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A PROJECT REPORT ON

QUALITY AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT FOR THE EXPORT OF GRAPES IN NASHIK DISTRICT
AT,

ADANI AGRIFRESH LTD


SUBMITTED BY,

TORAWANE GIRISH SHIWAJIRAO


PGDABM (116)
BATCH 2008-2010.

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAIS
GARWARE INSTITUTE OF CAREER EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT VIDYANAGARI, KALINA,\ SANTACRUZ (EAST), MUMBAI 400098.

DECLARATION
This to declare that I, Mr. Torawane Girish Shiwajirao is a student of Garware Institute of Career Education and Development, University of Mum bai, pursuing Post Graduate Diploma in Agriculture Business Managem ent. I have given original data and inform ation to the best of my knowledge in the project report titled Quality And Operation

Managem ent for the Export of Grapes In Nashik District of Adani Agrifresh Limited.

And that no part of his inform ation has been used for any other assignm ent but for fulfillm ent of the requirement towards the

com pletion of said course.

Girish S. Torawane PGDABM G.I.C.E.D., Mum bai.

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

It is certified that this project report entitled Quality And Operation Management for the Export of Grapes In Nashik District is a record of project work done independently by Mr. Girish Shivajirao Torawane, under my guidance and supervision in the partial fulfilment of Post Graduate Diploma in Agri-business Management (PGDABM), submitted to Adani Agrifresh Limited and Garware Institute of Career Education & Development, University of Mumbai and that it has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, fellowship or associate ship to him.

Mr. Shirish Patil, Course Coordinator, PGDABM University of Mumbais, Garware Institute of Career Education and Development Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098

Mr. Ashok Govande, Visiting Faculty (Management of Marketing and Project Guide), G.I.C.E.D, Mumbai

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This acknowledgement is not merely a catalogue of names but an expression of a deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped me in undertaking this project.

I owe a great deal to GARWARE INSTITUTE for laying the building blocks of logic and pragmatism in my life. This report, in a way is a reflection of these values. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Shri. Ganesh Sadaphal (Senior Executive, Nashik division.) Mr. Uday Kadam (Senior Executive, Nashik division), Mr. Singh (HR Manager, Adani Agrifresh Ltd) for giving me an opportunity to understand and work on this project. I would like to thank, Mr. Mandip Parasaniya (Procurement Officer, Nashik division.), for his guidance, valuable suggestions and kind support that helped in completing this study. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Shirish Patil, Cource Co-ordinator, (GICED, Mumbai) and M r. Ashok Govande, Visiting Faculty (Management of Marketing and Project Guide) without whose help and advice this project would not have achieved the final shape.

M r. Gi ris h S. To ra wa ne (PGDABM - 116) +91 9850400959

Executive Summary
On the basic of internal data study of the company it can be said that quality control parameters are very stringent for export to Europe Nations. Research Methodology: Study of internal data of the company Important Findings : Most important finding from the secondary data is represented by graphs. As shown below major varieties of grapes that are export in the year 2008-09 by Adani Agrifresh Limited are Thompson Seedless. Thompson Seedless is exported mostly to European nations. Quality and price related parameters are shown below. In the below graph x- axis is Average price paid to farmers for this variety of grapes around Rs 31-32, Average weight of bunch recorded is and the brix content is around 17-18 %. Size of the berry was 16.35 and the diseased produce received at the pack house is less than 1% . For Thompson Seedless

INDEX

Sr. No. 1 Chapter I 1.1 Introduction

Chapters

Page

2 4 5 12 13

1.2 Objectives of research Company Profile 1.3 Grapes 1.4 Period of price fluctuation 1.5 Competitors 2 Chapter II Quality Assurance for Export of grapes 2.1 Export Of Grapes 2.2 Export Specification (Holland) 2.3 Quality Attributes With Tolerance Limit 2.4 Major Quality Parameters For Export Of The Berries At Post Harvesting 3 Chapter III Global GAP 4 Chapter IV Grape Net 5 Chapter V Standard Ope rating Procedure for the Export Of Grapes 5.1 Identification of grapes orchid 5.2 Harvesting of grapes 5.3 Transportation of grapes from field to pack house 5.4 Process quality assurance 5.5 Sorting &grading 5.6 Packaging & weightment 5.7 Labeling 5.8 Palletisation

