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JSAE 20119617 / SAE 2011-32-0617

Dry Sump Design for a 600cc Yamaha YZF-R6 Engine


Shane McKenna, Chris McKeown, Glenn Sloan, Geoffrey McCullough, Geoff Cunningham
Queens University Belfast
Copyright 2011 SAE Japan and Copyright 2011 SAE International

ABSTRACT
The Formula SAE competition challenges engineering students to design, build and compete in a single-seat race car. The rules limit the swept volume of the engine to 610cc and so most teams elect to use a motorcycle engine which inherently offers the desirable attributes of high power density and low mass. Engines from 600 cc motorcycles designed primarily for road use are particularly common in this competition. When used in the motorcycle these engines rarely suffer from oil starvation induced by lateral acceleration as the engine tilts with the motorcycle during cornering thereby keeping the oil pickup submerged in the oil. However, when installed in the race car, the engine is constrained in the horizontal plane and is also subjected to higher lateral accelerations. This causes oil surge during cornering and results in almost instant and catastrophic engine failure. The Queens Formula Racing (QFR) team uses an 03-04 model, 600 cc Yamaha YZF R6 engine for their Formula SAE car. A number of designs aimed at preventing oil surge were previously tested including a custom designed baffle and the use of a hydraulic accumulator. An analysis of data recorded during track testing highlighted the fact that these designs, while successful at alleviating the oil starvation issues in the majority of cases, had not fully resolved the problem in every situation. A bespoke dry sump system was therefore designed to address this issue. The system was subjected to a rigorous test programme and its performance verified initially within an engine test laboratory and finally during track testing. The resulting system ensured consistent oil pressure during all conceivable manoeuvres on the track. The design, manufacture and testing of this system is described in detail in this paper.

density with low mass. The most common engines which fall within these parameters are 600 cc motorcycle engines. The QFR team has used a 03-04 model, 600 cc Yamaha YZF-R6 engine for each of the ten cars it has produced. This engine has undergone considerable development and optimization during that time, some of which is detailed in [2-6]. Motorcycle engines used within the competition are generally designed for road use and as such are less likely to suffer from oil starvation issues whilst fitted to a motorbike. As the motorbike enters a corner the bike leans into the turn causing the resultant acceleration to act perpendicularly through the sump of the engine. The result is that the oil is constrained within the sump and the oil pickup remains submerged in oil. When these engines are fitted to four-wheeled vehicles, as in the case of the Formula Student cars, the engine can no longer lean into the corners. The lateral acceleration causes the oil to shift within the crankcase and in some cases results in the oil pickup becoming uncovered meaning the pump can no longer circulate oil around the engine [7-10]. Furthermore, due to the internal design of the engine, when it is subjected to a large enough lateral acceleration the oil can be pushed into the clutch housing or around the gearbox and as a result may be delayed in returning to the sump. Figure 1 shows the original oil system design with a single pickup in the centre of the sump.

INTRODUCTION
The Formula SAE (FSAE) competition challenges teams of university undergraduate and graduate students to conceive, design, fabricate and compete with small formula style, autocross vehicles. There are a number of Official FSAE events worldwide utilizing the same rules, including Formula Student UK. The rules [1] of the competition dictate that the engine(s) used to power the car must be four-stroke piston engine(s) with a displacement not exceeding 610 cc per cycle. This rule persuades most teams to choose a motorcycle engine which offers high power SETC2011

Figure 1 Original Oil System

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QFR use Castrol Power 1 Racing 4T 10W-30 oil in their engines. The oil is lifted through the strainer from the sump through a high pressure positive displacement pump. The oil is then fed through the filter before being pumped to the various galleries which supply oil to the required areas of the engine. Between the pump and the filter is an oil Pressure Relief Valve (PRV). This valve is used to limit the maximum pressure of the oil with the stock PRV opening between 4.5 and 5.5 bar [11] and allowing the oil to pass through the valve and back to the sump. QFR have modified the PRV to reduce the profile and hence allow the engine to be lowered further within the car. Testing showed that the modified PRV opens at approximately 3.75 bar which generally occurred at around 9000 RPM during dynamometer testing. An oil pressure sensor [P1 in Figure 1] is located just after the high pressure oil pump to accurately show the pressure being produced by the pump. The location of this sensor also indicates when the oil pickup has become uncovered. Figure 2 shows the oil level when the engine is subjected to a constant lateral acceleration of 1.6 g, which was the maximum measured during track testing. The oil level shown in Figure 2 is a quasi-static oil level and does not represent the true movement of the oil during transient conditions. Calculations of the forces involved and the total volume of oil present in the engine confirm that the oil pickup becomes momentarily uncovered during this scenario. Some of the oil will still be in the galleries or within other areas of the engine so in reality the oil level will be lower than that which is shown.

