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List of language abbreviations in the IED Abbreviation Language name Aeq. Akk. Alb.

Akkadian Albanian Anglian Aequian

Alan. Anat. Ang. AngN Ash. Ass. Auk. Bel. Br.

Alanian (=Old Ossetic)

Anatolian Anglo-Norman


Assyrian Bactrian British




Aukshtaitian Belorussian

Bret. CCl.

BVan. Chak. Chor. CIb. Co.


Continental Celtic Chakavian Chorasmian


Class. Skt. Corn. Dac. Dan.

Classical Sanskrit Cornish Cornouillais Danish


Dacian Dardic

Dard. EBl.

Dzuk. EGm. El.

East Baltic


EGmRun. Elam.

East Germanic

Elymian Elamite

East-Germanic Runic



EMoBret. EMoIr. ESl. EMoW Faer. Gal.

Early Modern Irish East Slavic Faeroese

Early Modern Breton Early Modern Welsh

FriRun. Gallo-Gk. Gaul.

Gallo-Lat. GaulG GaulL Go. Gr.

Gallo-Gk. (in Gk. authors) Gaulish


Frisian Runic

Gallo-Latin (in Lat. authors)

Gaulish in Greek letters Gaulish in Lat. letters

Hebr. Hell. Hi. IE



HVan. IIr.


Hellenistic Haut-Vannetais


InsCl. Iran. It.-Cl. Kajk. Ken. Lak.

Insular Celtic Italo-Celtic Kajkavian Kentish Iranian



Khot. Lang. Latg. LAv. Lep. Liv. LCo.

Khotanese (=Saka) Lakonian Langobardian

Late Avestan Late Cornish Lepontic


LPBr. Lus. Mac.

Late Proto-British Macedonian Lusitanian



Middle Armenian

Mars. Maz. Mcd.


Mazanderani Macedonian Median Middle Cornish

MCo. Med. MFr. MIA MIA Mit. Merc.

Middle French


Middle Indo-Aryan Middle Indo-Aryan


Middle Icelandic Mitanni


MoArm. MoCo. MoE MoIA MoIr. MoP MP


Modern Bret.

Modern Armenian Modern Cornish

Restsprachen west

Restsprachen east


Modern Icelandic Modern Irish Modern Persian

Modern Indo-Aryan

Modern English

MoW Mun. MW Myc.

Middle Persian Middle Welsh Munji

Modern Welsh

NEIran. NGm. NIA


Northeast Iranian North Germanic

non-IE Nth. Nur.

New Indo-Aryan Northumbrian Nuristani

Non-IE languages

NWGk. OBr.

NWIran. OBret. OCo.

Northwestern Greek Old British (i.e. names in Latin sources and inscriptions of the Dark Ages) Old Breton Old Cornish (Voc. Corn.) Northwest Iranian


ODan. OFri. Og.

Old Church Slavonic Old English Runic Old Danish

OERun. OFriRun. OGt. OIA OIran. OP

Old Frisian

Old Frisian Runic Ogam Irish

Old Gutnish

Old Indo-Aryan

ONRun. OPhr. Orm. ORu. Oss. OssI OW P Pa.

Old Persian Ormuri

Old Norse Runic

Old Iranian (names in var. sources)

Old Phrygian Old Russian

ORun. OssD OSWBr.

Ossetic Iron Digor

Old Runic

Old South-West British Old Welsh Pali Proto- (can be prefixed to any language) Paeonic

Paeon. Pal. Pam. Par. Parth. Pash. PFU Pis. Pkt.

Palaic Pamir


Plb. Pol. PrIr.

Prakrit Polish



Pashto (=Afghan)



PRom. PSab. PSamn.

Primitive Irish

(Proto-)Sabellian ( = Osco-Umbrian) Presamnitic




Proto-Uralic Roshani Russian

Rosh. Ru. RuCS Sar. Sarmat. Sbn. SCr. SCS


Russian Church Slavonic Sarikoli Sarmatian

Scyth. Sel. Sh.


Scythian Selian

Serbian Church Slavonic Southeast Iranian Shughni



Shtok. Sic. Sid. Skt. Slc. Slk.

Siculian Sidetic


Sanskrit Slovak

Slovincian Slovene

Sln. Sp.

Sogd. SPic. SSl. Sum. SwG Taj. SWIran. Thrac. Treg. Ukr. Van. Ved. W Wa.

South Picenian South Slavic Sumerian (non-IE)



Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch) Southwest Iranian Tajik Thracian

Ukrainian Vandal

Tregorrois Vannetais Vedic




WBl. WS WSl. Yaz. Yi.

West Baltic


West Slavic Yazgulami Zhemaitian Yaghnobi




The database represents the updated text of J. Pokorny's "Indogermanisches

Etymologisches Wrterbuch", scanned and recognized by George Starostin (Moscow),

who has also added the meanings. The database was further refurnished and corrected by A. Lubotsky. Pokorny's text is given practically unchanged (only a few obvious typos were corrected), except for some rearrangement of the material. The numbers in the lemmata alphabetization would otherwise too much affect the order of the lemmata. Laryngeals Laryngeals are sounds that occurred in the Proto-Indo-European language, caused are given after the root (e.g. Pokorny's 1. b er- appears as b er-1) because automatic
h h

changes to neighbouring sounds, and disappeared. They were postulated to explain was many decades before confirmation of their existence was found, in the newly they were pronounced.

anomalies in the verb system, and they proved useful for explaining other phenomena. It deciphered Hittite language. Linguists are still not agreed on how many there were or how

'Laryngeal' is also an ordinary phonetic term meaning made in the larynx; but it is the Indo-European consonants. The problem

preferable to call this glottal or laryngal, to avoid confusion with the still unknown values of

The verbs were central to the reconstruction of the ancestor of Indo-European languages, which was going well in the 1870s, and explanations had been found for the vowels i and verbs had a stem of the form consonant - e - consonant-, the base vowel -e- surrounded e u, and unaccented o. This postulated an earlier stage in which the only vowel was e. Most by consonants. Other vowels were derived from them.

The anomalous verb stems were those that had no consonant preceding, such as *ed-,

the vowels a and o. Those with other vowels also lacked consonants, and had the same pattern as the e-stems: *ag- 'drive', *okw- 'look', *staa- 'stand', and *doo- 'give'.

'eat', or a long vowel and no following consonant, such as *d ee- 'put', and those that had

If a and o had been normal vowels, why were there no normal-shaped stems CaC- and were normal, why were there no stems of the shape ee consonant - or consonant ee consonant -? The proposed solution

CoC-? Why were these two vowels also associated with lack of consonant? If long vowels

Ferdinand de Saussure proposed the existence of elements he called coefficients

sonantiques in 1879, an abstract term not committing himself to any definite phonetic form. These stood in the place normally occupied by consonants, and caused one or both of two changes: shifting the neighbouring vowel; and lengthening it if they followed. Then they disappeared, leaving their mark on the altered vowels.

Later the same year Hermann Mller, seeking to make a connexion between the IndoEuropean and Semitic families, introduced the name laryngeal, suggesting that the hypothetical coefficients were pronounced like the Semitic laryngeals. The term strictly contain h and the glottal stop But in Indo-European the "laryngeals" might have been stop. have no clear evidence.

means pronounced within the larynx, and is synonymous with glottal: Semitic languages those, or might have been other guttural sounds such as pharyngeals or velars. We still

At least three laryngeals are usually postulated. A more abstract notation is to use schwa kind of H with subscript. is e-coloured, is a-coloured, and is o-coloured. So the six *ed- from ed*ag- from eg2 h 1 h 3 2 1

with a subscript number. An alternative, much more common these days, is to use some

roots given above come from earlier forms with laryngeals: *d ee- from d e d e *staa- from ste *doo- from de 3 2 3 1 h

*okw- from ekw-

Sometimes evidence shows a laryngeal, but the vowel colouring has been lost so we can't tell which one it was: this is annotated without subscript, as H.

Proof in Hittite

The regularity of the ablaut grades, described above, was the initial motivation for

postulating laryngeals, but many other niggling exceptions in other parts of the grammar

and vocabulary became simpler to explain if laryngeals were invoked. Each phenomenon could however have a different explanation. There was no direct evidence for fifty years. But in 1927 Jerzy Kuryowicz announced that Hittite contained consonants in just those deciphered in 1915.

positions where laryngeals were predicted. This had been overlooked when Hittite was first

Hittite was written in a cuneiform script, borrowed from the Semitic language Akkadian. By had some kind of guttural sounds, close enough to those predicted for the Indo-European transcribed h or h, but it was sometimes written doubled, as in pahh corresponding to hhur, hh Greek pyr and English fire. In some Hittite consonants, the use of doubling indicated a

comparison with surviving Semitic languages, it is clear that Akkadian and therefore Hittite laryngeals. The exact value of the Hittite sounds is unclear. There was only one letter, now

voicing contrast, such as p versus b, but it is not known whether this is true of h. That is, distinct sounds, or what exactly they were.

though the laryngeals were found, we're not sure how many of them Hittite preserved as

It also appears to imply a fourth laryngeal, because in some cases where an a-coloured instances of e do however show up as ha ha. Sanskrit evidence

laryngeal is postulated, there is no h in Hittite, though the vowel did become a. Other

basic evidence for vowel-colouring; but laryngeals are convincing as explanation of at least three disparate phenomena restricted to the Sanskrit branch. They are the difference voiceless aspirated stops. between set and anit stems; the exceptions to Brugmann's Law; and the existence of

In Sanskrit the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) vowels e and o both became a, wiping out the

are like kartum 'to do', from kr Those with i come from roots extended by a laryngeal: kr.
h h

referring to the infinitive. Some are like b avitum 'to become', from the root b u, and others
h h

Set and anit are ancient Indian grammatical terms, from sa-i 'with i' and an-i 'without i',

wHtum, giving *b wHtum the laryngeal found itself between consonants, so turned into a vowel, in order to remain pronounceable. In most IE languages this so-called schwa indogermanicum became a, but it is characteristic of Sanskrit that it became i.

b eweH-. When the unaccented vowel was reduced to zero grade between consonants,

The presumed laryngeal also triggered vowel lengthening. With the past participle suffix wHts. *b wHts In this position the w then turns into a vowel, *b uHts, and then lengthening and loss of the laryngeal (as in the original ablaut pattern laryngeals were invented for) give the actual Sanskrit b uuts.
h h h

ts the accent is removed from the stem, and both stem vowels are reduced to zero, giving

In later (Classical) Sanskrit the range of set roots was extended by analogy, so not all set are often obscured.

roots mark laryngeals. All languages undergo extensive ploughing-over and early patterns

/he made' regularly becomes cakaara. Comparison with Greek shows that the first person actual form is cakara. Something prevented Brugmann's Law operating. It might have 'I made' should have been *kekora, which should have also become cakaara, but the

open syllable before a resonant (a liquid or nasal), it was also lengthened. So *kekore 'she

Normally PIE o became Sanskrit a. Brugmann's Law says that when this happened in an

been an analogy with some other 'I' form, in order to keep the two persons distinct; but the I unusual thing about the perfect tense ending -a 'I' is that, while the vowel a is common in a I PIE stems, it's very rare in inflections. This suggests it only occurred where created by a

laryngeal. Then the PIE form *kekor e would contain a closed syllable -kor-, not open -ko, so Brugmann doesn't apply.

The third major strand from Sanskrit evidence is the voiceless aspirates ph th th ch kh.

They were long regarded as part of the original PIE consonant set, but actually evidence for them outside the Indo-Iranian branch including Sanskrit is slim. Kuryowicz proposed that they developed from a plain stop p t t c k that had come to be next to a laryngeal when the intervening vowel dropped out. So the Sanskrit root stha- 'stand' came from steH2- and the new consonant th was then generalized to all forms of the word. Greek and Armenian evidence

Armenian is a solitary branch of the Indo-European family, markedly different from all others, but in several respects it and Greek share unusual features. Some words, particularly in front of n l r, have an extra (prothetic) vowel compared to other branches. Greek noma, Armenian anun, cf. English name, Latin nomen, Sanskrit naaman. Greek odos, Armenian atamn, cf. English tooth, Latin dens, Sanskrit dantah. Greek astr, Armenian ast, English star, Latin stella.

Greek eletheros, Latin liber 'free'. From the vowel preserved in Greek we can see which laryngeal was originally there: H1leud - 'free', H2ster- 'star', H3nom- 'name'.

Greek and Sanskrit share the augment, an initial vowel e- (becoming a- in Sanskrit) on

some past tenses. Armenian also has this, though only on the third personal singular of with both augment then reduplication. Where there was a laryngeal, this sometimes

monosyllables. They also have reduplication in the perfect tense. The pluperfect is formed causes lengthening. So H1leud - 'free' gives eleeluutha 'I loosened', from e-H1le-H1leud h h

H2e. In a few cases the vowel-colouring effect of the laryngeal is also preserved.

The lengthening effect seems to explain the two Greek words ikhthuus 'fish' and muus are jukn and mukn. This also shows that it's not strictly true that the laryngeals disappeared from all modern languages.

'mouse'. We can suspect that there was a laryngeal here, because the Armenian words

There are more direct survivals in Armenian: Latin anus = Hittite hannas = Armenian han Latin avus = Hittite hu huhhas = Armenian haw

Latin ventus = Hittite hu huwantsa = Armenian hogi Other branches

Albanian is another unique and distant branch of Indo-European, and also preserves some actual descendants of the laryngeals, in words like hidhur 'bitter', hidh 'nettle', hut 'empty', and herdhe 'testicle'.

Some Latin perfect tenses are formed by reduplication, but others are formed by eat', d 'I ate', from originally reduplicated e- d-.
1 1

lengthening the vowel: these may be in places where laryngeals are predicted. So ed 'I

Etruscan is not an Indo-European language, but might be distantly related to the family as a whole. The word for 'before' is hant-, whereas Latin has ante.

The attempt to link Indo-European to other families, called the Nostratic theory, has a

problem with laryngeals. Although Nostratic would connect Indo-European to Semitic, the connexion is not very close even within Nostratic. All the other groups that would belong

somewhere in the superfamily - such as Kartvelian, Uralic, Altaic, and Dravidian - show little or no evidence of ever having had laryngeals. Pronunciation

The Nostraticist Allen Bomhard writes that we can now state with complete confidence the values of the laryngeals. This of course means we can't do anything of the kind. They could be almost anything.

One good idea is that , , and were respectively palatal, velar, and rounded velar fricatives, that is [], [x], and [xw]. This fits the pattern of stops [kj k kw] that we already pharyngeals. know about, and also makes them quite easy for us to pronounce. None of those awkward
3 2 1

But was more easily lost, so perhaps it was something weaker, like a glottal stop. if it existed could have been [h]. and might have been pharyngeal. might have been h (labialized).
3 3 2

voiced (because of the Hittite writing); as it caused o-colouring it was very likely rounded

L.R. Palmer, 1980, The Greek Language, Faber & Faber

Winfred Lehmann, 1993, Theoretical Bases of Indo-European Linguistics, Routledge Gender category in Indo-European. 1. Origin of gender in Proto-Indo-European. It is proved that it would be wrong to mix the categories of gender and sex in Proto-IndoEuropean noun system. Modern Indo-European languages which have gender at all, What has no sex, is neuter - for those languages which use neuter, like Slavic and German. usually make these two categories the same: what is female in sex, is female in gender.

Proto-Indo-European shows a completely different system of gender. And though linguistic schools argue about the more likely structure of noun genders in the Proto-language, some facts can be stated for sure.

First, Proto-Indo-European had no gender. At that time the language consisted not of morphological items, like nouns, verbs and adjectives, but just of words which acted

independently in the sentence. The main grammar means of the language was not the declension and conjugation, but the combination of words, and the word order. Nouns lacked any endings, case suffixes, formants of gender of number.

Later, when the language acquired the ergative structure, where all words should be

clearly distinguished between active and inactive (or animate and inanimate) classes.

Here, on this stage, nouns first get the declension. Most scientists believe there were two

or three noun cases at that time in Proto-Indo-European: ergative case, which denoted the subject and indirect objects, absolutive case, which meant subject and direct objects, and animate nouns could be declined, and nouns denoting things did not have cases at all. maybe genitive, which could exist in the stage of forming. We must stress that only active,

There was still no gender, but it was already shaping. The ergative structure was slowly

transforming into another type of the language. When a special case was invented for the direct object (accusative), the language could be already named nominative. Words were adjectives, pronouns, numerals, and verbal uniting verbs and perfect verbs - two quite already divided into nominal and verbal parts of speech - nominal including modern nouns, different sorts of words at that time. While the ergative structure was declining, the nominal part of speech was divided into two ones: nouns, which marked the subject and object, and the adjective marking the attribute of a noun.

This division was logical: people were going to separate attributive and subjective words, those which determine and those which state. Adjectives, nevertheless, could not case and number. completely avoid the influence of nouns, and since then they had to follow the noun in

This was the time for the gender to appear. And here the opinions of leading world

linguists do not agree. Some of them try to prove, rather successfully, that there was two

genders in Early Proto-Indo-European, and then one of them divided into two. Other argue there were three genders originally. Let us see the arguments of each of the sides, just in order to seem objective.

The first version means the following. Two genders which appeared in the Proto-Indo-

European language were invented to separate active and inactive nouns from each other, to divide nouns meaning animate objects (people, sacred animals, deities) from simple acquired the ending -s / -os in nominative singular and could be declined according to s os inanimate things (trees, ground, weapons). The active gender, or active class of nouns,

case and number. The plural number denoted several animate nouns, their real plurality. om, om and even though it had plural number, it did not mean plurality, but just collectiveness. and u. These three kinds of noun stems sooner or later started to denote feminine nouns The inactive class, vice versa, could not be declined, its characteristic ending was -m / m

Later processes of the language development generated a-stems of nouns, stems in long i now they were equal to the sex. That is how the active class was divided into masculine and feminine.

There are several solid proofs of such a point of view. In most Indo-European languages many noun stems include both masculine and feminine nouns: like short i-stems (Latin hostis masc, ossis fem). Such nouns, though different in gender, have absolutely the same declension and only adjectives, attributes next to them, can distinct their gender. Even a-

stems (Latin femina, Lithuanian motina, Greek gunh), made specially for feminine, include many masculine nouns (Latin nauta, poeta). Such a situation of mixture cannot exist with and feminine nouns in most of stems (except a-) still use -s ending in all classical Indos neuter nouns which do not mix in declension with masculine or feminine. While masculine European tongues, neuter nouns have -m. This very -m is always repeated in accusative m m

singular together with nominative singular: this never happens to other genders.

Greek and Latin, being typical Indo-European languages, show one more interesting bonus bona, bonum but this happens only to adjectives of o- and a-stems which us, um; us a um

feature, called "two ending adjectives". Ordinary adjectives use all three genders: Latin cooperate, and with all other stems adjectives use only two forms: the same for masculine two ending adjectives and also show the main thesis of all who state 2 original genders of Proto-Indo-European: differences between masculine and feminine in Indo-European are not as big, as those between masculine-feminine and neuter masculineneuter.

and feminine, and another for neuter. Such adjectives as Latin fortis, fortis, forte, are called

proved that the Anatolian branch, later consisting of Hittite, Luwian and Palaic languages, was the first to move away from the Proto-Indo-European community, and did it even before the Proto-language acquired some of its significant morphological and phonetic other Indo-European languages. Anatolian languages show no feminine or masculine

The other argument in favour of this theory is the situation in Anatolian languages. It was

traits. So Anatolian preserved some interesting archaic moments which we cannot found in languages, and even no a-stems, and genders are two - exactly for animate and inanimate

-n (derived from Indo-European -m), or no ending at all, subsequently did not decline n all m

nouns. The animate gender used -s' ending (as's'us' - good), and the other one either had s'

(as's'u - good (neut.)). This makes us believe that such a system is the Early IndoEuropean one: Anatolian languages were the only group to preserve the 2-gender structure.

in Indo-European use the ending -es in nominative plural, and -ns in accusative plural. All es ns nominative and in accusative. Plural neuter nouns denoted collective unity in Proto-Indo-

The third proof concerns the plural number. Masculine and feminine nouns and adjective

other cases also have their inflections. As for neuter words, their ending -a is used both in a

European, like modern Russian nebesa "skies" which does not mean "several skies" but "sky in a collective meaning". Such nouns in the Proto-language included many words which later will be included into the feminine a-stems - their endings in nominative were

"waters". In Greek, ancient Indo-Iranian languages and in Hittite the subject in neuter plural form always use their predicate in singular. This is maybe the most important evidence of the special position of neuter in Proto-Indo-European: it was inactive.

the same. For example, Latin aqua (water) is originally a collective neuter noun in plural: a

Besides a-stems, Indo-European formed the feminine gender, different from masculine, possession on archaic stages of the language (Sanskrit rathah "a chariot", rathih with one more type of noun stems: long i-stems. Obviously, the suffix -i- meant the i

"something belonging to a chariot"). Later this meaning could go in two ways: it might

to form the feminine gender, if Indo-Europeans looked at the woman as a possession of the man. That is how long i-stems turned out to be all feminine.

begin to mean the possessive genitive case (remember -i in Latin, Venetic and Celtic) and i

stems and i-stems appeared, and the opposition emerged between masculine and feminine nouns, we can speak about three genders in Indo-European: masculine, feminine, neuter.

So from that moment, when Anatolian languages already migrated to Asia Minor, when a-

There are linguistic schools which do not agree to the fact that the Proto-language used its a-stems phonetically coincided with masculine o-stems, so the genders coincided as

two genders, and not three. They say that Anatolian just united masculine and neuter, for well. Other explain this unification by the substratum influence. But anyway, the 2-gender

version seems much better proven.

2. Genders in ancient and modern Indo-European languages.

When the Proto-language disappeared, transforming into different groups, the gender language was quite clear: the number of genders was going to reduce.

system chose its own way in each of them. But the general trend in every Indo-European

Hellenic languages in their ancient varieties (Ancient Greek dialects) preserves the threegender structure, and its peculiarities often show the closer connections between masculine and feminine, than between them both and neuter (2-ending adjectives, etc.,

neuter plural subjects have usually a singular predicate: ploia plei (ships move). The New Greek language also shows three genders, and their opposition is strengthened by the extensive use of articles, also declined in three genders.

see above). Ancient Greek represents the classical neuter endings in -n < *-m. In Greek n m

Italic can be called classical in this meaning as well. Latin shows no sign of reduction of genders, and its neuter plays an important role in the language. The reduction of some final consonants in Umbrian influenced the so-called Popular Latin, which was quickly moving towards the analytism in morphology, lost many endings and so many gender

forms coincided with each other, which could not but lead new Romance languages in tongues the function of differentiating genders passed from the inflection to the article like du - de, and adjective endings gros - grosse. In some languages, however, the e process of secondary morphologisation of genders is going on nowadays: Spanish

their majority to the 2-gender opposition with the loss of neuter. In many modern Romance usage: French has no other signs of genders, but un, une, le, la, some prepositional forms

This interesting feature seems to make us think that the gender development history goes the same way as the case system development.

generated new endings for masculine and feminine: hermano - hermana, cabron - cabra. o a n a

Germanic languages are called the most analytic among all modern Indo-European

tongues. While all ancient varieties of Germanic (Gothic, Old Norse, Old English) used

three cases, the modern languages reduced their number. English and Afrikaans removed genders at all from their morphology: English preserved them only as a "hidden category", which can be seen in personal pronouns he, she, it (for example, ships are always she). German uses both some infections and first of all the article, definite and indefinite (der -

die - das, ein - eine). An interesting thing happened in Scandinavian languages: they lost noun classes for animate - inanimate nouns. This proves once more that feminine and masculine in fact are similar in the language.

the opposition between masculine and feminine and returned to the ancient system of two

Iranian languages used to have all three genders in ancient tongues (Avestan, Old

Persian), but under the influence of analytic trend the system was destroyed or reduced,

with the adstratum and substratum languages, which influenced Indo-European structural features. Genders are completely lost also in Armenian.

and many modern Iranian languages do not have genders at all. It can be also connected

Baltic linguistics shows that Old Prussian had neuter which was not about to disappear at

adjectives and in pronouns, but in fact now Lithuanian knows only feminine and masculine (see Historical Grammar of Lithuanian).

all. But Lithuanian lost it somehow, not very long ago. Some relics take place, however, in

The most complicated system exists in Slavic languages, where genders were not only that of animateness, forming the common system of classes: at all there are 6 classes,

preserved, but also developed. For example, in Russian the category of gender united with three genders with animate - inanimate subgenders in each. See the forms of nominative and accusative plural in Russian: novye doma ("new houses", nom., masc., inanimate), novye doma (acc.); novye direktory ("new directors", nom., masc., animate), novyh direktorov (acc.). The same for feminine and neuter.

In Polish even further complication of gender structure happened: masculine has animate So: and inanimate forms, and animate has in its turn personal and impersonal forms in plural.

dom (nom. sg. inanimate), dom (acc. sg.) "a house"

pies (nom. sg. animate), psa (acc. sg.), psy (nom. pl.), psy ( "a dog" "a peasant"

chlop (nom. sg. animate personal), chlopa (acc. sg.), chlopy (nom. pl.), chlopow (acc. pl.)

According to these processes which independently move on in different groups of the

Indo-European family we can make a conclusion that genders do not behave exactly the way noun cases do, i.e. the reduction process is sometimes substituted by the complex changes (Slavic, Spanish). But in general we can state that genders are nowadays less

synthetic and less spread, than they used to be in the Proto-Indo-European language. roroRoot / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-)
h 2 h

English meaning: strong, mighty


roro- : g g Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-): ` strong, mighty ' derived from Root / lemma: ig : force extended in -r- formant (see gr. `tender, fine, luscious') r Material: ( `tender, fine, luscious')
h 2 h h h

Middle Irish Prefix abor-, cymr. afr- ` very much '; Gothic abrs ` get strong, violent ', adv. Prefix afar- ` very much '; Illyrian VN , thrak. PN -. Here maybe Gothic aba (n- stem) ` husband'. Note: Note abeneb neb emb lemma: ab- : (water, river) : Root / lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : (wet, damp; ene water; clouds) Old Indic abhr- m. (*mb ros), Avestan awra- n. See also: ab h h

abraba ` very much ', bi-abrjan ` before were astonished beside oneself ', Old Icelandic

The root ab ro- : 'strong, mighty' : Root / lemma: ab(n) : (ape, aquatic demon) : Root / roh h h h h

References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schulze KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398.

Page(s): 2

Root / lemma: ab - (* ab -) Note:

h h 2 2

English meaning: quick, abrupt

h h

Root / lemma: ab - (* ab -): ` quick, abrupt ' derived from Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro: roroeneb neb emb lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, damp; water; clouds '. ene
h h h h

): ` strong, mighty ' which derived from root mb -(ro-): < with l-formant (ne el < Root / : roneb ro ne el):
h h

Material: Gr. ` straightway, forthwith, at once, quickly, presently ' (old abstract noun `quickness'), for what, nevertheless, probably at first , `suddenly'. Here at most Old Church Slavic abje ` straight away, directly ', but uncertainly Old Indic

Note: alter r/n- stem

ahnya ` directly, straight away, instantly, speedily ' (rather to har, han- `day ' p. 7). References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schulze KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398. See also: ab roPage(s): 2

abab Root / lemma: ab(n) (* ab-)


meaning: English meaning: ape, *water demon


ab- : ab Root / lemma: ab(n) (* ab-): ` ape, *water demon ' derived from Root / lemma: ab (ro-): < with l-formant (ne el < Root / lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, roneb eneb neb emb ro ne el): ene damp; water; clouds '.
h h h h h h h 2 h 2 h h 2 2

(* ab -): ` quick, abrupt ' < Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-): ` strong, mighty ' < root mb roro- : :

Note: (Celtic neologism). The animal introduced by traveling merchants can have been Material: Hes. is maybe (Akk. Pl.) to read gate ', Old Saxon apo, Old High German affo m., affa, affin f., Old English apa m. named by the Celts with the name of her aquatic demon (see above ab-).

and still before the consonatic mutation in Germanic stubby; hence, in. api m. ` monkey,

See also: compare ab-`water' and Schrader Reallex., Hoops Reallex. s. v. ape. Page(s): 2-3

References: WP. I 51 f.

`monkey', Old Czech opice comes Old Russian opica from the Germanic

abRoot / lemma: abNote:

English meaning: water, river

Root / lemma: ab- : ` water, river ' derived from Root / lemma: ab(n) (* ab-): ` ape, abab ab- :
h 2 h h 2 h h

*water demon ' < Root / lemma: ab - (* ab -): ` quick, abrupt ' < Root / lemma: ab roro: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, damp; water; clouds '. eneb neb emb ene
h h h h

(* ab ro-): ` strong, mighty ' < root mb -(ro-): < with l-formant (ne el < Root / lemma: ro- : roneb ro ne el): Material: Latin amnis f., late m. c (*abnis); Old Irish ab (*aba) Gen. abae `river', besides abann, (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), cymr. afon, orn. bret. auon, gall. brit. FlN Abona, derived cymr. afanc ` beaver, water demon, dwarf ', to Middle Irish abac (*abankos) ` beaver, dwarf ', Swiss -French ava `pasture' (*abanko-); Latvian FlN Abava.

usually lost West Germanic *ap-(Indo Germanic *ab-), partly in Venetic-Illyrian ap- (Indo Germanic *ap-). References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, Feist 19a, 579a, GIPatSR. II 134. Page(s): 1 See also: compare also p-2 `water, river' and ab(n) `ape'.

The West German FlN in -apa, Modern High German-affa, probably go back partly to

English meaning: sort of cereal Grammatical information: n.

ades- ados- he he Root / lemma: ades-, ados- (*heh-)

Material: Latin ador, -ris n. ` a kind of grain, spelt ', maybe in Gothic atisk (*ades-ko-)

dial. Esch, Swiss dial. Aesch, ` field entrance of a village '; Tocharian AB ti ` grass ' [B ear of corn ' see below and -. Note:

`sowing field', probably m. as Old High German ezzisca Pl. `sowing', Middle High German

atiyo ( `grass' (Adams 9)] (differently Pedersen Tocharian 641). about gr. ` an Perhaps Armenian: hat `grain', Hittite: hattar n. 'cereal' It seems Root / lemma: ades-, ados- : `sort of cereal' evolved from an older root *heh- ` a ades- adoshe he

Germanic: *at-isk-a-, while in Anatolian branch the root was suffixed with common PIE -tar formant. The old laryngeal (centum - > a-, e- : satem - > s- ) was lost except in Hittite and Armenian Clearly Germanic tongues borrowed the cognate from a reduced Latin (*hattar-) adris > Germanic: *at-isk-a-.

kind of grain '. This root was suffixed with common -ska formant in Germanic branch

Finally zero grade in alb. (*adris) *dris, driz `thorny plant', (*dris) drith 'grain' where the Latin -is ending has been solidified. The surprise is the -h- > -d- found only in Avestan - Illyrian - Baltic languages. Page(s): 3 References: WP. I 45, Feist 61 a, anders WH. I 14.

adRoot / lemma: ad-1 (*hed-) English meaning: to, by, at Material: Phrygian - ` he does '; maked. - (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 69); Latin ad ` to, with, in ', preverb and preposition m. Akk., also Gen. atque, ac ` and in addition,

preverb, -ar postposition m. Akk., Oscan adpd ` as far as ', otherwise with s- extension Oscan az ` to, toward ' preposition m. Akk .; Old Irish ad- preverb (e.g., ad-gldur `call

where, when, after, since, although ' chronologically, with extended - in ape), Umbrian a-

and also, and ' (*ad-que; not at + que; also Umbrian ap ` in which place, in what place,

upon, appeal to '), cymr. add-, gall. ad- prefix (e.g., MN Ad-iant: cymr. addiant `longing',

Admrus: Old Irish mr `large '); cymr. , with vowel ag `with' (ad + he, Old Indic ha, not with `dative' = Lok., rare m. Akk. (Gothic West Germanic from the time, Old English also against, after ', Old English t, Old Saxon at, Old High German az ` to, by, in '.

= Latin atque 'and, as well as, together with'); Germanic *at preverb and preposition mostly

from the place), Old Icelandic also with Gen.: Gothic at ` to, by ', Old Icelandic at ` to, by,

compared with Gothic at-augjan ` with raised up eyes, point, show '. See also: Perhaps to ad-2. References: WP.I 44 f., WH.I 11 f.

`fear'), Old High German z-ougen, Middle High German zugen, Old Saxon t-gian

zero grade: ved. t-srati ` creeps, creeps up ', Old High German zagn (: Gothic *-agan

Page(s): 3

Root / lemma: ad-2 ad-

English meaning: to establish, put in order

Material: Umbrian arsie (*adio-) ` venerable, august, divine, sacred, pure, holy (very freq. form of religious observance, religious usage, ceremony, rite ', arsmatiam (*admatio-) ` relating to religious rites or ceremonies, ritual ', armamu ` you shall be ordered, set in

and class.); of a divinity, and of things in any way belonging to one ', arsmor (*admon) ` a

*tila- ` suitable opportunity ' in Gothic til n., ga-tils ` suitably ', Old English til ` suitable, English Old Icelandic til ` to, for '.

`proper', cymr. addas `suitable', eddyl (*adilo-) ` duty, purpose '; probably also Germanic

order '; Old Irish ad n. `law', Pl. ada ` ceremonious customs ', from it Adj. `lawful', adas

order, arranged, adjusted, disposed, regulated ', Amune epithet of Jupiter, to *ad- ` settle,

useful ' as n. ` goodness, suitability ' = Old High German zil ` purpose ', preposition Old

References: WE. I 12, Devoto Ml. Pedersen 224. Page(s): 3

ad(u)- ad-ro- hehero hero) Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- (*hehero Note: English meaning: water current

k k): k-

From Root / lemma: ang(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived Root / lemma: ak- (more properly ang(h)i (h)iak

ehero heroad(u)- ad-ro: `water, river'; Root / lemma: ehero- : `lake, inner sea'; Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- : z-].

`water current': Illyrian Pannonian VN [common alb.- Illyrian-Baltic -h- > -d-, From Root / lemma: ak- `water, river' nasalized in *akuent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived ak Material: Avestan au ` water run, brook, canal ', Venetic-Illyrian FlN Ad(d)ua (for Po),

(e)(e) eded erer Root / lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc.'

the rivers streaming there), obersterr. FlN *Adra> Attersee, Attergau, FlN Adrana > Eder

*Adulia> Attel (to Danube in Bavaria), Mons of Adula ` St. Gotthard ' (probably named after

(Hessen), maybe also PN Adria in Venetien (afterwards mare Adriaticum), sizil. FlN Note: and Venetic-Illyrian name of Oder -; further Latvian FlN Adula.

The name of the primordial hill in Egyptian mythology, the first mountain that raised from the ocean. The mountain god was borrowed by Hitties who called the dreaming god Upelluri. Greeks received Atlas from Hittites.

Atlas `*mountain probably named after the rivers streaming there ': , - m. `Atlas' (Od., Hes., Hdt., A. etc.), name of a God who carries the columns of the sky; originally probably name of Arcadian mountains which were spread then by the epic in general and especially (by Ionic seafarers?) was transferred to the Atlas Mountains in axis Tiche Mus. Helv. 2, 65ff. Berber drr ` mountain '. West Africa, see Solmsen Wortforsch. 24; about Atlas as a personification of the world Derivatives: Of it ' f. (Hes. etc.), name of a mythical island, according to

Brandenstein Atlantis (Wien 1951, = Arb. Inst. Sprachw. 3) = Crete; further ' (E., Pl., Arist. etc.) and ' (Kritias). Page(s): 4 References: Vasmer ZslPh. 8, 114 f., Pokorny Urill. 4, 70, 93, 109, 124.

English meaning: disgusting agh-(loagosRoot / lemma: agh-(lo-) : `disgusting' derived from an extended Root / lemma: agos- : ` fault, sin' produced. Material: Gothic agls `opprobrious, ignominious', aglia, agl ` hardship ', us-agljan ` press indisposed his '), eglian ` to be felt painfully ', Middle Low German egelen ` cause grief ', ', Old English eg(e)le ` offensive, unwieldy, unfortunate ', eglan add ` pain ' (engl. ail ` hurt; Note:

Root / lemma: agh-(lo-) agh-(lo-

-i n. ` licentiousness, wanton violence, insolence, sexual offense ', Old High German keen '.

Gothic aglus Adv. agluba ` , difficult '; also (with puzzling suffix) Gothic aglaitei f.

agaleizi f.,-i n. ` discomfort; zeal ', agaleizo, Old Saxon aglto, agalto Adv. ` sedulous, Possibly here ow. agh- (=Avestan a-) `nasty', n. ` horrible, damage ', aghal- ` bad '.

`pain' (*aglou-). Page(s): 8

Here maybe to Middle Irish lad n. `wound' (*agloton), mcymr. aele(u) `painful', aeleu m.

References: WP. I 41, Feist 15 a, Specht Dekl. 136, Loth RC. 38, 56.

aghl(u) u)Root / lemma: aghl(u)- (*heghel-) English meaning: rainy weather Material: Gr. ` fog, darkness '

Maybe alb. agull `bad vision', agu ` dawn ' MSL. 10, 279). Page(s): 8

Old Prussian aglo n. `rain' (u- stem), Armenian *alj- in ajaj, ajamujkh `darkness' (Meillet

References: WP. I 41. compare Petersen Aryan and Armenian Stud. 126.

aghRoot / lemma: agh- (*hegh-) English meaning: to fear Material: Gr. n. ` fear, pain, grief ', , ` grieving, sorrowing, mourning ' (Aor. , , Perf. ), , ` mourning, groaning ', depressed '. `sadden'; here probably ` load, grief ' (* ), thereof ` to be loaded, be Maybe nasalized alb. (*aghos) ankth `fear' [common alb. -s > -th]. gr. `get a fright'; Old English ege m. `fear', egisi-grima gl. ` ghost, spectre, evil spirit ', n. es- stem *agiz =

Note: common gr. -h- > -compare Old High German egis-lh ' dreadful ', egisn ` get a fright ' and to o- and en stems extended Gothic agis n. ` fear, anxiety, fright ', Old High German agiso, egiso m.,

-agan in un-agands ` are not afraid ', af-agjan ` frighten', us-agjan ` frighten somebody ', ` in-agjan ` snub somebody '; preterit present Gothic g (gum) ` fears me ', ni gs ` fear nothing ' (old short vocal subjunctive *giz), Old Norse a-sk ` be afraid '; Gothic gjan ` Old English ga f. ` fright '.

'Fear', Old High German eg; Middle High German ege f. ` fear, fright, punishment '; Gothic

egisa f. ` fear, fright figure ', Old English egesa m. ` fear '; Old Norse agi m. (-en- stem)

snub somebody ' = Old Norse gja `get a fright'; Old Norse gn f. ` fright ', tti m. ` fear ', Old Irish ad-agor,-agur ` fear ' (because of the ablaut equality with Gothic g supposes

Brugmann Grdr. II 3, 484 origins from older Perf.), verbal noun igthiunder See also: hereupon belongs probably also: agh-(lo-) Page(s): 7-8 References: WP. I 40, Feist 14, 380.

agos- hege hegeRoot / lemma: agos- (*hege-)

English meaning: fault, sin, *blood guilt

` curses ', .

heavy guilt, blood guilt '; Old Indic ngas-, gr. ` innocent, guiltless ' ; , Old English acan, c `hurt' (engl. ache), ndd. ken ` hurt, fester, dent, blow ', Middle

Material: Old Indic gas- n. `offence, injury, sin, fault', change by ablaut with gr. `

Dutch akel `grief, wrong, pity', Modern Frisian akelig, aeklig ` wretched, vehement '. Page(s): 8 References: WP. I 38.

agro- egro egroRoot / lemma: agro- (egro-?) (*ekr uo) English meaning: top, first, beginning Material: Old Indic gra- n. `point, foremost point or part, tip, front ', agr (Lok.) `at the top, ', Avestan ara- `first, uppermost after time space etc.', n. `beginning; the uppermost,

in front, ahead of ', also timewise `in the beginning, first', agrim- `first, preceding, foremost

point'; Latvian agrs (Adj.) `early', agri Adv. `early, early on', agrums `the early morning'. Whether here Latin MN Agrippa from *agri-p(e)d- ` breech birth (one who causes great
5 1

pain at his birth ', W. Schulze KZ. 32, 172 , in 1721, doubting Latin Eig. 230 ? 'cliff summit, rock, crag '.

If Old Indic gra on *ogro- or *egro- retrograde, one could compare Hittite -kur, -gur

Page(s): 8-9

References: WP. I 38 f., Pedersen Hittite 183.

Maybe Agrianes Illyrian TN, Agron `Illyrian king'.

(e)s, aks (e)s Root / lemma: agu(e)s aks English meaning: axe Material: Gothic aqizi, Old Norse x, Old English acus, x, Old Saxon acus, accus, Old

*agusis), gr. ` ax, hatchet ' Note: common gr. -h- > - -

and *akusi have maybe derived according to Zupitza GG. 89 from a gradating *agus :

High German achhus, accus, aches, Modern High German Axt (Germanic forms *aqwizi

Latin ascia ` ax of the carpenters ' (from *acsi like viscus: , vespa from *veps).

Maybe alb. (*asca) ashka `shavings, wood splinter', (*viscus) vishk, fishk `make thin, wither'. References: WP. I 39, WH. I 71, Feist 54 b, Specht Dekl. 150, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 465 . Page(s): 9

ah Root / lemma: ah-

English meaning: plough animal

Material: Old Indic ah `cow', Avestan az f. Adj. `pregnant' (from cows and mares), Middle Irish ag (s- stem) m., f. ` bovine animal, cow ', ag allaid 'deer' (actually, ` wild ox '), l ` brood, throw ' (*aglo-), cymr. ael ds., mcymr. aelaw ` abundance, fertility ', eilion

Page(s): 7

References: WP. I 38, Loth RC. 38, 55.

(*agliones) ` fallow deer, horses '; here with e- vocalism Armenian ezn `bovine animal'?

aro roRoot / lemma: aro-s Page(s): 9 See also: s. a-

Root / lemma: aa-

English meaning: to lead, *drive cattle

Material: a Material: a: Old Indic jati `drive', aj- m. `a drove, troop; a driver'; j- m./f. `running match, combat', Avestan azaiti ` drive, lead away ', Armenian acem ` lead, bring '; Maybe alb. Geg (*), ago `leader, chief';

Grammatical information: originally limited to the present stem.

gr. 'lead' (Aor. Aor. , are new), Latin ag ` to set in motion, drive, lead,

negotiate ' (Pf. g with ablaut innovation), Oscan Imper. actud = Umbrian aitu ` o set in aig (*aget) ` to drive, bring, or take a person or thing to a place, of cattle ', acymr. agit,

violent motion, drive onward, move, impel, urge ', Oscan acum ` drive, urge ', Old Irish ad-

hegit, more recently yt (*agti), besides the strong inflection in cymr. corn. bret. a (*aget) `goes'; t- Preterit Old Irish ro-da-acht ` driven away ', cymr. aeth (*ag-t) `to put in motion' etc., see Pedersen KG. II 451 following, Old Irish in ` activity, play ' (from *agnis), gallo-

yet' (wrtl. `go!' like Latin age); Tocharian B ak-, AB k- `travel, lead';

Old Norse aka `driving' (Preterit k like Old Indic Gram. ja); Old English ac `however, but,

rom. *and-agnis ` big step ', French andain ` swath, scythe slash ', Old French `wide step',

ambactus ` vassal, slave ', cymr. amaeth ` servus arans ' (from Celtic derives Gothic German Amt).

(i)-aktos, actually, ` sent around (: Old Irish imm-aig) messenger, servant ' in gall. (-Latin)

toto participle: , Latin ctus ' put in motion, moved, driven, tended, conducted', *amb

andbahts, Old High German ambaht ` servant ', from which the kinship with Modern High As Indo Germanic Instrumental noun in-tr here Old Indic ar `goad to drive the

livestock ', Avestan atr ` whip, scourge '.

Maybe Tokharian: B k n. `zeal' (Adams 35), AB k- `lead, guide, drive' (36). ga, u- stem) `fight', ga, ige `leaders' (cf also gall. PN Ago-mrus = Old Irish gmar lengthened grade formations: Old Indic j- m. f. `race, fight ', Middle Irish g (Gen.

`warlike'; Com-gius), Latin only in compounds: ambgs, around ` a roundabout way,

winding. Hence, in speech, etc., either circumlocution or obscurity ' (conservative stem like Old Indic j- 'to lead' = Latin ag Inf. Pass., and like Old Indic aj- in prtanj- ` in the fight

and driving of game ', co-gulum ` a means of coagulation, a coagulum or coagulator (the the curdled milk; that which holds or binds together, a bond, tie ', Old Indic samja- `meeting, society', gr. `leading, leadingly ', `guidance, management, lead' see, nevertheless, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 654, 4.

pulling ', however, with stretch in the composition), indgs and indgo,-inis ` surrounding

curdled milk in the stomach of a sucking animal, the stomach itself, etc.), rennet or runnet;

freight', Hes. `spokes', - (see below). about Doric (Old Indic jam) `I o- stem: ved. aj- ` activity, train; driver ', gr. ` leader, military leader ', -

prdigo -igere -egi -actum `to drive forth; to spend, waste', prd-igus `profuse, extravagant; producing abortion; ground-pine ' (` close to miscarriage ' from ab-igere = , Old i iio- stem: Irish aige `race', Old Indic in prtanjyam `competition'. jman-, prthu-jman-, jma-y- s. hem- ` earth '): Latin agmen ` a driving movement or a amos mos: amn, amos Old Indic jman- n. ` road, train ', jma- ds. (however, about jman, paririch, abounding in. Adv. prodige ' (from prd-igere), abiga ` plant which has the power of

, Attic Ionian - 'military leader', (originally Doric) ` leader ', Latin

Indic apa-jati ` to drive away, drive off ').

mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train; esp. milit., an army on the march ' (to

neologism ag for *ammen), exmen ` a swarm; a throng, crowd, shoal. (2) the tongue of ammentum (*agmen-to-m) ` in loop form - possibly in the middle of the spear - fixed with

a balance; testing, consideration '; then ` to check, to weigh; to consider ' (from *agsmen),

road of heavenly bodies; swath by mowing '.

throw straps '; maybe (Schw. Gr. Gr. I 492 ) with o- graduation gr. ` field furrow, lolo stem: Old Indic ajir- ` quick, nimble ' (however, Latin agilis ` flexible, nimble ' is a Gr. ` race, competition '; 'street' (part. Perf.), from which about newer *

neologism); gr. ` herd, crowd ', Latin agolum ` shepherd's stick '.

Latin aga ' a gangway in a ship'; lak. Cretan tol. ` leads, brings ', ep. Ionian

, ds. (: and , like - towards -- and -, also Gr. Gr. I 522 and under sg-.

from an ending root form; cf Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 696). about see Schwyzer Latin rmex, rmigre, rmigium, ltigre ` a rower, oarsman ' and other verbs in -

(i)gre. - Presumably Latin indigits ` the local divinities and heroes ' (indigitre ` a divinity call ', indigitmenta 'invocation formulae'), as *end(o)-aget- ` the indigenous, native '. formation development to 'to weigh' (from ` bring in oscillation ') in Latin exagium ` a

out, expel: -- To weigh, try, prove, measure, examine, adjust, estimate, consider': among scanty, small, little, petty, short, poor, mean, inadequate, inconsiderable, paltry ', exlis

weighing, weight; a balance ', exigere [ex + ago] 'to drive out, push forth, thrust out, take

other things ` weigh, measure ', exctus ` precise, accurate, exact ', exiguus ` strict, exact, (*ex-ag-slis) ` strict, narrow, thin, slender, lank, small, meagre, poor ', exmen (see above), agna ` the opening in the upper part of a balance, in which the tongue moves ' (formation much, of like value, worth as much as' (from *, on the grounds of *ag-ti-s `weight', as, equally'. as for example coquna), gr. also `weigh' (with Akk. of the weight), `weighing as actually:) ` from suitable weight ', hence, ` worth, solemnly ', 'worth just as much still cf WH. I 9, 10, 24 about acnua, ctus quadrtus ` a field measure of 120 feet in the

square ', and acttum 'straight away, immediately, forthwith ', ags `footman, driver, sacrifice'), agnium ` a victim, beast for sacrifice ' below likewise pure-craving '). But better to *ak- ` sharp ', see there. Further belong here: aesaes-, aks . . . ` (fulcrum, pivot:) axis - shoulder ': es

hostler ', ag, -nis `of the priests killing the sacrificial animal' (from agere in meaning ` Here maybe gall. exacum ` the herb centaury ' if prescribed for *exagum (= *exago-`


Old Indic ka- ` axis', gr. ds., - `carriage, wagon' Gl. 12, 217; KZ. 40, 217

Note: common gr. -h- > - Latin axis 'axis' = Lithuanian as, Old Prussian assis, Old Church Slavic os f. ds .; Old High German ahsa, Modern High German Achse, Old English eax ds .; in. xull (from ahel). Proto German *ahsulaz) 'axis'; Middle Irish ais 'axis' (*aksi-l in cymr. echel f. 'axis', bret. Latin la `shoulder', from which the usual meaning `wing', from *agsl (cf Demin. axilla

Achsel, where near lengthened grade Dutch oksel ds., and without l- formant: Old High

`armpit') = in. xl, Old English eaxl, Old High German ahsala, Modern High German

German uochisa, Middle High German uohse, ehse and Old High German uochsana, Old `armpit'; av aay Gen. Du. ` of both shoulders ', Armenian anut` ` shoulder pit ' (at first from *asnut`).

English xn `armpit', in. st f., str m. `Cervical pit', Old English custa, xta m., engl. oxter

Maybe German Achsel : Latin axilla; ala; ascilla; ascella : Italian ascella : Spanish axial : sqetull ` armpit '.

French aisselle : Calabrese ma-scidda; sciddra; titiddra; titilla : Albanian Geg sqetlla, Tosc common Calabrese -ll-> -dd- : Sardinian -ll-> -dd-. a-r ` rush, hunt ', a-ro-s ` driving, rushing ': aa-roazr-daim ` doing the hunt, outgoing on prey (she-wolf) '; gr. , Ionian ` hunt, catch ', ` catching everything, catching ', ` meat tongs ', ` tongs ', ` prostration, enuflection ', originally name of a ` demon which as a quick-tempered fever seizes the limbs ' (?), ` hunter ', ` catch '; but ` take ' according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 727 from *--; Irish r n. ` defeat ' harm, misfortune, disaster, loss, detriment, calamity ', abret. airou PI. ` an overthrow, immense combatants '.

Old Indic in ghas-ajra- ` to drive consuming, exciting appetite ', Avestan (vehr-km)

(*agron) ` battle, fight ' (*agr), actually, ` rush ', acorn. hair ` destruction, injury, mischief,

destruction, ruin, defeat, slaughter, massacre, butchery, carnage ', gall. VN Veragri ` the Maybe Illyrian Agron PN. cattle is being driven, pasture '). a-roa-ro-s ` field, camp ' (to *ag as herd to drive wie, also originally ` place where the

ackar, ahhar, Modern High German Acker (Acker and Old English cer also a certain land measure, ` so much a bottom plate can oxen plow during one day '), Armenian art 'field' (with puzzling t about *atgr-, *atr-, see Pedersen KZ. 39, 352; thereof artak's ` out ', prefix Old Indic ajrya- ` located in the plain ' = gr. ` on the field, outside growing or

land ' (in contrast to town), Latin Umbrian ager `field', Gothic (etc.) akrs, Old High German

Old Indic jra- `surface, camp, fields ' (without respect on agriculture), gr. ` field,

arta-` from').

rural, crude '. (about Gothic akran, German Eckern ` beechnut ', however, see below *g`grow'.) Maybe alb. egr `wild, rural, crude', Illyrian TN Agrianes. References: References: WP. I 35 f., WH. I 22 f., 89, H. Reichelt WuS. 12, 112. Page(s): 4-6

living, wildly '; ` wildly living ', Latin agrestis ` a countryman, peasant, rustic,

Meaning: `lamb'

agh nohiagh noaghRoot / lemma: agh-no-s (* iiagh-no-s ) Note: (z. T. also *agnos?)

no-s : `lamb'. Material:

It seems that from Root / lemma: a- : `to lead, *drive cattle' derived Root / lemma: aghaagh h-

alb. Geg kinxhi, Tosc (*engh-) qengji `lamb' [common alb. gh- > gl- > gj- : lith. gh- > dz-]. English lamb

Latin agnus > Italian agnello, French agneau, Bolognese agnl, Bresciano agnil, (desonarized ((e)knedd Albanian Geg kinxh, Tosc qengj Calabrese Furlan agnel, Catalan gneddu ; agnellu ; agneddu ; agniellu

anyell ; xai, Ladin agnel, Corsican agnellu, Ferrarese agnl, ao, Greek , Griko Salentino arn, Lithuanian riukas, haruf agnl

Galician Maltese Manx Mantuan



Mapunzugun Marathi Maasai



Mokshan Mudns Occitan

olbaalo veruz

Mongolian Napulitano Old Greek Paduan Persian Polish Parmigiano Piemontese Portuguese Provenal Pugliese Punjabi

agnl anhl


; agnel agno





pecherusce chita ua mamoe agnl agnl

Quechua Rapanui Reggiano

Romagnolo Romanian Romansh Saami Samoan Sanskrit




Sardinian (Limba Sarda Unificada) Sardinian Campidanesu Sardinian Logudoresu Serbian Shona Setswana Sicilian Slovak Slovenian

tama'i mmoe anzone


kwana; kwanyana agniddu jaha jgnje hwayana

anzone ; saccayu



Swedish Tagalog Thai Tigrinya

mwana kondoo lamm Lmmli


Swiss German

kordero siem agnel

Traditional Chinese Triestino Turkish

Turkmen Urdu


Ukrainian Valencian Venetian Viestano Wallon Welsh Wolof

corder ajn'




oen b


Gr. (*agnos, abnos) derived from an earlier *abnos `lamb' [common gr. k > p, g Latin agnus, - , fem.-a `lamb' (agnle `sheep stable', lacking suffix affinity with Old Church [common Slavic old laryngeal - > j-] > b, later b > mb > m common Illyrian -gr.]

gr. m. f., f. `lamb';

Slavic jagnilo ` place where the sheep lamb ', a derivative of the verb jagniti `to lamb');

have derived from *-ghn-, not-*gn-, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 109-bn-;

Old Irish an cymr. oen, acorn. oin, bret. oan `lamb' (Proto Celtic *ognos with -gn- would o- probably influence from *ouis `sheep'); Old English anian, engl. to yean `to lamb',

(j)agne `lamb' (with formants -et- broadened around popular names of young animals),

Dutch oonen ds. (from *aunn from *auna- = Indo Germanic *aghno-); Old Church Slavic

(j)agnc `lambkins' contain full gradation. Or is placed Indo Germanic *g(h)no- : to *g(h)no-? Through the Germanic and Celtic presumed voiced-aspirated also would underlie the

basis of Latin and Slavic forms, so that gr. (at first from *) remains the only be explained from intersection from *hdno- = Latin haednus `of a kid' and *abnno- = voiced-nonaspirated. But maybe it has become gh in Oscan-Umbrian to b.

dependable indication in voiced-nonaspirated g. If Umbrian habina(f) ` of a lamb ' could Latin agninus `of a lamb; f. as subst., lamb's flesh', however, it would point Umbrian b to


The old laryngeal in centum languages - > a-, e- : Slavic j- : Albanian k- : Italic h-. Celtic Illyrian concordances: common Illyrian -g- > -b-, -d- : alb. -g- > -d-. Latin avillus `lambkin' because of the suffix formation not to ovis, but from *aghnelos. Note: [common Latin - Italic gw- > v-] Latin avillus (*abillus) `lambkin' : Rumanian (*agenus) ageamiu `lamb'. Page(s): 9 References: WP. I 39, WH. I. 23.

aiaviRoot / lemma: ai-d -, i-d -, nasalized i-n-d - (*avi-d -) avi Note: English meaning: to burn
h h h h

Common Illyrian -h- > -dhdh-

Pass iddh-), indhana-m ` lighting '.

Material: Old Indic inddh ` inflamed, is aroused ' (pass. idhyte, Perf. dh, part. Perf. Gr. ` lights, burns ' (), , ` igneous, sparkling ',

Hes., hylleisch ` to light up, kindle '; changing by ablaut ks- > -ss-

- Hes. 'ravenously' (W. Schulze KZ. 29, 269 = Kl. Schr. 329). common gr.- Illyrian Maybe alb. (*) ndez ` to light up, kindle '.

English d, Old High German Middle High German eit m. ` glow, pyre ': zero grade

o-Grade:gr. m. `fire' ( `burntly') = Old Indic dha- m. `Firewood' = Old

probably Norwegian Swedish id ` leuciscus idus ' (a bright carp kind), cf Modern High

sanctuary, a temple ', ursprngl. ` the domestic stove ', also aedis = maked. Hes. From the verbal adjective in -to- derived probably Latin aests, - tis `warm season,
h h

VN Aedui, Old Irish ed `fire', also as MN; Latin aeds ` a dwelling of the gods, a

German dial. aitel ` leuciscus cephalus' as the ` shining '; besides u- stem *aid u- in gall.

summer ' (from *aisto-tt-, Indo Germanic *aid -to-); aestus, - s (from *aid -tu-) `heat, glow, surf', aesture ` cook, surge, roar ';

stove', engl. oast `drying room, drying loft'.

Old Germanic MN Aistomdius (` with quick-tempered courage '), Old English st f. `dried r- formants: gr. `the upper air' (maked. ), `the cheerful sky' (maked.

), `brightly, cheerfully (from the weather)', for what changing by ablaut 'cheerfully', Old Indic vdhr- (=vi-idh-r-) ds. l- formants: gr. , `soot', maked. ; under acceptance of a

development from `shining, appearing' ` too apparently ' one puts a little bit constrainedly eitel.

here Old English del `vain, pointless, trifling', Old High German tal, Modern High German In Indo Germanic *aid -lo- is based Germanic ail- in Old English lan `burn' to l n.

from fire, stove ' (M. Frster Themse 487 ). Middle Irish el `lime' could have originated root 4. 4. i- with -lo-suffix.
2 h

different development-grading Old English led are borrowed cymr. aelwyd, bret. oaled `

`flame', and in Old English led m., Old Icelandic eldr (Gen. elds) ` fire, flame '. From

from *aid -lo-. However, Germanic and Celtic words could also be formed directly by the es-stem gr. n. `Glow, fire' = Old Indic dhas- n. `firewood'. s-formants: es Low German se f. `chimney, fire stove ' (however, Old High German essa ' chimney,

Continuing formation: Old Icelandic eisa f. (*aid -s-n) `fire', Norwegian `Hearth', Middle

Old Indic idhm- m. ds.); in addition Baltic *aismi in Lithuanian esm `firewood';

hearth ' see below s- ` burn '); Avestan asma m. `Firewood' (*aid -s-mo-, cf without s

Lithuanian aistr f. ` passion '; Old Czech niestj (fem. Pl.) ` stove ', later nstj (with nsuggestion by wrong decomposition of the connections *vn-stje, vn-stjach,

Berneker 275) from *aid -s-to; in addition zero grades *id -s-to- in slov. istje, stje Pl. ` stove hole '; to Johansson IF. 19, 136 also Old Indic iak ` of burnt bricks ', Avestan itya- n. ` brick, (baked brick) '.
h h

Maybe alb. (*iska) hith ` blight, burning nettle ', (*iskra) hithra `nettle' common alb. -k > -th. anger, irritation', hdhit, hithra Pl. `nettle' (Jokl studies 29). Note: Alb. and gr. are the only IE languages to preserve the old laryngeal - . References: WP. I 5, WH. 15, 20, 843, Trautmann 3, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 347. Probably to i-4. Here also belongs aisk-, if originated from aid -s-k- . Page(s): 11-12 aid- avid avidRoot / lemma: aid- (*avid-) See also: s. oid-. Meaning: English Meaning: ` swell '

In *ind - goes back: alb. Geg idhun, Tosc idht `bitter', Tosc idhrm `bitterness,

Page(s): 11

Root / lemma: aig-1, nasalized ing- (*avig-1) aiging- avigavig Material: Alb. k-k, keq `nasty, bad, evil' (from *aigio-); [common alb. old laryngeal - > k-. Latin aeger, aegra, -um, aegrotus ` unwell, ill, sick, diseased, suffering, feeble '; Old Norse ` excited, dismayed ', New Norwegian eikja, eikla ` continually with attacks, contradictions, `ill'; English meaning: disspirited, sick, ill

eikenn dismays ` wild, furious ', (influenced by common Celtic -ns- > -nn-),Old English col

assertions torment ', eikjen `argumentative'; Tocharian aik(a)re (= Latin *aegro-), A ekro nasalized: *ing-: Lithuanian ngis `lounger, idler ', ngas and angs ` idle, sluggish '; Latvian gstu, gt ` have internal pain, be sullen, morose ', gnt ` have disgust ', gnis ` sullen person ' (Lithuanian ngti ` choke, torment ' probably stays away); Old Church

jezinka `forest woman' (etc., see Berneker 268 f. ; in *jga, not *aig, is consequently to be led back also:) russ. bba jag `witch' (s. Brckner KZ. 45, 318); Old Icelandic ekki `pain, grief ' = Old English inca ` pain, suspicion, quarrel ', Old Frisian

Slavic jdza `illness', nslov. jeza `rage', poln. jdza ` fury, witch ' (`gruff, sullen'), Czech

inc (d. i. jinc) `angry', also nengl. inkle `anticipate, foresee ', inkling ` whispering, notion, indication, sign '. Page(s): 13 References: WP. I 9, WH. I 16, 843, Trautmann 70.

English meaning: oak

Root / lemma: aig-2 aig-

` an uncertain type of tree ' (possibly `hard oak').

Material: Gr. ` an oaken kind ' (see below), presumably also -, The outcome from appears Hes., cf . , , `

verum et e ramis dependentes, Kretschmer Gl. 3, 335.

bowl, bark ' and Plin. n. h. 16, 6, 13 aegilops fert pannos arentes ...non in cortice modo,

High German eih, Middle High German eich, eiche, Modern High German Eiche;

Old Norse eik (conservative stem) f. `oak', Old Saxon k, Old English c (engl. oak), Old All other cognates are dubious: gr. (more properly than , s. Fick BB. 30,

273) possibly 'aspen' could be created as ' tree trembler, (*oak shaker) ' also derivative like from * ` swing, tremble ' (: *aig- ` move violently '); after its formation, maybe Mediterranean word. Latin aesculus `(mountain oak), the winter or Italian oak ' (*aig-sklos?) is still unclear

Maybe alb. Geg (*asi) ahi, ahu `beech' [the common alb. s > h in the middle of the word (See Root / lemma: suekr- Meaning: `mother-in law or father-in-law' shift s > h in alb. ekr ekr (*vura-) vjehrr ` father-in-law ').

*s, sen- osRoot / lemma: *s s-i-s, s-en-, os-k- : `ash tree (alb. ahi `beech')' must have derived from Root / lemma: aig-2 : `oak (alb. ahu `oak')'. aigPage(s): 13 References: WP. 110, WH. I 20, 844, Specht KZ. 68, 195 f. S. unten S. 18 Z. 1/2.

aigRoot / lemma: aig-3

English meaning: to move swiftly, swing, vibrate

vicvamjaya- ` making everything shake ', nasal present igati, igate ` stirs, moves ', in shaking movement ' (form relation like between : Old Indic indhate);

Material: Old Indic jati ` stirs, moves, trembles ', jathu- ` the quake of the earth ',

Kaus. igyati ` sets in motion, touches, shakes ', udigayati ` swings ', samigayati ` sets

from Gr. here very probably . Hes. (also Artemidor Oneirokrit. 2, from arise the connection s ` in the surf of the sea '; differently Bechtel Lexil. 16), ` gale, storm cloud; the shield of Zeus' (probably originally understood as the storm cloud shaken by Zeus,

12: ), 'strands' (probably

'thunderstorm shield'), ` gust of wind moving down suddenly ' from ` storm, attack down, drive off ' (from , , ), ` attack near, thrust near '; probably also 'lance' (on the grounds of * ` the catapults ' or 'projectile'); presumably also 'shine', from the flickerof the light and the warm air to the south; common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss-

The very name of the root lemma for goat derived from the shield of Zeus which after the skin the very name of the goat was stamped with the name of the cloud shaker. move violently, swing, vibrate).

crash with clouds created thunderstorm. Since the shield of Zeus was covered with goat's Hence Root / lemma: ai- : (goat) is identical with Root / lemma: aig-3 : (to move swiftly, aiaigin addition Germanic name of the squirrel: Old High German eihhurno, eihhorn, Middle

korne (k old ablaut or impairment from aik- in addition?), New Norwegian also eikorne, Old Swedish korne (was based on the concept ` flexible, swinging itself from branch to

Horn `horn', Old English cweorna,-wern, Middle Low German keren, khorn, Old Norse

High German eichorn (Modern High German Eichhorn with support of Eiche `oak' and

*aik-werna); Old Church Slavic igr, igra ` play ', igrati, perfective vzigrati ` , hop, jump, dance ' (from *gr; Lithuanian with Berneker 422).

branch '; in earliest with one to *uer-, uuer- ` squirrel, weasel ' the belonging second limb:

Page(s): 13-14

References: WP. I 11, Trautmann 103.

ai- avi aviRoot / lemma: ai- (*avi-) Note: English meaning: goat

From the older root Root / lemma: ai- (*h evi-): `goat', derived Root / lemma: agh-no-s ai- h evi- : evi agh noh(*hegh-no-s ): `lamb' and Root / lemma: - : `goat' : Root / lemma: kao- or koo-, -- : hegh-no- : kao koo hegh `goat'.
2 2 2 2

Material: Gr. , - 'nanny goat', Armenian aic 'nanny goat'; zero grade Avestan izana` from leather ' (actually, ` from goatskin ' as gr. , cf the same importance relations with *ao- ` goat '). Page(s): 13 References: WP. I 8, Specht KZ. 66, 13.

English meaning: to be ashamed

aigh hRoot / lemma: aigh-

German ekeln 'be disgusted').

Middle Low Germaneichelen, chelen, gelen (from *aiwiln) (from it borrows Middle High Gr. n. `disgrace' (from *aigh-s-kos, k- derivative of a s- stem *aighes-, as:)

Material: Directly from the root word: Old English wan 'despise', 'be disgusted' also

Gothic aiwiski n. `disgrace, embarrassment '; cf further `shame, sense of honor,

disgrace', `dishonors, violates, disfigures', med. `avoids me, is ashamed of me',

`ignominious, full of disgrace; rebarbative'; Gothic unaiwisks `unharmed', aiwiskn German eisch `nasty, hideous', nnd. eisk, aisch `revolting, rebarbative'. Page(s): 14 References: WP. I 7, Feist 30. act `shameful', Old English wisc(e) n. `disgrace, offense', Adj. `shameless', Middle Low

English meaning: to call (?)

aikRoot / lemma: aik-

Material: Gr. Hes., Latvian acint ` load, shout '. But can be prescribed for `flatters', and acint a derivative from a

`hears!' explain (cf vaict `ask' to vai). Page(s): 15

References: WP. I 8, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 12.

aiaviRoot / lemma: ai-2 (*avi-2 ) avi

English English meaning: to drive, to overwhelm, harm

anahe ` violate, hurt ', ainita (from *an-inita by haplology) ` not violated, not painedly '

(penita- ` pushed, cut into '), ` penetrate into something, master ', Avestan inaoiti, Inf.

Material: present *(a)i-neu-mi : Old Indic inti, nvati, Imper. inuh, participle -inita-

', in addition m. ' evildoer'?), Avestan intay-` rape, injury; torture ', Old Indic in- `strong; m. master ', maybe also ti- f. `plague, need'; gr. `tremendous'; maybe here-in- in Gothic far-ina `guilt, reproach', Old High German firinn `sin', Old

(from Old Indic nas- n. ` Crime, sin, misfortune ' = Avestan anah- ` act of violence, crime

of violence '. Page(s): 10

Icelandic firn n. Pl. `the extraordinary' (cf Weisweiler IF. 41, 29 f.), if original meaning ` act

References: WP. I 1, Feist 139/140.

aiRoot / lemma: ai-3, (*hei-, heiu) Note: English meaning: to give

apppiRoot / lemma: ap-1 (exact p-) : p- : `to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root / lemma: pi- : Material: Gr. (*avinumai) `take, pack, touch', only present and imperfect tense. Venetic MN (*avi-mos) Aimos, Illyrian MN (*ave-tar) Aetor. subst., a rival, esp. in love ', probably as ` reaches for something ' (Frisk Eranos 41, 53). gives ', 3. Pl. p(-ia)-an-zi with preverb pe- `there'. Note: common Hittite p e- : Slavic p o- : Albanian p a- > p- prefix. Germanic 10 f. References: Pedersen Groupement 20, Hittitisch 115, Tocharisch 227; Frisk Indo2 3 1

`comrade' > Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'. ai-

Latin (*ave-mulus) ae-mulus ` emulous, rivalling; in bad sense, jealous. M. or f. as

Tocharian (*avi) ai-, -, infinitive (*avi-tsi) aitsi, essi `give'; Hittite pa-a-i ` he

Page(s): 10-11

See also: Here belongs certainly: ai-ti-, ai-to-

English meaning: important speech

ai- oiRoot / lemma: ai-5 : oi-

Material: Gr. , `praises', m., f. `significant speech, praise';

`talks in riddles', common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; n. `dark speech' (however, - `says no, deny' -io- appears derivative of the negation -); ablaut, Middle Irish eth m. `oath' (acymr. anutonou Pl., gl. ` the perjured, the perfidious ', ncymr. anudon `perjury, act of lying under oath') = Gothic ais m., Old Icelandic eir, Old English , Old Saxon , Old High German eid m. `oath' (probably Celtic loanword). Page(s): 11 References: WP. I 2, 103, Osthoff B. 24, 208 f.

aiRoot / lemma: ai-r Note:

English meaning: a k. of grass

aiRoot / lemma: ai-r : `a k. of grass' is a reduced root *ai-tra from which derived also Root / ai-trolemma: ai-tro- : `bitter, sharp'. Material: Old Indic rak ` a grass kind ', gr. ` weed in the wheat, ryegrass, darnel '

, ` from ryegrass, darnel '), Latvian ares, arenes ' ryegrass, darnel '. [common alb. -s- > -gj- shift].

maybe through metathesis alb. (*ares > ser) egjr `Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel'

Page(s): 16

References: WP. I 12, Specht Dekl. 206 .

English meaning: bright, shining

aisk- avisk aviskRoot / lemma: aisk- (*avisk-)

Material: Material: Awnord. eiskra ` rage before hot excitement ', nisl. iskra also from burning pain. Lithuanian ikus, where beside zero grade Old Lithuanian iks `clear, bright '. bright, distinct', russ. jsnyj `light, clear, bright' from *aiskno-; poln. jaskry, jaskrawy Russ. dial. jska, demin. jsoka ` bright star ', beside it Old Bulgarian jasno Adv. `clear,

`blinding, dazzling, brilliant ' from *aiskro-; Old Bulgarian iskra ` spark ' etc. from *iskr.

Also alb. zero grade (*jaskry), shkrinj `melt, burn', participle *scrum > shkrumb `ashes' [common alb. m > mb shift] loaned in Rumanian scrum `ashes'. Russ. dial. jska, demin. jsoka ` bright star ', besides Old Bulgarian jasno Adv. ` clear,

distinct ', russ. jsnyj ` bright, clear ' from *aiskno; poln. jaskry, jaskrawy ` brilliant, sparkling ' from *aiskro; Old Bulgarian iskra `spark' etc. from *iskr.

Axe from Celtic or Venetic-Illyrian *Aisk.

Here the FlN Modern High German Aisch (Bavaria), Eysch(en) (Luxembourg), nengl.

References: WP. I 2, Trautmann 4, Pokorny Urill. 70, 113, M. Frster Themse 839. See also: perhaps originated from *aid -sk- , or from *ai-sk- in i-4. Page(s): 16-17

aisRoot / lemma: ais-1 Note:

English meaning: to wish for, search for

The Root / lemma: ais-1 : `to wish for, search for' is a truncated root of ai-ska The formant aisai-ska. -ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, aiharm'

Material: Old Indic ati ` seeks, searches ', - m. ` wish, choice ', anv-iti ` looks for desires' = Avestan isaiti ds., Old Indic icch ` wish ', i (2. compound part) ` searching, m- m. ` name of Kmadeva, god of love '; = Avestan iaiti ` wishes ', Old Indic icchti (*is-sk) ` looks, wishes, strives, seeks for,

striving after ' = Avestan i ds., f. ` wish, the object of the wish ', Old Indic ita- ` desiredly ' Armenian aic (*ais-sk) `investigation'; Umbrian eiscurent (Bugge KZ. 30, 40) `they will

have caused to come, called, sent for, invited, summoned, fetched ' (probably as *eh-

`demand', Old English scian, xian ` try, demand, ask', Old High German eisca `demand', Old English sce f. `investigation'; in Balto-Slavic with non-palatal k of the present suffix-sk (towards Aryan Armenian -sk-),

High German heischen `demand' with h after heissen `hot'), Old Saxon scn, scian

besides -sko-: isaiti `wishes'); Old High German eiscn ` research, ask, demand, (Modern

play the juggler ' as *aisos-ko- `demanding ' to Avestan Imp. ias `longs for' (-esko-

aeruscre `to beg, to get money by going about and exhibiting tricks of legerdemain, to

iscurent ' they will have driven out, pushed forth, thrusted out, taken out, expelled '); Latin

Page(s): 16

References: WP. I 12, WH. 19, Trautmann 67.

Latvian iskt ` to delouse ', Old Church Slavic isk (and it), iskati `look', iska `wish'.

what is not to be explained by borrowing from Germanic; Lithuanian ekau, iekti `look',

aisRoot / lemma: ais-2 Note:

English meaning: to be in awe, to worship

The Root / lemma: ais-2 : `to be in awe, to worship' is a truncated root of ai-ska The aisai-ska. Material: Old High German ra, Modern High German Ehre, Old English r ` Relief, formant -ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give' ai-

Old English rian ` honor, spare, betake ', Old Norse eira 'spare'.

name of the medicine goddess '; of it Old High German rn, rn ` honor, spare, betake ', Oscan aisusis Abl. Pl. `sacrifices', Marrucinian aisos D. Pl. ` gods', Paelignian aisis `

considerate treatment, honour, luck ', Old Norse eir ` considerate treatment, peace, also

Etruscan. Differently Devoto St. Etr. 5, 299 f.

gods ', Volscan esaristrom ` sacrifice ', Umbrian esono- ` divine, sacred ', come from d- extension: gr. (from *aiz-d-) ` shies, reveres ', , - ` reverence,

attention '; zero grade Old Indic ` reveres, praises, implores '. Page(s): 16

shyness, shame ', (*-) `'; Gothic aistan, -aida ` avoid, pay

References: WP. I 13, WH. I 20, 419, 844; Feist 28 a, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 88 .

ai-ti- ai-to- oi-toRoot / lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to- : oi-tocut, contribution Coments:

English meaning: part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, stock, proportion,

ai-ti- ai-to- oi-toRoot / lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to- : oi-to- : `part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, ailemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra. stock, proportion, cut, contribution' is a truncated root *ai-tra into the suffixed Root /

Material: Avestan ata- ` the proper part '(' punishment '; dual ` guilt and punishment '). common gr.- Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; . Hes.; ` promising Gr. (* ) ` interest, destiny ', hom. , better ` the proper interest ',

good talent, favorabe ', ` certain from the destiny, proper ', ` apply, use, consume ', ` dispenses justice, it rules '; (maybe dissimilated from *) ` be a referee, leads; divide (the way of) life = ' referee's office ' and ` life-style, life arrangement ', ` well-chosen, particular '. Oscan Gen. aeteis `partis', attm `portionum'.

leads a certain way of life; prescribe a certain measure in food and drinking ', hence,

` guilt, cause '; also , 'demands' as ` requires his interest '; ablaut. m. 'Destiny'.

From Gr. here probably also ` responsible, guilty ' ( after ), from which later

*ait-tu-, cymr. oed m. 'Age' from *aito. Page(s): 11

Old Irish es n., cymr. oes f. ` period, age ' from *ait-to-, Old Irish es m. 'People' from

References: WP. I 2, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II, 82 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 421 , 696 , 705 .
7 9 3

English meaning: [bitter, sharp] troRoot / lemma: ai-tro- : `bitter, sharp' is a truncated root *ai-tra into the suffixed Root / Material: Lithuanian aitrs ` bitterly, harsh ', aitr f. `sharpness' (also figurative); the nasal roz-jatrti a `fester'. formation *intro- perhaps in Old Bulgarian ob-triti `set on fire ', wru. zajti `anger', klr. ailemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra. Coments:

ai-troRoot / lemma: ai-tro-

See also: perhaps in i-4. Page(s): 17

References: WP. I 3, Berneker 269.

Meaning: `vital energy, vitality' Root / lemma: aiu-, aiu- : `vital energy, vitality' derived from reduced Root / lemma: gei-3 and gei- : g(i)ii- : g(i)ii- : g-, frequent, often with -u- extended: to live i i : Material: Old Indic yu- n., a nominalized adjective to - ` flexibe, active '; yu- m. ` *aius-s); n-stem in the locative. yuni, Instr. yun; yh ` vitality '; yavaj- ` living always '; yu m. 'Life span'; Note:

Root / lemma: aiu-, aiu-

Genius of the vitality ', thereof derived s-stem yu n., Gen. yua ` vitality ' (*iuos, Gen. Avestan y n. 'Life span', Gen. yao, dat. yavi, Instr. yav, of it yavatt- ` duration ', Gr. s-stem: Cypriot F (= ); locative without suffix. lakon. 'always';

hom. , Attic (*F), Akk. Attic (*F); Dat.-Lok. without extension in Ionian (and f. after ) ` vitality, life span ', 'always'; , Lesbian (*F) (afterwards 'forever', - 'long-living'); n-stem: m.

alb. esh ` period of time; span; space; stretch; lapse ' from *aiuesi (Jokl L.-k. U. 34); of life '; however, are based aetas f. 'age: of human life, either a lifetime or time of life, age, Abl. aetatu) ` age, time of life ', aeternus ` of an age, lasting, enduring, permanent, endless, forever' in adverbial *aiui. Gothic o-stem aiws m. ` time, eternity, world '; i- stem adverbial aiw (*aiui) = Old Latin o-stem aevus m. and aevum n. `eternity, age, time, lifetime, or time of life, a period

a period of time, epoch', old aevitas (from it Oscan Gen. atates, Akk. atatm, Paelignian

Icelandic , ei (also in ei-gi 'not'), Old English , , Old High German io ` ever, always ', , engl. no ` not, no ';

Gothic ni aiw 'never', Old High German neo, nio, Modern High German nie; Old English nMaybe alb. (*) jo `not, no' (common alb. slav. j- prefix. Old Icelandic lang-r = Latin longaevus ` of great age, aged, ancient '; i-stem also in Old Icelandic fi, vi f. (*aiui-) ` life, age '; -stem in Old High German wa f. ` time, eternity ',

*ajuki- (= Old English ce `forever'), with Indo Germanic g-suffix + Indo Germanic-tti; Tocharian A ym- `mind, life' which m attributed to m- ` life '.

thereof Old High German wid 'eternity', wg 'forever'; Gothic aju-k-ds f. `eternity' from

References: References: WP. I 6, WH. I 21, EM. 21, Feist 30, 32, Benveniste BSL 38, 103 ff, Dumzil See also: From this derived *iuuen- (ieu-3) 'young'; Specht also wants very much risquly BSL 39, 193, Specht KZ. 68, 196, Dekl. 88 ff., Van Windekens 15.

be put in addition *aig-, oak ' (= ` vitality '?). Page(s): 17-18

Meaning: `exclamation'

Root / lemma: ai 1

Material: Old Indic exclamation of remembering, address, compassion; Old Indic ai the same; ayi interjection with the vocative; Avestan i interjection of the phone call (before the vocative); deplores ', 'sigh'); gr. , , exclamation of the surprise, of astonishment or pain (thereof ` sighs, Lithuanian a and i ` oh! blows! ' and before vocatives.

Page(s): 10

*aikSee also: see also *aik-.

References: WP. I 1, WH. I 396, Benveniste Origines 130 f.

os- aviosos os Root / lemma: aios- (*avios-) Note:

Meaning: `metal (copper; iron)'

osos eisRoot / lemma: aios- : `metal (copper; iron)' derived from Root / lemma: eis-1 : `to move rapidly, *weapon, iron'. Material:

Old Indic yas- n., Avestan ayah- n. `metal, iron'; ore, and the alloy of copper, bronze. Transf., anything made of bronze; a vessel, statue, trumpet, kettle ', Old High German r `ore', Old Norse eir n. `ore, copper'. Latin aes, g. aeris; Gothic aiz (proto Germanic *a(i)iz- = Indo Germanic *aies-) ` copper

Maybe zero grade in Tocharian B (*anuwan, *anuwan) B ecuwo icuwo `iron' : alb. (*hecus) hekur `iron' : Latin anus : Umbrian ahesnes. Tocharian A *acu (id.) (attested in the derived adjective acwi) and B ecuwo (icuwo is variant on the same order as inte is to ente, q.v.) reflect PTch *ecuwo. Further connections are uncertain. Schwarz (1974:409) compares Ossetic ndon `steel' or Chorasmian hnw `id.' and suggests that the shape +_ *anuwan.

the Iranian and Tocharian words might be borrowings from some adstratum language in thereof Avestan ayahana- ` metallic, iron ', Latin anus (*aies-no- = Umbrian ahesnes

pits were tackled in Cyprus only in late Mycenaean time.

as Latin cuprum : , there according to D. Davis (BSA. 30, 74-86, 1932) the copper

not Indo Germanic aios old borrowing from Ajasja, older Aas(ja), the old name of Cyprus,

High German rn, Modern High German ren (ehern). despite Pokorny KZ. 46, 292 f. is

` of copper, of bronze '), aneus, Old English ren, Old Saxon Old High German Middle

damages in a lawsuit; in a wider sense, to value a thing or person; hence, in gen., to judge ', Denomin. from *ais-temos ` he cuts the ore ' (to temn). See also: To i-4 ` burn '? References: WP. I 4, WH. I, 19, 20, Feist 31.

Here Latin aestim, old aestum ` to appraise, rate, estimate the value of; to assess the

Page(s): 15-16

Meaning: `mother (children's speech)'

Root / lemma: akk

Material: Old Indic akk 'mother' (gram.), gr. ` nurse of Demeter ', ' ghost ',

hall goddess ' (probably Etruscan); also into Small-Asian languages; compare lapp. Madder-akka 'earth mother'. Maybe alb. Ajkuna `great mother' in alb. epos. Page(s): 23

` be coy, position oneself stupidly ', Latin Acca Lrentia ` Laren mother, Roman

References: WP. I 34, WH. I 5. about Tocharian ammaki see below am(m)a.

Meaning: `sharp; stone'

Root / lemma: ak-, ok- (*ek-) e

e/oMaterial: 1. e/o- and -St: grade form Ionian , , Hes., redupl. ` point, edge ' (as `hears' as *-- `having sharp ear' here, see, however, 1. keu-; alb. atht `sharp, Npers. s (lengthened-grade form) `millstone, grindstone'; gr. `point', lengthened-

: ); after Kretschmer KZ. 33, 567 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 348 belongs sour', [common alb. -k > -th].

of smells, penetrating; of sight, keen; of emotions, painful; of understanding, quick, vigorous, energetic', acidus ` sour, acid, tart ', actum ` vinegar '; pin cushion '.

Latin acre `sharp, cutting, keen. Hence, to taste, biting; to touch, sharp; of sounds, shrill;

Maybe alb. acar `frost, sharp steel' : Romanian acar ` signalman, pointman, switchman, with o: mbr. convoc ar vilin `sharpen the millstone ', cymr. hogi `sharpen', acymr.

unclear second component; to explain bret. vocalism of the initial sound by the pretone); cemecid, ncymr. cyfegydd (*kom-okio-) ` pickaxe '; (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), mc. cyfogi ` vomit, fight ', with secondary io-suffix acymr.

ocoluin, ncymr. hogalen, Middle Breton hygo(u)len, nbret. higolenn ` whetstone ' (with the

mcymr. ym-am-ogawr (*-k-r) ` one stirs, is active ' (Loth RC. 45, 191) and mbr. eaug, nbret. eok ` ripe, made soft ' (*eks-ko-), to gall. excum ` centaurion lepton ' (Ernault Gloss. MBret. 201); compare also above S. 5;

with zero grade: acymr. diauc, ncymr. diog, mbr. dieuc (*d-ko-) `decayed, spoiled ',

German ag `perch', egle, eglinc ds., Modern High German Swiss egel, Demin. egli, Old

Swedish ag m. `marsh grass, Cladium mariscus, edge, blade' (*ako -), Middle High

`fear', Norwegian dial. ugge `fin'; Lithuanian akotas `awn', aka (*ako-k) `fish bone, bran' = wruss. osoka `sedge', Old Prussian ackons (*akno-) ds.

Norwegian dial. ugg `sting, frightening', Swedish dial. ugg `point, tooth', Old Norse uggr

secondary Germanic vowel gradation a : u or from *akuko- with assimilation a in u?)

Norwegian dial. agge `tooth, point' (*akuko- or expressive Gemination?), as well as (with

Swedish agh-borre ds., maybe also Swedish agg `rancor, hatred ', agga `sting, torment',

Maybe alb. (*egel), egjr `Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel' [common alb. -s- > -gj-]. ---------------------partially loanword from Veneto-Illyrian, whose area would be occupied by people from the Baltic and Slavs (Kretschmer Gl. 21, 115). Also g in Church Slavic igla explains itself on top S. 15. ---------------------2. i- and j- stems: Latin acis ` keenness, edge; of the mind, penetration, insight; of the eye, a piercing look Armenian asen `needle' (from *asin, Meillet Esquisse 43); gr. , - ` point, sting '; * Balto-Slavic forms with k prove none Indo Germanic beside the form ak-, but is

or keen vision; sometimes the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself. Milit., battle line; hence battle, battlefield '; Old Saxon eggja f., Old High German etc ekka `point, sword edge',

Modern High German Ecke (proto Germanic *ai, Old Norse egg `edge, cliff backs', eggja `edge', nbret. ek `point'), egle Pl. `awns', engl. ails; Old Church Slavic osla (*osla), russ. osok m. `whetstone', Czech osina f. `awn'. about Old English eher `ear ' see below s- formant. 3. u-stem: `sharpen', acmen `sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect; `holly', aculeus `sting', accipiter `hawk, falcon' (*acu-peter `quick-flying'); cunning, trickery', acia (*acu-i) `thread to the sewed', aquifolium (beside crifolium) Gr. `chaff' see below s-formant; Latin acus, - s f. `needle; fish name ', acuere `sharpen, spur on', Old English ecg ` edge, blade, sword' (from it borrows Middle Irish ecg

Maybe alb. zero grade (*ccipiter) skifter ` hawk', shqiptar ` eagle-man, Albanian ', Albanian language'.

shqiponj `eagle', Shqipri `land of the eagles, Albania', shqip `language of the eagle-men, Spanish aguijn : French aiguillon : Catalan agull : Portuguese aguilho : Romagnolo Vulgar Latin aquileo, -onis < aquileus < acus ` needle '. English Italian needle ago

agucin da tsta : Romanian (*(a)ghimpe) ghimpe : Albanian glemb, gjmb ` sting ' from

Spanish French


Albanian Geg gjyl-pan, Tosc gjil-pr gogia agulla



Bergamasco Bresciano Catalan Furlan Calabrese

ocia ; ucia aculla

acu ; saccurale ; zaccurafa


Griko Salentino Irish


gusiele velni


snthaid acus gccia aglha gucia ago aco

Mudns Nissart

Napulitano Paduan

Piemontese Portuguese Romagnolo Romanian

agulha ac

agccia acu ; spigoni acu ; agu

Sardinian Campidanesu Sardinian Logudoresu Sicilian Trentino

ugghia ; ugliola ; zaccurafa uza agulla

Valencian Venetian

ago ; ucia ; gucia


gall. acaunum (*akounon) `rock '; Illyrian ON Acumincum today Szlankamen `salt stone'

Germanic *aku-l; Old English wel m. `fork', Old Norse so-ll `meat fork' (Germanic *ahwala-, Indo Germanic *ku-olo-); if here gallo-Latin opulus `common maple '

Modern High German Achel f. `ear point, awn' from ndd. aggel (with spirant. g) from Indo

(Marstrander, Corr. Germanic-celt. 18), would be placed Indo Germanic *oku-olo- ; about mbr. ebil `peg, nail ' (*aku-lio-); Note: The mutation kw > p, b in Celtic tongues, Latin and gr. Baltic *aus in Latvian ass ` sharp, pointed ', Lithuanian auta m. Pl. ` coarse horse hair ' Tocharian A cwe `rough' (Van Windekens Lexique 15)? see below *ku-s ` fast (sharp in the movement) '. 4. With m-formant: mo akmo-/- moAdv., , ); Swedish dial. m ` marsh grass, Cladium mariscus' (Germanic *ahma-, compare Finnish loanword ahma ` equisetum '). ak-men-/-mermen- merstone ', Avestan asman-` stone, sky ' (Old Indic Gen. na, Instr. n, Avestan Gen. Old Indic aman- n. ` stone, sky ' (as a stone vault, Reichelt IF. 32, 23 ff.), amar- ` Gr. ` point, edge, sharpness; the highest point, climax, decisive point ' ( = Slavic *outa m. ` thistle ' in Church Slavic st, russ. ost. On account of here Old Norse uggr etc. see e/o-stem, about Old English ar see s-formant; cymr. ebill `drill',

an, Abl. anat with -n- from -mn-; Instr. Pl. Old Indic anih after o-stem); Phrygian PN edge ', akmu, -es m. ' stone '. 5. With n-formant: en akenen-

; gr. ' anvil, meteor, heaven ', ; Lithuanian mens m. Pl. '

(however, about Latin acuna ` a cavity, hollow, dip; esp. a pool, pond. Transf., gap,

stone ' (*ak-en-go, Benveniste Orig. 28); gr. ` point, sting; longitudinal dimension ' deficiency, loss' see WH. I 9), ` whetstone ', , - ` spear ' (for older , plant ', ` fruit carry prickly heads ', `thistle' (from * - `sting

Old Indic ani- ` head of the arrow, missile'; Avestan sg-, Old pers. aanga- `

*- after the participles), ` throw the spear ', ` thistle kind, prickly head flower'), ` thistle, sting, thorn, spine, esp. of the fish ', ' goldfinch ' (from *), ` barque ', , ` woman's shoe ' (*akno-, probably from the pointed form); Latin agna ` ear of grain ' (from *akn); Gothic ahana f. ` chaff ', Old Norse gn, Old English egenu f. and egnan Pl., Old High German agana ds., Modern

High German Ahne, dial. Agen `stalk splinter of the flax or hemp' (Germanic *ag-, *ahan, Latvian asns m. ` germ bursting out '. 6. With r-formant: er erer aker-, okererNote: Many Germanic cognates prove that the real roots were the labiovelars: aker-, okererer erer Ogham) not Latin Lw .; abret. acer-uission `with sharp fingers' (biss), ocerou Pl. Old Irish a(i)cher `sharp (from the hoist)', because of the Gen. Sg. Akeras (PN in the Indo Germanic *akn); Lithuanian em. ans ` edge, sprouting, germinating, sowing ',

jesiora (from *aser); Old Norse gr ds. (from proto Germanic *agura-, Indo Germanic auga `eye',

`sharpened', acymr. ar-ocrion gl. atrocia; Lithuanian aers, eers `river perch'; pol. dial.

*okr-o-), west-Norwegian augur (from *gurr, new development from gr), influenced by

From the extension of Root / lemma: ak-, ok- (*hek-): `sharp; stone' with r-formant derived the labiovelars: aker-, oker- whose zero grade produced alb. (*kerna), gurr `stream' erer erer [common alb. rn > rr shift], (*ker-) gur `stone'; Here also maybe the name of the maple (due to the pointed leaf sections): Latin acerabulus, Meyer-Lbke REW. 93), Danish r ds. (Germanic *ahira-); Modern High Latin acer, -eris n. ` the maple tree or maple wood ' (from acer arbor became Vulgar

German dial. Acher ds. (Germanic *ahura-);

(Hubschmied RC. 50, 263 f.); Old High German ahorn `maple'

to stem compare also Hes.); gallo Rome. *akaros, *akarnos ` maple '

gr. Hes. (*, meaning as beside ;

also of people's etymological distortion, like Middle Low German nhorn, lhorn;ahorn

(from Swiss and other oral kinds would devop certainly -, however, -would have arisen

maple ' is syncopated from *acer-inos; however, that n has probably also arisen from the of both elements.

(Indo Germanic *akrno-) is up to the declension class = , while Latin acernus ` of

former adjective material developing formants -no- and not from r/n-stem by accumulation Rather that counts for gr. (*-) ` yellow thistle kind ' ds., maybe here

odoriferous flower ', ` basil ' (if here suitablly, named after the sharp smell?). ri roro akri-, akrori-

also ` Kalmus', ` his spicy root ', compare with other forms still f. `

, , `point, mountaintops' (also in as `have sharp hearing,


Old Indic rih ` corner, edge, border ', catur-ara- `square'; gr. `sharply',

sharpen the ear', and , - `grasshopper', short form for ` tiptoe ', 241);

; ` point of the boughs ', see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. II 1,

penetrating, cutting, irritating, pungent', Oscan akrid ` sharply, fiercely, keenly ', Umbrian , also ` uppermost, excellent ', and o), Latin acerbus ` acidic, sad, harsh,

Latin (to see Frisk IF. 56, 113 f.) cer, cris,-e (Old Latin cra, -um) `sharp, piercing, peracri- ` fat, plump, corpulent ' (= Latin percer `very sharp', compare to meaning gr.

bitter, unripe ' (from *cri-b o-s); compare gall. AXPOTALVS ` with high forehead ', Old Slavic ostr `sharp' (t - interpolated wording). ri okri-, okrori-

Irish r `high' (from *akros); Lithuanian ars, atrs, Old Lithuanian atras, Old Church

rough mountain ', Latin mediocris ` average, mediocre, of middling size, medium, middling, moderate, ordinary ', actually `to be found halfway up ' (here ablaut could be displayed in the compound like in extorris: terra, meditullium: tells), Ocriculum, Interocrea, ocrea

With shading o-: gr. f. `sharp' mountain point, corner, edge ', Old Latin ocris m. `

`splint, a greave, legging', Umbrian ocar, ukar, Gen. ocrer `mountain, castle mountain ',

marr. ocres ` a mountain, mount, range of mountains ', Middle Irish och(a)ir ` corner, edge ', from it borrows cymr. ochr `edge'. To the heteroclite paradigm *ak-r-(g), *ak-n-es (also the i- stem *aki- can have combined

different mountains ', - the 'Agrigentum' which might have signified originally ` rocks, stones'. 7. With s-formant: es akes- : akses- 'Barley' (`awned, bristly ', formation like lat onus-tus, venus-tus); gr. , Hes. - ` with igneous point ', `two-edged', `with long point ' (maybe lengthened grade *k- also before in Ionian , , Hes., maybe zero grade in alb. (*-) kash-t `chaff (*barley)' where -t is the neuter ending, (*), san `chaff'. additional formations in gr. `sharp', compare to formation Lithuanian tamss to Old only with stretch in the compound, after which the length also in simple ; however, lies Hes., compare to meaning `climax of life'). Gr. `chaff' from *ak-s-n, afterwards reshuffled ds. instead of *; gr.

IF. 24, 269 ff.; as notable the apposition appears thereof from gr. ` name of

with it) compare above akmen/mer-, Pedersen KZ. 32, 247, Johansson Beitr. 9, Petersson

Indic tmas-, Lithuanian tamsa (in addition `harrow' Hes.), `wine vinegar'. Also * `sharpened' seems to be * --, Hirt IF. 12, 225. Note: common gr. -h- > - -

accumulation '; Gothic ahs Gen. *ahsis n., Old Icelandic ax n., Old High German ahir, ehir ear (*ahuz), dat. Sg. North Umbrian hher, eher ds. (about the coexistence from i-, u- and compare Gr. II 1, 522, under Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 152. On account of originally compare also Sievers-Brunner Aengl. Gr. pp. 128, 2 under 288 f.) ak-stistiIndo Germanic -es- or -is-, or-us-stem display, is difficult in the isolated case to decide. s-stems, partly already Indo Germanic, but esp. in Germanic, compare Brugmann n. (Germanic *ahiz), from the Pl. Modern High German ` ear of corn ' f., but Old English

Latin acus,-eris ` a needle ' acervus (*aces-vo-s) ` a heap, mass; in logic, argument by

(with unclear sound gradation); (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), Lithuanian aksts following Slavic ostn m. 'Sting', Czech osten ds. 'smoked spit' (= russ. ost ` point, ear, spike '), kstinas m. ` Sting, spur ' = Old Church

Cymr. eithin m. Pl. ' gorse, furze' (*akstno-), from it borrows Middle Irish aittenn ds.

Maybe alb. (*osten ) hosten `stick for driving cattle' Slavic loanword. 8. With t- formant: breaker; headland, elevation '; Tocharian c -, cce-` head, beginning ' (from *ak-t-). et oket `harrow, device with points ': different formations gr. `harrow'; Note: common gr. -h- > - eg(e)de, Old English eg(e)de f. (Modern High German Egge renewed from the verb eggen Subst. *agi revert formation); from Old High German egen, ecken, proto Germanic *agjan, on its part only from the acymr. ocet, corn. ocet, bret. oguet: Old High German egida, Middle High German Latin occa `harrow' from *otika by metathesis from *okit (Hirt IF. 37, 230)? compare Old Indic aph- m. (from *apa-a-tha) ` barb in the arrow '; gr. ` gruff coast with

derives from the verb *aki in Lithuanian akju, akti, besides akju, ekti; the anlaut (Endzelin Lett. Gr. 36). 210 ff. (unglaubhaft).

Lithuanian akios, ekios ` harrow', Old Prussian aketes ` harrows', instead of e

(initial sound) a- frequently has become e in an unstressed position a before palatal vowel

References: WP. I 28 ff., WH. I 6 ff., Specht Dekl. 24, 69, 125, 271, 331. Specht KZ. 62,

See also: S. under *ok-tu `eight', actually ` both points of the hands (without thumb) '. ` stone hammer ', ki-, ki-, ki- ` sharpen, whet ', k- ` sharp, spit, spear '. ii Page(s): 18-22 Root / lemma: ak-1, ak- (*hek-) zero grades k- stuck probably in stems kemen-, kemel-, kmen- ` stone, skies ', komor-

Meaning: `to eat' Note: From Root / lemma: ak-, ok- (*hek-): `sharp; stone' derived Root / lemma: ak-1, ak: Material: Old Indic anti (inserted Inf. ai-tum etc.) `eats, consumes', anam n. `food', (*hek-): `to eat' :

Avestan kahrk-sa `chicken eater = vulture' etc.; `bite';

na- `greedy', lengthened grade ayati `allows to dine', prtar-a- `breakfast';

gr. f. `acorn' (as `food', compare formally Old Indic a-a- `greedy'),

Old Norse agn n. `bait for fish' (*ak-n-), ja `allow to graze' (*ahjan). Page(s): 18 References: WP. I 112 f., WH. I 210 f.

Meaning: `tear'

lemma: ru Root / lemma: akru

Material: Ved. ru n., later also ram 'tear', Avestan asr- n., Lithuanian aara and

ara f., Tocharian kr Pl. krunt ds., compare Old Indic arymi, Lithuanian aroju `cries'. The relationship to Indo Germanic *dakru `tear' is unsettled. compare Meillet BSL.

32, 141. Note:

Root / lemma: akru : `tear' derived from Root / lemma: dakru- : `tears'. The phonetic shift ru ru ru-

da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic Illyrian. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 : `long': Baltic with del-

unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, Old Prussian ilga and `length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan migration from the Baltic region to North India.

ilgi Adv. `long' : Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. References: WP. I 33, WH. I 746.

Page(s): 23

Meaning: `water, river' Note:

ak k Root / lemma: ak- (more properly k): k-

k): k-

From Root / lemma: ang(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived Root / lemma: ak- (more properly ang(h)i (h)iak

ehero heroad(u)- ad-ro: `water, river'; Root / lemma: ehero- : `lake, inner sea'; Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- : z-].

`water current': Illyrian Pannonian VN [common alb.- Illyrian -Baltic -h- > -d-, From Root / lemma: ak- `water, river' nasalized in *akuent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived ak Material:

(e)(e) eded erer Root / lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc.'

Middle High German ouwe f. `water, peninsula in the river, grassland rich in water'; Maybe alb. (*aquil) akull `frozen water, ice'

Icelandic ey f. `island, pasture, grassland', Old English eg, Old High German -ouwa, -awa,

ds. (Germanic *ahw, thereof derived *ahwj, *awj `surrounded by the water ' in Old

Icelandic , Old English a, Old Saxon Old High German aha, Modern High German Ache

aquil `north wind', actually `the darkening sky') = Gothic aa f. `river, body of water', Old

Latin aqua `water, water pipe' (thereof aquilus `dark', aquila `eagle', actually `the swarthy',

Kretschmer Gl. 17, 148 ff.), russ. FlN Ok, Pannonian PN Aquincum `stove (*cooking

Modern High German Aue, compare Old Frisian ei-land `island', Sca(n)din-avia

Root / lemma: ak-, ok- : (sharp; stone).

It seems that Root / lemma: ak- (more properly k): k- : (water, river) derived from ak k

stove where water boils making bubbles)', apul. FlN Aquil, Venetic PN Aquileia (also in `God of the sea', Old English g-weard ` watch at the sea', agor `sea, flood' (the initial

South Germany); with ablaut (Indo Germanic ) in addition Old Icelandic gir (*kis)

sound after a); maybe here Old Indic km `water', dak. plant N ` water colonist ' (*ka-d mn), poln. (North Illyrian) FlN Kwa. The affiliation from Hittite e-ku-uz-zi (ekuzi) `drinks', 3. Pl. a-ku-wa-an-zi, seems not

cymr. aig `sea' is neologism to eigion from Latin oceanus. From PIE the root for water, ocean, passed to Altaic: Protoform: *k`e ( -k-) Turkic protoform: *k Meaning: `deep place, place far from the shore' Tungus protoform: *(x)uKJapanese protoform: *ki

unlikely. Moreover also Tocharian AB yok-tsi `drink'. Old Irish oiche `water' does not exist;

Note: The parallel seems plausible; the common meaning here may be formulated as "a place (in the sea or river) distant from the shore".

References: WP. I 34 f., WH. I 60, 848, Feist 18 f., Pedersen Hittitisch 128, Tocharisch 190. Page(s): 23 ak Root / lemma: ak-

Meaning: `to hurt'

illness '; gr. noun *, *, thereof , , Note: common gr. -k- > -p-, -g- > -bPage(s): 23 References: Kuiper Gl. 21, 282 f.

Material: Old Indic ka m ` grief, pain ', Avestan ak ` nasty, bad ', axtis ` grief, pain,

'swindler'; Verbalst. - in 'deception' (*apnt), redupl. Present 'damage'.

alb Root / lemma: al iNote: Meaning: `barley'

h h

alb ereg(h)o (h)oRoot / lemma: al i- : `barley' derived from a truncated Root / lemma: ereg(h)o-, erog(h)oerog(h)o- : `pea' [common gr. -k- > -p-, -g- > -b-]. (h)o Material: Gr. , ` barley, pearl barley, barley flour ', lakon.

Hes. (with gradual growth vowel ; Ehrlich KZ. 38, 55, in : from which by intersection with then -, - - sees a relation as between Old Indic sth-i : asth-n-, what would guarante older proto Indo Germanic of the word); alb. elp (elbi)
h h

S. 16 ff. from turko-tatar. etc arba 'barley'.


`barley' (N. Pl. *alb -). Iran. *arb i- conclusions Vasmer Stud. z. alb.Wortf. I (Dorpat 1921) relationship to *alb - ` white ' assumes Specht Dekl. 68 Old Norse

From Iranian branch the name for barley passed to Altaic family: Meaning: `barley, millet' Mongolian protoform: *arbaj Turkic protoform: *arpa Protoform: *rp`

Japanese protoform: *p Note: EAS 90, KW 15, Poppe 87. 67. The Mong. form cannot be explained as a Turkism (despite TMN 2, 24, 1997, 100). The Turkic form is sometimes compared

Tungus protoform: *arpa

with Proto-Iran. *arba- (corresponding to Gr. alphi), cf. East Iranian forms going back to

*arpasy- (or *arbasy) (- 1982, 23), but it is not identical (loss of the favour of the Altaic origin of the Turkic form. Gl. 17, 253.

final syllable is hard to explain); on the other hand, the Jpn. parallel is a strong argument in References: WP. I 92, Jokl Festschrift Kretschmer 78 f., Kieckers IE. 41, 184, Wahrmann

Page(s): 29 alb Root / lemma: al o- (*el-b o-) Note: Meaning: `white'

h h h

alb el- olRoot / lemma: al o- (*elb o-): `white' derived from Root / lemma: el-1, ol-, l- : red, brown : (in names of trees and animals) extended in -b o- formant, see gr. m. f. ` stag (white spotted) '. Material:

Gr. ` white rash ', Hes. (also Hes., s. below), FlN ; Latin albus ` white, dead white; hence pale or bright; sometimes making bright; fig.,

fortunate ', Umbrian alfu ` white ', Oscan Alafaternum Alafaternum ` Alfaternorum ', prlig. Alafis ` Albius ' (and many other names partly Etruscan coinage due to Oscan-Umbrian must be that of Paul. Diac. 4 L. as Sabine called alpum); in addition albula, alburnus ` root alf-, as Latin alb-, s. Schulze Latin Eig. 119 f.; etr. Pronunciation from Latin albus also whitefish ', albarus ` white poplar ', albcus ` asphodel plant ' etc.; world ');

cymr. elfydd m. ` earth, world ' from *albio- (compare Old Church Slavic svt ` light,

Charpentier KZ. 40, 433 f., Specht Dekl. 229; also:) Old Church Slavic lebed, russ.

(Germanic *al-it-, -ut-) `swan', (forms -d- in animal names: s. Brugmann Grdr. II 1, 467,

Old High German albiz, elbiz, Old English aelbitu, ielfetu, Old Norse elptr, lpt f.

dove ', actually ` white '; see Meillet Et. 322, MSL. 14, 377, Schulze SBprAk. 1910, 800 = Kl. Schr. 122 f.; named after the color russ. lebed, poln. lebioda, oboda ` atriplex, goosefoot ', Lidn Stud. 97); Dutch alft, elft `whitefish' (formally = Old High German etc

Slavic *olb-ed, -d, -d, compare to the latter suffix form Lithuanian bal-adis ` pigeon,

lebed lebjad, in the ablaut to poln. abd, serb. labud, Czech labud' ` swan ' (proto

albiz `swan'; to loanword from Latin albula `whitish' in contrast to it Falk-Torp 189 f. are

e e e e

against, Middle High German albel `whitefish', Modern High German Albe, Low German alf, albe `whitefish'), compare Latin alburnus `a white fish, bleak' ds .; Modern High German Dialectal Albums ` hard sand under the fertile earth ', Swedish

Dialectal alf ds .;

German Elf m., Elfe f. borrowed), Middle Low German alf ` lp, grand, evil spirit ', Middle nebulous figures '), as well as Old High German alba ` insect larva, locusta quae nondum *albna, from which *almna). Note: Note The Illyrian TN Albanoi is the plural form Middle High German Modern High German Alp, Pl. the Alben (originally probably ` whitish nebulous figures ') a primitive Indo European people who believed in evil spirits before an elaborate mythology developed later. Arbn `name of alb. during Middle Ages' 1431), elv I (188 f., 1454), emd (189, 1454); as ` white water ' also the name of Elbe (Latin addition probably also Middle Low German elve ` riverbed '), compare gall. FlN Albis, Alb see to these Germanic words esp. Falk-Torp under aame (4, 1428), al (19, 1431), alv (22, High German Modern High German Alp, Pl. the Alben (originally probably ` whitish

probably also Old Norse alfr, Old English lf, engl. elf (from which Modern High

volavit ', Dutch elften f. Pl. ` cock chafer grubs ', Norwegian alma ds. (m from the Gen. Pl.

Albis, Albia, from Germanic *Al, Gen. Aliz =), Old Norse elfr ` river ' and river name (in

esp. Schulze SBprAk.1910, 797 = Kl. Schr. 120). Note: common gr. -k- > -p-, -g- > -b-

(now Aube; contrast Dubis, Dub, i.e. ` black, deep water '), Latin Albula, gr. (see

gall.-Latin Albin, Middle Irish Albbu, Gen. Albban (stem *Alb-ien-) `Britain' (to cymr. elfydd Ligurian and Celtic areas frequent local name like Alba, Albium likewise below go back or, or from the white chalk rocks), Latin Alps, (high mountains?) and in Italian,

In contrast to this assumption, it is doubtful from or in which circumference names like

however, are not Indo Germanic derivation of the concept ` white ' (Bertoldi BSL. 32, 148, ZrP. 56, 179 f.). Armenian aauni ` pigeon, dove ', barely for *alab -n- (Bugge KZ. 32, 1, Pedersen KZ.
h h h

38, 313), see below. About the affiliation of *alb i- *alb i- ` barley ' s. d. *al *al


Maybe here belongs Hittite al-pa- (alpas) ` cloud ' in spite of Couvreur (H 106, 149)

?) and Armenian aauni, and in addition tuned Slavic intonation (serb. lbd), s. Osthoff IF. 8, 64 f., Pedersen aaO.

To the ablaut: beside *alb o-s seems to be two-syllable root form in gr. (also

This additional -b o- one syllable is in color names frequent suffix (e.g. Latin galbus
h 2

Lithuanian rabas `in different colors, multicolored, dappled' beside ranas; Brugmann Grdr. is possible according to Brugmann aaO. II 1, 388 f), *alb os is obtainable in monosyllabic root *al- and on the other hand

Niedermann from the Slavic) stand in a similar relation, as gr. - to Latin curv-us `crooked, curved, bent', Old Indic pal-la- (: palv-a) to Old Prussian pelwo, also go back to a word root *al[u]-: *alu-: *alu- (in Armenian aawni and Slavic words); Note: From Baltic - Slavic the notion for `white metals, white color, sick white' passed to Altaic family: Protoform: *nilp

`tin' (from Indo Germanic *aluo-? Baltic correspondences are borrowed according to

to Lithuanian alvas ` tin ' (` white metal '), Old Prussian alwis `lead, plumbum', russ. lovo

Meaning: `tin, lead'

Tungus Tungus protoform: *lban

Japanese protoform: *nmri Note: An interesting TM-Jpn. isogloss; cf. also Old Koguryo *naimul (see Miller 1979, 8). Jpn. *nm-ri < *npan-(r)i, with usual regressive nasalization. Earlier: Protoform: *lpa Meaning: `unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms' Turkic protoform: *lpMongolian protoform: *alba-n Tungus protoform: *albaKorean protoform: *rph-

Japanese protoform: *apar-

Note: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111. gr. is sufficient by the reshuffle to which animal names and plant names are exposed everywhere, in order to ensure in addition still *ale-b -;

span. alosa), compare also gall. GN Alaunos, Alounae, brit. FlN Alaunos (nengl. Aln), cymr. PN Alun as well as Armenian aauni ` pigeon, dove ' from *alu-n-.

here as ` the shining one ' gall. alausa ` European shad, twaite shad ' (French alose,

` white ' appears very uncertain (Couvreur H 149 f., Friedrich IF. 58, 94) and gr. , , i are to be explained differently.

A stem form ali- ` white ' is not provabe, in spite of Specht Dekl. 114, because Hittite ali-

span.-portug. ala ds., furthermore with -nt-suffix Old High German alant ds., with it

Here, however, probably (as a ` pale yellow plant ') hisp.-Latin ala `elecampane ' (Isid.),

alund `whitefish, Alant' = (with gramm. alteration) Old Icelandic - lunn `a fish', (under the original meaning of al- is probably`white, shining', hence, then also `pale yellow' etc. influence of common Celtic -ns- > -nn-),Indo Germanic basic form *al-nt-/*al-ont-. The

etymological identically the fish name Old High German alunt (newer alant), Old Saxon

Specht (Indo Germanic Dekl. 59, 160) explained both stems as originally identical, thus albelow are-), er . are- erPage(s): 30-31 as l- leads back to el-, with which he associates further (aaO. 114) the color root ar- (see

A precise separation of the meanings of al- and el- is not always possible, which is why

References: References: WP. I 92 ff., WH. I 26 f.

ald Root / lemma: al Meaning: `trough' Material: Old Norse alda f. ` wave, upsurge, hostility, warfare '; Norwegian dial. olda f. trough, tub, container ', Modern High German Bavarian alden ` field furrow'.

