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PAKISTAN AFFAIRS NOTES

Contents

PART 1 – REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

 

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EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM NATIONALISM MUSLIM REFORMERS EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN: TWO-NATION THEORY

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PART 2 – PRE PARTITION HISTORY

 

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DECLINE OF MUGHAL RULE SHIMLA DEPUTATION MUSLIM LEAGUE THE LUCKNOW PACT KHILAFAT MOVEMENT NEHRU REPORT & QAID’S POINTS ALLAMA IQBAL’S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHABAD CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES PAKISTAN RESOLUTION CRIPPS MISSION CABINET MISSION

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PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD

 

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INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE QUAID-E-AZAM CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES CONSTITUTION MAKING (1 947-56) POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS TRAGEDY OF EAST PAKISTAN GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF

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PART 1 – REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

PART 1 – REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

PART 1 – REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM NATIONALISM

Arab traders’ honesty

Kiring Noor, the first Indian national to embrace Islam

Sarqafi, Governor of Oman under Hazrat Umer (634 – 644), invaded sea ports near Bombay without his permission

SINDH DAR UL ISLAM

Gifts and women from Ceylon

Pirates attack

Al Malik bin Abdul Malik as a Ummayyad Caliph

Hijaj Bin Yousaf

Muhammad Bin Qasim Syrian soldiers Entered from Makran

Raja Dahir killed near Mehran (Indus) in June 712

Rani Bai, Raja’s wife, challenged MBQ with 15,000 soldiers and defeated. She burnt herself

MBQ REFORMS

12 Dirham tax

No social caste system

Established Sadru Imam Al ajal for Islamic laws interpretation

Suleman bin Abdul Malik called MBQ back and perished him in 715

SPREAD OF ISALM IN OTHER PARTS OF INDIA

MBQ 712

Mehmud Gahznavi – 2 nd expediter – 17 attacks between 1000 to 1026

o Ghaznavid period ended in 1185 with death of Khusru Malik

Ghuri period (1185 – 1192) expanded to Bengal and Bihar

Dehli Sultanate (1192 – 1526) Muslim sufis

Mughal era (1526 – 1857) Muslims sufis

Muslim sufis

o

Shaikh Ismail in Ghaznavi period

o

Ali Makhdom Hajveri came Lahore in 1035, Bahud Din Zakaria, Shaikh Fareed Dud Din, Khawaja Bukhtiar Kaki, Nazam Ud Din Olia, Mujadid Alaf Sani, Hazrat Shahi Wali Ullah , Muin ud Din Chishty

IMPACT OF ISLAM

Cultural Influence

o

Caste system

o

Urdu and Hindi came into being

o

Islamic way of construction

Religious Influence

o

Shankarachariya (Organizer of modern Hinduism) influenced by Islam

o

Ramananda, Ghuru Nanik and Chaitanya were Hindu prominent leaders influenced by Islam

HINDU REACTION

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I.

Bagti Movement

Started in 14 th century

Objective to check the popularity of Islam

No difference between Ram and Raheem, Parn and Quran, Kasshi and Kahba

Bagt Kabir, Ramananda, Guru Nanak and Dadu were prominent leaders

II. Din-E-Ilahi (1582)

Akbar introduced in desire to win the collaboration of Rajput chiefs

Marriages with Hindu girls

Elevation of Hindu to imp positions

Under Din e Elahi

o

Worship of sun

o

Jizya and pilgrimage tax abolished

o

Akbar as shadow of god on earth

o

Cow slaughter and Azan prohibited

o

No child named as Muhammad

Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani opposed Din e Elahi

Muslims lost their hegemony

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MUSLIM REFORMERS

HAZRAT MUJADID ALAF SANI (June 1564 – Dec 1626)

Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi

Father name Sheikh Abdul Ahad

Went to Delhi at age of 36

Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah

Social Conditions during his time

Populace belief in Karamat

Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran

Akbar’s anti Islamic look

Hindu cultural domination

Bakhti Movement

Wahdat al Wajood theory

Mujadid’s efforts

1. Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi

2. Theory of Wahdat-ul-Sahood

a. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood

3. Refusal to prostate – society purification

a. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years

4. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar

5. Preparation of Disciples

6. Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani

a. Letters to important nobles and leaders

b. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan

7. Books

a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat

b. Risla e Nabuwwat

i. Need & importance of Prophethood

c. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai

d. Toheed e Shaheedi

i. Islamic philosophy

8. Two nation theory

a. First stone of two nation theory – first founder of Pakistan

9. Influence over Jehangir – Khutba; Cow Slaughter;

Shaikh imprisoned

Asaf Jah, Jehangeer’s PM Shaikh summoned No prostration jailed

After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him 10000 rupees

He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts

“When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in the rejection of monism that Sheikh’s claim for being the Mujadad of his age.” IH Qureshi

“Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.” Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S M Ikram

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HAZRAT SHAH WALI ULLAH MOHADITH DELVI (1703 DELHI - 1762)

Father of Modern Muslim India

Real name Qutabuddin

Born at Delhison of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and Islamic jurisprudence

Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat completed study in 15 year of age

Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732

He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years

Aim Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly

Conditions

Incapable successor of Aurangzeb

Un-Islamic trends,

Muslim life honour property not secured,

Shia-Suni conflicts,

Marhats and Sikhs challengers

SHAH’S EFFORTS

1. Religious work

a. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738

b. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and persian

c. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends

d. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge

e. Recommended application of Ijtehad

f. Initiated Tatbiq liberal element

g. Balance b/w four schools –

h. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni – Khilafat-al-Khulafa

2. Political work

a. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire

b. Wrote letters to seek help from Muslim nobles against Sikhs won over Najib ud Dola, Shuja ud Daula

c. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated Sikhs at the Third battle of Panipat in 1761

3. Social work

a.

Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in subcontinent

b.

Concept of reorientation of Muslim society

i.

Basic social justice

ii.

Removing social inequalities

iii.

c.