Oil Pickup

Baffle Plate

Sump Pan

Figure 3 Baffle Plate Fitted to Modified Sump Pan The baffles act to restrict the oil from flowing out of the sump pan during surge conditions. This helps to keep the oil pickup submerged in oil during maneuvers which create high lateral acceleration. Track testing showed that the baffle design was successful in a large number of situations. However it also highlighted the fact that, while the baffle plate restricted oil from flowing out of the oil sump pan, it also restricted the flow returning to the sump [12]. Without a comprehensive CFD simulation of the oil flow during these situations it was assumed that the baffles contributed to the delay in the oil returning to the sump. During periods of extended lateral acceleration during long corners or periods of cyclical lateral acceleration such as in slaloms where the oil would surge from side to side in the sump, the restriction caused by the baffle plate to the returning oil resulted in short periods of engine oil starvation. This resulted in spun bearings which, combined with the engine speeds greater than 10,000rpm, generated excessive heat within the big-end of the connecting rod which raised its temperature to above the melting point of the material. This resulted in catastrophic failure of both the connecting rod (Figure 4) and the engine. Although this can be alleviated to some extent by adding more oil [13], the possibility of oil surge remains. In addition, the height of the oil pan had been reduced to allow the engine to be lowered in the car and so in static conditions the oil level was close to the crank shaft. Adding more oil would have increased the losses caused by the crankshaft being partially submerged.

Oil Level

Oil Pickup Sump Pan

Figure 2 Oil Level Under 1.6g Lateral Acceleration

BAFFLE PLATES
The oil pressure issue had previously been identified by the QFR team and a number of attempts had been implemented to help alleviate the problem. These solutions included the addition of baffle plates in the sump which underwent a number of design developments over a four-year period. Figure 3 shows the baffle plate fitted to the sump pan with the oil pickup strainer situated in place.

SETC2011

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New Conrod

Melted metal caused by excessive heat

providing a backup oil supply for a greater period of time. The piston naturally moves to equalize the pressure on both sides of the piston. Figure 7 shows the accumulator fitted to the oil system in the Yamaha YZF-R6 engine. The accumulator attached to the main oil gallery using an existing tapping on the left hand side of the engine. The standard oil filter had to be replaced with a filter that contained a Non-Return Valve (NRV) to ensure the oil was directed to the galleries as opposed to flowing back through the pump or out the PRV. The filter used was a KN-303 filter produced by K&N with an anti-drainback valve or NRV. When the oil line after the filter is pressurized, the accumulator will be filled with oil at the same pressure. If the oil supply in the engine is interrupted and the oil pressure drops, the piston will to move to equalize the pressure in the cylinder. An additional volume of oil was added to the engine, determined by the capacity of the hydraulic accumulator. It was decided that the engine should maintain the recommended volume of oil when the accumulator was full, and any additional oil in the sump during partial fill of the accumulator may benefit in the reduction of oil starvation during surge. Since the air precharge was at a pressure of 0.5 bar resulted in the hydraulic accumulator being filled the majority of the time that the engine was running.

Figure 4 Damage Caused by Oil Starvation

HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR
Once the limitation of the sump baffles was identified the decision was taken to install a hydraulic accumulator. The chosen system used an Accusump system [14] which had a 1 quart, or 0.946 liter oil capacity as recommended by the manufacturer for motorcycle engines. The accumulator is 304.8mm long, has an external diameter of 82.55mm and as such requires minimal space for mounting.

Figure 5 Accusump Hydraulic Accumulator The benefit to the Accusump which was used was the fact that it is a compact and lightweight design, weighing only 0.3 kg and can be mounted in any orientation. This allows for flexibility when locating the cylinder on the car. Figure 6 shows a diagram of the hydraulic accumulator. It has been specifically designed by the manufacturer to provide oil pressure to the engine when the pressure from the oil pump drops due to surge or low engine speed. Figure 7 Oil System with Hydraulic Accumulator A second oil pressure sensor was fitted at this time to test the performance of the hydraulic accumulator. An adaptor was designed to attach both the sensor and the hydraulic accumulator to the main gallery of the engine. It was observed that when the oil pickup was uncovered the first oil pressure sensor P1 returned a reading of zero while the second sensor P2 continued to show a positive and safe pressure. Figure 8 shows the reading obtained from pressure sensor P2 when the engine was turned off, simulating an oil starvation situation. When the engine speed drops (at t 8s) the oil pressure slowly decreases as the accumulator continues to supply oil to the galleries. Between three to four seconds after the engine speed has reached zero, the oil pressure eventually reaches zero. It should be noted that the air pre-charge was set to 1.5 bar for this particular test and it can be seen that when the oil pressure decays to this value (at t 12s) it then falls rapidly to zero signifying that the accumulator is empty.

Figure 6 Diagram of Hydraulic Accumulator The design includes a hydraulic piston which separates an air pre-charge side and oil reservoir side. The air pre-charge side was pressurized to 0.5 bar pressure as this was deemed to be the critically low pressure for the engine. While a number of other pre-charge pressures were tested the ultimate goal was to have the hydraulic accumulator filled to maximum capacity prior to surge conditions, thereby SETC2011

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Figure 8 Hydraulic Accumulator Pressure Figure 8 shows that if the interruption to the oil supply is short, the hydraulic accumulator can continue to supply oil until the supply resumes again. When the oil supply to the high pressure pump resumes the oil is immediately returned to the galleries. The hydraulic accumulator does not begin to refill until the pressure in the oil lines increases above the air pre-charge pressure.

