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Lung Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Lung Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

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Lung Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Länge:
186 Seiten
1 Stunde
Herausgeber:
Freigegeben:
Mar 28, 2019
ISBN:
9780463239933
Format:
Buch

Beschreibung

This book describes Lung Diseases, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases
The lungs comprise a pair of air-filled organs situated on either side of the chest.
The windpipe brings inhaled air from the nose or mouth into the lungs through its tubular branches called bronchi.
The bronchi then separate into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles) finally becoming microscopic.
The bronchioles eventually end in microscopic air sacs called alveoli.
In the alveoli the oxygen from the air inhaled is absorbed onto the red blood cells.
Carbon dioxide is a waste product of metabolism that is transported from the blood to the alveoli where it can be exhaled.
Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alveoli.
The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer (pleura) which also line the inside of the chest cavity.
A thin layer of fluid in the pleural cavity works as a lubricant allowing the lungs to move smoothly as they expand and contract with each breath.
When a person breathes in, the diaphragm and the muscles between the ribs contract and expand the chest cavity.
This expansion reduces the pressure in the chest cavity to less than the outside air pressure.
Air then enters through the airways from high pressure to low pressure and inflates the lungs.
When a person breathes out, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and the chest cavity gets smaller.
The reduction in volume of the cavity raises the pressure in the chest cavity above the external air pressure.
Air from the lungs (high pressure) then passes out of the airways to the external air (low pressure).
The cycle then repeats with each breath.
Lung and diseases:
Diseases or disorders of the lung are classified mainly into 2 classes:
Diseases that affect the mechanics of breathing:
1.Asthma:
The bronchioles narrow due to allergy or irritants, reducing the size of the airways and the flow of air and making the respiratory muscles work harder.
2.Emphysema is another disease of the lungs where the elastin in the walls of the alveoli is damaged by an imbalance between the formation of neutrophil elastase and alpha-1-antitrypsin (due to genetics or reaction of a vital methionine residue with toxins such as cigarette smoke).
3.Bronchitis:
The airways become inflamed and constrict which reduce the flow of air and raises the work of the respiratory muscles
4.Pneumonia is an infection of the lung parenchyma which can be produced by both viruses and bacteria.
If this occurs to such a degree that the patient cannot draw enough oxygen from his or her environment to sustain cellular respiration, then the person may require supplemental oxygen.
5.Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the severe inflammatory disorder of the lung that normally needs mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit.
6.Pneumothorax:
Air pressure in the pleural cavity from trauma causes the lungs to collapse.
7.Lung cancer is a frequent form of cancer causing the unregulated growth of cells in the lung tissue.
Diseases that minimize or prevent gas exchange:
1.Pulmonary edema:
Fluid between the alveolus and pulmonary capillary accumulates which raises the distance over which gases must exchange and decreases the exchange.
2.Smoke inhalation:
Smoke particles cover the alveoli and stop the exchange of gases.
3.Carbon monoxide poisoning:
Carbon monoxide attaches to hemoglobin more tightly than either oxygen or carbon dioxide reducing the delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body such as the brain, heart and muscles.
4.A work related lung disorder is caused by work injuring the lungs such as silicosis and Asbestosis

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
Chapter 1 Lung Diseases
Chapter 2 Work Related Lung Diseases
Chapter 3 Pulmonary Fibrosis
Chapter 4 Chronic Obstructi

Herausgeber:
Freigegeben:
Mar 28, 2019
ISBN:
9780463239933
Format:
Buch

Über den Autor

Medical doctor since 1972.Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009.Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993.Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 70.However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours inthe afternoon.He first started writing free blogs on medical disorders seen in the clinic in 2007 on http://kennethkee.blogspot.com.His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiography account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.comThis autobiography account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on http://ken-med.com.From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 1000 eBooks.He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books.He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures.Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.The later books go into more details of medical disorders.He has published 1000 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter.The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health disorders and not meant as textbooks.He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke.His clinic is now relocated to the Buona Vista Community Centre.The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall.He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) startingwith the Apple computer and going to PC.The entire PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core.The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive.He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance.His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner.The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned.This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale.Dr Kee is the author of:"A Family Doctor's Tale""Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine""Case Notes From A Family Doctor"

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Lung Diseases, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions - Kenneth Kee

Lung Diseases,

A

Simple

Guide

To

The Condition,

Diagnosis,

Treatment

And

Related Conditions

By

Dr Kenneth Kee

M.B.,B.S. (Singapore)

Ph.D (Healthcare Administration)

Copyright Kenneth Kee 2019 Smashwords Edition

Published by Kenneth Kee at Smashwords.com

Dedication

This book is dedicated

To my wife Dorothy

And my children

Carolyn, Grace

And Kelvin

This book describes Lung Diseases, Diagnosis and Treatment and Related Diseases which is seen in some of my patients in my Family Clinic.

(What You Need to Treat Lung Diseases)

This eBook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This eBook may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each reader.

If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to Smashwords.com and purchase your own copy.

Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author.

Introduction

I have been writing medical articles for my blog: http://kennethkee.blogspot.com (A Simple Guide to Medical Disorder) for the benefit of my patients since 2007.

My purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of my patients.

Health Education was also my dissertation for my Ph.D (Healthcare Administration).

I then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog: http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.com.

This autobiolographical account A Family Doctor’s Tale was combined with my early A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders into a new Wordpress Blog A Family Doctor’s Tale on http://kenkee481.wordpress.com.

