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Dr.

tnn 8qr
Srtfde :ropngnnbn
5 d t i f t e n r ti t 0e r n 5 D f p.
GruppeV: Das ift fnglanb!

P
iie 9edte &I1+|114 | F(|t1tA it Ot(m&o
S t u d : u d b t u d e Ie i . i l l e t a e t l n UU 0
Borwort
R0j bt|t| 0ts t|ds||00tn|tn|ttts cb tn 0| t
[0n tn Mt||t0tt 0t0|[dtn hdd[d0| t, [dmt|| Ht ndd
| n 0tt ht|mc| Hn0, btdnntn, | n t|ntm 0m|c[|tn0tn
||n[cb m||0tn W|||t|n 0tt |htn[dc|| m||}0km|tn
|n 0tt R0|b|t0n btt 0tn tn|| [dtn \t|n0.
)0 0| t[tm ttb t0t| c0d 0|t 00t|| t tn0t
bdt|||. Hcd |cn[t| tt bt[d||| un m|| 0tt bt|-
||[dtn Utoccn0c cbt |d |n |t t|n|t |ttbn||[t
b0t} }u[cmmtnt|cp|, um Ht | n 0tt t||||tn R0at|n-
un0tt[t00n 0tt ttnmct|m|tk[cmmtt0tn]0 |chtn.
R|s knctbk|}]t | l| 0| t[t bdt||| kt|nt |dtn|d[t
bd||0tt0n 0tt t|n}t|ntn Udtnt, [dn0ttn t|nt Bct
||t||0n 0tt bt[th t, 0|t |d|un un0t||c|| 0ts 0t-
[d|d| ||dtnt[dttna bt|||mmtn.
Wt 0t[t bdt||| b tt 0| t t[thmb|tn )0-
|cmmtnnt 0tt bt||| lmtn Dtdccn0c |n 0tt
b|0n0t 0n[ttts tp| tn hcm0|ts c0j|tt t| [t t|nt
c|jt |t|n |t 0nltt 0t0|[dta Ud| k.
Wndtn, 0tn 23. }cn0ct 1 940.
Dr DerfaHer.
1.
fg | || |n | thItt )t|| [tt 0| t| b tt 0| t bt||| [dt Dtd-
ccn0c t|dt|tb tnmdt0tn,0dtc| | tm |m h|nb | | d cuj
|tt TI| kt|| |m t|Ikt| t. Rb tt }umt||| kcm mcn
0cbt| btt t|nt tt|nt \un0|cmm|un un0 t|n!cdt )u-
|cmmtn||t||un 0ta | |Idt| |dtn 0ut| | tnmc|tt| c|a n|d|
ncua. Hun ||t| cb tt t|nta m| | b|dttt|| |t||: Jn
0tn t|n}t|ntn Uotntn 0tt bt|I|| dtn Dtdccn0c
m| tktn t|dIuntbtn0 un0 ut[tnabt|I|mmtn0 |nnttt
)ulcmmtnnt, 0| t Hd b t||n0| |n 0tn t|n}t| ntn
Utdpccn0cmttktn m| t0ttd | tn. |a m|t0 |m \d|tn-
0tn tt|Imc|a 0tt|udI, 0| t| t t|thmp| kt|Itn ]0tBLt-
|It||un }u bt|ntn, um 0cm|| b tt|!!|| d un0 [cd| |d
t|0t h| tun ttbr|}u!ttn, 0| t c|atun0|ct jt
0| t t|cmIt |t|dt|dun 0tt bt|I| |dtnDtdccn0cun-
tt|I| d |||.
B| tunItt||tbIu!t, cu!mt| dt0| tWtn[dt||rtcb-
kdmmtn kcnn, | || 0tt )u|Icn0, |n 0tm 0tt t|0ttmttb
}um ]tnItcItn Dt|n}| 0ta t[cmItn Ltb tna ttdb tn
m|t0. Jm || || |d tn b tt t| d mud tt|
0 c t c u a 0 | t D | u | d k t c | | t t m d t , 0 c s
t | p | : B | t t | 0 t t t [ d c j|. B t t t | d t
t t | t t | , 0 t t Rt m t | t b | t | n B c | t | n d n t
W c d |.
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|dtn Uttcntnt|| }t|tn Hd |mmttm| t0tt0| t Utt-
3
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||cb t|nts tmt|nmr[tna ]0 mcmtn. Jn 0tt nt0tttn

t[m|m| t||| dnt )mt||t| |n| cn0 0ca tb|t bt|[|t|


|t t|nt 0ttcr|| t t[t||[dc||at||c||0n.
R0|ttd|t |n| n0tt cbtn Hd gttn 0|t[t |n|-
m|J|0n tmtt|, cbtt dnt |t|d|. Jtt mctntn0t
Mt|||k m0t0t |n 0tn |n0 tlm|ctn. |n|cn0 tt-
n|t0t| |t Hd 00tm | | | t 0n0 ttk [t|ntt 0b ttld|d|
)0t U|0Idktc||t.
1 846 |tc| |. r. b0|mtt 0|t\t[| [|t||0n: ,
]
n t|n|tn
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d||t||tn. Hct)0 t|n ]ct0n0tt| l|tt btt|m|t|t
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tn0t| c0| 0tn tt|ntn t||b tmttb, 0tt 0tn mc|t
t|t| | tn b|ttn 0tn cn 0dn||ttn | o|. Wcn
knn|t bn0t ||ltn, md| | |t mcn n0t 0| t[t bt|b [|-
}t0n| [lt btt 0|t bt| || lmtt|0ttt[dc|| c0|]| tn,
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|s |[| 0 c b t| c0b t td t0 tn| I |d b tmtt
k tnam tt|

g 0 cp 0 ca c0p tn I ||| r d t
Ud tt t n | n | c n 0 a t n c 0 [ d c 0 | 0 | t -
[ t m | 0 | d k t c | | [ m t n U t | n } | b t t 0 |
m| t 0 | t tn || [d t Jnntn d I |||k.
0btt c| | t
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0ca | t0|t )|t| c| | tt c0ptnd|||| ldtn Rk||dntntdb-
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tttp| mtt0tn, |n 0tm |n| cn0 0tn U| ch0ta tt|dtn
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0
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B|tntts jU j0| t| tn.
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tmc|| }0[cmmtn}0|c[|tn, kcnn [tt 0tt[d|t0tntn
Wd||0tn tn|[0t|ntn 0n0 0dt c| | tm |m h|nb ||d c0j
[tt 0tt[d| t0tnt )mtdt 0tt|d| | mtt0tn. R0m 0| t
tdptn Hc|[tt 0tt tm|[dtnt[d|d|t c||tn ||d 000
]|t| 0tt t| |t|nt|| t||td|. B0td t||mdnctdt
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lt|t0t cbtt mut |t Htn0t 0| t Udtcua[t00n, 0m t|n
tdpctI|ta H0||0tmttk cn 0tn U| kttn }0 tt|| | tn
0n0 ]0 0d| | tn0tn. btt|||tt| bt[cn 0tt t| tdt Rt||||-
0ts |n bmgtnc |m 2. ]ct0n0tt| ncd 0tt )t|| tn-
mrn0t 0|t[ts J0tc|: ,d dm ttt[d|, t0| c||tt
)cnb 0n0 0|t |||tt[0d| 0tt b|t|ntn b|cc|tn. | t
ttt||d | || 0| t0t0n0n 0n0 t[t0mp|kt||! B| tcn]t
t|| |t|d| t|ntm t|ntt|tnct|tn. R|| tt0|ns,
c|s Rt||||0ta | tb| t, mct 0| t )t|| 0ta cn||ktn td-
|m0tt|0m6 nct]0 cbt| c0|tn. Jn 0tn htttc0|t0
0tt Utd0|n]tn ttmcd|t [ddn 0cs Hc||dnc||| |tn-
b tm0p|[t|n, |n 0tt \ttnt | c0d|tn 0|t tt|| tn mt|Ht
0tt t0td0|[dtnt||c||0n 0ts Mdn||ntn|ta c0|.
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0tt t| da|0tt 0ts 0t0|[dtn W|||t| c| |tta [d0| 0cs
[m
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[
|dtn,
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btcd|t 0cs ttmcn|[dt t|d ]0m ||n||0t}. bt|n
H| t0ttcn ||nt|t 0| t bcn |t 0tn bt||| [dtn R0|-
|||t. bd|dt| btcnn 0tt tn|| [dt Hcm| ttn 0tn
dn||ntn| dIs 0 tn ||tk|Itn hdt| 0ts |0tt||cn0ts
;
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0t0t0|, hd| | cn0 0n0 \tcnktt|m w0t0t0 0|t0tt-
0tOdt|tn.
u n0m]0 U| t b t||| r d t m t ||tttr mc|I
||| n|mIs cn0 ttts c |a 0 | t 0m|cr r tn0 f
c [ | s | t 0 c s b t | | | l d t t | |

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|t kc||c||||| ldtn ubtt 0tt bt||| ldtn 0bttld|mI
c||tn cu| |ttmt| |ttdb ttuna)u kt|nH||||dtad0tt
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t|0l0d| 0n0 |ttt mc|tt|t| |tn | tt |ns R0t t|cI.
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bd |0n b I ti b tn0tt M0 I |0t I t|||0n
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mt t It s t|n|c d 0nf |. bd mup|t 0tnn 0|t
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| cn0 Hd 0utdlt6|t, 0c btcnn ts, 0| t bt)| t0n ]0
0tn bn|ttmdt|tntn c0| |0|dktc|| ldt t|lt tt)0-
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c0atlcu| b|s ]0m | t0|tn ht| | tt. Wcn m|t0 md|
t0|t kcum t|ntn 0ncbn|tn Jttn, Rtcbtt d0tt
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btmun0tt|. Jmttn|t||. |n0|da tt|| Hm Rnk|ct
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bttmtn t|n cn0ttts |dd tt]t0tn!
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8
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dtIt un0 bttId0tn tbdttn c|.
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utjt|. B| t ttmcn| ld t b tu n0 c ||un
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2.
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}tut 0ta btcpko||o|s. B|t Utcoon0o | || oua-
|htt00ta 0ton 0tt bt|tnkn|t.
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0tt ot||||dtn Utcoon0o oo|c|u| un0 o| | tmo||| |n
0tt hon0.
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brt 0|r ot||||mt b|oo|so||o|| cn ont||t|I| mut0tn,
||t 0|t|t 1c||odt c|| tnu bttontn mct0tn.
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unh| t|n|om n|d| t|th tn. |s | l| oott unmI|d, 0|t
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bn||. Rm Rn|on [t0tt Bot||t|Iun 0tt ot||| | dtn
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ttmtto ta. Bctum 0td| Hd 0tt bc0, 0tn 0tt |n-
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0tt bt||| [mtn Utdc0on0c kcnn nut otcn|mct|t|mtt-
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0ta tn|| lmtn b|co|ta 0n0 0tt tnI| |mtnt| ||ta0tt
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m0||mtmtltnmtt, t[mc|n|n0|on0.b| tbtn]ctt
Ion mct t|n ]00tUttm| ttm|n| l|tt. Udn1 8r4 b|s 1 881
tt0| tt|t B|atct|| 0ca t||tt|m. W|| |m0n0 0dt |m
o||t Hd |n[ 0oa htbttt|0m |n 0| t dbtttn
bm|m|tn |n |cn0a t|n0tn|||t|. 1 921 mottn b ttt||
nt0n W||I| t0tt 0ta tn0||[mtn b|uc|ato|ta ]00t0
ubcmtn 0it| t]u0tn,0t c| a tinf|upttimt fnntt
2*
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to0|n0. R | a | n 0 |o n 0 [|m }u m o0 t t m | -
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I |om| t t | t , b || tb tn 0 tm J u0 tn| u m } m t|
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| n 0 | n 0 t t n 0 t m t | n l c m t b c d t JU
momtn. |a o| 0 |t }m t|| t 0tm I |.
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mt0|0tn bun0ta0tnd [|tn. B| t tn0|| lmt 0bttlm|mI | lI
t|nt Rt| |Idktc||t 0ta Wcmmdna un0 ||cn0 lmdn
|mmtt cu| 0tm bIcn0unk|, 0tt |n0|n0tt cbt 0tn
o t|Itn btmt|a |t 0| t bnc0t bdIIta 0ct|n }u [ttn,
0cp [t|n hcn0t|a0tlm|| un0 0cm|| 0|t | t|[do|| 0ta
t|mta Ct| |I| cu| |t0tn 0dtmtIa 0tt un0 m0||m|I
0| t| Huhtn t|nbt|n t. Bca Ruamcp 0ta Huhtna, 0tn
0tt t|n}t| nt t|nt|m|| |n [t|ntn || ncn}|t| | tn 0n0 m|t|-
[d c|I||mtn Rk||dntn, mctk| tt| |t 0tn Rn0tt|0tn
0| t|tt |uIdktcI| |mtn btlt| | [dc|| 0| t Htd||ta.
ttn0 Zj t|0t h|n0tt 0tt ctmtn bn|ttlm|m| tn 0ta
tn0|||dtn Uc|kta 1 6 bIun0tn cm Tc0 unItt un0n
|I|0||tn [d}| c| tn bt0|n0un0tn | n 0tn \obt|ktn ot-
b t||tn mupItn, | toIt 0| t 0btt[m|m| 0tt Ruab t0Itt
ncm 0tn Ltttn t|nta bm|I un0 t|nta btnIcm, 0| t
o|| ta o|a tt|uubI b t|tomItn, mtnn ta nut Huhtn 0n0
tm|nn obm|t||.
Btt tn0|| |dt B|mItt dottI|dn 0t|pt|It 1 856
0| tl t |u|dktcI| |dt \u|n|a . ,bt| una |n0| n0ttn |||
0tt |tmttbaIt|tb unmp|0, [o ktcnko|| }0 ntnntn.
B| t[ta TtcmItn ncm btHh | || 0| t 0ut| | t un[tttt
btptun0 un|tttt |tn| t0t|0un0, unlttta hcn0t|a, 0n
/
lttrt bttmcm|, 0n| ttta timI0ma, 0nltttt Lt!|n00n-
0tn, cb tt }00| t|d c0d 0| t 00t| | t 0n|tttt b|tt|||0-
kt||tn 0n0 Uct|t|0n0tn, 0tt tt|dIIttn0tn Rtm0| 0n0
0tt mtht c|a ht|0n| |mtn Uttm| |0tt0n0 0n0 |nIctI0n0
mt||tt bm|m|tn 0n|tttt bt0|ktt0n0. ca cott ndm
ot|dn0tta mttkmt0|0 | l|, | l| 0|t TcI|cmt, 0cp ta
0n|tt c| | tnU|kttn 0tt |t0t kt|nta 0|o|, 0ca |d mtn|0
m|t m|t |ml|cn0t | l|, Hd }0 |tt0tn. B| t |t|nt 0t0c-
n| |cI|dn, 0| t cn0ttt U | ktt c0a}t|mnt|, | || 0n 0tt-
lc0|, 0n|tt b|nn |t W0Hk | l| mtn|0 tn|m| dt||, 0n|tt
bdnht| |aHnn n|m| | to tn0|0 0n0 |mct|, 0n|ttt \tl|t
Hn0 |c0| 0n0 | tmtn0 0n0 tn0tn m|| Lcn0tmt| | t 0n0
UttlI|mm0n0. |t0ttl|thtnn| d|, }00tn| ttn,n|d|,0na
}0 |tt0tn. |t |chttn |mmtt mt||tt|dtI, }u |cmmt|n
0n0 cn}0h0|tn, c|a mtnn m|t 00tm Uttmtht0n0
0nlttta btHhta 0tn0p|h|0tt mtt0tn knn|tn. bn0
|d | l| 0tnn 0| t 0t}t| d| | 0n|ttta b|tto tnat|} 0n0
bt0tht||mkt||, n|m| 0tt 0nlm, mtht }0 0tn| tptn,
ldn0ttn mtht }01cotn.
R0| lc |mtm bd0tn ttm0ma 0| t bt0|c| tt|0httt-
|mc||, 0|t |t 0tn 0tmcktc|| |mtn L| ottc||am0a [d
ktnn}t|mntn0 | l|, 0ca tmt|nmt|tn, |n 0tm t|nt k| t|nt
0ott|m|m| 00tm Tt0l| 0n0 dn}ttn htmm0n0a| da
W||It| lIcn0, Rtot||tt|mc|| 0n0 bc0ttnI0m c0an0h|
un0 kc||htt}|0 [t0tn R0|l|| t0 ot0co|tt Wtnlmtn, 0| t
||ncn}| t|| n|m| c0||htttb|0|t l|thtn, 0tth|n0tt|. B c a
||n0 0 | t 0 t| l||0tn h|n|tt0L n0 t 0 t L
o t 0 t t | | m t n U | 0 | d+t c | | t , 0 t a | 0 m | | -
0tn T hto d 0 tna 0 tt o ttl| c c |||d tn
W m | t 0 t a ] 0 0 t n | 0 m a 0 n! 0 t t \ t t | -
m c 0 t t t t | , 0 | t | n | n 0 | c n 0 |1 t t n b | 1
h c o t n l B t t c m | ,
b
t n 0 | t | t | | t m t n | t
13
u1tn 0 t n H c |Jd n<| [ d ]|s!v6 ft
t t 0 , | || 0 t t c mu f 0 t tt | 0 t t t]m!f |
t t 0 0 | t [ d } | c I t t t t m | | k t | , | t t
0 | c 0 | 0 c a 0 t+t B t 0 | [ m | c n 0 0 t t h cD
0 t t t c f | t n 0 t n t | 0 [ c d |t c n 0 t | t(t 0
0 c at [ t 1 0 t( R t o t | | 0 n 0 0 c a t m | 0 t t
Lt|||00 , |t ht| t 0 tt n b ttf c |I b t t
dmbc | |c I || | [mt0 b|0 |[c0 tt c0|
0 t0 r mc ff t00 t0 Wtn r mt0.
| n | [ m t | 0 t n 0 | t 0 | t I 0 | d k t c | | [ d t
p L uc cn0 c 0 tL o t||| r m tn bm0 I t |||
8
0cp r |t c0| t|ntm ot|||mm|tn Wtnr mtn
|gu0a b tt 0 |. |a ||| 0 tL W tn [m 0 ta
o [d |0 |t nt [m ||t a , 0 tt 0 ca | t c t n 0 t
| | t m t n | 0 t t | 0 | d b t c | | [ d t n 0 b t t
r m|d | |n | cn0a 0 ct l|t | | |. |t Hh| mdt tna
cn 0tt bt[t 0n0 cotn0a |n 0tt bmt| ||| t| |0n. bt|n
cn}ta Tctmtt t | l| t|nt t|n}|t ]c0 ncd ||nc0
}|tI| tm btm|nn, | tt m|| |||tb|tn 0n0 0dt| m| | Hcm
t|m|tn. Utdccn0c | l| |t | n t|n t[m||. B|t t-
m|nn0n 0cn Wtn
[
mtnmt|n0ntn | l| t|n hc0f, tnc0
m| t 0tt hcn0tI m|| B| cmcn|tn d0tt dtn. 0b ta
H d 0m t|ntn bcI| tn bc0mmdIIt d0tt 0m 0tn |IItn
t|nta Wtnldtn cn0t| |, o | t| o| Hd | t|m, 0tn0 t|n bt|
||[mtt Utdccn0| [| | [| 0|m|a cn0ttta c|a t|n Wt|
n0nan0Itt.
bm | t ]ct0n0tt|mt00t ||t|tt|t 0tt [|ttt
Ldt0 Hdt|t| |||t 0| t Utduccn0cmt|d0tn 0tt
0t|||[ mtn U|0|dktc||t }0 bIc[ || [ mtt ht.
Hdt|t ||||t || 0tt ttut[t0|c||0t Utt|tt|tt 0tt
md0ttntn Rk|t0tt 0ct ot||| lmtn Utdccn0c 0n0 jl-
4
o | tid 0rt ono totItIt Ltrmti|| tt 0tr otiIi|mtn ]cur-
nc|i||tn|mmtmt 0cn 1 900 oia 3Ut btcnmctI. btco
cd|rn mit ihn 0urd tinr ori|i|dr bti||t. Rm 5. 1 2.
1 91 4 lmtito 0rt |n|1n0tt bcr0intt tintn c||tnrn
bt| t| cn HctIht|iffr, in 0tm ra hrip|.
,rt Jhttn rt0rcn 0rt|c |oI, mir0 |dmr-
|id ouf rImoa |Icptn, mc tr |corn hcnn. hirr c|rr| t
Ldt0 HdtIht||fft ltint [cutnc|i|Ii|drn Jn| ttr||rn |r
0oa btmtinmchI, |t 0it bodt 0ra \rir0rns, ft
|ro tn0tin rcpra J0tc|, 0ca ihm ktin hcrn cu| 0it
W|t otcm| t, hirt otcuth|t tt |tint unthtutt Wod|
nid| um m lt|o||, |cn0ttn 0it t|| ]0 btttimttn.
Pott tt mit0 htint bdm| ttikriIrn hobtn, ou| 0ir
Htitt hin]0mt||tn, 0it bit ont|||||t| cotn, 0ir
\tin0lmcfItn, 0it bit tnht| hco tn, 0| t Bint, 0
bit |m b||t| r|c|ltn un0 0| t btn|oI|cntn, 0dn 0tt
Utknott Lr oia ]u 0rt Lt 0cn Rmitna ort 0ir
Hit0ttlc t 0rt tn|ilmtn Rtmtt, 0| t b| t mt||hin
0trottiIrI hcotn. bit hoo tn 0it6 t|on, nim| mti| bit
cumim rrin |Itn |t|o || 0cton |cuo|tn, nim| mt tn
tinta btun0|chta, 0tn bit in |httn hit|Itn. bit hoorn
ta t|un, mri| ta 0rt kt}r||t t ]um |tfd| mot,
]u 0tm |t|c|, 0tt 0ca |in]i t i|I, 0tm bit unItto||tn
un0trn un0 hti|io|mtrn 0ta Lto tna hu|0itn. R|a
bit 0rn rit rrn 0it butrn tt0igItn, mot ta
nidI, mti| bit 0it butrn hcpIrn un0 |n|cn0 || to|rn;
ta mct nut, mti| bir Jhtt ]riIunrn ]u 0rtkcu|rn
0tt||cn0rn. R|a bir 0tn Hrit rtn \

rontrim
tt0ioItn un0 0trhn0ioItn, mit mr0rn \tcnkttim
mi| bdmuh un0 b|u| o t0tdtn, un0 |rinr Hd|cnirn
BtuI|d|cn0 tb tn, t|thoh ta nim|, mri| birrImoa
drdtn \tonhtrid cIItn, |cn0trn mti| b|r mup|tn,
15
mit mon 0| t Rugtnb| |6a| t|0tn|do|Itn 0ta ot|I||dtn
Uot|a ouaotuIt|. R|a b| t |m 0tt cn tntn \t||n
0utd Jhtt )t|Iun tn 0cn 0tt ,T|mta comtIa 0tn
t ttbt| t tcht]t| tn || tptn, 0o bmmttItn b| t
Hd n| d| um 0oa ch| 0ta Lon0ta un0 um 0| t
UotIt| tn. Bca UoItt| cn0 ld| ttI b| t n| dI, un0 b| t
cb tn m| I o| | tn UotIt| tn bcbtII| tt|. ]o, lcot Jhtt
Ht|un tn tt|p tn b| t dhnt [t0tn btun0 oua Jhttm
htt]tn u| t Jhttn hop. W|| t|ntm ct|. b| t mottn
0utd )mon]| ]ohtt 0tt [cutno|| |I| ldt bton0l|||Itt |n
|n|on0, t|n Wonn, ||tIa bttt||,0| t t|| |n \ommtn
)0 l t 1tn.
bdcn 0tt tn| |lmt Uh|| dlch un0 WoIhtmo||btt
bttIton0 u|lt| | ho| |n lt|ntm bud ,tt ]0r \tt|
t|| b tt 0| t bt| || lmtn Wo[|tno|IoIdttn tut|t|||:
,B| t Wo|lt 0tt bt0|bttung t|nta Lon0ta bonn
ont| t||t| mtt0tn, [t0ta on0ttt Lon0 ]0 ||tb tn
d0tt }0 o|ltn, [t nod 0tm unldt 0tt )t||unga
b tH0tt, 0| t d|| unm|I|t| bot d0tt m|IIt| oot unItt 0tm
||n||ullt 0ta | | | tna 0tt \|non]tptn ||thtn. bd-
|ont o|a \t|n0ldo|| ]m| ldtn |n |cn0 un0 up|on0
ttmnl d| uot, uottn unlttt )t| |ungtn 0c| | 0dn 0tt
to0lom
e
n bthon0|un tulHldtt d|||| lmtt t-
|ontntt, 0dn 0tt bn|tt0tdun \|nn|on0 0n0
Ud|tna. ]th|httnu|t ||oI|0t|ltn0dn 0tn W| |lt|oItn
D
t0|[d| cn0a.
1 932 |It| |It0tt tn|| ldt bdt| || ||t| | tt btto|0 bottg
0|r r0obItutt 0tt bt|I|lmtn Utt||t unItt |d|tn0t
Rnk|ot.
,t b thon0t| |tn 0| t )t||untn n|d| o|a |t|n
|h||t Wt|nuna|n|ItumtnIt, lcn0ttn c|a tmhn||mt
l0
W|||t| 0t Uttm tnstrmtroa, t ot|tcd | t|tn t mt
bt||t d0tt Uo|tn|mt0|)|n d0tt |r tn0 t|nt on0ttt
ctt,um to|d tt|d )u mtr0tn un0|n0tn R0t|a||cn0
)udmmtn. un| tt 0| t|tnLtu| tn 0tr|mmcn0 0cto| | tm
|mmtt mtt 0oa o| |t bt|| 0tt Utron|mct| || dt| |
ttnb tt 0tm Uuo ||kum un0 0tm Lon0t. Rn lt|nt
b| t| | t |tc|tn 0| t b||tt 0ta hcn0t|a, 0tt Rn j t| tnt|n
nomt un0 0tt W|| | |cntncu|| ct.
B | t m | t | l d o | | | | d t \ d t m 0 t a W d n d
d | a m | t 0 o u d | n 0 t t U t d o o n 0 o t | n -
t| t| . Hcrtt||||t ou|| t d |n |n| cn0 )t|
|un ou| )t||un. |t kdt||t |n tntm dd-
kc||o||||||dtn hdmo|no||cna|g||tm m|| 0| t|tm Ttu||
t|nt t| t btkonn| ttUrt||tcrcnt 0taRua|cn0ta m| t
,HtmUdtT|mta un0,Hdmd[tIttn[o. Hdt|t||||t
tttld|t |n Ldn0dn 0n0 ttr| d|t |n Htm dr. oa
|mmtt Hd ttt|nt|t, mur0t 0urm |t|nt br|| | t t| ttn.
tnou m| t |n 0tto||o|| |||ldtn I|r| ld o||, om ltt
|n 0tt Utdoon0o 0oa Wdndd| |g||tm )um 0d| | tn
Butdbt0m. B | t l t Dt ogon0okdn}ttn t
Lb t n t a f t t | | ggt b t o| , o n } t U | t t
0 t t \ t t | t | | | t t a 0 d | | |t n B t n t 0 a
} 0 b t t o 0 b t n 0 n 0 o n 0 | t h t | t t 0 t a
W t | n 0 n g a 0 | | o | t a m t n | g t t f t t | -
m o u t t t | l!- [ 0 | l m t t b t l t n n | gt } 0
| t gtn. Jn0tm 0| t Wo||tn 0| t|tt Ln0tt 0tm bonn .
0tr |n|ttno||dno| tn Utt||tgnc|t un|tt| c tn, btobtn
Ht Hm |n 0| t t| ||| t )mona[odt 0tt o tr||oo| ||mtn
Uttbn0t, 0tttn ||to ||ts h|n0 btdpbt||onn| tn 0Lmo|a
lddn mot un0 tb| |tbtn | ||.
Ru| 0tt brun0| ct 0ta Wdndd|[g||tms tn| ||on0
ntotn un0 m|| 0tr Icr|hr|| ||tUrt|| t |n 0tr ,mt|Itn
1