Figure 10 Lateral Acceleration and Oil Pressure

Corner 1

Oil Pressure Dropping

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
The 2009 car built by the QFR team included a data acquisition system [15] which allowed a range of parameters to be logged during track testing. This included, among others, engine oil pressure, lateral and longitudinal acceleration and track position via GPS. The pressure was plotted against track position as shown in Figure 9, where the relative height of the track is also shown against a reference datum. Corner 2

Corner 1

Figure 11 Close-up view of specific track region from Figure 9

Critically low oil pressure

Corner 2

Figure 9 Oil Pressure against GPS Co-Ordinates Analysis of this data identified two points during a lap where the oil pressure fell to a critically low level despite the assistance of the accumulator. For example at corner two, which has a radius of 11.2 m the oil pressure fell to zero bar while the engine speed was at 6000rpm. While the engine survived this critical situation it was clearly a high risk and undesirable scenario. Figure 10 shows the lateral acceleration and oil pressure recorded at a sample rate of 20 Hz around one full lap of the track. Figure 11, Figure 12 and Figure 13 highlight the specific corners on the track which result in the loss of oil pressure. During the track testing which produced the data shown, the engine was fitted with the hydraulic accumulator system and baffle plates in the sump pan. SETC2011

Figure 12 Engine Speed through Corner 1 and Corner 2

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High Pressure Oil Pump

Scavenge Pumps

Dry Sump Tank

Scavenge Points Figure 13 Close View of Corner 1 and Corner 2 As the car approached the first right hand bend it decelerated and the engine speed reduced causing a reduction in oil pressure as shown at t = 25 to 27 sec in Figure 12. When the car entered the first right hand bend the lateral acceleration increased to 1.29 g. With the combination of the braking and the lateral acceleration the oil pickup was uncovered. It can be seen from Figure 13 that the hydraulic accumulator was counteracting the reduction in oil pressure during corner 1 (time 27s to 29s). The engine speed remained relatively constant during the corner however it can be seen in Figure 12 that the oil pressure continued to fall, showing that it was no longer falling due to reducing engine speed. When the car exited corner 1 the engine speed increased to 10,000 RPM, the longitudinal acceleration increased to 0.86 g and the lateral acceleration dropped to zero. The longitudinal acceleration dropped to -0.56 g indicating the car braking for corner 2. Within just over 1.2 seconds of returning to zero the lateral acceleration increased again to over 1g as the car entered the second right hand corner. This resulted in any oil which was returning to the sump after the first corner once again surging within the crankcase and uncovering the oil pickup. At this point the hydraulic accumulator was now empty and was unable to provide the necessary backup to the oil pressure causing the oil pressure in the galleries to momentarily drop to zero (time 34s). It was clear that, although initially promising, the hydraulic accumulator did not solve the oil surge problem in all situations and that an alternative design was required. A similar situation arose during slaloms which involve frequent reversals of lateral acceleration with an amplitude over 1 g. Initially it was suggested that additional baffles could be added around the clutch and gearbox to prevent the oil from flowing into those regions. There was the possibility that the baffle design may have taken a few iterations to perfect which would have left the engine at risk so the decision was taken to find an alternative and more reliable resolution. The solution to the limitations of the accumulator was to design and implement a dry sump system in which the oil is removed from the sump with the use of a scavenge pump(s) and is pumped into a tall thin tank, as shown in Figure 14. The high pressure oil pump then lifts the oil from the bottom of the tank to supply the oil to the engine. In the original oil system shown in Figure 1 the high pressure oil pump performed both tasks. SETC2011

Figure 14 Dry Sump System

The benefit is that a lateral acceleration of 1.6g, which uncovered the oil pickup in the stock engine, does not uncover the outlet port of the tank even when only half filled as shown in Figure 15. Tank Breather Vent Dry sump tank inlet

Oil level with 50% capacity undergoing 1.6g lateral acceleration

Dry sump tank outlet

Figure 15 Dry Sump Tank The dry sump tank was a purchased item which had integrated baffles included inside the cylinder. The inlet to the tank was fan tailed and positioned at an angle which caused the oil to spin as it entered the tank. Both the angle of entry and the baffles aided the de-aeration of the oil within the tank. The dry sump tank was vented in accordance with the rules [1] which stated that fluids from any vents had to be retained within a suitable catch tank.

SYSTEM DESIGN
While aftermarket dry sump systems are available for other motorcycle engines of a similar swept volume, no such system could be sourced for this engine which necessitated the design and manufacture of a bespoke system. Within the Yamaha YZF-R6 engine the clutch basket is driven directly from the crankshaft as shown in Figure 16. A chain is then attached to the back of the clutch basket which is used to drive the existing high pressure oil pump. The water pump is then driven from the oil pump via a connecting shaft.

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Clutch Basket

Crankshaft High pressure oil pump

Oil pressure relief valve Water pump

Lowest Point in Engine

Figure 17 Sump Minimum Depth Requirements The location of the scavenge pumps was important for a number of reasons, firstly as regards achieving the minimum distance for the oil to flow. Also the brackets which would be used to hold the pump would add additional weight. The decision was taken to incorporate the brackets into the design the sump pan. This would result in the shortest possible distance for the oil to be pumped while reducing the need for an additional bracket.

Figure 16 Original Engine Design It was decided early in the design process to maintain the use of the existing oil pressure pump to ensure engine reliability and to keep weight addition to a minimum. The existing pump already had the brackets and drive in place meaning it was unnecessary to add additional material for locating a new pump. The existing pump is housed within the crankcase which meant that there were no packaging issues on the vehicle caused by adding an additional pump.