From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 800 eBooks.

Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.

For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.

The later books go into more details of medical disorders.

The first chapter is always from my earlier blogs which unfortunately tends to have typos and spelling mistakes.

Since 2013, I have tried to improve my spelling and writing.

As I tried to bring the patient the latest information about a disorder or illness by reading the latest journals both online and offline, I find that I am learning more and improving on my own medical knowledge in diagnosis and treatment for my patients.

Just by writing all these simple guides I find that I have learned a lot from your reviews (good or bad), criticism and advice.

I am sorry for the repetitions in these simple guides as the second chapters onwards have new information as compared to my first chapter taken from my blog.

I also find repetition definitely help me and maybe some readers to remember the facts in the books more easily.

I apologize if these repetitions are irritating to some readers.

Chapter 1

Lung Diseases

My lungs Breathe hard

Bring air to every part

Even if your air tubes are narrow

And the breath is shallow

As long as oxygen reach my cell

I shall still live my tale to tell

The dust from tiny fibers in the air

Has damaged my tube’s inner lining and tiny hair

Tiny hairs that used to push dust and germs away

Are no longer moving and stuck in the clay

Of mucus, fibers, dust and dirt

How my air tubes really hurt

Each breath seems to be the last

Saved by the pressurized oxygen fast

Corticosteroids help to heal the scars

And bronchodilators help to expel the dust

Thank God for the new drugs

Temporarily removing those plugs

To my breathing and wheezing

At least I am still living

-An original poem by Kenneth Kee

The Lungs

The lungs comprise a pair of air-filled organs situated on either side of the chest.

The windpipe brings inhaled air from the nose or mouth into the lungs through its tubular branches called bronchi.

The bronchi then separate into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles) finally becoming microscopic.

The bronchioles eventually end in microscopic air sacs called alveoli.

In the alveoli the oxygen from the air inhaled is absorbed onto the red blood cells.

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of metabolism that is transported from the blood to the alveoli where it can be exhaled.

Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alveoli.

The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer (pleura) which also line the inside of the chest cavity.

A thin layer of fluid in the pleural cavity works as a lubricant allowing the lungs to move smoothly as they expand and contract with each breath.

When a person breathes in, the diaphragm and the muscles between the ribs contract and expand the chest cavity.

This expansion reduces the pressure in the chest cavity to less than the outside air pressure.

Air then enters through the airways from high pressure to low pressure and inflates the lungs.

When a person breathes out, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and the chest cavity gets smaller.

The reduction in volume of the cavity raises the pressure in the chest cavity above the external air pressure.

Air from the lungs (high pressure) then passes out of the airways to the external air (low pressure).

The cycle then repeats with each breath.

Air finally finishes in the spaces in the 600 million alveoli.

As these millions of alveoli are filled with air, the lungs become bigger.

It is the alveoli that allow oxygen from the air to pass into the blood.

All the cells in the body need to use oxygen every minute of the day.

Oxygen flows through the walls of each alveolus into the tiny capillaries that enclose it.

The oxygen enters the blood in the tiny capillaries riding on the hemoglobin of the red blood cells and traveling through blood vessels to the heart.

The heart then transfers the oxygenated blood out to all the cells in the body.

When it is time to breathe out, everything happens in reverse:

The diaphragm loosens and pushes up forcing air out of the lungs.

The rib muscles become relaxed and the ribs move in again creating a smaller space in the chest.

By now the cells have used the oxygen they need and the blood is carrying carbon dioxide and other wastes that must leave the body.

The blood comes back through the capillaries and the wastes such as CO2 enter the alveoli.

Then the breathing out occurs in the reverse order of how they came in.

The air goes through the bronchioles, out the bronchi, out the trachea, and finally out through the mouth and nose.

The air that a person breathes out not only contains wastes and carbon dioxide but it is warm too.

As air travels through the body, it picks up the body heat along the way.

This heat can be felt by putting the hand in front of the mouth or nose when breathing out.

The lungs are amazing.

They allow a person to breathe, talk, shout, sing, laugh and cry.

The function of the lungs to keep the body look and feel healthy is a smart idea and the best way to keep the lungs pink and healthy is not to smoke.

Cigarette smoke injures the cilia in the trachea so they can no longer mobilize to keep dirt and other substances out of the lungs.

The alveoli get damaged too because the chemicals in cigarette smoke can cause the walls of the delicate alveoli to break down making it much harder to breathe.

The Functions of the lungs are:

Respiratory:

1. Breathing

2. Exchange of Oxygen

Non Respiratory:

1. Alter the pH of blood by facilitating alterations in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide

2. Filter out small blood clots formed in veins

3. Filter out gas micro-bubbles occurring in the venous blood stream such as those created during decompression after underwater diving.

4. Influence the concentration of some biological substances and drugs used in medicine in blood

5. Convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme

6. Serve as a layer of soft shock-absorbent defense for the heart which the lungs flank and enclose.

7. Immunoglobulin-A is secreted in the bronchial secretion and protects against respiratory infections.

8. Maintain sterility by producing mucus containing antimicrobial compounds.

Mucus contains glycoproteins e.g. mucins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase.

9. There are also on the epithelium dual oxidase, the 2 proteins generating hydrogen peroxide, helpful for hypothiocyanite endogenous antimicrobial synthesis.

10. Ciliary movement action is an important defense system

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