Concept of economy

i. Production of wealth

ii. Consumption of wealth

iii. Distribution of wealth

iv. Exchange of wealth

4. Literary work

a. Izalat-al-Akifa

b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa

c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf

d. Master piece of literature 1738

e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah

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Sons’ efforts

Quranic translation in Urdu by Rafiuddin and Abdul Qadir

Shah Abdul Aziz waged Jehad

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f. Quranic translation in Persian

g. Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer

h. Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler

“I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.” Quoted by SM Ikram

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SYED AHMAD SHAHEED BARELVI (1786 – 1831)

Inheretor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz

Birth at Rai Barally in 1786

Father Shah Illam Ullah

Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz

1810 – joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar

1818 – wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem

Condition

Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims

NWFP by Sikhs

Objective

Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through armed struggle – Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles

Jehad Movement

HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826

Battles

1. OKARA 1826

2. HAZRO 1827

3. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy

He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000

Tried to poision Syed Ahmad

Killed by Mujahideen in 1829

4. BATTLE FOR PESHAWAR

Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad

5. HAZARA II 1830

Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested

Declaration of Khilafat (1830)

1. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh

BALAKOT BATTLE 1831

1. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed

Causes of Failure

1. Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjit’s army – training & modern war strategy

2. Outdated weapons of Mujahideen

3. Financial sources of Ranjit Singh

4. Misudnderstaning created by Ranjit Singh

5. Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing who did spy, revolt & slaughtered Mujahideen

6. No support for poors – Zakat collection

7. Islamic laws during war – compulsory girls & widow marriage

8. Severe punishment

9. Pathans were against Wahabisim

“The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national movements of the subcontinent.” Dr. Sachin Sen

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FARAIZI MOVEMENT

Wide scale ignorance of Muslims resulted in Hindu emergence in 19 th century.

Haji Shariat Ullah (1781 - 1840)

Left for Arabia in 1799 influenced by MBA Wahab started Faraizi Movement – stress on Faraiz - when back denied concept of Peer-Mureed opposed Zamindar levied taxes Harassed by them

left Najabari Death in Faridpur

Dudu Mian

(Mohsan Ud Din Ahmad) divided Bangal into circles and appointed Khalifa opposed tax of Durga and land Khas Mehal occupied on his direction established his own state harassed by Zamindars thorough false charges died in Sep 1824

TITU MIR (1782-1831)

Nisar Ali (Titu Mir) born in Bengal Visited Makkah in 1819 and influenced by Syed Ahmed Barelvi.

On arrival back, he started preaching He made a fort in Narkalberia, asked followers not to give

beard tax (Kishan Rai)Kishan attacked but defeated 183 British army attacked Narkalberia

and killed Titu Mir.

Organization:

1. Security of Peassantory – Lathibardar Political branch

2. Social Justice – Punchayat Religious branch

Doctrine: 4 steps

1. Tauba

2. Fraiz

3. Tuheed

4. Ustaad Shagir instead of Peer Mureed

5. Dar-ul-Arab

Khalafat System:

1. Ustaad

2. Uprasta – Advisor to Ustaad

3. Superintendent Khalifa – 10 G K

4. Gaon Khalifa – 500 families

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EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

ALIGARH MOVEMENT

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown.

After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community.

Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898)

Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM)

Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine

Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – in a clerical job 1841 – promoted as Sub-Judge 1846 – transferred to Delhi Chief judge in 1846 was offered an estate for services rendered to British during war 1857 but he rejected 1877 – member of imperial council 1886 – University of Edinburgh – LL.D degree 1888 – Knighthood

Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement

Objective:

1.

Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus

2.

Cooperation with the British government

1.

Schools

Muradabad (1859)

Ghazipur (1863)

2.

Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)

(to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)

1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill & friendship)

Muhammadan Educational Conference

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Established in 1866 held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members

3. Muhammadan Educational Conference

Established in 1866 held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members

1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge

4.

Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)

to impart modern knowledge to Muslims

5.

Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College

On pattern of Oxford Fund raising committee formed 24 th May, 1874, MAO High school established 1877 – got status of college western, eastern and Islamic education

1920 – status of University

Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement

1.

Muslims should avoid active politics

2.

Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind Causes of WOI 1857

1. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils

2. Conversion of Indian into Christianity

3. Mismanagement of Indian army

4. Ill advised measure of gov’t

Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861

3.

1866

– Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of

Indians to gov’t

4.

wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India

5.

Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress

6.

Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements

a. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977

b. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter

c. Shudhi -

d. Shangtahn -

Religious Services of Aligarh Movement

1. Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad”

2. Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities

3. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude towards religion

Social services of Aligarh Movement

1. Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq” criticized conservative way of life and advised to adopt new trend

2. Established Orphanage houses

3. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu protecting Urdu

4. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab Muslims can eat with Christians

Pioneer of two nation theory

Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity

Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views

Shakespeare dialogue

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Features of Aligarh

Western & Eastern Education

Islamic Education

Residential College

European and Indian staff

Non-Muslim students

Loyalist Disposition

Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death

1. 1889 – Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust & Syed Mahmud (son) as joint sec.

2. After Sir Syed’s death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec. was a weak manager resigned

3. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec devoted deposited six lac Rs to gov’t handled the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) & Muhammad Ali Johar Died in 1907

4. Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse Nawab resigned in 1912 – health

5. Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan deposited 20 lac for status of University 1919- college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat

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TEHRIK-I-DEOBAND (Apr 1866)

Aligarh movement was cooperating with British

Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity

Apr 1866 – Madrasah established at Deoband 2 nd to Al Azhar Cairo

Founder Haji M. Abid floated the idea Collection of fund Managing committee – Maulana M Qasim , Maulana Fazl ur Rehman, Maulana Zulfiqar, Maulana M Yaqoob Maulana Shabir A Usmani taught

Maulana M Qasimfirst principal worked devotedly Madrasah came to known as Qasim al Uloom I Deoband

Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullah’s father) and British education system

Produced Shah Abdur Rahim, Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi, Maulana Mehmood ul Hassan

Political Services of Deoband

Jamiat Ulama I IslamThanvi group lead by Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shabir Ahmad Usmani Muslim league

Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind Madni group lead by Maulana Hussain Madani, Mufti Kafayat Ullah influenced by Abu-ul-Kalam Azad Congress

Educational Services of Deoband

A great religious Madrasah 2 nd to Al Azhar

Principals Maulana M Qasim (1880) Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi Sheikh ul Hind M. Mehmood Ul Hassan.

