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Smugglers: The Complex Web of the Drug, Blood Diamond, Human Organ, Ivory and Cigarette Underworlds

Smugglers: The Complex Web of the Drug, Blood Diamond, Human Organ, Ivory and Cigarette Underworlds

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Smugglers: The Complex Web of the Drug, Blood Diamond, Human Organ, Ivory and Cigarette Underworlds

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Länge:
93 Seiten
1 Stunde
Herausgeber:
Freigegeben:
Oct 25, 2015
ISBN:
9781909284081
Format:
Buch

Beschreibung

A Pirate’s Life For Me : Caribbean pirates and European smugglers of the18th-century have managed to make a good name for themselves in the history books. To dress up as a pirate is every child’s – and a lot of adults’ – dream, and stories of rum-running across the high seas, and tunnels stored with kegs of liquor that were distributed amongst the local villagers has put a rose-tinted, idealistic spin on what was, and still is, a lowly life of crime. The illegal act of smuggling was often boasted about and many coastal towns in the UK are proud of their smuggling heritage.
During the 18th century smuggling grew from a simple, small-scale evasion of duty by individuals to the large-scale industry we know of today. The quantities of imported goods were immense. In the UK county of Kent, there was such an abundance of smuggled, illicit gin that people used it to clean their windows. According to some estimates, 80 per cent of all tea consumed in the UK during this time had been smuggled in to the country.
A Crime of All Ages : In truth, smugglers of hundreds of years ago caused many people a lot of pain and misery, and the same is true of the dark underworld of smuggling today; an innocent quaff of cheap booze is as endearing as it gets.
Sometimes, however, smugglers view their actions as a necessity. This was the case during the Spanish Civil War, when many rural populations were struggling to survive. There was a lack of food and money. Luxury items were rationed and Franco’s government was in such a financial crisis from the fighting that Spain was brought to its knees. Men, with only survival on their minds, would risk their lives trekking by moonlight across the mountains from the border provinces of western and north-eastern Spain into Portugal and France. The smugglers would then purchase goods such as coffee, sugar and linen, and smuggle them back into Spain to sell on. They would trek for hours without food or water and always with the threat of bumping into an armed guarda civil who would not think twice about shooting them if necessary. Romantic and evocative it was not. It was an essential part of human survival, in order to earn just a few pesetas to spend on basic amenities such as rice, to feed a starving family.

Herausgeber:
Freigegeben:
Oct 25, 2015
ISBN:
9781909284081
Format:
Buch

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Smugglers - Benita Estevez

SMUGGLERS

The Complex Web of the Drug, Blood Diamond, Human Organ, Ivory and Cigarette Underworlds

Benita Estevez

Published by RW Press Limited at Smashwords

Copyright 2012 RW Press Limited

© 2012 RW Press Ltd

This 2012 edition published by RW Press Ltd

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission, in writing, of the publisher.

The views expressed in this book are those of the author but they are general views only, and readers are urged to consult a relevant and qualified specialist for individual advice in particular situations. The author and RW Press Ltd hereby exclude any liability to the extent permitted by law, for any errors or omissions in this book and for any loss, damage and expense (whether direct or indirect) suffered by a third party relying on any information contained in this book.

Although every effort has been made to trace and contact people mentioned in the text for their approval in time for publication, this has not been possible in all cases. If notified, we will be pleased to rectify any alleged errors or omissions when we reprint the title.

ISBN: 9781909284081

RW Press Ltd

RWPress@live.co.uk

Contents

SMUGGLING IN THE MODERN WORLD

CIGARETTE SMUGGLING

Introduction

The North American Problem

The Montenegro Ring

DIAMONDS

Introduction

Sierra Leone

Angola

DRUG SMUGGLING

Introduction

The Opium Wars

Pablo Escobar Gaviria

Howard Marks

The Shower Posse – Christopher M. Coke

ORGAN HARVESTING AND TRAFFICKING

IVORY AND WILDLIFE SMUGGLING

Introduction

Koose Muniswamy Veerappan

Atsushi Yamagami

Enrique Gomez De Molina

SMUGGLING IN THE MODERN WORLD

A Pirate’s Life For Me

Caribbean pirates and European smugglers of the18th-century have managed to make a good name for themselves in the history books. To dress up as a pirate is every child’s – and a lot of adults’ – dream, and stories of rum-running across the high seas, and tunnels stored with kegs of liquor that were distributed amongst the local villagers has put a rose-tinted, idealistic spin on what was, and still is, a lowly life of crime. The illegal act of smuggling was often boasted about and many coastal towns in the UK are proud of their smuggling heritage.

During the 18th century smuggling grew from a simple, small-scale evasion of duty by individuals to the large-scale industry we know of today. The quantities of imported goods were immense. In the UK county of Kent, there was such an abundance of smuggled, illicit gin that people used it to clean their windows. According to some estimates, 80 per cent of all tea consumed in the UK during this time had been smuggled in to the country.

A Crime of All Ages

In truth, smugglers of hundreds of years ago caused many people a lot of pain and misery, and the same is true of the dark underworld of smuggling today; an innocent quaff of cheap booze is as endearing as it gets.

Sometimes, however, smugglers view their actions as a necessity. This was the case during the Spanish Civil War, when many rural populations were struggling to survive. There was a lack of food and money. Luxury items were rationed and Franco’s government was in such a financial crisis from the fighting that Spain was brought to its knees. Men, with only survival on their minds, would risk their lives trekking by moonlight across the mountains from the border provinces of western and north-eastern Spain into Portugal and France. The smugglers would then purchase goods such as coffee, sugar and linen, and smuggle them back into Spain to sell on. They would trek for hours without food or water and always with the threat of bumping into an armed guarda civil who would not think twice about shooting them if necessary. Romantic and evocative it was not. It was an essential part of human survival, in order to earn just a few pesetas to spend on basic amenities such as rice, to feed a starving family.

In the Name of Desperation

Just as the desperate Spaniards of the 1930s risked their lives for coffee and sugar, there are poor people in Europe today who will ‘donate’ body parts to illegal rings of organ traffickers in order to make some quick money. Instead solving their problems, this notoriously makes things a whole lot worse. But poverty drives people to commit desperate acts. And smuggling, whether the act of being a rumrunner or donating a specific product to the cause, affects the people at the bottom of the food chain, who do not see that they have any other choice.

Does this make smuggling acceptable? Definitely not. Nevertheless it does go to show the complexity of illegal trafficking – every person involved has a reason for not conforming to the laws of the land. The people at the top of the chain may be doing it for greed but the people at the bottom are enslaved by it. It is not necessarily a black and white case of right or wrong.

Multi-Faceted Trade

Smuggling is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘to move goods illegally into or out of a country.’ It is a very simple definition for a complex trade in which anything and everything has the potential to become a trafficker’s booty.

Take the booming industry of ivory trafficking. Poaching and ivory smuggling hit record highs in 2011 with over 2,500 elephants alone being killed for their tusks. It was the worst year for ivory smuggling since sales of the natural substance were banned in 1989. Thousands of kilos of ivory are still being seized by customs officials around the world with a lot more successfully reaching its final destination. With so many different factions involved in this massive, big-business trade, everyone is to blame: from the poachers to the smugglers and, probably worst of all, the consumer

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