## Weitere Informationen über das Buch

# Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover: All the Formulas You Need to Solve Drilling and Production Problems

## Beschreibung

Starting with review of basic equations and basic calculations, the remaining chapters offer in-depth discussions of topics such as drilling fluids, pressure control, engineering calculations, and air and gas calculations. The formulas and calculations are provided in either English field units or in metric units. This edition includes the Volumetric Procedure, the Lubricate and Bleed Procedure (both Volume and Pressure Methods), and stripping procedures (both the Strip and Bleed Procedure and the Combined Stripping and Volumetric Procedure). The Table of Contents and the Index make looking up formulas and calculations quick and easy. Examples are used throughout to make the formulas as easy as possible to understand and work, and often exact words are used rather than symbols. Back-of-the envelope calculations that save time and money Easily evaluate the performance of your well Confidently design or redesign operations that will improve production Handle special production projects with ease

- Herausgeber:
- Elsevier Science
- Freigegeben:
- Sep 20, 2011
- ISBN:
- 9781856179300
- Format:
- Buch

## Buchvorschau

### Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover - William C. Lyons

**Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover **

**All the Formulas You Need to Solve Drilling and Production Problems **

Third Edition

William Lyons

Tom Carter

Norton J. Lapeyrousse

Expanded and Updated Material

**Table of Contents **

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Preface **

**Chapter One. Basic Equations **

**Publisher Summary **

**1.0 Terminology **

**1.1 Mud Weight MW (lb/ft³), Mud Weight MW (ppg), and Specific Gravity (SG) [USCS/British] **

**1.2 Density ρ (kg/m³ or kg/liter), Mud Weight MW (N/m³ or N/liter), and Specific Gravity (SG) [SI-Metric] **

**1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [USCS/British] **

**1.4 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [SI-Metric] **

**1.5 Pressure Gradient ∇ (psi/ft), G (ppg) [USCS/British] **

**1.6 Pressure Gradient G (SG) [SI-Metric] **

**1.7 Equivalent Circulating Density ECD (ppg) [USCS/British] **

**1.8 Equivalent Circulating Density ECD (N/liter) and ECD (SG) [SI-Metric] **

**1.9 Mud Pump Output Q (bbl/stk) and q (gpm) [USCS/British] **

**1.10 Capacity Formulas **

**1.11 Annular Velocity Van (ft/min) **

**1.12 Strokes per Minute (SPM) Required for a Given Annular Velocity **

**1.13 Control Drilling **

**1.14 Buoyancy Factor (BF) **

**1.15 Decrease When Pulling Pipe Out of the Hole **

**1.16 Loss of Overbalance Due to Falling Mud Level **

**1.17 Circulating Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP) **

**1.18 Pump Pressure/Pump Stroke Relationship (the Roughneck's Formula) **

**1.19 Cost per Foot **

**1.20 Temperature Conversion Formulas **

**Chapter Two. Basic Calculations **

**Publisher Summary **

**2.0 Capacity, Volumes, and Strokes **

**2.1 Slug Calculations **

**2.2 Accumulator Capacity **

**2.3 Bulk Density of Cuttings (Using Mud Balance) **

**2.4 Drill String Design (Limitations) **

**2.5 Ton-Mile (TM) Calculations **

**2.6 Cementing Calculations **

**2.7 Depth of a Washout **

**2.8 Lost Returns—Loss of Overbalance **

**2.9 Stuck Pipe Calculations **

**2.10 Calculations Required for Placing Spotting Pills in an Open Hole Annulus **

**2.11 Pressure Required to Break Circulation **

**References **

**Chapter Three. Drilling Fluids **

**Publisher Summary **

**3.0 Mud Density Increase and Volume Change **

**3.1 Mud Weight Reduction with Base Liquid Dilution **

**3.2 Mixing Fluids of Different Densities **

**3.3 Oil-Based Mud Calculations **

**3.4 Solids Analysis **

**3.5 Solids Fractions (Barite-Treated Muds) **

**3.6 Dilution of Mud System **

**3.7 Evaluation of Hydrocyclones **

**3.8 Evaluation of Centrifuge **

**References **

**Chapter Four. Pressure Control: Kill Sheets and Related Calculations **

**Publisher Summary **

**4.0 Normal Kill Sheet **

**4.1 Calculations **

**4.2 Kill Sheet with a Tapered String **

**4.3 Kill Sheet for a Highly Deviated Well **

**4.4 Prerecorded Information **

**4.5 Kick Analysis **

**4.6 Pressure Analysis **

**4.7 Stripping/Snubbing Calculations **

**4.8 Subsea Considerations **

**4.9 Workover Operations **

**4.10 Controlling Gas Migration **

**4.11 Gas Lubrication **

**4.12 Annular Stripping Procedures **

**4.13 Worksheet **

**References **

**Chapter Five. Engineering Calculations **

**Publisher Summary **

**5.0 Bit Nozzle Selection—Optimized Hydraulics **

**5.1 Hydraulics Analysis **

**5.2 Critical Annular Velocity and Critical Flow Rate **

**5.3 The d Exponent **

**5.4 Cuttings Slip Velocity **

**5.5 Surge and Swab Pressures **

**5.6 Equivalent Circulation Density (ECD) **

**5.7 Fracture Gradient Determination—Surface Applications **

**5.8 Fracture Gradient Determination—Subsea Applications **

**5.9 Directional Drilling Calculations **

**5.10 Miscellaneous Equations and Calculations **

**References **

**Chapter Six. Air and Gas Calculations **

**Publisher Summary **

**Appendix A **

**Tank Capacity Determinations **

**Appendix B **

**Appendix C. Average Annual Atmospheric Conditions **

**Index **

**Copyright **

Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier

225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA

The Boulevard, Langford Lane,

Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK

© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies, and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency can be found at our website: **www.elsevier.com/permissions **

This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

**Notices **

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods, they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of product liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Application submitted

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 978-1-85617-929-4

For information on all Gulf Professional Publishing publications, visit our website: **www.elsevierdirect.com **

13 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Printed in the United States of America

**Preface **

Over the past several years, hundreds of oil field personnel have told me that they have enjoyed this book. Some use it as a secondary reference source, some use it as their primary source for formulas and calculations, and some use it to reduce the volume of materials they must carry to the rig floor or job site. Regardless of the reason people use it, the primary purpose of this book is to provide a convenient source of reference to those people who don’t use formulas and calculations on a regular basis.

In the preface to the first edition, I mentioned a driller who carried a briefcase full of books with him each time he went to the rig floor. I also spoke of a drilling supervisor who carried two briefcases of books. This book should reduce the number of books each of them needs to perform his job.

This book is still intended to serve oil field workers for the entirety of their careers. I have added several formulas and calculations, some in English field units and some in metric units. I have also added the Volumetric Procedure, the Lubricate and Bleed Procedure (both Volume and Pressure Methods), and stripping procedures (both the Strip and Bleed Procedure and the Combined Stripping and Volumetric Procedure).

This book has been designed for convenience. It will occupy very little space in anyone’s briefcase. It has a spiral binding so it will lay flat and stay open on a desk. The Table of Contents and the Index make looking up formulas and calculations quick and easy. Examples are used throughout to make the formulas as easy as possible to understand and work, and often exact words are used rather than symbols.

This book is dedicated to the thousands of oil field hands worldwide who have to use formulas and calculations, whether on a daily basis or once or twice a year, and who have problems remembering them. This book should make their jobs a little easier.

**Chapter One **

**Basic Equations **

**Publisher Summary **

This chapter introduces the concept of density in oil field terminology, which refers to specific weight. Specific weight is in the units of lb/ft3 or lb/gallon (ppg). This chapter refers to the specific weight as mud weight. Density is used only when referring to the SI-metric values of kg/m3, kg/liter, and gram/cm3 (which are actual density values in that unit system) and for the term ECD. This chapter describes the mud weight, and specific gravity in USCS/British units and SI units. Following this, it provides an understanding of hydrostatic pressure using formulae and equations. It also explains pressure gradient in USCS/British units and SI units. Furthermore, it explains some capacity formulas for annular capacity between casing or hole and drill pipe, tubing, or casing. Finally, it illustrates some temperature and conversion formulas.

This chapter introduces the various units of weight that are used in the drilling profession. The use of the term *density *in the book is explained as it pertains to the calculations presented in the book. Basic equations for mud weight and specific gravity are presented.

