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Simulative Analysis of a WDM RoF Architecture for Full Duplex Wired and Wireless Network


Submitted in partial fulllment of the requirements for the award of M.Tech Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering (Microwave and TV Engg.) of the University of Kerala

Submitted by Karthikeya G. S Fourth Semester M.Tech, Microwave and TV Engg.

Guided by Pradeep R Assistant Professor Dept. of ECE




This is to certify that this thesis report entitled Simulative Analysis of a WDM RoF Architecture for Full Duplex Wired and Wireless Network is a bonade record of the work done by Karthikeya G. S, under our guidance towards partial fulllment of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering (Microwave and TV Engg), of the University of Kerala during the year 2012.

Pradeep R Assistant Professor Dept. of ECE CET (Guide)

Dr. Vrinda V Nair Professor Dept. of ECE CET (Thesis Coordinator)

Dr. Jiji C.V. Professor Dept. of ECE CET (P.G. Coordinator)

Prof. J David Professor Dept. of ECE CET (Head of the Department)

I would like to thank my Guides Mr. Pradeep R, Dr. N. Vijayakumar, Thesis Coordinator Dr. Vrinda V Nair, PG Co-ordinator Dr. Jiji C. V, HOD Prof. David and all others who have supported me for the fulllment of this work. I would also like to thank the entrepreneurs who started vegetarian hotels in Thiruvananthapuram.

Karthikeya G. S


To my sister Shrilalitha Girish To the invisble angels described by Richard Feynman in his lectures on Physics To the magical eyes of senorita


Optical communication offers tremendous bandwidth, but does not allow mobility. On the other hand wireless technology supports mobility but fails to provide high data rates. Radio over Fiber is an amalgamation of these two technologies. In this thesis work, a novel architecture for full duplex wired and wireless network with optical ber backbone network is proposed. We employ a dual drive dual port Mach-Zehnder modulator to simultaneously modulate the CW laser source with wired and wireless data, for the downstream link. Light remodulation technique using RSOA is utilized in the upstream link to provide a reliable bidirectional optical channel. WDM is used to further increase the capacity of the system. Simulation of the proposed scheme demonstrates a 2.5 Gb/s downlink and 1 Gb/s uplink.



Introduction 1.1 1.2 Relevance of RoF technology in todays world . . . . . . . . . . . . Need for Hybrid technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 2

Literature Survey 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Origin of the concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of Radio over Fiber technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio over Fiber link design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WDM RoF networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full Duplex Radio over Fiber schemes for multigigabit communications

4 5 8 11 12 12

Proposed Scheme 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Proposed Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion and future wok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25 25 28 31 34 35

List of Figures
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Major problems encountered in radio over ber links . . . . . . . . Genralised architecture for distributed antenna systems . . . . . . . RoF scheme for SOA-EAM bidirectional RoF system . . . . . . . . RoF scheme with optical carrier suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOA used as a data re-writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bidirectional WDM-PON technology using RSOA . . . . . . . . . Simultaneous wired and wireless at 1.25 Gbps . . . . . . . . . . . . cross remodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High data rate Full Duplex RoF scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 31 32 32 33 33

2.10 Flexible Full Duplex RoF architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11 Simulatneous Wired and Wireless RoF link . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 General Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General hybrid architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RoF link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proposed scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CW laser spectrum after modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WDM signal spectrum after modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye diagram wireless 2.5Gbps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye diagram for wired downlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . log BER versus received power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Communication is the key strength for mans progress. It is the power, which, supports our existence and promote our growth. Communication could be verbal or non-verbal. As scientists we would desire to invent machines and associated technology capable of unlimited bandwidth for an unlimited time, gargantuan broadband speeds, HD clarity video conferencing, Live broadcast of 1080p quality videos from any part of the globe, 3Dimesional video and audio streaming. For all these utopian features of communication system to evolve one needs to thoroughly comprehend the beautiful technology underlying, and that is optical communication.

There are millions of reasons for the grand success of the optical communication technology. Some of them are high bandwidths, high immunity to noise, and easy maintenance. The major drawback is that it is xed or stagnant terminals. But wireless technology on the other hand, provides mobility but falls short in bandwidth issue. Radio over ber is the magnicent amalgamation of wireless and optical communication.

Benets of Radio over Fiber:

Mobility Flexibility of devices Highly economical in the long run Mobile Broadband internet Transmission of millimeter waves Immunity to radio interference (in the ber) Reduced power consumption Dynamic Resource allocation

Limitations of Radio over Fiber: Poor dynamic range Device nonlinearities can be detrimental Relative Intensity Noise in laser sources Dispersion effects in the ber


Relevance of RoF technology in todays world

The world currently has 560 crores of active mobile handsets (80 % of population). India has around 88 crores of mobile handsets (73% of the population). The revenue generated by telecom industries in India alone accounts to Rs.117,039 crore With a penetration of this magnitude, telecommunications industry has become one of the most important industries in the country and worldwide.

With the advent of telephone system people were not satised with that service so soon data communication: internet on the go evolved. But initially this supported very low data rates just sufcient to open the browser and check a couple of emails. Eventually, the third generation ourished, which paved way for a technology that mankind had never heard before.

With 3G people could browse and download data at a rate of 7Mbps. That is equivalent to downloading a 700 MB movie in fewer than 15 mins, thats lightning speed.