'trough'; Swedish dial. lla ` deep cavity '. compare Old English ealdo, aldot, aldaht ` In addition Balto-Slavic *aldii- in Church Slavic ladiji, aldiji f. ` small boat ', Lithuanian Norwegian lodje ` Russian vessel, boat ', Swedish lodja, Middle Low German lod(d)ie,

aldij, eldij f. ` river small boat ', also Lithuanian eldijl ` smoking frying pan'.

loddige are borrowed from russ. odj (= asl. ladiji). Falk-Torp 652 (see also 789 under`olde').

Page(s): 31-32

References: WP. I 92, WH. I 35, Trautmann 6.

Meaning: `to hit back, shoot'

aleqRoot / lemma: aleq-

protect, watch, guard ' (Pisani KZ. 68, 157), gr. ` prevent, protect, fight off ' (so-

Material: Old Indic rkati ` defended, protected, preserved ', Armenian aracel ` graze,

cock were used for the name of this contentious bird (Fick Cstem 9, 169, Kretschmer KZ. 33, 559 ff., Boisacq 1091 f.); ' defend, refuse, fend ', ` defends, helps ', walls; help ' (*--), ` defense, help ' and ` thickness, strength ' (latter meaning, another, Middle Persian ark ` work, effort, trouble ' to suitable words, see Bartholomae ` Protection, defense, help ', ` Protection, parapet, (esp.) battlement of the although in itself from ` vigorous defense ' understandable, maybe by flowing together with Heidelbg. SB. 1916, IX 10); Hom.; ` strong, hard, potent; from weapons: ` resistable, suited to the fight ';

root areq-), , the epic proper names, after becoming known as the areq-

present; rakati because of this correspondence not more probably to equally meaning

temple ', Old English ealh, Old Saxon alah m. ds., Proto Norse-Runic aluh ` amulet' (?),

Old English ealgian ` protect, defend ' (*algjan); Gothic alhs (f., conservative stem) `

victims ', Latvian lks m. 'Idol, god' (Germanic and Baltic words originally ` holier, seclusive or the usufruct deprived grove '); Tocharian alsk `remove'. areqSee also: S. similar root areq-` close, protect '. Page(s): 32 References: WP. I 89 f.

Old Lithuanian elkas, alkas m. ` holy grove, place on a hill where one has made of early

Meaning: `frost, cold' Material:

alghRoot / lemma: algh- (*elgh-)

nisl. elgur m. ` snow flurry with strong frost, half-molten snow '. Germanic s-stem *alizReferences: WP. I 91, WH. I 29. compare Petersson Aryan under Arm. Stud. 126. disguised itself with Latin algor, Indo Germanic *alghes-.

Lidn, studies z. Old Indic and compare Sprachgesch. 66, to Old Icelandic Gen. Sg. elgiar,

Latin algor ` frost, cold ', alge, -re ` freeze, to be cold ', belong algidus `cold' according to

Page(s): 32 algh hRoot / lemma: algh-

Meaning: `to earn, price, value, *precious bright metal'

Material: Old Indic rhati ` is worth, earns, is obliged, debit, ', argh- ` value, validity, price ' (=osset. ar ` price, value '), Avestan arjaiti ` is worth, amounts for value ' (npers. arzdan ` earn '), arjah- (es- stem) n. ` value, price '.

maybe alb. (*rhati) argat ` worker, serf ', argtoj ` entertain, reward, please, become lazy ', argom `barren, unproductive'. Gr. `acquisition, purchase ' = Lithuanian alg, Old Prussian Gen. Sg. lgas ` wage

', gr. , ` profit, earn ' ( = Old Indic rhati, but by the more complete common Illyrian g- > b-. '.

present in the validity embedded as an Aorist), ` cattle earned '. Note: An additional form on voiced-nonaspirated is Old Indic arjati ` acquires, earns, fetches

Page(s): 32-33

References: WP. I 91.

Meaning: `besides; other' al- olRoot / lemma: al-1, ol- : `besides; other' derived from Root / lemma: al : interjection. Note:

Root / lemma: al-1, olal- ol-

Material: Latin uls ` beyond ', *ulter, -tra, -trum ` ulterior, situated beyond ' (ultr, ultra), first, greatest, lowest, meanest ';

compounds ulterior, Sup. ultimus = Oscan ltiumam ` the utmost, extreme, the highest,

Maybe alb. ult, ult `low', ul `to low, sit below' : Latin ulterior -ius `compar. as from ulter, farther, more distant, more advanced, more remote'. Old Latin ollus ` that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with *oln), newer olle, oll `then, next', ollc ' he, she, that, in that place, yonder, there '; hic, the former, (sometimes the latter)' (*ol-no-s, compare below Irish ind-oll and Slavic

also the glosses olitana `the aged, old, ancient, of long standing ', olitinata ` old, inveterate, ancient, former, of old times ' can reject - or ? - ), Umbrian ulo, ulu ` that, that yonder,

with Old Indic par-ri ` third-last year ' [compare -] to be equated *li, Lok. adverb,

lengthened grade lim `in the distant past, once' (probably after im, exim reshaped and

that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, he, she, it yonder, yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, (sometimes the latter)'.

that '; influenced by is, iste etc. the cognates ollus, olle would be uncolored to ille `that, that

the last summer, last year ' (` that year ', compare Latin oll `at that time, then').

Slavic *oln (Indo Germanic *oln-ei) = Old Church Slavic lani, Czech loni, poln. loni ` in The meaning from Irish alltar, allaid (see below) also allows that the relationship of Old

Indic raa- ` far, strange ' (= Avestan auruna- `wild'?), rd 'from a distance', r ` far ' seems possible. Moreover also maybe Old Indic ar ` of strangers, stranger ', ar(i)y- ` Subst. ` hospitable, lord, master, ruler, man ', in addition r(i)ya- ` to ar(i)y- , suitable, Hospitality ', m. ` Guest's friend '; maybe Arrianes Illyrian TN. hospitable ', hence, VN ' Arier = Aryan', ryaka- ` venerable man ', aryam- n. `

suitable, proper to the stranger ' (compare Old High German eli-lenti ` foreign land '), then

Avestan airy (= rya), Old pers. riya (= ariya), ` Aryan ', Avestan airyaman ` guest, friend ', npers. rmn ` guest ', in addition sarmat. VN (osset. *alan), osset. ir `Ossete', Morgenl. XXIII 2, 1938; Specht KZ. 68, 42 ff.); iron `Ossetic' ` Ossetic ' (P. Thieme*), the stranger in the Rigveda, fig. f. d. client d.

Old Irish aire (*arios) and airech ` nobleman, of noble people, suitor ' can belong to

mythical Irish ancestor remn is scholar neologism to riu ` Ireland '. see below ario- ` lord, god, master '. ---------------------

preposition air- ` in front of ', thus ` standing in the first place ', (Thurneysen ZCP. 20, 354);

ruler, lord' as su-ri- ` hospitable ' and ri-das ` worry for sustaining the stranger '. ----------------------

must lead back to Indo Germanic *er- . Thieme puts further here Old Indic sr- ` master,

grade -), e.g. - ` easily (the stranger) recognizable ', Old Indic ar- etc surely

*) Thus Thieme (aaO. 159 f.) properly puts here reinforcing prefix gr. -( reduced

ind-oll ` ultra, extreme ', from which maybe also innonn, innunn ` over, beyond ' (with

(formally = Latin ollus, Indo Germanic *olnos), compounds (h)uilliu ` farther, more ', Adv.

Old Irish oll Adj. ` honorable, large, extensive ', actually ` above (the ordinary) going out '

on the other side (and) therefrom on this side '; ol-foirbthe ' pluperfect, past perfect ', oldu, oldaas ` when I, when he ', actually ` about (the) outside, what I am, what he is ', inaill ' certain, sure ', actually ` situated on the other side ' (of it inoillus ' confidence, security';

Thurneysen KZ. 43, 55 f.; Pedersen KG. II 195), ol-chen(a)e ` in addition, but ', actually `

assimilation in collaboration with inonn ` the same, identical'; (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-),

footprint '.

because, sice ' keeps Thurneysen Grammar 559 against it for related with cymr. ol `

ultra, beyond, further ', originally in the report in a continuous speech). The conjunction ol `

inuilligud 'protection, safety'; with ol(l) ` ultra, beyond ' maybe corresponds ol ` says ' as `

from *all in the pretone), Adv. tall (*to-al-n) ` on the other side, there ', anall ` from on the alla ` beyond, on the other side ' (proves original dissyllabic old formation also of the other side, from there, over here ', with suffixed Pron. of the 3rd person all, allae, newer

Besides with a: Old Irish al (with Akk.) ` on the other side, over - beyond ' (simplification

prepositional form is not provided with pronominal suffix, see Thurneysen KZ. 48, 55 f.,

alltarach ` otherworld, ulterior, thithertho '.

dead, the other world, hereafter ', also from ` to savage areas situated on the other side ',

thus not from without ending Indo Germanic *ol or *al); derivatives: alltar ` the world of the

broges = mcymr. all-fro ` exiled, ostracized, banished' (to bro 'land'), all-tud ` foreigner ', slige ` the second cutting out '.

Gall. alla ` another, other, different ', allos `second' (Thurneysen ZCP. 16, 299), VN Allo-

acymr. allann, (common Celtic -ns- > -nn-), ncymr. allan ' outdoors, outside '; Old Irish allGothic alls, Old Icelandic allr, Old English eall, Old High German all 'all', besides in the

Ala-gabiae etc, Gothic ala-mans ` all people, humanity ', Old High German ala-wri ` totally father Dagdae ` the good God ') = Old Norse al-fr (epithet of Odin), ' all father '. true ' (Modern High German albern); compare Old Irish oll-athair (epithet of Irish God's Latin alers, allers ` taught; learned, instructed, well-informed; experienced, clever,

compound Germanic ala- (without -no-suffix) in Old Germanic matron's names Ala-teivia,

shrewd, skilful ' according to Landgraf ALL. 9, 362, Ernout l. dial. Latin 104 from *ad-ers, *allers (contrast to iners). From an adverb *ali ` there, in a specific place, in each case ' (differently Debrunner

REtIE. 3, 10 f.) have derived: os alios ` other ':

Armenian ail ` other '; another place, strange ' (= Latin aliud, forms as in Latin longinquus `far removed, far off, gr. `other' (Cypriot ), n. , compare - ` from elsewhere, from

remote, distant'), in addition etc ` each other', ` makes different, changes ', ` variation, change, exchange, trade ': ` becoming another, strange ', from Old Indic anytra `somewhere else' corresponding adverb;

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*nytra) tjetr `other' [common alb. n > nt > t] : Old Indic anytra `somewhere else'. Latin alius = Oscan allo `other things', n. aliud = gr. , in addition from the adverb ali:

one from two ' = Oscan alttram 'alteram' (from *aliteros-), by Plautus also altro-; in alterre, adulter, alternus, altercri;

alinus 'strange' (from *ali-ies-nos), ali-quis, ali-cubi etc; Comparative alter, -era, -erum `

altrinsecus, altrvorsum the syncope is caused by the length of the whole word; here also gall. alios (Loth RC. 41, 35), Old Irish aile (*alios), n. aill (from adverbial all from *al-n;

palat. l comes from aile), cymr. ail, bret. eil (from *elis, Comparative *aliis), doubled Old Irish alaile, araile, n. alaill, araill, mcymr. etc arall, Pl. ereill (ll from the adverb all); Gothic aljis `other', but only in compositions, as Old Saxon eli-lendi n. ` foreign land ',

other, different ', Old Icelandic elligar, ellar, Old English ellicor, elcor ` other, otherwise, ', Old High German elichr ` further ', and in adverbs, like Old English elles, engl. else ` English elra ` other '; other, different ', Old Norse alla ` otherwise ' etc.; a comparative formation *alira is Old Tocharian A lya-k , alye-k ` ' (*alie-k , Pedersen Groupement 26,

Old High German eli-lenti ds. = Modern High German ' woefulness ', Gothic alja-leik `

Tocharisch 117); unclear is the absence of palatalization in A lak ` other ', lam ` each other', lm ` somewhere else', aletste 'strangers'; ostiran. etc hal-ci ` any (thing) available, etc '. References: WP. I 84 ff., WH. I 30, 32 f., Feist 33 b, 39 a, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 614. angebl. pejorative character of a see Specht KZ. 68, 52, Die alten Sprachen 5, 115. an2). See also: About anios s. under S. 37 (an2 an2 About the sound change from *anios to *alios see Debrunner REtIE. 3, 1 ff., about

Page(s): 24-26 alRoot / lemma: al-2

Meaning: `to grow; to bear'

Material: Old Indic an-ala- ` fire ' (' the glutton ', W. Schulze KZ. 45, 306 = Kl. Schr. 216); gr. ` cheerful, strong ' ( + al-; about see below);

prosper ', coalscere 'grow together', adolscere 'grow up' (adultus ' grown up, adult,

Latin al, -ere, -ul, -itum ` to nourish, support, rear, feed, bring up '; alscere ` grow up,

mature '), abolscere ' to perish ' (in addition appears abole, -re ` destroy, exterminate ' as a Transitive to be newly shaped, partly after (ad)augsc : (ad)auge, esp., however,

after synonymous dlv, dle;

the young men of a race; of plants, fruit ' (of it prltrius `a citizen of the lowest class,

sprout, shoot, offspring, progeny ', prles (*pro-ols) ` offspring, descendants, posterity; serving the state only by begetting children'; these three with o from a before dark l, not

indols ` native constitution or quality; nature, disposition, character, talents ', subols ` a

the reminiscence in , would be then deceptive; (differently WH. I 4), Latin

alimnia,-ium ` food, maintenance ';

with Indo Germanic o- ablaut, wie Hirt Abl. 162 accepts); alimentum `food, nourishment', Old Irish alim `be nourishing'; here probably also cymr. alu, Middle Breton halaff, nbret.

ala `bear, give birth to', cymr. al f. `act of giving birth, progeny, people', alaf m. `wealth' = Old Irish alam f. `herd', of it almae ds .;

nourishing, produce ', Gothic alis ` fattened ' (participle of a Kaus. *aljan = Norwegian development Falk-Torp below elske). With t- formant: dial. elja); Old Icelandic elskr ` inspired by love ', elska `love' (see to the meaning-

Gothic Old English alan (l) ` grow up ' (intr. like Latin adole), Old Icelandic ala (l) ` be

hill, wooded hills', acorn. as, bret. aot, aod 'coast', Old Saxon ald, Old High German (etc.) alt `old' (actually' grown tall '), Old High German altn `put off, delay' (`make old'); maybe alb. geg (*n'alt ) nalt `high' > alb. Tosc (*nalt, lant) lart `high' [n/l allophones].

`high' (i.e. `large-scale grown'), Middle Irish old `height; shores, coast', cymr. allt `side of a

Gr. - `insatiable, gluttonous'; , (*-) n. ` holy grove ', Latin altus

eillt (*altios) `pupil, hero', Old Irish inailt (*eni-alt) ` servant ', Gothic aleis (*altios) ` old ' = Old Irish alt(a)e ` brought up '; *altro- in Old Irish altram ` food ', altru `nursing father' (cymr. athraw `teacher' etc., see ealdor `life', Old Saxon aldar, Old High German altar `old age, age'. With m- formant: Poseidon in isthmian Troy, , for what hom. `tree nursery' as an abstract sweet, kind, sublime'. Maybe here FlN thrak. Almus, Illyrian (?) Alm (Rom), Alm Gr. n. `grove', epithet of Zeus and Poseidon (also , name of

foster brother ' = mcymr. cyfeillt `serf, slave', ncymr. cyfaill `friend' (*komal-tios), mcymr.

in Oscan altinm, thus ` food, provisions, aliment ' = Latin *altinum; Old Irish comaltae `

' (Pl. ielde, Old Saxon eldi `people, humans'), Old Norseld f. `time, age, Pl. people'; *altio

*alti also in Gothic alds f. ` period, lifetime ', Old English ield ` period, lifetime, age, old age

Pedersen KG. I 137); Old Norse aldr m. (Gen. aldrs) `age, lifetime, old age', Old English

noun, see Bechtel Lexil. 331); Latin almus `nourishing, feeding (ager), blessing-donating, (Etruria), abrit. *Alm, engl. Yealm.

mabe alb. helm `healing drug, posion, medicine, herb' similar to Sanskrit la- `poison'. obviously alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal -. el- ollemma: el-3 : ol-: `to rot, poison'. clearly alb. shows that from Root / lemma: al-2 : ` to grow; to bear; grove' derived Root / alMaybe Illyrian Amalthea `the goat that nourished Zeus'. Tocharian lym- ` life, mind '. allows to grow, strengthens ', 'grows', ` not thriving; growth restraining ', ` brings forth, produce, create ' (). ardhuna Pl. `yields, profits'.

d- extensions: Old Indic -, ` refreshment, donation, oblation, gift '; gr. `

Maybe alb. Geg ardh- [dh- extension as in satem languages] `come, (*climax), be born', d - extensions: Old Indic rdhnti, rnddhi, rdhti, rdhyati `prospers, succeeds, does

Old Indic rdhuka- ` thriving ' (Specht KZ. 64, 64 f.);

succeed, manages', Avestan ardat ` he allows to prosper ', rdt- ` cause prospering ',

gr. , `heals', ` grows, heals '; Old Swedish alda ` fruit-carrying oak ', Old Icelandic aldin ` tree fruit, esp. eatable (fruit or seed of the oak tree, acorn) '. References: WP. I 86 f., WH. I 4, 31 f.

Page(s): 26-27

Meaning: `to burn'

alRoot / lemma: al-4 Material: Old Indic altam n. ` fire, blaze, coal ' (also lmukam `fire'); Latin adole ` to

worship, offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on an altar; in gen., to burn; to smell ', perhaps to burn ' (o from a as in etymological-different adolscere ` to grow up, come to adolsc, -ere ` flare up (from altars), to grow up, come to maturity, to be heaped up, or

altar' (with difficult o ablaut Umbrian uetu ` toward turning to vapor ');

maturity, to be heaped up, or perhaps to burn ' to al, see below *al-2 `grow'), altre `fire *al-

(Johansson aaO.); about Old English lan ` burn ' see *ai -. *aid (if originally 'burnt') = nir. aladh `trout' (alto-). Maybe alb. alle `red color'. Page(s): 28 References: WP. I 88, WH. I 13, EM. 88.

animated', Gothic aljan n. `zeal' etc. was possible as ` igneous, quick-tempered '

but in question gr. Hes.; view also from Latin alacer `quick, lively,

New Swedish ala ` blaze, flame ' (Johannsson ZfdtPh. 31, 285 following ms. Lithuanian);

Maybe belongs here gall. MS Alatus, Middle Irish alad ` multicolored, dappled, striped '

Meaning: `to grind'

alRoot / lemma: al-5 (*hel-)

(below likewise; Kuhn KZ. 30, 355; different Specht Dekl. 125). 178 A. 1).

Material: Old Indic u- ` fine, thin, very small ' (*al-nu-), Hindi and Bengali ` flour ' Avestan aa (*arta-) ` crushed, ground' (Hbschmann ZdMG. 38, 428, Spiegel BB. 9, Armenian aam ` grinds', aauri (*alatrio-) ` mill ', aleur- ` flour ' (in spite of l instead of

girl ' (Meillet BSL. 37, 72).

not borrowed from , Hbschmann Arm. Gr. I 414), aaxin ` servant ', aij ` young

Note: The inanimate suffix -ur : Armenian aauri (*alatrio-) ` mill ' : , , Illyrians, ur ur , , Illyria, also , , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region or province of Illyria, , speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . Gr. : ` grinds, crushes ' *, ` millstone, grindstone ', and

` the milling, the grinding ', `mill', `grind', [F], Pl.

(stretched from ; Schulze Qunder ep. 225) `flour' (from it contracted * called

out of the new sg. Hes.; - Hippokr., Rhinthon), ` miller who grinds the spelt, wheat ' (from it Latin alica `spelt, or a drink prepared from spelt' ds). ---------------after J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 382 from *F-) would be compatible, perhaps, phonetically (then word root would be *el-, *ol-, * l-). Page(s): 28-29 References: WP. I 89.

(*-F-) ` wheat flour', ` flimsy ' ( ` pulverized, crushed, ground'),

*) Also `millet', `spelt', , Attic `ground coarse grain' (*F-, not

Meaning: `small, weak'

alpRoot / lemma: alp-

Material: Old Indic lpa-, alpaka- small, slight, flimsy ' (alpna, alpt ` light, fast '); to unite weak ', Latvian elpe ` taking air, breath ', alpa ` one time, time, moment in time '. exhaust, make tired, weaken; drain, empty '.

heavily in the definition with Lithuanian alpst, alpa, alpti ` become unconscious ', alps ` apposition also from hom. (from Aeschylos ) 'weak', `

Zero grade in (under the influence of Illyrian) Attic ' despoil, pillage', `

empty (the body) ' is doubtful because of their to two-syllables root words compared with

the light ones Old Indic and Lithuanian words; also they suit, as well as to them, added to

` slender, thin, having hollow body ', ` flank, swell of the body in the hip ', shrunken '). Quite dubious also alb. (Jokl SBAk. Wien 168, I 48) laps ` be tired of, sick of, bored with '.

` cavity, pit ', ` sorrel, rumex ' in the meaning colouring (`empty, sunken,

Maybe in e- grade alb. lpjet ` sorrel, rumex ' : gr. ` sorrel, rumex '. Maybe Latin lapso -are `to slip, stumble'. On account of here Hittite al-pa-an-da- (alpant-) `ill, weak, small, flimsy'? Proto-Altaic: *lpa Meaning: unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms Turkic: *lpMongolian: *alba-n Tungus-Manchu: *albaKorean: *rphJapanese: *aparComments: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111. Proto-Kartvelian: *alpEnglish meaning: weak Georgian: Gur. alpReferences: WP. I 92, Couvreur 106 f., WH. I 786, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II, 158. Page(s): 33 alu- Root / lemma: alu- (-d-, -t-) Meaning: `bitter; beer' Material: Gr. () Hes., [?] Hes. (see, however, to meaning Herwerden Lex. Graec. suppl. 45); Latin alta ` soft leather; a shoe, purse or patch, beauty patch ' and almen ` alum ' are simply extensions from *alu-.

meaning difference Church Slavic kvas ` alum, beer '); in. l n. ` Beer, carousal ', ldr n. German in al-schaf ` drinking vessel'; 'Carousal' (*alura-), Old English ealu() n. `beer', Old Saxon in alo-fat, Middle High

The root appears in Northern Europe with the definition ` beer, mead ' (compared to the

maybe alb. alle `red (color of beer?) ' d-, -t-): (bitter; beer). :

hence from Root / lemma: al-2 : (to grow; to bear) could have derived Root / lemma: alu- (alalu- From it borrows Old Prussian alu n. `Mead', Lithuanian als (m. become as meds = ` beer '. is also borrowed by Finnish olut ` Beer ' from Germanic Page(s): 33-34 References: WP. I 91, WH. I 34.

Prussian meddo n .; J. Schmidt Pluralbild. 180), Church Slavic ol (m. become like med)

Meaning: `around, from both sides'

Root / lemma: amb i, mb i am

h h

(- ` to both sides ', with the same adverbial -s as z. . , , s.Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 737);

Material: Armenian amboj ` entirely, unscathed ' (to oj ` healthy '), gr. ` around '

Latin amb- (before vowel, e.g. ambig), am-, an- (before consonant, e.g. amput, amici from *am[bi]jaci) inseparable prefix ` round about, around, all around ', Old Latin also preposition am ` around ' m. Akk. (ambi - for the purposes of `both' also anceps which is round, take round; esp. of the eyes, to turn all round; in religion, to lustrate, purify , by against late formation it points to amb), Umbrian amb- (amboltu), a- (a-ferum ` to carry

carrying round consecrated objects. Transf., to spread, spread news '), an- (an-

inducement, occasion, opportunity ' (barely *amb-beno- : veni, however no- derivation, s. I 36); Umbrian ampretu, ambretuto ` ambit, circuit', maybe also Oscan amfret ` flanked '

detour ', amnd ` a going round, circling, revolving, revolution, a cause, reason, motive,

ferener ` bearing round '), Oscan amvannud ` a going round, circling, revolving, revolution,

v. Planta II 32, 623); with -er- extension after praeter-e, intere (see v. Planta II 455, WH.

round, ';

(rather to Schulze KZ. 45, 182 = Kl. Schr. 468 to disassemble in *am-ferent `they bear

intricacies, circumlocution, digression ', rather from am-frctus); about PN Amiternum s. Schulze Latin Eig. 541; with ti- extension (after pos-t, per-t, Buck Elementarbuch 65) Oscan ampt ` around ' (as over, by, on, in ' (G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 265).

not Latin trails of the same -er- extension in amfrctus ` a turning, a bend. Transf., legal

Umbrian ambr- at first due to from amf- before consonant simplified am-); alb. mbi, mb `

Beiheft S. 106; the ending -s in in historical connection with that of gr. ?);

Old pers. abi more debatably meaning see Pedersen KZ. 40, 127, Bartholomae IF. 19,

mb i: Old Indic abh-ta, Avestan aiwito ` to both sides, ringed ' (about Avestan aibi,

in the meaning ` about, in regard to, from ' from derived *mb i or Indo Germanic *ob i or '),
h h h

Old Indic abh is possible the meaning ` around, circum ', Old pers. abiy, Avestan aib, aiwi continuing in *eb i ; gall. ambi- ` around, circum ' (e.g. - ` living on river Dravos

(absorbed in Gothic from bi ).


Old High German Old Saxon umbi, Old Icelandic umb, Old English ymb, ymbe ` around ' b i: Gothic bi in meaning `around', with final sound extension in stressed position Old

cymr. am- (through i- umlaut em-, ym-), corn. bret. am-, em-, Old Irish imb-, imm- `around';

dubious derivatives see Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under bil II ` space, period ', 73 and 1437 under billede ` image '). Maybe zero grade in alb. (*amb e) mb `at, in', (*amb i) mbi `on upon'. Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under bil II ` space, period ', 73 and 1,437 under billede `picture'). amb (u) am (u ` both ': both '; Gr. ` both ' (derivative ` each or both of two '); Latin amb, -ae, - `
h h h

Saxon Old English be-, b-, Old High German bi-, b-, Modern High German bei (about

Maybe gr. ` a large jar with two handles ' maybe Illyrian shortened [shortened for ,] I. an amphora, jar, urn, Hdt., etc. ProtoProto-IE: *ab-, *ambMeaning: a k. of vessel

Old Indic: ambara- m.n. 'frying-pan'

Lithuanian: brina-s, dial. br ' butter can, butter pot ' Lettish: Lettish: abra, abris ' kneading trough ' Old Prussian: aboros ' laceration ' Voc. 228 Latin: obba, -ae f. ' a vessel large at the bottom ' Celtic: Ir uibne ' small drinking vessel' References: Fraenkel s.v. brinas

77; different - in the outcome to Latin nostrtes - `of our country, native' Fick III 255), Old Saxon b thie, Old English b, , engl. both, Old High German beide, bde, Old Norse

ds.; Gothic bai m., ba n., Gen. *baddj (bajs, see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. II 2,

Old Indic ubhu ` both ', Avestan uwa- ds.; Lithuanian abu, Old Church Slavic oba

ber, Gen. beggja ` both ' (: Gothic *baddj < baii); Tocharian A mpi, mpe, ant-api. From these would be regarded Old Indic ubhu, Avestan uwa yet as composition with uh h

` two ' (Latin ugint); Sommer IF. 30, 404 denies such u- and regards the Aryan forms as caused by the labial evaporation *ab u = *mb u with reference to Old Indic Kubera-

as preposition *amb i ` around ' was given up in favour of *ob i (ab. ob, s. Latin ob `with acc., in front of, before; in return for; because of, on account of').
h h

ab, Old Church Slavic oba are probably based on reorganization from *amb-o at a time,
h h

from *Kabra (compare patronymic Kberaka-; Wackernagel KZ. 41, 314 ff). Lithuanian


(maybe from an-4) is the first composition part, the second part is Indo Germanic *b u anh

The relation *amb (u), *amb i: Gothic etc. bai, bi lets it be dubious barely that am-

References: WP. I 54 f., WH. I 36 f., Feist 74 a, 88, Pedersen Tocharisch 82. Page(s): 34-35

Meaning: `blackbird'

ames- omesRoot / lemma: ames- or omes-

Note: (: mes- : ams- or *oms-)?

Material: Full grade would be located just before the first syllable in Old High German

*misalk after Pedersen KG. I 73, where difficult suppositions about Irish sml, smlach Maybe through metathesis Welsh mwyalchen `blackbird', Irish sml, smlach `thrush' : alb. mllenj `blackbird'. Differently - because of Indo Germanic meis-, mois-, mis- - Schrader Sprcompare 367,
2 4

mwyalch, acorn. moelh, bret. moualc'h `blackbird' (possible basic form *mesalk or `thrush').

(*meisula) merula ` a blackbird; a fish, the sea-carp ' (Kluge EWb.

amusla, amsala, Old English sle ` blackbird ', full grade the second syllable in Latin s. v.) and cymr.

oi- Old High German *meisa, Old English mse, Old Icelandic meisingr ` titmouse '.

II 140, Fick II 205: merula from *misula, cymr. mwyalch etc from meisalk, finally, with -

However, it will be covered latter in the meaning divergent group of Wood KZ. 45, 70

probably more properly in the Adj. *maisa-` small, tiny ' because of Norwegian Dialectal

mejzel ` a little bit, tiny bits '. The comparison of Latin with British words is most reliable. Page(s): 35-36 References: WP. I 53 f., WH. II 77 f.

meis ` thin, frail person ', meiseleg ` thin and weak ', West Flemish mijzen ` crumble ',

am Root / lemma: am-

Meaning: ` move forward energetically ' See also: see below om-. om Page(s): 36

am- mRoot / lemma: am-1, mMeaning: `to grab' Material: Old Indic matram n. ` vessel, jug, big drinking bowl ', Armenian aman `vessel',

spacious, considerabe '.

maybe to Latin ampla (*am-l) ` handle, handhold ', amplus (*am-los) ` extensive, far,

mSee also: S. under m-1. Page(s): 35

References: WP. I 52 f., WH. I 41 f.

am- mRoot / lemma: am-2, mMeaning: ` mow ' Page(s): 35 mSee also: see below m-2 ds.

and ererRoot / lemma: an er-, nd erMeaning: `stem, spike' Material: Nur griechisch: ` an ear of corn ', ` stalk point, stalk ', `
h h

Stalk, stem of a plant ', ` chin ' as ` bearded, shaggy place ', ` the word outcome after ` corneous ';

common chervil ', named after his prickly fruit, , ` wasp, forest bee ', ` wasp ' (here maybe from *- ` with bearded face = man ', then ` man, person ', Gntert Heidelberg. SB. 1915, Abh. X?; compare also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 426 .

After Kretschmer Gl. 28, 246 from *-, the rough breathing of etc 22, 121 however identified as gypt. word)? References: WP. I 45.

figurative?); from also (*F), ` wheat gruel, Spelt miller ' (von Plin. n. h.

Page(s): 41

Meaning: `to grow, bloom, blossom, young woman, young cow '

and aned Root / lemma: an -, ane h h h

bloom ', ` blossoms ', (*-es-ro-) ` blossoming ' etc; alb. nde (*and n) ` nte ` open space, area '.
h h

Material: Old Indic ndha n. ` Soma plants '; Armenian and ` field '; gr. n. ` flower,

blossom, flower ', ndem ` blossoms ' ( from present * from *and ); Tocharian A nt, Middle Irish ainder, aindir ` young woman ', cymr. anner ` young cow ', Pl. anneirod,

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), acymr. enderic ` a bull-calf; also of the young of other

compare Italian madona, fantina `poppy'), further to Basque andere `woman', iber. FN

young cow '; moreover French (l)andier m. ` fire goat, Aries ', also `poppy' (= ` young girl ', Andere, Anderca, MN Anderus; maybe Celtic Origin? (*andero- ` blossoming, young '?). According to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 339 here gr. - ` came out, bubbled out; ', In spite of the a little bit divergent meaning probably also here with zero grade *nd :

animals ', cymr. enderig ` bull, ox ', bret. ounner (Trg. annouar, Vannes annor) ` heifer,

` reside on top of ', - ' canopied, covered ', etc.

religious action (*Soma-) sacrifice, ceremony ' (originally ' course of action, way' - ` ndurr m. ` a kind of snow shoe '.
h h

Old Indic dhvan m. = Avestan advan m. ` way, road ', for what Old Indic adhvar- `

ceremonious way ') from *nd uero-, and probably also with suffix ablaut (*nd uro-) isl. References: WP. I 45, 67, P. Benoit ZrPh. 44, 3 ff., 69 ff.
h h

Page(s): 40-41

and ererSee also: Here belongs probably: an er-, nd er-.

Meaning: `blind, dark'

and Root / lemma: an o-

knock ').

who fought with a helmet without openings ' (to Celtic loanword Latin battu ` to beat,

Material: Old Indic andh-, Avestan anda- ` blind, dark ', gall. andabata m. ` a gladiator

Page(s): 41

References: WP. I 182, WH. I 46.

an() )Root / lemma: an()-3 (*ena-) Note: Meaning: `to breathe'

an() )anhen henRoot / lemma: an()-3 : `to breathe' derived from a reduction of Root / lemma: anhen- : ': Old Norse angi m. ` odour, smell ' : alb. anj `swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj].

`smell, odour; person' as in Armenian anjn (for older *anj), Gen. anjin ` soul, being, person Material: Old Indic niti `breathes' (also thematically nati), nila- `breath, breeze, wind', Vrddhi; `mouth' as `breath, the breathing '); priti `breathes'; n- (maybe `breath' or ` mouth, nose ', na-nam ` mouth, muzzle, face ' with Indic

par; see Bartholomae IF. 7, 59; about ainiti- `mildness' see, however, Airan. Wb. 125 f.). windless, calm ', v ` rich in wind ' (- metrical stretch), (` windy ', i.e.:) ` trifling, in vain ' (dissimilated from , see last Bechtel Lexil. 44, also 226, about in vain, without success '); different Risch 113; that probably from *-vo by extreme dissimilation abbreviated ones ` compare Frisk Indog. 15; Hes. are to change in , . also ` breathlessness, suffocation ', aaO. 337.

Avestan ntya, parntya ` of the inhaling and exhaling ' (*anti- ` breathing ' with and

Gr. ` breath, wind ', (with stretch in the compound), `

Maybe here ` youth ' as F-- ` new wheeze ', after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 426 ; Latin animus ` mind, soul ', anima ` wind, breath, soul, lives ' (Oscan anamm ` air, a

attained and also penetrated in an(h)-lre; about latter see *an 4 4).

`breathe, smell' (Denominative *an-slo-; with phoney h, the sound value described here Old Irish anl, cymr. anadl `breath', Middle Breton alazn (metathesis), nbret. holan

current of air, breeze, breath, wind '), of it animal ` living being, animal ', hl, - re

warmhearted, bighearted ';

(*an-tlo-); mcymr. eneit, ncymr. enaid `soul' (*an-t-), abrit. PN Anate-mros `

Old Irish animm, nir. anam `soul', Gen. anman (stem *ana-mon; the i- color of the Nom. sg. after neutr. -men-stem s. Pedersen KG. II 61; to the intersection with Latin anima f. `breath, wind, Old Irish Transf., the breath of life, vital principle, soul' see Pokorny ZfcPh. 10 69 f.), corn. eneff, Middle Breton eneff (Pl. anaffon) nbret. anaoun `soul' (umlauted corn. and bret. forms probably loanword from Latin, see Vendrys De hib. voc. 112 f., Pedersen KG. I 170, II 111);

in addition Old Irish osnad `sighs' (uss-anad), further (`catch one's breath = rest, relax ') KG. II 455 f., 672); mcymr. anant Pl. ` bards, poets ', cyn-an in `word, praise ';

anaid ` remains, rests, stops ', con-osna ` desist, cease ' (com-uss-an-) etc. (see Pedersen Gothic uz-anan (preterit uzn) `exhale'; with t-formant: Old Norse nd, g. andar f.

`breath, breath of life, life, soul ' (= gr. ), anda, -aa ` breathe, gasp ' = Old English

Icelandic Old English yst f. `storm' from *n-sti-; gasp'.

`breath', Old English oro (*z-an-) `breath' *; maybe here Old High German unst, Old

ian `puff strongly', Old Norse andi m. `breath, mind, soul', Old Frisian omma (*an-ma)

maybe alb. anda `taste, smell' [common alb. n > nd] : Old Norse anda, -aa `breathe, --------------------Old High German anado, ando, anto `annoyance, rage', Middle High German ande *) In addition also Old Saxon ando, Old English ana, anoa `excitement, rage, sorrow',

Old High German anado, Old English anoa see Specht Phil. Stud. Voretzsch 36. -----------------------

(Kluge s. v., -Falk-Torp 5 and 1428 under aand; Schrder bl. 9). About second a from

one's rage', Modern High German avenge under a mid definition `gasp before excitement'

`feeling of insult', Old High German anadn, antn, Middle High German anden `let out

Russian uchati etc. (-ch- perhaps imitation from duchati, thus without historical connection with s from Latin hlre `breathe, emit vapor, be fragrant' from *an-slo-); Maybe nasalized alb. (*unhati) nuhat, nuhas `scent, smell', huna, hunda ` nose'. `incense' (*k-(a)nemo- Jokl Stud. 37); (Clearly the initial meaning in alb. Geg j, Tosc nj `I swell, impregnate' was `puff with air'.) alb. Geg j, Tosc nj `I swell, impregnate ', Geg jun `conceited, puffed' knjem, gnem

Old Church Slavic vonja (*ani) `smell' (vonjati ` scent, smell '), *chati `smell' in Old

Note: From Root / lemma: an()-3 : `to breathe' derived in zero grade Root / lemma: nasan() )nas(*andas): `nose'. : Tocharian AB m- `life, mind', me `intention', A cm (* ntemo-) `existence,

`living being'?

living, mind' (K. Schneider IF. 57, 203, Pedersen Tocharian 48); also onolme, wnolme Armenian holm `wind' (Bugge IF. 1, 442) abides (in spite of Meillet Lithuanian 6, 3) (see

Lidn Arm. stem 38 f., Peterson KZ. 47, 246). - Old Indic tmn `soul' rather to Old High German tum `breath', see t-men t-men.

hl, Old Norse nd (etc). ansu- antroSee also: ansu-, antro-.

and such like -, also forms of the monosyllabic word roots, thus Latin *an-slo- >

Root points beside to two-syllable forms, like Old Indic ani-ti, ani-la, Celtic*ana-tlo- etc,

References: WP. I 56 ff., WH. I 49 f., Feist 538.

Page(s): 38-39

ant angh-att- angh Root / lemma: ant- (*angh-at-) Meaning: `duck' Material: Old Indic t- t f. ` water bird ' (or to Old Icelandic r, New Swedish da f. `

Other Iranian: Sak ce, ci `water fowl', Osset occ `wild duck', Pamir Wakh. y `duck' Ael.NA5.24, Opp.C.2.407; cf. , .

eider duck ' from Germanic *d- ?);

Greek: Greek: , , , ( [] ) A. bustard, Otis tarda, X.An.1.5.2sq., Arist.HA 509a4, al., Germanic: *d-- c.

Old Norse: -r f. ` eider duck ' Old Swedish: d, (r)-fugl Swedish: da

see Root / lemma: t- : diver, a k. of bird (of waterfowl?) tcommon gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ssNote:

gr. , Boeotian (* Old Indic t-) ` duck ';

The abbreviated Greek form proves the Illyrian origin of the Greek cognates similar to alb. medicus > mjek ` doctor ' hence Illyrian ; alb. rosa : Rumanian ra ` duck '. Albanian -a feminine ending proves the Illyrian origin.

Icelandic nd, Modern High German 'Duck'; Balto-Slavic * nt- from *ant- in Lithuanian duck'.

*anid in Old High German enit, anut, NPl. enti, Old Saxon anad, Old English ned, Old

Latin anas f. (Akk. anatem and anitem: G. Pl. also-tium) `duck', Germanic *anud- and

ntis, Old Prussian antis, proto Slavic *ty, serb. tva, Old Russian utov (Akk.), klr. utj ` Latin anatna (scil. caro) `duck's meat': Lithuanian antena ds. In occidental Romance languages and Illyrian the old laryngeal h - became initial k-: French canard, Wallon canard, Wolof kanara, Romagnolo zcval ` duck'. well: The initial k- of occidental Romance languages is present in some Slavic languages as Czech (*kant-ska) kachna : Slovak kaica; kaka : Ukrainian kachka : Yiddish katshke : Polish kaczka `duck'.

Celtic cognates correspond to Basque one:

Venetian arna; anara, Paduan nara; arna, Italian anatra; anitra, Calabrese anitra, Catalan hwyaden; chw chwadan; hw hwyad, Valencian anet, Bergamasco ndra, hos, Welsh (*houad-en) hw h Bresciano nedra, Reggiano nader; nadra, Greek gr. , Boeotian , Albanian (*ratsa) rosa, Furlan (*anrata) raze, Hungarian (*anrata) rce, Irish (*anracha) lacha, Romanian (*anracha) ra. nec, Galician nade, Spanish nade, Basque ahate, Breton (*angh-at-) houad, Cornish

Maybe rhotacism n/r of alb. (*anracha) rosa ` duck ': Rumanian (*anracha) ra ` duck ' ProtoProto-Turkic: *(k)t Meaning: wild duck Swedish anka < Finnish ankka `duck' are related to:

Old Turkic: at (OUygh.) Karakhanid: at (MK) Turkish: angut '', ankt (dial.) Middle Turkic: anqud (Sngl) Uzbek: anirt 'red duck' Sary-Yughur: at Sary-

Azerbaidzhan: anGut-boGaz '' Turkmen: ak 'red duck' Khakassian: t

Karaim: anqt, ankit 'ostrich, vulture, dragon' Kumyk: haqut

Page(s): 41-42

References: WP. I 60, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10.

Meaning: `smell, odour; person' m. ` odour, smell '.

anhen henRoot / lemma: anhen-

Material: Armenian anjn (for older *anj), Gen. anjin ` soul, being, person ' = Old Norse angi

maybe alb. anj `swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj]. Page(s): 43

References: Lidn Arm. Stud. 38 f., WP. I 58, Meillet Esquisse 77 ff.

anh Root / lemma: anh- (*enh-) enh Meaning: `narrow, *press' Material: Verbal: Avestan zah `to press', lengthened grade Avestan ny-zata ` she ahma possibly ` let us arm = gird on the sword ' is remote to the meaning; anha RV. 8, 46, 5 is unclear);

squeezes herself into her corset ', ny-zayn ` to wedge oneself in ' (with = ; ved.

Maybe zero grade alb. Geg (*anza-) zan `to capture, grasp, press', Tosc z : Avestan zah `to press' [common alb. -h- > -z-]. gr. ` ties up, strangles ', Latin ang ` to press tightly; of the throat, to strangle,

throttle; in gen., to hurt, distress; of the mind, to torment, make anxious ';

probable Old Church Slavic v, vzati ` bind ' (suggestion that v- is filling hiatus, see which may also have influenced meaning?).

Old Church Slavic as i- verb , ziti ` restrain '; in addition with zero grade very

Meillet MSL. 14, 369, maybe becomes steady through influence from viti ` coil, bind, wind' anhanh-s ` narrow ': Old Indic only in ahu-bhd f. ` narrow lacuna ' and in the Abl. Sg.

n. ah ` crowdedness, quality of tightly packed together, affliction ' (derivative ahur- ` pressed, unhappy '); gr. in (see below); Latin in angiportus (*angu-portus) ` narrow alley, a narrow street ';

oblique cases), Old Norse ngr, ngr, Old English enge, Old Saxon engi, Old High

Gothic aggwus ` narrow ' (at first from *aggus, as manwus from *manus; w comes from the German angi, engi ` narrow ', Middle High German bange Adv. (bi + Adv. ango), Modern High German bange; furthur derivatives with g: Armenian anjuk ` narrow ', mit k Old Church Slavic z-k ` narrow '.

eingyaw ` be restricted, be contained in ... ', Old Irish cumcae (*kom-ingi) gl. `

Cymr. e(h)ang (*eks-angu-, Indo Germanic *nhu-) ` far, wide, extensive ', mcymr.

far, wide ' (*for-eks-ingi-), cumung (*kom-ingu-, Indo Germanic *nhu-) ` narrow ', ing f. Morris-Jones, Welsh Gr. 110) ` narrow ', Middle Breton encq (*angio-) ` narrow '.

compression of the throat, suffocation; of the mind, distress, anguish, trouble ', fairsing `

(*nh) ` crowdedness, affliction ', from *kom-angio- cymr. cyfyng, in this way yng (also ing,

Maybe alb. eng `deaf and dumb (*narrowed)' distress, need ' (as well as ahat- f.), Avestan zah- ` badgering, need, captivity ', zmind, distress, anguish, trouble ', angus-tus ` narrow ' (from *anghos-to-s); angustiae ` anhos- anhes anhos-, anhes ` oppression, affliction, crowdedness ': Old Indic has- n. ` Fear, hos

jata ` killed by strangulation ': Latin angor m. ` compression of the throat, suffocation; of the

narrowness; hence, of space, a strait, narrow place; 'spiritus', shortness of breath; of time, shortness; of supplies, shortness, poverty; of circumstances, difficulty, distress; of disposition, narrow-mindedness; of reasoning, subtlety '; maybe zero grade in alb. (*angus-tus) ngusht `narrow'. III 12) ` Annoyance, loss, pity, affliction, frustration ', Old Frisian angost, Old High German angust, Modern High German Angst (from *anghos-ti- changing the vowel after *anghu-); Old Church Slavic zost ` restriction, constriction, limitation, narrowing ';

about Celtic see above; Old Norse angr m. (maybe originally more neutrally es-stem, Fick

tas or *an-tas.

Lithuanian aktas ` narrow ' (k- insertion, not guttural change) cannot stand for *an[a]sWords for ` nape ' as ` the narrowest place between head and trunk ' ( the idea also

plays a role ` where one strangles one ' in light of this?): gr. Aeolic and ` s by means of forms -en-;

nape ' (after Schulze GGA. 1897, 909 A. 1, as *F- substantivization of u-Adj. *anhabout see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 296), Gothic hals-agga `nape', klr. vjazy Pl. winsus ` neck ' (also Armenian viz ` neck, throat, cervix ' with preposition v-?), see

`Neck', Czech vaz ` neck, nape ' (to vzati see above), Old Prussian (as Slavic loanword) Pedersen KZ.38, 311; 39, 402, Vondrk Sl. Gr. I 184, Adontz Ml. Boisacq I 10, as well as Other formations: gr. ` cord, choking, strangling ' (from it Latin angina ` the

below under augh-, ugh. augh-

quinsy, as suffocating '), m. ` braces, bandage ', , , ` close to '

(compare French prs ` close to, near ': Latin pressus `a pressing, pressure'), compounds Osthoff MU. 6, 60 ff.); common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; ` nearer, very near ' (*; hence has changed after = *,

Ernault RC. 7, 314; 19, 314 ff.); Old Church Slavic zota ` narrowness '. exist.

bret. concoez ` geode ' (*kom-angeid-; compare also dial. acoe ` uvula in the throat '; Gall. PN Octodurus absents, because Irish ochte ` narrowness, straitness ' does not Van Windekens (Lexique 5) puts here Tocharian A acr ` weak. flimsy (?)'. Page(s): 42-43 References: WP. I. 62 f., WH. I 47.

ang(h)i eghi- oghi (h)i- eghi hiehi hiRoot / lemma: ang(h)i- (*eghi-, oghi- and ehi-)

Meaning: `snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)' kinship whose relations still are often unclear.

eghi oghi hihiehi hiNote: eghi-, oghi- and ehi- ds.; at least two etymological different, but early the crossed

ang(h)i (h)iRoot / lemma: ang(h)i- : `snake, worm, *fish' derived from an extended Root / lemma: hen anh- (*henh-): `narrow, *press' nh henh : Material: Latin anguis = Lithuanian angs (f.), Old Prussian angis ` serpent, snake '


Armenian auj (Gen. -i) ` snake ' (Meillet Esquisse 154, Dumzil BSL. 39, 100);

(Latvian odze f. ` snake '), Old Church Slavic *, russ. u, poln. w ` snake ',

yw-od ds. (Fick II 15; to brit. zero grade from g before u see Pedersen KG. I 107).

Middle Irish esc-ung ` eel ' (*`water snake ', esc ` water ' + *angh), cymr. llys-yw-en, Pl. In addition with zero grade and voiced-nonaspirated (the latter could be in itself also in

Hes. (*ngi-). Note: common Illyrian g- > b-.

the Latin and Balto-Slavic) Old High German unc ` snake, adder ', gr. (illyr). To these forms with voiced-nonaspirated at first is , Muo Hes.

hor, serb. gor, sloven. ogr ` eel ', Lithuanian ungurs ds.

connected Balto-Slavic *anguria- in Slavic *gor m. russ. ug(o)r, poln. wgorz, Czech (assim. from *angurs, compare Finnish ankerias), Old Prussian angurgis ` eel ' (Church

(*eng-ri-: to compare Solmsen Beitr. 1215), where because of r- suffixes are to be

Slavic gulja, jgulja ` eel' probably from Latin). Hirt IF. 22, 67 connects these gr. and

Balto-Slavic eel names to an independent equation (nevertheless, compare the r-suffix of Old High German angar etc, see below). Another Indo Germanic equation for ` eel ' is perhaps gr. f., Latin anguilla (see

esp. W. Meyer KZ. 28, 163, Johansson KZ. 30, 425, J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 369, Osthoff IF. 4, Gr. * assimilated etc. to , or and the pure gutural through the influence determining influence i of anguis?). With r- suffix: Gr. ` eel' Maybe in -dz > gj ending stem: dzdz Maybe from Greek Illyrian ` eel ' > alb. ngjal ` eel ' [common Albanian Slavic > dz-] Illyrian TN Encheleae ` snake men? ' : Hungarian angolna `eel' [from native Illyrian TN Paeones]. from ; in Latin-illa instead of-ella after the fluctuation in real diminutive under

270, 292, Hirt IF. 22, 67, Indo Germanic 619 f.), although the details are still unclear (in the

Lithuanian anktira ` maggots, cock chafer grubs, grubs ' (and similar forms, see

German angar ` grain maggot' ' engirinc ` larva ', Modern High German Engerling,

In the meaning ` worm, maggot ' and with r-suffix (compare above etc) : Old High

Trautmann Old Prussian 301), Latvian anksteri ` maggots, cock chafer grubs ', Old

Prussian anxdris (i.e. anxtris), however, `adder' (about the -st- these Baltic forms compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin Lett.-D. Wb. I 71), russ. ug(o)r ` blister, raised bubble on the skin

GGA. 1898, 554 f.).

the skin ' (Bezzenberger GGA. 1874, 1236, BB. 2, 154; not better about angar, gor ders. Nasalized forms:

that is filled with pus, fin ' (also ` eel', see above), poln. wgry ` blister, raised bubble on

egala ` leech, bloodsucking worm ', Danish Norwegian igle ` a parasite sheet worm in the viscera of the animals and in the skin and the branchia of the fish '. Moreover gr. , Old High German Old English igil (Indo Germanic *ehinos),

Gr. m. (f.) `snake', ds. (for *, Specht Dekl. 377), Old High German

Lithuanian es, Church Slavic je ` hedgehog (snake eater) '.

Modern High German Igel, actually ` snake eater ', W. Schulze Gnomon 11, 407,

Armenian i ` snake, viper ' can be put as *ghis to (Meillet Esquisse 75); ai- ` snake '. gr. ` snake ' (*oghis); cymr. euod (*ogh-) ` sheep worms ': Old Indic hi-, Avestan

English (corrupted) exe, Old High German egidehsa, Modern High German Eidechse under gle) + Germanic *ahsi, Old High German *dehsa ` spindle, newel '. mit ewi-, egi-, Indo Germanic *oghi- = (Zupitza gutturals 99 after Kluge; Falk-Torp

It is uncertain apposition from Old Saxon egithassa, Middle Low German egidesse, Old

intersection form would have caused *eghi-, *oghi- , remains undecided. Taboo images have also probably helped in it. Page(s): 43-45 References: WP. I 63 ff.. WH. I 48, Specht KZ. 64, 13; 66, 56 f., Havers Sprachtabu 44 f.

Whether in this variety so order is to be brought that *aghi- and *eghi-, *oghi- (h) an

Meaning: `need, necessity' Material: In e- grade: Brugmann Grdr. I2382) wherewith Irish cht (*anktu- or *nktu-, *enktu-) ` manslaughter' at press, kill '?) originally is same, or connected to *enek- ` kill ', as well as Hittite i-in-kn, first is to be connected (see Falk-Torp 17, 1430), root-like with ank- ` compulsion ' (: `

ankRoot / lemma: ank-1

-en-kn (enkan) ` death, epidemic, plague '. Maybe alb. Geg hek `agony'.

`need, necessity', in Irish also `spoliation, act of violence'. In a- grade:

Old Irish cen (c- from *ank- or *nk-), mcymr. anghen, cymr. angen, corn. bret. anken

Gr. ` necessity, compulsion ' (normally as reduplicated respectably), Ionian obliged ');

ds. (from ` indispensable, necessary ', ` compelled, forced, Although ` compulsion' from ` hostile distress, pursuit ' were comprehensible, it makes

does gr.-Celtic meaning - concordance, nevertheless, doubtful, whether phonetically


English ht (proto Germanic *ant), Germanic EN ctumrus (i.e. n. tumraz, 1. year

correspondent Old High German hta ` hostile pursuit ', Modern High German Acht, Old

References: References: WP. I 60. Pedersen Hittitisch 183 f., Hendriksen Unters. 28, Benveniste Origines 155. Page(s): 45

Meaning: `to bend, bow, *flex; wangle; turn; curve, snake coil, anchor' Material: Old Indic acati (Middle Persian anctan) and (zero grade) cati ` bent, crooked ', participle bend between breast and hip ', kas- n. ` Bend, inflection, curve, crook ' (= gr. ` valley, gulch, canyon, gorge '), akasm ` side, points '; aku- in akynt- ` curvatures, bends, searching side ways '; Avestan anku-psmna- ` with hooks, adorning themselves with clasps '; Old Indic ankuc- ` hook, fishhook, elephant's sting ', akur- ` young shoot, scion crooked ', German Angel ` below); (originally germ point, crooked germ), hump, tumefaction, a heavy swell ' (= gr. `
d o r g ni h sif

Root / lemma: ank-2, angank- ang-

-akna- (with -, ny-, sam-),-akta-(with ud-, ny-) 'crooked, bent'; ak- m. ` bend, hook,

', Old Norse ll, ll ` cotyledon, germ, sprout, bud ' see

Avestan Aka m. ` hook, bait ', xnah (Bartholomae Stud. 2, 101, Airan. Wb. 359) `rein'; the ribs of the ship ' (Dderlein, Bechtel Lexil. 129), ` all writhed, humped, curved, stooped ', ` fishhook '; ` crooked ', ` strap, thong, brace ' (= Old above). Norse l, l ds.), ` anchor '; ` elbow, bay, all stooped '; (see gr. ` bow, elbow ' (D. Pl. to = ), -- ` fixed planks in

maybe Ancyra -ae f. capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor. (ancient district in central Anatolia - a Celtic, (Illyrian?) settlement). With o: ` barbed hook ' = Latin uncus ` hooked, curved; Subst. hook ' ( =

uncnus ` hook, barbed hook '); ungulus ` a finger-ring, a ring ' Pacuvius, from Festus 514 angang-); Hes.; L. as Oscan called, ungustus `hook-shaped stuff ' Paulus ex Fest. 519, see below under

Maybe from also Latin unguiculus -i m. `a finger or toe-nail', unguis -is m. `a finger or toein zero grade alb. (*nguilist), glisht `finger, toe' : Latin ungulus ` a finger-ring, a ring ' [common alb. -s > -st shift].

nail; of animals, claw, hoof', ungula -ae f. `a hoof, claw, talon' : Rumanian unghie `nail' and

gorge' (` curve, canyon, a bay; an inlet ' as = Germanic *angra-); *akato- = Old Church Slavic kot ` hook ';

Latin ancus `somebody having a crooked arm', ancrae ` an enclosed valley, valley,

Old Irish cath ` fish hook ' = cymr. anghad ` clutch, hand ' (to craf-anc ` claw ') from

Maybe zero grade alb. (*ncus) thua ` nail, claw '. schwd. Anke ` Lake of Constance trout ' (gall. *anko- ` curved, hooky ' and *rko- ` in front ' Old High German ango, angul ` fish hook, sting ', Old Icelandic angi, Old English onga ` gallorom. ancorago, ancora(v)us from *anko-rkos ` Rhine salmon, hook salmon '

from *prko-, cymr. rhag ` before ');

point, sting ' (*akn-; about Gothic halsagga ` cervical bend, nape ' see rather anh-); Harangr),

*angra (up to gender = Latin *ancrae) in Old Norse angr ` bay, curve ' (in local names like

Maybe zero grade alb. (*angul) ngul `jab, stick, hook' synonymous Old Icelandic eng (*angi-) ` grassland, meadow '; Old High German awgul (= gr. -, see above), Middle High German angel `the part of a blade that is ongel ` a fishing-hook. Also, a rod and line '. connected to the handle (of a sword) by a tang ', Old Norse ngoll ` fishhook ', Old English Old High German angar, Modern High German Anger (Germanic VN Angrivarii);

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*ngelos) ngec, ngel 'be stuck, be hooked' : ngul ` to jab, claw '. Much puts here Latin-Germanic VN Anglii, Old English Angel, Ongel as ` resident of the (Hoops Reallex. I 61); Holsteiner bay ' to Old Icelandic PN ngull, which did not cover meaning ` angle, bay '

prong ' from *ankn-), Old Norse l, l f. ` long strips, thongs, riems ' (basic form *nhul, compare , or at most *anhl, standing near gr. );

to meaning compare except Old Indic akur- yet Norwegian dial. ange ` germ, point,

with original initial stress Old Norse ll, ll ` cotyledon, germ, bud ' (*anhla-, Noreen Ltl. 25;

words for ` point, sting, cusp '; kot ` hook ' (see above);

Slavic jmy ` barley ' as ` thistly, thorny, spiky ' (Berneker 268), compare the above

Lithuanian anka f. ` noose, snare, loop ' (= gr. Hes.); Old Church Slavic Tocharian A acl ` bow, arch, curve ', kar- ` fangs, bulwark '; also A okalm,

okolmo ` elephant '? Van Windekens Lexique 6, 13, 82. bend '):

angang-, esp. to the name of extremities (compare Gothic lius ` limb, member ': *lei- `

a finger-ring, a ring '), aguh- ` big toe, thumb ' = Avestan anguta- m. ` toe ',

Old Indic gam ` limb, member ', agli-, agri- f. ` finger, toe ' (thereof agulyam `

Armenian ankiun, angiun ` angle ' and ajal- m. `two cupped hands held together'; gr. n. ` Bucket, bowl ', (*-) ` vessel ', actually ` twisted vessel '; Middle Irish aigen ` frying pan ' is dial. additional form of *aingen ds.; (*ankin-), Old Norse ekkja ` ankle, heel '; Demin. Old High German anchal, enchil Old High German ancha, enka f. ` neck ' and ` thigh, osseous tube, bone tube '

(reinterpreted anklo m., anchala, enchila f., Middle High German Middle Low German enkel, Old Frisian onkel, onklu, Modern High German Enkel, Maybe in -e- grade Illyrian TN Encheleae (Enchelleae) Illyrian TN associated with the coils e of the snake, Ilirus and Kadmos. Old English (reinterpreted) anclow, engl. ankle, Old Norse kkla (*ankulan-) ` ankle on

the foot '; also Latin angulus (which is unrelated to Old Church Slavic g()l ` angle, nook ') ` m. a corner, angle; nook, esp. either a quiet corner, retired spot or fig., an awkward corner, strait ' (besides with o- grade Latin ungulus, ungustus see above). References: References: WP. I 60 f., WH. I 46, 49 f., Meringer WuS. 7, 9 ff. Page(s): 45-47

Meaning: `male or female ancestor' Note: babble-word

anan-1 Root / lemma: an-1 (*an 1) an

anRoot / lemma: an-1 (*an-) : `male or female ancestor' derived from zero grade of Root / -]

enen n- nlemma: en-1, en-, n-, n- : `to bear (mother, father)' [origin of the old laryngeal - > Material: Armenian han `grandmother', gr. Hes., compare nt- > -nn-), Illyrian EN , , Annaeus etc, as well as Messapic Illyrian ana =

Inschr. ; Latin anna f. ` nursing mother '; (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -

Illyrian origin (W. Schulze KZ. 43, 276 = Kl. Schr. 214, Krahe IF. 46, 183 f.); ae f. sister of Dido; 'Anna Perenna', an Italian goddess. Note:

compare furthermore Latin anus, -s `an old woman; also used like adj., old', also Anna -

Armenian, gr. and Illyrian have preserved old laryngeal -;

Illyrian and Latin display common -ila diminutive suffix, suggesting the same origin. `genealogy, line of descent from an ancestor', alb. anoj `to incline, like'.

Maybe alb. Tosc aneja `mother', alb. an `side, bloodline' similar to Germanic Ahnenreihe Old High German ano, Middle High German ane, an, ene, Modern High German Ahn `

grandfather, great-grandfather, forefather '; Old High German ana, Middle High German

Indo Aryans as an effigy or substitute of the grandfather; compare gr. . Against this represented view of W. Schulze KZ. 40, 409 f. = Kl. Schr. 67 f. endorsed Hermann, Nachr. d. Ges. d. Wiss. to Gttingen, Phil.-hist. Klasse 1918, 215 f., the bayr. enl, nl,

enichln, Modern High German Enkel (`the young ancestor'). The grandson was looked by

enel ` grandfather, grandson '. Further Old High German eninchil, Middle High German

li (*anilo), Old English Anela, Old High German Anelo family names; Middle High German

ane ` grandmother, great-grandmother, ancestress '. diminutive formations are: Old Norse

father's brother ', then also ` of the brother's son '); the salutation is returned by the grandfather to the grandson. This older view is notable (compare the literature by Hermann aaO.). Prussian ane `old mother'; Lithuanian anta `mother-in-law'. (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

with same occurance has to do like with Modern High German Vetter (originally ` of the

sterr. nl, nl etc the meaning ` of grandfathers ' and ` grandson ' carry and the one here

Hittite an-na-a `mother'; a-an-na-a (anna) `grandmother', Lycian na ds.

moreover. It is similar formation like in Latin matertera `mother's sister, maternal aunt ',

Probably rightly puts M. E. Schmidt KZ. 47, 189 Armenian aner ` father of the woman '

cymr. ewythr `uncle', acorn. euitor; bret. eontr (proto Celtic *aventro-, see Pedersen Celtic Gr. I 55). *anero- had the original meaning ` anything like the forefather '. It is unsafe Old High German hevianna from which reshuffled Middle High German

origin from *hafjan (d) j accepts ` the lifting ' from which the later close interpretations have originated. However, compare PBB. 30, 250. References: WP. I 55 f., WH. I 50, Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 26, 66.

hebamme. Because Old High German*anna `woman' is not to be covered, Kluge11 238

Page(s): 36-37

Root / lemma: an-2 an-

Meaning: there, on the other side

Material: Gr. ` probably, possibly, in any other trap ' ( from , Ionian from *

', secondarily interrogative particle, extended anne, Old Irish an-d ` here ', (common Celtic whether = or whether '.

, from ); Latin an ` conj.: in direct questions, or; in indirect questions, or whether

-ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Gothic an ` then, now '; Lithuanian an-gu ` or ', Old Prussian anga-anga ` maybe alb. (*ane) andej `there' : Old Irish an-d `here' [rather common alb. shift n > nd]. Thereof derived: os anios ` other ' in: 26. Old Indic any- ` other ', Avestan anya-, ainya-, Old pers. aniya- ds. compare above S. anteros `other' (from second) in: maybe zero grade in alb. (*anteros) ndrroj `change, alter', ndrres `change, the other thing'; Old Indic ntara-, oss. ndr `other', Gothic anar ds., Old Icelandic annarr `other,

second', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old High German andar, atras, Latvian otrs beside Lithuanian ataras, East Latvian tors ds., Slavic *ter, Church Slavic vtor- `second' s. ui- ` asunder, apart '. Old English er `other', Old Prussian anters, antars (*antras) `other, second', Lithuanian

*tor in Czech ter m. ` Tuesday ', Upper Sorbian wutory `other, second'. About Old

Note: al- olRoot / lemma: al-1, ol- : `besides; other' into *alny-, *any-. `somewhere else'. It seems Root / lemma: an-2 : `there, on the other side' is a zero grade of the extended anMaybe zero grade in alb. (*nytra) tjetr `other' [common alb. n > nt > t] : Old Indic anytra Perhaps alb. dial. (*hetr) jatr, jetr, alb. [ attribute t `of' + anter], tjetr `other, second'; particle. Initial alb. j- seems to have substituted the old laryngeal form -. Page(s): 37-38

similar to formation in alb. Geg (*t mel = of milk) tamli `milk' where t is the alb. attribute References: WP. I 56, 67, II 337, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10/11, Debrunner REtlE. 3, 1 ff.

Root / lemma: an4, anu, an, n

Meaning: a preposition ("along a slanted surface, etc.")


Material: Avestan ana, Old pers. an (Proto Aryan *ana or *an) ` about there ' (m. Akk. or (m. Akk.), ` lengthwise, along ' (m. Lok.), also preverb; Instr.), ` along, on ' (m. Akk.), Avestan anu, Old pers. anuv ` after, according to; up there '

Note: (compare the summary by Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 798 f., also about the syntactic).

maybe alb. ans `along'

behind, according to, with regard to, against ' (m. Akk.), Adv. ` on it (auslaut-u appears to be comparable in Lesbian Thessalian beside Attic . Against Wackernagels explanation from Indo Germanic *enu ` along, according to ' see WH. I 677; to-u see below

Old Indic nu ` after (timewise m. Akk., bl., Gen.), after (order), after there, along,

maybe from -an (the h by mixture with a borrowed sound from the Pers. ham- ` together '; Thessalian Arcadian, z. Part Cypriot , isolates Arcadian Cypriot (from ) ds. (the Ionic-Attic , ` on, upwards, along ', Doric Boeotian Arcadian Cypriot , Lesbian

ap-u); Armenian am- in am-banam ham-barnam ` I raise, uplift ', ham-berem ` I endure '

monosyllabic form appears the original and to be extended only after ; compare ; Adv. ` upward, up ';

Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622; it is likely according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 275 originated from A Latin remainder appears an-hl ` breathes strongly and with difficulty ' (an +

clamo) etc

tentu beside:) an-tentu `intendito', anseriato `observatum', anglar `oscines' (*an-kl to

*ansl); Umbrian an-, (with en `in' become synonymous and with it alternately, hence, en-

Maybe here Old Irish an-dess ` from the south ' etc; and preposition m. dat. and Akk. ` on, in ', m. dat. ` on, in, up, by ', m. Akk. ` after, up, on, an (*ana or *an, *an) preposition m. dat. and Akk. and Instr. ` on, up, in, to, against '; maybe zero grade in alb. (*ana) n ` on, in '. Slavic *on going back to Slavic Slavic v(n)- ` in, on ' see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 828 and With zero grade of the first syllable, thus initial sound n: from the connection with the ablative originated anew), as a Nominal prf. nuo-, as a prefix nuo-; Lithuanian nu m. Gen. ` from down, from away ' (these where from meaning only Lithuanian ante, ant m. Gen. ` accordingly, according to '; about the first on proto Gothic ana (m. dat. mid Akk.) ` on, in, against, because of, about ', Old Norse Adv.

against ', Old Saxon an, Old English on, Old High German aua, an, Modern High German

*en `in'.

Verbal prf. nu- (proklit. abbreviation as in pri- beside pri), let. no m. Gen. ` from', as Old Prussian no, na m. Akk. ` on (where), against, about there ', as prefix ` after; from

there; up, on, in ' (in addition after pr : pr-d neologism na-d ` upside, above, about ' m. help '. Akk. and Instr. and preverb); Old Indic n- perhaps in ndhit ` pressed ', see below n- ` n-

away ' (see also BezzenbergerKZ. 44, 304); Old Church Slavic na m. Akk. and Lok. ` on

near, turned near ' (with root oq - as 2nd part); see Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 798 f., where maybe alb. (*nh) nga `from' [common alb. n > ng shift] nagl ` suddenly, abruptly ' (?), s. Feist 42. About Gothic anaks adv. ` suddenly, straight away ', supposedly to Old Bulgarian
h h h 2

` sit '; presumably similarly Gothic n, Old High German nh Adv. ` near' as ` looking

the movement, Avestan na-zdyah-, Old Indic ndyas- ` closer '(' * moved near '); root sed-

Here presumably Lithuanian -na, -n ` in (direction where) ', postal position with verbs of

also about the ambiguous Old Indic dhi ` about, on', ap. adiy `in' (*-nd i or *ed i, *od i?).

References: WP. I 58 f., WH. I 43 f., 49, 677, Feist 41 a, 373, Trautmann 200. References: Page(s): 39-40

Meaning: noose, snare

ansiRoot / lemma: ans, ansi-

Material: Latin nsa ` clutch, handle, a handle; (hence), occasion, opportunity ', nsae

crepidae ` the eyelets on the straps of the shoe soles through which the shoelaces were also Latin anstus = Lithuanian stas ` (furnished with or having a handle) with a handle pulled ' = Lithuanian s f. (Akk. s) ` pot handle, loop with the knot apron ' (compare

hanger, kettle hanger ', Latvian oss (Akk. osi) ` handle '; Maybe alb. (*ues) vesh ` handle, ear '

'), Latvian uosa ` handle, loop, eyelet ', next to which i-stem Old Prussian ansis ` hook, pot

of the straps ' = Middle Low German se f. `ring-shaped handle, loop' (out of it Late Middle Kluge and Weigand-Hirt s. v.?); Middle Irish (i)si Pl. ` rein ', gr. , Doric ds. (*v). Maybe truncated alb. (*enha) ena `pot (*pot handle)' [common alb. -s- > -h-]. Page(s): 48 References: WP. I 68, WH. I 51, Trautmann 10. High German Modern High German se; or West Germanic word to Ohr according to

Old Icelandic s f. (*ansj) ` hole in the upper edge of the shoe leather for pulling through

Meaning: Meaning: ghost, demon Note:

Root / lemma: ansu-, nsu- (*enku-r- in centum languages) ansu- susu enkuenku

ansu- susu enkuankRoot / lemma: ansu-, nsu- (*enku-r-): ghost, demon, derived from Root / lemma: ank-2, enku : angang- : `to bend, bow, *flex; wangle; turn; curve, snake coil, anchor'. In e- grade: Material:

Lycian ea- ' grandchild, grandson '; Lycian B qzze, qezmmi, zzt (Shevoroshkin), Lycian A qeh ' offspring, descendants, progeny ' (Tischler 191 ff) In a- grade:

Hittite: as- (II,I) ' testify, bear ', assa- ' grandson, granddaughter ', assu- c. 'king, ruler, ', asusara- ' queen '; (Tischler 191 ff).

sovereign'; h.l. as(a)- 'create, engender, breed', asmi- ' offspring, descendants, progeny

Comments: ' grandchild, grandson ' in Hittite may be a result of contamination: cf. Hittite hammasa- ' small child ', Luvian hamsa-, h.l. hamasa- ' grandchild, grandson ' (see Tischler ibid. and 141-142).

ahura- ` ruler, lord ' (*nsu-); Venetic ahsu- (= su-) ` cult effigy, cult figure ' = Germanic

Old Indic su-, Avestan ahu- ` breath of life, breath, life, spirit, world ', su-ra-, Avestan

anses ` demigods '. Note:

*ansuz ` god, ace ' in Old Icelandic ss, Runic a[n]suR, Old English s ` ace ', Gothic-Latin

The inanimate suffix -ur : Old Indic su-ra-, Avestan ahura ` ruler, lord ' : , , ururaur u raura or province of Illyria, , speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . References: H. Gntert Der Aryan Weltknig 102, Feist 52 b. Page(s): 48

Illyrians, , , Illyria, also , , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region

See also: Perhaps to an()- ` breathe '.

Meaning: favourable

ansRoot / lemma: ans-

disfavor '; preterit present Old High German an, unnum (Inf. unnan, preterit onsta, onda) ` (ann, unnom, preterit unnan from *una) ` love, grant, concede '. un-nu-m (from *unz-nuof common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

resentment, disfavor '; Middle High German gund m. ` favour ', Old Norse f-und f. `

love ', Old High German abanst, abunst, Old Saxon avunst, Old English fest `distrust,

German gunst from *ge-unst, Old English st ` favour, mercy ', Old Norse st, st ` favour,

Material: Gothic ansts f., Old High German anst and (zero grade) unst, Middle High

grant ' (gi-unnan), Old Saxon Old English unnan ` grant, concede, wish ', Old Norse unna

m-) is an old present the neu-, nu- class, wherefore the new Sg. ann. (under the influence

Which root beginning as Germanic an-, un-, has in ansts the suffix compound -s-ti- to see (see Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 437), while Middle High German gund, Old Norse fund the easier one contained -ti-.

However, is because of basic Germanic *anst(s) root probably as Germanic ans-, uns- to from *unz-num (Indo Germanic *ns-nu-me), whereupon then Sg. ann, and new weak

begin (Kluge ZfdtWtf. 9, 317, Brugmann Grdr. II 3, 332), unnum consequently originated preterit *un-a (Old High German onda, Old Norse unna) beside Old High German onsta, creations have become after s- part to unnum, unnan.

Old Saxon gi-onsta; then also Middle High German gund, Old Norse fund (suffix-ti-) new Also gr. - `friendly', - ` unkind, hard ' (: ab-unst) is the most likely =

*-, - (see Brugmann aaO.).

*nos whose suffixale zero grade lies as a basis Germanic *an-s-ti-. Page(s): 47 References: WP. I 68, Feist 53.

In divergent formal judgement Bechtel Lexil covers. 49 gr. - on neutr. Subst.

antroRoot / lemma: antro-m Meaning: cave, hole Material: Armenian ayr, Gen. Pl. ayric ` cave, hole ', gr. ds.
1 1

KZ. 68, 161 f. Page(s): 50

References: WP. I 56 , Schwyzer Mel. Boisacq II 234 , KZ. 68, 222, Gr. Gr. I 532, Pisani

an() )See also: Perhaps to an()-` breathe ', as originally ` vent, air vent '.

Meaning: forward, before, outer side Alb. (*nta) ana `side, end'.

antRoot / lemma: ant-s

Material: Old Indic nta- ` end, border, edge ' (therefrom antya- ` the last '); gr. Gen. Sg. (= ' ) ` down the forefront ', Dat.-Lok. (Schwyzer Gr.
5 6

Gr. I 548 , 622 ), Akk. - ` in the face ' (*ant-), -, -, - etc (W.

Schulze, Kl. Schr. 669, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 632under), adverbal ` towards, opposite ', thereafter ` meets '; about see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 722 under.; about s. Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 687;

moment ' (*ant-iti- to Old Indic it- ` gait, way '), mcymr. anhaw ` old ' (*ant-auo-), nir. ata ` old; age ' (*ant-odio-?), compare Loth Rc. 48, 32; 50, 63; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Hittite a-an-za (ant-s) ` forefront ', therefrom a-an-te-iz-zi-i (antezzi)= *ant-etios; Lycian tawata ` leader ' (Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 17); Tocharian A antule ` outside, to ... before ', antus `also'. Hittite: ant- c. 'forehead', anta 'towards', andai- (I) ' order, lead '; Luvian antili- 'former, previous, prior, first ', anda(i)- ' decide, order ', Lycian tawata ' leader, king ', Lycian nT- ' prescribe, determine ' (Tischler 149ff)

Old Irish tan (*antono-) ` forehead '; perhaps here mcymr. enhyt, cymr. ennyd ` time,

Tokharian: A nt, B nte ' forehead, front ' (PT *nte) (Adams 43)

Maybe alb. hunda ` nose' : Hittite: ant- c. 'forehead'. see also under antios. In addition as pristine cases: anti `in the face of'> ` towards, opposite, against ', etc. `nearness'. Old Indic anti Adv. `opposite itself, before itself, near', from what antik- `near', n.

with, by ' m. Lok. (which has dwindled vowel in the final sound is not determinable; anl. 2; compare to meaning Latin ante ` before, of place or time ' and the above mentioned

on) somewhere there ' m. Akk. (compare Gothic and), in meaning 'aside' m. Abl. and `

Armenian and `there', nd preposition `for, instead of ' m. Gen. and ` along, about (in,

from a-), as preverb 'on'; in addition andranik ` firstborn, the first (earliest) ' (Bugge KZ. 32, words for 'forehead' as a 'front'), probably also ancanem ` to go past ' (Pedersen KZ. 39,

425, compare gr. ; c from t + the aoristic s, compare the Aor. -anc). Maybe alb. andej `there, in the other side, opposite'.

Lexil. 46 from *-- reshuffled after ; , Attic ` almost, against ' (ambiguous ending), , ` meets '.

e.g. ; hom. ' ` in the opposite point of view, against ' is fine to Bechtel

Gr. ` in view of, towards, opposite, before; for, instead of ' m. Gen., also preverb,

spatially ` against, before ', timewise `before', also preverb (e.g. anteced), antid-e, -hc ` before ', antid-re ` lead the way ' (-d after prd); in addition anterior ` earlier ', antrium bellum ` war before the town ', antcus ` the front ' (c after posticus ` behind '), antquus `

Latin ante (from *anti, compare antist, as well as antcus, antiquus) preposition m. Akk.

fronts ' (about antae see, however, under *ant ` door post '). Hittite a-an-ti (anti) ` in front, esp., in particular '.

+*ok- ` looking '), ants, -ium ` rows or ranks (from soldiers, vines)', originally possibly `

old ' (the ending and the contraction in temporal meaning after novus; Indo Germanic *anti

anta `against there ' (direction); to -a see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622 f. divergently meaning the nominal prefix and verbal prefix Germanic anda-, and `against, Gothic and preposition m. Akk. ` up there, about there, along '. With therefrom more

opposite', also in verbs normally ` from - away ': Gothic anda-, and (e.g. andniman ` accept

', andanms ` agreeable, pleasant ', andbindan ` unbind, untie, be confined '), Old Norse German ant-, (e.g. create Antlitz, Antwort).

Old Saxon Old English and, Old High German ant-, int-, Middle High German Modern High compounds Old Norse endr, enn ` earlier, formerly, again, after ' (endr = Gothic andiz-

192, 1455).

(Germanic *andiaz), Middle High German ent, end Konj. ` previous, before ' (e.g. Falk-Torp Lithuanian at, older anta m. Gen. ` after-there, up, on '. About gr. see above. ti nti

uh ` either '), Old English end `before' (*andis), Old High German enti ` earlier, yore '

in una-liuhan ` escape', Old English o- (*un-) in ogangan ` escape', genge ` Grdr. II , 803).

A weaker ablaut form (*nt-) shows Gothic and m. dat. ` , for, around ', una- (*nto-)

fleeting' = Old Norse unningi, undingi (*un-, *and-gangia-) ` escaped slave ' (Brugmann Other meaning points Gothic und m. Akk. `until, to', Old High German unt in unt-az `until,

place exactly attuning meaning = Latin ante ` before', e.g. v. Planta II 443), Lithuanian it `after' (rather contamination from in and ant). The fact that these forms show an extension preposition *en, *n `in' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I

(likewise from *nti, see Walde Kelten and Italiker 54; because of Germanic and not to

grammatical change) o ` in addition, besides, until, to ', Oscan ant m. Akk. ` up to'

+ t), engl. unto ` to, until ', Old Norse unz (and es) `until, till that ', Old English (with

to' and unzi (= untzi) `until, to', Old Saxon und `until, to', unti, unt (and + te ` to '), unto (and

corresponds in the application. However, could be of this one additional use adjustment as against there, on the opposite side over ' to anti; also the words for the `end' (see below) (and + te) preposition m. Akk. ` wholly, completely ' synonymous what, even if only new os antios `against, recumbent before ' (formed from the adverb anti):

629 f., where also about gr. dial. ), is possible as then Lithuanian it with `after'

a result of the sound resemblance and Indo Germanic *nt (-i, -a?) ` until, to ' belong as ` up are originally the purpose waving on the opposite side, and with Old Saxon unt is also ant intersection are from unt with and-, however, the concept relationship of both explained.

gr. `against' (in addition ds., ` situated against; opponent ') probably goes back (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr.I 379) to *.

English ende m., Old High Germananti, enti m. and n., Modern High German Ende; also

*anti- (Germanic *andja-) in Gothic andeis, Old Norse endir, Old Saxon endi, Old

German andi, endi n. ` forehead ' = Latin antiae ` the hair growing upon the forehead, forelock '. A quite different word is Modern High German and, Old High German unti, anti, enti , Old thereupon, thereon, then, ditto ', Avestan a ` also ', Oscan ant m. Akk. ` all the way to, up to, towards ', Lithuanian it m. Akk. `after' (however, see above), Tocharian entwe

Against it is from *anto- (see above) derived ntio- in Old Norse enni n., Old High

Saxon endi, Old English engl. and `and', Old Norse en(n) ` and, but ', with Old Indic th `

`also' belongs to *en, n `in'.

Maybe alb. in (*ende) edhe `and, also', zero grade (*ende) dhe `and, but'. 722, 726, II (B V 2 b d 3). Page(s): 48-50 References: WP. I. 65 ff., WH. I 53 f., Feist 46, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 619, 621, 629 f., 632 f.,

Meaning: strength

apeloRoot / lemma: apelo-

Material: Gr. - Hes., Ionian ` strong ', hom. ` swoon, Ionian Hes., Elis: MN T- (after Prellwitz BB. 24, 214 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 18, 205 here , , with vocal gradation Thessalian Aplis, -inis, FN Aplo, -onis; gall. VN D-ablintes ` the powerless, the weak ' (from *Old English afol, abal n. ` strength '.

; after Sommer IF. 55, 176 rather pregreek); Illyrian MN Mag-aplinus, Aplus, Aplo, aplentes); Germanic GN Matronis Aflims, Afliabus ` effective magic ', Old Icelandic afi n., Note: Note

The Root / lemma: apelo- : `strength' seems related to Root / lemma: ab ro- : `strong, apeloroReferences: WP. I 176, Feist la, Kretschmer Gl. 24, 250. mighty' [the shift l > r r].

Page(s): 52

Meaning: to take, grab, reach

appRoot / lemma: ap-1 (proper p-) : p-


ppip-) : p- : `to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root / lemma: pi- : `comrade' > Root / lemma: aiai-3 : `to give'.

From the reduced Root / lemma: gha - : `to grab, take', derived Root / lemma: ap-1 (exact lemma: ghab aph

Maybe alb. Tosc (*e-ip-mi) ep, jap, Geg nep (*na `us' + ep `give') `give us (*take)' : Hittite e-ip-mi (pmi) `take', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : gr. ` give a hand. In e- grade: Hittite e-ip-mi (pmi) ` takes ', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi). hom. ` cheat'. Maybe alb. Tosc (* ap) jap, nasalized alb. Geg (* enp) nep ` give' common > j- Slavic Albanian. In a- grade:
1 2


Old Indic pnti ` achieved, attained ', more recently pt- ` clever, suitable, trusted '; Avestan apayeiti ` achieved, reached ', 3. Pl. pnte from *puantai; About Old Indic p- ` friend ', gr. o ` friendly' see below pi-. piabbreviation). Armenian unim ` own' (*p-n-?), nd-unim `attain'; (common arm. Celtic alb. gr. ` give a hand, attach, pick a quarrel, light, kindle ', ` touch ', `

touch, adherence etc. ' will be delievered in spite of the spirit here. Kretschmer Gl. 7, 352 assumes influenced by ; hom. () ` touch, palpate, feel, finger ', Ionian ds., common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-;

hom. , (with Aeolic o: Hes.) ` cheat, barter, exchange ', ` phantasmic, delusive, fallacious ', `low-spirited' (actually ` got down '). Pedersen KZ. 39, 428 puts with gr. Armenian ap` ` the hollow hand ' (o-stem, should correspond to gr. ` joint, hinge '; because of p` (= Indo Germanic ph) nevertheless, uncertain (compare Meillet BSL. 36, 110);

however, Lok. y-ap`i as -i-stem, thus probably older neutr. -os-stem) together, which word

begun, commenced ', later coep.

overtake; hence to obtain. Perf. partic. adeptus, used passively, = obtained ', copi ` has

Latin apscor ` touch, reach, attain, come to, come by ', adipscor ` to come up to,

round ' (imper. ape ` hinder, prevent, restrain '), aptus ` as partic. fitted, fastened,

The connection with Latin *api, *apere ` to bind together, unite, joint, connect, link, tie connected. Transf., depending on; also prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped with, with abl. (2) as adj. suitable, appropriate, fitting. Adv. apte ', cpula (co-apula) ` a link, from a common primary meaning ` touch, summarize '. bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash; plur. grapnels ' is probably certain. Maybe is derived Also Latin apud `at, near, by, with, in' will be best of all suit here. The primary meaning

neutr. *apuod (from *apuot ` having reached '). Additional form apor, apur (mars.-Latin apur finem) points on originally-d; Latin apex, -icis ` cusp ', esp. ` the top of the conical cap of the Roman 'flamines', or the

would be ` in close connection ' (compare juxt). One has derived from the part. Perf.

cap itself; hence any crown, tiara, helmet; fig., highest honor, crown; gram., the long mark over a vowel ', maybe belongs to *api; compare also EM. 60; In o- grade: Tocharian A oppcci `clever' (Van Windekens Lexique 82); References: WP. I 45 f., WH. I 57 f., 60, 847, Pedersen Hittite 128, Couvreur H 93. Page(s): 50-51

ap- pRoot / lemma: ap-3, pMeaning: old; damage Material: Old Indic apv ` illness, failure ', Avestan (from an -es-stem) afa- m. ` damage, evil '; Lithuanian ops ` weak, sore, frail ' (Charpentier KZ. 40, 442 f.), presumably gr. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 530). Page(s): 52 `frail, weak' (Bezzenberger BB. 1, 164; to the ending see Risch 98; differently References: WP. I 47, Specht Dekl. 345.

apo- p ap- pu) ap ap Root / lemma: apo- (p, ap-u, pu (* ap o-) Note: Meaning: from, out, of
3 2

apo- p ap- pu) ap ap Root / lemma: apo- (p, ap-u, pu (* ap o-): `from, out, of' derived from Root / lemma: : lemma: roro- : ab - (* ab -): `quick, abrupt' < Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-): `strong, mighty' < root : damp; water; clouds '.
h h h h h 2 h h h 2 h h 1

roneb eneb neb emb mb -(ro-): < with l-formant (ne el < Root / lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, ro ne el): ene Gradually Root / lemma: apo- (p, ap-u, pu (* ap o-): `from, out, of' became the prefix apo- p ap- pu) ap ap : Material: p e-, pi-, p a-, p o-. In a- grade:
3 2 3 2

Hittite: apparnuwasa- c. 'sunbeam, rays of sunshine', appin(a)- ' open flame '. Old Indic pa ` off, away, back ' as adnominal rp. m. Abl. ` away from ', Avestan ap. apa m. Gen. (= *ablative) ` away from, ex, from '; maked. -, -; References: Tischler 162, 165.

` away from '; about privatives *ap- in Iran, and Gr. see Schwyzer ZII. 6, 230 ff.; gr. , alb. prap ` again, back ' (*per-ap); Latin ab m. bl., ` prep. with abl. (1) of motion or measurement in space, from, away from. (2) of time, from, after. (3) of separation,

difference, change, from ; so of position or number, counting from ; and of the relation of

part to whole, out of, of. (4) of origin and agency; esp. with passive verbs, by, at the hands of, because of. (5) viewed from, on the side of : 'a tergo', in the rear; hence in connection with, as regards ' (before voiced consonant from ap, still in aperi from *ap-ueri; perhaps of it as- before p-, as-port; before voiced consonants), Umbrian ap-ehtre ` from without,

also in aprcus, s. WH. I 59; about Latin af s. just there 1; abs = gr. ` back, again '; out from the outside; on the outside, outwardly ' (about other, unsafe Oscan-Umbrian Belege s. v. Planta I 209, 426, II 454 f.);

from, away from ', Modern High German ab-.

and preposition m. dat., Old English f, of, Old Saxon af, Old High German aba, ab- `

Gothic af prefix and preposition m. dat. ` from, away from, from here ', Old Norse af Adv.

Indic patya- n. ` progeny ' and Hittite ap-p-iz-zi-ia-a (appeziias) ` back '.

compare also Lithuanian apai ` the lower part ' (as ` turned away part ', *apoti, to Old

nbret. a ds. However, comes for this poor in sound brit. form rather affiliation to Old Irish , ua in consideration (Thurneysen Gr. 524), so that of all Brit. it remains quite unsafe. In Hittite a-ap-pa (apa) ` behind, back ' (compare gr. - ` give back, return ')

As Celtic derivatives are taken up from *apo acymr. ncymr. o ` ex-, from, of ', a.-mcorn., a.-

Lohmann IF. 51, 324 f.).

have maybe collapsed Indo Germanic apo and epi (Pedersen Hittite 188, Couvreur H 94 f.,

Derivatives: ap-tero-, ap-ero-, ap-iio-, ap-ko- and above apoti, apetio-. ap tero- ap-ero- ap-i ap-ko, ', gr. ` farther distant ' ( ` very far away '); maybe Gothic aftar ` from Old Indic apataram Adv. ` farther away ', ap. apataram Adv. ` apart, somewhere else

the back, backward ', aftuma, aftumists ` the last ', Old English ftemest ds. and Gothic Dat. ` after, behind, according to ', Old English fter ds..

aftra ` back, again ', Old High German Old Saxon aftar Adv. ` behind, after ' and rp. m.

In e- grade: Old Norse eptir Adv. and rp. m. Dat. and Akk. ` after ', aptr Adv. ` back, backward '. Germanic *epi, *opi to the consideration (Schulze KZ. 40, 414 Anm. 3), compare still For this Germanic However, words relationship also stands with gr. , Indo

Gothic afta `behind', Old English ft ` behind, later ', Gothic aftana `from the back', Old Old Indic para- ` back, later, following, other ', Adv. -m ` after, later ', Avestan ap.

Norse aptan, Old English ftan, Old Saxon aftan, Middle High German aften ` afterwards'. apara- ` back, later, following ', Adv. -m, -am, Sup. Old Indic apam-, Avestan apma- `

the one farthest away, the most distant, the last ';

Gothic afar Adv. and preposition with dat. and Akk. ` after, afterward ', Old High German avar, abur (latter from *apu-r-m, as Old Norse aur- ` bottom, lower, nether, back ' in compound, see Falk-Torp, 11 f.) ` again, once more, against it ' (Modern High German aber), Old Norse afar ` esp., very much ' (compare to meaning Old Indic para- also ` Saxon aaro ` descendant '). see still * pero- ` shore '. ) prej `from'. outlandish, peculiar, extreme, extraordinary ', Lidn Stud. 74 ff.; Old English eafora, Old

maybe alb. (*apar) par `first, top', afr `*away, close', afrm `relative, descendant', (*perGr. ` remote, far ' In e- grade: ebba m. ` low tide ', Old Saxon ebbia f., mndd. ebbe, where borrows from Modern High (probably also Old Norse efja f. ` bay in a river in which the current runs back ', Old English

German Ebbe, as ` ebb, the outward movement of the tide; the return of tidewater towards the sea ').

opaky ` again ', Church Slavic opako, opaky, opae ` back, inverted ', in which, admittedly, dark, shadowy, obscure ' = ` turned away from the sun ';

1. composition part ` against ', hakem ` piegare ad una parte, inclinare ', Old Church Slavic

Old Indic pka- ` recumbent apart, distant, coming from the front ', Armenian haka- as

forms can be partly also related to *opi, gr. (compare Latin opcus ` shaded, shady; Literary formation by (Brugmann Grdr. II 1, 482). Besides Old Norse fugr ` after, turned wicked ' (Modern High German big, bicht), Old English *afoc in engl. awkward, from

backward ', Old Saxon auh, avuh, Old High German abuh, abah ` turned away, inverted, *apu-ko-s (or from *opu-ko-s : , so that in the ablaut to Gothic ibuks ` being on the consonant relegating to -, see also Falk-Torp under avet). p: down, put, place, set, fix, lay, deposit' from *po-s[i]n, po-li, po-lbrum, prcet `to keep Avestan pa-zdayeiti ` let to move away, scare off '; Latin po-situs, pn `to put down, set decline ', Old High German ippihhn ` roll back '? Johansson PBrB. 15, 230, in the

off, keep back, to hinder, restrain' from *po-arcet; alb. pa m. Akk. ` without ', pa- `un-' (Gl. Meyer Alb. Wb. 317); Old Frisian fn ` from, of ', Old Saxon fana, fan, Old High German derive from Indo Germanic *pu beside *po). fona, fon m. Dat. (= *Abl.) ` from, of ' (Old High German -o- is after Persson IF. 2, 215 to A similar form pursues Trautmann Old Prussian 389 in Old Prussian pan-s-dau contains according to Lidn Arm. stem 60 ff. o- from *po-.

`thereafter'. Is totally unsafe whether Armenian oork ` polished, slippery, smooth ' Maybe suffixed alb. pas `behind, back' pastaj `later, thereafter'. Against it here in spite of often divergent meaning (Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 808 considers

absorption from Indo Germanic *upo, and for Slavic po in meaning ` behind, after ' m. Lok. probably properly origin from *pos): Old Church Slavic po ` after, in, with, about a little bit there ' (Lithuanian p with Gen. under dat. `after', with Instr. `under'), as essential only more perfective verbal prefixes Lithuanian pa-, Old Church Slavic po- (as nominal prefix remember ', pamt ` memory');

Old Church Slavic pa-, Lithuanian pa and p-, compare e.g. Old Church Slavic pamnti `

Maybe alb. nominal prefix pa- in p -lor, plor ` ploughshare ', p -rrua ` stream '. Meillet Slave comm. 505.

Old Prussian pa- essential in nominal, p- in verbal compound, compare Trautmann 203,

Germanic *po-ti and *po-s. *po*po-

About Slavic po-d ` below, under ' see Brugmann Grdr. II 2, 733 f. - S. still Indo

Maybe alb. (*po-s) posht `below, under' from the same root as Slavic languages Slavic / lemma: pd-2, pd- : (foot, *genitalia).

po-d `below, under ' from Root / lemma: apo- (p, ap-u, pu : (from, out, of) not from Root apo- p ap- pu): apap-u stands beside *apo (Lithuanian see below *pu) in Arcadian Cypriot Lesbian

Thessalian , in Old High German abo = aba, Old Norse au-viri n. ` contemptuous beside *po. That -u maybe enclitic Particle ` and, also ' (Feist a, 508a, WH. I 87). pu (see bove *apu) mostly in meaning (` turned away ' =) ` behind, back ': '; quite uncertain Latin puppis ` the poop or stern of a vessel; poet. the whole ship '. maybe alb. pupa ` the poop or stern of a vessel ' : poln. pupa `bottom'. References: WP. I 47 ff., WH. I If., 842, Feist , Trautmann 11. Page(s): 53-55

person ' (Falk-Torp 11 f.), compare also above *apu-ro- beside *apero-, *apu-ko-, and *pu

compare also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 182.

Old High German fona (see above), Old Indic punar ` again back ', gr. ` the last

Meaning: father

Root / lemma: appa

Material: compare gr. , , , (Theokrit) ` dad '; Tocharian appakke ` father ' (this -(a)kke from ammakki `Mutter'). pap(p)a. See also: compare also pap(p)a Page(s): 52 References: WP. I 47.

Root / lemma: aps Meaning: asp Material: Old High German aspa, Modern High German Espe, Old English spe, Old

Norse sp f. ds., Latvian apse (from *apuse), Old Prussian abse ds., North Lithuanian

apus f., Lithuanian apu, epu f. ` aspen, trembling poplar ' (after Bezzenberger BB.

poln. osa, osika, osina ` aspen '.

23, 298 supposedly free diminutive-formation from *aps), russ. osna (*opsna) ` aspen ',

The fact that in this aspen name the sound result -ps-, is not the original -sp-, confirm

among others trk.-osm. apsak ` poplar ', tschuw. ws ` aspen ' as a loanword from the Hes. a root noun ap- . Page(s): 55 References: WP. I 50, Specht Dekl. 60.

proto Armenian to Pedersen KZ. 30, 462. Specht places because of gr. ,

Meaning: now, also, interrogative particle

er, or? Root / lemma: ar 4 (er, or?), r

particle (* ; , maybe from ' ); likewise zero grade Lithuanian ir ` and, also ',

Material: Gr. , , (from r) ` now, thus, consequently ', Cypriot , interrogative Latvian ir `also', Old Prussian ir `and, also' (= gr. , zero grade Lithuanian ar, Latvian ar

Tocharian ra- emphat. particle.

vacillate from a- and e- as between Latvian ar ` with, in ' and Old Prussian er ` to ';

as an introduction of an interrogative sentence, Old Lithuanian also er with the same Baltic

References: WP. I 77, Trautmann 12, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 342, 622. Page(s): 62

ard Root / lemma: ar Meaning: pole Material: Armenian ardn ` lance, spear ': Lithuanian ardas m. ` pole scaffold for drying flax

', old ardamas ` a (light) pole or spar, a sprit, which crosses the sail diagonally (and serves to make it taut) ' (see to meaning Bezzenberger GGA. 1885, 920)'? Petersson KZ. 47, 245 (Lithuanian words not better according to Leskien Abl. 329 to ardti ` split, distinguish ',

see below er- ` rare, loose, crumbly '). erReferences: WP. I 84.

Page(s): 63

ardi- didi Root / lemma: ardi-, rdiMeaning: point, edge Material: Old Indic ali ` bee, scorpion ' (from *ai, Indo Germanic *rdi) = gr. ` head of

set in motion ').

erta (*artjan) ` stir up, stimulate, tease ' (another interpretation from erta under er-, er-d- ` er- er-

the arrow, sting '; Old Irish aird (*ardi-) ` sharp, peak, point of the compass ', Old Norse

Page(s): 63

References: WP. I 83 f., Lders Schriften 429.

Meaning: to lock

aregRoot / lemma: areg-

dwelling '; Old Saxon racud, Old English reced m. ` building, house '. *areqSee also: compare *areq- ` protect, close '. Page(s): 64 References: WP. I 81, WH. I 63, Jokl IF. 44, 22.

from which borrows alb. ragl f. ` cottage, hut '; kimmer. (*arg-el-i) ` subterranean

Material: Old Indic argala-, argal ` latch, bolt ', maked. ` bathing hut, bath hut ',

ar( arRoot / lemma: ar(e)-- (ar-?), ri- (*her-(e)--) ar Meaning: glittering, white, fast Note: Old Indic rji-py ` darting along ' epithet of the bird yen- (`eagle, falcon'), Avestan rzifya- (cf. gr. H., ), Armenian arcui (< *arci-wi) `eagle' prove that from Root / lemma: er-1, or- : `eagle, *fast' derived extended Root / lemma: er- or(*a)re-1 : `right, just, to make right; king'. rere In e- grade: e-vocalism shown by those of Osthoff MU. V, S. V, and MU. VI 33 considered for

ar(e)-- (ar-?), ri- : `glittering, white, fast' and its subsequent zero grade Root / lemma: ar( arar


Gothic unarkns ` impure, unclean ', arknia ` cleanness, genuineness ', Old High German erchan ` right, just, real, true, genuine ', Old Norse jarknasteinn, (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old English eorcnanstn ` precious stone, jewel ' (in

Icelandic Gr. p. 281, 6); compare also Feist 25b. Tocharian.

addition also Old Norse jarteikn n. ` emblems ' from *jar[kn]-teikn, Lidn by Noreen Old Maybe alb. (*erg-) jarg `white saliva' Common - > j- Slavic Albanian; - > i-, y- Old Indic As securely one cannot consider the affiliation of Germanic words, however, was

concerning the vocalism intersection from Germanic *ark- = Indo Germanic *ar- with *erk= Old Indic rcati, Indo Germanic *erk- at least conceivable.

In a- grade: Hittite ar-ki-i (arkis) `white'. ` white world ' (compare cymr. elfydd S. 30); Tocharian A rki, rkwi `white' (*aruio-), rcune ` epithet of the royal title ', A rki-oi

Maybe alb. harc, harca Pl. `rocky landscape'; alb. has preserved the old laryngeal -. i.e. silver ', rajatm ` silver ' with flashy, in spite of Osthoff MU. VI 33 not from zero grade r (or likewise) deducible vocalism compared with Avestan rzata- n., Old pers. ardata- ` silver ' (r-) : TN Illyrian Ardiaei common alb. - Illyrian -- > -d-. Old Indic rju-na- ` bright, white '; rajat- ` whitish ', rajatm hrayam ` whitish gold,

Maybe Albanian argjend : Bresciano arzent : Romagnolo arznt : Zeneize arzento `silver' (common Avestan Slavic g- > dz-, z- = common alb. dz- > gj-). Latin argentum, Oscan aragetud `silver', Old Irish arggat, Middle Irish airget, cymr. arian(t), corn. Middle Breton argant, nbret. arc'hant ` silver ', gall. PN Arganto-magus; arcanto-dan `

coin minter, mint-master, the master or superintendent of a mint ', Armenian arcat` `silver', Tocharian A rkyant N. Pl. f.; with other formation gr. `silver' (in spite of these

equations the knowledge of the silver for the primeval times stands not sure, see about

Festschr. Streitberg 228), Messapic argorian (: ) ds., argora-pandes (*arguropondios) `quaestor, state treasurer '. Thrak. ` (*white) mouse ', FlN (*Argios). - ` with brilliantly white teeth ' (thereafter also * for , further formation to , epithet of towns situated on white lime or chalk mountains); ` is white '. probably after Wackernagel Verm. Beitr. 8 f. from * dissimilated,

that point and about the borrowing question Schrader RL.II 394, G. Ipsen IF. 39, 235 f.,

Gr. ` white, fast ', in compounds - : - ` with shining thunderbolt ',

wherefore i-stem - of compounds behaves as Avestan drzi-raa- ` possessing

steady chariot ' to drzra- ` solid '. With phonetically same Old Indic rjr- connotes

also ` shining ', is in this meaning with `white' etymological identical (in addition also about fast dogs ' = gr. `fast' (likewise of dogs, also already proto linguistic epithet,

Old Indic rjti-, rjka- ` radiating '). Old Indic rjr- ` fast ', ji-van- ` the allied Indras ordering see Schulze Kl. Schr. 124), - ` fleet-footed ', horses -, upholds Persson Beitr. 828 from (rjr-) ` white ' different word (to the root re- ` straight, right, directly

Lexil. 57, the concept of the lights allows to have flowed from that of the quick movement (compare ` as quick as a flash, at lightning speed ') as well as Schulze aaO. Sides of the same observation considered as to try illuminating power, brightness of the color, and flicker; to shine, glitter, sparkle'). quickness of the movement (compare Latin micre `move rapidly to and fro, vibrate,

' in Old Indic rj- ` rushing straight for ', rji-py ` darting along ', etc), against Bechtel

elucidative, brightening ' (see lastly Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 500 ), ` white sheen, (` in slaying brilliance '?).

`shining'; es-stem in ` perspicuous, clear ', - epithet of , `

, n. ` the whiteness (in the eye, nail)', , Doric (*F

white luster, white-gleaming ' (*-); maybe also in epithet of Hermes On account of es-stem Avestan rzah- ` afternoon and evening ' so that belongs

together etymologically, at least half the meaning is quite doubtful, see. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 202, Bechtel aaO. Maybe alb. (*rz-) errt `dark', err `darken' : Avestan rzah- ` afternoon and evening ' loanword argilla, argla): - see above, -, - ` shining white ' (in the Maybe Galician arxila : alb. argjil `white clay, mud' ` white clay ' (common Avestan Slavic g- > dz-, z- = common alb. dz- > gj-). Latin argentum see above; argu `to put in clear light; to declare, prove; to accuse,

, -, -, - ` white-gleaming '; and ` white clay ' (Latin

word ending probably to root b - ` shine ', Prellwitz BB. 22, 90, Bechtel Lexil. 57 f.).

piercing, shrill, noisy; of omens, clear, significant; of persons, sagacious, cunning; (since Cicero also:) beaming, shimmering ' and ` shrewd '. About that of Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 552, 560 considered for Lithuanian ruolas, uolas,

blame, expose, convict ', argtus `to the eye, expressive, lively; talkative to the ear,

Trautmann Old Prussian 301, whereupon an- (compare Old Prussian ansonis) the original form is (different Zupitza KZ. 36, 66, Germanic gutturals 214).

dial. uuolas, East Lithuanian dial. olas ` oak ', see rather Bezzenberger KZ. 42, 263,

The basis of a 2th root vowel (are-) is given only by Old Indic rajatm ` whitish ', thus dubious.

By Hirts (Abl. 124) basic *ar(e)- cause Germanic words difficulty, however, see above.

References: WP. I 82 f., II 362 f., WH. I 66, 848, Feist 25, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 260, 447, 481, Frisk Nominalbildg. 4.

equates with al- (see above S. 31). alPage(s): 64-65 arenkoRoot / lemma: arenkoMaterial:

Specht (Dekl. 114 ) places because of gr. Hes. a color root in ar-, he

Meaning: a kind of cereal, type of grain Latin arinca ` variety of grain, olyra (which resembles spelt) ' (`Galliarum propria' Plin. n. h.

18, 81; foreign, presumably gall. word, despite Niedermann and 30 not genuinely Latin), gr. ` leguminous plant growing as a weed among lentil plants ', . Hes. Because of the meaning difference quite doubtful equation; no objection offers sure

enough the not sufficing confirmation from in . Non-related in arbar ` grain ' (see *ar- ` to plough, plow '), arn ` bread '.

spite of Fick II 16, 17 are gr. ` bread ' (to dark origin, see Boisacq 84), Middle Irish References: WP. I 84, WH. I 67.

Page(s): 66-67

Meaning: to guard, lock

areqRoot / lemma: areq-

Material: In detail Osthoff IF. 8, 54 ff. m. Lithuanian

with o- gradation orm ` wall, mural ' (*ork-mo-?);

hindrance, balk, impediment ', denomin. argelum ` resist, hold from, hold back '; maybe gr. ` resist, reproach, protects, helps; express disappointment, be sufficient, be

Armenian argel ` hump, block, check, fence, hurdle, barrier, drawback, obstacle,

enough ' (, ) probably from *; n. ` protection, cover, shelter ' (Alkman); o ` sufficing, enough ', - ` oneself enough ', - ` with sufficing feet, fast ' (see also Bechtel Lexil. 279 f.); Maybe alb. (*) argsh `crude craft supported by skin bladders, crude bridge of

crossbars, harrow', zero grade in alb. (*argo-) rrog `alpine meadow (to be guarded)'.

chest, box; esp. a money-box or coffin; also a cell ' (actually ` fastener, shutter ', compare arcnus ` shut, closed; hence silent, secret, confidential '; from Latin derives Gothic etc arka ` boxes, money boxes, ark '; maybe alb. ark ` box, money boxes, ark '. burial cave', Old Prussian arkan Akk. Sg. `ark'), arx ` fortified hill, castle, fort ', arcera `

Latin arce, -re ` to shut in; to keep at a distance, hinder, prevent, keep away ', arca ` a

Old High German arahha, archa ` ark ' and from Germanic again Old Church Slavic raka `

erect, establish; to create, frame ' (constitutes beforehand *trbark- ` to enclose a house, to put up a fence around a house '); Old High German rigil, Middle High German rigel ` latch, bolt ', Middle English rail (Old

canopied chariot ' (suffix after cumera, compare WH. I 63) Oscan trbarakavm ` to build,

English *reogol), Gntert Kalypso 136;

Lithuanian rktas `key', raknti ` to lock, shut '; Murili 50. Note: Note Maybe alb. (*ark-) varg `row, chain, ring'; common prothetic alb. v- before bare initial vowels. Through the meaning little is recommended to citation of cymr. archen ` clothes, shoe ', Hittite ar(k)- ` hold, clamp, to hang (kill s.o. by hanging them) ', Gtze and Pedersen

with metathesis from arc-, Stokes KZ. 41, 381). (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-),

bret. arc'henna ` wear shoes ' (Middle Irish acrann ` shoe, clothes ' probably reconverted About that of W. Foy KZ. 35, 62 as ` castle hill ' interpreted Old pers. mountain names

'), but in addition again Bartholomae Z. altiran. Wb. 105 Anm. 1, 116. ` want, grant '.

arkadri- see Justi IA. 17, 106 (supposedly (H)ara-kadri ` mountain ravine, mountain gorge Against apposition (Bruckner KZ. 45, 108 Anm.) recommends meaning from Slavic raiti

regions. Transf. the god of the lower world; death, realm of the dead ' (uncertain ` lock, seal, shut, trap, close, lock up, shut up, close up '?).

As form mit o-gradation (or at most with or = r) covers Latin Orcus ` Orcus, the infernal

aleqareg egSee also: Similarly aleq- ` refuse, protect ' and areg- (see d.). Page(s): 65-66

References: WP. I 80 f., WH. 62 f., 848.

ar() )Root / lemma: ar()Meaning: to plough Material: Armenian araur ` plow ' (*artrom; Hbschmann Arm. stem I 21); gr. (, ) ` plough, till ', , ` plowman ', ` plow ';

with original vocalization of the 2nd syllable herakl. , gortyn. . etc Tocharian re), or appeared instead of at the same time with the reshuffle many placed after Persson Beitr. 669 an Indo Germanic *aro- besides *ar- ahead (compare

special influence from ` plow up the land anew '.

denominative causatives in - to such in - after in addition basic o- formation, under Latin ar, -re ` to till, plow, farm, cultivate. Transf., to furrow, wrinkle; of ships, to plow

*-a- after arre);

the sea ' (for the older *ar-mi), artor ` ploughman, husbandman ', artrum ` plow ' (-- for Middle Irish airim ` to plough ', cymr. arddu (from *arj-) ` to plough ', arddwr ` plowman ',

(*artrom), cymr. aradr, corn. aradar, Middle Breton arazr, nbret. arar ` plow '; Middle Irish airem (*ariom), Gen. aireman ` plowman ', also PN Airem-n; Gothic arjan, Old Norse erja, Old English Old Saxon erian, Old High German erran,

Middle Irish ar n. ` arable land ', cymr. ar f. ds., Middle Irish ar-n ` bread ', arathar

Middle High German ern ` to plough, till ', Old Norse arr ` plow ', Old High German art ` acquiesce ' about Modern High German Art), Middle High German arl, Modern High

furrowed land ', Old English ear, ier f. ` furrowed land, yield ' (see also under *ar- ` yield, *arGerman Arl, Arling `plow' (from loanword from Slavic *ordlo? genuinely Germanic after Lithuanian ari, rti `to plough', rklas (*ar-tlom) ` plow ', arkls ` horse ' (as ` a plow

Meringer IF. 17, 121);

animal '); artjas ` tiller, plowman ' (*ar-tia-), Old Prussian artoys ` tiller ' (with secondary Latvian ar'u ` to plough ', ara, re ` arable land '; Lithuanian armen ` superficially furrowed Maybe alb. ara ` arable land '. zero grade Lithuanian or ` ploughing time ', compare gr. Hes.),

layer of earth ';

d lom: Lithuanianrklas), rataj ` plowman '; about Slavic *ora- s. Trautmannn 13;

Old Church Slavic orj, orati `to plough'; ralo (serb. rlo, poln. rado) `plow' (*ar()toch AB re `plow'. concerning this pertains: ar( ar()u-:

plowed, plowed land ', esp. arvum ` plowed land, a field; in gen., a region ', Umbrian arvam-en `in plowed land' (= Latin fem. arvas A. Pl.), ar(u)via ` crops, field crops ';

Armenian haravunk` ` arable land ' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 58), Latin arvus, -a, -um `

Middle Irish arbor (*arur) ` grain ', Dat. arbaim, Gen. (already Old Irish) arbe (*aruens), Pl. N. A. arbanna (r/n-stem: Stokes KZ. 37, 254, Pedersen KG. I 63, II 106; therefrom airmnech ` the man who owns a lot of grain ', Corrnac's Gl., with -mn- = -vn-, Stokes KZ.

38, 458); (common alb. Celtic -v- > -b-), gr. ` arable land ' (formally not yet clearly; compare Middle Irish arbor. Unglauhhaft Otrbski KZ. 66, 78). probably after Benveniste Norns 113 from *-F, extension of -F from *aro-ur,

abret. Middle Breton eru, nbret. ero ` furrow ' belong against it to Old High German ero ` likewise *eru- as a basis), however, have taken over like the use for farmed field of one *ar()uo-. earth ', gr. , Armenian erkir ` earth ' (for the latter supposes Pedersen KZ. 38, 197

Through its old e- divergence cymr. erw f. ` field ', Pl. erwi, er-wydd, corn. erw, ereu ds.,

with the plow in indo Germanic primeval times.