15 16 19 22

27

31

36 37 38 38 39 40 40 41 42

5.9 Pre cooling , cold storage,& finished product dispatch 5.10 Traceability of finished product 6 7 8 Conclusion Appendix References

43 44 45 46 47

LIST OF THE TABLES

Sr. No. 1

Particulars Area and Production of grapes in major producing countries (2006-2007)

Page No. 7

State wise area, production and productivity of grapes (20062007)

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Export of Fresh Grapes from India District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra Competitors &There Pricing Strategies Quality And Harvesting Period Of Different Varieties Export Specification of Grapes for Holland. Quality Attributes with Tolerance Limits Quality of Thompson variety of seed with respect to the period of the procurement

9 10 13 15 16 19 22

LIST OF GRAPHS, FLOW CHARTS

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Particulars Districts Wise Area (Ha.) Of Grapes Districts Wise Production (MTs.) Of Grapes The Average Weight Of The Grapes Bunch The Average Size (Mm) Of The Berries The Average Brix (%) Of The Bunch Flow Chart Of Grape Net Flow Chart Of Operating Procedure For Export Of Grape

Page No. 11 11 23 24 25 33 36

CHAPTERI

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Today India is the second largest producer of the fruits (45.5 Million tons) and Vegetables (90.8 Million tons ) in the world, contributing 10.23% and 14.45%of the total world production of fruits and vegetables respectively. India has made a fairly good progress on horticulture. Map of world with total annual production of the horticulture crops touching over 149 million tons India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers , nuts , spices and plantation crops. With the focused attention given to horticulture, there has been spectacular change in terms of adoption of new technologies, production and availability of horticulture products. Fruits and vegetables constitute around 10 per cent of the total agriculture production of the country. This sector offers enormous potential for export. According to FAO, the export of fruits from India in 2003-04 was US $166 million and that of vegetables was US $ 205 million. Indias export of fruits and vegetables is more concentrated towards Asian region. Asian region accounted for 75% of total fruits and vegetable export 200304. The export to European and American market is very less due to imposition of stringent quality measures but in the last 3-4 year the export of fruits and vegetable Europe has been increasing with the adoption of Good Agriculture practices (GAP) by Indian farmer. Also the APEADA is taking active role in establishing many quality testing laboratories and adequate documentation protocol across the country to boost the export of perish.

Maharashtra is the one of the largest state in the production of fruits and vegetable contributing 19 percent of the total fruit production in the country. The state produces around 9 million tones of fruits having productivity of 16 MT per hectare of which is fairly good when compared to countrys average of 12 MT. It grows commodities like grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota, oranges, lime, strawberry, jackfruits etc in large quantity. The state holds prestigious position in vegetable production contributing 5% of the production

and stands 7

th

in the country. Total production of vegetables in Maharashtra is approximately 5

million tones. Because of close proximity to Mumbai port and metropolitan market .The

state enjoys the comparative advantage in export as well as long distance in certain commodities. The state has occupied unique and prestigious position. Example - mango, grapes, pomegranate and onion. Highly perishable nature of this fruits and vegetable make their marketing system more costly and complex. Timely and procurement of fruits and vegetable in bulk is of immense importance for exporters. Transportation plays an important role in fruits and vegetable market ing. The exporter has to meet the specific qualitative and quantitative requirements of the importer. The packaging, residue testing, documentation and phyto sanitary certification has to be met in order to export. So establishing an efficient backward linkage is must for exporting fruits and vegetables.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH


Objectives 1 To study the quality assurance of grapes at the time of procurement at the pack house Sub objectives: 1. To find the average size of Berries during the season 2. To find the average brix of the berries exported this season 3. To find the average bunch weight of the different varieties of grapes.

Objectives 2 To manage the standard operating procedure for export of grapes Sub objective: 1. To study identification, harvesting of grapes orchid 2. To study the grading , packaging, labeling of grapes 3. To study the precooling , packaging & container dispatch 4. To study the tracebility of finished produced 5. To study about Grapenet & Globalgap certification

Objectives 3 To find the average price paid to the farmer. Sub objective: 1. To find out the price to the farmer with respect to the quality of grapes and the time of procurement 2. To study whether the price is determinant of demand of the grapes or the quality of the grapes.