SUMP PAN DESIGN


Accurate scans of the critical points of the engine were taken using a Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). The various faces of the bottom of the engine, the oil pump, oil pressure relief valve and water pump mounting location were scanned and models were created using this data as reference points. In previous years the QFR team had incorporated a number of developments with regards to the engine including a reduction in the height of the existing sump pan to lower the centre of gravity of the car. This modification maintained the same volume of oil as the stock sump pan. It was preferable that the design of a new sump pan for the dry sump system allowed the benefits of lowering the centre of gravity of the car to remain. Rule B6.2 [1] stated that the static ground clearance of the car with a driver on board must be above a minimum of 25.4 mm. As a further constraint to the sump pan design the lowest point internally had to accommodate the oil PRV shown in Figure 17. The PRV has also previously been modified to reduce its overall length by 2mm.

Push fit connectors Scavenge Pumps

O-ring seals Figure 18 Mounting of Scavenge Pumps Figure 18 shows how the scavenge pump slots into the sump pan. Connectors, shown in Figure 19 were designed to bolt onto the scavenge pumps before being push fit into holes in the sump pan. Sealing was achieved by the use of o-rings. The diametral and face sealing o-ring grooves were designed in accordance with BS4518:1982. Diametral O-ring groove

Face seal O-ring groove Figure 19 Pump Push-Fit Connector SETC2011

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The location of the oil pickup ports was also a crucial design decision. Recessed chambers were created in the sump to allow the oil to accumulate around the pickup points and help contain it during periods of high lateral and longitudinal acceleration. Initially the design utilized two oil pickup points, one in the corner where the pressure relief valve is located and the other in the diametrically opposite corner. As the design progressed it became apparent that a third pickup point at the front of the sump pan on the left hand side was required. From the track data it is clear that the oil starvation issues are more severe when the car is turning into a sharp right hand bend. Front Oil Pickup ports Drillings to connect to scavenge pump

Filter Mesh

M3 Bolts

Figure 21 Pre-Pump Filter Mesh Once fitted to the car the dry sump tank must be connected to the existing high pressure pump. If pipes or threaded connectors were used it would be impossible to know if they had loosened inside the sump until the engine lost oil pressure. For this reason the oil channel was integrated within the sump design and a small push fit connector was designed to attach the pump to the sump, as shown in Figure 22.

Rear pickup port and location of PRV

Figure 20 Final Drilling and Oil Pickup Locations Figure 20 shows the final location of the oil pickup ports and the drillings which connect them to the scavenge pumps. The two ports at the front collect the oil under braking and turning while the port at the rear collects the oil during acceleration and when the PRV is open. Each pickup port was designed to house stainless steel filtration mesh to protect the scavenge pumps from any debris in the oil. Wire mesh with 20 openings per inch, similar to the stock oil pickup, was used. A small shoulder around the top of the pickup port allowed the mesh to be located in a way which wouldnt restrict the flow of oil across the sump pan. Holes were drilled and tapped to accommodate M3 bolts which held the mesh in place.

Existing High Pressure Pump Push-fit Connector Integrated connection for oil supply to pump

External threaded port for connection to dry sump tank Figure 22 Connecting Sump Pan to High Pressure Pump

SETC2011

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Grooves for O-ring seals

pickups the scavenge pump needs to refill the lost volume in the tank while continuing to supply the high pressure pump. A co-ordinate measuring machine was again used to accurately measure the profile of the internal components of the existing high pressure pump. The pump is a positive displacement gerotor style and as such the volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to engine speed. Figure 25 shows the model created from the CMM data, with the highlighted area depicting the maximum volume of oil achievable with this profile. Maximum volume

Angled to compensate for misalignment Figure 23 High Pressure Pump Connector

Pump Shaft Figure 23 shows the push fit connector which was designed to couple the high pressure oil pump to the supply channel in the new sump. As the inlet to the existing high pressure pump is at an angle to the sump face the sump pan could not simply be pushed onto the bottom of the engine in the nominal direction. The connector was designed to compensate for the angle created by the pump inlet allowing the sump pan to be easily fitted. Once attached, the sump holds the connector in place meaning that it is impossible for it to loosen or detach during service. A threaded connection was attached externally to connect the sump to the dry sump tank, sealed using a dowty washer. Outer Rotor

Inner Rotor Figure 25 Existing High Pressure Pump Internals The pump lobe capacity was measured at 1.644x10 -6m3. With four lobes per shaft revolution this gives a volumetric flow rate of 6.576 l/min per 1000rpm pump speed. With the crankshaft to oil pressure pump drive ratio of 44/86 this means that at an engine speed of 12,000rpm the pump would be transferring just over 40 l/min. This is the minimum flow rate which must be achieved by the scavenge pumps. This assumes 100% pump volumetric efficiency to provide the worst case scenario for the volume of oil to be replaced. A scavenge ratio is defined as the flow rate of the scavenge pumps divided by the flow rate of the high pressure pump. If the flow rate of the scavenge pumps matched the flow rate of the high pressure pump then the scavenge ratio would be 1:1. A higher scavenge ratio, such as 2:1, would indicate that the combined flow rate of the scavenge pumps is higher than the high pressure pump. A number of different scavenge pumps were considered including gear pumps before finally choosing a gerotor style pump similar to the existing oil pressure pump. The gerotor pump was chosen as it is self priming, which is important as the scavenge pumps would otherwise be liable to airlock. The gerotor is also a positive displacement pump and so could be accurately sized to produce a predetermined scavenge ratio regardless of backpressure. The chosen pump was a Compact C model supplied by Pace Products which is a modular design with three stages corresponding to the three pickup points in the sump pan. The two stages lifting from the front of the sump were 6cc/rev, while the third stage lifting from beside the pressure relief valve was 10cc/rev. This stage was larger to allow for the additional volume of oil at the pickup point due to the oil discharged through the PRV at that point.