0|||t 0t 1 8. ]chtun0tt| 0c !1tuttto0t0, bai


Ft[tnc| 0tt bt| || |mtn L0tntht. fg mut0t ot0tn0tf
0dn t|ntm 0tu| |mtn ]u0tn, 0tt mt0tn R||c||cn
t0tn Uttuptn 1 866 cua Btu||m|cn0 cua0tm|t|tn
mut0t. Jn Ldn0cn ncm 0| t|tt ]u0t 0tn Hcnitn
tu|tr cn un0 }d j 0ca othcnnft Icdr|d|tn
brd cu|. bt|n bcn, htto ct| tu| tr, mut0t |t|n
Hcm|d|gtt. | t ta |n 0| t|tm btd cuat|, | ||
btbcnn|. ||nt bd| |0ttun0 0dn | ||t, 0tt | n0ttt )t||
t|ntn fttn0tn Ud||tn ot| tu|tr t|nncm, mc
0 una
ttntu| b tmt| l tn, mt| dtt Wtn|mtn|gua |n|tt 0tn
Wdndd| |g|| tmtn 0tt ot||| |mtn Utcc0cn0c l|t|
0n0 cum bt| tu|tr |t|n bt|d|| bt|tt| o| . ,B| t
Wnntt, 0| t cm btc !Ttu| tt | n|ttt|Htt| Hn0,
btnntn kt| n Uc|tt| cn0, bnktn un0 || tn |n| tt-
nc|| dnc|. b| t Hn0 | n btt||n un0 Uct|a, |n Utttta
b0t0 un0 | tn, |n Ldn0dn m| t Htm Udtk cn||H0.
Mt| t un0 ht| t0a0t|ct o| |0tn |t 0| t|t Wnntt 0| t
n|||l|t bt| ttnt| |, um |m Ttbtn }u || lmtn, un0
ts mtt un0ttnn|||0, 0dn | ntn }0 ttmat|tn, 0cp
Oe 0| t | ntn 0ct0tbd| tntn bt| t0tnt||tn }um bt|0
0tm|nn uno tnuh| 0dtott0ttn |c||tn.
B| t| t|mtn [0| |m-kc| |c| | ||| | dtnbmckc| t cu|tn

u|t tncu m| t 1 810 un0 1 9 1 4 | n 0tn Hcmt|m|tn-


}tn|tc| tn 0tt tn0|| |mtn Utdc0cn0c. Botcn c| Od
m||tns |n|d|ttn t|mca tn0tt|, c|a 1 933 0t|du| |t
Uttl|tbun t|n|tc| 0utd 0|t 0tu||dtn |m|0tcn|tn,
0| t |m tn | | |dtn Utcccn0c|c0tt m| | | kdmmtntPu|
ncmt |cn0tn. H|t0tn0s 0| o| ts t|ntn mt0|0tttn
0t| |t 0| t [0| lmtn bht| btn|tn 0tt 0tu||dtn Utt||t
0tt bgl|tm}t|| c|s Ldn0dn un0 l t|nt Utt||t[u0tn, t|nt
L0tn0dmnt, 0dn 0tt bttt| |a 1 858 |mct0 cgntt

bri [t|nm P0| .n|ho|| in Ldn0dn [r|tb: ,Ddn ber


H
|m|mr| kt||, 00tr[mm|t|| , bt|tdmt0t|t 00
btmtinht|| 0tr h| tHtn Urt[[t ||| [ttr, tr | tr | tb|,
|d |nn| b tt]tu| , 0op |m m|m n|m| trnt o0m n0r
m|| tm R0|o|[t0 [d| d t|nta b|o||ta bt|0t| t.
R|a 0| t or|[dt 0||0r Jn0| tna ]0[ommtnbrod,
m0r0tn |m btrt|d tr d|||| |mtn H| tnat|n0n on
0tn n|ah|tn |kr0t| |d|t tntr tmdrt[| |, 0| t
je nod bt)o|0n |r d0tr ttn t|nt bomt ]0
|rtmtn btrt|| mortn. ||n |n0||dtr br0m, mt| | btr
)mt| ]or|o0|tn0t o||, 0tr0r|t| || Ht m|| bt|ptn0tm
bd||: ,Boa ||nt | p| mon, oa R0trt |op| mon,
0tr Lount |d|| mon, t|on tn b|t|b| mon. ]th|
h| tr Hd o||t0, [t0| 0dr|h|ngrt||tn, tm R||tng| t|d,
0tr 0dn R|| ]u R|| [d|||.
R
h0|| dt |r[dt|n0ntn
|jobtn Hd |m [|tn br| tmtn|on0 0n0 om |nt ta
on||ktn Jmtr|0ma tr mtr |n tr Urdoon0o
t)t|| . B| t[t d| | t || t|tn ht0|t | t bmrt|b tr||nt
brdbr||onn|tna 0n0 Ht || t| tn Ht [d r0m| da, op |t
bt|m|m|t 0| t|t hgntn t|ntr 0n|trthtn0tn 0||0t
tb tn|d mtn| 0trgt|[t0 m|r0 m|t | hrt |n|[dt0,
0r|tm| |mtn 0n rm| |mtn Bdt| ngtr.
||ntR0]oh|mohtht| |a|| tb tntr|n| ntrho|gttn
0|t| tn Chorok|tr0tr|o| | on]0km|tn 0tr|0mt, obtr
0trgtb||m.
|r kdmmtn ]u tm r|mrtn )| t| o| |tr br|||[mtn
!o||tnbtt|n||0||0n. R | a | 0 | I r o | | r m t a
U h n d m t n k t n n | | t b r | | | [ m t U r d o
do n 0o n 0 r t | n t t | n ] | gt , m|| t ) m t d-
[tb0 . 1 t| d |0m 0n0 6 t|0gtm |00. b|t
| || 0tr |rt|bt00tr0n0 o0d 0dr|, md t|nt br|||[mt
11
Utdccn0ccb||dn | dt|nbct tt|n ttc|d|||| |dtn |c
rck|tt c|.
bt| ||t|: |n||d||tp| Hm 0tt |u|dhtc|||dt M|nt|,
t|ntn ht| t ttbt|)u|ttn, um cu| 0| t|tm t 0tn
|t|tc [t|nta bt|d||ta ]u [|t|ttn, |d [d|d| tt |t|nt
R| |c|dttn |n 0|t Wc[| tn bdtun0 |cnn|0utd t| ta-
|tt|bttt| 0|t U|btt 0dt 0tn ctn 0tt U|u|dhtc||t.
00tt: |a ttto| Hd t|n ctntt un0 0tt|ud|, 0| t
Mt||tn 0ttt|0ttt|dc|| ]u |ttn tn. B|t U|u|d-
8tc||t | t| |t| 0cnn, 0m |n 0n[d0| |d ]u mcdtn, 0m-
ttn0 t|n c| | tmt|nta tdccn0|[|||mta t ||t||tt|btn
t|n, [mtt|| |n m|| | cu| tn0tn 0dn btcdtdttn n|t0tt
000 bt|n| |n tn0||m }um bmmt|tn.
Bca bcut|tb [t0tt Utdccn0c | [| 0tt |t|d|.
\t 0| t bt|||[dt R||c||dn | | | 0cm|| 0tt bch, 0tt |m
h|nb ||d du| 0ca cnt[|ttb|t )|t| ott [t0t |u|dktc-
|l[dt Wc[| tntdccn0c cuat|tddtn mtt0tn kcnn:
B | t I0|d I t c|| [d t Utd c cn0 c | [| 0 c
0 0 t m m c t c b | t t | [ | t t | , 0 c p | | t 0 t nt c 0
0 t a | t | d | t a c n 0 t t ) u n c m t 0 t a b t | 0 -
[|t m ta m|b |I 0 tt |n 0| t T c [m tn | t tL
h d d b c | | c I | || | [m t n R 0 | | L c t b t t
| | | t D|.
Bca Hn0 0| t \cb|dttn, cua 0tntn Hd 0| t
Utdc-
cn0c tdpot||cnn| tna ]u|cmmtn|tb|. B tL Wtn [d
0e s c b [d I0| tn b t [m||a | [| |t t 0L } tI
0 n 0 | t T t t t , 0 c a W d n d d | | h t t t -
[| c I |, 0 tt 6 tI0 ttm ttb |b t )| tI.
||n cbttun0t|ta b| |0 0c0dn cb bt)||m 0tt bt-
kcnn|t|n| n0ttgn0hcmLtm|a:,B| tunb t|mtnb|t
Wcm| 0tat|0ra 0n0 0| t btu|c| tn Ht| untn 0tt

ocn |hm t| t|tntn |in0 |c tmt|nlt| r un0 cutn -


|dt|n||dt Tct|cdtn, 0cp ta |dcn t|nuna c| | t|tt||tn-
0tr bhcn0c| | ||, 0cp Ht ncd t|ntr o t|dn0tttn |t-
|nnttun ot0t|tn. Udn mtm mtt0tn m|r tutt o t-
||ttt|m t |rmtt0tn n| d| bcm n| tt| tt|, 0ctott
| o| ta ht|ntn )mt| |t|. ||n Utt||toctdn c| mtt
!Icdt c|a n| |0uct0. bn0 |t|ntt|t|ta | || 0tr Utt||t-
octdn mt|t ttn0 0tn Ltuttn cuat|| t]tt|, 0| t |n
| t|ntn ]ttuntn Rn]t| tn cu|to tn. tnn |ntn 0| t
Uc||ti k 0ta Utt||toctcna n|d| cpt, 0tdtn Ht m|t
|nt)u |hrtt Rn]t|tn, un0 ta | || |t |n cn} un-
m||d, o tr 0| t| tBtcun |nmt)u[ttn. Rotr 0dn
mtm mtt0tn nun Ht, b. . 0| tRn)t|tn0tn, otttt|dt
Bca n| 0cbcn co, mtt 0| t|tt ,tt | ||. B| t hdd-
||ncn] | || 0tr ||nt|t| dtt 0tt Jn0u|tt| t un0 | || 0tr
httr 0| t| tt t|t. tnn mcn Hd n|dta bdtmcdtn
m|| | , |c | || 0ca, mca t|ntm |n t|ntt mc0ttntn mt||-
||dtn Btmdhrc|| t Wcd| | o|, kur j t|c| 0ca bt|0,
oo mcn ta nun |t| o tr c|, d0tt do ta 0| t h|n|tt -
mnntt otHhtn. | t knntt ta cud cn0tta | t|n |n
t|ntt U|utdktct| t, |n t|ntm 0|gm 0tr bcnk| tta
B| t Utdccn0c o tHb| tmc||| ||t W|| dht||tn
]ut |thhun un0 b|t|ttun 0tr U| ktr. b| t bttmc
0urd | httn Ru]tu| 0| t mtn|d| |dtn btmt|n|dc||tn
)u tp|tn )|t| tn tmdr]urt|ptn. Btt |hctch|tt un0
0cm|| 0tt |nnttt tt| t|ntt Utcccn0c m|r0 bt-
|l|mm| 0utd 0tn Wtn|dtn, 0tt Ht |t|. b0 hc|
cud 0tr ottt|| dt L| ottc||amua 0tr tutd| |mt0
Btmdktct| tn 0tt Htu)t|| Hd 0| t |hm t|tntm||mt
t||t 0tr tcccn0| ||| |dtn Tt| ht|| t|dc||tn.
Jhtt |tt||tn0||t un0 0utmtt||tn0||t Ruatun
|cn0 Ht |n |ng|cn0 |m ]u[cmmtncn m|| 0tt
21
b|t0k|0t 0n0 0tt hc||0n tt 0tt00t|tn bt|||[mtn
0dtt[ | .
U| t 0 0 | !| !lt U r 0 0 c c n 0 c 0 t a t n
l| [d tn m tI|t t| d ta |I| 0 | t B0tdft0n
0 t 0 | 0 | 0 k t c | | [t n b t | 0 t [ f | a 0 t t
d tJ| | [ d t n h 0 d f | n c n ) m | | 0 t n W | | | t |m
0 t a

fftn|I| d t n Wt|n0n a cn0 t |b.
3.
B| t b|tc|t| t 0tt Utc0ccn0c c| 0tn U| cn |tI|-
}ul thtn 0n0 }u 0ttm|tk||dtn, 0tt I|d c|a bt0n0||n| t
00td0tn tlcm|tnUtc0ccn0c0ctcn |n00td}|t|.
B| t dt||| |dt Utc0c cn0cI|rc|t|t ctb t||t| | t|I
]ct0n0tt|t
n
|n |ct|| c0|tn0tt Ttc0| ||cn ncd 0tn
tt|n t|nta t|n}|tn I|tc|t| |dtn bt|tbta. Jn mtd-
I t|n0tn \0tmtn 0n0 c0fmtdlt|n0tn bdc00|tn |t|||
tsJmmtt m| t0tt |n |tldt|n0n.
B| t dt||||dt Utc0ccn0c |I| t|n W||| t| 0tt bt|||-
Idtn Uc||||k. Jtt b|tc|t| t m|t0 0um|| btI||mm|
00tm 0|t )| t| t0| tltt Uc||||k. Lt0|ta )| t| 0t bt|||ldtn
Ud||||k |I| 0| t 0| k|c|ct| |dt b|t| |0n btcpbt||cnn| tna
0n|tt c| | tn D|kttn 0tt |t0t, 0| t bt||| | dt t||
ttt[mcf|.
Btn |0ttI|cn0 0tt fttm0tn U| ktt ttn 0|t bt|-
|| |dt Utt[h| a00n p||t| 0| t bt||||dt Uc||||k ntb tn
0tm 0|0| cmc|| |dtn 0n0 m||| |t| ldtn ||n|c0 0utd
Ut00ccn0cft|0}t }u bttdtn, 0|t I|tc|t| |d ncm
0tm 6 t [t1 0 tt 6 t000 tn l0 c | |0ng g t0|cn|
000 00tmtft| mtt0tn.
/
G cnj l K i dl I U(L 0 tL 6 t n tL cum jti n
m c , 0 t n 0 | t b t | | | [ t Ut d u c c 0 0 c c 0 -
t t | | | , t | n t | n } t | n t a U d | b d 0 t t k d 0 t | -
n t n | c | t U | b t t t 0 u t n , | m m t t t |
|| L [|t | t | |d 0 tc0 | u1 0 tU 6 t U t L
| n b t u t n c 0 | j 0 [ c | | t n u n 0 0 | t [ t
b t u t n | c | c n t t t n t | n c n 0 t t c 0 | -
] t h t n , b | a 0 | t M t c | | 0 t a t 0 t t a
0 u t m | n n t t t ) t t [ t 0 0 n t n | [m t | 0 t n 0
tbtdmt0 | [|.
J m M c m | t t n t | n t | n jt | n t a U d |
m | t 0 0L+ U t t | c t t n 0 t tt u t n [ u c | -
I u n } u t U t d c c n 0 c [| t c t t | t 0 t t
U d | b a) tt|tmm tt0n. m i t 0 tt[| tt0
u n | t 0 | t [ t m b t t | | | 0 | t Ut c c Ln 0 c ,
0 0 tm 0 | t 0 d n t n | | [ m t t b t | | t c u a t | n
|ttm0 ta U d | b 0 utm ) tt[| t0n c | | L t
b t m t | n [ m c | | a c t 0 n u n t n 0 n 0 b t m t | n -
[mL| | a b | n 0 0 n t n | 0 | t 0 t n d c d | | [ m t n
bmm d L }u [| n0 U L L lth| m|t0g |n 0 L H
t a m t t | d a 0 t t b t | | | [ m t n Mn u | t c 0 -
t||t|tt| | [|.
B|t Utd c cn0 c [|tc | t | t 0tt Ud |ba -
j t t | t m m t t u n | | t | | | n 0 t t t t 0 d | 0 -
| | d n t t n R | | c | | c n t t n 0 | t | t t m 0 t
t | t t un. b|t | [| 0|t Ru|[|cmt|un 0tt Wc[|t0-
tutn t tn 0|t |ttn0t btut t|ntt Ud|ka-
tmt|n[dc||. W|I h| ||t b t[Ittn0tt c0tt cd t jd-
ItItt 0cH||cn m|t0 0tm cn t t|||tntn Uc|kt t|nt
mmtt|, [t|nt t| ttun [t| cn L| | (m [mu|0, mc
M c|a Hc| un0 bctg t bt0tnt. fg bt 0ctt nut
3
tntn t|n)| tn Ruamt: bt|t|I|un 0| t|tt t| ttun
0utd htbc |uI| cn.
|a mu | tt bcm btcocdItt cn] k| ct t|thtn
mtt0tn, 0c ta m ot| 0tt tt0o|uI| cnttn Ri |cti cn
0m t|nt Utcccn0c cn0t|t, 0| t | t| d|c| | a cu| 0tt
[|tc|t|[dtn Hctm 0tt btutn|c|In cu|tocuI
[|. Rud 0| t ttbc|uI|cntt R|IcI|cn 0| tn| nut 0tm
)| t| 0tt Ru||c|Iun 0tt ott|c| | tntn Uc|katmt|n-
[dc|I. !tt 0tt Ru||c||un u|0| |, 0| t ot|I| | dt
Uc||I|k uuItt|Iht 0utm 0| t htht ttn t|nt |ttm0t
t| ttun tttdIt \ct0ttuntn 0tt ott|Itn Wc[[tn
0| t[ta |ttm0tn Lcn0ta, 0tnkI k|n0|[d un0 | || 0tt ot-
||| dtn Utcccn0c ]um 0|tt t|c| | tn. Jt t| ta
mt0tt 0m 0| t JnIttt||tn 0tt t| ttun ncd um 0| t
Jn|ttt||tn 0ta Uc| kta, |cn0ttn cua|d||tp| |d um 0| t
bt|I| |dtn JnIttt[[tn, 0ca t|p|, um 0| t Ru||c||un
0ta cn tt|||tntn, m|0tt[tn|I|tn btmtnmt[tna c|a
W|IIt|]ut |cIc| tn bdmdun 0| t|tt btmt|n[dc|| un0
0cm|| c| a t ]ut c|Iu| cI|cn 0| tlta Lcn0ta 0ct
0tm bt||||dtn httt|dc|Iacn|tum.
|a | || |mmtt 0ca | t|mt b|t| , 0ca 0cn 0tt bt|||-
|dtn Utcccn0c b t|t| totn m| t0, 0m 0| t ||nt|| 0n0
0cm|| 0| t Mtc|| t|ntt |ttm0tn Uc|katmt|n[dc|| } 0
[ttn t0: btut m|t0 ttn btut tt|, 0| t Rt-
b t| |tt ttn 0| tbcuttn,0| tMc|c ||btn ttn 0tUtd-
| t[|cn|tn, 0t Wccmmt0cntt ttn 0| t h|n00a, 0| t
btHhtn0tn ttn 0| t Rtmtn, 0| t btft|tn ttn 0| t
\ ttn0tn.
B c a c 0 a [ d | | t | | d t ] | t | 0Jt [ t t b t | -
||[mtn Dt c cn0 c [|t c| t| 0tt u |bg
)t t | t m m t t 0 n | j| , Jn 0 t m b t | t t f t n
.24 .
0 t 0 L c 0t 0 t m b0 t 0 t , ) t t | |J| |4
t 0 0 , b t t t k t | t , \ t t t | d l | b t | |
0 0 0 R 0 | | l 0 0 c | | t t d | | | | l m t 0 0 t 0 -
n 0 0 [ t n t s | c d s } 0 t t ) t 0 t n , u t | mt s
0 | t b t | | | l m t b t u c | | d I | | | k b t 0 | | ,
0 m 0 c s o t t | c | | t 0! U d | } 0 t R n 0 c m t
0 t s b t | | | l m t 0 B | k | c | t s } 0 } u | 0 t 0 ,
0 c s | m 0 c 0 0 | 0 b t || c | | t | 0 t s ]u c 0 s -
0 t t | t c t s d 0 t t t | 0 t t t 0 | c 0 0 t | t 0
nt0 t0 t | tt00 c0| t0 || | u|t0.
Btt bt||| lmt Utdccn0ckcm| tt0 c0}t D|-
btttutn bttu| l|tc|t| lm, u| t [dd0 bt|dn|, c0|
0tm It| dtn Ut|n}| 0tt btutnlc||0n. 0|| t00
c| Hd 0| t6 |n 0tt 0t0ttt0 btlm|m|t u| t0ttd|| |0
0t0 }cIIcltn bt||| lmt0 Utdcc00cck||d0t0, 0|t }0t
bn|ttmtt|un 0ts t0td| lmt0 Md0||nt0|s 0d0 L00-
0d0 c0s |nl}tn| tt| u0t0t0.
)um ]utdt lc|mtt btutn|c||0n [t 1| 0| t bt -
|||mt Utcccn0c cI| t W|||t| t|n. Bc 0| t bc||un
0tt btmt|n|dc|| t| nts Ud| kts 0tt dl|t0 |tb||m
bt|| 0ts mtnldI| dt0 Bclt|ns, 0tt mtnlm||mt0 bt
mt|n|dc||ct0nun, }u|| t|l| }uu|0tt | l|, 0tt|I|| 0| t
bt||||dt Utdccn0c 0dn btun0 cu|0tt |nntttn b0
uctc||| ht||. B| t Lt | l| 0n0 b| t|b| |t 0n|t
||mts WtthmcI, | t U|tt0tu|, 0tt o ttcI| tt0dt
|t| ||, ud bt| |t0 c|||ttt0. Bc}0 kdmm| m|| |t|m4t
h0||bt|| 0|t ||0cn}| t| | t btl|tmun.
bt0dt u|t 0cs |cb|||mt btlt0 0tt bt||| ldt0 Ut0
ccn0c ottt|tn, mlltn u|t t|nt 1c|lcmt b t
tttn, 0| t cn} cIItmt|n |t 0| t 1cb||k [t0tt Utd
cgc00c ||| |||.
25
R
ua 0tn
|
gdc
'
c||dtn

u[nc

mtJ t |nun]tn.
0| t o t| ti |ti tt Einm| tkun cu[ btt|| t Uc |k|d|d| t1
ttotn Hn0, t| 0c bttn|c t|th 0tt t ccn
0|||||dtn btmt| a[tun tt0ct. E }m|n| 0c}u,
o t| m|0tt||tti |tn0tt Jn|ttt|| tn|cttun c| | t Lid| cu[
0| t t|tntn btmt|||dt }u mtt[tn, c| | tn bdc||tn
cott cu[ 0| t 0ta btntt. Jn |ti ntt Butd|t0n
mcn| [t||| tt| m 0ca bt]tn|cht|th 0ut bttnlch
cctt.
B | t b t | | | l m t U t d c c n 0 c b t n n
] t | mn t | l | m | c b | | | d 0 c 0 u t d , 0 c| l | t
c | a c | | | | l d t U t d c c n 0 c | t t b t
m t|a || m t |m m t 1 | cnr d cu 1 | d tn b t
tt | m c u [ o c 0 | d n t 6l | m | c u [ 0 | t
U t t m | tk | |d un 0 t t t c k | cm| t t | tn
J0 t cIt.
||n m t | | cn|d cu ||mtt b ch | || [J t l| t
n | m | t | n ] | t | , 0 c a | | t 0 t t | t | | | , | d n 0 t t n
c | n t h | I t , m | | 0 t t | | t | | d | c t n | , t | n t
W c a b t , | n | t t 0 t t | | t | t b t | | m | 0 t t
|| tm |. f a | || 0| ta 0 | t t c I || I 0 tt m tI|
cn r mcu || d tn W cabi tt0n .
B| thdn||tub|| cn0tt bttn|chcctttt[c||c|a |ck
|i|dtt Uctcn |n Rnmtn0un 0tt t||cn|dcuun] a
mcakt un0 |n \ct||thun 0tt |0tc| c||dtn btt J n
un 0tt ot||||dtn t|| ttcbttunac||||b. 0 n t
| | d u m 0 c a t | t n t hIn 0 t | n c 0 t t 0 | t
t l t n t | | 0 t a b t n t t a b t t c u | n 0 t
} 0 b m m t t n , 0 t t | c m m t | | 0 | t o t | | | |0t
U t c c c n 0 c c u [ 0 t t b t | | | | d t n U c | | -
| | 0 0 c | | t a U d l | | | 0 t 0 t a t n | | t t d t n 0 t n

t | | b | | 0 t a , c | | t a H t c | | 0 t c o t t c u |
0tt 0 t a b t n tta. Jn 0tt dt||| || dtn |cdt m| t0
0ca bttn|chcct bc|I un0 Ttu|t|, Ct| ||ua un0 bc
|cn, t|n t|th|. ]t0tt btntt tt|dt|n| 0cnn c|a
Ttu|t|, bc|cn 0n0 h| tdtn|dn0tt, |n| cn0 |t| o || co tt
c|a bc||ta t| d. Jm ottt||mtn ]t||c| |tt m|t0 0ca
bttn|cbcct ncd 0tn Ltttn 0tt ot tt| |mtn J0tc
| c| t ttgt||t| ||. |n| cn0 un0 0| t |m tctdtn0tn
Wtn|mtntutn, |c ttk| t| mcn [th|, Hn0 0ca ]tn
|tum c| | tt |n0|0|0ut| | tn b| dttt||, 0|r ttk)tut
0tt Uttnun|| un0 0| t bt|d|tmtt 0tt humcn|| |, c| | t
btntt co tt tt|d|ntn c| a ||dttt||atcuo tn0