1.3 GRAPES
History Of The Grape Fruit In India: Grape plant was introduced to the Indian farmer somewhere in 1300 AD. However, a few reputed varieties were actually planted in the country by the Muslim rulers from Afghanistan, only during the 14thcentury. The first plantation in Maharashtra State was introduced near Aurangabad. The popular and seeded varieties like Gulabi, Kali Sahehi, and Anabeshahi etc were further introduced downward towards south. Dr. Chima a well-known scientist through the process of hybridization and selection introduced a new seeded variety called selection-7, which was used for table grapes only. The commercial production of grape was commenced only after import of varieties like Thomson seedless, Kishmish, Chorni, Beauty seedless etc. These seedless varieties over took the seeded varieties production tremendously. Currently grape cultivation in India has reached to the extent of 50000 ha, with an annual production of 10-12 lacks metric tons. Out of the total production, 87% of the produce is consumed as table grape while 10% is dried and produced for raisin, two percent for juice and one percent for wine. Initiatives to Develop the Grape Sector: In India, 90 percent of the grape production is of table variety. Grape farming is highly profitable venture for the farmers, but it is also high risk as farmers have to invest heavily for production. In case of a price crash, farmers faced huge losses leading to additional debt burden along with the initial high investments. Despite the challenges, the grape sector has a lot of potential. Being a high value commodity, it is one of the largest foreign export earnings. To address the farmer concerns and capitalize on the market opportunities, the state and central government agencies, farmers organizations and other parastatal organizations and institutions have undertaken various initiatives to support processing, exports and marketing of grapes.

The key initiatives are as described below: In order to boost the export of grapes from Maharashtra, "MAHAGRAPES", a cooperative partnership firm was established in 1991 with the help of the Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board, Pune. Till date total 16 Grape Grower Co-operative Societies are the member societies of Mahagrapes from Sangli, Solapur, Latur, Pune and Nasik area. Main objective of Mahagrapes is to boost the

export of grapes for which facilities like pre-cooling and cold storages have been erected at each grape grower co-operative society. Mahagrapes' is now a well established brand in the international market exporting grapes to EU and Middle East over the past last ten years. All technical guidance and financial support has been given by state marketing board. Agril -Export Zones (AEZs) for grapes have been set up in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. The objective of these AEZs is to promote the crop so that abundant raw material is available at low cost; integrating various assistance programmes of Central and State Government agencies; provide fiscal incentives to exporters; integrating all the activities till the produce reaches the market. The AEZs are implemented through public and private sector participation. Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) has set up the National Centre for Grape Research at Pune to cater to the research and extension needs to develop new varieties keeping in mind the need for processing and exports. Extension support is provided to take the findings to the farmers. Agriculture and Processed Foods Export Development Agency (APEDA) has developed the Grape Net, a web based software that will help trace export of grapes from India to the European Union. This initiative was aimed at reducing the export rejects due to high pesticide residues. The Grape Net tracking system will help to monitor pesticide residue and achieve product standardization, thus boosting grape exports to the EU. If there are any complaints of pesticides residue being present in grapes, the software will be able to indicate the farms from where the grapes originated. The software will give details about the certificate issuing authorities, inspection reports, laboratory analysis, certificate of residue analysis and the packing house details. It is designed to reach at the root of any grape export transaction. The software is already being used by about 40,000 farmers. Because of higher countability and transparency in the system, the farmers returns have also increased.