From the lack of Aryan correspondences may not be closed against the acquaintance

References: WP. I 78 f., WH. I 69, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 362, 683. ground open '? Page(s): 62-63 lemma: arioRoot / lemma: ario-? Note: erAfter Specht KZ. 68, 42 furthermore to root *er- (er-5) ` disjoint, sever ' as ` tear the er

Meaning: master, lord

* * *

arioar(a)reRoot / lemma: ario-? : master, lord, derived from Root / lemma: ar-1 , themat. (a)re-, and rank, noblest'.

schwere Basis ar-, r- und i-Basis (a)r-, ri- : to move, pass: gr. ` best in birth ar rri-

Material: Old Indic ar(i)y- ` mister, convivial ', r(i)ya- ` Aryan ', ryaka ` venerable man '; Avestan airy, Old pers. ariya- ` Aryan '; gall. PN. Ario-mnus (GIL, III 4594); Irish aire (gl. primas) besides airech, where is to be

formed *arjo- and *arjako-, which to Old Indic ryaka behaves as gr. `youth' to Old here, but from ro + r ` king of kings '.

Indic maryak- `male' (Pedersen Celtic Gr. II 100). Against it belongs Middle Irish ruire not About Old Indic aryamn n. ` hospitality ', m. ` guest's friend ', Avestan airyaman-,

npers. rmn ` guest ', see above under al-1. al-

most distinguished, the noblest ', thus would have to be attached indeed an Proto Norse highbred, exclusive ' and an Indo Germanic *ario-, in the Old Indic phonetically with a *arjaR ` posh, lofty, noble, plush, gentle, kingly, polite, courtly, elegant, genteel, stately,

W. Krause (rune inscriptions 539) should read properly Proto Norse arjostR N. Pl. ` the

derivative from ar- ` alien, stranger ' would have collapsed.

*Hario-. Also Old Irish aire, airech ` suitor ' are ambiguous, see above under al-1. alMaybe Arrianes Illyrian TN. References: WP. I 80. Page(s): 67 ar(a)rear r riRoot / lemma: ar-1 , themat. (a)re-, heavy basis ar-, r- and i-basis (a)r-, riNote: pass' Meaning: to move, pass
* * * * * *

Celto-Germanic PN Ario-vistus however, proves nothing, because Ario- could stand for

ar(a)rear r riRoot / lemma: ar-1 , themat. (a)re-, heavy basis ar-, r- and i-Basis (a)r-, ri- : `to move, and Root / lemma: er-3 : or- : r- : `to move *stir, animate, fight, struggle, rise; to spring up, er- orbe born' derived from the same root Root / lemma: er-1, or- : `eagle'. er- orMaterial: In e- grade: shoulder of animals ', y-eriurel ` fit; blend in; fit on; suit; adapt; key; tune; adjust; ) E.-M. 74 determine because of Armenian eri ` horses hock or point of shoulder,

accommodate; readjust; bring into line; mate ' posit a basic form *er- . But Armenian eri

Trautmann 242. In a- grade:

derives after Liden Ml. Pedersen 88 f. back to Indo Germanic *rito-, *riti ! compare

Hittite: ara- n. ' wealth, welfare, well-being, happiness, prosperity, fortune, right, propriety ', c. ' friend ' (Tischler 50). Avestan arnte ` they settle, get stuck ', Old Indic ar- ` wheel spoke ', aram, lam

Adv. (rakar-, alakar ` prepare; get ready; make up; get up; dress; trim; prink ' and ` be in service; serve; do one's service; accommodate; be of service; be of help; be of use ', for what probably r-t- ` servant; manservant; valet; servitor; follower ' and r-tsuitable, enough '; Avestan arm ` suitable, accordingly ' (arm-piw ` midday ' = ` the

` willing; eager; prompt; ungrudging; unhesitating ', Avestan riti ` compliant, servant ') ` time suitable for the meal ', next to which ra-piw ds. With zero grade ra- besides *ara-,

` period (of time) ' (common primary meaning possibly ` the act of arranging something

from what arm Adv., Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 189, 1509), ratu- m., ` judge, arbitrator ' and

(arp-) ` to arrange, situate, put down '? compare Couvreur 114 f.;

puts, fixed, clamps, cleats, affixes, appends, fastens, fixates, fortifies'; about Hittite ar-apArmenian anem ` produce; do; make; cook; render; cause; proffer; offer; hold out;

(neatly) ', from which ` the act of arranging the law ' and ` right time '); Old Indic ar-p-yati `

volunteer; give; contract; fix; put; matter; get; have; take; win; pull down; put down ', whereof yarem ` add, subjoin, splice ' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21), ar ` bad; poor; unsavory; unsavoury; poorly; inferior; unsatisfactory; low; stale; foul; hard; lamentable; y-ar ` , I consent, conjoin, continue, press so ' (arar ` has done, has made ' = gr. ),

decayed; wrong; faulty; amiss; maladjusted; uneasy; evil; unkind; wicked; corrupt; gr. , Perf. ` join together ', ` annexed, appended, attached,

off; unhealthy; chronic; ill; sick ' with negative [= o] ` not suitable ' (Bugge aaO. 23); appendaged, suitable ', ` wife ' (probably after Brugmann IF. 28, 293, Schwyzer Gr.

Gr. I 434 here with prefix *o-, barely to root*ser- or root *uer-, -F); in addition also - Pind., - ` limb, member, joint (wrist, ankle) ', ` connection; connexion; contact; touch; liaison; tie; splice; affiliation; junction;

` have close relations with '; also ` chats confidentially '; - ` ironclad, armoured ',

conjunction; coupling; communication; link-up; interconnection; link; line; combination; association; incorporation; compound; relation; relationship; marriage; wedding; society; union; juncture, friendship ', ` joins, unites, unifies, combines, conjunct, collective '; with t- suffixes homer. --- ` housewife ' (` the woman in charge of the

house '), Aeolic Hes.; ` Hades as the one who locks the gate(s) to the redress, compensate for, equalize, balance, make up for, make good, give satisfaction ',

underworld ' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 451, 5); - in ` even out, ease, reconcile, settle, ` It suits me, I like it ', , ` come to an agreement, come to an agreement with somebody; make oneself inclined, reconcile ', common gr.-Illyrian ks- > -ss-; ` ability; competence; efficiency ', ` better ' (in respect probably stands - ` very much, very ' in compounds, wherewith Reuter KZ. 31, 594a 1 also Old Indic ari-grt-, -tut- as ` keenly praised ' would like to compare; uncertain because of

gr. - ` very much, very ' see Boisacq s. v., above S. 24 Anm.); ` better, best ', ` left, on the left '.

pledge ', ` to meet '; after Birt Philol. 87, 376 f. was actually ` companion, the blind person who goes with his leader '. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31, 532). From Slavic perhaps poln. ko-jarzy ` attach, connect, combine, remember ' (e.g.

With lengthening - ` appealing well, complacent ', ` husband; hostage,

Maybe alb. kujtoj ` attach, remind, remember ' an early Slavic loanword. About maybe related gr. , Lithuanian ir s. 4. ar ` now, thus '. figura `a form, shape, figure'). Van Windekens BSL. 41, 56, Duchesne-Guillemin in the same place 173. t-formations: rt-, art- ` joint together '. artOldenberg GGN. 1915, 167-180; not ` sacrifice; victim; oblation; offering '), rtna ` rite ', Avestan arta-, rta- n., Old pers. arta- (in compound) ` law, right, holy right '; Avestan Old Indic rt- n. ` suitable, right ', rtm n. ` well attached, holy order ' (to meaning see Tocharian A rwar, rwer, rwar ` ready ', rm, ere ` face ' (compare Latin

Indic rtu- ` certain time, order, rule ', rt- f. ` kind, way ' (to ours root after Kluge PBrB. 9, appoints, destines, firmly assigned '; 193; see also Meringer IF. 17, 125, B. Geiger WZKM. 41, 107), Avestan aipi-rta- `

aa- under, ` what is sure, true ', Old Indic rtvan(t)- ` proper, fair ', Avestan avan/t/-; Old

` structure, construction, ornament ' (Hbschmann Arm. Gr. I 423, Bugge KZ. 32, 3), z-ard `apparatus, ornament '; ard ` just now, now, currently ' (= gr. ) (Bartholomae Stud. II 23, Bugge aaO., Meillet Esquisse 36), ardar ` fair, just, right ' (Hbschmann Arm. stem I

Armenian ard, Gen. -u (= gr. , Latin artus, -s, compare also on top Old Indic rtu-)

21, Arm. Gr. I 423; Persson Beitr. 636 a 2 considers for it also Indo Germanic d ; compare Avestan ardra- ` faithful, reliably, loyal to belief, pious, godly ' and the other undermentioned d - derivatives), ardiun `struttura (Pedersen KZ. 40, 210);
h h

concurring, coincidental '), - ` connect oneself to somebody, accompany ' (due to healthy feet ', - ` able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind ' (presumably also in ` butcher, slaughterer; murderer ', whereof ` slaughter, cut up, divide ', after J. Schmidt Krit. 83 f. from *- or at most * ` workmanlike cutting ', compare Old Indic rta-n- ` justly leading ', rta-yuj ` properly harnessed '); probably also ` fresh and healthy ', probably dissimilated from *- to ` with a wellbuilt body '; ` just ' of the present and the most recent past (compare above Armenian ard ` just now, now ' and ard-a-cin ` newborn ' as gr. -; morphologically not yet ` plays rightly or oddly ', ` finishes, prepares ', Hes., ` hostile ', ` prepares '; quite clear, perhaps Locative); - ` exact, just ', ` adequate, just, complete ', *-); ti-stem in -F (`well versed in word structure '), -() ` with

gr. `(at the same time) simultaneous ' (Instr. *- ` joint together,

Argos, Epidauros, Thera.

` joins, prepares ', , , title of a public servant or official of Latin artus ` narrow, tight (in space and time), close; 'somnus', fast, sound; of supplies,

, (= Latin artus `narrow, tight') Hes., ,

small, meager; of circumstances, difficult, distressing ' (Adv. art, originally instrumental as occupation, profession. (3) concrete, in plur., works of art. (4) conduct, character, method of acting; 'bonae artes', good qualities ' (actually ` articulation, assemblage, pack a gift properly ' = Middle High German art), in addition the compounds in-ers ` unsophisticated, ); ars, -tis ` skill, method, technique; 'ex arte', according to the rules of art. (2) an

sluggish, untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid ', soll-ers ` clever, skilful ', allers, alers ` taught, learned '; arti, -ire ` insert tightly, wedge, crowd, join fast, press together ' (more recently artre); artus, -s ` the joints; 'dolor time, a moment, crisis; in gen., a part, division, point '; Lithuanian art ` near ' (Lok. ti-stem); sincere', einrd ` reliability; dependability; trustworthiness; sureness; steadiness '; Middle High German art f. ` kind, manner and way ', Old Norse ein-arr ` simple,

artuum', gout; poet., limbs ', articulus ` in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of

Tocharian ar(t)kye ` rich, valuabe ' (?). m-formations: A. From the light basis ar-. arArmenian y-armar ` suitable, adequate ' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21); adapts, orders ', ` connection, alliance, regularity, harmony '), ` chariot ' Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 306; farther Lithuanian by Boisacq 79), ` assigned food, provisions '; Latin arma, -rum ` defensive arms, armor, weapons of war; hence war, soldiers, gr. ` seam, assemblage, joint ', ` just, recently ' ( ` connect, join,

(about these words see Sommer Gr. Lautst. 133, Meillet BSL. 28, c.-r. 21 f. [*arsmo-?],

military power; protection, defense;in gen. tools, equipment ', armentum ` herd of horses or cattle, cattle for plowing '. Hence sounds in Old Norse jrmuni ` bovine animal, horse ' and the PN Gothic

Thuringia ', Old Norse jrmungrund ` the wide earth ' = Old English eormengrund, Old High German irmindeot, Old Saxon Irmin-sl, and in the short form Herminones. However, Brckner KZ. 45, 107 rightly challenges, that ` cattle, horses ' is the original and ` large ' out of it derived meaning and decides vice versa for ` large, serene' a starting point because of Slavic ramn ` immense, strong, violent, sudden ' (from here Lithuanian ` shot up ' to *er-, *or- (orior etc; compare formal ), not as ` sturdy, stout, well built, massive ' belongs to *ar- ` to join, connect '. Old Church Slavic jarm ` yoke ' (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31), sloven.

Ermenrch; the same first part to the name from a little bit big also e.g. in Ermunduri ` great

*Armana-reiks, Old English Eormenrc, Old Icelandic Jrmunrekr, Middle High German

ermas ` immense , monstrous ', Latvian rms ` monkey, clown, strange appearance '?), as

Slavic remen, serb. rmn etc ` strap '; Specht Dekl. 149 f. Tocharian yarm, AB yrm ` measure '. . From the heavy base r-mo-: r-mo- ` arm '. mo- mo-

jrmen ` yoke strap, strap '; with zero grade initial sound and themat. vowel: Old Church

elbow ',

artus `joints') = Avestan rm- ` arm ', osset. rm ` cupped hand ', lm-rn, rm-rn `

Old Indic rm- `arm, shoulder' (originally ` shoulder joint ', compare , Latin

Latin armus ` shoulder or shoulder-blade; also, of an animal, the side, the uppermost part

of the upper arm, scapula ' (from *ar//mos), gall. aram ` bifurcation, point of separation ', Lithuanian rmd (`gout ', i.e.:) ` gout in the joints ', irm-liga ` gout, arthritis ' (see

(Wartburg I 119, Jud by Howald-r Rm. Schweiz 374 ff.), Old Prussian irmo f. ` arm ', Trautmann Old Prussian 347);

zero grade Lithuanian em. Pl. tant. arma ` Vorderarm am Wagen ' (ibd.), Old Church rm. armukn ` elbow ' (Hbschmann Arm. Stud. I 21). Root form r-, r-: r-

Slavic ramo, ram, serb. rme `shoulder', Gothic arms, Old High German etc arm ` arm ',

accompanied by the putting on top of each other or layers of the pieces to be counted), valid, legal ', rati ` a reckoning, account, consideration, calculation; a reason, motive,

Latin reor, rr ` to think, suppose, judge ' (the most primitive metering and counting is

participle ratus ` in the opinion, sense ', but also ` determined, settled; calculated, certain, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine,

science; the reasoning faculty '; after EM. 793 here (pr)porti from portine =pr ratine; High German Hundert (*raa n. ` number ' = Latin rtum `to ratify, confirm, make valid'; s. gerad (only from numbers divisible by 2; different from gerad = straight ahead), with new bill, account ', Old Saxon rethia ` account ', Old High German radja, redea ` account,
4 4

Gothic *garajan (only participle garaana) ` to count ', Old Norse hundra, Modern

Fick III 336); Old High German girad ` even (only from numbers) ', Modern High German ablaut Old Norse t-rr actually ` count after tens ' (Fick III 336); Gothic raj ` number, speech and answer, story ', Old Frisian birethia ` accuse ', Old Saxon rethin, Old High

`a reckoning, numbering, casting up, account, calculation, computation' e.g. Kluge

German red(i)n ` talk ' (determines the precise correspondence from raj with Latin ratio s. v. `

speech ' to the assumption of borrowing Germanic words under influence from garaian; root *ra-[garajan]).

more properly Falk-Torp 886 raj to determine as primary -in-derivative from Germanic Whether here also Old Norse r ` row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file,

turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank, esp. increment lining along the shore ', Middle Low German rat f. ` row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier,

337; ` row; line; series; chain; range; string; tier; battery; file; turn; run; procession; rank; order; progression; number; set; bank ' as ` added on each other, stratified '?).

Middle High German Middle Low German rm ` aim, purpose, target ' our *r-maybe suit as ` to arrange in one's mind, calculate ', if, besides, this (the previous newer proves) Subst. rm must have been as formation with formants-mo- starting point. rrd -extension r-d -, r-d -, r-d -: which has luck; contents, wins somebody ', rdhayati ` manages, gives satisfaction ', rdha- m., rdha n. ` blessing, success, relief, gift, generosity '; Maybe alb. radha `row', radhit `count'. for oneself, making oneself available, willingness (in religious regard) ', Old pers. rdiy Old Indic rdhnti, rdhyati ` prepares (suitably), manages; gets, succeeds, with
h h h h

Old High German rmen ` strive for something, strive, aim ', Old Saxon rmon `strive ',

Avestan raiti ` makes ready ', ra- m. ` social welfare worker ', rdah- n. ` appropriate (Lok. Sg.) ` weigh ' (compare Old Church Slavic radi see below), npers. ryad, rstan ` decorate; adorn; bedeck; trim; attire; array; drape; gild; emblazon; embellish '; Old Irish imm-rdim ` considers, thinks over ', cmr. amraud ` suppose, think, mean ', ncymr.

mcymr. adrawd ` tell ' and Gothic rdjan, Old Norse ra ` talk ' (compare further also

amrawdd ` conversation ' with ders. meaning as Old Irish no-ridiu, no-rdim ` says, tells ',

kaus.-iter. *rd ei ); Gothic gardan ` whereupon be judicious, take precautions ', urrdan High German rtan ` advise, confer, contemplate, plan, incite, indicate (riddle), request, to ` judge, determine ' (compare to meaning esp. Latin rr), undrdan ` procure, grant ', Old

placed above Modern High German Rede, reden; no-ridiu and rdjan, like Slavic raditi,

look after something, procure, provide, get ', Old Saxon rdan, Old Norse ra, Old

means, council, piece of advice, advisement, decision, intention, precaution, stock, supply ', similarly Old Saxon rd, Old Norse rd, Old English rd; Old Church Slavic raditi ` take fend; ensure; insure ' (serb. rdm, rditi ` work, strive ', rad ` business, work '; see neglect (of duty?) ', sloven. rdim, rditi ` provide, take care '.

English rdan (latter also ` read ', engl. read), Subst. Old High German rt m. ` available

care; be accustomed; look after; care for; be in the habit; tend; provide; supply; cater; Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 558 f.), radi ` weigh ', next to which *rd - in Old Church Slavic nerod ` Maybe (*rd) alb. Geg rand `heavy (weight)', randonj `weigh'. aor. ra `fall, strike' [nasalized form], , re `care, attention', roje `guard', ruanj `to guard'.

battery, file, turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank '? (Fick III

Root form (a)r-, ri- (see Person root extension 102, 162, 232; Beitr. 741): ricountless ', Arcadian `, select; choice; exquisite ', Hes.; Latin rtus, -s ` conventional kind of the religion practise, usage, ceremony, rite, manner ', ' (Lok. one beside r-tu-s lying conservative stem *r-t-); Gr. (if not neologism, see above S. 56), `number', `

rte ` in due form, after the right religious use, with proper ceremonies, properly, fitly, rightly

Norse rm n. ` reckoning, calculation ', Old Saxon unrm ` immense number' ', Old English rm n. `number', Old High German rm m. ` row, order, number ' (the meaning ` verse,

Old Irish rm `number', ram (*ad-ri-m) ds., do-rmu ` counts ', cymr. rhif `number', Old

from French rime, which has derived from rythmus).

rhyme ' from Old Norse and Middle High German rm probably after Kluge

s. v. Reim

Wood a 226 must be added as root noun meaning ` stacked up goods, piled-up possessions '.

Maybe also *ri- ` thing ' (Latin rs `a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance' etc) after

meaning ` having stacked up property '.


Maybe is to be added also *ri- ` thing ' (Latin rs etc.) to Wood ax 226 as a root noun

In addition probably as d -extension ri-d - (compare above r-d - besides r-): riNorse g-reir ` ready, easy, clear ', greia ` disentangle, order, arrange, manage, pay, Gothic garais ` arranged, certain ', raidjan, garaidjan ` prescribe, determine ', Old
h h

disburse, remit ', Middle High German reiten ` get everything set up, prepare, arrange,

count, calculate, pay ', reite, gereite, bereite, Old High German bireiti ` ready ', antreit ` Quite doubtfully is not borrowed by Persson aaO. considered affiliation from Old

series, ordo ', Latvian riedu, rizt ` order ', raids ` raring, ready ', ridi, ridas ` device, clamp '.

Church Slavic ordije ` apparatus, instrumentum ' (from Old High German runti `

row ', Latvian rida ` row, number '. On condition of that these continue Indo Germanic d, following kin in: ` put on a fabric ', . , not d (*re-n-d-), one adds (e.g. Fick I 527, Pedersen aaO., see also EM. 711) thus the
4 h

message ', see Pedersen concentration camp. 38, 310), red 'order', Lithuanian rnda `


Latin rdior, -r, rsus sum (from weaver's language, Bral MSL. 5, 440) ` to begin a web, begin a web, lay the warp, prepare to weave ', redrdior ` to take apart, unweave, unravel lay the warp, begin, commence, make a beginning, set about, undertake ', exrdior ` to

order, usual, regular, ordinary', Linde Glotta 3, 170 f.; differently Gl. 5, 316), the connection needed then also by the weaving mill, to (Persson root extension 26, Thurneysen Thes. vocalism. under artus, -s), so would be justified vowel from *or-d-ei as a causative iterative agrees with ar- `put; place; fix; formulate; ordain; decree', which would have been

', rdo, -inis `a series, line, row, order' (also Umbrian urnasier seems to be = ordinariis `of

ar- with the same application to the weaving mill are to be added: Latin arnea, -eus ` spider '?

Is even more doubtful, from after Reichelt KZ. 46, 318 as k-extensions of the bases ar-,

Maybe alb. (*arnea) arnoj `to repair, mend, sew, weave', arn `patch, piece of fabric' from Gr. ` spider ', Latin arneus ` of a spider; n. as subst. a cobweb ', arnea, -eus `

spider ' (*ar-k-sn; the word ending to *sn- ` to spin; weave, interweave, produce by

spinning ' as ` a net spinner, a woman, a girl (or a spider) that spins a net '?); supposedly

Hes. (see also Boisacq 79), wherefore after (for spinning)' (which can stand for *arkuls). Lidn IF. 18, 507 f. puts it better to shrubs with branches usable against lichen. arquerkSee also: S. unten arqu- and erk-. Page(s): 55-61

in addition (Walter KZ. 12, 377, Curtius KZ. 13, 398) gr. ` net ',

Bezzenberger BB. 21, 295 Latvian er'kuls ` spindle; a bunch of oakum, a wad of oakum Slavic *orkyta, serb. rkita ` red pasture ' and Latvian rcis, gr. ` juniper ' as

References: WP. I 69 ff., WH. I 69, 70, Trautmann 13 f.

arerRoot / lemma: ar-2 or erMeaning: to distribute Grammatical information: with Indo Germanic nu-present

Material: Avestan ar- (present rnav-, rnv-, preterit Pass. rnv) ` grant, allow to be ` allotment (of sacrifices ), offering ' (Bartholomae Altiran. Wb. 184 f.);

given; do guarantee ', with us- and fr `( as an allotment) suspend and assign ', frrta- n.

allot to myself, I assign to myself, I allocate to myself, I appropriate to myself ' compare Old Indic dlmi ` give ': dat ` to take something, to accept something '; also in:) gr. ` acquires, tries to reach, conceives, acquire esp. as a price or wage ',

Armenian anum ` I take ', Aor. a (Hbschmann Arm. Gr. I 420; meaning from medial ` I

durative compared with ` acquire, win ', Aor. v, ; , (Aesch.);

` potboiler, day laborer, wageworker ', n. ` usefulness, profit, use ' Hittite ar-nu-mi ` I bring ' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696) belongs probably rather than a

causative to 3. er- ` start to move '.

Hittite: (ar-nu-zi) arnuzi ` take there, bring here'. The full grade vocalisms of the root guaranteeing forms are absent. Page(s): 61 References: WP. I 76 f.

Meaning: nut Material:

arRoot / lemma: ar-3 i- iNote: (extends by -i-, -i-, -u-)

accepts Specht Dekl. 62. In o- grade:

nut, hazelnut ', Old Prussian buccareisis ` beechnut ' (see Trautmann Old Prussian 314)

walnut-tree ', For the relation to Lithuanian reutas, ruouts ` hazelnut ', Latvian rieksts `

G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 17 combines gr. H v Hes., alb. arr f. `

In a- grade:

Page(s): 61

References: WP. I 77.

Old Church Slavic orch ` nut '.

Meaning: to refuse; to lie Material: Gr. (*-F-) ` refuses ', , ` refusing, denying Note: (with n- formant)

Root / lemma: ar-5 ar-

everything ', Hes.;

Pedersen KZ. 33, 542 Anm. 2). Is even more doubtful whether Armenian uranam ` denies References: WP. I 78, Meillet BSL. 26, 19, Esquisse 111, 142. Page(s): 62 everything, refuses ', urast ` denial ' would be used (with ur- from r-).

alb. rrm ` false ', rrm, rrn ` lie ', nrrj (from *rrnj) ` denies everything ' (rr from rn;

r- rSee also: see also r-, r- `reden, rufen'.

aroRoot / lemma: aro-m (*her hel ) er-, elMeaning: reed Material: Gr. n. ` bistort, kind of reed ', - ` therefrom a small kind '; Latin harund `a reed; meton., for an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for

catching birds; a pen; the shaft of an arrow, or the arrow itself; a shepherd's pipe; a flute; a weaver's comb; a plaything for children, a hobby-horse'; to formation compare hirund `a swallow' and nebrundines : `the kidneys'. Note:

Maybe alb. (*ghalandus) dalndyshe `a swallow' : Latin harundo -inis f. `a reed; meton., for an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for catching birds' : hirundo -inis, f. `swallow'. Common Latin gh- > h- : alb. gh- > d-.

Similar phonetic setting alb. dimn `winter' : Latin hiemo -are `to winter, spend the winter' [see Root / lemma: hei-2 : hi- : `winter; snow' heihiLatin and alb. prove that the original Root / lemma: aro-m : `reed' was (*her hel-). Only aro er-, elLatin, alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal -. There is no doubt that from Illyrian-alb.- Latin (*harundinis ) dalndyshe `a swallow' `to call, cry' derived Root / lemma: aro-m : `reed' (*her where r/l allophones. aro er-)

[common alb. h- > d-] derived gr. `swallow', therefore from Root / lemma: ghel- : ghelFrom Persson De orig. gerundii 59 added Latin arista ` the beard of an ear of grain;

to be Etruscan (see Herbig IF. 37, 171, 178). From Mediterranean language? Page(s): 68 References: WP. I 79, WH. I 635 f.

because of his suggesting to genista f. ` the broom-plant ' suffix strongly to the suspicion

hence the ear itself; also a harvest ', aristis ` holcus, a green vegetable ' is defeated

ard- ard dRoot / lemma: ard-, ard-

Meaning: a kind of waterbird

ardea `a heron' ds. (*ard-), Old Norse arta, Old Swedish rta ` teal ', Demin. Old Norse ertla, Norwegian erle ` wagtail ', serb. rda ` stork ' (*rd).

Material: Gr. , ` heron ' ( folk etymology in ending after -), Latin

Maybe truncated alb. (*) rosa, ros `duck', rika `duckling, duck', Rumanian (*rada) Note: Note ra `duck'.

Page(s): 68

References: WP. I 146 f., WH. I 64.

ard- ard dard-, ard- : (a kind of waterbird) [common rhotacism n > r]

Alb. and Rumanian prove that from Root / lemma: ant- : (duck) derived Root / lemma: ant t-

Meaning: smth. bent

arquRoot / lemma: arqu-

Material: Latin arcus, -s (stem is in -qu- from, compare Old Latin Gen. arqu, further

icteric, yellowed as if from jaundice, jaundice, relating to jaundice; m. as subst., a sufferer from jaundice ', probably actually ` rainbow-colored, green and yellow looking ' (compare Thes.); arcutus also ` arched-shaped, bow-shaped, supported by arches, covered

argues, arquitenns) ` a bow, arch, arc; esp. the rainbow ', arqutus, arcutus (morbus) `

(carriage) '; Umbrian arclataf ` a round cake; ', wherefore v. Planta I 341, Gtze IF. 41, 91 (*arkelo- with loss of the labialisation); Gothic arazna f. ` dart, arrow ' (ara-zna, compare hlaiwazna), Old Norse r (Gen. rvar) f. ` dart, arrow ', Old English earh f. ds. (engl. arrow), Germanic *arhv.

Maybe alb. hark `bow' [alb. is the only IE tongue that has preserved the old laryngeal -] serb. rokita etc ` a kind of willow tree ', where *arqta (Miklosich EWb. 226, Torbjrnsson For the basic approach arqu- (and not arqu-) would speak russ. rakta, Czech rokyta,

BB. 20, 140) forms the basis, and gr. ` juniper ', which word with with all berry '.

likelyhood concerning this is to be drawn Lidn IF. 18, 507; in addition ` juniper

Indeed, Lidn takes relationship with gr. `net' (see Bezzenberger BB. 21, 285) in for what one compares under ar-1, S. 61. arAnother connection for gr. and russ. rakta etc seeks Endzelin KZ. 44, 59 ff.,

which more properly compares Latvian rcis, cis (*rcis) ` juniper ';

further rcties ` torment oneself, grieve, straiten ', rcea ` a very quarrelsome person '; erktis ` a thorn plant ' corresponding as regards the root of the word form; gr. - then Latvian rk(k')is ` thorn shrub ' would be to Endzelin mixture from *erks and Lithuanian

would have to contain zero grade from *er-. S. under erk-. erkPage(s): 67-68 References: WP. I 81, WH. I 64, EM. 69.

Meaning: intestines

Root / lemma: aru (*heru) heru he

bowels '); . Hes. is Latin loanword Note:

intestinal fat '? (compare Old High German mitta-garni ` recumbent fat in the middle of the

Material: Gr. f. ` bowel ', Latin arvna f. ` grease, fat, lard, bacon ', originally `

heru : herhorlemma: aru (*heru): `intestines' derived from Root / lemma: her-5, hor-n : `bowels'. he This discovery might shed light on the origin of the old larygeals in PIE. Page(s): 68 References: WP. I 182, II 353, WH. I 71.

Gr. (*horua) , alb. (*horna) zorr `bowel' [common alb. h- > z-] prove that Root /

Meaning: ` bones ' Page(s): 69

ast(h)Root / lemma: ast(h)-

ost(h)See also: s. ost(h)-.

Meaning: over, etc.

atoRoot / lemma: ati, ato-

Note: compare to the meaning question esp. Brugmann Grdr. II , 844 f. the colouring of

gives no good reason before, Balto-Slavic, Germanic (and Aryan) forms can be attributed to Indo Germanic *o-, by the book - following rules in a (very) strict way just because it would be a textbook example of ablaut to e- formed from *eti bildete. With eti (see there) at least equality meaning and exchange existed in the use. Is ati reduction grade to eti? Material: Old Indic ti `about- onto (adnominal m. Akk.), exceedingly, very much ' (Adv. and preverb), Avestan aiti-, Old pers. atiy- ds. Adv. (as 1. compound part and preverb

the beginning vowel stands firm through Latin-Celtic (Greek) as Indo Germanic a-, and it

Aryan ati can also represent Indo Germanic *eti.

(before i- ` go ' as ` go by, pass by ' and bar- ` carry, bear ' as ` bring over again, to carry ');

avus, at-nepos (not in apprm , see Skutsch AflL. 12, 213).

but, you may say ' from increasing - to opposing ` beyond it ', what latter meaning in at-

unexplained). Latin at ` but, yet, moreover; sometimes introducing an imaginary objection,

623, KVG. 616; by connection with , Gothic sundr, the Attic it remained kind of

Gr. presumably in - ` however ' (compare from ; Brugmann-Thumb

Gall. ate- (from *ati-) in Ategntus (= Middle Breton (h)aznat, nbret. anat ` acquainted, known ') , abrit. Ate-cotti ` the very old ', Old Irish aith-, preceding ad- ` against, un- ', mcymr. at-, ncymr. ad-, ed- (Belege e.g. by Fick II 8, Pedersen KG. II 292);

compare gall. ATENOVX (name of 2th half month), Thurneysen ZcP. 20, 358?

here as *ate-ko-n probably Middle Irish athach n. ` a certain time ', cymr. adeg m. ds., Gothic -an ` but, however ' (very doubtful is against it derivation from Gothic Old

well! ').

= gr. ; differently, but barely appropriate Holthausen IF. 17, 458: = gr. , Latin age ` go! Lithuanian at-, ata-, more recently also ati-, in nominal compound at- ` back, off, away,

Saxon ak, Old English ac ` however ', Old High German oh ` but, however ' from *a- + ke

Baltic at-, Trautmann 46);

from, up ' (see Brugmann Grundr. II 2, 844 f.), Old Prussian et-, at- (probably only from Old Church Slavic ot-, ot ` away, since, ex, from ', adnominal m. d. Gen.-bl.,

introduces Meillet t. 155 f. back to gen.-ablative *atos (in front of, before; in return for; forms -tos); Indo Germanic *ati (and *eti) would be in addition Lok.; both remain very

because of, from = Old Indic ata ` thenceforth '? rather Pron.-stem *e- with ablat. Adv.-


and it is doubtful about whether one may see in ablative *atd a kind of o-stem formation. Old Prussian attolis, Lithuanian atlas, Latvian atls, atals ` grommet ' speaking for Indo ending *apo, *upo): Germanic older short vocalized form Lithuanian at- = Indo Germanic *ato- (compare to Old Irish do-, to- prefix `to' with (Indo Germanic?) zero grade of anl. vowels (Meillet In the Slavic the form on long vowel is formed further in russ. etc. otva ` grommet ', as

The double aspect Lithuanian ata-: at- reminds in pa-: p (see *apo), (see *apo),

(Skok by Pokorny Urill. 50).

aaO., Stokes BB. 29, 171, Pedersen KG. II 74), probably also Illyrian to-, alb. te ` to, by '

References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 75, 421 f., 863.

Page(s): 70-71 at- *atno atnoRoot / lemma: at-, *atno Meaning: to go; year Note: Gr. `year' : Latin annus `year' (*atnos ) `year' : Old Indic hyana- `yearly', hyan- m. etet Root / lemma: uet- : `year' [prothetic u- before bare initial vowels] derived from Root / heihi- hei-men- heimnlemma: hei-2, hi-, hei-men-, *heimn- : `winter; snow'. n. `year' prove that Root / lemma: en-2 : `year' : Root / lemma: at-, *atno : `to go; year' : enat- *atno atno-

Material: Old Indic tati ` goes, walks, wanders '. Moreover Latin annus `year' from *atnos (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-) = Gothic Dat. Pl. anam `year'. development like with Germanic *jram `year' to i- ` go '). compare Fick I 338, W. Meyer KZ. 28, 164, Froehde BB. 16, 196 f. (meaning

Maybe alb. Geg (*ant) vajt, Tosc vete, vajti aor. `to go', (*iti) viti `go around, year, all year Latin has followed alb.s t > nt > n, clearly Latin annus ` year ' derived from Old Indic Note: Note (*antanti) tati]

around' [common alb. prothetic v- before initial bare vowels - proof of ancient laryngeal .

Etruscan follows alb.s Etruscan Avil : year, Avilxva :yearly // derivated from Avil, by : Avil adding a adjectival suffix -xva xva. xva Oscan-Umbrian corresponds akno- `year, festival time, sacrificial time ' (with -tn- to -kn-,

Brugmann IF. 17, 492). Received the word is durable in compounds Latin perennis ` the perennitas -atis f. `duration, perpetuity', perenno -are `to last many years'.], sollennis ` whole year; continuously ' [perennis -e `lasting throughout the year; durable, perennial',

festive, annual, customary, returning or celebrated annually, solemn, ceremonial,

13, 23 ff., after omnis?); Umbrian sev-acni-, per-acni- `sollennis', Subst. ` victim, sacrifice, sacrificial offering '. References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 51, 847.

ritualistic; usual ' (additional form sollemnis absolutely analogical results; Thurneysen AflL.

Page(s): 69

augh- ughRoot / lemma: augh-, ughMeaning: nape

gr. ` nape, throat, straits '.

Material: Charpentier KZ. 46, 42 places together Old Indic uh f. ` neck ' (only Pl.) and

In uh before lies diminutive suffix -ih-, gr. -- . The beginning is *ugh-s-n-gh the

compared with here Armenian awj ` throat ', awji-k ` cervical collar '; Aeolic ` 296; about gr. : Cypriot ` laurel ' better WH. I 775 f. (compare above S. 43 References: WP. I 25, Adontz Ml. Boisacq 10. and Hoffmann Gr. Dial. II 500, Meister Gr. Dial. I 120).

first gh is reduced being produced by dissimilation. To *ugh-s-no stands *augh-en- in gr.

nape, neck ', Aeolic ds. must be separated therefrom, in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I

Page(s): 87

augRoot / lemma: aug-

Meaning: to glance, see, dawn

Note: Note Probably Root / lemma: aug- : ` to glance, see, dawn ' derived from Root / lemma: aues- : ` augeses to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc.'. ` shining very much '; Material: Gr. ` shine, ray, daylight; eye ', ` shines, illuminates; sees ', alb. agj ` dawns ', agume ` aurora, morning, dawn ' (see Persson Beitr. 369); It seems Albanian cognate has wrong etymology. aarma ` dawn, daybreak'. Maybe Basque N egunsenti : Estonian : N agu : Albanian : N agu, agim : Turkish : N Turkish V gn aarmak : alb. agon : ` to dawn ' Turkish N gne : Basque eguzki N ` sun '.

Estonian N aeg : Turkish N gn, gndz, dnem, zaman : Basque egun ` day ' from also Slavic iug ` south ' (Fick KZ. 20, 168), russ. uin, uina? Probably wrong etymology since Slavic iug `south' : alb. jug `south' must have derived ieueu lemma: iieu-2, ieu-, ieu-g- : to tie together, yoke from Latin iugum -i n. `a yoke' - a constellation in the southern night skies. see Root /

Page(s): 87

References: WP. I 25.

Root / lemma: au1

Meaning: interjection of pain

Page(s): 71

References: WH. I 78.

astonishment, surprise), poln. au, Czech ounder

High German au, Latvian a, u (disyllabic au, avu with displeasure, refusal,

Material: Old Indic o, Latin au `Oh! ', Old English a, Middle High German ou(w), Modern

lemma: aues- auRoot / lemma: au-2, au-es-, au-s-

Meaning: to spend the night, sleep the night, night's rest, station '.

Material: Armenian aganim `spends the night ', vair-ag ` living in the country ', aut ` spend Gr. ` sleeps ' from redupl. *i-aus, Aor. -, next to which unredupl. Aor. ,

Inf. F(); , - ` place of residence, camp, stable, night's lodging ', ` is in the court, spends the night ', ` spending the night outside ', ` court, the cattle is rounded up for the nighttime '); from comes except ` Night's lodging ', courtyard, dwelling ' (originally probably ` the fenced in space around the house in which

` sheep stable ', ` place of residence ' (: hom. ` have his

rest accommodation ') also gr. actually ` rest, rest station ', therefore the solstices (different Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 15, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 424 , s. also en- ` year '). A heavy base *au-, *au- probably to be added hom. (from Schulze

as resting places in the course of the sun (solstitium), then ` year, solstice, anniversary '

Qunder ep. 72 directly to put under formal comparison from (F) : from *F) and (Sappho), (Kallimachos) `' (Benfey Wzl.-Lex. I 298), wherefore Old English wrig, engl. weary, Old Saxon wrag, wrig ` tired, weary ', Old au- ` strive oneself, exert '.

High German wuorag ` inebriates '; about Old Indic vyati ` gets tired '; see however, root

Page(s): 72

eses See also: ber ues- `verweilen' see below besonderem Artikel.

References: WP. I 19 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 690.

au-louheuRoot / lemma: au-lo-s (: u-l-) [*heu-l-] heu Meaning: tube, hole, *street

Material: Gr. m. ` pipe flute, long cavity ', - m. ` riverbed ', m. f. ` mountain valley, gulch, ditch, canal, strait '; Old Church Slavic ulj, Lithuanian auls and secondarily avils ` beehive ', originally the

cavity in the tree in which the swarm settles; Note: Note

[probably Old Church Slavic avils ` beehive ' < vauls; but prothetic v- before bare initial > ua alb. Tosc (*hau-lo-) huall, Geg huell, hoje Pl. ` beehive, cavity ' = Latin alvus '

vowels has been attested in Illyrian, alb. and Slavic tongues; maybe through metathesis au beehive, cavity' [common alb. shift l > j], alb. holl `narrow, thin', alb. is the only language Slavic cognates.

to have preserved the old laryngeal -. Clearly the Latin cognate derived from Illyrian and From (*halvus, alhwus) Latin alvus `beehive, cavity' derived Rumanian albin `bee', Greek -hw- > -b-.

Portuguese abelha `bee', Spanish abeja `bee', French abeille `bee' [common Italic and Old Church Slavic ulica f. ` street, - in a built-up area - hollow, ravine, gorge, narrow pass ', Lithuanian alas f., Old Prussian aulinis ` bootleg ', Old Prussian aulis ` shinbone '.

Maybe zero grade in alb. Tosc udh ull 'road, street' [the common alb.-Illyrian-Latin -dh- > -ll-, -d- > -l- shift] Maybe Root / lemma: au-lo-s (: u-l-) : `tube, hole, *street' derived from Root / lemma: au-louArmenian u, ui ` way ' and (compare the meaning ` belly ' from Latin alvus) yi `

ueh- : `to move, carry, drive' [common alb. -h- > -d-]

pregnant ' (with ablaut , Pedersen KZ. 39, 459; derivatives uarkem and ylem ` send in ') );

---------------------ula, ul ` wheel hub '? (would be the ` tubularly hole ' in which the axis is inserted; Liden IF. 19, 321). ---------------------angelica silvestris ', Old Norse (huann-) jli ` the hollow stems of angelica archangelica ', Torp 474 and 1492 under jol and from Schroeder to Germanic ablaut 58 f. likewise boat name jolle `dinghy'). New Norwegian aul, aule and (with Indo Germanic u- as a high step to au-) jl ` *) Armenian word with the ablaut grade Indo Germanic . from with the same Latvian

both plants call in Norway also slke, whose basic meaning likewise ` tube, pipe ' is (Falk-

a ship, beehive ', alveus ` a hollow, cavity, trough; hence boat; also the hold of a ship; bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table ', although time and limitation of the metathesis are still totally unclear (see Thurneysen IF. 21, 177, Sommer Hdb. 78). References: WP. I 25 f., WH. I 34 f., different Banateanu REtlE 1, 122. Page(s): 88-89

Here with Latin metathesis of aul- to alu- also alvus m. f. ` belly, womb, stomach; hold of

Meaning: from, away, of

Root / lemma: au-3 (aue); uau- au Material: Old Indic va ` from, down ', mostly prefix from verbs and Subst., rarely

starting point of the movement came to the consciousness) ` whereupon to, to what, near ' preposition m. Akk. ` there, there in '; therefrom Old Indic vara- `inferior' and Avestan (e.g. avabar- ` to take there, carry away ' and ` to take there, procure, supply, get '), also

preposition m. Abl., Avestan ap. ava prefix ` down' and (while more the purpose than the

aor ` after, below, down ' (after par extended from avar);

Indic Gr. I 54);

Indic - e.g. in -ga- ` single, pathetic ' (: ga- ` troop, multitude '; Wackernagel Old gr. - probably in , Hes. (Schulze Qunder ep. 60);

down ', whereof avastd ` under '; without auslaut vowel (compare Avestan ao-r) Old

Avestan avar Adv. ` below, down '= Old Indic avr RV. I 133, 7; Old Indic av (avs) `

49, 273);

Illyrian au- ` (of motion), towards, to (a person or place), at ' in proper names? (Krahe IF.


remove' (= Avestan va-bharati, Avestan ava-bar-), aufugi `to flee away, run away, gall. au-tagis `?' (Vendryes BSL. 25, 36);

Latin au- ` away , off, gone ' in aufer `to take away, bear off, carry off, withdraw,

recently o `if', o preposition `from';

Old Irish perhaps , a ` from, with, by ', as a preposition m. dat., acymr. hou, more

nonsensical '), Old Church Slavic u prefix ` away, from ', e.g. u-myti ` to give a wash, wash away ' (u-bati ` flee from '), as preposition m. Gen. ` from ' (with verbs of the desire, receive, take) and, with fading of the concept of the starting point, ` by, from ';

Old Prussian Lithuanian Latvian au- ` away, from ' (e.g. Latvian au-manis ` not- sensical,

maybe alb. particle of passive u `by, from' used before verbs in passive voice. Hittite preverb u- (we-, wa-) ` here ', a-wa-an ` away ' (Sturtevant Lg. 7, 1 ff.). auja- (N. Sg. *aueis or *aus) ` desolate, leave ' (*`remote '), auida ` desert ', Old High German di, Modern High German de, Old Norse aur ` desolate '; Old Irish athad ` item, particular, sort '. - goes to the frightening wilderness, wilderness also Middle Irish thereof with t-forms aut(i)o-: gr. ` unavailingly, in vain ', ds. and Gothic aut(i)o-

ath ` fright, terrible ' (are to be kept away cymr. uthr ` terrible ', corn. uth, euth, bret. euz ` quake at, tremble ' everything rather than sure, see pou- ` fear '. pou-

fright ')? At least is their connection with Latin pavre ` to quake with fear, panic; transit. to Beside aut(i)o- steht perhaps changing through ablaut u-to- in alb. hut ` in vain, blank, to-

vainly ', ue-to- (see unten *u-) in gr. ` not free of charge, not without reason ', to (F by Homer) ` in vain, without success, pointless '. Maybe truncated alb. (*hot) kot ` in vain, without success, pointless '; alb. is the only IE language to preserve the old laryngeal - > k-. to combine *u- with *au- probably under *aue-: *u

off); underfed ';

esca), from which back formation vscus ` greedy; fastidiously in food (*merely nibbling

Latin *v- in vscor `to eat, feed on; to use, enjoy' originally ` whereof to eat up ' (:

again alb. eshk `fungus' : Latin esca `food, victuals, esp. as bait'. Prothetic v- added to bare initial vowels is an alb.-Illyrian. v- to indication faulty too much or too little, v-cors ` senseless, mad, moves, treacherous V-jovis, Umbrian ve-purus (Abl. Pl.), wheather `() '. Note: Note Also in alb. v- to indication faulty too much or too little: alb. vshtir `difficult, hard' from (v- shtir (participle of alb. shtynj `push with difficulty') see Root / lemma: (s)teu-1 : `to (s)teupush, hit'. ', v-grandis ` diminutive, not large, tiny ', vsnus ` mad, insane; of things, furious, wild ',

Attic , more recently (Prellwitz 345, Brugmann IF. 29, 241, BSGW. 1913, 159).

uo-: Gr. F- in Arcadian F-, Attic -, , Lesbian - ` open ',

High German West, Old High German westar ` westwards ', Old Norse vestr n. ` westen ', German westana ` from west ' etc (Brugmann IF. 13, 157 ff.; about the explanation of the Wisigothae as ` West-Goths, Visigoths ' s. Kretschmer Gl. 27, 232). Here (after Brugmann aaO.) the initial sound of the word for evening, Indo Germanic Adv. ` in the west , against west ' (*ues-t(e)ro-, compare Old Norse nor-r), Old High

es ues-: With Old Indic avs `down' attached together formant Germanic wes- in Modern es-

uesperos and ueqeros, see there.

there ' as ` on the other side, from there ' is conceivable. Page(s): 72-73 References: WP. I 13 f., WH. I 79, 850, Trautmann 16.

Relationship from Indo Germanic *au-, u- with the Pron.-stem au-, u- ` yonder, over

auRoot / lemma: au-4, u- (: u-, uo-) Meaning: that; other au Material: auo: Old Indic Avestan Old pers. ava- ` that '; Old Church Slavic Old Russian

` one time - the other time ' (from this correlative use only poln. ow corresponds to English deictic "I" and serb. ovaj a deictic word meaning "that", also New Bulgarian -v [*uo-s] developed).

ov- - ov- ` on the one hand - on the other hand which appears - other ', ovogda - ovogda

550 f.

Indo Germanic *e-m `eum') + *um (Akk. Sg. of ours stem u); s. Wackernagel-Debrunner III Tocharian A ok, uk ` still ', A oki ` as, and ', A okk ` up to ', perhaps only *u-g (zero

u-: Old Indic am- (Akk. Sg. amm etc) `that, yonder', arise from Akk. Sg. m. *am (=

grade to Gothic auk); from in addition om(p)ne, omte ` there '?

esp. after verbal forms, Pron. and particles (n ` and not, not ' = n u, ath = atha u), gr. - in - ` even very much ', Gothic -u interrogative particle (also the enclitic -uh from -u-qe, s. Brugmann IF. 33, 173);

Particle Old Indic u ` thus, also, on the other hand, there again, against it ', emphasizing

yonder', Wackernagel-Debrunner III 529, 541.

this u also in Old Indic a-s m. f. `that, yonder', Avestan hu m. f., ap. hauv m. `that,

uta, praty-uta),

- as ', or only in the second part, a little bit opposing ` and, thus ' (nachved. in ity-uta, kim-

Particle Old Indic u-t, in both parts ` on the one hand - on the other hand, soon - soon,

the other hand ', ` as, also '), but hom. `' from + after Debrunner IF. 45, 185 + with additional final inflection;

Avestan uta, ap. ut `and, and also'; gr. ` just as ' from *F() + (originally ` as on

ff.; is formed in addition to ; also , , most probably from , , West Germanic -od in Old Saxon thar-od, Old High German thar-ot ` thither, there ', Old

Saxon her-od, Old High German her-ot ` here ', whereupon also Old Saxon hwarod ` *aute, *auti, see below, would be possible basic form).

whither, where ', Old High German warot ` whither, where ' (from *ute? or from *ut? Also Here Avestan uiti, Gatha-Avestan it ` so ', but not Latin ut and ut, Old Latin utei. Beside u, ut etc. stands with the ablaut grade Indo Germanic au-: au-

after antique grammarians for ` right away, there ', where from ` at the moment,

gr. ` on the other hand, again ', * ` again' (extended to Ionian , gort. ,

straight away ', -`on the spot, here, there ', ` again, thus, further '; Latin aut (*auti) other hand, on the contrary, however ' (to meaning see v. Planta II 465); maybe alb. Geg o `or' from Italian o `or' Umbrian ute, ote `aut'; perhaps Gothic auk ` then, but ', Old Norse auk `also, and', Old also = gr. - ` again '. English ac, Old Saxon k, Old High German ouh ` and, thus, but ', Modern High German Pedersen Pron. dm. 315 supposes gr. suitable form in the initial sound of from ` or', autem ` however ' (to the form see WH. I 87), Oscan aut, auti ` or ' and ` but, on the

- (he) of his own, self '; other interpretations see with Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 613 f.

alb. a-q ` so much'. - Brugmann BSGW. 60, 23 a 2 lines up in gr. - as ` (he) himself Maybe alb. (*aut-) vet `self' [common alb. prothetic v- before bare initial vowels].

` that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former ', ura-ku `ad illam', ures `illis' (orer ose rather with = as = Lithuanian au); perhaps ` here, well, all right, well then (an obsolete interjection meaning "come now") '

With r-forms airan. avar ` here', Lithuanian aur ` see there! ', zero grade Umbrian uru

( after , inschr. after ) from *- ( ` here ' + ` here '), Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 612, 632. u-, uo-: meaning `or' (= ` on the other hand ') esp. in Old Indic v ` or ' (also ` even,

yet; meanwhile; probably, possibly '; also confirming vi), Avestan ap. v ` or ' (particle of the emphasis and assurance), Old Indic Avestan v - v ` either - or ', gr. -(F), (with proclitic emphasis, proclitic stress

for -(F), as yet in the second part of the double question),

Latin -v `or' (also in ceu, sve, seu, nve, neu), also probably Irish n, abret. nou `or' (if Thurneysen Grammar 551;

from *ne-ue ` or not ' ' with fading the negative meaning originally in negative sentences, not more probably after Pedersen KG. I 441 a grown stiff imperative *neue of the verb Irish compare also Old Indic i-v (: va = -: ) ` just as, exactly the same way ', -v ` in

at-ni ` he entrusts with him ', gr. ); Tocharian wa-t ` where'.

vi and v - v as -na- ` this ' to n - n ` in different way ', originally ` thus and thus '; with -v corresponds gr. (F) ` only' (` * just only '), Avestan ava-, Old pers. aiva- `an, one' (compare with no- demonstrative Indo Germanic *oi-no-s ` an, one '). Lithuanian II 3, 987,
2 2

such a way, exactly the same way, just, only ', vm ` so, thus ' (behaves to be confirmed

References: S. esp. Brugmann Dem. 96 f., Grundr. II 2, 341-343, 350, 731 f. m. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 629, 632, 804, Boisacq s. v. , etc WP. I 187 f., WH. I 87, 209, Van Windekens Lexique 78, 80. Page(s): 73-75 auq(h) uq(h) (h)(h)Root / lemma: auq(h)- : uq(h)- and beside it probably as andere lengthened grade Meaning: cooking pot eq(h) ueq(h)eq(h)-

Material: Latin aulla, aula, vulg. lla ` jar, pot ' from *auxl, Demin. auxilla (Faliscan olna in ukh- m., ukh ` pot, saucepan '; Gothic ahns m. (*ukns) ` oven, stove ', with gramm. ending after urna); probably alb. an f. ` vessel ' (from *auqn? Jokl. Stud. 3); Old Indic variation Old Norwegian ogn, Old Swedish oghn ds.

Maybe alb. (*ahna) ena `dish' : Indic AnvA `oven, furnace'.

stove' (after Fick III 29 between, Otir WuS. 5, 217, Gntert Abl. 25 from *u q-ns; not *uqns, s. Boisacq m. Lithuanian), after E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 202 from *F through dissimilatorischen sound change?? (W. Schulze GGA. In 1897, 908);
e 4

Besides forms with probably only to single-linguistic labial: gr. gr. , older `

Note: Common gr. - celt. -k- > -p-, -g- > -b-. ofnet ` small vessel ', ofen, Old High German ovan, Old Norse ofn ` stove, oven ' (likewise

bret. offen f. ` stone trough ' in spite of Loth RC. 43, 410 barely from *upp; Old English

leadable back in *u qnos; beginning u- caused as in wulfa- ` wolf ' the development from in Ofen then must be explained indeed from influence of this sister's form *uhna-).

lv- to -f-, during Gothic etc auhns goes back to Indo Germanic *uq-ns; then the loss of wFrom the assimilated form Old Swedish omn, mundartl. umn `stove' is probably borrowed 137, Meringer IF. 21, 292 ff., Senn Germanic loanword studies, Falk-rp under ovn,

Old Prussian wumpnis `oven', umnode ` bakehouse, oven, kiln, stove '. S. Meillet MSL. 9, weigand herdsman and clever under Ofen.

To the objective see Meringer aaO., Schrader Reallex. 592 f. augSee also: (compare S. 84 f. aug-: ueg-, oldest aueg-) Page(s): 88 References: WP. I 24, WH. I 84, 850, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 258.

ausRoot / lemma: aus-

Meaning: to draw (water), ladle, *shed blood

ausentent Root / lemma: aus- : `to draw (water), ladle' derived from the stem: au//-, auent-: of Root / (e)(e) eded erer lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc.'. Material: Gr ` scoops, extracts, takes from ' (simple ), , , , (Spritus asper after the former present tense * from *, Sommer Gr. Lautst. 2 f.) Illyrian -ks- > -ss-;

with zero grade *us- -, - (latter from Aor. ) ` scoops ', common

')*[] ` scoops water ', ` vessel for ladling '.

Suidas and ` scoops ', originally *F (: Old Indic vr ` water

` to draw (water), ladle, scoop ', schwb. se ` vessel for ladling '.

Old Norse ausa ` to scoop ', austr ` scoop, backwash, the shocks, wake ', ndd. toesen Lat hauri, -re, haus, haustum ` to draw up, draw out or in; to drink up, absorb,

swallow; to shed blood; to drain, empty a receptacle; in gen., to derive, take in; also to as casual in humerus. 644 .

exhaust, weaken, waste ', then also ` slurp, tie, suffers ', poet. ` wounds ', with secondary h

References: WP. I 27 f., WH. I 637, 869, W. Schulze Kl. Schr. 190 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I Page(s): 90 eg- g- aug- ugeg g Root / lemma: aueg-, ug-, aug-, ug-

strongest ') = Avestan ugra- ` strong, hard ' (compounds Sup. aojyah-, aojita-).

Material: Old Indic ugr- `immense' (compounds Sup. jyas-, jiha- ` the stronger one, Latin auge, -re ` to increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend ', auctor (= Umbrian

ek- aukek ek- ukek Note: with s-forms auek-s-, auk-s-, uek-s-, uk-s-

Meaning: Meaning: to magnify, increase

uhtur) ` a promoter, producer, father, progenitor, author etc', aucti ` an increasing; hence, ' (= Lithuanian augmu ` increase, growth ', Old Indic jmn- m. ` strength '), augur ` a

from the bidding, an auction ', augmen(tum) ` an increase, growth, a kind of sacrificial cake

seer, soothsayer, diviner, augur ' from *augos ` aggrandizement ' (WH. I 83);

add on ', Old High German ouhhn, Old Saxon kian ` increase ', Old English acian ` participle Old English acen, Old Saxon kan ` increased, pregnant ';

Gothic aukan (preterit aauk), auknan ` increase ', ana-, bi-aukan ` to append, subjoin,

increase ', ecan ` increase ', Old Norse auka (preterit jk and aukaa) ` increase ', stem Lithuanian ugu, ugti (lengthened grade) ` increase, grow ', auginu, -nti ` allow to

annual growth ', Latvian adzt, adzint ` gather ', Old Prussian auginnons particle Perf. Akt. ` drawn, pulled ', Old Latvian aukts ` high ' = Latin auctus `to increase, augment, Prussian Aucti-garbin, aucktai-rikijskan ` authority ', aucktimmien ` chief ', enlarge, spread, extend', Latvian agt ` grow ', as also thrak. - ` high ford ', Old next to which with s of -es-stem (see below) Lithuanian uktas, Latvian aksts `high' (:

grow, educate, bring up ', changing through ablaut pa-gti ` grow up ', gis ` growth,

Latin augustus ` consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified '), Old Prussian auck-timmiskan f.

(Akk.) ` authority ', Old Prussian agus ` costive, constipated ' (as ` increasing '), Lithuanian ugumas, Latvian agums ` increase, growth '; es-stem Old Indic jas- n. ` vigorousness, strength ', Avestan aojah-, aogah- (also res

uktas); in addition with s in the verb:

stem aogar) ` vigorousness, strength ', Latin augustus see above (also Lithuanian etc

Common Satem Slavic Illyrian hau- > va- phonetic mutation in: allows to grow ', next to which with the weakest root grade Old Indic ukati ` 'gains Old Indic vkaa-m ` strengthening ', vakyati ` allows to grow ', Avestan vaxaiti `

strength ' (Perf. vavka), Avestan uxyeiti ` grows '; common Old Indic h- > k-

that combined - gradation Perf. whs to the paradigm; see Brugmann IF. 32, 180, 189); auxilium ` help, aid, assistance, support, succor ' (originally Pl. -i ` strengthening, Old Norse vaxa, vexa `grow', Old High German wahsan, Modern High German gr. (F) ` grow, increase ', ` grows '; , ` grow, increase ', Latin

Gothic wahsjan `grow' (= Old Indic vakayati, Indo Germanic Iter.-Kaus. *uoksi; with it

reinforcements ', N. Pl. auxilis ` auxiliary troops, or in gen., military power ');

wachsen, wuchs, wherefore e.g. Gothic wahstus ` accretion, growth, body size ', Old High German wa(h)smo ` growth ' ; Tocharian A oksi ` grows ', A oku, auku ` old '; after Van Windekens Lexique 79 also Here with zero grade ug-: Gothic wkrs m. ` interest ', Old English wcor f. ` progeny, gg

here AB oko ` fruit ', A okar ` plant '; against it Pedersen Tochar. 227.

interest ' (compare gr. in the same meaning), Old High German wuohhar m. ` yield of the ground, fetus, progeny, profit, interest, usury ' (in addition steir. wiech ` extensive, excessive, rich in leaves ' as umlaut?

Greeks gave a wreath of laurels to winners in the Pythian games], race ', originally ` quick, successful, energy ', Oldenberg ZdMG. 50, 443 ff. Page(s): 84-85 References: WP. I 22 f., WH. I 82 f., 850, Feist 67, 541, 572, Pedersen Tochar. 227.

same ablaut Old Indic vja- ` strength, property, wealth, the prize (won in a contest) [The

grade ueg- is covered in Old Irish fr, cymr. gwair ` grass, herbage '; probably with the

A little bit differently Schroeder Abl. 57 f.), there in not with s expanded root form aueg- the

ei- eiei ei Root / lemma: auei- (uei-?) (*ekei-) e eiMeaning: bird, *water bird Note:

k hgh hk- : water, river, derived from zero grade of Root / lemma: hgh- : young of an animal Material: Old Indic v, v m. `bird' (Gen. v, Akk. vim), Avestan v ds. (G. Pl. vaym, vayas- n. ` fowl, bird', vyasa- ` bird, crow '; verbal Avestan -vayeiti ` flies up ' (from Gr. ` eagle ', Attic , , Hes. (*F-); alb. vi-do, vito, vidheze ` dove '; Latin avis f. `bird' (therefrom auca `bird, esp. goose '; or bird; common gr. gh- > h-.

Both Root / lemma: auei- (uei-?) (*hekei-): bird, *water bird : Root / lemma: ak- (*k): ei- eiei ei hek ak he ei- :

also with themat. case from stem vaya-), Middle Persian vi, vyandak `bird', Old Indic divinities), Old Indic vvyat ` flutters '.

Back-formation from Demin. aucella from *avicella; false by WH. I 79) = Umbrian avif Akk. Pl. ` birds ' (aviekate D. Sg. ` the taken auspices ', aviekla ` relating to an augur or augury '); cymr. hwyad, acorn. hoet, bret. houad ` duck ' from *auietos? (Pedersen KG. I 55). to *pu- ` the young, boy ' (Slavic pta ` bird ' etc). References: WP. I 21, WH. 84, 850.

Armenian hav ` bird, cock, hen ' can have indeed suggestion -h, but also as *pu- belong

Page(s): 86

uSee also: In connection with it stand most probably the words for `egg', see below u-.

Meaning: to blow

(e)(e) (o)(o) Root / lemma: au(e)-10, au(o)-, u-

the chaff by throwing of the grains against the wind. (e)(e) Material: I. belong to light root form au(e)-:

Note: Note: in Slavic languages often from the ` throw dice ', i.e. to the cleaning of the grain of

ntGrammatical information: participle u-nt-

a. Gr. (if not late neologism), - (see below II a). b. Mcymr. awy ` violent gust of wind ', acorn. awit ` air ' (*aueido-);

weather, bad weather ', Old High German wetar ` weather, scent, free air, wind (of weather) ';

c. ue-d ro- presumably in Old Norse ver n. `wind, air, weather', Old Saxon wedar n. ` ror

animals)' and Old Church Slavic vedro ` cheerful weather ', vedr ` jovial, merry (from the u-d- perhaps in gr. ` fragrant '; in u-d - correlates Persson Beitr. 664 doubting d. r-, l- derivatives: gr. ` aerial breath, draft ' (places light root form au- ahead, as

still , , Hes.).

, , Wetter, see below); but , Gen. ` smoke, fog, air ' stays away, see below uer- ` bind, hang up '. erer aria `air'. Also Albanian ajr : Furlan ajar : Latvian rija : Maltese arja : Sardinian Campidanesu iri; Gr. , Aeolic ` storm ' (*F-); cymr. awen ` inspiration ', awel f. ` wind,

breath ', acorn. auhel `aura, heaven, breeze ', mcorn. awel ` weather ', brit. loanword 125 Old Irish oal ` mouth ' from *auel.

Middle Irish ahl (h hiatus sign), aial ` wind, breath '. According to Thurneysen Grammar e. au-et- in gr. Hes., Et. M., (contracted from et-

) ` vapour, smoke, smoke ', with zero grade, but analogical absorption of -: ` breath, draft of the bellows, the wind, smell, hot aura of the fire ', ds. II. belong to heavy root form: from *dj-) Hes. (that in perhaps prothetic; from light root form come gr. Hes.; maybe alb. (**u-nts vesh `strike, blow, hit'. * nts) stretch in compound); besides the participle *u-nt- ` blowing ' (Old Indic vnt-, gr. Akk. ntcymr. gwynt ` wind ', wherefore Latin ventilre `(*expose to a draught, brandish, fan), wheat) from the chaff ', winiskar ` throw shovel ' (Germanic , next to which with ` sharp blowing ', ` adverse blowing ', ` excessive blowing ' with ) stand *u-nto-s ` wind ' in Latin ventus, Gothic etc winds, Old High German wint, ntoa. u-, u-: Old Indic vti, Avestan viti ` blows ', gr. ds., Cypriot (read with u-

oscillate, vibrate', ventilbrum ` throw shovel ', Gothic diswinjan ` separate the grain (the gramm. variation d in:) Old High German wintn ` winnow, fan ', winta, wintscvala `

winnowing shovel ', Old English windwian ` to expose to the hoist, winnow, fan ' (engl.

winnow); Tocharian A want, yente ` wind '. (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, nt- > -nn-). About Hittite hu-u-wa-an-te-e (h(u)uante) ` hoist ' (?) see Forrer by Feist 565, places the n

Couvreur 119 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 680 .

word as ` (hurrying) clouds ' to hu-wa-a-i ` runs, flees ', which also belongs here; see i

Hes. (delivers ; see also Bechtel KZ. 46, 374); is based on such zero grade n- present, but in meaning `blow', thus Old Prussian wins `air', Akk. winnen `weather'? (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

and from *F ` clean the grains by shaking up of the chaff, sieves ', F

n- present: gr. from *F-- (compare to the formation Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694)

` blow '; Old Indic vyu-, Avestan vyu ` blow, wind, air '.

vvnica, poln. wiejaczka ` winnowing shovel, a winnowing-fan '); nominal: Lithuanian vjas For root-like value of -i- leads the sound grade *u- to the following words in which give

Old Church Slavic vj, vjet `blow' and ` winnow, fan ' (therefrom russ. vjalo, sloven.

out' ', Gothic waan waw, Old English wwan, Old High German wjan, wen ` blow ',

io-present (or from root form *ui- ?): Old Indic vyati ` blows ', Avestan fravyeiti ` goes

space, however, partly to other views: Old Church Slavic vijal, vijalica ` storm, weather ', covered, covered with snow ', Czech vti (*vjati) ` blow ' (only Slavic developments from vortonigem vj-?); r.-Church Slavic vichr (*uisuro-) ` whirlwind ' (in any case, at first to russ. vichat ` and probably as ` whirl, swing in the circle ' to *ueis- ` turn '); compare really Lithuanian vtra ` storm ' - urges to caution);

russ. vjlica ` snow flurry ' (also vjlica!), vjuga ` blizzard, snowstorm ', zavjt ` snow-

shake, move ', vichljat ` toss, fling ', s. Brugmann Grundr. II 1049, Pedersen IF. 5, 70,

Lithuanian vdra, vidras ` gale ' (see Leskien Bild. 438; in Lithuanian very rare forms -dra hom. , , from breathing out or letting out the vitality (to last b. au-d-: Old High German wzan, wiaz, Middle High German wzen ` blow, exhale,

meaning Bechtel Lexil 21 f.), gr. root F-; mcymr. awy s. 82 above.

breathes ' from *F- (rather, however, gr. neologism of after other verbs in -);

inflate ', wz ` gust of wind ', Lithuanian vdnti ` ventilate, cool '; at most gr. `

presumably also (from *au-d-ro-) Lithuanian udra m. ` storm ', n. ` thunderstorm ', Old ds. compare Persson Beitr. 11.

Prussian wydra ` blow '. About Old Indic d ar n. ` chillness, cold ', Avestan ar, aota c. u-lo- perhaps in Latin vltus ` scattered, dissipated, fan away, winnow thoroughly', lo-

German wla m. n. ` fans ' (if not from *w-la, see below)?

whence vlbra `something winnowing the grain' (Paul. Fest. 68, 3) and in Old High d. u-s-: Old Indic vsa-, vsaka- ` fragrance ', vsayati ` fills with fragrance ',

become aerial ', vs ` chill air, coolness ', vsus ` chilly, aerial '.

waas ` white frost, ripe, smell, fragrance ', Lithuanian vstu, vsti ` cool off, become chill or e. t- further formations: Old Indic vta-, Avestan vt ` blow ', Old Indic vtula- (see

savsita- ` makes stinking '; isl. vs ` frigid aura ', vsa ` exhale, blow, breathe ', Dutch

(also ` mad; crack-brained; demented; mind-boggling; insane; crazy; unbalanced '; in addition also perhaps gr. ` sacrilegious, outrageous, wanton, wicked ' after ytu- ` spook, ghost '); Brugmann BSGW. 1901, 94; in spite of ds. not after Bechtel Lexil. 15 to Old Indic Latin vannus ` winnowing-fan ' (from *uat-n-s, compare the Demin. vatillum originally ` a winnowing-fan ', also Modern High German Wanne); (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Old Norse vl, vli ` whisk, tail ' (about syncopated *vela- from *vaila-), Old High small winnowing shovel '; from Latin comes Old High German wanna, Old English fann `

below), gr. ` blowing, wind ', ` windy, aerial ' = Old Indic vtula ` windy '

wadaln ` sweep in a curve, rove ' (proto Germanic *wala-, Indo Germanic *u-tlo-), Old poor ' (proto Germanic *wla-), next to which Old High German walln ` wander, gad English waol ` wandering ', wdla ` beggar, poor ', wdl ` poverty ', wdlian ` beg, be

German wedil ds.; Old High German wadal ` tail, fan ', Adj. ` wandering, fickle, beggar ',

rove; stray; migrate; hike; walk; ramble; tramp ' (from *wl-ja-n); Old High German storm', Old Church Slavic vtr `air, blow', Old Prussian wetro `blow'; Lithuanian vtyti `winnow, fan'. About Old Indic p-vjayati `make (fire / embers) blaze by blowing air onto (it / them)' wla ` fans ' (from *w-la- or *w-la-, see above); Lithuanian vtra ` storm', thunder -

about, pilgrimages ', Old English weallian ` wander; roam; travel; journey; drift; float;

(composed from Pini as Kaus. to v-) see Wackernagel KZ. 43, 292.

Maybe alb. vatra, vatr `hearth, (place where one blows the fire)' Maybe here gr. (see au-11 ` strive oneself ') as ` gasp, pant, wheeze '? Page(s): 81-84 References: WP. I 220 f., Feist 565 a, Trautmann 345, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 680.

(e)(e) eded erer u Root / lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer- (* a ue > aue-) Meaning: to flow, to wet; water, etc. Note:
1 2

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic *ue- > gw- > g-. auentent entent Material: a) (* auent-) au//-, auent-: Note: The following mutations have taken place: Root: ak- > aku//-, akuent- > au//-, auent-: (Gard), Avisio portus (Alpes-mar.);
2 2

Hisp. FlN (* avo Avo[s] > span. Ave, PN A[v]o-briga; gall. FlN Aveda > prov. Avze avo-) avo Old Indic (* avo avat- m. `fountains, wells' (*auntos), ava- `cistern, tank' (with avo-) avo

Aventia (Etrurian), gall. Aventia, spring nymph of Aventicum > French Avenches

prakrit. from t), Italian FlN Avns in Sabine land (therefrom Aventnus m. hill of Rome?),

(Schweiz), numerous FlN Avantia (*aunti) > French Avance, La Vence, abrit. *Avants > (*auontos) ` sources, wellspring, spring '. b) (* aued-) aued-, aud-, d-; aueded ed- auded Note:

cymr. Ewenni; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-),Old Lithuanian FlN Avant, Latvian avuts

The zero grade of Root / lemma: ak- `water, river' has been suffixed in nasalized -(n)dor, ak -(n)tor: *(a)ku//-, *(a)kuentor, *(a)uentor) >*(a)ued-, (a)ued-, (a)ud-, d-: heteroklit. r/n-stem udr, udr (Nom. Sg.), udn(i) (Lok.Sg.), udns (Gen. Sg.) ` water ', dr, udn(i) udns n Old Indic dat ` the soaking, the flowing ', dman- n. ` the waves, floods ', da-n-m `

compare J. Schmidt Pl. 172 ft., Pedersen KZ. 32, 240 ff., Bartholomae PBrB. 41, 273. mash boiled in milk ', Avestan (* auod-)aoa- m. ` wellspring, fount '. auodod

vaii- f. ` water run, irrigation canal '.

Old Indic (* aunatti-)untti (*u-n-ed-ti), 3. Pl. undti ` soaked, moistened '; Avestan aunattinatti Old Indic udn(i) Lok., udn Gen., ud Nom. Akk. Pl. ` water ' (Nom. Akk. Sg. udak2

m); from r-stem derived samudra- ` sea ', anudra- ` waterless ' (= gr. );

` otter ' (= gr. , Old High German etc ottar, compare also Latin lutra and with Lithuanian dra, Old Church Slavic vydra ds.); Maybe nasalized alb. (*lutra) lundra ` otter' a Latin loanword uisce (*udeskio-) ` water '; Note:

(* audro-)udro-s ` water animal ': Old Indic udr- ` a water animal ' = Avestan udra- m. audro- udro dro udro-

from -(e)s (e)s-stem Old Indic (*utsa-) utsa- ` spring, well ', compare Old Irish (*udeskio-)

The followings have taken place: zero grade in arm: (a)kuent- > guet, zero grade in Slavic (a)ueda- > voda, zero grade in Phrygian (a)kuedu > [common Greek g> b, k> p]: Armenian (*gwet) get ` river ' (basic form *ued, Sandhi form to uedr, compare under

Einl. 225).

Slavic voda; it corresponds also Phrygian `water', i.e. *ved from *ued, Kretschmer

Maybe alb. (*guet) det `sea' : Armenian get ` river ' common alb. gu- > d-. Note: Note Maybe Phrygian `water' : nasalized Illyrian Bindus `water god' [common Illyrian gu- > b-]. The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic *ue- > gw- > g- ; gw- > b- Illyrian Greek. ` waterless ', , ` water snake ', f. ` otter ', , ` = lak. : ), ` dropsy ', ` water bucket ' (: Latin uter); from n r ' (?),epithet of Amphitrite and Thetis (Johansson Beitr. 117; watery ' ( ds. with suffix exchange; similarly ` water snake, ichneumon ' : Gr. , (*-n-) `water' (with metr. elongation ); from r-stem derived n

stem (compare ` watery ') derived actually ` sea wave, wave, the billow

from also ` truffle ' as ` juicy '??), as well as probably -, - (-), , - (see Boisacq 998 a)? es-stem `water' is only late poet. Nom. Akk. to Dat. . es ks- > -ss-. Maked. PN from *uedesi, Kretschmer RIEt Balc. 1, 383. common gr.-Illyrian Alb. uj `water' (after Pedersen KZ. 34, 286; 36, 339 not from *ud-ni, but from *ud-; or,

nevertheless, from *ud?).

The shift -dn- > nj > j of possibly alb. (*udna-h) uj, ujna Pl. ` water ' has also been attested in alb. shtynj, shtyj `poke, push' (*studni); see Root / lemma: (s)teu-1 : `to push, hit' (s)teuLuwian wida- `watery' wida-

D-LPl -i-da-an-za: 45 ii 6.

See Watkins, Flex. u. Wortbild. 376. Cf. perh. witam[ ] at KBo XXIX 37,4. Contra Starke, StBoT 31.567f, witi, wita and witaz are Hittite!

present; compare Old Prussian (*gwundan) wundan n., unds m. `water' and Old Indic untti, undti as well as Lithuanian (*gwandu) vandu, -es, vnden, em. unduo,

Latin unda, f. ` water, fluid, esp. a wave; fig. a stream of people ' (with n- infix from the

283, Trautmann 337); uter, utris ` hose, tube ' (*udri-s `* water hose ', compare gr. ), r r lutra ` otter ' (l- after lutum ` mud, mire, dirt; clay, puddle '). Umbrian utur n. `water' (= ), Abl. une (*udni). n (`water dogs '). Note: genitive intervocalic -i- vowel. i Old Irish u(i)-sce : alb. (*u-i-) uj-, uj-i `water' : Luwian -i-ta-an-ta-al-li-an `of the water(s)' Gothic wat (n-stem), Dat. Pl. watnam `water'; Old Swedish vtur ( = Indo Old Irish u(i)sce `water' (*udeskio-), odar ` brown ' (*udaros), coin fodorne ` otters '

Latvian dens m. f. `water', and in addition Schulze EN. 243, Brugmann Grdr. II 3, 281, n

Germanic e? rather umlaut from Germanic a in the -in- case, see Bartolomae aaO.),

Old Icelandic vatn n. (takes o-stem, compare Gothic Dat. Pl. watnam), vatr, nord. sea `water';

name Vttern; Old High German wazzar, Old Saxon watar, Old English wter (*uodr) Old Icelandic otr, Old English otor, Old High German ottar m. `otter, water snake', in

addition FlN Otter, old Uterna; with nasalization within the word (compare above to Latin Old Saxon wintar ` winter ' as ` wet season ' (Lidn PBrB. 15, 522, Falk-rp under vinter; not better to Irish find ` white ', see below sueid- ` shine '); eid eidperhaps to Wasser also Old High German Old English wascan, Old Icelandic vaska, unda) probably Gothic wintrus, Old Icelandic vetr, Old English winter, Old High German

shaped from Old Icelandic vtr, Old English wt, engl. wet ` wet, soaked '.

Modern High German waschen, wusch (*wat-sk-); with lengthened grade of the root

thia, ia, Old English y, Old High German undea ` wave, billow, flood ', like from a root of the type Old Indic yakr-t. variant *uet-, however, it is found nowhere else; Johansson Beitr. 117 f. sees therein the t Lithuanian vandu etc (see above); Lithuanian dra, Old Prussian udro f., East

ur, Pl. unnir ` wave ', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Saxon

In Germanic also with Old English waum m. ` wave ', zero grade Old Icelandic unnr,

Lithuanian dras, Latvian dris m. ` otter '; Old Church Slavic vydra, Serbo-Croatian vdra (Balto Slavic d- : Lithuanian vnd-eni; see finally Trautmann 334 m. Lithuanian; to compare Pedersen t. Lithuanian 54 f.); Maybe alb. vidra `sea otter' Slavic loanword. Germanic -[r]); lengthened grade Old Church Slavic vdro `, ' (with attuning well in the meaning, s. Meillet MSL. 14, 342, Trautmann 337); Hittite wa-a-tar (*wtar ) `water', Gen. -te-na-a (e-grade as Phrygian , a of Nom. Old Church Slavic voda `water' (become Fem. because of the ending -a, here for Indo

from e?). Nom. Pl. u-wi-ta-ar, with unsettled vocalism in spite of Pedersen Hittite 167. Note:

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals as in: Hittite uek-, uk- ` adjure ' : Tocharian A wak f., wek `voice' common Armenian Celtic Illyrian *ue- > gw- > g- [see Root / lemma: uek- : to speak]. ek ek

Therefore the original Hittite root was as in Genitive Gen. -te-na-a `of water' (*-tena-a) which became the zero grade wa-a-tar (*wtar ) `water'. 2).

c) (* auer-) auer- ` water, rain, river ' (ur- : r-; to the ablaut Persson Beitr. 604, Anm. auerer erer

iran. Avestan vr ` to rain ', med. ` allow to rain, let rain '), Old Indic vr f. `water', Avestan vairi- m. `sea'; Truncated Tocharian (*wtar ) A wr, war `water'; Armenian gay ` marsh, mud ' (*u rio-); Note: The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic Illyrian *ue- > gw- > g-. gr. perhaps in ` scoops ', if *F [] (see *aus- ` scoop, draw water, ladle '); participle); Note: The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic Illyrian *ue- > gw- > g-. alb. hur-d, hurdh ` pond, tank, marsh ' (*r-), shur ` urine ', shurr (*surna) (postverbal) f. ` urine ' (prefix sh from Latin ex or Indo Germanic *sm + r-n; or + gr. ?); alb. (after Jokl SBAk. Wien 168 I 30, 89, 97) (*gvrnd) vrnd ` light rain ' (nte

1. ur-, uer-: Old Indic vr, vri n. `water', Avestan vr n. `rain' (with themat. inflection r- err er

Note: ote Albanian preserved the old laryngeal - > s- like satem languages alb. (*srna) shurra ` alb. preserved - laryngeal like centum languages. cymr. gwer m. ` suet, sebaceous, tallow '; Note: urine ' : Hittite ehur ` urine ' : Latin rna ` urine '. But in alb. hur-d ` pond, tank, marsh '

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic Illyrian *ue- > gw- > g-. Maybe zero grade (* auer- > *uer-) in cymr. gwer m. ` suet, sebaceous, tallow ' : auerer er uerArmenian (our) ` water ' : alb. (*ur) uj ` water '. Old Norse vari m. ` liquid, water '. rnor, -r ` to dive ', rntor ` a diver '; 2. (* auer-) r-, auer-: Latin rna ` urine ' (in which meaning influenced by ?), auer- rer erer
2 2

Maybe alb. urela `water-pit' : Basque ura `water'. Old Norse r `fine rain', yra ` to rain subtly ', rigr ` dew-covered', Old English rig ds.; rohso, Latin loanword rus ` a kind of wild ox ', Swedish Dialectal ure ` randy bull, a bull perhaps Old Norse rr, Gen. rar (u-stem), Old English r, Old High German ro,

in heat ' (`*one that scatters, drops, one that inseminates ' as Old Indic vran- etc, see below); root form (* auer-) auer- in thrak. FlN , gr. (Persson IF. 35, 199) * `water, auerer erer

spring ' in ` without water, of brooks ' (about gr. and compare Schwyzer Gr.Gr. I 267, 444);

Hrault, Vi-aurus > French Le Viaur; Old Prussian Aure, Lithuanian Aur-yt; Old Norse aurigr ` wet ', aurr ` wet, water ', FlN Aura, Old English ar ` sea '; Old Prussian wurs (*ras) `pond, pool', irin Akk. Sg., iuriay Pl. fem. `sea', Old Latvian

> French Eure, Aurana > Modern High German Ohrn (Wrttemb.), Ar-auris > French

in FlN: Italian Met-aurus (Bruttium), Pisaurus (Umbrien), gall. Avara > French Avre, Aura

jri- m., Latvian j'ra, Lithuanian jrs, jrios Pl. fem. `sea, esp. the Baltic Sea ' (see above to Latin rna; j- presumably suggestion after J. Schmidt PL 204); Lithuanian jaurs ` swampy, marshy ', jura, juras `marshy place, marshy ground,

swamp bottom' from *eur- (see Berneker IF. 10, 162, Trautmann 335 m. Lithuanian). whirlpools ', atvyrs ` counterstream on the shore ', Latvian verdu, virt ` soak, bubble, boil, 3. Verbum: Lithuanian vrdu, vrti ` bubble, surge, cook ', versm ` wellspring ', vrius `

cook ', atvars ` whirl ',

Old Church Slavic vrj, vrti ` stream, bubble, surge, boil, cook ', vir ` whirlpool ', izvor ` wellspring (bubbling water) ', wherefore with from ` cook ' developed meaning ` heat ', Latvian wersme ` glow ', Old Church Slavic var ` heat '.
e e e e

About possible affiliation of *uer/ /n ` alder ' see there. er/ /n ' (varati ` it is raining '), gr. ` urine '; , ` dew ', Ionian Attic ` '; 4. extension (* auers-) uer-s- ` rain, dew ': Old Indic var- n. ` rain, rainy season, year auers- erers er

urinates ' (kausativ *uorsei, F- proved by the augmentation ), ` a water bird

Hittite wa-ar-a-a `rain'(?)seems an Old Indic loanword.

Middle Irish (*gwrass) frass `rain' is older fross (uros-t, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 44); Maybe alb. (*var-) vesa `dew' : (*everse) ` dew'.

man, stallion '.

(* aursen-) ursen- ` discharging semen = virile ', Old Indic vrn- `virile', m. ` manikin, aursen- senrsen sen thereof derived Avestan varna- `virile', Old Indic vra-, vrabh- `bull', vri- `virile', m. Specht (Dekl. 156) places here (from Germanic *gwrai-njan-) without s-extension Old

`Aries, ram' (= Avestan varni- ds.), vraa- m. ` testicles ';

Old High German wrenno ` stallion ' is back-borrowed from Middle Latin (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). rother, cattle'.

High German reineo ` stallion ', Old Saxon wrnio ds., Old English wrne ` horny, lustful ';

ers/i uers/i-: Latin (*gverrs) verrs, -is `boar', Lithuanian veris `calf', Latvian versis `ox, ers/i-

References: compare in general Persson root extension 47, 85 f., Johansson KZ. 30, 418, Finnish vesi, stem vete `water' s. Mikkola Ml. van Ginneken 137. Trautmann 20, 334, 337, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 519, 548, 838. Page(s): 78-81 Root eses au eses Root / lemma: aues- (* au es-)
1 2

IF. 2, 60 ff., Persson Beitr. 604 f., 845 (also against connection of uers- with ers-). About

WP. I 252 f., 268 f., WH. I 81 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 93, 105, 159, 169, Specht Dekl. 18 f.,

Meaning: to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc.

eses augRoot / lemma: aues- : to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc. derived from Root / lemma: aug- : to glance, see. Material:


Old Indic u f. Akk. usam, Gen. usa ` aurora ', Avestan u, Akk. uhm, Gen. uah ds. (uas-tara- ` eastern '), next to which Old Indic Gen. Sg., Akk. Pl. u, Avestan Lok. Sg. ui-[, s. *dem-` to build '] either from a root noun *us-, or as *us-s- to *dem-

s-stem; Old Indic ucchti = Avestan usaiti (*us-skti) ` shines in (from the morning) ', Perf. Old Indic uvsa, Aor. avasran ` they shone '; uar-, usr ` dawn, aurora, early morning, figurative ` cow ', m. `bull' (Frisk, nominal formation 3); prime of the day, red sky ', uar-bdh- ` early awake ', usr- ` early morning, reddish ', also es s ues-, us- in Old Indic vasar-hn- `striking in the morning, early morning', vsar- `early es- s-

morning', m. ` day ' (compare in addition also the related root under particular catchword r/n-stem *ues-r-, ues-n- ` springtide, spring '); eses eses

F, changing through ablaut Aeolic ` aurora ' (proto gr. []), Boeotian and (*); ` near the morning ', ` tomorrow ' (*-); hom. ` radiative morning '; - ` rooster, cock ' (*usi- ` singing in the morning early morning '); = Germanic *austra-) ` souther, southerly wind ', austrlis ` southern '; unexplained), Old Lithuanian ausas, Old Prussian ausis `gold'; Latin aurra f. `aurora, the morning, dawn, daybreak ' (for *uss); auster (*aus-t(e)ro-

gr. hom. *(uss), Gen. (), Attic (with accent innovation) , Doric ,

presumably also aurum, sabin. ausom `gold' as `*reddish'; to Lithuanian uksas (k Maybe Italian oro : Spanish oro : French or : Bresciano or : Breton aour : Calabrese oru : Catalan or : Corsican oru : alb. (*oru) ari `gold' [similar to alb. ahu, ahi ` beech '] : Papiamentu oro : Reggiano or : Irish r : Lombardo Occidentale r : Sardinian

Campidanesu oru : Sardinian Logudoresu oro : Scots Gaelic r : Valencian or : Venetian : : Occitan aur : Portuguese ouro : Romagnolo ur : Romanian aur : Romansh aur : Welsh aur `gold'.

oro : Galician ouro : [Hungarian arany : Basque urre loanwords] : Ligurian ouru : Manx oar

perhaps Tocharian A (*gws) ws `gold', but compare Armenian os-ki `gold', Finnish vas-ki ` copper '; perhaps Vesuvius (differently under eus- ` burn ');

The origin of labialized Old laryngeals: common Armenian Celtic *ue- > gw- > g- ; Tocharian gw- > w-. star ' (*usri-, Pedersen KG. I 82); (*gwawr) Middle Irish fir ` sunrise ', cymr. gwawr `aurora', bret. gwere laouen `morning

High German st(a)ra, starn; against it with Indo Germanic -t(e)ro-, Old High German star `eastern' and Adv. ` the after east ', Modern High Germanster-reich, Old Norse austr n. ` East ' and Adv. ` eastwards ', Old English compounds asterra ` more to the east ', in addition Ostrogothae, older aste f. `East', Old Norse austan ` from the east '; *uss in Old English arendel ` morning star ', Old High German MN Orendil;

Germanic *austr in Old English astre ` spring goddess ', astron Pl. ` Easter ' = Old

Austrogoti as ` the eastern Goths '; Old High German stan ` from the east ', Old English

autrnis (vjas) ` north-east wind ', Latvian ustra f. ` daybreak ', ustrums m. `East'; in ablaut em. apriai m. ` daybreak '; Old Church Slavic za ustra ` ' (about utro, jutro `morning' from *aus(t)ro- compare

Lithuanian aur f. `aurora', ata ` day is breaking', Latvian ust ds.; Lithuanian

Trautmann 19, Mikkola Ursl. Gr. 179 and Berneker 462 f. m. Lithuanian, wherefore ustr ` relating to summer ' (see Pedersen IF. 5, 69).

Brckner KZ. 46, 212, auspoln. ci ` shine ' reconstructs Slavic *usto `lustre, shine'), compare to ablaut J. Schmidt KZ. 25, 23 f., Hirt Abl. 134, 147, Reichelt KZ. 39, 69. Debrunner Old Indic Gr. Ill 213 and 281 f., Kretschmer Gl. 27, 231; Leumann IF. 58, 121 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 514, 557. Page(s): 86-87 Root / lemma: au-11 (ue-d(h)-?) u d(h)References: WP. I 26 f., WH. I 86, 87 f., Trautmann 19, Specht Dekl. 10, Wackernagel-

Meaning: to try, force

Material: Solmsen Unters. 267 f. connects Old Indic vyati, -t ` gets tired, is exhausted, tires ' with gr. ` drudgery, contest ' (*F-), , ` fight, cut-throat price, battlefield ', whereby - assumes either suggestion vowel is or a more full root form

*au- besides *u-. With it at most compatibly is Zupitzas KZ. 37, 405 comparing the gr. words with Middle Irish feidm ` effort ', fedil ` persistent, persevering ', Old Irish ni fedligedar ` (he, she) does not stay ' (whereby (*cut) ' : *med-, *u- `blow' : Old Norse ver, Modern High German Wetter), wherefore

formal measure relationship would be comparable as *m- ` (apportion by measure), allot,

places; here Tocharian waimene ` difficult, hard '?

Pedersen KG. I 110, cymr. gweddil ` remnant, leavings ' (out of it Middle Irish fuidell)

basic meaning in would put the question through the meaning ` dry up ' from vna ` dry ', upa-vyati ` be extinguished by drying up, dry up ', upavta- ` become dry '; and in takes turns most of course - -as suffixal, while the dental Irish words root-like d or d is, thus at best surely exists distant relationship.

However, the arrangement is quite unsafe in all its parts. For vyati ` exert itself ' as

Page(s): 84

References: WP. I 223, Van Windekens Lexique 149.

Meaning: a kind of grass, oat

Root / lemma: aui-

shepherd's pipe; in gen., any stalk, straw ' (presumably after arna, terrnus to occurred Lithuanian avi, Latvian (Pl. f.) uzas, Old Prussian wyse ` oat ', Old Church Slavic suffix exchange for *avna from *aui-sn);

Material: Latin avna ` oats or wild oats, made only as a cattle feed; hence oaten pipe,

word in conservative Nom. *ovz), but ` a wild grass kind, straw, stalk or likewise ' barely as *F here. After Specht Dekl. 298 would be assumed rather Indo Germanic *aui- besides *aues-

ovs, russ. ovs `oat' (s from z probably probably because it occurs at the end of the

Page(s): 88

References: WP. I 24, WH. I 81, Trautmann 21.

(*auesn > avna).

Root / lemma: au-5, auMeaning: to weave Material: Unextended in: Old Indic tum, tav (from der set-basis vtav) ` to weave ',

Perf. vu, participle t-, v-uta- (also das present vyati ` weaves ' can be after

Wackernagel Old Indic Gr. I 94 an -eio-present v-yati, so that Fut. vayiyati, vya-

`weaver' only in addition one would be new-created), tu- m. ` woof of fabric ', vna- n. ` the weaving '. To the existence of a heavy base is to be stuck against Wackernagel because of vtave

` weave, twist ', vnam (W. must understand t- as neologism to vyate after ht- : hvyate).

d -extension 1. au-d -, 2. (a)u-d -, u-d -: au' (y-audem ` join together '), aud `shoe'; 1. Armenian z-aud ` strap ' (z-audem ` connects, ties together '), y-aud `strap, limb, joint
h h h

Lithuanian udiau, udiu, usti `to weave', atauda Pl. ` woof ', dis ` a unique fabric, the weaving ', das ` eel line ' (vowel as with ugu ` increase, sprout ': gs ` annual growth '); russ. uslo ` fabric ' (uzda ` bridle '?), see below eu- ` pull '. It goes back to the image of the euweaving or spining and that of her assigned fate goddess:

paion. PN Aud-len (Krahe IF. 58, 132), cymr. udd (*audos) ` master, mister ' (different Lewis-Pedersen 14), bret. ozac'h ` landlord ' (*udakkos), Loth RC. 41, 234; Old Saxon

aud au - ` luck, possession, wealth ': Illyrian PN Audarus, Audata (: Germanic Audo-berht),

dan, Old English aden, Old Norse auinn ` granted from the destiny, grants ', (under the wealth ', Old English ad ` possession, wealth, luck ', Old Saxon d ` possession, influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Norse auna ` destiny, luck ', aur `

prosperity ', Old High German al-d ` full and free possession ' (Middle Latin allodium), Middle High German klein-t ` jewel ', Gothic audahafts ` makes happy ', audags ` blessed, fortunate ', Old High German tac ` happy, rich '.

` gowns, clothes ', Old English wd (*wi-) f. ` clothes, rope ', Old Saxon wd ` clothes ', Old High German wt, Gen.-i ` clothes, armament ';

2. Old Norse v f. ` fabric, piece, stuff, as comes ready of the loom, drag net ', Pl.vir

Norse vzt f. ` spot for fishing at sea from *waa-st), Middle High German wate, wade f. `drag net, trawl net ', Middle High German spinne-wet ` spinning web '. References: WP. I 16 f., WH. I 88.
h h

Old Norse var m. ` rope, string, fishing line ', Swedish Norwegian vad n. `drag net' (Old

probably uend -),see there; also perhaps uei- ` twist, spin ', (a)ueg- `to weave etc' (uer- `` en ei (a)ueguerer en eitwist, spin '?), ues- ` wrap '. eses

See also: Maybe here ueb - `to weave', ued - ` bind, connect ' (wherefore as nasal form

Page(s): 75-76 eded Root / lemma: au-6, auedMeaning: to speak Material: Gr. hom. Imperf. ` (he, she) called (out), shouted ', Hes. Old Indic vdati ` lets the voice resound, talks ' (Perf. dim, participle udit-), vdanam

` the sounds, talking, mouth ', diti- f. `speech', vdayati ` allows to sound, plays (a music m. sound, call, sound, statement, battle of words '; calumny ', vaditi ` accuse ';

instrument), allows to speak ', vditram ` musical instrument, music ', vda- ` sound letting,

in the lengthened grade and the meaning compares itself in next Old Church Slavic vada ` nasalized Old Indic vandate, -ti ` praises, praises, greets with respect ', vandanam `

praise, price, reverential greeting ', vandru- ` appreciative, praising '; see still Uhlenbeck Old Indic Wb. under vallak ` a kind of sounds ', vallabha- ` minion, favourite '. [i.e. F] Hes.; Gr. [i.e. F] Hes., (F) `qui i F, i. e. `,

zero grade , (brought out somewhere from the Alexandrines) ` sings, glorifies ', : other interpretations verz. Walde LEWb. under su, Boisacq s. v., again different Lithuanian vadin, vadnti ` shout, call '.

, (Theognostos . 19, 26) ( ` ballad, song ' rather to the wedding call

Risch 50).

zero grade - in ` sound, voice, language ' (Aeolic Sappho), ` shouts, speaks ', , Doric ` speaking with human voice '. ` singer '. Differently Wackernagel KZ. 29, 151 f. au-ei-d- in (F) (Attic ) ` sings ', (F) (Attic ) ` song ', ` singer ', eiTocharian watk-, AB wtk-, yaitk- ` command, order '. References: WP. I 251 f., Specht KZ. 59, 119 f., Van Windekens Lexique 155. Page(s): 76-77

au--d- in (F) ` nightingale ' ( Hes., Aeolic and , the

ii Root / lemma: au-7, au-, aui-

Meaning: to like; to help, *desire

Material: Old Indic vati ` desires, favors above others, promotes, patronizes ' = Avestan avaiti ` provides, helps ' = Old Irish con-i ` protects '; Messapic F ` I bid (s.o.)

farewell? (to wish s.o. to be strong to be healthy) ';

Old Indic vas- n. ` satisfaction, favour, assistance ' = Avestan avah- n. `help' (in addition Indic man- ` favorable, helping ' = Avestan aoman- ` supporting, helping ', Old Indic ma- ` comrade '; Old Indic avitr- m. ` patron, sponsor, patronizer ' (from which 2delivery, help'; mn- m. ` favour, assistance, protection ',

probably Old Indic avas- n. `nourishment'), compare gr. - `favorable' (*-F); Old

syllable root form as Fut. aviyati, Perf. 2. Sg. vitha, as well as participle t- and:) t- ` Armenian aviun ` violent desire, longing; esp. irrational whim, caprice, or immoderate gr. -F in 2. part of Greek family names ( )? compare Kretschmer Gl. 18, 232 Latin ave, -re (basis au[i]- as in preceding) ` be eager, have a wild desire, long for,

passion, lust ' (Petersson Et. Misz. 8);

f., different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 487, 3; 521; (Theokrit) ` friend, lover ';

desire ', avidus ` desiring, longing for; esp. greedy for money, avaricious ' (therefrom

aude, -re ` to be daring; to dare, venture, bring oneself to '), avrus ` covetous, greedy '; Old Irish con i `protects', cymr. ewyllys `favor, wish desire', corn. awell ` desire', abr. a-

German names as Awileib, Awo; compare Gothic awi-liu `, '; mcymr. ri-m`abandoned, forsaken, deserted, destitute' (*di-at-aw-etic). aw ` he grants to me ', cymr. ad-aw (with negat. at-) ` leave ', abret. di-eteguetic

name component in gall. Avi-cantus (=abret. Eucant), acymr. Euilaun , also in Old High

iul `unaided, wantonly, voluntarily', Middle Breton eoull, youll ` favor, wish desire ', as a

ee, Adv. ae ` easy, comfortable ', Old High German dmuoti, Old Saxon thmdi modest ',

Falk-Torp 1407 adds also an: Old High German di, Old Saxon thi, Old English Adj.

`modest', Old English amd `modest', Old Norse aumjkr ` to move easily, willing, aukendr ` to recognize easily '; basic meaning is ` willing ', from which ` to make easy ';

waste; empty; abandoned; blasted; desolate; bleak; grey; gray; barren; stuffy; dull; tedious '?). Rather uncertainly.

formal Germanic to-participle-formation to awi- (example Germanic auia- ` deserted; flat;

` recover, refresh ', atast ` invigorate, refresh ' are used, the zero grade lies to them *aus - of in Old Indic vas-, gr. - present as a basis es-stem . Or = Lithuanian uti ` get cold ', uyti ` cool '? Tocharian B au-lre, A olar ` comrade '; as dubious omaute ` longing ', w-r(n)- `

If also Old Lithuanian autis ` refresh oneself ', atauimas ` refreshment ', Latvian ataust

crave, long for', A w-aste ` protection ' with angebl. zero grade the root rather here wa- ` give ', A 1.Sg. ws (Pedersen Tochar. 186). Page(s): Page(s): 77-78 References: WP. I 19, WH. I 81, 850, Van Windekens Lexique 9, 79, 153, 157.

Root / lemma: auo-s (*oua) Note: Meaning: grandfather

sslemma: auo-s: grandfather in centum languages and Root / lemma: ss-: parent : alb. - > s- ;

The original root was Hittite u-u-a-a (ua) `grandfather' branched into Root /

(*ua) gjysh `grandfather' in satem languages; old laryngeal centum - > a-, e- : satem Material: Armenian hav `grandfather' could go back also to *pap-, would be auos only north - west

Indo Germanic On account of here Hittite (*oua) u-u-a-a (ua) `grandfather'? origin. Lycian *uga ` grandfather on the maternal side ' appears to speak rather of Asia Minor

Note: common Hittite ou- > u- (vowel -o- was absent in Hittite). o ancestor '; fem. Latin avia `grandmother' (see finally Leumann-Stolz 204), dubious gr. Latin also -u- > -v-. as ` primordial mother earth ' (compare Brugmann IF. 29, 206 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 473;

Armenian hav, Gen. havu `grandfather', Latin avus ` grandfather; poet., in gen., an

ancestral ' is probably shaped after martus, older i-stem in Lithuanian avnas ` brother of the mother '; differently Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., innkeepers Glotta 5. 307); avtus ` large-scale brother of the mother ';

different Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., Kretschmer Glotta 5. 307); avtus ` of a grandfather,

fatherly, angestammt ' is formed probably after martus, old i-stem in Lithuanian avynas `

(h)ue ` a grandson, a nephew ', Middle Irish (a), a ds.; en-stem: Gothic aw Frisian m, Old High German heim,

io-derivative Old Prussian awis `uncle', Old Church Slavic *uj ds. (ujka `aunt'), Old Irish

`grandmother', Old Norse afi `grandfather', i ` great-grandfather ', Old English am, Old


Germanic *auos koimos ` dear grandfather', compare cymr. tad cu [*tatos koimos]

who lived in grandfather's home '), after R. Much Germanic 205 from *auhaim < Indo

Modern High German Oheim, Ohm (after Osthoff PBrB. 13, 447 *awun-haimaz ` the one

Latin avunculus ` brother of the mother ' (probably caressing diminutive an *av, -nis); cymr. ewythr, acorn. euitor, bret. eontr `uncle' (*auen-tro-). The stem called originally the grandparents on the maternal side, become through the

words for `uncle or aunt on the maternal side ' probably, s. Hermann GGN. 1918, 214 f. Note: Latin avus ; avos > Italian avolo, Galician av, Catalan avi, Portuguese av ; vov, Spanish abuelo, French aeul, Albanian (*gelus) gjysh, Asturian gelu, Cal tesquelo esquelo, esquelo giaggiu, Sardinian Campidanesu abu ; avu ; ayayu, Sardinian Logudoresu avu ; abu ; yayu, Valencian yayo `grandfather' Clear influence of a substrate Anatolian Hittite (*oua) u-u-a-a (ua) `grandfather'? Lycian *uga ` grandfather on the maternal side '. (*vana-gy-papa) nagy-apa ; nagy-papa `grandfather'. Helv. 1, 118 ff. Page(s): 89 A early borrowing from Estonian (*avana-isa vana-isa > Finnish iso is Hungarian isa) iso-is is, isa isa

Judeo-Spanish agelo, Leonese guelu ; gelu, Sardinian (Limba Sarda Unificada) (*yayu)

References: WP. I 20 f., WH. 88 f., 851, Pedersen Lycian under Hittite 25 f., Risch Mus.

Meaning: apple Note:

bel- blbel bl Root / lemma: bel-, bl-, ab le e e e e

bel- blbel bl omRoot / lemma: bel-, bl-, ab l- : `apple' derived from Root / lemma: om- (*amel): `raw, : bitter, *sweet'. Material:

Maybe Old Indic: abal- m. `the plant Tapia Crataeva' {`Crataegus roxburghii' (H. Ebel KZ Latin Abella (Oscan town, city in Campanien) malifera `apple-bearing', after Verg. Aen. 7, VI, 1957:216)} [It is a proof of the European origin of the cognate].

740, might have received her name after of the apple breeding and reject on the basic form *ablon. The apple is not named possibly only after the town. In the Celtic the names are to be distinguished for `apple' (*ablu) and ` apple tree '

(*abaln-). Gall. avallo ` fruit ', Aball (n-stem) PN, French Avallon, abrit. PN Aballva, gallorom. *aballinca ` Alpine mistletoe ' (Wartburg); Maybe Illyrian PN Aulona Middle Irish aball (*abaln) f. `apple tree', acymr. aball, mcymr. avall Pl. euyill (analogical) f., acymr. aballen, ncymr. afallen `apple tree' (with singulative ending). The same ablaut forms in the Germanic: apfel, Old English ppel (engl. apple), Old Norse epli n. (apal-grr `apple-gray') `apple'. Germanic probably *ap(a)la-, *aplu-. Further Old Norse apaldr `apple tree', Old English apuldor, ppuldre, Old High German apholtra (compare Modern High German Affoltern The Baltic shows clear tracks in Indo Germanic completely isolated l- declension *bl, Crimean Gothic apel (Gothic *apls?), Old High German apful, afful, Middle High German Old Irish ubull (*ablu) n. `apple', ncymr. afal, Pl. afalau, corn. bret. aval m. `apple', but

PN), Middle High German apfalter `apple tree' (*apaldra-). G. Sg. *beles.

obuols, Latvian buolis (-iio-stem), West Lithuanian buolas, Latvian buols (o-stem) from Indo Germanic *bl-; Normal grade mostly in the word for `apple tree'; Lithuanian obels (fem. i-stem), Latvian

lengthened grade of the suffix appears mostly in the word for `apple': East Lithuanian

bels (i-stem), bele (-stem) from Indo Germanic *bel-; but Old Prussian woble f. (*bl-) `apple', wobalne (*bolu-) f. `apple tree'. Old Bulgarian ablko, jablko, poln. jabko, slov. jbolko, russ. jbloko `apple' (*ablko

from *blu-) etc; Old Bulgarian (j)ablan, sloven. jblan, Old Czech jablan, jablon, russ. jblon `apple tree', from Indo Germanic*boln- (influences the sound form of *ablo `apple').

Germanic Balto Slavic forms only around ancient relationship and barely around borrowing act. With respect to Latin abies ` fir' etc. very uncertain. Note: Note ma-lu-wa-an-za ma-lu-wa-an-za: 145 iii 18. XLIV 4+ Vo 28. The oldest IE cognate is Luvian: *amlu(wa)- `apple-(tree)'; Attestations: [HittErgSg] aaUR HAHUR-an-za: XLIV 4+ Vo 26. UR-an-za UR HAHUR-lu-wa-an-za: UR-lu-wa-an-za

Although a uniform basic form is not attachable, it becomes both Latin Celtic

Commentary: Above analysis most likely, but textual tradition is corrupt. Luvian nt. nom.acc. sg. amluwan=za also possible. Cf. Starke, KZ 95.153f, and Soysal, Or 58.174ff. From the common IE shift m > mb > b derived *amlu(wa)- > Root / lemma: bel-, bl-, bel bl bel- blIllyrian alb. sa > zero, Luvian *amlu(wa)- `apple-(tree)' > Latin malum -i n. `an apple, or other similar fruit'; alb. Geg moll `apple'.

ab l- : `apple' in Germanic languages while in Romance languages took place the coomon

Also Proto-Slavic form: jemela; jemelo; jemel; jmela; jmelo {2} [Page in Trubaev: VI `mistletoe' [f ]; omelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]; jmel, mel (dial.) `mistletoe' [f i], Slovak jemelo (dial.), hemelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]; imelo, jmelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o], Poln. jemioa, jamioa `mistletoe' [f ]; imioa (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ], Upper Sorbian jemjel

26-27]: Russ. omla `mistletoe' [f ], Old Russ. imela `mistletoe' [f ], Czech omela (dial.)

`mistletoe' [m o], Lower Sorbian jemjo, hemjo `mistletoe' [m o], Serbo-Croatian mela (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ]; mela, mla `mistletoe' [f ], Slovene jemla (dial.), omla (dial.) malas, malas `mistletoe' [m o] 3 , Latv. amuols; muols (BW); amuls; mals; muls `mistletoe, clover' [m o] {1}, Old Pruss. emelno (EV) `mistletoe'. Bibliography: Anikin 1998: 334-336, Andersen 1996: 133-135

`mistletoe' [f ]; imla, mla `mistletoe' [f ], Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: emel-; Lith.

Notes: {1} The forms with - may show the influence of buls `apple, clover'. {2} This

plant name is probably a borrowing from the Illyrian Venetian substratum language. The

Slavic forms with *jm- must be due to popular etymology (the mistletoe's sap is used to take' is doubtful, as is the connection with *H eHm- `raw' . `medlar', = .
3 1

produce bird-lime), cf. OCS imati `to take'. An etymological connection with PIE *h m- `to maybe gr. Compounds: plant growing in the same time as the apple-tree, Probably Tocharian B: mla* 'a kind of intoxicating drink'; Paradigm: [-, -, mla//]

Examples: se a[mne] mot mla trikelyesa akse yok pyti `whatever monk drinks alcohol or intoxicating beverage through befuddlement or brandy, pyti' [mla = BHS [is] to be drunk with an aged drink' (W-33a5). maireya] (H-149.X.3b1/2 [Couvreur, 1954b: 48]), tume prwettsai mlasa yokalle `then it



Derivatives: mlatstse* `drunken': arcacu epreta Mr[nts]= dac mlatsai ... (241a2/3).

pyarkatai-me `O courageous and brave one, thou hast destroyed Mra's drunken bite' References: WP. I 50, WH. I 3, E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 172 ff., Trautmann 2. Page(s): 1-2

herhenhesRoot / lemma: her-, hen-, hes- (or her etc) (*dhen d hen) Meaning: day Grammatical information: Heteroklit. Neutrum.


egh h*d egh- ` burn ') ` warm season ' (: Lithuanian dgas ` summer heat '): the o-stem Gothic

is found anlaut. d- by influence from proto Germanic *waz (Indo Germanic *d gho-, s.

Material: Old Indic har, ha, Gen. hn-as, Avestan Gen. PI. asn-m `day'. In Germanic

Old Icelandic dagr, Old High German tac m. `day' is from neutr. es-stem reshaped (Gothic

PN - = *Dagis-ius, Old High German Dagi-bert etc), also in ablaut, Old English

or night ' besides there is n-stem Old Danish dgn n. `day and night'. Note:

dg (*diz), Pl. dgor n. `day' (Gothic fidur-dgs `fourth day '), Old Icelandic dgr n. `day

From Root / lemma: d egh-: `to burn, *day' derived Root / lemma: her-, hen-, heseghherenhesh (or her etc): `day' the same as Root / lemma: akru : `tear' derived from Root / lemma: ru :

ru dakru- : `tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic. Compare Root / ruLatvian ilgs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e migration from the Baltic region to North India. Debrunner III 310 f. Page(s): 7

dellemma: del-5 : `long': Baltic with unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan References: WP. I 849 f., WH. I 467, Feist 113 f., Sievers-Brunner 121, 243, Wackernagel-

Root / lemma: Note: Meaning: goat

dighdeih Root / lemma: digh- : `goat' derived from a zero grade of Root / lemma: deih- : `to prick;

tick'. From the older root Root / lemma: deih- : `to prick; tick' derived Root / lemma: ai- : deih aithe gr. cognate derived from proto Illyrian

`goat' and Root / lemma: - : `goat' [common Baltic - Illyrian - alb. de-, da- > zero]. Hence

Material: Old Indic aj- `he-goat', aj ` she-goat ', Middle Persian azak `goat', npers. azg ds.; alb. dh `goat' (G. Meyer BB. 8, 186, Pedersen KZ. 36, 320, 335; probably from *adhi, as

sii `eye' from asii); Note: Note

Maybe a zero grade in alb. (*hi) dh ` goat ' [the common alb. shift -h- > -d-], older alb. Geg (*hi) edha `goats, sheep'. goat'; Lithuanian os (*ios) `he-goat', ok `goat', Old Prussian wosee `goat', wosux `he-

Old Indic ajna-m `fur, fleece'; Lithuanian onis ` belonging to he-goat ', oena ` billy goat's meat '; Church Slavic (j)azno (*azno) ` skin, leather '. Page(s): 6-7 References: WP. I 38, Trautmann 22. compare also ai-.

Meaning: day, morning Note:

ier- ienier ien Root / lemma: ier-, ienGrammatical information: n.

ier- ienier ien herRoot / lemma: ier-, ien- : `day, morning' derived from a reduced Root / lemma: her-, Material: Avestan ayar, Gen. ayn n. `day'. still produceable Hom. 124, 2); lengthened grades *() in the derivative Gothic air, Old Icelandic r, Adv. ` early ' (likewise Lok. *aieri), in addition Kompar. Gr. Lok. *()- in (from *aieri-d-tom, to ed- `eat') ` breakfast ' (uncontracted heshen-, hes- (oder her etc.): `day'. hen:

` early morning ', contracts in `in the morning '. Different Risch 105.

Gothic airiza ` earlier ', Adv. airis = Old English r, Old High German r, Modern High German erst. German eher, ehe; Superl. Old English rest, Old High German rist, Modern High

References: WP. I 3, Feist 24b.

Maybe to i-4. Page(s): 12 Root / lemma: (i)h- : hMeaning: to need Material: Avestan zi- m. ` desire ', np. az ds., Avestan za- m. ` striving, eagerness, success, prosperousness ' Old Indic h `desire', hat ` strives whereupon';

zeal '; changing through ablaut Avestan izyati ` strives, striving for ' and ` striving, zeal, gr. `poor' = , Hes. (by support of words, with - privative out of

it Hes., and ` lack, poverty '), Hes., changing through ablaut `longs for ', ` desire '; Tocharian A kl, aklk ` wish, longing '. Different Pedersen Tocharian 42.

