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What is protective relay?

Answer: Eletro-mechanical relays operate by two

Answer: It is an electrical device designed to initiate principles. Electro-magnetic attraction and electrothe isolation of a part of the electrical installation, or magnetic induction. In electromagnetic attraction to operate an alarm signal, in the event of abnormal relay plunger is drawn to the solenoid or an armature condition or a fault. In simple words relay is an is attracted to the poles of the electromagnet. In case electrical device that gives signal to isolation device of electro-magnetic induction, principle of operation (eg: Circuit Breaker) after sensing the fault and helps is similar to induction motor. Torque is developed by to isolate the fault system from the healthy electrical electromagnetic induction principle system What are the different relays that employed for Action carried out by the relay and circuit breaker protection of apparatus and transmission lines? protection of transmission lines include

during fault condition? relay operates and close the trip coils. The effect of this will be circuit breaker operate to open the contacts. What is the direction of rotation of rotor with respect to the rotating magnetic field? Answer: Rotating Magnetic Field is set up when 3 phase ac supply is provided to the stator windings of the induction motor. Rotating Magentic Field rotates at synchronous speed. Rotor rotates in the direction of the rotating magnetic field What is Slip In Induction Motor? Answer: Speed of the Induction Motor will be always less than synchronous speed and speed of the motor further reduces when load is applied on the motor. The difference between the speed of the stator (synchronous speed Ns) and the actual speed of the motor (N) is called slip of the induction motor and is designated by letter 's'. It is represented in RPM. However it is general tendency to represent as fraction or percentage of synchronous speed.

Answer: The relays that are usually employed for Answer: After the relay sensing the fault condition, Over current relay Directional relay Distance relay Under Voltage relay Under-frequency relay Thermal relay Differential relay Phase sequence relays pilot relays

How the electrical power system protection is divided? Answer: The overall system protection is divided into

Generator protection Transformer protection Busbar protection Transmission line protection and Feeder protection

How relays are connected in the power system? Answer: The relays are connected to the power

system through the current transformer (CT) or Fractional Slip s = Ns- N -------potential transformer (PT). Ns What are different types of principles of operation What is the speed of the rotor magnetic field with respect to rotor? of electro-mechaical relays? Answer: Currents flowing through the rotor windings due to induction caused by stator will have a

frequency of ( f ', which is equal to sf where f is the through the rotor sets up a magentic field equal to s x Ns with respect to the rotor. What is the relative speed between the fields set up by the stator and rotor? Answer: Stationary. The speed of the stator field with respect to stator surface will be Ns and the speed of rotor with respect to the stator surface will be N. The speed of the magentic field of the rotor with respect to

used in Industries because of some features it possess.


applied frequency to stator). This current flowing They are: Low Cost Simple and Rugged Construction Absence of Commutator Good power factor Higher efficiency Good Speed Regulation

What is the relation between between Induction are considered as

the rotor will be s x Ns . Therefore the speed of the motor and Transformer? rotor field with respect to stator surface is equal to Answer: Induction motors

rotor speed of the motor and rotor field with respect transformers with secondary winding rotating. This is because both transformers and induction motor to rotor operates in such a manner that power is transferred to secondary windings (rotor) from primary windings (stator) by mutual induction principle. Why the efficiency of the Induction motor is less compared to transformer? Answer: Induction motor and Transformer operates N + s x Ns = Ns ( 1-s ) + s x Ns = Ns Therefore the relative motion between stator field and rotor field will be stationary or zero. What happens when Induction motor is loaded? Answer: During no load operation the relative speed

between stator magnetic field and rotor speed will be on the same principle that power is transferred to less (means slip is less). Hence small emf is generated secondary by mutual induction. But in transformer, which generates small currents and torque will be flux will be traveled from primary to secondary generated in such a manner sufficient to overcome winding through the core of the transformer. In the friction and windage losses. induction motor flux travels from stator to rotor