**Key Words: **Mud weight, density, specific gravity, SI units, hydrostatic pressure, Rankine

**1.0 Terminology **

The term density as used in USCS/British oil field terminology is a slang term for a value that is actually specific weight. Specific weight is in the units of lb/ft³ or lb/gallon (ppg). Actual density in the USCS/British would be the specific weight term divided by 32.2 ft/sec² and would result in a USCS/British density of slug/ft³. Neither the density term nor the actual density term is used in this book. This book uses the term mud weight (MW) for specific weight (lb/ft³or ppg). Density is used only when referring to the SI-metric values of kg/m³, kg/liter, and gram/cm³ (which are actual density values in that unit system) and for the term ECD.

**1.1 Mud Weight MW (lb/ft³), Mud Weight MW (ppg), and Specific Gravity (SG) [USCS/British] **

**Definition:** Mud weight of fresh water MW (lb/ft³)

**(1.1) **

**Example:** Mud weight of fresh water MW (ppg)

**(1.2) **

where: 1 gal = 231 in.³

1 ft = 12 in.

**Example:** Specific gravity of fresh water SG

**(1.3) **

or

**(1.4) **

**Example:** SG of a mud weight of 12.0 ppg

**(1.5) **

**1.2 Density ρ (kg/m³ or kg/liter), Mud Weight MW (N/m³ or N/liter), and Specific Gravity (SG) [SI-Metric] **

**Definition:** Mud density of fresh water ρ (kg/m³)

**(1.6) **

**Example:** Mud density of fresh water ρ (kg/liter)

where: 1 liter = 10−3 m³

**Example:** Mud weight of fresh water MW (N/m³)

where: g = 9.81 m/sec²

**Example:** Mud weight of fresh water MW (N/liter)

**Example:** Specific gravity of fresh water SG (using density)

or

**Example:** Specific gravity of fresh water SG (using mud weight)

or

**Conversion:** Mud weight of 12.0 ppg to mud weight MW (N/liter)

**(1.7) **

where: 1 ppg = 1.175 N/liter

**Example:** Mud weight of 14.1 N/liter to density ρ (kg/liter)

**Example:** SG of mud using density of 1.44 kg/liter

**Example:** SG of a mud with a specific weight of 14.1 N/liter

**Table 1-1 **

**Mud Weight and Density Conversion Factors Summary **

**1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [USCS/British] **

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure P (lb/ft³) at a depth H (ft) below surface is

**(1.8) **

where: H (ft) is true vertical depth (TVD)

**Example:** Pressure (lb/ft²) in fresh water at a depth of 1000 ft

**Example:** Pressure (lb/ft²) in 12.0 ppg at a depth of 1000 ft

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure p (psi) at a depth H (ft) below surface is (using **equation (1.8)) **

which reduces to

or

**(1.9) **

**Example:** Pressure (psi) in fresh water at a depth of 1000 ft

**Example:** Pressure (psi) in 12.0 ppg at a depth of 1000 ft

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure p (psi) at a depth H (ft) below surface is (using **equation (1.8)) **

which reduces to

or

**(1.10) **

**Example:** Pressure (psi) in fresh water at a depth of 1000 ft

**Example:** Pressure (psi) in 12.0 ppg mud at a depth of 1000 ft

**1.4 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [SI-Metric] **

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure P (N/m²) at a depth H (m) below surface is (using N/m³)

**(1.11) **

**Example:** Pressure (N/m²) in fresh water at a depth of 305 m (~ 1000 ft)

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure P (N/m²) at a depth H (m) below surface is (using N/liter)

**(1.12) **

**Example:** Pressure (N/m²) in fresh water at a depth of 305 m (~ 1000 ft)

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure P (N/m²) at a depth H (m) below surface is (using SG)

**(1.13) **

or

**(1.14) **

**Example:** Pressure (N/m²) in fresh water at a depth of 305 m (~ 1000 ft)

**Example:** Pressure (N/m²) in mud with an SGm of 1.44 at a depth of 305 m (~ 1000 ft)

**Definition:** Hydrostatic pressure p (N/cm²) at a depth H (m) below surface is (using SG)

**(1.15) **

**Example:** Pressure