Material removed for mass reduction Figure 24 Weight Reduction Once the connections and drillings were finalized in the design, any excess material which was not vital to the design was removed. The thickness of the sump pan was minimized to 3mm thickness in all non-structural locations.

SCAVENGE PUMPS
The initial process for the selection of a suitable scavenge pump was to determine the volumetric flow rate of the existing engine oil pressure pump. The scavenge pump must be capable of returning a greater volume of oil to the dry sump tank than the high pressure pump is removing. This would mean under transient conditions when the oil in the sump is moving due to the lateral acceleration produced by the vehicle there may be situations when the oil pickups are no longer covered by oil. At this time the high pressure pump would still be removing oil from the tank thus depleting the volume. When the oil finally returns to the SETC2011

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PUMP DRIVE
A number of possible drive configurations for the scavenge pumps were investigated. The possibility of both electrical and mechanical drive options were explored before the mechanical drive was chosen. The electric drive allowed a greater number of locating possibilities which made it a flexible option. As the scavenge pumps were to be located as close to the dry sump pan and tank as possible to minimise losses in the pipes, this gave the option of placing the motor and pumps in a number of positions at the back of the engine. The electrical pump drive was constrained however in that its speed is limited. The additional power requirement from the electric motor would result in additional load on the existing electrical system of the car. The alternator is a Denso A.C. magneto producing 14V/300W at 5,000 rpm. An additional power requirement of 144W [16] to power a scavenge pump would put significant strain on the system and would mean that the battery size would need to be increased and a larger alternator fitted, further adding to the weight penalty of this option. The mechanical option is more limited in terms of where the pumps can be located. There must be access to a drive source for the mechanical system which means there are very few areas around the engine which would be suitable for mounting the pumps. The option existed to drive the scavenge pumps from the end of the crankshaft or camshaft. However in order to limit the length of piping for the system these options were ruled out. The constraints of the chassis and other engine components meant that there was no direct line of sight for a drive to be positioned easily. The only other suitable drive for the scavenge pumps was to use the internal drive system for the current high pressure pump. This gives greater control over the scavenge pump speed. If the drive was to be taken from the existing oil pump it was important to know if the stock chain could cope with the additional power and torque. Hydraulic formulae [17] were used to calculate the required torque and power input to the gerotor scavenge pumps. The volumetric flow rate Q can be found from;

Where: P is pressure (kPa) Em is mechanical efficiency (%) The pressure assumed pumping against atmospheric plus a crankcase vacuum of 27 kPa. This was deemed an achievable vacuum when using three scavenge stages [10, 18] and represents a maximum torque which may be required to drive the pumps. From this the power required can be calculated from;

Pin

2uS uT u N Watts 60

(3)

Assuming a total displacement (D) of 22 cc/rev, a volumetric efficiency (Ev) of 94%, a mechanical efficiency (Em) of 80% and a maximum pump speed (N) of 6139.5rpm then the total torque required is 0.562Nm and the total mechanical power is 361.4Watts.

SCAVENGE PUMP DRIVE


Driving the scavenge pumps from the existing high pressure pump drive requires a review of the existing components to check their capability of coping with the additional torque requirements. The torque required to operate the high pressure pump is directly proportional to the pump speed squared.

T v n2

(4)

The engine management system used by the QFR team has been designed to operate to a maximum engine speed of 12000rpm. The maximum speed of the stock engine however is 16,000rpm. Reducing the maximum engine speed from 16,000rpm to 12,000rpm results in a reduction in the torque required to drive the high pressure pump of 43.75%, as shown in Figure 26.

EV u D u N l / min 1000

(1)

Where: Ev is volumetric efficiency (%) D is total displacement (cc/rev) N is pump speed (rpm) Figure 26 Effect of Reducing Maximum Engine Speed The torque T required to turn the pumps can be found from;

Du P Nm 2 u S u Em u 1000

(2)

The existing chain used to drive the oil pump is a DID-25 standard roller chain and has a maximum power rating of 2.24kW with a 0.73kN maximum allowable load. The additional power required to be transmitted through the chain for the scavenge pumps can therefore be incorporated due to the reduction in maximum engine speed.