Tg-
tcnntn, 0ttnun|| | c| t T| ttt un0 tc t Utt| thtt c| | tt
umcntn btltht.
| t bttt||a btmtth|, 0c| |}| th| j t0t Utccqcn0c
0| t hcn||t0k||cn 0tt bt tn|chcctt. m ca [t0c d
0 | t b t | | | l d t U t c c c n 0 c d c t c k | t t |
r | tt |I | || 0| t J L |I m| t r | t r | t U 1 1 }| t |g
u n 0 } m c t b t | d n 0 t t a 0 | t R t | 0 t t t
mt|n tn bt r u0 t 1 un 0 ta b t n tL b. Wcn
ot0nkt nut, mca Ht Hd |m t||ht| t |n 0tn hth
)t|mnuncn ttn 0ca 0tu| |dt Uc|k cu| 0| t|tm bt
o| t| c| | ta t| t|||t| hc|. Rm b t| ||tn m| t0 0| t|t B|||c
mttun 0ta btntta |mmtt 0cnn, mtnn |m ]u t 0tt
tt0c|u||cntn R| |c||cn t|nt |ttm0t t| ttun bt
|d|m|| m|t0.
Bca ||n0, |n cn) kut)tt bh|})t, 0| t mt| tn||| dtn
bt|tht 0tt TckI|k un0 0tt b|tc|t| t 0ta bt||| |dtn
Utcccn0c|g|| tma.
t t 0 c a | t b t n 0 | t l t a b t | | | | m!n
bulI tm& | n 0 t t U t t(c n(t n tJ| d 0 t t i n
21
0 t t b t t(m c t | u n | t t l u d | , m u l | d ,
m t n n t t } u | c | l d | | d t t | | n l | 0 | 0 c t
0t|n tn m | || , b t || n0| }m t| \t c tn
0 c t | t t n . 1 . t | d t b t u t m t | d t t
U c | k a t m t | n l d c | | c 0 t t m t | d t t U |
k t t t m t | n l d c | | l c | | t t n m t | d t
a
n
0 t t t b t u t 0 u(d 0 | t l t b t t | n | | 0 l l u n
cu | t t1 | m tt0 tn 2. m t |d t |0 tc |c
| l d t n b t t | | | t m t t 0 t n c | a W c a k t
u n 0 U c t l c n n 0 t t b t | | | l d t n t | | tAt
l d c | | a c | | | | k | n 0 | t l t t | | n } t | c k | | c n
t | n t l t 6 |
|t|c| | 0| t 0o ttt|un 0cn 0| tltm }tn|tc|tn
b|cn0unk| cua, lc m|t0 0| t Rn|mct| cu|0| tlt \tc tn
0tm |ct|dtn0tn bt| || n|d| nut h| ctt|| bttbtltun
un0 ]| t| 0ta t|n}t|ntn \c| | ta 0ttldc||tn, lcn0ttn |n
cud m|| d||tt ||n0t|n ||dkt|| btt b|tc|t| t 0n0
Tck||k 0tt bt|||lmtn Utcccn0c bt| tttn.
4.
n| ttludtnm|t nun cu|0ttbtun0| ct 0tt| ttm||
tmcnntntn |tktnn|n| |lt, m|t Hd 0| tlt btltbm|-
bt|| tn|n0tt tld| d|||dtn |tk|| dkt|| b t|||| cbtn,
um 0cn | tt cua 0|t \0t0 |tta tu||tn |tbt0s
0c| | } 0 ttktnntn.
1 51 6 btcd| t 0tt tn|| ldt b|cc|akcn)| tt Tcmca
Wctua lt|n ttk ,b|c| c ttcus. B|tlta bum |||
t|ntn| ldt|0tn0tt Uunk| |n 0tt btld| d|t0tt bt| ||ldtn
Utcc cn0c. Wctua ldu| 0cm|| t|nt ]ulcmmtn-
|cllun 0tt |tc0|||dnt| | tn t t|n, ncm 0tntn 0| t
28
|n|000tt l t| | 0tt bt0n0un | tt b|cc|ts |tt
b|cc|ac||c|| dn c0|t]dtn c|Itn, md| cm Hd|
but||tn|n0tm ]ctun0tt|0ta tn0|c |tn Ht| t ta t tn
\tcnktt|d. ca b|a 0c|n cn |t|ctun tn 0n0
Mn|||t0 tlcmmt||mdt0tn mct, |It 0tt Hcn}| tt t
|d|m| |0 t|n Lttlg||tm. |t m|| t 0cb t| 0tn t,
0c tt 0t0 J0tc|]u||cn0 }t|dnt|t, |n 0tm |n
| cn0 c|a ,b|d| c ]0t |t0|tn b|t| ttun lt|ntt Ut|n
]|| tn |nUd || ||b0n0Utdccn0c tbcmmtnlt|nm|t0.
B| t Tcb||b 0tt t||cnldcuunamcabt un0 0| t
b|tc|t|t 0tt btutnlc||un ||n0tn Hd | n 0tn Utd
ccn0ctt]tItn 0ta Wdt0a ]0 tn||tm bn0n|a.
B| t b|c|tt [bt||tn| |cntn, m|t Wctua | tt|,
,n|d| | t|d||tt|| t|ntn Ht| t cn, ta lt| 0tnn, 0m tn|
mt0tt | tt bttn}t0 }0 ld00tn, d0tt 0m 0| t btntt,
0|t |n 0ca btb| t| |ttt \ttun0t t|nt0tun tn Hn0, ]0
0tt|tt|b tn. Bca |un Ht c| | t|n cua Wtnldtn||tbt.
H0t c0a Wtn|dtn|| tb t! tac| b mc| cud 0| t
t| t 0tt }t|||dtn L| tb tab t}tuun tn 0n0 Hd lt
ncmtn 0tt U|btt, 0| t m|| |n| cn0 }0 |un cb tn,
ht|n |n0t n|mm|!
bn0 nun 0| t |u|dbtc|||dt btutnlc||0n. B| t
b|d| tt [bt|Itn| m| ||tn cud cn} u|, 0cp ,m|| 0| t|

t|0 0|t \t|n0t tmn|| d ]0 ttbcu|t0 0n0 ttn


lt||| cu|]u thtn Hn0, lt| ta 00td Utttc| d0tt c0d
00td |n|}mt|un .
Rm b| | | |||tn b tt| mc0 t|n m|0tt|Ittb tn0ta
Ud|b, ,|n0tm mcn 0utm Rua|thun t|nta Utt| lta cu|
0t0 Hc| 0ta btntta un0 0utd bt||tdun |ttm0tt
Ud ||I|htt 0tn \t|n0 0utd Utttc| |m t|tntn Lc tt ]0
btlt|||tn |um|; t||n| 0| ta n| d|, ld mttb t mcn
|ttm0t b|0ntt cn.
b
bin0 0cnn lie b|d|tt }0 iqrrm Lt|0mt|M
t)muntn, t|ntm |ttm0tn Lcn0 0tn ht| t )0 tt-
k| ttn, um 0| t humcnt Wtn|mtn||tb t )0 btt| t|0|tn,
0cnn ,|ct tn Ht 0c|t, 0c |c|ct| ncm 0tt Ht|ta-
ttk| tun t|m||m un0 )0 | t|dtt ]t|| cn 0tn cm
mt|||tn |n 0| t Rutn |c| | tn0tn Uunk|tn 0ta |t|n0
||dtn Lcn0ta }c|tt| dt, m|| |ttm b|cc|aHtt| gt-
|| tmt| |t Utck|cmc||dntn cnt|d|ctn mtt0tn; 0cnn
btt|ttmtn Ht tmc|||t bt| dnun 0tm, 0tt 0tn
tntt| |dtn \t||tn cua 0tm t t tum|; |c0cnn
l t0rn Ht tt|nttt, cbtt ncd |mmtt ttd| |Ic|| || dt
Utt| |t cu| 0| t h|t t|n}t|ntt Wnntt, 0tttn Hcmtn
|| t |n 0tn|t|b tn Rn|d|tn btkcnn| tbtn. Bca Hn0
0| t Wnntt, 0| t Ht nd|| 0tn Lcn0ta|t||tn |t 0| t
bttbtt 0ta t tn Ht t|dm|t0t|tn U| cnta c|| tn.
|b tn| c ttn Ht cum 0|t btd|t|tn |t|b tt t tn | tt
btnc||tn cu| m| I 0tn|t| btn Utm| tn un0 0c}u ndd
unItt ]uHdttun 0tt b|tc||cHkt||. bd kcmmI ta
|dnt| | 0c|n, 0cp 0| t btdIt|tn c| | t cn0tttn Wtn
|dtn | m Utt0cdI cbtn, Hd lt| brt t tn|t||| n| dI
mtt Itcutn un0 kt|n Utt|tcutn mtt tn| ttn.
W|| 0tt |nntttn btutn|c||un |n bt|| c|I 0tt
Uc| ka)tt|tmmttun m|t0 cud 0| t upttt |dmun
c|| bt|t| tb tn. B|t b|c|tt [bt||tn| ,|tn ]m| t|tcd|
cua un0 nttn Ht. \c| |a 0| t |nntttn Uct|t|unt1
0tt|ctn, |tcdt|n Ht 0|t 0tn \t|n0tn btncdbct|tn
U|ktt cu| un0 thtn Ht |n 0tn hcm|, |n0tm Ht
|t tn0t|ntn c| |tn td|abtud cuatcb tn, um 0tn [
n
hn|t n| t btt| t tn Hn0. hcb tn Ht bt| ||cn0 |m
ht| t t btt|tcmtn, |d |httn Ht| ntn h|| |a t|0tt|ct|
| cu|tn0 )0, [t0cd h| ||akt1|| t cua |ttn r|gtntn bt
ttn nut cu|a |ct|cm|| t.
J
bc o|ht un0 t0t|hI 0ua lu|chtut| |dt ht| ta-
tlm|t 0tt bIc| tt [bt|ttn} . ,ottc|| |n 0tt t|t
m|tttn Ht b |0nttun0 lth|mtn || t in 0tn t|t. | t|t
|d| ctn Hd |t 0| t Utc| tt rrn u||t t||,
mt| | |htt B| tn|It 0cn 0| t|tn |c cd ot)uh|t mtt0tn
m| t lcn|I n|ttn0a. tnn n||, tt|)tn Ht 0| tlt
b|0ntt 0utd 0| t tItn Utt|ttdun tn un0 lthtn
Ht cn 0tt bIt| | t 0tt tttn bt|cht t|n, mtahc| o
0tnn cud mt| |Itna t|n tctt Tt| | 0c0cn ct n| dt
}ut|| n|ct0ttun 0tt 0tt|tcdtntn bt|chnun ]0tm
kthtI. J|I 0tt t| tg b ttn0
r
I, 0cnn |ttn Ht 0tn bt
|tItn 0| t ht| takc |Itn cu|. ||nkn|tt 0| tltt Rtt
hcotn l| t [thI o t| 0| t| tn HcI| cntn, 0| t ncd un0 ncd
cua 0tt|d| t0tn|ttn ut|cdtn tnt|tcn0tn un0 o|a cu|
ott rOO 000 BukcItn |m ]cht cn tmcd|tn Hn0. Jn
0|tlt btH0untn ld|6tn Ht | htt bttt unttt 0tm
Hcmtn 0u|Icttn [mmtttt| , 0| t 0ctt |n b|un} un
n
UtcdI | tbtn un0 c|a tct httttn cu|tttItn. Ro tt ta
o| t| oI 0cd ncd 0| t| ot|, 0ca |n 0tn btcctaldcb
cbt|htI m| t0.
bc |dtt|bt t|n tn|||dtt cn}| tt |m cua thtn0tn
W|IIt| c|ttt. B| t|t bht Hn0 nun o tt 400 ]ctt c|I
un0 mut0tn 0tt|ct, c|a Luthtt ncd Wnm 0tt tm|-
l
ldtn| tdtmct, c| lc }u t|ntt ]t|t,|n 0tt ncdmtn|d-
||dtt Uct|It||un 0|t bcnnt Hd ncm um 0|t |t0t
0tthIt. Wcn mu Hd 0| ta |mmtt m| t0tt 0ct Ru tn
c|Itn,0tnn ctI |t ctI knnIt cuaun|tttnTutn
|Icmmtn.
Ru|tmh|t 0cn 0tn tcttn|kun|ldtn |tktnnt
n| l|tn, o tcnn |m |c|tn0tn ]uhthun0ttt }um tt|ttn
Wc| t 0tt dt| |t||dt btun0 0ta Ro tn0|unta ]0
ftmcnhm un0 Jl otbtn. Uct 0tt

uu|gtbtcdtntn

Untn0||dkt|| m|m |0tcc |n 0| t bttt||mt |ddt.
|t J0td|d| t 0tt |n0|0|00t| | tn b| dttt|| dtt||t|t
0d c0s.
| t tn|| lmt b|cc|ac||c|| cn btt| ff ltt tcld
0| tjt b|0n0t.
|s mct lt|| c||ttatt tn|| ldt Tck||N, 0| tbdcd-
}0t 0tt ttc| tn Uc|| ||k tcccn0| l||ld 0utd b|t|d-
lthun m|| 0tn \ct0ttuntn 0ts | tmt| |a |||tn
t||b| |0ta }0 |ctntn. Btt h0mcn| j| Wctua 0mk| t|-
0t|t 0|t |tcbtt0nack||cntn lt|ntt |d|tt ndm m||
0tt h| | t ,0mcnt Wtnldtn|| tbt1 c| lc t|ntm }tn
|tc| tnbtt| ff c0a 0tmJ0ttntft 0tahumcn|smua:
0tnn |m]ntt lt|ntt Utcccn0c mct 0|t 0mc-
n|j||ld tb| |0t|t 0bttld|d|. Uct 0tm Uc|kt ||t tt
dnt )mt|ft| cn0tts, d0tt dtlltt tlcu|, dt| j||| dtt t-
ltdmtn 0n0 0| t |d|tt ft |t|j|0s |ns \t|0 }|tt n
| cjltn.
Jm 1 r. ]ct0n0tt| ttfc| 0cs b0ttt|| dt tnNtn
0| t j|cc|a|tctn0tn 0bttld|d|tn 0tt t0tc| ldt0
U|ktt. | t dt| j|||dt t|||dn 0ttf||d| d m|| |m,
b | t|b| cbtt |n 0tn Wcjltn ncd m| t00t 0| t md||j|t
J0td| d| t.
D d n 00n cn bd nj|t0| tt| 0 |t b t||| ld t
U t d c c n 0 c 0 | t b t t n l c h c c t t | t t t
T c k|| k ]0 It|d ncd d t|j|I|d tt 0n0
b t ttI|d tt btt|ffI|d k t||. B0td 0tn
P0fj||t 0ts U0t||cn|am0a f||| 0cbt| |n 0tt dt| j|-
| |dtn Wcahttc0t 00t c| | tm |n 0tt |nnttc||||ldtn
WcIltnc| |c||cn 0ca bdmtttm| d| c0f 0cs Rl|t
Ttj|cmtn|.
32
Wcn ntmt Hd t|nt bt|| tb|u t, |t Wc||tn0ttbtt!-
|0n btj||mm|t tnu||jdt b|cc|sjdt| f| t|mc c0s 0tt
W|||t 0ts 1 7. ]ct0n0tt|s 0ct. b| t m|t0 |n 0tn
mt| j|tn \|| tn jc c0|utb c0| jt|n, 0cp Ht 0tn btmt|
ft 0| t |m|| ukt|| | ttt btc0|0nu tn m|| h| |ft 0tt
tttn 0n0 Btnkb| |0tt 0ts R||tn Ttj|cmtn|s} 0ftt0
0ttj0d|. Btt b| cc|a0b ||}| j| ]cn W|| |cn 0ttkn0t|t
0cmc|s jt|ntn k|cjHjdtnbch. ,B| t |nu| n0tt Hn0 m|t
t|nj| 0| t ]00tn 0cs c0sttm||t Uc|k bc||ts.
ct cb ttt|nt jc|dt bdt|f|}0t Uttbtt||0n | n0tt
bt|tt| tntt0b||k0tat0tc|jdtnbtu tt|0msut0cd|,
jd m0t0tn |n | t0| t |nu |n0tt jc|ct| } 0Uctkmfttn
0tt J0tc| t 0| tjts |n|ttnc|| cnc| tn btmt|nmtjtn tt-
cbtn. |nu |cn0 ttjd|tn 0cnn c|s hct| 0tt To| ttcn},
0tt Btnk|tt|t||, 0tt h0mcn| || 0n0 0ct c| | tm 0tt
b|dttt|| 0t Jn0|0|000ms. Jm Wcpt, | \ 0tm 0| t
b|b||jdt Wg|c| c| t |n 0tn kcmmtn0tn ]ct0n-
0tt|tn c0d |n btt|| tttn bd| d|tn 0ttb|cp|, tn|n|mm|
0| t bt||| jdt Utccu cn0c | tt |ck||jdt j|0nu mtt
un0 mtt 0tm bttt||dtn bt}|tk. |n Ic n 0 i j|
|t h| c 0 d 0 c t u t c p t m \ c t 0 m n | d | n 0 t
W t j[| cs t t|d 0 ts RI| tn 1 tj| cm t0| tsI
c 0 s t t m | | t s U c | k 0 t s ] t j c | c 0 n 0
b d | t m t t t 0 t s | t | j| t n | 0 m s , j d n 0 t t n
t n c 0 j d b | h 0 t t h c t m d n | t , 0 t s \ d t | -
[ d t | | | s , 0 t t | n 0 | 0 | 0 0 t | | t n \ t t | t | |
0 n 0 0 t t 0 m c n t na1iD, c | j c c | | t t h c d-
m tt| t 0 ts b t ttI| d tn ) t| |cI| tts. tt
| t h| | n u | c n 0 c 0 f j t | n t m ) 0 u } 0 t | | -
t t c b t t 0 n u 0 n 0 t | | u t j d f | | 0 t t -
|| cn0 }0 | t| [| tn m c u |, m | t0 0 cn 0 tt b ti -
| | j d t n U t c c u c n 0 c m | | 0 t t Lc 0 t [ d -
33
W | b t L ( 1 ti ft U b If i n0 r d I| c |+ cu d
0 t t t d t n T | t+ t | | b c t b c t t | un 0 T g
tcnn t| b ttu r r tn.
Jm hcmf u tu tn \tcnktt|d bttkn0t|t 1 804 t|n
bt| || ldta Wcn| ftj| 0| t bt||| |dtn Ht| tua}| t| t . ,|t
kmftn, 0m 0| t ucn}t |t0t bct 0tm bctbct| ldtn
ftcn}0ldtn ]dd, 0ct0tm m| |||t| |dtn Btlc||amua,
}0 b tmcttn. |t kmftn ft 0| t ncbnu|ukt|I
c| | tt Hc|| cntn, jt| bj| 0tt[ tn|utn, 0| t u tutn 0nltt
bd| dlc| cm u | t| du|||u j|tn d0tt |n Uttb | tn0ung
t|fttld||u c0f 0n|ttn c| j|cn0 Hn0.
1 884 0ttlc 0tt U|}tkn|u 0cn Jn0| tn, Ldt0 |0t-
j0n, lt|n b0d ,Utdb|tmt 0ta 0t| tn|a m|| fc |u tn0tt
|0munu . ,R| | tn | tntn )uutt|unt|, 0| t 0c u| cub tn,
0c 0ca bt| || ldt hn|utt| d 0cm bd| dlc| cuattkdttn
m0t0t, 0tt utp| t | t u t|ttnt bttttldtt c| | ta bu| tn
c0f 0| tltt |t0t }0 lt|n. cbt| |0t)dn 0ca b0|t |m
b|nnt 0tt btutt||dtn Tt|n| || 0ta bu|tn, cttn
0n0 bdntn mt|n|,m| |0ttH|thldtld 0ttn|dttn0 cb-
utttdnt| c|.
)m| ldtn 0tt |tk| t0nu 0cn 1 804 0n0 0tt |0
m0nu 0dn1 884 ||tutn0| t cd|]ct)tn|t, |n0tntn0ca
]00tn|0m|n |nu| cn0 |t|0m| tttn0 0| t Wcd| cn
Hd
utt| jltnc|. |a | j|0| t)t||,| n0tt htntgUc|mttj| cn0| t
|ck||ldtn 0n0 j|tc|tu| ldtn hnj| t 0tt bt|||ldtn Utc-
cucn0c muj|ttu||| u 0dttrtt)| tt| c|, 0n0 }0u | t|d
0| t b|0n0t 0tt Wcndtj|ttRu||c||cn.
1 81 r ttld| tn |n Ldn0dn 0ca bud ,bt0n0|t 0tt
Ud|kam|t|ldcf|a|ttt 0n0 btj|t0tt0nu. bt|n Utt-
|clltt mct 0tt bt|||ldt btltnltku| cn| un0 bcnk-
j00t Bc0|0 | tct0d. B| t U0|kaR|t||dc|Ia| ttt bes
4
]urn itct0c, 0tt 0ctt mtittt]ut, mc bmt tm0tt
ac|tt,m0t0t t|n mctb tn0tabtun0bum 0tt bt|||jdtn
Jn0jtt| t un0 cttt |n 0tn htt|jtn tt tn||jdtn
un|ttntmtt tp|t|tkun. Jn0tn 0tt|p|tt]cttn
0ta 1 9. ]ct0ntt|a tn0t|tn |cb0tn 0n0 bt|I
in Wundtj|tt 0| t j0tncnn| t Wcndtj|ttUct| t|, 0|t
in tc| kc|tr Uttftm tun 0tt Lrtt |rctca 0tn
tt|ntn \tt|cn0t| fdt0tt| t 0n0 ttn 0| t hctn}| | t
t|nt R| |c|| cn 0cn b|attn| t tjthtntm R0amcp cuf
JOQ. Bcbt| hcn0t| |t ta Hd 8t|ntamta um t|nt m|tt
|dcft|| dt, |cn0ttn um t|nt pc|||| |dt Utcccn0c.
0|t c|a Jnj|tumtn| |m hcmf 0m 0| t c||t|j dt Wcd|
:|n t|tht mut0t. | a | j| tt c 0 t 0 ca t| tn
| m | | d t h t n n } t | d t n 0 t t t n | | | d t n
U t c c c n 0 c , 0 c p l | t 0 | t c | | | | l d t
P k | | c n 0 t m U t | m c | 0 t t | t | j d c f |
unt ttj| t| || un0 0 cm|t p|ut J r ct| jd tn
Ch c t c k | t t c n n | m m |.
Jn tmc|t|tn Wc|jtn0ttjcmm|unu t
n
jtcdtn | t
!\t0ntt tt Wcndtj| ttct|t| 0| tt ]chtt |cn btt 0| t
]c||ftct. B| tftt| t t0tmct 0cam| dt|ujtt ttk}tu
0ttWcnmtj|ttc| |c|| cn. b| t m0t0t0tt||tf|00td t| nt
\|ut 0cn Btudjdt|f| tn. B| t R|tct| cna)tn|tc| t bt
jdf|| | t n|d| mtn|tt c|a 500 Uttjcntn. 0fftn||| dt
Btmcnj|tc|| cntn 0utd}ctn 0| t bttt. B| t Wtnt
tt 0tttt| |ttn \|0jdt|]|tn j|| t b| a }0 0tt 0umc|a
hcn| cj|| ldtn ht 0cn 9 W|| || cntn |rtm| cttn. m
u cn} }0 0ttj| thtn, mca 0ca ht|p|, mup mcn Hd 0tt
ttnmt||u tn, 0cp 0| t )ch| 0tt h|tt fthtt mt|
tt|ntt mct c| a | t| un0 m|| 0tt ht0||tn ct n| d|
}0 0tt | t| dtn | j|. Btt umfcn 0tt Wcndtj| tt
R||cI| cn c| t|ntt innttc||||jdtn Wc||tnbtc|n-
35
f|0[l0n m0t0t ttj| 0dn0tt Utdccn0c 0tt na||dnc|
[d]| c|| j||ldtnt0d|0||dn tttt|d|0n0 b tt|tc||tn. b | t
0 | | t t 0 | n s k m | | t c | s 0 t 0 | l d t U t c
P 0 cn0 c 0m 0 | t | | j| tn} | t ta U c | k ta,
0 | t W cnd t j|L t- R || c || n c |a b t||| |d t
0 c t t n 0 m ) c | | 0 n 0 \ t t | c n 0 t | , u m
b t l d f | 0 n 0 b t | 0 t t t l d c f |.
Jm |t|dtn ]ct}tn|, |n 0tm 0| t Wcndt j|tt
||c|| dn ttf|nt| m0t0t, ttl d| tn Uc|mttj|dn c0f 0tt
pd||||ldtn bnt. |t b|| tb W|n| j|tt b|s 1 865, c| | tt-
0|ns m|| n|ttbttd0ntn, 0c |n 0| t n||n
|k|dt|c mttn ktcjltt Wt|nunabttld| t0tnt||tn
mtt|cd tn|fttn|t. Ttch0tm c||t Uc| mttj|cn t|n
Wtnldtnc||tt 0| t )ut| 0tt bt||||dtn Ruptnc |||| k
mctbtn0 | n 0tt hcn0.
h0t} 0dt |m c||t tn|| ldt btu|t| tt 0| t Jnlt|
b|}| || tn |ns R0t u t|cp|. 1 0 000 Wcnn tnu|| ldtt
btlc00n m0t0tn 0ct| 0n| ttc| |tn 0n0 0tt