References: WP. I 40, Van Windekens BSL. 41, 55; unwahrscheinlich Bartholomae IF. 5, 215. Page(s): 14-15 Root / lemma: ik- : k-

Meaning: spear, pike Note: Note

Both Root / lemma: ak-, ok- : `sharp; stone' and Root / lemma: ik- : k- : `spear, pike' are reduced roots of an older root *he-el created through metathesis from Root/ lemmna **hela. This older root was solidified by Church Slavic: (*he-el) igla `needle' [f ] Slavic languages inherited the common da- > zero from the older Baltic-Germanic

5 : `long': Baltic with unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'.

languages. The phonetic shift da- > zero is a common Baltic. Compare Root / lemma: deldelOld Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e (dalugaes) `long', daHence from Root / lemma: d elg- : `to stick; needle' derived the alledged Baltic Root/ elg-

(in the latter pitfall from *) ` wounds ', gr. `spear, spit ' (*aiksm), Old Prussian aysmis ` spit, broach ', Lithuanian imas, jimas ` spit, broach ',

Material: Gr. Hes., gr. Hes., Cypriot or

lemma: ak-, ok- : `sharp; stone' and Root / lemma: ik- : k- : `spear, pike'.

lemmna **hela from which Church Slavic: (*he-el) igla `needle' [f ], then Both Root /

(basic form *aikmos or Gr. exact congruent *aik-smos); from moreover Old Prussian Maybe a borrowing in alb. hal `needle, fishbone, awn' from Ukrainian: hlka `needle' [f ProtoProto-Slavic form: jgl Accent paradigm: c ]; ihl (dial.) `needle' [f ] ayculo, Church Slavic igla etc `needle', with g instead of (compare S.18 )?

Trubaev: Page in Trubaev: VIII 213-214 Russian: igl `needle' [f ]

Church Slavic: igla `needle' [f ] Ukrainian: hlka `needle' [f ]; ihl (dial.) `needle' [f ] Czech: jehla `needle' [f ]; iha (dial.) `needle' [f ] Slovak: ihla `needle' [f ]

Polish: iga `needle, pin' [f ]; jega (dial.) `needle, pin' [f ] Slovincian: jegl `needle' [f ] Polabian: jgl `needle' [f ] Lower Sorbian: ga `needle' [f ] SerboSerbo-Croatian: gla `needle' [f ], glu [Accs]; jgla (dial.) `needle' [f ]; jgla (dial.) `needle' [f ]; ak. igl (Vrgada) `needle' [f ], glu [Accs]; ak. igl (Novi) `needle' [f ]; ak. gla (Vrgada) `needle' [f ], glo [Accs]

Slovene: gla `needle, kingpin' [f ]; jgla (dial.) `needle, kingpin' [f ] Old Prussian: ayculo `needle' [f ] also alb. Geg gjilpan n. f. `needle' is a compound of (Nominative) *gjil- `needle' + grade in Serbo-Croatian: gla `needle' [f ]. Serbo-

(Genitive) peni `thread'; alb. common zero grade *ilga > *gil- `needle' corresponds to zero Latin c (analogical ci), -re ` hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain ', ictus ` space of time) ' = gr. ` near ' (as ` adjoining, adjacent ') and , ` mortar ' (also , ` worms damaging the vine ', from which ds. could be reshuffled after the related to meaning , , ; different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 299. slash, blow, stroke; in music, beat ', probably also Avestan iar ` instant, (very short

Here possibly Old Norse eigin n. ` a sprout that has just emerged from a seed ' (`point, (Bezzenberger Federal Railway. 27, 166).

cusp'), Swedish Dialectal jel m.ds. (Fick4 III 2) and Low German ne ` awn, ear of corn' References: WP. I 7, WH. I 670, Trautmann 3, 4.

Page(s): 15

Meaning: to burn

Root / lemma: i-4

bitter, pungent, rough, shaggy, bristly; shivering with cold. Transf., wild, savage; certainly.

Material: from Old English for ` sharp, violent ', Old High German eibar, eivar ` harsh,

unpolished, uncouth; frightful, horrible ' derived from *aib ro- not is to be connected Maybe but here gr. `warms up ' from *i(i)-ani; see below eis-1 ` move, shake eis-

violently '.

Page(s): 11

aier- os- aisk- ai-troer os See also: S. under ai-d -, ier-, aios-, aisk-, ai-tro-.

Meaning: to wander, roam


Root / lemma: l-3

` wanders about , ` beggar ', ` wander, begging around ', ` in vain ' (Spiritus asper admittedly, still unexplained, s. Boisacq 44, also against the assumption of anl. F-);

Material: Gr. `the vagrancy, the wandering about ', (horn. Pf. ),

from a basis alu-, aleu- gr. ` to be deeply stirred, excited, from grief, to be distraught, alu- aleubeside oneself, from perplexity or despair, to be at a loss, perplexed, wander, roam about ', ds. (Hom.; Fut. Hippokr.), ` restiveness, worry, concern, fear, alarm ', (from ) ` angst ', , - (Plut.) ` idly hanging around, boredom '; around a dangerous place or thing ', also , ` avoid ', (*-, compare Aor. ) ` escape ', ` avoid, flee ', ds., ` defense ' Hittite: halluwai- c. ' squabble, quarrel ', Luvian halwat- 'protest?'. ------------------derives after Bonfante (BSL. 37, 77) from thrak. VN .

common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; with the concept ` wander around, not to come near to,

(*F formation as ).

) ` fibber, boaster, bragger ' (actually dragging around juggler, mountebank), ) , from * compare Schulze Qunder ep. 310 f., Lagercrantz Z. gr.

Lautg. 89 with Old Indic roati, ruyati ` be cross with, be angry ', but from Uhlenbeck Old Indic Wb. 256 is placed more right to Lithuanian rstas ` unfriendly, unkind '. --------------------

(Doric Theokr.) ` foolish, futile, vain ', `trifling, in vain, brainless', ` confuses, beguiles; bewildering ', (besides Aeolic equivalent an * in:) hom. ` ' ` dazed, unconscious ' (from Doric * derives

Mit -: ` wanders around ', `be demented ', Med. ` wander around ',

Latin lea ` a game of dice, game of hazard; hence chance, risk, uncertainty, blind luck '). (Latin alcinor `to wander in mind, dream, talk idly' is probably borrowed from under In addition Latvian alut, alutis ` wander around, get lost ', with Latvian la ` halfTocharian AB l- ` distinguish, remove '. elReferences: WP. I 87 f., WH. I 33, 38, EM. 43 (places ambul to gr. , stem el-). Page(s): 27-28 Latin ambul `to walk, go for a walk, travel, march' (Umbrian amboltu `a walk, a stroll');

formal support in vticinor ).

mad person ', l'utis ` behave foolish, gestures clownish '.

lu- lolu-) Root / lemma: lu-, lo- (*lu lu Meaning: a bitter plant Material: Old Indic l-, lukm- ` bulb, onion, round esculent radix '; Latin lum, lium `

garlic ', Oscan *all from *ali probably as foundation of gr. ` sausage (*stuffed appreciated for its roots (perhaps gall. word? s. Thesaurus).

tubular casing)'; Latin lum or lus ` Symphytum officinale L., comfrey, blackwort ' a plant Maybe alb. helm `bitter; poison'

Note: Note alb. is the only IE lang. that preserved the old laryngeal -. References: WP. I 90 f., WH. I 30, 33.

aluSee also: Probably to alu-. Page(s): 33

merRoot / lemma: mer- (mr, mr) Meaning: day Material: Gr. horn. , -, Attic (Asper probably after , Sommer Gr. ';

Ltst. 123), otherwise `day' (with Lenis, hence not to Indo Germanic *sem- ` summer *semLithuanian bei Boisacq s. v., wherefore Fick KZ. 43, 147); Armenian aur `day' (from *mr

about *amur, *aumr; Meillet Esquisse 55). To the stem formation s. still J. Schmidt Pl. 195

places here Tocharian A oml, emalle `hot', from Indo Germanic *mel-. Page(s): 35 References: WP. I 53, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 305, 481, 518.

f., to Ionian ` midday ' Boisacq under . Van Windekens (Lexique 80)

noRoot / lemma: noMeaning: ring Material: Armenian anur ` neckband, ring ', Latin nus ` circle, ring ', Old Irish inne

(*nnio-) m. ` ring, anus '. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

Latin annulus > Bolognese anl : Bresciano anl : Furlan anel : Galician anel : Portuguese anel : Paduan ano : Provenal anu : Wallon anea : Reggiano : anl : Romagnolo anl : Romansh an : Romanian : inel : Italian anello : Spanish anillo ; anilla : Catalan anell : French anneau : Aragones aniello : Asturian aniellu : Corsican anellu : Leonese aniellu : Lombardo Occidentale anell : Napulitano anillo : Calabrese 'neddu ; aniellu ; aneddu ; anaddru : Pugliese anadd : Sardinian Campidanesu aneddu : Sardinian Logudoresu aneddu : Sicilian aneddu : Viestano nidd' ` circle, ring ' [common Calabrese, Pugliese, circle, ring ' common alb. d- > z- similar to alb. gaz ` joy' < Latin gaudium ` joy'.

Sardinian, Sicilian, Viestano -ll- > -dd-] > through metathesis Albanian (*aneddu) unaz ` References: WP. I 61, WH. I 55, Pedersen Litt. 2, 80.

Page(s): 47

Meaning: shore Note:

peroRoot / lemma: pero-

peroapo- p ap- pu) ap ap Root / lemma: pero- : ` shore ' derived from Root / lemma: apo- (p, ap-u, pu (* ap o< Root / lemma: ab(n) (* ab-): ` ape, *water demon ' < Root / lemma: ab - (* ab -): ` ab- : ab : neb eneb neb emb l-formant (ne el < Root / lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, damp; water; ne el): ene clouds '.
h h h h h h 2 h h h 2 h 2 3 2

): ` from, out, of ' < Root / lemma: p-2 : ` water, river ' < Root / lemma: ab- : ` water, river ' : abquick, abrupt ' < Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-): ` strong, mighty ' < root mb -(ro-): < with roro- : roro

Material: Material: Gr. , Doric f. ` shore; mainland '; Old English fer, Middle Low ap`n ` shore ' requires Indo Germanic ph and hence, stays away. formation becomes adopted by Specht Dekl. 23. References: WP. I 48.

German ver, Middle High German (md.) uover, Modern High German Ufer; but Armenian relationship to *apo `since, from, ex', Old Indic para- ` back, later ' as lengthened grade

Page(s): 53 Root / lemma: p-2 (*p-2) Note:

Meaning: water, river

abRoot / lemma: p-2 (*p-2): ` water, river ' derived from Root / lemma: ab- (* ab -): ` : :
h 2 h h 2 h

water, river ' < Root / lemma: ab(n) (* ab-): ` ape, *water demon ' < Root / lemma: ab ab- : ab (* ab -): ` quick, abrupt ' < Root / lemma: ab ro- (* ab ro-): ` strong, mighty ' < root mb roro- : : (ro-): < with l-formant (ne el < Root / lemma: (ene -2): ne -, em -, mb - : ` wet, roneb eneb neb emb ro ne el): ene damp; water; clouds '. Material:
h h h h h h 2 2 h

Hittite: ap(a)- ' river ', Pal. apnas, Luvian apinni- (Tiscler 159-160) Old Indic p- f. `water', e.g. Pl. Norn. pa, Akk. ap, Gen. apm, Avestan Nom. Sg. f, Tok Tokarian: A, B p 'water, river' (Adams 44)

Akk. Sg. pm, Instr. Sg. ap(-ca), Old Indic pavant- `watery', in older contraction with f.) pratp- ` directed against the stream ', np- ` low lying, deep-recumbent ', anp- `

reduplication-stem in -i, -u auslaut prefixes (Kretschmer KZ. 31, 385, Johansson IF. 4, 137 situated, lying in water ', dvp- ` island, sand bank in the river ', antarpa- `island'; the

ds., lokr. -, Illyrian (different Krahe ZONF. 13, 20 f.) common gr.Illyrian -ks- > -ss- and puli of Lower Italy, river names (Arcadia),
2 2

Delos', ( : , ; Fick BB. 22, 61, 62); gr. ` `Peloponnes', -

same contraction with in -o ending 1. part in gr. river names ` name of a stream on

(Thessaly), thrak. (* pos) (Dacia), Illyrian (* psos , Apsus, apul. PN Salpos pos psos) psos apia (`saltwater '); here as vestiges Venetic-Illyrian immigration part of the West German (Tirol), French Sinope (Manche), brit. harbour Rutupiae, sizil. (compare Lithuanian Kakupis), compare the thrak. FlN , ; apa- names, as Erft (*Arnapia), and all FlN with -up-, as Modern High German Uppia-Bach

Old Prussian ape `river', apus `spring, fountain, stream, brook', Lithuanian p, Latvian 11; or belongs up- rather to Old Church Slavic vapa `sea'?). Here Ach- (*aps-) in cymr. FlN, gall. Axona? Besides Celtic-Latin ab-, see below ab-.

upe `water' (u is perhaps reduplication-stem from Indo Germanic o, a, Trautmann Bsl. Wb.

giving water ', with d- ` give ' belonging to the 2nd part) from: *abd(n), Gen. *abdns,

together Instr. Dat. Pl. Old Indic adbhi, adbhya, presumed stem *ap()d- (perhaps `

as well as by Old Indic bda- m. `cloud' and with pa paradigmatic welded

Johansson IF. 4. 137 f. goes to explanation the b-form from through ,

from which *abns; from obl. case arose from Latin amnis, was compensated during in (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Celtic *abd(n) : *abns to *ab (Middle Irish ab), *abon (hence Middle Irish abann).

f., Krahe Wrzburg. Jahrb. 1, 86 ff. Page(s): 51-52

References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, 846, Krahe Gl. 20, 188 ff., Pokorny Urillyrier 110 ff., 130

Root / lemma: s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)azd- azg(h)Meaning: to burn Material:

Old High German essa f., Modern High German Esse (*asin), Proto Norse aRina, Old Old High German erin ` floorboard, ground, bottom ' (*azena);

In e- grade:

Icelandic arinn ` exaltation, elevation, hearth, fireplace ', (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-),

In a- grade:

Tocharian AB as- present, s- Perf. and causative ` dry up ', A sar ` to dry ';

Hittite a-a-i-i (ai) Lok. ` on the hearth ' (aa).

Hittite: assa- c. ' hearth, stove, fireplace ', Luvian assaniti 'heart' (Tischler 196-197)

Oscan aasa `in the altar', Umbrian are ` altars ' etc), re, -re `to be dry', ridus `dry,

Latin ra ` altar; hence refuge, protection; 'arae', plur., name of certain rocks at sea ' (=

Old Indic sa- ` cinder, dust ' (about sita- ` black ' s. *nsi- ` dirt-color, dark color '); sisi

arid, dry, parched, thirsty' (therefrom arde ` to burn, glow, be on fire; of bright objects, to Pass. assus ` dried, roasted; n. pl. as subst. a sweating bath '), rea ` a level or open burnt-out, dry place ');

gleam; of feeling (esp. of love), to burn, smart; of political disorder, to be ablaze ', participle space, site, courtyard, threshing floor; esp. a playground; hence, in gen., play ' (actually ` Perhaps here Middle Irish n ` igneous, radiant, noble ' (*s-no-). About gr. ,

s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 724.

distinguished Latin re `to be dry, be parched' not from ra `a structure for sacrifice, altar'. Formant extensions:

Because r in Hittite a-a-ri (ri) ` becomes hot ' does not belong to the stem, it must be

drying malt or a room for drying malt ', Czech slov. ozditi ` to dry malt '. throw ').

inflaming ', . Hes. (- from -zd-); Czech apoln. ozd ` a device for azgazg- Armenian aiun `ash' (Meillet Esquisse 29), gr. (*-) `soot' (`ash -

azdazd- in gr. (*az-d-i) ` parch, dry ', f. ` dehumidifier, dirt ', ` dry,

Maybe truncated alb. (*-) bloz ` soot' a Greek loanword. Modern High German Asche. Germanic *askn in Old Icelandic aska, Old English asce, sce, Old High German asca, Maybe zero grade Latin cinis -eris m. f. `ashes' < Armenian aiun `ash'; alb. (*(a)ski) hi `ash' [common alb. ski- > hi-]. Note:

ken- ken keni kenuniRoot / lemma: ken-2, ken-, keni-, kenu- : `to rub, scrape off; ashes' must have come from en with the suffix -en. This assumption is proved by alb. Geg (*askini) hini `ash' [common alb. ski- > hi-]. azghazgh-? in Armenian azazim `dries' (Meillet Esquisse 33, EM. 70), Gothic azgo `ash' zero grade of an extended Root / lemma: s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)- : `to burn' into skazd- azg(h)sksk

(*azgn). About the difficult relation from Germanic *askn : *az-gn s. Feist 72b; again flawless.

different Specht Dekl. 201, 219. Also the conclusiveness Armenian examples are not quite References: WH. I 61, 65, 848, Feist 72, Trautmann 22, Pedersen Hittitisch 27, 164. Page(s): 68-69

t(e)rRoot / lemma: t(e)rNote:

Meaning: fire, *blow the fire t(e)r(e)(e) Root / lemma: t(e)r- : `fire, *blow the fire' derived from a suffixed Root / lemma: au(e)-10, Material: (o) au(o)-, u- : `to blow' with common IE formant -ter. (o)In a- grade:

Hittite: at- (II,I) ' wither, wilt, become shriveled, dry out' (Tischler 213) from Avestan aaurvan-, aaurun (das from r) ds.;

Avestan tar (Gen. r) m. `fire', wherefore Old Indic tharvan- ` fire priest ', loanword

fire, stove ', poln. vatra `straw cinder ' are borrowed after Jokl WZKM. 34, 37 ff. from alb. ot- from *t-, viell. iran. loanword).

Armenian airem ` burns, lights ' (due to from *air from *tr); serb. vtra `fire', klr. vtra `

Rumanian vatra ` stove ', these again from Alb. (Geg votr, votr with v-suggestion before

Perhaps as `burnt' also Latin ter ` dead black, dark; poet. clothed in black. Transf., dark, '; but Latin tella = Oscan Aderl[] (*trol, e.g. v. Planta I 551), Latin trius = Oscan Etruscan origin.

gloomy, sad; malicious, poisonous ' = Umbrian atru, adro ` black, coal-black, gloomy, dark Aadriis (v. Planta II 768, Thurneysen 1. 4, 38, Schulze Latin Eig. 269, 578) are suspectly

Maybe Illyrian Adria `deep, dark water, sea'. Possibly affiliation from Irish ith (Gen. tho) f., cymr. odyn f. ` oven, stove ', s. Fick II 9. Page(s): 69 References: WP. I 42, WH. I 75 f., 849 f.

Meaning: father, mother Material: In a- grade:

tos, Root / lemma: tos, atta (atta)

endearment of the children towards the father ', Gothic atta `father' (Demin. Attila), Old besides unpostponed neologism), alb. (*h at) at, Pl. etr `father'. In e- grade:

fellow, father ', dial. Akk. , `grandfather', Latin atta m. `father; term of

Old Indic att `mother, older sister ', atti- ` older sister ', osset. da, gr. ` old man, old

Hittite at-ta-a (atta) `father'.

Frisian aththa ds., Old High German atto `father, forefather, ancestor' (tt by running always

Demin. Old High German Ezzilo `father'. In o- grade:


Old Church Slavic tc `father'; alb. (*h ot-si) josh ` (on the maternal side) Common - > j- Slavic Albanian; - > i-, y- Old Indic Tocharian. In a- grade:

adal ` sex, gender ', Modern High German Adel, Old Saxon athali, Old English elu N. part, esp. in an embryo) anlage, sex ', Tocharian A tl ` man '; here also Avestan wya` name of the fathers rataona's' as ` from noble parentage '? The affiliation from gr. ` in a juvenile manner, childish ', ` gathers, waits PL ` noble parentage ', Old Icelandic aal ` (the rudimentary basis of an organ or other

A similar *to-s in Germanic *aala, *ela appears the basis from Old High German

and is in habit ' and ` jumps cheerfully like a child ', Redupl. ` draws up (Redupl. under influence from ` nurse '?), is denied by Leumann Gl. 15, 154. In e- grade: Adj. Old High German edili, Old Saxon ethili, Old English aeele ` noble, aristocratic ' In o- grade: lengthened grade Old High German uodal, Old Saxon thil, here Gothic haimli n. ` genotype ', compare with the same vocal length Old High German Uota (actually ` greatgrandmother '), Old Norse al `(fatherly) genotype ' (compare also Old High German fater-uodal, Old Saxon fader-il ` property inherited from a father, patrimony ');

In e- grade: Old English el, Old Frisian dila ` great-grandfather '; (e.g. elam. atta, magy. atya `father', trk. ata, Basque aita ds.). Similarly tata. tata References: WP. I 44, WH. I 77, 850, Feist 62, 233, Trautmann 16. Page(s): 71 One on the most different linguistic areas to itself always newly pedagogic babble-word

Root / lemma:

Meaning: interjection

Material: Old Indic exclamation of the meditation; surprise and complaint; in addition ` groan '; gr. exclamation of the displeasure, pain, astonishment; , exclamation of the

Note: often new-created

Latin , h exclamation of pain, the displeasure;

of the astonished question (of loud new creations);

Lithuanian , a exclamation of the surprise, the reprimand or mockery, exclamation

exclamation of pain; Middle High German exclamation of pain, the admiration, suspended thus to the vocative. References: WP. I 1, WH. I 1, Loewe KZ. 54, 143.

Gothic exclamation of the displeasure, the admiration; Old High German

Page(s): 1

Meaning: barbaric speech

baba- *bal bal*balRoot / lemma: baba-, (*bal-bal-) bal-bal- bar-barNote: also bal-bal-, bar-bar- with multiple dissimilations, onomatopoeic words

from *), ` chats, talks indistinctly ' (different is the sound conceivability from ` chirps '); Latin babit (gloss.) `he/ she shall make happy, gladden, bless', babiger (gloss.) `stupid'; Italian babbo `father' (cymr. baban `kid, child' is engl. loanword); Maybe alb. baba `father' : bebe `child'

soul, damn it all! ' (out of it Latin bb, pp ds., as babaecalus perhaps ` fop, dandy '

Material: Old Indic babab-karti from the crackle of the fire; gr. , ` upon my

child, small boy ' (see also unter b mb- ` swell '), Middle High German bbe, bbe `

alb. beb ` the newborn kid, child'; engl. baby `kid, child', Swedish Dialectal babbe `kid, missis; old woman, mother' (about buobe ` boy ' see below b rtr `brother'); Lithuanian

bba, Old Church Slavic baba ` old woman '; serb.-Church Slavic bbl'u, bbati ` stammer ', serb. bboem, bobtati ` clatter with the teeth ' etc; Latvian bibint ` babble, murmur ', Old Prussian bebbint ` mock '. balbal- babal bambalbabalbalbal- (babal-, bambal-, from which bam-b-, bal-b- ): balbsyti ` babble ', serbokr. blbositi ` stammer ', russ. boloblit ` chat, drivel ', Czech Old Indic balbal-karti `stammers'; Bulgarian blbl', blbl' ` chats ', Lithuanian

beblati `stammer'; Latin babulus ` chatterbox, a babbler, fool '; Modern High German `chat';

babbeln, pappeln, engl. babble, Norwegian bable, Swedish babbla, Old Icelandic babba Latin balbus ` stammering, babbling ', balbti ` to stammer, stutter; hence in

speak obscurely ', Old Indic balbth- name (actually ` stammerer '); Mayne alb. (*balbus) belbzoj `babble'

blebnti `babble'; gr. (out of it Latin bambal), ` my teeth are chattering', ` stammers '.

Czech blb ` gannet, gawk ', blblati, bleptati `stammer, stutter'; serb. blebtati, Lithuanian

here r on Indo Germanic r and Old Indic l in balbal goes back to Indo Germanic l), gr. ` not Greek, speaking an unintelligible / incomprehensible language ' (from

Mit -r-: Old Indic barbara- ` stammering ', Pl. name of non-Aryan people (provided that

Weidner Gl. 4, 303 f. from babylon. barbaru ` stranger, foreign, alien '), serb. brboljiti,

which Latin barbarus) ` ` from incomprehensible language ' (barely after

brbljati `babble' (see also under b er- ` to drone, buzz, hum '), Latin baburrus ` foolish, silly ', gr. Hes. (about Latin burrae `trifles, nonsense' s. WH. I 124). Here perhaps also Old Indic bla- ` young, childish, simple ', possibly also Slavic

relationship from russ. balkat ` twaddle ', balamt ` babbler, stunner, head turner '. Unredupl. presumably also gr. ` talks, patters ', `speech', , Hes.;

malicious gossip, speaking badly of; slanderous; envious, jealous ', ` bewitches, envies ' has derived as magic word through borrowing from nrdl. language, perhaps (; this also in Hesychs ?) (Kretschmer Einl. 248 f.);
h h

but gr. ` invoking, imploring, exorcising; bewitching, casting a spell; spreading

Thrak. or Illyrian, from to b - ` speak ' belonging to present *b a-sk ` speaks, discusses '

bewitch, envy ' are borrowed from gr. and are adapted only in f- folk etymology in fr etc. 107 f. After Specht Dekl. 133 here Latin Oscan bl-ae-sus ` lisping, babbling '; different WH. I

member; initially (at first) as a preventative against being bewitched ', fascinre ` enchant,

Latin fascinum ` giving it the evil eye, spell casting, invocation (exorcism (?)); the male

Maybe alb. (*phlas) flas `speak' not from Latin fbula `a narration, narrative'. Page(s): 91-92 References: WP. II 105 f., WH. I 90, 94, Trautmann 24 f.

Meaning: gold, brown ancient Europe?).

os Root / lemma: badios

Note: (only Latin and Irish; maybe from one, at most not Indo Germanic, language of

for boduo-, about which under *b aut- ` hit '). Gr. , derives from Latin Page(s): 92 References: WP. II 105, WH. I 92.

(compare to Lautl. Old Irish mag `field', Gen. muige; gall. Bodiocasses because of rather

Material: Latin badius ` brown, chestnutcolored, bay '; Old Irish buide `gold, yellow'

Meaning: goatskin

pait? Root / lemma: bait or pait

` body skirt, petticoat ', Old Saxon pda `skirt', Old English pd ` mantle ', Old High Germanic word is borrowed from gr. words;

Material: the relation from gr. ` tent or skirt from (nanny goats) fur ' to Gothic paida f. German pfeit ` shirt, shirtlike vestment, shirtlike piece of apparel ' is decided there, that

Page(s): 92-93

References: WP. II 104, Feist 381 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f.

probably thrak. loanword or goes back to alb. forms in Illyrian *pait ?

from Germanic again Finnish paita and perhaps alb. petk, petk ` clothes '; gr. is

Meaning: stick, to hit

Root / lemma: bakbak-

Material: Latin baculum ` a staff, walking stick ' from *bac-(c)lom, older *bak-tlom; vestiges `(without support) weak, frail ' from -baccillos. Pisani (REtIE. 3, 53) places baculum as *bat-lo-m to battu, that he considers as Oscan- Umbrian loanword (from *bakt-).

of -cc- in Demin. bacillum, for which repeatedly delivers baccillum, compare also imbcillus

Maybe Latin baca (bacca) -ae f. `a berry, fruit; a pearl', bacalis, bacale `berry-bearing

(designation of the female laurel), MFr. (*bacale) Bacoule, n.f. Belette `weasel' : alb. bukl `weasel', bukur, bukurosh `good, pleasing, beautiful, slender (like a weasel)' : Rumanian bucuros `glad' : Gr. ` club ' : Sardinian Campidanesu buccameli ; bucchimeli `weasel, slender animal'. Similar to Slavic Polish formation las `forest, rod' : laska `slender, pretty girl'. Note: Note In many lang. the name of weasel and good come from the same root. from imbcillus), probably also Hes. borrowed from Latin Gr. , , ` a staff, walking stick ', Hes. (Contrast Gr. (i.e. ` club ') Hes., otherwise ` club, shillelagh, stick ', is probably

Middle Low German pegel ` mark in a vessel for liquids (from a ring or small existing col, column, yardstick '. Lithuanianbkst?).

Middle English pegge, engl. peg ` pin, peg ', Modern High German pegel `pole'; but

plugs) ', Old English pgel m. ` wine pot ', engl. pail ` bucket ' from Middle Latin pagella ` Lithuanian bkstelti ` bump, puff ', Latvian bakstt ` poke ' (or to onomatopoeic word Against it Old Irish bacc (nir. bac) ` stick, a crook ', cymr. bach ` corner, hook ', bret.

the occurred through Latin back-formations from baculum. Page(s): 93 References: WP. II 104 f., WH. I 92.

bac'h ` heel, stick ' (from ` clutch, crutch of the stick '), are in the Island-Celtic or already in

babaSee also: see below babaPage(s): 93

bal-balRoot / lemma: bal-bal-

bal- balbalRoot / lemma: bal-, balbalNote: Meaning: to shake, dance

It seems Root / lemma: bal-, balbal- : `to shake, dance' derived from Root / lemma: baba-, bal- balbalbaba(*bal-bal-): `barbaric speech' through an Old Indic intermediary (see above). *bal-bal- : *bal out of it borrows Latin ballre ` dance '. Material: Old Indic balbalti ` whirls ', balv- ` crooked '; gr. (in Sicily) ` dances ',

References: WP. II 109, WH. 1, 95, Wackernagel Old Indic-Gr. I 181. Page(s): Page(s): 93

Maybe alb. (*bal-) valle ` dance' [common alb. b > v shift]

bandRoot / lemma: band- (*bend-) Note: Meaning: drop

band(e)(e) eded erer band- (*bend-): `drop' derived from a zero grade of Root / lemma: au(e)-9, aued-, auer: (*akuent-): `to flow, to wet; water, etc.' : Material: Old Indic bindu- `drop' (probably for *bandu- under influence of ndu- `drop'), related to corn. banne, banna, bret. banne `drop' (from which is borrowed Middle Irish

Considering Phrygian `water' : nasalized Illyrian Bindus `water god' Root / lemma:

banna, bainne ` drop, milk '), really Irish buinne ` to gush forth, spring up, flood ' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-); Illyrian FIG Bindus (*Bendus), apul. fons Bandusiae? Note:

Old Indic (*bind-) bindu- `drop' : Illyrian FIG Bindus prove that Illyrian- Phrygian were the intermediaries of satem and centum languages.

In Greek, between consonants and initially > e, > a, and > o. In Indo-Iranian References: WP. II 110, Petersson Heterokl. 204 f., . r Gl. 29, 69 ff. languages such as Sanskrit, each laryngeal becomes i,
3 2

Page(s): 95

bar-barRoot / lemma: bar-barPage(s): 95

ba-baSee also: see below ba-ba-

bataRoot / lemma: bata-

Meaning: murmur, babble

abret. bat, nbret. bad ` numbing, dizziness ', bada, badaoui ` talk thoughtlessly ', bader, badaouer `mouth monkey', acorn. badus ` moonstruck ', gr. ` stammers ', ` chats pointless stuff ' (compare Bla-Debrunner p. 40 appendices).

Material: Old Indic bata interjection of the astonishment ` oh, blow ', bat- ` weakling? ';

Page(s): 95

References: WP. II 105.

Meaning: sound of barking

Root / lemma: bau

Hecate ', Latin baubor, -r ` to bark gently or moderately '; a little bit differently uses fright word ', bakati ` get a fright ' etc

Material: Gr. ` dog barking ', ` barks, blasphemes ', ` bugbear, Lithuanian babti ` bawl, bellow ' from ox, babis cattle God as ` bawler ', serb. bau bau `

Maybe alb. (*baubi) bubi ` dog'.

Gr. `sleep' is, like ` penis', folklike code word. Page(s): 95 References: WP. II 104, WH. I 99, W. Oehl IF. 56, 119.

Meaning: to swell

Root / lemma: ba b-, b a b -, pa px

h x h

Material: Old Indic pippala- ` berry, paradise fig tree ', pippalaka- ` breast nipple '. pipluwitch could use to suckle a demon) ' (probably actually ` blister, vesicle '); Latin papula ` a tit ', pop ` ulcer ', pupuolo ` thick bud ' (u can be Redukt.-stem to a, or assimilated in Unchanged or neologism Swedish-Norwegian Dialectal pappe ` women's breast ', ` pimple, mole, mark on the body ("witch's tits" - any kind of mark on the body that a

mbNote: (as ba mb-, s.d.)

x x x x

pimple, vesicle ', papilla ds. ` nipple, teat, breast '; Lithuanian ppas ` nipple, teat, breast, following uo, but also the root derived form pup- ).

inflate, swell '.

Middle English pappe, engl. pap ` nipple, teat, breast '; besides u- forms see below p(h)- ` Also besides under baba- combined babble and child words, like engl. baby, stand

swelling, lump ' (Indo Germanic b or in the onomatopoeic word unpostponed b) which will belong from the image of the inflated cheeks in our circle. References: WP. II 107.

Middle High German buoben Pl. ` feminine breasts ', West Flemish babbe `growth,

Page(s): 91

Meaning: a kind of noise

mbRoot / lemma: ba mbx

Material: Gr m. (out of it Latin bombus) ` a boom, deep hollow noise ', , ` fleas ', ` humming insects ', ` narrow-necked vessel ' (as ` gurgling '), or - ` bumblebee ' (and ` narrow necked vessel '); about ` clatters with the teeth; stammer, lisp ' see below baba-; baba-

Maybe Italian bombo : Spanish abejorro; bombo : French bourdon : Aragones bomboln : Asturian babarn : Catalan borinot : Galician abelln : Latin Bombus terrestris : Valencian borint ` bumble bee; humblebee ' : Lithuanian bimbalas, bimbilas Albanian : bumballa ` gadfly, horsefly '. alb. bumbulit ` it thunders '; Germanic with by neologism prevented sound movement Old Icelandic bumba ` drum ', German bum bum; a little bit similarly Modern High German bammeln, bimmeln ` ring, Danish old bomme, bambe ` drum ', holl. bommen `to drone ' (compareauch Modern High

sound ');

Lithuanian bambti ` hum ', in ablaut bimpti ds., bimbalas, bimbilas ` gadfly, horsefly '; drum '.

russ.-Church Slavic bben, bubon ` drum ', russ. bubnt `chat, babble', poln. bben ` References: WP. II 107, Trautmann 26, WH. I 111.

Page(s): 93-94

Meaning: to suck

bdelRoot / lemma: bdel-

Material: Gr. ` sucks ', ` leech '; Modern High German zullen ` suck in a

sucking sac ', zulp ` piece of cloth used for soaking up liquid ', Dutch tullen ` drink, booze, 31, 423; sup ', Modern High German tulken ` suck, drink with large gulps, quaff '? Kretschmer KZ.

very uncertain because of more similar Germanic words like Norwegian tna ` drink a lot ' or it is gr. - perhaps in child language? - from -= shortened prefix (be- `suck'?).

(see Falk-Torp under tylde). If the connection applies, was Indo Germanic initial sound bd-,

Page(s): 95

References: WP. II 119.

bedRoot / lemma: bedMeaning: to swell? Material: Old Indic badva-m ` troop, heap; a certain high number '; Old Church Slavic (etc) bedro ` thigh '; Armenian port (*bodro-) ` navel, belly, center '.
h h

Wrong etymology, probably it derived from Root / lemma: b ed -1 : `to pierce, dig see there'. Maybe here Swedish Dialectal patte ` woman's breast, nipple ', isl. patti ` small child ',

engl. pat ` small lump (from butter) '; the forms standing besides with Germanic b-, Old Danish arsbatte `buttock', Swedish Dialectal batt ` of small heaps ' then showed the same auslaut fluctuation as

b(h)eu-, b(h)- ` inflate, swell ', wherewith root b(h)ed- (: b(h)u-d-, -t-) had the origin from the image of the inflated cheeks together. Latin bassus ` stout, fertile, fat ', roman ` low, menial ', stays away. References: WP. II 109, WH. I 98, 477, 851, Kretschmer Gl. 22, 258 f. Page(s): 96

Meaning: to cut off

belRoot / lemma: bel-1

Material: Perhaps Armenian pelem ` excavates, digs ', at most also Middle Irish belach `

Middle Irish bolg f. (das g after tolg ds.)?

cleft, gap, pass, way ' and Celtic *bolko-, - in cymr. bwlch m. ` fissure ', bret. boulc'h ds.,

References: WP. II 110; about not existierendes Old Indic bra `ffnung' s. Wackernagel under Debrunner KZ. 67, 171 f. Page(s): 96

Meaning: strong

belRoot / lemma: bel-2

Material: Old Indic bla-m n. ` force, strength, power ', blyn ` stronger ', bliha- ` the strongest '; gr. , ` better ', , ` best ' (this -- by reorganization from *, * after etc);

` motionless, steadfast '.

more, rather, to a greater extent, plus ' and ` very, more '. Uncertain Dutch-ndd.-Frisian pal With lengthened grade Old Indic bl- ` young, childish ', m. ` boy, kid, child', f. ` girl '. Maybe in i- grade alb. (*bl) bila ` girl ', bir 'son, boy' : Old Indic bl-, where l/ r are allophones. References: WP. II 110 f., WH. I 326 f.

Latin dbilis ` feeble, weak '; Old Church Slavic (*bol-(i)is-ios) boljj `greater', bolje Adv. `

Page(s): 96

Meaning: spike, needle, penis, nail, horn etc.

bendnoRoot / lemma: bend-, bnd-no-

Material: Middle Irish benn ` horn, summit ' (*bnd-no- or *bend-no-?), bennach ` pointed ', cymr. bann m. ` hill, summit, horn (*bnd-no-)', Middle Breton ban ` eminence, overhang, shelter ' (actually ` big horn '), Jud Rom. 49, 389 f., gall. dial. lacus Bncus, if for haughtiness, pride ', gall.*ande-banno- > French auvent ` (*protection roof) canopy, shield, Benncus, ` the horned ' (Sirmione), from *benno- (Indo Germanic *bend-no- or*bnd-no-); pint `penis', Middle High German (Middle Low German) pinz ` awl ', Old English pintel

Note: Note: perhaps in following Celtic and Germanic words:

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), West- Flemish pint ` cusp, point ', Middle Low German `penis' (engl. pintle also still ` peg '), Norwegian pintol `penis', wherefore probably with

ablaut Modern High German-Bavarian pfouzer, pfunzer ` sharpened cudgel, club '; with peg, small stake ', Middle Low German pin, pinne ` pin, point, nail, peg ', Middle High

Celtic forms to suitable n-suffix (*penn- from *bend-n-) Old Low German pin ` wooden pin, German pfinne f. ` nail ', Old English pinn ` peg, staff, stick', Late Old Icelandic pinni m. Old English on-pennian ` open (*the pen)', engl. pen ` enclose so as to prevent from escaping; shut in, confine (shut in a pen) ', Old English penn m. ` pen, fold '.

ds., ablaut. *pann- in East Frisian penne = pinne, ndd. pennen ` latch a door (with a bolt) ',

Maybe alb. pend `pair of oxen tied together' [common alb. n > nd shift] homonym to alb. pend `feather' : Latin penna `feather'.

References: Johansson KZ. 36, 347 f. (also against borrowing of Pinne from Latin pinna, in which Kluge sticks). WP. II 109 f.

Page(s): 96-97 b(e)u(e)uRoot / lemma: b(e)u-1, b (e)u- (*b eHu- > b Hu-iH-t) Material: Npers. bm `owl'; Armenian bu, bu `owl' (without consonant shift in
h h h

Meaning: expr. sound of hitting

onomatopoeic word), gr. m., f. `eagle owl ', ` cry like an 'eagle owl ', Latin persistently long '; bb ` eagle owl ', Bulgarian buh ` eagle owl ', russ. bchat ` shout vaguely and Maybe alb. (*buph) buf `owl' : Rumanian bufni; buh `owl'

cries ' (out of it Latin bore ` shout, cry '), ` call, cry for help ' (*F), seem to be shaped from such b- as rhyme words to , (see root gu-).

btio ` great bittern ', bteo ` a falcon's kind '; gr. ` call, cry, shout ', ` shouts,

Lithuanian baubls ` great bittern ', babti ` roar, bellow ', buben ` drones vaguely '; Latin

(Avestan buahin- ` he who is prone to howling and snarling / hissing ', buxti- ` howl, hissing '?), gr. ` howling '. Maybe Hungarian bagoly `owl (*horned bird?)'

With ending in a guttural sound: Old Indic bk-kra- ` roar of the lion ', bukkati ` barks '

bkius ` stammerers ', Latvian bkkt ` resound vaguely '; Slavic buk- (from zero grade of *bouk-) in russ.-Church Slavic buati `drone, roar ', serb. bm, bkati ` roar ', bm, bati ` roar (from the sea) ';

Perhaps Middle Irish bchna `sea' (`*roaring breaker'; basic form *boukani); Lithuanian

Maybe alb. (*buati) buas ` roar (from the sea) ' bela, bela `bee' (compare russ. byt ` hum, from bees ') see below b ei- and WH. I a great bittern (bird that booms/ roars like an ox during mating '; in the application to vague blow push russ. bkat, bchat (*bouk-s-) ` bump, hit that resounds ', buch ` fall! ', serb. bak ` description of sound produced by a strong blow ', presumably also buka `punch' bhnuti ` break out', buiti ` hit, throw, fall, fall with noise ', Lithuanian bukoti, Latvian 555; nasalized poln. bka ` talk in a low voice, murmur ', bk ` great bittern ', old `cry like

*bk- in russ. etc byk `bull (*roar of the bull)'; about angebl. *bk- in Old Church Slavic

German buc ` blow, push ' (without sound movement by continual running beside

(also Lithuanian buks ` dull' here as ` become dull through hitting '?); Middle High

', Norwegian pok, pauk ` crude cudgel, club ', perhaps Middle Irish balaim `hit' (*bougl ..., or to b u-d- `hit').

Icelandic bauka; this versch. word? see also WH. I under faux), engl. to poke ` bump, sting

Swedish boka, bauka, buka ds. (however, also ` dig, spade, thrash about ', as Old

neologism), puchen, buchen, Modern High German pochen, Dutch beuken ` hit, bump ',

eg- engRoot / lemma: b eg-, b eng- : `to break' in: alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : Phrygian `bread', actually `crumb'. References: WP. II 112 f., WH. I 111, 119, 124, 470.
h h

Maybe from the extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b (e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived b(e)u(e)uh

Page(s): 97-98

Meaning: to swell, puff

b(e)uRoot / lemma: b(e)u-2, b (e)- (*b eHu- > b Hu-iH-t) Note: puNote: Explosive sound of the inflated cheek, like pu-, phu see d .; running beside primeval Indo Germanic bu-, but from unpostponed Indo Germanic or new pu- are explainable.
h h h

creation crosses the sound-lawful development, so that e.g. Germanic forms with pu- from From the concept of the inflated cheek the meaning ` swell, plump bloated (then convex) of the most different kind ', also ` make bulge, stuff, darn ' and ` blow, cough '. Originally kiss '. differently the onomatopoetic words b(e)u-1 for vague onomatopoetic sounds and bu- ` lip, b(e)ubuMaterial: Gr. , ` piles up ', ` any plant of the Umbelliferae family '; redupl. ` the groin, glands near the genitals, part. in morbidly swollen state '; nisl. pa ` blow, breathe '.

; presumably here also ` hill ' (dialect), ` a turnip kind ', v

Swedish bobba ` bombast, grandiloquence, fin, insect ', bubba ` louse ' and ` Trollius
h h h

water or fermenting dough), Middle Low German bubbeln ` throw up bubbles, surge ',

Reduplicates as , also Lithuanian bubs, bubsti ` throw up bubbles ' (from

europaeus ' (with Indo Germanic b or with consonant shift prevented by new creation of b), Old Norse byfa (*b b in-) ` big, lumpy foot ', Norwegian dial. bve, bva ` thicker, uncouth, clumsy person, scarecrow, also a word for male member '.

brs ` heap (houses), amount (sheep, birds, also rain)', Latvian bra ` heap (people)';

number of things, very much, most possible '; Armenian bavel, bovel ` suffice '; Lithuanian without r-suffix: Old Church Slavic buj (*b ouio-) ` wild, cruel, brainless ', russ. bjnyj `

baiy ` (more, timewise =) longer, on longer than ', Superl. bitm ` most, greatest

bhvyas-, Superl. bhyiha-, Avestan biri- ` plentiful, full, complete ', compounds-Adv.

With certain b -: Old Indic bh-ri- ` rich, a lot, immense ', compounds bhyas-,

wind, shower '?;

growing vehemently, wildly, excessively '; from here ndd. b, bje, Dutch bui ` gust, gust of

Maybe alb. buj `fuss' a Slavic loanword. gr. Hes.; with lengthened grade *b u- gr.-Ionian , Attic ` blisters '; gr. , ` blister, bubble ' (with Abl. u besides u).
h h

the meaning of Old Indic prbhta- ` rich, numerous ' (: bhvati) with that of bhri-. Lithuanian buls (also bl, bul) ` buttocks ', gr. Hes., Middle Low extensions with l are perhaps: Old Indic buri-, buli- (unbel.) ` buttock, vulva ' =

Also the root b eu- ` become, originate ' is probably developed from ` swell ', compare

German poll ` head, point, treetop ' (*bulno-), Middle Low German pull, poll `(bloated) shell, pod ', engl. pulse ` legume '; changing through ablaut Middle Low German puyl ` bag ', puyla `swelling, lump, growth'; with b -: Gothic ufbauljan, only in participle ufbaulidai `

(*inflated), conceited, haughty ', Old High German paula f. ` a pimple, bubble ', Old English ` hump, outgrowth ', Old Swedish bolin, bulin ` swollen '; Old Irish bolach `swelling, blister' (*b ulk-, at most b ol- to b el- `to swell'); Armenian boil, Gen. Pl. bulic ` crowd, amount,
h h h

byle, Old High German plla, Middle High German biule `swelling, blister', Old Norse beyla

herd ', serb. bljiti ` open the eyes wide in a stare, to goggle '.

T Hes., origin Germanic-rom. kinship of Modern High German Btte, Latin buttis `

Dental extensions: gr. , Hes. (but .

inflate, bloat '); here probably poln. buta ` pride ', buci si ` brag, boast '.

barrel, cask, keg, cask', corresponds gr. ` demijohn, wickerbottle, carboy ', see p- ` Old Indic budbuda- ` blister, bubble ', gr. , ,

Hes. (*budio-, perhaps ` distended, bloats '? Yet see below S. 101); Norwegian pte ` pillow, cushion ', pta ` bulky woman ', Swedish puta ` be inflated ', puta `pillow, cushion' (dial. ` female pudenda '; with the same application perhaps gr. Hes.), engl. to pout ` push the lips forward, usu. as an expression of displeasure,

(capit, actually ` big-head '), Dutch puit ` frog ';

fowl, a chicken, a young turkey, pheasant, pigeon, guinea-fowl ', Old English le-pte ds. with Germanic -d- (--): ndd. puddig ` swollen ', Old English puduc `swelling, lump,

sullenness, or flirtatiousness; show displeasure, sulk ' (`*to swell'), pout ` a young domestic

growth, wart ', Middle English ndd. podde ` toad ' with not yet cleared meaning

development Old English pudd ` water ditch ', Middle English podel,engl. puddle, Modern

compare Armenian poytn, Gen. putan ` pot, soup pot, jug ' from *beud-n- or *boud-n-. isl. budda `sac, bag, purse', Old English budda ` dung beetle ', Middle English budde ` bud Middle Low German buddich ` thickly inflated ', nndd. budde ` louse, cock chafer grub; With Germanic b-: Old High German btil, Middle High German biutel `sac, bag, pocket';

' and ` beetle, chafer ', budden ` redound ' (`*to swell'), engl. bud `bud', to bud `redound', fright picture '; Middle Low German buddelen, bod(d)elen ` throw bubbles, foam ', breakers, surf '; Middle High German butte, Modern High German Hagebutte;

Norwegian Dialectal boda ` roar, bubble, from the water '; Old Norse boi ` breaker, surge, besides with Germanic -tt-: Middle Low German botte, Dutch bot `bud', Middle High tt-

German butze ` lump, mucus; goblin, fright figure ', Modern High German Butze(n), Butz ` fright figure; lumps, mucus, crowd; cores ', etc, ndd. butt ` clumsy, dull, coarse ', Middle High German butzen `to swell';

bulge (from the belly, the eyes) ', Old High German bzo ` a bundle of flax ', Middle High German bze ` ds.; ridiculous person, knave, boy ';

besides with -t- after long vowel or diphthong Middle High German buzen ` swell, jut out,


Middle Low German pot ` pot, pan ' (different Kluge

slop, puddle, pool '; as a convex curvature in addition perhaps Old English pott, Old Frisian under Pott);

path after rain ', as also (with Germanic t) Norwegian Dialectal pyta, westf. pt (*pauta) `

High German Dialectal Pfudel ` a small pool of muddy water, esp. one formed on a road or

saprophytic fungus of the order Agaricales having an umbrella-like cap with gills on the besides poytn (see above) also ptu, Gen. ptoy ` fruit ' and ptuk, Gen. ptkan ` green

perhaps Lithuanian budl ` a kind of mushroom ', Slavic *bdla in Czech bedla ` a

underside ', bedly Pl. ` oral fungi, funguettes in oral or nasal cavity '; from Armenian here branch, young shoot ' and ` breast, nipple, teat '. and belongs likewise here.

Old Irish buiden `troop, multitude, crowd', cymr. byddin, abret. bodin ds. has root-like u Labial extension: Old English pyffan `blow out, puff out', engl. puff ` puff, blow, be guttural extensions:

inflated ', Norwegian puffa, ndd. puffen.

a mouthful '; Middle High German pfchen, Modern High German (p)fauchen (can contain Swedish puk ` swelling, lump, growth, tubers ', Old Norse poki m. `sac, bag, sack, bag', engl. poke ds., Modern High German dial. Pfoch `sac, bag', Old English pohha, pocca `sack, bag, sac, bag', engl. pocket `pocket', mndd. nndd. pogge, pugge `frog, toad; unpostponed Indo Germanic p, compare Lithuanian pkti ` pant, gasp, wheeze ');

Latin bucca ` the cheek, esp. when puffed out. Transf., a declaimer, bawler; a parasite;

swelling, lump, growth in the abdomen with cows and mares ', Old English pocc `blister',

person in growth ', Norwegian Dialectal pauk ` small, weak person, knave, boy ' (about `purse' s. though Feist 385).

pca ` ghost ', perhaps also Latvian pk'is `dragon'); zero grade ndd. pk ` subnormal

', Old English pca, pcel, engl. puck ` fairy demon, ghost ' (from Germanic derived Irish

Modern High German (actually ndd.) Pocke, dial. Pfoche `blister'; Old Norse pki m. ` devil

Gothic puggs `sac, bag, purse', Old Norse pungr, Old English pung ds. and scaz-(p)fung With Germanic b: Middle English nengl. big (*bugja-) `thick, big, large, conceited ';

Norwegian Dialectal bugge ` mighty man ', Middle English bugge (engl. bug) ` a lump of High German Dialectal bogg(e) ` booger, the core in fruit or the carpels of an apple or a pear, bugbear, spectre, bogeyman '. Here presumably Germanic *buh- (Indo Germanic *b uk-) in Old High German buhil `
h h

(semi-)dried nasal mucus, booger; chafer, bedbug; bugbear, spectre, bogeyman ', Modern

(Indo Germanic *b g-) in Swiss Bcki ` keg ', engl. buck ` bucket, pale ' and Old Icelandic bkr ` belly, body '; Old English bc `belly, crock, pitcher', Old High German bh, Modern High German Bauch, in addition Latvian bugarains ` tubercular ', buga ` hornless cow ',

foreland, hill ', Old Icelandic bla f. `swelling, blister, shield boss ' (*buhln-) and *bk-

budzis `swelling, blister, unripe Fruit '; but Lithuanian baas `hornless', buy `

forms and are based on the unextended root. s-extension:

probably from u, compare above S. 99 ) can contain Baltic as single-linguistic

scarecrow, bogie, spectre ', bs `bedbug, louse', boe ` club, mace, joint, pinhead ' (o

` to cram, fill, chock, stuff, ram up ', , ` bung, clot, thrombus ', (-) ` crushed, thrusted, thronged, full '; alb. mbush ` fill '; Middle Irish bas ` sac, bag, pocket, belly' (*b ousto-, compare Old Icelandic beysti ` ham '), Note: alb. mbush ` fill ' [common alb. shift b- > mb-]. Old Norse pss `pocket, sac, bag', isl. pose, Old English pusa, posa, Old High German pfoso `sac, bag'; with the more originary meaning ` blow, inflate, bloat, to swell', Old Swedish pysa ` pant, sniff, snort ', Middle High German pfsen `pant, sniff, snort, sneeze ', sich pfsen ` self inflating, inflated ', Modern High German Dialectal pfausen, Old English sniff, snort', pster ` bellows ', Modern High German pusten (actually ndd.) Dialectal pfausten, Old Norse pstr ` slap in the face, box on the ear ' (as French soufflet to pos ` catarrh, waterfall ', engl. pose ` a cold in the head, catarrh ', mndd. psten `pant,

Gr. > (*, to : s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 692), (*), ,

Swiss pfsig `swollen', Modern High German Pfausback, with ndd. anlaut Pausback

souffler); Norwegian ps `swelling, lump, growth', peysa, psna ` to bloat, bulge, swell ', (besides Bausback with Germanic b-, see below); Norwegian Dialectal pusling ` toddler,

thick'); Norwegian ps, pysa ` mud puddle ', Old Norse pyss ds. (in place names).

fairy demon, ghost, goblin ', Swiss Pfosi `toddler, clumsy, stupid person ' (`short and

arrogance, pomposity, flatulence, bloatedness, inflatedness, bumptiousness,

buosem, buosen, Modern High German Busen, Middle High German bs ` vanity,

English bsom (Germanic*bs-mo(n)-), Old High German buosam, Middle High German

Mit Germanic b (= Indo Germanic b , partly perhaps unpostponed or the new b): Old

Middle High German bsch ` bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, wad, plumper ', Old Norse busilkinna ` woman ( with chubby cheeks), (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), a chubby-cheeked woman ', Norwegian baus ` proud, rollicking,

tumor, inflation ', Bausback, Bausch ` swelling, turgescent, bulgy cushion, stuffed breast ',

High German bausen ` to booze, bouse, quaff, tipple, carouse, swell', Baus ` abundance,

conceitedness, vaingloriousness, swelling fullness ', bsen ` indulge oneself ', Modern

wanton, violent, quick-tempered ', Old High German bsi ` stonyhearted, bad ', Modern High German bse, Middle English bsten, nengl. to boast ` brag, boast ' (`*blow up '), Modern High German beysinn ` thick, wide and large (from clothes)', bstinn ds., (under German Dialectal Baust ` bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb ', bauste(r)n `to

the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Icelandic beysti `ham', Modern High swell', Old High German biost, Modern High German Biest-milch (actually ` fat milk '), Old

) ds. (insecure is, whether Swedish Dialectal buska ` fresh, fermenting beer ' and

English bost, bysting, engl. beastngs, biestings ds., Norwegian Dialectal budda (*buzdn-

associated with it as *beuza- is to be added Old High German bior, Old English bor ` beer ' as ` frothing at the mouth, foaming, bubble-throwing, blistering '; about other

interpretations of beer see Kluge

and Weigand-Hirt).


bulge, swell, sich inflate, bloat', bhor ` vesicle, blister ', kasch. bucha ` pride, hauteur '

Russ. bchnut `to bloat, bulge, swell, gush, well up', sloven, bhnem, bhniti `to bloat,

bsen ` be violent, roar, make a noise, attack ' (and ` live the high life, high on the hog / or high off the hog, have a luxurious lifestyle ', compare above Middle High German bsen away; bring; mishit; wallop; thrash ', russ. bstryj ` fast, sharp sighted, rapid from the current ' (*b s-ro-).

Norwegian Dialectal bysa ` storm forth '; Swedish busa ` dismay, hurtle out '; East Frisian

from `swell' can be developed: Old Icelandic bysia ` stream out with big power ';

There is used probably the following group which meaning ` blasting forth, sallying forth '

`indulge oneself'), bsterig ` stormy ', Old Church Slavic bystr ` board up; strand; take

Page(s): 98-102

References: WP. II 114 f., Trautmann 28, 39.

Meaning: sheep's bleating

Root / lemma: b, b

Material: Gr. , Latin bb, -re ` bleat, shout, from a young deer', blre and Vulgar

Latin blre ` bleat ', Modern High German bh, Slavic (e.g. klr.) bkati ` bleat ', Latvian bckeln `(*from the alpine chamois)'; similarly Old Irish biccithir ` bellow, roar ', cymr.

b, bku, biku Interj. ` bleating, grousing, blatant ', Old Icelandic bekri ` Aries, ram ', Swiss

beichio `bellow', perhaps also Old Indic bkur `voice, sound, tone', all single-linguistic bkur ` voice, tone ', all single-linguistic new formations.

neologisms. Similarly Old Irish beiccithir `roars', cymr. beichio `mugire', perhaps Old Indic

References: WP. II 121, WH. I 95, 99.

Page(s): 96 Root / lemma: b ab Meaning: bean

2 h h h

Schrader RL. 159 f.

Note: compare to Sachlichen Hoops Waldb. 350, 400 f., 464 f., Hehn Kltpfl. 221, 570,

etc and the island Fabria),

Material: Material: Latin faba (Faliscan haba) ` the broad bean ' (in addition the PN Fabius, Fabidius Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift

(*b ak).

bulged pod, tumescence ' related to gr. m. `lentil': alb. bath f. `broad bean' Note: common alb. shift -kh > -th also -gh > -dh

russ. etc bob, Old Prussian babo ds. Probably reduplicated babble-word and as `inflated,

Frisian island by Plinius) have originated probably through dissimilation from *ban to *aun. Note:

Also Old Icelandic baun, Old English ban, Old High German bna `bean' (Baunonia

The assumption of a duplicated Root / lemma: b ab (b a-b ) seems to be wrong.

h h h h h

Common Latin k > p corresponds to common gr. g > b : gr. `clean, gleaming',

, `clean', ` smudges ' (*b oig-o-), , (*b ig-) `impure, unclean'. That means gr. m. `lentil' and alb. bath f. `broad bean' derived from an intermediary root (*b ak) and that one from Root / lemma: b eig- : `to shine'. eig '); common alb. nasalization t > nt > n. Page(s): 106 References: WP. II 131, WH. I 436.
h h

Obviously Germanic forms *ban derived from Illyrian *bathna (alb. bath f. ` broad bean

Meaning: to divide

agRoot / lemma: b ag-1

determined as an interest ', Old Indic bhaga- ` property, luck ', Avestan baga-, baa- n. ` Savitar and another ditya ' = Avestan baa- ` master, mister, god ', npers. ba ` god ' : favorable interest, attractive lot '; Old Indic bhaga- ` allocator, master, mister, epithet of

Material: Old Indic bhajati ` allocates, apportions, divides ' = Avestan bag- (baat) ` be

Maybe suffixed alb. (*ba-) bagti `sheep (animal god)'

Old Church Slavic bog `god' (formal also = gr. -);.

Proto Indian (Mitanni) PN Bagarriti (= *b aga-rti- ` blessing stream '), GN Bagbartu (= making a donation '), Kretschmer KZ. 55, 95, Gl. 18, 232;
h h h h

*b aga-b rt- ` blessing donator '), klein Old Saxon VN (F) (= *b aga-d-uon- `

lot, fate determination, esp. bad luck '; Old Indic bhakati ` enjoys, consumes ' = Avestan baxaiti ` has or gives lot ', Desid. Old Indic bhikate ` requests ';

Old Indic bhakt-m `repast, meal' = Avestan baxta- participle `as alloted lot '. n. ` assigned

oak '? S. under b g-s;


Phrygian Hes. (perhaps of Iranian origin); or from to gr. ` gr. `eat', - ` eating grain ', etc; because of gr. ,


Hes. perhaps here (Much Zfdt Wtf. 2, 283) Old Saxon (kinni-) bako, Modern High German

Slavic bog `god' (proto extension or iran. loanword); GN Dadi-bg ` bestowing wealth '; Tocharian A pk, pke `deal, portion', A pci `treasure, tribute'. References: WP. II 127 f., W. Schulze KZ. 60, 138 = Kl. Schr. 469. Page(s): 107

Slavic *bog `lot' in Old Church Slavic ubg, nbg ` poor ', bogat `rich', Old Church

Meaning: sharp

agRoot / lemma: b ag-2

h h h

Material: Cretan ` whetstone ', , ` pointy heads, pointedheads,

pointheads ' (from * after ` crooked *(with a pointed angle'?) would compare from Lidn Arm.-stem 57 ff. with Armenian bark (could be = ) ` bitter, sharp from taste; violent, angry ' compared, yet bark could belong also to Indo Germanic *b orgo-s .

Page(s): 107

References: WP. II 128.

Meaning: beard Note:

lemma: ard Root / lemma: b ar (*b ar eh > b ard eh )

2 h h 2 h h h h

Root / lemma: b ard : `beard' derived from the fussion of suffixed Root / lemma: ger-1, ar ersnake, worm, *fish'. Material:

g(h)i (h)iang(h)i (h)iger- : `to devour; throat' + zero grade g(h)i- `snake, worm, fish' Root / lemma: ang(h)i- : er-

Maybe alb. Geg (*ger- gha) verza ` (*throat), gill of fish' Latvian brda `gill of fish' :

Latvian: brda `beard' [f ]; brzda (dial.) `beard' [f ] : Greek , ` gill of ang(h)i- eghi- oghi hiehi : hiang(h)i- (*eghi-, oghi- and ehi-): `snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)' (h)i eghi Latin barba `beard' (assimil. from *far-ba); fish' = Root / lemma: ger-1, ger- : ` to devour; throat ' + zero grade of Root / lemma: erer-

Old Saxon barda, Old Icelandic bara ` hatchet, beards ', because the iron stands like a beard in the handle; from the Germanic Old Church Slavic brady ` axe, hatchet '; Old Church Slavic brada `beard', russ. borod ds., also `chin', Serbo-Croatian brda, Old Prussian bordus `beard' (unclear after Trautmann 27); Latvian brda and (see to zd under) brzda, Lithuanian barzd, Akk. barzd `beard'; `having a beard, bearded'. [common Latin-Illyrian > b-, Bakltic - > dz-].
h h

Old High German bart, Old English beard `beard' m., therefrom Old High German barta,

Akk. brdu `beard' etc;

Latin (*b ar eh -to-) barbtus, Old Church Slavic bradat, Lithuanian barzdtas
2 h h

Maybe Rumanian brbat `man, jack, male, husband, spouse (bearded man?)'. (*barzd) caused from Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozd ` furrow '. Maybe alb. brazda ` furrow ' a Slavic loanword. also Indo Germanic *b ar-d `beard' on *b ar- ` bristle, stand up ', next to which extension *b ares- ds.

Lithuanian and partly Latvian -zd- is probably through the analogy the Baltic correlation

just as Slavic *br ` millet, sorghum ' (see below b ar- ` bristle ear ') will be based arh h h h

Page(s): 110

References: WP. II 135, WH. I 96, Specht Dekl. 87.

Meaning: to stuff

arek rek rek Root / lemma: b arek- or b rekh

Material: Gr. , (* from *b rk-) ` encloses, crams into, crowds together ', common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-;


` locked in ', with secondary : Aor. (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 760), etc, epid. from *, -[] ` wooden shack, shed ', in addition Hes.;

', perhaps frequ-ns, -tis `crowded, numerous, full; of places, full, frequented, populous; of used ';

Latin farci, -r ` to fill full, stuff full, cram ', fartus ` stuff, fill up, gorge oneself, cram into

time, repeated, frequent, constant; of persons, often doing a thing; of things, often done or Note: common Latin ph > f shift

Bollelli L'It. dial. 17, 147 f.);

f. ` fortress ' probably from gallo-rom. *bar(i)ca ` framehouse, a wooden house ' (compare

Middle Irish barc f. `onrush (esp. the waves, billows)'; whereas derives Middle Irish barc

(Van Windekens Lexique 100). Page(s): 110-111


Tocharian A prkr, prkre ` firmly fixed in place; not easily moved; physically stable '

References: WP. II 134 f., WH. I 456 f., Loth RC. 38, 303 f. Zweifel by EM 332.

aresoresRoot / lemma: b ares- : b oresNote: With s-extension

h h

Meaning: point, stubble (with formants) arsMaterial: b ars-

down; of measurements looking up, height; looking down, depth; abstract, high rank,

Latin fastigium (*b arsti-) ` the gable end, pediment of a roof; hence a slope, either up or

arrogance ' (tu-stem), in addition fastdium ` loathing, squeamishness, disgust, dislike; Ist. Lomb. 76, 2, 17 f.;

dignity; principal point in a subject ', here perhaps fastus, -s m. ` pride, haughtiness,

hence scorn, haughtiness, disdain ' (from *fasti-tdium, to taedium); s. also Pisani Rc. R. Old Irish barr ` top, point, summit, foliage ', cymr. corn. bar, bret. barr ds., abrit. PN

Cuno-barros ` fierce, furious like a battle dog ', gall. *barros ` bush, treetop ' (M.-L. 964). b orsorsMiddle Irish borr `stout, proud, swollen', mcymr. bwrr ds., corn. bor `fat';

conifer ', Old English brs, bears, Middle High German bars, Modern High German Indo Germanic *b rs-) ds.;

Old High German parrn ` stand up stiffly ', parrunga `pride', Old Icelandic barr- `needle,

Barsch, Old High German bersich ` barse, perch '; ablaut. Swedish agh-borre (*borzan,

borre `burdock', Swedish sj-borre ` hedgehog ', Norwegian dial. borren, byrren `stout, proud'. Maybe alb. Geg burr `man, valiant man, proud man', burrni `pride, bravery' mburr `be proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb]. Note: Maybe alb. Geg burr `man, valiant man, proud man', burrni `pride, bravery' mburr `be stubble' derived from an extended Root / lemma: b er-1 : `to bear, carry' (see below). erb rsti-, b rstisti rstirsti stih h h

English burre, borre ` burdock, roughness in the throat ', engl. bur(r) ds., Danish-Swedish

ndd. (out of it Modern High German) barsch (*b ors-ko-) `coarse, stern, rough'; Middle

proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb] proves that Root / lemma: b ares- : b ores- : `point, aresores-

Icelandic burst f. `bristle, ridge of the roof ', Old English byrst f. `bristle', Old High German from burst ` bristle mass '); Slavic *brstio- in russ. bor ` acanthus ', bor ` red turnip With formants -d o-, -d -: b rez rezd (*brerdaz), besides briord (*brerdia), Old Swedish brdder ds., New Swedish brdd, etc b roz rozd Alb. breth, bredhi `fir'; Maybe alb. (*b rez) brez ` belt, edge, border '.
h h h h h h h

Old Indic bhr- f. ` prong, spike, cusp, peak, edge, point ' = Germanic *bursti- in Old

burst, borst m. n., bursta f. `bristle', Middle High German burste ` bristle brush ' (from Pl.

soup ', etc

Old English breord, breard m. `edge, bank, border, shore, surface, plain, area '


spur on, drive on, goad, incite, arouse ' from *b ros-t- (Loth RC. 42, 70), mistakenly ', Swedish dial. bradd. b r zd -, b r zd h h

Old Irish brot ` sting, prick ', acorn. bros, bret. broud ds., compare Middle Irish brostaim ` O'Rahilly riu 13, 169 f.; Old High German brart `edge, border, stem, stem bar, stem post

bite, drill through '; *b r zd - or *b rzd - to Germanic *bruzd- in Old High German brort `edge, border', Old English brord m. `cusp, peak, germ, sprout, leaf ', wschs. brerd (*brozdi-),
h h h o h

Middle Irish brataim ` loots, robs ' (in addition bratn ` salmon ') = cymr. brathu ` sting,

Slavic *bruzd- in Old Church Slavic brzda, russ. brozd `bridle, rein',

grain germ, cutting edge ', Old High German gibrortn ` to hem, gird, border '; = Balto-

Old English bryrdan ` sting, goad, stir, tease, irritate ', Old Icelandic broddr ` cusp, peak,

riila- (Old English brigdels `bridle, rein', bregdan ` flax, wattle, braid '). Different Specht Dekl. 142. References: WP. II 131 ff., WH. I 461 f., 546.

brzgilas, Old Prussian bisgelan `bridle, rein' probably borrows from proto Germanic

Lithuanian bruzdklis, old `bridle, rein', currently` peg, plug, toggle '. Whereas is Lithuanian

Page(s): 109-110

Meaning: barley

aresRoot / lemma: b ares-

*farrna), farreus = Umbrian farsio, fasiu ` made of spelt or wheat, meal '; Note: common alb. ph- > f- shift maybe alb. far `seed, barley seed'

(respectively *fars, *fars-es) = Oscan far, Umbrian far; Latin farna ` meal, flour ' (from

Material: Latin far (actually farr), farris n. ` spelt, grain, meal ' from *far(o)s, *far(e)zes

Old English bere `barley' (*bar(a)z-, respectively *bar(i)z-); but Slavic *barsina- in Old

Gothic bariz-eins (= Latin farna) `from barley', Old Icelandic barr m. ` corn, grain, barley',

brono ` rye flour ', after Jokl Mileti-Festschr. (1933) 119 ff. rather to b er-1 ` bear, carry er'. Maybe alb. bar ` grass, pasture, fodder' : Old Icelandic barr m. `corn, grain, barley'.

Church Slavic brano ` nourishment, food ', Serbo-Croatian brno `meal, flour', russ.

aresSee also: compare also b ares S. 109.

References: WP. I 134, WH. I 455 f., 864.

o h

e h

Page(s): 111 aruRoot / lemma: b aru-, -uoh h

Meaning: fir-tree, tree, forest

pinewood '.

spruce, spruce forest ', Serbo-Croatian br, Gen. bra ` pine tree ', Czech bor m. `

or area of countryside, priest '; Slavic *bor in russ.-Church Slavic bor, Pl. borove ` fir,

shrubbery, bush ', Old High German bara-wri ` forest ranger...a keeper of a park, forest,

Material: Old Icelandic brr m. `tree', Old English bearu, Gen. bearwes m. ` wood, forest,

Page(s): 109

References: WP. II 164, Trautmann 26 f., Hoops Waldbume 362.

Meaning: bristle, stubble, sharp point Material: Mit vokal. formant: Gothic bara-bagms ` mulberry tree ', engl. black bear-berry `uva ursi', Norwegian

arorRoot / lemma: b ar- : b or- : b rh h

bjrneber `rubus caesius' are reinterpreted after the bear's name *bara- ` shrub, bush ' = ` briar '; from proto Slavic. *br (*b r-) derive russ. dial. bor, kir. bor, Gen. bru `kind of millet, Other formations with g are: compare Latin farrg ` mixed fodder for cattle, mash; a medley, mixture '). With formants -ko-: Croatian brk `cusp, peak, germ, sprout, whisker, moustache ', Czech brk ` keel, pinion of Middle Irish barc ` spear shaft ', cymr. barch f. `spear, javelin', Slavic brk in SerboOld Irish bairgen f. `bread' (*barigen or *barigon), cymr. etc bara m. ds. (*barag-,

sorghum', Serbo-Croatian br ds.

`pole' (Berneker 119).

birds, primary feather, quill-feather ', also probably russ. brce, brco ` shinbone ', dial.

mbr. broch ds., whether originally ` pointy or sharp snouted, rat faced, incisive looking, spiky ' to Latin (Celtic) broccus ` to with protruding teeth ', gall. *broccos `cusp, peak, spiky', French broche `spear' etc Unclear is, to what extent Middle Irish brocc ` smut ',

Perhaps here (with consonant increase) *brokko- ` badger ', Middle Irish brocc, cymr.

Gaelic brocach ` mottled, speckled, *tabby ', cymr. broch ` rage, fury, din, fuss, noise, secondary semantic change or belong to different stems.

scum, froth, foam ', nbr. broc'hed ` mad, wicked, evil (= stung, bitten)' are to be owed to

It is striking poln. (Venetic-ill). FlN Brok, perhaps signifies ` river badger'. Page(s): 108-109

References: WP. II 134, 163, 164, WH. I 455 f.

Meaning: bundle, heap Note:


askosko) Root / lemma: b asko- (*b ed -sko

h h

askoRoot / lemma: b asko- : `bundle, heap' is a truncated formation of an older root *b ed -sko egh: `bundle, heap' (see below). The alledged root *b ed -sko derived from b egh- [common Illyrian -gh- > -dh-]. Material: Maked. and (these genuine gr. Latin fascia ` bandage, band, girdle, girth, strap, land stripe ', fascis ` alliance, bundle,
h h h h h h h h

from which derived both Root / lemma: b ed -2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: b askoasko-

vowel form), Hes.; perhaps here gr. ` leather sack ';

parcel; the fasces with excellent hatchet as a token of the imperious power '; Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift

Maybe alb. bashk `together, bound', bashkonj `put together, unite', bashk `fleece (a bundle of wool)'. Note: Note skolemma: b ed -2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: b ad -sko- : `bundle, heap' (see below).
h h h h

Alb. proves that from an early root *b egh- [common Illyrian -gh- > -dh-] derived Root / eghh

originally an earthen and burnt vessel formed about a twisted skeleton good as basket), cymr. baich ` burden, load ', Middle Breton bech, nbret. beac'h ds.; gallo-rom. *ambibascia `load', alyonn. ambaissi ` kneader for the sheaves ' (Jud Rom. 47, 481 ff.). Page(s): 111 References: WP. II 135 f., WH. I 97, 459 f.

Middle Irish basc ` collar, neckband ', abrit. bascauda ` brazen rinsing boiler ' (perhaps

Meaning: good

Root / lemma: b dh h h

Material: Old Indic bhadr- ` joyful, gratifying, lucky, good ', n. ` luck, salvation', sbhadra- ` lovely, superb, pretty, splendid ' = Avestan hu-bara- ` lucky '; Gothic batiza `better', batista `best', Old Icelandic betre, betstr, Old English bet(e)ra,

(*bataz, congealed Neutr. ` benefit ');

das Adv. of Kompar. Old Icelandic betr, Old English bet (*batiz), Old High German baz

betst, Old High German bezzir(o), bezzist, Modern High German besser, best; in addition

Middle High German bazze ds.; Gothic gabatnan ` acquire benefit ', Old Icelandic batna ` become better ', Old English batian, Old High German bazzen ds.; with ablaut Gothic bta f. `benefit', Old Icelandic Old English bt ` improvement,

Old Icelandic bati m. ` improvement, salvation', Old Frisian bata m. ` benefit, advantage ',

replacement ', Old High German buoz(a) f. `improvement, penance, atonement '. References: WP. II 151 f., Feist 83, 103, 174, J. Weisweiler Bue (1930). Page(s): 106

ghRoot / lemma: b gh-s Meaning: elbow, arm Material: Old Indic bhu- m. `arm, esp. forearm; with animals forefoot ', Avestan bzu- gr. , Aeolic-Doric ` elbow, forearm ', Old Icelandic bgr, Akk. PL bgu `arm,

`arm', Gen. bzv (Armenian bazuk from dem Iran.);

shoulder', Old English bg `shoulder, arm; twig, branch', Old High German buog (Modern High German Bug) `shoulder, hip, haunch, point of shoulder of animals '; Tocharian poke, pauke `arm'. Page(s): 108 References: WP. II 130.

Meaning: ` mud, marsh ' Page(s): 108 See also: s. b gh-.


ghgh Root / lemma: b gh-

gRoot / lemma: b g-s Meaning: beech Grammatical information: f.


beech ';

Material: Gr. , Doric f. `oak' (compare Specht KZ. 66, 59); Latin fgus f. `

Maybe alb. ahu ` beech ' : Spanish haya, French htre, fayard, foyau, fau, fagette, faye, Fayette, Italian faggio, Aragones fau, Bresciano f, Breton favenn, Calabrese fagu, Catalan faig, Furlan fajr, Galician faia, Irish fe, Manx faih, Piemontese f, Portuguese Welsh ffawydden ` beech '.

faia, Romagnolo fz, Sardinian Campidanesu fau, Valencian faig, Venetian fagaro, fagher, gall. bgos in PN Bgcon, Bgono-; Old High German buohha `beech' (bkn-, compare silva Bcenis ` resin ' by Caesar and Middle Latin Bcnia ` Rhn -an area in Germany '), letter ', Old Icelandic bk, Old English bc, Old High German buoh f. n. ` book (as the Old Icelandic bk f., Old English bc, bce (bkjn-), in addition Gothic bka f. ` alphabetic wood of rune-tablets) ', Old High German buohstap `alphabetic letter', actually ` beech stick for scratching '. Nisl. beyki n. `beech forest' is (because of bki ds.) writing variant from *bki, a late

loanword from Middle Latin apotheka ` bin, box, case, crib, tank, bucket ' is soil?

Icelandic bukr, baukr ` first aid kit, medicine box ', after Cleasby-Vigfusson 85b a Slavic *buza- : *bz- ` elder ' in russ. buz m. : slov. bz, russ. dial. boz stay away

collective to bk; also is to define perhaps nisl. beykir ` cooper '. Unclear is mir Old

probably; also Kurdish bz ` a kind of elm ', goes back to older vz (from Indo Germanic *uigs). Middle High German bche, biuche ` lye ', biuchen, bchen ` boil or wash in lye ' belongs Indo Germanic side by side from b ug- (:b ug-: b g-) and b g- is extremely unlikely; Perhaps after E. Leumann (KZ. 57, 190) to Avestan baga- ` interest, portion, lot, fate ',
h h h h h

rather to root b eug(h)- ` clean, sweep '.

compare W. Schulze KZ. 27, 428 = Kl. Schr. 55.

also ` fortune cookie tree ', because marks were scratched into it by pilgrims. (Wien 1948).

References: WP. II 128 f., WH. I 445 f., 863 f., E. Passler in `Frhgesch. under Sprachw.' Page(s): 107-108

Meaning: to shine

Root / lemma: b -1, b -, b - (*b eh -1)

2 h h h h

Material: Old Indic bh (in compound) ` shine, light, lustre ', bhti ` shines, (he) appears ', bhti- `light', bhna-m n. ` the shiners, apparition ' (compare Old Irish bn `white', Old


English bnian `polish'), bhnu- `light, ray, sun' (: Old Saxon banu-t), bhma- `light,

fr (fra-viti ` shines out ') and vi- (vi-b- ` gleam, shine ', Benveniste BSL. 32, 86 f.), vspbm(y)a- ` all gleaming ', bmya- `light, gleaming ', bnu- m. `light, ray'; allow to become visible '), Aor. ba-t`si, compare gr. and alb. bj;
h h

Avestan b- `shine, appear, seem' only with - (avntm ` the resembling, the similar '),

Armenian banam (*b -n-) ` open, reveal, divulge, uncover, expose ' (if actually ` point,

Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694) ` makes visible, points ', ` appear, seem, shine, gleam ' (, Aor. ); ` obvious, apparent, clear ', ` torch '; ` rising of a star ' (see also under b -2), , - `apparition, face, omen, sign ' (compare );

gr. ` will appear ', *b -n- in present (* instead of *-

, ` apparent, manifest, obvious ' (--); Hes. (to * = Old Indic bhti); compare -, ` glossy white'; apparition '); Note: Alb. uses a taboo explanation which reflects the religious aspect of the cognate. Old Irish bn `white', ob f. (*opi-b ) `apparition, beauty'; gleaming'), ndd. (and out of it Modern High German) bnen ` scour, rub, clean, beans ', Old Saxon banut ` touchwood, tinder '; Old English bnian `polish' (i.e. `make

alb. Geg bj, Tosc bnj (= ) ` make, seem ' (originally probably ` bring to an

sign ', bandwjan, Old Icelandic benda ` give a mark, token, sign ' here belong - perhaps as f.); u-derivative of participle b -nt- ` shining, seeming ' -, is doubtful. Lithuanian by Feist 79

Middle High German benen ` beans (*white) ' (from Gothic bandwa, -w ` mark, token,

`gleam, flicker';

Upper Sorbian baju, ba so ` burn indiscernibly, gleam ', Lower Sorbian bajom, baja se Tocharian A pa `clear, bright' (*b no-), pai `beauty', peijo ds. (Duchesneh

Guillemin BSL. 41, 164); A pkr, pkri, a-pkrtse `open, distinct'; A p-tsnk, pacompound) `apparition' (*b -ti-), Pisani Re. R. 1st. Lornb. 78, 2, 28.
h h

tsk ` window ' (-tsnk etc `gleam, shine'), Van Windekens Lexique 78 f.; pate, A pt (in s-extension b -s-: Old Indic bhs- n. (ved. also disyllabic), Instr. bhs `light, shine,

glory, magnificence, power ', subhs- ` having beautiful shininess ', bh-sati ` glares, gleams ', bhsant- `gleaming', bhsa n. `light';

reshaped after , also `lustre, shine, shiner'

gr. Hes., ` begins to shine' are perhaps (from -) Doubtful is, whether Middle Irish basc `red', Old English basu, baso `purple' (*b s-ko-, h

uo-) are to be connected, to Gothic weina-basi ` grape ', Old High German beri ` berry ', Bsi etc?

actually ` red berry '? In addition the full grades MN Old High German Buoso, Old Icelandic u-extension b -u-: Old Indic vi-bhva-, vi-bhvan- ` radiating, shining, seeming';

Pind. - ` for the bright people shining ',

gr. hom. (*F) ` gleamed, appeared ', , - `gleaming', -,

(Aeolic , pamph. ) Attic kontr. , Gen. , , `light, salvation', whereof *F- in Lesbian , Ionian , Attic `gleaming', '. Different Specht KZ. 59, 58 f. hom. ` gleams '; ` allows to shine; points, shows, evinces; make known Is Germanic *baukna-, in Old Frisian bken ` emblem, landmark, mark, fire signal ', Old

sign, banner, ensign, flag', Old High German bouhhan `mark, token, sign' from such Germanic *bau- shaped after *taikna- `mark, token, sign'? Page(s): 104-105

Saxon bkan `mark, token, sign, emblem, landmark', Old English bacen `mark, token,

References: WP. II 122 f., WH. I 454 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 709.

Root / lemma: b -2 (*b eh -2)

2 h

Meaning: to speak

Material: Old Indic probably in sabh ` congregation, meeting ' (`*conversation, meaning `shine, appear, seem, shine');

discussion'; bh- in Old Indic indeed otherwise - up to bhnati, see below - only in the Armenian ban (*b -nis), Gen. -i `word, speech, reason, judgement, thing', bay, Gen.
h h

bam = , bas = Lesbian from *b si);

bayi `word, verbalism ' (*b -ti-s = gr. ); bay particle ` (he, she) says ' (= , also gr. , Doric `say', , Doric ` knowledge, shout, call, revelation ' (=

Latin fma `a report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition'; , equation); Hes. and only with Apuleius meeting affmen ` harangue, speech ' needs to be no old

` say, believe ' (also , Latin fascinum, see below *baba onomatopoeic `voice';

word), f. ` rumor ', ` language, speech, assertion, announcement '; with ablaut Latin for, fr (from *f-i(r) = Church Slavic baju, Old English bian) `speak'; utterance; hence destiny, fate, the will of a god ', fma ` a report, rumor, saying, talk,
h h

Latin fcundus ` eloquent, fluent, ready of speech ', ftum ` an utterance, esp. a divine

fate, destiny; in gen. right, that which is allowed, lawful', probably from (ne)fs is with infinitive fs (s-stem) ` it is (not) to be pronounced ' (different EM 333);

story, fable, drama, myth ' (*b -d l), fs actually `divine command or law; sometimes

tradition ' (Denom. Oscan faamat perhaps ` calls '), fbula ` talk, conversation; a tale,

Transf. a list of these days, with festivals, etc., the Roman calendar; a register, record; a list of magistrates ', fsti ` the list of these days, calendars '; as derivative of a participle *b -t-s, Latin fateor, -r, fassus ` to confess, admit, allow; to reveal, make known ' = Faunus'; Oscan fatum ` speak ', Latin Ftuus `speaking by inspiration', epithet of ` foretelling

in addition dis fstus ` day on which the praetor could administer justice, court-days.

Maybe alb. (*fateor) fajtor `guilty (*confess, admit guilt)', then truncated alb. faj `guilt'. ni-s; or with -gradation as gr. ?); Old English bian `brag, boast' (as Latin fr from Old Icelandic bn, bn ` request, prayer ', Old English ben ` request, soccage ' (*b h

*fir, Slavic baj);

magician '.

fable, spell, charm ', Old Church Slavic balji, Gen. -j ` physician, medicine man,

russ.-serb.-Church Slavic baju, bajati `tell, discuss, heal, cure', Church Slavic basn `

proclamation (esp. to arms); curse or damn; pronounce an ecclesiastical curse upon ', Old English bannan redupl. verb ` summon, order ', Old Icelandic banna schw. Verb. ` forbid ', whereof Old High German ban, PL banna ` order under penal threat ' (Modern High German Bann, Bannwald), Old English gebann, Old Icelandic bann n. ` forbid, ban '. Tocharian A p-, p-c- ` beg ' (Van Windekens Lexique 87 f.). medicine man, magician', jav. -bis- ` healing '; about Avestan biazjt compare Kuiper After Kuiper (. XII 262) here (*b -s-) Old Indic bhikti `heals', bhij- `physician,

reshuffling after spannan) Old High German bannan redupl. verb. ` summon by

At a present *b -en- based on Old Indic bhnati ` speaks '; from *b n-u- (or in Germanic
h h

(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

Nasalpras. 44 f.

References: WP. II 123 f., WH. I 437 f., 450, 458 f., 525 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 674 f. Page(s): 105-106
h h

Meaning: a kind of a large bird of prey

sosoRoot / lemma: b so- or b soh

probably Vultur monachus ', was possible from *b s-n or *b s-n; also *b n (to b References: WP. II 135. 1).
h h h h

Material: Old Indic bhsa- ` a certain bird of prey '; gr. hom. Attic ` an eagle kind,

Page(s): 111

Meaning: to hit

tRoot / lemma: b t- : b th

back-borrowed cymr. bathu ` strike coins, mint ',

head, dull); gall. loanword Latin battu, -ere, more recently batt ` to beat, knock ', out of it Illyrian Batto `appellation for rebellion leaders', alb. batoj `rock the boat'

Material: Latin fatuus ` foolish, idiotic, silly, awful, tasteless from taste ' (*from beaten the

compare also gall. anda-bata ` blind combatant, gladiator fights with a helmet without ', perhaps also (with ) russ. btat ` trample, swing ' etc;

openings ' with : russ. bat ` oaken stick, cudgel, club ', Serbo-Croatian btati ` hit, knock

perhaps Old Danish bad ` fight, struggle, damage, pity ', Middle Low German bat `damage, pity, misfortune', Modern High German Blutbad.

present in Latin fmex, -icis ` a bruise, contusion, bloodshot ' (*haematoma, effusion of blood resulted from blow)? Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift Page(s): 111-112

is perhaps *b ut-, or lies a root *b - with variant formant the basic, which is perhaps
h h

Unclear is the relationship to *b u-t- (see below); it must be assumed instead of *b th

References: WP. II 126 f., WH. I 46, 99, 452, 464.

Meaning: to hit

Root / lemma: b u-1 : b h

Material: a) With present formation -d-: bust ` tree stump ' etc), fsterna ` knot, burl, burr, stump, snag '; Latin fstis (*b d-sti-s) ` a knobbed stick, cudgel, staff, club ' (= gall. bstis in aprov.

Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift, maybe alb. fut, fus `hit, insert, copulate' l- ... (or *boug-l- ... to Modern High German pochen above S. 98); probably also Old Irish bodar `deaf, stuns, dazes, deafens, baffles', cymr. byddar `deaf' (*budaro-); Old Icelandic bauta (-aa) `hit, bump, poke', Old English batan (bot), Old High Old Irish bibdu `culpable, fiend ' (*b e-b ud-uts), Middle Irish balaim `hit' from *b udh h h

knock', Modern High German Ambo, Old English btel `hammer',

German boz(z)an (biez or schw. Verb) ds., Middle High German boz, bz, bz m. `blow,

bytill ` penis of horses '; Old Icelandic butr ` short piece of a tree trunk '; with expressivem tt: ndd. butt `dull, clumsy' (in addition the fish name Butte), Middle High German butze ` truncated piece, clump ', Old English buttuc `bottom, piece

Middle Low German botel ds., Middle High German bzel `beetle, hammer', Old Icelandic

barrel, vat, cask ', also cymr. both `flask';

flask, a large cask or barrel, used esp. for wine, ale, or beer ' derives from Latin buttis `

land', Norwegian dial. butt `stump, clot, chunk' (also wood skid). But Old English bytt `


different from bsch ` wad, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb ', see above S. b) with t-formants:

perhaps Middle High German bsch `cudgel, club, blow, knock' (*b d-sko-), perhaps

Old Icelandic beysta `knock, hit' (*b aud-sti-, compare Latin fstis); with -sk-suffix

downfallen '; Note: Note

Alb. mbt, mbs `suffocate, drown', skut. ms `slay, kill', compare prmism `

Common alb. b > mb Alb. mbt, mbs `suffocate, drown' : Old Irish b(i)dim ` go under, dive, submerge; sink, drown', cymr. boddi ` drown, flood ', corn. bedhy, Middle Breton beuziff ` drown '; cymr. diffoddi ` extinguish, annihilate, erase ' from *di-spad- (*d-eks-bad-).

From Root / lemma: gd - : to sink, submerge, derived Root / lemma: b u-1 : b - : to hit. drive back, check, repress; to refute, disprove ' (mit from previously au), probably also ftu, -ere ` have sexual relationshs with (a woman), to sleep with'; maybe alb. (*ftu) fut `have sexual relations with (a woman), penetrate, insert, cheat' Old Irish fo-botha (*butt) `threatens', verbal noun fubthad; Gothic baus `deaf, dumb, mute'. References: WP. II 125 ff., WH. 1 259 f., 573 f. Latin conft, -re ` to check, repress; by speech, to put down, silence ', reft, -re ` to
h h

Page(s): 112

See also: s. b -1 Page(s): 112

h h

uRoot / lemma: b u-2

h h

Root ruroRoot / lemma: b eb ru-, b eb roPage(s): 113 See also: s. b r- `braun'

h h h

Root / lemma: b ed -1 (b ed -1 > *b ed -r) Meaning: to pierce, dig Material: Latin fodi, -ere, fd ` to dig; also to dig out; to excavate. Transf. to prick, prod, jog ', fossa `ditch, trench, channel', fodicre ` sting repeatedly, dig, jog '; bz ` grave '; gall. *bodca ` fallow field ' (M.-L. 1184); gall. bedo- `canal, ditch, trench, channel' (Wartburg I 313), cymr. bedd, corn. bedh, bret. Gothic badi n. `bed', Old English bedd ds., Old High German etc betti `bed, a gardenh h h h h h h h

plot (to be) filled with plants; a place where osiers, willows, etc., are grown ', Old Norse

the ground ', compare Modern High German Flubett, Beet, engl. bed also ` garden bed, garden plot ';

ber m. ` bedspread, eiderdown ' (Indo Germanic *b od io-), originally ` a bed burrowed in

Maybe The connection with Ukr. dial. bedr `large pit, valley, swamp', Pl. ubiedrze `slope, steep bank' and Lith. bdr `swamp, valley', Latv. bedre `pit' > Armenian port (*bodro-) ` bedlemma: bed- : to swell?]. navel, belly, center ' > Old Church Slavic (etc) bedro ` thigh ' (taboo Slavic cognate) [Root / Root Lithuanian bed, bedia, bsti `prick, bore, dig', bada, badti `prick, bump, poke',

bdas `hunger', bdr f. ` pit, pothole ', Old Prussian boadis ` prick, sting ', em-badusisi ` he/she sticks '; Old Church Slavic bod, bosti (s-or. bas) `prick', bodl' m. `thorn, backbone ' (*bod-l); Alb. boshti ` spindle' a Slavic loanword. Tocharian A pat-, pt- `to plough'; compare Pedersen Hittite 77. perhaps also Hittite pd-da-i (can also be read pdd-da-i ) ` makes a hole into the earth ',

Different Petersson Heterokl. 128 ff.

Perhaps here gr. , m. `pit, pothole', Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 262, Zus. 2. Probably in addition Celto-Germanic boduo-, - `fight, struggle' in gall. PN Ate-boduus, -

u, Boduo-gntus, Old Irish bodb f. `crow, battle goddess in the form of a crow '; High German Batu- (in PN) `fight, struggle'.

Old Icelandic bo f. (*badw), Gen. bvar, Old English beadu f., Old Saxon Badu-, Old

Page(s): 113-114

References: WP. I 126 ff., 188, WP. I 99, 521 f., 866, Trautmann 29.

Root / lemma: b ed -2

Meaning: to bow, bend

Material: Old Indic bdhat `throngs, presses, plagues', Desid. bbhatsat ` is shy of something, feels disgust ', ju-bdh- ` bending knee '; alb. bint, med. bindem ` be bent (*be convinced, pressured) ', bashkr ` together ',

bashkonj ` unite, assemble '; Note: Note

skolemma: b ed -2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: b ad -sko- : `bundle, heap' (see above).
h h h h

Alb. proves that from an early root *b egh- [common Illyrian -gh- > -dh-] derived Root / eghh

beg, ask, pray ', Old Icelandic bija, Old English biddan, Old High German bitten, Old Indic ju-bdh-);

Gothic bida `prayer', Old High German beta f. `request', Gothic bidjan (sek. -bidan) ` bid,

Icelandic kn-ber m. ` knee pad ', Old English cnow-gebed n. `prayer' (compare Old

Maybe alb. Geg me u betu `to vow', Tosc betohem `I vow, swear' Lithuanian bods ` unsavory, distasteful ', bodtis ` nauseate before '; Tocharian peti, A poto ` worship, veneration '. Page(s): 114

References: WP. II 130 f., 140, 185, WH. I 461, 495, Feist 89 b; different Kluge


Meaning: to break

eg- engRoot / lemma: b eg-, b engh h

Material: Old Indic bhankti, Perf. babhja `break, rupture' (only afterwards after bhaji- ` diffraction, declension, crooked way, sale, step, wave '; Armenian bekanem `break', bek `broke'; but Phrygian `bread', actually ` crumb ' (?)has unexplained k;

reshuffled the 7th class), bhaga- `break; billow' (compare Lithuanian bang `billow'),

With -u- grade: also alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : Phrygian `bread', actually ` crumb ' Note: eg- engenh hlemma: b eg-, b eng- : `to break', Root / lemma: b enh-, b nh- (Adj. b nh-s) : `thick, clear away, free', Root / lemma: b eug-3, b eugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: b eug-4 : `to eugeugheugenjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. Old Irish bongid, -boing `breaks, reaps, harvests, wins (*gains) ' verbal noun bain
h h h h h h h h h h h h h

From an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b (e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / b(e)u(e)ufat', Root / lemma: b eug-1 : `to flee, *be frightened', Root / lemma: b eug-2, b eugh- : `to eugeugeughh

-bocht, perhaps = bocht ` poor ';

(*b og-ni-), enclitic -bach, -bech (*b ogo-m), Thurneysen Grammar 447, 461; Pass. preterit

`field', Dat. muig < *mages), so that it is not necessary, to go back in *b eug(h)- `bend'; mcymr. di-vwng ` inflexible '; to meaning `defeat, conquer' compare Old Irish maidid ` from *b og-smn;
h h

dropping the nasal the preterit buich has probably secondary u (compare Old Irish mag

break out' = `defeat'. To grade point at also Middle Irish boimm `morsel, bite, mouthful' Lithuanian bang `billow, heap, lashings, pelting rains ', prabang ` excess ', Latvian

buogs ` a dense crowd ', in addition Lithuanian bangs `rash, hasty, violent' (from brooks

and downpours), bings ` gamy ' (of horses), bengi, bengia, begti ` finish ', pabang f.

Latvian begas Pl. ` end, inclination, slope ', Lithuanian pabaig ds., beigi and baigi `end', Latvian bidzu ds.;

into being through ablaut derailment forms with ei, ai (compare Endzelin Latvian Gr. 60) in

`termination'; Prussian pobanginnons ` moves, weighs '; in the meaning `finish, end' come

here Latvian buoga also stands for `stony place', here belongs probably also russ. bga ` flooded tract of forest '; different about beig- (to b ei- `hit') Kuiper Nasalprs. 184.

meaning and to indicate probably as onomatopoeic words:

The following forms are to be kept away because of the auslauts and because of Germanic *bang- `hit' in Old Icelandic banga `hit', bang `din, fuss, noise', engl. bang

`knock, hit', with ablaut Middle High German Middle Low German bungen `drum'; ndd. stick ', Old Norse epithet bngull.

bengel ` club, cudgel, boor ' = Modern High German Bengel, engl. dial. bangle ` gnarled

In addition with intensive consonant increase: bump, poke', Middle Low German bunken, Dutch bonken `hit, thrash'. Germanic *bank- in Old Swedish banka, abl. bunka `hit, knock', obd. bunken `knock,

Latvian bung `drum', bunga `blow, knock' derive probably from Middle Low German Maybe alb. bung, bunga Pl. `kind of oak, Quercus sessiflora (stick for beating?)' Page(s): 114-115

References: WP. II 149 f., WH. I 503, 541, Trautmann 26.

Meaning: to run

eg Root / lemma: b eg-

Material: Material: Hindi bhg- `flee';

Maybe alb. mbath (bag-) ` flee ' common alb. k- > th-. `frightening, timorous'; Note: common Illyrian g- > b-. gr. , `flee, be afraid ', `escape, fear', ` startles',

run', Latvian bgu, bgt `flee', with ablaut kausat. bogin, bognti ` flee something, to get there quckly '; Slavic *bg in russ. bgu (Inf. bt), klr. bih (Inf. by) `run', in addition as

lengthened grade Lithuanian bgu, bgau, bgti `run, flee', bgas, bgis m. `escape,

neologism Old Church Slavic pribgn, pribgnti etc `flee', as well as Old Church Slavic be, beati `flee' etc; 96). Tocharian A pknt (pkt) `remote, distant, apart, separated' (Van Windekens Lexique

Gr. I 717.

References: References: WP. II 184 f., Trautmann 29, Meillet Slave commun 220, 235, Schwyzer Gr.

Page(s): 116 eid Root / lemma: b ei -1 (*b eid - > b oid -eh2)
h h h h h h

Meaning: to advise, force

Perf. `trust'), Akt. (sek.) , Aor. `persuade, convince', , - `

Material: Gr. ` lets me persuade, follow ' (Aor. , hom. , ;

persuasion ', (for *) `reliable, loyal, faithful, relying', , -, - `loyalty, e- grade in: reliance', hom. `in reassurance ' (*--);

East Geg per-bej `curse, hex' (in addition neologism (*b eid a) besa f. `faith, belief, pact, covenant, loyalty'); Phonetically Old Church Slavic bda `need' = alb. besa `faith, belief, pact, covenant, loyalty'. Maybe TN Illyrian Besoi : alb. besoj `believe, have faith'. `reliable'; foedus (*b oid os), by Ennius fdus (*b eid os) n. ` trusty, true, faithful, sure ', Jupiter '; Umbrian combifiatu (*b id i-) `you shall trust, confide, rely upon, believe, be assured'; about Oscan Fiisiais, Umbrian Fise, Fiso, Fisovio- s. WH. I 494; Note: Alb. alb. f, fja `religion', fejonj `perform engagement ceremony (marriage vows?)' : Reggiano fid `religion' : AN fed, OFr. feid, feit : Latin fides ` to trust, believe, confide in '. German beitten `urge, press, push, arrogate' = Old Bulgarian causative bdo, bediti `constrain, oblige', pobditi `defeat, conquer', beda f. `need'; Gothic baidjan `constrain, oblige', Old Icelandic beia, Old English bdan, Old High
h h h h h h 3 1

alb. (*b eid e) b f. `oath, vow, pledge' (*b oid = Old Church Slavic bda `need'),
h h 1 1

Latin fd, -ere, fsus sum ` to trust, believe, confide in ' (fsus is to- participle), fdus

fids ` trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith ', Dius Fidius ` the god of faith, a surname of

here probably also Gothic beidan `wait, hold on', Old Icelandic ba, Old English bdan, Old High German btan ds., Swiss beite = Old High German beitten, but in the meaning `wait, hold on'. basic meaning `await' from `trust' or `oneself constrain, oblige'. Page(s): 117 References: WP. II 139 f., 185 f., WH. I 493 f.

Meaning: ` bind, twist ' Page(s): 117 See also: s. b id -.

h h

eid Root / lemma: b ei -2

h h

eidRoot / lemma: b eidh

Meaning: to prick, pierce

= Latin fissus), bhdmi `split, carve, rupture etc', bhidyt ` is split '; (Old Indic under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). probably gr. (redupl. Aor. hom. ) ` with which are stingy, avoid

Material: Old Indic bhindmi (participle bhindnt- = Latin findns, bhinn- besides bhitt-

sparingly; spare; avoid a thing ' (basic meaning partly perhaps ` separate myself from only a little ');

something = take myself away ', above all but ` pinch off, stingy, from what cut off oneself Latin find, -ere, fid (probably Aor. as Old Indic Opt. bhidyam, Old English bite, Old

fissra f. `cleft, fissure';

High German bizzi ` to split, cleave, divide, halve '), fissum ` split, cloven ', fissum n.,

Icelandic beita ` allow to bite, allow to graze ', Old English btan `rein, curb, restrain, hunt, set of teeth, bridle, rein' (*baitislan), Old English gebtu N. Pl., gebtel n. ` set of teeth '; Old Icelandic biti m., Old English bita m. `morsel, mouthful', Old High German bizzo m., bizza f. `morsel, mouthful, nip'; Gothic baitrs `bitter' (`bitting from taste '); chase', Old High German Middle High German beizen `ds., corrode', Old Icelandic beizl `

English btan, Old High German bzzan `bite' (= Old Indic bhdati, gr. ); Kaus. Old

Gothic beitan `bite', Old Icelandic bta `bite; penetrate (from sword )', Old Saxon Old

(*bait-skaz); Gothic beist ` sourdough ' (*b ei[d]-sto-); Old English bitela `biting', bitel `beetle, chafer', engl. beetle; Maybe alb. bisk `branch, twig (*beam?)'.

Old Saxon Old High German bittar `biting, sharp, bitter'; Old Icelandic beiskr ` sharp, bitter'

changing through ablaut Old Icelandic bitr `biting, sharp, painful', Old English biter, bitter,

Old Icelandic beit n. `ship' (originally ` hollow dugout canoe ' to Old Icelandic bite `balk, German Boot and perhaps Old Icelandic btr ds.; Middle Low German beitel, btel `chisel', Note: The inanimate suffix -ur : Old Indic bhdur-, bhdir- `thunderbolt' : , , urur Illyrians, , , Illyria, also , , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region beam'), Old English bt m. `boat', Middle English bt, out of it borrows Modern High

Middle High German beizel `sting, prick' (: Old Indic bhdur-, bhdir- `thunderbolt').

or province of Illyria, , speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . The fact is that b eid- extension to *b ei()- `hit' seems possible. References: WP. II 138 f., WH. I 500 f. Page(s): 116-117 ei() )Root / lemma: b ei()-, b - (*b eiH- > b iH-tio- > b iH-tueh )
2 h h h h h h h

Meaning: to hit

Material: Avestan byente ` they fight, hit' (H. Lommel KZ. 67, 11); Armenian bir ` big stick , club, mace, joint' (*b i-ro-); gr. m. `tree truck, wooden log', m. `toggle, muzzle'; Maybe alb. (*b eiH) bie `hit, strike', bie `fall, die', causative, subjunctive bjeri `strike' = bjer `bring' : [Common - > j- Slavic Albanian; - > i-, y- Old Indic Tocharian]. erlemma: b er-1 : `to bear, carry' through an Illyrian -r > -j.
h h h h h

Alb. and Armenian prove that Root / lemma: b ei()-, b - : `to hit' derived from Root / ei())

In o- grade:

, Hes.;

Illyrian PN B , VN , Celtic-Illyrian VN Boii; Messapic Latin perfins ` break through, break in pieces, shiver, shatter ' Hes.;

Venetic PN ohiio-s-, Illyrian VN B ` the combatants, fighters ' (: russ. boj), gr.-

' (= ` under the blow '), Middle Breton benaff ` cut, bite', acymr. etbinam ` to mangle ', ', Middle Irish fid(h)b(h)a `sickle' = acymr. uiidimm ` lignite ', ncymr. gwyddyf `scythe,

Old Irish ben(a)id `hits, knocks' (*bi-na-ti), ro-bth ` was hit ', bthe `beaten', fo bth ` weel

without n-Infix abret. bitat ` cut loose, cut off ', cymr. bidio ` cut a hedge ', bid ` thorn hedge

compare Middle Irish PN Fal-be ` (*weapon, magic wand for killing wolves) wolf killer'

pruning knife' = gallo-Latin vidubium `hack, mattock, hoe ' (*vidu-bion ` wood hoe '),

bouhazl ds. (*b ii li-), Old Irish bimm n. `blow, knock' (*b ei-smn), corn. bommen ds., gall. *bili `tree stump', French bille;
h h

fell, fur', Old Irish bil `hatchet', acymr. bahell, ncymr. bwyell, bwyall ds., Middle Breton

(*vailu-bios); Old Irish binit f. `rennet, cleaver' (`incisive', *bi-n-ant), Middle Irish bian `skin,

mattock ', Modern High German Bille f. `hack, mattock, hoe', Middle High German billen ` to hoe, chip, trim ', Old High German bilthi, bilidi, Modern High German Bild; Old High German billa f. `sourdough'; with formants -li- Old English bile m. `bill, beak, neb', additional form to engl. bill;

German Old English bill n., Old Saxon bil `sword', Middle High German bil, billes `stone

b(h)al `hatchet' (*b ei -lo-), hence probably Germanic *bilja- and not *bila- in Old High

Old Icelandic bldr ` head of the arrow, bloodletting iron ' (*b ei-tlo-); Old High German

rake or comb ', Serbo-Croatian blo ` the transverse piece of wood at the front of a wooden rake (to rake leaves with) ', Czech bidlo ` shaft, pole', russ. bo `beetle, hammer'; (*b iHh h 2

bije, bie ` strike, hit ' therefrom with formants -d lo-: russ.-Church Slavic bilo n. ` a louse

Old Church Slavic bij (bjo) biti `hit', Serbo-Croatian bjm bti, russ. bju bit ds., Alb.

tueh )btva `fight, struggle, blow, knock' (: Messapic ), Old Church Slavic bi `whip,

scourge' (from Slavic Modern High German Peitsche); in ablaut Old Church Slavic (*b oiHBoii). o-) u-boj m. `murder', Serbo-Croatian bj, Gen. bja `battle', russ. Czech boj ds. (: Illyrian

65, 154 f.

References: WP. II 137 f., WH. I 503 f., 506, Trautmann 33, Lidn KZ. 61, 12, Karstien KZ.

See also: S. above under b eid-. Page(s): 117-118

h h

eig Root / lemma: b eigNote: Meaning: to shine (?)

From Root / lemma: huoig- : `to shine; star' derived Root / lemma: b eig- : `to shine' oig oig eig Material: Apers. *bigna- `lustre, shine'? in PN Bag-bign-, -; o-), , (*b ig-) `impure, unclean'. Note: common Illyrian g- > b-. About compare Kretschmer Gl. 15, 199. Page(s): 118 References: WP. II 138, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 299.

(sse above) common hu- > Greek ph- > Old Indic bh-.

gr. `clean, gleaming', , `clean', ` smudges ' (*b oigh

eiRoot / lemma: b eiMeaning: bee

Note: with n-, k- or t-extension

Material: The short form still in Old Icelandic b-fluga, Alemannian b, Bavarian beij;

`bee', ablaut. ba f. (*b-n- = Old English bo, engl. bee), bna (Modern High German dial. Bein); Old Church Slavic bela, bela ds. (*b ikel); cymr. bydaf ` beehive ', Old Prussian bitte, Lithuanian bt, bits, Latvian bite `bee'. Gall. *bekos `bee' (M.-L. 1014), Old Irish bech m. `bee', Gaelic speach `prick, sting',

besides forms with n (barely extracted only the weak Dekl.), as Old High German bini n.

cymr. beg-eg(y)r `drone' deviate of vowel (taboo causing distortion?). Page(s): 116 References: WP. II 184 f., WH. I 555 f., Specht Dekl. 46.

eh Root / lemma: b( )e1 and b( )eh (*b e- ) e1 e Meaning: outside, without


Maybe alb. (*b e-) pa ` without'.

Material: Old Indic bahi (-) ` outdoor, outward, outside from ' (m. Abl.); Old Prussian bhe `without' (preposition m. Akk.), Lithuanian b `without' (preposition m.

Gen., and nominal prefix), Latvian bez `without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal prefix); Old Church Slavic bez etc (dial. also be) `without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal

prefix). Here also Lithuanian be `still, yet ' (`*in addition '), bt ` however, but' (formation as ne-t `but'), bs, Latvian bst ` possibly, perhaps' (*b e + est, Endzelin Stud. Baltic 7, 32 f.). On account of here Old Irish bs ` perhaps', vorton. from *bis < *b e-esti? Page(s): 112-113
h h

References: WP. II 137, Trautmann 28, Endzelin Latvian Gr. 497 f.

(e)lgRoot / lemma: b (e)lgh h

Meaning: weak, ridiculous

blgs, Lithuanian blgas ` feeble, weak '), bai ` romp ', gr., russ. blagj ` obstinate, nasty ',

Material: *b lg- or *b lg- in wruss. bhyj ` evil, bad, nasty ' (hence borrowed Latvian

dial. blanj `stupid', poln. bagi ` bad, nothing worth '; barely to gr. , Hes., because in heavy Slavic word, which points gr. light basis; see below (s)p(h)elg-.

flap-eared '.

Here (apparently with expressive Gemination), however, Latin flaccus ` flabby; of men,

Page(s): 124

References: WP. II 183 f., 680, WH. I 507 f.

eldRoot / lemma: b eldh h

Meaning: to knock, hit

Material: From Germanic probably in addition Middle Low German bolte(n) ` bolt for a bolt ` bolt for a door, dart, arrow', Swedish bult ` bolt for a door ' (*b ld-),

Note: perhaps originally d-present of the onomatopoeic word b elNote:


door, dart, arrow', Old High German bolz, Modern High German Bolz, Bolzen, Old English

perhaps also Modern High German Balz, Vb. balzen and bolzen, Norwegian Dialectal bolt m. ` male forest bird; tomcat, male-cat', Modern High German Bolze `tomcat, male-cat'; Norwegian Dialectal bolta `rumble, storm ahead',

Old Danish bolte ` curl up, roll oneself ', Swedish bulta `knock', Swedish Dialectal bultra baltra `wallow, romp';

`wallow, romp', Norwegian Dialectal bultra `rant, roister, romp', abl. Norwegian Dialectal Lithuanian beld, -ti and bldiu, blsti `hit, knock', ablaut. bildu, bildti `din, drone,

contamination from *belu = Lithuanian bldiu with telz- `hit', Mhlenbach-Endzelin Latvian-German Wb. 278). References: WP. II 184, WH. I 560 f.

rumble', bldau, -yti `knock, stark rumble', baldas `pestle'; Latvian belzt `hit' (perhaps

Page(s): 124

elegRoot / lemma: b elegMeaning: to shine


elgMaterial: b elg-: Old Indic bhrgas- n. `radiative lustre, shine' (*b elgos); Bhrgava, Pl. ` Maybe alb. bardh ` white'. mythical priests of the flash fire '; Latvian balgans `whitish';

Note: extension from b el- ds.


actually `light' (contrast `dark': `mad, wicked, evil'); Tocharian AB plk- `burn, gleam, shine, get hot ', A plk, pilko `look', A polkts `stars' (: Lithuanian blgans), empalkaitte `careless, neglectful' (Negation + *palk- `gleam, shine' besides plk-);

perhaps here Old Church Slavic blag `good', russ. (old and mtdarl.) blogo Adv. `good',

flames', n. `blaze; inflammation; mucus', f. `inflammation, ignition; `flame';

b leg-: gr. `burn, singe, ignite ', `singe, to set on fire; intr. burn, be in legh

ferventness, passion; rutting', Hes. (Adj. `fiery red') , Latin flagr, -re `to blaze, burn, glow, flame, also to glitter. Transf., to glow or burn with

passion; to suffer from ', wherefore probably flamma ` a flame, blazing fire; Transf. a flame, destruction ' as *flagm, Oscan Flagiu perhaps ` an interpreter of lightning '; flak `fire';

source of light, torch, star, lightning; luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion; devouring

Maybe alb. (*flagr ) flegra ` (*ardent, passionate breathing) nostrils', flakroj `I shine', besides flg- (reduced- grades *b l gr-, *b l gm or because of , rather
eh eh h oh

to lighten; in gen., to shine, glitter gleam; fig., to be distinguished, to shine ', fulgor, -ris ` lightning; in gen., glitter, brightness; fig., brightness, glory, lustre, shine', fulgus, -uris ` a fulmen (*fulgmen) ds.; flash or stroke of lightning; sometimes an object struck by lightning; in gen., brightness ', Middle Irish imblissiu ` pupil (of the eye); orb ' (*mb i-b lg-s-, Vendryes RC. 40, 431 f); allow to see ', Modern High German blecken ` show the teeth '; Old High German Old High German blecchen (*blakjan), Middle High German blecken ` become visible,
h h

*b l gm) stand zero grades b llg-, Latin fulg- in Latin fulg and fulge, -re, fuls ` to flash, l

blakra `blink, glitter, flash'; here probably as `burnt (compare Low German blaken from ds.;

flame, burn, glow', Old English blcern, blacern ` candlestick, flambeaux ', Old Icelandic blackening lamp flame), sooty ', Old English blc `black', n. `ink', Old High German blah

blecchazzen, Middle High German blecken ` flash ', Middle Dutch Modern Dutch blaken `

nasalized Germanic *blenk-, *blank- in Middle High German Modern High German blinken, Germanic g older Danish blinge `blink, glitter, flash' , s. Falk-Torp under blingse); Old High High German blank, Old English blanca m. `steed' (actually from bright color, compare:) Old Icelandic blakkr `sallow, paled', poet. `steed' (`dun horse, grey, *white horse '), Old Middle High German blinzen (*blinkatjan), Modern High German blinzeln (besides with

German blanch, Middle High German blank `blinking, gleaming, gleaming, white', Modern

Swedish blakker `sallow, paled, dun (horse)', but also `black, dark' (from Germanic

borrows French blanc, Italian bianco). From this nasal form also Prussian blingis ` pallid ';

Lithuanian blgnytis ` sober oneself up; lighten up', Old Lithuanian blinginti `shine'. moonlight on the water '. A variant on -- perhaps in Latvian blzt ` shimmer ', blzma (bl-ma) ` reflection of

References: WP II 214 f., WH. I 510 f. 865, Pedersen Tocharian 162, 218, Van Windekens Lexique 17, 98, EM. 398.