SETC2011

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and pin diameter thereby providing an additional safety margin. DID-25 standard roller chain The existing water pump had to be moved outwards from the crankcase to allow access to the shaft coming from the high pressure oil pump. Figure 29 shows the new location of the water pump as well as the relative position of the drives for both the water pump and the scavenge pumps. A section of the crankcase has been removed from the image to illustrate the connection from the High Pressure (HP) oil pump to the water pump with space in between to access drive for the scavenge pumps. The model of the water pump is taken from a laser scan of the stock component to ensure clearances both on the vehicle and with the existing engine components. Water Pump Figure 27 Original Oil Pump Drive On the Yamaha YZF-R6 engine the water pump is driven directly from the oil pump. Figure 27 shows the configuration of the original drive system for both pumps. The connection between the pumps is a simple interlocking mechanism, as shown in Figure 28. The water pump shaft is inserted through the lower crankcase of the engine where the two shafts interlink, connecting the drive between the pumps. If the scavenge pumps are to be driven from the oil pump, in a similar way to the existing water pump drive, then it would also require access through the crankcase. This would mean that the water pump would have to be displaced from its original location. The options for providing drive to the water pump is not unlike the scavenge pumps. Water Pump

Pump Sprocket

Oil Pump

HP Oil Pump

Scavenge Pump Drive Location Scavenge Pump Shaft Scavenge Pumps Figure 29 Location of Pump Drives

High Pressure Oil Pump Sprocket

Water pump shaft Oil pump shaft

Figure 28 Connection Between Oil Pump and Water Pump The water pump could be replaced by an electric version however this has been shown to produce reliability issues [19]. In a similar way to the scavenge pumps this would provide more options for locating the water pump for optimal packaging on the car. Another option was to locate a secondary drive source for the existing water pump. The reduction in engine speed causing the reduction in torque requirement from the oil pump drive chain means that in theory the oil pump could drive both the scavenge pumps and the water pump. This would mean that the existing water pump could still be used, no additional drive source would be required and there would not be an increased load on the electrical system. A slightly larger chain was sourced which had a 46% higher maximum allowable load while still having the same pitch SETC2011

It was decided that the optimal drive for the scavenge pumps would be a belt driven system. Belt drives are lightweight, low maintenance as they do not require oil and provide a flexible design solution. When the engine is fitted into the car there are a number of chassis components which are in close proximity to where the drive would be located. Having the flexibility to easily insert idlers allows the belt to be guided around these other components. Freely available belt design software [20] was used to design an optimal belt drive system and select the required components. The drive design ensured that standard sized components could be used while still avoiding the chassis components and achieving the required belt tension. Initially using a belt drive ratio of 38/36 a scavenge ratio of 3.5 was achieved. It was believed that the higher scavenge ratio would provide two benefits, firstly creating a slightly higher vacuum in the crankcase which would help to reduce windage losses and secondly that in any given maneuver a single scavenge port could return all of the oil being used by the high pressure pump. The limit to the scavenge ratio was the ability of the system to de-aerate the oil. The dry sump tank was the point at which the de-aeration occurred and without testing the tank it was not possible to know the level of de-aeration achievable. The crankcase was vented directly to a catch-tank after the decision was taken not to attempt to seal the crankcase

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breather with a one-way valve. The one-way valve would have allowed excess pressure in the crankcase to be expelled to the catch tank when a vacuum is not being drawn while preventing air from being drawn into the crankcase from atmosphere. Additional research was required into the achievable crankcase vacuum on this particular engine over all the operating points and the possible negative effects such as causing oil starvation in the bearings or experiencing excess pressurization of the crankcase [12]. Due to the time constraints of the project it was decided to concentrate on the other aspects of the design and return to the crankcase vacuum at some point in the future. Figure 30 shows the dry sump tank and the crankcase both being vented to the catch tank on the vehicle. Crankcase vent Dry sump tank vent

Rear chassis which attaches to engine

Access through lower crankcase Figure 32 Engine with rear chassis attached Taking the design from the belt drive design software, the solid model was used to check the clearances to ensure the belt could be easily assembled and adjusted. Engine Mounting Point

Catch Tank

Figure 30 Crankcase and Tank Venting Tensioner / Idler Pulley Engine Pulley Tensioner / idler Pulley Figure 33 Assembled Belt Drive Design To prevent any belt slip and reduce the tension required a toothed belt system was utilized. When the water pump was moved to allow the belt drive to be located behind it, as shown in Figure 34 a bracket was designed to hold the water pump as well as the tensioner for the belt drive system. Original water pump location

Scavenge Pump Pulley

Figure 31 Belt Drive Design Software [20] Figure 31 shows the final concept which was developed, with a tensioner/idler pulley included in the design. The tensioner/idler pulley allowed the belt to be guided around parts of the chassis on the car. The lower rear mounting point of the engine is used to attach part of the rear chassis of the car, as shown in Figure 32.

New water pump location Figure 34 Relocation of Water Pump Figure 35 shows the bracket which was designed to hold the water pump in its new location. The locating cylinder is inserted through the crankcase where the water pump was previously located, and seals the crankcase using an o-ring seal. A strengthened shaft was designed to connect the oil pump to the water pump. The shaft was machined from preSETC2011

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hardened EN24 (HB 248/302) steel as it is tough and resistant to wear. Bearings were located in either side of the bracket to support the shaft and to keep it properly aligned. The tensioner pulley was incorporated into the bracket, and is locked in place with the use of a self locking nut to prevent loosening.

Locating cylinder

Bracket 1

Figure 36 Sectional View of Scavenge Pump Drive and Water Pump Bracket Shaft holding tensioner / idler pulley The use of a toothed belt meant that a lower belt tension was required than for a V-belt. The diagram in Figure 37 shows how the complete system is assembled.