Need for Hybrid technologies

The world economy is dependent on the thousands of computer networks all around the globe. Any end user would always like to be connected anytime and anywhere. That necessitates the researchers and engineers to design networks which are fool-proof i.e., to provide reliable connection to the broadband subscribers. But the type of services is not at all uniform or standardized. In other words, there are myraid of types of networks and the services available to the subscribers.

The subscribers could connect to the internet or avail other broadband services such as video conferencing or le sharing, in a variety of ways like GPRS (wireless connection), DSL (wired connection) or FTTH (wired connection). Thus we observe a mixture of multiple technologies prevailing in the market. The main reason due to lack of common type of technology to all subscribers is due to lack of rapid up gradation. If the companies embrace the new and better technology as and when it is invented, then the chances of single type of connection could be expected after a couple of years.

Hence we need architectures which cater to the need of hybrid technologies. These networks would be future-proof for at least a decade or so. In this thesis work, the author concentrates on the amalgamation of wired and wireless technologies.

The thesis report is organized as follows: chapter 2 gives a broad overview of radio over ber technologies with special emphasis on full duplex wired and wireless architectures. chapter 3 illustrates the proposed scheme followed by results and applications

CHAPTER 2 Literature Survey

Man has always been interested in exploring novel ways to communicate with fellow humans from the ancient times. Initially man communicated with gestures and grunts which could convey the arrival of the prey or other danger. But eventually man realized the necessity to look at life in a fresh perspective, because his immediate needs for survival were naturally satised. Thus a major time gap grew in humans life, during this time he went beyond survival and embraced science.

As years progressed, civilizations were built with utmost care and charm. Gradually industries sprung up which were specialized in mass production of specic products, this slowly tempted man to be selsh. Due to this evolution, man grew as a consumer of goods and information, as gargantuan production of goods demand voluminous information about the technology. This naturally involves communication between human beings, and machines alike. Due to this phenomenal development of communication revolution, high capacity data transfer between terminals in a network has become more than a necessity today. Billions of rupees is invested in order to economically establish data transaction within a nation and overseas alike.

Due to the attractions of multimedia technology, optical ber communication was one of the natural choices. Light offers unimaginable data rates (if intelligently designed), this is due to the fact that the frequency of light is hundreds of Tera Hertz. But this eye-catching feature of optical communication fails miserably when it comes to mobility of the end terminal, i.e., optical ber would terminate onto a designated place in the network. It is a highly demotivating feature of the optical ber technology.

The communication via radio waves has been a well established technology, but unfortunately it does not inherently support the high bandwidths like the optical ber. Thus instead of acting as complementary technologies wireless and optical communication supplement each other, which is the essence of radio over ber. The beauty of this famous culmination of both the technologies is that, it offers fantastic data rate accompanied by portability of the terminal. The backbone would be the optical ber, buried silently inside mother earth and the last mile connections would be established by wireless technology. Radio over ber would ensure that crucial data communication would denitely occur, provided the subscriber is in the coverage area of the network operator.


Origin of the concept

Daniel Colladon demonstrated light guiding in water in 1884, this experiment paved way for more explorations with light and its interaction with transparent materials. After, a couple of years later, illuminated fountains became famous. Thus, light guiding had humble beginnings in recreation and entertainment, especially in Europe. The idea of an optical channel is basically looking at a far distance, but the image seen would be blurred and slightly distorted.

After years of research, engineering and redesign, the concept of optical telegraphs and photophones were explored in the late 19th century [1]. But serious research of optical communication as seen today could be traced back to the classic paper [2] investigated by Charles Kao, Godfather of Broadband , in 1965 for which he received the Nobel prize in Physics for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in bers for optical communication in 2009. After the birth of that idea a lot of researchers especially in USA, Japan and Europe experimented on achieving a high data rate transmission in the optical ber. Meanwhile research on millimeter wave generation was also progressing rapidly. During the 1960s there was an intellectual race between optical ber communication and millimeter wave communication [1]. The failure of millimeter wave technology is evident in the incident described below: The British Post Ofce had laid a 14.2km millimeter waveguide, due to the temperature uctuations the waveguide would undergo some structural changes, which in-

turn would lead to unnecessary mode formations in the waveguide thereby reducing the transmission capacity tremendously. Thus in order to compensate for the unwanted modes, the engineers designed an automated machine which compensated for the shape changes of the waveguide. This design was uneconomical and highly unreliable. After this design failure researchers never invested their time in millimeter waveguides for commercial transmission and broadcasting of signals [1].

Initially, inefcient LED in conjunction with multimode bers was used. But this required lot of regenerators for a relatively short distance. But it was known that the glass bers had low attenuation at specic wavelength ranges for instance around 1.55um.

Thus researchers developed solid state laser sources which operated specically near those wavelengths but initially the laser were multimode, though it improved the existing scenario, did not revolutionize the industry. The breakthrough happened after the development of single mode laser source such as heterostructures whose linewidth was extremely narrow. This was used along with the single mode ber leading to an increased distance without any regenerators for short haul links. Single mode bers are still in use today for long haul and ultra long links (but with necessary repeaters).

The next ground breaking concept was the extension of the frequency division multiplexing (a well established concept in wireline communications) to optical domain in 1990s, formally called as wavelength division multiplexing, which is basically transmission of different data sources in different colours. This is one of the most successful inventions in the recent decades. WDM also paved the way for development of optical ampliers such as Erbium Doped Fiber Ampliers (agnostic or colorless ampliers) operating in the 1.55um attenuation window. Also, these ampliers are broadband in nature thus supporting hundreds of colours in the same ber. Consequently numerous devices and custom made devices came into existence to cater the needs of the wavelength division multiplexing system [3].