Page(s): 124-125

See also: Beside b eleg- stands synonymous to b ere-, see there.


eleuRoot / lemma: b eleu-

Meaning: to hit; weak, ill

Material: Acorn. bal f., pl. -ow `disease, malady', mbr. baluent; Gothic balwa-wsei ` wickedness, malice, cowardice ', balwjan `torment, smite', Old

German balo, Gen. balawes ` ruin'; Gothic bliggwan (*bleuuan) `hit', Old High German bliuwan, Modern High German bleuen ds., Middle English blowe `blow, knock', Old Icelandic blege m. (*blauuian-) `wedge'; Old Bulgarian bol `sicker', bolti ` be ill '. See also: bl Proto-Slavic form: bolti Page in Trubaev: II 187-189

English bealo `evil, mad, wicked, evil', Old Icelandic bl, Dat. blve `misfortune', Old High

Russian: bolt' `be ill' [verb], bolet [3sg]; bolt' `ache' [verb], bolt [3sg] Czech: boleti `ache' [verb]

Old Church Slavic: bolti `be ill, be in pain' [verb]

Ukrainian: bolty `suffer pain, be ill' [verb], bolje [3sg]; bolty `ache' [verb], bolt' [3sg] Slovak: boliet' `ache' [verb]

Slovincian: bol `ache' [verb]

Polish: bole `ache' [verb]

Bulgarian: bolj `be ill' [verb]; bol `ache' [3sg] Serbo-Croatian: bljeti `ache' [verb] Slovene: bolti `ache' [verb]

Lower Sorbian: ble `ache' [verb]

Upper Sorbian: bole `ache' [verb]

Page in Pokorny: 125

Indo-European reconstruction: b ol(H)-eh -tei


Other cognates: Go. balwjan `martyr' [verb]; OIc. blva `curse' [verb] blaur `timid'?) alongside *b el(H)- (cf. Pokorny 125, 159).
h h h

Notes: {1} The possibility exists that we had *b le(H)u- (Gk. `inferior, bad', OIc. About Modern High German Block etc see below b el-5. References: WP. II 189, Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 150, Feist 79, 100, Specht Dekl. 133. Page(s): 125 See also: Besides a root form b lu-: b lu- : b l-, see there.
h h h

elh Root / lemma: b elhMeaning: to swell Note: (extension of b el- `inflate, bloat' etc)
h h

Material: Old Indic barh- n. ` sacrificial grass, (*sacrificial bed of straw) ' = Avestan m, upa-brha f. `cover, cushion';

barzi- n. `cushion, pillow, cushion', npers. bli `pillow, cushion'; Old Indic upa-brhaaNote: Note

Clearly alb. bar `grass, straw' derived from Indian languages. Hence alb. is a direct descendant of Sanskrit. Clearly alb. belongs to satem family. Whether with Asp.-Diss. against forms -ha- here Old Indic brjaha- `udder'?

Irish bolgach f. `swelling, blister, bubble, blister; pox', bolgamm `gulp', cymr. bol, bola, boly vann. pehl-en (from *pehl-) ds., gall. bulga `leather sack' (out of it Old High German bulga ` `belly, sack, bag', bul ` seed capsule, seminal shell ' (PL. of boly), bret. bolc'h ` linen pod ',

Irish bolgaim `swell', bolg f. `bubble', bolg m. `sack, bag, belly, husk, trouser ', Middle

of Gaul) ';

water container made of leather '); gall. Belgae ` the angry (*a warlike people in the north Gothic balgs m. `hose', Old Icelandic belgr m. ` stripped animal skin, bag, belly', Old

High German Middle High German balg `bag, hose, bellows, sword scabbard ', Old

compare Old Prussian balsinis; perhaps hat also Old Indic barhi-, Avestan barzi- Indo Germanic -i-s- as extension dieses i-stem); Old Icelandic participle bolginn `swollen', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -

English bielg, byl(i)g `sac, bag', engl. belly `belly', bellows `bellows' (Germanic *ali- m.,

nt- > -nn-), Kaus. belgja `make swell up', Old Saxon Old English belgan stem-V. ` be angry `angers'; ', Old High German belgan `swell up', refl. `be angry with', Old Frisian participle ovirbulgen

bolstr m. `pillow, cushion', Old Englishbolster n. `pillow, cushion', Old High German bolstar ds., Dutch bolster `fruit skin, husk'; Old Prussian balsinis `pillow, cushion' (*b olhi-nos), pobalso ` feather bed ', Latvian

Old Icelandic bylgja `wave', Middle Low German bulge ds.; *bul(h)stra- in Old Icelandic

pablsts m. ` pillow ' (and `pad', see above S. 123); slov. blazna `pillow, cushion,

mattress, a downy or feather bed; pad, ball of the foot or ball of the thumb, heel of hand Serbo-Croatian blzina `pillow, cushion, feather-bed'; russ. blozen m. ` weal, callus, swelling, blister, clavus, corn' (but russ. dial. blozno `thick board'). Here probably as Venetic-Illyrian loanword Old Prussian balgnan n., Old Lithuanian forms see above S. 123. BSL. 41, 134 f.

[anat.] ' (and `roof beam, crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion', see above S. 123),

balgnas, Lithuanian balnas `saddle' (probably from `pillow, cushion'). Further Balto-Slavic References: WP. II 182 f., WH. I 122. compare about gr. `leather sack' Vendryes Page(s): 125-126 elel Root / lemma: b el-1, Balto-Slavic also b el- (*b l-1 > b lH-o-) Meaning: shining, white `divide'
h h h h h

Note: to b -1 standing in the same relationship, as stel- to st- `stand', del- `split' to *d(i)Material: Old Indic bhlam n. `lustre, shine, forehead', sam-bhlayati `glances' (lengthened grade); balk ` a crane's kind ' with b- after bak- ` a heron's kind '; Armenian bal ` pallidness, paleness ';

Maybe alb. bal `badger (animal with white spots in the snout)', balo `a dog with white spot on the forehead'. forehead' compare Skt. bhlam `brightness, forehead', Welsh bal `having a white spot on the gr. `white' Hes., Hes., (F) `gleaming, white, white-

fronted ', , Doric - ds., , Doric - ` coot (*bald-headed) ', ` bald-headed ' Note: Doric - ` coot (*bald-headed) ', ` bald-headed ' related to alb. alb. bal `forehead, (*shining forehead, *bold as a coot)'.

Doric `look shyly around'; `white, it is white-mottled ' is probably Illyrian loanword; Illyrian *balta `swamp, marsh, white clay', out of it Latin blatea f., `excrement lump',

adalm. balta ` sea swamp '; Ligurian *bol `swamp, marsh' (M.-L. 1191b), FlN Duria Bautica (from *Baltica), perhaps here mare Balticum (Venetic-Illyrian?) `Baltic Sea ' (Einhard, 9. Jh), compare Bonfante BSL. 37, 7 f.;

Maybe Spanish barro : French boue : Albanian balt : Czech blto : Polish boto : Venetian paltan : Zeneize bratta ` mud ' : Romanian balt ` bog, marsh' : Lithuanian balta ` white ' : alb. (balg) bardh ` white' common alb. -g > -dh.

Notes: Cf. also the Rythabalt meadow and the placename Namuynbalt is the equivalent of Namoyumpelk (pelk `swamp'). For the semantics cf. Pol. dial. biel, bielaw, Bel. bel' `swampy meadow' (Trubav II: 180). PSl. *bolto is sometimes considered an "Illyrian" Peninsula are adduced, but also Romance forms such as Lomb. palta, Pim. pauta. horse or ox ', balt f., balt m. `slime, mud, swamp, marsh, white clay'; Maybe alb. (*balakha) balluke `hair fringe'. but whether fls, -is f. ` a polecat, cat, marten; hence a thief ' here belongs, is dubious Celtic belo- `luminous, white' in cymr. beleu (*b eleuo-) `marten', Old Irish obell m.
h h

substratum word. In this connection not only the above-mentioned forms from the Balkan alb. bal, ball `forehead, (*bold as a coot?) ' (= Old Prussian ballo ds.), balsh ` white

Latin fulica (compare Old High German belihha) and fulix f. `coot' (*b olik- with dial. u);

because of mls, -is f. `marten, badger';

Irish Bel-tene ` festival of 1st May ' (= beacon), gall. GN (Apollo) Belenos, (Minerva)

`blaze, glow, heat' (f. `spark, glowing coal') = cymr. ufel m. `spark, fire' (*opi-b elo-), Middle

Belisama (Super Latin), FlN Belen > French Bienne, (under the influence of common

Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Swiss Biel; Old French baille ` paleness ' (out of it Middle Breton belsa `field' from *belis;

baill ds.) could on ablaut. gall. *balio- go back, compare frz PN Bailleuil < *Balio-ialon; gall. Gothic bala m. ` bald horse, horse with a blaze ' (from Belisar's steed [Belisar was a

Byzantine commander]), engl. dial. ball ` horse with white paleness ' (out of it cymr. bal ds), Middle English balled, engl. bald, Danish bldet ` naked, bald, bleak ', Old High German belihha (compare Latin fulica), Modern High German Belche `coot', BergN

Old Icelandic bl `flame', Old English bl ` pyres, funeral piles ' (*b l-).

Belchen (to suffix s. Brugmann Grundri II 1, 511, Specht Dekl. 213 f.), lengthened grade Whereas are Germanic *pl- in Old English pl, engl. pool, Old High German pfuol

`pool', ablaut. Dutch peel (*pali-) `morass', Old English pyll, engl. pill (*pulia-, older *blio-) probably from Venetic-IH. borrows (see above *bol); different Petersson Heterokl. 205; Lithuanian blas `white' and ` snowdrop ', bal f. `white anemone' and m. `swamp,

pallid, pale, wan '; Old Prussian ballo f. `forehead' and *balo `swamp, marsh' in PN; Maybe alb. balash ` white cow ' : Lithuanian: blas `white'.

marsh, moor, fen, pool', bal, bala, blti `become white'; Latvian lengthened grade bls `

biel f. ` marshy wood, forest', russ. dial. bil `swamp, marsh'; ablaut. bala (*b l) in russ. bala-ruina ` puddle, slop ', klr. balka ` marsh ';

Old Church Slavic lengthened grade bel `white' (*b lo-), f. `splint in wood', poln. dial.
h h

Lithuanian bltas (*b oltos), Latvian balts `white', North Sea Baltina ezers; Church Slavic blato `sea', Serbo-Croatian blto `sea, ordure', russ. boto `swamp, marsh'; baptism ', balnda ` orache ', russ. lebed, serb. lobda ds.;
2 h

Slavic substant. neutr. Adj. *bolto- (*b olto-) `swamp, marsh, pond, pool, sea' in Old

Lithuanian b'lnas `white' (with glottal stop, Indo Germanic *b olnos), baladis ` Slavic (*b olH-neh ) *bolna f. (with trail tone, Indo Germanic *b oln) in Czech slov.
h h

(dial.) lump ', bon f., `splint in wood', originally identical with Czech blana `meadow, grassland', poln. bo f., bonie n. ds., russ. boonje n. ` deeply situated meadows '; bhlayati);

blna ` membrane, skin, cutaneously', russ. boon ` sickly outgrowth on trees, sap-wood,

perhaps Tocharian palsk-, plsk, A pl(t)sk ` cogitate ' (*see, compare Old Indic samwhether here gr. (*b el-so-), `cork, oak cork ', ` rocky ground ',

`even (*of land, ground, etc.: level, flat, not hilly or sloping; of uniform height) ', ` scale, flake (ones of reptile)'?

References: WP. II 175 f., WH. I 108 f., 559 f., W. Schulze Berl. Sbb. 1910, 787 = Kl. Schr. 111, Trautmann 25, 29 f., Specht Dekl. 116 f. ; b lnd o-; b lido-.
h h h h h h

See also: Here further b el-2; b eleg-; b lei-, -g-, -k-; b lend -; b les-; b leu-, -k-, -s-; b luoh h h h h

Page(s): 118-120 elRoot / lemma: b el-2 ( > *b el-(e)-n-) Meaning: in names of henbane
h h h h

Belenos (see above b el-1);

h h

Material: Gall. (Illyrian ?) belinuntia f., n. ` hyoscyamus ', to names of Apollo Old English beolone (*b elun), Old Saxon bilene, zero grade Old Danish bylne

Note: probably with b el-1 identical

(Germanic *bul-n-), blme, Swedish bolmrt, Modern High German dial. bilme; but Old High German bil(i)sa is probably Celtic loanword (compare aprov. belsa); Slavic *belena-, *belen in r.-Church Slavic belen m., russ. belen f., Slavic *beln m.

in slov. bln, Old Czech bln, zero grade Slavic *bln in Serbo-Croatian bn. 140.

References: WP. II 180, WH. I 99 f., Trautmann 30, Kretschmer Gl. 14, 97, Specht Dekl. Page(s): 120 ellRoot / lemma: b el-3, b lh

Meaning: to grow, spread, swell

lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, gums' (loanword from Avestan *barsman `cushion'); compare under Old High German bilorn.

f.) here Avestan bar-s-man- ` bundle of branches ', Old Indic brsva m. Pl. ` bulge; bead;

Material: Old Indic bha- n. `pot, pan, vessel' (*b ln-da?); after Thieme (ZDMG. 92, 47


Armenian beun `fertile' (: gr. ), ben-awor ds. (: gr. ), Adontz, Ml. Boisacq Gr. , `penis' ( from *b lns or *b lns; compare Old Irish ball,
eh h

Modern High German Bulle);

Maybe alb. Geg pallosh `penis' : gr. `penis' borrowed through Illyrian mediation Latin ballaena; also Middle High German bullich calls in addition (formation as ), `whale' (compare that probably

big fish kinds;

identical is `moth', about and supplementary see above Z. 1; about plant with thick woolly leaves, as *b (e)lo-mo-s? -.

see below phel-; after Persson Beitr. 299 also () Great mullein, Probably Phrygian -, - `' Hes., also `penis'; thrak. VN Latin follis ` a leather bag; a pair of bellows; a purse; a puffed-out cheek ' (*b lnis or cymr. bl f. `elevation, rise, mountaintop ' (*b l); Maybe alb. mal [common alb. mb- > m-]. spot, mark' (also in the body), hence perhaps also cymr. ball `epidemic', balleg `sack, bag'; changing through ablaut bol, boll in cymr. dyrn-fol ` glove ', arfolli ` become pregnant ', ffroen-foll ` with swollen nostrils ' (: ); zero grade Old Irish ball m. `limb, member, part, body part ', then `deal, portion, place,
h h

*b olnis, compare the Germanic words with -ll- from -ln-);


Maybe alb. bole `testicle' bale `strong', cymr. balch, bret. balc'h `stout, proud, hubristic, overbearing'.

zero grade with formants -ko- and meaning as Old High German bald (see below): nir. b ll- (b l-) in Old Swedish bulin, bolin `swollen', bulde, bolde, byld ` hump, ulcer'; Old l

Nord.), Old English bolla m. `bowl', hafodbolla ` brain box, cranium ', Old Frisian strotbolla skin or knot of the flax ', Middle High German bolle f. `bud, spherical vessel', Old High `larynx', Old Saxon bollo `drinking bowl', Old High German bolla f. `vesicle, blister, fruit

drinking bowl ' (`*spherical vessel'; Middle Irish balln ` drinking vessel ' probably from

* from a stem *bulla- = -); Hessian bulle `vulva'; Old Icelandic bolli m.

`young bull', engl. bull, Middle Low German Modern High German Bulle (as *bull-n = gr.

`plank' (Modern High German Bohle); Old Icelandic boli `bull', Old English bula ds., bulluc

Icelandic bulr, bolr m. `tree truck, trunk', Middle Low German Middle High German bole f.

German boln, Middle High German boln `roll, throw, toss, fling' and with the meaning

bullich, bolch ` big fish among others cod ' (compare ), compare also Old High

German hirnibolla `cranium', Modern High German Bolle, Robollen, Middle High German

', Old Icelandic poet. bolmr `bear'; here probably Old Icelandic bulki `ship load', Swedish Danish bulk ` hump, nodules, tubers';

swollen = `thick, big, large', Swedish Dialectal bl, bol ` thick and large, strong, very daring

`gums' (*bilurn `swelling, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb '), whether not from *beluzn; Germanic *bel-n- also in Hessian bille `penis' (: bulle), Middle Low German (ars-)bille,

in heterokl. paradigm (?) *b elr, Gen. *b elns interprets Old High German bilorn m. f.
h h

Dutch bil `buttock', Swedish fotabjlle `ball of the foot'; also alb. bili `penis', bole `testicle'

Ballen, Old High German arsbelli m. Pl. `buttocks', Old English bealluc m. `testicles' (*b oledge of the lake bank; small rise on ground level '; with formants -to- and the meaning n-), Old Icelandic bllr `ball, sphere, testicle'; Old Icelandic bali `elevation along the the

changing through ablaut Old High German ballo, balla, Modern High German Ball,

`swollen, inflated' = ` arrogant, bold ', Gothic bal-aba Adv. ` boldly ', balei f. ` boldness ', Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old English beald `bold, audacious', Old High German bald `bold, `prince, lord, master, mister', Old Icelandic GN Baldr.

Old Icelandic ballr `dreadful, dangerous', baldinn `defiant', (under the influence of common

audacious, quick, fast', Modern High German bald Adv.; in addition Old English bealdor With coloring gradation *b l- probably Norwegian bl `in heat, rutting, of the sow ' root form b l-: lfrom b -, Aor. `bubble out';

(changing through ablaut bala ` rutting, be in heat ').


Gr. `gossip, talkative', -, - `be talkative'; as

flmina ` varicoses ' is probably loanword from gr. ; Norwegian dial. blma ` bleb Saxon bldara `blister, bubble', Old English bldre ds., reduplication-stem Old Icelandic on the skin, skin vesicle '; Old Swedish blmma ds.; Old High German blt(t)ara, Old

blow forth; to blow on an instrument; to cast metals, to coin ' (probably from *b l-i), but

Latin fl, flre ` to blow; intransit., of winds, persons and instru- ments; transit., to blow,

blara `vesicle, blister, bubble', Old High German etc blat `leaf'; Old Icelandic bl- in Zs. `blow, swell, blow out', Old English blwan `blow' (here w from Perf.), Old High German blt, Old English bld `blow, breath, breeze, gust of wind', Old Icelandic blr `gust of

`excessive, very'; with prevalent meaning `blow' Old High German io-present bljan, blen

bloat; unpers.: `swell up', Old High German blsan `blow', blsa `bubble', blst `blast,

wind'; with -s- Gothic ufblsan `inflate, bloat', Old Icelandic blsa `blow, pant, gasp, inflate,

snort, rage, fury';

breath, breeze', Old English blst, Old Icelandic blstr (*blstu-) `blast, breath, breeze, Maybe alb. plas `blow' '. Latvian blnas `prank' derives from russ. loanword bldis `confidence trickster, swindler

Maybe alb. Geg blenj `I buy, bargain, strike a deal)' similar meaning shift as Latin c -re ` hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain ' Here perhaps Gothic bl `blood', s. b el-4. See also: In addition b el-4 `bloom' etc and the extensions b elh-, b ld-, b leg-, b lei-,
h h h h h h h

References: WP. II 177 f., WH. I 515, 524 f.

b leu- `to swell' etc Page(s): 120-122


ell- lRoot / lemma: b el-4 and b l-, b l-, b lMeaning: leaf; bloom Note: probably from b el- `to swell' in sense of `vegetable lushness ' and `swelling = bud'
uh h h h h h

Maybe alb. (*) pyll `forest' [common alb. shift u > y] anything, the best, the pride; on the face, first beard, down '; flre, -re ` to bloom, flower. Transf., to be in one's prime, to prosper, flourish, be in repute; with abl. to abound in, swarm with '; Oscan Fluusa ` the goddess of flowers, whose festival was celebrated on sabin. Flusare ` of or belonging to the festival of Flora, of the Floralia '. the 28th of April, often with unbridled license ', Fluusasias ` of the festivals of Flora ', Middle Irish blth m. `bloom, blossom, flower', cymr. blawd, acorn. blodon `bloom,

*b elio-); moreover probably Old Irish bile n. `tree';

Material: Gr. `leaf' (*b liom), Latin folium ds.; Middle Irish bilec `leaf' (from *bile <

b l-, mostly b l- in: Latin fls, -ris m. ` a flower, blossom. Transf., the prime, flower of llh h

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), with s-derivative Middle High German bluost `bloom, blossom', Old Norse blmstr ds., Dutch blsen `bloom' (= Middle Low German blsen `blush', see below b les- `shine');

blossom' (*b l-t-), Middle Breton (with -men-suffix) bleuzven, nbret. bleun(v)enn ds.,

blossom', Modern High German Blust, Old English blstma, blsma, blstm `flower,

ds., blm collective `flower, blossom'; Old High German bluojen, bluowen, Old Saxon bljan, Old English blwan `bloom'; Old High German bluot f. ` blossoming, bloom,

Gothic blma m., Old High German bluomo m. `flower, blossom', Old Icelandic blomi m.

bl n., Old Icelandic bl, Old Saxon Old English bld, Old High German bluot `blood' probably to *b el- `effervesce'.

blossom' = Old English bld f. `scion, shoot, twig, branch, flower, blossom, fruit'; but Gothic

`life, breath, breeze' and b el- `inflate, bloat'); `leaf'; Tocharian A. plt ds. Page(s): 122

German blt `bloom, blossom' (compare also Old English bld, Old High German blt

With : Old English bld m. `breath, breeze', n. `bubble', f. `bloom, blossom', Old High

with : Old High German blat, Old Saxon blad, Old English bld, Old Icelandic bla n.

References: WP. II 176 f., WH. I 518 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 351.

eleleRoot / lemma: b el-5 , mostly with -- (-k-) suffix: b l-, b l-n--, b ele-; b lkMeaning: balk elMaterial: Basic b el- in Old Indic bhurju Du.` arms, arms or shafts of the cart's pole'; gall. With guttural extensions: (if only with secondary nasal rendering from other nouns in -, so *- = Old Indic with -k-: m. `balk, beam plank in ship'.
h eh eh h h h

*balkon `(wall) projection ', cymr. balog `pinnacle' (M.-L. 890).

Gr. , - f. `stem, balk, beam; battle row, array ', `planks, planking'

bhurij-; yet perhaps with b l-- only parallel -extension from a n-stem *b ln- from); Latin fulci, -re, fuls, -tum (*b lki) ` to prop up, support; to strengthen, secure; morally,

to support, stay, uphold ' (actually `through balk, beam'); fulcrum (*fulc-lom?) ` the post or foot of a couch (prop, rack, rest camp) '. smen); Perhaps also sufflmen ` a brake, drag, hindrance ' (*flg- = Indo Germanic *b lh

off, partitioning off', blkr `dividing off, partitioning off';

Old High German Old Saxon balko `balk, beam'; Old Icelandic balkr `partition wall, dividing

Old Icelandic bialki (*belkan-) `balk, beam'; ablaut. (*balkan-): Old English balca, bealca;



Germanic u, also from Indo Germanic *b luko- or, whether with Germanic consonant bliggwan, Old High German bliuwan, Modern High German bleuen `hit', from Indo Germanic *b leu-ono-; see below b eleu-.
h h h h h

German bloch, Modern High German (ndd.) Block `clot, chunk, balk, plank' contains Indo increase, from *b lugo-, to Middle Irish blog `piece, fragment', further perhaps to Gothic

zero grade Old English bolca m. `gangplank'; but Old High German bloh(h), Middle High

tumescent' from:

Whereas belong probably to *b elh- `to swell' from a meaning mediation `thick,

Latvian blins, blzins m. `prop', East Latvian blgzds m. ` props connected in the pablstt `prop, sustain';

Lithuanian balien ` long beam in the harrow ', balenas `crossbar, crossbeam',

wood sledge level ', Latvian pablsts m. `prop, handle, grasp, handle in the plow ', blzt, russ. Dialectal (Gouv. Olonez) blozno `thick board', slov. blazna `roof beam,

crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion'; kaub. bozno `the runners connecting the sledge skids '. References: WP. II 181 f., WH. I 559, Trautmann 25 f.

Page(s): 122-123

Root / lemma: b el-6 el-

Meaning: to sound, speak, onomatopoeic words

Material: Old Indic bha- `barking, baying' (*b el-s-), bhat `talks, speaks, prattles';
h h h

are after Kuiper Proto-Munda 32 f. not Indo Germanic

bhaat (Dhatup.) `speaks, jeers, rebukes' (*b el-n-d), bhati `talks, speaks' (*b el-n) Old Icelandic belja `roar, bellow', Middle Dutch belen `bark, bay'; Old Icelandic bylja,

High German boln `cry, roar, bellow';

bulda `threaten, drone, roar', bylr `gust of wind', Old English bylgan `roar, bellow', Middle with Germanic ll (consonant increase in the onomatopoeic words), Old High German

bulln `howl (from the wind), bark, bay, roar, bellow', isl.-Norwegian bulla `babble, chat'; High German (actually ndd.) Bellhammel `bellwether (with bell)';

bellan `bark, bay', Old English bellan `roar, bellow, bark, bay, grunt'; Old High German

Old Icelandic bjalla, Old English belle, engl. bell, Middle Low German belle `bell', Modern

compare, because latter contains most probably Indo Germanic d ) Danish baldre,

with Germanic ld (probably from a present d - and perhaps with Lithuanian bldu to

Norwegian Dialectal baldra, schwed Dialectal ballra `rant, roister' Middle Low German

Dutch balderen ds., Danish buldre, Swedish bullsa, Middle Low German Dutch bulderen, bolderen, Middle High German buldern, Modern High German poltern; Old Prussian billit talk', byl-a, -ti ds., byl `speech, pronunciation, conversation, entertainment', Latvian `say, speak', Lithuanian blstu, bila, blti `to start to talk ', blu, biloti `talk', bilju, -ti `say,

bilstu, bilu, bilst (in Zs.) `talk, address, speak to', bildt `address, speak to'; Latvian billt (from *bilna) `weep, cry'; with formants -so- Lithuanian balsas `voice, sound, tone'; Tocharian AB pl-, pl- `praise, laud' (Van Windekens Lexique 89). See also: From this derived *b l- `bleat'.

References: WP. II 182, WH. I 516, Trautmann 25.

Page(s): 123-124

lemma: end Root / lemma: b en Meaning: to bind Material: Old Indic badhnti, only later bandhati `binds, fetters, captures, takes prisoner, Old Indic bndhana- n. ` ligation ', bandh- m. ` ligation, strap',

put together ', Avestan bandayaiti `binds', participle Old Indic baddh-, Avestan ap. basta-,

Note: Note

Probably from Avestan ap. basta- n. ` ligation ' derived alb. bes `pact, covenant, faith, belief, armistice', previously Illyrian TN Besoi [common alb. shift st > s]; clearly Illyrian displays simultaneous satem and centum characteristics since it was created before the medium that surpasses monotheistic religions in alb. psyche, that means alb. are the

split of Indo European family. Because the institution of besa is the most important pagan descendants of Illyrian Only alb. and Indic languages relate to the fact of blood bond. The the blood line of the father.

institution of besa marks the ancient code of blood revenge and the victory of patriarchy or Avestan banda- m. `band, manacle' (: Old Icelandic Old Saxon bant, Old High German

band `cattle', see below); Old Indic bndhu- m. `kinsman, relative' (as ). Gr. `rope, hawser, rope, cable' (from *, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 287,

bant n., Modern High German Band; Gothic bandi, Old English bend f. ds.; Lithuanian

compare Brugmann IF. 11, 104 f., also for and ), `father-in-law' (*`linked by marriage ');

here after Pedersen (REtIE. 1, 192) also `suffer' as ` is bound, is entrapped ', as displease; intransit. to knock, strike; to run aground; to stumble, make a mistake, to give repel, repulse, ward off, drive away (2) to defend, protect; esp. to defend in court; in
h h

also Latin offend `to strike against, knock; to hit upon, fall in with; to shock, offend,

offence (with dat.); also to take offence', dfend ` (*release from the entanglement) to

argument, to maintain a proposition or statement; to sustain a part '; (covers late,

but old), with sound metathesis hom. Attic `crib' (*b nd -n; under a basic meaning ` twisted, woven basket' as Celtic benna ` carriage basket ') (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn); thrak. - `bind' (compare Kretschmer Einl. 236); alb. bes `pact, covenant, faith, belief,


Illyrian TN Besoi Latin offendimentum, offendix ` the knot of a band, or the band itself, chin strap under priest's cap, apex ( a Roman priest's cap), fastened with two strings or bands'; gall. benna `kind of vehicle', Galatian , cymr. benn `wagon, cart' (out of it Old boxes', Dutch ben `basket, trough'; basic form *b end -n); Middle Irish buinne `strap, bangle ' (*b ond i); (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).
h h h h

English binn, and through roman. mediation Modern High German dial. benne `carriage

andbundnan `is unfastened ', Gothic bandi etc see above;

Gothic Old English bindan, Old Icelandic binda, Old High German bintan `bind', Gothic

herd of cattle ' (actually `the tied (down) cattle, the bound cattle '). bst ` matrimonial union' from *b ond -stu- `bond';
h h h h

Lithuanian bedras `partner, comrade' (formant associated with gr. ), band ` Here also Gothic bansts m. `barn' (*b ond -sti; compare in other meaning Old Frisian ndd. banse ` silo, garner, barn', Old English *bs, engl. boose `cattle shed', Old English

bsig `crib', Old Icelandic bss m. `room for keeping, cattle stall' (*band-sa-); relationship of above group with binden. Page(s): 127

jt. bende ` divided off room in cattle shed' erases probably every doubt about the References: WP. II 152, WH. I 102, Feist 79, 80 f., 93.

Meaning: to sing, rejoice

endRoot / lemma: b endh h

bhandna- `cheering', bhandn `merry tintinnabulation, cheer' (doubts the meaning partly); zero grade Old Irish Middle Irish bind `melodic', abret. bann `melodious, harmonious'. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-). Page(s): 126-127 References: WP. II 151 f.

bhndiha- ` in loudest cheering, shrilly, screaming, best of all praising ',

Material: Old Indic bhandat `receives cheering shout, is praised, glares, gleams',

lemma: enh hRoot / lemma: b enh-, b nh- (Adj. b nh-s) Meaning: thick, fat Material: Old Indic bah- `dense, rich, much, a lot of' `compounds Sup. bahyas-, bahul- `thick, dense, vast, spacious, big, large, rich, much, a lot of' (= gr. Adv.
h h

bahiha- (= gr. );

bhhayat ` clamps, fastens, strengthens'; `dense';

by Aristot., if these not newer formation); bhat (uncovered) ` increase, multiply ', Avestan bzah- n. `height, depth', bnu- m. ds., Baluchi bz `much, a lot of', baz


fatness' (occurs after for * = Avestan bzah-), `thick; thickness, Old Icelandic bingr `heap', Old Swedish binge ds., Old High German bungo `tuber, bulb',

gr. `thick, dense, fat, obese' (compounds ), n. `thickness,

Icelandic bunki ` stowed away shipload', Norwegian bunka (and bunga) `small heap, swelling, blister', Dutch bonk `clump, lump' ; Note:

Modern High German Bachbunge; in addition with intens. consonant-sharpening Old

Alb. bung ` kind of edible oak fruit ' : with -u- grade alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : Phrygian `bread', actually ` crumb ' prove that from an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b(e)uh h h h h h h h

enh heug lemma: b enh-, b nh- (Adj. b nh-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: b eug-1 : `to flee, *be b eugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: b eug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. eugheugh h h h

b (e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: b eg-, b eng- : `to break', Root / (e)ueg- eng-

frightened', Root / lemma: b eug-2, b eugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: b eug-3, eugeugheug-

Latvian bezs `dense, thick', bezums `thickness, fatness'; stupid; easy, quiet ' has perhaps originated through hybridization of *fingu-is = , bah- with that to opmus, respective words; Tocharian pkante, pkatte `greatness, bulk, extent' (Van Windekens Lexique 96); Hittite pa-an-ku- (panku-) ` all, in general '. References: WP. II 151, Couvreur H 177. Page(s): 127-128

Latin pinguis ` fat; oily; rich, fertile; n. as subst. fatness, fat. Transf. thick, dense; heavy,

Meaning: to hit, wound

Root / lemma: b enen-

Material: Avestan bnayn `it makes me sick', banta- `sickens, waste away'; the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old Saxon beni-wunda `wound'; Old Gothic banja `blow, knock, wound, ulcer', Old Icelandic ben, Old English benn f., (under

`killer, murderer', Old High German bano, Middle High German bane, ban `death, ruin';

Icelandic bani m. `death; murderer', Old English bana, Old High German Old Saxon bano perhaps also Middle High German bane, ban f. and m. `pathway, way, alley' as `* by all

means through an wood, forest' or `* a (well-) beaten track, a way used often '; Middle Irish epit f. `scythe, pruning knife' from *eks-b en-t; corn. bony `axe'; but cymr. bon-clust `slap Avestan bata-, if ` ground coarsely, from the grain ', could be related as *b n-to-, but

in the face, box on the ear' contains bon `stick'.

because of the uncertain meaning is only to name with reservation. References: WP. II 149, Feist 80. Page(s): 126 ered Root / lemma: b ere Note:
h h h h

Meaning: to cut; board

ered ereh Root / lemma: b ere - : `to cut; board' derived from Root / lemma: b ereh- : `high; mountain, *sharp' [common Illyrian - balt -h- > -dh-].

Material: Old Indic bardhaka- `cutting, clipping', m. `carpenter', ata-bradh-na- ` having 100 metal points '; perhaps gr. `destroy, smash', `destroy, smash, devastate';
h h h h h

High German britissa, Modern High German Pritsche;


b re os- in Old Saxon Old English bred `board', Old High German bret n., therefrom Old red osb rd o- in Gothic ftu-bard n. ` splint ', Old Icelandic bord n. `board, table, desk', Old

German Middle High German bort ds. (Modern High German Bord from Ndd.), Old English bord `board, edge, shield'; Old English borda m. `edge, ornament, decoration', Old High German borto, Modern High German Borte; b or o- in Old Icelandic bar `edge, border', Norwegian dial. bard ds. ord Latvian birde f. ` weaver's rack '. Page(s): 138

the board '; probably with it identical Old Icelandic bor `edge, border, ship's rim ', Old High

English bord n. ds., Old High German bort ds. = Umbrian forfo- ds. in furfant ` they lay on

From Germanic *bur- derive Serbo-Croatian bdo, russ. brdo etc ` weaver's reed ' and

References: WP. II 163, 174, Devoto Ml. Pedersen 227 f., Meillet Slave commun 75.

eregRoot / lemma: b eregh h h

Meaning: expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice encountering onomatopoeic sounds Note:

Note: compare b er- ds. as well as that by b reg- `break, rupture' and `crack, creak'

eregRoot / lemma: b ereg- : `expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice' derived from Root / Material: Old English beorcan stem-V., bearkian (*barkn), engl. bark `bark, bay', Old Lithuanian (em.) burgti `drone, grumble, quarrel, squabble, be unfriendly ', burgsus ` ereh lemma: b ereh- : `high; mountain, *sharp'.

Icelandic berkja `bark, bay, rumble, rage, clamor';

brgalica `turtledove'.

crosspatch, grouch '; presumably also Serbo-Croatian brgljati `mumble, murmur, chat',

gasp, loud cough' (*b req-s-), brkm, brktati `pant, sniff, snort'.

quarrel, squabble, lie', brechnj `empty gossip', Serbo-Croatian brm, brhati `pant,

ereqBesides similar b ereq-: Latvian brcu, brkt `cry', russ. bre, brecht `yelp, cry,

which in their partial i- and u-vocalism in these by b er(e)- `roast' remind present vocal differences, which are explained from different sound imitation: gr. `a small bird' (metathesis from *: Latin frig-?); lisp', later fringuli, fringulti ds., frigul, -re `cry (from the jackdaw)', fring(u)illa `finch, maybe alb. (*fringuilla) frglloj `shiver, tremble (like a bird?)' golden oriole, golden oriole ', mhr. ` woodpecker ', poln. bargiel `mountain titmouse '. briz-gti `bleat, grouse, drone, hum, grumble'. Page(s): 138-139
h h

Somewhat different because of the clear onomatopoeic words are the following words,

Latin frig, -ere `squeak (of small children)', frigutti, -re `chirp, twitter (from birds),


russ. berglz `goldfinch', Serbo-Croatian brglijez ` Sitta syriaca ', Czech brhel ` Eurasian

Similar ones, but indeed new onomatopoeic words are Latin merulus frindit, Lithuanian

References: WP. II 171 f., WH. I 548.

Meaning: high; mountain Note:


ereh Root / lemma: b ereh- (*b er -o-)

h h

Root / lemma: b ereh- : `high; mountain' derived from Root / lemma: b er-, b r- : `to ereh er r shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm' Material: Old Indic Kaus. barhyati `increases', brhti `makes fat, obese, strengthens,
h h

`big, large, high, convex, elevated, noble, sublime', also `high, loud (of the voice)', fern. `high', in compound brzi- (: *brzra-), brz- `high' and `height, mountain' (= npers.

uplifts', presumably barha-s, -m `tail feather, tail of a bird, esp. from a peacock'; brhnt-

brhat (= Irish Brigit, Germanic Burgund), Avestan brzant- (npers. buland), f. brzait burz ds., Irish bri ; the Nom. Avestan bar Subst. could contain Aryan -ar-, but also Aryan addition - ` improve luck ', iran. *barzana-), barzan- m. barzah- n. `height', highest, the most suitable '; npers. bl- `height' (*barz-), burz (see above);

r-, Bartholomae IF. 9, 261), zero grade Avestan uz-barzayeni `I shall allow to grow up ' (in

barnu- m. `elevation, height, sky, heaven, head', barzyah- `higher', barzita- ` the

`makes fat, obese, invigorates, strengthens, increases, furthers', brh Adv. `dense, tight, firm, strong, proficient; very, absolutely', paribrha- `standing firm, dense, solid'.

Old Indic brhnt- stands for also `big, large, vast, grand, thick, massive' and brhati

(*b rhu-), (ham-)banam (*barjnam, Aor. barji) `lift up' etc.


Armenian berj `height' in erkna-, lerna-berj `sky-, mountainous' (*b erhos), barjr `high' Berg- in PN the Mediterranean countries: thrak. , maked. , Illyrian

suppositions by Kretschmer Gl. 22, 100 f., Krahe ZNF. 19, 64. Formations in i- grade:

Bergantia etc about p- in klein Old Saxon , , maked. Cretan

Berginium (Bruttium: Bergae), Ligurian Bergomum, Celto-Ligurian Bergusia, hisp.

robust; morally, brave, courageous, steadfast, bold, audacious ' (from *forg-tos, Indo Germanic *b rh-tos = Old Indic brh).

Latin for(c)tis, Old Latin forctus, dial. horctus, horctis ` physically, strong, powerful,

others PN; gall. Brigantes, people's name (either `the sublime, noble' or `

above), cymr. bry `high, above', fem., cymr. corn. bret. bre `hill', gall. Litano-briga among

Pedersen KG. I 105), gall. PN Bergusia, zero grade Middle Irish br, Akk. brig `hill' (see

Cymr. bera `heap' (= Modern High German Berg), acorn. bret. bern ds. (-rh-n-? s.

troglodyte, cave dweller, cliff dweller '; Old Indic brhant-), Brigantia PN `Bregenz (western saint and generally women's name' (also Old Indic brhat is used as woman's name, also Austria)' and name of a feminine divinity, Old Irish Brigit (*b rhnt) `name of a famous

Old High German Purgunt), cymr. braint `privilege, prerogative' (actually `highness'), pl. (*brigantnos). breiniau, in addition mcymr. breenhin, ncymr. brenin `king', corn. brentyn, bryntyn ds.

Old High German Old Saxon berg `mountain', Old English beorh, beorg `height, burial mound', engl. barrow `burial mound' (compare Armenian -berj, cymr. bera, Old Indic barha-);

Gothic bargahei ` mountain range, mountainous region ', Old Icelandic bjarg and berg,

Norwegian islands, Old High German Purgunt women's name, in addition Burgundines, family name.

name of Bornholm (Danish island) (actually ` the high-rising ') and name Danish and

Germanic *burgund (= Old Indic brhat, Celtic *brigant, Irish Brigit) in Burgund, oldest

`tower', an oriental loanword from urart. burgana `palace, fortress' derives (820 v. burgin, burgon `tower' etc. after Kretschmer though Germanic loanword Maybe alb. burgu `prison' a Latin loanword. sancturay for someone at a refuge ' as retrograde derivative to *b erh- `mountain' (Gl. 22, 113); s. above S. 145. Old Church Slavic brg `bank, border, shore, slope', Serbo-Croatian brjeg `hill, bank,

refuge'; With it is coincident though Latin burgus `castle, fort', that is borrowed from gr.

Germanic equivalent of Avestan brz-, Celtic brig- with the meaning `fortified height as

Gothic baurgs f. `town, city, tower', Old High German burg etc `castle' is genuine

Chr., s. Adontz REtIE 1, 465), whereof would have also derived Armenian burgn, aram.

This contemplates *berh `save, hide, shelter', originally ostensibly ` providing

border, shore', russ. breg ds., is probably not Germanic loanword, but rather VeneticIllyrian origin; Brckner KZ. 46, 232, Persson Beitr. 927; Maybe alb. bregu `bank, border, shore, slope' is a Slavic loanword not from Illyrian Berginium.

etc belongs rather to Old Church Slavic brg `care' (*preserve, save, hide, shelter), as stog : . Maybe alb. breng `care, sadness, sorrow', brengos `sadden, worry' Slavic loanwords.

from latter with brg as genuine Slavic words related klr. o-boh, Czech brah `haystack'

mister, ruler, prince, lord', Old Icelandic bragr `best, most exquisite, most distinguished, leader, chief, prince', Middle High German brogen ` rise, direct upwards, wanton brag'. Tocharian AB prk- ` arise, rise, come up ', A prknt, pirko ` the rising ', A prkr,

With other vowel gradation *b regh- perhaps in Old English brego, breogo `master,

parkre, prkre `tall';

(parkus) `high' (: Armenian barjr). 'stand up' (Friedric 160-161)

perhaps A prkr, prkre `tight, firm, solid' (compare Latin fortis); Hittite pr-ku-u Hittite: parku- ' high ', parganu- (I) 'make high', pargatar n. (r/n) 'height ', parkija-, park- (I) References: WP. II 173 f., WH. I 124, 535 f., 853, Feist 75 f., 85 f., Trautmann 30 f., Van Windekens Lexique 90, Couvreur H 178.

Page(s): 140-141 eremRoot / lemma: b erem-1 Material: ormMaterial: b orm-:

h h h

Meaning: to stick out; edge, hem Old Icelandic barmr `edge, hem', ey-barmr ` the edge of an island ', Norwegian dial.

barm ` extremity, border, brim, edge, rim ' (e.g. in the sail), ndd. barm, berme ` a ledge at the bottom of a bank or cutting, to catch earth that may roll down the slope, or to '. strengthen the bank; a narrow shelf or path between the bottom of a parapet and the ditch b rem-: b rom- : rem- rom(*b rom-di-, as glns from *glan-di-); Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift bud, young twig, branch', ablaut. brme ds. Old Norse brum n. `leaf buds ', Old High German brom, brum ds., Swiss brom ` flower In a basic meaning `bristly, thorn' go back: Old English brm m. `broom' (*b rmo-),
h h

Perhaps Latin frns, frondis f. ` a leaf, foliage; meton., a chaplet or crown of leaves '

Middle Low German brm ` blackberry bush, broom', Old High German brmo m., brma f. engl. bramble (proto Germanic *brmil), ablaut. mnl. bremme, Old High German brimma `briar, blackberry bush ', brmberi, Modern High German Brombeere, Old English brmel,

`broom' and Middle Low German brme, brumme ds.

brim `edge'.

Modern High German verbrmen, changing through ablaut Middle English brimme, engl.

With the meaning `edge, border': Middle High German brm n. `border, edging, edge',

Page(s): 142

References: WP. II 102.

eremRoot / lemma: b erem-2

Meaning: to buzz, drone

In -nt suffix: nt

Material: Old Indic bhramar- `bee';

Maybe nasalized alb. (*bl-t) blet ` bee' : gr. f. `thunder' [common alb. r- > l-].

probably in `boom, blaster, sough, rustle, bawl, blaster', m. `noise, crackling ', f. `thunder' (*-); Latin frem, -ere ` roar, murmur, growl; with acc. to murmur out something, grumble,

gr. , - f. `zither', because of suffixes loanword? Initial sound variant *brem*brem-

complain '; frontsia `thunder and lightning ' is loanword from gr. (to ); Maybe alb. frym `breath, exhalation', frynj `blow'. bellow', Old English bremman `roar, bellow', brymm n. `flood, sea', Middle High German brimmen ds., ablaut. brummen `drone, grumble' (in addition brunft ` heat, rut, rutting season '); Middle Low German brummen and brammen ds., Old High German Old Saxon brimisse, Modern High German Breme and (from dem Ndd.) Bremse; brmkam ds., brmb-al, -ar, -r `bumblebee, beetle, chafer'. [common alb. m > mb mb]

cymr. brefu `bleat, roar, bellow'; Old High German breman `drone, grumble, roar,

bremo `gadfly, brake', Middle High German breme, Old Saxon bremmia, Old High German poln. brzmie `sound, clink, buzz' (*brm-), Bulgarian brm `buzz, drone, hum',

Maybe alb. Geg diminutive (*brum-el) brumull, Tosc brumbull ` bumblebee, beetle, bug' As extensions *b rem- perhaps here the onomatopoeic words: Old Indic bhrga- `giant

clatter', Czech brouk `beetle, chafer'; Lithuanian brnkterti ` fall chinking ' etc;

black bee'; poln. brzk `sound, tinkling, clinking; gadfly, brake', russ. brjkat `clang, clink, Lithuanian brenzgu, brengsti `clang, clink, knock', ablaut. branzgu, brangsti `sound,

clink'; Slavic brzg in russ. brjzgi Pl. `empty gossip'; russ.-Church Slavic brjazdati `sound, clink'. References: WP. II 202 f., WH. I 544 f., Trautmann 37.

Page(s): 142-143

Meaning: quick

eresRoot / lemma: b eres-

Material: Latin festn, -re ` to hasten, hurry; transit., to hasten, accelerate ', Denom. von *festi(n)-, -n- `haste, hurry', Erweit. to *festi- (from *fersti-) in cnfestim ` immediately,

without delay ' (from *com fest `with haste, hurry');

bresic, brezec `hasty';

Middle Irish bras `quick, fast, stormy' (*b r sto-), cymr. brys ds. (*b rsto-), Middle Breton Lithuanian bruz-g-s `quick, fast', bruz-d-s `movable, nimble', besides burz-d-lis
h e h eh

ds., burz-dti ` run to and fro ';

fast', russ. borzj `quick, fast, fiery', besides *brzd in wruss. brzdo Adv. `quick, fast', Serbo-Croatian brzdca f. `rapids, speed in stream'. Perhaps here Ligurian FlN Bersula, Swiss FlN Birsig (Krahe ZONF 9, 45). [common alb. b- > v- shift]. Page(s): 143

Slavic *brz in Old Church Slavic brzo Adv. `quick, fast', Serbo-Croatian brz `quick,

Maybe alb. (*bersul) vrsul, `rush forward, attack', truncated (*vrsul) sul `rush, attack'

References: WP. II 175, WH. I 259, 488 f., Trautmann 40, Specht Dekl. 192.

Meaning: to boil, to be wild

h h

(e)reuRoot / lemma: b (e)reu- : b (e)rh h

Note: extension from b er-2.

Material: A. ablaut b eru- (b ru-), b r-: Old Indic bhurvi- `restless, wild', bhurvn- `uncontrollable movement of water'.
h eh

much ambiguous, it is constructed here from Dumzil BSL. 40, 52 as *b r-u-, likewise berkrim ` I am glad ' as *b er-u-; very doubtful!
h h

Armenian bark `sharp, sour, cruel, savage' (barkanam ` I get angry '), which is very

crap, muck', , `knead, jumble, mingle, sully, besmirch', probably also ' common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-. Thrak. (see below). Alb. brum m., brum f. `sourdough', mbruj, mbrnj `knead'.

Gr. , Hes. (*b r-u-) and `mixture, rubbish, chaff,

- ` gestures, behaves impatiently (esp. from wild horses); be rollicking, wanton

dfrtum ` leaven, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion ' (: thrak. , ,

erquick movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage ' (about fermentum s. b er-2);

Latin ferve, -re, ferv, -re `to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow. Transf., to be in

mould on the wine'; Latin brsa from dem Venet. or Messapic). Note: Note

of pressed grapes', proto extension alb. brs ds., from which serb. bersa, brsa, brza `

` a kind of barley beer '; from thrak. *brti (gr. ), derives Illyrian brsa `skins

Not only alb. is the direct descendant of Illyrian but Albans in Alba Longa brought their cognates from Illyrian

beer formula from Illyricum (Albanoi Illyrian TN) to Italy. Slavic languages borrowed their Middle Irish berbaim `cook, simmer, seethe', cymr. berwi, bret. birvi `simmer, seethe,

enbruithe `broth, meat broth' (to en- `water', see below pen-2), acymr. brut ` courage, pen-

*borv `mineral water'; Old Irish bruth `blaze, glow, fury', Middle Irish bruith `cook',

other suffix Borm above S. 133; perhaps also French bourbe `slime, mud' from gall.

boil', bero, berv `cooked, boiled', gall. GN Borvo (from spa, mineral spring), compare with

bredion `dealer, broker' (Umlaut), abret. brot ` jealousy ', nbret. broud `hot, fermenting'. About Germanic bru-forms see below B. B. ablaut b ru- and (partially again) b r-:
h h

to-, compare Middle Irish combruith `simmer, seethe, boil'), brydio `seethe, froth', acorn.

spirit, vivacity; also pride, arrogance ', ncymr. brwd `hot' (cymmrwd `mortar' from *kom-bru-

`stream, brook' (*F-, -, hom. , consigns ); Middle Irish tipra b runtos); Old Irish -tiprai ` streams against ' (*to-eks-b ru-t?); from stem b run- the German brunno, Old English brunna, burna ` well, water hole, spring ' (Old Icelandic
h h h

b run-); Armenian abiur, abeur (Gen. aber) `wellspring' (from *b rw(a)r =) gr. , runf. `wellspring' (maybe from Old Irish *tiprar < *to-eks-b rur), Gen. tiprat (*to-eks
h h h

At first in words for `wellspring' = ` bubbling over ' (r/n-stem, perhaps b rur, b run-, ru ru
h h

case obliqui from as en-stem proto Germanic*brun, *brun(e)n-, Gothic brunna, Old High

brunn), (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), with metathesis Modern High German (ndd.) Born. Maybe alb. buronj `spring, originate', burim `origin, source, spring, bubbling water (as if donkey's mouth)' where -th is a diminutive alb. ending. Note:

boiling)' : russ. bruj `current'; also alb. (*bruth) burth `Cyclamen europaeum (burning of

er/ lemma: b er-2 : `to boil, swell; to get high' (see below) while the latter root evolved from erRoot / lemma: b er-1 : `to bear, carry'.
h h

Alb. shows that Root / lemma: b (e)reu- : b (e)r- : `to boil, to be wild' is an extended Root (e)reuh h

brji `urinate, to make water ' (this meaning also in Middle High German brunnen (under Bavarian brunnlen `urinate, to make water ' from Brunnen), formal next to Lithuanian lustful'; also Old Prussian brewingi `conducive, helpful'?
h h

With similar meaning russ. bruj `current', brut ` rapidly flowing, streaming in ', wruss.

the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-) and in Modern High German dial. brunzen,

br(i)ujs, br(i)utis ` push forward with brute force ' (*b ru-), Latvian braulgs `horny, b re-n-u- (present with nasal infix, compare Modern High German brennen) with re-

brinna, Old English beornan, birnan `burn', Kaus. Gothic brannjan, Old Icelandic brenna,

respect on licking flames lies before in Gothic Old High German Old Saxon brinnan, ais.

German brant `blaze', brunst ` burn, blaze', Old Icelandic bruni, Old English bryne `blaze', Old High German bronado, Old English brunaa `itchiness, heat in the body ', Swedish brnad `rutting';
h h

Old High German brennan, Old English brnan `burn', wherefore among others Old High

bryggja (from *bryggwa) ds.; Germanic *brua- in: Old Icelandic Old English bro, Old brodelen, Modern High German brodeln);

b ru- : b ruu- in: Old High German briuwan, Old English browan `brew', Old Swedish

High German pro `broth' (: defrtum, Old Irish bruth, thrak. ; Middle High German Germanic *braua- in: Old Icelandic brau, Old English brad, Old High German brt 692.

' s. Kluge

`bread' (from the ferment); about Old High German wintes prt ` storm; tempest, whirlwind

Page(s): 143-145

References: WP. II 167 f., WH. I 333 f., 487.

er r Root / lemma: b er-, b rh h

Meaning: to shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm

h h h h

barzdan `shine', barz `jewellery';

Material: Old Indic bhrjat `glares, gleams, shines'; Old pers. brzaiti ds. (*b r), npers.

extensions to b er- `bright, brown'. Similar to extension b eleg- besides b el- `shine'.

Note: equivalent with b erk-, s. d. the groups b ere-, b erek- shine, appear, seem to be

(from the day)', apbrkis ` time around daybreak '; slov. brsk, Czech besk, poln.

Balto Slavic *brsk- from b rg-sk- in Lithuanian brkta, brko, brkti `break, (dawn),

brzask `daybreak, dawn', poln. obrzaskn ` become bright ', brzeszczy si `it dawns, the day breaks ', with Assimil. of auslauts -sk- to the sounding word anlaut Old Church Slavic With gradation b (e)r- probably Swedish brokig `varicolored', Norwegian Dialectal

pobrzg `dawn, twilight, daybreak', russ. brezg, poln. brzazg ds.

animal '.

brk ` a young salmon with transverse bands ( ', also as brka f. ` large-scale mottled

High German beraht, Middle High German berht `gleaming' (also in names Old High

With lengthened grade the 1. syllable: Gothic barhts `bright, gleaming, distinct', Old

Icelandic biartr `light, bright'; cymr. berth `gleaming, beautiful', PN bret. Berth-walart, Irish Dialectal bjerk `very bright' (compare noch berk ` white trout ', Swedish bjrkna `Abramis blicca'). reduction grade alb. barth (bard -i) ` white ' (*b ro-). In names of the birch (Slavic partly elm Latin ash tree ): elm, `ash tree' (*fr[ ]g-s-no-s, originally stuff adj. `ashen', as well as:) frxinus ds. (to begin be caused by old accent difference as in palma = gr. *, compared with Maybe alb. Geg frashn `ash-tree' : Latin frxinus `ash-tree'; (*b er) `birch';
h e eh a h h

German Bert-, -bert, -brecht), Old English beorht `gleaming, radiating' (engl. bright), Old

Flaith-bertach; Lithuanian java brt ` the grain becomes white '; probably also Norwegian

Old Indic bhrj- m. `a kind of birch'; osset. brz `birch'; dak. PN Bersovia; Latin farnus

probably with , *b r-s-ens); twofold development of - r- in farnus and frxinus would

ltus = ;

Old High German birihha (*b er-i), Old English beorc, birce, Old Icelandic bjrk

twigs ', Latvian brzs m., Old Prussian berse `birch'; russ. berza, Serbo-Croatian brza, Norwegian bjrk s. ., slov. brza `name of a white spotted cow or nanny goat'); ch. bieza `birch' (the old color meaning still in Bulgarian brz ` white spotted ' =

Lithuanian bras m., Pl. brai `birch', ablaut. brtva f. ` birch forest '; birliai ` birch

Maybe alb. brez ` strip, belt (white stripe?)' : Romanian bru, brn ` belt ' Slavic loanword.

with formants -to- (= Gothic barhts) and intonation change Slavic *berst in russ. brest against russ. bersta f., bersto n. ` birch bark ', Czech besta ` upper birch bark '.

m. `elm, framework ', Serbo-Croatian brjest, Czech brest ds., but with the meaning `birch' Old High German -brecht could, if this vocalization instead of -ber(h)t not a innovation is,

are applied to b erek-, as also in Gothic barhts, cymr. berth, Hittite parkui. Page(s): 139-140

References: WP. II 170 f., WH. I 458, 510 f., 544, Trautmann 32, 37 f., Specht Dekl. 57.

er rk Root / lemma: b erk-, b rkMeaning: to shine er r Note: equivalent with b er-, b r- ds. (see there, also because of ambiguous words) gr. , , Hes., compare but S. 134; Briccius (from *b rk-, with expressive consonant stretch);
h h h h

Material: Old Indic bhrat `blazes, shines' (uncovered);

perhaps here Old Irish brecc `mottled, speckled, *tabby', cymr. brych ds., gall. PN uncertain suppositions about the origin of cymr. breuddwyd `dream', Middle Irish bruatar
h h

, -ro-?

ds. by Pedersen Litteris 7, 18, Pokorny IF. Anzeiger 39, 12 f.; whether from *b roghd -eitiMiddle High German brehen `sudden and strong flash', Old Icelandic brj, br (*brehn)

bare prs. -d - also Old Icelandic brega, preterit br `quick, fast move, swing, reproach', Old English bregdan, brdan stem V. `quick, fast move, swing', engl. braid `flax, wattle, braid', upbraid `reproach', Old High German brettan, Middle High German bretten `pull, `bridle, rein');

`flash', braga, braga `sparkle, glitter, flame, burn', brag `(*blink) moment ', with originally

tear, twitch, weave' (in addition Old High German brdel, Old English brdel, older brigdels with formants -uo- Gothic bra in in braa augins ` , in a flash, at the

m. `eyelid', Old Saxon brha `eyebrow', slegi-brwa `eyelid', Old High German brwa f. `brow', wint-prwa `eyelash' (the meaning `brow' oriented from *r- `brow', Indo
6 h

gradees *brhw, *brw in Old Icelandic br f. `eyelash', Old English brw, braw, brg

moment ' (compare Old Icelandic augnabrag n. `blink, winking the eyes ') and lengthened

Germanic*b r-); that in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I. 350, 463 and Specht Dekl. 83, 162

Old High German brwa could go not back to *b ru, is proved through the grammat. variation in Old English, the form with -ku- assumes (Sievers-Brunner 200). Here probably a kind of fish Old High German brahs(i)a, brahsina, Old Saxon bressemo

`a kind of codfish'.

` bream, freshwater bream ', Norwegian brasma, brasme ds., ablaut. Old Icelandic brosma Hittite pr-ku-i (parkui) `clean, pure', pr-ku-nu-uz-zi (parkunuzi) `purified, clean'. References: WP. II 169, Feist 76 f., 103 f., Couvreur H 327. Page(s): 141-142

Meaning: to hide, keep

erh Root / lemma: b erh- (*b er -)

h h

Material: Gothic bargan `save, store, keep', Old Icelandic bjarga, Old English beorgan, English byrgan `bury', byrgen (*burgizn), byrgels,

Old High German bergan, Old Saxon gibergan `save, store'; changing through ablaut Old Old Saxon burgisli `burial, funeral' and Old High German bor(a)gn `spare, look after,

entrust, borrow', Old English borgian `look after, watch over, keep, borrow'. Note:

Alb.-Illyrian and celt.- Slavic languages prove that from a zero grade of Root / lemma: b ereh- : `high; mountain' derived Root / lemma: b erh- : `to hide, keep'. Cognates ereh erh Europe.

deriving from those two roots mark of wave of IE people who introduced burial mounds in Maybe alb. nasalized (*bergo) breng `concern, sadness (for a dead person?)', brengos `sadden' Slavic loanwords. Slavic *berg in Old Church Slavic (*b erg -tei) brg, brti `care, worry' in nebrti
h h

`neglect', russ. bereg, ber `beware, preserve, protect, spare, look after, spare', SerboCroatian older brem, brijei `guard, watch, preserve, protect, care, worry; hold festivities';

changing through ablaut klr. oboh, gen. oborha `haystack', Czech brah `haystack, heap', poln. brg `barn, haystack' (out of it Lithuanian brgas ds.); zero grade Czech brh `cave, cottage, tent'; East Lithuanian birginti `spare'. Perhaps here gallo-rom. (rht.-Illyrian) barg `covered thatched hut ', whether from

*borg; Tagliavini ZrP. 46, 48 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f. References: WP. II 172, Trautmann 31, Feist 76.

Page(s): 145

See also: compare above S. 141.

erRoot / lemma: b er-1


Meaning: to bear, carry

ereer rNote: Beside b er-, with them. vowel b ere-, sees a heavy basis b er : b r-.
h h h h

present, because the durative recognizes neither Aor. nor Perf. in Indo Germanic

Grammatical information: The root b er-, forms the exceptional both themat. and athemat.

ds. (= Armenian berem, Phrygian -, gr. , Latin fer, Old Irish biru, alb. bie, Gothic baira,

Material: Old Indic bhrati `carries', Avestan baraiti ds. (and `ride'), Old pers. barantiy 3. Pl.

bibhrti, bbharti, bibhrm, bibhrati (compare that probably with = bibhrme bbarmi; derived - `bring in, take in'), them. abibhran, bibhrama- and Avestan Perf. babhra and jabhra (hybridization of babhra with jahra from hrti); Indic bhryati = Iter. Avestan braya-;

Old Church Slavic bero); Old Indic bhrti (also as gr. , Latin fert old unthem. form),

participle Old Indic bhrt-, Avestan brte-; Supin. Old Indic bhrtum; Kaus. Old

superior, best', probably ` he carries the richest, most fertile ');

Sup. Avestan bairita- `he cherishes best, cares, looks after' (= gr. ` most

nourishment, care, cultivation' (compare Gothic barei); Maybe alb. bar ` fodder, grass'.

`carrying' (= Latin fors, Gothic gabars, Armenian bard); Old Indic bhrty `food,

Old Indic bhrt- `carrying, sustenance, livelihood, food, wage ' = Avestan brtis

one carries ');

Old Church Slavic brm), heavy basis in bharman- n. ds.; bhartra-m `arm' (`*wherewith Old Indic bhra- `acquiring, carrying off, profit, gain, booty; burden'

Old Indic bhrman- n. `preservation, nourishment, care, cultivation; load' (= gr. ,

Maybe alb. barr `burden' : Old Indic bhr- `bundle, work, load';

npers. bar `fruit' (= gr. , Old Church Slavic s-bor); Old Indic -bhar- `bearing, Old Indic durbhara-);

carrying, bringing etc', Avestan -bar ds. (= Armenian -vor, gr. -, e.g. =

maybe alb. bar `grass, herb' related to npers. bar `fruit'. Indic bhrtar-, bhartr- ` bearer, provider ', prbhartar- `carrier (of the sacrifice)', Avestan arsfertur), fem. Old Indic bhartr, Avestan barr ` supporter, upholder, mother'; fra-brtar- ` carrier of things, secondary priest ' (compare Latin fertr-ius, Umbrian Old Indic bhraa-m `carrying, bringing, providing, support' (= Inf. Gothic baran); Old

lengthened grade Old Indic bhr- `bundle, work, load', bhrin- `bearing, carrying',

High German bri or = *b rio- in gr. ); ba-bhr- `bearing, carrying, borne'. load' (compare gr. `dowry'), ber `yield, fruit, fertility' and `movement, run', -ber

bhrman- (n.) `bringing, attendance', bhrya- `to bear, carry, support, nourish' (== Old Armenian berem `bear, bring' (Aor. eber = , bharat), ben, Gen. bein `burden,

`bringing, bearing, carrying', e.g. in lusaber ` light-bringing, morning star', secondary


bari `good', barv-ok `good, best'; bard `heap; compound', lengthened grade *b r- in bun `hand, fist; force, might'; Phrygian () (also ) `( injury, evil) cause, carry '; moves me fast ' (also Old Indic bharat, Latin ferr, compare above Armenian ber and

instead of -vor, e.g. lusa-vor ` light-bringing ' (compare Latin Lci-fer, gr. -);

gr `bear' (only present system, once participle ; Ipv. ), med. `

under Alb.), Iter. `bear etc' (= alb. mbaj); about `the best, noble ', Kompar.

s. v. and S. 132; Note:

see above S. 128 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 300 , 535, 538; about s. Boisacq

common alb. b- > mb- > m- as in alb. Geg maj `bear' Gr.); `fruit, field crop, agricultural crop, unborn child; fruit of one's womb, fetus '; carrying', : `carrying, plentiful yield, fullness, wealth'; [] ` means: , with them. Vok. `bier, stretcher ' (Latin feretrum `a litter, bier' from

`dowry', Aeolic with them. vowel f. ds.; `yield, tax', - `bearing, container/vessel with two grips/handles '; `burden, load, cargo'; ` quiver ';

- ` the charioteer's and the combatants' holding part of the war chariot '; `thief' (= Latin fr), , . Hes.; from derived ` spy on

the thief ', then generally `spy on, track ', p: ` house search '; ` box for the storage of clothes ' due to *b rios `wearable, bearable'.
h h

(with - `let pass', with - ` let in, put in ', with - ` bring out, let out, unburden '); paradigmatic with ()-- (see above to Old Indic bibhrm). Ligurian FlN Porco-bera ` guiding fish ', Gando-bera ` guiding scree '.

From the heavy basis b (e)r- (?): Fut. -, Aor. -, - joined together (e)r-

. , Hes. (to gr. `dowry'), doubtful , Hes. [common Messapian Albanian b- > mb-, m(a)b-, the intervocalic -a- under the influence of a Latin consonant + vowel + consonant order.] Note: Illyrian, Mess. and later alb. display satem characteristics the same as Old Indic and the institution of priesthood and earth fertility: Mess. ma-beran, beram etc, tabara Avestan Not only Illyrian shares with Old Indic and Avestan the cognates for `bear' but also `priestess' : Avestan fra-brtar- `carrier of things, secondary priest' (compare Latin fertrius, Umbrian arsfertur), fem. Old Indic bhartr, Avestan barr ` supporter, upholder, mother';

Mess. ma-beran, beram etc, ta matabara `priestess' (*to-b er), Doric-Illyrian


', zbjer `fall, lose'; also bie in the meaning `fall' (compare etc), wherefore dzbor, ');

ber, beronje `dart, arrow'; kompon. *dz-bier, vdjer etc `fall, lose, destroy', ndzjer `bring out

Alb. [causative bjer] bie (*b er), 2. Pl. bini `bring, bear, lead, guide', also `fall, fail, hit ',

dbor, vdor etc `snow' (prefix dz(a)-, d- and *b r actually ` the falling down, falling off [Albanian prefix dz(a)-, d-, z- is of Macedonian Slavic origin (as in Mac. *dz-stra, dzstra ` the day after tomorrow, tomorrow'), from Slavic za ` behind; for, after, because of, during, at, in, on' see Root / lemma: h : behind, towards]. Albanian dz(a)-bora f. ` snow' = Romanian f. z-pad ` snow'. o- grade Albanian dz(a)-bora f. ` snow, heap of snow ' : Old Church Slavic s-bor `congregation, meeting', alb. borica ` sleet ', suffix -ca of Slavic origin. ca

Breton ober erc'h : Kurdish Kurmanji berf barn : Romagnolo bof : Welsh bwrw eira : Latvian birt : Albanian bie bor ` to fall snow';

iterative alb. *b ori in Tosc mbanj, mbaj, older mba, Geg mba, mbaj `keep, tend, look restored r also mbar, bar `bear, drag'; [common alb. b- > mb-] Kaus. *b rei in gr.-alb.

after, observe, bear', North East Geg also used from carrying pregnant animals, with

pregnant', and dzbonj (etc) ` chase away, drive out, drive away' (*`make fall away, make flee'); [Albanian prefix dz(a)-, d-, z- is of Macedonian Slavic origin (as in Mac. *dz-stra, dzstra ` the day after tomorrow, tomorrow'), from Slavic za ` behind; for, after, because of, during, at, in, on' see Root / lemma: h : behind, towards].

bonj, pass. bonem from mating of the mares and cows, actually `make bear, make

alb. mbar `good, lucky', barr `load' (*b orn, compare Gothic barn n. `kid, child'); mberat `pregnant', bark `belly' etc, bar `grass, herb' (*b oro- `yield');
h eh

suffix -l, -j) : Old English byre `son'; Maybe Kurdish bere `offspring'.

bir `son' (*b r-, compare Gothic baur `son'), bij, gr. cal. bil `daughter' (with diminutive

husband'; alb. basic form *b rnos, reduplication-stem besides Gothic barn); presumably also mburr `praise', mburem `boast, brag, be proud '. Latin fer, ferre `to bear, bring, carry; to bring forth, produce; to bring to a place or a

burr (*baur) `man, husband' (compare to meaning Old High German baro `man,

person, fetch, offer; to bear away, carry off; to bear along, move forward, put in motion. Transf., to move, impel, carry away; without object, to lead, tend ' (as gr. only present system), Umbrian fertu ` you shall bear ' etc, Volscan ferom ` bear, carry ',

affer: Gothic atbara; effer: , Old Irish as-biur); ferx `fertile';

Marrucinian ferenter ` they are carried, they are born ' (compare from compound ad-, Latin ferculum ` a frame, litter, bier, tray; of food, a course or dish ', praefericulum `wide

`fertile', Paelignian fertlid Abl. Sg.; -fer in compound secondary instead of -for `bearing, WH. I 527); fr `thief' (= gr. , s.o.; to Latin s. WH. I 569); `chance, hap, luck, fate, fortune ';
h h

carrying' and = Umbrian a-fertur, arsfertur ` the priest of some particular god '; fertilis

offering vessel'; *fertor `the bearer ', assumed from fertrius `a sedan which serves for

carrying, bringing'; forda f. `pregnant' (do- extension of Adj. *b or-s `bearing, carrying', s. fors Nom. (= Indo Germanic *b rtis), forte Abl. ` chance, luck ' = Paelignian forte Pl.

property, possessions ' (from tu-stem *b r-tu-s). Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift.

fortna ` chance, fate, lot, luck, fortune. Transf., lot, condition, state, mode of life;

cymeraf `take' etc; Middle Irish bert m. `bundle, load', f. `feat, dead, act, plan, birth' etc, birit `sow' = Old Indic bhranti `bearing, carrying'; Old Irish Middle Irish breth and (actually Dat. Akk.) brith, breith (Gen. brithe `carrying,
h h h

Old Irish 1. Sg. biru, -biur, 3. Sg. berid `bear, carry', as-biur `tell', do-biur `give', cymr.

parturition (verbal noun to biru); birth; judgement' (*b rt); cymr. bryd `thought, notion' gall. uergo-bretus Office title, whether for *-britos; burre; Pedersen KG. I 51 nimmt -r-, i.e. r, an);

(rather *b rtu- as *b rti-, s. Lewis-Pedersen 345), corn. brys `thought, notion', brys `womb'; Irish barn `judge', cymr. bret. barn `judgement' (probably *b rnos, compare above alb.

of rubble ', Modern High German Kummer. `parents');

tu-); gall. *com-boros ` the amassed ', out of it Middle High German kumber ` rubble, heap Gothic baran `bear, carry, bring, beget, spawn, to give birth to children ' (brusjs Old Icelandic bera `bear, carry, bear, endure, bring, produce, give birth to children ',

judgments of a court of law ', gall. Brtu-spantium PN, ` from judgment ' (*b reh

address to the jury; summation; summing up; plea ', Pl. breujou ` the assizes of justice,

Old Irish brth, gen. -o `court', cymr. brawd `judgement', corn. bres ds., bret. breut `

Modern High German gebren;

Old English Old High German beran `bear, carry, beget, spawn, to give birth to children ', Gothic Old Icelandic Old High German Old Saxon barn, Old English bearn `kid, child';

Gothic barms `breast', Swedish dan. barm `breast, lap', Old Icelandic bamr `bosom', Old High German baro `man, husband';

High German Old Saxon barm `lap', Old English bearm ds. (= gr. ? s. S. 137); Old Swedish Dialectal bjre (*eron-), bare (*aron-) `( carrying, i.e.) luck-bringing magical

barrow, East Frisian barwe, Dutch berrie `barrow, bier';

creature '; Old Icelandic Pl. barar, barir, brur `barrow, bier', Old English bearwe, engl.

bearing fruit, bearing, carrying), Old English bre (wstmre `fertile'), Old Icelandic brr ` capable for carrying, bearable'; Old High German Old Saxon bra, Old English br f. `barrow, bier' (also Old Icelandic

lengthened grade Old High German -bri, Modern High German -bar (e.g. fruchtbar =

compare below the group from Old High German burian `soar, rise');

bra, Middle English Middle Low German bre `wave'? perhaps here as ` the lifting one ', zero grade Gothic bar ` the born ', Old Icelandic burr, Old English byre `son'; Gothic

gabar n. `money collected from people, (), tax', gabar m. `feast, festival ' (to

gabaran ` collect, gather '), Middle High German urbor, urbar f. n. ` interest of a property ', m. ` tax-payer'; Old High German bor f. ` upper space, height ', Old High German in bor(e) `at the height, upwards ', Middle High German enbor(e), Modern High German empor, Old = Old English borettan `swing' (Germanic*-atian), in addition Modern High German Brzel under purzeln; Old High German giburian, Middle High German gebrn ` occur, happen,

High German burian, Middle High German brn `raise, uplift'; here obd. borzen `overhang'

be proper, befit, be suitable', Old Icelandic byrja also `begin', actually * `lift, raise'; Maybe alb. buron `begins, springs, originates', burim ` spring'.

close juridically, to be due', Old Saxon giburian, Old English gebyrian, Old Icelandic byrja `

Old English byre, gebyre m. ` favorable occasion, opportunity ', Gothic gabarjaba adv.

Low German bore-los `without wind ' as `(the ship) bearing, carrying'.

noble'; presumably also Old Icelandic byrr m., Old English byre `favorable wind', Middle Gothic gabars f. `birth, parentage, ancestry, gender, sex', Old Icelandic burr m. `

tall, very high', next to which o-grade Old Saxon bar- in barwirdig `very solemn, honorable,

high' arose from the strengthening mode of Old High German bora-, e.g. in bora-tall `very

`willing, fain, yearning ', gabarjus ` lust, desire '; from the concept of `aroused, lifted,

carrying, parturition, birth', byr f. `birth', Old English gebyrd f., Old High German giburt,

Old Saxon giburd `birth', also `fate, destiny' (=Old Indic bhrt-, Latin fors); Gothic baurei `burden, load', Old High German burd f. `burden', *b rtin-: -tn; Old Icelandic byrdr, Old

English byren, byrden ds.


Croatian brme, russ. Dialectal bermja, a. biem (*b er-men-), Old Church Slavic sbor `congregation, meeting'; Church Slavic brd `pregnant', russ. beraja `pregnant

the preterite stem Balto Slavic *bir-), Old Church Slavic brm `load, burden', Serbo-

brm brti ds., russ. ber brat ds. etc (Slavic *brati derived from an older *brti after

Old Church Slavic (*b erdieh ) ber, brati (brati) `gather, collect, take', Serbo-Croatian

(of the mare)', Serbo-Croatian brda ds. from cows (*b er-di), in forms similarly Latin forda; Old Church Slavic brano `dish, nourishment, food' see below bhares- `barley'. `kid, child'; probably Latvian bars `heap, bulk, mass'. Lithuanian brnas ` youngling; farm laborer', Old Lithuanian `kid, child', Latvian brns

bria, berti `strew, distribute' (from grain, then also from flour, ash, cinder etc), Latvian Latvian birstu, biru, birt `fall out, fall off, drop ', etc.

Here with specialization on delivering the seminal grain: transitive Lithuanian beri,

beu, brt ds., in ablaut intransitive Lithuanian byr, bira, brti `strew, distribute, fall out', Tocharian pr- `bear, carry, bring, get, fetch', perhaps also in A kos-pre `how

much?' ku-pre `if', tpre `if', tpr(k) `yet', whether to gr. - ... - ` as long as ' (see129). About Hittite bar-a-zi `hunts, scuds, chases' s. Pedersen Hittite 185. `young bird', Germanic br-tis `wife, woman, bride', Old Indic bhr- `embryo', Latvian up, soak '.
h h

Specht will restore here also (Dekl. 148), with i- and u-forms, Old English bri-d, bird

brana, ch. brnka (*b ru-nka) ` placenta, afterbirth '. S. but under b (e)reu- `gush, well

References: WP. II 153 f., WH. I 483 f., 527, 569, 865, 866, Trautmann 31, E. Hermann Stud. Bait. 3, 65 f. Page(s): 128-132

erRoot / lemma: b er-2

Meaning: to boil, swell; to get high b er-6. erh

er (e)ri Note: often with m- forms; also as heavy basis b er- : b r-, b (e)ri-, b (e)r-. compare
h h h h h

jr-bhurti ds.; also: ` flickers, from fire'; bhurayti `shrugs, jerks, is restless; sets in violent movement, stirs, stirs up' with m-forms Old Indic bhramati, bhrmyati ` wanders around, turns round ',

Material: Old Indic bhurti (*b r--ti) ` moves, shrugs, jerks, flounces, flounders', Intens.

bhram- ` whirling flame, whirlpool', bhrmi- `movable, nimble; whirlwind' (see below Old *b rni- likewise on the heavy basis;

Icelandic brimi etc); bhri- `violent, angry, irate, wild, keen, eager', might be based as

barnti ayn ` during one day, where it squalls, storms'.

here probably Avestan avabaraiti `streams from', uzbarnte `they stream forth (?)', From gr. (*() ` boils up, surge up, be in restless stir ' (: Old Indic

jrbhurti); presumably also `mix up, mix' (if originally from bubbling up from cooking; wherefore ` chaos, in a mess ', `perplexity', `mix, mingle, stir chaos, knead, bewilder'. About Ligurian and Venetic names see below. Alb. burm ` fully ripe ' (*fully cooked) from *b rmo-. Maybe alb. burim `spring, bubbling up', buronj `to spring, bubble' usually plur.; fig., disturbance, turmoil', fretus, -s m. `a strait; an interval, difference From Latin probably fretum -i `n. a strait, sound, estuary, firth, channel; the sea in gen.,

basic form *b ri with u- colouring conditioned by the labial of the reduction vowel),

(surging of the sea, esp. strait, stream, foaming, heat)', fretle ` frying pan ';

` brewer's yeast '); also fervre S. 144;

English beorma, engl. barm, Low German barme, from which Modern High German Burme Old Irish topur, nir. tobar `wellspring' (*to-uks-boro-), Middle Irish commar = cymr.

fermentum ` leaven, sourdough, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion, ' (: Old

cymmer `confluence' (*kom-bero-); Ligurian FlN Comberanea; Middle Irish fobar

`wellspring, subterranean stream, brook' = cymr. gofer `stream, brook', bret. gouver ds. (*u[p]o-bero-), cymr. beru `drip, trickle', Middle Breton beraff `flow', gall. FlN Vober, French Woevre, Voivre etc; with m-forms Celto-Ligurian aquae Bormiae, GN Borm, hisp. PN Bormte, FlN Borma, dak. PN , Venetic FlN Formi (but gall. GN Borv

belongs to b ereu- `boil'). ber Middle Irish bro `flame' see below.

German brdam m. `breath, breeze, heat', Middle High German brdem `haze, mist',

Old English beorma m. etc (see above); from of a root form *b (e)r- : b (e)r-: Old High (e)r(e)rh

Low German brien `singe, brood', Middle High German brejen, bren, Modern High

brna `melt', intrans., Old High German brtan, Old English brdan `fry'; ablaut. Middle

breath), Old Icelandicbrr `stormy, hot tempered, hasty', br ` tarred wood, creosoted ',

Modern High German Brodem, Old English br `haze, mist, breath, breeze, blow' (engl.

German brhen, Old English brd f., engl. brood `brood, breed, breeding'; Middle High

German bruot f. `heat, Brut', Old High German bruoten `brood'; unknown origin are Old High German brto m. ` soft eatable meat ' (Braten previously are reinterpreted Middle

`calf', late Latin borrows brdo `ham', Old English brde m., Old Icelandic br `raw meat'. also b (e)ri-, b (e)r- . These are based on Old Indic jar-bhur-ti, gr. *-, *- (see above); with m-formant presumably gr. , `makes me anxious, spring, snort'
h h

High German time to ` roasted meat '), Modern High German Wildpret, Old Norse brdo

Beside the very productive root form b ereu- (see there) has to be recognized probably ereuh

common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-;

Old Icelandic brimi `fire'; Middle English brim `blaze, glow', probably also Old Icelandic brim n. `surf, surge, breakers', Old English brim n. `sea'; in brhen, Brodem, braten present meaning colouring turns again in Norwegian prim `a kind of cheese prepared from

Brimsen, Brinzen ` what settles with the mush browned in the frying pan '); besides with

also brm `ds.; also crust, sediment of boiled down liquid ' (Modern High German Bavarian

sour wheys under strong cooking ' (also Modern High German Brimsenkse), Dialectal

bro `flame' (*b ri-uo-).


brw `porridge, mash' (as `*south, hot; cooked'), briwan `cook'; moreover also Middle Irish An s-extension perhaps in Old Indic bhrati `wavers, staggers, sways ', Norwegian

formant -uo- very probably Old High German bro, Middle High German br(e), Old English

alert, awake, smart'.

Dialectal brsa `blaze, flare, shine, show off; set on fire', brs `fire, flame', brisk `agile, lively, Maybe alb. brisk `sharp, smart, keen; knife' See also: compare the related root forms b ereg- `cook', b ereu- `boil', b reus- `to swell', Page(s): 132-133

References: WP. II 157 f., WH. I 482 f., 546, 865. b rg-, b rg- `cook, fry'
h h h

erRoot / lemma: b er-3

Meaning: to scrape, cut, etc.

slices'; Avestan tii-bra- `with with sharp edge ' (= Armenian bir, compare also alb.

Material: Old Indic (gramm.) bhrnti (?) `injures, hurts, disables' = npers. burrad `cuts,

borg(); perhaps here Old Indic bhrvati `chews, consumes' (Avestan baoirya- `what must be chewed', baourva- `chewing') from *b arati is transfigured through influence of Old Indic

crvati `chews up'.

erkra-, hoa-bir ` digging up the ground, ransacking ' (*b ro-), in addition brem (*birem) ` digs out, hollows out, drills out ', br-i `hack, mattock, hoe'; bah, Gen. -i `spade' (*b r-ti-, perhaps *b rti- = russ. bort), bor, Gen. -oy `scurf'.
oh h h

Armenian beran `mouth' (originally `cleft, fissure, orifice '), -bir- ` digging up ' in getna-,

cliff with gaps, gorge, ravine, gulch' (in addition rom. barranca `gorge, ravine, gulch', M.-L. as *-. A k-extension in `wrinkle', `wrinkly' Hes.

born), n. `plough, plow (?)', m. = (*b ros), ` plowed up ', `


Gr. * `split, cut up, divide' (v EM), `plow' = Old High German

693a), jon. n. ` ragged piece, deal, portion'; here perhaps m. `moss villus' Perhaps here (IJ. 13, 157 n. 100) mak. (compare

Hes.), basic meaning `wool villus ', gr. Lesbian Thessalian , Doric ds., ` wool with bristling hair '.

` shabby dress ', Latin burra f. ` straggly garment ', respectively `wool', reburrus Alb. bie (2. pl. birni, Imp. bier) ` knocks, hits, plays an instrument; whether (hit there) '. `September and October' (if actually `harvest, autumn', due to *b r-ti- ` the reaping '); bres `bitter root, chicory' (`bitter' = `incisive'; -s from -ti, borg()) `splinter, chip' (*b r- m. form. -ig).
h h

Alb. brim `hole' (*b r-m), bir ds. (*b r), Geg brj, Tosc brnj ` gnaw, argue '; britm
eh h

Maybe alb. mbres `print, shock' [common alb. b- > mb- shift] ' (see also WH. 1481 to ferentrius ` a light-armed soldier, skirmisher '). About forma ` Latin feri, -re ` to strike, knock, smite, hit; esp. to strike dead, slay, kill; colloq., to cheat

form, figure ' s. WH. I 530 f.

gangway of a ship; a block of seats in the theater; plur., tiers of cells in a beehive '; but planks ' here (Umbrian furo, furu `forum'); see below d uer-. er erMiddle Irish bern, berna f. `cleft, gap, slit', bernach `cleft';

denominative of *b or ` the drilling '), formen ` hole, opening, aperture '; forus, - ` the

for, -re ` to bore, pierce ' (meaning as Old High German born, but in ablaut different;

forum (Old Latin also forus) ` an open square, marketplace ' not as ` space surrounded by

addition bairnech ` mussel plate '); Old Irish barae, Middle Irish bara (Dat. barainn) `rage, fury', bairnech `angry, irate', cymr. bar, baran `rage, fury'.

probably also Middle Irish bairenn `cliff piece ' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (in

bered ` low-spirited' (Germanic*arjan = Slavic borj), Old Frisian ber `attack'; Middle High German br f. `balk, beam, bar, gate, barrier, enclosed land' (: Latin forus, -um), engl. bar Wartburg I 260) also Middle High German barre `balk, beam, bar, bolt' and rom. family of `bar, gate, barrier', Old Icelandic berlings-ss `balk, beam'; Germanic is probably (different

High German berjan, Middle High German berjen, bern `hit, knock, knead', Old English

Old Icelandic berja (preterit bara) `hit, bump, poke', berjask `fight', bardage `battle', Old

French barre, barrire etc (-rr- from -rz-);

*aru-ha, -ga- `castrated pig' (perhaps with Slavic *borv- based on *b oru-s `castrated barug, barh, Modern High German Barg, Barch (Borg, Borch);

animal' and ending in -ha-: -ga- after *farha- ` pork, pig ' extended) in: Old High German

Maybe alb. bariu `shepherd, herdsman (of pigs?)' phonetically equal to Latvian bau, bru, brt `scold, chide' (see below) or maybe a truncated gr. `herdsman, shepherd'. Old English bearg, bearh, engl. barrow, Old Icelandic -brgr `a castrated boar' (in addition High German Old Saxon born, Old English borian, Old Icelandic bora, -aa `bore' (see (auga-, eyra-bora). also Old Icelandic val-bassi `wild boar' as *barh-s-an? s. Falk-rp under basse N.); Old

above); Old High German bora `borer', Old English bor, byres ds.; Old Icelandic bora `hole' Lithuanian bras, Latvian bars ` grain swath, strip of cut grain '; Lithuanian bar (and

bari), brti `scold, chide, vilify', refl. ` be quarrelsome', Latvian bau, bru, brt `scold, chide' (== Slavic borj);

ashamed', alb. Geg (*bar-) mbare , marre `shame, sth to be scolded', [common alb. b- > mb- shift] : Latvian: brti `scold, blame' [verb]; brtis `quarrel' [verb]. Lithuanian barns (Akk. barn) `quarrel' (=Old Church Slavic bran); Lithuanian burn `mouth' = Bulgarian brna `lip' (basic form *b rn, compare above Irish bern and to meaning Armenian beran).

Maybe alb. (*brti) brtas `scold, yell, scream', mbaroj, `extinguish, finish, end, make

spall, crumble ', brze ` sowing furrow ', Lithuanian birs f. ` field furrow '.

Here with Baltic forms : Latvian berzt `rub, scour, rub, clean', intrans. birzt ` crumb,

magic', Latvian burt `conjure, perform magic', burtains ` perform wood-carving notch '; gr.

burts `mark, token, sign the magician, alphabetic letter', Lithuanian brti `conjure, perform

With of a basic meaning `notch': Lithuanian brtai Pl. `lot, fate, charm, spell' = Latvian

`remedy, magical cure, magic potion; philtre ' (probably not Indo Germanic) has nothing to do with it. Old Church Slavic borj, brati `fight' (frequent reflexive), russ. borj, bort `subjugate,

armament, armor' , russ. za-br `fence, plank fence '; [common alb. b- > mb- shift] Slavic loanword.

struggle', Old Russian boron `fight, struggle', russ. bron `forbid', Czech bra `weapon, maybe alb. (*bro) mbronj `defend', mburoj `shield, armour' : poln. broi `defend'

prostrate', refl. `fight', poln. dial. br sie `wrestle, struggle'; Old Church Slavic bran `fight,

(as Latin forus on the concept `board' rejecting: compare russ. alt. zaborolo `wooden town Slavic -zda-forms Slavic *borzda in Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozd `furrow'; maybe alb. brazda `furrow' a Slavic loanword. russ. brov ` hog, castrated boar, (dial.) boar, castrated bull ', Serbo-Croatian brv `

wall, scaffold, trestle', Czech zbradlo `handrail, parapet' ); russ. boron `harrow', and with

sheep, cattle ', Dialectal `castrated pig', slovak. brav `castrated pig', poln. Dialectal browek ` fattened boar, porker ' (see above Germanic *aruha-); *brt `drilling, cavity' (*b rti-) in

russ. bort ` the hollow of the tree in what bees have nested ' etc. Endzelin 354.
h h

References: WP. II 159 f., WH. I 481 f., 537, 865, 866, Trautmann 27, MhlenbachSee also: compare the related root forms b ered -, b ri- (b rig-, -k-, see there also about
eh h h h h h h

b er-), b reu-, b reu-q-, -k- `cut, clip', b reus- `break, rupture', b rug- `gullet'. Page(s): 133-135
h h

erRoot / lemma: b er-4

Meaning: to roar, buzz, onomatopoeic words (ba mbal : a k. of noise. ba mbal):


ermbRoot / lemma: b er-4 : to roar, buzz, derived from a truncated Root / lemma: ba mbNote: An extension at most in *b erem- `drone, grumble' and treated onomatopoeic words

Material: Armenian bo, -oy `bumblebee, hornet' [from truncated klr. bombr `cockchafer'], the bellow of the cows'; to redupl. Old Indic bambhara- (unbel.) `bee', bambharli (unbel.) `fly', bambh-rava- `

under b erg- `drone, grumble'.

gr. `kind of wasp' (formation as , ); similarly also SerboCroatian bmbar `bumblebee', klr. bombr `cockchafer'.

Maybe alb. (*bmbar) bumballa `bumblebee' a Slavic loanword. Lithuanian barbti `clang, clink', birbi, -iau, birbti `buzz', burbi, burbti `drone, grumble, bubble, seethe' ; Maybe Lithuanian (*boburu) boru : Romanian buburuz : alb. burbuqe `ladybug'. ` talk indistinctly, stammer ' would go back to the group of Old Indic barbar etc (see *baba). References: WP. II 161 f., Trautmann 39 f. klr. borborsy Pl. ` sullen talk ', Serbo-Croatian brblati `chat' , in which indeed the meaning Here at least partly (with fractured reduplication) also the Balto Slavic group from

Page(s): 135-136

erRoot / lemma: b er-5

Meaning: shining; brown


`warrior, chieftain';

from Old Indic bhallka- might have derived from the stem *b eru-) = Old English beorn

bero, Old English bera `bear' (*b eron-), Old Icelandic birn ds. (*b ernu-, whose u as like
h h

Material: Old Indic bhalla-, bhallaka- bhallka- `bear' (-ll- from -rl-); Old High German

Note: extensions of b er- `shine, appear, seem', b ere-, b erek- `shine'.

h h

Lithuanian bras, Latvian brs `brown (from horses)';

Old Icelandic bersi `bear' (s as in Fuchs : Gothic fauh Luchs ` lynx ': Swedish lo); ablaut. Belarusian (ry), Russian (rys'), Ukrainian (ris'), Bulgarian (ris),

Macedonian (ris), Serbian (ris), Croatian ris, Slovenian ris, Sorbian (lower) rys, buall ` bull ', Romanian rs ` lynx '

Sorbian (upper) rys, Czech rys, Polish ry, Slovak rys, Albanian rrqebull (ras ` lynx ') + Slavic cognates derived from Illyrian Romanian rs ` lynx ' < Lithuanian bras `brown'. Hes., , `toad, frog' (* ` the brown one ' = Old High German brn); if as ` blanket of clouds ' to 7. b er-?
h h

gr. Hes.? (*[]a or *F? If finally exactly to:)

brown', Old English brn, Old Icelandic brnn ds.; (under the influence of common Celtic brunt ds. (*b rou-no-?) and (from *b r-ono-, -eno-) russ.-Church Slavic bron `white;
h h

nep. bhuro `brown' (*b rro-); Old High German Middle High German brn `gleaming,

ns-, -nt- > -nn-), russ. Dialectal brynt `white, gray shimmer', changing through ablaut

varicolored (from horses)', russ. bron (and Dialectal bryn), klr. brety `become dun (of a

`ordure, excrement ', slov. brn `river mud ';

dull or dingy brown colour, dull greyish-brown), ripen', Old Church Slavic brnije (brenije) Old Indic babhr- ` reddish brown; giant ichneumon kind ', Avestan bawra-, bawri-

Middle Irish VN Bibraige (*bibru-rgion), PN Bibar (*Bibrus) besides *bebros in gall. FlN of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old High German bibar, Old English beofor (oldest

also) Celtic (only in names): *bibros, *bibrus in gall. PN and FlN Bibracte, abrit. VN Bibroci, *Bebr, French Bivre; Bebronn, French Beuvronne, Brevenne etc; (under the influence

`beaver'; Latin fiber, fibr `beaver' (also feber s. WH. I 491; probably i has changed for e, as

bebr), Middle Low German bever, Old Icelandic birr ds. (Proto German *eru-); compare also Modern High German FlN Bever, old Biverna; Lithuanian bbras, bbras, bbrus ds. (dissimil. debrs ), Old Prussian bebrus ds.;

Specht Dekl. 120;

about Lithuanian bruis etc ` roach (Latin Leuciscus rutilus) ', Old Prussian brun-se ds. s. Slavic *bebr in poln. FlN Biebrza, russ. etc bobr (zur o-reduplication s. Berneker 47;

besides perhaps *bbr in Serbo-Croatian dbar `beaver' and Old Russian bebrjan `

from beaver fur '). compare noch Latin fibrnus ` of the beaver, beaver ', Volscan Fibrnus brook name, Avestan bawraini- ` of the beaver '; Old High German bibarn, gall. bebrinus (Schol. Iuv.), Lithuanian bbrinis ds.;


Tocharian B perne, A parno `luminous', therefrom B perne, A par ` majesty, grandeur

References: WP. II 166 f., WH. I 490 f., Van Windekens Lexique 93. Page(s): 136-137

See also: compare further b el-1 with similar meaning.


erRoot / lemma: b er-6

Meaning: to roast, cook

surge, boil, cook'.

Note: with g-extensions, before partly i-, u- vowels; it derived from b er-2 ` move violently,
h h

ereg Material: 1. forms without -i- or -u-: b ereg-: `frying pan', bharj(j)ayati `roasts, brt', bharjana- `roasting', Old Indic bhurjanta `cooking' (*b reg-); bhrjjti `roasts', bhra- `roasted', bhrra-

Middle Persian bartan ds.; presumably is *b ra- (*b ra- in bhurjanta), *b ar- Aryan from *-. root form and Indic -jj only in present *b r-sk, from which derived *b r()s, as gr.
h h h oh h

Latin 165), participle *ferg `bake', Oscan fertalis ` the ceremonies where sacrificial cakes were needed '. Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift. Maybe alb. (**ferg) frgonj `bake'; also truncated alb. (*fertalis) fli `sacrifice'. smoke ', Old Prussian aubirgo ` cookshop ', birgakarkis ` a big soup ladle ' (with VeneticIllyrian g). 2. forms with i, ei: `roasted', pam. (shifted) wirzam `roast' (Iran. *brij-, *braij-). Npers. biri-tan `fry', b rzan `oven', Baluchi brjag, brijag `fry', npers. biryn (*brina-)

Latin fertum ` a kind of sacrificial cake ', Old Latin ferctum (firctum, s. Ernout l. dial.

Lithuanian brgelas `basic, simple beer', Latvian birga `haze, mist, fume, smoke, coal

Latin frg, -ere `roast, dehydrate, desiccate', Umbrian frehtu `cooked, boiled'. 3. forms with : b r-: r ` vessel for roasting barley '. gr. `roast, dry', `roasted; fire brand', `dry wood',

distribution of the forms with u, with i, and without either, is the same like in the words for cook. References: WP. II 165 f., WH. I 486 f., 548 f.

roast, parch) squeak', poln. bargiel `mountain titmouse', russ. berglz `goldfinch' the

It is extraordinary that in the onomatopoeic words of gr. `a bird', Latin frig `(*

Page(s): 137

erRoot / lemma: b er-7 Meaning: to weave


Material: Hom. = Attic n. (*F) `kerchief, cloth, canvas, fabric, velum, cover'; (?) , Hes.; ` pannier, mat'; Lithuanian burva `a kind of garment', Latvian burves Pl. `small sail' (-u- suffix as in gr.

*F), Latvian buras ds., Lithuanian br `sail'. S. to vocalism Walde StreitbergFestschrift 176. References: WP. II 164, Specht Dekl. 182.

Page(s): 137-138

esRoot / lemma: b es-1

Meaning: to smear, spread

verbal extensions of ps(i)-, ps/i/-, ps(i)-, ps- in Old Indic psti `consumes', gr. , ps(i)- ps/i/- ps(i) ps(i) `rub', ds., `touch', ` baldheaded ', f., Doric `pebble', `rub off', `grind, pulverize';

Material: Old Indic bbhasti `chews up', 3. Pl. bpsati; bhsma- n. `ash' resulted through

(*b s-b lo-?);

h h

compare `frail, breakable' (*b s-b -) and Latin sabulum ` coarse sand, gravel '
h h

, `soot, smoke'; f. `sand, beach, seaside' from *,

with already Indo Germanic sporadic alteration of anlaut. b s- to s-: gr. `sand' (= Middle High German samt); through various contaminations and ds., in addition `naked, bald, bleak, bare', `drop' etc; alb. fi, pi, mi `sweep, thresh'; Maybe alb. feh, pef, mef `cover, hide, sweep away' [common alb. p- > mp- > m-]. Latin sabulum `sand' (see above), wherewith EM. 881 compares Armenian awaz ds.; (*samtho-, Germanic sanda-, out of it Finnish santa); Tocharian A ps- `diffuse, sprinkle' (?). 676; Specht Dekl. 255, 325, Van Windekens Lexique 91. Page(s): 145-146
11 h

Middle High German samt (*samatho-) besides Old High German sant `sand'

References: WP. II 189, Boisacq 48, 1074, Kluge

s. v. Sand, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 328 f.,

esRoot / lemma: b es-2 Meaning: to blow Note: probably onomatopoeic words n. `abdominal part';
h h

Material: Old Indic bbhasti `blows', bhstr f. `bellows, hose', bhast f. `rump', bhsas gr. - `blow' (to suffix s. Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. 3, 256), `breath, breeze, soul'. `cold' etc in spite of Benveniste BSL. 33, 165 ff.; after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 329 onomatopoeic, as also `lisping'. Page(s): 146 Here probably - `cools off' (originally through blast), `coldness', s

References: WP. II 69, WH. I 477, Boisacq 1075, Uhlenbeck Old Indic W. 186, 198.

Meaning: to be awake, aware

eud Root / lemma: b eu -, nasal. b u-n-d - (*b eud -; b ound -)

h h h h h h h

Material: Themat. present in Old Indic bdhati, bdhate ` awakened, awakens, is awake, notices, becomes aware, observes, heeds ', Avestan baoaiti ` perceives ', with pait- `

whereupon direct one's attention ' (= gr. , Germanic *biuan, Old Bulgarian *bau, *buum), participle buddh- `awakened, wise; recognized ' (== gr. - `ignorant; unfamiliar');

bljudo); Aor. Old Indic bhudnta (= ), Perf. bubdha, bubudhim (: Germanic

`noticing', gr. `investigating, questions; knowledge, tidings '); causative in Old Indic bdhyati ` awakens; teaches, informs ', Avestan baoayeiti ` perceives, feels' (= Old Bulgarian bud, buditi, Lithuanian pasibaudyti); of state verb in Old Indic budhyt `

Old Indic buddh- f. `understanding, mind, opinion, intention ' (= Avestan paiti-busti- f.

maybe alb. (*bubudhim) bubullim `thunder (*hear?)' [common alb. : Latin dh > ll shift].

'); Avestan baoah- n. ` awareness, perceptivity ', Adj. ` perceiving ' (: hom. - ` Bulgarian bdr, Lithuanian budrs); Avestan baoii- ` fragrancy ' (= Old Indic bdhi- ` unexplored, unacquainted; ignorant'); Avestan zani-bura- ` watching keenly ' (:Old

`awakening'; Old Indic boddhr- m. ` connoisseur, expert ' ( : gr. - ` questioning

awakes, becomes aware; recognizes ', Avestan buiyeiti `becomes aware', frabuidyamn

plenary cognition ');

out, perceive, watch' (, , ), `knowledge, tidings '; , f. `question';

gr. and (: Lithuanian bund, Old Irish ad-bond-) ` to learn; to find

maybe alb. (*peus) pyes `ask questions', pyetje `question' : gr. , f. `question'. ProtoProto-Slavic form: pytati: Old Church Slavic: pytati `examine, scrutinize' [verb], Russian: pytt' `torture, torment, try for' [verb], Slovak: pytat' `ask' [verb], Polish: pyta `ask' [verb], `cut off branches, estimate, consider, think' [verb]. Note: peu-1, peu- : p- : `to clean, sift' , Root / lemma: peu-2 : `to research, to understand' (see peupeubelow). cymr. bodd (*b ud ) ` free will, approval ', corn. both `volition' (: Old Icelandic bo), Old
h h

Serbo-Croatian: Serbo-Croatian: ptati `ask' [verb], Slovene: ptati `ask' [verb], Other cognates: Latin putre

From Root / lemma: b eu -, nasal. b u-n-d - : `to be awake, aware' derived Root / lemma: eud
h h h h

Irish buide ` contentedness, gratitude '; here also Old Irish ad-bond- ` announce,

` awaken ');

Irish robud ` admonishment ', cymr. rhybudd `warning', rhybuddio `warn' (: russ. probudt Gothic anabiudan `order, dispose', farbiudan `forbid', Old Icelandic bja `offer, bid,

promulgate ', uss-bond- ` call off, cancel, refuse ' (e.g. verbal noun obbad); zero grade Old

give recognition', Old English bodan, Old Saxon biodan, Old High German biotan `offer, command '; Old Icelandic bo n., Old English gebod n., Middle High German bot n.

bid, proffer ', Modern High German bieten `gebieten, verbieten, Gebiet actually ` (area of)

desk; dish ', actually ` which is offered on tray ' (in addition also Old High German biutta, Modern High German Beute ` kneading or dough trough; dough tray; hutch, beehive '). b ud -sni-), Old Saxon ambsan f. ds., Old English bysen f. ` model, example', Old
h h

`table, desk'; Old Icelandic bjr, Old English bod, Old High German beot, piot `table,

High German Bttel), Old English bydel `summoner, court servant'; Gothic bius, -dis

`commandment', Old High German etc boto `summoner', Old High German butil (Modern

With (compare Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 96): Gothic anabsns f. ` commandment ' (*-

Icelandic bysn n. `wonder, miracle' (from `*warning'), bysna ` foretoken, warn';

`punish, curse, chastise, castigate '; refl. `intend, mean, aim' (*b oud -i), badiava `socage, compulsory labour ',
h h

bdinu, -inti `waken, arouse, revive', budrs `watchful, wakeful'; causative baudi, basti

Lithuanian bund, bsti `wake up, arouse' and (without nasal infix) bud, budti `watch',

Lithuanian bausls `command, order', Latvian baslis ` command ', Latvian bauma, bame `rumor, defamation ' (*b oud -m-), Lithuanian pasibaudyti ` rise, stand up, sally ', baudnti `
h h

to cheer up, liven up; ginger up, encourage, arouse, awaken one's lust ', Old Prussian etbaudints ` to raise from the dead, reawaken '. Themat. present in Old Bulgarian bljudo, bljusti ` look after; protect, beware, look out',

russ. bljud, bljust `observe, notice' (about Slavic -ju from Indo Germanic eu s. Meillet Slave commun 58).

`awake' (*b ud-no-, shaped from Aor. of type gr. , etc, s. Berneker 106 f.;

suffix as in gr. --, wo -- from -nno-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 700) vz-bn Maybe truncated alb. (*zbudzi) zgjoj `awaken' : Old Church Slavic: ubuditi `awaken' `awaken, arouse' [verb], perf. zbudzi `awaken, arouse'.

stative verb with -suffix in Old Bulgarian bd, bdti `watch', perfective (with ne-/no-

(etc; also in russ. bden `workday', probably actually ` working day ' or `day for corve ');

causative in Old Bulgarian budo, buditi `waken, arouse, revive', russ. buu, budt ds.

[verb]; vzbuditi `awaken' [verb]; phonetically equal alb. -gj- : poln. -dzi- sounds budzi also about Serbo-Croatian bdnj dn ` Christmas Eve ', bdnjk `wooden log which one lays in the in the fire of Christmas Eve' etc), Old Bulgarian s-na-bdti `'; Old Bulgarian bdr `; willing, ready', bdr ds., russ. bdryj `alert, awake, smart, Tocharian paut-, A pot `honour'? (Van Windekens Lexique 87). References: WP. II 147 f., Feist 41, 97, Meillet Slave commun 202 f. Page(s): 150-152 eugRoot / lemma: b eug-1
h 2

strong, fresh', Serbo-Croatian bdar `agile, lively'.

Meaning: to flee, *be frightened meaning ` escape ')

Note: after Kretschmer (Gl. 30, 138) to b eug(h)-2 (Avestan baog- in the intransitive

Material: Gr. (Aor. , Perf. ) `flee', f. (= Latin fuga) `escape, a fleeing, flight, running away ', hom. (*) ds., Akk. - ` to flight, to flee ' of consonant-stem *-; perhaps in Venetic PN (Westdeutschl.) `refuge, escape castle '; flee from, run away from, avoid; with infin., 'fuge quaerere', do not seek; of things, to Latin fugi, fg, -ere ` to take to flight, run away; to pass away, disappear. Transit., to

exile, banishment. Transf., swift course, speed; avoiding (with genit.)'; Note: common Latin ph- > f- shift maybe alb. fugonj `run' baugs `timorous'. Page(s): 152

escape the notice of a person', fuga f. ` flight, running away; esp. flight from one's country,

Lithuanian bgstu, bgau, bgti intr. `be frightened', kaus. baugnti `jemd. get a fright ',

References: WP. II 144, 146, WH. I 556 f., Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138.

Root / lemma: b eug-2, b eugheugeughMeaning: to clear away, free Material: Material: Avestan baog-, bunja- `loosen, escape, they escape before' (bunjainti `release,
h h

', z-buj- ` from need of releasing ', baoxtar- `liberator';


escape', bjayamn `discarding', bunjayt `he escapes'), bjim Akk. ` cleaning, purification

Maybe alb. (*b ujissa) bujis, bujisa aor. `bloom', buj `fuss' : pli bhujissa- `released, free' Pahlavi paz. bxtan `escape, release', South Baluchi bjag ` unbolt, loosen, unbind', as

pers. loanword Armenian buem `heal, save, relieve ', boi `healing, deliverance '; pli

paribhujati `purifies, cleans, sweeps from'; but pli bhujissa- `released (from previously

Subst. ` maid; maidservant, servant'), to b eug-4. etc

slave)' = Old Indic bhujiy- `free, independent' (Lex., in the Lithuanian as ` exploitable ', Illyrian PN Buctor, Venetic Fuctor (: Avestan baoxtar-), Fugonia, vhuia, vhou-ontios,

Note: Note Here Illyrian Buctor : Venetic Fuctor : Avestan baoxtar- `liberator' proves that Avestan a satem language can display centum characteristics. Alb. follows the same Illyrian - Venetic pattern in -tor,-tar suffixes. The tendency in Illyrian -g- > -ct- shows the intermediary phase from centum to satem in later alb.: common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- in the middle of the word. Gothic usbaugjan `sweep up, sweep out, sweep away', Modern High German dial.

Bocht `rubbish, crap, muck'; moreover probably also Middle High German biuchen ` cook in lye ', originally `clean', bche f. `lye' (with secondary ablaut).

biegen): b eug- (Old Indic bhujati etc) `bend'. Probably identical with it. Page(s): 152 References: WP. II 145, WH. I 560, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138.

The doubleness Germanic gh : Aryan g- also by b eugh- (Modern High German


eugeughRoot / lemma: b eug-3, b eughMeaning: to bow Material: Old Indic bhujti `bends, pushes away ', bhugn- `bent, curved', bhja- `arm', bhuj ` twist, arm', bhg- ` coil of a snake; ring' (: Old High German boug); ni-bhuj`push', Pass. ` flunk, escape; to get away '; perhaps bierher alb. but `soft, flexible' from *b ug(h)-to- `pliable'; common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- in the middle of the word. (from*buggo-), KZ. 33, 77, Fick II ; for abret. buc ` rotten, putrid; loose, crumbling, friable,
4 h h h

Irish fid-bocc `wooden bow', probably also bocc ` tender ' (`*pliable'), nir. bog `soft'

expect brit. -ch- = Irish -gg-, Pedersen KG. I 161 considers borrowing from Irish

flabby ', pl. bocion ` rotten, decayed ', nbret. amsir poug ` soft, mild weather ', allowed to In Germanic *b eugh-: Gothic biugan, Old High German biogan `bend', Old Icelandic

ablaut. Old English bgan ` be bent ', with fram `flee';

participle boginn `bent, curved'; (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Kaus. Old Icelandic beygja, Old Saxon bgian, Old English began, Old High German

bougen, Modern High German beugen; Old Icelandic bigr ` bent, curved ', Old High

bycgan, Old Saxon buggian `buy' (compare Modern High German dial. ` be bent by something ' = `acquire, take'); in addition probably Latvian bauga and bagurs `hill'.

Gothic bugjan ` let out, lend, buy ', Old Icelandic byggia ` obtain a wife', Old English

(which literally means an arched buttress) ' from *swi[bi-]bogo); perhaps in addition

bogo, Modern High German Bogen (Old High German swibogo ` Christmas candle arcs

German biugo `curve'; Old Icelandic bogi, Old English boga (engl. bow), Old High German

down ' (Wissmann Nom. postverb. 171, 181). Page(s): 152-153

bukche; Middle Low German bucken, Old Frisian buckia ` to stoop, bend forward, bend

Intensive (with intensification) Germanic *bukjan in Middle High German bcken, Swiss

References: WP. II 145 f., WH. I 556, Feist 96.

eugRoot / lemma: b eug-4

h h h

Meaning: to enjoy, *consume, bite

Material: Old Indic bhukt (with Instr., newer Akk.) `enjoys', compare bhunkti, bhujati about Old Indic bhujiy- see above under b eug-2;

`grants pleasure, enjoys, consumes', bubhuk `hunger', bhga- `enjoyment';

common Old Indic h- > k-

', post-verbal = `food granter '); Note:

alb. bung f., bunk, bungu m. ` kind of edible oak fruit ' (as ` nourishing or nutritious tree

Alb. bung ` kind of edible oak fruit ' : with -u- grade alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : Phrygian `bread', actually ` crumb ' prove that from an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, b(e)uh h h h h h h h

enh heuglemma: b enh-, b nh- (Adj. b nh-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: b eug-1 : `to flee, *be b eugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: b eug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words. eugheugh h h h

b (e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: b eg-, b eng- : `to break', Root / (e)ueg- eng-

frightened', Root / lemma: b eug-2, b eugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: b eug-3, eugeugheugLatin fungor ` to occupy oneself with anything, to perform, execute, undergo, usually

with abl.; absol. in special sense, to be affected, suffer ', with Akk., later Abl., dfungor ` to perform, discharge, have done with, bring to an end, survive ', perfungor ` to perform fully, execute, discharge; to go through, endure '. Page(s): 153 References: WH. I 565 f., Wackernagel Synt. I 68, Jokl L.-k. Unters. 179.