| |0-
kchtnd|||| ktt btn||nd c|a b t0c| | md||| tt Utt|tt|tt
|n|cn0s cn0tn }| || ldtn hc|t|d|d|. 1 8 1 2 b tucnn
tt tmp 0tn tt|n 0tt Tck||k Uc |ka}tt|rmmttunu
|n b|}||| tn lgj| tmc||ld ttn 0| ttu| ttunu}u m| tn.
| t 0cb t| cntlth| t tccucn0c mut0t cu| t| |0n
btn||nda 0n|tt 0tt t||cn|dcuunuamcakt bt|t| tb tn,
b|}|| |tn mllt ,|n t|n Uctb| |0 kcnI|||0|| cnt| | tt \tt| t||
ft 0| t 0n|tt0td|tn U|ktt 0ts W||| t|mtttta 0m-
tmcn0t|| mtt0tn. h|n|tt0tt Utcco cnc cb tt j|cn0,
00td 0|t m| |||t|ldt Uctbttt||uno bt| t0d|t|, 0ca
bt0|c| t btHd| 0tt tn || ldtn btmc| |c ||||k.
Rla \ct| | thtt un0 |t|| | tt |c|dtt Ttc0|||cn |tc|
Uc|mttj|dn 0n.
36
R|a tt 0tn Utt|ud un| ttncm, 0j| tttt| d }0
|dmdtn, btcd|t cud tt 0| t Tck||k Uc|ka}tt|tmt-
tun |n bcn. | t0tt mctf t|n tn||jdtt W|n| j|tt 0| t
tt0c|u||cntt \cdt| | n t|n fttm0ta Lcn0. Bcp 0cb t|
bt|cn0tta |m h|nb ||d cuf J|c|| tn 0| t tn|| |dt Rk||cn
tttd| t btj|ttbuntn un|ttj|h|t, j| t|| ft 0|t bt-
ut|t| |un 0tt bt||||dtn hcn0t|amt||t ct kt|nt c| | t.
R|a 0j|tttt| d t|nt Wcpncmt |tcf, 0| t |n| cn0 n|m|
in 0| t tdnun cp| t, jdt|tb Uc|mttj|cn u| bttt
hd ncd | tn, 0cp 0| tjt tck|cmc|| cn 0cn | |0tn
tt|cjjtn }0 | t|n |dt|nt un0 mtt0tn bctbct| |dtn bt-
btudtn | n j| 0ttcntntt ]chthun0tt|t c|a 0tm
bt| j| 0tt [ th| tn )t|| tn|jtdt. Jj| 0ca n|d| cn}
tncu 0| t btu tt| |d| t Tcnct| 0tt bt||||dtn tcc-
cn0c ttn 0| t nc|| cnc| |c}| c|| j|| | dt Uc|kafhtun
|n [ nj|tt )t|| Uc|mttj|cn 0ttfcp|t |t|n un0tt-
|dm| ta bdtt|b tn |m ]ctt 1 848, un0 0cd knn|tn
|t|nt bht tb tn|c |n 0tt tn| | |dtn tcccn0c 0ta
]ctta 1 939 }0 f|n0tn [t|n.
1 840 ttcb Uc|mttj|cn }0m btun0t|th |t|ntt
c||||jdtn b|tc|t| t 0| t bht . ,Wcn 0ctf n|t t|ntn
b|tdnc0t| kcf cuftb tn, 0tn mcn ftj|c| |tn | c| | |t
un0 0tn mcn ftj|c| |tn }u knntn u!cub|. n0 |t| b j|
mtnn mcn 0tnk|, 0cp mcn |n cm | th|tn |n0t n| d|
ftj|}uhc||tn 0ttmc, |c| | mcn | c 0| t| t bdm| tt|kt||tn
mcdtn, m| t mcn |ttn0 0c}0 |n 0tt Lct | j|, bt0ct
mcn 0tt}| d|t|.
Rud 0| t|t t|aht|| mut0t Ttc0|||cn. Wcn Ht|
bt| 0|tjtn I\c|jd| tn 0cd ttc0t}u 0| t b|tdnc0t|-
kft 0ta htttn |hcmb tt|c|n 0ctbtt}| thtn. 0j|tt-
tt|d, T|dtdcb|cmckt|, R|bcn| tn, Uc| tn.

1 848 btt|i t| Uc|mttl|cn5cni tn ncd0tmUt|n)i
Uc|ka}tt|tmmttunu un|tt ctIcn0tttt 1enutung 0ca
tt0c|u|| cnttn )mtiu ta 0| tI tt lck||k.
R|a Uc| |I|ttdtt c||t tt 0tn cti|iI dtn bt-
lcn0| tn |n Wc0t|0, bit htntg Lg||cn bu|mtt. cua-
ttlttn. Wcn u|nu cuf 0| t u | t|dt t|I t 0ct m|t |m
t||kt| tu u tutn 0ca 0tu|I dt Uc|k, |n0tm mcn 0| t
|nnttt 0c|| cn 0ta bttfc| | tntn Lcn0ta 0utd Ru|
|c||cn un0 bt|0}uldIlt cdt||ld| t, |n Btu|ld|cn0
0| tmctr|I|| l dtnUct|t| tn, |nbcn| tn 0| tUtcuttI l|I|tn.
Un0 u tncu m| t 1 9 1 4-1 9 1 8 |n Btu|ld| cn0, lc b t|t|tb
1 848 |n bcn| tn 0|t bt||| ldt Utccucn0c 0tn b|ut}
0tt I cn|ldtn tu| ttunu un0 0| t Uttmcn0|unu 0ta
lcniI dtn b|cc|ta |n t|nt |nu |cn0 u tctdtn0t t
ub||k. B| t lcn| ldt b| cc|aftunu ut|ff cbtt ttd|
}t||| }0, fdt0tt|tbu|mtt cuf, |n 24 b|un0tn bcn| tn
}0 0tt| cIltn un0 tt||t|t 0cm|| | t Uc| k un0 Lcn0 0ct
0tt bt||| l dtu Mntd|l dcf|. | tt|nt|| | |d 0| t bt||| ldt
t0c|u||cnatccucn0c 1 848 | nbcn|tn 0n0 1 91 8 |n
Btu|Id|cn0 ctb t| | t|t, m|t0 cua t|ntm btt| d| 0tt
tnu |iI dtn hniu|n U|k|ct|c k| ct, 0tt |n0t 1 848 tn|-
I|cn0 un0 0| t| fcd mt| ||d in t|nt bd| |0ttunu 0tt
tnu|ildtn htht | n Btu|Id | cn0 mttn0 0ta t| |-
kt|tuta bttncmmtn mtt0tn knn|t. Ui k|ct|cIdtt| c|,
,0cp b|t htntg bu| mtt |n 0tn | tb|tn 0tt| ]cttn
m|| c||||I dtn Jn|t|utn bt|nct bct| ut|t| tbtn c|.
|t tm|t I|d, m|| [ t0tt UttIdmtunu 0tt|tcu| }0
I t|n, cbmc| tt 0cft bctu t |tcut, n|d| ttln|| d
bt| t| ||u| }0 ttldt|ntn. Hcd 0tn t|nu t|tt|tntn mtt
fcdtn W|ttfc| utn b tttb ttu| t tt un|tt 0tm Uct-
mcn0t 0tt humcn||| 0| t 0t|afttt |n lt|ntm
hcult. bt| [ t0tt ht|a ucb tt }u 0ttl|ttn, 0cp mcn
38
)mHdtn tintt t0c|u||cn un0 t|ntt Ud|d[||n|t|t
mh|tn knnt. |a | j| u|d| | cnut htt, 0c tt cn Ldt0
Uc|mttj|onjdt| tb, mtnn0| tWcnctdi tuna unbt1utm
mtt, 0ttmu t tt t|nt tub||k htt}0j|t| | tn.
Jm ]chtt 1 850 b tucnn 0| t 0t| tn|c||||k Uc|
mttj|cna, bt| tdtn| cn0 cu|a hctn }u nthmtn. | t0tt
uth| |nu| cn0 t|ntm |ttm0tn Uc|ht m| | t0c|u||cna
tccu cn0c }0 Lt| bt. | t0tt m|t0 t|n htttjdtt
0utm bt||||dt hthtun0 0cn |nu| cn0 bt}ch||tRutn|tn
b t|t|||u|.
B|t ut|td|j dt bt0|kttunu hc||t j|d u tutn 0| t
\ttdht| |tn 0ta tnu ||jdtn ]u0tn Bc0|0 c}||| tc
0tcj|| jd tmtt| un0 0cb t| t|n|ut Wbt| }0jcmmtn
utjd|ctn. B| tjtt u tt|nu||t Rn|cp mut0t 0cn
Uc|mttj|cnbtnuh|, umm||| tn |m \t| t0tn,}0t | t0tt
ttj|t| |unu 0ta td|a 0| t R||cdt u tutn bt| tdtn
|cn0 }u b tu|nntn. )ut ,chtunu 0tt \tt|ht|| un0
btttd||ukt|| ttjd| tn 0chtt 0| t tnu|| jdt \| c||t btt
tcjdtn0 |n0tn ut| td| |dtn btmjjttn, btjd |cuncmtc
c||t ut| td| j dtn hcn0t|a| d| f|t, 0ttbc| 0| t \ijdttt|,
rcub|t 0tn \| |dttb ctktn 0| t Bt|ckt|unu un0 )mcnu
bt|tdcn|cn0 0| t b| cd\c0t cu|. hn|u 0||c I. 0cn
bt|tdtn|cn0mup|tncdu tb tn, jt|nRnjthtn |m t|u tntn
Uo|kt jcnk. 1 859 un|tt| cu tt 0tm Btud, 0tn Uc|
mttj|cna tbc|u||cnatccucn0c tn|fcd| c||t, un0
0tt| ct [t|ntn Thtcn.
Wcn knntt 0|t Ru|)h|unu 0tt tt0c|u||cnttn
Utccucn0c|t| j|unutn 0ta htttn Uc|mttj|dn ncd
|cnut mt||tt|ttn. | t jd|| tptn h| tt cb, 0tnn ta
j|t| [ tb| |tj|, 0cp tt 0| t \| cmmt 0tt t0c|u||cna
tcccn0c |n c| | tn \|l tn cusjd| | tp||d tn|)n0t|
39
c|, 0m 00td Uc| 8a}tt|tmmtt0n 0cs |m0tt| c-
|| j|| |dt bt|d|| 0tt bt||| |dtn Uc||||k tt|c| tt| d }0
d t|tt|b tn. btc0dtn m|t ncd bt|cn0tta }0 |ctn, 0cp
c0d 0| tjtn tn| ||dtn n| ttntm0ntn 00td 0| t Utc-
0ccn0c 0| tt| |cn|dcuunamcaktc0| t|th|m0t0t
W|n| j|tt Uc|mtt||cn hc| Ht |n 0tt \tct Uctmc |t| b j|
]0jcmmtn t|t|m| m|| 0tt Uctc| t. ,Bcs Uc|k W|||t|-
t0tcca hc| t|n 0|ta td|, |t|nt btbttt|dtt }0
mtd|t|n.
R|a 0tt j|tttt| d| |dt\t|0}t0mt| j|tt 0cn hcgnc0
1 850 0n| tt 0tm bduh 0ta bcj|ttd| ts |n Lcn0cn
mt| || t, m0t0t t|n 0c|| || |dtt btt|c| | c0| | bn 0ttb|.
Uc|mttj|cn bttp| t 0| t|tn t|||tt|| dtn Rk| 0n0 bt-
0c0tt|t nut, 0cp tt n| d| tn0|| dtt c0a|| t|. ,B| t
T|tt, |c |dt|tb tt c|a W|n| j|tt 0ts R0amt|| t0 cn
0tn W|n| j|tt 0ts Jnnttn, ,Hn0 }0 |c0t| n mt

tn 0tt
Rt| 0n0 t| jt, c0f 0| t || t 0ct|n tn. b| c|| hcgnc0
}0 [d|ctn, h||tn || t |n c0| t|ntm bt||0d 0ta
f|tttn |n 0| t ht |d| t00ttn, 0cnn dt0tn|||d |n 0tt
bd j|t m|}tn 0n0 |dat ||d |n t|ntt Btc| dkt ht|m-
[d| dtn |d| | tn. bc|0 0ctc0f m0t0t 0tt t| td| |dt
hn| 0||d I. 0cn 0tt bt||||dtn htht |dmtt 0tt-
| t0m0t| 0n0 c| a ,Bmcn bt}t|dnt|. | t mcn || th|,
0| tUtcccn0c |n|un0a |up| c0d bt| 0tt 0n|||| tn
bt|d|m|0n 0tt b| cc|amnntt t|nta cn0tttn Uc| kta
c0f c|| tt 1tc0|||cn. hn| |n U| k|ct| c mcn0|t j| d
1 850 |dctf, cb tt 0tttb||d ttn 0| t|ta bt0n0bt|
dt||| jdttUtcccn0c 0n0 tmt|t j| d |n t|ntm bt| tf
0d tt ,0| t mcp|c|t t| |t, m|| 0tt ||tn|||d Wnntt
0ts R0a| cn0ta, 0| t0n|tt |dm|tt|tn Utth||n| j|tn0n0
0n| tt 0tm Bt0d 0tt Uttcn|mct||| dkt|| thcn0t||
hcbtn, cnt|d0|0|| 0n0 0tt0t|t| || mtt0tn, dbnt
40
tncut Jn|ctmc|| cn un0 btmt| lt ]u cb tn, 0| t cu|
tn0| |mtt un|ttludun bttutn.
B| t hcn0|unamtHt Uc|mttl|cna ctcd|t 0ca Uc| k
ucn 0l|tttt|d 0ttct| |n |tttun, 0cp lt|nt ct|||dt
btm|act| l| d |n bc||0ttltn Lu|| mcd|t 0n0 0cbt|
0tn tth||dtn t|m |n um| cuf lth| t.
,hc| 0tt Ttuft| t|ntn bcn,
bc | j| ta Hdtt Uc|mttl|cn|
0b 0tt b|cmmb cum |cmb tt|c|na |m t| dt 0tt
| d|un cud ldcn u tmt0|| mut0t, tn|}| t| Hd
unltttt tnn|n|a.
Rudncd Uc|mttI|cn c| |n| cn0 0|t c||tWt|c0t
n| d| cu|t tb tn, lcn0trn fct|t|th|. bc t|mc, um
nut t|ntn \c| | }untnntn, b t| 0tt bt||tttt||uno 0cn
u|tn |m]
a
tt1 882. brcpct|| cnn| tnc t|rc|Bou|tn
0n|tt

0tm Uctmcn0, ta m||t 0ca ou|| |dt Uc| k
ttn 0| t Tutcnnt| lt|nta httr|d] tta |dhtn. cu
Lcn0 mut0t btlth| un0 0cncd ttn 0tn | | | t
n
0tr
Ru|tt btu|c| |n 0ca t| |tt|d | nt|nt}mun tn.
bttn |n0t 0ta ]ctun0tt|a c| \t|| b|amctd
|m h|nb|| d cu| 0| t Tck||k 0tt Uc | ka}tt|tmmttun
01a tltn 0tt bt|||ldtn Rutnc||||k knc un0
bn0| m|| t|ntm bch tktnn}t| dnt| . ,\ttm0t
b|cc|tn m|| h| | |t 0tt t0c |u|| cn }u b t0tctn, | ||
tu|}u|ct lt|| t|ntt }| tm|| dtn t| t 0cn ]cttn 0ca
btmttb t |n| cn0a.
Btu||d|cn0 c| mt0tt cuf 0tn cn}| tt ncd c0f
0| t bt|d| d| t tt|. bc mct ta 0cnn m| |d, 0c
0tt tn ||ldt Urtm| ttm|n|j|tt L|cu0 btctt m|| h| | ft
0tt utc| |tn Wt| c0t 0tt |n| n0tt, 0tn ,\t|n0 00td
41
Utttc| |m t|tntn Lctt }u ]tt|dmt||ttn, 0| t
tnu|| |dt Utcccn0c |mt||kt| t ncd0tm |m]ctt
1 91 6 cm||| d 0tt|ftn| || d|tn bt0n0|c0 ,Bt0||dt
knntn n0t 00td Bt0||dt btHt| mtt0tn |c tt|c|-
tt|d ctbt||tn |itp, 0cp 1 91 8 0|t tcpt )c| 0tt t0c-
|u|| cntn, 0| t 0cn 0tt tn|| |dtn R||u||cn |n cn}
|0tcc ttbt|t|t| m0t0tn, Hd 0m t| nt 0t0|[dt
0ttmtt| t. |a mct 0| t Ic0tmbtttt0c| |t.
R0d 0tt Utc}tp 0tt t||kt| tatcccn0c |n-
| cn0a t tn Bt0||d|cn0 0tt| |t| ncd 0tn c| |tn
Uct| dt||| tn 0tt bt0tn|c||0n 0n0 0tt t||-
cn|dc0unamcakttc0t.
B| t c|| t R||c||cn btcbt||cnn| tna ||t|tt|t ||d
|m t||kt| t }u Ruamcptn, 0| t bttcu| tt|| 00td
0|t mc0ttnt |n|mm|0n 0tt Ttdn|k ttm|| d|
m0t0tn. | t mtt0tn 0ctt 0| t tn|||dt ht|j t ttn
0ca 0t0||dt Uc|k |m t| |kt|t cua|t|| d btcn0t|n
0n0 ncd 0tt b|att|tn Bct||t| |0n 0tt bt0n0t|n-
}|| tn cm bt|[| t| 0tt t||kt|tatcc cn0c 0| t
Uttm|tk||d0ng | m tin}t|ntn 0n|tt|0dtn.
Bt0||d|cn0 c0| 0|t hn| t }0 }m|ntn, mct 0ca
ht| ta]| t| btcpbt||cnn| tna. Bcp 0| ta 00td c||tn-
tmc|| c| | t|n n| d| }0 tttt|d| tn mct, 0t||t 0tt
bt||| |dtn Uc||||k | dcn bc|0 ncd bt|nn 0ta Mt| tta
k|ct tmt| tn |t|n. Wcn kcm 0cott }u 0t|n |n||d|0p,
0ca 0t0||dt Uc|k c0| tcccn0| ||||dtm t n| t0tt-
}0|d| ctn, t|nt Tck||k, 0| t |dcn | cnt 0ct 0tm ht| t
t|nt| t||t| mct0tn mct, nunmtt cb tt m| | c| | tn
W| ||t|n 0tt||tk| m0t0t. Icd t|nttn0tn bttc-
|0ntn m0t0t 0c|t |m b|nnt 0tt c||tn bJ0| t|c|tn
0ts bu|| tm ftj| t| t| .
+
tr Pnr|II 0tr tn || |dtn Urccan0c cuI 0ca
tu||dt Uc| k m| r0 ncd 0tn bt|thtn 0tr o tr|| tItr|tn
Tck|| un0 b|rc|t| t 0urd tIr|. ]| t | | || , 0 tn
0 t u | | d t n b | c d 0 u r d U r c c c n 0 c 0 t r
c r | | n t | r t n n | t b | d t c u | ] u | c | | t n ,
0 c p t a c | | | | | d u n 0 m | | | | r | | d n | d |
| d m t r | t | n k c n n , 0 | t c u a t | n c n 0 t r -
t r | | | t n t n 1 t | | t t | n } t | n u n | t r 0 c a


o r|| | r d t J d }u o tu tn.
Btr U| cn ||t| | |t0| tb|rc|t tn 0tr or||| |dtn Urcc-
ucn0c)tn|rc| tn]und || bcr0| tRuIcot, 0| t }urPuI-
|c| |un 0tr 0tu| |t| tn Uc| kat|nt|| tt|gnt|tn J0ttn
cua)u|ud:n. |a oc| tn || d Ir 0| t|ta UtrIchrtn rt|n
| tcrt|| |d )mt| W || dkt||

tn, 0| t ot|0t ucn En| cn0


trkcnn| un0 bc| | cuatnuh| mur0tn. 1 . B| t]tr|thtn-
0tn bt0cnktn mtr0tn trIun0tn un0 ncd tu||d|cn0
h|nt|nt|rc tn. 2. btrt||a bcrcn0tnt c0tr |dmcd
t|d| c||tnt i ||t 0tr 0tu||dtn Uc|kat|n t|| mtr0tn
trmt||tr|, bttrptr| c0trm| t0trcuItr| ||tn. tr tr|| t
brun0|ch mur0t nc|urtmp m|| 0tm }mt||tn |tr
oc|0 btr|dmc |]tn, |c 0cp 0tr nunmthr t|n|thtn0t
1c|c|cnr|II cu| 0| t E|nht|| 0ta 0tu| |dtn Uc | kta |n
0d|| t|d|d|tr t| | t 0| t | t0trtn|Icdun ot|-
t| tItrbcnnuntn 0tr 0tu||d] tnbt|d| d|tbtrt|n|| t
m|| 0tm kn||| |dtn Utrr0trn 0tr un0tn 0tr
btgtnmcr|.
Jn mt| dt brutn btr|ud| t mcn 0ca 0tu||dt
Uc| k ]0 }tr||dt|n | t tr|| t ]tr| tun r|II cuf 0| t
||cmmhcI|tn bn|tr|d| t0t }urd. tn Urtuptn mur
0tn \|uo| ||tr torcd|m|| 0tm h|nmt|a, t knn|tn
||d 0cd n| d | Ir | rtn brIt|n0, 0tn bcgtrn, t|n|thtn.
bt| 0tn bcgtrn t|dc tncu 0ca o| t|d, nur um
4*
4l
g t

tt|.
D
| t }mt| |t ||h|t nc cuf 0| t kcn|t |cnt| | tn
bt tn|1ht |n tu|| d| cn0 un0 th| t 0tn Utc|t||cn|tn
t tn 0tn c|c ||ktn, 0tn c|c ||ktn ttn 0tn Utc
| t||cn|tn, o t|0t }u|cmmtn m| tt c| a Ct| ||tn ttn
0| t H|d|dt| || tn. | t 0t|||t ot0| tn|t Hd 0tt ||1n0|-
|dtn | ||tttn)tn un0 |dt| t |g||tmc||| d |n tn||tm
bn0n|a m|| 0tm In|ttnc|| cnc| tn Wctt| amua un0
|t| ntn 0tu|| Jtn bt|| cntn 0ca \| to tt 0ta h| c||tn-
kcmp|ta. | t mcn |c|ct| Ht|, Hn0 ta 0| t [dmtttn
Urco| tmt un|tttt Uc| kmtt0un, 0| t | tt | cnmp|
m| t0tt cu|utt
|
||tn mtt0tn. |t Ruat|ncn0tt|tNuntn
0tt b| 1mm:, 0tt b| cuotna||tt|| un0 0| t Rto t||tt|tct.
c}u kcmtn 0| t bdm| tt|kt||tn 0ta Rutnb | |da cu|
m|t||dc||| | dtm, ttn1tunac|||| |dtm un0 |gdc| c
| |dtm bto| t|, 0| t | n t|ta)t||tn bt|cn0tta u|t
| tn|| t | t| ||t| tn, mtnn Ht 0tm, 0tt Ht c| a Lc|| }u
|tctn hc||t, c|a t|nt untttd|t bt0t 0ct t[|t| |t
mut0tn, 0| t tt n|d| |t | t|nt, |cn0ttn |t

t|nta
cn0tttn Jn|ttt||tn cu| Hd n|mm|. Wcn mup ta 0tn
tn | ||dtn btun0tn )u t||t tn. || t co tn ta n| d|
nut gu| btt||cn0tn, j t0tn t|d|d| ||dtn c0tt ttn-
m1t|| tn bc| | )u ||n0tn un0 tt|tctt| m |t Hd
m|tktn }u | c||tn, Ht mcttn cud n| d| mtn|tt
t|d|d| |m kn|| || dtn Jn|}tn|tttn ucn bc| ka
}tttt|ptn0tn Jn|ttt|| tnttn|1htn, 0| r |n |tk|id
ht|| ottcu| n| d| ot ||cn0tn un0 0cnn 0cd
0utd 0| t tn| ||dt Utcccn0c }u t|ntm b|tt||c|t|
mut0tn, um 0tn Hd )mt| 0tu||dt btutn )cnh|tn,
mttn0 ]chn bu| | c|a | cdtn0tt t| ||tt )u|c, m| t
0tt m| || |1t||d uno ttmi n0||dt btpn:t Od }tt || t||d| t
0n0 0ttct| |dm1d| t, 0cp tt |t tt c0tt ||tt 0tm
i k| c| br||cnni tna c t0i ndunc| c cua t| | tftr| mcr.
04
G r k t n t c t 0 | t b t | | | | d t U t c c c n 0
| t t | c k | | | d t n b n | t t n t m u n t n } u t
)t t[|t un 0 tt 0 tu ||d tn ||n t|| 0u td
0| L c || t n t0 |l || na [|L | t | tg 0 | t
0 c t c u | c u a | n , 0 c a 0 t u | | d t U c | k 0 c n
0 t t 0 t u | | d t n t | t t u n } u | r t n n t n ,
u m 0 c n n b t | 0 t T t | | t , 0 | t m c d | | o | t t -
| ttun unb 0 ca | t tt | |t U |k
8
| n
b t| || |dtt b tm cI| }u cb tU. Ttch 0tt bun|
0utdt|ncn0tt| cu|tn0tn \0tn 0utth|thcu| mcn tc| d
0| t| t Rk||cntn, mtnn mcn 0cn 0tm btun0t0cnktn
cua t|, 0cp Ht cua|d||tp|| d t|n ]| t| 0tt|c| tn. )tt
|tmmttun 0tt 0tu||dtn Uc| kat|nt||.
tn0tn m|t una nun }0 0tn ||n}t| t|| tn 0tt |d
tb tn kut} |k|}}| tt|tn U0t nt. ]und|| t|n|t
\tctn, 0| t 0tn |nntttn Ru|o cu 0tt Utcccn0c bt
|tt||tn. Jm R0u|| 1 9 1 4 mut0t t|n ]tn|tc| otc |t
0|t Utt||t |n Lcn0cn ttt| d|t|. hctm| c| t btm|tt bt
}t|dntn 0| t| tn Tc c| a 0tn bt|nn 0tt tn|| |dtn
0tcccn0cctcn| |c||cn 0ta t| |kt|ta, t|n mct
bc|| | dtt||dta bn| tt|cn tnl |a | || ottcu| |c| |d,
ttc0t | n |n | cn0 0| t tcccn0| ||||thtn Utto n0t
cud nut |m tt|n || tn 0cmb|cc| un0 |t|ntnbdt|||tn
co}u|ttnntn. | t tn |||dt t||kt| tatcccn0c b t
cnn 0| t| mtt m|| 0tt b| |0un 0tt |n|tn|t un0 0tt
0cm|| t|n|thtn0tn ||nktt||un tu||d| cn0a. Jtt
ut}t| || t| n|d| |n |t tn0mt| dtn u0tttn 0tcn|
|c||cntn, |cn0ttn |m Tgu 0ta Hct|t || ||tUtcc
cn0| ||tn.
Jm tn | ||dtn bu0t| bt||cn0 bt| 0tt \ctm|ttun
0tt |n| tn|t b|a }um Ht|t t 0ca |c tncnn| t Hcn|c |,
t|n t| |t| c|| tt Ruacotc|| tn. | t|ta Hcn|c mct 0tr
+3
Et at fr 0ca :htimt ,P | t ||c nb m| }0 t
D ttm | t k || d un c |||| [d tt )| t| t m||
0tm b|h |n Lcn0cn, hcm|cntcut| ||ttt| 1 1 2. Bc |n
0| t| tt b| t|utt| d| t| tt|tn | tn|| ||t| | t 0ca tcccn
0| ||| |dt bt||tduna un0 btt|n||u||unamt[tn }0
t|ntm o|tn0tn )mt| 0tt ||nktt| [un tn|m|dt| |
mut0t, otcud | mc| kcum ot|cn| }0 mtt0t0. |a | ||
-
cott o tmttktnamtt|, 0cp 0| t tn| |[dt btc|dt 0tt
; cutttt| 0| t[ ta ot||| [dt R||c|| cnacm| 0| || |n
|ht

pcu tnommtn c||t. Hct|t ||||t, 0c


mc|a [dcn c|a ]cutnc| ||| mt||otkcnn|, mct W|||| t0
0tt Lc t. Bcm|| | || c| | ta t|c|.
Ru| 0| t[ tm h|n| tttun0 }t|| 0| t R||c||dn 0tt
||nktt||tt 0tt Uctkt| ta}t|| tt|| | t mcrta btd|.