Meanwhile, wireless technology was also making signicant changes in the market, industry and economy. Started with transatlantic communication conducted by Mar6

coni in 1901, wireless technology created the stir in broadcasting and communication segments. Radio made its entry as early as 1920s with numerous broadcasting stations worldwide (some of which are active even today). Very soon TV broadcasting also happened. Bell labs developed cellular concept. Satellites specic to communications were launched during 1960s. Military needs also promoted much of the development of wireless technology.

Cellular phone, Wi-Fi, WLAN made their grand entry during the early 1990s. WiMaX and EDGE technologies also entered the wireless arena during the onset of the millennium. Another popular classication for the mobile era is rst generation (1979-1985 or so) which housed only analog communication and voice support only existed. Second generation (1990 - ) fully digital system and currently the third generation this supports multimedia, internet on the go and video calling. 3G systems already had deployed thousands of kilometers of optical ber exclusively for mobile telephony. There are over 560 crore mobile handsets operative globally (meaning 79.86% of the population). India stands second largest consumer of cellular technology with 88 crore mobile phones (73.44% of population), of which only a mere 14% is on the 3G network. Thus there is an unprecedented requirement of research, design and implementation of the forthcoming high data rate technology, which is basically a more evolved and mature Radio over Fiber [4], [5]. RoF promises more than 7 Mbps data rate to the end user.

Thus with billions of subscribers globally and the penetration of broadband technology would pave the way for enhancements in radio over ber technology. In this thesis work the author is keenly interested in reliable transmission, distribution and broadcasting of wireless signals in the optical communication channel. Hence the wireless aspect of this technology is not addressed. As standard equipment along with reliable design procedures are successfully ruling the cellular industry[6].


Overview of Radio over Fiber technology

Radio over ber (RoF) technology was rst explored in 1991. The problem they set out to solve was to provide mobility to business and residential users, wherein the radio transmission would be carried out using telegraph poles. The coverage was intended to be only 200-300m for a local area [7].

The problem of microwave photonics became relevant only after huge success of cellular communications. After the development of solid state lasers in early 1960s, lot of improvements has happened to the laser sources as such. The linewidth of laser source is extremely narrow. And customized laser sources have been developed. Laser arrays are also available for WDM systems. Modulation of solid state lasers by 40 GHz signals were explored as early as 1996. Direct modulation is relevant in analog CATV applications, but the input data rate is limited to 10 Gbps. Indirect or external modulation is popular for high speed data transmission, the most common example includes Mach Zender modulator which supports error-free 40Gbps data transaction.

Receivers also have wide bandwidth with reasonably decent switching speed. Usually pin photodetectors is preferred over avalanche photodiodes. Also commercially, single mode ber with step index with dispersion compensation is used. Normally, the entire optical communication is centered on 1.55um. The reason being low attenuation and mature technology of EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Ampliers), which in turn operates in that wavelength window.[8]

Problems in an analog link (not specic to RoF technology, but in transmission of microwave signals in light in general) are multifold such as, harmonic and intermodulation distortions of the source, nonlinearities in the external modulator, nonlinearities in the ber and all-optical ampliers, nonlinearities in the photodetectors.

Optical transmission and distribution of wireless signals can be realized as : (a) RF over ber, suffers due to enhanced effects of chromatic dispersion. (b) IF over ber, increased complexity in hardware realization

(c) Baseband over ber, simplest form of transmission but does not support high data rates.

Problems faced by optical transmission of mm-wave signals: Due to the effects of nonlinear modulator, the analog mm-wave is weakly intensity modulated onto the light carrier. The nonlinear characteristics of the external modulator play a detrimental role in the mitigation of the actual signal strength in light.

Fiber chromatic dispersion places an upper bound for the transmission distance. The opportunity for researchers is that useful information is low (<3GB/s as reported in [9]) compared to the occupied spectrum 40 GHz. Nonlinear effects at the detector also plays a key role in deteriorating the signal.

Figure 2.1: Major problems encountered in radio over ber links

Different modulation strategies for optical mm-wave are as follows:

(a) Intensity modulation: simple to generate but spectrally inefcient and certain power penalty issues. (b) Optical single sideband with carrier: spectrally efcient but unsuitable for long haul communication. 9

(c) Optical carrier suppression technique: spectrally efcient but requires a larger drive RF power.

The basic architecture for a conventional central ofce, base station etc. is clearly discussed in [9]. A generalised basic architecture is illustrated in gure 2.2 [10]. This scheme is usually implemented in the urban areas with lot of users of different genre. Each baseband dataset is carefully modulated onto a specic optical carrier and then central unit (CU) would redistribute these signals onto the respective terminals, wherein the O-E conversion and further transmission in the electrical domain takes place within the coverage area.

Figure 2.2: Genralised architecture for distributed antenna systems



Radio over Fiber link design

There are several factors specic to the design of a RoF link which need to be considered while designing a real-world system. The actual system depends on geography and the trafc load in that particular geographical location.

(a) Carrier frequency: This would decide the type of optoelectronic components to be incorporated in the system. Also, higher frequency supports higher bandwidth, but this would increase dispersion in the ber.