2. Inte rnational Scenario: Grapes occupy a predominant position in terms of world fruit production, accounting for about 16% of the global fruit production. The total world production of grapes is estimated to be about 68.9 million tones, next only to citrus and bananas and is followed by apples. The major grape producing countries are Italy, France, Spain, U.S.A, Turkey, Argentina, Iran, Portugal, South Africa and Chile. The area and production of grapes in some of the major grape growing countries is given in Table 1. Table 1. Area and Production of Grapes in major producing countries (2006-2007) Name of the country Spain France Italy India World Source : FAOSTAT The world trade in fresh Grapes during 2006 is to the extent of 32.60 lakh tonne valued at Rs.22979 crore. Area (000 ha) 1200.0 842.0 755.0 60.2 7399.5 Production ('000 t) 6401 6692 8325 1546 68952

3. National Scenario: The annual production of fresh grapes in India during the year 2006-2007 was to the tune of 16.67 lakh tonne from an area of 63600 ha. India ranks first in productivity ( 25.69 t/ ha) against the world productivity of 9.32 t/ha and also in terms of highest recorded yield of 100 t/ha. Cultivation of grapes in the country is very much localized, being confined primarily to four states , viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu which together

account for more than 90 percent of the area and production. The state wise area, production and productivity of grapes during is given in Table 2 below.

Table 2. State wise Area, Production and Productivity of Grapes (2006-07) Sl. No. State Area (000 ha) 2.50 10.80 45.40 1.10 2.80 1.00 63.60 Production (000 t) 51.80 199.00 1284.20 30.70 91.60 10.40 1667.70 Productivity (t/ha) 20.72 18.43 28.29 27.91 32.71 10.40 26.22

1 2 3 4 5 6

Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Maharashtra Punjab Tamilnadu Other states All India

Source: NHB database

Grape exports from India started in the year 1991 with the initiation of econo mic liberalization. The export of grapes during the year 2006-07 was of the order of about 85897 t (which amounted to only 5.1 % of total production) fetching an export earning of Rs. 301.92 crore. The major importers of Indian grapes are UK, Netherlands, Germany, USA, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Mauritius, Singapore and Hongkong. Out of the total exports, 90% is to the Middle East, 8% to the European Union and the rest to South East Asian countries. Though the harvesting season of grape in India starts from January and extends to October, the export season of grapes spans from January to April. During this period, South

Africa and Israel are the main competitors. The export of fresh grapes from India during the last three years is given in Table 3.

Table 3. Export of Fresh Grapes from India Sr. No. Year Quantity (tonns) Value (Rs. in crore) 1 2 3 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 39338 54049 85897 128.44 214.60 301.92

Source : DGCIS report Grape cultivation for export is mainly done as per EUREPGAP standards where the pesticide residues should be within permissible limit prescribed by European Union. Organic cultivation of grape is picking up in the grape growing areas. Being a new initiative, data on area and production of organic grapes are not available. As it is in a nascent stage, no information is available with the Research Institutes and Growers Association such as National Research Centre (NRC) for Grape and Maharashtra Grape Growers Association.

4. District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra Maharashtra is a leading state in production of Grapes in whole country. In regards to agriculture land under grapes cultivation & grapes production, Nasik & Sangli districts are at forefront in the state. Apart from these grapes are also grown in the districts of Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara, Solapur and Osmanabad. Now a days grapes are produced in Latur district of Marathwada. However, Nasik and Sangli districts are ahead in the production of grapes in a scientific manner. Area under grapes in Maharashtra is 35236 ha, out of which Nasik and Sangli districts contribute 24174 ha and 8255 ha respectively. Maharashtra produces around 988722 MT of grapes annually, in which Nasik and Sangli districts contribution is 500406 MT and 231635 MT. Total exports of Grapes from India is 26793.83 MT valuing 105.89 corers out of which nearly 80 % is exported from Maharashtra. The Varieties grown in Maharashtra are Thompson seedless ,Tas-eGanesh , sharad seedless, Flame seedless and Sonaka.

Table No.4 District-Wise Grape Production In Maharashtra Sr. No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 District Nasik Sangli Solapur Pune Ahmednagar Satara Pune Other Total Area in Hectare 17387 5585 1743 1218 1527 316 94 1886 29756 Production in MT's 436784 168138 47470 33566 31977 11854 2890 46498 779177

