of Victory.—II 155 176 544

Aotzi No-otz. Song of Victory.—III 157 178 544

Nai No-otz. Song of Healing (Medicine-Song) 160 179 544

Wawahi No-otz. Swinging Song 160 180 545

Meshivotzi No-otz. Baby-Song (Lullaby) 160 181 545

Nu-u-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—I 161 182

Nu-u-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—II 161 183

Nu-u-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—III 161 184

Nu-u-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—IV 161 185

Nti-ti-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—V 161 186

Nu-u-sinim No-otz. Hand-Game Song.—VI 161 187

Mata No-otz. Song of the Mescal Rite 164 188

Mata No-otz. Song of the Mescal Rite 164 190

Mata No-otz. Song of the Mescal Rite 164 192


Hasse-hi Naad. Song of the Buffalo-Hide Ceremony.—I 198 203 545

Hasse-hi Naad. Song of the Buffalo-Hide Ceremony.—II 199 204

Hache-hi Naad, Jachu-Naad. Wolf-Song, or Comanche-Song 199 206 545

Kainawad Naad. Song of the Spirit-Dance (Ghost-Dance Song) 200 208 545

Ho Nawad Naad. Crow-Dance Song 201 209 545

Nakahu Naad. Lullaby 201 211 545

Hachayachu Naad. Song of the Mescal Rite 212

Gochoti Naad. Hand-Game Song 202 213 546

Hichaächuthi. Song of the Club Society 202 215 546


Gomda Daagya. Wind-Song.—I 224 230 546

Gomda Daagya. Wind-Song.—II 224 231 546

Gomda Daagya. Wind-Song.—III 225 232 546

Song of the Mescal Rite 233

Koalda Daagya. Begging-Song 226 235 547

T’äpk’o Daagya. Song of the Antelope Ceremony 228 236 547

Okum Daagya. Lullaby.—I 228 238 547

Okum Daagya. Lullaby.—II 229 239 547

Gwu Daagya. War-Path Song 229 240 548


Wash-ching-geka Nawa’ Nina. Song of the Hare 249 264 548

Wi-la Na-wa’ Ni-na. Song of the Sun 250 265 548

Wai-Kun. Fable 253 266 548

Ma-o-na. Song to the Earth-Maker 254 268 548

Mun-Kun Na-wan. Holy Song (Medicine-Song) 255 270 548

Hi-wa-shi-da. Dance following the Holy Song 256 273 549

Mun-Kun Na-wan. Holy Song (Medicine-Song) 256 274 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—I 258 275 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—II 258 278 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—III 259 280 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—IV 259 282 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—V 260 284 549