When motor is loaded (Load applied to rotor), motor through the air gap. Therefore power factor will be torque reduces as the load torque increases. Hence less for induction motor compared to transformer motor slows down (slip increases). As the motor which also results in less efficiency for induction slows down, the relative speed between rotor and motor compared to transformer. stator magnetic field increases. This results in greater motor currents and generates greater motor torque to Why Speed Control of Induction Motor is difficult overcome the load torque. Thus as the load on the compared to DC shunt motor?

induction motor increases, motor slows down until Answer: Speed Control of DC shunt motor can be sufficient torque is generated to overcome the applied possible by providing resistance in the armature and load torque. Why Induction motors are widely used in Industries? field circuits and varying the resistors speed changes can be carried out over a wide range. On the other hand speed control of induction motor is costlier and

Answer: In Industries 80% of the motor drives used bit tedious. are induction motors. Induction Motors are widely Speed of Induction motors = (120x f x (1-s))/p.

and rutlessness and steel has the property of high tensile strength). Composite conductors are employed should change or number of poles should change and as they are flexible compared to solid conductor. other methods can be employed. Care should be taken Composite conductors reduce proximity effect and that in the process efficiency and power factor should also reduces skin effect up to certain extent. Bundled Conductors: be maintained. Bundled conductors are employed in Extra High Voltage (EHV) transmission as at higher voltages corona effect is significant. In bundled conductors sub Explain the operation of induction motor in simple conductors are placed as certain distance throughout words? the transmission lines. This reduces the corona Answer: When 3 phase ac supply is given to stator of discharge loss and interference with the communication lines nearby. the induction motor rotating magnetic field will be Corona Ring on Surge Arresters and other EHV generated. This magnetic field (flux) cuts the equipment stationary conductors of the rotor of induction motor. Have you ever seen a ring around the Therefore an emf is induced by Faraday's law of Surge Arrester or other EHV equipment? What is the electro-magentism. As the rotor conductors are short purpose of the Ring around the Extra High Voltage circuited, current starts flowing in the windings of the (EHV) equipment? What is the use of big rings at EHV testing centers? rotor this produces a magnetic field. Due to Corona Ring: interaction of both the magnetic fields a torque will be Therefore for speed control either supply frequency developed. If the torque generated is sufficient to overcome the load torque rotor starts rotating. Difference between Solid Conductor and Stranded Conductor Solid Conductor: It consists of single piece of metal wire. It is cheap for manufacturing.Skin effect is higher in solid conductors as at higher frequencies current flow on the surface of the conductors results in the increase in the effective resistance. The main disadvantage of the solid wire is its more rigid property. It cannot be bent easily Stranded Conductors: Stranded wire consists of sub conductors touch each other. It is costlier to manufacture compared to solid wire. For the given current carrying capacity the size of the stranded conductor is large compared to solid wire. Different elements of strands can be wound together to get the transmission line of desired property (eg: ACSR conductor contains Aluminum and Steel stands wound together). Proximity and skin effect is reduced using stranded conductors.

This Metal Ring what we see in the substations and other transmission line network is "Corona Ring". At higher voltages such as in EHV transmission networks corona discharge effect is prominent. Corona Ring distributes the electrical potential gradient evenly and maintains the maximum value below the threshold limits of the corona effect. Corona Rings are employed at high altitude electrical equipment where density of the air is less.

Reactive Power and Active Power flow in Power System Bundled Conductors and Composite Conductors Active Power: Difference The power that is generated in the power system Composite Conductors: which is utilised in useful work (running the motor, In Composite conductors sub conductors touch each lighting and heating energy) other. Composite conductors are typically stranded Reactive Power: conductors. In Composite conductors different Reactive power is the power which will not do any elements are used (In ACSR conductors aluminum useful work in the power system but helps the active has the properties of light weight, good conductivity

power to flow. Without Reactive Power active power will not able to flow in the system. Different Power Flow In Power System: Active power in the power system depends on the power angle, means active power will flow in power system from bus having leading voltage power angle to lagging voltage power angle busbar. On the other hand, reactive power flow from the high voltage bus to low voltage bus in the power system, under this condition reactive power generated in the line (normally generated by alternator or shunt capacitance) is more compared to the reactive power absorbed (normally sink for reactive power will be series inductance) at the receiving end.