Deoband and Aligarh

Policy towards British

Political role of Muslims

Emphasizing area of education

Rapprochement with Aligarh

Jamiat-ul-Ansar (1906) at Deoband Sahibzada Aftab A Khan attended the meeting Swap of education – religious and western

Jamiat-i-Milia (1920)

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NADVA-TUL-ULEMA OF LUCKNOW (1894)

Aligarh acquisition of western education

Deoband religious education

Need for balanced school

Committee was formed in 1892 Nadva-tul-Ulema established in 1894 functioned in

1898

Founder Maulana Abdul Ghafoor Shibli Naumani and Mau. Abdul Haq chalked out a liberal program

Objective

Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of Muslims, Work to remove secretarial differences

British gov’t opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a political institute)

Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani

Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq – opposing Sir Syed while his father influenced by Sir Syed

Joined Aligarh as A Prof of Arabic in 1883 Impressed Sir Syed Asset to Aligarh some serious differences Man of arrogance and sensitive resigned in 1904

Associated with Nadva used his expreince to bring reform gave training in writing (Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza)

Established academy”Dar-ul-Musanifin”

Differences arouse resigned

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ANJUMAN-I-HIMAYAT-I-ISLAM LAHORE (Sep 1884)

Sikh raj in Punjab Muslims backwardness

250 Muslims established for educational guidance influenced by Aligarh

Founder Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din first president Dr. M Nazir & Munshi Abdur Rehim

Muthi bar atta scheme for funding

Objective

politically Establishing educational institute

Counter Christian missionaries

Orphanage houses

Stable Muslim society

Preserve Muslim culture

Organize Muslims

Educational Services

Established several primary schools on Aligarh pattern 15 schools by 1894

Madrasa tul Muslimin (Islamia High School Sheranwala Gate) in 1889

Islamia College for women Lahore in 1938

Islamia College Railway road, Islamia College civil lines, Islamia College cant, Hamayat I Islam Law College & Center for adult education Lahore

Political Services

Students of Islamia College Railqway road body guard of the Quaid role in 1940 resolution MSF led by Hamid Nizami

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SINDH MADRASAH, KARACHI (1886)

Syed Hasan Afandi (President of Centeral Mohamadan Association of Karachi – influenced by Sir Syed) established Hassan died in 1896 Wali Muhammad took over

1n 1943 – Board of the Madrasah decided to rename as Sindh Muslim College

Quaid got education from this institute

ISLAMIA COLLEGE, PESHAWAR

Edward College (1888) was a Christian missionary need for institute for Muslims Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Dar-Ul-Uloom-Islamia in 1902

Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Funding committee in 1912 Dar-ul-Uloom raised to Islamia College Peshawar

Qaid got education from this institute Sahibzada called Sir Syed of NWFP

Islamia College has major contribution in 1947 referendum

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THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN: TWO-NATION THEORY

The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities.

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state.

As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by writing that the Hindus considered Muslims "Mlachha", or impure. And they forbid having any connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They even avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel "polluted".

The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely a history of rivalry and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century, since the advent of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop harmonious relations. In the beginning, one could find the Muslims and Hindus struggling for supremacy in the battlefield. Starting with the war between Muhammad bin Qasim and Raja Dahir in 712, armed conflicts between Hindus and Muslims run in thousands. Clashes between Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaypal, Muhammad Ghuri and Prithvi Raj, Babur and Rana Sanga and Aurangzeb and Shivaji are cases in point.

When the Hindus of South Asia failed to establish Hindu Padshahi through force, they opted for back door conspiracies. Bhakti Movement, Akbar’s diversion.

IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN

WHAT IS AN IDEOLOGY?

A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political

order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (Institution, processes, program) for

its attainment.

An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, explanation of the present and a vision of the

future

Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply ingrained in

the social consciousness of the people.

It is a set of principles, a framework of action and guidance system that gives order and

meaning to life and human action.

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HOW IDEOLOGY EMERGES

When thinking of a nation or a social group is rejected.

An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an

existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the

society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them

STEPS OF IDEOLOGY EVOLUTION

o

Consciousness

o

Analysis of current situation

o

Creating new thinking

o

Legitimate – De-legitimate

o

Role of Leadership

IMPORTANCE OF IDEOLOGY

It is a motivating force

It provides a common plate form.

BASIS OF IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN

Based on ideals of Islam

Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation;

Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan,

by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction.

It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the

Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their

future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their

demand to a separate state.

Hindu British were exploiting Muslims in India. So Muslims adopted this ideology to save

their identity and culture from total elimination.

TWO NATION THOERY

Two-nation concept was based on Nationhood which was there long before Pak Ideology. Muslim Traders – Attackers – Rulers (Qutb Ud Din Abik, Ghaznavi) – Sufis (Al Hajveri, Sheikh Ahmad Serhandi)

Based on fact that Muslims were separate nation having their own culture, civilization, customs, literature, religion and way of life.

Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart.

The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state,

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wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH).

The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism

Due to British and Hindu exploitation they were forced to safe guard their national and relational identity.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is pioneer of two nation theory. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines.

Two Nation Theory means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to their faith and creed established on the Islamic principals. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization.

There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. (All India Muslim League)

The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.

Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards

EVOLUTION OF PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY

British expansion had more deepening impact on Muslims as “The people who were

important in history are no longer important” KK Aziz

Urdu Hindi controversy under Congress leadership in 1867 in Banars

Revivalist movements against Muslims – Bakhti, Deen e Elahi, Shuddi and Shanghtan

movement

Hindu attitude – Partition of Bangal and its repeal

Political experience of Muslims under congress ministries in 1937-39

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTAN

1. Enforcement of sovereignty of Allah Almighty

a. Quaid said “We do not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a

homeland where we could introduce Islamic principals”

2. Establishment of Islamic democracy

a. Quaid at Sibbi in 1948 “It is my firm belief that our salvation lied in following the

golden rules of conduct as given by our great law giver, the prophet of Islam. Let us

lay the foundation our democratic system on Islamic ideals and practices”

3. Revival of Muslim image and Identity

4. Protection of Muslim culture and civilization

a. Urdu Hindi controversy

b. Shuddi and Sanghtan Movements

5. Two Nation Theory

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6.

Establishment of a balanced economic system

a. All highly courts and military positions were reserved for Hindus.

b. Agriculture and Industry was dominated by Hindus

c. Islamic system has the benefit for poor as well as rich – Zakat, Ushar

PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY AND QUAID E AZAM

He changed the course of history. He was a real charismatic leader possessing a visionary leadership.

Gave practical shape to the ideology given by Sir Syed and Allama Iqbal

He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties.

Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in

1920.

His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands:

o

Separate Electorate

o

One-third Seats in Central Legislature

o

protection of minority rights

In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929.

1935 onwards Quaid started emphasizing on separate identity of Muslim and a separate nation. Started mobilizing masses.

1937 there are only two parties in India said Nehro on performance of ML in elctions. Quaid said “Muslims are third party in India”

1939

“Muslim and Hindu are two nations. We are going to live as a nation and play a role

as a nation.”

March 9, 1940 Quaid wrote his only article published in British media namely “Time and Tide”. He discussed 1.How Hindu and Muslims are separate nations? 2. What should be future of India and how Muslims can be accommodated well?

He emphasized on Islam as well as modern democracy, Social economic justice and rights of minorities.

“Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical foundation from Islam

where the source of guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance is going

to be Islam”

“It has been taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims are a minority, and of course we got

Muslims are not a minority; the Muslims are a nation by every definition. By all canons of

international law we are a nation.” 23 rd March 1940

““India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a sub continent of nationalities, Hindus and

Muslims belong the two major nations. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different

religion, philosophies. Social customs and literature. They belong to two different civilizations

which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life

are different. It is quite clear that both derive their inspirations from different sources of

history” 23 rd March 1940

“We are a nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and

architecture, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs and

calendars, history and traditions. In short we have our distinct outlook on life and of life By all

canons of International law we are a separate nation.” 1942

The Muslims are nation by every right to establish their homeland” 1942

“We should base our democracy on the principals and concepts of IslamFeb 1942

“Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the Islamic ideology as well

which has to be preserved.” June 1945

“I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to create a mischief and make

propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan will not be made on the basis of Shariat.

Islamic principals today are as applicable to life as they were 1300 years ago.” Jan 25, 1948

Eid Milad Un Nabbi Karachi Bar Association

PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY AND ALLAMA IQBAL

Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries

His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim.

At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i- Hind.

He wet Europe for higher education in 1905-08. Lived in England and got Phd from Munich University. He stayed in Hindenburg where he wrote poem Daraye Nekar key kenare.

Represented Muslims in second and third round table conferences in 1931 and 1932.

Gave the famous Allah Abad Address which late on provided base for Lahore resolution.

“I am fully convinced that Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate

homeland as they cannot live with Hindu in the United India.”

“Religion and politics are not distinct from each other”

“India is a continent of Human beings belonging to different religions. To base a constitution on

the conception of homogenous India is to prepare her for civil war. I, therefore, demand the

formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of the Muslims of India and Islam.

The formation of consolidated North west Indian state appears to be the final destiny of the

Muslims” Allaha Abad Address

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“I

would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Balochistan amalgamated into a single state as

a self government within the British empire or without. This is the final destiny of the

Muslims of N.W. India.” Allaha abad Address

“I have been a staunch advocate of putting an end to the religious distinction from the country.

But now I believe that the protection of separate national identity is in the best interest of

Muslims and Hindus. Since the Muslims are a separate nation with their separate cultural

values and religious trends, and they want to have a system of their own linking, they should

be allowed to live under such system” Allaha Abad Address

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PART 2 – PRE PARTITION HISTORY

PART 2 – PRE PARTITION HISTORY

PART 2 – PRE PARTITION HISTORY

DECLINE OF MUGHAL RULE

The death of Alamgir in 1707 is generally regarded as the beginning of the gradual decline, and ultimately fall, of the once extensive, prosperous and powerful Mughal Empire. Although it took nearly 150 years before the House of Babur finally disappeared from the scene, the cracks that had appeared at Alamgir's death widened.

His son Muazzam, who ruled from 1707 to 1712, succeeded Aurangzeb Alamgir. He took for himself the title of Bahadur Shah. He ruled for five years and momentarily revived the Mughal Empire. But the Marhatta's power increased and they became the unchallenged rulers of Deccan. In the province of Punjab, the Sikhs under Guru Govind Singh became a force to reckon with. One of the reasons that power centers kept springing up outside Delhi was the frequent change in the succession of Empires. Nearly 17 kings were crowned during the period spanning from 1707 to 1857.

The weakened Mughal Empire invited havoc in the form of the Persian king Nadir Shah, in 1738-39. On his orders a general massacre of the citizens of Delhi was carried out, resulting in the death of 30,000 people. Another threat to the Mughal Empire came from the Afghans of Rohilkhand, lying northeast of Delhi. By the middle of 18th century, the Rohillas became independent of the Mughal rule. At the same time the Jats also raised their heads against the central rule.

Taking advantage of this chaotic situation, the East India Company began strengthening its military capabilities. They conspired with Hindu traders and moneylenders against Nawab Sirajuddullah of Bengal to take over his principality. The Battle of Plassey of 1757 is considered a major breakthrough for the British in the Sub-continent. It paved the way for the company's rule in Bengal, and hence the whole of India ultimately came under the company's rule.

In the 19th century, Muslims like Syed Ahmad Brailvi and Shah Ismail carried out Jihad against the Sikhs, as did Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan in Deccan against the British. However, they failed in their efforts to stop the downfall of the Muslim rule. The final crunch came after the war of 1857 when the Mughal rule officially came to an end and India came under the direct rule of the British crown.

The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb's religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall.

The absence of any definite law of accession was another important factor. The war of successions not only led to bitterness, bloodshed, and loss of money and prestige of the empire over a period of time, but to its eventual fall. The degeneration of the rulers had also led to the moral degeneration of the nobility. Under the early Mughals, the nobles performed useful functions and distinguished themselves both in war and peace. But the elite under the later Mughals was more interested in worldly pursuit and self-enhancement. The nobles who had once been talented men with integrity, honesty, and loyalty, turned selfish and deceitful. Growth of hostile and rival clique in the court also undermined the strength of the government. Widespread corruption in the administration started and taking bribes became common.

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One of the most potent causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire was the deterioration and demoralization of the army. The military had not only become inefficient but also lacked in training, discipline and cohesion. The army was out-dated in regard to equipment. It consisted of contingents maintained by various nobles, which was the main source of Army's weakness. As the weakening of the nobles occurred, so did the army. This was because of the soldiers, instead of identifying and uniting as Mughal Indians, identified themselves with different ethnic groups like Persian, Afghans and Central Asians. The Mughals had no navy and only maintained small ships that were no match for the well-equipped ships of the foreign traders. It was this weakness that the French and the British used to their advantage, and were eventually able to establish their control over India.

Another factor contributing to the decline was the financial position of the Mughals, which had become deplorable. The war of successions, rebellions and luxurious style of living had depleted the once enormous treasury and had led to financial bankruptcy. During the time of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire had expanded to reach its maximum size. This vast area had become impossible for one ruler to control and govern from one center. It was during the later Mughals that Deccan, Bengal, Bihar and Orrisa declared their independence. The raids by Nadir Shah, and repeated invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali, resulted in further weakening of the empire. The already weakened empire faced further encroachment by the British and the French, which proved to be the last nail in the already drowning empire's coffin. The British and French, who had initially come as traders, took full advantage of the weakening empire and soon became masters of the whole of India.