Bracket 2

Figure 35 Water Pump Bracket The bracket bolts into the same holes which were manufactured to secure the water pump. For ease of assembly the bracket is in two halves. Removing the outer half (bracket 2) gives access for changing the belt, and the water pump can remain attached to the outer half whilst that is done. Figure 36 shows a sectional view through the bracket. At the outer end of the connecting shaft, a sleeve was designed for mounting the pulley and also for locating the shaft from the water pump. The sleeve was necessary for mounting the pulley due to the shortage of available space. The water pump could not be moved any further from the crankcase due to the lower bars of the chassis which are situated alongside the engine. Oil Pump Drive Chain Idler / Tensioner

Water Pump

Water Pump Bracket

Figure 37 Dry Sump System The complete system uses the existing oil pressure pump and water pump while also incorporating the dry sump system components. The combined additional component weight of the overall system is 2.196 kg above the weight of the existing arrangement with the hydraulic accumulator. In comparison this is still 1.753 kg lighter than the proposed electric drive. This does not take into account the mass of the oil in the system. The hydraulic accumulator system contained approximately 1.5 liters of additional oil as the dry sump system can operate with a lower volume of oil than the stock engine. The dry sump system does not require this additional oil, therefore assuming an oil density of 0.86 kg/l this means the actual weight increase of the dry sump SETC2011

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system over the previous hydraulic accumulator system is 0.906 kg.

MAUNFACTURING
When the sump pan design was completed a rapid prototype model was created and subsequently test fitted to an engine, as shown in Figure 38. This rapid prototyped model was used to ensure the dimensions and features of the sump aligned as planned and that the components were easily assembled.

The final part of the system, shown in Figure 41 was assembled along with the scavenge pump and various connectors. An external manifold (Figure 40) was designed to connect the three outlets of the scavenge pump into a single port. The manifold was also machined using the five axis milling machine.

Rapid Prototyped Sump Pan

O-ring grooves Figure 40 Scavenge Pump Outlet Manifold The manifold seals to the scavenge pumps outlets with the use of face seal o-rings, similar to the push fit connectors shown in Figure 19. High Pressure Pump Connector Scavenge Pump

Figure 38 Test Fit of Rapid Prototyped Sump Pan The model also helped to highlight a few areas where subtle changes could be made before the final machining of the component.

FINAL MACHINING
A five axis milling machine was used to machine the sump pan from aluminium 6082-T6. This material is lightweight and has good machining properties. As the dry sump system was a one-off prototype the sump pan was machined from a solid billet. Figure 39 shows the part during the machining process. If there were going to be multiple sump pans manufactured then the part would be cast to reduce the cost and time required. However as this was a one-off prototype the option was taken to machine from solid.

Pump Outlet Manifold Figure 41 Final Sump With Scavenge Pump Fitted The dry sump system was designed in parallel with the overall car design. From the beginning of the design the components of the dry sump system were carefully placed to ensure continuity of the final design. Figure 42 shows the dry sump tank located low in the car and close to its centre of gravity. Dry sump tank

Billet Aluminium

Sump face after roughing cut

Figure 39 Sump Pan During Machining SETC2011

Figure 42 Final Car Design

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TESTING AND VALIDATION


Once the components were completed they were initially assembled onto an engine and installed into the test cell facilities in QUB. A tap was installed at the outlet from the dry sump tank, as can be seen in Figure 43 and samples of oil were taken periodically. After running a few initial tests it became clear that the oil was becoming excessively aerated. This was due to the fact the scavenge ratio was too high. Due to the time constraints on the building of the car the aeration of the oil was not measured using any of the standard tests, such as ASTM D6894, and instead were visually inspected. In the case of the first sample there was a large amount of foam on the surface of the oil as well as a considerable amount of bubbles entrained within the oil.

Original Smaller Pulley Figure 44 Initial Belt Drive for Scavenge Pump

TRACK TESTING
Once the static tests were completed the final stage of testing involved fitting the full system to the vehicle and returning to the track where the initial oil surge issue was discovered. The car ran a number of slower speed tests initially to ensure the system was functioning effectively. After each test the data was analyzed to ensure that the oil pressure consistently remained at a safe level.

Dry sump tank Tap to drain oil for testing Figure 43 Dry Sump Tank with Tap Figure 44 shows the original pulley system fitted to the engine. The belt drive system was modified to slow the scavenge pump speed and reduce the scavenge ratio to just over 2:1. The final set of oil samples saw the foaming on top of the oil removed and the amount of bubbles within the oil reduced considerably. A series of tests were performed within the test cell to accurately measure variables such as the oil pressure and temperature to ensure that they remained within the normal operating range. The tests included both static and transient speed testing ending with a series of lap simulations. These simulations helped to test that the volume of oil was adequate and the overall system design was working in a static situation.

No Longer Critically Low Oil Pressure Figure 45 Oil Pressure with Dry Sump System Fitted The final series of tests saw the car complete a series of high speed laps around the full track. Figure 45 shows the trace of oil pressure around the lap and it is evident that the regions where the oil pressure dropped to a critically low level have all been removed. It can also be seen that the oil pressure remains at a much more constant level around the full lap when compared with Figure 9, only varying with engine speed. The system operated successfully during all subsequent testing and during the 2010 Formula Student competition.

SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS
The dry sump system which was designed for the 2010 QFR formula student car has proven to be successful both in testing and in competition. The following design points were highlighted during the process: 1. Hydraulic accumulator systems, while successful in alleviating a number of oil starvation issues, do have limitations. A combination of maneuvers in quick succession allows the hydraulic accumulator to empty leaving the engine at risk of oil starvation.