132 kV kV

145 kV

120

P (active power ) and delta (power angle) are closely coupled Q (Reactive Power) and V (magnitude of the voltage) are closely coupled

Hence it is understood that for the flow of reactive power from one point to other in power system difference in the voltage should exist. Active power will flow in power system from leading power angle to lagging power angle even the voltage at receiving end is higher compared to sending end (still active power flows). Voltage and Frequency operating range (tolerance) of Grid Supply in India Frequency variation in the power system exists due to the mismatch between the supply of power and demand for the power. Voltage variations exist in the power grid is due to the mismatch in the reactive power between demand (MVAR) and available. In spite of all these variations there is certain limit for the operation limits (variations allowed) for voltage and frequency parameters dictated by the Grid Code. Any variations in the parameters (voltage and frequency) below operating limits considered as power grid is unhealthy and restoration steps will be taken to make the power grid healthy. In India according to Electricity Grid Code, the operation variation in the frequency and voltage allowed is given as below. Frequency Operating variation limits: 49Hz to 50.5 Hz Voltage operating variation limit: Voltage Rating Maximum Voltage Minimum Voltage 400 kV 420 kV 360 kV 220 kV 245 kV 200 kV

Islanding operation in Electrical Grid Frequency and Voltage are two important parameters which decides the healthiness of the electrical grid at a particular instant of time. Frequency fluctuations occur in the electrical grid when there is mismatch between the amount of power generation and amount of power demand. Both under frequency and over frequency operation is harmful to the operation of power system. In electrical grid over frequency operation is a rare phenomenon. Most of the cases we observe frequency drop phenomenon due to lack of power generation supporting the demand. Hence frequency in the power system drops below the rated. When the frequency tends to drop governor systems connected to the Turbo-Generators in electrical grid will act and allow more steam to flow to turbine and increase the speed. However there is limitation for this band. Beyond certain limit of operation if grid frequency is drop Islanding operation is employed in the grid. Islanding Operation: When the frequeny of the overall electrical grid is declining below the rated at pre determined frequency Ellectrical grid is divided into number of small islands which contains some generation units and load centers come out of the grid and operate together until the normal frequency is restored. This method of spliting the electrical grid in to small Islands is to protect the healthy part of the grid. Methods to Improve Transient Stability Transient Stability: Transient Stability is the ability of the power system to maintain the synchronism after the sudden large disturbance. These disturbances may be because of the application of faults, clearing of faults, switching ON and OFF surges in EHV system Transient Stability Improvement methods: Transient stability of the system can be improved by increasing the system voltage. Increase in the voltage profile of the system implies increase in the power transfer ability.This helps in increasing the difference between initial load angle and critical clearance angle. Hence increase in power allows the machine to allows to rotate through large angle before reaching critical clearance angle. Increase in the X/R ratio in the power system increases the power limit of the line. Thus helps to improve the stability

High speed circuit breakers helps to clear the fault as quick as possible. The quicker the breaker operates, the faster the fault cleared and better the system restores to normal operating conditions By Turbine fast valving: One of the main reason for the instability in the power system is due to the excess energy supplied by the turbine during the fault period. Fast Valving helps in reducing the mechanical input power when the generator is under acceleration during the fault and hence improves the stability of the system Use of Auto Re-closing: Majority of the faults in the power system will be momentary and can be self cleared. Hence circuit breakers employed for fault clearance opens in sensing the fault with time delay of 2 cycles and recloses after particular time to determine whether the fault is cleared. Some of the other ways to improve the transient stability are by employing lightning arresters, high neutral grounding impedance, single pole switching, quick Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs).

