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Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report


Semester project

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Using PIC MICROCONTROLER

Group members:
Shireen Matar 08-EE-141 Umera Rana 08-EE-157

Abstract :

The purpose of this project is to get an introduction and to gain some practical insights in microcontrollers and how they can be used to control a plant. This includes programming and evaluation of the controller on a small laboratory plant.

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

Line follower report (lfr)is

A machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black Line on a white surface (or vice-versa)or it can be invisible like a magnetic field Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly correcting wrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective closed loop system. As a programmer you get an opportunity to teach the robot how to follow the line thus giving it human-like property of responding to stimuli. Automated cars running on roads with embedded magnets; guidance system for industrial robots moving on shop floor etc.
The robot is:
Practical applications of a line follower:

Robots are machines which do a task which would otherwise be done by human labor. Robots may or may not possess intelligence.

The robot must be capable of following a line.

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

It should be capable of taking various degrees of turns It must be prepared of a situation that it runs into a territory which has no line to follow. (Barren land syndrome) The robot must also be capable of following a line even if it has breaks. The robot must be insensitive to environmental factors such as lighting and noise. It must allow calibration of the lines darkness threshold. Scalability must be a primary concern in the design. The color of the line must not be a factor as long as it is darker than the surroundings. INTRODUCTION: Robotics is part of Todays communication. In todays world ROBOTICS is fast growing and interesting field. It is simplest way for latest technology modification. Now a days communication is part of advancement of technology, so we decided to work on ROBOTICS field, and design something which will make human life simpler in day today aspect. Thus we are supporting this cause. This project is basic stage of any automatic

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

robot. This ROBOT has sufficient intelligence to cover the maximum area of provided space. It has a infrared sensor which are used to sense the obstacles coming in between the path of ROBOT. It will move in a particular direction and avoid the obstacle which is coming in its path. We have used two D.C motors to give motion to the ROBOT. The construction of the ROBOT circuit is easy and small .The electronics parts used in the ROBOT circuits are easily available and cheap to.

Basically circuit consist of following blocks: 1) Sensors

Microcontroller PIC16F Driver



Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report



1-IR Transmitter & Receiver (sensors) :

The IR Transmitter block mainly used to generate IR signal. It uses timer IC555 in astable multivibrator mode to generate square wave which have continuous pulses of 50% duty cycle of frequency 38 KHz. This transmitter is so arranged that the IR rays are focused on the sensor. IR sensor (TSOP 1738) which gives normally 5v at output of it. After receiving infrared light at output of sensor we get 0v.

2. Microcontroller:

This is the most important block of the system. Microcontroller is the decision making logical device which has its own memory, I/O ports, CPU and Clock circuit embedded on a single chip. The PIC16 microcontroller has 8K of code space, 10-bit A/D converters, 33 I/O pins and many other features in a 40-pin DIP package. Our range of BASIC and C compilers make it easy to write programs for Microchip PIC microcontrollers such as the Compilers include PicBasic which has a Parallax BASIC Stamp 1

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

compatible instruction set, PicBasic Pro which features an enhanced instruction set compatible with the BASIC Stamp 2 and the CCS C Compiler which gives developers the capability to produce very efficient code from an easily maintainable high level language

3. Driver: Motors are connected According to program in c it drives the left and right motor.



Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

COMPONENTS USED For Making The Circuit:


Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

Value 10K ohm 220 ohm 100 k Quantity 5 6 2


Quantity 2

Component 400 Point Breadboard regular LED / any color CONNECTING WIRES Quantity 1 1 -

Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

COMPONENTS USED For Mounting the Batteries and Scanning Sonar Sensor:
Component Screws and nuts left over from the caster kit 1/2" #8-32 screws and nuts 1/2: #8-32 screws and nuts Parallax PING Ultrasonic Sensor D.C Motors Quantity _ 2 2 1 2


Component IR Sensors 1 1/2" #8-32 machine screw 1/2" # 8-32 screws #8 washers Wires Quantity 5 1 9 16 _


Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

Components are properly mounted on respective position. This include wiring and layout. We connect two motors namely left motor & right motor. We give the power supply independently. For power supply we use chargeable DC battery & Output pin of sensor is connected to micro-controllers pin.

It include front panel which is given with ball caster wheel which is fixed. Back panel is provided with circular wheel with DC motor with suitable clip pin for fixing the tier. All the assembly is fixed on base. All assembly mounted on single base.


A) Hardware:1-Continuity test:-

First of all we checked the PCB that all the tracks are as per the design of PCB and showing continuity with the help of multimeter and PCB layout.


Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

2. Short circuit test:Then we checked the PCB for any unwanted short circuits with the help of multimeter and PCB layout. 3. Soldering:In the next step, we soldered the required components .and then checked that there are no any unwanted shorts occurred due to soldering with keeping power supply off. 4. Microcontroller test:For testing the microcontroller, we wrote the square wave generation program for generating square wave on each port pin. Then we fed the program in microcontroller and checked the output.



Line Follower and Obstacle Avoiding Robot Project Report

Conclusion:Thus, we believe that our project will be beneficial for various purposes & hence our efforts will be fruitful