b m H c t | t | | | | t [ c m m t | | [ | d 0 t t b t |
|| |d t p t c cn0 | [| tn |g |n t|n tm [
0 | [ d b t t [ t u d | t n 0 n 0 0 d 0 0 t t \ t t |
m c u t t t t | b t t t t [ d | t n L c t t , c 0 a 0 t m
| | d | m U t t t | n m | | m t h t d 0 t t m t 0 | t t
o t 0 t u | t n 0 t n W n n t t n 0 t a t 0 | | [ d t n
| | t n | | | d t n L t o t n a 0 t t b t t | | t b | c m m
0 t t U t || I t| t a h th tt tt I t0|| tt|. | t

nun 0| t 0tcn| [c||cnmhttn0 0ta Mt| tta 0cd cupt0


|n comtd|t|n0 otncnn|mut0t, kcnn 0na b| tt n0t
mtn| o ttttn.
|t|nnttn m|t una cn t|nt b}tnt c0a 0tm hdd
0tcmc|| |dtn |n0co[dn|||. Rm 1 3. \tbt0ct 1 91 8 tt
ncnn|t 0tt Uttm|ttm|n| ||tt L|cg0 btdtt Hct|t ||||t
u||tn }um ,B|tt|\|ct 0tt Utcccn0c |0 0t0 ft|n0
||dtn Ln0ttn. Bca mct 0ca b|nc| |t 0t0 bd|00
cnt|||. Hct|t|| ||t |t| ||t [t|n Rm| |0 }mt| hc0|
co|t| |untn, t|nt |t 0| t htt||t| |un un0 t|nt |t 0| t
+0
0tr|t| |un 0ta Utcccn0cmc| tt| c|a. B| t tt|| t}ttf| t|
|n t|nt0tu||dt, t|nt || tttt|d| |dun ct| |dt un0 t|nt
ou|ct|| dt Ro|t| |un. | t 0tu||dt btk||cn o ttnchm
h. b. t| |a, |m ]u|| mut0t tt ucn \g|t co t| J||.
bt|0t Hn0 htu|t ncd c|a httt ttn 0ca nc|| cnc|
ld]| c| | |||| dt btc0tu|| m| cn0 ncd m| t bct | ||. Btt
|t| |btt|tt|tt Hct|t||||ta, Ccmot| | b|uct|, co 1 920
}ut td||tt||un 0tt Rtot|| 0ta Pm|ta t|n bum
ttcua . "Secrets of Crewe House. The Story of
a F'amous Campaig. " Butm 0|t 0ct|n tn|c||tntn,
mtnn cum nut |t| |mt| |t )||| tt|tn Bckumtn|t ||n0
m|t |m||cn0t, 0tn tn|||dtn U| cn }ut Uttn|d|un
0tt 0tu||dtn Uc|kat|nht|| mtn| || tna |n 0tt \c||un
0cn 1 9 1 8 cu|]0]t|tn. tnn 0| t[ t bn|tt| ctn cud
tt|| 1 91 8 tn||| cn0tn, |c hcn0t|| ta Hd bt| |hntn 0cd
nut um \ctmu|| ttuntn 0tt | d|||n| tn, 0| t 0tt
cn}tn t||kt|tatcccn0c |n |cn0a t tn
Btu||d| cn0 ]0tun0t| ctn.
Rn|cn Wc| 1 9 1 8 |n }ut b| mttun 0tt ||nht||
tt Rkt|cntn t|nt bcn Wi ||tt t| |a }u|cmmtnt|cp| t
Btnk| dt| || ott 0| t Utcccnc | n tu|| d| cn0 ucn
0tt 0tu|[dtn Utcccn0cco|t| |un cn 0ca \ctt| n
0||| tt. Hdt| ht||||t||tt|ncua|ht|| dtabdtt|o tnot|.
]und|| t|n|t b|t| | tn cua 0tt Btnk|dt|||, 0| t,
m| t |mcn o t|cn|, |1n || cntmcn0| t |d| ||n|tn tt
ntu| |ctmu|| tt|. Ru|cot 0tt tnk|dt||| | ||, m| t t
[t| o|| |c|, t|n Ttr| }u |t|n, ,cu| 0tn || d 0| t Utcc
cn0c| tu|t m| | b| dttht|| ot)|t| tn kJnntn un0 0tt
}0t Hctm |httt T|| kt|| tmcd| mtt0tn kcnn. B| t
Btnk|dt||| | || t|nt Ru|}h|un ,0tt Uunk|t, 0| t mcn
0tn Btu||mtn k| ctmcdtn mu. bi t | t| o| a |n 0i t
+f
|in)t| ht| |tn 0tn Pufd cu 0tt tnu| | |dtn Utccucn0c
tc0uk|t |t||, 0| t |n tu||d| cn0 ott|t| tc tn mtt0tn
| c| | tn. Wcn ttdnt| 0cmi|, 0cp 0ca tu| |dt Uc|k
0utd 0| t |udc|cu| |dtn \t| tt |t|ntt tu| ttunu un0
mcb| cud 0utd 0| t tnu |i |dj t b| cJc0t |nntt| |d tt-
mc||t| | ||. Jn 0| t| tm Er|dJp|una}u||cn0 | c| | nun
0tn tu| |dtn d t| tcrcd | mtr0tn, 0cp |nu | cn0 |t
t|ntn UJ| kttcun0 km||, |n 0tm 0ca 0tu||dt Uc| k
c|a u | t|dc tttd| |u|ta W||u || t0 u| d|i dtn ]t| |tn tn|
t tnu t|. Wcn cct 0tn tu|| dtn }u |cu tn.

48
,Bca t|utn| || dt Ht| tua,i t| 0tt P| ||| tt| tn bt||tb|
n|d| nut 0ct|n, 0tn \t|n0 }u |d| cu tn, |cn0ttn
0ct|n, t|nt0

t| |[ti t0tn bttc t|)u|0ttn, 0tt 0tn


| t0ttcuactud t|nta hr| tuta 0ttb|n0tt|. bt|n
J0tc| mt0t c| | t UJ |ktt 0tt |t0t tin|d|i tp | |d
Btu||d| cn0 um|c||tn. |a mup k| ctu tmcd| mtt-
0tn, 0c ta n| d| 0| t Rc Hdj| 0tt R| |i|tt|tn i ||, |tu tn0
t|n Uc| k }u bttn|d|tn, |cn0ttn 0| t \tt|h t|| c| | tt
cuf 0tt btun0| cu t 0tt bt| c||b t|||mmunu Hdtt)u-
j|t| | tn, 0| t un|tt tn0u| |iutt )u|| dttunu 0tt bt-
ttd|i ukt|| un0 0ta tbt|i dtn b| t| a cuautc| mtt-
0tn |c| |. Wcn bcc t 0cnn mti | tt 0i t tu||dtn
0ctb tt c0|}uk| ttn, 0cp Ht nut t|nt t|n}|ut \ct-
0tt0nu )0 tt|| | tn b||tn, um tc| d |n 0tn bt0

0tt t0| tn b|tt ,0| t|tt t| |ctu cn| |c||cn 0ta \t| t-

0tna }u ut| cnu tn. B| t| t \ct0ttunu lt| 0i t bt-


r t|||punu 0tt 0tu||dtn tu| ttunu, mti | 0tt t||-
ft| t0t immtt m| t0tt ut|| Jt| mtt0t, ,|c| cnut 0| t
cutnc ||d|i dt 0tu||dt tu| ttunu cm u0tt i j|.
bti i httn Rn||ttnuunu tn }um b|ut) 0tt 0t0| |dtn
\htunu hcd t 0| t tnu |||dt Utccucn0c fc|u tn0ta
)u d tcd|tn. ,| t tu| |d| cn0 utn0tt| mtt0tn
m0, | || t|nt 0ttm| dt| |t \tcut. Bca ct| tcc-
|0|| cn | || 0| t| | t| th| n| d| }u b| | ||u tn. | t b|| dtn
0ta c| c n|d| |c |tht c0| 0tn 0t0||dtn bc0tt un0
Rtc t|| tt, c|a c0| 0tn 00td|dn| |||| d mch| tt}cu tntn
1 0t0||thtn W||| t| ||cn0. ||n m|dm0nu m0 |n
Bt0||d| cn0 || c||||n0tn. R0a 0| t|tm bt0n0t m0p
0tt | dt||| t n|tt|d| t0 }m| |dtn Bt0||d| cn0 0n0
[t|ntt | t|j | utn tu| tt0nu |n 0n|tttt ucn}tn Utcc-
ucn0c 0n0 |n c| | tn ||tn| ||dj tn 0n0u tc0nu tn u t-
mcd| mtt0tn, 0n0 ta m0 cn 0| t Bt0||dtn, 0cm
]0nktt cn b|a httcd }0m t|n|cdtn Wcnn c0a 0tm
Uc| kt 00td 0| t b|cc|am1nntt 0tt R| || | tt|t0 un0
00td t|nt |tt| un0 c||tn ut|ht|tUtccucn0c m||-
|t|a 0tt R0a| cn0a0t0|| dtn |n 0tn Uttt|n| u| tn
b| cc|tn 0cn Rmtt|ka 0n0 |n 0tt bdmt|}, 00td
nt0|tc| t Ln0tt 0n0 c0| | t0t cn0ttt mu|| dt
t||t, t|n ||n0|u tt Rt| | u tt| d|t| mtt0tn.
n0 n0n R0a}u t c0a 0tm btu| t||bt| tf 0on
Lct0 Ict|ht || ||t. | t0tt m|t0 c0| 0tn )0||cn0 0ta
0t0||dtn Uo |kta 0n0 c0| 0ca Lcdm| ||t| UJ| 8tt-
b0n0 h|nu tm| t|tn. "a) |a u| b| 0| t| t btmt| | t 0c|t,
0c 0ca 0t0| |dt Uc| k 0ct c| | tn B|nu tn 0| t bttn-
0|u0nu 0ta ht| tuta mn|d|. |a ||n0t| Hd m|| 0tt
\ct||ht0nu 0tt c0utnb| |d|| dtn 0||tnH0t n0t 0ta-
hc|b cb, mt| | |hm0cn |t|ntn\htttn 0ttHdtt|m|t0,
0cp 0| ta 0tt t|n}|u t tu }u t|ntm bc|0|u tn \t|t-
0tn [ t|. Btahc| b | || ta nc|mtn0| u, |hm t|n}0hm-
mttn, 0cp ta t|ntm tn| |d|c ||tntn 0n0 0nmcn0t|-
dcttn | | | tn c0| |t| |tn 0tt R| || | tt| tn ututnbtt-
[|th|, 0tn t| tu chnt d0d| c0f 0| t c|| tn 0n0
chnt dHd| c0| 0| t 0t0| |thtn m|| ||t| |dtn |t-
|c| ut mt|| tt}u|httn, un0 0cp c0a 0| t|tm brun0t
+d
m| | ||t| | dt |t|c | t n|d| 0ca !W|||t| Hn0, 0tn tt-
mn[d|tn \t| t0tn ttdt|}u|ttn. b) b| t|d}t|||u
| d| ta ft 0na t|ntn cn0tttn btmtuutun0 0cn
d||tt | d||kt||. ||nta 0tt cu|[d| |d||tn
Wi ||t| 0tt 0tu| |dtn t| ttun | || ta, 0tn b|cud tn
]0 nttn, 0cp | t0tt \t| t0t, 0tn 0i tR| ||| tt|tn, fc| |a
Ht d 0utd| thtn, cuftt| tutn mt0tn, 0tn |nntttn
u|n Btu||0| cn0a 0ct|| t| | tn mt0t, 0n0 0cp 0| ta
m| t0ttum d t0tu|tn mt0t, 0cb | t0t 0t0||dt \c
m||| t d0tt Rtdt||a| cHukt||,0tt W|||t| | cHkt||0n0
0tm h0nu tt ttnd ttHt|. h| tttutn | [| ta n||,
0tt 0t0|[dtn Hc|| cn t|n}uttn, 0cp 0| t[t \c|utn
mc| t|n|tt|tn, cd tt 0cp Ht c0d 0ttm| t0tn mtt0tn
knntn. b| t mtt0tn t|n|tt|tn, mtnn 0| t 0tu||dt
tu| ttun fct||t|, 0| t c||tn c0at[tcdtnt Rd
Hd| 0utd}u|ttn, cn0ttt ftt| t Ic|| cntn |0tcca
| ttt httt[dc||}0 0n|ttmttftn. B| t[td t|0tnUunk|t
a] 0n0 b m||tn |n tnutm )u[cmmtncn m||t|n
cn0tt dt|tcd|t| mtt0tn, 0tt tt[|ttt }|t|| cu|
\0td|, 0tt }mt|| t cuf hc||n0n.
Wcn m|[t 0tn Btu|[dtn m|||t| | tn, 0cp || t |n
,t|ntm bun0t |tt|ttU|ktt t|nut| u0tnmtt0tn, | ttn
,D|cb

t|n}unthmtn. Bcdt| [t| ta u|, 0tn Btu||dtn


m|t||dc|||i dt Utt|ttdunutn cd}uu tdtn. Btu||d|cn0
lc| | 0c0cn d tt}tug| mtt0tn, 0cp ta ,0| t c||||[dtn
bt0|nuunu tn nut 0tahc|d cn}untmtn cdt, um
ncdhtt ,0| t m| t||dcf| ||dtn ch| |c|tn }u tn|tptn
0n0 0cp ,|t|nt)u| c||unu }um bun0t [dcn 1 |i d 0|t
bctcn|| t t tn t|nt |t|n0||dt Wcncc || Httunu 0tt
c || c||t|n Hd d ttu t. Bca c| | ta mut0t 0umc| a 0tm
0tu||dtn Uc| k |n W|| || cntn 0cn \|0d | ||ttn 0cn 0tt
tn|| |dtn Utcccn0c 0tt|tcdtn|
50
| t | t|J| tt|| d||i d, 0td| jid 0| t| ta Utcpccn0c
tcutcn\m m|| 0tn 1 4 0nk|tn, 0| t H| cn 0om
tJH0tn| tnj|0| 0tt nct0cmtt|kcn| |dtn n| cn c0a
m|| 0tm u|t|dtn ]| t| 0tt bdmd0nu 0ta 0t0|
|dtn |0ttj|cn0am| | | tna k0t} )u0ct 0cm b|ct| t
| cj|tn c||t. bc mctftn Hd Ict|t||fft 0n0 J| |jcn
|tt tccucn0| j|| jthtn b| | t }0. n0 m
t t n 0 [ | t c 0 f 0 t t b n t | t t n b t | t 0
c L | t| t c tn, j| | tu |n| tt 0 tn " U || ||tn
c ! | t | n | n 0 t n U t t t | n | | t n b | c c | t n 0 t t
i t | | tb t b t m | n n 0 0 t d c f f t n c 0 a f 0 t
iH 0 tn || [ tn- 0n0 b| c |m tt I tn, c | [c
t | n t m t | n } | u t n ] m t | u 0 t t | m b t [ | 0 0 t t
0 t t | 0 0 t | t n \ t t | m c 0 t t t t | [ | d d t f | n 0 -
|| d tn h t| tu a | n00 j|t| t 0 tt n c tb cm tt|
k c n | | d t n n | c n , c 0 f 0 | t h | t | n | u k t | |
U cn 1 0 3 4 8 9 2 4 6 5 D c | |ct. || n ucn } u tt|nutt
bt0d|t| | 0c0cn f|cp c0a 0tt tmt|n[cmtn Tcjdt
m|t0tt cd |n 0| t hc||tn 0ta Ict|t||fft-Tt0j|a 0n0
0tt cn0tttn Uttjjt|nj|tumtn|t 0ta btcpkc| |c|a, 0m
0cn 0ct| c0a 00td t|nt |t|tnc0f|cut 0tt ]t||0nutn
0|t ht| tuatht 0n0 0cm|| 0tn cfftnkc0f c0f 0c| | tn
Tc0ttn }0 c||tn.
| | n t m | u t t h t t | a | c 0 f 0 c n h t | t u ,
U t c c u c n 0 c 0 n 0 b t [ d f |. c t t 0 t m
W tn [d t n [ | t | c c t t | c | 0 t t T c 0 R tm
| n R t m m | | 0 t m b b t n 0 t a b c | 0 t a c m
0 m m t t n 0 t n h c t | } c n | 0 t t 0 n | t t t t n -
0 t n t | | 0 t a

b t t t | 0 m a | t | 0 m | t -
ttn0 c0f f tn| tfct| t|n tt.
Rm 1 4. R0u0j| 1 91 8 |tc| |n Lcn0cn 0n| tt Lt||0nu
ocn Ict|t||fft t|nt |n|ttc| | ||tt|t Utccu cn0ckonft
3
ttn} 0trEn| tn| t }u|cmmtn.b| tdtcd|tim mtltn| ||dtn
ni d|a Ituta. Ut

|tn m| t kut} 0tn btt| d| . ,B| t bt


|tt|unu 0tt U| ktt mup 0| t bcHa 0tt c| | || tt|tn Utc
cucn0c |t|n. ,ca 0| t cn 0ca 0tu||dt Uc| k |t|d ||
u tt| d|t|t Utccucn0c d t}u ||d 0tt }ukn|||u tn
b| t| |unuBtu||d| cn0a dt|tt||t, ,|c m||t mcn k|ct
}um Rua0tud dt|nutn, ,0cp 0ca 0tu||dt Uc| k cuf
tnt cnu tmt ||tnt b| t| |uno |n 0tt t| |un0 cu| 0| t)u
| c||unu }ut kn|||u tn bt| t| | |dc|| 0tt Ic||cntnttdntn
knnt, cdtt nut ,mtnn ta Hd }ut Rd|J||t|unu 0ta
c|a ttu| |dtt W| |||ct| amua dtkcnn|tn bu||tma tn|
ld||tpt.
btmttktnamtt|| ||0| t|udc| cu| lJtRnmt| |u0u,0| t
ft 0| t|t tccucn0i ||| |dt un| ttmh |unu Btu||d| cn0a
cuau tutd tn mut0t. ,B| t dt ||t |d| ||n| t, ncd 0tt
u tctdt|| t| mtt0tn mp| t, |d| tn 0tt Hcmm| |Hcn0| t}u
| t|n, 0| t cmtt| kcn| |dtn Rn||ttnuunu tn |m \t|0t un0
|n 0tt ht|mc|, |n \cdt| ktn, tt|| tn un0 |n 0tt Lcn0-
m|t||mc|| |c ||ctkm| tmu ||d }u dt|cntn. b| t|d}t||iu
| c| | |t 0tt 0||ttt Ruad||d |t 0tn hcn0t| , 0| t bt
fchttn, 0| t |t 0| t Btu||dtn |n 0tt Hcn|tc| | t 0ta
chmc|tt| c|a 0utd 0| t P| | || tt|tn | cutn, lc 0tu|| |d
m| t mu| |d k| ctutmcd| mtt0tn. b| t lc| | |tn |c ||ctk
m| t mu|| d 0tt|m| tt| mtt0tn un0 0cd lc| | |t u| t|d
}t|||u 0c|t bctut u t|tcutn mtt0tn, Ht n|d| 0tnktn
}u |c||tn, 0cp || t |t |mmtt 0cn 0tn hcn0t| ad t
)| thunu tn un0 0tt \ttun0|djc|| m|| 0tn U|kttn, 0| t
cuu tnd || d|| d u tu tn || t km||tn, cuaut|d| c ||tn
mtt0tn | c| ||tn. tnn Ht nm||d 0ca u | cud|tn, lc
mt0t mcn | hntn 0tn dtn ||tktn, |c| cnu t m| t
mu || d 0tt)mt| |t|| mt||tt)ukm|tn. \r t|nt u t
|un0t | d|| |n| t 0tt Utcccn0c h|| 0ca Hcm||tt ta
3
|t n|| u,

|hntn t|nt h|n|tt|t c|ftn }u | c||tn, 0utd


mt| dt Ht, mtnn Ht ttj| |t R| |0tu||J|um dt|t|||u|
un0 0tn Ttct| tn 0tt t||d tttt|dunu 0utJ b|u|
un0 |||tn cdut|dmcttn || tn, ||tt m| t0tt t|nmc|
}u 0tt|t|d tn btmt|n|dc|| m| t ft tt ]u|t| || tt| cnutn
knn|tn. Icd t|n mtt|0c| | tt ||nd ||d. ,d tt 0| t
\tcut 0tt tt0c|u|| cnttn Utccucn0c m|t0 0| tRnHd|
cuaut|tcdtn, ta |t| dt ||tt, 0| t R| |0tu||Jt Uct|t| |m
c| |u tmt|ntn }u 0ttunu||m|tn un0 cu| Ht 0| tUttcn|
mct|unu |t 0tn t|tu un0 |t c| | 0ca nu|d, 0ca
Btu||d| cn0 tt0u|0t| cd t, un0ncdmt| | tt|n0utdne
tt0u|0tn m||t, cd)um|)tn, c|a 0tn Hc| |tt cn)u-
utt| |tn. Rn0tttt|t||a mut0t cua t|t|, 0cp Rn-
ut| ||t u tu tn t|nt Utt|Jn|| dkt|| ||t|a tt|c | tt| Jtt
|t| tn c|a Rnut|||t ututn tint Uct|t|. Wcn kcm
|d|| tp|| d 0c|n d ttt|n, 0cp cl | ta, mca u tu tn 0| t
hctn)c| | ttn0unc||| t ut|cu | mt0t, tn|mt0tt m| tk| | J
c0tt |d t|ndct cua 0tu||dtn 0ut| | tn u t|dj J|| mtt0tn
m||t, um 0ca | || kc }u 0ttmt|0tn, 0cp Rnut| ||t, 0| t
c|ftndct cua c| |||tt|tn 0ut| | tn kmtn,0tn ||n||up 0ta
hc| | tta cu| 0ca 0tu||dt Uc| | t tt ||tk|tn c|a
|dmdd|tn. Wcn j||mm| 0ct|n dttt|n, 0c 0| t Ru|-
tt|)un 0tu||dtt bc|0c|tn }um Bt| tt|| tttn tt| cud|
un0 0cn Iu0tn |t|n knn|t.
B| t|tt btt| d| |c| | |t, m|t ta cua0td|| d t| p|, |t
0| t Utccucn0| ||tn 0tt |n| tn| t ,t | n L t to u d
0 L t Hunj| 0 tt p t cu cn0 c | t|n.
Ucn 0tt b|hunu 0ta c|| |||dtn cm||tta 0ta Utc
cu cn0ccm| ta cm 4. 0k|cdtt 1 91 8 || tu| u | t| d|c| | a
t| 0 tu|tdtkcnn| ta Utc|ckc| | d tt0| t buj|tmc||k 0tt
dt||||dtu t0c|u||cnatccucn0c 0ct, ncd 0tm
|cmdt| | b|uct| u. c. cuau t|tt c| . ,Bca Uctuttn
53
|n Btu|ld| cn0 | || lcmc| cH|i0 mi t ntc||0 tmt| tn.
bt|n )| t| mct, 0tm 0tu|ldtn Uc| kt t|n|uta } 0 d| t|tn,
cuf 0ca ta cfftn kcnn|t, un0 ltt 0| t| ta, 0ct 0tm
ta Hd ftd|tn mup|t. W|| cn0tttn ct| tn, ta c|
|m k|ctutmcd| mtt0tn lc| | tn, 0cp 0tt t|n}|t t,
0tm 0c| | ||n0| utn u|n } 0 tn|ttn, 0tt | ||, m|| 0tm
bg|| tm } 0dttdtn, 0ca 0tn ht| t d tt |utcc ttcuf-
dtldmcttn c| un0 Hd 0tt )u|c|lun } 0 t|ntm

U | kttdun0 mt0| } 0 ttmt|ltn.