CAUSES OF THE FALL OF MUGHAL EMPIRE

1. Weak Successors of Aurangzeb

a. All merry making and unable, except Bahadar Shah

b. Left work to their Wazirs

2. Vastness of the Empire

a. Aurangzeb empire – practically impossible

b. Afghanistan to Asaam, Kashmir to Maysor

c. Lack of effective means of communication

3. Absence of a Definite Law of Succession

a. Akbar was only unopposed among 20 rulers

b. "The sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to
b. "The sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to

b. "The sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to try his

sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to try his fortune

fortune against his brothers." Erskine

sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to try his fortune

4. Deterioration of Morality of Mughal Emperors

a. Fond of wine and women

5. Degeneration of Nobility

a. Degeneration into sects and costs – Iranian, Toranian and Indian

6. Deterioration of Army

a. Abundance of wealth and comfort

b. Loss of confidence

c. Demoralization

7. Corrupt Administration

a. Ministers, nobels and officers accepted bribes

8. Stoppage of Adventures from Persia, Afghanistan and Turkistan

a. This provided a change for Army to be lazy

9. Invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali

a. Nadir Shah 1739 (looted for 57 days)

b. Ahmad Shah Abdali 1754 – 67 (5 times)

10. Aurangzeb's Policy in Deccan

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a. Golkonda and Bijapur served as a check to Maraths before conquest

11. Absence of Naval Power

a. British and Portuguese had strong naval power

12. Intellectual Bankruptcy

a. 17 th & 18 th century European saw industrial revolution

b. Mughals did not pay attention

13. Plight of the Common People and Peasants

a. Bad economic conditions led to discontentment

14. Rise of Marathas

a. Emergence of Maraths in 17 th century

b. 18 th century they extended their influence to Delhi

15. Rise of Sikhs

a. During the reign of Jahandar Shah (1712 – 13) and Farrukhsiyar (1713 – 19)

16. Rise of Hindus of Rajputana

a. Rajput of Mewar and Marwar distressed by Aurangzeb

17. Outdated war equipment and tactics

a. Failed to keep pace with modern developments

b. Lack of modern weapons led the failure of battle of Plassy and Buxer

18. Advent of English East India Company

a. Got trade access in Aurangzeb’s reign

i.

Portuguese - suppressed by Aurangzeb

ii.

British

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

By 1845, the British Empire had expanded from Bengal to Sindh, and all that remained free was Punjab. The Sikhs were ruling over Punjab and after the Second Sikh War in 1848, the British gained control over the Indus. The Koh-i-Noor diamond that Ranjit Singh had worn in his headdress now became a part of the crown jewels at Westminster.

The War of Independence broke out in January and March 1857. The British army had recruited local Indians in their forces. These soldiers were issued cartridges greased with fat from tabooed animals. The soldiers refused to use these cartridges. In 1857, starting with an uprising in Meerut, soldiers in the British Army in Bengal launched a full-scale mutiny against the British. This mutiny spread swiftly across the Sub-continent. Initially, the Indian soldiers were able to push back the British forces. The British army was driven out of Delhi and the Indian soldiers took control of the city. Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal King, was compelled to lead the freedom fighters. In Bahadur Shah Zafar, the rebels found a symbol of freedom, but a mere symbol was all he was. Wanting to spend his days writing poetry, the man was in no way even a remnant of the glory of his forefathers. He proclaimed himself the Emperor of the whole of India. The civilians, citizens and other dignitaries took oath of allegiance to the Emperor. The Emperor issued his own coin and appointed his sons to key posts.

The initial success of the freedom fighters gave a boost to the War of Independence. The Indian army captured the important towns of Haryana, Bihar and Mahdya Pardesh. However, the British forces at Meerut and Ambala put up a resolute resistance to the royal army and held them back for several months. The British proved to be a formidable foe with their superior weapons and better strategy. The freedom fighters badly lacked in adequate resources and their planning proved to be extremely brittle. The royal forces were finally defeated. The British army entered Delhi and the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar went into hiding.

The British quickly regained control of Delhi. They ransacked and destroyed the city. They took revenge in the most gruesome manner by killing innocent people indiscriminately. A wide scale massacre of the inhabitants of Delhi was carried out to avenge the killings of the British soldiers. The

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Mughal emperor was captured from his sanctuary, the tomb of Emperor Humayun. The emperor's sons were slaughtered in cold blood. Their bodies were beheaded and their heads were presented to the aging emperor in prison. Bahadur Shah was imprisoned in Rangoon, Myanmar, where he breathed his last.

After the War of Independence in 1857, the British government assumed sovereignty over the lands of the British East India Company. The British control over the Sub-continent grew in the next 50 years and culminated in the British Raj. Queen Victoria's Indian realm continued to expand, until Hunza, the remote kingdom bordering China, fell into British hands in 1891, bringing the expansion to its zenith.

The British delineated the frontier separating British India from Afghanistan in 1893. The resulting Durand Line cut straight through the tribal area of the Pathans. The British left the tribal areas to govern themselves under the supervision of British political agents.

The British thus became masters of India, where for nearly 800 years Muslims had ruled. However, their attitude towards the Muslims was that of antipathy. According to Hunter, a prominent historian, "The Muslims of India are, and have been for many years, a source of chronic danger to the British power in India". The British attributed the war of 1857 to the Muslims alone. As a result, property belonging to Muslims was confiscated and they were denied employment opportunities everywhere in the army, revenue department, and judiciary.

The British administrators deliberately followed a discriminatory policy against the Muslims, even in filling minor jobs. Advertisements inviting applications for government jobs specifically mentioned that Muslims would not be appointed. Hunter admits that the exclusion of the Muslims was so complete that in the government offices of Calcutta they could not accept a post higher than that of a porter, messenger, filler of inkpots and mender of pens.

By a series of revenue and financial measures, the British smashed the political and social position of the Muslims. In the province of Bombay, the government appointed "Inam Commission" to inquire into the land grants of the Muslim times. The Commission took away 20,000 estates from the Muslims and thus ruined many families and institutions of the community.

The Company's commercial policy eliminated the Muslims from internal and foreign trade. When the Europeans came to the Sub-continent, the Muslim merchants lost much of their commerce with foreign countries. But they maintained their hold on internal trade and their commercial activities extended to the Persian Gulf and the coastal territories of the Arabian Sea. During the Company's rule, the Muslim traders were pushed out of this area as well by the competition of the Company's traders who enjoyed many special concessions.

The newly introduced English system of education had many drawbacks for the Muslims, mainly because it made no provisions for religious education. As a result, they stayed away from it. Thus, within a few years of loss of political power, the Muslims lost all avenues of employment, were dispossessed of their estates and deprived of the benefits of education. A highly cultured community turned into a backward and poor people. In their place British-educated Hindus began to occupy positions in governments offices formerly held by the Muslims.

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SHIMLA DEPUTATION

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MUSLIM LEAGUE

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Goal of ML  “To protect religious and cultural identity of the Muslims of India”

Goal of ML

“To protect religious and cultural identity of the Muslims of India”

The founding session chaired by Nawab Waqar ul Malik

Seconded by Maulana Zaffar Ali Khan and Hakeem Ajmal Khan

Change in Strategy 1913

Causes

1. Annulment of Bengal partition

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2.