Meaning: to be; to grow


euRoot / lemma: b eu-, b eu- (b u-, b u-) : b u- : b - (*b eu- > b Hu-eh -t) euRoot / lemma: b eu-, b eu- (b u-, b u-) : b u- : b - (*b eu- > b Hu-eh -t): to be; to : grow, derived from Root / lemma: b(e)u-2, b (e)- (*b eHu- > b Hu-iH-t): to swell, puff. b(e)u:
h h h 1 1 h h h h h h h h h h h h h

Note: (probably = `to swell'), compare Old Indic prbhta- with Old Indic bhri- etc under *b(e)u-, bh(e)u- `inflate, bloat, to swell', from which `originate, become, be', farther ` where usually one is, live '; io/- present b u-ii, b u-iie-si, b u--si etc as verb `be' supplies often o/ , iio/h h h h h

Material: Old Indic bhvati `is, there is, happens, prospers, becomes ' = Avestan bavaiti ` bhaviyti, becomes, originates; happens; will be ', Old pers. bavatiy `becomes'; Fut. Old Indic

paradigm of es- `be'; extended root b eu-, b uiii

Avestan byeiti participle byant- ` will come into existence ' (latter = Lithuanian bsiu, and bhvat, Perf. babhva, participle Perf. Akt. babhvn, f. babhv (: gr. ,

Church Slavic byteje ` ', compare gr. ); Aor. Old Indic bht (= gr. )

, Lithuanian bvo, Old Church Slavic byvati), Inf. bhvitum, Absol. bhtv (compare Lithuanian bt passive `to be', Old Prussian bton Inf.);

bhta- `rich, numerous', npers. Inf. bdan `be';

gr. , Old Irish -both ` one was ', both f. `cottage', Lithuanian btas `house'); pr-

bta ` been ', Old Icelandic b f. `dwelling', russ. byt `entity, way of life, lifestyle '; with

Old Indic bht-, Avestan bta- `become, being, Old Indic bht-m `entity' (: Lithuanian

Old Church Slavic byti, Lithuanian bti; with gr. ).

(Avestan bti- m. `name of dava '? = Old Church Slavic za-, po-, pr-byt, russ. byt, Inf. Pass. Old Indic bhyate; kaus. bhvayati ` brings into existence; looks after and

Old Indic bhti-, bht- f. `being, well-being, good condition, prospering; flourishing '

nurtures, refreshes ', participle bhvita- also ` pleasantly excited, in good mood ' (=Old Church Slavic iz-baviti `free, release'), with ders. lengthened grade bhv- `being, besides bhav- ` development, welfare, salvation'; development, becoming, affection ' (: russ. za-bva f. `conversation, entertainment')

Maybe alb. zbavit ` amuse, entertain ' a Slavic loanword. `dwelling' etc, and with Germanic *bula- and *bla-, next to which with formants -d loh h

bhavtram `world' (ablaut. with gr. `nature, gender, sex' and Lithuanian bkl

Czech bydlo); bhavana-m `the development, becoming; dwelling, house (: alb. bane, but Middle Irish ban `unwavering, steadfast' from *b ou-no-), ablaut. bhvana-m `entity'; Old Indic bh- f. `earth, world', bhm, bhmi-, Avestan ap. bm-, npers. bm `earth',

Old Indic bhman- n. `earth, world, being' (= gr. ), bhmn- m. `fullness, wealth, bulk, mass, wealth '; pra-bh- `mighty, salient '; s-stem bhavi-u- `becoming, thriving', bhati `makes thrive, strengthens', bhayati `

bedecks, blazons ', bhana-m `amulet, jewellery'. about iran. b-forms see below.

The -basis *b (e)u-, as it seems, in Old Indic bbhavti Intens. and bhv-tva- `future'; (e)u

further perhaps boin, Gen. bunoi `nest' (*b eu-no-), zero grade bun, Gen. bnoi `stem'.

Armenian bois, Gen. busoy `sprout, herb, plant', busanim ` burst forth, spring forth ',

Thrak. PN -. `become, grow' (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 686), probably neologisms to Aor. Gr. (Lesbian as Oscan fuia, see below), `beget' (Aor. ),

`was, became', besides (neologism?) ; `growth, plant, kid, child, ulcer', gender, sex, kind of', ` municipality and from it located department ' (: Old Church

`growth; nature, character', n. `plant, growth, ulcer', `nature', n. `stem, Slavic byl, l-participle bylje); lengthened grades *b [u]lo- perhaps in , `hiding place, nook, bolt-hole, den of wild animals', ` sleep in a cave ', ` a sea fish which is hidden in the mud '; Maybe alb. foleja ` nest ' : gr. - , or - , , ` life in a hole or cave, of the cave '.

hibernation of bears, 2. of fishes, (pl.) ', alb. (*fole) fl ` sleep ' : gr. ` sleep in a but Old Icelandic bl n. ` a camp for animals and people ', is not from bl (probably from `small nest' from *bulja.

*bla) `dwelling' miscellaneous word; in addition zero grade Swedish Dialectal bylja, blja As 2. compound-part in , -[*F]. About see below. Illyrian VN Buni, PN B (: alb. bun). Messapic , Hes. (:Old High German br); Note: The inanimate suffix -ur : Illyrian Messapic , : , , Illyrians, ur ur of Illyria, , speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . , , Illyria, also , , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region or province alb. buj, bj (*bunj) `stay, stay overnight, spend the night ', burr, burr (*buro-) `man,
h h

husband', ban `dwelling, abode, residence, half dilapidated house ' (*b ouon: Old Indic world, people' (*b u-t or *b u-t).
h h

bhavanam), banoj `stay, dwell'; bun() `chalet' (*b un); perhaps also bt `earth, bottom, Latin fu (Old Latin f) `I have been' from *f-ai, metathesis of older Aor. *fm (= gr. h h

be ', Old Latin Konj. fuam, fuat `be' (*b uum; compare Lithuanian bvo `was' from *b uut), besides -bam (*b um : Oscan fu-fans ` they were ', Old Irish -b ` I was ') in legh

, Old Indic -bht ` he was '), fu-trus ` future, about to be ', forem `would be', fore ` will

futvit ` he/she was ';

pipaf etc with Irish b- future (do-rmiub ` I will enumerate ' from *to-rm--bu), intensive Oscan fu-fans ` they were ', fu-fens ` they were ', fusd = Latin foret, fust (= Umbrian

bam etc, compare Latin-Faliscan -b (from *b u) in am-b, Old Latin ven-b, Faliscan

'; but about futr `daughter' s. Vetter Gl. 29, 235, 242 ff. against WH. I 557, 867; fefure ` they will have been ', futu ` you will be ' (fuuetd or fu-td).
h h

fust) ` he/she will be ' and ` he/she will have been ', fuid Konj.-Perf. ` he/she will have been Umbrian fust `he/she is going to be', furent ` they are going to be ' (*fuset, *fusent), A io/- present to root *b - : *b u-ii lies before in Latin f, fer ` of persons and things,

to be made, come into existence; with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to fs, ft (*b u--si, *b u--ti); Oscan fiiet (*b uiient) ` they become, they are made', Umbrian
h h h h h

be valued at; of actions, to be done; of events, to happen ', the instead of is correlated to fito ` good deeds, benefits?', fuia ` he/she will become, he/she will be made ', fuiest `

he/she will make ' (*b u-i besides *b uii as in Lesbian , see above);

uncertain; as to action, hesitating, irresolute; pass., uncertain, doubted, doubtful,

h h

Latin nominal formation only in dubius `doubtful; act., wavering; in opinion, doubting;

dangerous, critical ' (*du-b u-iio-s ` of double form, consisting of two parts ', compare

Umbrian di-fue ` split into two parts ' < *dui-b uiom), probus ` good, excellent, fine; morally am-prufid ` dishonest, lacking probity ', prfatted ` has shown, marked, indicated, exalted, proud; arrogant, overbearing; brilliant, splendid '. good, upright, virtuous, right ' (*pro-b uos : Old Indic pra-bhu- ` salient, superb '), Oscan

manifested, proven ', Umbrian prufe ` upright, honest, proper '; Latin super-bus ` haughty, About Latin moribundus see Niedermann Ml. Meillet 104, Benveniste MSL. 34, 189.

bun `queen, wife, woman'); Middle Irish baile `home, place' (*b u-liio-);
h h

Old Irish ba `benefit' (*b u-iom), ban `steadfast, good' (*b ouno-, in addition cymr.
h h

bout = Old Irish both f. `cottage', cymr. bod f. `dwelling': Lithuanian btas `house';
h h

Old Irish buith `be' (originally Dat. of - stem both < *b ut = cymr. bod, corn. bos, bret.

(= Latin fiat), preterit 1. Sg. b (*b um), 3. Sg. bo (*b ue), Pass. preterit -both ` one was ' (*b u-to-); the paradigm of the verb Subst. and the copula exists from forms von es- and b eu-, e.g. hat 1. Sg. present Konj. Old Irish bu (*b -es) the anlaut related to b eu-;
h h h h

moreover also Middle Irish for-baid ` burial cloth, shroud, barrow, bier'), Fut. -ba ` will be '

(*b uii = Latin f, besides *b u- in Old Irish bth, mcymr. bit ` ([Imperative Future Tense] you will be ' = Latin ft); gall. PN Vindo-bios (*-b uiios), compare cymr. gwyn-fyd `luck' (`white world', byd), Old
h h h h h h

Old Irish -bu ` I care to be ', mcymr. bydaf, corn. bethaf, Middle Breton bezaff ds.

Irish su-b(a)e `pleasure, joy' (*su-b uiio-), du-b(a)e (du = gr. -) `mourning, grief'; (*b u, vocalism as in Old Indic bhvayati, bhva-, Slavic baviti),

Gothic bauan `stay, dwell, inhabit', ald bauan ` lead a life ', gabauan `erect a house'

initial vowel), Old High German ban (bta, giban) `stay, dwell, farm', Modern High

Frisian bgia `stay, dwell', phonetic type based on Gothic stja from *stwij and as

ban and buw(i)an (bde, geben) `stay, dwell, farm' (besides Old English bgian, Old

Old Icelandic ba (bj, binn) `stay, dwell, bring in good condition, equip ', Old English

German bauen; Old Icelandic byggja ` live at a place, farm, populate', later ` construct,

Modern High German Bau;

Middle High German b, Gen. bwes m., seldom n. ` tilling of the field, dwelling, edifice', Old Icelandic b f. `dwelling, tent, cottage'; Old Swedish b, Middle Low German

court '; similarly Lithuanian bvis ` permanent stay, residence '), Old High German b,

b n. `dwelling' (Pl. by n. of i-stem *bwi- = Old Icelandic byr m. `dwelling, residential site,

build' (from *buwwjan?*bewwjan?); Old Icelandic b n. `domicile, household ', Old English

bde, Middle High German buode and bde ` cottage, tent ', Modern High German Bude `dwelling, house', *byldan, engl. to build `to build', Old Frisian bold and bdel `house, and *bula-, compare Lithuanian bkl and westsl. bydlo), also Old Icelandic bl n.

(*b [u]-t); Middle Low German bdel `fortune', bl `estate', Old English bold and botl n. household utensil, household appliance, property' (*bla- from Indo Germanic *b [u]tlo-

`dwelling' [(see above also to bl ` den (of animals) '];

br m. `cottage, room', Old High German br m. `house, cage', Modern High German

Old Icelandic br n. ` pantry, zenana (part of a house for women in India)', Old English

German Nachbar, engl. neighbour and Old High German gibr(o), Middle High German gebr(e), then br, Modern High German Bauer ` farmer, peasant ';

(Vogel-)Bauer, whereof Old High German nhgibr, Old English nahgebr, Modern High


German bim etc after *im from *es- `be', as Old High German bis(t), Old English bis after

Old English bo ` I am ' (*b uii = Latin f, Old Irish -bu), besides bom, Old High

*b ou()mo- `' and Old Icelandic bygg n. `barley', Old Saxon Gen. PL bew `sowing, seed, yield', Old English bow n. `barley' (*bewwa-) as ` the tilled, the sown '. Maybe alb. (*bam) bim `plant', alb. Geg ba `ripen, become', bafsh sub. `be! ' bton Inf.), participle btas ` been ', Fut. bsiu (Latvian bu), preterit bvo `he was' Prussian bousai `he is', preterit bi, be `he was' (from an expanded basis with -i-); buwinait `live!'; (compare also buv-ju, -ti ` care to be ' and Old Church Slavic Iter. byvati); Opt. Old Lithuanian bti (Latvian bt, Old Prussian bot) `be', bt Supin. `to be' (Old Prussian

Perhaps Gothic bagms, Old High German bum, Old English bam `tree' from

Lithuanian bvis m. `being, life', buvinti ` stay here and there a while ', Old Prussian Latvian bana `being, entity, condition ', Old Prussian bousennis `state, condition ';

(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Lithuanian btas, Old Prussian (Akk.) buttan `house'; Lithuanian bklas (*btla-) ` nest, den, hideout, lair of wild animals ', pabklas ` tool,

bkl ds. (see above; in addition bukls `wise, sly, cunning');

utensil; apparition, ghost', bkl, bkl ` presence (of mind), dwelling', East Lithuanian

healthy herb ', compare to meaning ), Aor. b `was' (*b u-t);


Old Church Slavic byti `become, be', lo- participle byl ` been ' (therefrom bylje `herb;

Imperf. bae, Fut. participle Church Slavic byteje, byteje ` ', Kondiz. 3. Pl. russ. zabtyj `forgotten', compare in addition also Subst. russ. byt `entity, way of life, remnant ' , bytje ` the existence '; mb- shift] lifestyle ' , apoln. byto `nourishment, food', Old Church Slavic iz-bytk ` affluence,

b (*b u-nt), participle za-bven `forgotten', besides miscellaneous participle *byt e.g. in

maybe alb. mbetje `residue, leftover', mbetet `is left', mbeturin `trash' [common alb. b- > Old Church Slavic zabyt ` oblivion ', pobyt `victory', prbyt `abode, residence', russ.

byt `entity, creature; facts (of the case), facts (of the matter), matter of fact '; present Old Church Slavic bd `become, ', as Fut.: `will become' (if Latin Adj. in -bundus?); maybe reduced alb. (*bd) do Future: `will become'

Kaus. Old Church Slavic izbaviti `free, release' (: Old Indic bhva-yati, compare to Czech bydlo ` whereabouts, dwelling', poln. bydo `cattle' (from *`state, prosperity, Maybe alb. (*zabava) zbavit `entertain, (*pastime) ' come into being ', med. ` bring about '. From the basis b (e)u-: Indic bh-y-, -t;

vocalism also Gothic bauan and Old Church Slavic zabava ` stay, activity, pastime');

possessions ').

Perhaps here (Pedersen Tocharian 228 ) Tocharian pyautk-, A pyotk-, AB pyutk- `


npers. Imp. b-d `be!'; Old pers. Opt. b-y is placed by Wackernagel KZ. 46, 270 = Old

gr. n. `germ, sprout, scion, shoot' = , ` produce, sow, plant'; he was' (Latvian bij- extended from athemat. *b u-); ablaut. Old Prussian bi, see above; maybe alb. bujis `germ, sprout, scion, shoot, bloom' secondary 1. Sg. bi-m with primary ending. Trautmann 40 f., Feist 83 f. Old Church Slavic Kondit. 2. 3. Sg. bi `were, would be' (*b u-s, *b u-t), wherefore
h h h

Old Lithuanian bit(i) `he was', also Kondit. 1. Pl. (sktum-) bime; Latvian biju, bija `I was,

References: WP. II 140 f., WH. I 375 f., 504 f., 557 f., 865, 867, EM. 812 f., 1004 f., Specht will place (KZ. 59, 58 f.) under citation of gr. F `light, salvation' = Old Indic
h h

bhava- ` blessing; benediction, boon, salvation', -- etc unsere root as *b au, not as *b eu-. see also above S. 91. Page(s): 146-150 ghghRoot / lemma: b gh- : b ghh h

Meaning: to resist

bgaid `fights, brags, threatens ', bg f. `fight, struggle', mcymr. bwyo (*bgi-) `hit',

Material: Gall. bgaudae ` insurgent guerilla ' (suffix as in alauda, bascauda), Old Irish

cymr. bai `fault, error', beio `rebuke' in addition belongs, it must contain Indo Germanic *b gh-;

kymwy (: Middle Irish combg ds.) `fight', -boawc = Middle Irish bgach ` warlike '; whether

oppose, resist', Old High German bga `quarrel, fight', Old Saxon bg m. ` vainglory,

Old High German bgan, (bgn?) `squabble, quarrel', Old Icelandic bga, bgja `

boastfulness ', Middle High German bc, -ges m. ` loud yelling, quarrel ', Old Icelandic

Germanic family is not borrowed from Celtic, ablaut Germanic : Celtic (Indo Germanic ); Latvian buztis ` be angry ' (*b gh-), Endzelin KZ. 52, 118; russ. bazel ` bawler, crier ', bazgala `malicious' (Scheftelowitz KZ. 54, 242); Windekens Lexique 85, 96. Page(s): 115 References: WP. II 130. perhaps Tocharian pakwre `evil, bad' (Adverb), A pknt ` hindrance ' (*b gh-), Van
h h

bge, bgi ` adversary ', bgr `difficult, hard, sullen, obstructive'; it is presumed whether

Meaning: a kind of particle

Root / lemma: b 2, b (*b e, b o) Material: Avestan b, bt, b, bit (the latter, as Lithuanian be, probably with
h h h h

(`if Old Indic baham?'Bartholomae Wb. 953); Armenian ba, bay emphasizing particle;

strengthening particle *id) particles of the protestation and emphasis, ba ` yea, in truth '

Maybe emphasizing particle alb. bah `absolutely not' [alb. preserved the old laryngeal -]

Czech poln. ba ` trusted, yea, in truth'.

ne-bo-n `for indeed '; changing through ablaut klr. ba `yes, of course; certainly; sure ', Maybe alb. po `if, whether, yes' : poln. ba ` yea, in truth'. Page(s): 113 References: WP. II 136, Trautmann 22 f.

particle, Old Prussian beggi `for'; Old Church Slavic (etc) bo `for', i-bo ` ', u-bo `also',

Lithuanian b (= Old Prussian bhe), be (see above) `and', be, b, bs, ba interrogative

Lithuanian b `yes, of course; certainly; sure ', ben ` at least, not only but also ', East


German ob(e) `if, whether' etc, s. Kluge

ni-bai ` possibly not yet?', Konj. `if not', ja-bai `if', Old High German ibu, oba, Middle High 422);

Gothic ba conditional particle (here i-ba, i-bai ` if, because?' Konj. ` that not ', ni-ba,

Meaning: to warm, fry, *bath Note: From Root / lemma: b - : b - : `to warm, fry, *bath' : Root / lemma: b oso-s : `naked' oso: naked' common Indo Iranian m-/n- > bh : gr.-Illyrian .
h h h

Root / lemma: b - : b h h h h h

derived from Ossetic: bgng [adj] `naked' of Root / lemma: nog-, nogod(h)o-, nog-nonog nogod(h)o nog nood(h)oh

Material: Old High German ben, bjan, Modern High German bhen (*b i) ` warm with bath ', Old Saxon bath, Old English b, Old High German bad `spa, bath'; in addition Note: covers, bake bread ', in addition with Indo Germanic-to-suffix Old Icelandic ba ` steam

also Norwegian dial. bara ` clean with warm water ', Swedish bara `warm up '.

The cognates Old Icelandic ba ` steam bath ', Old Saxon bath, Old English b, Old High German bad `spa, bath' are created according to alb. phonetic laws -g > -th, -d; have a bath?)' maybe euphemistic alb. mbath `get dressed, wear', zbath `get naked, get undressed (to osoRoot / lemma: b - : b - : `to warm, fry, *bath' : Root / lemma: b oso-s : `naked' as in: Old : High German bar `naked, bare' (*baza-), Modern High German bar, Old English br, Old Icelandic berr `naked, bare'; Lithuanian bsas, Latvian bass, Old Church Slavic bos ` barefoot '; Armenian bok ` barefoot ' (*b oso-go-). thereof with g-extension b ggbaka, -aa ds., Middle High German sich becheln ` bask, get warm, lounge in the sun '; German backen; in gr. `roast, fry', Old English bacan, bc, Old High German bahhan, Old Icelandic
h h h

besides with intensive consonant-sharpening Old High German backan, Modern High gr.-Illyrian ; Hes. (v. Blumental IF. 49, 175); whereupon starve ', Czech baiti, perf. zabahnouti ` ask for something '. Page(s): 113 References: WP. II 187.

In addition perhaps (as ` burning desire, ardent wish ') russ. bat, bat ` wish, want,

Root / lemma: b id Note:


Meaning: vessel, cauldron

From an early root *b egh- [common Illyrian -gh- > -dh-] derived Root / lemma: b ed -2 : egh`to bow, bend', Root / lemma: b ad -sko- : `bundle, heap' and in -i grade Root / lemma: skob id - : vessel, cauldron (see above).
h h h h h h h

Material: gr. n. `barrel, vat, cask, wine cask ', , Attic ds., Latin fidlia (*fides-li) ` earthenware vessel, pot, pan'; presumably Old Icelandic bia f. `milk tub ', Norwegian bide n. `butter tub' (*bidjan-), bidne n. `vessel'.

reconstructed for its family a basic meaning ` twisted vessel ', it belongs probably to a root b eid - `bind, flax, wattle, braid'. Page(s): 153
h h

the empire, the emperor's privy purse ', fiscina ` a small basket ' (from *b id -sko-) may be
h h

There from Latin fiscus ` a basket; hence a money-bag, purse; the state treasury; under

References: WP. II 185, WH. I 492 f., 506.

Meaning: harmonious, friendly


ili- iloRoot / lemma: b ili-, b iloh h h

Material: Middle Irish bil (*b i-li-) `good', gall. Bili- in PN Bili-catus, Bilicius etc, Old High wit `simple, just, innocent' = Middle High German bilewiz, bilwiz `fairy demon, ghost' Saxon unbilithunga ` unconventionality ', Middle High German unbilde, unbilede n. `

German bila- `kind, gracious', newer bili-, bil- in 1. part of people's name; Old English bile(actually `good ghost'); Old High German bil-lch `proper'; abstract noun *bili in Old wrong; injustice, the incomprehensible ', Modern High German Unbilde, to adjective Middle

Unbilde .

German Bild see below b ei()- `hit', wherefore R. Loewe (KZ. 51, 187 ff.) will place also Gr. ` dear, friend ' etc places Kretschmer (IF. 45, 267 f.) as pre Greek to Lydian

High German unbil ` unjust; unfair ', substantivized Swiss Unbill. About Modern High


bilis `be'; against it Loewe aaO., which explains the stress of the first syllable from the under Bild, billig, Unbill, Weichbild.

Page(s): 153-154

Meaning: priest Note:

lagh-menRoot / lemma: b lagh-men-


References: WP. II 185, Kluge

lagh-menlaRoot / lemma: b lagh-men- : `priest' derived from the extended Root / lemma: b la- : `to hit', meaning Aryan priests assumed they would gain the grace of gods through immolation.
h h h

sacrificial priest' (not the old *-n).

Messapic `priest'; Latin flmen, -inis m. `the priest of some particular god,

Material: Old Irish brahmn- m. `magic priest', brhman- n. `spell, charm, devotion ';

Indic this is equation of the preferred explanation of flmen from *b ld-(s)men, angebl. ` sacrifice, immolation ' (to Gothic bltan ` worship ', Old Norse blta, Old English bltan, compare Finnish luote ` chant, incantation ' from proto Germanic *bltes], Old High Armenian bajal ` strive after '. German bluostar n. ds., etc). compare also Dumzil REtIE. 1, 377, still compares Old High German bluozan `sacrifice', Old Norse blt n. `sacrifice, oblation' [-es-stem,

Because of the numerous congruities in the religious terminology between the Italic and

Maybe alb. lut `chant, pray' : Finnish luote ` chant, incantation ' References: WP. II 209, WH. I 512 f., 865 f., Feist 100 f., 580 a. Page(s): Page(s): 154

laRoot / lemma: b laMeaning: to hit Material: Latin flagrum `whip, scourge', flagellum ds. `a whip, scourge; the thong of a

javelin; a young sprout, vine-shoot; plur. the arms of a polypus; fig. `the sting of

conscience', with lengthened grade probably flgit, -re ` to entreat, ask, demand

earnestly; to demand to know; to summon before a court of justice ' (originally probably

meton., scoundrel, rascal ' (originally ` public castigation and suppression '; conflages ` for conflgs);

with blows and threats), flgitium ` a disgraceful action, shameful crime; shame, disgrace;

places exposed to all the winds, place blown by the winds' Paul Fest. 35 a appears a spoil

Maybe alb. flak `hurl' flap ', Old Icelandic blak `blow, knock', Old Icelandic blekkja (*blakjan) `hit' (Norwegian Old Icelandic and New Norwegian dial. blaka, blakra ` strike back and forth, fan, flutter,

flash' etc, see below *b eleg- `shine'; so is e.g. Norwegian blakra `fan' as well as `shine').

(in Germanic phonetic coincidence with the family of Old Icelandic blakra `blink, glitter,

`flicker'), Swedish Dialectal blkkta (*blakatjan), Middle Dutch blaken `fan, flutter, shiver'

run around here and there '. Page(s): 154

Lithuanian blaka and bloki (-k- from --sq-) ` fling sidelong, travel here and there,

References: WP. II 209, WH. I 511 f.

leg Root / lemma: b legMeaning: to swell Note: extension v. `inflate, bloat'

h h h

Material: Gr. , - f. `vein', Phot.; Old High German bolca, References: WP. II 215, WH. I 519 f. bulchunna (*b lg-) ` a round swelling; in water, a bubble '.

Page(s): 155

leiRoot / lemma: b lei-2 Meaning: to swell Note: extension from b el- ds.

blena `vesicle' (*blajinn).

English blegen f., engl. blain, Middle Low German bleine, Old Danish blen(e), Old Swedish That gr. : ` door pillar, door post ' actually `(* tumid =) thick balk, beam' is required
h 2

Norwegian blema ds. under b el-, b (e)l-); Danish blegn(e) `vesicle' (*blajjinn), Old
h h

Material: Norwegian dial. bleime, Old Swedish blma ` bleb on the skin ' (compare

only of foreign confirmation (Prellwitz and Boisacq s. v.; basic form *b l-u or -s); or congestion of blood about the ankles'.

`haematoma, effusion of blood' is corrupted from Latin flmina `a bloody swelling leisb leis-: Old Icelandic blstra `blow, whistle'? (compare Gothic -blsan under b el-, b (e)lh h


blkvam ` pours out of me, flows out ' (if not as proto Slavic *blychaj to u-variant from gr. leidb leid- (presumably d-present *b li-d-). Hes., Hes., , -, - Gr. ` overflow of humidity, thereof swell up ', Hes.,

`flood; spit; have diarrhea'; blhnm, blhnuti `splash, spray', Bulgarian bli, blkn,

-; new variation with i to the imitation of the bright tone?); perhaps serb. blhm, blhati

presumably also ` surging of the sea, the tumult of fighting',

`ferment, seethe, boom, blaster', `scum, froth, foam, slobber' (- = n `');

(*, forms after onomatopoeic words as , ?); common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ssperhaps here Middle Irish bled ` bellowing, braying, roar ' (out of it cymr. bloedd ds.); engl. bloat `to bloat, bulge, swell' (*blaitn = ); Latvian blstu, bldu, blzt and bliu, -du, -st ` grow fat, put on weight '. Page(s): 156 References: WP. II 210 f.

Meaning: to shine

leiqRoot / lemma: b leiq- (*b leik-)

h h h h h h

Material: Old English blge (*blaigin-) ` gudgeon (type of freshwater fish) '; mnl. Middle

Note: extension from b li- (:b el-) ds., as b li-.

Low German blei(g) and bleger, Modern High German Bleihe, Blei `fish names '; besides

Modern High German Blecke `dace (*white fish)' from the e-root b leg-?); in other meaning change (`shine : glance, look') Old Icelandic blgr ` looking staringly and rigidly ', blgja `stare'.

Middle High German blicke ` carp ', Modern High German Blicke (Norwegian dial. blekka,

` fade, expire '. Page(s): 157

wilted; faded, flaccid, withered ', blkot ` fool's parsley, Aethusa cynapium ', poln. blakn

In addition russ. blknut `bleach, fade, wither, wilt', blklyj `sallow, paled, faint, languid,

References: WP. II 211.

Meaning: pale, reddish

lend Root / lemma: b len - (*b lend -i-)

h h h h

elNote: It belongs probably to b el-1.


Material: Old Indic bradhn- (*b lnd -no-) `reddish, dun'; from which Middle High German blunt, Modern High German blond; Germanic *blundaz (*b lnd -o) in Middle Latin blundus, Italian biondo, French blond, Gothic blinds `blind', Old Icelandic blindr `blind, undistinguishable ', Old Saxon Old
h h h

English blind, Old High German blint `blind', also `dark, cloudy, dull, not obvious'; Gothic

blandan sik ` mingle, diffuse, intermingle ', Old Icelandic blanda `mix' (blendingr ` mixture

'), Old Saxon Old English blandan, Old High German blantan, Middle High German

Germanic a compare the iterative-causative: Old High German blendan (*blandjan)

d h

blanden `mix, tarnish ' (Modern High German Blendling ` hybrid, mongrel, half breed '); to

blditi); Old Icelandic blunda `close the eyes', blundr ` slumber ', Middle English blundren `stir, bewilder', nengl. blunder ` be grossly mistaken, wander '; Lithuanian blendi, blsti `sleep; stir flour into soup, talk nonsense, become cloudy ',

`darken, blind', Old English blendan `blind' (: blandtis, Old Church Slavic (*b lon -iH-tei)

Latvian blendu, blenst ` have poor eye-sight, be short-sighted '; Lithuanian blandas, -tis ` low the eyes down, be ashamed ', Latvian bludties `ds.; roam, be ashamed ', Maybe alb. Geg (*flenj) fl, Tosc fle `die, sleep'; [rare alb. ph- > f-, found in gr. and Latin] (soup), murky; dark'; Lithuanian blsta, blndo, blsti ` dim, dusky, cloudy, become dark; Lithuanian bladas `sleepiness, turbid weather, cloudiness ', blands ` dim, cloudy, thick

become cloudy, from water',

prblind (and priebland) `dusk, twilight'; here also blid, blends, blnd ` sallow '; Maybe alb. Geg bl, blini, Tosc bliri `linden tree' n/r stem. prank', slov. bl-dem, blsti `maunder, drivel, fantasize', Old Czech blsti (2. Sg. blede) Old Church Slavic (*b len -o-) bld, blsti `err; wander; ', bld `gossip,
d h

`maunder, drivel '; Old Church Slavic bld ` debauchery, depravity, adultery', poln. bd ` mistake, delusion ', Old Church Slavic bld, blditi ` err, indulge in debauchery ', SerboCroatian bldm, blditi `err, wander, cheat, deceive, spoil, caress ' etc.

Maybe alb. Geg bl, Tosc blenj `(*cheat), barter, buy' similar shift of the meaning in gr. ` cheat, barter, exchange '. Page(s): 157-158

References: WP. II 216, 218, Trautmann 34 f., Endzelin KZ. 52, 112, Specht Dekl. 58, 117.

lesRoot / lemma: b lesMeaning: to shine elNote: : up to now only in the Germanic provable extension from b el- `shine'

Material: Middle High German blas `naked, bald, bleak, pallid' (Modern High German bla) n. `torch, burning candle', Old English blse `torch, fire', engl. blaze `blaze, glow; white

forehead spot ',

forehead), Middle Low German bles, blesse (*blasj) `paleness', Old Icelandic *bles- in blesttr ` marked with a white spot ' and in compound on -blesi. Page(s): 158 References: WP. II 217.

Old High German blas-ros `horse with with a bright spot' (with a bright spot on the

leu-(k)Root / lemma: b leu-(k)-, (-s-) Meaning: to burn


Material: *b leu-s- in gr. - ` blazed by the fire ', , torch', Middle Low German bls `torch', Old English blyscon `blush', engl. blush.

elNote: extension from b el- `shine'.


` sear all around '; Old Icelandic blys n. `flame', Old English blysa m. `flame, *b leu-k- in Middle High German bliehen ` burning luminously ', Old High German The West Slavic forms as Czech bltti `shimmer', blskati `shine' (besides Old Church


Slavic bltati etc, see below *b lei-) are against it probably reshuffling after *lyskati, poln. yska `flash, shine' etc - meaning not direct accordingly, respectively only from a High German bliehen: Lithuanian blunk, blkti ` become pale, lose one's color '. Page(s): 159-160

primordial meaning `shine' to justify, Trautmann GGA. 1911, 245 compares with Middle

References: WP. II 214.

Meaning: weak, mild


leusRoot / lemma: b leus-

Note: Perhaps to b eleu-.

Material: Swedish Dialectal bloslin `weak', norweg. blyr `mild, lukewarm', blyra `weakling, `despond, despair, become sad '. Page(s): 160 References: WP. II 214. wimp ', Modern High German schwb. blsche(n) `slow, idle': Lithuanian apsi-blausti

leuRoot / lemma: b leuh

Meaning: to blow; to swell, flow


Note: extension from b el- `(inflate, bloat), swell up'

Material: Gr. (F) ` to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be

brimful ', (*, lengthened grade), ephes. (*F) epithet of Dionysos ` reed plant ';

as a vegetation God; presumably from the lushness of growth also Attic , jon. (*F) `swell, to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be

, `epithet of Dionysos and the Kore as vegetation divinities ' probably also , `bark, husk'; changing through ablaut ` surge up, bubble, chat; be fruitful ', Lithuanian bliuju, bliviau, bliuti `roar, bellow, bleat', blivauti `roar, bellow', Latvian
h h

in bloom, blossom', ` growing excessively ' or ` exceedingly succulent ',

Hes. m. `gossip', `gossip, prank; buffoon ';

preterite stem, compare Lithuanian blivo from Indo Germanic *b luu-); in addition

bl'anu, bl'at ds.; Old Church Slavic (*b leuH-tei) bl'uj, bl'vati `spit, vomit' (based on old perhaps also Old Prussian bleusky `reed' (would be correct in the meaning to gr. !). bluster `boom, blaster, rant, roister' and Serbo-Croatian bljuzgati ` stream noisily, chat silly stuff '; also Serbo-Croatian blhati etc? (see below b lei-s-).

With a s-extension Low German blstern `violent blow, storm, pant, sniff, snort', engl.

etc', blodern `effervesce, surge, boil', Modern High German Pluderhosen; perhaps SerboCroatian bltiti ` speak absurd, speak inappropriate ', Berneker 62; about Old High German blt(t)ara `bubble' (*bl-dr-) s. S. 121;

` muddy, sludgy, slushy, squashy, squishy, slobbery, sloppily', ` break open, from ulcers '.

with -d- (originally present forming?): ` flows about, dissolves, become soft',

leug leg g-extension b leug- (compare the root form b leg-): with words'; , `bubble'; but - `blister, shield hump ' stays away; any liquid, stream, pour; of abstr. things, to proceed, issue, spread; of circumstances, to Transf., commotion, disturbance', flmen (*fleugsmen) ` flowing water; hence a river, Latin flu, -ere, flxi, flctum, newer flxum `to flow; of a solid object, to flow, drip with gr. - ` wine-drunken '; ` to bubble up, boil up, surge up, overflow, also

tend; of language, to flow; to sink, droop', flctus, -s `current, wave, a streaming, flowing.


onomatopoeic word; compare Kluge

With dental formant: Middle High German bldern `chat, prate'? (rather new

under plaudern); rather Swiss bloder `big bubble

stream', conflgs Old Latin `confluence of two stretches of water', fluvius `river' (from cymr. blyngu ` become angry ', blwng `angry, irate', bret. blouhi `rebuke'? References: WP. II 213 f., WH. I 519 f., Trautmann 35; different EM. 372. Page(s): 158-159

present flu from), flustra Nom. PL ` calm (at sea) ' (*flugstrom); if here (with nasalization)

Meaning: to boil; to chatter, boast

l Root / lemma: b ld-, b lldh

Material: Gr. ` babbler ', `gossip'; Hes.; Latin fragor `a breaking; a noise of breaking, crack, crash';

`bubble, seethe, foam'; moreover also Aor. (intrans.) `tear'; compare to meaning with varying lengthened grade b ld- Old Irish indlidi `brags, boasts ', indldud ` ld-

boasting ' (*ind-bld- ` puff oneself up or make inflated words ') and Latvian bldu, blzt `chat'; zero grade Old High German uz-ar-pulzit ` boil, bubble out '; word formation. Modern High German platzen, pltschern are probably certainly of new onomatopoeic

Page(s): 155

See also: to b el-3.


References: WP. II 210, 216, WH. I 515, 518.

Meaning: to shine

- l Root / lemma: b li-, b l- (*b lei-)

h h h h h

Note: extension from b li- ds., as b leiq-

Material: Old English blcan `shine', as, blkan `shine', Old High German blhhan stem -V. ` become pallid ', Middle High German blchen stem -V. `shine, blush', Old Icelandic blkja, bleik `appear, gleam, shine';

Old Icelandic bleikr, Old English blc, Old High German bleih `pallid, pale, wan'; Old High `bright lustre, shine; gold, gold plating ', Old High German bleh `(*shiny) thin metal panel ', German bleihha ` dace, roach ', Norwegian bleikja and blika ds.; Old Icelandic blik n.

German blic, -ekes `lustre, shine, look, lightning', Modern High German Blick, Old High

`bare place '; Old High German blic, -eches ` quick highlight, flash, lightning', Middle High

Modern High German Blech, Middle Low German blick ds.; Old English blike m. (*bliki-)

blitzen; Old Saxon bliksmo `lightning', Old Swedish blixa `blink', New Swedish also `flash'. blykt, blyka, blkti `blanch, pale', ablaut. blaiktas, -tis `clear up, of the sky'; Latvian blaiskums `spot, mark', meln-blaiskai `dark grey'.

German blecchazzen (*blekatjan), Middle High German bliczen, Modern High German

Lithuanian blizg, -ti `flicker, shine', blkiu, blykti `sparkle, glitter, shimmer, shine',

`lightning', Old Church Slavic (*b lei-sk-eh -tei) blt, bltati `shine', Iter. bliscajo, bliscati s.
2 h

ablaut Old Church Slavic blisk `lustre, shine' and *blsk in Czech blesk, Gen. old blsku

Russ.-Church Slavic (*b loi-sko-) blsk `lustre, shine' (*b loi-sko-); changing through

Dekl. 144.

References: WP. II 21 If., EM. 398, Trautmann 34, Meillet Slave commun 133, Specht

Page(s): 156-157 ilRoot / lemma: b li-1 : b li- : b lh h h h

Meaning: to shine

Note: extension from b el- ds.

heaven, then of the looks, appearance, the mood:) cheerful ' in Gothic bleis ` merciful, mild', Old Icelandic blr `mild (of weather), friendly, pleasant', Old English ble `cheerful, High German blden ` be glad '.

Material: Material: Germanic *blia- (*b lei-tio- or rather *b l-tio-) `light, cheerful, fair (of sky,
h h

friendly', Old High German bldi `cheerful, blithe, glad, friendly', Old Saxon blthn, Old Old Saxon bl n. `paint, color', Adj. ` coloured ', Old Frisian bl(e)n `paint, color', bli

`beautiful', Old English blo n. `paint, color, apparition, form' (probably *blja-).

unoccupied Celtic *bluo- from *b l-uo- as wellspring, was conceivable), would be debatable, but the most likely.

with formants -uo- of our root (to accept Modern High German blau congruent, indeed

Icelandic bly) with Lithuanian blyvas `purple, mauve, violet-blue ' corresponding color adj.

On account of Germanic *blwa `lead' (Old High German blo, -wes, Old Saxon bl, Old

bli-zna `scar'; because of the parallel forms under b lu-1 barely with WH. I 517 to b l-.
h h

Here (after Specht Dekl. 117) russ. bli-zn ` thread break, flaw in fabric ', Czech poln.

as *blaid-vas to related *b lido-s), blaivas, -tis ` clear up, become sober '; perhaps Latvian blnt ` lurk, a furtive (glance), blink'. Tocharian A. plyaske `meditation'?? (Van Windekens Lexique 97). See also: see also under b lu-1 and b lido-s. Page(s): 155-156
h h h h

Lithuanian blvas `purple, mauve, violet-blue '; perhaps Lithuanian blavas `sober' (if not

References: WP. II 210.

Meaning: to shine

luulRoot / lemma: b lu-1 : b lu- : b l- (*b lu-1)

h h h h

Note: derivatives to b el-1.

Material: Russ. blju- `ivy' (Specht Dekl. 117); poln. bysk (*b l-sk-) `lightning'; Sorbian bl'u-zn `scar', wruss. blu-zn ` weaving flaw '; Latvian blau-zgas, blau-znas, Lithuanian


bl-zganos ` dandruff ', Latvian bl-zga ` peeling skin ', blu-zga ` small particles, drill dust ' Maybe alb. bluanj ` grind, mill '

Proto-Slavic form: blizna; blizno Page in Trubaev: II 118-120

See also: bliz(j); blizk(j); bliz; bliz Russian: blzna (dial.) `missing thread in fabric, flaw in home-spun material' [f ]; blizn

fabric, absence of one or two threads' [n o]; bljuzn `flaw in fabric' {1} Old Russian: blizna `scar' [f ] Belorussian: bljuzn `flaw in fabric' [f ] Czech: blizna `stigma (bot.)' [f ]

`knot in linen resulting from an incorrect arrangement of the warp' [f ]; blizn `flaw in

Ukrainian: blzna `wound, scar' [f ]; blyzn `defect in linen' [f ] Polish: blizna `scar, gash, seam, cicatrice, trace left by a fallen leaf' [f ] Kashubian: blzna `cicatrice' [f ] Old Polish: bluzna `cicatrice, stigma, stamp' [f ] {1}

Upper Sorbian: buzna `scar, birth-mark' [f ] {1} Lower Sorbian: bluzna `scar, bruise' [f ] {1} Bulgarian: blizn `place in fabric where a thread is torn or missing' [f ] weft or warp' [f ], blzn [Nomp]; blzna `scar' [f ]; bl zno `gap' [n o]

Serbo-Croatian: bl zna `two threads put into a reed (instead of one); ruptured thread in Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: bli-n-

Lithuanian: bly `rip in fabric' [f ] 4

Latvian: blznis `pile of broken trees in a forest' [f ] IE meaning: scar Indo-European reconstruction: b li-nh 2

Page in Pokorny: 160

Bibliography: Sawski SP I: 264-265

Notes: {1} The forms that seemingly reflect *bl'uzna must be secondary. References: Specht Dekl. 117. Page(s): 159

See also: compare the parallel formation under b li-1.


luulRoot / lemma: b lu-2 : b lu- : b lMeaning: bad


Material: Gr. , (both dissimil. from *) `slight, evil, bad'; English bla ` daft, shy', with io-suffix Old Saxon bldi ` shamefaced ', Old High German Gothic blauian `abolish' (actually `make weak'), Old Icelandic blaur `timorous', Old

Note: b (e)lu- is apparent, manifest, obvious parallel formation to b eleu- `hit'.



bldi, Middle High German blde `frail, breakable, shy, timid', Modern High German

miserable ', mndd. blt, Middle High German blz `bare', Modern High German blo (Old High German blo with strange meaning `stout, proud');

softish, delicate, mollycoddle, timorous', Old English blat `arm, woeful, wretched,

besides Indo Germanic *b lu-to- stands a d- extension in Old Icelandic blautr ` mushy, u-toh

variation; Old Icelandic bljgr `timid', blyg `the genitals' (*leugi), changing through German blgisn, blchisn `doubt', Old English blycgan (*blugjan) `frighten' (trans.); compare Lithuanian blktu, -ti ` become limp '. References: WP. II 208 f., Hirt Indo Germanic Gr. II 150, Feist 99, Specht Dekl. 133. Page(s): 159 ablaut Old High German blgo Adv., Middle High German blc, bliuc `shy', Old High

lengthened grade b lu- in Old English un-bloh `fearless' (suffix -ko-), with gramm. lu-

lRoot / lemma: b l-uo-s

h h h

Meaning: a kind of colour (blue, gold)


l-rol-roNote: also b l-uo-s, b l-ro-s, b l-ro-s, derivatives from the root b el-1, b el
h h

Material: Latin flvus ` golden brown, red-yellow, blond ', Oscan Flaviies G. Sg. `of or belonging to the college of priests for the Flavian family' (from Indo Germanic *b l-),
h h h

*b lros = gall. *blros (Wartburg), Middle Irish blr ` forehead with white spot, spot, field ', cymr. blawr `gray', besides *b l-ro- in Middle Low German blre `paleness, blessige, Maybe alb. blernj ` blossom, be green' (see below Root / lemma: b lido-s : `pale') idoyellow'), Old English *blw or *blw, Old Icelandic blr `blue' from *b l-uo-s; s. also S. 155;

besides fulvus ` red-yellow, brown-yellow ' from *b l-uo-s; flrus ` yellow ', also PN, from

white spotted cow'.

Old High German blo, Modern High German blau (Middle High German bl also `gold,

see below b lei-1.


Old Irish bl `yellowish?' is late Old English loanword? About Germanic *blwa- `lead'

Lithuanian blvas, Latvian blvs ` bluish, gold, yellow' are Germanic loanword Page(s): 160 References: WP. II 212, WH. I 513 f., different EM 367.

lRoot / lemma: b l- (*b leh -) Meaning: to howl, weep Material: Latin fle, flre (*b li) ` to weep; to drip, trickle; transit., to weep for, lament, Latvian blju, blt `bleat'; with ); Middle High Germanbljen `bleat' (Germanic *bljan = Latin fle); Old High r.-Church Slavic blju, bljati `bleat' (besides Serbo-Croatian bljm, bljati `bleat' etc,
h 1 h h

bewail; flendus, to be lamented ';

`bleat, cry';

blagettan, blgettan `cry', ndd. blage n. `kid, child'; Middle High German blren, blerren Maybe alb. blegrij 'bleat' : Old English blagettan, blgettan `cry'. `roar, bellow'; changing through ablaut Middle High German blrjen, blelen (*blljan), brall `cry'. dissimil. brelen `roar, bellow'; zero grade Middle High German bral `shriek', schwb. Modern High German plrren, plren (also `weep, cry'), Dutch blaren `bleat', engl. to blare

German blzan, nnd. blssen, Old English bltan, engl. to bleat `bleat', Old English

Page(s): 154-155

See also: compare b el-6 and the onomatopoeic words bl-.


References: WP. II 120, WH. I 516.

Meaning: pale

idoRoot / lemma: b lido-s (*b leid-(u)o-)

h h

Note: to b li- `shine', from extension root form *b li-d-

Material: Old Church Slavic bled `pallid, pale, wan' = Old English blt `pallid, livid'; Old

sky '. Alb. blernj ` blossom, be green' from adj. *bler from *bled-r (e = Indo Germanic ai or oi), blhur `pale, wan, pallid'. Note: The inanimate suffix -ur : Alb. blehur : , , Illyrians, , , Illyria, also ur ur ur speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . In addition probably the Illyrian PN Blaedarus. Maybe Lithuanian blind ` goat-willow, sallow ' : Alb. (*blind) blini ` sturgeon, lime-tree, lime, linden '. Note: References: WP. II 217, Trautmann 34, Specht Dekl. 197. idolRoot / lemma: b lido-s : `pale' : Root / lemma: b l-uo-s : `a kind of colour (blue, gold)'.
h h

from the an extension root b lei-, s. d.), blaivas, -tis ` become sober; clear up, from the

High German bleizza `paleness'. Perhaps Lithuanian blavas `sober' (if from *blaid-vas; or

, , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region or province of Illyria, ,

Page(s): 160

l ligRoot / lemma: b l- (:*b lig-) (*b li-o-) Meaning: to hit


lu Note: also b lu- (gr. Celtic), to indicate from uo- present *b l-u.

Latin flg, -ere `hit, beat or dash down' (*b l, or at most with through flxi, flctum assesses u- loss from *fligu);

`contuse, squeeze '); cymr. blif m. `catapult, pallista', blifaidd `quick, fast';

Material: Aeolic Ionian `push, press, squeeze' (about see below d lash

Maybe alb. (*b l-) mbledh ` squeeze, collect ' [common alb. - > -dh].

near ' (actually ` adjacent '). Although puzzling at first, the semantic transition from `to beat' to `near' appears to have a few convincing parallels, e.g. Fr. prs `near' : Latin pressus `squeezed' (Trubav II: 122, with references). See also: about russ. blizn see below b li-1.

Latvian blazt `squeeze, clash, hit', blizt `hit'; Old Church Slavic bliz, bliz Adv. ` nigh,

References: WP II 217, WH. I 517, EM. 369.

Page(s): 160-161
h h h

losRoot / lemma: b los-q-; -gMeaning: expr. *b res-;


Material: Irish blosc, Gen. bloisc `din, fuss, noise' (b losko-); compare also brosc ds. under Lithuanian blzgu, -ti intr. `clatter', blzginti `clatter, rattle, clash'.

Page(s): 161

References: WP. II 218.

Root / lemma: b lk-

Meaning: wool, cloth?

Material: Latin floccus ` a flock of wool ' (*flcos) to Old High German blaha f. ` coarse bed linen (esp. to covers or substratums)', Modern High German Blahe, Blache, Old Danish

blaa ` oakum ', now blaar (actually Pl.), Swedish blnor, blr ds., Old Swedish blan, bla ds. (Germanic *blahw-), Old Norse blja (*blahjn-) ` linen, sheet'. Page(s): 161

ogRoot / lemma: b og- (*b og-no-) Meaning: running water Material: Middle Irish bal f. `running water' (*b ogl), bar m. `diarrhoea' (*b ogro-); proto Old Icelandic bekkr, Old English becc m. ds.
h h h

Germanic *baki-, Old High German bah, Modern High German Bach, besides *bakja- in

b eg- ` shatter, break, rupture'. Page(s): 161


With regard to Old Indic bhag-, Lithuanian bang `billow' could be related to the root

References: WP. II 149 f., 187.

okRoot / lemma: b okMeaning: to burn? Material: Latin focus ` a fireplace, hearth; meton., house, family, home; sometimes altarh h h h h

Page(s): 162

References: WP. II 186, WH. I 521.

fire or funeral pyre '; presumably to Armenian bosor `red' (`*fiery'), boc `flame' (*b ok-s-o-).

oloRoot / lemma: b olo-

Meaning: smoke, steam?

Latvian buls, bula ` misty muggy air, height smoke, dryness ';
eh h

Material: it is associated perhaps Old Irish bolad, nir. boladh and baladh `smell, odor' and

etymology also Peterssons Etym. Miszellen 34 connection of buls with combinable Armenian bal ` fog, mist, darkness ' (if originally `haze, mist')? Page(s): 162 References: WP. II 189.

it could form the basis Indo Germanic b ol- (Irish): b l- (Latvian); perhaps is with above

orgo oRoot / lemma: b orgo-s Meaning: unfriendly Material: Armenian bark `violent, angry, irate; herb, bitter, sharp from taste' (*b rgos); Old
h oh

Irish borb, borp `crazy'; Middle Irish borb (*burbo-, Indo Germanic *b rgo-) `raw, ignorant'; Note: common Illyrian g- > b-.

Latvian bargs `stern, hard, unfriendly, pitiless '; Swedish Dialectal bark ` willful, unfriendly person ', barkun `rough, harsh'.

See also: compare also b ag-2. Page(s): 163

References: WP. II 188, Trautmann 27.

Meaning: naked Note:

osoRoot / lemma: b oso-s

From Root / lemma: b - : b - : `to warm, fry, *bath' derived Root / lemma: b oso-s : oso`naked'. Material:
h h h

Old Icelandic berr `naked, bare'; Lithuanian bsas, Latvian bass, Old Church Slavic bos ` barefoot '; Armenian bok ` barefoot ' (*b oso-go-).

Old High German bar `naked, bare' (*baza-), Modern High German bar, Old English br,

Maybe alb. Geg (*b as-) zbath- `barefoot', mbath `wear shoes' [common alb. -s > -th shift] : Latvian bass ` barefoot '. As gr. - probably to b es- `abrade, scrape ' (and ` grind '), also originally from
h h

barren, (naked) sharp places, compare Kretschmer KZ. 31, 414. Page(s): 163 References: WP. II 189, Meillet Esquisse 38, Trautmann 28.

Meaning: victory

oud Root / lemma: b ou ih h h h h

gain', buddig ` victorious ' (*b oud ko-) = Old Irish badach ds.; Old Germanic GN Baudihillia ` victory fighter '. Page(s): Page(s): 163 References: WP. II 186, Gutenbrunner Germanic Gttern. 43.
h h

Material: Old Irish baid n. `victory', abrit. FN Boudicca ` the victorious ', cymr. budd `profit,

oukos Root / lemma: b oukos

Meaning: a kind of buzzing insect ds.

Material: Latin fcus, - m. ` a drone bee ' = Old English baw m. `gadfly, brake', ndd. bau References: WP. II 184, WH. I 555 f.

Page(s): 163

Meaning: lowland, swamp

ghgh Root / lemma: b gh- or b ghh

bagno ds.

mud '; russ. bagn `low, marshy place', Czech bahno `swamp, marsh, morass', poln.

Material: Mnl. bagger m. `slime, mud', out of it Modern High German baggern ` drain the

Page(s): 161

References: WP. II 187, Petersson Heterokl. 123 f.

Meaning: to fear, * keep away

iRoot / lemma: b i- : b i- : b - (b ii-) (*b eiH- > b oiH(d )-so-)

h h h h h h h

Material: Old Indic bhyat `be afraid ' (from *b ietai = Slavic bojet), Avestan bayente, Old Indic bibhti ` be afraid ', sek. to initial Perf. m. Prsensbed. bibhya `I am in fear'

byente `they are in fear', Middle Persian bsnd ` they are in fear ' (Proto-Iranian *bai-sk-); (bibhyt, bibhtana, abibht, participle bibhvn = Avestan biwiv ` were afraid '); Old Indic

bhiyn- ` were afraid '; bh- f., bhti- f. (: Latvian Inf. btis) `fear', bhm- `dreadful', bht- ` were afraid, horrified ', bhr- `timorous, shy, coward' (if r = Indo Germanic l,

with Indo Germanic simplification of i to before consonant here Old Indic bhma- perhaps `fierceness, fury', bhmit- `fierce, grim'. Gr. , m. `ape' (from * `ugly', zero grade *b id -). Maybe taboo word alb. pidhi ` vagina '. Latin foedus (*b oid os) ` foul, filthy, horrible, disgusting '.
h h h h

changing through ablaut with Lithuanian bil, bails); npers. bk `fear' (from *b yaka-);

one from the Perfect form developed grade *in .


is probably only after to the other coexistence from -n- and -n- secondary verb besides Balto Slavic originally present *b i-, preterit-stem *b ii-, Inf. *b ti; Old Prussian
h h

and bifra (these in ending directed after *titrn `tremble') to Proto German *iai-mi; *in

Old High German bibn, Old Saxon bibn, Old English beofian, Old Icelandic bifa, -aa

Lithuanian baijs `dreadful, terrible, hideous'; baida, -ti `frighten', Latvian badu, badt and bidt `daunt, scare'; Maybe alb. Geg mbajt `be afraid', nuk ma mban `I am afraid'. in addition Lithuanian bais `fright' (*baid-s-), baiss `terrible, horrid', baisiti `smudge, (bailus `timorous'). besmear' (and Old Church Slavic bs `devil', *bd-s); Lithuanian baim `fear'; bil ds. Old Church Slavic (*b oiH-eh -tei) boj, bojati s `be afraid'. afraidd', Avestan Perf. biwivha (i.e. biwyha) ` stimulated fright, was dreadful'; Old Further formation *b ii-es-, *b s- in Old Indic bhysat ` be afraid ', udbhysa- `be sesh h 2 h

reflexive) `be afraid', Latvian bstus, bijus, btis and bijjus, bijtis `be afraid';

bitwei `fear, dread', kausat. pobaiint `punish, curse'; Lithuanian bijas, bijtis (also not

Indic bhayat `frightens', bhaa- `causing fright';

to a Germanic*bs-, *bz- ` storm ahead jumpily '; compare Wimann Nom. postverb. 78. Page(s): 161-162

Old High German bsa `north-east wind', bisn ` run around madly ', br `boar' etc lead under Biese.

References: WP. II 124 f., 186, WH. I 522 f., Trautmann 24, Kluge

ragRoot / lemma: b rag- (better b r-g-) Meaning: to smell, scent Material: Latin fragr, -re `to emit a smell, esp. a sweet smell', denominative *b rg-ro-s `
h h h h h

mnl. bracke ` beagle, sleuth, harrier, track hound' (out of it Italian bracco etc), in addition i); also anything for root b r, above S. 133.

smelling '; Old High German bracko (Modern High German Bracke), Middle Low German

Middle Latin barm-braccus `lap dog'; compare Middle High German brhen `smell' (*brIt remains remote gall. brca ` trouser '; see below b re-1 `break, rupture'.

Page(s): 163

Meaning: brother

terRoot / lemma: b r-ter- (*sue-loud -ter- ` member of clan, brother ') -terterRoot / lemma: b r-ter- (*sue-loud -ter- ` member of clan, brother '): brother, derived -ter: leud lemma: leu -1 (*leugh-): to grow up; people; free]. :
h h h h h

from Root / lemma: b r-ter- (*sue-loud -ter- ` member of clan, brother '): brother [Root / ter-ter: Root

kinsman, relative'; Armenian ebair, Gen. ebaur ds.; (*b rtr, *b rtrs);
h h h

Material: Old Indic bhrtar-, Avestan Old pers. brtar- `brother'; osset. rvd `brother, Maybe truncated gr. `free man' : (*sue-loud ` member of clan, brother ') vla ` brother ' : osset. rvd (*alvad) : Armenian ebair (*elvair), Gen. ebaur `brother, kinsman, relative' : Etruscan (*ruvad) ruva `brother' from Eurasiatic: *arV Meaning: member of the clan Uralic: *arV (*arwa) Number: 1745 Proto: *arV (*arwa) > Nostratic:

English meaning: relative on mother's side; (younger) brother of mother

Khanty (Ostyak): oi (V Vj.), orti (O), wrt (Kaz.) ' Nephew, son of the brother (od. of the

sister), younger brother of the mother etc. ', oisakn (Vj.) ' Mother's brother and child of his older sister together ', oisat ' Mother's brother and children of his older sister together ', iti (Vj.), t (Trj.), r`ne (Kaz.) ' Daughter of the older sister (father), daughter of the older brother of the man etc. ', ar`s (O) ' Child of the older sister, child of the sister of the fathers', rtwe (Kaz.) ' Man of the daughter of the older sister etc. '

Mansi (Vogul): or (LM), r (N) ' related to the mother's side ', or ' relatives on a parent line, ancestors on mother ', jnor r-nor (K) ' parental disappointment ' Hungarian: ara ' Bride; (altung.) brother of the mother od. of the sister; daughter-in-law '


References: WP. II 192, WH. I 540, Kluge

under Bracke.


Illyrian bra `brother! (vocative)' > alb. bre `brother! (vocative)' maybe Kurdish bira `brother' : turk. birader `brother'. New Phrygian ` brother '; mys.-Phrygian braterais = ?, gr.


(Ionian) Hes., Attic , `member of a (family, fraternity, Venetic vhraterei ` brother '; Maybe alb. Tosc v()lla `brother' intervocalic (--) [influenced by Latin order consonant + vowel + consonant], older alb. Geg vlla ` brother', (*vhraterei) vllazri `member of a (family, fraternity, brotherhood)'; Late Latin frtruis s. WH. I 542);

Latin frter `brother', Oscan fratrm, Umbrian fratrum, fratrom ` brothers ' etc around Old Irish brth(a)ir `brother, member of a big family', cymr. sg. brawd, brodyr, acorn.

broder, Middle Breton breuzr, nbret. breur, Pl. breudeur ds.; `brother';

Gothic brar, Old Icelandic brir, Old High German bruoder, Old English bror Short forms in addition Old High German MN Buobo, Middle High German buobe `boy',

Old English MN Bfa, Bja (> engl. boy), Norwegian dial. boa `brother' etc; further Old

High German MN Buole, Middle High German buole `kinsman, relative, lover ', Middle Low German ble `kinsman, relative, brother' etc (see Kluge under Bube, Buhle); Old

Latvian b(r)lis ` baby brother ', brtartis ` dear brother!'; btja, bka `father, priest'.

Prussian brti (Vok. brote) `brother', Lithuanian broterlis, short form brois, batis, brlis,

Old Church Slavic bratr, brat `brother', short form serb. baa, ch. bt'a ds., russ. Also alb. Geg bac `father, leader' : serb. baa `father, priest'. Indic bhrtrya-m : gr. , Old Church Slavic bratrja, bratja ds., Latin frtria `wife, woman of brothers'. Tocharian A pracar (Dual pratri), procer. compare noch Old Indic bhrtr-m ` brotherhood '; gr. , jon. ds.; Old

Risch Mus. Helv. 1, 118. Page(s): 163-164


References: WP. II 193, WH. I 541 f., 866, Specht KZ 62, 249, Fraenkel REtIE 2, 6 f.,

Meaning: to wade, wander

red(h?)Root / lemma: b red(h?)-

Material: Thrak. PN B; Ligurian VN Brodionti; compare gall. FlN Bredanna, French La Brenne, (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), PN B (Bayern). Alb. breth, Aor. brodha ` wander, roam '. brast, brastv `ford (miry)', brad `slime, mud', brdas m. `fishing' (= Slavic brod), with Lithuanian bred (East Lithuanian brend), brida, brsti `wade', Iter. brada, -ti `wade',

sek. ablaut brdis m. ` wading, way in the water ', Iter. braida, -ti ` wade around

Lithuanian bird `wet ordure', Old Prussian Birdaw, sea name.

time'; Old Prussian Chucunbrast ` through the devil's way '; zero grade ir = *r noch in

bradt `wade; tread with feet; speak foolishly ', braslis m. `ford', brdis m. ` while, short

continuously '; Latvian brenu (Dialectal bredu = East Lithuanian brend), bridu, brist, Iter.

will wade ', poln. brnc `wade' from *brdnti), russ. bred, brest ` go slowly, fish with the

neprbrdom ` not wading through water ', Aor. pribrde, compare Old Czech pbrde `

Russ.-Church Slavic bredu, bresti ` wade through a ford ' (zero grade present *brd in

train net ', brdit ` chat nonsense, fantasize', bred, bredna ` willow ' (`standing there often russ. brodt ` go slowly, slink, wander around; ferment, seethe', Serbo-Croatian brditi

in the water '), r.-Church Slavic, russ. (etc) brod `ford', iter. r.-Church Slavic broditi `wade',


References: WP. II 201 f., Trautmann 37, Mhlenbach-Endzelin 332 f. Page(s): 164

reRoot / lemma: b re-1 Meaning: to break Material: Old Indic giri-bhrj- ` bursting out from the mountains '; Latin frang, -ere, frgi (: Gothic *brkum), frctum ` break in pieces, dash to pieces,

vote, franchise; in gen. judgment; approval, support'; suffrgins f. ` the hollows of the

(after frctus etc): suffrgium ` a voting tablet, a vote, noisy applause, approval; the right to

), fragor m. ` a breaking; a crashing, a noise of breaking, crack, crash, noise, din '; with

shiver, shatter, fracture ', fragilis ` frail, breakable, easily broken, brittle, fragile ' etc (*b r ge h

knee (suffragines, are so called because they are broken underneath = subtus franguntur, that is, they bend downwards and not upwards like the arm) ', actually `bend, kink '; Middle Irish braigid ` farts ', verbal noun braimm, cymr. corn. bram m. `breaking wind,

fart', Middle Irish t-air-brech `crash, blast'; but gall. brca `breeches' (compare English loanword

Hes.) is Germanic loanword, Old Irish brc ` trouser ' is Old

Maybe alb. brek `underwear' = gall. brca `breeches'; `break, rupture' (Latin frgimus = Gothic *brkum, Modern High German brachen), ablaut. Gothic brakja ` wrestling match '; lengthened grade Middle High German brache f. ` breaking in the ground, unbroken recumbent unsowed land after the harvest ', Old English -brcian `press in', Old High German prahhen, brahhen, Middle High German braechen,
e h

Gothic brikan, Old Saxon brekan, Old English brecan, Old High German brehhan

gemination Old High German brocco ` broken ', Modern High German Brocken;

German bruh `break, cracked '; Old English brocian `press', broc ` woefulness '; with here perhaps Norwegian brake m. ` juniper ' (as brisk ds. to b res- `break, crack, res-

f. `piece, fragment, gobbet ' (*b r g-) == Old English bryce m. ` the break, lump ', Old High

Modern High German prgen (*brkjan), Causative to brechen; zero grade Gothic gabruka

cracking '), Middle High German brake m. f. `twig, branch', engl. brake ` brushwood, thorn `shrubbery, bush'; bushes, fern ', ablaut. Norwegian burkne m. ` fern ', compare also Norwegian bruk n.

Middle High German Old Saxon braht `din, fuss, noise, clamor', with changed meaning brahtum `din, fuss, noise, clamorous mass'; Modern High German Pracht; Old English breahtm m. `argument, quarrel', Old Saxon

`row, din, fuss, noise', Middle High German Old English brach m. ds., Old High German

rupture'; with the meaning `din, fuss, noise' here Old Icelandic braka `crack, creak', brak n.

a nasal. form in Norwegian dial. brank n. ` affliction , defect', branka ` injure, break,

bruoh, Modern High German Bruch ds., Swiss bruech ` pubic region '; geminated Old English etc braccas ` britches '; Latvian brakkt, brakstt ds.

ds., Old Icelandic brk, Pl. brkr `thigh, trouser', Old English brc, Old High German

Germanic *brk- `rump', newer `trouser' in Old English brc Pl. ` buttocks ', engl. breech

here (rather to b res-) belong Lithuanian brak, brakti `crack, creak' (*b r -sk),
e h

from ', Old Icelandic branga `damage'.

A parallel root *b re(n)gh- seeks Wood (KZ. 45, 61) in Old Indic brhti `wrenches, tears Old Indic brgala-m `piece, gobbet, lump ' is not Indo Germanic (Kuiper Proto-Munda 49).

References: WP. II 200, WH. I 113 f, 539 f., 541, Feist 104 ff., 176, Wimann Nom. postverb. 11, 58, 123, 181. Page(s): 165

reRoot / lemma: b re-2 Meaning: to stick (?) Note: extension from b er- ` stand up, edge, bristle' etc, seeks Persson Beitr. 22 f. A. 2 in: erh h h h

Material: Old Indic bhraj- `stiffness (of the member), rigor(?)'; isl. Norwegian brok `stiff German borke,

grass, grass bristles '; quite dubious also in Old Icelandic brkr (*b oru-s), Middle Low

Modern High German (actually ndd.) Borke `rough, outer bark' (from the rough angularity? Similar is gr. `hard, rough skin, esp. pig's skin ' to un extension to place root b er-). stick up high, to show off, shine', brik `a tall woman keeping her head high ', briken `fresh, An analoge g-extension from of a i-basis b rei- could at most exist in Norwegian brikja ` reih h

pleasure, joy' (Wood KZ. 45, 66), if not perhaps `shine, shine out' is the basis of this meaning.

agile, lively; showy, gleaming, pleasant', brikna `glory, magnificence, lustre, shine,

acme, apex ' (*b rko-). scare'.


` stare up; shiver (*flicker?)' common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-; cymr. bret. brig ` Maybe alb. (*, ) frik ` shuddering, fear', older (*) friksoj `make shiver, References: WP. II 201.

A b ri-k- presumably in gr. , - ` shuddering, quiver, stare', , -, ri-

Page(s): 166

Meaning: to swell, sprout

rend Root / lemma: b ren h

bebarnatar 3 Pl. preterit, with to-ess- : do-n-eprinn ` gushes forth ', Middle Irish to-oss- :

Material: Old Irish probably in brenn- (*b rend -u-) `spring up, bubble, effervesce', e.g.
h h

Note: Note: Only for Celtic to cover Tocharian and Balto-Slavic

toiprinnit ` interior flow, flow into ', Kaus. Middle Irish bruinnid ` allows to gush forth, 461;

streams out ' etc; (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), compare also Thurneysen Grammar Maybe alb. brenda, prbrenda `inside, inward, (*inward inflow)'. Lithuanian brstu, brndau, brsti `swell, ripen', participle brnds `ripening', brstu,


Old Prussian pobrendints ` weighted ', sen brendekermnen `pregnant', i.e. ` with body fruit Slavic *brd in Old Czech ja-badek, apoln. ja-brzd `twig, branch of grapevine '

grainy '; Latvian bristu, briu, brist `gush, well up, to swell, ripen', brus `thick, strong';

brndau, brsti `gush, well up (e.g. from peas)', brand ` ripeness, rich harvest ', brands `

(besides one verschied. Slavic *brd in kaub. bod ` fruit-tree '); relationship to b er(b ren-) `overhang, protrude ' is absolutely agreeable;

Tocharian A pratsak, B pratsk- `breast'. References: WP. II 205, Trautmann 35 f., Van Windekens Lexique 99. Page(s): 167-168
h h

Root renk- ronkRoot / lemma: b renk-, b ronkMeaning: to bring Material: Cymr. he-brwng `bring, glide, slide, guide, lead' (*sem-bronk-), hebryngiad

`guide, leader', acorn. hebrenchiat `leader', mcorn. hem-bronk `will guide, lead', hem-

brynkys, hom-bronkys `guided', Middle Breton ham-brouc, nbr. am-brouk `guide, lead'; brengian), Old English bringan and breng(e)an preterit brhte (from *branhta) `bring'; Tocharian B prak-, AB prnk- `depart'. 198. Angebl. contaminated from root b er- and enek-; finally E. Fraenkel KZ. 58, 286 f.; 63,
1 h

Gothic briggan, brhta, Old High German bringan, brhta, also Old Saxon (wo also

Maybe alb. geg me pru, aor. prura `to bring' References: WP. II 204, Lewis-Pedersen 40, Feist 105, Van Windekens Lexique 99. Page(s): 168

re( Root / lemma: b re(n)k-

Meaning: to err

bhraa- `fall, loss', but in RV. only from nasal basis bhryan (Kaus.), m bhraat

Material: Old Indic bhrate, bhrayate ` falls, overthrows ', participle bhra-,

(*b renk) is the half meaning not so certain to compare with Old Indic bhras-, that it would decide the latter sense. Kuiper (Nasalpras. 141 f.) builds *b rek-mi next to *b re-n-k; nevertheless, his
h h h

further grown exuberantly nasalization? or old double forms? Old Irish brc `lie, falsity'

(Aor.), ni-bhra- ` not succumbing '; also bhraa- with originally only present, then

etymological comparisons are not persuasive. reSee also: To b re-1?


References: WP. II 204.

Page(s): 168

bhren-toRoot / lemma: bhren-to-s Material:

Meaning: herdsman, *wanderer, horn Messapic (from *) `' Hes., `deer head' Hes., brunda ds., ; Venetic FlN Brinta `Brenta'; still today in Italian mountain names and plant names (Bertoldi IF. 52, 206 f.); compare in addition alb. br, brni `horn, antler' (*b r-no-), Plur. Geg brena; raetorom.

short form (besides Brenda) to PN Brundisium, older `Brindisi', Illyrian VN

brenta ` pannier '; Note:

maybe alb. brinj `rib, bone' Clearly alb. is an Illyrian Dialect; alb. bredh `wander' suggests that there is a link between *wanderer'.
h h

red(h)ren-toRoot / lemma: b red(h)- : `to wade, wander' and Root / lemma: b ren-to-s : `herdsman,

ablaut. Norwegian brund `baby male reindeer ' (*b rnts);


New Swedish dial. brind(e), Norwegian (with g from d) bringe `male elk ' (*b rents),

Germanic loanword? Note:

*b rendis, must be the origin of Lithuanian bredis, Old Prussian braydis m. `elk'; if

Latvian bridis ` deer, deer stag ', whether from of a Indo Germanic additional form

Baltic lang. were created before Slavic lang. hence the vocabulary shared by Baltic and alb. is of Illyrian origin.

Perhaps to b ren- `overhang, edge'; different Specht Dekl. 120. renReferences: WP. II 205, WH. I 116 f., 551, 852, A. Mayer KZ 66, 79 ff., Krahe Festgabe Bulle 191 f. Page(s): 168-169 renRoot / lemma: b renNote: as b er- ds. erh h

Meaning: to stick out; edge

(common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

Material: Ir. braine ` front part of the ship; guide, leader; edge, border', corn. brenniat ds. With formants t: Latin frns, -tis m., new f. ` the forehead, brow, front '; Old Icelandic
h h h h

brandr ` sword ' (*b ron-t-); in wider meaning `stick, board; sword' against it probably from *b rond o- to b erd - `cut, clip'.

brudin `ridge of the roof'.


With formants d: Old English brant, Old Icelandic brattr `high, sharp' (*b rondos), Latvian

Icelandic bringa `breast, thorax, breastbone of birds', nisl. bringr `small hill'; maybe alb. (*b ren) brinj `rib, chest bone, hillside' Note:

b ren-q-: Germanic *branha- in Old Swedish br-, New Swedish br- `sharp' in PN; Old ren-

Alb. proves that from Root / lemma: b ren-to-s : `herdsman, *wanderer, *horn' derived from ren-toan extended Root / lemma: b ren- : `to stick out; edge'. renh

Lithuanian brank `the swelling', brankti, branksti ` jut out stiffly (of bones, laths)'; bulge, swell' etc.

ablaut. brnkstu, brnkti `to swell'; Slavic *brkn, *brknti in russ. nabrjknut `to bloat, b ren-g- perhaps in Old Icelandic brekka (*brinkn) ` steep hill', Old Danish brink, brank ` ren-

brink `edge of a field, field margin, meadow', Middle Dutch brinc, Modern Dutch brink `edge, grass strip, border of grass, grass field '.

upright ', Middle English nengl. brink `edge, border, bank, shore', Middle Low German

Page(s): 167

References: WP. II 203 f., WH. I 551, Trautmann 36.

Meaning: to break q-;

resRoot / lemma: b resh h h

Material: Middle Irish brosc, broscar m. `din, fuss, noise'; compare also blosc under b losOld High German brestan `break, crack, break, rupture', unpers. `lack, defect ', Old

disability, defect ',

English berstan ds., Old Icelandic bersta `break, crack, creak'; Old High German brest(o) `

brag, boast'; without -t- Norwegian bras n. `clatter, brushwood '; boast';

byrst m. `damage'; Old High German brastn ` crackle ', Old Icelandic brasta `rant, roister, with -k-: Norwegian brisk ` juniper '; Middle High German braschen `crack, creak, cry, brag, Lithuanian brakti etc, see below b re-1. Page(s): 169 References: WP. I 206.

Modern High German Gebresten; Old High German brust `break, defect ', Old English

Meaning: to strike; to throw Anm.

reu- Root / lemma: b reu-k- (-k-)


Note: only Balto-Slavic, probably extension from b ru-1. For -k- compare above S. 18

Material: Lithuanian brauki braukia brakti `whisk, stroke; move slowly '; Latvian brucu ablaut. Lithuanian bruk bruka brkti ` wave flax, wedge ', Latvian brukt ` crumble ', Iterat. Lithuanian braukti, Latvian bract `stroke' (with unoriginal intonation) and brkn, brukns f., Latvian brklene f. ` cranberry '; brucint `abrade, stroke the scythe'; bruu brukt `move';

Lithuanian brkis m. `stripe, line', Latvian brce f. ` scratch, scar', in addition Lithuanian Slavic *bru *brusiti (originally iterative) in Bulgarian brsja (brusich) `shake off, get rid

of, beat off, chop, cut, reject', Serbo-Croatian brsim brsiti `whet', Czech brousiti ds., in

addition Old Church Slavic ubrus ` veronica (the impression of the face of Jesus believed

by some to be miraculously made on a head - cloth with which St Veronica wiped his face as he went to his crucifixion; the cloth used for this) ', Serbo-Croatian brs (Gen. brsa), russ. brus (Gen. brsa; mostly brusk) `grindstone, whetstone'; russ. etc brusnka ` cranberry ' (`lightly strippable '); ablaut. r.-Church Slavic brsnuti `scrape, shave', russ.

', brysalo `a painter's brush or pencil; style '.

Bulgarian br `rub off'. With the iterative grade: Old Church Slavic s-brysati ` scrape Perhaps here Serbo-Croatian-Church Slavic brut `nail', Bulgarian brut ds. as *brukt,

brost (dial. brokt), brsit `throw', brsnut `peel flax', bros `offal' etc in ablaut to

cleaning the flax'.

compare to meaning Lithuanian brkti ` put by force ', to form Latvian braukts `knife for

Maybe alb. (*breuks) pres `cut, peel', mpreh `whet, sharpen', mbreh `harness, yoke, put by force ' [common alb. p- > mp-, b- > mb- shift], mbres `bruise, beat'. Perhaps here the Illyrian VN Breuci, PN Breucus and the gall. PN B-, today

Brumath (Alsace); in addition places Krahe (Gl. 17, 159) Illyrian VN : Breones (from *Breuones). Note:

Illyrian VN : Breones (from *Breuones) evolved according to alb. phonetic laws -t > -nt > -n hence *Breuones < *Breuontes. But only alb. displays the common -k > -th, -t shift Illyrian Both alb. and older Illyrian display centum and satem characteristics. alb. phonetic laws -g > -th as alb. (mag-) math `big'. found in Illyrian VN Breuci : Illyrian VN (from *Breuones), hence alb. is a dialect of Finally gall. PN B-, today Brumath (Alsace); has evolved according to Illyrian About russ. brykt `kick, reject' etc s. Berneker 93. References: WP. II 197, Trautmann 36 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 119. Page(s): Page(s): 170

reuRoot / lemma: b reu-s-1 Meaning: to swell Note: (compare above b reu-)

h h

Material: Old Irish br f., Gen. bronn `belly, body' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (*b rusOld Irish bruinne `breast' (*b rusnio-), acymr. ncymr. bronn f. `breast', bret. bronn, bron ds.

[n]: -n-os), brach ` big-bellied ' (*bruskos), cymr. bru m. ` venter, uterus ' (*b reuso-);

(from Celtic derives Gothic brunj f. `(breast)-armor', Old High German brunja, brunna ` coat of mail ');

(*b rusn) in place names also `round hill', mcymr. brynn, ncymr. bryn m. (*b rusnio-) `hill'
h h

Maybe alb. (*bryn) brinj `rib, side' : alb. Geg (*bryn) brini, Pl. brina, alb. Tosc brir ` horn' : Gothic brunj f. `(breast)-armor'.
h h

wide breast' (from b reus-to- = Old Saxon briost).

Old Irish brollach `bosom' (*b rus-lo- with formants-ko-); Middle Irish brasach `with large, Middle High German briustern `swell up', Old Icelandic -brystur f. Pl. ` beestings ' (also

broddr ds. from *bruz-da-z), Swiss briescht ds. (besides briesch ds. from *b reus-ko-); Old Saxon briost N. Pl., Old English brost, Old Icelandic brist `breast', zero grade Gothic

cows', schwb. Brste, Bavarian Brsel, Briesel, Bries ds., Danish brissel, Swedish kalfbrss, with k-suffix Danish bryske, engl. brisket ` breast of the animals '.

(Slavic *brst `bud'), Modern High German Brs-chen (from md.) `mammary gland of

brusts f. Pl., Old High German brust, Modern High German Brust; Old Saxon brustian `bud'

Brausche `swelling, blister', Modern High German dial. brausche, brauschig ` swollen; of style, turgid, bombastic, torose ', brauschen `swell up'. Russ. brjcho `lower abdomen, belly, paunch', dial. brjchnut ` yield, gush, well up, to

Old Icelandic brisk `gristle', Middle High German brsche, Modern High German

s, -m);

bloat, bulge, swell', Czech alt. buch, bucho, nowadays bich, bicho `belly' etc (*b reusohere also klr. brost' f. dial. brost m. `bud', Bulgarian brs(t) m. ` young sprouts', Serbohere klr. brost ' f. dial. brost m. ` bud ', Bulgarian Brs (t) m. ` younger shoots ', Serbo-

Croatian brst m. ds., brstina `foliage, leaves'. Croatian br ^ st m. ds., brstina ` foliage '. Page(s): 170-171

References: WP. II 197 f., Feist 107 f., 108 f.

reuRoot / lemma: b reu-s-2 Meaning: to break Note: extension from b ru-1.


Material: Alb. breshn, breshr `hail', if actually `granule, mica' (e = Indo Germanic eu); Latin frustum ` a bit, piece, morsel, gobbet ' (from *b rus-to-);

brile `piece, fragment', bruan ds., bruar `fragment, broken piece', brosna (*brus-tonio-) ` faggot, brushwood bundle ', gall. *bruski ` undergrowth, brushwood ', Old French broce

Old Irish bru `shatter, smash' (*b rsi, gall. brus-, French bruiser), Middle Irish brire,

ds., Middle Irish brusc `tiny bit' etc; Old Irish bronnaim `damage' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt> -nn-), (*b rusnmi) (subjunctive robria from *bris- `break, rupture' borrows, see below Middle Breton brusun `tiny bit' (*brous-t-);
h h

b ri-); mcymr. breu, ncymr. brau ` frail, easily broken ', mcorn. brew ` broken ' (*b ruso-); riOld English briesan (*brausjan), brysan (*brsjan) `break, rupture trans., shatter', engl.

bruise `injure', probably also Old High German brsma, Middle High German brsem, brseme, brsme `bit, flake, crumb'; Old English brosnian ` molder '. Page(s): 171 References: WP. II 198 f., WH. I 553.

reusRoot / lemma: b reus-3, b rsh h

Meaning: to boil; to sound, etc.

have helped (similarly akr. brjm, brjiti `buzz, hum from an swarm of bees', Berneker 89). Material: Middle High German brsen `boom, blaster, roar', brs `the boom', ndd. brsen (from plants); sprinkle, besprinkle ' (compare Modern High German Brause) (out of it `boom, blaster, simmer, seethe, boil; be hasty (from people); spread out, grow new shoot

reuNote: esp. in Germanic words; perhaps to b reu-s-1; also a new onomatopoeic word could

', Old Swedish brsa ` storm ahead ', Norwegian Dialectal brsa ` storm gust ', Old

blaster', ndd. brsken ds., Middle High German brsche ` douche, shower, spray, sprinkler Icelandic brusi `he-goat, billy goat ', isl. bruskr ` tussock, besom ', engl. brush `bristle

Danish bruse ds.), Dutch bruisen, previous bruischen `foam, froth, bubble, roar, boom,

brausta, brusta ` make room, rush out forcefully '; Swedish bruska `rustle, rant, roister'.

English bruschen, engl. to brush `comb with a brush', Norwegian dial. brauska, bruska and With Germanic *bruska-z ` brushwood ', *bruskan ` crackle, rustle ' (-sk- could be Indo

brush, paintbrush, brush, tail (of foxes)', brushwood `shrubbery, bush, shrubbery ', Middle

Germanic zg) one compares the Balto-Slavic groups Lithuanian brzgai Pl. ` brushwood ', briauzg ` babbler ', bruzg, -ti `rustle', russ. brjuzgju, -t `mumble, murmur', brjut `drone, grumble, murmur, growl ' etc; yet are the verb perhaps are only Balto-Slavic onomatopoeic word formation. Because of the Germanic meaning `spray' is perhaps on the other hand to be compared with russ. brzgaju, -at `spray, sprinkle, bubble ' etc. References: WP. II 199 f., Trautmann 38.

Page(s): 171-172 reu- reuRoot / lemma: b reu-, b reu-dh h h

Meaning: to swell, sprout

probably on a participle *b rts ` sprouted out'; Old Irish broth `awn, hair'; here d-present: broz `bud, sprout '. Middle High German briezen, brz `bud, swell', Old High German Middle High German

Material: Material: Latin frutex, -icis m. ` a shrub, bush; as a term of reproach, blockhead ' based on

See also: compare b reu-s-1 `to swell', b rughno- `twig, branch'. Page(s): 169
h h

References: WP. II 195, WH. I 554.

Meaning: to pierce, cut with smth. sharp Note: extension from b er-.

riRoot / lemma: b ri-, b rh

Material: Old Indic bhrnti `be hurt' (Pf. bibhrya Dhtup.), Avestan pairibrnnti ` be cut all around ', brir-taa- ` dashing sharply ', Middle Persian brn ` determined, fixed'. Thrak. (?) `barber'. (from *fri-co-s `rubbing, scraping'), refrva faba ` ground bean', frvolus (from *fr-vo-s ` Latin fri, -re `rub, grind, crumb, spall, crumble', fric, -re `to rub, rub down, rub off'

Maybe alb. Geg pre- ` pierce, cut'

triturated '), ` breakable, trifling, worthless; n. pl. as subst. sticks of furniture '. Maybe alb. (**frico-) frkonj `rub' possible Latin loanword.

With frvolus to be compared cymr. briw `broke; wound'; briwo `break, rupture, injure'; *briscre ` curdle, coagulate, harden ', Swiss bretschi ds. (Wartburg), Old Irish brissid with s-extension here gall.-Latin brsre ` break, shatter ', French briser etc gallorom.

breissem ds., Old Irish PN Bres-(u)al (*bristo-ualos), corn. Middle Breton bresel `fight', formation under b reus-2.

`breaks' (from participle Pert. *bristo-), Middle Irish bress f. `din, fuss, noise, fight, struggle', bret. bresa `quarrel', Middle Irish brise `frail, breakable', br. bresk ds.; compare the parallel Hereupon probably also cymr. brwydr `fight, struggle', Old Irish briathar `word,

*argument' as *b rei-tr ` quarrel, argument ' (to cymr. brwyd `torn, perforates '), compare


Lithuanian brti `scold, chide', refl. `be quarrelsome', Old Church Slavic brati `fight', s. b erMaybe alb. Geg brit, Tosc brtas `to scold, chide, quarrel, yell' : Lithuanian brti `scold, chide'. Here presumably Middle Dutch brne, Modern Dutch brijn, Middle English brne,

nengl. brine ` salted water, salt brine ' (from the sharp taste like partly Slavic brid). Maybe alb. brinj ` rib', alb. Geg brini, Tosc briri ` sharp horn '.

brselije, brsel `shard' (proto Slavic. also probably* brsel) as *b ri-d-selo-. Maybe alb. brisk `razor' a Slavic loanword.

Croatian bridak `sharp, sour'; Old Church Slavic brselije `shards', russ.-Church Slavic

`razor'; Old Church Slavic brid ` ', russ.-Dialectal bridkj `sharp, cold', Serbo-

Old Church Slavic britva `razor', russ.-Church Slavic briju, briti `shave, shear', bri

parallel g-extension the einf. root b er- in Latvian beriu, berzu, bert `rub, scour, clean' and gr. s. and auf a k-extension *b rei-k- traceable gr. reis.; brti not better with Indo Germanic b- to Old English prica `point', Middle Low German pricken, Middle High German pfrecken `prick' etc, besides that with other root tease, irritate' etc (about age and origin Germanic words nothing is certain).
h h

-ti ds., and Old Icelandic brk f. `board, low wooden wall, low bar'; compare with *b rei-h

rei-extension b rei-- presumably in Lithuanian briu, brti `scratch, scrape', Iter. brai-,

auslaut Norwegian Dialectal prisa `prick, stir, tease, irritate', preima, preina `banter, stir, References: WP. II 194 f., WH. 116, 549, Vendryes RC 29, 206.

Page(s): 166-167

Root / lemma: b ru-1, b rMeaning: to pierce, break


Material: Old Indic bhr-m `embryo' (named after the burst caul); `frail, breakable' (*b rou-tio-), Old Icelandic broma `piece, fragment' (*b rumn); a t-present
h h

Note: extension from b er-

Middle High German briune, brne `lower abdomen, vulva'; Old High German brdi

in Old English breoan `break, rupture'; probably d- present based on Germanic family of felled trees, barrier ', braut f. `way, alley' (compare Modern High German Bahn brechen,

Old English brotan `break, rupture', Old Icelandic brita `break, rupture', broti m. ` heap of

French route from rupta), breyta (*brautjan) ` alter, change, modify ', breyskr `frail,

breakable, brittle '; Old High German bruz, bruzz ` fragileness '; Old Icelandic brytia = Old coulter, pre-pruner, i.e. the most distinguished of the farmhands; kind of estate manager, land agent ' = agsl. brytta m. ` dispenser, distributer '. To Germanic *reutan perhaps also Old Irish fris-brudi ` reject '. entrails' (basic meaning ` scrapings ', compare Slavic brsnti `scrape, stripe ' under b reuCzech br-n-ka (*b run-) ` placenta, afterbirth '.

English bryttian `divide, share, allot, distribute'; Old Icelandic bryti m. ` colter, plough

Latvian brana, braa `scurf, dandruff, flake, scale, abandoned skin or shell, caul,


References: WP. II 195 f., W. Schulze KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216. Page(s): 169 See also: S. the extension b reu-k-, b reu-s-2.
h h

rurRoot / lemma: b ru-2, b rMeaning: edge Note: The group is extended from b er- `stand up; edge'.
h h h

Material: Old Irish br `edge, bank, border, shore', bruach ds. (*br-ko-); High German brn `sharp' (from weapons). Old Icelandic brn `edge', whereof bryna `whet', bryni `whetstone'; Old English Middle Lithuanian briaun `edge, border, cornice ' (*b run), ablaut. with Old Icelandic brn. Maybe alb. brini ` horn ', brinj ` side, rib, edge '. References: WP. II 196 f., W. Schulze KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216. Page(s): 170

Meaning: bitter

roisqo- risqo Root / lemma: b roisqo-, b risqoh h

sharp taste', poln. brzazg ` unpleasant, sharp taste; bad mood', russ. brezgt (old brzgati) ` nauseate, feel disgust '; Maybe alb. Geg (prezi-) przi ` to nauseate, feel disgust '

Material: Russ.-Church Slavic obrzgnuti, obrzgnuti ` become sauer ', Czech besk `

at first to Norwegian brisk `bitter taste', brisken `bitter, sharp'; probably to b ri- `cut, clip' Maybe alb. brisk, brisqe Pl. `sharp, bitter; razor', brisqe Pl. `razors' (as Middle Dutch brne `salt water, brine').

Page(s): 172

References: WP. II 206.

rugh-noRoot / lemma: b rugh-noMeaning: twig Note: perhaps in relationship to b reu- ` sprout'

h h h h

Material: Cymr. brwyn-en f. ` bulrush', acorn. brunnen gl. `juncus, bulrush', bret. broenn-

enn ds. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (from Proto Celtic*brugno-); Old English brogn(e) f. `twig, branch, bush', Norwegian dial. brogn(e) ` tree branch, clover stalk, raspberry bush


Page(s): 174

References: WP. II 208.

rgRoot / lemma: b rgMeaning: fruit Note: perhaps oldest ` to cut off or peel off fruit for eating ' and then to *b reu- `cut, clip' q-, -k- `graze over, chip')
h h

(compare there to meaning Old Indic bhrvati `chews, consumes', also Balto Slavic *b reuMaterial: Latin frx, -gis f. `fruit' = Umbrian Akk Pl. frif, fri ` fruits ', Latin frg (Dat. *` useful,

*frgor, which has entered for *frgor ?), frniscor ` relish ' (*frg-nscor), frmentum ` corn, grain ', Oscan fruktatiuf (*frgettins) `frctus'. `fruit' [common alb. -k, -g > -th, -dh shift] Maybe alb. (*frg-) fruth `measles, breaking of the skin (disease of fruit and humans?)', frut Gothic brkjan, Old High German brhhan, Old Saxon brkan, Old English brcan

honest, discreet, moderate' =) ` fruitful ', fruor, -i, frctus and fruitus sum ` relish ' (from

`need, lack', Gothic brks, Old High German brhhi, Old English bryce `usable'. Page(s): 173 References: WP. II 208, WH. I 552 f.

rrRoot / lemma: b r-1 (* b r-1) Meaning: brow Note:

h e

rr- : Root / lemma: b r-1 (* b r-1): brow, derived from the animate suffixed -ru of Root / ru ok lemma: ok- : to see; eye. According to gr.s -k > -p, -g > -b; Note: partly with initial vowel, Indo Germanic o- or a- (full root form?); after Persson Beitr. Material:
h e h

17 lies a dark composition part *ok- `eye' (with. consonant-Assimilation) before. In e- grade:

npers. ebr, br ds. (Hbschmann IA. 10, 24); (* ebru-) In zero grade: Old Indic bhr- f., Akk. bhrv-am `brow', Avestan brvat- f. (Du.) ` brows '.

Maybe zero grade alb. vrenjt (*vrenk-) `frown' common alb. -kh > t. : Khotanese: brrauka-l `brow' : Sogdian: (Buddh.) r'wkh `eyebrow' (*br-k-) : Other Iranian cognates: Khwar. (')rwc [pl.tantum] `eyebrow'; San. vrc `eyebrow'. In o- grade: with gr. vocal prosthesis?); maked. ` on the brow or edge of a steep rock, gr. , - f. `brow', figurative ` raised edge, hill edge ' (after Meillet BSL 27, 129 f.

beetling ' (changed from Kretschmer Einl. 287 in F; held on from Meillet, s.Boisacq ); 733 Anm. 3, because of the otherwise stated form and because of Avestan brvat-

Serbo-Croatian-Church Slavic obrv, Serbo-Croatian brva etc `brow'. In zero grade: Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (conservative stem, from *ruwn-). (seems a metathesis from *bruwi); Old English br, Old Icelandic brn, Pl. brynn `brow' (under the influence of common Lithuanian bruvs m. `brow', em. also brns Pl., Old Prussian wubri f. `eyelash'

Old Bulgarian brv (originally Nom. *bry, as kry : krv). birwe = bruvs. In a- grade: unclear are Middle Irish Pl. abrait (*abrant-es or *abrant) ` eyelids, brows ', likewise mbr. abrant `brow', cymr. amrant `eyelid' An e- Abl. b ru- with syllabic become r regards Trautmann KZ. 44, 223 in Lithuanian

In zero grade: Grammar 199), Old Irish forbru Akk. Pl. (*b rns : Akk. ), forbr Gen. Pl. ` eyebrows

Middle Irish brad Gen. Du., bri, bri Nom. Du. f. ` brows ' (to diphthong s. Thurneysen

vocalism and meaning deviate;

'; Specht (Dekl. 83, 162) would like to put to Latin frns ` the forehead, brow, front '; but Tocharian A prwn-, prwne (Dual) ` eyebrows ' Page(s): 172-173

References: WP. II 206 f., Trautmann 38.

rruRoot / lemma: b r-2, b ruMeaning: beam, bridge Material: Old Icelandic br f. `bridge'; Old Icelandic bryggia ` wharf, pier ' ndd. brgge ds.,

brgi (Old High German *brug) ` wood scaffolding ', brgel `wooden log', Middle High track made of beams ');

Bretterbank am Ofen ', Old English brycgian ` pave ' (originally with thrashed wood), Swiss

Old High German brucca, Old Saxon -bruggia, Old English brycg `bridge', Bavarian Bruck `

German brgel `cudgel, club', Modern High German Prgel (`bridge' is also `balk, rod; gall. brva `bridge' (*b rua); beams ' (etc, s. about Slavic forms Berneker 92). Kluge

Old Bulgarian brvno `balk, beam', Serbo-Croatian brv f. `balk, beam, bridge made of Unclear is the guttural in the Germanic forms: *brug- from *bruu-, or k- suffix? S.
3 11

b r-1.

under `Brcke = bridge' and Specht Dekl. 211 f., accepts the connection with

Page(s): 173

References: WP. II 207.

Root / lemma: b ud -m(e)n Meaning: bottom Note: single-linguistic in part to *b ud -mo-, partly to *b ud -no-, besides with already Indo Germanic metathesis *b und o- > *b undo- ?
h h h h h h h h h

Material: Old Indic budhn- `ground, bottom'; Avestan bn ds. (*b und no-), out of it assimilated. From proto iran. *bund as derives tscherem. punda `bottom, ground '. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 71, 333).
h h h

borrows Armenian bun ds., during Armenian an-dund-k` `abyss' from *b und - seems
h h

Gr. (*-) m. `bottom, sole, base of a vessel', m. ds. (for after Maked. PN (*b ud n), dissimil. ?

prop '. (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

profundus `deep' = Middle Irish bond, bonn m. `sole, foundation, groundwork, basis, pad,

Latin fundus, - m. ` ground; the bottom or base of anything; a farm, estate' (*b und os),
h h

Maybe alb. (*fundus), fund `bottom, end', fundos `sink ' Latin loanwords. *bom > Middle English bothem m. besides Old English botm m. > engl.bottom and Old Old High German bodam, Modern High German Boden, Old Saxon bodom, Old English

English bodan `bottom, ground',

Maybe alb. (bod-) bot ` bottom, ground, earth, world' ds., Old Icelandic bytna ` to come to the bottom ', with unclear dental change; it seems to

Old Norse botn `bottom', Old English byme ` bilge, floor, bottom ' besides bytme, bytne lie a basic proto Germanic *buma- , probably is to be explained analogically; compare

German Bhne, originally ` wooden floor (made from floorboards) ', angebl. from Germanic References: WP. II 190, WH. I 564 f., 867, Porzig WuS. 15, 112 ff. (against it Kretschmer Page(s): 174 Gl. 22, 116); compare also Vendryes MSL. 18, 305 ff.

Petersson Heterokl. 18, Sievers-Brunner 167, Kluge *bun, Indo Germanic *bud ni, s. Kluge

under siedeln. About Modern High

under Bhne.

ukkoRoot / lemma: b o-s, nickname b ukko-s Meaning: goat Grammatical information: (fem. In - `goat, nanny goat ')
h h

goat ';

Material: Zigeun. buzni `goat'; Avestan bza m. `he-goat', npers. buz `goat, he-goat; billy Armenian buz `lamb';

billy goat ', in addition Middle Irish boccnach `ghost, bogeyman ';

Middle Irish bocc, pocc, nir. boc, poc, cymr. bwch, corn. boch, bret. bouc'h ` he-goat; Germanic *bukka- (after Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f. borrowed from Celtic?) in Old

Icelandic bukkr, bokkr, bokki, Old English bucca, nengl. buck, Old High German Middle High German boc, -ekes, Modern High German Bock. The aberrant consonant in Old Indic bukka- `he-goat' (uncovered) is probably from

bukkati ` barks ' (see below beu-1, bu-) influenced hypocoristic reshuffling *b ja- = similar reorganization. Page(s): 174

Avestan bza-. Also npers. dial. boa `young goat', pm. bu, b seem to be a result of

References: WP. II 189 f., Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f., Martinet Gmination 182.

rug- rug- orgrug Root / lemma: b rug-, b rug-, b orgMeaning: throat Material: Armenian erbuc `breast, brisket of killed animals ' (*b rugo-); gr. , -,
h h h

later (after ) , - ` windpipe, gullet'; Latin frmen n. `(a gruel or porridge made of corn, and used in sacrifices) larynx, gullet' (*frg-smen); without u Old Icelandic barki ` neck ' (b or-g-, formally closer to `cleft, gap, abyss ')

clip' under conception `cleft, gap = gullet'. 162.

Similar to Lithuanian burna, Armenian beran `mouth' (actually ` orifice ') to b er- `cut, erh

References: WP. II 171, WH. I 482, 551 f., 866, Lidn Ml. Pedersen 92, Specht Dekl. Page(s): 145 bis-(t)liRoot / lemma: bis-(t)li-

Meaning: gall

bestl (*bis-tlo-, -tli-) `gall'; gallo-rom. *bistlos (Wartburg). Page(s): 102 References: WP. II 111, WH. I 105 f.

Material: Latin blis (*bislis, older *bistlis) f. `gall, bile'; cymr. bustl m., acorn. bistel, bret.

Meaning: to chat

blatRoot / lemma: blat-

eh e e e

ram, frog', blati, -re `babble, prattle ';

Material: Latin blater, -re ` chatter, babble, empty gossip; also from shout of the camel, mndd. plad(d)eren `chat, prate', nndd. pladdern `splash, besprinkle ', Swedish pladder `

loose gossip', Danish bladre `spread lose gossip ', older also `splash', lacking of consonant shift in onomatopoeic word. Similar to onomatopoeic words are ndd. plapperen (Modern High German plappern),

plderen `babble' (Middle High German pldern, Modern High German plaudern).
h h

Middle High German plappen and blappen, Old High German blabizn `babble' and mndd. compare with partly similar meaning b ld- ` to bubble up, chat', b el- `sound' and bal-,

bal-bal- under baba- (e.g. Lithuanian blebnti with Modern High German plappern similar formation). References: WP. II 120, WH. I 109.

Page(s): 102

blRoot / lemma: bl- (*b leh - > b le- > b lek-o-; b lek-ot-o-) lblRoot / lemma: b l- : ` to howl, weep' > Root / lemma: bl- : ` to bleat'; hence the support Note: imitation of the sheep sound with different guttural extensions; in the Germanic with Note: Material: Gr. `bleat', ` the bleating '; russ. (etc) blekati (old), blekott for the glottal theory b - > b-.
h h

Meaning: to bleat

consonant shift omitted as a result of continual new imitation.

`bleat'; mndd. bleken, blken `bleat, bark, bay' (out of it Modern High German blken), Note: Norwegian Dialectal blkta (*blkatjan) `bleat'; alb. bl'egrs ds.

in -m- formant: m

alb. blegrim ` the bleating ' : Gr. `bleat' [common gr. > alb. g-]. Page in Trubaev: II 108-109 Proto-Slavic form: blek; blekot; blekota

Russian: blkot (dial.) `henbane' [m o]; blekt (dial.) `chatterbox' [m/f o] Ukrainian: blkit `poison hemlock' [m o]; blkot `henbane' [m o]; blekot `poison hemlock, henbane' [f ] Czech: blek `bleating' [m o]; blekot `shouter, babbler' [m o]; blekota `grumbler' [f ] Belorussian: blkat `henbane, hemlock' [m o]

Old Czech: blekot `chatter, grumbling, chatterbox, grumbler' [m o]

Slovak: bl'akot `bleating, bellowing' [m o]

Upper Sorbian: blek `henbane' [m o]; blik `henbane' [m o]; blekot `muttering, babble' [m o] Serbo-Croatian: blk `bleating' [m o]; bl kt `bleating' [m o] Bulgarian: blek (dial.) `henbane' [m o]

Polish: blekot `fool's parsley, henbane, (arch.) stammerer, chatterbox' [m o]

See also: compare also b l- `howl' etc Page(s): 102


References: WP. II 120 f., WH. I 95.

Slovene: blk `flock (sheep)' [m o]

Meaning: flea

bloulou- plouRoot / lemma: blou- (b lou-?), plou- (*b lou-ks-eh )

2 h h

Note: Note: With k- and s-suffixes and taboo metathesis and anlaut alteration. Germanic*plouk- in Old High German flh, Old English flah.

Material: With p: Old Indic pli-, Armenian lu (*plus-), alb. plesht, Latin plex , Indo


Common Armenian Celtic (often alb.) initial pl- > l-, see Root / lemma: plab- : to babble, plabetc.. Old Irish (*plabar) labar ` talkative '. bcha. Notes: In Polish dialects, we find a large variety of forms, e.g. pcha, pa, pecha, becha, Formations in e- grade:

alb. plesht : Polish pecha ` flea'. Latvian blusa, Prussian PN Blus-kaym, russ.-Church Slavic blcha, Serbo-Croatian bha, russ. boch. Page(s): 102 References: Meillet MSL. 22, 142, 539 f., Trautmann 35, Specht Dekl. 42 f., 203, 235. With b (or b ?): afgh. vraa, gr. (*blusi), Balto-Slavic *blus in Lithuanian blus,

Meaning: tuber

bolRoot / lemma: bolMaterial: Armenian bok ` radish ', gr. `onion, bulb' (also , dissimilated Attic `crap, muck, dung ', , if possibly originally from nanny goats or horses?), , `clod of earth'; Old Indic blba-ja- `Eleusine indica, a type of grass', if ` .

nodules coming out from the root '?, Latin bulbus `onion, bulb, tuber ' is borrowed from

Redukt.-grade or with Assimil. in Vok. the 2. syllable Armenian palar ` pustule, bubble '. Page(s): 103 References: WP. II 111 f., WH. I 122.

Meaning: hoarse?

brangh- bronghRoot / lemma: brangh-, brongh-?

Material: Gr. ` hoarseness ', `be hoarse', Old Irish brong(a)ide `hoarse'; but gr. Aor. `cracks' probably stays away. References: WP. I 683 f., II 119.

Page(s): 103

breuqRoot / lemma: breuq-

Meaning: to jump, *throw, thrust, poke, touch, run

fingers, touch ';

brknem, bkniti, brkam, bkati, bcati ` bump with the feet, kick, shoot the way up with the Maybe Illyrian TN Breuci : so gr. ` locust, grasshopper (mythological monster?)';

grasshopper '( probably after ` crunches with the teeth ', and sloven.

Material: Perhaps combined so gr. , (), ` locust,

Slovene: bsati `lead, touch' : Lithuanian: brkti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]; SerboRussian: brost' `throw, (dial.) scutch flax' [verb]; brokt' (dial.) `throw' [verb]; SerboCroatian: bcati `throw' [verb]; Note: russ. brykt ` kick with the back leg ', klr. brykty ` frisk mischievously, run ' etc

alb. (*breuk ) prek ` touch, frisk, violate ', pres ` crunches with the teeth, cut ' [taboo word] :

Maybe the original cognate was of Baltic - Illyrian origin: Lithuanian: braktas `wooden knife for cleaning flax' [m o], brakti `erase, scutch (flax)', brkti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb] Page(s): 103 References: WP. II 119, Specht Indo Germanic Dekl. 251 f.

bronk Root / lemma: bronkMeaning: to lock Material: Gothic anapraggan `press' to *pranga- ` restriction, constriction ' in Old Swedish prang `narrow alley', Middle English prange `narrowness', engl. dial. proug ` menu fork ',

Maybe alb. pranga ` restriction, fetter, chain, handcuff' : germ Pranger ` pillory '

German pfragina `bar, gate, barrier', to Lithuanian braktas m. ` pole for hanging (*gallows)', Latvian brankti (Lithuanian loanword) ` fitting tightly '.

mndd. prangen `press', pranger `pole', Middle High German pfrengen ` wedge ', Old High

Page(s): 103

References: WP. II 119, 677 f.. Feist 43, Kluge

under Pranger.

buRoot / lemma: buMeaning: lip, kiss Note: Note: as an imitation of the kiss sound, bursting of the sucking lip fastener from inside,

buku- kusRoot / lemma: bu- : `lip, kiss' derived from Root / lemma: ku-, kus- (*kukh-): `to kiss' : Material: Npers. bsdan `kiss'; alb. buz `lip'; common Celtic - Greek k- > p-.

thus actually differently from bu-, b u- ` inflate ' with normal spraying after outside. bu-

Maybe alb. (*pus) puth `kiss' [common alb. -s > -th shift] : Swedish puss `kiss'. Bussumros and buutton `mouth, kiss');

Middle Irish bus, pus `lip', busc, pusc `kiss' (in addition presumably gall. PN

Modern High German Buss `kiss', bussen `kiss', Busserl `kiss', engl. buss, Swedish (with sound of the kiss dental interjection. poln. buzia `mouth, face; kiss'.

regular consonant shift) puss `kiss'; Lithuanian buioti `kiss', bu the onomatopoeic word, Note:

The same phonetic construction for poln. buzia `mouth, face; kiss' : alb. buz, buza `lip' : Rumanian buz `lip'. Page(s): 103 References: WP. I 113 f., WH. II 98.

ruru Root / lemma: dakruMeaning: tears Material: information: Grammatical information: n. Gr. , , `tears'; out of it borrows Old Latin dacruma, Latin

lacruma, lacrima ds. (with sabin. l?); Note: Common Latin dh- > ll-, d- > l-.

Maybe alb. (*lok-) lot `tear' [common alb. -k > -th, -t similar to alb. (*mag-) math `big'.

dacr-(lon) ` moist, damp, wet ', corn. dagr `tears' (Island-Celtic *dakrom `see, look'

Old Irish dr n., cymr. deigr (could go back to Pl. *dakr the o-Dekl.), Pl. dagrau, abret. Thurneysen KZ. 48, 66 f); Germanic *thr- and tagr- : Gothic tagr n. `tears', Old Norse tr

n. (from*tahr-), Old English thher, tear, teagor m., Old High German zahar m. (Modern changed out of it? o-stem has gone out, is doubtful). High German Zhre from dem Pl.; whether in Germanic still from old u-stem or it has Indo Germanic *dakru is probably from *drakru dissimilated because of Old High

squeezed out drops through cooking:) fish oil', Middle High German traher ds. (-er *drakur.

German trahan, Old Saxon Pl. trahni `tears', Middle Low German trn ds. and `( from fat of probably after zaher has changed) and Armenian artasuk` ` tears ', Sg. artausr from On the other hand one searches connection with Old Indic ru, ara-m `tears', Avestan

asrazan- ` pouring tears ', Lithuanian aar, ara `tears', Latvian asara ds.; probably partially used in place of dakru, whereby it took over its u-inflection? compare also sheer rhyme word, so *akro- ` acer, sharp, bitter ' as epithet of the tears (`bitter tears ')

Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 142 f. Note:

From early Italic, Illyrian people the cognate for tears passed to Altaic languages: Protoform: *lg ( *-) Meaning: to weep, cry

Turkic protoform: *jg-(la-) Tungus protoform: *ligiSee also: see above S. 23 under akru. Page(s): 179 References: WP. I 769, WH. I 746 f.

diur, r s Root / lemma: diur Gen. daiurs Meaning: brother-in-law Material: Old Indic dvr-, Armenian taigr, gr. (*F), Latin lvir (in ending

reshaped after vir; the l for d probably Sabine), Old High German zeihhur, Old English tcor (presumably through hybridization with an equivalent from Lithuanian ligonas

`brother of wife'), Lithuanian dievers (for *diev = Old Indic dvr-; older conservative Note:

Gen. dievers), Latvian diveris, Old Church Slavic dver (i-, io- and conservative stem).

The Baltic cognate Lithuanian ligonas `brother of the wife' proves the Balkan origin of Baltic languages inheriting Latin d- > l-. Page(s): 179 References: WP. I 767, WH. I 787, Specht KZ 62, 249 f., Trautmann 43.

Meaning: to burn

du- uRoot / lemma: du-, du-, d-

Material: Old Indic dunti `burns (trans), afflicts', dn- `burnt, afflicted ', Pass. dyat f. `affliction, pain', doman- `blaze, agony' (-u- as in );

pain ', partly ` destroy by fire, burn down hostile settlements '?)

Note: Note: uncertainly, whether in both meaning originally identical (possibly partly as ` burning

`burns' (intr.), kaus. dvayati `burns' (trans), dv- (with ablaut change dav-) `blaze', d


eu lemma: d eu-4, d eu- (presumably: d u-, compare the extension d u-k-, d u-s-) : `to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke etc.'.
h h h h h

Old Indic and alb. prove that Root / lemma: du-, du-, d- : `to burn' derived from Root / du- u-

Armenian erkn (to ) `throes of childbirth'; Note: common Baltic-Illyrian d- > zero reflected in Armenian Indic dudva), participle ( Hes., ` easily ignitable = to dry' (* from *F-), ` burning piece of gr. (*F-) `set on fire, inflame', Perf. `be in flames, be on fire' (: Old

Hes.), n., , - f. `torch' (to : von Attic , s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 266),

wood' (*F = lakon. ); `hostile', Doric (Trag.) , `afflicted,

woeful, wretched, miserable'; hom. `slay, kill, murder' (Attic `ds., devastate'), Indo Germanic *dus Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 578), - ` killed in the fight'; probably About (mostly Pl.), Aeolic Akk. Pl. `pain', ` cause pain, afflict,

, - `tumult of war, fight, struggle', hom. Lok. `in the battle' (to Nom. *,

`affliction', `fall in the misfortune' (, Od.), ` unlucky '.

sadden' see below ed- `eat'; perhaps here (`stormy, hot tempered') Hes.