Rm 1 2. Hc0tmd tt 1 91 8 ldt|td L| cg0 btctt t|ntn
bt|tf cn Hct|t||fft . ,Jd cdt 0| t| t 0| ttk| t btmt| | t
|t 0tn |tfc| Jttt un|ddcttn Rtd t|| un0 ft 0tn
I|mfcnu, |n 0tm b| t} 00tm )ulcmmtndtud 0tt htc||
0ts \t|n0ts |n 0||tttt|d un0 Btu|ld| cn0 d t|t|tcu tn
udtn.
B| t )tt|tmmttun 0tt 0tu||dtn Uc |kaktc|| un0
c| kat|nt|| mct 0ca cua|d|| tp|mt )| t| 0tt tnu
| |ldtn Utcccn0c. | t t|n \| ud cd tt c| 0| t dJ|t
Tc| 0| t Uttbttdtt 0ttfc||. R|a Wt. btcnn |t|td H
T
Ict|t||fft 1 922 |nkcun||c |m dtlth|tn t|n| cn0
ttum. tnn tt cuf 0tn b|tcptn |na 0| t bt0J|kt
tun ttd ||d| t, mc | n 0ca btcultn tcd| udtn
dtt c| | ta, mca tt 0|tltn Wtnldtn cnu t|cn. m | tnt
)t|| lc t|n tn| ||dtt ]cutnc| ||| 0tn Lutn0| k|c|ct |n
Lcn0cn d t| 0tt dktt 0cn Btu|ld| cn0 un0 c t
t|d|t|t dtt 0tn 0cn |m dtmun0tt| tn Wcnn tn|| th| .
,|t kcm ncd hcu| t, kttt||d ttld||, |m bt| || ut-
|td|, |n0tm tt Rd t|nd| |0t|t, 0cp |t|n Ltdtn 0cn 0tn
tu|ldtn d t0tc| lt|, 0i t |m n| tmc| a 0ttutc tn
mt0tn. JmRuuu|| 0ta | t|dtn ]ctta ||ctd ct|
t ||fft. Jn t|ntm Ruftuht 0cn cnnnacnf| | tn un0
|n 0tr t| |||tn mncd|un t|ntt ld[mtttn bt|tn
4

ttmt|dun |uht 0tt c| |md||t ||ct 0tt ct|||| d tn


t|Ikt|tarcccn0c m| tt|nUttf|0d|tt0cn0cnntn.
R|a |n | cn0 [t|nt Utcccn0c |n Bt0|[d|cn0 dt-
,1
cnn, |c ta Hd ftt|| |d n|d| t|ntm t[d|c j| tntnb| cd
f

ut tndtt. ||nt U| t|}c| 0cn Mtf|tn, 0ct c| | tm c0a
f !
0tm Lcgtt 0ta 0t0|[dtn Wctr|am0a, c||t 0ca t| d
L
[dcn mt||ttn0 0n|ttmh||. |n | c n 0 0 tt -
m c n b t I | t 0 | t | n n t t 0 t0 |[d t 0 c [ | | | c n
:
| n [ t | n bt cd tc t. Btt }mt||t t 0tt btft-
,
.
-
0tt0n 0tt Utcccn0ctc0uk|t |n 0ca 0t0|[dt Uc| k
mct 0| t Utt|t||un 00td ||n[dm0t|n, bt| tf-
l tn00ntn 0n0 \|u}t0cdmtft. ]tn|tc| t ft Btud
0n0 Utt[cn0 d || td Lcn0cn. Jn 0tt bdmt|} 0n0 |n
hc| | cn0 m0t0tn 0mfcntt| dtm| d| c||t| | tn ttt| d|t|.
| t |n t|ntm bc}|| | tntt0 fcn0 Hd |n 0|t[tn H|t0tt-
| c|lun tn cuf bdmt|}tt un0 c| | n0| ldtm bc0tn 0ca
cn}t L0mtncd 0tt 0tu||dtn |m|tcn|tn t|n,
bt| tna IfiJen5, un0 mut0t dj| ck||0 0ct
0tn dt| || [dtn ctn t[cnn|. tnn m| t nun cuf
0|t \tc tn 0tt ||nfutmt|c0tn t|mca ntt t|n-
u ttn, |c 0tac|d, mt| | t|nt tm| j|t ]c| 0tt 0cmc-
||tn \t|n0tcccn0| ||tn tu| t m| t0tt t tn 0na
| || | j| m|| 0tt | t|dtn Tck||k. bd|c0tt mtt0tn j| t
|n}m| [dtn kc0m tmct0tn |t|n. B| t Itu||n t cctt
bt|tcd|tn 0|t[t t||kt|ta0tc|}| ttt c|a | tt tcptn
Lttmt| j|tt. B| t bcdt c| c| | tt0|na t| ntn hcktn.
B|t ht|ftt |n Bt0|[d|cn0 ft| tn|
Btt tn|| |dt Utcccn0c0tt|t| td ct|m 0t0|[dtn
httt 0utd \|u}tuccmut|0| tnj| u|m. | || d tkcnn|. |a
[t|tn nut ncd kur} )ch | tn tncnn|. h|n|tt 0tt 0t0|-
| dtn tj|ftcn| mut0tn cctmctftn.
33
Jm Rt| | 1 91 S
, ]un| 1 9 1 8
, Ruuu|| 1 9 1 8
, bt|tmc tt 1 91 8
, 0k|cctt 1 91 8

1 000 000 tccucn0c|dt|f|tn.


1 689 457
3 958 1 1 6
3 r 1 5 ooo
5 360 000
8 F
FF
88
88
B|t tnu || | dt cdtntc0uk||cn 0cn \|uuc| ||ttn |t
0tu| |dt \tcn| un0 0tu||dta Jn|cn0 bt|tu 0umc| a
u tu tn 3 000 000.
| t cmmtn }um Utt|t| tb |m 0tu||dtn Jn| cn0.
Btt hcu| ||unk| 0tt tnu| ||dtn Utccucn0c |n
b00tu| |d| cn0 mct 0ca tnu || |dt hcn|u| c| |n ]t| d.
BctI utu| tt| t d t|n tnutt W||ctct| | tt ||cc, 0tm
u. c. 0| t 0tu| |dtn ]u0tn htcu|t cua T| | | un0 bc|c-
mcn btumccd cua \tcnk|ut| |cm| t 0| t 0tu||dtn
Uc}| || ||tn J| tmc| tt, Utc|. \c tt||tt un0 btt| | |nu cn-
u tJt|tn. R|a 0tucn tt| d| tn 0| t ,\tt| t ]t||unu,
ctt 0tn ]u0tn | |||nu ||ncn}|tt| 0utd 0| t Btu||dt
Hc||cnc| c cnk |n btt||n. Bca b| d|| mut0t ncd
Btu||d| cn0 u t|dmuuut||un0 mct ltt0ttctt||t|. Btt
0|ttk|t Ttcnact| |na t| d u t|dc a] 0utd t|nt
bdmuuu| ttctucn| |c||cn un|tt Lt||unu 0ta tu| || | dtn
]u0tn Wcn0t| ccum, b) 0utd t|n utcta It 0cn
Rutn|tn |n Btu||d|cn0 |t| c ||, c) 0utd 0| t\unk||cntt
0tt 0tu||dtn mctr| ||||dtn Uct|t| tn. Bcntc tn || t| 0| t
)u| tn0unu 0utd u t|ctn|t Uc|||tn0unu tn. Rn 0tt
b|t 0ta u cn}tn Rctc|ta ||cn0 t|n ctt tnu || | dtt
0|||}| tt, 0tt |n |t|ntm Ru||tcu cua0td|| d 0| t Rn
ct0nunu ttc| |tn c||t, ,tt0c|u||cntt b||mmunu |m
0tu||dtn Uc| k }u ttttutn.
B|t htc| ||tt mut0tn 0| t| |cd |n ntu|tc| cu|ut-
mcd| tn bt| t|tn un0 Uckt|tn cn btkcnn|t Rnldt|||tn
b
in Btu||d|cn0 u t|d| d|. cn 0tt[ch 0cbt| 0| t Um
|
0| u t 0tt btc|dttn }ut Tu|dung t|mc| utt 0tu|-
[dtt cn|tc| | || t| | tn m|| ctm|c| tn Ru||dt||| tn. bc
mut0t 0| t bdm|dt| || ,hc| |tt un0 t|d` 0cm
tnu |Hdtn Utccucn0c0| tn|| c t| 0tt Utt| d|dunu cuf
0tmBtdc |c||m| |0tm T|| t| ,Ltr| kcn0tu||dtt)| |c|t
ut|ctn|, 0| t c| t )t||unu ,\t| t0tnamct|t |n| | 0tm
cf ,bttntt W|||t| |unutn |t Ic|utm| ||tn|dcf| tn
un0 t| n cn0ttta Wc| ,bdmt|}tt \t| ctakutct|t,
bc| | cn 1 9 1 8 c| a Wt} 1 91 8". B| t ht0|dt| || tn 0ta
]u0tn htcu|t, utccttn |n T| | H|,c t|Jt0tt|t0| ttnu| | |dt
Utccucn0c||t| | t 0cn 0tt bdmt|} cua |n bt| t|um-
| d| utn, 0| r 0ca u t|| |d|t b| tut| 0tt ccutt| | dtn bt-
[cn0| |dcf| |n bttn |tuu tn, |m Wt} 1 9 1 r 0utd 0| t
Uc|| cn 0| t mt| ||tn ccutt||dtn btu ttmt| || ttm|tt.
|a mup ft||ut||t| | | mtt0tn, 0cp 0| t btJt0tn 0tt
bdmt|} 0| t| ta Ttt|ctn }u un|ttc|n0tn 0tt|ud| tn, mca
cctt 0cn |nu| cn0 m|| h| ||t 0tt Uct}uuattd| t 0tt
0|| cmc|| | dtn Utt|tt|unutn mt| ca umucnutn
mut0t.
.
B| t Uc| ka}tt|tmmttunatccucn0c 0tt Ru tn| tn
|m 0tu| |dtn Jn| cn0 0c| |}cu net ncd u tncutn Rn-
mt| |unutn. ||nt 0cbcn | cu|t| . ,Rn| t||unu }ut Utt| t|-
|unu 0cn \|uuc |||ttn. 1 . Wcn c tnh| 0| t \|uuc| || tt
c|a mtt|cdta ||nm|dt|c| tt |t btc| un0 [cn|||ut
|pmcttn. hc| mcn|n0ttbcn,|n t|ntt| t||dc|| c0tt
cn t|ntmcn0ttn0t|tbc|0c|tn c0ttRtc t||ttbct|| d, | c
[ud| mcn m|| 0tn Ltu|tn \|unu }u c tkcmmtn un0
[t|d| 0utdcua 0tu||d|ttun0|| d. bd|| tp| | d m| dt| |
mcn0cabtc|u|m. cuaun0 | tu| 0caUc| ttcn|dt|ntn0
cd| |ca ct| |t| |t. Icd t|ntt t| | t utt| || mcn uncuf-
f|||g ncd 0tm Uc| tt, || t|| }utt|| |t Hd, ||t| || Hd
5
3f

ltt ttj|c0n| un0 mt| j| 0dn0 d0f 0t0 J0d|| 0t6


||nm| dt|c| ttta |n. Bcncd | j| dd|0|t |n|fttnun
0da d tj|t. 2. Wcn [ud| |n | t0tt b|d0| 0| t R0tt[[t0
0cn dtjjtttn Rtdt||ttn, | ttn \tt0n0t0 0n0 tt-
mcn0| tn cua un0 | p| | |ntn 0| t \|ud |||tt 0utd 0| t
Ucj| }uuttn. [bt|d|c ||tntt bt|t| c0tt mttft Ht |n
0| t bt| t|kj|tn.] 3. |d tn|c jud| mcn 0| t \tdut0 t-
f0| | tntt Ptd t|| tt |n |t|ctun }0 dt|nt0 0n0 | p|
| ntn 0| t Btud[ddtn }uttn. bc| dt \td0t0 k00t0
mdndmc| }ut Uttdtt||un 0| t| d t||tctn. 4. Wd0
mcdt Hd dn 0| t Rtdt||tt un0 Rtdt||tt|nnt0, 0| t |0
0tt ht| ta|n0uj|t| t dt[d||| | n0, ttdn 0n0 0tt-
judt | tt btnnun }0 tt|cttn. Jj| 0| t[t btH00un
rbr||d od|| ont| |, |o btt|udt mcn | ntn \|ud |||tt
}0t Uttdtt||un |n | ttn bt|t| tdt0 m||}utdt0. H|t
0tt|tcut mcn d ndd kt}tttt btkdnn|[ddf| d0.
5. Rn t| cud tt, 0| t w| t0tt dn 0| t \tcn| tt0, mdd|
md0 }mtdmp|g bt[dtnkt : )|dtttn, Uft| ft0, Idddk
0|w. 000 w|dt| | 0| tjt bt[dtnkt|0 0| t\|0d|||tt t|0.
R0

kdn0 md0 0ddt| k|t|nt Wtntn \|ud| || tt, 0|t


Hd n|d| }um||nw|dt|0 t|nt0, 0d}u tdt0. bt|0tm
Lt[td t0tfn|a 0ta bc|0d|t0 w|t0 Hdtt d| | ta t|tjt0.
6 J0 0tt bd0, |0 tj|d0td0|a 0n0 d0 d| | t0 t|tn,
mcRtd t||ttun0 bc|0d|tn 0ttkttm, |dj[tmdn 0nduf-
|| || \|0d| ||tt | |tt0. r. Wd0 hd||t Hd tnd0 dn
0| t c|jd|t 0ta 0t0|[dt0 tt|tdutnamdnnta 000
dtjttdt d| | t n|tt0tmunt0 ttj| m|| |m| mo kt|n
Utt|tdutnamd0n }0 f|n0tn | j|, wtn0t mdn Hd d0 0| t
Utt|tdutna| tu| t0tt 0nddn|tn [c}|d| |j|| [dtnUdt|t|
t0|[d| dn0a | 8. | d|| | j|, 0n|tt 0tn bc|0d|t0 tt-
Itd0tna| tu| t }0 mttdtn 0n0 dn}u|t||tn. B|ta t||0|
dt| t|dudttn, 0| t ldcn bo}| c|0tmcktcttn Hn0, j|tm-
W
. 1
||d | t| d|. Butd 0tn ttj|tn Utt|tcutnamcnn kann
mc0 0cnn 0| t|fcd ncd t|ntn }mt||t0 0n0 0t|||tn
ttcn}|ttn. 9. I|t |tct mcn t|nt tpttt Rn}c|
0d0||0[dt|f|tn bt| Hd, 0n0 mc0 [ctgt |mmtt 0cft,
0c mcn dt| 0n0ctttt[ttnt0 \| | t0
t tn 0| t
Ud||}t| t0td| | j| | |a | j| c| [ c u|, 0| t \|0b|||tt
|mmtt [d }0 |tctn, 0cp mcn |t 0tttn bt0 t|nt
t0|[d0|0|t00t R0stt0t c|. 1 0. bt| 0c||||jdtn Utt-
[ cmm|0nt0 [0|t| t mcn 0| t \|ub|||tt t|ntt m||dj|
tctn )c| 0dn Utt[dntn |n 0| t hcn0. 1 1 . |a | j|
c| | ta jd dtcn|Htt|, 0cp 0| t 1||kt|| t|nts | t0tn Utt-
|tc0t0amcnnta 0d0 0ns 0|ttk| dttmcd| m|t0. H0t
mtt [t|nt Uf||d| t|cn c|, tt| | 0| t 0ttt|nbct|t
b0mmt c0ab t}c||. 1 2. bt| 0| t[tt 0tcn|jc||cn | j| ta
c0d Hdtt, 0cp 0tn Uttt|tt 0| t Hdttt Uttt||0n
|t|ff|. ]t0tt Utt|tc0tnsmcn0 j|t| 0n|tt 0c0tt00tt
0tt[n||d tt dttmcd0n. 1 3. B| t[t Rn| t||0n | j|
f|tta 00td}0|tjt0 0n0 0cnn cn 0tn Utt|tc0t0amc0n
}0t0d}0tdt0. 1 4. Udtd| | || 0| t W0||tt 0tt
t|st||.
Hcd t|ntn b||d |n 0tn Jnc|| 0tt btn00ntn 0n0
0cm|| c0d 0tt mn0|| dtn R| |c||cn |0 Bt0|[d| cn0.
| tjdcnbt|cn|,mtt0tn0| tj|cmmc||tnn|tt[d| t0t
Bt0|jd|cn0a j|tkj|tna c0at[0| t| |. Bctbtt [dtt| b|
| n I I Wt|n hcm0f 0tt \ttt . ,Jm bcmmtt 1 91 5
f| t| tn 0na 0|t ttj|tn ft|n0|| dtn \|0b | ||tt |n 0| t
hcn0. JtJnc| |mctfcj| j|t|a,mtnn c0mm||t|n| tn
Rdmtd[|untn |n 0tt \ctm 0tt Bctj|t| |0n, 0tt[t| bt,
nm|| d. Bcp 0| t Ic| |n Bt0|jd| cn0 |mmtt tptt
mtt0t, 0| tBc0tt 0ta ht| tta tn0| ca [t|, mttn0 0| t

P0aHd| |n }0 tm|nnt0, |mmtt mtt jdm|n0t, 0c


Ud| N|n0ttht|mu| |tntHd 0tac| dc0dncd\t| t0tn,
3b
1| | t|n 0tr Wi | i |ct|amua |cm|t 0tt hc| | tr tt| cuc|tn
0| ta n|d| , 0| t u cn}t t|| - 0rt 0| ta [ tt mc| ct
kcnn| [t| ftt

0tac| c cud n|d| 0tn ht|tu ututn

0ca 0tu|[dtUc |k,[cn0ttn0| t|mttcua[d||t || d utu tn


0tn t|n}|u bdu|0|u tn, 0tn hci [tt, 0tt hcmf mtt0t
0ctt n| d| ft|| tr t|n |n0t ntmtn, c|a 0| t[tt \t|n0
0tt ft| t0||dtn Wtn| dti|ct[t|||u| r t| , 0| tftt| t|| ||dtn
un0 0tmcktc||[dtn Ic|icntn mt0tn cc tt ncd bt
tn0|uunu 0ta ht| tu ta 0ca 0tu|[dt Uc|k |n 0tn bun0
0ta tm| utn t||ft| t0tna cufntmtn, 0tt 0cn 0tt
b|un0t0ttUttn| d|unu0ta,ttu| [ dtnW| | ||ct|amua
cn u tHdtt| [t|. ||ntamu|t c t| 0| t[ttRt| 0tt Utcc
u cn0c bc|0 cuffc| | tn, 0cp nm||d |n | t0tm \tcn|
cc [dn|||, |n 0tm Hd bcuttn ctfcn0tn, m|| cutt
ct0tn||| dtt hcn[t1utn} |mmtt utu tn Uttutn \tcn|
u tmcd| ut0t, m|| 0tt UttHdttunu, 0cp n| d| nut
t|ntt[t||a Uttutn 0tt t|u tn| ||d bdu|0| ut un0 Utt
cn|mct||| dt ft 0tn ucn}tn ht|tu lt|, lcn0ttn 0cp
cn0tttt[t||a u tu tn bcuttn |m btlcn0tttn c0d n| d|
0ca utt|nu|| t cn \t|n0[dcf| 0ctcn0tn mtt, ftt|||d
knn|t mcn |m cctt cud n|d| t|ftn, lc| cnt ta
tbtn |m B| tN| t 0ta ttu|[dtn W||||ct|am0a m|||0t,
0| tl tm 0| t hc||cn|tn cua 0tm \tutt} 0c| tn. W c n
d t c d | t 0 | t u t t c 0 t } u 0 t t b | f f t n 0 t
U b t t t | n || | m m u n u } m | l d t n 0 | t l t m b t
| | d | 0 t a \ t t t a 0 n 0 0 t 0 c b t n m | | t -
| t | | | t n | d | | | n | t n 0 n 0 R n m t | l 0 0 t n
0 t a t n u | | [ d t n U t c c u c n 0 c c m | t a 0 c m
W c | 1 9 1 8 l c m | t 0 t n b t l d | l l t n 0 t t
| n | t t c | | | | t t | t 0 U t d c c n 0 c k d n f t t t 0 )
c m R uu u j| 1 9 1 S , 0 | t m|t |t| d fa | |s
t | n c n u s m | t 0 t t u t u t c t n u c t n l
M
Jn t|ntm 0| t|tt \|ub| ||tt |t tb . ,Rn 0| t b00-
0t0|ldtn| Uc|k0ta 0tu||dtnb0tna | bcgttn, t|
|tmbtttt, bc0tn|tt, ht||tn| Jt Ltu|t0cm bdmct}-
mc|0, 0cm Wc|n un0 0cn 0tt Bcncu | ctum tb|
Jt |0d 0c}u tt, m|| |uttm bu| un0 |uttm b|u|
0tn ht| t }0 bt}c| tn, 0tn 0| t hc||t 0tt ttup| |dtn
]unktt |n c|0tm ||nk|cn m|| 0tn bd| c|bctcnt0
t|0|cn0-tj|fc| tna cua 0ntt|||||dtt cub- 0n0
|tcbttuna| tt cnt}t||t|| c| n0 mca | || 0tt
Utt|a, m|| 0tm 0|

t ttup|| d tn btmc||cbtt 0| t
bdtttn0| tnj| t b t}c| tn, }0 0tntn Ht tud ttjltn
bd| t| mcn n|d| |ud, |utt bnt0n0 |utt bt0tt
c0 0|t \tcn|, |mmtt un0 bttc| | 0ct| |n, mc 0tt Tc0
| t|nt btn|t cm tcu j|tn mtn | p| Wttk| Jt
0tnn n| d|, 0cp 0tt ttup| | dt btnttc| j|cb, 0cp 0tt
|kt0t| | c|t ]unktt 0cn \c|ktncgn m|| tcff|n| tt|tt
Tdt ttc0t 0| t n| d|ttup||dtn cn||ntn|t }0
|dmdtn |tcd|t|, 0cm|| cua 0tm t| to t, mtnn n|d|a
cn0ttta, lc 0cd 0ca b tt tm| d| Uttuptna btt 0| t
cn0tttn b0n0taj|cc|tn tt0ctt| btftt|| Btu||d-
| cn0 0cm ]cdt Uttuptna | Wcd| 0tm t||kt|t tn
|n0t, c0f 0cp 0tt tr |tn|t t||[r| t0t it 0tt|Jhnttn
U| ktt 0mfcnt un0 t|n ntuta Btu||d| cn0, t|n ftt|ta
Btu||d| cn0, cuf 0tn Ttmmttn 0tt ttup||dt0
]m|nbut ttb |t. ||nt Rufcb t mct|t| |utt, Jt
bcgttn, Jt \tcnktn 0cm t|n un0 0cm Wc|n, m| t
Ht| ccdun0 ttncd kt|ntm b|cmm0ta Wtn|dtn-
t|d|td|ta 0cn 0tt t||o t|di d| t }uu t0cd| mct0tn
| ||. Btt tno |||dt Utccocn0c0| tn|| mup ta | c
m| ||tn| btnc0 0| t | t|dt tn|||dt ]tn|tc| t, 0| t0| t|tn
nfu fcbt|}| tt|t, |dt|tb |t|d}t||| |n \|ub | ||ttn,
0|t 0ct c| | tm |t Uttuptn dt0cd| mcttn. ,Uttuptn
0
ttrn bcd. B t bcn ucgttljdtn b| cc|6cngttgtn
t| t| |t|t 0t0|ldt Uc||||k }|t|| c0f t|nt 0| ||t Icm-
| t0n Utt0ptna, 0tt hc|l tt|btcnt 0n0 0tt 0uttj|tn
htttta| t||0n cb. Bca bcgtt| ldt httt c| |n 0tn
ldmttj| tn hmftn 0ttlc|. ]th| kcmm| ta n0t ncd
0ctcuf cn, mtni j|tna Uttup tn cua 0tm 0tctn0tn
]0lcmmtnut0d ]0 tt||tn. R| | t Wcnn c0f Btd| B| t
ttup| ldt b|0tmfcnt totn 0tn |nntttn0n0 uptttn
\t|n0 tn|tc| | | |
n0 n0n 0tt hbtunk| . B| tlta tn||jdt \|0
c | c|| m0t0t }0m Tt| | c0d 0cn btt||n c0a 0tt-
|d|d|, 0n0 }mct ncd bcgttn c|a btmt|a 0tt bcgttn-
ft|n0||dtn hc||0n Uttuptna, lc 0cp c|lc t|n t|n-
}|tt lc| dtt \thtn lc cctfcp| mct, 0cp tt |t|d
}mt| \|| t tn cuf t|nmc| ld|u. W c n k c n n [d n
l u t n , | n | c n 0 c | m | t k | | m 0 c a t d | ,
0 ca W c n c c | 0 tt "m c t t|| ft l|d |n
R n l t 0 d } 0 n t m t n. . .
Ucn ]t|d 0n0 btlcn0tta 0cn 0tt c| | n0| ldtn
I|t0tt| cj|un cua m0t0t 0n| tt \t0n 0ta cm|-
|| dtn btc0f|tc|tn 0cn Hct|t||fft, b. R. butl|, |n
Uttb|n00n m|| 0tm |nntt0t0| ldtn Wctr|anI0a 0n|tt
R0an00un 0tt | cjltnkcmf|tn0tn}tn |n 0tt Rt-
b t| |ttldcf| 0ta 0t0||dtn tj| tna 0| t Uc|ka}tt|tm-
mttun b t|cn0tta tcp}| bt|t| tu tn.