Balkan war (Italy-Turkey)

3. Libya Italy war

4. Demolition of a Mosque at Khanpur

5. Realization by both parties to achieve their same goal

6. Role of Quaid

Updated Strategy

1. Self-government under the crown

2. Good relations and cooperation with any organization working for same cause

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THE LUCKNOW PACT

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4. Central and provincial government woul d be bound by the resolutions passed by their

4. Central and provincial government would be bound by the resolutions passed by their respective legislative councils unless there were vetoed by the GG. In the event of such a veto if the resolutions again passed after an interval of not less than one year, they would be put into effect notwithstanding the veto.

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WEAK POINTS:

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KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

*** Background:

The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.

1. Rowlett Act April 1919

a. Report by Sydney Rowlatt to counter terrorists

b. Features

i. Accused have to prove himself not guilty

ii. No legal assistance to accused

iii. No right to appeal

iv. Prosecution can produce witness of a dead person

c. Quaid resigned from Central Legislative Assembly

2. Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy

a.

Gandhi entrance in Punjab banned

b.

Protest on April 13, 1919 in Amritsar

c.

Gen. Dyre ordered fire killed 379, injured 1200 in 10 minutes

d.

Britian imposed Martial Law in Amritsar, Lahore, Gujrat

e.

Hunter committee recommended forcibly retirement of Gen. Dyr

Introduction:

Religio-political movement

Extra territorial attachments based on Islam

First movement which involved common man

Showed Islam is mobilization force

Goals:

1.

Ottuman empire should be kept intact

2.

Territorial solidarity

3.

Control of holy places

Muslim Media:

1. Zamindar – Zafar Ali Khan

2. Comrade & Hamdard – Maulana M Ali Johar

3. Al-Hilal – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Urging Force

1. Concept of Muslim Ummah

2. Emotional attachments with institution of Khilafat

Why Cooperation

1. To be one force against British

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2.

Rowlett Act 1919

3. Jawalianwala Garden Tragedy Apr 1919

Events:

1. Khilafat Day Oct 27, 1919

2. Khilafat Committee formed by Hakim Ajmal Khan & Dr. M A Ansari July 1919

a. I. Khilafat Conference Delhi – Gandi & Nehru participated Nov 1919

i. No participation in victory celebrations

ii. Boycott of British goods

iii. Non cooperation (on later stage)

b. II. Khilafat Conference Amritsar Dec 1919

i. Ali brothers came directly after being released.

ii. M A Ansari delegation to Viceroy Jan 1920

iii. Maulana M Ali Johar delegation to Lord George

1. Non-Cooperation Movement May 1920 (Dec 1920 by Congress) by Mahatama Gandi

a. 3 Hindu groups

i. Cooperation on condition of “No Cow Slaughter”

ii. Muslims would seek help from Afghanistan

iii. Unconditional help to Muslims

b. Program of Movement announced – 4 stages

i. Titles awarded given up & Educational institutes

boycotted

ii. Resignations of civil government’s servants

iii. Police and military to be quitted (later on )

iv. Refusal to pay taxes & Civil disobedience

2. Treaty of Sevres Aug 1920

3. III. Khilafat Conference Karachi July 1920

a. Loyality to Turksih Sultan

b. Welcomed Attaturk’s efforts for expulsion of foreign forces

4. Nagpur Session of Congress Dec 1920

a. Working Committee approved Non-Cooperation movement

b. Jinnah opposed and left the congress

5. Hijrat Movement 1920 – 1921

a. Abul Kalam Azad and other Ulema declared India “Darul Herb”

b. 18,000 Muslims migrated

c. Initially Afghan welcomed but later on closed the borders

d. Huge casualties of migrants occurred, some went to Russia

6. End of Movement

a. Moplah revolt Aug 1921

i. Muslim tribe revolted against Hindu landlords

b. Chora Chori (UP) Feb 1922

i. 21 constables and 1 sub inspector were set on fire

ii. Gandhi called of the movement on Feb 05, 1922

c. Developments in Turkey

i. Mustafa Kamal appointed as Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly

ii. Kamal Pasha won back Symarna from Greeks

iii. Goarge gov’t collapsed

iv. Treaty of Laussane singed

v. Khilafat Abolished Mar 1924

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First visit of the commission  Feb – Mar 1928 Second visit of the commission

First visit of the commission Feb – Mar 1928

Second visit of the commission Oct 1928 – mar 1929

Report published May 1930

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NEHRU REPORT & QAID’S POINTS

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QUAID’S 14 POINTS

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Nehru Report

Political background

Simon commission appointed in November 1927. No Indians in it.

Resentment in India

Constitutional suggestions in air

Congress committee

Moti Lal Nehru as head, Jawahar Lal Nehru as Secretary, 2 Muslims

Nehru Report

1. Parliamentary form of government (dominion)

2. Residuary powers vested in centre

3. No separate electorate

4. No weightage to minorities

5. Reservation of seats in low Muslim population provinces only

6. 1/4 Muslims in central legislature

7. Hindi as lingua franca – official language

Muslim reaction

“This is the parting of ways.” –

 

Jinnah

 

Muslim Press in India

 

Quaid’s 14 Points

Province: (5)

1. Residuary powers vested in centre

2. Provincial autonomy

3. Sind to be separated from Bombay

4. Reforms in NWFP and Baluchistan

5. No change in central constitution without consent of provinces

Muslims: (6)

6. Separate electorate

7. 1/3 Muslims in central legislature

8. Muslims’ share in services and local bodies

9. Safeguard to Muslim culture and religion

10. 1/3 members in each cabinet

11. No territorial redistribution in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP to effect Muslims

Minorities: (3)

12. Effective representation of minorities

13. Religious liberty

14. 3/4 of a community’s votes to change laws effecting them

Importance of 14 points

The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930.

As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims

thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in

1947.

two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ( shakeelbabar1@gmail.com

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ALLAMA IQBAL’S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHABAD

Important points:

1.

Decline of Muslim Ummah in general and Muslims of India in particular

 

2.

Islam is a complete code of life. And Muslims are a nation.

3.

There is no harmony between Muslims and Hindus in India.

4.

A separate homeland for the Muslims of India comprising of Punjab, sindh, Balochistan and NWFP.

a. He Said

I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces, Sindh and

 

Balochistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empireor without

the British Empire. The formation of the consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State

appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India.”

 
 

b. Two Nation Theory

4.

Suggestions for the constitution. (He was against the central legislative assembly and wanted assembly of representative of federal States).

5.

Muslim Representation in the British Indian Assembly shall be 1/3 rd .