When does Proportional (P) Integral (I) Derivative (D) Controllers are Used When Proportional (P) Controller is Used: Proportional (P) Controller is used during the following conditions: Load Changes are small Offset (error exist due to difference between steady state value and desired value) can be tolerated The process reaction rate is such as to permit a narrow proportional band. Since this reduces the amount of the offset When Integral (I) Controller is Used: Integral (I) controller is used during:

Properties of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) gas Sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas properties: Heavy, chemically inert, non toxic No poisonous effect on the human body but decomposition products are poisonous Color less and odor less It is gaseous at normal room temperature and pressure Density is about 6.6g/l at 20oC (5 times denser than air) Critical temperature is at 45.6oC and can be liquefied by compression Very good insulant with high dielectric strength SF6 gas is electo-negitive ( tends to attract the free electrons and has the arc quenching property). Because of this main reason SF6 gas is used for arc quenching and insulation medium in circuit breakers. The gas is highly stable Unlike solid insulation materials, electrical breakdown of sf6 gas does not result in permanent deterioration of its properties Decomposition occurs on the exposure to the electric arc. (Disassociation products will be SF2 and SF4 lower order fluorides)

When the offset must be eliminated Integral saturation due to sustained deviation is not objectionable When Derivative (D) Controller is used: Large transfer or distance velocity lags are present It is necessary to minimize the amount of deviation caused by the system changes When Proportional plus Integral (PI) Controller is used: Proportional and Integral action is employed when

System changes is small Offset must be eliminated No objection on the recovery duration When Proportional and Derivative (PD) controller is used: PD action is employed when:

When the system changes are small Improve the recovery time When system lags are high When Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) Controller is used: PID controller is used when system requires:

System changes are small Offset must be eliminated Fast recovery time power plant?

What are the different auxiliary systems in thermal Answer: Coal handling and storage, coal pulverizers, water treatment plant, steam boiler, Draught systems,

Ash Handling systems, Steam turbine, Circulation water system, Electrical Systems, Control and Instrumentation, Pollution Control equipment, and Fire Protection System What is the purpose of Pulverizers?

Electrical Switch-yard

What are the different Generator Protections employed in Thermal Power Plants? Answer: Faults in the windings, Over load protection, Over heating of windings or bearings, Over speed

Answer: Pulverizers serve two purposes, to dry the protection, Loss of Excitation protection, Motoring coal and to grind the coal. They crush the coal to size operation protection, Inadvertent energisation, single of 74microns What are different types of Pulverizers? Answer: Different types of Pulverizers are:

phase or unbalanced current protection, out of step operation protection, sub-synchronous oscillations protection and earth fault protection How Generator Transformer is cooled in Thermal Power Plant? Answer: MVA power rating of the Generator Transformer will be equal to the alternator. Hence lot of heat will be generated while generator transformer is under operation. Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF) type of cooling is employed for generator transformer What are different types of circuit breakers employed in thermal power plant?

Ball tube mill Ring roll mill Hammer mill Attrition type mill Thermal Power Plants?

What are different types of Steam boilers used in

Answer: Different type of boiler used in thermal Answer: For low voltage operation power plants are: 415/220V vacuum circuit breakers or air break circuit

Fire tube boiler Water tube boiler Natural Circulation boiler Forced Circulation boiler Once through boiler

breakers are employed. For voltage ratings about 6.6kV and beyond SF6 circuit breakers are employed. What type of cooling is provided for Generator in power plant? Answer: Hydrogen gas cooling is employed for large size generators because of better heat carrying ability of the hydrogen. Hydrogen cooling is provided for rotors and core of the generator. Water cooling is

What is the largest pump in the thermal power plant?

