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IGNOU BSHF-101 Free Solved Assignment 2012

Manoj Chopra January 18, 2012 5 Comments

Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) Course Code: BSHF-101 Assignment Code: BSHF-101/AST/TMA/2011-12 Total Marks: 100 Note: Instructions are there with each section. Answer any two questions in 500 words each. (DCQ) Q1. Compare and contrast the terms Industrial and Post industrial societies.20 Solution: In sociology, industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labor. Such a structure developed in the west in the period of time following the Industrial Revolution, and replaced the agrarian societies of the Pre-modern, Pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are generally mass societies, and may be succeeded by an Information society. They are often contrasted to with the traditional societies. Industrial society is characterized by the use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate and scale of production. The production of food is shifted to large commercial farms where the products of industry, such as combine harvesters and fossil fuel based fertilizers, are used to decrease

required human labor while increasing production. No longer needed for the production of food, excess labor is moved into these factories where mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As populations grow, and mechanization is further refined, often to the level of automation, many workers shift to expanding service industries. Industrial society makes urbanization desirable, in part so that workers can be closer to centers of production, and the service industry can provide labor to workers and those that benefit financially from them, in exchange for a piece of production profits with which they can buy goods. This leads to the rise of very large cities and surrounding suburban areas with a high rate of economic activity. These urban centers require the input of external energy sources in order to overcome the diminishing returns of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby arable land, associated transportation and storage costs, and are otherwise unsustainable. This makes the reliable availability of the needed energy resources high priority in industrial government policies. Some theoreticiansnamely Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells argue that we are located in the middle of a transformation or transition from industrial societies to post-modern societies. The triggering technology for the change from an agricultural to an industrial organization was steam power, allowing mass production and reducing the agricultural work necessary. Thus many industrial cities are built around rivers. Identified as catalyst or trigger for the transition to post-modern or informational society is global information technology.

If a nation becomes post-industrial it passes through, or dodges, a phase of society predominated by a manufacturing-based economy and moves on to a structure of society based on the provision of information, innovation, finance, and services. A virtual cult of creatives has sprung up embodying and often describing and defending the post-industrial ethos. They argue that businesses that create intangibles have taken a more prominent role in the wake of manufacturings decline and that in some countries; the production of creative intangibles produces more exports than manufacturing alone. Actor and artistic director of the Old Vic Theatre, Kevin Spacey, has argued the economic case for the arts in terms of providing jobs and being of greater importance in exports than manufacturing (as well as an educational role) in a guest column he wrote for The Times. As the term has been used, a few common themes (not limited to those below) have begun to emerge. The economy undergoes a transition from the production of goods to the provision of services. Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital (e.g., the knowledge produced through the Human Genome Project). Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy. Through processes of globalization and automation, the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g. scientists, creativeindustry professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence. Behavioral and information

sciences and technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g. behavioral economics, information architecture, cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory. ========================================================= Q2. Does the Juvenile Justice Act ameliorate the problems of the orphaned? Delinquent and destitute children? 20

Solution: As Above Mention answer any two questions!! . =========================================================

Q3. Discuss some of the key issues of peace and conflict which the United Nations is focusing on today.20

Solution: As Above Mention answer any two questions!! ========================================================

Q4. What do you understand by the term human security? Discuss.

Solution: Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability. The concept emerged from a post-Cold War, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations

Development Programmers 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring freedom from want and freedom from fear for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Frequently referred to in a wide variety of global policy discussions and scholarly journals, Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness;[4] that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes; and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies.

Human security focuses on the protection of individuals, rather than defending the physical and political integrity of states from external military threats the traditional goal of national security. Ideally, national security and human security should be mutually reinforcing, but in the last 100 years far more people have died as a direct or indirect consequence of the actions of their own governments or rebel forces in civil wars than have been killed by invading foreign armies. Acting in the name of national security, governments can pose profound threats to human security. The application of human security is highly relevant within the area of humanitarian intervention, as it focuses on addressing the deep rooted and multi-factorial problems inherent in humanitarian crises, and offers more long term resolutions. In general, the term humanitarian intervention generally applies to when a state uses force against another state in order to alleviate suffering in the latter state (See, humanitarian intervention). Under the traditional security paradigm humanitarian intervention is contentious. As discussed above, the traditional security paradigm places emphasis on the notion of states. Hence, the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention that are paramount in the traditional security paradigm make it difficult to justify the intervention of other states in internal disputes. Through the development of clear principles based on the human security concept, there has been a step forward in the development of clear rules of when humanitarian intervention can occur and the obligations of states that intervene in the internal disputes of a state. These principles on humanitarian intervention are the product of a debate pushed by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan. He posed a challenge to the international community to find a new approach to humanitarian intervention that responded to its inherent problems.[29] In 2001, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) produced the The Responsibility to protect, a comprehensive report detailing how the right of humanitarian intervention could be exercised. It was considered a triumph for the human security approach as it emphasized and gathered much needed attention to some of its main principles: =========================================================