 

Hindu Reaction:

An editorial in daily Partab, Lahore wrote about Allama Muhammad Iqbal that he is a dangerous Muslim of North Western India.

In Daily Inqalab, Lahore a Hindu Columnist wrote “Iqbal Wanted to snatch the country of Hindus from them and to give it to the Muslims.

Muslims supported his ideas. News papers like Daily Hindu and Daily hamdam supported him and propagated his message and ideas through the Subcontinent.

Iqbal earned the title of “Dreamer of Pakistan” for Himself.

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ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES [1930-33]

*** Introduction:

Lord Irwin invited the leaders of political parties of India.

Objective: To formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders.

Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1930):

It was launched by Gandhi because at that point he demanded implementation of Nehru report in Toto.

The civil disobedience movement was declared illegal and Gandhi was arrested.

First Round Table Conference:

(12 November 1930 to 19 th January 1931)

Muslim Leaders: following Muslim leaders participated.

Quaid-e-Azam.

Sir Agha Khan

Muhammad Ali Jauhur.

Maulvi Fazl Haq.

Sir Muhammad Shafi

Important decision made in conference:

1. Approval of federal system for India (Executive will be responsible to legislature).

2. Fully representative government, responsible to provincial and federal legislature will be made. (Note: In Nehru report Hindu Wanted Strong Central Govt. while Muslims demanded for loose federation in Jinnah’s 14 Points).

3. The princely states will also be supported.

4. Sapru’s proposal of dominion status and abolition of diarchy in the provinces.

Deadlock: Deadlock occurred on the distribution of subjects in the federal system

Gandhi Irwin Pact:

From 17-19 February 1931 talks were held between Gandhi and Irwin.

An agreement was signed on 5 th March 1931 between Gandhi and Irwin.

Why these Talks were held and Agreement was signed?

Because of the failure of civil disobedience movement.

Government’s desire for congress participation in round table as congress was absent in first round table conference.

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Salient features of Gandhi Irwin Pact:

1. The congress will call of civil disobedience.

2. The congress will attend second round table conference.

3. The government will withdraw all cases against congress and release prisoners.

The pact shows that the British government was anxious to bring the congress to round table conference. It was triumph of the congress and Indian Nationalism.

Second Round Table Conference

( 7 September 1931to 1 st December 1931)

Gandhi was the sole representative of All India National Congress

Allama Iqbal participated in 2 nd round table conference because of the death of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhur.

Allama Iqbal in his speech said in 2 nd round table conference.

Two committees were formed i.e.

1. Conference on federal structure.

2. Conference on Minorities.

Gandhi’s showed stubborn attitude to secure India as one nation. Gandhi claimed that he represented all India and dismissed all other Indian delegates as non-representatives.

Hindu Muslim relations embittered.

Communal problems Remained Unsolved

Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in second Round table conference and decided to remain aloof from the Indian politics and to practice as a professional lawyer in England.

Communal Awards, August16, 1932.

Because of the deadlock over communal issues British government announced communal awards.

Communal representation of Muslims:

o

Jinnah’s demand for 1/3 rd of the British seats in central legislature was accepted.

o

Sindh was awarded the status of separate province.

o

Principle of Wieghtage was applied (Muslim lost majority in Punjab, Sikh got advantage in Punjab, Europeans got advantage in Bengal because of principle of Wieghtage).

Communal Scheme for Non Muslim:

o

Award declared untouchables as a minority and thus the Hindus depressed classes were given a number of special seats. And as result

o

Separate electorates for scheduled class Hindus were approved.

Hindu Reaction:

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Gandhi took fast until death on account of accepting scheduled class Hindus as separate nation and giving them right of separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar, leader of untouchable made an agreement to withdraw from the right of separate electorate under Poona Pact. Gandhi ended his fast.

Third Round Table Conference/ Joint Select committee

(17th November to 25 th December 1932)

Quaid-e-Azam did not participate.

Sir Agha khan participated.

In third round table conference reports of various communities were scrutinized.

It was decided to setup a federal legislature in India consisting of elected representatives of the British India and of the representatives of the state to be nominated by respective ruler.

The report of three round table conferences was published in a white paper in 1933 and later on it was discussed in the British parliament. As a resulted a bill was drafted which was approved and became Indian Act of 1935.

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CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES

Elections 1937

Muslim League manifesto (i) 1935 Act is unworkable; (ii) ML would get maximum benefit out of it. The manifesto was same but two things; Urdu Language and separate electorates.

“The manifestos show that there was not unbridgeable gape. Yet, there was no such a will.”

“The League manifesto was clearly an offer for cooperation. Had the congress accepted the offer, the whole constitutional scene would have been different.” IH Qureshi

Provincial elections:

Congress 706 out of 1771 seats (26/58 Muslim seats, so only 5% of Muslims)

Muslim League 102 out of 482 Muslim seats (26% Muslim votes)

CONGRESS RULE

Congress refused to formed ministries till July 1937 on the basis of GG’s discretionary powers – in Muslims favor.

The period of less than two and a half years, from July 1939 to October 1939, when congress ministries ruled eight of the eleven Indian provinces was extremely crucial in the history of Hindu Muslim relations.

A. Refusal to Form Coalition Government

The Election results had strengthened this hope, for congress had not bothered to contest more than a small number fraction of Muslim seats and not won even a majority of that. Therefore, everyone looked forward to the formation of congress league coalition in all Hindu Majority provinces. The refusal of the Congress to cooperate belied all such hopes.

In J u l y 1937, Con g ress formed g overnments in 6 provinces. In NWFP, Khudai Khidmat g ar and Con g ress formed a coalition g overnment. In the Muslim majorit y provinces, the Muslim Lea g ue could not form the g overnments. The Muslim Lea g ue desired to be in g overnment in the U.P. but the Con g ress consented to a conditional support:

1. Dissolve AIML Parliamentar y Board

2. AIML members not to function as a separate g roup

3. AIML members to express all e giance to the Con g ress

Definitel y the above-mentioned terms were a device to subvert the existence of the Muslim Lea g ue. Therefore, no a g reement was possible on this issue.

Nehru told Chaudhary Khaliq uz Zaman in May 1937, “The Hindu Muslim question is confined to a few Muslim intellectuals, landlords and capitalists who were cooking up a problem which did not in fact exist in the mind of the masses.”

“Nehru’s mistake lay in his attempt at killing Muslim nationalism with ridicule. Later events were to show the folly of his attitude, for it created nothing but bitterness and bad blood.” IH Qureshi

B. The Muslim Mass Contact Movement:

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Along with its refusal to share power with the Muslim League the Congress pursued anti-Muslim League policy in another direction as well. Its power among masses should be weakened and finally broken. Thus began the ambitious but short lived campaign.

