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Alexander of Hales: On the Significations and Exposition of the Holy Scriptures

Alexander of Hales: On the Significations and Exposition of the Holy Scriptures

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Alexander of Hales: On the Significations and Exposition of the Holy Scriptures

Länge:
140 Seiten
1 Stunde
Freigegeben:
Oct 18, 2018
ISBN:
9781576594308
Format:
Buch

Beschreibung

Alexander of Hales, called “the irrefutable doctor and prince of theologians” by Pope Alexander IV, taught theology at Paris from ca. 1220-21 until his death in 1245. Upon his conversion to the Order of Friars Minor in 1236, he became the first Franciscan to hold a theology chair at the University of Paris, teaching influential friars such as Odo Rigaldus, William of Middleton, John of Parma, and probably Bonaventure, who called him “my master and father.” This volume contains the first English translation of Alexander's short treatise on biblical interpretation. Probably written in the later 1220s or early 1230s for the use of advanced theology students, On the Significations and Exposition of the Holy Scriptures reveals the hermeneutical methods of the first Franciscan Master, who was renowned for his biblical lectures. Gathering interpretative tools from the works Augustine, Tyconius, Gregory the Great, Jerome, Hugh of St. Victor, Peter Comestor, Aristotle, Boethius and others, the work offers a concise introduction to the art of theological interpretation as practiced in the early university. On the Significations is known to survive in only two manuscripts, and was only authenticated and edited in 2009, by Aleksander Horowski. Yet its influence in the medieval period may have been broader than its survival suggests. Denis the Carthusian, writing about 1434, quotes extensively from it. Now that it has been rediscovered by specialists, Aaron Gies's introduction and extensive notes aim to make the text accessible to any reader interested in medieval ways of reading and interpreting Scripture.
Freigegeben:
Oct 18, 2018
ISBN:
9781576594308
Format:
Buch

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Alexander of Hales - Franciscan Institute Publications

Alexander of Hales

On the Significations and Exposition of the

Holy Scriptures

Introduction and Translation

by Aaron Gies

Franciscan Institute Publications

St. Bonaventure University

2018

All rights reserved.

No part of the book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, without permission in writing from the publisher.

© 2018 Franciscan Institute Publications,

St. Bonaventure University

Cover Design by Jill M. Smith

Cover photo courtesy of Lambeth Palace Library, London

ISBN 978-1-57659-429-2

E-ISBN 978-1-57659-430-8

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Library of Congress Control Number: 2018952756

Printed and bound in the United States of America.

Franciscan Institute Publications makes every effort

to use environmentally responsible suppliers and materials in the publishing of its

books. This book is printed on acid free, recycled paper that is FSC (Forest Stewardship

Council) certified. It is printed with soy-based ink.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abbreviations

Introduction

Life and works of Alexander of Hales

Authenticity of the treatise

Literary genre of the treatise

Structure of the treatise

Indications of purpose and use

Alexander as a biblical interpreter

Notes on the translation

Part I. The figurative meanings of scripture

A. Introduction

i. Scripture speaks figuratively [1, 2]

ii. Three reasons the Scriptures veil spiritual truth [3, 4]

B. The figurative devices of the literal sense [5]

i. Parable [6, 7]

ii. Paradigm, i.e. anthropomorphism [8]

iii. Metaphor

a. The elemental spheres as examples [9-14]

b. Theology draws metaphors from all creation [15]

c. The Creator may use all created things as metaphors for good or evil things [16]

iv. Enigma [17]

C. The mystical devices of the spiritual senses [18]

i. Introduction

a. The spiritual senses encompass the four figurative devices [18]

b. Scripture is superior to other disciplines because it signifies both literally and spiritually [19]

c. Scripture must be manifold in form [20]

d. The senses are fitted to Scripture’s saving purpose [23, 24]

ii. History

a. Primary [25]

b. Contains past events securely known by authors [26]

c. Has three genres [27-31]

d. History of the hebrews to be spiritually understood [32]

e. The basis for the other three senses [33]

iii. Allegory: meaning transferred to the articles of faith [34-37]

iv. Tropology: meaning transferred to patterns of behavior [38-41]

v. Anagogy: meaning transferred to eschatological hope [42-45]

vi. Scripture is three in one like the Trinity [46, 47]

vii. Symbolic meaning veils truth from the unworthy [48]

D. Conclusion [49]

Part II. Seven rules by which Scripture’s meaning is altered [50]

A. Rule 1: Properties of Christ are applied to his Body and vice versa [51]

B. Rule 2: The Body may be true or mixed [52]

C. Rule 3: Commands have dispensational meanings [53]

D. Rule 4: The specific applies in general [54]

E. Rule 5: Time expanded or abbreviated by synecdoche or prophetic past [55]

F. Rule 6: Previous events are recapitulated, future ones anticipated [56]

G. Rule 7: Properties of the devil are applied to his body and vice versa [57]

H. Conclusion

Part III. Reasons for drawing out mystical and allegorical readings [59]

A. Introduction: Theological consideration both nominal and real [60]

B. Consideration of names

i. Interpretation of names [61]

a. Allegorical [61, 62]

b. Tropological [63]

c. Anagogical [64]

d. More tropological examples [65, 66]

ii. Etymology [67]

iii. Surnames or the changing of names by imposition [68-70]

iv. Circumlocution [71-77]

C. Consideration from properties of things [78]

i. Simple and composite natures compared by grace [79]

ii. Consideration from properties of composite natures [80, 81]

a. Quantity

- Indivisible quantity [82, 83]

- Discreet quantities one through ten [84-93]

b. Quality [94, 95]

c. Comparability [96-98]

d. Actuability [101-105]

e. Passibility [106]

f. Place

- In space [107-111]

- In time [112]

- In age [113-115]

g. State [116-122]

h. Disposition or gesture [123-127]

Indices

Scripture

Non-Biblical Sources

ABBREVIATIONS

OLD TESTAMENT

Gen

Ex

Lev

Num

Deut

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Sam

2 Sam

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chron

2 Chron

Ezra

Neh

Tob

Judith

Esther

Job

Ps

Prov

Qoh

Cant

Wis

Sir

Isa

Jer

Lam

Bar

Ez

Dan

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obad

Jonah

Micah

Nah

Hab

Zeph

Haggai

Zech

Mal

1 Macc

2 Macc

NEW TESTAMENT

Matt

Mark

Luke

John

Acts

Rom

1 Cor

2 Cor

Gal

Eph

Phil

Col

1 Thes

2 Thess

1 Tim

2 Tim

Titus

Phlm

Hebr

James

1 Peter

2 Peter

1 John

2 John

3 John

Jude

Rev

INTRODUCTION

On the Significations and Exposition of the Holy Scriptures is a handbook on biblical hermeneutics.¹ That is, it is a short work explaining how to rightly interpret the Scriptures. It was written by Alexander of Hales, (ca. 1183-1245),

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