B t t U t c c c n 0 c 0 t t n | n | c n 0
} 0 t B 0 t d f t 0 n 0 t t h t b t t t n | | -
t |m II. 0n0 t tn c | | t 0 ttcn|m o t| l |
d t n b | t | | t n B t 0 | l d | c n 0 a m | | 0 t m ) | t |
0 t t t 0 c | 0 | | c n , m c t 0 t t 0 t 0 | l d t W c t -
x |b mu a & u n | e t || 1 | 0 0td 0 tn b dm c tm
0
U 0 n mQ t i ||| |d [ 0 | |d
n h
f
unb
I c n 0 t 6 0 t t t | t t n , 0 | t | | d g 0 m 0 t m
R t| tD 0| L n || }u tn| t L ng n c c 0 L t
b dm t|} c 0 tt n cd h c | | cn0 tf|d | t |
| | tU 1 t |U L Rn | H H |l n b t ||| tL
b 0 b [ t k | t u n 0 | c t c k | t t | u m t n , c | | t a
m c t c f | m t 0 | t b d | t t n t t t t
bto p b t| |cnn| tn.
-~*+
Bc 0| t tn|| ldtn btmuntn, 0| tlt Uttb|n000
}0 |t0ntn, n|d| cbtt|ptn, mtt0tn m|t t|n|t 0ndt-
j|tt||bctt btmt| [t ft 0tn )0[ cmmtnld|0p 0tt tn
``
n00n m|| 0tt ctc|tttn

ttmt|| 0cn ]00tn


0n0 Lm| tcn|tn |n 0tt bdmt|j m0t0t cbt0 ldcn tt-
mnt. 1 . R0 0tt |n|ttc|||| tt|tn Utcccn0ckont-
ttn} |n Ldn0c0 R00l| 1 91 8 m0t0t 0tt btl d|up t-
c| , ,0c 0| tR|||| tt|tn b t}||d 0tt b c||dtm| ||| ldt0
Utc0ccn0c 0tttn t|tnt L||ttc|0t0n|tt 0tt 0t0||dtn
Rtb t|| ttbt0|ktt0n 0ttbtt||tn lc|||tn.'' [Rbt0t0d|
bt| b|0ct|, Secrets of Crewe House) . 2. R0f Pn-
ct0n0n 0tt tn|| |dtn t| tt0n m0t0tn | n 0tn
0t0|ldtn ht| tatfcntntn|cttn |n |n| cn0 dm|||m
d|tn0t)t||0ntn|c0ftn0c0at|t||| . | tnttRtb t|| tt-
}t||0n, ctmt|a, Uc|kaj||mmt. 3. B| t Utcc cn0c
0tt |n 0tt bdmt|} ltpcf|tn mctr| l|| ldtn |m|-
tcn|tn |n Bt0|ld|cn0 m0t0t 0on |n| cn0 d t}c||.
B| t b0tldtn dt)otn | t|d}t||| f|ncn)| t| | t n|tt-
j|00n 0cm |n|ttnc||cnc|tn Wctt|am0a 0n0 0cn
0t0|ldtn bcnkt0 | n |0| ldtm btH0. 4. Btt tn| |ldt
Dtc0dcn0c0| tnj| uct 0| tt0tn 0tt 0t0Ildtn Wct-
| j|tn |n W|||| cntn dtt 0tn 0t0|l dtn \tcn|tn cd.
63
B| t t|t tn|||dt \|ub| c|||tt| t mct 0| t R|t Uc||.
|t Uc || Ht. 4: b tt|dt||| . ,httt hcc|t 0ct 0tm
t| da|c. bttn | t0tn Jmtt|c||amua. R|t Uc||
Tr. 5 : btt|dt||| . ,B| t \t| t0tna0ttcn0|untn. Ucn
hct| hcu|akg. B| t|t t|t || Hd bt||tb| fct|-
[t0tn.
Htbtn 0tt mctr| ||| |dtn 0cH|| cn mut0t [ t0tt
|n Btu| |d| cn0 |||t, ||cc|a|t|n0||dt Uttbcn0 0cn
|n|cn0 un| tt||0|. Bcp 0| t bt||| |dt Utoccn0c t|n
|c| dta httt 0cn Rtn|tn |m t|d f|n0tn kcnn|t,
| || t|n tt|d||ttn0ta bumbc| ft 0| t tn||tb-
|| dt Lct un|ttta Uc| tt|cn0ta |n 0tn ]cttn |t|nt
|dmt||tn c||tncnta. R| a L| cu0 btctt t|nt
|t|tn|ummt }ut Btdun 0cn Urcccn0cunkc ||tn
ct0tt| t, 0tt|t|0|| t tt 0| t|t tmc| || t Ruacb t m||
tntm t|n}| tn bcN . ,Btu||dt knntn nut 0utd
Btu||mt bttmun0tn mtt0tn. |t bt)mt| ft|n 0|t|t
tm|t ctt|| |n kt|ntm Putnb || d. b| t c| 0n
1 91 8 |n 0tn Rbtun0 t||t}|, Ht m|t0 0n 0n| tt 0tm
bcnntt 0ta Hc||cnc||c}| c||amu | n t|nt tcpt 3u
Nunf| fttn.
|t cbtn tu|t 0| t W|| dkt||, 0|t tn| ||dt
t|| kt|tatcccn0c t|nttn0 }0 bttt|tn.
Un|tt 0| t unbt||tt||bcttn |ttbn| ||t 0| t|tt n|tt-
[udun }| | cnt )mt||t| 0| t \t|| ||t| |un, 0cp
mc| n|tmc|a }u0ct 0 | t r t c |a m |||t | 0 tt
D tc c c n 0 c |o btmup| un0 |c u|| }um ||0-
|c0 tbtcd| mut0t.
Lc||tn m|t cn} mtn| t 0| t|tt Utcc cn0c|tn
ncd t|nmc| 0ct una cu|mct|d| tttn.
R|a b tt|dt||| 0ca ct| 0ta bt||||dtn Uub ||}| ||tn
Ucn|cnbg . ,B| t Lt | || t|nt cnttkcnn|t un0 cuptt-
e4
ct0tn||id nh|idt htitmcIIt, un0 | t0ta Lcn0 t-
btcud| Htm|| 0c| | tt btt| tun, um 0ca t|tnt Uc|k
}0 | u|dtn, Htu|tc| t |t Hd }u tm|nntn un0 0tn
\t|n0 |ttt)u|ttn. B| tunm| ||tn0tn un0 un|du|0| tn
Wc||tn btmttktn n|d|, 0cp Ht |tttt|t| mtt0t0,
un0 mtnn c| | ta 0ctbtt | ||, mtt0tn nut | tt un0 0ct|
Ltn tn|0td| un0 b|ct|| t| ||.
!|cg0 btctt, 0| t| | t|d| 0tt bt|| t Utc0ccn0| || 0tt
(
n|tn|t, ttk|t|t |n 0tt t0t0cm 4. Ruu[| 1 91 r, 0| t
| n }c| | c|tn |rtm0| cttn | n Btu||d|cn0 0ttbtt||t|
mut0t, 0| t 0tu||dt \tun c| | t|n cbt 0utd | tt0
,Rnt|ff cuf bt|| tn, 0tt un|tt btud c| | ttUtt|tt
tt|c|| |t|, 0tn ht| t 0tt|du|0t|. bt|nt t0t ||t| |t
|n0tmbch . ,|t km|tn, um 0| t t|t|| d||t Utt-
|dmtun, 0| t | t ttn 0| t \tt|t|| 0tt U| ktt cnt-
}t||t||, 0| t m|| tcu|cmtt, |dcm| c|tt |n||d| c ||tn t||
|n c| | tn ||n}t| t| |tn |ct|||| , t|d|d|, |n|tt|| |||
un0 t|m||d t0|cn| mut0t, }0n|d|t }u mcdtn.
1 920 |dt|tb 0tt c| |t ht| tathtt tncu 0ca bttn-
|t| | : ,]t mtt mcn 0| t bdtt || t||, 0|t |n 0tn 0tt-
jd| t0tntn Ln0ttn btt 0ca t|dt|tbtn Hn0, mca Hd
0ct 0tm 1 . Ruu|| 1 9 1 4 }u t|tctn c|, 0t|| c mtt
kcmm| mcn )0 0tt b tt)tuun, 0cp n|tmcn0, 0tt
0|t b|cc|at|d||t |

||t|t, |n | tntt )t|| 0tn ht| t


m|tk| |d mc| ||t. |a mct t|mca, | n 0ca mcn |nt|n-
|| ||, c0tt 0| t|mtt |nt|n|cumt| |t un0 ||c|0tt|t,
0|t| | t| d| cua Tctt| |.
Btt bt||||dt Uttm| ttm|n| ||tt R|1u|| 0tt|| dtt|t |m
0k|cbtt 1 9 1 4 |n t|ntt mc||tnc|| |n| tt 0tn 0tu||dtn
\tcn| tn cbtmct|tntn t0t . ,|t cbtn n|d| 0tn
un|d, 0| t bttn un|ttta t|dta 0utd ntut0
\|Jdtntcum c0tt tp ttt Uttcn|mct|un }0 0tt-
65
mrren. " Unb mi e li egen bi e tat raden? fm fnbt
bes Ari eges erweiterte fnglanb, mol um ber menfd
eit bamit einen Di enft JU ermeifen, f eine "Brbe" um
1 41 5 929 engli fde Quabratmeilen.
Da bi e brutfeten Solbaten ben Ainbern bes fein
bes bi e fnbden abgeamt tt en, gett JUm feften
Beftanb j ebts erenmerten Ielthri egspropaganbiften
in Btitannien. Di e tugenbaften "times" beri dten am
2 -- September 1 91 4: "Die Deutfden fdneiben ben
hlrinen Anaben bi e fnbe ab, bamit franhreid leine
Solbaten met aben foll." Tad bem fbfdneiben ber
fnbe fpieen bie Deutfden bie belgi fden Babys auf
ire Baj onette unb nageln Oe an bi e faustt. Der
rnglifde Obetft lepington fdtei bt bet biefes mar
den, ba "eine Unterfudung eingeleitet morben fei",
mo butd beutfde Solbaten "Rinbetn bi e tnbe abge
fdnitten morben maren. fs murben niel e flle ge
prft. Rein ein3iger fal l lonnte nadgemief en mer
ben." Unb bod at gan3 fngtanb felfenfeft baran
g eglaubt .
. Der Sdriftleiter ber "Sunbay timeg" I muron, at
1 922 bie Rale aus bem Sam geloffen unb erJlt, mie
Et im Arieg bi e melbungen bet bie abgeamten
Ainbernbe JUfammengebraut at : "meine jeitung
telegrapierte, Oe braude Gef didten non Greueltaten.
Tun gab es aber JU j ener jeit heine Gteueltaten. (Iil
fon mat bei Ati egsausbrud in 1rfrel.) b i e t e l e
g r a p i e r t e i e r a u f , i d f o l l G e f d i d t e n
n f l d t l i n g e n r d i e t n. bl t I r a g t t
i d , b a b i ft f e i n , b a h a n n i d i e r b l e i b e n.
T u t t a l b n bt r r t l m a t t i n h- 1 t i n e r
O r t , m o m a n ; u m E f f r n i n j u g r r n
00
p f l r g t - m a n b t k n m b o r t f e l t g u t e s
|r r L n. J d n m a n I b a L b t t a u d
e i n B a b y g e g e b e n l a b e n m f f e , u n b f o
f d r i e b i d e i n e 2 t 3 3 2 r r e i p e n b e G e
f d i d t e b e r b a s 1 a b y u o n C o u r b e c
( o o , b a s i m f e u e r f c e i n b e r b r e n n e o b e n
I o l n u n g e n u o r b e n f u n n e n g e r e t t e t
m r b e. fm ndften Tag murbe id telegrapifd
aufgeforbert, bas Baby nad Jonbon JU fdiden, ba
Od ungeflr 5000 Jeute bri eflid erboten ltten, es
an Ainbes Statt an3unemen. }m barauffolgenben
Tag haren 1abymfde unb Babyhleibden maffen
meife in bi e lebahtion. Sogar bi e nigin Fleranbra
brmte in einem Telegramm ilr fitgefl aus unb
f
d
imte einige Rl eibungsftde. nun honnte id aber
bod nidt JUrdtelegrapli eren, bap hein Baby ba i ft. ,
So uerftnbigte id mi d alfo mit bem }rJt, ber fr bit
fldtlinge Sorge trug, balin, ba bas uerflirte Baby
geftorben fei, unb 3mar an einer felr anftedenben
f
r
anheit, ro ba es nidt einmal ffentlid begraben
merben honnte. Unb mir berrebeten Jaby Tortl
cliffe, mit al l ben Aleibungsftcen eine Rinberbemalr
anftalt JU grnben. " (Erjllt im (ruf aber am 24. fe
bruar 1 922.)
}uf biefe gemi ffenlofe Ieife murbe bi e Jgenflut
lergeftellt unb losgelafren, uon ber bas fdmebifde
Blatt "Gteborgs fanbels- od Sj fartstibing",
h 2 u t 2 beutfdfeinblid, fdri eb : "man hann haum
rine Jonboner 3eitung auffdlagen, olne gleid
auf eine Reile berartiger unbeglaubigter unb
unmalrfdeinli det Beauptungtn }0 ftoen, mie biefr:
ba beutfde Offi3ierr Ieibet unb Rinbet uot brn
ir
\t000tn ||tn tt|tt|btn | c||tn, 0m 0tn \tn0 cm
bd| ttn }0 0tt|n0ttn, 0cp 0tu||tht bc|0c| tn 0tt-
m0n0t|t \t|n0t | tbtn0| 0ttbtcnn|, 0cp t | 0nt
\tc0n 0tttmc||| | 0n0 0cnn 0tt||mmt|| 0n0 0tt-
btcnn| || tn, 0cp 0tu||dt Pt}|t 0tn bt|cntntn
0|t btntn 0uttbt|dn||| tn, un\ ta |ntn unm||d
}0 mcdtn, | t m| t0tt |t |t Lcn0 }0 km0ftn, 0cp
0t0||dt bc|0c| tn tfcntnt \tcn}c|tn ncd| c0at-
}ctn 0n0 cn 0| t 0tt 0tt 0ctmt|a t| | tn0tn Mc-
ncntnmc tn tb0n0tn, 0cp 0|t Lc}ctt||t m|| t|ntt
cn}tn Wtnt Uttmun0t|tt 0ct|n t|nt|mtt|, 0cp
Ht k| t|nt h|n0tt m|| bc| cnt||tn 00tdb ct|, kut}0m,
0cp Ht t|nt t| t Uttbttdtn btcntn, 0| t tntn,
um Ht}utm|ttbdcn0tc|a bctbcttn }00ttut| t| | tn.
n0 }um Rb|tb |up 0| t|ta k| t|ntn R0a}0ta mc|
0| t | c| | || t Lt . B| t Lt|dtn|cbt| k. Rm 1 t. Rt|| 1 91 r
btcd|t 0| t ,T|mta t|ntn btt| d| btt t|nt 0tu||dt
Pbfc| |0ttmtt|unat|t| | |dcf| b t| hcb| tn}, ,mc )t
0c| | ncd|tt, |n bn0t| }0|cmmtnt|thnt|tt Lt|d-
ncmt 0cn bc|0c| tn cnkcmmtn 0n0 |n tcptn ht||t|n
t|c||tn mtt0tn, 0m 0ctc0a b| tct|n un0 tc|||n| tt|ta
0| }0 tm|nntn. t|d t|nt | c0| ||| |dt bdmuhcn-
|cHt mup 0tt bdtt|b tt||n cbtn, 0tt 0| t|t Lt btt||
cuatmc|| c| | Jm Uct|cmtn| ||t| | | t 0tt Rc tct0nt|t
cnc|0 WtT t|| | 0tn Rn|tc bt|m Urtm| ttm|n| ||tt
I| cu0 btctt, tt | c| | t bdt|||t |un, ,um |n Ru|tn,
Jn0| tn un0 |m cn}tn 0||tn |cmt|| c| a m||tb bt-
kcnn| }0 mcdtn, 0cp 0| t Btu||dtn 0| t Lt|dncmt
|ttt t|tntn bc|0c|tn |cm| t 0| t | ttt \t|n0t, mtnn
Ht Hd 0tttt b tmd||tn, c|a bdmt|ntfu|| tt 0ttmtn-
0tn. B| t|t Icdt| d|tn ab tn |cct |n C|nc ||tk-
||tna ttn Btu||d|cn0 tm| tk|. 1 925 c| Pu||tn
68
|hcmb tt|c|n cm|||d }uttbtn, 0a 0| t Wt|0un btr
0|t Lt|dtnfcbt|k t|nt Lt mct. |t cmtt|kcn| |dt
)t||un ,T|mta B|ac|d] |dt| tb 0ctcu| |n t|ntm
t||kt| , 0tt cud u| 0| t | tkun |n mtt|kc ktnn
}t|dnt|, mc Hd ncd btkcnn|mtt0tn0tt Lt|dtnfcbt|k
mc||tncf| Wnntt 0ttcn| cp| |ctn, c|a \tt|m|| | |t
|n 0tn ht|t }0 }|ttn, um 0| tt|| 0cn 0| t|ttbdcn0t
}0 btftt| tn, cm 6. Bt}tmb tt 1 925 : ,| t brtm|t
c0c0ttt|d|d| t, 0| t mttn0 0ta t| tta bt| 0tn
c| ||| tt| tn U| kttn 0tn hcp t tn 0| t Btu||dtn b|a
}um b| t0tunk| t||t|tt| c|, | || nun |m bt||| |dtn
un|ttcua c|a t|nt Lt ttk|t| mct0tn. Uct t|n|tn
Wcnc|tn tt|ut 0| t t||, m| t 0| t| t Lt 0cn t|ntm
|d||tn 0ff|}| tt |m bt||||dtn Hcdt| d| tn0| tn|| t-
| cn| 0n0 0ttbtt||t| mut0t. Uct t|n| tn ]cttn c|
0| tbd| |0ttun,m| t0tt0tu||dthc| |ttcua0tnmtn|d-

||dtn Lt|dncmtn \t|| tm|nn|, 0| t bttt 0| t| ta


Lcn0ta un0 cn0tttt cuftk| t|ttLn0tt }u m|tn0tm
hcp tn|f|cmm|. bt| ||| nctmc| t Wnntt bc| || tn 0| t
\cu|| un0 ||t}| tn}00tm nd||tnm| |||t| |dtnttb t
btc. ]th| |c| mcn |ntn |c||d|| d, 0cp Ht bt|tctn
0n0 tnctt| mut0tn, 0cp | tt t|tntn 0|||}| tt || t
cbHd|||d cu| 0tn tmn|d|tn b| t0tunk| btcd|tn,
|n0tm Ht Hd t|ntt |dn0||dtn Lt bt0| tn| tn, um
| tt Lt|0tn|dcf|tn cuf)ut|||dtn.
tt || d cbtt 0on un|tttn btmtHtn n| d| b tt
}tutn |c||tn m|| |,c| tHduakunf|bt| hcm| | |cn\gft,
0tt 0| t Btu||d|cn0-Rb|t| |un 0tt tn|||dtn Utcc
cn0c)tn|tc| t0cn]u|| b|aHc0tmb tt1 9 1 8 t| t|| t|c|.
Jn t|ntm btt| d|, 0tn \uft |n 0tt Hcdkt| ta}t|| btt
0|t|t1||kt|| 0ttfcp| t, | t| || ttmc| cua Utttttn
btt m| ||t |nnttc|||||dt Uctnt cua0td||m
69
i
mit, ba feine Propaganbaabt eilung im Atirge, mi r
fyfe mrtlid r dr2i bt, "m i t e i H 2 r e b e n r 0
g r o e n S o r g f a l t t g 2 n f a b t i J i e r t a t ,
m i t a n b e r e f b t e i I u n g e n m u n i t i o n. "
mit bet Strategi e ber Gruppenfpaltung erhlomm
in bet Ieltlriegapropaganba nud bi e Taltih ber
Ieltanf dauungsmasle be
n
I eiten Gipfel erfolgreicer
Iirlf amleit.
man braudt lein einJiges flugbl att ber briti fden
triegspropaganba gelefen 3u oben unb hann, menn
man nur bi e Gefelmigleiten ber briti fcen Propa
ganbataltil hennt, bod genau miffen, melde Ielt
anf dauungsmaslen bi e britif de melthriegspropa
ganba aufgefeit at. So hnnen mir mit fug unb
Redt barauf uer3icten, bie Parabe biefer Prafen
nod einmal ab3unem2n. C r i ft I i d u n b b r -
g e r l i d j u g l e i c , h m p f t E n g l a n b u o n
1 9 1 4 b i s l 9 1 8 , m i e f d o n r o o f t i n f e i n e r
6 e r d i d t 2 I f r b i t n i b e |g f r ( r i ft u
u n b f e i n e R i r d e n f o m o l a l s a u d f r
b i e f r e i e i t b e a J n b i u i b u u m a , b i e
5 i d t r e i t b e r D l h e r , b i e I o l f a r t
b t r m e n f d e i t , b a a I e l t r e d t , b e n
I e l t f r i e b e n u n b b i e I e l t u m a n i t t.
Iir ab en fdon barauf ingemiefen, ba es eine
befonbere Eigenart ber briti fden Propaganba i ft, im
DollJUQ ber Tahtih Ieltanfdauungsmaahe bei ber
fonftrultion ber Gegenfalpaare ben Gegner burd
bie jufammenballung al l es Tegatiuen bes gltigen
Ieltbilbea mit ben Abeln einer beifpi ellofen Gemein
rit ;u berfdtten. Da bi e britifde Propaganba aus
;
o

naqeliegenben Grnben in bet fgitation untet bem
beutfden teer unb im beutfden Jnlanb folde Er;erfe
gegen al l es Deutfde uermiebl Onb bi efe fabi ftifden
Petoerpttenl 0|t in engftem 3ufammenang fteen
mit ben behannten ftfdeinungen eines ehelaftm
jynismusl melde Od immer miebet in bet btiti fden
Gefdidte 3eigen1 in Deutfdlanb fel bft meitgeenb un
b ehannt gebli eben. Einige bauon metben mit im fol
genben jUt fenntnis geben.
Ienn es nod eines 1emeifes fr bi e tatfade be
btftel ba fnglanbs 3iel meber ber Stur3 bes fai fets
noct ber Sieg bes beutfden ftbeitersl fonbern gan3
einfad bie Detnidtung bes brutfeten Uolhes mar unb
i ft bann mirb er butd biefe Dohumente unmiberleg
bar angetreten.
Sdon bi e bereits gebtadten 1eifpiele hlien barbet
gengenb auf. m e r f o 1 1 b i e f i n b t t n b t a b -
g e a m t u n b b i e b e f g i f d e n f r a u e n g e
[d n b t t a b t n I b t r R a i r t r' b 2 r i t b 2 L
b e u t f d e 5 o 1 b a t ? I e r b e b i e n t b i e
R o b l 2 n 3 2 t J e i t e n f a b r i l l b e r f a i f e r
b e r b tt n a m e n I r e b e U t r d e f L b e |t 2 t ?
m t L m i t b a Ib 1 u b e r I ( ft Ii n g u n b . m r
b t r i n g e ft e I I t - b e r h a i f e t o b e t b a s
b t u t f d e D o Ih ? J n a I I e n f I I t n i ft m, t b e t
b e t R a i f e r n o d b e t S o l b a t S o u n b f o g e
m e i n t , f o n b e r n b o g g a n j t D o l h 1 b a s
e i n m a l m i t b e m G e f i d t b e s f a i f e r s u n b
e i n a n b e r e s m a l i n G e ft a l t e i n e s m u s
h e t i e r s a u f b i e e n g l i f d e P r o p a g a n b a
b n e g e f d I e i f t m i t b 1 man get babei fo
not, ba man fagt : allr Deutfdrn Onb teufr11 aber
f
0tt Md| ltt | || 0tt |d||mm|| t. R| |c t|nt Ugtcm|t tt
bd| td||bt||, b t| 0tr 0| tb|ht |n d|| tm btc0 0tr
t|n||, mca cud 0tn un|tttn Tt| | tn |t| dm| }u
t|tn | ||. bcbd|0 mcn |n Bt0||d|cn0 Utcccn0c
mcd|, |d| tb| mcn 0tn n|tt|t| | mt un0 | | 0| t
b|0t c| | t|n bt|. Jm Rua|cn0 cb tt tn| || | | 0| t|ta
Wcn0tt. Rud | tt | || 0ca Utt|cttn tu|t kt|n
cn0ttta m| t |m t||kt| t.
W|| Rbd| ubtn m|t 0ctc0| 0tt}| d|t|, 0| t tn-
|i | dtn Urcc cn0crc|tn 0tt \tt| t|| un0 0tr hu
mcn||| 0urd 0| t tn || |dt |rk|| dkt|| 0tt Rua|n
0ttun un0 |u|ckrc|i |dtn bk|c0trt| |m t|n}t|ntn }u
m|0tt| t tn. Ea | || 0| ta |n | n||tt )t|| u|| tnu
t|dt tn. E a mu cb t t | t t | tc q 0 tm m| |
c | | tt b d t|t |t || t c || tn m tt0 tn, 0 cp
t | n t \ t u n a | d | d | , 0 | t [ c | d t b k u n
0 c | t m | t 0 | t | c | t n 0 t n B c k u m t n | t t t
} t u | , t | n | t c | | t m c | 0 c a t d | 0 t t
m | t k | c | , | m H c m t n t | n t a t t | | | | t n
c0 tt |||| || d tn U c ||u |c| b |tt b ||mmt
3 u tt tb tn.
B| t t|t bt|nn| m|| 0tn cn||0tu| |dtn hthb| |-
0ttn, 0| t |mB| tn||t0ttTck||kt|| cn|dcuunamcakt
b t| 0tt htt||t| |un 0ta ntc||0tn Tt| | ta 0ta bttn-
| c0cctta 0tt|tt||| mur0tn. Wcn | u|dt d nut
n|d| . 0tt cct||tub tn0t nnn, 0tt }um )mtdt 0tt
Ru|t| ||dun 0tt n| t0t| ||tn Tt|tbc|||kt|| |n 0|t|tn
bH0ttn }u|cmmtnt|tctn mut0t, !1n0 mtt b| cu-
0tn, c|a mcn ta |t m||d] c| |tn |c| ||t.
Rm Rn|cn mc mcndtt 0ctbtt t| cd| ubtn.
dtt Tc) ft Tc mctf 0ca tn || |dt Utc-
2
0ccn0cdm| t|nt t|t|tnc||t Wc||tnttt mit
0|t|tn }t|d ntt| |d tn un0 |dt|f|||d tn Bct||t| |unt0
0ctt 0tn 0tu||dtn hunntn cu| 0| t b|tcbtn | t
m| ||tn cua t|nmcn0ftt|tn )tun| ||tn, 0c | t|c || }0
t|tntm t| t|| || t un0 unccn| t H [t |dj cn
1 91 t 0cn 0tt ctt| | 0| t|ta Btu||d tnc| |0ta cc| c|u|
0ctt)tu| mcttn. | tta0cnn|n0tn ctt| | tn bd| d |tn
cua|c, mc0| t Hct|t||||t-Utc0uk| t, 0| t upttj| c| | | |
}u kcu|tn mcttn, 0| t t|n)| t Hc|| c| |0t| tn, kcdn nicn
hdunt|t0ct||t| | tn. I|mm|mcn tu|t0| t|tb| |0tt
in 0| t hcn0, |c tt||| mcn Hd cn 0tn c| ctt
bie{en cnHnn. Ea 0ct| cb tt n|t 0ttt ||tn mtt0tn,
uca En|cn0 una m|| 0| t|tt bd mun cnt|cn c| |
|a | || n| d| |d mtt, 0ca Btu||d tncH0 0tt tn || |dtn
Ucccn0c tt|d|tn0 0ct}u||t| | tn. R| | t nut tnk-
bcttn Lc||tt, bttut| un0 bdcn0|c|tn |n t|ntm |:ct-
mt|tn kcn)tn|t| tt| un0 0ttt|n| | m|| 0tn ct| ||tn !\t-
| ||ttn ||t|||ttn0tt Uttcttd tt 0ca Hn0 m|t | |a
g| c| cttcu|