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2.

The initial estimated scavenge ratio of 3.5:1 was quickly shown to be too high. When the ratio was decreased to just over 2:1 the oil was no longer excessively aerated and the system functioned successfully. A number of rig tests may have identified this issue earlier in the design process however the system testing discovered the issue before the dry sump was fitted onto a vehicle. Incorporating the oil pickup ports at either side of the front, and one at the rear of the sump pan acts to effectively scavenge oil during all conceivable maneuvers of the vehicle. Obtaining a drive for the scavenge pump from between the water pump and existing oil pump has shown to be a compact and reliable solution with the driving speed much closer to the scavenge pump speed.

7.

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There are a number of areas within this project which have raised the potential for future work. The crankcase vacuum which could be produced by the scavenge pumps should be fully researched before it is implemented on the vehicle. The level of vacuum produced, benefits and negatives of this vacuum should be fully understood, measured and the benefits optimized. Some of the design points in this system may contribute to the aeration of the oil such as the manifold from the scavenge pumps which combines the flow from all three pumps. The levels of aeration could be measured at various operating points of the engine and the system design modified to help reduce the aeration. The scavenge pumps could be designed to locate inside the crankcase of the engine reducing the need for an external drive and ensuring that the pumps are further protected from impact. This could also help reduce the weight of the system by designing the scavenge pump housings specifically for the engine.

13. 14.

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20.

REFERENCES
Formula SAE Rules 2010 [Online] (viewed 29th October 2009) www.formulastudent.com 2. D. Corrigan, G. McCullough and G. Cunningham, Evaluation of the Suitability of a Single-cylinder Engine for Use in FSAE, SAE, 2006-32-0053 3. R.H. McKee, G. McCullough, G. Cunningham, J.O. Taylor, N. McDowell, J.T. Taylor and R. McCullough, Experimental Optimisation of Manifold and Camshaft Geometries for a Restricted 600cc Four-cylinder Fourstroke Engine, SAE, 2006-32-0070 4. J. Taylor, R. McKee, G. McCullough, G. Cunningham and C. McCartan, Computer Simulation and Optimization of an Intake Camshaft for a Restricted 600cc Four-stroke Engine, SAE, 2006-32-0071 5. S. McClintock, J. Walkingshaw, C. McCartan, G. McCullough and G. Cunningham, Camshaft Design for an Inlet-Restricted FSAE Engine, SAE, 2008-320073 6. J. Walkingshaw, S. McClintock, G. McCullough, C. McCartan and G. Cunningham, Experimental SETC2011 1.

Validation of an FSAE Engine Model, SAE, 2008-320079 T. Charalambides, A. Ferrara, A. Hutz and E. Kruk, Custom Dry Sump Scavenge Pump for Honda CBR600F4i University of Michigan, 2008 E. Farkhondeh Design of a Dry Sump Lubrication System for a Honda CBR 600 F4i Engine for Formula SAE Applications, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006 A. Mihailidis, Z. Samaras, I. Nerantzis, G. Fontaras and G. Karaoglanidis, The design of a Formula Student race car: a case study, Journal of Automobile Engineering, Proc. IMechE Vol 223 Part D E. Carr, M. Rogozinski, FSAE Engine Dry Sump Oiling System Design, Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Dept, Drexel University, 2003 Yamaha Motor Corporation, U.S.A. Yamaha YZFR6R Service Manual, 2002, P/N LIT-11616-16-45 W. Attard, H. C. Watson and S. Konidaris Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two-Cylinder Small Engine Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control ,SAE, 2006-01-3637 A. Haas, U. Geiger and F. Maaben Oil Aeration in High Speed Combustion Engines, SAE, 940792 Canton Racing Products, Accusump Oil Accumulators & Turbo Oilers [Online] viewed 30th October 2009) http://www.accusump.com/ Aim EVO4 Vehicle Data Logger, Manufactured by Aim Srl, Via Cavalcanti 8, 20063 Cernusco sul Navigilo, Milan, Italy. R. Kane, Dry Sump System, 2010, Final Year Report, Queens University Belfast. Nichols Portland [online] http://www.gerotor.net/resources.asp Nutter Racing Engines, Facts About Crankcase Vacuum [online] (viewed 12th November 2009) http://nutterracingengines.com/racing_oil_pumps/crank case_vacuum_facts.html A. Gomes Documentation of the Engine Design Process for FSAE, 2007 Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto. Gates Corporation, Gates Design IQ Software [Download Online] http://www.gates.com/designiq/

CONTACT INFORMATION
Shane McKenna School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ashby Building, Belfast BT9 5AH smckenna16@qub.ac.uk

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank the Queens University of Belfast School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering for access to the engine test facilities. A further note of thanks also goes to the staff in the engineering workshop

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within Queens whose help and advice regarding the CNC machining of the components was invaluable. And finally to Maurice Doherty for his contribution and assistance throughout the project.

DEFINITIONS/ABBREVIATIONS
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CMM Co-ordinate Measuring Machine CNC Computer Numerical Control GPS Global Positioning System HB Brinell Hardness HP High Pressure NRV Non-Return Valve PRV Pressure Relief Valve RPM Revolutions per Minute QFR Queens Formula Racing QUB Queens University Belfast

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