Answer: In thermal power plant Boiler Feed Pump provided for the stator of the alternator. Induction Machine Question and Answers: (BFP) is the largest pump, it delivers the water to the Why Induction Motor name has come? boiler. Answer: In Induction motor there is no electrical What are the major electric systems in Thermal contact to the rotor. Electrical currents are induced in Power Plant? to the rotor circuit. Hence the name Induction motor Answer: Major electrical equipment in thermal power has come. plant are

Turbine Generator Exciter System Generator Protection System Generator Transformer HT/LT switch gear

What happen when Induction motor run at synchronous speed? Answer: When the induction motor runs at synchronous speed, there will be no induced emf in to the rotor circuits. Therefore no rotor currents and no

torque is developed. Hence Induction motor will OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM: come to halt. Control System in which output quantity has no effect on the input quantity is called Open What are different types of Induction Motors Loop Control System. Open Loop Control available? System has no facility to correct Answer: Induction motors are of two types based on automatically the error generated in the output. From output of the system no their construction feedback is given back to the input for Squirrel cage Induction motor (As the rotor correction. In Open loop control system the output can be varied by varying the input. winding will be like cage) But due the external disturbance system Slip Ring Induction motor or wound rotor output may change. Any variation in the induction motor output from the desired once again attained What is the advantage of Slip Ring Induction by varying the inputs manually. Motor? Answer: By providing external resistance to the rotor Advantages: circuits during starting of the motor starting torque can be improved and starting currents can be reduced What is the advantage of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor? Answer: Low cost, rugged construction and less maintenance are the advantages of squirrel cage induction motors What is the speed variation of the induction motor from no load to full load?

Open loop system is simple and economical Construction of open loop system is easier Open loop systems are generally stable Open loop systems are inaccurate and unreliable The changes in the outputs due to external disturbance are not corrected automatically

Disadvantages:

Closed Loop Control System:

Answer: The decrement in the speed of the small Control system in which the output has an effect on rating Induction Motor from no load to full load will the input quantity in such a manner that the input be around 4 to 5 percent and 2 to 2.5 percent in the quantity will adjust itself based on the output generated is called Closed loop Control System. Open case of large size induction motors loop control system can be modified in to closed loop control system by providing a feedback. This feedback automatically corrects the changes in the output due to external disturbance. Hence closed loop control system is called automatic control system. Advantages:

Closed loop control systems are more accurate even in the presence of non-linearities The sensitivity of the system may be made small to make the system more stable The closed loop systems are less affected by noise.

Disadvantages:

Closed loop control systems are costlier and complex The feedback in the closed loop system may lead to oscillatory response The feedback reduces the overall gain of the system Stability is the major problem in the closed loop system and more care is needed to design a stable closed loop system

Advantages of Bundled Conductors in Transmission Lines For transmission of more power for long distances to load centers Extra High Voltage (EHV) transmission is employed. Implementing Extra High Voltage has advantage of reduction in the copper losses and improves efficiency. However transmission of voltage beyond 300kV will poses some problems such as Corona effect which causes significant power loss and interference with communication circuits if round single conductor per phase is used. In order to reduce corona effect hollow round conductors are used. Keeping economical constraints other option is instead of using hallow round conductor it is High voltage Transmission Advantages and preferable to use more than one conductor per phase disadvantages which is called Bundled Conductors. For transmission of power beyond 400kV bundled conductors are Advantages: With increase in the transmission voltage size employed. of the conductors is reduced (Cross section of the conductors reduce as current required to carry reduces). As the reduction in current carrying requirement losses reduces results in better efficiency Due to low current voltage drop will be less so voltage regulation improves Limitations: With the increase in the voltage of transmission, the insulation required between the conductors and the earthed tower increases. This increase the cost of line support With increase in the voltage of transmission, more clearance is required between conductors and ground. Hence higher towers Advantages of Bundled Conductors: are required. Bundled conductors are primarily employed to reduce With increase in the voltage transmission, the corona loss and radio interference. However they more distance is required between the have several advantages:

Bundled conductors per phase reduces the voltage gradient in the vicinity of the line. Thus reduces the possibility of the corona discharge. (Corona effect will be observed when the air medium present between the phases charged up and start to ionize and acts as a conducting medium. This is avoided by employing bundled conductors) Improvement in the transmission efficiency as loss due to corona effect is countered. Bundled conductor lines will have higher capacitance to neutral in comparison with single lines. Thus they will have higher charging currents which helps in improving the power factor. Bundled conductor lines will have higher capacitance and lower inductance than ordinary lines they will have higher Surge Impedance Loading (Z=(L/C)1/2). Higher Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) will have higher maximum power transfer ability. With increase in self GMD or GMR inductance per phase will be reduced compared to single conductor line. This results in lesser reactance per phase compared to ordinary single line. Hence lesser loss due to reactance drop.

conductors. Therefore cross arms should be long What are the different substation components Answer: Circuit Breakers, Disconnecting switches,

Establishing minimum electrical clearances Substation?

What are the different electrical clearances in Answer:

Grounding switches, Current Transformers, Potential Ground Clearance: This is the minimum distance Transformers or Capacitor voltage Transformers, between any live conductor and the earth or ground. Line Traps, Lightning Arrestors, Power Transformers, Shunt Reactors, Current limiting reactors, Station Phase Clearance: It is the clearance between the Buses and Insulators, Grounding system, Series different phases in a circuit or same phases in capacitors and shunt capacitors. What are different types of busbar arrangement Schemes in Substations? different circuits Sectional Clearance: This is the minimum clearance between the live conductor and the limits of work,

Answer: Different switching schemes or busbar where spacial clearance is related to the safety of the operating personnel. The limits of work section may arrangement scheme employed in switchyard are

Single Bus Scheme Double bus single breaker scheme Main and Transfer busbar scheme Double bus single breaker scheme Breaker and half scheme Ring main bus scheme more reliable?

be ground or the platform on which the person is working. Why EHV busbars are hallowed and cicular? Answer: To avoid corona effect What are different Bus bar materials used in Substation? Answer: Busbars are generally made of copper and Aluminum. Aluminim has the advantage of one third

Which type of bus arrangement is costlier and Answer: One and half breaker scheme is most reliable

and costlier scheme. In one and half breaker scheme 3 the weight of the copper and also Aluminum requires circuit breakers are provided for 2 busbars. Hence the less maintenance and proper use of alloys provide name is coined as One and half breaker shceme For distribution network which type of Switching scheme is employed? Answer: For distribution network Ring Main busbar scheme is employed. It has the provision that if power necessary rigidity required for bus material. Aluminum is used widely in EHV and HV stations What is the first equipment of the substation connected to the incoming transmission line?

interruption occurs to one bus section due to Answer: Lightning arrestor is the first equipment of maintenance or fault, power can be fed the bus from the substation connecting the incoming transmission other side of the power system. Factors on which material of station busbar depends? lines. It protects other substation equipment from lightning and switching surges by suppressing them to ground. Lightning arrestors also placed in the

Answer: Some of the factors on which station busbar substation between both the ends of major equipment such as power transformers for protection. depends are:

Current Carrying capacity Short Circuit Stresses

Different Levels of SCADA? Answer: Different levels are SCADA systems are:

1. Field level devices and instruments eg: sophisticated control and troubleshooting in PLC is Sensors 2. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) 3. Communication system present between the RTUs and Main Station 4. Main Control Station or Master Station 5. Computer systems pertained to processing the data for displaying to operator Why SCADA systems are Implemented? Answer: Some of the reasons or advantages why SCADA systems are implemented are: 1. SCADA systems improves the performance of the operation of the plant 2. SCADA systems provides better protection to the equipment of the plant 3. SCADA systems improves productivity of the personnel 4. Information receives very fast, process the information and display it to opertor in graphs and plots. Hence helps the operator to take the decisions fast. 5. Provides better energy savings and saves economy. What is the capacity of CPU of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)? Answer: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) contain generally microprocessor having 16 bit or 32 bit (eg: 68302 or 80386) What is the Power Supply provided to the RTU? Answer: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) are operated from 110V/240V + or - 10% and 50Hz or 12/24/48V + or - 10% DC Voltage What are advantages of PLCs over RTUs? Answer: Advantages of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are they can be used for general purpose can easily set for verity of functions. Some of the advantages of PLCs over RTUs are: PLCs are reliable, cheap, flexible compared to