Tosc der `bitter' (*deu-no-);

gorti `burn'?) with *du-s- (presumably as zero grade of -es- stem = or as gr. (F)); Latin presumably duellum, bellum `war, fight' (WH. I 100 f.), with unclear suffix. Note: common Latin dw- > b-

(dhunon `revile, violate'; dhun `bitter', originally `unpleasant'? or as Slavic gork `bitter':

Alb. dhun (*dus-n-) `affliction, pain, force, violence, horrible action; disgrace, insult'

Verbalnom. dud = Old Indic davathu- `blaze, fire '; atd `kindle, inflame' from *ad-douth, deifio `burn' (with v from w before i) here (Thurneysen KZ. 61, 253, Loth RC. 42, 58); Old kunys, bret. keuneud `firewood' (Pedersen KG. I 108, II 39, basic form perhaps*komIrish Gen. condid, Middle Irish connad, condud `firewood', cymr. cynnud ` firing', corn. cymr. cynneu `kindle, inflame' , (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), also bret. devi, cymr.

Old Irish dm `singe, burn' (about Old Irish dm `get, exert' see below deu()-),

dauto-); cymr. etewyn ` firebrand ' (*ate-dau-ino-), bret. collective eteo ds.

Swedish Dialectal tosk ds.; perhaps (with *eu, see below) Old Norse tjn n. `damage,

Old High German zuscen `burn'; after : braun here also Old English tosca `frog',

English tenan `plague, anger, slander', Old Saxon gitiunean ` act wrong against ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*

tiono `evil, harm, wrong; injustice, enmity', whereof Old Norse tyna `destroy, lose', Old

wrong; injustice, derision, ridicule', Old English tona m., tone f. `damage', Old Saxon

somebody '.

Gothic tundnan `is ignited', tandjan `ignite, set on fire', Middle High German zinden, IA. 83, 32 as t-andjan to Old Irish ad-and- `kindle, inflame'.

) In spite of Osthoff IA. 1, 82 has kept away the family of Modern High German znden,

because of that i and a would not be probably first ablaut neologism in u; after Thurneysen --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Latvian aut `dry, burn incense, smoke ' as *du-ti, as also alb. and Germanic eu- forms `sky, heaven'? Berneker IF. 10, 158 places here also Lithuanian diuti ` place down in order to dry ',

can contain Indo Germanic u; the relationship of this *du- to *du- is unclear; or to dieuReferences: WP. I 767 ff., WH. I 100 f.

Page(s): 179-181

dRoot / lemma: d-

Meaning: to flow; river

don `water, river'; russ. FlN Don, (Greek) skyth. FlN ;

', d-nu- n. f. ` every dripping liquid, drop, dew', Avestan d-nu- f. `river, stream', osset. Also typical intensive reduplication Illyrian (*don-don) Dodona Epirus

Material: Old Indic d-na- n. ` liquid flowing from the temples of the elephant for the rutting

river' and *Dnu nazdya- ` front river'; Avestan VN Dnav Pl. ` river inhabitant ' (become

russ. FlN Dniepr and Dniestr, old Danapris and Danastius from skyth. *Dnu apara ` back

tamkanam ` wet, mositen; of water, collect in pools, and of solids, to be liquefied; wet, moistened, soaked ' and presumably gr. (proto gr. or ?) `fat of animals and

(?) gr. VN , gypt. Danuna; with formants -mo- Armenian tamuk `humid, wet, moist', mo-

in Rgveda water demons, fem. GN Dnu-), skyth. nomadic people, also in Greece, hence

people', wherewith alb. dhjam `fat, bacon, tallow, suet' is not connected in a cleared way yet; the fat can be named as with the roast liquidly growing ones (compare Old Church Slavic loj ` soft fat, lard, grease ' : lijati `pour'). Here also Celtic Dnuvius ` Danube river', Don (*dnu-), cymr. FlN Donwy (*dnuui).

gall. ON Condte ` the confluence of two rivers; as a place-name Confluentes '; six engl. Fl Benveniste places to Armenian tam-uk yet Hittite dame(n)k- `fall like rain' (BSL 33, 143). References: WP. I 763, M. Frster Themse 145 f., Kretschmer Gl. 24, 1 ff., 15 ff., Ml. Pedersen 76 ff., Benveniste BSL 33, 143. Page(s): 175

di- i- Root / lemma: d : d- and di- : di- : dMeaning: to share, divide information: Grammatical information: originally athemat. Wurzelprsens.

Material: Old Indic dti, dyti `clips, cuts, mows, separates, divides', participle din-, dit, composes ava-tta ` cropped, truncated, cut off ', dti- `the distributing', dnam `the abscission, trimming', dnm n. `distribution, deal, portion', dtu n. `deal, npers. dra ` remuneration ', ds `sickle'; Old Indic day ` communion, concern, commiseration ' = dyate (*di-etai) `divides, possess lot, has pity; destructs '.

portion', dtr- m. (= ) `reaper, mower', dtrm ` allotted share ', dtram n. `sickle',

Maybe nasalized form in alb. (*dyate) ndanj `cut, separate, allot, share'.

following words preserved (phonetic laws Konj. 375 ` is destroyed '); , -, , hom. also , - `share, meal, sacrifice, oblation' (: Old Indic dtu); `guest' `share' (: Old Indic dtrm; this of these gr. words is partly according to phonetic Cretan `division', ` distributor of fruit '), `host', probably also the dead as a corpse eater', Porzig IF. 41, 169 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 14, 228 f.; about of Aor. - `divide, carve, slit, destroy' (due to *F- ` sliced, destructed'), - compare ); laws - i, i - partly analogical, as in Cretan Perf. to , compare also

gr. med. `divide, allot, share' with probably after Fut. and and the

(as `serving the meal'), ` colter, plough coulter, pre-pruner. ' (: Old Indic dtr-),

m. `god, goddess; fate, destiny, persons lot in life' (actually ` prorating; or `god of

Archilochos `' see below *dens ` high mental power '); , Fut. -, *dens Hes., n. `interest, usury' (due to a participle *d-n-s = Old Indic din-, gall. arcanto-danos ` minting ' as `distributing silver'. people, area; the single region in Athens ', Old Irish dm f. ` retinue, troop, multitude, With formants -mo- : dmos f. `people': gr. , Doric m. `( people's division) mo-

crowd', acymr. dauu ` boy, serf, servant ', ncymr. daw, dawf `son-in-law'; apparently older fem. o-stem; in addition Hittite da-ma-a-i (dama?) `an other, foreigner, stranger', from `*foreign people', originally `*people', Pedersen Hittite 51 ff.

*del- `split'); about Old Irish fo-dlim etc s. just there. Here belongs probably also Gothic deldel dails `deal, portion', runeninschr. da[i]liun `divide', Old Icelandic deill, Old English dl, Old High German teil m. `deal, portion';

With formants -lo- perhaps Old Church Slavic dl `deal, portion' (*di-lo-) (see below lo-

Maybe alb. dallonj `separate, distinguish' deila, Old English dlan, Old High German teilan `divide' etc It could hardly derive from

Old Icelandic deila f. `division, disunion', Old High German teila f. `division'; Old Icelandic

Slavic, probably it derives from Venetic-Illyrian, because the root form *di- is attested in South Illyrian PN Dae-tor. An additional form Indo Germanic d i- besides di- would be unplausible.

*d-t), Old High German zt f. (n. Isidor), Old Saxon Old English td, Old Norse t f. `time,

With zero grade d- : Armenian ti, Gen. tioy `age, years, days, time' (* < d-t(i)- or *d-to-, d-

hour' (*t-, Indo Germanic*d-t-, ursprgl `period of time'), in addition Old Norse tr ` usual, ordinary, frequent, often', Old English tdan `occur', Old Norse ta ` aspire, strive'; Old Norse t-na ` to pick to pieces, take apart, weed, take out, remove, clean';

Old High German zila ` sequence, row, line', westfl. tle ` sheaf row ', Modern High German Zeile, probably from *t-l-. dp- p- p-no- nip- extension dp-, dp-; dp-no-, -ni- ` sacrificial meal ':

About Gothic til ` fitting' etc see below ad-2, but Gothic dails under del-3; here against it addel-

rend, mangle, lacerate, disassemble ', with intensive reduplication `tear, rend, () squander, dissipate in luxury', f. `expenditure, esp. arising from hospitality (: daps) ',

Old Indic dpayati `divides'; Armenian taun (*dap-ni-) `festival'; gr. (*) `tear,

food), provide for'), (Empedokles), `(* wasteful) exuberant, rich, generous '; Latin daps `(*share) a sacrificial feast, religious banquet; in gen., meal, feast, banquet ', Pedersen Hitt 42); damnum `loss, damage, defect, fine', damnsus ` ruinous ' (*dap-no- : , different

` lavish, wasteful ', ` consume' (out of it Latin dapin `serve up (as

maybe Illyrian Epidamnos (Eppi- '*horse' + *dap-no '*sacrifice'), also alb. Geg dam (*dapno) `damage': Latin damnum. Old Norse tafn (*dap-no-) ` sacrificial animal, sacrificial meal ', compare den Germanic GN Tanfana (Tacit.), if from *tafnana, Marstrander NTS. 1, 159. From Germanic one still adds a lot, what was a meaning-development from `split up, cut

up, divide' to `tear, pluck, shortly touch, make short clumsy movement ' would assume; in to, lose', Old Icelandic tapa ds.; Old Frisian tapia `pluck', Old English tppe f. ` cloth

following the meaning from , damnum derives aschw. tappa and tapa ` put an end stripes ', Middle English tappen (engl. tap) `hit lightly', Middle Low German tappen, tpen

(*tpatjan) ` just touch ', Norwegian Dialectal tpla `touch lightly, tread quietly'; but

(lengthening in open syllable?) ` pick, pluck'; Old Norse tpr ` barely touching ', isl. tpta

tabbet ` oafish ', are probably onomatopoeic words, also as ndd. tappe, Swiss tpe,

Norse tpiligr `concise', with other labial grades Swedish Dialectal tabb, tabbe ` gawk ',

Norwegian taapen `weak, feeble, ineligible ', tpe n. ` insignificant; unimportant thing', Old

Norwegian Dialectal taap(e) m., Danish taabe `fool, rogue, awkward; clumsy person',


Modern High German Tappe ` paw ', as well as tappen, tppisch etc; s. also under d ab Likewise are to be kept away Old High German zabaln, Modern High German zappeln,
h h

(Germanic *tappon-); also only Germanic words with i and u (compare Specht Dekl. 152 f.):Middle English tippen, engl. tip ` touch quietly, bump quietly ', Modern High German walk on tiptoe; trip ', Middle High German zipf `tip, cusp, peak', nasalized Middle Low Germantimpe f. `tip, end', Old English -timplian `hold with nails'; on the other hand tippen, Middle High German zipfen `(in swift movement) trip, scurry ', Old Norse tifask `

as well as Old High German zapfo, Modern High German Zapfen, Old Englishtppa ds.

Norwegian Dialectal tuppa, Modern High German zupfen, Old Norse toppr ` tuft of hair, filament ', Old High German zopf ` pigtail, braid, plait, end of a thing '; Middle Low German perhaps here also Old High German zumpo `penis', Middle High German zumpf(e), Modern High German Zumpt, whereat under dumb-. Here Tocharian A tp ` ate ', Van Windekens Lexique 187. tt-extension d-t- (compare but das participle d-t-s): ), wherefore `division', `lot', common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ssgr. `divide, tear, rend, consume' (Fut. , Aor. hom. , Attic zfeln ` waver ' (as zapfeln);
namreG htuoS

summit, acme, apex ', Old English topp m. `cusp, peak, crest, summit, tip ', toppa m. `

tubbe, tobbe ` spigot ', tobben `pluck, rend ',

` undivided '; is gr. neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676) and not Indo Germanic *d-t-;

`dividing, splitting' (this certainly from *-: Old Indic d-tr- `reaper, mower'),

submitting, suitable '; Old High German zetten `(distributing) strew, outspread ', Modern High German verzette(l)n, probably also Old Norse teja ` outspread dung ', ta n. `(* outstretched) dung'; Old High German zota, zata f. ` tuft of wool, hair hanging down

Gothic ungatass ` disarrayed, disorderly ' (compare -), Middle Dutch getes `be

together, filament or wool ' (therefrom zaturra ` a harlot, prostitute '), Old English tttec (expressives tt) `scrap, shred, tatter, rag ', Old Norse tturr `scrap, shred'; Old Danish tothae, Old Danish and Danish Dialectal tde, taade `, retard, delay, hinder'.

German zota, zotta ` topknot ', Modern High German Zotte, Zote; Middle High German

Besides with u-Vok. Old Norse toddi `small piece', holl. todde `scrap, shred', Old High

zoten `go slowly', Modern High German zotteln, East Frisian todden `pull, tear, drag ' ; Tocharian A tt-k `divide, carve, slit'. ess-extension d-es-: exhausted '; Old Indic dsyati ` suffers lack, swelters, languishes ', upadsyati ` goes out, is

about Modern High German zaudern s. Kluge


tase m. `weak person', tasma `languish', tasa ` become feeble '; ablaut. Danish Dialectal tse ` work slowly ', ndd.tsen ` work heavily', identical with Norwegian Danish tse ` disentangle, wear out, pull out'; compare in similar meaning Norwegian tasse ` go quietly ',

tasen `pluck', Modern High German Zaser, older Zasel ` fibre, filament ', Norwegian dial.

Norwegian dial. tasa `wear out', Swedish dial. tasa ` pluck wool, outspread hay ', ndd.

taspa ` go slowly and sluggishly', Middle High German zaspen `scratch, go sluggishly ', Old High German zascn ` seize, snatch, tear away ' (actually `drag') = Modern High 612.

dress '; about Old High German tasca `pouch, pocket' s. Kluge

German dial. zaschen, zschen `drag, pull, tear, work slowly ', zschen f. ` a train in the Maybe truncated alb. Geg (*zascn) me zan ` to seize, snatch, tear away ' Hittite te- `keep oneself away from' (3. Sg. preterit ti-e-a-a). Maybe alb. Geg (*te) tesha Pl. `clothes, belongings, rags', tesh `speck of dust, little splinter, torn piece' neologism?): Besides with i-vocalism (Indo Germanic *di-s as extension to d-? Or only Germanic Swedish dial. teisa, tesa ` pull to pieces ', Danish dial. tese `pluck (e.g. wool)', Old

probably also (?) Old English teoswian `plague, disparage ', teoso `insult, deceit, malice'. Finally with u-vocalism: Norwegian dial. tosa `rub, wear out, pluck', also `flub, work

filament ', tsl ` shrubbery ', with Middle High German zispen `go sluggishly' (as zaspen),

Norwegian Dialectal test `willow fibre, ringlet, hair lock ', with Norwegian tst ` fibre,

East Frisian holl. teisteren ` rend ', Old English tsel, Old High German zeisala ` teasel ',

English tsan ` pull to pieces ', Old High German zeisan, zias ` ruffle; tousle, pluck wool ';

slowly ', tose `frail person', tos ` fibers, ragged rigging ', tossa `strew, distribute, outspread ', Middle English ttsen `tousle, ruffle', Middle Low German tsen ` rend, pull', Old High

brushwood, hair lock ' ; perhaps to Latin dmus ` a thorn bush, bramble brushwood, shrub' (*ds-mo-s) and Old Irish doss `bush'. From PIE this root passed to Altaic: Protoform: *dma Meaning: ill, sick, bad

German zirzsn `tousle, ruffle', Middle High German zsach ` brushwood ', zse f. `

Turkic protoform: *jAman

Tungus protoform: *dam-

Japanese protoform: *dm-

Note: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic form (MC ja-mn 'savage, barbarian' is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original meaning of the root was 'ill(ness), sick(ness)').

References: References: WP. I 763 ff., WH. I 322, 323 f., 859; Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676.

delderdel- ` whereupon it is split apart ', der- `split, flay' see below see below its own headwords. Page(s): 175-179

delSee also: out at least basically as extensions from d- `cut, split' agreeable root del- `split',

Meaning: to prick; tick

deih Root / lemma: deih-

Material: Armenian ti `tick'; Middle Irish dega, Akk. degaid (*digt-) ` stag-beetle ';

ticca), engl. tike and tick `wood tick, sheep louse ', Middle Low German Zecke m. f. `wood teke, Middle High German Zeche, engl. teke ds.;

Germanic *tkan-, with intensive sharpening *tikkan-, in Old English ticia m. (lies tiica or

tick', Modern High German Zecke; besides a mediation form *tkan- in Middle Low German Norwegian dial. tikka, ndd. ticken ` stumble lightly ', Middle High German zicken ds.; Old

High German zechon ` pulsate, banter, skirmish'; engl. tickle ` titillate '; nasalized Old English tindian ds. A connection with d ig- `prick' is not provable.

References: References: WP. I 777. Page(s): 187-188

Root / lemma: deikMeaning: to show Note: from which Latin and Germanic partly ` point to something with words, say',

ziht ds., Modern High German Verzicht), Old Indic di- f. `instruction, direction', di

`directive, doctrine' (= Latin dicti-, Old English tiht ` accusation ', Old High German in-, bi`direction' (= `right, justice', from which probably Latin dicis causa ` for form's sake, for the sake of appearances '), de- `(direction), region' = Old Norse teigr see below; gr. , secondary `points, shows, evinces', Cretan -

participle Old Indic di- (= Latin dictus); dii- ` instruction, regulation ', Avestan diti-

`show' (dasayeiti, disyeiti, dadit) `show; assign something to somebody, adjudge ',

Material: Old Indic ddei, diti, dayati `shows, point at', Avestan das- Aor. di-

developed plural also ` show the right, point to the culprit, accuse '

`', ` the display ' (with secondary lengthened grade), see above, not with Indo Germanic g, but gr. innovation;

, , ; the Perf. Med. , and ` averment, proof, example' Latin dcere `to indicate; to appoint; most commonly, to say, speak, tell, mention; in

pass. with infin., to be said to; to mention, speak of, tell of, relate; to name, call; to mean, ', Oscan dekum `say', Umbrian teitu, deitu `(Fut. Imper.) you will say, declare', changing to dedicate, consecrate, set apart ', Latin dci ` power, sovereignty, authority ', indcre

refer to', dcre ` announce solemnly, award, consecrate, dedicate, set apart, devote, offer through ablaut Oscan dicust ` will have said ', Umbrian dersicust ds., Oscan da-dkatted `

touchstone ' (as also Old Indic dein ` forefinger '), idex ` a judge; in plur., a panel of jurors ', vindex (vindicre = vim dicere), causidicus; about proto Irish *Ekuo-decas, Lugudec(c)as (Gen. Sg.) see below dek-1. Gothic gateihan ` indicate, promulgate ', Old Norse ta, newer ti `show, depict,

`indicate, display, show, offer', index ` an informer; a sign, token; the forefinger; a title; a

zhan `accuse, blame', zeihen';

represent, explain, announce ', Old English ton ` indicate, promulgate ', Old High German Maybe alb. Tosc zihem `quarrel, argue', truncated Geg (*zhan) zan ` to quarrel '. wherefore Old Norse tgenn `(*show, point out, reveal, advise, teach) noble', (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), tgn f. `rank; noble man, husband'; Old High

German zeign `show', whereof zeiga `instruction'; inziht etc see above; further Old Norse changing through ablaut Old English tg, th `meadow, pasture ', Middle Low German t(g) Here presumably with the meaning `finger' (= `*pointer') and secondary, but already old teigr m. ` linear part of meadow ' (`*direction' = Old Indic des- `region, place, land'),

m. public collective place of a village ', Old High German zch `forum'.

`toe', Old High German zha, Old English the, t, Old Norse t `toe' (*diku), Middle

from *dicitus through dissimilation against the toneless t resulted Latin digitus `finger, toe'. Sturtevant Lang. 6, 27 f., 227 ff.; doubts the formation because of E. Forrer by Feist 204. Hittite: tekkussai- (I) ' indicate, show, present, display ' (Friedrich 220) taikn n. ds., Old High German (etc) zeihhan n. `mark, token, sign', Old English tcan, Besides Indo Germanic doi- in Gothic taikns f. `mark, token, sign, wonder, miracle', doiHittite tek-ku-a-nu-mi ` makes recognizable, points, shows, evinces' here after

Low German twe, Modern High German and sdd. zwe ds. (*doik-u), and that probably

zeihhonn ` draw, depict, sign ', Gothic taiknjan `show', Old High German zeihinen ds. From Germanic *taikna derives Finnish taika- `omen, sign'. see, allow to shine '? Page(s): 188-189 Whether deik- and dei- from dei- `bright shine' (also `see') are extended as ` allow to

engl. teach `instruct', Old Norse teikna `show, signify, designate', Old High German

References: WP. I 776 f., WH. I 348 f., 351, 860, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696 f., Feist 204, 472.

Meaning: to shine; day; sun; sky god, god Material: Note: (older `*dart rays'?)

deidRoot / lemma: dei-1, dei-, d-, di- (*stei- : zdei-)

Old Indic d-d-ti ` seems, shines', 3. Pl. ddyati, Impf. 3. Sg. ddt, Imper. 2. Sg. didh, shines, seems ' (about dvyati see below), ddi- `shining, seeming' (due to from d-de-ti); su-d-t-) ` having nice brilliance ', Kaus. dpyati ` ignites, illuminates', dpyate `blazes,

similar *doi-d-o- (broken Redupl.) in Old Norse teitr `cheerful, blithe, glad' (actually

`radiating'), Old English ttn `caress', tt- (in names) `blithe, glad', Old High German zeiz `tender, graceful' (compare heiter and `clear, bright' as `blithe, glad'; Uhlenbeck Old Indic Wb. 126); perhaps here also Lithuanian ddis `big, large' as ` handsome, considerable ';

Hes., Arcadian Konj. , hom. Aor. `to appear ', Konj. , common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -sscompared with Arcadian Aor. [] with after , Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 681 ;

gr. hom. (Imperfect) `he saw, discerned, perceived ', ,

hom. `visible' (*; with metr. lengthening ), ds. (from *, *doilo*doilo- presumably in Old English sweo-tol (from *tl) `apparent, manifest, obvious,

from which also Hesychs ; hom. `very distinct, clear, bright' (from *-); distinct, clear, bright' and in Middle Irish del `beetle, chafer' (`shining black insect') as well as in Irish river names Daol (*doil) as `the shining'. Here probably also Lithuanian dails `dainty, pretty', dilinti `smooth, adorn'.

: zdal-, Modern High German Zeidel-, Low German tl- `honey '(' clearness, shine - clear honey '). Against Pedersens raising from Hittite (*ste-)te-e-a- `dream' (Murilis 69) s. deieuieu u-extension: deiieu- (: diu-, diu-, diu-) `bright, divine revered sky and bright day: Gen. diu-s, -s; dius-ptr `sky father, heavenly father'. us- tr us div (and dy), Instr. Pl. dy-bhi;

With formants -tlo- presumably here being found only in the compound Germanic *tlatlo-

Couvreur H 53 and above S. 178.

Diphth. stem Nom. dius (diius Akk. dium, Vok. diu, Lok. diui and diu, Dat. diui, us diius), us um, um u,

Old Indic dyu (diyu) `sky, heaven', Akk. dym, Lok. dyv, div, Dat. div, Gen. gr. (= dy-), Akk. Z (= dym), Vok. (*diu), Gen. (F), Dat. (Lok.) (F)

( lengthened , , Z; about by Pherekydes of Syros s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. Gr. I 547);

Gr. I 577 ); the Gen. *diues in Thessalian -, prien. - (Schwyzer

Maybe Rumanian zeu `god' : alb. zot, Pl. zota `god' : Rumanian zei, zeitate, zn `goddess' : alb. zana f. `nymph, goddess' : gr. [common alb. n > nt > t]. uppermost God and the `day'; similarly in the Oscan and Umbrian: Note: common Latin Illyrian d- > l-: in Latin the old paradigm has split in two names which designate the name of the

dyupit `father of the sky, heavenly father', , Dat. Umbrian Iuvepatre, Illyrian (Hes.) -; Note: The inanimate suffix -ur : Illyrian (Hes.) - : , , Illyrians, , , ur ur , speak the Illyrian language, :--hence Adv. . Illyria, also , , Adj. , , , Illyrian: -, the region or province of Illyria, In Illyrian and Albanian the attribute noun or adjective comes after the noun. Latin Gen. Iouis (Old Latin also Diovis, also as Nom.), Oscan Dive ` Jove ', uvilam, older diuvilam `* iovilam ', ivilas `* iovilae ' etc, compare GentilN Latin Ilius (*Iovilios); Jupiter; '(flamen) dialis'. Thursday'. Maybe -l- suffix, (typical in Old Indic and Illyrian): alb. die-lli ` sun ' : Latin Dilis `relating to Maybe alb. (*Jove-di, *jeudi) enjte 'Thursday' : French jeudi ' Thursday ', Italian jovedi ' Latin Dispiter (whereof Dilis `relating to Jupiter; '(flamen) dialis', the priest of Jupiter') `day', while to the name of ` sky God ' the ablaut grade *diou- from *dieu- would be with Akk. d(i)im has changed after Nom. dis, otherwise would prevail in the meaning accomplished under the pressure of Vok. *dieu- (up to Dispiter, also Umbrian Di, Dei

Latin Iuppiter from I-piter, Umbrian Jupater Vok. = , to Nom. Old Indic

`[masc acc. sing.] god, [neut voc. sing.] god', contracted from di-, so that Di(m) = *dim); the old Nom. *dis from *dius still standing in addition toVdiovis, Viovis, V-dis `oldrm. Underworld God '; in the meaning `day' Latin dis see above (m.; as f. in the meaning `date, day month

*diu), ` for a long time ', ` a long time ago' out of it `long'.

Nom. dius still in nu-dis tertius `now is the 3. day', further di ` by day' (Lok. *diu or us

year (according to the calendar), period, time' presumably after nox), yet besides the older

Maybe in -e- grade Latin Greek Albanian: Latin perendie (*peren-dies) ` on the day after e tomorrow ' : Albanian (*peren-diem) perndim m. ` sunset, end of the day ', perndimi ` west ', (*peren-desha) perndesha ` upper goddess ' (*peren-dea) perndia ` divinity '. Albanian (-dea, -desha ` goddess ' : Latin dea : Italian dea : Spanish diosa : French desse : Portuguese deusa ` goddess '. [see Root / lemma: per-2 : to go over; over]. per-

diminutive Latin dicula ` a little day, a short time ', Oscan [d]ikls `days', zicolo m. `day'; dydd, corn. deth, dyth, bret. deiz `day' (also); Old Irish in-du `today', cymr. etc he-ddyw `today' (at first from *-dii, probably = Latin di). Maybe Root / lemma: ko-, ke- (with particle ke `here'), k(e)i-, k(i)iio- : this + Root / lemma: (e)i(e)i i Latin hodie, Latvian odiena, Lithuanian iandien `this day, today'. Old Irish de, proclitic da `day' (from after the Akk. *diim has changed *diis), cymr.

deiddei-1, dei-, d-, di- : to shine, day = , cymr. etc he-ddyw : alb. (*sodiena) sonte `today' :

Maybe Latvian diena : Lithuanian diena : cymr. dydd : Wallon djo : alb. dita : Spanish da : Asturian da : Catalan dia : Piemontese di : Leonese da : Valencian dia : Venetian d : Ladin d : Lombardo Occidentale d : Mantuan d : Portuguese dia : Romagnolo d : Bergamasco d : Bolognese d : Bresciano d : Breton deiz : Frisian dei : Galician da : Romanian zi : Romansh di : Sardinian Campidanesu di > Italian (*diorno) giorno : Furlan jornu : Sicilian iornu : Triestino giorno : Mudns d; giorn : Napulitano juorno : Occitan jorn; dia : Parmigiano gioren : Reggiano giouren; d : Viestano jurn' : Zeneize giorno < Latin dis `day'. From the ablaut grade diu- in the meaning `day'; heaven'), naktdivam `night and day', sudivm `a nice day', sudiv- ` having a nice day compare ); Latin dius, interdius `of the day, in the daytime, by day ' (with Latin eseses es-stem diues- presumed from Old Indic divas- `day', formal to dak. `

d; zornade : French (*diour) jour : Calabrese 'iornu; juarnu : Catanese jornu : Caterisano

Old Indic dv `during the day', divdiv `day by day' (divm Nom. otherwise `sky,

', Armenian tiv `day', gr. ` in the middle of the day (appearing)' (due to * F,

syncope from Gen. *dius); bi-, tri-duum (*diuom) ` period of two, three days ';

common mullein, high taper ', probably from *diues m `luminous plant' (Detschev, Dak. Old Indic su-divm (above); compare Sommer Nominalkomp. 73 ff.

Pflanzenn. 14 ff.); but gr. (*-F) `clear, cheerful', older `clear weather', to ios *diuios in Old Indic divy-, divi- ` celestial ', divyni ` the heavenly space', gr. (from

fine, noble; also (apparently) out of doors, in the open air ' (different from dvus!), dum

*F, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 472a) `divine, heavenly ', Latin dus ` divine, god-like; hence

moon and hunting' *Divi (?); compare etr. Tiv `moon', tives ` months ', after Kretschmer

`open space of heaven', sub do; Dina deriving from *Divina, ` the virgin goddess of the

Gl. 13, 111 f. from Italian *divi, and orph. `Selene (goddess of the moon)' from *-F ` all kinds of illuminators '. ablaut grade diu- in Old Indic dyu-mnm ` splendor of the sky ', dyu-mnt- `bright, light',

verbal dyut- `gleam, shine' in dytat, Aor. ved. dyaut `shines' (with t probably after svitetc, from *dus-diu- `bad weather', Trubetzkoj Z. sl. Ph. 4, 62 ff. o-stem diuo-s `god, the divine': Old Indic dv- `god' (dv `goddess'), Avestan dava- `demon'; `be bright'); compare also Old Church Slavic dd `rain', russ. dod', Old Czech de,

of a deity, goddess ';

Oscandeva `goddess' (Oscan deivinais = Latin dvnis; Umbrian deueia ` [fem. Acc. sing.]

Latin deus and dvus, by of from the paradigm *deiuos (> deos), Gen. *deiu (> dv);

Maybe alb. dif `giant' a Latin loanword. Oscan deiuatud ` to swear an oath ' = Latvian dievtis `swear, vow'; Latin dves ` rich, Slavic bogat, s. Schulze KZ. 45, 190); wealthy; with abl. or genit., rich in ', actually `standing under the protection of the Gods', as gall. GN Dvona, PN Dvo-gnta, Old Irish dia, Gen. d `god', acymr. duiu-(tit) Old Norse tvar Pl. `gods' (*deius) as well as Old Norse Tyr (Old Germanic teiwaz) `the

`goddess, deity', mcymr. ncymr. duw, acorn. duy, bret. dou `god';

god of war', Old English Tg, Gen. Twes `Mars', Old High German Zo, Zio; Maybe alb. zana `goddess, ghost', zota `gods' > zot `god'.

(verbal derivative lies before in Lithuanian deivtis `say farewell ', Latvian dievtis see above), compare Trautmann 50, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 484, 485 f. Against it are Old Church Slavic div m. `wonder, miracle', divo, -ese n. ds. (-es-stem probably previously

divo snliai `sons of the sky', Finnish loanword taiwas `sky, heaven'), Latvian devs

Old Prussian deiw(a)s, Lithuanian divas `god' (deiv `goddess, ghost' from *deiui,

after udo, -ese ds), divn ` wonderful ', didn't derive from concept `god, deity ', but (as

se `look, see, observe', which behaves to Old Indic d-de-ti `shines' in the meaning as e.g. Middle High German blick `lustre, shine, lightning' and `look of the eyes', Modern High German glnzen : Slavic gldati `see, show'.

from ) position itself to klr. dyvl', dyvty sja `see, look, show', Czech dvam

en*deiendeino- dinoen-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) only in the meaning `day': Note: The extension en-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) is of Illyrian origin. The attribute en*deiendeino- dinonouns that derived from adjectives in Illyrian alb. take -ta, -nta suffix which was then reduced to common alb. n > nt > t. (see alb. numbers)

(esp. in compounds `day', Latin nundinae ` the market-day held during every ninth day ', Maybe alb. (*dna) dita `day' : Old Indic dna-m (esp. in compounds `day' : < Lithuanian dien, Latvian dena, Old Prussian Akk. f. deinan `day' [common alb. n > nt > t]. `make day' from *-di-n-i; Old Irish denus `a period of time', trdenus ` three days' time, three days '; alb. gdhinj maybe alb. gdhinj `the day breaks' is a compound of zero grade *ego `I' + dna `I make the day'. zero grade Lithuanian dien, Latvian dena, Old Prussian Akk. f. deinan `day'

originally conservative still in Old Church Slavic dn, Gen. dne `day'; Old Indic dna-m

having long days '.

everlasting'; perhaps here Old High German len(gi)zin `springtime' from *langat-tin as `

(Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f., Bga Kalba ir. S. 227 f.); Gothic sinteins `daily, perpetual,

`day, sky, heaven') (Gl. 13, 111; 14, 303 ff., 19, 207; s. also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 65); but the older form is ! di-ro- d-ror-extension di-ro-, d-ro- in: lovely, delightful, nice, superb, pretty, splendid, beautiful', ziar `beauty, ornament, Germanic *tra- (*di-ro-) and *tra- (*dro-) in Old High German zri, ziari `precious,

pre-Greek Tin- `Diespiter (Zeus father)', respectively Italian *Dinus (Indo Germanic *din-

Kretschmer leads back to gr. T- `sons of Zeus', etr. Tin, Tinia `Juppiter' of a

prospering; flourishing, good constitution ', tre and tre ` habit, kind and way ', Old English Old Saxon tr `honour, fame', Old Norse trr ds.; Norwegian dial. tr `alertness, lookout, peering, light, lustre, shine', tra `peek, sparkle, glitter';

adornment', ziarn `adorn, embellish', Middle Low German tr `lustre, shine, fame,

`watch, see' (but Bulgarian d `search, seek' absents, s. Berneker 201); Tocharian A tiri ` kind and way '. ijri `appears' (*di-?) s. Pedersen Hittite 57, 175 f. [perhaps to 'sun'?]

Old Prussian endyrtwei (, see Bga Kalba ir. s. 227 f., Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f.)

in addition Lithuanian dyrti, droti `gawk, lurk', dairtis, Latvian dartis `stare about',

About Hittite iwat- `day', iwanni- `god' (from *diu-?), Hieroglyphic-Hittite tina- `god',

Hittite: ? iu-, iun-, iuni-, iwann-, iwanni- c. 'god', iwatt- c./n. 'day' (Friedrich 194, 1950 Maybe Etruscan Tina `god'. -a- feminine ending proves it meant `goddess goddess'. a goddess Note: (Just like Albanian masculine t-ij ` his', feminine s-aj ` her' Hittite verb masculine ending -ti ti ` you', feminine ending -i ` you') feminine, t- masculine. Hence Hittite iwanni- meant `goddess not `god' because Hittie differentiation - means goddess' goddess To Old Indic dvyati `plays, shows, throws dice ' (supposedly ` throws the eye ') compare

with other ablaut dytm `dice game', further dvanam `the game, dice game', and above -dvyeinti ` bestir oneself, strive for ' as ` whereupon it is split apart '? compare dytate `shines', dyuti `lustre, shine', dyumnt- `bright, light'. Whether here also Avestan

Wackernagel, Berl. Sbb. 1918, 396 f. whirl', seems conceivable. Gr. Gr. I 576 f.

The fact that our root as ` vibrating light' originally one has been from dei- `hurry, dei

References: References: WP. I 772 f., WH. I 345 f., 347, 349 f., 355, 357 f., 727, 732, 860, Schwyzer

Page(s): 183-187 dRoot / lemma: dei-2 (di-, di-, d-) di Meaning: to swing, move Material: Old Indic dyati `flies, hovers'; gr. m. `whirl, whirlpool; round vessel, round

`whirl, whirlpool',

threshing floor ', (Hom.), Aeolic (compare , Hoffmann Gr. D. II 484)

dancing in circles'; pass. ` roam around, reel around, roll (the eyes) whirl (from river), spin ostentatious distribution the intr. and tr. meaning in active and Medium), hom. `to hurry', `flee', `rush', () ` fleeting ' (after , : to thematic analogical instead of * neologism?), dancing around', Aeolic `thresh'; hom. `flee', ` chase away' (with

, , Aeolic `spin in whirl or circle, swing, brandish'; intr. ` turn me by

`pursue' (contaminated from F and , Meillet MSL. 23, 50 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 702); hom. (Fut. hom. ) ` strive for, be troubled about, search, seek', nachhom. also ` investigate ' (*--), next to which due to *-- Attic ` strive for, let me be concerned with '; here with originally *di- : `storm, violent movement, particularly of the sea', `whirlpool, violent movement of water'? compare about gr. words containing the Schwyzer Gr. Or. I 330, 833. idly'. About Lithuanian dain `folk song' (to dej ` lamentation?') compare MhlenbachEndzelin I 432 with Lithuanian Old Irish dan `quick, fast', dne ` quickness '; Latvian deju, dit `dance', dedelt `go

wanton, bratty, unengaged, leisured, unemployed, idle, lazy', Latvian dks `free of work', 54).

Quite doubtful cymr. dig `mad, wicked, evil', russ. dkij `wild', Lithuanian dkas `minxish,

Old Church Slavic divj `wild' (Berneker 203 f., Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 478, Trautmann Not here gr. `reed' (new Ionian and occasional Doric metr.

lengthening? Schulze Qunder ep. 205, Boisacq 196), `shake', ` rove about in the sea' and Latvian duonis, dui `reed, bulrushes '. Page(s): 187 References: WP. I 774 ff.

Root / lemma: dek-1

Meaning: to take, *offer a sacrifice, observe a custom

Material: Old Indic daasyti `proves honour, venerates a god, is gracious' (Denomin. of *daas- = Latin decus), da f. `state, status, fate, destiny'; Avestan dasm n. `property,

belongings piece '; Old Indic Desiderat. dkat `is consecrated', dk `consecration' (*didk-s- with secondary ), dkati `is proficient, makes it right, is compliant', dka- `proficient, skilful' (but Avestan dax- `instruct, teach, instruct', npers. dax ` business, toil'

stay away because of the Gutturals), lengthened grade Old Indic dnti, di, dati

`offer a sacrifice, give, proves honour, grants', dvs- `honoring the Gods, godly, pious'; Avestan dta- `receive, obtains, attains ' (participle); after Frisk Etyma Armen. 25 f. here Armenian ncay `gift' from *nd-tisti- (proto-

Armenian -tis- from *dk-); whether tesanem `I behold '? (compare under ); different Meillet Esquisse 135;

( after *, Infin. ), Aor. , participle , compare

gr. (Ionian Aeolic Cretan) `take in, accept', Attic , athemat. hom. 3. Pl.

Hes. ( instead of ); is preserved in `[absorption] Hes., ` to captivate, fascinate, be impressive ', - `the take of presents', (participle Aor.) `water container, water carrier ', ` distinguished ' ( metr. lengthening); nasal present *v (: Old Indic beam ', Hes. (out of it Latin doga `a sort of vessel (perhaps a measure)'),

`to greet'; intensive ds., - `greet' (for *-()- after the

dnti) in participle `rendering homage, honoring, greeting ', to

present auf -); - could be read - (Indo Germanic ), - also -, and could be metr. lengthening for - (Schwyzer Gr Gr. I 648, 697); causative (= how; 'docere fabulam', to teach a play to the actors, to bring out, exhibit', `it Latin doce `to teach, instruct (with acc. of person or thing); with clause, to inform that or seems to me' (`is suitable to me'); f. `opinion, fame' (*-), n. `decision', ` respectable, approved '; ` to see, discern, perceive, observe; to think, densdens-1. suppose, imagine, expect ', - ` anticipate, expect'; about see below

Maybe alb. Geg doke `custom, ritual, tradition (observed)', (*deuk-) dukem `appear, seem'. tong- *teng *tengtong-1 (*teng-) : `to think, feel'. under ds-; Alb. shows that from Root / lemma: dek-1 : `to take' derived the nasalized Root / lemma: lemma: alb. ndieh `to feel' (*dek-sk-?); ndesh `find, encounter' probably Slavic loanword? S.

worthy, deserving; esp. of persons, usually with abl. or genit. of things, worth having,

`distinction, honor, glory, grace; moral dignity, virtue; of persons, pride, glory ', dignus `

Latin decet, -re `it is proper, it is fitting (physically or morally)', decus, -oris n.

deserved, suitable, fitting ' (from *dec-nos, actually ` adorned with'); Umbrian ticit decet'

(see in addition EM. 257); causative doce, -re `instruct' (`lets accept something '); disc, -ere, didci ` to learn, get to know; 'discere fidibus', to learn to play on the lyre; in gen., to


receive information, find out; to become acquainted with, learn to recognize ' (from *di-elkOld Irish dech `the best ' (= Latin decus); also in PN Echuid (*ekvo-dek-s), Gen.

Echdach, Luguid, Gen. Luigdech (proto Irish Lugu-deccas with cc = k), whether does not stand for e for older i; then to deik- `point', in the meaning `order'. Perhaps here Germanic *teh-un in Old English teohhian, tiohhian `mean, decide,

define, ordain, determine', teohh, tiohh `troop, multitude, crowd, group of people ', ton

`dispose'; s. above also under deu- ` move spatially forward '.

wherefore perhaps with lengthened grade (*t-u) Gothic twa `order', gatwjan Doubtful Old Church Slavic de, desiti `find', Serbo-Croatian dsm dsiti `meet', refl. `

High German Zeche, Middle High German zesem (*teksma-) `uninterrupted row',

Middle High German zeche ` alignment, guild, brotherhood, colliery, association ', Modern

(*tehn) `decide, define, ordain, determine', Old High German gizehn ` bring in order ',

meet somebody ', Czech po-desiti and u-desiti `catch up, catch'; changing through ablaut russ.-Church Slavic dositi `find, meet'; s. also under ds-. dsTocharian A tk- `adjudicate, decide, determine'; dubious A tskm (*tksk-m)

`similar', Van Windekens Lexique 137; Pisani R. R. 1st. Lomb. 76, 2, 30. 62, 218).

For es-stem Old Indic daas(yti), Latin decus the words stand for `right' (Specht KZ.

deks- with variant suffixes: common Old Indic h- > kLithuanian dinas ds., dein `the right hand', Old Church Slavic desn `right'; gr. Old Indic dkia-, dakia- `on the right, to the south, skilful', Avestan daina- `right',

= Latin dexter, -tra, -trum (compounds dexterior, Superl. dextimus), Oscan side '; gr. `right, heralding luck, skilful, adroit' (from - with formants -Fo-,

destrst (abbreviated from *destrust) `it is on the right ', Umbrian destrame ` on the right compare gall. Dexsiva dea); (the suffix -uo- probably after *lai-uos, skai-uos `links') Old High German zeso `right', Gothic tahsw- Old High German zes(a)wa `the right hand'; alb. Irish dess `on the right, to the south', cymr. deheu (*deksovo-) ds., Gothic tahswa, Old

corruption for desn, s. Berneker 187).

djatht `right' (that from G. Meyer identical with it Church Slavic dest is probably

Note: Note The etymology of G. Meyer seems erroneous because of the common alb. -k- > -th- similar as Latin dexter, -tra, -trum is a suffixed form of old PIE Root / lemma: dek-1 : `to take'. The -ter,-tra suffix has been attested in Avestan Illyrian alb. and Latin Hence before -tra, -ter suffix the -k- becomes usually -ks- in all the above mentioned languages. Hence alb.

(*dek-) djath-t `right' evolved from the common alb. -k- > -th- like in alb. (mag-) math `big' wickedly, unfortunately, extremely'.

while -t is the common alb. suffix as in alb. maj-t `left' from Latin male `badly, ill, wrongly, References: WP. I 782 f., WH. I 330 f., 346 f,, Trautmann 53, 54, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 648, 678, 684, 697, Wistrand Instrumentalis 14 ff. Page(s): 189-191

Meaning: to tear

dk Root / lemma: dek-2 (: dok-, dk-)

`lock, curl of hair'(*doklo-); Gothic tagl n. `single hair', Old Norse tagl n. `the hair in the male member, rod';

Material: Old Indic das ` protruding sheet filaments at the end of fabric, fringes '; Irish dal horse's tail', Old English tgl (engl. tail) m. `tail', Old High German zagel `tail, sting, prick,

Gothic tahjan ` rend, pull, tear, tug ', distahjan `scatter', isl. teja, ta ` teasels ', Old Norse tg, Pl. tger and tgar f. ` fibre, filament ', Middle High German zch, zhe f. Norwegian dial. tja (*tahjan) and taa (*tahn) `fray, tear';

`wick, slow match (wick) '; in other meaning (`tugging - lugging, pulling out ') Norwegian Dialectal taag `slow and enduring', maybe alb. tegel `sewing'

Middle Low German tge, East Frisian tge `stringy, tenacious' and Old High German zag ` hesitating, undecided, shy, timid' wherefore zagn ` be desperate and undecided '; perhaps here as ` from which one tears himself ' or ` ragged, rimose piece', Middle High

German zacke m. f., Modern High German Zacke, Middle English takke ` fibula, clasp, a peak, prong, spike'; or belongs Zacke to Latvian dgums `nose, shoe point'? Maybe alb. tak `shoe heel (spike?)'

large nail ', engl. tack `peg, small nail', with other final sound tagg, tagge m. ` jutting cusp,

German zacke m. f., Modern High German Zacke, Middle English takke `fibula', engl. tack

perhaps here as ` in which one tears himself ' or ` ragged, cracked piece ', Middle High

to Latvian degums hear `nose, shoe point '? See also: see also under denk-. References: WP. I 785.

` pencil, small nail ', with other final sound tagg, tagge m. ` excellent point, point '; or Zacke

Page(s): 191

Meaning: ten Note:

Root / lemma: dekm, dekm-t, deku- (*due-km-t) du

(u) Root / lemma: dekm, dekm-t, deku- (*due-km-t): `ten' is an extended Root / lemma: du(u) du : (*duei-): `two'. The subsequent roots *u-kmt- : `twenty' and kmtm `hundred' are mutated duei- : ei m u forms of the root *due-km-t : `ten'. They both reflect the common Illyrian- balt d- > zero. du Comments: The root number (*kem-t-) for 10, 20, 30, 40, 100 derived from the name of deer counted by PIE hunters. see Root / lemma: kem-2 : hornless, young deer. emem Material: Old Indic da, Avestan dasa; Armenian tasn (after Meillet Esquisse 42 from

degetasis ` manager of the tithes ' (*deken-tsio-),

*dek-noi; PN Decius = Oscan Dekis, Gen. Dekkieis), Oscan deketasi, Nom. Pl.

*d k-, as russ. (tri)dcat `30' from (tri-)dseti), gr. , Latin decem (dn `per ten' from

n as in sibun, niun), Old Norse tiu, Old English tien, tyn, Old Saxon tehan, Old High German zehan (a probably from den compounds, Brugmann II 2, 18), 104 borrows from Indo Germanic).

Umbrian desen-(duf) ` twelve ', Old Irish deich, cymr. deg, corn. bret. dek, Gothic tahun (-

Tocharian A k, B ak; Finnish deksan `10' is after Jokl Pr. ling. Baudouin de Courtenay In the substantive number dekm-t(i), actually `decade', go back: t(i), Gr. I 498, 597), Gothic tihun-thund `hundred' (actually `ten decades '), Old Norse tiund f. metath. desmit, old desmits (compare desmite m. f. ` ten '); Old Church Slavic dest

Old Indic daat-, daati- f. `decade', alb. djet, gr. , - (to s. Schwyzer Gr.

ds., Old Prussian dessmpts `ten', Lithuanian dimt, old dimtis, Latvian old desimt, (conservative stem in -t, Meillet Slave comm. 428);

party, club' (out of it borrows Modern High German Decher .. `ten pieces'; late Latin

deku- probably in Latin decuria ` a body of ten men; a class, division, esp. of jurors; a

Maybe alb. tek `odd number' formations up to 50 are provable as Indo Germanic), e.g. Old Indic trit `30', Avestan Changing through ablaut (d)kmt- (Dual), (d)kmt- (Plur.) in figures of ten (only mtmt

riss, Armenian ere-sun, gr. (from *-; further details by Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 592), Latin tri-gint (with unexplained g), gallo-Latin Abl. Pl. TRICONTIS, Old Irish trcho `20'); s. also under u-kmt `20'.

(with after tr `3'), bret. tregont (*tri-komt-es), acymr. trimuceint (in the ending after uceint ordinals dek mo-s and dekm-to-s: momo to-

therefrom decumnus ` of the tenth.(1) relating to the provincial tax of a tenth; m. as subst. the farmer of such a tax. (2) belonging to the tenth legion; m. pl. as subst. its members. (3) belonging to the tenth cohort ', later `considerable ', Oscan Dekm-annis `*Decumaniis',

momo dek mo-s in Old Indic daam-, Avestan dasma-, osset. dsm; Latin decimus,

compare also EN Decumius, out of it entl. etr. tecumnal, latinized back Decumenus; gall. decametos, Old Irish dechmad, mcymr. decvet, corn. degves. dekm-to-s in gr. (see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 595); Gothic tahunda, Old Norse to-

Lithuanian deimtas, Latvian desmitais, older desimtai; Old Church Slavic dest; Note:

tunda, Old High German zehanto, zehendo, Old English teogea; Old Prussian dessmts, Tocharian A knt, B kante, kace (linguistic singles Armenian tasn-erord, alb. i-dhjet); Anatolian languages show a pattern similar to alb. So Lycian aitta (*okt(u)ta) `eight' : alb. teta `eight'; Lycian utta `nine' : alb. nanda `nine'. Therefore alb. shtata `seven' derived from a truncated *sa(p)tata `seven' later Old Indic sapttha, Avestan haptaa-, Old

Saxon sivotho, Old English seofoa, Lithuanian septitas; also Old Indic saptat-, Avestan haptiti- 70; in alb. -ta, -t are attribute endings that were solidified in Anatolian and Indic alone. cognates. The attribute ta (used in the genitive and adjectives) is unique to alb. language


see also under under centuria under Kluge

fower-tig, Old High German fior-zug ds. Older explanations by WH. I 327 f. and Feist 150. under Decher.

Germanic *tigu- `decade' in Gothic fidwor-tigjus `40', Old Icelandic fjrer-tiger, Old English

appropriate to a decury ', Umbrian tekvias `a way to a decury'; in addition probably

decuries '; compare Oscan-Umbrian dekvia- in Oscan (va) Dekkviarim `( a way)

Middle High German ziger `curd') = Umbrian dequrier, tekuries ` decuries, feast of

*teguria is assumed through Swiss Ziger ` ten pounds of milk'; probably identical with

Therefore alb. teta `eight' is a zero grade of Lycian aitta (*okt(u)ta) `eight'. It was initially an ordinal number used as an attribute [compare Latin octugint `80']. Alb. Tosc nanta, Geg nanda ` nine ' derived from Lycian utta `nine'. Alb. gjashta (seks-ta) `six' [common alb. s- > gj-] : Old Indic `six', ah- `sixth' was initially an ordinal number. Hence alb. die-ta `ten' derived from a proto Romance cognate *die + common alb. -ta Ladino dies, Asturian diez, Aragonese diez, Auvergnat di, Limosin die, Rumantsch diese etc.

suffix used in attribute nouns; similarly in: Portuguese dez, Galician dez, Spanish diez, Grischun diesch, Sursilvan diesch, Vallader desch, Ladin desc, Italian dieci, Venetian Here kmtm `hundred' from *(d)kmtm `(ten) dekades': m m m ( Old Indic atm, Avestan satm (out of it Finnish sata, Crimean Gothic sada); Gr. Gr. I 592 f.), abbreviated * in *- etc (in , 400', ` four hundred '); Note: Gr. (*hekaton) < *(d)kmtm `(ten) dekades' is crucial to crucial for tracing the cause m ( of old laryngeal appearance in IE. Hence laryngeals were created after the loss of initlal d- in IE. Gr. and Anatolian tongues reflect the common Illyrian- balt d- > zero. Latin centum (in addition ducentum, ducent `200', compare Old Indic dvi-atam from gr. , Arcadian (from dissimil. *sm kmtom `a hundred'? compare Schwyzer

*dui-kmtm; trecent `300', quadringent `400', etc; centsimus `the hundredth' after vcsimus, trcsimus from*uei-, *tr-kmt-t mo-s);

Old Irish ct, cymr. cant, bret. kant, corn. cans; 200), but Old Norse hund-ra (to Gothic raian `count') ` 120 pieces (10 dozens) ' (`120'), Saxon hunderod; Gothic Old Saxon Old English hund, Old High German hund `100' (in compounds from

out of it Old English hundred; Middle High German Modern High German hundert from Old Lithuanian imtas, Latvian smts;

Old Church Slavic etc sto is barely iran. loanword (Meillet Slave commun. 63); Tocharian A knt, B knte. Alb. Geg d, Tosc di `two' hence alb. (*hnt) alb. nj-qind `one- hundred' [common alb. > i], hence alb. displays centum characteristics while Rumanian sut `a hundred' displays the satem nature of Rumanian

hundred-year-old '. Page(s): 191-192

Bulgarian storica ds., Lithuanian imteripas `characterized by a hundred', imtr-gis `

Norse hundari, Old High German huntari n. `a division of 100, administrative district', Old

century, a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius ' (as decuria), Old

In addition a r-derivative in Latin centuria f. ` a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a

References: WP. I 785 f., WH. I 200 f., 327 ff., 859, Feist 150, 471 f., Trautmann 53, 305.

Meaning: to put by; to count, tell

delRoot / lemma: del-1

Material: Perhaps Armenian to `line, row', toem ` line up '; assassinator ' (about `sprit' see below del-3); delgr. `artifice, bait', ` outwit, circumvent ', ` small dagger of the from Gr. have been borrowed Latin dolus `a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap

artifice, deception ', dol ` a pike, sword-stick, a small foresail ', Oscan Akk. dolom, Abl. dolud ` a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap '; maybe alb. (*tl) tall `tease, trick': Old Norse tl f. `deceit, guilefulness'.

narrate, relate', Old English tellan, Old High German zellen (Fem. Old Norse tola `speech, number, bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation '), Old English talu `narration, row', Old High German zala `number, report, account' (therefrom Old Norse tala count, pay'); g-extension in engl. talk `talk'; from s-stem *talaz- n.: Gothic talzian `instruct',

(Old English tl n. `calculation, row', gital `number'), therefrom Old Norse telja `recount,

Old Norse tal n. `bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation, number, speech'

`talk', Old English talian `reckon, consider, think, tell', Old High German zaln ` calculate,

un-tals ` indocile, disobedient ', in addition Old English getl `rash, hasty, quick, fast', Old deceit, guile; a trap' present coloring of meaning lengthened grade Old Norse tl f. `deceit, Saxon gital Old High German gizal `quick, fast'; with the in dolus `a device, artifice; fraud,

guilefulness ', Old English tl f. `reprimand, slander, derision ', Old High German zla ` `allure, entice' (*dln-).

pestering, temptation; snare, danger', zln `tear away, rob'; zero grade Old English tyllan Original resemblance with del- `split' is doubtful; perhaps from the hatchet being aimed

at the wood to be split or from the technique of runes (number marks as incision)?

additional form *dai-l- here. An association with *del- Persson attempted root extension d-l- grasped as parallel extensions. Page(s): 193 References: WP. I 808 f.

About *dil- in Gothic ga-tils ` fitting', etc, see below ad-2; probably barely from of an ad-

115, Pedersen KZ. 39, 372, while they, deriving from d-, di- ` divide ', *de-l- and *dai-l-,

Meaning: to shake

delRoot / lemma: del-2

Material: Old Indic dul f. `the wavering ', with secondary lengthened grade : dlayat ` swings, sways ', -ti ` swings, whirls up ', dlita- ` fluctuating, moves by oscillating ';

Lithuanian delsti ` tarry, hesitate', dulinti `amble, bum';

doubtful, uncertain', engl. tilt ` incline ', Middle Dutch touteren `waver, wobble, sway, small, insecure steps, like children ';

Old Englishtealt `doubtful, uncertain, wavering', tealt(r)ian `waver, wobble, sway, be

with d-extension doubtful (?) Old Indic dui- f. `a small turtle, tortoise' (`waddling'), rather

swing', Norwegian Dialectal tylta ` tread quietly, like on toes ', Swedish tulta ` walk with with t-extension Old High German zeltri, Middle High German zelter, md. zelder `

pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting ', Modern High German Zelter, Old Norse tjaldari ds. march in step, match in tempo ' from *talutn; the relationship to that mentioned by Plinius span. words thieldones ` pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting ' is unclear), Old Norse tjaldr ln- Old Norse tolla `hang loose', tyllast ` toddle, walk on tiptoe; trip'. compare Falk-Torp under kjeld, tulle. `Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian oystercatcher' (` the trudger '); but rather with -ll- from (influence of Latin toltrius ` pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting '; compare isl. tlta `

Maybe alb. tul `boneless meat, pulp, leg meat (also meat hanging lose)' References: WP. I. 809.

Page(s): 193-194 del- dol del dolRoot / lemma: del-3 (dol-), delMeaning: to split, divide Material: Old Indic dlyati `splits, makes break, crack', dlati `cracks' (meaning influenced

flourished ',

by phlati ` broken in two ', Gntert Reimw. 48), dalit- `split, pull apart, blossomed,

probably also da-, -m `stick, bludgeon, beating, punishment' are after Kuiper ProtoMunda 65, 75 not Indo Germanic;

dala-m n. `deal, portion, piece, half, leaf', dal- f. `clod of earth'; but Prakr. l, - `bough',

brands' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 27; *d l-);


Armenian probably ta `imprinting, impression, mark, token, sign, stave', taem `stamps, gr. , ` wrought artificially ', Intens. - `work skillfully,

decorate' (dissimil. from *--, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 647); (changing through

ablaut Cypriot ) `(*writing board) a writing-tablet ' (`wood fissure, smoothly slammed wood board ', s. Boisacq 174 m. Lithuanian and to meaning esp. Schulze KZ. 45, 235; compare to the form under Modern High German tent); perhaps here `sprit, small --, ` cakes of the flour of roasted barley ' -- as ` crushed, coarsely ground ' (= `*split'?? Prellwitz 104 between); lengthened grade

sail' (out of it Latin dol m. ` a pike, sword-stick; a small foresail '); quite doubtful whereas

`destroy, smash, damage' (not to Latin dle `to blot out, efface; in gen., to

destroy, annihilate'); reduced grade Ionian ` annihilated ', - `

disturbed senses ' Aisch.; el. - with el. from (see Boisacq 182; against it ' gr. Hes. (*d li), ( . ,

Wackernagel Gl. 14, 51); with the meaning change `( the heart?) tear, maltreat, cause pain

); compare also Latvian dlt `torment, smite, agonize' and Latin dole ` to

pain, physical or mental; esp. disappointment, resentment. Transf., cause of sorrow; rhet., pathos '; alb. dalloj ` separate, distinguish, divide', djal `kid, child, offspring (*offshoot)' (*delno-; Latin dol, -re ` to hew with an axe, to work roughly ', dolbra ` a pick-axe, mattock,

suffer pain, physical or mental, to be pained, to grieve; of things, to cause pain ', dolor `

compare Middle Irish del `rod');

hoe', lengthened grade dlium `a wine-jar, cask, barrel, vat' (as proto Slavic*dly `barrel,

probably new formation from d-lvi ` has erased, effaced, obliterated, blotted out '); del, as with causative ablaut Old Irish dolb(a)id `shaped', doilbthid ` a worker in clay, potter Old Irish delb f. `shape, form', acymr. delu, ncymr. delw ` image, figure, effigy ', corn.

vat, cask' see below); dole, dolor see above (but dle is because of Perf. dlvi

sharing in; wanting in, destitute of ' (compare Old Indic and Baltic-slav, words for `deal,

separate, exclude' (etc, s. Pedersen KG.II 502 f.), acorn. didaul `having no part in, not

' (to Celtic *delu, *dolu-, compare -stem Slavic dly); perhaps Old Irish fo-dlim `discern,

acorn. didaul ` expers' (compare Old Indic and Baltic-slav, words for ` part '), cymr. gwa*d(i)- `divide'); probably Middle Irish del `staff, rod' (as `split piece wood'), corn. dele

portion'), perhaps Old Irish fo-dlim ` discerno, sejungo ' (etc., see Pedersen KG.II 502 f.),

ddol `a portion or dowry' as o-forms besides (just as well but as *d-l- correlate to `antenna' (or to Indo Germanic *d l-, whose certain attachments indeed point only d l-);

a-vocalism?; with meaning- transfer alb. djal `kid, child, youth, youngling ' ? see below

German zulle, zlle, Modern High German Zlle ` riverboat, barge' is probably in spite of

piece connecting the horns of two oxen going in the bottom plate ' (*dl-n-); but Middle High under Zlle

as measurement of length `inch', s-zolle `icicle', Old Norwegian horntylla ` yoke, wood

Middle High German zol(l) m., zolle f. ` cylindric bit of wood, clot, chunk, block, toggle', zol

Middle Low German tol, tolle `point of twig, branch', holl. tol `spinning top' (`*peg, plug'),

Persson Beitr. 174 not genuine Germanic, but loanword from Slavic, s. Kluge

Middle High German zolch `clot, chunk, block, (*blockhead), lubber ' (whether Old Norse tlkn n. ` gill of fish' as `the split'? Falk-Torp under tkn); with -d ndd. talter `rag, scrap, shred' (Holthausen Afneuere Spr. 121, 292); with t-suffix Germanic *telda- `* stretched tent pole ' (: gr. ) in Old Norse tiald

` riverboat, barge'; other formations holl. tolk `stick, rod, chopstick', Swedish tolk `wedge',

zelt, actually ` stretched cover'; in addition Old High German zelto, Modern High German tselt-, tslt- `chew'; from Germanic Lidn aaO. still ranks Old Swedish tialdra, tildra ` cairn ' in (*tel-rn- or -rn `* shaft, pole, peg, plug as as a boundary marker '?);

`curtain, cover, rug, tent', Old English teld n. `tent', Old High German Modern High German

Zelten, Zeltkuchen; or better as ` shredded, ground ' (see above ) to Tocharian B

quarter ', deli `decreasing moon', causative Latvian dldt `wear out, liquidate, rub off, destroy', diluot `skive, abrade, polish';

plane'), dlt `wear out, torment, smite'; Lithuanian ps-dylis (mnuo) ` moon in the last

Lithuanian dyl, dlti (delu, dilti), Latvian dlu, dilstu, dilt ` wear out, polish ' (from `*to

flat place on the threshing floor, threshing floor ' (Berneker 208, Trautmann 51, different Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 454);

Slavic dlan `palm', russ. old dolon, nowadays reconverted with metathesis ladn `palm;

Lithuanian dlna (by Juszkiewicz also dna), Latvian delna `inner flat hand', Old Church

out of it derived the concept of smoothness justified probably the transference there of

conquer' = `*have, obtain the best part', Berneker 206). compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 435. Doubtful Old Church Slavic dl `deal, portion': either as *dlo-s here, or rather with

100), russ. (etc) dlja `deal, portion, lot' (in addition Old Church Slavic odolti `defeat,

Prussian dellieis `divide, share!', dellks `deal, portion' (e from a, Trautmann Old Prussian

`clod of earth'), dalij, dalti `divide', Latvian dala `deal, portion, lot', dalt `divide', Old

Lithuanian dals, East Lithuanian dali `deal, portion, inheritance; alms' (= Old Indic dal-

Indo Germanic ai as *dai-lo- to root d(i)- `divide'; about Gothic dails, Modern High German Teil see above under d-, di-.

Sg. dlvi `barrel, vat, cask', New Bulgarian delva (*dlva) ` big clay vessel with two handles ';

Slavic delvi (*dlvi) Lok. Sg., N. Pl. `barrel, vat, cask', Middle Bulgarian dli (*dly), Lok.

Proto Slavic -stem *dly, Gen. *dlve (: Old Irish delb from *delu) in russ.-Church

tslt- `chew', Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 18 f.

Tocharian A tlo, B tallwo `unlucky', Van Windekens Lexique 136 (?); rather B tsalt-, extension del-gh-, dl-egh-; dolgho- etc `sickle, blade'. del-gh- dl-egh- dolgho-

compare pamirdial. lrg ds.;

Indo-iran. *dargha- (dolgho-) is assumed through Mordovian loanword tarvas `sickle'; dolghodolgho Old Irish dlongid `he splits', dluige (*dlogio-) ` the fissured ', Middle Irish dluigim `split';

Old Norse tjalga ` thin twig, branch, long arm', Old English telga m. `twig, branch, bough', branch', Old High German zuelga `twig, branch' (whose zw- probably previously is taken about Lithuanian dalgis, Gen. -io m., Latvian dalgs, Old Prussian doalgis `scythe' see

Old Norse telgja `hew, cut out', talga `the cutting, carving', talgo-knfr ` slice knife ', also

telgor m. f., telgra m. `twig, branch, scion ', Middle High German zelge, zelch `bough, twig,

over from zwig); below d elg-;

(dlaiti), dlditi ` pave, hit the screed ' (Berneker 207).

flooring from planks ', Czech dlha (dlaha) ` board, splint, base of the ground ', dliti As for *del- ` whereupon it is split apart ' is also for that with it perhaps originally

dolgh in serb. dlaga ` board for the splint of broken bones ', poln. Dialectal doka `

resemble*del- `split' given the possibility, that d-el- is an extension from d[i]- `divide, share '. References: WP. I 809 ff., WH. 364 ff., Lidn KZ. 56, 216 ff., Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg.

18 f.

Page(s): 194-196 delRoot / lemma: del-4

Meaning: to rain

tim (*teim?), Gen. tmoi;

Material: Armenian te ` heavy rain ', team, -em, -um `to rain, shower, sprinkle, irrigate ', Middle Irish delt m. `dew'; also FlN; bret. delt `humid, wet, moist '; English *tealg, Middle English talgh, engl. tallow, nnl. talk, Modern High German Talg (from Ndd.); ablaut. Old Norse tolgr (*tl-k-) ds. Note: Middle Irish delt m. `dew'; bret. delt `humid, wet, moist ' display alb.-illyr -k > -th, -t subsequents. Page(s): 196 References: Petersson Heterokl. 198 f., different Kluge under `tallow, suet'. Germanic *dol-k- or *dol-gho- in dan. Swedish Norwegian talg `tallow, suet', Old

Meaning: long

delRoot / lemma: del-5

widespread extension delgh- and (d)longho- (see finally Persson Beitr. 889, 903 Anm. 1) delgh(d)longhoslow in talking and at work, stupid talk', Norwegian Dialectal tla `hesitate, wait, hold on', Material: Perhaps here Old Norse talma `hinder', Middle Low German talmen `loiter, be

Note: to put away more confidently only for Slavic, but probably the basis for the

tle `rogue, fool ' (Persson Beitr. 889);


Czech dle f. `length', dlti `hesitate', etc (Berneker 252); perhaps v dalj ` far, aloof' (Meillet MSL.14, 373; Berneker 177 besides other supplements). delgh- dghdelgh-, dgh-:

Old Church Slavic pro-dliti `', russ. dlit ` protract, hesitate', dlin f. `length',

grade compounds Superl. drghyas-, drghiha- ` longer, for a long time ', Avestan drjy Indic drghimn-, drghmn- m. `length, duration', Avestan drj n. `stretch, length'; Adv. `further', drjitm Adv. ` longest ', npers. dirz (actually comparative) `long', Old

zero grade Old Indic drgh- = Avestan darga-, dara-, Old pers. darga- `long', zero

racecourse ';

`long' (to i s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 278, different Specht Dekl. 126), `the long about alb. glat etc see below;

gr. `continuous, persistent, enduring' (`*drag out'), ` continue ',

Note: Clearly alb. (*da-lu-ga-a-ti) glat `long' derived from Hittite da-lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. poln. dugo etc ds. `length': Old Church Slavic dlgota `length' (= Old Indic drghat): proto Slavic. *dlgost, Alb. and Baltic forms agree in dropping the initial d- > zero, which means that Baltic cognates originated from proto Illyrian: Alb. (*da-lu-ga-a-ti) glat `long, tall, high': Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, Old

Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long'; alb. is the only IE lang. where (*da-lu-ga-a-ti) glat `long' means also `tall, high' hence the name Alba Longa capital of Etruscan settlers is an alb. concept of building fortresses on hilltops of future Rome. Latin presumably indulge ` to be forbearing, patient, indulgent; to give oneself up to,

indulge in; grant, allow, concede' (: , basic meaning then `be patient to somebody compared with, hold on patiently') from *en-dolgh-ei. answer', Tosc ndlej, ndjej, ndjej ` feel', ndiej ` feel, hear'.

Maybe alb. (*en-dolgh-ei ) Geg. ndigjoj, Tosc dgjoj ` listen, hear, be submissive ', gjegj ` cymr. dal, dala, daly `hold, stop', bret. dalc'h ` possession ', derc'hel `hold, stop' (r diss.

from l, compare participle dalc'het) presumably with the meaning-development as Modern

Pedersen KG. I 52, 106);

High German ` after which last ' to `long' (basic form*d l()gh-; Zupitza BB. 25, 90 f., Maybe nasalized alb. ndal `hold, stop' : cymr. dal, dala, daly `hold, stop'. `very', Old English tulge, compounds tylg ` better, rather ', Superl. tylgest `best'; Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long'; Gothic tulgus `tight, firm, steadfast' (`*long, persistent, enduring '), Old Saxon tulgo Adv. Baltic with unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, Old Old Church Slavic dlg, serb. dg, Old Czech dlh, russ. dgij `long' (= Old Indic

drgh-), in addition serb. d f. `length'; Old Church Slavic dlgota `length' (= Old Indic drghat); proto Slavic. *dlgost, poln. dugo etc ds.; Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'. /d/longho/d/longho-s: *dlagh-t-); a) Middle Persian drang, npers. dirang `long' (but alb. glat, gjat, gjat `long' at first from b) Latin longus `long; spacious; of time, long, of long duration; esp. too long, tedious; of

) though Loth (RC. 43, 133 f.) holds that word for genuine Celtic; compare also abrit. FlN (Ptol.) and gall. VN - (Aude); anlaut. dl- remains preserved otherwise Celtic. In the group b) would display an already common West Indo Germanic simplification, might be connected with the d-loss of Baltic ilgas . compare also Specht

because of second meaning `vessel' and Middle Irish coblach `fleet' (*kom-uo-log- or *-lug-

Old Irish etc long `ship' seems to be borrowed from Latin (navis) longa; nevertheless,

German lang (Old High German langn `become long, seem long, long, want', etc); but

persons, prolix, tedious', Gothic laggs, Old English Old High German Modern High

Dekl. 126.

Maybe Alba Longa (Rome) capital of Illyrian - Etrus. : Illyrian Albanoi TN References: WP. I 812 f., WH. I 694 f., 820 f., Trautmann 55, Pedersen Hittite 34 f. Page(s): 196-197

Meaning: worm

demelRoot / lemma: demel-

Material: Epidaur. f. Akk. Pl., Hes.; dhimz ` meat maggot '. Page(s): 201 References: WP. I 790. perhaps alb. dhemj `caterpillar, inchworm' (could stand for *dhemli), dhmze,

taming ';

taming ', damyti `tames' (*dom-io = Latin domo); dam- ` domesticating ', dma- `

damyati `tames, overmasters ' (*domei), participle damita-; damitr- `tamer'; damitv `

Material: Old Indic dmyti ` is tamed; tamed ' (*dm-ieti), dt- ` tamed ' (*dm-ts); Kaus.

Meaning: Meaning: to tame

dem dom Root / lemma: (dem-), dom-, d mdem


incredible stem formation;

here (as *dm-so-s) ds- `fiend, non-Aryan ', actually `slave', but because of the

osset. domun `tame', npers. dam `domesticated animal'; after Pisani Crest. Indeur. 113

reshaped, as etc, ` the all-subduer, all-tamer ', Doric `tamed' Ionian Perf. , `tamer', ` taming, domestication'; forms with root vowel o are missing in Gr.; domesticate, tame, break, subdue, master ', Perf. domu (from *dom-uai), participle domitor `tamer' (= Old Indic damitr-); domitus, -s m. `taming' (compare Old Indic domitus (reshaped after domu and domitor from *dmtos, Indo Germanic *dm-to-s), Latin dom (*dom-i = damyti), doms (*dom-si = Old High German zams) ` to (*dm-ts), hom. and , - ` untamed, unrestrained, unwed, unmarried ',

gr. , Ionian -, Aor. -() (for *-) `tame', various secondary


(probably = gr.); phonetic mixture with damnaim from Latin damn, also the

Old Irish damnaim `bind (tight, firm), tame (horses)', Verbalnom. damnad and domnad

unruled m has probably arisen from participle dammainti; Old Irish dam- ` acquiesce,

endure, grant' (e.g. daimid ` admitted to' probably = Old Indic dmyti, composes ni-daim `not enduring, not suffering'; Perf. dmair from lengthened grade *dm-), with ad- `admit' (e.g. 3. PL ataimet), with fo- `endure' (e.g. 1. Sg. fo-daimim), cymr. addef, bret. asav

`admit', acymr. ni cein guodeimisauch Gl. `have not endured well', ncymr. go-ddef `suffer,

`tame', acymr. dometic ` domesticated ', ar-domaul ` docile ', cymr. df, bret. doff `tame,

endure, allow', corn. gothaf `bear, endure', bret. gouzav, gouzav us. (but cymr. dofi

domesticated' stems from Latin domre, so that native forms with o were absent in Celtic); Old High German zemmen `tame' (Kaus. *domi = Old Indic damyati); Old High German Gothic ga-tamjan, Old Norse temja, Old English temian, Middle Low German temmen,

domesticated, tamed, subdued, mastered ' (unclear, whether back-formation from verb, or if the pass. meaning has arisen from `domestication = the tamed', so that in historic connection with Old Indic dma- ` taming ').

zamn ds. (= Latin dom-re), Old Norse tamr, Old English tam, Old High German zam `

because of gr. on the one hand ` overmastering, taming' ( , Anakreon), on the other hand `young (still to be tamed) bull', wherefore `young cow', `ds.'; also `young girl', `calf', is probably alb. dnt, dhnt, Geg dhnt `small

Because of Old Indic damya- `to tame' and `young bull, which still should be tamed ' and

cattle, sheep and goats, sheep' (*dem-t or *dem-to-s, respectively *dom-t, -to-s), dem ` and Old Irish dam `ox' (*damos), dam allaid `deer' (`*wild ox'), as well as cymr. dafad,

bovine animal, cattle, young bull' (= Old Indic damya-), as well as also gall. GN Damona f. acorn. dauat, bret. davat `sheep (then = gr. -) to add (originally appellation of

domesticated bovine animal); Latin damma or dma is probably borrowed from Celtic or chamois, antelope '), engl. doe, Alemannian t ds., compare Holthausen Altengl. etym.

from elsewhere; unclear is Old English d f. `roe deer' (out of it acorn. da ` a fallow-deer,

Wb. 68; from Old French daim `fallow-deer' derives bret. dem ds.; Germanic additional zamerl `young ox' (Much ZfdA.42, 167; proto Germanic *a or *o?).

forms s. by Falk-Torp under daadyr m. Lithuanian; corresponding to niedersterr. zamer, Hittite da-ma-a-zi ` thronged ', preterit 3. Pl. ta-ma-a-ir, Pedersen Hittite 95 f.

Maybe those cognates derived from Tumuzi the shepherd in Sumerian. Page(s): 199-200 References: WP. 1 788 f., WH I 367 f., 861, Meillet BSL. 33, 110.

dem- dem Root / lemma: dem-, demMeaning: to build; house Material: Gr. `build', from the heavy basis participle Perf. Pass. , Doric (Pindar) ` newly built', n. ` physique, shape' (, Attic inschr. - ` spanning crossbeams in the

middle of the building ', yet [] could also be suffix).

German be-tme ` fitting', Old High German gi-zmi `proper' and abstract zero grades Old High German zumft, Middle High German zumft, zunft ` propriety, rule, association, guild ' mcymr. dant ` temperament, character' (mostly Plur. deint), basic form *d-to-, Loth RC dam-no-). 46, 252 f. compare mcymr. cynnefin ` trustful ' (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), (*komro-stem Old Icelandic timbr `timber', Old Saxon timbar, Old English timber `timber, ro (*d-ti-) = Middle Irish dt ` disposition, temperament ' (Old Irish dtlae `bold, daring'),

`suit, fit', wherefore lengthened grade Gothic ga-tmia Adv. ` befitting ', Middle Low

The meaning ` settle, fit' in Gothic ga-timan, Old Saxon teman, Old High German zeman

edifice, building, building', Old High German zimbar `timber, building, dwelling, chamber', ` build, do carpentry, do woodwork '.

whereof Gothic timrjan `build', Old Norse timbra, Old High German zimberen and zimbaron root nouns dm-, dm-, dm-, d- `house'. dm- dwith Gen. *dem-s, as also gr. - `master, mister' (see Risch IF. 59, 12, Schwyzer [= Avestan dng pati-], less probably with Lok. Aryan *dam as `master in the house'); Old Indic ptir dn ` householder ', Avestan dng patoi ` master of (*lord of the house)'

Gr. Gr. I 547 f.), Old Indic dm-pati- `lord, master' (new shifting together from *dn patiAvestan Lok. dm, dmi `in the house', Lok. Pl. dhv-, Nom. -d from proto Aryan *-

ds in ui- name of a mountain range (`having one's house by the aurora '), wherefore probably Avestan ha-dmi Lok. `in the same house'; tan; Armenian tun Nom. Akk. `house' (*dm), Instr. tamb (*d-bhi), whereupon Gen. Dat.

Sg.mask. *dm- with structure in Neutr. after ; derivative , , (`mistress of the house'); as 1. composition part in - `wife' (*dm-rt ` governing of the house '), ` floor - as intensive prefix; so perhaps also Ionian ` temple male servant, temple female servant' for *-) = Swedish tomt, Old Icelandic topt `place for edifice,

perhaps also (*d[m]) as Nom. Akk. Sg. n. or Lok.; , originally Akk.

gr. - Lok., originally `inside in house' (also reshaped to -, -, ),

(originally of the house)' from *d-pedom ( out of it after the concurrent of - and

building' in Norwegian Mdarten `loam' (Germanic *tum-fetiz, Indo Germanic *d-ped-),


compare also Lithuanian dim-stis ` courtyard, property; courtyard ' (2. part *sto-s to *stdomoo-stem domo-s: Old Indic dma- `house, dwelling ', gr. `house' ( `

etc? Hes), - (*-) ` builder ', Latin Lok. dom `to a house' (= Old Indic dm `in a house, to a house'), dominus `master, mister' from *domo-no-s.

Latin domus, -s f. `a house, dwelling-house, building, mansion, palace' (out of it is Middle temple, enclosed by a portico and projecting side- walls) ' undertaken with the thing together);

domuu-stem domu-s (Brugmann Grdr. II 1, 180 presumes an adv. Lok. *dom as originator):

Irish dom-, dam-liacc `stone house', aur-dam ` pronaos (the space in front of the body of a

Old Church Slavic dom m. `house', russ. dma `at house' (*dom[u]); *domov: Old `housemate' and Armenian tanu-tr `householder'; Russian domov `after the house'; presumedly also through Old Indic dm-nas-

Maybe alb. dhoma `room' : Old Indic dma- `house'. bondmaid ', Cretan f. `people in slavery, population in serfdom '; building, dwelling'; a stem *dmu- in Ionian , Gen. ` prisoner of war, farm laborer', `

Aryan *dm-na- in Avestan dmna-, nmna- n. `house', also Old Indic mna- `edifice, Lithuanian nmas, Pl. nama `house, dwelling' is dissimilated from *damas, in

compounds as nam-dars ` homemaker ', s. WH. I 861. Note:

It is a common trait of alb. and Lithuanian to drop the initial da- as in Root / lemma: del-5 : del-

`long': Baltic with unexplained d loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, Old

Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long'; alb. glat 'long' Baltic and Albanian languages often drop nasalized form *ndmas. signified `timber'.

the initial da- > zero. This is a common Baltic-alb.. Hence Lithuanian nmas derived from a Old Irish damnae `material', cymr. defnydd, Middle Breton daffnez could have originally Tocharian B tem-, A tam-, AB tm- `create, beget, be born ' and B tsam-, AB tsm-, A

am-, m-, perhaps after Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 21 here;

in addition also B c(o)mel, A cmol (*cmelu) `birth', Van Windekens Lexique 51. domesticate'. Note: dem- dem heihiRoot / lemma: dem-, dem- : `to build; house' derived from Root / lemma: hei-2 : hi- : hei-men-, *heimn- : `winter; snow'. But the h > d has been recorded in Illyrian alb. hei-men- heimnalone. This makes proto Illyrian the oldest IE branch. An old branching of the root is dem- `tame', originally probably `tie up in the house,

Trautmann 44.

References: WP. I 786 ff.; WH. I 367, 369 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 480, 524, 547 f., 625,

Page(s): 198-199 Root / lemma: denkNote:


Meaning: to bite

emb Root / lemma: denk- : `to bite' derived from Illyrian derivative of Root / lemma: em -, mb - : `to bite; tooth' common Illyrian - > d-. Material: Old Indic dati ` bites' (*dnkti), Perf. dada (thereafter also a present daana-m `the bitting ', dara-, dstr ` sharp tooth, fang' = Avestan tii-dstragr. `bite' (*dnk-n), Aor. (= Impf. Old Indic daam), wherefore Fut.

dati), Kaus. dayate `makes bite ', da- `bite, gadfly, brake',

`with sharp teeth, toothed ' (for -dtra- s. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 653);

(but Ionian ), Perf. , (as well as `bite') with ablaut

neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 770); , ` biting animal'; in addition probably `with biting teeth ', perhaps originally `tooth' or `bite' (Liddell-Scott, different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 620, 723), probably hybridization of * `biting' with , therefrom derived alb. Geg dan (*donk-n), Tosc dar `pliers'; strong, fresh'; Old Norse tng (Gen. tengr and tangar), Old English tang, tange, Old High press (lips) together', probably Old Saxon bitengi `moving close to, oppressive', Old Old High German zangar `biting, sharp', Middle Low German tanger `ds., vicious, ( with Assimil. of o in ), etc `scratch, itch', ` the scratch ';

German zanga `pliers' (*donk), i.e. `the clenching of the teeth '; with further shifting to `to English getang ds., getenge ` near to, close to, oppressive, thronging, pressing ', Old High

German gizengi ` passing by, moving nearby', Adv. gizango, wherefore Old Norse tengja

(*tangjan) `join', Old English tengan `assail, urge, press, push, aspire to move forward', `at once', getingan, stem V., `press in' after Fick III 152 neologism?);

getengan `make adhere, be obedient ' (Old English intinga m. `weary, weak', sam-tinges besides in gramm. variation Germanic *tanhu- `adjoining tightly, appendant, tough' in Old

English th ` tough '; Middle Low German t ` abiding, tough ', Old High German zhi, Modern High German zh; Old Norse t n. `stamped place before the house' (Finnish loanword tanhua `corral, pen, fold'); perhaps originally different from the root *dk- `tear', although *denk- perhaps as

nasalized form to *dk and `bite' could be understood as `tear with the teeth'. Page(s): 201 References: WP. I 790 f.

Meaning: talent, force of mind; to learn

densRoot / lemma: dens-1

Material: Material: densos n.: Old Indic dsas- n. `powerful wonder, wise feat' = Avestan dahah- ` dexterity, adroitness ' (in addition Old Indic dasu- ` powerful wonder ', da- ` very powerful wonder ' = Avestan dhita- `very wise, the wisest '); Old Indic purudsas- `rich `magic power, witchcraft '; in gr. after zero grade forms with*[]- = *ds- to *

in miracles' (= gr. `much-counselling' Hes), dsana-m, dasn

unvocalized: hom. N. Pl. ` pieces of advice ', Sg. by Hesych, (Doric) () Hes. = (Ionian) , Adv. Chios. ds ds-r-s `sensible, very wise': Old Indic dasr- ` miraculous ' = Avestan dara- `skilful';

doubtful gr. epithet of Persephone, perhaps ` the knowing or the power of wonder '; it not originally if it has not signified originally only `the sense of direction during the fight' (compare - ` slain in battle ', : `in the battle'; s. finally Bechtel Lexil. 92) , see below, to come into usage in sense of `wise'. inaugurated in religious questions '. ` wise ' to hold as *[]- to Old Indic das-r- as - to --, if

and only, after this the meaning was forgotten, the ambiguous connection came through in ds mods-mo-: Old Indic dasm- ` power of wonder (from Gods)' = Avestan dahma- ` expert,

Maybe alb. dasma `wedding, ceremony (religious rite?)' Verbal forms: partly reduplicated `handle knowledge, instruct, teach':

doctrine, dogma');

Avestan ddaih ` I am instructed ' (in addition zero grade dstv f. ` apprenticeship,

`erudite, expert, skillful', 316 ` examine, question ', (Soph.)

perhaps gr. Aor. `taught', Aor. Pass. , `learn', participle Perf.

`ignorant, wherein inexperienced '; in addition (Hom.) `sensible, wise', 4 is unclear (?) ` skillful, experienced '.

`ignorant, wherein inexperienced ', Hes. By Archilochos frg. 3, Debrunner Mel. Boisacq 1, 251 ff. has shown that `instruct, teach' belongs to

(see above under dek-). The fact that also - (as *ds-) is to be put to ours root, can be explained best of all by the fact that one accepts, from (*--) has been abstracted an erroneous root *- (M. Scheller briefl.); compare finally Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307 and see below dens-2. Page(s): 201-202 References: WP. I 793.

and not to Latin disc `to learn, learn to know, acquire, become acquainted with'

Meaning: dense

densRoot / lemma: dens-2

Material: Gr. `dense' : Latin dnsus ds.; the direct derivation from *dnss does not Schulze (Kl. Schr. 116 f.) the stated examples of -- from Indo Germanic -ns- are

contradict the explanation of * from *dns (see above under dens-1); indeed from W. absolutely not proving. On the other hand `cover with dense vegetation' could go ` (*densely) shady ' (*-). Meillet MSL. 22, 63 will define in as

back to - (: ), but etc would barely be formed by abstraction to expressive gemination (?) common gr.-Illyrian -ks- > -ss-. About phok. PN s. About alb. dnt, dend `make dense', etc see below d en-3. common alb. n > nd. condense, press together ', denominative of dnsus `dense' (*densos or *dnsos, event. Hittite dassu (Dat. Sg. ta-a-u-u-i) `strong (*thick)'. References: WP. I 793 f., WH. I 341 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307. Latin dnse, -re (Perf. dns only by Charisius Gr.-Latin I 262, 4) ` to make thick,

WH. I 468.


Page(s): 202-203 dephRoot / lemma: deph-

Meaning: to stamp, push

Material: Armenian top`el (-em, -eci) `hit'; gr. `knead, drum; tumble ', argiv.

`fuller', with s-extension (Aor. participle ) `knead; tan, convert hide into leather' (out of it Latin deps `to knead'), `tanned skin'; `leather' (*); serb. dpm, dpiti `bump, poke, hit', poln. depta `tread'.

maybe alb. dboj `drive away' Note:

It seems that Root / lemma: deph- : `to stamp, push' derived from Root / lemma: d b -1, lemma: dephnasalized d amb(h) : `to astonish, be speechless' amb(h)Page(s): 203

References: WP. I 786, WH. I 342, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 298, 351.

derb Root / lemma: der h

Meaning: to wind, put together, *scratch, scrape, rub

of shrubs planted together', drbdh- f. ` convolution, concatenation, daisy chain ', Avestan drwa- n. `bundle of muscles' Pl. `flesh (of muscles) ', Old Indic darbh- m. ` hassock, clump of grass, grass', darbhaa- n. `netting';

Material: Old Indic drbhti `joined, patched together, winded ', participle sndrbdha- `group

Maybe truncated alb. dredha `convolution', dredh `curl' : Old Indic drbdh- f. `convolution', Avestan drwa- n. `bundle of muscles ' Pl. `flesh (of muscles)'. Armenian ton `, funiculus, a noose, halter, snare, trap' (*dorb -n-); gr. `basket' is contaminated from * and ds. (Gntert IF. 45, 347); refl. ` turn, turn round '; e-grade Middle High German zirben schw. V. ` turn in circles, Old English tearflian (*tarbaln) ` roll oneself ', Old High German zerben, preterit zarpta

`throw, lapidate' (compare drehen : engl. throw), as Old Norse tyrfa `cover with turf', Old Norse torf n. `turf', torfa f. ` peat clod ', Old English turf f. `turf, lawn', Old High German afflict';

Zirbelwind (probably also Zirbel ` pineal ', see below deru-); zero grade Old English torfian deru-

whirl', Modern High German Dialectal Swiss zirbeln ds., Modern High German Zirbeldrse,

zurba, zurf f. `lawn' (Modern High German Torf from Ndd.); Old English ge-tyrfan `to strike, maybe alb. diminutive (*turfel) turfulloj `snort, blow' : Old English ge-tyrfan `to strike, afflict'.

*drba in russ. derb `Rodeland, Neubruch', derbovt ` clean from the moss, from the lawn; uproot the growing', derbt `pluck, tear, rend', serb. drbcati `scrape, scratch',

pot, pan'(`*wickerwork pot coated with loam '), wruss. dorb'i `crook, bend'; zero grade

wruss. drob `basket, carton, box ', russ. old u-dorob f. `pot, pan', dial. u-doroba `low

Slavic der drati eingemischt). S. Berneker 211, 254 with Lithuanian Page(s): 211-212 References: WP. I 808.

derbit `pluck, rend' (perhaps hat sich in latter family a b -extension from der- `flay', der-

Czech drbm and drbu, drbati `scratch, scrape, rub; thrash', with lengthened grade russ.

der(ep)Root / lemma: der(ep)Note:

Meaning: to see, *mirror

The Root / lemma: der(ep)- : `to see, *mirror' derived from Root / lemma: derk- : `to look'. der(ep)grade 2. syllable??). Material: Old Indic drpana- m. `mirror'; gr. , `see' (with lengthened

References: WP. I 803; to forms -ep- compare Kuiper Nasalpras. 60 f. derk See also: compare also `sehe' and derk-`see'. Page(s): 212

der drRoot / lemma: der-, drMeaning: to work Material: Gr. (*) `make, do', Konj. , Aeolic 3. Pl. , Aor. Attic ,

hom. `worker, servant', `action', , . . . Hes., Maybe alb. nasalized form nder (*der-) `hang loose'; Bechtel Lexil. 104) `do'; `inactive, ineffective, weak';

hom. `make only less powerful, fainting, unconscious'; hom. and Ionian (see Lithuanian dar(i)au, darti, Latvian dart `do, make'; in spite of Mhlenbach-Endzelin s.

because the meaning deviates too strongly. Page(s): 212

v. dart not to Lithuanian derti ` be usable', Latvian dert ` arrange, employ, engage' etc,

References: WP. I 803, Specht KZ. 62, 110, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 675 , 694.

derghRoot / lemma: dergh-

Meaning: to grasp

Material: Armenian trcak ` brushwood bundle ' (probably from *turc-ak, *turc- from *dorghso-, Petersson KZ. 47, 265); gr. , Attic ` grasp ', ` griping ', ` handful, fascicle,

sheaf ', ` bind sheaves ', , Arcadian el. , gortyn. (i.e. `hand', Pl. Hes.;

v; s. also Boisacq 109) ` drachma ' (`*handful of metal sticks, '), , - f. Middle Irish dremm, nir. dream `troop, multitude, crowd, dividing of people' (*drgh-smo-), Old High German zarga `side edging a room, edge', Old Norse targa f. `shield', Old

bret. dramm `bundle, fascicle, sheaf ' (false back-formation to Pl. dremmen);

English targe f. (nord. loanword) `small shield' (actually ` shield brim '), elsss. (see Sutterlin IF. 29, 126) (ks-)zorg m. `vessel, paten on three low feet ' (= gr. -); References: WP. I 807 f.

Page(s): 212-213

Root / lemma: derkMeaning: to look Note: punctual, wherefore in Old Indic and intrinsic in Irish linked suppletively with a cursive present other root

herher hrRoot / lemma: derk- : to look derived from Root / lemma: her-3 und her-, hr- : to shine, shimmer + zero grade of Root / lemma: ok- : to see; eye ok Material: Old Indic [present is pyati] Perf. dadra `have seen', Aor. adarat, adrkt (drk), participle dr-, kaus. daryati `make see'; Avestan dars- ` behold ', Perf. `sight', dri- f. `sight', Avestan aibdrti- ds. (Gen. Sg. darti), Old Indic darat-

ddarsa, participle drta-; Old Indic d- f. `sight', ahardr- ` looking day ', upa-dr- f. `visible, respectable ', Avestan darsa- m. `sight, gaze, look';

common Old Indic h- > k-

`look, gaze', - `heavy to behold' (= Old Indic darcata-), Adv. `one - `dragon, snake' (from banishing, paralyzing look), fem. ; alb. drit `light' (*drk-t);

(with a changed lengthened grade compared with Old Indic dri-), `sight',

gr. ` look, keep the eyes open, be alive', , , `vision'

looking up from below' (*- = Old Indic drc-, or from *--), n. `eye', ,

Note: Maybe alb. dark `supper, evening meal, evening' : drek `dinner meal, midday' : Old Irish an-dracht ` loathsome, dark'. after Bonfante (RIGI. 19, 174) here Umbrian terkantur ` seen, discerned, perceived ' Old Irish [present ad-cu] ad-con-darc `have seen' (etc, s. Pedersen KG. II 487 f.;

(that is to say ` shall be seen, discerned, perceived ');

present adrodarcar `can be seen'), derc `eye', air-dirc `illustrious', bret. derc'h `sight', abret. erderc `evidentis', zero grade Irish drech f. (*drk) `face', cymr. drych m. (*drksos) `sight, dark' (an- neg. + *drecht = alb. drit); mirror', cymr. drem, trem, bret. dremm `face' (*drk-sm), Old Irish an-dracht ` loathsome, Gothic ga-tarhjan ` make distinct ' (= Old Indic darayati); Germanic *tora- `sight' (==

Old Indic dr-) in Norwegian PN Torget, Torghatten etc, Indo Germanic to- suffix in zorft `bright, distinct'.

Germanic *turhta- : Old English torht, Old Saxon toroht, Old High German zoraht, newer References: WP. I 806 f.

Page(s): 213

der(ep)See also: Perhaps with der(ep)- (above S. 212) remote, distant related.

derdrdr- rRoot / lemma: der-1 (: dr-, d r-) or dr- : drMeaning: hand span, *hands Material: Gr. `palm, span of the hand' (measurement of length), ` the

distance from the wrist to the fingertip ', hom. `16 spans long ', zero grade Arcadian Akk. Hes. (lak. Hes. is false spelling for , Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 506); alb. (*duor-) dor `hand' from *drom (M. La Piana IF. 58, 98); [conservative stem of

plural forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

Phonetic mutations: alb. (*duor-) dor `hand' : gr. `palm, span of the hand' : Latvian (*duor-)dre, dris `fist'; proto Illyrian alb. duo- > do- , gr. duo- > do-, Latvian duo- > d-. Note: Note hesorhesrhestolemma: hesor-1, hesr- : `hand'; Root / lemma: hesto-2 : `hand, arm' through Illyrian Clearly Root / lemma: der-1 (: dr-, d r-) or dr- : dr- : `hand span' derived through Root / derdrdr- re e e e

intermediary. The phonetic shift kh > t, h > d is a unique alb.. Hence alb. dor `hand' dr- : `hand span' is of Illyrian origin and then it spread to other languages. re e e e

derived from truncated hesor. The source of Root / lemma: der-1 (: dr-, d r-) or dr- : derdrdrThat means Homeric Iliad is a translation of Illyrian Iliad. The Greek translation left many Illyrian cognates of the Illyrian Iliad unchanged. There is no doubt that gr. `hand by Illyrians. span' is a suffixed Illyrian dora `hand' consequently Iliad was brought to Balkan languages Old Icelandic tarra ` outspread ', terra ds. Also Armenian e ` hand '.

comparison with Celtic dur-no- in Old Irish dorn `fist, hand', cymr. dwrn `hand', dyrnod

Only under a beginning duer- : dur- or dur-: dur : dur- to justify major key-phonetical

(mcymr. dyrnawt) `slap in the face, box on the ear', dyrnaid (mcymr. dyrneit) ` handful ',

bret. dorn `hand', dournek ` who has big hands '; however, these words also stand off in the coloring of meaning `pursed, clenched hand, fist, fisticuff, punch' so far from gr. that they do not demand an association with them.

pungo); if so also Celtic dur-no-? compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 529 and see below derder4. Note: From alb. Geg (*dur), dor hand, (*dur), duer Pl. `hands' it seems that the oldest root was alb. Pl. (*dur), duer Pl. `hands' [conservative stem of plural forms (alb. phonetic trait)]. Hence the original of proto Illyrian - gr. idea was Root / lemma: du(u) : `two' (u)
e e e e

`fist'; this is to Latvian duu, dru, durt `prick, bump, poke' to put (compare pugnus :

On the other hand for Celtic *durno- one considers relationship with Latvian dre, dris

meaning two hands. That means both Root / lemma: der-1 (: dr-, d r-) or dr- : dr- : Root derdrdr- r`hand span, hands' and Root / lemma: du(u) : `two, *two hands' derived from older (u) h- > d-. Anatolian languages Root / lemma: hesor-1, hesr- : `hand' because of the common alb. hesorhesrReferences: WP. I 794 f.

Page(s): 203

Meaning: to murmur, to chat (expr.)

derder-derdorRoot / lemma: (der-2), redupl. der-der-, drd r-, broken redupl. dor-d-, dr-dder

Material: Old Indic dardur- `frog, flute'; Old Irish deirdrethar `raged', PN Deirdriu f. (*derburr ';

der-i); Bulgarian drd `babble; grumble', serb. drdljati `chatter', sloven. drdrti `clatter,

Maybe alb. drdllit `chatter, prattle' a Slavic loanword.

Maybe Dardanoi (*dardant) Illyrian TN : gr. Hes : Lithuanian dardti,

Latvian dardt, drdt `creak' probably `talk indistinctly '; common Illyrian alb. n > nt > t. bass ', an-dord `clear voice' (`not-bass '), cymr. dwrdd `din, fuss, noise' (cymr. twrdd `din, fuss, noise' t- has taken over from twrf ds.), Old Irish dordaid `bellow, roar' (from deer); Lithuanian dardti, Latvian dardt, drdt `creak'; Tocharian A tsrt- `wail, weep, cry' with fractured reduplication: gr. Hes., Irish dord ` bass ', fo-dord ` growl,

(Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 19), with secondary palatalization ert- (Van Windekens Lexique 145). References: WP. I 795, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 447.

Page(s): 203-204

erSee also: The Celtic, tochar. and Balto-Slavic words could also belong to d er-3.

der- dr- dreb- drem- dreuRoot / lemma: (der-3), dr-, dreb-, drem-, dreuder Meaning: to run Material: dr-: dr-

wandering, beggarly ';

Old Indic drti ` runs, hurries ', Intens. dridrti ` wanders around, is poor ', dri-dra- `

splits, separates from' (compare to -- Old Indic Kaus. drpayati ` brings to run ', Aor. adidrapat [uncovered] `runs'); Old High German zittarm (*di-dr-mi) `tremble (*ready to flee)', Old Icelandic titra

`escape', `striving not to escape', ` fugitive ', ` run away,

gr. - ` run away ', Fut. , Aor. ; , Ionian

`tremble, wink' (originally perhaps ` walk on tiptoe; trip, wriggle restlessly '); drop(i)a etc, out of it Middle High German trap(pe), trapgans. drebdreb-: Lithuanian dreb, -ti `tremble, quiver';

perhaps here Slavic *dropy ` bustard ' (Machek ZslPh. 17, 260), poln. Czech drop, older

poln. (etc) drabina `ladder'; trippen, Modern High German (Low German)trappeln, trippeln, Middle High German (Low Old English treppan (*trapjan) `tread', Middle Low German Dutch trappen `stomp', ndd.

German) treppe, trappe f., Modern High German Treppe, Old English trppe f. `trap',

Modern High GermanTrappel, East Frisian trappe, trap `trap, splint, staircase, stairs '; - fiencken (see W. Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 160 ff., ZdA. 76, 1 ff.) to define: through emphatic nasalization, as in Modern High German patschen - pantschen, ficken Gothic ana-trimpan `approach, beset', Middle Low German trampen `stomp', Middle

High German (ndd.) trampeln `appear crude', engl. tramp, trample `tread', Middle High German trumpfen `run, toddle'. dremdrem-: Old Indic drmati ` running ', Intens. dandramyat ` runs to and fro '; gr. Aor. , Perf. `run', `run'; High German tremen `waver', Danish trimle `roll, fall, tumble', Swedish Dialectal trumla ds., here probably Modern High German FlN Dramme (Gttingen), Dremse (Magdeburg), Old English trem, trym ` Futapfe ', Old Norse tramr `fiend, demon' (see above), Middle

Middle High German trame ` rung of a leader, stairs';

from *Dromi and *Dromis (probably North Illyrian), in addition poln. (Illyrian) Drama 127;

(Silesia), Bulgarian Dramatica (thrak.); s. Vasmer ZslPh. 5, 367, Pokorny Urillyrier 3, 37, Maybe alb. dromc `piece, chip (of a blow)' shake ', sloven. dmati `shake, jiggle', drmiti ` jiggle from the sleep ', drmpati ` ungentle jiggle '; maybe alb. dremit `sleep', drrmonj `exhaust, tire, destroy' Slavic loanwords. Alb. proves that from Root / lemma: der-, heavy basis der-, dr- : `to cut, split, skin' derder drderived Root / lemma: (der-3), dr-, dreb-, drem-, dreu- : `to run'. der- dr- dreb- drem- dreuder insecure is Woods KZ. 45, 62 apposition of serb dmati `shake', dmnuti `upset, allow to

(probably crossing of meaning with the onomatopoeic word root der-der-2, see there). der-derdr(o)u(u)ent/i: ent/ii dreudreu- (partly with as zero grade, probably because of *dreu -), FlN (participle)

in the good suitable meaning; `shake' from ` stumble with the foot '?), drmotiti `chat, prate'

Czech drmlati ` flit, stir; move the lips, as if one sucking', drmoliti ` take short steps ' (these

`run' (being from davischen), draoman- n. `attack, onrush', am-drt(a)- ` calling from fortune', Avestan draonah- n. ` bei der Besitzverteilung zufallendes Gut, Vermgensanteil ' perhaps as `traveling fortune'?); Illyrian-Pannonian FlN Dravos (*drouo-s), out of it serbokr. Drva, compare apoln. Asma, sends to attack ' (very doubtful Old Indic drvia-m, drvias- n. `blessing,

Old Indic drvati ` runs, also melts ', FlN Dravant, drut- `hurrying', Avestan drvaya-

Germanic *druuent-, Illyrian *druent- in poln. FlN Drwca, Modern High German Drewenz; Italian *truent- in FlN Truentus (Picenum); maybe alb. (*druent-) Drinos river name `hurrying water?' common alb. nt > n. Dranse); *Drutos, French le Drot; Drut, French la Droude; gall. FlN (from North Illyrian?) Druentia (French la Drance, Drouance, Durance, Swissla

Old Indic Dravanti), out of it dial. *trauent- in FlN - (Bruttium) > Italian Trionto; Indo

Drawa (Illyrian loanword); Indo Germanic *drouent- `hurrying' > Illyrian *drauent- (: above

Lithuanian sea name *Drv-intas (wruss. Drywiaty); Old Prussian stream, brook Drawe. trudan `tread', Old Norse troa, tra ds.; Old English tredan, Old High German tretan Auf dreu-, participle *dru-to- based on perhaps (see Osthoff Par. I 372 f. Anm.) Gothic dreu*dru-to-

way, alley, drift, trailing', Old Saxon trada `tread, spoor', Old English trod n., trodu f. `spoor, German trotte f. ` wine-press ', Intens. Old High German trottn `tread'; Modern High way, alley' (engl. trade `trade' is nord. loanword), Old High German trota, Middle High

`tread' (by Osthoffs outlook of ablaut neologism), Old High German trata `tread, spoor,

German dial. trotteln ` go slowly '.

westfl. trseln, truseln ` roll slowly ', Middle High German trollen (*truzln) `move in short ghost', Norwegian Dialectal trusal `idiot, fool', trusk ` despondent and stupid person'; steps constantly', Modern High German trollen, Swedish Dialectal trsale `fairy demon,

staggering ', trsel ` dizziness, giddiness ', Dutch treuzelen ` to be slow, dawdle, loiter',

Here also Germanic root *tru-s- in East Frisian trseln `lurch, stumble, go uncertainly or

Maybe through metathesis alb. (*trusal) trullos, trallis `make the head dizzy', tru `brain' `fairy demon, ghost, fool, uncouth person' (compare unser Trampel in same meaning; the besides Germanic tre-m- (see below) Old Norse tramr `fiend, demon'. as well as (as *truzl-) Old Norse troll n. `fiend, demon', Middle High German trol, trolle m.

Wandals called the Goths , Loewe AfdA. 27, 107); it stands in same the way

`roll, lurch', holl.trillen `tremble' (from which Italian trillare `quiver, trill hit') etc against `flee'.
h h

In Germanic furthermore with i-vocalism Middle Low German trseln, westfl. triseln

eu- *d erer association of Old Indic drvati with Avestan dvaraiti `goes' see below *d eu-, * euerReferences: WP. I 795 ff., Krahe IF. 58, 151 f., Feist 45.

Page(s): 204-206

Meaning: tree

deruru- dr(e)u- drouru drRoot / lemma: deru-, dru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreu- : dr-

words for various wood tools as well as for `good as heartwood hard, fast, loyal'; Specht Harte', from which previously `tree' and `oak': dru n., Gen. dreu-s, dru-n-s dreu- dru-n-

Note: see to the precise definition Osthoff Par. I 169 f., Hoops Waldb. 117 f.; in addition

(KZ. 65, 198 f., 66, 58 f.) goes though from a nominalized neuter of an adjective *dru `das Material: Old Indic dru n. `wood' (Gen. dr, dra, Instr. dr, Lok. drui; dravya-

wood, weapon from wood, perhaps club, mace, joint' (Gen. drao), Old Indic dru-

`from tree'), dru- n. m. `wood, wood tool ', m. `tree, bough', Avestan duru `tree truck, bit of

klotzfig ', dru-ghn ` wood ax ' (-wooden rod), su-dr- `good wood'; dhruv- `tight, firm, Avestan dr(u)v, Old pers. duruva `fit, healthy, intact ', compare Old Church Slavic swood, the drum', dra-m `bow, sword' (uncovered; with npers. durna, balu drn ` remaining ' (dh- through folk etymology connection in dhar- `hold, stop, prop, sustain' =

`hard, rough, stern' (actually `hard as wood, lumpy '), dru- in compounds as dru-pda- `

drav); Avestan drvana- ` wooden ', Old Indic druvya- ` wooden vessel, box made of rainbow '), dru ` bucket; pail ', dra-m `wooden trough, tub'; drum- `tree' (compare Old Indic drvi-, darv `(wooden) spoon';

under );

stem 66) targal `spoon' from *dru- or *deru-.

Armenian tram `tight, firm' (*drrmo, Pedersen KZ. 40, 208); probably also (Lidn Arm.

*F, , Attic from *Fn, whose n is comparable with Old Indic dra); Cretan (*F) `balk, beam' (= Lithuanian Latvian darva); standing firm to the spear '), Arcadian Doric -, Doric Boeotian - , ` Dorian ' (of ` timberland '); Note: Who were Dorian tribes? Dorians were Celtic tribes who worshipped trees. In Celtic they were called Druids, priests of ancient Gaul and Britain (also Greece and Illyria). The caste sacred trees. Druids must have planted the religion around the sacred oak at Dodona. , `oak, tree' (from n. *dru or *deru, *doru g.*druus become after other tree sizil. `boar' (after Kretschmer KZ. 36, 267 f. *--F or -F `

Gr. `tree truck, wood, spear, javelin' (Gen. hom. , trag. from

of Druids must have worshiped the dominant thunder god whose thunderbolt used to strike

name to Fem.; as a result of the tendency of nominative gradation), - ` fruit tree ', - ` woodchopper ', ` from the oak, from oak tree ', ` dryad, tree nymph ', `old tree truck', . Hes. (*sm-,

Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v.), Hes.

changed length after ); `tree' (Hom.; out of it Attic ), from redupl. *e(= )-F, Demin. ; compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 583; F- in arg. . Hes., Hes.,

Hom. n. Pl. `wood, forest', nachhom. ds. (the latter with previous

compare lastly Schwyzer KZ. 62, 199 ff., different Specht Dekl. 139); Hes.

(*F-), ` wooden tub, trough, coffin' (probably from *F,

Hes. (diss. from *F), next to which *druio- in . PN : Lithuanian Drktenis, Old Prussian Drutenne (E. Fraenkel, Pauly-Wissowa in vocalism still not explained certainly `shrubbery, bush, thicket '; maked.
e 5

16, 1633); (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

(Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 495 );

f. `oak' Hes. (*d ru-, compare Old Irish daur); but Hes., lies F

`wood'); drush-k (es-stem) `oak'; ablaut. *dr- in dri-z `tree', drni ` wood bar '; Note:

alb. dru f. `wood, tree, shaft, pole' (*druu, compare Old Church Slavic drva n. pl.

Alb. definite form Nom. dru-ni = alb. Gen. dru-ni `of wood': Old Indic dru n. `wood' (Gen. dr, dra `of wood'; but a pure Slavic loanword is alb. druvar ` woodcutter, woodchopper ' [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)] in Bavaria ', , ` Zeus's grove ', VN ---, , Dru-geri (druMaybe VN --- : Etruria (Italy) rough, rude, uncouth; in character, hard, austere,sometimes brazen, shameless; of things, intransit., to become hard or dry; to be hard or callous; to endure, hold out; to last, remain, continue ' see below S. 220), if after Osthoff 111 f. as `strong, tight, firm as (oak)tree ' dissimilated from *dr-ro-s (*dreu-ro-s?); Maybe alb. duroj `endure, last', durim `patience' . Germanic *d rik-s, is conceivable because of heavy l; Note: Common Latin d- > l- hence Latin larix (*d rik-s) `larch tree'. Maybe Pelasgian Larissa (*dariksa) ds., (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), gall. place name Dervus (`oak forest'), abrit. Old Irish derucc (gg), Gen. dercon `glans', cymr. derwen `oak' (Pl. derw), bret. deruenn
e e

thrak. - `sycamore', PN , (*dar-ant-) ` Eichsttt a district

`wood, forest');

from Latin perhaps drus ` hard, harsh; tough, strong, enduring; in demeanour or tastes,

hard, awkward, difficult, adverse ' (but about drre ` to make hard or hardy, to inure;

but Latin larix `larch tree', loanword is from an Indo Germanic Alpine language, Indo

Derventi, place name, VN Dervci ; Old Irish drb `safe '; reduced grade Old Irish daur, Gen. daro `oak' (d ru-), also dair, Gen. darach ds. (*d ri-), Old Irish daurde and dairde
e e

grade *dru- in intensification particle (? different Thurneysen ZcPh. 16, 277: `oak-': dru- in

`oaken '; derived gall. *d(a)rullia `oak' (Wartburg III 50); maked. f. `oak'; zero

Druides, Druidae Pl., Old Irish dri `Druid' (`the high; noble ', *dru-uid-), Old Irish dron extension (compare under Modern High German Trog) Middle Irish drochta `(* wooden) exuberant (: Lithuanian drtas)', gr. PN , Old Irish drth `foolish, loony' (: Old

Galatian - ` holy oak grove '), e.g. gall. Dru-talos (`*with big forehead'),

`tight, firm' (*drunos, compare Old Indic dru-a-m, dru--, dr-a-m), with guttural

barrel, vat, cask barrel, tub', drochat `bridge'; here also gallorom. drtos `strong,

roman. equivalent);

Icelandic trr `juggler, buffoon'?), cymr. drud `foolish, loony, valiant' (cymr. u derives from deru- in Germanic Tervingl, Matrib(us) Alatervs, Old Norse tjara (*derun-), Finnish

German tere `tar' (Modern High German Teer); Old Norse tyrvi, tyri `pinewood', tyrr `pine' (doubtful Middle High German zirwe, zirbel ` pine cone ', there perhaps rather to Middle High German zirbel `whirl', because of the round spigot); dreu- in Gothic triu n. `wood, tree', Old Norse tr, Old English trow (engl. tree), Old

loanword terva, Old English teoru n., tierwe f., -a m. `tar, resin' (*deruio-), Middle Low

ders. meaning, but other ablaut Old Norse tr f. `religious faith, belief, assurance, pledge', Icelandic tr f., besides trr `loyal, faithful'; derived Old Norse tra `trust, hold for true' = Old English trwa m., Middle Low German trwe f. ds., Old High German trwa, Old

belief, loyalty, verity', Old High German triuwa, Modern High German Treue, compare with

faithful, reliable, unworried ', Gothic triggwa ` alliance, covenant ', Old English trow `faith,

(*treuuaz) `loyal, faithful', Old High German gi-triuwi `loyal, faithful', an: tryggr `loyal,

`tight, firm': ` show firmly, rely on whereupon, trust in '), Gothic triggws

Saxon trio `tree, balk, beam'; in btr. meaning `tight, firm - tight, firm relying' (as gr.

consolation' (*droust-), Gothic trausti `pact, covenant', changing through ablaut engl. trust `reliance' (Middle English trst), Middle Latin trustis `loyalty' in Old Franconian `law', Middle High German getrste `troop, multitude, crowd'; maybe alb. trs, trys `press, crowd' (st- formation is old because of npers. durut `hard, strong', durust `fit, healthy, whole'; Norwegian trysja `clean the ground', Old English trs `deadwood', engl. trouse, Old Icelandic tros `dross', Gothic ufar-trusnjan `disperse, scatter'.