Figure- 1 - District wise area of grapes in Maharashtra state

Figure- 2 - District wise Production of grapes in Maharashtra state

1.4 Period of Price Fluctuation:


Generally the price of grape depends on the production, harvesting period and demands in market of other part of India. Max price: November to December with the average price around Rs.55 to 60Rs./kg. Peak price : April-May with average price around Rs.32 to 33/kg In the market some variety always fetch good price . A general price for varieties can be given below: Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Variety Thompson seedless Sharad Seedless Tas-e-Ganesh Sonaka Export Price Rs/kg 31 to 32 30 to 31 31 to 32 ---Local Price Rs/kg 25 To 27 23 to 25 25 to 27 24 to 26

Sangli: Sangli is second largest grapes growing and exporting district in Maharas htra. Export quality Grapes wont come to here. So exporters and traders go directly to farmers orchard. The important growing regions are Malegaon, Miraj, Nimni, Savlaj and Tasgaon. Nearly 250-300 containers of Grapes will be exported this year from Sangli district alone. During last year (200708) the farm gate procurement price of export quality grapes fluctuated with the time like this. February end - 35-40 /kg, March15-30: - Rs 40 / kg, March 30 onwards Rs 45-50/kg Solapur: Solapur is also very big market for grapes .Grapes arrival is from Solapur, Sangli, and Baramati and from regions of Kolhapur surrounding Sangli. Distribution is mainly to Bihar,

Bengal,Orisa, and Southern Indian states. There are many Bihar and Bengal traders operating in this market. In this market grape price depends on variety of grape. The prices of some important varieties are given below. Nearly 80% of the production is Thompson seedless and 10-15% is Sharad and flame seedless. Rest is from other varieties.

1.5 COMPETITORS IN THE EXPORT OF GRAPES There are several different companies &Exporter included in the export of Grapes. They are give different price to the Farmer at U.K. &Europe country.

Table no-5 competitors and the re pricing strategies

Name Exporter Mahindra

Of

Company/ U.K. Price Rs/Kg

Europe Price Rs/Kg

36-37 Rs/Kg

31-32 Rs/Kg

Fresh top

36-37 Rs/Kg

30-31 Rs/Kg

Deepak Fertilizers

35-37Rs/Kg

31-32 Rs/Kg

Unifruti

37-38Rs/Kg

31-31 Rs/Kg

Euro fruit Exports

36-37Rs/Kg

30-31 Rs/Kg

Seven Star Exports

35-37Rs/Kg

31-32 Rs/Kg

Sushil Grapes Exports

37-38 Rs/Kg

31-32 Rs/Kg

The Adani Agrifresh ltd. gives farmer 31-33 Rs/Kg according to condition of plot and quality of the grapes i.e. grade of the grapes.

CHAPTER-II

Quality Assurance for Export of Grapes

2.1 EXPORT OF GRAPES


Major export is to Middle East, UK, Holland, and Germany. Berry size berries colour and harvesting time are important for export of the grapes. Harvesting time, berries colour, are different according to the varieties. Different Varieties. Table No.-6 Quality And Harvesting Pe riod Of Diffe rent Varieties Name of the Varity Description Berry size Harvesting period Varieties in Demand: Quality &Harvesting period of

THOMPSON SEEDLESS

Round berries green 16 mm to 18 mm color, variety. Seed less

January to April

SONAKA

Elongated berries,green variety. less

16 mm to 18 mm

January to April

SHARAD SEEDLESS

Round berries,Blackish colour,seedless variety. red

16 mm to 18 mm

January to April

FLAME SEEDLESS

Round berries,Blackish colour,seedless variety. red

16 mm to 18 mm

January to April

Clone and Tash-e-Ganesh are also having demand to some extend in Dubai and Middle East.*Thompson seedless constitutes nearly 95% of grapes export to Europe and UK. But for Dubai and Middle East market, along with Thompson seedless ,Sharad seedless ,Sonaka,2-A clone and Tas-e Ganesh are preferred. The company is also export sharad seedless to Dubai but they are mostly export Thompson seedless to Europe and UK.

2.2 EXPORT SPECIFICATION (Holland)


Generally 95% Thompson seedless Grapes exported from Maharashtra state. Thompson seedless Grapes required specific quality for export to Europe and UK Country. Following are the table shows the export specification of the Indian white Thompson seedless.