(b) Radio channel bandwidth: This in turn depends on the carrier frequency and the allocated number of users. The CNR would decide the allowable bandwidth.

(c) Number of channels: the maximum allowable transmitted noise and stability requirements decide the number of channels for a particular remote station.

(d) Modulation format: as discussed earlier, simple modulation schemes are simple to design and economical but spectrally inefcient. Thus if the market prediction is high trafc growth, then complex schemes which can accomodate a lot of users would prove to be economical in the long run.

(e) Cost: is another important criterion for the deployment of practical systems, it depends on the short term and long term prots.

(f) Distance: of operation is another parameter to be considered for the length of the ber, operative powers of the laser diodes and hence the data rates.

(g) Hybridity: A mixture of wired and wireless users might be important if the optical feeder network is future-proof[10].

Basically, for a given scenario the engineering team decides the predicted trafc 11

load. Then it would be divided among various smaller geographical cells. Then the link specic parameters are computed and an extra margin is always allocated to ensure reliability in case of an outage. After this process, the most suitable and economical components are installed and tested for the designed specs, if they do not match then the link would be redesigned.


WDM RoF networks

WDM networks are used for ultra high capacity trunk and metro networks. Different colours are allocated to different base stations, but with the same optical ber backbone network [11]. This scheme is future proof since trouble-shooting of the optical network is relatively easy. The WDM network could be of various types such as (a) Point to point links (b) WDM star networks (c) WDM ring network (d) Wavelength interleaved RoF system (e) A combination of the above.


Full Duplex Radio over Fiber schemes for multigigabit communications

Full duplex RoF schemes were reported earlier with baseband modulation but complete bidirectional scheme operational above 60 GHz was carried out in the early 2003 [12], [13]. In the early schemes efciency was not at all the criterion, exploration of light as carrier to millimeter waves was the primary agenda and it was successfully demonstrated with a bit rate of 155.52 Mb/s. The scheme was to modulate the CW laser source using an EAM at the transmitter and a pin diode was used as the receiver. This scheme used two individual systems to implement downlink and uplink. Henceforth two individual bers were deployed (23 kms in length). Also it addressed the RoF link from Central Ofce to the Base station. This also demonstrates that by conducting the experiment in that short length would prove that the scheme could be generalized to any extent [14].


Hybrid technologies are equally important for economical deployment of the networks. In other words, the already existent hardware should be future proof; even if a new technology is unraveled, the hardware already laid out should permit slight modications to the system to accommodate the change. Sometimes, a dark ber is laid out for this purpose. In that context hybrid schemes are very helpful. Here it was demonstrated that baseband (CATV and other broadcasting applications), microwaves (wireless signals) and millimeter wave signals could be transmitted over a single channel (optical ber) this was accomplished using a multiplexer/ demultiplexer pair at transmitter and receiver pair. This paper proved that having hybrid technology would be future proof (assuming a prediction of linear growth of trafc). Also it operated on a high speed data of 2.5 Gbps [15].

A simple, yet elegant solution is a cascaded semiconductor optical amplier (SOA) and Electroabsorption (EAM) modulator which serves the dual purpose of converting the frequency of operation due to the device nonlinearity and meanwhile performs the routine job of amplication and modulation. SOA is used for frequency up conversion whereas EAM is used for frequency down conversion. But this scheme demonstrated experimentally is highly not recommended for multigigabit communication. On a positive note suppose the SOA-EAM chip becomes commercially cheap product then this scheme has a potential for small local loops and LAN applications. But the problem would be of standardization, which cannot be easily handled [16]. It is interesting to note that a lot of researchers are always interested in providing solution which contains devices which perform dual functions.

Fully edged bidirectional RoF communication systems catering to the needs of millimeter signals is very challenging task to accomplish. This is due to the inherent problems existing in the transmission of optical signal carrying data with humungous rate.


Figure 2.3: RoF scheme for SOA-EAM bidirectional RoF system One of the schemes is to suppress the carrier to produce two side bands and modulate the data onto one of the sidebands. The optical carrier suppression could be achieved by LiNbO3 modulator suitably biased in the nonlinear region.

Further a copy of incident light is combined with the optically suppressed and modulated light to the ber. At the destination a Fiber Bragg grating is used to reect the unmodulated light back to another MZM modulator (which appends the uplink data onto that light). The remaining light which is suppressed and modulated is used for detection purpose. Hence a simple solution for the bidirectional RoF is achieved. But there are problems in this scheme, as it uses two bers and not suitable for long-haul applications. Also it is observed that there is quite wastage of bandwidth since the redundant light is transmitted at the Central Station, which eventually dies out at the Base station thus needs an optical amplier which is expensive [17]. However, this scheme gives a brilliant insight into the working of the bidirectional RoF link.

Having said that devices serving dual purposes have an advantage over the conventional ones, The Reective semiconductor amplier is an attractive device which outperforms all the others in its category. The RSOA (invented in 2006 credited to Samsung Electronics [18]) serves as an optical amplier, data modulator and also it can erase the data present in the incoming light. Thus RSOA acts as an excellent candidate for bidirectional RoF links. This device eliminates the necessity having an EDFA


Figure 2.4: RoF scheme with optical carrier suppression together with complicated circuitry to erase the data along with the expensive MachZehnder modulator. All the three actions can be performed in a single device thus it acts as a compact device highly recommended for incoming light remodulation technique. This concept was designed in the PON [19] then the same idea was extended to wireless scheme (RoF).