easier. Squirrel cage Induction motor Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications Squirrel Cage Induction Motor: Advantages: Squirrel Cage Induction motors are cheaper in cost compared to Slip Ring Induction motors. Requires less maintenance and rugged construction because of the absence of slip rings, brushes etc. Squirrel Cage Induction Motors requires less conductor material than slip ring motor, hence copper losses in squirrel cage motors are less results in higher efficiency compared to slip ring induction motor Squirrel cage motors are explosion proof due to the absence of brushes slip rings and brushes which eliminates the risks of sparking. Squirrel Cage motors are better cooled compared to slip ring induction motors Squirrel cage motors operate at nearly constant speed, high over load capacity, and operates at better power factor. Disadvantages:

Main disadvantage of squirrel cage induction motor is that they have poor starting torque and high starting currents. Starting torque will be in the order of 1.5 to 2 times the full load torque and starting current is as high as 5 to 9 times the full load current. In slip ring induction motors this can be reduced by inserting resistance during the starting of the machine and cutting down the resistance. Squirrel cage induction motors are more sensitive to the supply voltage fluctuations. When the supply voltage is reduced machine draws more current on the other hand when the voltage increases it saturates the magnetic components of the machine. Speed control is not possible The total energy loss during starting of squirrel cage motor is more compared to slip ring motors. This point is significant if the application involves frequent starting

RTUs, Applications:

Squirrel Cage Induction Motors are widely used in Industrial applications than slip ring induction motors due to cheaper in cost, rugged in construction, low maintenance. Squirrel Cage Induction Motors are suitable for applications where the drive requires constant speed, low starting torque and no speed control drives. Difference between Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants Thermal Power Plant:

machine and the nature of the load (capacitive, resistive and inductive) connected to the machine. Hence they rate the transformer depends on the maximum current carry and the voltage to be applied. This rating of the transformer corresponds to apparent power of the machine (VA). Also iron losses in transformer depends on the the voltage applied and copper losses depends on the current flowing through the winding. These losses are independent of the power factor at which the transformer operates. On the other hand induction motors are rated with real power (Watts) as the machine operating at defined power factor at full load is pre determined. Eg: Consider a transformer can carry maximum current of 50A and max voltage applied is 200V. Then Power rating of the at full load (Unity power factor) = 50x200 = 10kW Power rating of the at full load (0.5 power factor) = 50x200x0.5 = 5kW (This means load having 0.5 power factor can connect maximum of 5kW to the transformer. 5kW is the full load of the transformer) Mobile Substations Advantages and Applications Mobile Substations are emergency power supply substations employed temporarily to provide power supply in the areas affected by the natural disasters such as storms, cyclones and during wars. These substations will have maximum rating of about 220kV. Mobile Substation typically contains Trailer for unit, Distribution Transformer, Cooling system for

In Thermal Power Plant Reactor follows Turbine. When load demand changes governor system of turbine operates accordingly depends on load demand by opening or closing steam value. Hence more or less inputs are taken to boiler according to the load demand. Thermal Power Plants basically are peak load plants. However due to lack of power generation sources, thermal plants are forced to operate as base load plants.

Nuclear Power Plant:

In Nuclear Plants after reactor shut down still decay heat is produced due to the fission of the daughter nuclei and gamma radiation. Hence in nuclear power plant decay heat is to be removed continuously even the reactor is shutdown. Reactor cooling system must be continuously operated. In Nuclear Plants safety is prime criteria than production of electricity Nuclear Power Plants are base load plants In Nuclear Plants Turbine follows reactor. No variation of the turbine speed according to load demand. This is designed in order to avoid tripping of reactor.