This philosophy was followed by Nehru’s statement that, “power was now crystallized in only two opposing ranks – Congress for Indian nationalism and British for imperialism. Other parties do not count.”

Comment:

Maulvi Abdul Hakeem, Punjab Moderate Muslims Association, warned Muslims against this and called it “conversion of Muslims”.

C. Dictatorship of the Congress

The outstanding constitutional feature of the congress provincial government of the 1937-39 was that they did not conform to the kind of parliamentary gov’t envisaged in the Act. The congress provinces were not autonomous.

Congress ministers were not allowed to act independently

Sir Banirjee says, “Gandhi was a dictator by proxy, he did not rule directly but

Sir Banirjee says, “Gandhi was a dictator by proxy, he did not rule directly but he was

accepted as religious obligation.”

Banirjee says, “Gandhi was a dictator by proxy, he did not rule directly but he was

D. Policies o f the Con g ress Governments: (July 1937-Nov. 1939)

First a l Con g ress g overnments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basical y to exclude the ML and other Muslim or g anizations from the g overnment makin g process. The Con g ress leaders had come to know that the ML had got roots in the masses. The y started ‘Muslim Mass Contact movement to defame the ML in their favour. The y were makin g cultural and educational policies that promoted the Hindu culture and s y mbols in the name of Indian culture. The y introduced Banda-Mataram anthem from Annandmath in the institutions and offices etc. The Hindi lan g ua g e was g iven top most importance in their policies. Wardha Educational Scheme was to convert Muslims into Hindus throu g h primar y educational literature. Projection of Hindu heroes like Gandhi and distortion of Muslim histor y became their moral creed. The y folowed the polic y of discrimination in services or new recruitment for jobs.

In the UP, the provincial government had directed the local administration to consult the local congress leaders.

The Con g ress ministries adopted overal ne g ative and cruel atitude, especial y towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compeled the Muslims to be disciplined in ever y sphere of life.

Muslim Response:

The Muslims were w e l l aware of the theocratic inclination of the Hindu people. The y arran g ed a close monitorin g of the g overnment. The y publicized their policies and raised the issues. The mobilization of Muslims on these matters re q uired keen probe to colect the ori g inal facts of the Hindu atrocities.

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1.

The Pirpur Report:

On March 28, 1938, the Council of ML appointed an ei g ht-member commitee under the presidentship of Raja S y ed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Con g ress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Con g ress support to the rival Muslim or g anizations, intimidation and threats to the pro- Muslim Lea g ue people.

2. The Sharif Report, March 1939

The ML deputed Mr. Shareef with members to investi g ate the injustices under the dictatorial rule of the Hindus. This report mainl y colected the facts, concentratin g on i l treatment of the g overnment with the Muslims in Bihar.

3. The Fazl-ul- Haq Report: (December 1939)

A. K. Fazl-ul-Ha q published a pamphlet entitled Muslim Sufferin g s Under the Rule of Con g ress and made man y alarmin g revelations e. g . forbiddin g of Azan, atacks in mos q ues, nois y processions of the Hindu scoundrels, forbiddin g of the cow-slau g hter etc. This pamphlet responded the indictments by the Con g ress on the Muslims.

A l l the reports described the Con g ress g overnment as an atempt to create ‘Hindu R a j that wanted to overwhelm the Muslim culture and their identit y . It was a ri g orous threat to the Muslims interests.

Muslim Lea g ue Activism:

The Muslim Lea g ue hi g hli g hted the issues and mobilized the Muslims to counter them ade q uatel y . I t reor g anized the Muslim communit y to cope with the situation. The ML arran g ed its session at Lucknow in October 1937. Man y prominent leaders like Fazlul Haq participated in the session while Sikander Ha y at and Saadulah announced their support to the ML.

The Muslim leaders shed a sharp criticism on the Con g ress policies. The y protested a g ainst the reduction of status of Urdu and other Muslim related issues. The y created realization, amon g st the Muslims, of what can happen under the Con g ress rule and ur g ed for serious thinkin g about the future political and constitutional arran g ements. The y unearthed the real objectives of the Con g ress and ur g ed the need of unit y amon g the Muslims under the banner of Muslim Lea g ue.

The Second World War (September 1939) proved blessin g for the Muslims in a sense that the Con g ress Ministries resi g ned in November 1939. The Muslims observed Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1939.

Reorganization of Muslim League:

The ML redefined its position durin g the World War II. The y expressed their enthusiasm that no constitution to be enforced without the consent of the Muslims. The y eradicated their or g anizational weaknesses and refined their objectives keepin g the experiences of the Con g ress ministries.

Intellectual Commentary on Congress Rule and its impact

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Short term effect of these policies:

1. It weakened the capacity of responsible government. In democracy it is public opinion which rules but in congress ministries it was vice versa.

2. Provincial autonomy was nullified by the rule of the High command

3. Totalitarian policies of congress made it impossible to negotiate. Totalitarianism produced arrogance which is opposed to give and take spirit.

Long term effects:

1. More aware minorities

“The rise of congress, to power made the Muslims feel for the first time what it was to be in a minority. They had become acutely aware of the rising tide of Hindu rule, and that produced a consolidation of political opinion and organization in India.” Lothian in Asiatic Review

“The Congress was the Indian counterpart of Nazi party in Germany.” Bonarjee, A Christian

2. Constitutional safeguards: a non-entity

“The congress rule taught the minorities that administrative or even constitutional safeguards are no effective protection against an attitude of mind in the numerically dominant party which treats all other sections of opinion as politically-defeated antagonists.” I H Qureshi

3. Strengthened Muslim League’s power among masses

The more aggressive became the tone of congress the greater grew the confidence of Muslim League. ML countered every argument of the congress;

To the congress argument of communalism narrating the hardships under congress “secular” rule

Congress’s pledge to protect minorities ML pointed to futility of constitutional safeguards

Democracy and freedom greater Muslim apprehension about Hindu domination

4.

Paved the way towards separation

Slowly but relentlessly the congress was forcing the Muslim of India into separation.” IH Qureshi

5. Communal Tensions

“I foresaw that the result of the present congress party policy will be class bitterness, communal war and strengthening of the imperialistic hold as a consequence.” Quaid

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PAKISTAN RESOLUTION

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CRIPPS MISSION

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CABINET MISSION

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PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD

PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD

PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD

INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN

INTRODUCTION:

Nehru told General Sir Frank Messervy in 1945, “his deliberate plan would be to allow Jinnah to have his Pakistan, end gradually makes things so impossible economically and otherwise for Pakistan that they have to come on their banded knees and asked to be allowed back to India.

1. RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16, 1947):