The gure 2.5 indicates the output power versus input power for a data rewriter. Here we observe that when the input power exceeds a certain value then by the natural output characteristic of the SOA the output power appears to be uniform. Thus the incoming signal power is crucial in the design of a light remodulation scheme. The slope of the curve in the saturation region would decide the overall efciency of the SOA acting as a light remodulator [20].


Figure 2.5: SOA used as a data re-writer RSOAs offer several advantages [21]such as:

Low fabrication cost Small dimensions Easy integration Wide bandwidth Low insertion loss Fast time response Colorless

There has been a tremendous interest in schemes involving RSOA. If in the future RSOA becomes cheaper than EDFA and other conventional devices, then schemes designed with RSOA would be a major hit in the market and research alike. Also, the RSOA operates at a relatively low speed (commercial devices offer 1.25 Gbps)Here WDM-PON scheme is implemented with necessary changes. Multiple DFB laser sources are used to generate narrowband light. It is given to a circulator which allows light to pass from port 1 to 2 only. Similarly, the incoming data is allowed to interact only with the associated photodiode for capturing the incoming uplink data. All the sources are given to the AWG, which is one of the most popular devices to achieve WDM (even


DWDM) technology.

The multiplexed signal is given to a single SMF, at the destination another AWG is used which acts as a demultiplexer and eventually segregates the combined light into various colours. From there it is redistributed using the ONU which in turn has architecture similar to the input side of the system. The difference is it has a circulator connected to a photodiode in one port and the RSOA in the other port. The RSOA amplies the incoming light meanwhile it modulates that light (which is erased of the previously carried data) with uplink data and given to the AWG. Hence both uplink and downlink are successfully implemented in a very economic way. But this scheme also has some inherent problems as this cannot be extended to long haul or ultra long haul applications and also tuning of the RSOA is extremely difcult for customized networks. In spite of all those problems this scheme has promising scope for future multigigabit communication systems [19].

Figure 2.6: Bidirectional WDM-PON technology using RSOA

A slight variation of this scheme was used for transmission of broadcasting in the downlink and normal data communication in the upstream channel. This is a potential application for analog CATV applications which also require some interactive data while browsing through the channels. Hence, a low speed upstream data would sufce in those situations. Again usage of RSOA paves way for good applications but the industrial applicability and the economic viability of the scheme is yet to be determined. But this scheme actually motivates the author to explore the applications of RSOA [22].


After the successful demonstration of utilizing RSOA in bidirectional links (2006) lot of other variations have been published. Some of the attractive schemes are discussed below:

A multiplexer and demultiplexer are used at the transmitter side. The DFB lasers outputs are coupled onto Electro-absorption modulators and multiplexed onto a AWG which has a power splitter, wherein the other half of the incoming power goes to the demultiplexer at the transmitter side, which sorts out different colours of light and extracts useful information associated with that particular color. But on the receiver side only a single demultiplexer is sufcient, because a circulator along with pin photodiode (in one port) and RSOA (in other port, modulates the uplink data, also provides optical gain) is sufcient [23]. Though, not a signicant paper but useful for exploration of RSOA in a WDM system.

Proposal of a scheme which caters to the need of CATV users, broadband users, PON users and wireless users all put together would be the Holy Grail of optical ber communication achieved till date. It is a very well known fact that the optical ber channel is under-used. Any signicant development of technology takes place only when there is a successful market which consumes the data. But rightnow, there is a saturation of the market for cellular phone users. Hence, the capitalists are marketing data consumption like never before. Nevertheless, achievement of heavy data rate in the optical system is not really unrealistic because, the optical ber has extremely large bandwidth ( in the wavelength zone of communication interest ) out of which only 2-3% is utilized the rest of the bandwidth is absolutely useless. Thus, those unused portions of the spectrum could be actually dedicated to the different technological standards. This could be a boon to customers in residences as well as commercial buildings. One such scheme is the culmination of both wired and wireless technologies [24]. The idea is fairly simple: one of the CW laser source is modulated by baseband data and the other by millimeter wave signal. The specic modulation (format and scheme: direct or otherwise) depends on the budget invested and speed of operation. Both signals are given to a power combiner and launched over an optical ber. At the receiver the two colours are segregated and


processed. This could be in the bidirectional in nature with the concepts suggested earlier.

Another scheme: simply hires the ideas from other schemes to achieve higher bandwidth utilization. Here Fabry Perot is assumed to produce multiple wavelengths. It should be further noted that reducing the cost of the source is not necessary because the optical transmitters are naturally cheap. Also, Mode partition noise is a critical element of interest. However there are several innovative proposals in the scheme worth appreciation.

The incoming different colours are deprived of their carriers and converted to double sidebands. The incoming optically suppressed multiple colors are segregated by the AWG and given to an RSOA which modulates the single colored light with unique data of that channel and puts a copy onto the sideband of the light (bandwidth wasted) [7] also it has to be observed that the light signal is amplied, hence works for a fairly decent distance. This is given to the AWG again to combine the colored light appended with data. This energy is launched onto the ber and given to an AWG, acting as a demultiplexer. At the receiver a conventional scheme is employed. The only attractive feature is that this scheme culminates wired and wireless technologies. Also the paper is incomplete as the title claims simultaneous bidirectional wired and wireless for a WDM channel. But experimentally only a single channel with time multiplexed uplink and downlink data transmission is demonstrated.