kt|nt bd| td||kt| |tn un0 I t|nt Rua-
jd mt||untn, 0|t 0ca 0tu||dt n||tt n|d| 0ttu|
c|. Jmmtt|n t|n ccttun0t| ta b| |0|
Ju 0tnb| |0ttnkcmmtn0| tc|a tt|c||unc tkcnn| tn
Ttt|0ckumtn| t t|ntt un|cp|| d tn btmt|n t|| un0
ttn)tn|c |tn bt|u0t|un 0ta btntta |m Uttfc| 0tt
Tck||k t||cn|dcuunamcat.
Rm 3. Ruu|| 1 9 1 2 |d t| tb 0| t tn || |d t )t||-
|dt||| ,]cn bu| | . ,Btt t| t m|| Btu||d|cn0 | ||
un0ttmt|0||d, un0 0| t t|n)| t \tc t | ||, |c| | tn m|t bt-
tc||d | ctn 0ctctt, cc tt, mca 0| t )t|| bt|t| |||, ft
una cnntmc ct | ||. tac|c | c| | tn m| t 0ca |un
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mcn||nn| tmct0tn mct.
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mtht| | mut0tn. tnn bc|| bc|| | ||, c| tt una 0| t
utimm|u t U|| i d| cu|tt| tu|, b| t|dta mi | b| t| dtm }u
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occt 0ta u tu tnmt||u tn t| tu ta | || ta, | n 0cn 0tt
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m| tbttn| d|tn m||tn. Bca | j| 0ca T| tt, 0ca 0cn una
n|t0tto tmcd| mtt0tn mup. ca 0tt Btu||dt | ||,
mct tt 0ct un0tt|, 0ct |n|un0tt|, | c 0ct |cu|tn0
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|d| da, un0 mtnn m| t 0tn c||| tt| cctn un0 ta
hcmm| 0ttt|n|| 0|t b|un0t, mc m|t |na Tot 0ta
fd
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0tn Ttuft| 0tt|| |u| cc tn. Btt Btu||dt | || 0| t Ut||-
b tu| t 0tt mtn| d||dtn bt|t| | |dcf|. B| t|t Ut || ctu|t
mu ttcuau t|dn||| tn mtt0tn, un0 0ca bt||||dt
bc| cnt|| | || 0ca Jn||tumtn| ft 0| t| t 0ttc||cn, 0| t
cn0tt bt||| t 0ctutncmmtnmtt0tn kcnn,mtnn un|ttt
u| |||u tn bc|t Ht d|ctc|ctm|tt| cc tn.
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0tu||dtn Uc| kta 0utd 0| t tnu | ||dt Utccucn0c | ||
t|nt tn0|c |t. |a u tnu| [ t0|. Utt| c||tn m|t 0ca
Ictttncua.
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[u|| tm |t| c || c tt|d| cutn. |a | || |t||tt n|t mtt }um
0c| |tn )uu t utkcmmtn. B| t U| |c|| |1| 0tt bt| |tn 0tr
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0tn utcptn Rc tn| tutttn 0tt ct||| |dtn t| |ttcc ttunu,
|n 0tntn cnt )mt|ft| ct||dta httttnmtn|dtn|um
0n0 ct||Jta httttnc tmu| |t|n re tt0ctutmcu| c|,
mtnn ta Hd cud | n 0tn W|||t|n 0ttor| ||.
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| t u | t 0 t t c t | | | | d t n U t c c u c n 0 c | n 0 t n
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nunu 0 tt || b tt c | tn r m | t 0 tL d t| ||-
| | d t n 0 t t | t u n 0 \ t h | t n t | n t t m | t k -
f cmtn b tu tn t c cu cn0 c.

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n||| c0a 0tn t| tn 0tt tn| |dt|0tn0tn U| ktt t-
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ttt lt|ntt Utcccn0c cc tn t|nt Ru|k| tun t-
ldcf|tn, 0| t m|| 0tm hcmmtt|d| c 0tt chtht|| |n
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0| t|ta 0tt| ctntnItj|ta 0ctBtu||d|cn0 un0 0ctc| | tr
t|| ttc ctmuna| ca c0f t0td|0n0 0cm|| m|tk0n-
|ca tmcd| c|.
tnn 0| t tn|| |dt Utccocn0c tu| t 0tn 0tc| |tn
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Uc|k 0|t|tm n|ttntmtn ttnctt n0t t|n Jn| ttt|| t,
0n0 0ca | j| 0| ta, 0c d 0cn )t| | }u )t|| t|ntt 0c0
0tn 0| t| tn |u|cktc|||dtn hthttn 0tt bt||||dtn Utc-
ccn0c}tn|tc| t ncd Btu||d|cn 0tt|tttn mt, 0m
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}tt mtt0tn, 00td 0tn mcn c t| 0na 0| t \t|n0t 0t0
0t0||dtn Uc|kta }ut b|ttdt bt|n|.
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tttn, mtnn t|n bt||| |dtt Wtn|dtnmto tt 0n0
hcdkc| |c||j| ttk| t|, |n| cn0 lt| tn| |d|c j|tn, 0c
0tu||dt Uc|k 0cn h|| | tt 0n0 0cm Ic|| cnc| |c}| c||a-
mua }u b t|tt| tn, um ta 0tt \tt| ht||, 0tm b|d 0n0
0tt btttd||kt|| tn|ttn}0|ttn. ca kmmtt|
0ca 0na
\t 0|t ht|m|nc|| j||k 0tf| t ta c| | tt0|na t|n b t-
cd| || dtt \c| | |t|n, 0cp t|n Uttcttdtt t|nta Tcota c t|
t|ntm Ptc t| |tt tt|dt|n|,|n }utt|| c tttt0t|0n0 0cn
n|t0tt|d|o|, tcu|cm m|pcn0t|| un0 cuatcuc|, 0m
|n t|n| tn0cdtn m| t0tt bt| 0tmc tt|c| | tntn 0ct}u-
lttdtn 0n0 0ca | t|dt Utt|cttn m|| h| |ft 0tt
\ St
| t|dtn bdmhttt|tn m| t bt|m ttj| tn Wc| ttnt0|
on}umtn0tn 0tt|ud|. 1 91 4 ubtn ta | t tn| ||0tn
Utcccn0ccon0| |tn |dcn t|nmc| cuatcb| tt|. htu|t
kcmmtn Ht m| t0tt. ||nt 0nbtt|dm| t )um0|un |
B| t t|d| d||| dt b|0n0t 0ta b| tta 0tt Rtbt| |
btt ca bt|0 c| t|d| c tn. ttPc ||ut} btcpct| |cn-
n| tna j|t|nc t btbct. B| tPtb t||ttldcf| 0tt t|| tt-
mc0| 0n0 tttc| Hd ttn | ttn utft|n0. bdcn
ld| ctn 0| t \| cmmtn cuf. ca btt|d| bt| d| ttt|n.
tt0tn U|u|cktc|tn, tt | ttt Uc ||||k, tt |ttt
Utcccn0c.
5.
B c a 0 | | | t U t t | c t n 0 t t c | | t n W t -
| |j c 0 t n 0 t t c t | | | | d t n U t c c c n 0 c | n
0 t t R u a t | n c n 0 t t l t h u n 0 t t b t t n -
m c t| | || cu f |t|n t t| |t t|n | | tfta b u m
b c | f t 0 | t t l d | d | | | d t b | 0 n 0 t , 0 | t
m | t t t | t c tn. Rua t||kt|t mut0t t| |tnmtn0t.
ca fttttn bt|d| t0|ttn 0ntt|d|| tt| |d ld| tn, Hnk|
tu| t ctd| |n Hd }ulcmmtn. ||nt c|| t t|| | j|
m Rc|| ttb tn, t|nt nt0t kcmm| Htcf| ttcuf. Uct
0tm bt|th 0tt )t|| |dt|0tn Hd 0| t bt| j|tt. B| t um-
m|}uno 0tt Jnc| | t, \ctmtn 0n0 Ruf cb tn f|n0t|
|tt bcnntt|ttt un0 |tt \t|n0t.
Bcp |n| cn0 }0t bt0t 0ta |0ttj| cn0ta tt|,
I || n| d| nut 0n|ttt, lcn0ttt cud 0| t tn|| |dt R0f-
fc|jun. un| tt0| tltm )t|dtn j|t| c| | ta, mca |n|cn0
0n|ttn|mm| 0n0 ttj| ttd|, mca ta n| d| un|ttn|mm|.
bt|nt )| t| t umtt| ftn nut ncd 0| t |tc||un 0cn
)0j|n0tn un0 0ct|, mc0ca R|| t ldcntj|t}| | j|, 0| t
b
| t0ttttj|t| |unu 0tt Uttu cnu tnt||. Ruf0tt u| t|dtn
!|n|t | iutn |t|nt Wt|c0tn. ca ||d |r tt c|a 0t
c tm1t| t, m|t0 tu| tm| t0tr mtdcnHd |n Rnmtn0un
u tctcd|, ucn} |c, c|a cc
net
n|d|a 0tt1n0tt| 1| | t.
Utt||cJ\|un0 m0t k| cmmtt|mcn || d cn0| tbgj| tmt,
0| t t|n|| |n cn0tttt Lco t un un|tt cn0tttn Wtn|dtn
tt|c|urt| d mcttn un0 o | cuc|, 0utd | rt| t0ttc |unu
0tn ctrkcmmtntn bt||0 }u tt|| tn. B| tbt|d| d| tcb :r
| 1u|| 0ctm1t|a. tt tdm1r|a 0tnk|, f1| | | |n 0tn
n| tto cnu t|nta mtt|| c |tn Bc| t|na cnt btm| d| un0
o nt brJpt. W|| |t|tn|dr| ||tn ||tm| 0| t bt| d| d| t
un|tttt b|un0t | n 0| t ]ukunf|. bc mcnmtt J|| 0tn
Lcufn|d| 0utd, 0| t| t |rt|tn c tr cu| n| d| cn.Wtt
un0 mtt m|t0 btcpcr||cnn| tn 0ca Lcu tt 0tt ]utJ\
gtc||tc tntn. Jn |t|ntn bttn)tn mudtr| m| t n|ru tn0s
0tt bJhtn0| tn|| 0tt cc || trc tn0tn Ecdt tmcr, 0tr
hu||, 0tt || dj um c| | ta, mca mct m|| 0tm un| dt
0rt|, ta mJut m| t0tt |c |t|
n
un0 |c| cunua0c| | | t|nt
htt| |t }| t| um 0tn bt||h, 0tn b||| | || cn0 un0 0| t c| |tn
bu||tmt, 0cn 0tt E|nHd| |n 0| t m|rktn0cn t1|| t 0tt
btutnmct| tctn| c |trn m| t 0cn 0tt mcttn Et|urd|
0ct 0tt Uttu cno tn t||. | n u |c n 0 | j| 0 ca t t c k -
| | c n 1 t t J m t t | u m u n | t t t t ] t | |.
.
| tcttc| | , |c | || | t0ttj u0t|ttno | i |dt 0c tt|d| d|
cud | m rccocn0| ||| |dtn btc| t| tdmt|ac || dtn0
t|nutj| t| ||. n | t tnu || | d t U L c u cn0 | j|
0 | t U tc c u cn0 c U c n u tj|ttn.
JortTt1o tt ||thtn |c||unoa| ca0ct0tn unu ttuttn
m|d| d|uno tnun|ttta ]t|| c| | tra. b|t hc c tn c t t -
c u | n | d | 0 | t W| | | t | u n 0 n c d m t n | u t r
0 | t b t | f f | u k t | | , u mc n 0 | t t 1 f | t u n 0 | t -
t | u n | | | t t t c n } u k c m m t n , 0 | t 0 c a b t -
bJ
| d t t n 0 n [ t t t t T c t b t || | m m t n 0 0 0 t d -
mc | | t n. B| t|tt0nmcd| 0tt|udrntHd}u tn|}|ttn,
|n0tm Ht 0| t Rutn L 0tn cn0|untn [d||tpt0
0n0 | c |un, c|a cb c| | ta bt|m c| |tn mtt. Ucn 0| tjtt
btun0t|n|| t||un cua m| t0ttc| | 0|t tn|| |dt Utcc-
cn0c 0| t bd|| dt 0cn t|n||, 0| t |n ft tttn ]ct-
un0tt|tn [c nh| |d mcttn 0n0 |m t||kt| t ncd
t|nmc| cuf 0| t b|ht t|t| tbtn mut0tn, tu|t cctr
nut 0| t | | |d cbntmtn0t )c| 0tttt btt|n||u||tn,
0| t ncd 0ta c|| tn bt| ||ta Hn0. Jn 0 tt n tu tn
t | | 0 t t c | | | 0 | t R | | c | | c n c | | t n
b | | | a m | t I u n a | c a | m m | n 0. bo |tt|
0| t bt||||dt Utcccn0d cn c| | tn |n0tn, btt|
Bummt|| cuf Bummt||, bt|n| n| d|a }u||cn0t,
ttn|t| nut W|pttfc|t. B| t[t }mcna| uf|t I| t0tt-
| ct, 0| t t [t| c || |tt mc| f|| un0 Ht|,
cd| Ht m| t t| n |n||thtn, cua 0tm Ht cb tt m| t0tt
ht|ntn cn0tttn Ruamt f|n0t| c|a 0ca Uttfcttn 0tt
| t0ttc|un 0tt c||tn Wt|c0tn, 0ca [ th| b| a |na
JttHnn|t t||t|tt| m|t0. Jn 0| t|tm )u||cn0 b tt-
lt|n| Ht 0| |i 0ttm|tt| 0| t t|nfcd||tn tt|n un0
[|c|tt| |n |c tcpt\t| tt |nt|n, 0cp Ht Hd ttc0t}u
[t|c || tn|| || un0 0cm|| lt|c || cntt| f|. tt 0| t hth-
kct| kc|uttn Eno | cn0a to tn 0tn 0tu||dtn Wtn|dtn
cua 0tm t||kt|t b t|tcd| t|, m|t0 Hd cnt )mt| ft|
0c| | |t||cuntn ftautn, m|t 0ttkcmmtn un0 ||tf||ttn0
0rr bt| |t |t| n mup, 0tt 0| t|tn unnn t}t| dnt| c|.
B| t|t hcptc0uk|t Hn0 ft t|n t|un0ta Ruot n|tmc|a
ct||t| |untn 0ta 0tu||dtn |ctck|tta, |cn0ttn cb-
| dttdtn0t bt| c ||b| |0n| ||t| tta Uttfc||tta. B | t b t| -
t | ld t U L c cn0 c || te | | tL |n t|n tt
b e c [l L1 0 L L [| L n| d | H L t L n|L |nnL n

w | t 0 , 0 t n n 0 | t h t u f | } u t H t 0 l d f 0 n 0
i ft l n j| 0 c | n. B | t bt| || ld t R || c ||c n
t 0 u | n | d | a m t t , | | t t | d | t | n | d | s
| | t n t a m t t c 0 a , n 0 t | n 0 t t b | | n 0 t n
h t1 t | || l| t n d m d | |u. Jn bttnntn0tm hcp
|t|| Ht b| f| 0n0 bc| | t c0f 0ca 0tu||dt Uc| k.
bt||| |dt U|0|cktc|tn 0n0 ht|tua|tt|btt cb t0
m| t0tt t|nmc|, m| t ldcn l cf|, b|||ttta Lt|0
0btt |0tcc tbtcd| 0n0 0na t|ntn ht|tu c0fu t-
]munu tn, |n 0tn m|t n0nmtht t|nut|tt|tn Hn0. B| t
tft| Hn0 | m c| | tn. Icd | || n| d| tn0u||| }0
|tbtn, cb 0tt bt||Hdt ht|tuak|nu t| lt|ntn fttm0t0
Ttcp ft ||ctk tnu ||, 0m |hn |n 0| tR0at|ncn0tt-
lthunu cuf Ltb tn 0n0 Tc0 b|a }0m | th| tn Ttcc cn|tn
|nt|n}0j cu tn. Rbtt m| t0tm cud lt| . B| tbdu|0 cm
0|u||otn cfftnucnu |tcu tn 0| t ttb tm||dtn Wtn-
ldtnmttt 0tt bt| |i |dtn bt|0httt|dcf|, 0ca t| |-
00tn|um 0n0 0| t b tt||cc|| i dt hcdf|ncn}, c| | t }u-
[cmmtn t|n t|n}i uta Lcutt. Jn | httm 0ttbttdtt||dtn
Rn|d| cu cufBtu||d| cn0 hcb tn m| t0tn Utt|0d }u tt-
b||dtn, 0ca Uc |k, 0ca Hd 0cn | httt B| k|c|ut btftt||
c|, cua}utc|| tn. Jhttr| tua|tti c ttt| | || 0|tcdt ft
0tn 0t0||dtn bc}| c||amua, ft 0| tbtfcht|tn 0n|tttt
Rtbt||tt, 0tn td|acn|tum c0f b t}ch | |tn t| c0b,
0| t bdcffunu 0tt lc}| c| tn h| |famttkt, 0tn bd0h c| | tt
[c}i c| tn bt|cno t, kut}, 0tn ]u|cmmtnbt0d 0tt kc|-
tc| | l|| |dj0i |dtn ]mcnuah ttt|dcf| 0n0 0tn Rufbc0
r|nta b|cc|ta 0tt |c}| c| tn btttd|i o kt| | |n Bt0||d|cn0.
H|a hin|trotun0 cctt tth tc| Hd 0tt |t| tchcf|t hcp
c| | tt tc| |i |dtn W|n0ttmtt|i ukt| | cuf 0ca uttmcn| |dr
Wtn|dtn|um 0ta 0tu||dtn Uc| kta, |t|nt k0||0t-
Idftt||dt b tt|ttnh t|| 0n0 lt|nt c||||ldt W| lHcn .

| t|tt t| t | ||

0tt cm| um 0| t |t| || tn] un|ttt


Uc| kts, t|n cm| ni d| nut |t un|ttt btnttc|| cn,
lcn0ttn cud |t0| thu||utun|ttttUtt cn tnt||un0
c| | ttc tn Lt| ||un tn, 0| t ncd |m bdcp 0tt ]ukun||
0n| ttta b|utta |d|ummttn. Ea t| um c| |ta l
| t btm| pt||, 0cJ h|| | tt un0 |t|nt bt|c| |dc||
n|d| ]u o ttm|n0tn ||n0, c| una |n 0tt ]t|| 0ra |n
gtna um 0| t Icd| c|a | tutt|| ta bu| oto | t|| t|. tt
b| cuo t cn 0tn \ttt mct 0| t P1| t 0tt 0tu||dtn
Itbc | u|| cn. Jn 0| t|tm btmup|| t|n |r||| tu|t ocnj
tu| | d| cn0 cn,untt|d|| tt| | d un0 n| tmc|a mcnktn0.
ca | m t|njt|nrn kcmmtn mco, m| || :n m| t n| d|.
Rott t|nta || th| t|| . caUc |k h|| | tta m| r0 b| to tt |t|n.
Jn 0| t|tt ctn b|un0t |thtn m| t bcruna, m|t 0| t
kcimtn0tn tu| | dtn tin|| cu|una )utd: | dcutn un0
d cu| un| tr b| J or|| nntn mtt0tn, m| | 0tm \rtt
cu| 0tn bd| cd| |t|0trn 0tt Itoc | u|i cn, 0ta \ri t0tna
un0 0ra hri to ta o r|cd| tn un0 tc|tt| )u cotn.
|t btto t| tn. h| | | tt o| t| o|.
L t n n | c | c n o t 0 c a 0 t u | | d t U c | k c u f
0 | t | t t E r 0 t k 1 m | t n m | t 0 , | c | c n o t
m |t0 0 tL \ |j t tL o t| | h m |L |n. J n 0 tn
| 1 u o | o t n h t t } t n 0 t t IT 1 n n t t u n 0
\ r c u t n , 0 t t ] u n o t n u n 0 IT 1 0 t | a , 0 | t
| t | n t \ c || n t 0 u r d 0 | t ] c h t h u n 0 t r | t
| t c o c n , | t o | | t | n t r k , | t | n t E n | | d | u -
| t c f | , | t | n c h | c t h t | | u n 0 | t | n | | | t
| r|. J n | trn || tr ]ukun|| n m m | r0 | t|U
I c m t | | d u n | t t j t n t n c t | t n o t | | n 0 t n ,
b | L 0 rt T. tu | |d t |n j n || tn T c tn c |a
tt || tb ] L u n| a un | tr tr b L cd U n 0 tL
bU
W u | | t t t |. b t | d | t d | c u | b t l d | t d |
m|t0 |n h d || tt | t|u d | cu| 0| t t | e
b t || c || un |tt tt b t |d | d | t o || d tn unb
i H | | t tm b t| || |t|n t 0 tu | |d t U | |i d | tt
f | | tn.
b1| ttt ]t|| tn kcnntn tt|| bc| | ttmt||tn, m| t
|tud|oct h| || tt tm|tk| oc| 0utd c| | ta, mca tt |du|,
un m| t o t|tt| tn0 0utd c| | ta, mca tt o t|t|||| t. tnn
|c 0ttt|n|| 0| t Tcdmt| | | ttn I| | d t|tn0 cu| 0| t
Ht1|| t m| t||, m| | 0tntn 0tt \ttt bttn| d| tn0 |na
btr|d| | n, 0cnn m| t0 cud Ht ncd 0tm t| tn
tu| |Jtn c| | tt ]t| |tn 0cIt 0cnko ct |t|n, 0cp tt 0| t
!|\tn| dht| | ot|rt|| c| ucn 0tt |u| cktc|| |dtn Utcc-
cn0c 0tt ot| || |d tn tmcktc|| t.
driftenreiqe Oer UJ 1P,
Iiefe Sctiftenteie, unter beten sitarbeitern fd
0altei ce ftenbe <etfnlidfeiten bet enegung
unb bes Staates befnben, at bie wictige 2ufgobe,
bie geiftig . feelifce <iberftanbsfraft bes beutfden
cotfes, bie unlsbar mit feiner weltanf cauliden
6icereit uerbunben ift, feftigen unb fteigern 0u elfen.
Sie wil ben nfden uon <iUionen beutfder coll
genofen entgegenfommen, bie ba Sebrfnis aben,
f bet uiele butd ben rieg aufgenorfene tragen
edenfdaft ab3ulegen. Snen foU bie eie in biefer
Seit bie notnenbigen <ifensgrunblagen uermitteln,
bie ein felbftnbiges unb tolitifd fcere Urteil ber
bie tieferen Urfaden unferes gegennrtigen eben
famvfes f onie bet bie .intergrnbe ber eutgen
nelttolitif den age ermgliden. .ier3u gert nidt
aUein eine flare enn0eidnung bes <ef ens unf erer
egnet, fonbern aud eine Untertidtung ber bie uor
btinglidften ebensfragen bes beutf den molfes an
feiner inneren <ront.
Cie ein0elnen cnbe, bie uon Gadfennrn in tolitifd
nif enf caftlher, aber burdau aUgemeinuerftnb
lider <eif e abgefaft nerben, f ollen aud nad ce.
enbigung bes rieges nod nirffam bleiben unb i9re
<ltigfeit beibea{ten.
<er 9rei6 ber canbe ift f 0 niebrig gea(ten, baf fein
colfgenofe aus nirtfdaftliden <rnben als ufer
ausf deiben muf.