`confidence, reliance, what one can count on', Old High German trst `reliance,

(compare n. Old Prussian druwis); similarly Old Norse traustr `strong, tight, firm', traust n.

Gothic trauan, and Old English trwian, Old Saxon trn, Old High German tr(w)n `trust'

measure vessel' (*trauja-, compare above ), Old Norse treyju-sull (also tryjusoll) `a kind of trough shaped saddle'; *dr- in Old Icelandic trr `jester', Old English tr `merrymaker, trumpeter' (:gallorom.

*drou- in Old English trg, engl. tray `flat trough, platter', Old Swedish tr `a certain

*drto-s, etc)?

Modern High German trog, Old English trog, troh (m.), Old Norse trog (n.) `trough' and Old packsaddle', trygja `a kind of creel', Old High German trucka `hutch', Low German trgge maybe nasalized alb. trung (*trgge) `wood, tree' Serbo-Croatian dial. drvo (drjevo), sloven. drv, Old Czech dvo, russ. drevo, klr. Balto Slavic *derua- n. `tree' in Old Church Slavic drvo (Gen. drva, also drvese), High German truha ` footlocker ', Norwegian Dialectal trygje n. `a kind of pack saddle or

respectively forms -ko- (compare above Middle Irish drochta, drochat), Old High German

*dru- in Old English trum `tight, firm, strong, fit, healthy' (*dru-mo-s), with k-extension,

`trough' and with the original meaning `tree, wood' Old High German hart-trugil `dogwood';

drevo `tree'; in addition as originally collective Lithuanian derv, (Akk. derv) f. ` chip of lengthened grade *dru-i- in Latvian dore f. ` wood vessel, beehive in tree';*su-doruapinewood; tar, resinous wood'; ablaut, Latvian darva `tar', Old Prussian in PN Derwayn;

`fit, healthy', compare Avestan dr(u)v, Old pers. duruva ds.

`fit, healthy' in Old Church Slavic sdrav, Czech zdrv (zdrav), russ. zdorv (f. zdorva) Baltic *dreui- f. ` wood beehive ', substantive adj. (Old Indic dravya- ` belonging to the

dravs f., Latvian drava f. ` wood beehive ', in addition Old Prussian drawine f. `prey, bee's drov f. ds., Latvian drava `cavity in beehive'; load ' and Lithuanian drav `hole in tree'; furthermore in ablaut East Lithuanian drv and

tree ') : Lithuanian drv and drev `cavity in tree', Latvian dreve ds.: in ablaut Lithuanian

(Gen. drew); *druuina- n. `wood' in klr. drovno, slovz. drvn; , adjekt. Old English trum); `good wood');

proto Slavic *druua- Nom. Pl. `wood' in Old Church Slavic drva, russ. drov, poln. drwa Slavic *drm in russ. drom ` virgin forest, thicket ', etc (= Old Indic drum-, gr. Lithuanian su-drus `abundant, fat (from the growth of the plants)' (= Old Indic su-dr-

`strong, thick', Old Prussian in PN Drutenne, (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, nt- > -nn-), PN Druthayn, Druthelauken; belongs to Old Prussian druwis m. `faith, belief', hope'. Beside Lithuanian drtas also drktas; see below d er-2. erh

Baltic drta- `strong' (== gallorom. *drto-s, gr. PN ) in Lithuanian drtas, dritas

druwi f., druwt `believe' (*druwti: Old High German tren), na-po-druwsnan `reliance, In ablaut here Old Church Slavic drevlje ` fore, former, of place or time; higher in

importance, at first or for the first time ', Old Czech dve, russ. drvle `ages before'; adverb of comparative or affirmative. Hittite ta-ru `tree, wood', Dat. ta-ru--i; Schneider IF. 57, 203). Note: The shift d- > zero is a Baltic-Illyrian inherited by Tocharian References: WP. I 804 ff., WH. I 374, 384 ff., 765 f., Trautmann 52 f., 56, 60 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 463, 518, Specht Dekl. 29, 54, 139. Page(s): 214-217 here also probably Tocharian AB or `wood' (false abstraction from *tod dor, K.

derder drRoot / lemma: der-, heavy basis der-, drMeaning: to cut, split, skin (*the tree) Note:

derder drRoot / lemma: der-, heavy basis der-, dr- : `to cut, split, skin (*the tree)' derived from Material: Old Indic dar- `break, make crack, split, burst ', present the light basis dri, adar, deruru- dr(e)u- drouru drRoot / lemma: deru-, dru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreu- : dr- : `tree'

drt, n-present the heavy basis drti ` bursts, cracks', Opt. dryt, Perf. dadra, participle dra-, of the heavy basis dr-, Kaus. drayati, Intens. dardirat, drdarti (compare Avestan m., dar f. `hole in the earth, cave' (: gr. `hose', Latvian nudaras `dross of bast', darmn- m. ` smasher ' (: gr. n.), next to which from the heavy basis drmandardar- `split'; Czech drdm, drdati `pluck, pick off, remove'), dardarti `split up', dara-

Church Slavic razdor), dri- m. `bag, hose' (= gr. , Gothic gatars, russ. dert), `destruction'; -dri- `splitting' (= gr. ), dra- m. `crack, col, gap, hole', draka- `ripping, 20), barely after Persson Beitr. 779 of the i-basis; npers. Inf. diran, daran, jd.-pers. darn-in; splitting', dar- in dardar-ti, dar-man- with for i = (compare Wackernagel Old Indic Gr. 1

Maybe alb. (*dras) drras `board, plank (cut wood)', drrmonj `destroy, break, exhaust, tire'. Dardani Illyrian TN Note: The name Dardani Illyrian TN and [Latin transcription: Dries] Greek: , Attic - Latin derive from the same root. Dardanus

by Micha F. Lindemans

The son of Zeus and Electra. He sailed from Samothrace to Troas in a raft made of hides. He eventually married Batea, the daughter of King Teucer, who gave him land near Abydos. There he founded the city of Dardania (the later, ill-fated city of Troy). Hence the name Dardanelles for what was once called the Hellespont. DARA DARA (Dara, Ptol. vi. 8. 4). 1. A small river of Carmania, at no great distance from the frontier of Persis. There can be little doubt that it is the same as the Dora of Marcian (Peripl. p. 21) and the Daras of Pliny (vi. 25. s. 28). Dr. Vincent conjectures (Voyage of

Nearchus, vol. i. p. 372) that it is the same as the Dara-bin or Derra-bin of modern charts.

2. A city in Parthia. [APAVARCTICENE]

3. A city in Mesopotamia. [DARAS] [V.]

DARADAE DARADAE the name of Ethiopian tribes in two different parts of Africa; one about the central part, in Darfour (Daradn ethnos, Ptol. iv. 7. 35), the other in the W., on the river DARADUS also called Aethiopes Daratitae. (Polyb. ap Plin. v. 1; Agathem. ii. 5.) [P. S.]


DARADAX (Daradax), a Syrian river, mentioned only by Xenophon (Anab. i. 4. 10). It

has been identified with the Far, a small tributary of the Euphrates. At the source of the were destroyed by Cyrus the Younger. (Anab. l. c.) [G.W.]

river was a palace of Belesis, then satrap of Syria, with a large and beautiful park, which

DARADUS DARADUS, DARAS, or DARAT (Darados Daras, Ptol. iv. 6. 6), a river of Africa, falling v. 1); probably the Gambia or Dio d'Ouro. [P. S.] into the Atlantic on the W. coast, near the Portus Magnus, and containing crocodiles (Plin.

DARAE DARAE a Gaetulian tribe in the W. of Africa, on a mountain stream called Dara, on the S. steppes of M. Atlas, adjacent to the Pharusii. (Plin. v. 1; Oros. i. 2; Leo Afr. p. 602.) [P. S.]

DARADRAE DARADRAE (Daradrai, Ptol. vii. 1. 42), a mountain tribe who lived in the upper Indus. Forbiger conjectures that they are the same people whom Strabo (xv. p. 706) calls Derdae, and Pliny Dardae (vi. 19), and perhaps as the Dadicae of Herodotus (iii. 91, vii. Sogdiana, though their association with the Gandarii (Sanscrit Gandhras) points to a more southern locality. [V.]

66). It is possible, however, that these latter people lived still further to the N., perhaps in

DARANTASIA DARANTASIA a place in Gallia Narbonensis.


DARDAE DARADRAE DARADRAE (Daradrai, Ptol. vii. 1. 42), a mountain tribe who lived in the upper Indus. Forbiger conjectures that they are the same people whom Strabo (xv. p. 706) calls Derdae, and Pliny Dardae (vi. 19), and perhaps as the Dadicae of Herodotus (iii. 91, vii. Sogdiana, though their association with the Gandarii (Sanscrit Gandhras) points to a more southern locality. [V.]

66). It is possible, however, that these latter people lived still further to the N., perhaps in

DARDANI DARDANI (Dardanoi), a tribe in the south-west of Moesia, and extending also over a part of Illyricum. (Strab. vii. p. 316; Ptol. iii. 9. 2; Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 4; Liv. xl. 57; Plin. iii. 29; under dunghills, but very fond of music. [L. S.] participle drt (= Old Indic drt-); Cic. p. Sest. 43) According to Strabo, they were a very wild and filthy race, living in caves Avestan dardar- (see above) `split', Inf. drnm (: Old Indic drti), Iter. draya-, Armenian teem ` skin, flay, make callous' (because of probably for root form *der-s-,

Persson Beitr. 779 Anm. 1); doubtful Armenian tar `foreign land', tara- `besides, without, afar', taray Aor. `take to one's heels, made oneself scarce' (Persson Beitr. 778 a 2);

Latvian nu-daras); `the skinning' (= Old Indic drti-), next to which with (has

, participle , (= Old Indic drt-); `hose' (= Old Indic dara-,

gr. `skin, flay', io-present ds. (as Lithuanian der besides diri), Aor. Pass.

changed) lengthened grade Attic , - `skin, leathery dress, cover'; *, diss. ` the membrane which contains the bowels '; , - n. `skin, fur' (heavy basis?), n., n., `fell, fur'; lengthened grade , - (poet.) `fight,

(: Old Indic dr-dar-ti)?

struggle'(= Old Indic -dri-); here probably also - ` bedraggle ' instead of *cymr. corn. bret. darn `piece, part' (= Old Indic dr-);

German terren `quarrel, squabble', ndd. terren, tarren `stir, tease, irritate, banter', Old High ` unstitch, unpick, take apart ', compare nominal Old English Old Saxon torn, Old High German zorn `anger, fight, violent displeasure ' and in original meaning holl. torn ` cleavage, separation' (= Old Indic dr-, cymr. darn; also Old Indic dr- is named German zerren `pull'; Gothic intrans. dis-, ga-tarnan `tear' (: Old Indic drti), holl. tornen

(ver)zern, Modern High German (ver)zehren `consume', Middle English, Middle Low

teran `tear', Old High German zeran, fir-zeran `tear, destroy'; Middle High German

Gothic dis-taran (= gr. ) `break, pull apart', ga-taran `tear, destroy', Old English

besides `split' also ` confused, put in desperation '); next to which zero grade Old Norse

Old Indic dara-, dar `hole in the earth'); causative is trod to ga-tarnan (iterative) gatarnjan `mug, rob' (but Old High German uozurnen ` despise ' Denom. of *uo-zorn); Gothic gatara m. `crack', gatars f. `destruction' (= Old Indic drti-, gr. ); Old Norse tor-

tjrn f. (*dern), tjarn n. (*dernom) `small sea', originally probably ` water hole ' (compare

Middle High German zurch, zrch m. ` animal excrements ');

drst ` defecate ', dirsa ` buttocks ', Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 470, and of a guttural extension besides of the heavy basis Old Norse tr n. `batten, lath, support from poles' (*dr-to-

in compounds, Old English tord n. `ordure' (*dr-tm ` separation ', compare Latvian drstu,

*trdel) ` tassel, wood fiber ';

German trda `fringe' (Modern High German Troddel), Middle High German trdel (for actually to der-(e)u- (see below) with nasal infix belong *dr-nu- in Middle High German

m), Middle High German truoder f. ` slat, pole, from it manufactured rack '; Old High

trnne f. ` running shoal, migration, swarm; surge ', (under the influence of common Celtic ', and *dren-u in trinnan ` seclude oneself ', Middle High German trinnen, trann ` be

-ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Old High German abe-trunnig, ab-trunne ` apostate ', ant-trunno ` fugitive separated from, depart from, run away ', Modern High German entrinnen (*ent-trinnen),

Swedish Dialectal trinna, trenta ` split fence rack ', further with the meaning ` split trunk piece as a disc, wheel ' Old High German trennila `ball', trenniln `roll', Middle Low German trint, trent ` circular ', trent m. ` curvature, roundness, circular line ', Old English wheel ' trinde f. (or trinda m.) `round clump', Middle High German trindel, trendel ` ball, circle,

directly to derive from *der- `split'; nn of Germanic *trennan from -nu-); certainly here

trennen, holl. (with metathesis) tarnen, tornen `separate' (the latter, in any case, more

Kaus. Germanic *trannian in Middle High German trennen `cut, clip', Modern High German

and from `tear, tug unkindly' explainable meaning probably here Germanic *trat-, *trut- in

With fractured reduplication or formant -d- (compare gr. and Czech drdati)

tzes ` obstructiveness, animosity, contrariness ', Modern High German Trotz, Trutz,

challenge, defy ', Middle Low German trot ` contrariness ', Middle High German traz, truz, trotzen, Bavarian tratzen `banter'; with the meaning-development ` fray ' - `thin, fine,

Old English teart ` stern, sharp, bitter ', Middle Dutch torten, holl. tarten `stir, tease, irritate,

trtet ` squeamish ' (perhaps also Norwegian Dialectal tert, tart `small salmon', terta ` small play ball '); Old High German Modern High German zart (the last from *dor-t-, compare Middle Persian dart ` afflicted ', npers. derd `pain' Wood KZ. 45, 70);

tender' perhaps (?)Middle Low German tertel, tertlk `fine, dainty, mollycoddled ', Danish

Latvian nudara ` pole with cut branches, bread slice ', Pl. -as ` dross, esp. of bast' (:

basis compared with Old Indic drti-, gr. , Gothic gatars), nudrtas ` flayed ',

Lithuanian diri (: ), em. der (: ), drti `flay, cut off the grass or peat' (heavy

balk'; with u-colored zero grade Lithuanian duri, drti `prick' (preterit driau) = serb. drim (-driti) `hit' (russ. u-dyrt `hit' with iterative grade to *dr-, compare Lithuanian borrowed from Slavic; compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 519.

Mhlenbach-Endzelin II 772, Old Indic dara-, gr. ), Lithuanian dern `board, plank,

driau, Berneker 179 f.). Against it are Lithuanian durnas ` frenzied, stupid', Latvian durns Slavic *der and *diri in Old Church Slavic der, drati `rend, flay' and *dr (serb.

grade raz-dirati `tear', serb. z-dirati ` exert oneself, (maltreat oneself); clear off, pass

zdrm, Czech dru); u-darj, u-dariti `hit' (*dr-, compare *dr- in gr. ), with iterative away, disappear ' (in addition Old Church Slavic dira `crack'; s. Berneker 201, whereas

Bulgarian dr'a ` track of a person or animal, or from wheels ', dr' `search, seek, feel, pursue'); about *dr- in serb. -drim see above;

also about the meaning-development of probably related family serb. dra ` hole, crack ',

` torn, flayed ' (= Old Indic drta-); Indo Germanic *drti- : russ. dert ` residue of crushed Indic drn- etc, meaning as in Lithuanian dirti `cut the lawn grass'); Maybe alb. (*derm) drrmoj `exhaust'.

with zero grade (Indo Germanic *drto-): serb Church Slavic raz-drt ` lacerate ', klr. drtyj grain, bran; cleared land ' (= Old Indic drti- etc); russ. (etc) drn `lawn, meadow' (: Old

`crack, cleavage ' (= Old Indic dara-, gr. , Latvian nuo-daras), serb. -dorac `attack,

nouns: with -grade sloven. u-dr `blow, knock', with o-grade Old Church Slavic razdor

russ. derm ` rags stuff, the unusable, rubbish, dirt ' (*dross by splitting, peeling), drkij `rash, hasty, fast ', dran f. ` shingle, lath', drjan = `derm', drka ` brawl ', dra `nail puller, tool used to remove nails', o-drny Pl. `chaff' etc.

dljiti `divest' (Berneker 255); Sprachg. 19).

With l- extended Lithuanian nu-drlioti `peel the skin', serb. drljm, dljati `harrow', drljm,

Tocharian AB tsr- `separate, split', tsrorye `cleft, fissure, crack' (Pedersen Tocharian

d(e)r- *derid(e)r- (: *deri-?) only barely covered (see esp. Persson Beitr. 779 f.): reshaped from *- or -), Latvian drsme `crack, scratch ', perhaps (if not Gr. - `(incisive, splitting) piercing, sharp, herb, bitter' (probably after

derailment of ablaut to Lithuanian dreski because of whose zero grade drisk-) from

488 f., 500;

Latvian drksna (*drskna) ` scratch ', draska ` tearer ', compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin I remains far off ` bloodsucker, leech, penis', actually ` the swollen ', to With u- forms of the light (der-eu-) and heavy basis (der-u-, dr-u-) ` tear, (the land) derder der euder

Hes. (M. Scheller briefl.).

break, burst, erupt ': dor-u: dr-u `species of grain', deru-, de-dru- etc `lacerate skin'. dor : deru- de-druMiddle Persian drn, drdan `reap'; about Germanic forms with nasal infix see above S. 207; n. ds., Middle High German triel (*dreu-lo-) m. `snout, muzzle, mouth, lip', maybe alb. Geg (*tryni) turini, Tosc turiri `mouth of animals, snout' Norwegian Dialectal mle-trjosk, -trusk (*dreu-sko-) `horse muzzle' (Falk-Torp under tryne). Because of the meaning insecure is Falk-Torps apposition under trg and trygle of Old Norse traua ` lack, come short ', traula Adv. `barely', traur ` querulous ' and - with g-extension - Old English trcian ` be absent, lack, come short ' (nengl. dial. to truck `to fail', Middle Low German trggelen `beg, cheat, deceive'); extension?, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 505). Old Indic drv ` millet grass ' (dr-u); compare gr. delph. f., Thessalian m. `bread' (*dr-), maked. ds.; here Old Norse trjna f. (*dreu-n-n-) ` proboscis of the pig' (`bursting, burrowing '), tryni

Latvian drugt ` diminish, collapse ' (Irish droch, cymr. drwg ` penurious, evil, bad' from k-

borrowed from Roman. (Kleinhans bei Wartburg III 158); (Germanic *tar-u, Indo Germanic *doru);

gall. (Latin) dravoca ` ryegrass ' (*dr-u-); bret. draok, dreok, cymr. drewg ds. are Middle Dutch tanve, terwe, holl. tarwe `wheat', engl. tare `weed, ryegrass, vetch' Lithuanian drva `farmland' (*dr-u, with intonation change the -stem), actually ` freed,

cleared ', dirvnas ` virgin soil, land ' (compare to meaning russ. Dialectal dor ` new tillage, field ' (Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 470, 505), russ. (see Berneker 186) dervnja ` village with the meaning ` skin rash ' (`splitting off skin flakes, cracked skin'): m. ` leprosy '; Old Indic dar-dru- m. `kind of skin rash ', dar-d- m. (uncovered), da-dru- m., da-dru-kaLatin derbita f. `lichen' is loanword from gall. *dervta (compare also Middle Irish deir, cultivated land ', rzdert ` land made arable '), Latvian druva `the tilled farmland, sown

(without church); land property ', Dialectal `piece of field', pet dervnju `tills the field';

dervoeden, nbret. deroueden `sick of lichen '(*deru-eit-);

darwyden through influence of the prefix group t-ar-, Pedersen KG. I 495), Middle Breton Germanic *te-tru- in Old English teter `skin rash', Old High German zittaroh (*de-dru-ko-

Old Irish *der from *der `lichen'), to cymr. tarwyden, tarwden (Pl. tarwed) (besides

s = Old Indic dadruka-), Modern High German Zitterich `skin rash';

heat, miliaria, heat rash', poln. o-dra ` measles ', of the g-extension Bulgarian drgn-se ` rub myself, itch myself, become scabby '); deregdereg- : poke, intermittently tear, scrape, cover scraping ', *trakjan in Middle Low German trecken `pull, tear (tr. intr.)', Old English trglian `to pluck', wherewith because of the same vocal position maybe is to be connected to Latvian dragt `pull, rend, upset, shake', draguls ` Middle Dutch treken stem V. `pull, tear' and `shudder', Old High German trehhan ` push,

450; compare in similar meaning of the root form *der- Czech o-dra, Pl. o-dry ` prickly

Lithuanian dedervin ` rash resembling lichen ' (Trautmann 47, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I

Kalba ir s. 128, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 498.

drigants, Lithuanian drigntas `stallion' are loanword from poln. drygant; compare Bga

shivering fit ', drga `a strong angry person, renders and demands a lot '; Latvian drigelts,

dereghderegh- (see Persson root extension 26, Berneker 254 and 212 m. Lithuanian): tergen, targen `pull, stir, tease, irritate', holl. tergen, Modern High German zergen `pull, Old English tiergan (Germanic *targian) `banter, stir, tease, irritate', Middle Low German

(the trigger of a gun) '; russ. drgat `pluck, pull, tear, rend ' (etc), s-doroga `cramp'. derekderek-: BB. 18, 189), , (actually `tear the skin open' as analogous meaning ) Hes.;

Dialectal terga `banter'; Lithuanian drginu, drginti ` flurry, irritate, stimulate, excite, pull

tear, anger', Swedish Dialectal targa ` tug with the teeth or sharp tools ', Norwegian

name of foreland in Kos (as plural as name of forelands, Bugge

859 ); perhaps to (North Illyrian?) PN (leg. ?) in Wurttemberg, as ` place to rest '; Note: This seems wrong etymology since alb. drek `lunch, middle of the day' seems to have be alive', , , `vision', `sight', `look, gaze', `heavy to behold' (= Old Indic darcata-), Adv. `one looking up from fem. ; alb. drit `light' (*drk-t); of common alb. -k- > -th-s; thderived from Root / lemma: derk- : `to look, light'; gr. ` look, keep the eyes open,

(unclear the ablaut relation in drek `lunch, middle of the day'; compare Persson Beitr.

gr. m., n. `supper' (*dork- + uo-forms) = alb. dark `supper, evening'

below', n. `eye', , - `dragon, snake' (from banishing, paralyzing look), According to alb. phonetic laws alb. drit `light' derived from (drik-a) not (*drk-t) because Maybe alb. (*darcata-), dark `supper, evening meal, evening'; (*drech), drek `dinner meal, midday, light of the day': Old Irish an-dracht ` loathsome, dark' (see above). sloven. drkam, drem, drkati ` glide, slither, on the ice trail; run, trot run ' (probably from

`clear off, run away, leave'), Czech drkati `bump, poke, jolt', Bulgarian drcam, drcn ` pull, riffle flax, hemp ' (Berneker 255, Persson Beitr. 85, 359). deresderes-: Armenian teem (see above under der-);

become ragged', tras `deadwood', trask `offal, deadwood'; `pull'

Old Norse tjasna f. `kind of nail' from *tersnn-?, Norwegian trase `rag, clout', trasast `

presumably Old English teors, Old High German zers `penis', Norwegian ters `nail'; also

Middle Irish dorr `anger', dorrach `rough, coarse' (see Persson Beitr. 779 Anm. 1);

Maybe alb. trast `bag, (ragged cloth?)', tras `pull (a boat on the coast) : Rumanian trage sloven. drsati ` disband, separate', Czech drsati `scratch, scrape, stripe', drasta,

`rough', drsnat ` jolting '(compare above Middle Irish dorr). dre-sk: dre-sk:

drsta `splinter, scrap, shred; garment ', draslav `rough, jolting ', zero grade drsen

scratcher, crack'; Czech old z-dies-kati and (with assimilation of auslaut and a sounding anlaut) z-diezhati `break, rupture', dieska, diezha `splinter, chip, splinter', nowadays dzha `chip, splinter'; poln. drzazga `splinter'; With formant -p-: drep-, drop-: drep- drop`banner, ensign, flag, banner'), Lithuanian drpanos f. Pl. ` household linen, dress', Latvian Old Indic drp- m. `mantle, dress', draps- m. `banner (?)' (= Avestan drafa-

drt (*dra) ` scratch, scrape; fit tightly ', perfective drsn (*draskn); drska `

crafty slat, thinly split wood ' (Leskien Abl. 325, Berneker 220, 224)., Bulgarian drskam,

draskau, draskti iter. `tear', Latvian draskt ds., draska `rag', Lithuanian drkstn lent `

Lithuanian su-drysk, -driska, -drksti `tear', dreski, dreskia, -drksti ` rend ',

Drapp, Drappus, Drappes, Drapnus) is probably Venetic-Illyrian loanword; the a-vowel from Indo Germanic o or, as das -pp-, expressive; gr. ` break off, cut off, pick ', , `sickle', also (out of it

drna (probably *drp-n) `stuff, kerchief, cloth'; gallo-rom. drappus `kerchief, cloth' (PN

alb. drapn `sickle' ds.), that is defined through assimilation of to *; ograde Hes. (= serb. drpljm), , - ` Pechpflaster, um

Pl. ds., trefja `rub, wear out', Middle High German trabe f. `fringe';

Haareauszuziehen ', `pull the hair out'; Old Norse trf n. Pl. ` fringes ', trefr f. *drp- in russ. drjpa-ju, -t (with unclear ja), dial. drpat, drapt `scratch, rend ', serb.

drpm, drpljm, drpati `tear, wear out; scratch, scrape', poln. drapa `scratch, scrape,

scrape, rub, flee'; drp-, Slavic *drp- in Bulgarian drpam, perfective drpn ` tear, pull, dress' in Latvian drbe f. `stuff, dress, laundry', Lithuanian drb f. `canvas, fabric',

drag ', serb. drpm, dpati and dpm, dpiti ` rend '; Balto Slavic dreb-, drob- `scrap, shred, drbanas m. `rag, scrap, shred', drabis, drobis m. `dress'; Upper Sorbian draby m. Pl. ` dress stuff ', Czech-mhr. zdraby m. Pl. `rag, scrap, shred' have probably through
h h

influence the root *drob- (see below d reb -) `carve, slit, dismember ' -b- instead of -p-; dripdrip-: Gall. (Venetic-Illyrian) PN Drippia, Drippnius (compare above Drappus etc);

Note: Alb. drapn `sickle' : (Venetic-Illyrian) PN Drippnius diarrhea', Czech dpa `scrap, shred', dpati ` rend, tear'; drupdrup-: Beitr. 859) ` scrub, flay off the skin', ` scratching, peeling ', `a kind of thorn '. 162 ff. For variation of a : i : u in ` popular words ' compare Wissmann Nomina postverbalia Gr. ` scratch', , - (with secondary instead of , s. Persson Bulgarian drpa `rag, scrap, shred', sloven. drpam (drpljem), drpati `tear, have

References: WP. I 797 ff., WH. I 342 f., 373, 861, Trautmann 51 f. Page(s): 206-211

Meaning: to find

lemma: des- dsRoot / lemma: des-, ds-

Material: Gr. w `become find' (futur. gebrauchtes present), Hes.; alb. ndesh `find, encounter', ndieh (*of-sk) `feel, find'; perhaps also Old Church Slavic

de, desiti `find', ablaut. russ.-Church Slavic dositi (udositi) `find, meet', whether not to `slave, fiend'. dek-; whereas is Old Indic abhi-dsati ` is hostile, attacked ' rather Denomin. of ds- About alb. ndesh s. also above S. 190. References: WP. I 783, 814, Trautmann 54, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 780. Page(s): 217

Meaning: to drag

deukRoot / lemma: deuk-

). In addition perhaps also Hes., wherefore hom. `

Material: Gr. - Hes. (*-- with intensive reduplication as inconsiderate '; unclear is ` der vielsorgende ' (but is dissimilated

from *, Bechtel), and with zero grade `keen, eager, painstaking '. The meaning `care, worry, be considerate of ' arose from `pull, drag' perhaps about `bring up'; similarly stands for Old Norse tja (*teuhn) `help' (see Falk-Torp 1315 f.).

Somewhat other spiritual change of position shows Latin dcere as ` to draw; to draw

along or away; hence to shape anything long, to construct. Transf., to charm, influence, esteem, consider'.

mislead; to derive; to draw in; to lead; in marriage, to marry a wife; to calculate, reckon; to Alb. nduk ` pluck, tear out the hair ', dial. also ` suck out '. Mcymr. dygaf `bring' (*dukami); about Old Irish to-ucc- (cc = gg) `bring' see below euk-. eukto shape anything long, to construct. Transf., to charm, influence, mislead; to derive; to Latin dc (Old Latin douc), -ere, dx, dctum ` to draw; to draw along or away; hence

draw in; to lead; in marriage, to marry a wife; to calculate, reckon; to esteem, consider ' = (Old Norse only in participle toginn). Gothic ga-tiuhan, etc. Gothic tiuhan, Old High German ziohan, Old Saxon tiohan, Old English ton `pull, drag'

verbal compounds: ab-dc = Gothic af-tiuhan, ad-dc = Gothic at-tiuhan, con-dc = root nouns: Latin dux, ducis m. f. ` a guide, conductor; a leader, ruler, commander '

(therefrom ducre `bring up, educate, rise '; linguistic-historical connection with formally equal Old Norse toga, Old High German zogn `pull, drag' does not exist), trdux `(here ', Modern High German Herzog replication of ? compare Feist 479. guided) vine-layer '. Is Old Saxon etc heritogo, Old High German herizogo ` military leader ti-stem: Latin ductim `by drawing; in a stream', late ducti- `duct' (besides tu-stem

ductus, -s ` direction, leadership, duct, conduction ') = Modern High German Zucht (see below). Specially rich development form in Germanic, so: iterative-Kaus. Old Norse teygia `pull,

drag, pull out' = Old English tegan `pull, drag' (*taugian); Old High German zuckan,

zucchen, Middle High German zucken, zcken `quick, pull fast, wrest, draw back' (with

intensive consonant stretch; therefrom Middle High German zuc, Gen. zuckes m. ` twitch, jerk'); Old Norse tog n. `the pulling, rope, cable', Middle High German zoc, Gen. zoges m. `pull', whereof Old Norse toga, -aa `pull, drag', Old English togian, engl. tow `pull, drag', Old High German zogn, Middle High German zogen `pull, drag (tr., intr.), rend, pull',

zugil, Modern High German Zgel, Old Norse tygill m. `band, strap, strip', Old English tygel `rope'; Old Norse taug f. `rope', Old English tag f. `band, strap, manacle, paddock ' (therefrom Old English tegan `bind', engl. tie); with zero grade Old Norse tog n. `rope,

Modern High German Zug (*tugi-); Old High German zugil, zuhil, Middle High German

compare above Latin ()-ducre; Old English tyge m. i-stem `pull', Old High German zug,

hawser'; Old Norse taumr m. `rope, cable, rein', Old English tam m. ` pair of harnessed

oxen, yoke, bridle, parturition, progeny ' (therefrom teman ` proliferate, be pregnant ', engl. teem), Dutch toom `brood', Old Frisian tm `progeny', Old Saxon tm `a strap or thong of `rope, cable, thong, rein', Modern High German `bridle, rein' (Germanic *tauma- from

leather; plur., reins, bridle; scourge, whip', Old High German Middle High German zoum m. *tau-m-); Old High German giziugn `bear witness, prove' (actually ` zur

Gerichtsverhandlung gezogen warden '), Middle High German geziugen ` prove from testify, prove ', getch n. ` attestation, evidence '; further with the meaning `bring out, bring evidence ', Modern High German (be)zeugen, Zeuge, Middle Low German betgen `

German Zeug, Middle Low German tch (-g-) n. ` stuff, device ' and `penis', Middle High German ziugen, Modern High German zeugen; Gothic ustahts ` consummation ', Old

up, generate' Old High German giziug (*teugiz) ` stuff, device, equipment ', Modern High

High German Middle High German zuht f. `raise, upbringing, breed, breeding, progeny ', zchtig, zchtigen, Old English tyht m. ` upbringing, breed, breeding', Old Frisian tucht,

Modern High German Zucht (= Latin ductus see above); therefrom Modern High German tocht `ability to procreate'.


`bitch', Norwegian dial. tobbe `mare, small female creature ' and Germanic *tk and *ti A simple root form *den- `pull, drag' perhaps in Old Norse tjr n. (*deu-trom) ` tether,

zauche `bitch', neuisl. ta ` vixen ' to the root; yet compare Middle High German zpe

High German zha, Middle Low German tle (*thila), Modern High German schwb.

Specially because of Zucht ` progeny ', Bavarian also ` breeding pig ' one draws Old

High German Bavarian Zieter ` front shaft ' (also Old English tdor, tuddor n. ` progeny '?); but Old Indic rakam `rope, strap' is dravid. loanword (Kuiper Proto-Munda 131).

bandage rope ' = Middle English teder-, teer ds., Old High German zeotar `shaft', Modern

Page(s): 220-221

References: WP. I 780 f., WH. I 377 f., 861.

deuRoot / lemma: deu-1

Meaning: to plunge, to penetrate into

Material: Old Indic up-du- ` to go into, (of clothes), to put on, to wear, assume the person of, enter, press into, cover oneself, wear'; The cause of -(e)s- stem seems to belong to: Old Indic do, new da- ` evening,

darkness ', Avestan daoatara-, daoastara- ` situated towards evening, to the west ', npers. d `the former yesterday night'; gr. (more properly ) `evening' (metr. lengthening for * from

? originally Adj. ` vespertine ', as still in hom. ); gr. (Attic :, ep. only in participle ; Aor. ) `dive in, penetrate (e.g. , ), slip in, pull in (clothing, weapons; so also , , ), sets (from the sun and stars, dive, actually, in the sea)', also med. and (hom. is old augment tense ), trans. ` sink, dive, swathe ' (only in compounds: `sink'), intrans. (in simplex

to the future, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 788); , Kallimachos `sink in the sea' ( unclear, s. Boisacq s. v.; preposition *[a]p[o]?); `dip, dive, sink' (after ); ` the

place where one may not enter ', ` disappearing, dive, nook, hideaway, setting of the sun and stars ', ` towards evening ', Pl. ` setting of the sun and 16 f. here also `shrine'. Page(s): 217-218 stars '; unclear , ` coupled ' s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 589; after Frisk Indog. References: WP. I 777 f., WH. I 3, 682.

deudou- duRoot / lemma: (deu-2 or dou-) : dudeu Meaning: to worship; mighty Material: Old Indic dvas- n. ` offering, worship instruction ', duvasyti ` honors, reveres,

recognizes, recompenses ', duvasy-, duvy- `venerating, respectful '; Old Latin duenos, then duonos, Classical bonus `good' (Adv. bene, Demin. bellus [*duenelos] `pretty, cute');

probably = Old Irish den `proficient, strong', Subst. ` protection'; Latin be, -re ` to bless,

Note: common Latin du- > b-.

Saxon twthn `grant', Middle Low German twden ` please, grant', Old English langtwdig `

enrich, make happy ', betus ` blessed, lucky' (*du-i, participle *du-enos); in addition Old

granted long ago', Middle High German zwden `grant', md. getwdic `tame, domesticated, compliant ' (*du-ei-to-; Wood Mod. Phil. 4, 499);

after EM 114 perhaps still here gr. -- ` has power '. tawida `make', Proto Norse tawids `I made', Old High German zouuitun `exercebant Perhaps also here Germanic *taujan `make' (from `* be mighty ') in Gothic taujan,

German touwen `prepare, concoct, tan, convert hide into leather', wherefore Old English

(cyclopes ferrum)', Middle High German zouwen, zuwen ` finish, prepare ', Middle Low

getawa ` an implement, utensils, tools, instruments ' (therefrom again (ge)tawian `prepare', engl. taw ` make ready, prepare, or dress (raw material) for use or further treatment; spec. make (hide) into leather without tannin ') and (with original prefix stress in nouns) Old English geatwe f. Pl. `armament, armor, jewellery, weapons ' = Old Norse gtvar f. Pl. ds.,

Old Frisian touw, tow `tool, rope, hawser', Modern Frisian touw ` the short coarse fibres of flax or hemp, tow ', Middle Low German touwe `tool, loom', touwe, tou `rope, hawser' (out ' (but also `succeed', see above), Middle High German gezuwe n. `appliance' (out of it

of it Modern High German Tau), Old High German gizawa ` household furniture, apparatus with Bavarian-dial. vocalization Middle High German zwe), Modern High German Gezhe In addition with (Psilander aaO. expounded also *taujan through proto Germanic

(see about these forms Psilander KZ. 45, 281 f.).

`action', ubiltjis ` evildoer, wrongdoer ', Old Norse t n. `uncleaned wool or flax, linen

`take'; then it would be natural to separate from taujan); with Gothic taui, Gen. tjis

healthy, well ' (about possible origin of Germanic *tw from *t-w see below *dek-

number, uniting', Old English l-twe ` altogether, wholly, entirely well, sound, whole,

German zwa ` coloring, paint, color, dyeing', langobard. zwa ` row, division of certain

abridgement from *twjan) perhaps Gothic twa `order, row', gatwjan `dispose', Old High

thread material ' = Old English tw `the spinning, the weaving' in tw-hs ` spinnery ', twcrft ` skillfulness in spinning and weaving ', engl. tow ` the short coarse fibres of flax or hemp, tow '; with l-suffix Old Norse tl n. `tool', Old English tl n. ds. (*twula-), verbal only

Old Norse tja, tyja `utilize, make usable ', actually `align', denominative to *twja- after Psilander aaO., while Falk-Torp seeks under tie therein belonging to Gothic tiuhan *tauhjan, *tiuhjan. Thurneysen places (KZ. 61, 253; 62, 273) Gothic taujan to Old Irish dod ` exert,

`make' has developed from ` kindle the fire, inflame', seems unlikely. About other interpretations of taujan s. Feist 474 f.

troubled '; the fact that this, however with dod ` catches fire ' is identical and the meaning

Page(s): 218-219

References: WP. I 778, WH. I 111, 324 f., 852.

Meaning: to move forward, pass

deudRoot / lemma: deu-3, deu-, du-, d-

Material: Old Indic d-r- `remote, distant, wide' (mostly locally, however, also

chronologically), Avestan dra, Old pers. duraiy `afar, far there ', Avestan drt ` at a

distance, far, far there, far away ', compounds Sup. Old Indic dvyas-, dviha- `more

distant, most distant'; ved. duvs- ` moving forward, striving out ', transitive Avestan duye ` dta- ` summoner, delegator'; perhaps here Old Indic doa- m. `lack, fault, error' (*deu-sgr. Doric Attic , Aeolic hom. (not *-, but *F-) `lack, err, miss', Aor. chase away ', avi-fr-avaite ` carry away itself (from water)'; Old Indic dt-, Avestan


, ; unpers. , , participle , Attic `the needful '; Medium , hom. `lack' etc, hom. ` stay behind sth, fall short, fail to attain, be insufficient ', Attic ` please, long for '; , hom. ` destitute, lacking ', hom. .

`request'; in addition ` follow in the distance, the second one ', in addition Superl. Perhaps in addition with -s-extension (see further above Old Indic doa-) Germanic

*tiuzn in Old English torian `cease, languish' (*stay behind), engl. tire `exhaust'.

High German zawen ` proceed, go ahead, succeed', Middle High German zouwen `hurry, somewhat hasten, proceed, go ahead, succeed', zouwe f. `haste, hurry'. 2. Apers. duvaitam Adv. `for a long time', Avestan dbitm Adj. ` long, extended '

compare further md. zwen (strong. V.) ` move in the front, move, proceed there ', Old

(temporal); about Old Indic dvit, Avestan daibit, Old pers. duvit-paranam see below u duu `two'; Armenian tevem ` last, endure, hold, hold off ', tev ` endurance, duration', i tev ` long

time through ', tok `duration, endurance ' (*teuo-ko-, *touo-ko-), ablaut. erkar `long' (temporal) from *du-ro- (= gr. ), erkain `long' (spacial);

compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 482, 7;

therefrom `hesitate, stay long ', Hes. (*F-); about

of *F, *F `duration'), , Doric ` long lasting ' (*F-), `long',

gr. (el. Doric Hes.) ` long, long ago ' (*F), (*F) `long' (accusative

long time ' (to form see WH. I 378). Here also (in spite of WH. I 386) drre `endure'

Latin d-dum ` some time ago; a little while ago, not long since; a long while ago or for a

remains far off in spite of Vendryes (BSL. 38, 115 f.); here also Latin dum, originally ` short time, a short while ', see above S. 181; lengthened grade Old Irish do (*duio-) `slow'; ago', etc; Old Church Slavic dav ` erstwhile, former ', davn `ancient', russ. davn `since long Hittite tu-u-wa (duwa) ` far, away ', tu-u-wa-la (Nom. Pl.) `remote, distant' from *du-lo-,

because of Old Irish cundrad `pact, covenant' (*con-drad); but cymr. cynnired `movement'

Benveniste BSL. 33, 143. Page(s): 219-220

References: WP. I 778 ff., WH. I 378 f., 861, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 348, 595, 685.

deup- kteupRoot / lemma: deup- (: kteup-?)

Meaning: a kind of thudding sound, onomatopoeic words

Material: Gr. hom. ` dull noise, din; sound of the kicks '; ` to sound heavy or dead '; the in hom. , ` loud-thundering ' ( ... Hes.) revealed treading original anlaut - is maybe parallel with

`blow, knock' besides or is copied to it, so that no certainty is to be attained about its age; after Schwyzer would be () intensive to zero grade -; serb. dpm, dpiti `hit with noise', sloven. dpam (dupljem) dpati ` punch on something hollow, rustle sound' (Balto Slavic d- from gd-? or older as gr. -?); thuddingly ', dupotti, Bulgarian dp' ` give the spurs to a horse ', Latvian duptis `dull

Maybe onomatopoeic alb. dum (*dump) ` thudding sound' [common alb. p > mp > m] (*tup-) in Infin. tpssi, participle Pass, cacpunder Gr. I 718 .

after Van Windekens Lexique 138 here Tocharian A tp- ` allow to sound, announce '

References: WP. I 781 f., Endzelin KZ. 44, 58, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 518, Schwyzer Gr. Page(s): 221-222 de- doRoot / lemma: de-, do-

Meaning: a demonstrative stem

Material: Avestan vasmn-da ` up there to the house ';

Akk. the direction, e.g. -, , , (*-), as Avestan

gr. - in -, -, - ` that here, this ' (I - deixis), -, -, -, hinter

), also in - ( emulated Pl.) `here', Latin quan-de, quam-de ` as like ' =

vasmn-da (Arcadian Hes., reshuffling of - after double forms as : Oscan pan, Umbrian pane `as', also Oscan pn, Umbrian pon(n)e `as well as' (*quom-de), ` just, now, just, certainly ', - `already', - ` since, whereas, because '; after interrogative words `(what) then?';

Latin in-de ` thence, from there ' (*im-de), un-de ` whence, from where '; gr. `but'; gr.

Indo Germanic *de put also in Old Irish article in-d (*sind-os, Indo Germanic *sm-de); solidified Akk. f.*ne-dm ` not at the same time '; besides m. or n. in:); Italian -*dm in Latin qu-dam, quon-dam, Umbrian ne-rsa `as long as' (probably

disassembled in s-d-um, as also in. Latin dem, quidem, tandem, tantusdem, totidem is

dummodo, dumn, dumtaxat; Oscan sdum ` the same as' however, is to be

gr. ), manedum, quidum `as so?' , then in relative-conjunctional meaning, as also in

until', originally demonstratives `then', compare etiam-dum, interdum, nndum, agedum (:

Latin dum (*dom) `still', as Konj. `while, during the time that; so long as, provided that;

= Old Indic id-m ` just this ', compare Oscan s-d-um, as quid-em from *quid-om = Oscan pd-um, and as a result of the syllable separation i-dem would be sensed as -dem an identity particle and would grow further);

not to be recognized with dum from *dom the changing by ablaut -dem; d-em from *id-em

ddum) and dum belongs to root deu- (EM 288 f.).


but the primary meaning of dum is ` a short while ', wherefore u perhaps is old (compare Indo Germanic *d originally `here, over here' in Latin d-ni-cum (archaically), dnec

equal meaning with ad-, ar- in Umbrian ar-ni-po ` as far as ' from *ad-ne-qom) and in

(*d-ne-que), for Lukrez also donique ` so long as, till that, to, finally ', but also `then' (d-

Old Irishdo, du, acymr. di (= i), corn. e `to' from *d (in gall. du-ci `and'), Thurneysen abbreviated forms are in spite of Solmsen KZ. 35, 471 not to understand as previously

quand `when' = Umbrian panupei ` whenever, as often as; indef. at some time or other ';

Grammar 506; Old English t, Old Saxon to (te, ti), Old High German zuo (za, ze, zi; the proto Indo Germanic ablaut variants), Modern High German to (Gothic du `to' with Dat. and

Brugmann II , 812 as unresolved); Old Lithuanian do preposition and prefix `to'; Old from which then the subordinating link); different Pedersen Tocharian 5.

preverb, e.g. in du-ginnan `begin', seems proclitic development from *t(?), is marked from Church Slavic da ` so, and, but; that ' (meaning-development `*in addition' - `still, and',

Besides Indo Germanic *d in Old Church Slavic do `until, to'. prefix da-iet `hinzugehen', derive from dem Slavischen. Lithuanian da-, perfektivierendes verbal prefix, and Latvian da `until - to', also verbal

inne `ds.' (*en-d-io-); (common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), against it wird Old Irish indpreposition and prefix `in' von Thurneysen Grammar 521 as after in- umgefrbte

les, other formations in hom. -- (right ) `intestines, entrails ', Middle Irish

en-do en-do: Old Latin endo, indu `in', Latin only more as composition part, e.g. indi-gena, ind-

*dem*dem- `to build'; Hittite an-da `in' to *en-do(or *n-do?), Pedersen Hittite 166. Whereas it is the adverbial- and predicate character of nouns Old Irish in(d), abret. in, mcymr. yn probably instrumental of article; s. further Thurneysen Grammar 239.

` from inside ' are reshaped as Lesbian Doric after -, -, - from -, s.

Gothic and `until', Old Indic dhi connected; and gr. - ` indoors, in, within ', -

Entsprechung von gall. ande contemplates and further von Pedersen KG. I 450 with

away from. Transf., coming from an origin; taken from a class or stock, made from a

d (as d probably an Instr. extension) in Latin d `prep. with abl. in space, down from,

material, changed from a previous state; of information, from a source. in time, following

from, after; in the course of, during. about a subject; on account of a cause; according to a Umbrian *dd is probably replacement for *d after ehtrd etc, respectively after the standard', Faliscan de (besides Oscan dat `d' (for *dd, with t after post, pert etc; Oscan-

surrender, deliver, consign, yield, abandon, render ', dadkatted ` dedicate, consecrate, set inferior, poorer, worse ', Sup. dterrimus, dmum (Old Latin also dmus) ` of time, at apart ', Umbrian daetom ` a fault, crime '; in addition compounds Latin dterior ` lower,

ablative transformed in Instr. -(d), (d):d); as preverb in da[da]d ` give away, give up,

length, at last; in enumerations, finally, in short; 'id demum', that and that alone ' (`*to in short, in fine ';

lowest ' - `lastly, finally'), dnique ` at last, finally; in enumerations, again, further or finally; Old Irish d (besides de from Indo Germanic d, wherewith perhaps gall. - `

down, from - away ', also as privative particle (e.g. acymr. di-auc ` slow, tardy, slack, very large ' as Latin dmagis `furthermore, very much')

from a judicial sentence ' is to be equated), acymr. di, ncymr. y, i, corn. the, bret. di ` from dilatory, lingering, sluggish, inactive, lazy ', as Latin dbilis; intensifying Old Irish d-mr ` The meaning ` from - down, from - away ' these with gr. , formally the same

particle probably is only a common innovation of Celtic and Italic; also German?

(Holthausen KZ. 47, 308: Old High German zdal `poverty, need' from *d-tlom, of *d ` from - away ', as wdal `poor, needy' : Latin v `enclitic, or, or perhaps'?). The ending of the following adverbial groups also belongs to this root: Old Indic tad

yaa `when', Old Church Slavic jeda `when' (compare also Old Indic yadi `if', Old pers. yet'; also the Slavic formations as russ. kud `whereto, where';

jav. kaa `when?', Lithuanian kad `when'; Old Indic yad `when, as', Avestan yad, jav. yadiy, Avestan yei, yeii `as soon as' and Avestan yat `whence'); Old Indic id `now,

`then', Avestan taa `then', Lithuanian tad `then'; Old Indic kad `when?', Avestan kad,

Maybe alb. ku-do (*kud)`everywhere, anywhere', nasal nga-do (kd) `everywhere' Old Church Slavic td ` from there ', sdu ` from here ' , but it could contain also Indo A cognate stem *di perhaps in enclitic iran. Akk. Avestan Old pers. dim ` her, she ',

Old Church Slavic kdu, kd `whence', nikda-e `never', poln. dokd `whereto, where',

Germanic d .

Avestan dit `es', di Pl. m. f., d Pl. n., and Old Prussian Akk. Sg. din, dien `ihn, sie' (etc); compare but Meillet MSL 19, 53 f. Page(s): 181-183 References: WP. I 769 ff., WH. I 325 f., 339 f., 370 f., 694, 859, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 624 f.

dgRoot / lemma: dgMeaning: to grab? Material: Gothic tkan `touch';

Maybe alb. takonj `touch'

Additional cognates: [PN taka = WFris. take, EFris. tken, MDu. tken grasp, seize, catch, rel. by ablaut to Goth. tkan] soon as '. with ablaut Old Norse taka, (engl. take) `take'; Tocharian B tek-, tak- `touch', B teteka ` as

Maybe alb. takonj `touch' : Gothic tkan `touch'; tang `to touch'), Pedersen Tocharian 207 . Page(s): 183

References: WP. I 786, WH. I 351, Van Windekens Lexique 138, 139 (compares also Latin

Meaning: to bind Note:

ddi- dRoot / lemma: d- : d- and di-, d-

ddi- dai eiei Root / lemma: d- : d- and di-, d- : `to bind' derived from duai , duei-, stems of Root / Material: Old Indic dy-ti (with -, ni-, sam-) `binds' (dy- zero grade of *di-, from 3. Pl. holdback ', --extension from the zero grade di-, Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 761), Old Indic dynti, compare Avestan n-dy-tm 3. Sg. Med. in pass. meaning ` it has made soil (u) lemma: du(u) : `two' meaning `bind in two'

participle dit- ` bound ' (= gr. ), dman- n. `band, strap' (= gr. -), ni-dtr`binder';

torch, faggot, torch, fetter, sheaf ' (- for Indo Germanic *d- as : ),

gr. (hom. Attic) (*j) `bind', ` bound ', ` shavings tied together as a

` sheaf binder ', `the fastening, binding', `band, strap', `head fascia', Pl. ` bedstead '; hom. present `bind' is to after : `neologism'; - (compare Old Indic dman-) `sandal', ` a alb. duai ` fascicle, sheaf ' (about *dn- from Indo Germanic *d-n-), del `(*band, strap),

band or fillet, turban, diadem ';

sinew, tendon, vein' (Indo Germanic*d-lo-). Page(s): 183

References: References: WP. I 771 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 340 f., 676, 688.

Meaning: slant

mRoot / lemma: dh-m-s

Material: Old Indic jihm- ` slantwise, slant, skew' (Proto Aryan *ihm- assimil. from References: Pedersen KZ. 36, 78, WP. I 769. Page(s): 222 *dihm-), gr. , `slant, skew' (assimil. from *).

geiSee also: Other possibilities see below gei- `turn, bend'.

Root / lemma: d ab -2
h h

Meaning: proper, * fitting, dainty

Material: Armenian darbin ` smith ' (*d ab r-ino-); Latin faber, fabr `craftsman, artist', Adj. `ingenious, skilful', Adv. fabr `skilful', affabr `
h h

`*acquiescence' (f dial.?); Note:

loanword); perhaps here Latin (Plaut.) efffiltus ` exposed ', Denom. from *ffilla,

skillfully ', contrast infabr, fabrica ` dexterity, workshop ' (Paelignian faber is Latin

common Latin d- > f-; alb. Tosc thembr `heel, hoof (where a smith would attach a horseshoe)' [common alb. f>th-. Gothic ga-daban ` occur, arrive, reach, happen, be suitable ', Perf. gadb ` to be clearly

` fitting, mild' (*ga-dbja), gedafen `proper', gedafnian ` be fitting, suitable' = Old Norse dafna `proficient, proper, become strong, prosper, thrive', Old English gedfte ` fitting, mild', gedftan `sort, order, arrange';

seen, to be conspicuous ', Adj. gadf is ` it is suitable, proper, fitting' = Old English gedfe

faber), dobj, doblj `the best, assayed, examined, tested, strong ', doba (older r/n-stem) dobn `light', u-dob Adv. `light'; Lithuanian dab ` quality, nature, habit, character ', dabnti `adorn', dabns `dainty' etc.

Old Church Slavic dobr `good, beautiful, beauteous, fair ' (= Armenian darbin, Latin

`fitting, applying, opportunity', podoba `ornament, adornment, decorousness, decency ', u-

Maybe alb. i dobt (*u-dobn) `emaciated, dainty, elegant, (beautiful)', dobi `profit, advantage'. Note: Root / lemma: d ab -2 : `proper, * fitting, dainty' derived from Root / lemma: d b -1, nasalized d amb(h) : `to astonish, be speechless, *hit' [see below] amb(h)Page(s): 233-234
h h h h h h

References: WP. I 824 f., Trautmann 42 f., WH. I 436 f., 863. References:

Meaning: a kind of tree

anuonuRoot / lemma: d anu- or d onuh

tree ' : Old High German tanna `fir, oak' (*danw), Middle High German tanne, Old Low References: WP. I 825. German dennia `fir'. (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

Material: Old Indic dhnvan- n., dhnu- m., dhnu- n. `bow', dhanvana- m. ` a certain fruit

Page(s): 234

Meaning: to press

auRoot / lemma: d au-

) ` although pressing oneself further '; Phrygian . . . Hes.

Material: Avestan dvaid 1. Du. Prs. Med. ` we press ', davs-in (could stand for duvs-

(therefrom the people's name , D-ci), Lydian - (`- ` Indian Hemp, dogbane (plant poisonous to dogs)'), compare -, name of thrak. god of war, Illyrian PN Can-davia; dhauno-s `wolf' as ` shrike ' in Latin GN Faunus (to gr.

44, 339), with ablaut gr. , (F) `jackal' (i.e. ` shrike '); Maybe alb. dac `cat' : Phrygian Gothic af-dauis ` rended, mangled, afflicted '; press, choke, crush ', dvka `crush'. References: WP. I 823, WH. I 468.

compare thrak. ); gr. Z i.e. ` shrike ' (thessal.; s. also Fick KZ.

Hes.) = Illyrian Daunus (therefrom VN , inhabitant of apul. region of Daunia;

Old Church Slavic davlj, daviti ` embroider, choke, strangle ', russ. davt ` pressure,

Page(s): 235

See also: About d u- `be astonished, marvel ' see below d ei-.

Meaning: to astonish, be speechless, *hit

amb( Root / lemma: d b -1, nasalized d amb )h h h h

Note: presumably as `beaten, be concerned ' from a basic meaning `hit'

h h h h h h h h

Probably common origin of Root / lemma: d b -1, nasalized d amb( )- : to astonish, be speechless, *hit; Root / lemma: d eb -, d eb -eu- : `to harm', Root / lemma: (d em -), euemb d mb - : `to dig', Root / lemma: d em-, d em- : `to smoke; to blow'. em- em
h h h h h h

Material: Gr. n. ` astonishment, surprise ', Perf. ep. Ionian , participle Aor. nasalized n. ` astonishment, amazement, fright', `marvel, astonish, frighten'; to compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333, 833; Gothic afdbn `become silent!'. Old Norse dafla ` splash in the water ', Norwegian dial. dabba ` stamp, tread down, Maybe alb. Geg zhdp `beat, strike'

`astonish', , (`gaze in wonder =) flatter ' (see Boisacq s. v. ),

Under prerequisite a basic meaning `hit' can the following Germanic family be added:

trample, make a blunder ';

nengl. dab `hit lightly', East Frisian dafen `hit, knock, bump, poke', Middle High German beteben ` stun, wander about, press', ndd. bedebbert `reprimand, flog, embarrassed',

Old Norse an(d)dfa ` hold on a boat against wind and stream ', Middle English dabben,

Modern High German tappen, Tapp ` flick ', Middle High German tpe `paw' (Germanic , but not to use for statement of Indo Germanic vocalism), Middle Dutch dabben `tap, splash' . However, see also Persson IF. 35, 202 f., several of these words with Middle High German tappe ` clumsy, awkward; clumsy person' etc correlates in a Germanic root dabb-, with Latvian depis swearword, perhaps ` fool ', depe ` toad ' (`*the awkward'), depsis db(b)-, da-, dap- `thick, lumpy', from which `clumsy, stupid, doltish', under comparison

`small, fat boy' [maybe alb. djep `cradle (for a baby)']

and Germanic words, as Swedish Dialectal dabb ` tough lump of mucus ', dave `puddle, pool, slop' (: Old Norse dafla `splash'?) etc (Latviandep- is perhaps a a change form to

to be counted on merger of different word cognates in Germanic (see also under di-, dp`divide'); after Endzelin (KZ. 51, 290) places engl. dab `tap' to Lithuanian dbiu, dbti ` beat to

*d eb- in Old Church Slavic debel `thick' etc, compare Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 455); it is

death ', Latvian dbiu, dbt `hit'.

maybe alb. dboj (*dobt ) `chase away', i dobt (*u-dobn) `emaciated, dainty, elegant, (beautiful)', dobi `profit, advantage'. Note: amb(h)lemma: d b -1, nasalized d amb(h) : `to astonish, be speechless, *hit' [see above]
h h h

Alb. proves that Root / lemma: d ab -2 : `proper, * fitting, dainty' derived from Root /
h h

Page(s): 233

References: WP. I 824.

Root / lemma: d lh

Meaning: to blossom, be green

Material: Armenian dalar `green, fresh'; gr. ` blossom, be green, flourish', Perf. , Doric , whereof present

, Doric ` sprouting or blossoming lusciously ', `young scion, shoot, young twig, branch', `bloom, blossom, blossoming prosperity, esp. Pl. festive joy, feast'.

, Doric ds., n. `young scion, shoot', ` sprouting lusciously ',

etc (about djal `kid, child, youngling ' see below del-3). del-

Alb. dal (*daln), Aor. doa (*dl-) ` arise, sprout, rise, extend ', participledal (*dalno-)

perceived as neologism of ablaut in , which could be developed in itself from l are to be covered at best by a parallel root *d el- :

There Alb. only arranges original -vocalism and hence also in gr. die grade is not

perhaps Armenian de ` physic, medicine ' (whether from `*herb'); Irish duille (*dolni) collective, f. ` leaves ', gall. `five leaves' (Dioskor.) : leg. cymr. dail `leaves' (analogical Sg. dalen), acorn. delen `leaf' etc (i-umlaut of o), Middle


maybe alb. (*dalni) dlinj `juniper' Saxon dilli, Old High German tilli, dilli `dill, strongly smelling plant umbel ', changing with other meaning Old Norse dylla `Sonchus arvensis L., sowthistle '; at least very a plant, umbel ', Modern High German Dolde `umbel'. Essentially is unsatisfactory apposition from Germanic *dilja in Old English dile, Old

through ablaut Old English dyle, Old Danish dylle, Modern High German Dialectal tlle ds., doubtful of Old High German tola ` a cluster, esp. of grapes ', toldo m. ` treetop or crown of

Maybe alb. dyll `wax' `illustrious', see d el- `gleam, shine'. elPage(s): 234

A cognate being far off the meaning of the family is the form Old English deall

References: WP. I 825 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 302, 703, 714, 720, WH. I 524.

euRoot / lemma: d eb -, d eb -euMeaning: to harm Note: the nasalized forms (*d emb -) are as proportional neologisms to interpret the root
h h h h h h h h

the root form on -u:) -dbhu-ta- Adj. ` wonderful ', actually `* the inaccessible deception, (= Avestan diw-, see below), dabhr- ` a little, slightly, poorly';

u-ti), Perf. dadbha and (changed) dadmbha, participle Perf. Pass. dabdh- and (from

Material: Old Indic dabhnti ` damages, disables, cheats, Pass. gets damaged ' (*d eb -n-

after containing n-.

untouchable '; dambhyati `makes confused, frustrated' (dambh- `deceit'), Desid. dipsati

N. Sg-. f. `the dishonest ', dbnaot 2. Pl. present (Aryan *db anau-mi, Indo Germanic
h h

Avestan dab- ` cheat, defraud sb of sth ': daviy G. Sg. f. `the cheating ', davayeinti

form *db eu-), -dbaoman- n. ` infatuation '; osset. dawin `steal'; Hittite te-ip-nu- ` esteem lowly, humiliate ', Pedersen Hittite 144.

ti), participle Perf. Pass. dapta- (innovation); db-vayat ` he shall beguile, infatuate ' (root

*db -en-eu-mi), Inf. diwaidyi (without more desiderative meaning, but = Old Indic dipsa-

Tok Tokarian: A tsw-, tsop-, B tsp-, tsop- 'mash, crush, pierce; strike, jab, poke' (PT *tsop-, *tsp-) (Adams 743) In addition very probably gr. `damage, rob, cut (), bewilder, deceive ',

relationship as between : Old Indic budh-n-. Page(s): 240

Pass. ` I am robbed ', with - probably from *-, *sm- and with to the same consonant

References: WP. I 850 f., Kuiper Nasalprs. 147, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333.

Meaning: fat, heavy

ebRoot / lemma: d ebh

Material: Old High German tapfar ` burdensome, filled; heavy, weighty ', Middle High

heavy, weighty, vast, grand', Dutch dapper `valiant; much, a lot of', Norwegian daper `pregnant', Old Norse dapr ` heavy, elegiac, dismal, sad'.

battle)', Old High German tapfare `mole', tapfar f. `moles', Middle Low German dapper `

German tapfer `tight, firm, thickset, full, weighty, signifying ', late `valiant (tight, firm in the

Gothic fardammjan ` dam up, hinder', as dhobm- here?

Perhaps Old Norse dammr, Modern High German Damm, Middle High German tam ds.,

Latvian dabl' under dbls ` luscious', dabl'i audzis ` lusciously sprouted ', dabl'gs ` words probably to be connected with Old Church Slavic dobr);

abl. doblyj `strong' (etc, s. Berneker 182); Old Prussian debkan `big, large'; perhaps also luscious' (Berneker aaO.; after Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 428 nevertheless, are Latvian Tocharian A tsopats `big, large', tppo ` courage ', tpr `high', B tappre, tpr- ds.,

Old Church Slavic debel `thick', russ. Dialectal deblyj ` corpulent, strong, tight, firm',

Pedersen Tocharian 243, Tocharian Sprachg. 23, 27, 29, Van Windekens Lex. 135, 148. doubtfully. References: WP. I 850, WH. I 437.

Page(s): 239 egh hRoot / lemma: d eghh

Meaning: to burn, *day

Material: Old Indic dhati, Avestan daaiti `burns' (= Lithuanian deg, Old Church Slavic `blaze, heat', nidgh- `heat, summer', npers. d `burn brand' (in addition sptgr. , - ` red-brown horse '?); Avestan daxa- m. `blaze'; burned '), `ash' (*d eghr); Latin fove); Note: Common Latin d- > f-: movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage', fculum ` a sacrificial hearth, fireLatin fove, -re `to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow. Transf., to be in quick

eg, alb. djek), participle Old Indic dagdh- (= Lithuanian dgtas), Kaus. dhyati; dha-

gr. Hes. (`kindled '; == Lithuanian dgtinas ` who or what is to be

alb. djek ` incinerate, burn ', Kaus. dhez, n-dez, ndez ` ignite ' (basic form *d oghi =

favilla ` glowing ashes, esp. of the dead; a spark ' (probably from *d ogh-lo-l); favnius ` zephyrus, the warm west wind ' (from *fovnios): febris `fever' (*d eghro-; after Leumann Gnom. 9, 226 ff. i-inflection after sitis).
h h

(*fouementom), fmes, -itis ` touchwood, tinder ' (*fouemet-, meaning as Latvian daglis),

pan, brazier ' (*foue-clom), fmentum ` a poultice, fomentation. Transf., alleviation'

(from *-dekto-); but Old Irish ded-l `break of dawn' after Marstrander Dict. Ir. Lang. I 213 about Gothic dags `day' etc see below *her- S. 7; herNote:

devi, cymr. deifio `burn' see below *du- `burn'; cymr. de ` burning '; go-ddaith `blaze' *du-

Middle Irish daig (Gen. dega) `fire, pain' (from *degi-); about Middle Breton deuiff, nbret.

actually ` parting drink, the last drink '; nir. dogha `burdock' (: Lithuanian dagys see below);

from Root / lemma: d egh-: `to burn, *day' derived Root / lemma: her-, hen-, heseghherhenhesh dakru- : `tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic. Compare Root / ru ru(or her etc): `day' the same as Root / lemma: akru : `tear' derived from Root / lemma: ru :

dellemma: del-5 : `long': Baltic with unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg,

Latvian ilgs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e migration from the Baltic region to North India.

(dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan Lithuanian deg, dgti `burn' (trans. and intrans.), dgtas `burnt', dgtinas ` what is to

be burned ', degtn f. ` brandy, alcohol ', ablauteud dags, dgis `thistle' (Latvian dadzis); Lithuanian dglas ` to brand ', dglas ` torch, cresset, brand; black-dappled '; Latvian

dgas ` the burning; summer heat; harvest ', dag `harvest', Old Prussian dagis `summer';

burning '; ablaut. ato-dogiai (?) m. Pl. ` summer wheat, summer crops ';

daglas f. Pl. `scorch', daglis `tinder'; Lithuanian nuodgulis ` firebrand ', dgis ` burner; sloven. dgniti `burn, warm', Czech old dehna `devil', ablaut. dahnti `burn'; russ.

heartburn' (see Meillet MSL. 14, 334 f., different Brugmann II 3, 120). Maybe alb. zheg `summer heat' a Slavic loanword.

(?) von *deg to *geg: Old Church Slavic eg, eti `burn', ablaut. russ. iz-gga `pyrosis,

dgot `tar' (from `* wood rich in resin '), as Lithuanian degtas ` birch tar '; with Assimil.

`tar' (see above).

tsk- (*d gh-) `gleam, glow'; AB cok `light' (from `pinewood torch') : Balto Slavic *deguth

Tocharian teki `disease, malady' (= Irish daig); A tsk-, tsak- `burn', ts after ablaut.

References: WP. I 849 f., WH. I 466 f., 469, 471 f., 864, Trautmann 49, Pedersen Tocharian Sprachg. 23. Page(s): 240-241

eih Root / lemma: d eih-

Meaning: to knead clay; to build

Material: Old Indic dhmi ` coat, cement' (3. Sg. dgdhi instead of *dhi), also participle

Note: s. to Sachlichen Meringer IF. 17, 147.

digdh-, dha- m. n. ` body, structure ', dh f. ` embankment, dam, curve, bay ', Avestan

pairi-dazayeiti ` walled all around ' (= Old Indic Kaus. dhayati) uzdita 3. Sg. Med. ` has erected (a dam) ', participle uz-dita-, uz-daza- m. ` pile, embankment ', pairi-daza- m. `

enclosure, park ' (out of it gr. `a royal park or pleasure ground, a Persian word *diz-, root nom. in -), npers. diz, dz ds.; Note: brought in by Xen.; used for the garden of Eden, Paradise'), Old pers. did `fortress' (from

Reduplicated laryngeal in a e- > Avestan aeArmenian dizanem (Aor. 3. Sg. edz) ` pile up ', dizanim ` be piled up ', dz `heap'; Maybe nasalized alb. (*d eih-) deng `heap' [common Latin -h- > -g-]. dexion, Burtu-dizos; (: Latin fing); Pannonian VN An-dizetes ` castle inhabitant '; Note: Illyrian Pannonian VN An-dizetes ` castle inhabitant ' displays satem characteristics [common alb. -h- > -d-, -z-]. gr. n., m. (formal = Old Indic dha-) `wall'; , Aor. ` touched ' thrak. -, - `castle' (: Old pers. did or *d ih-i); also , PN , Burtoh h 1 2

(meaning as Latin fingere also ` shaped, fashioned, formed, molded; arranged ', voicednonaspirated g previously original from the nasalized present form); Note: Common Latin d- > f-: order; to represent, imagine, conceive; to feign, fabricate, devise, make up; touch Latin fing, -ere, finxi, fictum `to shape, fashion, form, mold; also to arrange, put in

strokingly', figulus ` a worker in clay, potter ' (:Germanic *iulaz), flum (*figslom) `shape', form, shape, figure, size; an atom; shade of a dead person; in the abstr., kind, nature, clay; n. as subst., esp. pl. earthenware, earthen vessels ' (to Latin g instead of h effigis `(molded) image, an image, likeness, effigy; a shade, ghost; an ideal ', figra `

species ', ficti ` forming, feigning; assumption ', fictilis ` shaped; hence earthen, made of s.Leumann Latin Gr. 133; after latter derives from forms as fictus also k from Old Faliscan Umbrian fikla, ficlam ` a gruel used at sacrifices, a cake, offered to the gods ', Latin ftilla ` about Latin flum (identical with flum ` filament ' ?) compare WH. I 497, on the other
2 h

fifiked ` touched, handled ', Oscan fifikus perhaps ` you will have devised '); probably

a gruel used at sacrifices ' (with dial. t from ct); Oscan fehss ` walls ' (*d eiho-); hand EM 360;

build, erect' in 1. Sg. cunutgim, 3. Sg. conutuinc etc and perhaps also dingid, for-ding `put down, oppressed ', see below 1. d engh- `press, cover' etc;

Old Irish digen `tight, firm' (`*kneaded tightly, compact '); Old Irish *kom-uks-ding- `to

`a wall'); daigs m. `dough' (*d oihos), Old Norse deig (n.), Old English dg, Old

for gadikis, `anything moulded, an image, figure, shape, construction', es-stem, similarly

Gothic amma digandin `the kneading ', kasa digana ` clay vessel ', gadigis (meaning

High German teig ds.; Old Norse digr `thick, corpulent ' (meaning as Irish digen), Gothic

', Norwegian Dialectal digna ` become thick ', diga ` thick, soft mass ' besides Middle Low skillet ' seems to be a genuine Germanic word (*i .. laz), however, this has sponged in the meaning of Latin tgula (from `a frying-pan, saucepan'); Maybe alb. tjegula ` roof-tile' : Latin tgula `tile, roof-tile' [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]. Lithuanian deti, dti `flay, flog' (`*knead, smear one down '), Latvian diezt `

digrei `density, thickness, bulk, mass', Middle High German tiger, tigere Adv. `fully, entirely

German Norwegian dger; Old High German tegal, Old Norse digull ` glaze pot, crucible,

mould ' (*d oih-i-; Berneker 198, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 487). Maybe alb. (*d oih) dhoga `plank'

convince, offer' (`*to humbug sb '); Old Russian da, klr. dia etc ` kneading trough, form,

zd, zid `wall' (Bga Kalba ir s. 184 f); Indo Germanic *d oihos).
h h

Lithuanian puod-idys ` a worker in clay, potter ', Old Church Slavic zido, zdati `to build', Tocharian A tseke i peke i ` figure, shape or painting ' (W. Schulze Kl. Schr. 257 f., A parallel root *d eig- seeks Wood Mod. Phil. 4, 490 f. in Middle High German tchen

An adapted form (*heid -) is probably Lithuanian iediu, isti `form, mould', Old

written; hence to get written down ', Old High German tihton ` invent and create; versify ' to get written down '. Page(s): 244-245

`make, create etc'; Old English diht(i)an ` to say often; to say over, dictate a thing to be

derive from late Latin dictre ` to say often; to say over, dictate a thing to be written; hence

References: WP. I 833 f., WH. I 501 f. 507.

i Root / lemma: d ei- : d ii- : d Meaning: to see, show Material: Old Indic ddht ` he looked ', Pl. ddhima, Med. ddhy, ddhta, Konj.
h h

ddhayat (perhaps converted to present Perf., compare Perf. ddhaya); dhy-ti, dhy-ya-ti

thinking, meditating ', dhy-tar- `thinker', dhy-na- n. `meditation, contemplation ',

(io-present) ` looks in spirit, d. i. thinks, reflects ', participle dhy-ta- and dh-t-, dhy ` the

dhyman- n. (Gr.) `thought, notion'; dh-, Akk. dhy-am `thought, notion, imagining,

discernment, understanding, religious meditation, devotion ', dh-t- ` awareness, thought, notion, devotion ', dhra- ` seeing, smart, wise, skilful', avadhrayati ` disdains (despicit), rejects, despises ', prakr. herai ` sieves '; s- formation Old Indic dhiyasn- ` attentive,

observant, pious ', dhi Instr. Adv. if ` with devotion, zeal, or lust ', yet compare on the devout, religious '; Note: Reduplicated laryngeal in a e- > Avestan ae1 2 h

observant, heedful '; presumably also dhia- if `sensible, wise, smart', dhiayant- if `

other hand that belong to Latin fstus, fnum, Indo Germanic d s- `religious', dhya- `

seeing ' (etc, s. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 724); participle paiti-dta- ` beholds ', -dti- f. `the beholding ', da- ` sensible, smart' (lengthened grade as -di'ti), -d(y)-, -d- f. as 2. composition part `vision, look; discernment, intention'; -dman- ` intention'; daman- n. ddan `see', dm `face, cheek';

Avestan d(y)- `see', e.g. -di'ti `contemplates', daiyant Nom. Pl. participle ` the

`eye, eyeball; look', dira- n. `eye', dan `religion' and ` internal being, spiritual I '; npers. gr. , Doric `mark, token, sign, Kennzeichen, Merkmal etc' (*d i-mn = Old

Indic dhyman-; Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v., compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 322; after E. sign'), ` mache durch ein Zeichen kenntlich etc'; alb. dtur, dtme ` wisdom, learning ', dinak `cunning'. Also alb. di `I know, discern' It goes back to a synonymous *d u-: uh

Leumann [Abh. Kunde d. Morgenl. 20, 1, S. 96] rather to Sakisch ma `mark, token,

; about Hes. probably F, s. Boisacq under m. Lithuanian); `consider' (Attic reshaped after ), etc, s. Boisacq under and Attic ` looking, sight; show' from *F, compare syrak. , Ionian , Doric

(); compare Boeotian , Doric (Lithuanian by Boisacq under

mn) ` be surprised, astonish, venerate, admire ', next to which with gradation

Gr. ` what excites admiration, astonishment; veneration, astonishment ' (*d uh

(to latter still Ehrlich KZ. 40, 354 Anm. 1). Except gr. equivalents are absent.

Page(s): 243

References: WP. I 831 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 523.

elb Root / lemma: d el Meaning: to bury Note: Only german. and Balto-Slavic
h h h

Material: Old High German bi-telban, -telpan (participle bitolban) `bury', Old Saxon bidelan ds., mndd. Dutch delven, Old English delfan `dig, bury', Flemish delv `gorge, in the face, box on the ear, blow, knock', ndd. dlben `hit'; ravine, gulch, ditch, trench, channel'; in addition Swiss tlpen `hit, thrash', Tirol dalfer `slap Balto Slavic *dilb ` dig, hollow out ': in Lithuanian dlba and dlba f. ` crowbar ', Latvian

dalba f. ` fishing rod, hayfork '; perhaps Lithuanian nu-dilbinti ` lower the eyes down ';

dilba f., dilbis m. ` hollow bone, epiphysis, shinbone', delbs ` upper arm, elbow', dalbs m., Slavic *dlb, *delti in Serbo-Croatian dbm, dpsti `hollow out', dbok `deep, etc

(ablaut. *delti in Serbo-Croatian dial. dlisti ` chisel, cut ', compare dlijto `chisel'); Czech

sharp iron ' in Old Prussian dalptan ` press copy, impact break ', Slavic *dolto `chisel' in Bulgarian dlat, russ.-Church Slavic dlato, russ. doot ds. maybe truncated alb. (*dolto) dalt `chisel' References: WP. I 866 f., Trautmann 54, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 434. Page(s): 246

(= Latvian dalbs), Old Russian nadolob m., nadolba f. ` town enclosure '; *dolb-to- `chisel,

dlubu, dlubati `hollow out, poke ', ablaut. *dolb- in Czech dlabati ` chisel, cut ', dlab ` seam '

Meaning: to hit

elgh- elgRoot / lemma: d elgh-, d elg- (?)


Material: Old English dolg n., Old High German tolc, tolg, dolg n. `wound' (`*blow, knock'), daljen `hit' (borrows Norwegian Dialectal dalga ds.), Modern High German (Hessiannassauisch, East Prussian) dalgen, talken `thrash, hit', Middle High German talgen Old Norse dolg n. `enmity', dolgr `fiend', dylgja `enmity', wherefore probably ndd. dalgen,

`knead'. After Havers KZ. 43, 231, IF. 28, 190 ff. was also for gr. ` enchant, beguile etc', , , ` charming, tempting ', ` enthrallment ' (Indo
h h

health of the people and at the same time the smiths.

probably, as well as also , demons were damaging through blows the

Germanic *d elg- besides *d elgh-?) the basic meaning ` enchantment through a blow '

Everything quite uncertainly. Rather Tocharian A talke n., telki `sacrifice, oblation' could still belong to it. Page(s): 247 References: WP. I 866.

lgRoot / lemma: d elgh h

Meaning: to stick; needle

Material: Old Irish delg n. (es-stem) `thorn, cloth needle', corn. delc (i.e. delch) ` a

necklace, collar [for horses and other animals]', mcymr. dala, dal `bite, prick, sting'; Old Norse dalkr ` needle to fasten the mantle about the right shoulder; spinal column of

fish; dagger, knife ', Old English dalc m. `clasp, hairpin' (Modern High German Dolch, older Tolch, ndd. dolk, after Mikkola BB. 25, 74 the origin of Czech poln. tulich, sloven. tolih, is but perhaps reshaped after Germanic words as Old English dalc); namely borrowed at first from Latin dol `a pike, sword-stick; a small foresail sword-cane', Lithuanian dilgs ` pricking, burning ', dlg, dilgl f. `nettle', dlgstu, dlgti ` get burned

by nettle '; dalgis `scythe' here, not to S. 196!

war', after Niedermann Essais 17 ff. regressive derivative from falcula, that derives from Ligurian (?) *alkla (*d al-tla), also as sizil. , `Messina' (: ).

Here perhaps Latin falx `a sickle, bill-hook, pruning-hook; a sickle-shaped implement of

maybe Illyrian TN Docleatae However, one derive just as well from *d alg-tl ; if in that Italian dialekt would have become Indo Germanic l to al, the a-vowel can be also explained. Arch. Glott. Ital. 20, 5 f., 30 f. Page(s): 247 References: WP. I 865 f. Late Latin daculum `sickle' could be in addition the Ligurian equivalent. Against it Terracini

Meaning: curve; hollow Note:

eloloRoot / lemma: d el-1, d oloh

elolohl- : `to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root / lemma: d el-1, d olo- : `curve; hl alb.-Illyrian h- > d-].
h h h h h h

From Root / lemma: hel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; hel- : hl-, hl- : helghel elhel hl- hlhollow', Root / lemma: d el-2 : `light, shining', Root / lemma: d el-3 : `to tremble' [common elel-

lak. (Hes.) ` round summer hat ', m. ` situated in the interior of house room, bedroom, pantry ', `cave, den (of animals)', - `eye' (*- `* eye socket '); cymr. dol f. `valley', bret. Dol in PN; English dl, Old High German tal n. `valley', Old Norse dalr m. `valley'; Gothic dala ` Old Norse dalr `bow'; Gothic dals m. or dal n. `valley, pit, pothole', Old Saxon dal, Old

Material: Gr. f. ` dome, cupola, domed roof, round building (sudatorium)'; sizil. ,

Forschungen, Wien 1925), Old Frisian t dele `down', Old Saxon t dale, Middle Low

inhabitant ' the Daliterni of Avienus, German Alps in Valais, after R. Much, Germanist. German dale, nnd. dal `down, low', Middle High German ze tal ds.; Old English dell, Middle

downwards ', dalaa `under', dalar ` from below ' (here as *Daliernz ` valley

High German telle f. `gorge, ravine, gulch' (*dalj); changing through ablaut Old Norsedll dent ' (*dlj) = Old High German tuolla, Middle High German tele `small valley, dent ', m. ` valley inhabitant ' (*dlja-), Norwegian dial. dl ` small valley, long gully resembling

(*dli); ndd. dole `small pit, pothole', Middle High German tol(e) f. ` drainage ditch ' (Old High German dola `gully, ditch, trench, channel, duct, tube, pipe' probably actually ndd.), Old High German tulli, Middle High German tlle, ndd. dlle `short duct, tube, pipe' (also ndd. dal stands for `duct, tube, pipe');

mnl. doel `ditch, trench, channel'; Old Norse dla `gully' (*dlj), dld `small valley'

Old Church Slavic (etc) dol `hole, pit, pothole, valley', dolu ` downwards ', dole `under'. Page(s): 245-246

References: WP. I 864 f., Loth RC. 42, 86.

elRoot / lemma: d el-2 Note:

Meaning: light, shining

elolohl- : `to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root / lemma: d el-1, d olo- : `curve; hl alb.-Illyrian h- > d-].
h h

From Root / lemma: hel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; hel- : hl-, hl- : helghelhel hl- hlhollow', Root / lemma: d el-2 : `light, shining', Root / lemma: d el-3 : `to tremble' [common elel-

Material: Perhaps Armenian dein, Gen. denoy `yellow, sallow, paled, pallid' (*d eleno-); Norse GN Heimdallr; Mar-dll `epithet of the light goddess Freyja ', Dellingr ` father of the Middle Irish dellrad ` radiance '; Old English deall `stout, proud, bold, illustrious', Old

day ', Middle High German ge-telle `pretty, good'(?). Page(s): 246 References: WP. I 865.

elRoot / lemma: d el-3 Note: Meaning: to tremble

h h

elolohl- : `to shine; green, gold, blue, *sun' derived Root / lemma: d el-1, d olo- : `curve; hl alb.-Illyrian h- > d-].
h h h h

From Root / lemma: hel-1 (and ghel-?), also as i-, u- or n-stem; hel- : hl-, hl- : helghelhel hl- hlhollow', Root / lemma: d el-2 : `light, shining', Root / lemma: d el-3 : `to tremble' [common elel-

Material: Armenian doam `tremble'; Norwegian and Swedish dial. dilla `swing, swerve ', dilte `trot, walk on tiptoe; trip ', dalte ds.

Norwegian dial. dalla, dulla ` walk on tiptoe; trip ', Low German dallen `amble', Norwegian Doubtful; s. Falk-p under dilte addendum.

Page(s): 246

References: WP. I 865.

emb Root / lemma: (d em -), d mb Meaning: to dig Note: only gr. and armen. ', dambaran ds.;
h h h h

Material: Armenian damban `grave, vault, sepulchre, grave; grave, monument, tombstone gr. (*d mb -i), Aor. Pass. `bury, entomb', ` unburied ', m.
h h h

`ditch, trench, channel'; but Old Prussian dambo f. `ground' is amended in daubo (see 268). Maybe alb. dhemb `pain, saddness' Note:

`funeral, obsequies; grave, burial mound', ` funeral, grave', (*d mb -ro-s) f.

Clearly Root / lemma: (d em -), d mb - : `to dig' derived from Root / lemma: d em-, emb emritual of burial was born much later. References: WP. I 852.
h h h h h h h

d em- : `to smoke; to blow' which means that Aryans initially burnt the dead while the em

Page(s): 248-249

Meaning: to smoke; to blow

em- em Root / lemma: d em-, d emh

dhmyt), Avestan dmainya- ` puffing up, swelling, of frogs ', npers. damdan `blow', dam `breath, breath ', osset. dumun, dmn `smoke; blow'; `pain' [common alb. shift m > mb]. Note:

Material: Old Indic dhmati `blows' (dhami-yati, -t- and dhmt-, Pass. dhamyat and

Maybe alb. Tosc tym n. `smoke': also alb. Geg dhem, alb. dhemb `hurt, ache', dhimbje

Clearly from Root / lemma: d em-, d em- : `to smoke; to blow' derived Root / lemma: em- em d eu-4, d eu- (presumably: d u-, compare the extension d u-k-, d u-s-): `to reel, eu : dissipate, blow, etc.'.
h h h h h


gr. , , ` somber, dark-looking ' (: Old High German timber

Middle Irish dem `black, dark'; = Old Norse dmr `taste'; Norwegian daam (*d mo-) `dark', daame m. ` cloud haze ', daam m. `taste, smell, odor' with Guttural-extension: d enguo-, d engui- ` misty ' in Old Norse dkk f. `dent in the
h h h h

landscape ' = Latvian danga (*d ongu) ` faecal puddle, slop, swampy land, sea mud ', Saxon dunkar, Old High German tunkal, Modern High German dunkel (originally and with further Old Norse dkkr, Old Frisian diunk `dark' (Germanic *denkva-); zero grade Old

(*d enguos) `fog, smoke, sultriness' etc, deweint `darkness' (mistakenly Loth RC 42, 85; 43, 398 f), Hittite da-an-ku-i-i (dankui) ` dark, black' (Benveniste BSL. 33, 142);

dank, muggy', engl. dank, Dialectal dunk `humid, wet'); in addition cymr. dew m.

the meaning ` misty - humid, wet' Norwegian and Swedish Dialectal dunken `humid, wet,

variation Danish dyng `damp, humid, wet', Swedish Dialectal dungen `humid, wet';

Old Norse dy `slime, mud, ordure, morass' from *d mkio-, compare with gramm.

German Middle High German dampf m. `vapor, smoke', Middle Low German engl. damp

with Germanic -p-: Middle High German dimpfen, dampf `steam, smoke', Old High

`vapor, damp fog', ndd. dumpig `dull, humid, wet, musty ', Modern High German dumpfig, dumpf (also = confused, scattered, sprayed); kaus. Old High German dempfen, tempfen, Middle High German dempfen ` stew through steam, stew '; with Germanic -b-: Swedish dial. dimba stem V. `steam, smoke, spray', dimba `vapor',

Norwegian damb n. `dust', Old Norse dumba `dust, cloud of dust' (besides with -mm- Old dumma ` lack of clarity in the air, fog cover ', Swedish dimma `thin fog'), Old High German timber, Middle High German timber, timmer `dark, dim, black'; to what extent of background the s-forms Swedish Dialectal stimma, stimba `steam', Norse dimmr `dark', Old Frisian Old English dimm ds., Norwegian Dialectal dimma,

stieben (see below d eu-, d eu-b - `scatter, sprinkle'), is doubtful;

h h h


`bellows', dmpiu, dmpti `blow' (probably with p-extension), Old Prussian dumsle `

Lithuanian dumi, dmti `blow', apdmti ` blow with sand or snow (of wind) ', dmpls

Lithuanian, Meillet Slave comm. 63 f., 164, Trautmann 63). Page(s): 247-248

Old Church Slavic dm, dti `blow' (to Balto Slavic vocalism s. Berneker 244 f. m.

References: WP. I 851 f.

Meaning: to press; to cover II 506;

enghRoot / lemma: d engh-1

Material: Old Irish dingid, for-ding ` oppressed' (see also d eih-); compare Pedersen KG. Lithuanian dengi, degti `cover', dang `cover', dangs `sky, heaven', in addition digti

` disappear' (from `* be covered '), Slavic *dga `bow' (: Lithuanian dang) in russ. dug `bow', old ` rainbow ', Bulgarian dg, serb. dga, poln. dial. dga ds., probably to:

German tung, Middle High German tunc ` the subterranean chamber where the women

Old English dynge, Old High German tunga ` fertilization ', Old Saxon dung, Old High

Old Icelandic dyngia ` dunghill, house in the earth where the women did the handwork ',

e g ar

after concurrence of Old High German toum : Old English stam, German toben `

norw Dialectal stamma, stamba `stink' Indo Germanic have been newly created or only


weaved ' (originally winter houses covered with fertilizer for the protection against the engl. dung ` manure ', Modern High German Dung, Dnger. Maybe alb. dengu `heap' Page(s): 250 References: WP. I 791 f., 854, Trautmann 44 f.

cold), Old English dung ` jail ', Old High German tungen ` depress, fertilize ', Old English

Meaning: to get, gripe

enghRoot / lemma: d engh-2

h h

` reaching up to something ' (*d ngh-);


Material: Old Indic daghnti (Aor. dhak, daghy etc) ` reaches up to, achieves ', -daghngr. `quick, fast', Kompar. (*d ngh-); Old Irish daingen `tight, firm, strong' = cymr. dengyn ds. (*dangino- or *dengino-); belt ', russ. djga ` leather belt ', djglyj `strong, fit, healthy', djgnut `grow, become
h h

Slavic dg: dg ` strength, power, luck ' in russ.-Church Slavic djag ` strap, leather

strong '; ablaut. Old Bulgarian ne-dg `disease, malady' (but russ. dij `strong' belongs intermingling with Slavic tg- `pull, drag, draw ' (Brckner KZ. 42, 342 f). Page(s): 250 References: WP. I 791 f., Berneker 190, 217 f. rather to d eugh-, under S. 271); the meaning has taken place after probably an

Meaning: to run, *flow

enRoot / lemma: d en-1

Material: Old Indic dhanyati `runs, set in movement', npers. dandan `hurry, run', Old Indic dhnvati `runs, flows ', Old pers. danuvatiy ` flows ', Old Indic dhnutar- `running, flowing '; Messapic river name ardannoa (*ar-d onu-) ` situated in the water ' (?),(under the


influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), apul. PN Ardaneae = Herdonia (Krahe Gl. 17, Latin probably fns, -tis ` a spring, fountain; fresh or spring water. Transf. spring, origin,

source '; perhaps hybridization of to-stem *fontos and ti-stem *fentis (*d n-t-); Note: common Latin initial d- > f- shift.

Tocharian tsn `flow', tsee ` current, gush ', tsnam `flow'. Page(s): 249 References: WP. I 852, Couvreur BSL. 41, 165.

Meaning: surface of hand/land, etc. (*dry land) Note: From Root / lemma: d en-1 : ` to run, *flow' derived Root / lemma: d en-2 : `surface of lemma: enenMaterial: hand/land, etc. (*dry land)' meaning `arid flat area'.
h h

enRoot / lemma: d en-2

h h

, dhan- f. `sandbank, seashore, island';

Old Indic dhnu- n., dhnvan- m. n. ` dry land, mainland, beach, dry land, desert ', dhnugr. n. ` palm, sole, also from the surface of the sea or from deepening in the altar

to the admission of the offering ', ` opisthenar, back of the hand ' m. `flat hand', Curtius 255 (samt Old Indic dhnu-, see below).

(*), Old High German tenar m., tenra f. (*denar-), Middle High German tener In addition Vulgar Latin danea `area' (Reichenauer Gl.), Old High German tenni n.,

(under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-), Middle High German tenne m. f. n., Modern High German Tenne ` barn floor, threshing floor, flattened loam ground or wooden floor as a threshing place, hallway, ground, place, surface generally ', Dutch

denne `area, a pavement of tiles, brick, stone; floored, boarded; n. as subst. a floor, story; a row or layer of vines '; as ` smoothly trodden place good as threshing floor ' can be also understood meeklenb. denn `trodden down place in the grain layer ', Middle Low German

place, place generally, land, scenery ' (and ` valley forest ', s.under), Old English denn garden plot '.

wild animals ' (and ` valley forest ', see below), dan ` waste, from shrubbery surrounded

denne `lowland, depression' (and ` valley forest ' see below), Middle Dutch denne ` den of

`cave, wild den', nengl. den `cave, pit, pothole', East Frisian dann(e) `bed, garden bed, About Lithuanian dnis m. ` deck board of a small boat ', Latvian denis ds. (Germanic

loanword?) s. Trautmann 51, Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 455. Page(s): 249 References: WP. I 853.

enRoot / lemma: d en-3

Meaning: to hit, push Note: From Root / lemma: d en-1 : ` to run, *flow' derived Root / lemma: d en-2 : `surface of enenhand/land, etc. (*dry land)' meaning `arid flat area', then from Root / lemma: d en-2 : en`surface of hand' derived Root / lemma: d en-3 : `to hit, push'. enMaterial: Only in extensions (almost exclusively Germanic):
h h h h

compare Norwegian dial. datta [*dantn] `knock': denta ` give small punches '), Modern

d-extension: Old Norse detta stem V. ` fall down heavily and hard, hit ' (*dintan,

Old English dynt m. (= Old Norse dyttr), engl. dint `blow, knock, shove '; the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn-).

(*dantisn) ` reel back, flee'; East Frisian duns `fall' (s from -dt- or -ds-), Old Norse dyntr,

Frisian dintje ` shake lightly ', Norwegian deise ` fall tumbling, glide ' (from:) ndd. dei(n)sen

alb. g-dhent, gdhend ` hew wood, plane, beat ', Geg dhend, dhnn ` cut out, cut ' (under

Maybe (*gdhend) gdh `piece of wood', alb. Tosc dnd `hit, beat'. Middle English dingen `hit, bump, poke', nengl. ding (Scandinavian loanword), Middle High Gutt-extension: Old Norse danga (*dangn) `thrash': Old Swedish diunga stem V. `hit',

Norse dengja, Old English dengan, Middle High German tengen (tengelen) `hit, knock, hammer (Modern High German dengeln)'; Old High German tangal m. `hammer'. Labial-extension: Swedish dimpa (damp) `fall fast and heavily', ndd. dumpen `hit, bump,

German tingelen `knock, hammer', Norwegian dingle (and dangle) `dangle'; Kaus. Old

poke', engl. dial. dump ` hit heavily '. Page(s): 249-250


References: WP. I 853 f.

erghRoot / lemma: d ergh-

Meaning: to pull; to drag

trghgh Note: equal meaning with trgh- (see d.).

Material: Old Norse draga, Gothic under Old English dragan, engl. draw `pull, drag', Old Norse drag n. ` base of a pulled object ', Norwegian drag ` draught, wash of the waves, watercourse, towing rope ', dial. drog f. (*drag) ` short sledge, road track of an animal,

English drge f. ` seine, fishing net which hangs vertically in the water with floats on the top and weights on the bottom ', Middle Low German dragge, nnd. also dregge ` boat

valley ', Old Norse dregill `band, strap', drg f. `stripe', Old Swedish drgh ` sled ', Old

Germanic *d rgh) `fishing line, which one pulls up behind the boat '; with the meaning (gi)tragon ` bear oneself, conduct oneself, behave '. h- shift] `bear, carry' (from `drag', s. Berneker 212), Old High German tragan `bear, carry', sih

anchor ', engl. dredge ds.; changing through ablaut Norwegian dorg f. (*durg, Indo

Maybe alb. Geg (dhergh-) trhek `pull, drag' : Polish targa ` carry ' [common alb. -g- > Probably here Slavic *drg in: serb.-Church Slavic draga `valley', russ. dorga `way,

alley, journey', dial. `fishing rod';

maybe alb. (*do-rga) rruga `way, alley, journey' [common alb. de- > zero grade] similar formation to Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e (dalugaes) `long' : alb. (*da-lu-ga-e-e) glat `long'; also alb. (*dorga) drgonj `send in a trip'.

: `long': Baltic with unexplained d-loss (see below): Lithuanian lgas, f. ilg, Latvian ilgs, lu-ga-a-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'.

The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic Illyrian. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 delOld Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : Hittite Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-e (dalugaes) `long', daserb. drga `valley', poln. droga `way, alley, road, journey', russ. dorit `hollow out', `refuse, decline', poln. wz-draga si ` to flinch from doing sth, flinch, shudder ' (as ` under dergh- ` catch '). dergh-

Czech driti ` make a rabbet or a furrow, hollow out '; perhaps also Czech z-drhati se protract, draw ') and Old Church Slavic podrag ` hemline, edge of a dress ' (different Latin trah `to trail, pull along; to drag, pull violently; to draw in, take up; of air, to

breathe; to draw out, hence to leng- then; to draw together, contract. Transf. to draw,

attract; to take in or on, assume, derive; to prolong, spin out; to ascribe, refer, interpret',

go back through spirant dissimilation (*rag to *drag) in d rgh-, but also Indo Germanic t- have (: Old Irish traig `foot' etc, s. trgh-). trghgh References: WP. I 862, Trautmann 45.

traha ` sledge, drag ', trgum ` seine ', trgula `ds., small drag, a species of javelin ' could

Page(s): 257

Meaning: to work

erb er Root / lemma: d er - (d erb -?)

h h h h

Material: Armenian derbuk `rough, stiff, rude';

for-derva, Middle Low German vor-derven, Middle High German verderben `die, perish', also Kaus. `spoil'; Lithuanian drbu, drbti `work', drbas `work', darbs ` laborious '. Note: erb er ereb Root / lemma: d er - (d erb -?) : `to work' derived from Root / lemma: d ere - : `to harden'.
h h h h h h

Old English deorfan stem V. `work; perish, die', gedeorf n. `work, hardship ', Old Frisian

Page(s): 257

Meaning: to harden

ereb Root / lemma: d ere h h

Material: Old Indic draps- m. `drip'??; `make curdle, coagulate, harden (; ), nourish (*make thick, fat, obese), bring up' (, ) ` nourishing ', f. ` wet nurse ', ` the nourished, foster child, child, breeding livestock ', `fat, obese, strong, big, large', , - ` firm land'; gr. , ` curdle, coagulate, harden, be firm ', , Doric

fresh cheese, coagulated milk ', `dense', Pl. n. ` thicket ', () ` maybe truncated alb. (*) trash `fat, obese, strong, big, large, coagulated'. surroundings) ` coagulated mass (from milk, blood etc)', ` coagulate Old Saxon deri (*aria) `strong, mad, wicked, evil', Old Frisian Middle Low German nasalized and with Indo Germanic b (Indo Germanic Articulation variation in nasal

', ` clots ';

encourage '; nasalized probably Old Norse dramb ` lavishness ' (*be thick), nisl. drambr ` person'. Note:

dial. dirna from *dirfna ` put on weight, recover, regain one's strength '); Old Norse dirfa `

Norse jarfr), ablaut. Old Norse djarfr `gamy, bold' (the older meaning still in Norwegian

derve `strong, just, rightful ' (different from Old High German derb ` unleavened ' = Old

knots in the wood '; Old Norse drumbr `clot, chunk', Middle Low German drummel ` sturdy


References: WP. I 863, II 631, Kluge

101, 649.

Probably from (Old Saxon thervi, Old High German derbi ` unleavened ', Modern High German Bavarian derb ` arid, dry, thin ') Root / lemma: (s)ter-1, (s)ter- : (s)tr- : `stiff, (s)ter- (s)ter (s)trimmovable; solid, etc.' derived the extended root Root / lemma: d ere - : `to harden' ereb [common st- > t- PIE] Page(s): 257-258
h h h

References: WP. I 876.

ereghRoot / lemma: d ereghMeaning: thorn? (e)snoNote: with formants -(e)s- and -no-. Dubious equation.

Material: Old Indic drk ` grape '; common Old Indic h- > kdran `briar' (Celtic *drageno- from *d r gh-);
e h

gallorom. *dragenos `thorn', Old Irish draigen m. ` blackthorn ', cymr. draen m., nbret. perhaps also Old High German tirn-pauma ` of the cornel-tree ', tyrn, dirnbaum ` a

(dogwood) ', Swiss tierli, whether it is not borrowed from Slavic in very old time; Endzelin I 498), whether it is not borrowed from Slavic;

cornel cherry-tree ', Modern High German dial. di(e)rle, dirnlein ` Cornelian cherry

Lithuanian drgns Pl., Latvian drienes `black henbane ' (compare Mhlenbachruss. dren, dern ` Cornelian cherry (dogwood) ', Serbo-Croatian drjen, Czech dn

ds., poln. (old) drzon ` barberry ', Kashubian dn `prickle', polab. dren `thorn'.

meaning `sprout, twig, branch', Pl. `young shrubbery, bush' considerably differently colored gr. (Hes., anthol.), (Maximus), Cypriot j very close. Page(s): 258 References: WP. I 862 f., Pedersen KG. I 97, M.-L. 2762.

Germanic- Slavic basic form could be *d erghno- and would stand admittedly in its

Meaning: to wind, turn, *release, discharge, disband Pahlavi darzk ` tailor';

ereh nRoot / lemma: d ereh- (d rh-n-)

h h

Material: Npers. darz, darza ` suture', darzmn, darznn ` filament ', darzan `needle',

round, turn away, whirl round, return ';

sharp' (compare ), darj ` turn, reversal, return ', Kaus. darjucanem ` turn alb. dreth (stem *dredh-), Aor. drodha ` turn round, turn together, twine, spin ', alb.-

Armenian danam (*darjnam), Aor. darjay ` turn over, revolve, turn; return ', dan `bitter,

skutar. nnriz ` diaper ' (n-dred-z); (under the influence of common Celtic -ns-, -nt- > -nn). Maybe alb. driz ` throny bush '. let in ', Tocharian A trn-, trk-, preterit A crk, carka `let, allow, disband, release ' (?). Maybe secondary meaning alb. dreth `perturb, terrify' also nazalised alb. ndriz `band, bandage', ndrydh `twist'. Maybe an older form alb. (*d ereh- ) derdh `pour, release, discharge, disband, pocket, , trk-, preterit A crk, carka `let, allow, disband, release ' (?). Note: The oldest IE form is actually Hittite tar-na-a-i ` I pocket, plug in, let in ' : alb. (*d ereh- ) derdh ` pour, release, discharge, disband, ejaculate semen'. It seems that the old meaning of Root / lemma: d ereh- (d rh-n-) : `to wind, turn, *release, discharge, disband ' ereh nh h h h h h

after Pedersen Hittite 123, 125, Tocharian Sprachg. 20 here Hittite tar-na-a-i ` I pocket,

deposit (liquid, turn over?), ejaculate semen ' [common alb. -h- > -d-] : Tocharian A trn-

derived from the act of intercourse which became a taboo word in patriarchal society.
h h

Alb. shows that Root / lemma: d ereh- (d rh-n-) : `to wind, turn, *release, discharge, ereh ndisband ' derived from the extended Root / lemma: d er-1, d er- : `a kind of deposit or erer
h h

dreg, *ordure, defecate ', Root / lemma: (d er-4:) d or- : d r- : `to jump, jump at, *stream, er-4: orh

ray, drip, sperm' becoming an euphemistic root. The intermediary bridge root between the ', `perplexity' found in secondary meaning alb. dreth `perturb, terrify, twist'. 151.

two was: *d ere-gh-: Gr. , Attic (Perf. hom. intr.) `bewilder, perturb ere-gh: References: WP. I 863, Lidn Arm. stem 101 ff., Meillet Esquisse 111, Kuiper Nasalprs. Page(s): 258 erer Root / lemma: d er-1, d erh h h

Meaning: a kind of deposit or dreg

erNote: Originally with d er-5 ` ordure, defecate'?

ere-ghMaterial: a. d ere-gh-: `perplexity', , Attic - `bewilder' (*d rgh-i : Lithuanian drgti see below); sog. r, i.e.* d rgh-s); Hes. (vowel gradation as : Lithuanian
eh eh

Gr. , Attic (Perf. hom. intr.) `bewilder, perturb ',

, Ionian `rough, uneven' (probably originally from dirt crusts; -- here from sprgti);

Note: common lat d- > f- shift: rancid ' from *d rgh-; c is covered probably from facs, floccs, there *d erk- otherwise is testified only in Baltic; in the meaning ` lees, dregs, yeast': alb. dr f., Geg dr-ni ` residuum of oil, from
h h h

Latin fracs f. ` (broken bits, fragments; hence) grounds or dregs of oil ', fracre ` be

abundant butter; tartar ' (basic form *dra from *drag, *d rgh); Old Norse dregg f., Pl. dreggiar `yeast' (out of it engl. dregs);

(Endzelin KZ. 44, 65) dradi ` residuum from boiled fat'; Slavic *droska from *d rgh-sk in (sloven. trska ` residuum, yeast') and mostly *drozga (Old Church Slavic drodj Pl. f. Middle Old Bulgarian drotija Pl.n. `yeast', klr. dri ds., otherwise assimilated to *troska

Old Lithuanian drags (*d rghis) Pl., Old Prussian dragios Pl. `yeast', Latvian

`, yeast' etc; s. Berneker 228);

Slavic *drosk) or *drazg (== Slavic *drozg) transfigured sein wird;

here also gallorom. *drasica ` dry malt ' (M.-L. 2767), this anyhow from older *drasc (= with st-formants: Old High German (*trast, Pl.:) trestir ` what is left of squeezed fruit,

Sverdrup IF. 35, 154), drs ds.;

dregs, pomace ', Old English drst(e), drst f. ` dregs, yeast' (Germanic *rasta-,

druosana, truosana `yeast, residuum ';

with sn-formants: Old English drsne f., drsna m. `yeast, smut', Old High German here probably Lithuanian drgia (drgti) ` it is bad weather ', drgana, drga ` weather,

draga, -drag, -drga ` hail with small grain size; frozen snow lumps, graupel '; Lithuanian

`humid, wet'); in addition Old Russian padoroga probably ` thunder-storm ', sloven. s-

bad weather ' (glottal stop, compare die gr. root forms and Lithuanian drgnas, drgns

dargs ` nasty, dirty, filthy'; Old Lithuanian drgesis `filthy person', Old Lithuanian dergti

`hate', Latvian derdztis `quarrel, squabble' (Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 456 m. Lithuanian), Old Prussian derg `to hate'; Lithuanian drgti ` become dirty, get dirty ', dargti ` revile ', drga f. ` rainy weather, defilement, contamination, vituperation ';
h h

German tarchannen, terchinen `(darken) conceal, hide ', Middle Low German dork ` keel of water depth ', Old English deorc ` swart ', engl. dark; Old English eorcung `dawn, twilight' probably with after ostor `dark', geuxod `dark'.

b. d erg- in: Middle Irish derg `red'; Middle High German terken ` befoul ', Old High erg-

Maybe alb. dark `evening, evening meal, supper', drek (*derk-) `dinner, midday'. darks ` nasty ', Old Prussian erdrkts `poisoned', Latvian drks, drci (*darkis) `pinto' c. d erk- in: Lithuanian derkti ` make nasty, befoul ', darkti `vilify, inveigh, deform', erkh

Mhlenbach-Endzelin I 448 (see the kinship by Leskien Abl. 361); or to Middle High intonation difference of derkti compared with drgesis etc;

German zurch `ordure', zrchen `defecate'? Zupitza gutturals 170 under accentuation of here probably Tocharian AB trkr `cloud' (Frisk Indog. 24); WP. I 854 ff. er rb d. d erb - : d r - : d rb -. Doubtful Avestan riwi- (*d rb i-) `stain, birthmark '; Middle Irish drab ` grape marc, yeast' (*d rb o-), drabar-lug ` base, vulgar people';
h h h h h h h h h

trebir Pl. ` grape marc ', Old Norse drafli m. `fresh cheese', drafna `to disband ', Norwegian drevja ` soft mass '; geminated nl. drabbe ` berm, residuum ', ndd. drabbe `slime, mud'; Swedish drv n. ` residuum ' (*d rb o-), Old English drf, Old High German truobi
h h

Old Icelandic draf, engl. draff ` berm, yeast', Middle Low German draf, Old High German

` agitate, tarnish ' (identical meaning-Verh. as between gr. and Old Norse dreggiar).

`cloudy', Gothic drbjan, Old High German truoben ` tarnish, bewilder', Old English drfan

limited nasal m?) seems Lithuanian *drumb- in Lithuanian drumstas (could stand for caused by a heavy group mpst ?).

A nasalized form with Baltic u as zero grade vowel of a dissyllabic basis (caused by a

*drumpstas) ` residuum ', drumsts `cloudy', drumsi, drumsti ` tarnish ' (Schleifton References: WP. I 854 f., WH. I 538 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 715.

Page(s): 251-252

erer Root / lemma: d er-2, d erMeaning: to hold, support Material: Old Indic dhar- `hold, stop, bear, carry, prop, support, receive, hold upright '
h h

be steady, behave sedately ', Avestan dar- `hold, seize, restrain; whereof adhere, observe (a law); hold fast in the memory; perceive with the senses, grasp; sojourn, while, stay' daryn; (drayeiti etc, participle darta-), p. draymiy `hold', npers. Inf. dtan, osset. Inf. darun, Old Indic dhraa- `bearing, carrying, preserving ', dhara- ` holding, supporting; n.

(present mostly dhryati; Perf. dadhra, dadhr; dhrt-; dhrtum) Pass. ` are held back,

foundation, prop', dhraa- ` holding; n. the clamps, the restraining '= Avestan drana- n. ` bearer ', dhartr- n. `support, prop' = Avestan darra- n. ` the grasp, understanding ', Old dharmn- m. ` holder ', dhrman- n. ` support, prop, law, custom ', dhrmani Lok. ` after means for withholding ', Old Indic dhartr- and dhritar- m. ` holder ', dharitr ` girder,

Indic dhrma- (= Latin firmus) m. ` firm, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong ',

purpose, holding on to a purpose ', sadhry-c- ` be directed by a purpose, be united, himself for, he gets ready for ';

on, determination ', dr-dhr-- ` tenacious ', s-dhr (or sadhrm) Adv. ` holding out on a

the statute, according to custom ', dhraka- ` holding; m. container ', dhrti- f. ` the holding

together '; didhr ` the intention to support to support', Avestan didarat ` he composes about Old Indic dhra- `tight, firm' s. Wackernagel Old Indic Gr. I 25;

stay', compare Avestan meaning ` while, stay, behave quietly '), dadarem ` abate (from the wind)', compare under Old English darian ` the side, flank; of persons ', Dutch bedaren ` become quiet (from the wind, weather)'; gr. with the meaning ` prop themselves up, force open ' (from the heavy root form)

Armenian perhaps dadar (redupl.) `abode, residence, rest ' (`*adherence, abide by,

m. ` bench, footstool ', hom. (Ionian) , - ` footstool, thwart ', Ionian

, Boeotian , - `stool' (place an early proto gr. *-, which would

h e

with the meaning ` grasp through the senses, observe ' and ` hold on custom, a religious

to the thematic root form *d er-: - m. `seat'; Cypriot lak. - Hes.;

contain -- from -r-, i.e. - r-), Ionian Inf. Aor. ` sit down ' (proto gr. -); due

custom ', - , Hes. (compare under Lithuanian derti ` be usable '),

Hes. (Ionian), () Hes., Ionian , Koine of god '.

Hes. (from the thematic root form *d ere-; against it from *d r-:)
eh h

`worship', `religious, godly, pious', ` observe the official law Is `observe keenly ' up to zero grade n the preposition *en (or - = *sm-?) to

compare afterwards with ? (Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v.) Probably here , ` concentrated, crowded together, gathered ' (compare to meaning Old Indic sadhryac-; Lithuanian by Boisacq s. v., in addition Brugmann IF. 38, 135 f.). vagina'.

Mit. Old Indic dhraka- ` container ' is compared with , - ` breastplate; trunk;

depending, trusting, daring, confident; trust, confidence, reliance, assurance', Latin frnum ` bit, bridle, rein' and `rein', if originally ` holder ' (stand to gr. as pl-nus to Old nearly ', ferm (*fermd, Sup.) ` quite approximately, nearly ', as well as firmus ` firm, Acymr. emdrit ` orderly ', cymr. dryd ` economical ' (*d rto-). together, ' or ` keep shut so one does not see somehow '), Dutch bedaren ` become quiet (from the wind, weather)', in addition Old Saxon derni `hide, conceal', Old English dierne `hide, conceal, clandestine ', Old High German tarni ` lying hid, hidden, concealed, secret, Old English darian ` hidden, concealed, secret, unknown ' (`*restrain, hold themselves

Latin fr-tus ` relying on, confiding in ', Umbrian frite `leaning, supported, relying,

Indic pr-n-); with a meaning ` tenacious, tight, firm: fast' perhaps fer `closely, almost,

strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong ' (with dial. i).


unknown ', tarnen, Middle High German tarnen `cover up, conceal', Modern High German Lithuanian deri, derti `employ, engage (*belay), buy', der, derti ` be usable ', Kaus.

out, arrange ', Kaus. dart `make, create, originate';

daru, darti `make, do', dor f. ` the useful ', Latvian deru, dert `employ, engage, hire perhaps with formants -go-: Latvian drgs `dear, expensive, precious', Old Church Hittite tar-ah-zi (tarzi) ` can, be able, defeated ' (*d r-?) belongs rather to ter-4. terguttural extensions:

Slavic drag ds., russ. drog, Serbo-Croatian drg ds.;

d eregh- `hold, s