Also the necessity of multiple carrier suppression is not thoroughly justied. The advantage of using a Fabry Perot diode, apart from the obvious monetary benets, is not at all stated. Also the experimental demonstration is quite misleading, does not precisely talk about wired/wireless/simultaneous transmissions. Also the use of two AWGs could have been easily avoided. No proper justications to any of the above mentioned aws have been reported in this literature [25].


Figure 2.7: Simultaneous wired and wireless at 1.25 Gbps Yet another scheme: with striking simplicity but with worthwhile consequences. Here the downlink signal is phase modulated and the uplink signal is intensity modulated. Here it is observed that it provides a reasonably good BER and data rate. But the detection process for the phase modulated signals is complex and uneconomical. This indicates that researchers need not think only in the device level but can come up with modulation formats for reliable and sturdy communication link [26].

Cross remodulation is also explored which indicates coupling of a pair of optical bers intelligently in order to avoid any distortive effects. Here two AWGs are used for downlink data itself, one for all wireline signals and the other for all wireless signals. But this scheme turns out to be highly uneconomical because of four AWGs instead of two, extra couplings and splices hence reliability of the link is questionable. Also, the practical deployment of this scheme is messy and not future-proof. But the cross remodulation concept seems to be a promising solution to a different problem [27].

Culmination of WDM, RoF and PON technologies: Here individual laser sources are multiplexed using a conventional multiplexer. This combined signal is given to a MZ Modulator suitably biased which acts as an optical carrier suppressor. Hence all the incoming colours would lose their carrier signal and two wings appear in the spectrum of each color.


Figure 2.8: cross remodulation This is again demultiplexed and partitioned into two segments, in other words two AWGs. The rst AWG act on wireless data whereas the second AWG act on the wireline data, again an MZM is used to modulate the signal with the relevant data sources. These signals are in turn multiplexed again. Finally this ensemble of signals is transmitted using an optical ber, in the base station in each channel a power splitter is used and one segment: a photodiode is used to extract the information whereas in the other segment a tunable optical lter is used to understand the information. A similar procedure is carried out in the base station but in the opposite direction.

Here, it is observed that the culmination of the PON and RoF technology is successful. That gives a clear indication that the bidirectional hybrid technologies involving other well established forms can also be included in the scheme [28].

Sideband routing: Various DSB-SC sources are multiplexed and given to a circulator, from which it is given to a demultiplexer which segregates the light, meanwhile each color is embedded with the data (both wired and wireless) and this signal is again appended with the original carrier signal. A similar procedure is used in the base station to carry out the similar function .

High data rate transmission by frequency quadrupling: The simulation is carried out for a single channel only. The CW laser is given to a suitably biased MZM at a carrier frequency of 10 GHz, further more an optical circulator is used and Fiber Bragg grating 21

is used to reect the carrier back to origin and that carrier signal is actually deviated by the other port of the circulator. Both of the signals are combined after suitable optical gain compensation.

This signal is launched onto the optical ber and given to an MZI one portion of the signal is used to recover the downlink data from the incoming light signal. The other part of the light of the MZI is modulated by the uplink signal and launched to the uplink optical ber. The Central Ofce contains a tunable optical lter to extract the information [29].

Figure 2.9: High data rate Full Duplex RoF scheme If exible design is the major concern, then the architecture proposed in [30] is most suited for high speed links. Here, the optical carriers from various sources are coupled and launched onto a MZM, which acts not as a conventional modulator but as an optical carrier suppressor, hence the all the coupled carriers are suppressed and optical millimeter waves are generated due to the RF carrier given to the MZM. The exibility of the design comes after the optical carriers are suppressed. An optical interleaver is utilized to segregate the signals as wireless and wireline data, wherein individual MZMs are used in each channel to put on the baseband data. It must be observed that the baseband data is embedded onto the optical milli-meter waves.

All the signals carrying data is coupled again and transmitted through the downlink optical ber from the central ofce. An interleaver is again used at the base station to categorize the ensemble of signals as wired and wireless and those signals are further 22

processed using tunable optical lters and other optical combiners. It must be observed that the optical carrier reuse is not efciently carried out in the current scheme due to the uneconomical use of optical lters and extra MZMs. The proposed architecture would be suitable for networks which have approximately equal number of wired and wireless terminals, such as in a university campus.

Figure 2.10: Flexible Full Duplex RoF architecture The above discussed schemes were adhoc in nature. Now, we consider a specic link design scheme as reported in [31]. Here a dual port MZM is utilized to provide a reliable economical RoF link suitable for short haul links. The output carrier from the CW laser source is given to the LiNbO3 dual port modulator. The two ports are modulated with different set of signals which in turn is amplied and launched into the optical ber. The two ports of the MZM are modulated by a baseband signal of 10 Gbps and the other port is modulated by a smaller data rate of 2.5 Gbps which is carried by a 20 GHz RF carrier. Thus the base station (BS) must necessarily have an interleaver and suitable multiplexer components to successfully extract the information hidden in the mixed signal.

Though this scheme seems to be exceptional but depends again on the operational cost in the long run. Also, there is an increased complexity in the detection process 23

at the base station which again adds to the operational cost. But this scheme could be preferred for high speed data links where speed is a higher priority than the exibility or other system design issues. Also the study of this particular link design is not carried out in the context of a system. Basically this is a generic scheme waiting to be applied elsewhere.