He-lush-ka Na-wan. Warrior-Song.—VI 286

Wa-gi-tt’eh Na-wan. Wailing-Song 260 288 550

Wak-je Na-wan. Victory-Song 260 289 550

Wtmk-hi Na-wan. Love-Song.—I 261 291 550

Wunk-hi Na-wan. Love-Song.—II 262 292 550


Klawulacha. Song of the Totem-Pole 302 304 550

Cradle-Song 303 307


Chuhwuht. Song of the World 316 318 551

Chuhtek-Ohohik Nieh. Bluebird Song 317 319 551

Huhwuhli Nieh. Wind-Song (Medicine-Song) 317 320 551


Medicine-Song 324 325 551

Song 327

Dance-Song 328


Dance-Song.—I 329 334

Dance-Song.—II 329 335

Samadia-Stmn. Medicine-Song.—I 336

Samadia-Suan. Medicine-Song.—II 337


Arowp. Song of the Mocking-Bird 341 342 551


Dsichl Biyin. Mountain-Song 352 374 551

Dsichl Biyin. Mountain-Songs 353 377 552

Hogan Biyin. Song of the Hogans 357 382 553

Hlin Biyin. Song of the Horse 361 389 553

Naye-e Sin. War-Song 363 393 554

Tro Hatal. Song of the Rain-Chant 365 399 555

Kledzhi Hatal.—I. Dance-Song from the Ceremony of the Night-Chant 402

Kledzhi Hatal.—II. Dance-Song from the Ceremony of the Night-Chant 403

Kledzhi Hatal.—III. Dance-Song from the Ceremony of the Night-Chant 404

Dsichlyidje Hatal 368 408 555

Dinni-e Sin. Hunting-Song 370 413 555

Naestsan Biyin. Song of the Earth 372 417 556


Ockaya. Corn-Grinding Song.—I 430 433 556

Ockaya. Corn-Grinding Song.—II 431 435 556

Ockaya. Corn-Grinding Song.—III 431 437 557

Shoko Otiïkwe. Corn-Dance Song 432 440 557

Thlah Hewe. Song of the Blue-Corn Dance 432 442 557


Medicine-Song. From San Juan Pueblo 449


Yaka-Hano Gatzina Yoni. Corn-People Gatzina Song.—I 447 451

Yaka-Hano Gatzina Yoni. Corn-People Gatzina Song.—II 447 453

Yaka-Hano Gatzina Yoni. Corn-People Gatzina Song.—III 447 456


Aiya Gaïtani Yoni. Corn-Grinding Song.—I 462 464 558

Aiya Gaïtani Yoni. Corn-Grinding Song.—II 462 466 558

Song 463 469


Wuwuchim Tawi. Wuwuchim-Chant 479 495 558

Puwuch Tawi. Lullaby 480 498 558

Poli Tiwa Tawi. Butterfly-Dance Song 482 500 558

Anga Katzina Tawi. Anga Katzina Song 483 505 559

Korosta Katzina Tawi. Korosta Katzina Song 484 508 559

He-hea Katzina Tawi. He-hea Katzina Song 485 517 559

Hevebe Tawi. Hevebe-Song.—I 487 523 559

Hevebe Tawi. Hevebe-Song.—II 488 526 560

Lene Tawi. Flute-Song 489 529 560


All drawings in this book arc by Indians, and were made free-hand without rule or measure, except that in some instances an inverted basket was used to form a circle. Nearly all represent first efforts to draw on paper with the white man’s brush, and many were first attempts at drawing of any kind.

The lettering on the title-pages is by Angel De Cora (Hinook Mahiwi Kilinaka), of the Winnebago tribe.

The title-page, by Angel De Cora (Hinook Mahiwi Kilinaka). has for the motive of its design an adaptation of an old Indian design which represents in highly conventionalized form the Eagle, and the Eagle’s Song. The soaring eagle is seen in the green figure whose points are the two out-spread wings, with the tail in the centre. The yellow spot at the top of the figure is the eagle’s head; from the beak rises the song—waving lines which broaden out as the song floats on the air. The whole symbol is used in decorative form throughout the page, two eagles being joined together by the tips of wings and tails to form a symmetrical design. In the centre of the page, at the top and bottom, and at the sides, is seen the eagle-symbol, while the page is framed, as it were, in the symbol of the song.

The eagle is loved and revered by the Indians. He is strongest of all birds. He soars aloft, and he may look upon the sun, the giver of life, the celestial emblem of divine force. Therefore has the symbol of the Eagle and the Eagle’s Song been chosen for the title-page of The Indians’ Book.


From Original Drawings by Indians, and Photographs by the Recorder

Things of the Olden Time

Design. Cloud Symbol, from Prehistoric Pottery

Design, Corn-sprout Symbol, from Prehistoric Pottery

Tatanka-Ptecila (Short Bull)

Tasunke-Ciqala (Little Horse)

A Chief of the Olden Time (Chief Yellow-Hair)


Letakots-Lesa (Eagle Chief)

Cradle-board of the Horning Star Clan

A Daughter of the Prairie

Hiamovi (High Chief)

Hiamovi (High Chief) with war-bonnet and lance

The Pipe of Friendship (Hiamovi: High Chief)

Apiatan (Wooden Lance), Head Chief of the Kiowas

Carved Dance-Rattle

Klalish in Ceremonial Costume

A Kwakiutl Chief Standing before His Canoe, Holding Carved Dance-Rattle

A Daughter of the Desert

Design, by Geronimo


A Shepherd Leaving His Hogan at Dawn

Prayer by the Great Waters—" Two priests stood absorbed in chant, while the

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