Why Transformer rating is in KVA not kW Rating of Electrical Transformer is in VA (Volt Amperes ) because: current carrying Maximum capacity of

Transformers, Switchgear equipment (relays, circuit the breakers, isolators etc..) transformer is determined by the thickness of the Advantages of Mobile Substation: Mobility in service conductor and Maximum voltage supplied to the winding depends on the insulation strength of the conductor Manufacturers of Transformers and alternators does not know at what power factor the consumer uses the

Quick access for service Less Maintenance cost Minimum Clearance for utilization Increase in Reliability

Maximum KVA with minimum height. Application of Mobile Substations:


Mobile Substations are employed to provide emergency power supply during natural disasters and during wars

It also used to supply power when ordinary conventional substation is under maintenance or fault

insulation and reduction in the size of the transformer for same MVA rating. Hence due to this reason LV winding is placed near to the core of the transformer. On the core of the transformer insulation is placed and LV winding is wound. Once again insulation is placed between the LV winding and HV winding. Series and Shunt Reactors in Power system Shunt Reactor are used for reactive compensation: During normal operation of an electrical power system, the transmission and distribution voltages must be maintained within a small range, typically, from 0.95 to 1.05 pu of rated value. Due to the load variations, shunt reactors and capacitors have been applied in power systems to compensate excess reactive power (inductive for heavy load conditions, and capacitive for light load conditions). Shunt reactors are commonly used to compensate the capacitive reactive power of transmission and distribution systems and thereby to keep the operating voltages within admissible levels. Series Reactor for limiting the fault current.

It also employed for providing temporary load supply to industrial plants, remote locations. Factors affecting Size of Machine Temperature and Machine size: Size of any motor, Generator or Transformer depends on the Temperature rise in the machine. Temperature rise in the electrical machine beyond the designed value will damage the insulation of the motor. Temperature rise in the electrical machine is due to the heat generated due to losses. Current flowing in the windings in the machine generates heat. This generated heat should be dissipated else it damages the insulation of the motor. For smaller rating motors, generators and transformers natural cooling is sufficient. However for larger rating machines heat generated will be more, hence generated heat should be removed with the help of coolents such as water either by natural circulation or forced circulation. Fans and blowers were also used to remove the generated heat.In large alternators hydrogen cooling is employed to remove the generated heat Low Voltage winding near core of the Transformer For explaining the operation of the transformer Low voltage winding (LV winding) and High voltage winding (HV winding) are wound on different limbs of the transformer for easy explanation. However in practical each limbs of the core will have both LV winding and HV winding wound together. In Transformer design LV winding will be wound close to the core of the transformer because the insulation provided between the LV winding and core of the transformer is quite less compared to the insulation provided between the HV winding and the core of the transformer which results in less cost for

DC component in Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current ? In symmetrical current the envelops of the peaks of the current waves are symmetrical with respect to zero axis. In asymmetrical currents the envelops of the peaks of the current waves are not symmetrical about the zero axis. If we plot short circuit waveform in oscillogram it appears that the short circuit currents are nearly asymmetrical for the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs and this asymmetrical behavior is maximum at the instant of the short circuit and then current waveform gradually becomes symmetrical after the few cycles of short circuit. These asymmetrical alternating currents when considered as a single wave is difficult to interpret for circuit breaker applications and relay settings purpose. Complex formulation is involved for calculations of the circuit breaker applications and relay settings purpose. Hence this asymmetrical component is resolved in to simple components consists of (1) symmetrical ac component and (2) dc component. The sum of these two components

at any instant is equal to the magnitude of the total asymmetrical component of the ac wave. DC component present is considered as offset and the magnitude of this component depends on the instant at which short circuit occur. It varies from zero to maximum value which is equal to peak of the asymmetrical component. DC component have decaying nature with respect to time after the short circuit occur and dissipate as I2R loss in the circuit. The decrement or rate of decay of the dc component is proportional to the X/R ratio. If the ratio of reactance to resistance is infinite (zero resistance), dc component will never decay. On the other hand if the reactance of a line is zero, the decay takes place instantly.