Figure 2.11: Simulatneous Wired and Wireless RoF link

Schemes in optical generation of millimeter waves Experimental demonstration of spectrum modication of light using external modulation is evident due to the inherent nonlinearities in the device. Cascaded congurations are also possible but the problem is bandwidth would not be effectively utilized [32]. From the various schemes the designer can choose SSB or DSB or other spectral sharpening schemes.

By cascading the modulators frequency quadrupling is achieved which is extremely important for generation of millimeter waves again the bandwidth utilization would be hampered. [33] Frequency octupling is also possible by varying the biases of the modulators [34].


CHAPTER 3 Proposed Scheme

Simulation is the integral part of any proposal. This saves time, money and engineering man-hours. If and only if the system works reasonably well in the theoretical domain only then researchers and engineers invest their time in rigging up the actual system.


Proposed Scheme

The gure below illustrates the general idea of a hybrid network wherein the optical ber feeder network bridges the central ofce and the base station. The terms central ofce and base station are used in a general sense. This could mean a data server and a client or a n ensemble of them which are connected to the either ends of the optical ber backbone. The general architecture demonstrates a full duplex operation, the actual ber laid out could be a single one (bidirectional ber, costly) or two bers (one for uplink and the other for downlink). The connected nodes would comprise of wired and wireless terminals.

Figure 3.1: General Block diagram A more detailed gure is shown below. The Network could mean the humungous number of terminals connected through the metro network or something likewise. The

downlink and uplink have separate channels for transmission. Each channel is allocated to a particular wavelength chosen for a particular region. The multiplexer then combines all the colours and launches to the optical ber backbone. At the receiver the demultiplexer segregates the colours and extracts useful information. The processing at the end terminals are usually electronic and are designed on an adhoc basis. The node would be a combination of wired terminal and wireless terminals.

The wired terminal refers to the computer(s) hooked up to the PON and the wireless terminals could mean the cellular phones accessing voice and data services. The wireless terminals could also be the smartphones and computers accessing broadband services via the local WiFi. The thick line and the broken line simply illustrates the difference in electronic processing which is used in the individual terminals.

Figure 3.2: General hybrid architecture A DFB laser diode of nite linewidth is modulated with a dual drive MZM. One of the ports is modulated with wireless data, i.e., the baseband data is mixed with a suitable RF carrier depending on the desired baseband datarate. This frequency translation in the electrical domain is performed in order to simplify the antenna design.


Figure 3.3: RoF link The other port is modulated with the wired baseband data, originating from the passive optical network terminal. Both these signals are embedded onto the CW laser light for a specic channel. The emerging output from the dual port MZM is given to a bidirectional wavelength division multiplexer. A circulator is used at the MZM in order to avoid optical interferences from the base station side.

The incoming signal from the base station is given to a PIN diode after wavelength segregation (emanating from the multiplexer). The circulator design is economical for a full duplex system. The same design is utilized for other channels as well; hence the WDM central ofce is realized.

The combined signals of different wavelengths are given to the optical transmission channel, from which a demultiplexer is used to segregate the wavelengths as designed in the central ofce.

Once each optical signal of a particular wavelength is extracted, it is given to a power splitter which leads to three paths namely PIN diode with mixer, PIN diode and RSOA.

The PIN diode with mixer extracts the wireless data whereas the PIN diode extracts the wired data. The remaining portion of the optical signal is given to the RSOA which


is operated in the gain saturation region thereby serving the purpose of both amplier and modulator; as a result the RSOA remodulates the incoming signal with uplink data. Figure 3.3 illustrates the idea.

The uplink data is basically baseband data, hence generic in nature; to achieve wired and wireless signal transmission at the base station side then time division multiplexing or frequency division multiplexing in electrical domain could be carried out.


Simulation Setup

The above proposed conceptual scheme was built and tested in OptiSystem 11. The CW laser with linewidth of 10MHz operating at wavelength of 1552.52 nm, this was used for channel 1, the subsequent channels were placed at 100 GHz from channel ones carrier frequency (193.1 THz). Four channels were chosen for simulation purpose. Since the proposed architecture is generic in nature the number of channels could exceed more than eighty, as in DWDM networks. But the availability and precise linewidth of laser diode array would be difcult to manufacture.

A pseudo-random number generator was used to drive an NRZ pulse generator to generate the baseband signals; the bit rate would be set accordingly. The PRBS signies the random source of data such as speech, music, pictures or video. The NRZ pulse generator was chosen in order to have a simple low speed electrical network. The data rate was set at 2.5 Gbps for simulation of downlink, and the data rate was set to 1 Gbps for simulation of uplink. The global parameters were set to match the data rates, thus we obtain the graphs with reasonably good clarity.

Port 1 of dual drive dual port MZM was driven by an amplitude modulator, with a carrier frequency of 20 GHz, which in turn was driven by 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal. The amplitude modulator would act as a mixer, which acts as a frequency translator of the baseband to the RF clock frequency. Since, the RF carrier could also be extracted at the base station; simpler electronic circuitry is required apart from the electronic amplier.Port 2 of dual drive dual port MZM was driven by 1 Gb/s baseband signal. The 28

combined signal was given to a bidirectional circulator.