Answer any four questions in 250 words each. (MCQ) Q5. Highlight key issues in modern governance. 12

Solution: Governance is currently a key issue not only for higher education institutions but for society as a whole. The way organizations are managed, the directions they take and the values they hold send clear signals about their role and functions in society. For this reason, the governance structures of universities were unquestioned for most of the twentieth century. Yet in the final decades of that century significant changes were starting to be felt. The most important of these changes related to the way universities were viewed by governments. In particular, the role of universities in contributing to national economies was being recognized. Greater accountability and more intense scrutiny from the outside meant that the traditional values of universities were being challenged. The task of universities, and for society as a whole, is to develop strategies that will retain the best of what universities have traditionally stood for while responding positively to new pressures and priorities. This paper advances the concept of `deliberative partnerships as one way to reconstruct university governance in a positive way for the future. Key Words: accountability, education policy, higher education, management, organizational efficiency, public sector, university governance


Q6. Discuss the role of Gandhi during the national movement. 12

Solution: Gandhi initially favoured offering non-violent moral support to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the peoples representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office. After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhis and the Congress Partys most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India. Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-British and anti-British. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was

unethical. Others felt that Gandhis refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism yet continued to contradict itself by refusing to grant India Independence. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire, and hundreds of thousands were arrested. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence. He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the ordered anarchy around him was worse than real anarchy. He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo Ya Maro (Do or Die) in the cause of ultimate freedom.[citation needed] Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. He came out of detention to an altered political scenethe Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, now occupied the centre of the political stage[64] and the topic of Jinnahs campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in Bombay but Jinnah rejected, on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan, his proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming political union =========================================================

Q7. Critically examine the role of the institution of family. 12

Solution: The institution of family is a basic unit in the society, and the multifaceted functions performed by it makes it a much-needed institution in a society. Some of the important functions performed by the family include, reproduction of new members and socializing them, and provision of emotional and physical care for older persons anyoung. Family in fact, is an institution which resolves or eases a large number of socia problems.The term family had been defined by various sociologists and anthropologists. Murdock (1949), after studying over 250 multi-cultural societies defines family as asocial group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and

Reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and one or more children own or adopted of the sexualcohabiting adults. The household is said to be the living arrangement of such afamily unit. =========================================================

Q8. What do you understand by the term digital divide? Discuss. 12

Solution: As Above Mention Answer Any Four Questions !! =========================================================

Q9. Comment briefly on the modern Indian painting.12

Solution: As Above Mention Answer Any Four Questions =========================================================

Q10. Discuss the measures India took to respond to the current phase of globalisation.12

Solution: As Above Mention Answer Any Four Questions =========================================================

Q11. What do you understand by the term Renaissance? Discuss.12

Solution: The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term. As a cultural movement, it encompassed a flowering of literature, science, art, religion, and politics, and a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform. Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term Renaissance man. There is a consensus the Renaissance began in Florence, Tuscany in the 14th century. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has been much debate among historians as to the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.Some have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural advance from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age, while others have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras. Indeed, some have called for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism the use of history to validate and glorify modern ideals. The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. =========================================================

Q12. Give your own views on how to study society. 12 Solution: As Above Mention Answer Any Four Questions =========================================================

Answer any two in 100 words each. (SCQ) 6+6 Q13. a) Social structure Solution: Social structure is a term used in the social sciences to refer to patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals. The usage of the term social structure has changed over time and may reflect the various levels of analysis within differing sub-fields of sociology. On the macro scale, it can refer to the system of socioeconomic stratification (e.g., the class structure), social institutions, or, other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso scale, it can refer to the structure of social network ties between individuals or organizations. On the micro scale, it can refer to the way norms shape the behavior of actors within the social system. These meanings are not always kept separate. For example, recent scholarship by John Levi Martin has theorized that certain macro-scale structures are the emergent properties of micro-scale cultural institutions (this meaning of structure resembles that used by anthropologist Claude Lvi-Strauss). Marxist sociology also has a history of mixing different meanings of social structure, though it has done so by simply treating the cultural aspects of social structure as epiphenomena of its economic ones. Since the 1930s, the term has been in general use in social science,[1] especially as a variable whose sub-components needed to be distinguished in relationship to other sociological variables. ========================================================

b) Swaras in Indian classical music Solution: The seven notes of the scale (swaras), in Indian music are named shadja, rishabh, gandhar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat and nishad, and are shortened to Sa, Ri (Carnatic) or Re (Hindustani), Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni and written S, R, G, M, P, D, N. Collectively these notes are known as the sargam (the word is an acronym of the consonants of the first four swaras). Sargam is the Indian equivalent to solfege, a technique for the teaching of sight-singing. Sargam is practiced against a drone. The tone Sa is not associated with any particular pitch. As in Western moveable-Do solfge, Sa refers to the tonic of a piece or scale rather than to any particular pitch. =========================================================

c) Planning in India

Solution: As Above Mention Answer any two questions!!

d) Rio Summit Solution: As Above Mention Answer any two questions!!