The incoming signal was given to a PIN diode followed by a low pass Bessel lter to extract the uplink signal, also the uplink receiver subsystem houses the BER analyzer to plot the eye diagrams . The outgoing signal from the circulator is given to a bidirectional multiplexer with suitable number of channels, the output of which is given to a bidirectional SMF of 23km. Since, we focus on short haul networks the reasonable length of 23km is justied. Also, it was observed that with increased distance the would be operational but at a lower data rates for both downstream and upstream links.

This was further given to demultiplexer (due to non-availability of a bidirectional demux an extra mux was used for demonstration purpose). Each optical channel was given to a power splitter.

One portion is given to a PIN diode followed by a low pass lter; this branch extracts the wired downstream data. Other portion is given to PIN diode followed by amplitude demodulator with a carrier frequency of 20 GHz (frequency translator in the electrical domain) and the remaining power from that optical channel is given to the RSOA, which remodulates the signal with uplink data (1 Gb/s).


30 Figure 3.4: Proposed scheme


Results and Discussion

The global parameters of OptiSystem were suitably set to visualize the results.

Fig 3.5 Illustrates the optical spectrum of a single channel after modulation by the downstream signals (wired and wireless). The extremely high data rate is limited by the speed of operation of the MZM, thus in practical design there is a trade-off between cost of installation and the operational data rate. The optical carrier suppression technique might appear to be economic since the cost is shared between a lot of channels, but the current scheme offers high bandwidth signal transmission for two different types of data sets. Hence, the proposed scheme is preferred for a networks which have multiple terminals (wired and wireless) of approximately equal proportion.

Figure 3.5: CW laser spectrum after modulation Fig. 3.6 shows the optical spectrum after multiplexing of four channels each separated by 100 GHz. This separation is capable of supporting huge number of users and high data rate. The power levels should be carefully adjusted in order to prevent interchannel distortion and other nonlinearities. If a long haul extension of the link is considered then transients in the optical amplier also has to be taken into account, optimal power level should be set depending on the designed distance. For, short haul links highly sensitive and high bandwidth PIN diodes would serve the purpose of limiting the launched power.


Figure 3.6: WDM signal spectrum after modulation The eye pattern for downlink wireless data is shown in Fig 3.7 for a data rate of 2.5 Gb/s. The optical ber length was set to 23km, which is a typical distance for covering a typical ofce campus. The input power was iterated from -10 dBm to 0 dBm in steps of 0.2 dBm. All the above said manipulations were performed on a single link within the WDM system. The concept of increasing power of the input laser source could be conceptually corresponded to decrease in the ber length, due to the natural attenuation encountered in the ber. For a desired input power level, data rate, ber length and specied BER. The eye opening is decent for a reliable communication link.

Figure 3.7: Eye diagram wireless 2.5Gbps


Fig. 3.8 demonstrates the eye pattern for downlink for wired signals operative at 1 Gb/s. The optical ber length was set to 23km. This suggests that the terminals of PON are operating at a lower datarate than its wireless counterpart; hence this scheme would be suitable where high speed mobile terminals have a higher priority than the PON terminals. The eye pattern seems to validate the proposed scheme to be deployed in the real world.

Figure 3.8: Eye diagram for wired downlink Also g. 3.9 shows log(BER) versus received optical power. This graph proves that a reasonably good BER could be achieved at a relatively low operative power for a single channel.

Figure 3.9: log BER versus received power




Intra campus network which could be used for High quality raw Music sharing: but this also requires high quality speakers for good sound throughput. High resolution photo sharing: The cameras could be connected with wireless modules to transfer the HQ photos directly to the network. Multiple simulatneous video conferencing: Reasonably good quality video conferencing could be carried out with the proposed scheme. Also, a limited number of multiple video conferencing could be supported with a complex electronic hardware. Multiplayer high end graphic intensive gaming: Graphic intensive gaming requires very high data rates to be supported, thus a couple of gamers could be entertained based on the specic design. Storage network: Optical storage networks are becoming popular which again requires high data rates and a mixture of technologies. Broadcasting of intra-campus programmes within the campus Interactive televison: which again requires a full duplex network with high datarate downlink but a comparitively lower uplink datarate. Amalgamation of CATV with digital services could also be designed. Augmented Reality also requires tremendous amounts of bandwidth, hence the proposed scheme could be used for educational purposes.



Conclusion and future wok

A novel architecture for WDM-RoF amalgamated with wired network is proposed. The scheme is relatively inexpensive and converges multiple technologies with the same optical backbone network. Also, we observe that it provides a full duplex signal transaction. The theoretical investigation shows that the proposed scheme is capable of offering reliable communication at reasonably high data rates. The simulative analysis demonstrated a 2.5 Gbps downlink and 1 Gbps uplink, which is suitable for short haul networks. The proposed scheme requires a high investment for installation but proves to be highly economical when the number of subscribers increase.

The scheme could be tested on a real campus. Flexible design for the proposed scheme could be explored which is future-proof compared to the proposed network. The data-rate could be increased but with a slight detorioration of the eye diagram and BER parameters.


List of Publications [1] A Novel Architecture for Full Duplex WDM Radio Over Fiber System Converged With Wired Network Using Dual Drive MZM and Light Remodulation using RSOA accepted for Ninth International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks WOCN 2012 conducted by IIT, Indore. September, 2012 [2] Simulative Analysis of a WDM RoF Architecture for Full Duplex Wired and Wireless Network accepted for National Conference on Technological Trends NCTT 2012 conducted by College of Engineering, Trivandrum. August, 2012




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