Table No. 7 Export Specification of Grapes for Holland. Indian white Thomson seedless GRAPES SPECIFICATIONS Healthy intact Fresh White Seedless Grapes A B Sr. No. 1 Variety General for the whole lot Thompson Uniform in terms of class, origin, size, colour and degree in ripeness. Characteristics Temperature Description Precooling, storage and transport about 0 - 1 degree Celsius 2 Berry Colour, two separations Opaque milky pale green colour or amber. Not dark green or glassy. 3 Berries - General Appearance with 0 % tolerance. Berries must be fully developed, ripe, turgid (firm); not bladdery, wilted, over mature; no shriveled, deformed or poorly pollinated berries. Colour should be even through the bunch and across the box. No wrinkling of skin or sunken area around pedicle, water core. No abnormal exterior moisture. Free from decay-decomposition of fungus development. Free from decay- internal insect infestation or internal damage. 4 Berries-General Appearance with 3% tolerance Free from slip skin, botrytis, injuries, shriveling / witting, cold damage, unspecified internal

quality defects, skin damage, wind rub marks, unspecified appearance defects. 5 Berries-General Appearance with 5% tolerance 6 Berries-General Appearance with 8% tolerance 7 Berries-General Appearance with 10% tolerance Free from dry stems and dirt. Free from split berries, mould on stems, sulphur burn, visible residues, loose berries. Free from sunburn.

Tolerances in % refers to the amount of examined fruit ( not cluster ) out of a representative quantity taken on an random basis out of the entire delivery All Quality defects in the above mentioned, may not exceed 5 % provided that the individual deviations are within their stipulated limits 8 Skin Blemish Evenly coloured skin should be free from pest damage or physical damage. No bruising, hail marks, splits, cracks, open cuts or rots, sunburn, sulphur bleaching 9 Vine Condition Stems and pedicles fresh and green, not dry and brown. 10 Shape/Dimensions Bunch - shape typical of variety; not straggly or over tight;- round or slightly oval, not excessively elongated.

Organoleptic 11 12 13 Flavour Sweet and refreshing flavour balanced by a hint of acidity. Texture/Consistency Aroma Physical 14 Sugar Content Minimum - 16 degree Brix. Max 20 Brix Juicy, with tender skin and crisp, crunchy flesh. None, free from any foreign odour

15 16

Sugar/Acid Ratio Berry Size, printed on the Label

18:1 minimum, Target 20 : 1 Minimum 15 mm, as Regular, Large 16- 18 mm, Extra Large 18-20 mm. XXL.20 mm and up. Target average16 - 18 mm.

17

Dropped Berries

Minimal dropped berries (shatter) in packaging: tolerance up to 4 % by weight, Target zero.

18

Pouch weight

9 Pouches of min 510 gms. (by packing ) per 4.5 kg carton. Preference of 1 bunch per bag, with a tolerance for 2 bunches of even weight in 1 bag,

No single bunch to weigh less than 200gms. 19 Punnet weight 10 punnets of min 520 gms ( by packing) per 5 kg carton. Max three bunches per punnet with a minimum weight allowed to about 50gms for third bunch for adjustment of weight purposes. 20 Insects, Spiders No insects, spiders or mites to be present in the product or packaging.

2.3 QUALITY ATTRIBUTES WITH TOLERANCE LIMIT Quality attribute is very important for export of grapes. The tolerance limits of quality of grapes
at entry level, at packout level are necessary for accept or rejected the lot of grapes. It is also used for only good quality of the grapes is exported to Europe country. If grapes are fulfill the following criteria of tolerance limit at entry level and packout level the lot of grapes accepted when not it is rejected.

Table No. 8 Quality Attributes With Tole rance Limit Sr. No. Quality Attributes Required Specification At Packout 1 Berry Size Avg. berry size 1618mm. And Min. 15mm 2 Bunch Colour Pale Green to Amber. Dark green / glassy/ No colour variation within the bunch colour variation bunches not more than 3 bunches/crates 8 % berries below 15+ by weight Tolerance Limit at Entry Level Tolerance Limit at Packout Level 8 % berries below 15+ by weight Dark Green/ glassy/ colour variation bunches not more than 1 bunches/crates 3 Brix Min-16Brix & Max.-20Brix 5% berries between 14 to16 brix .No berry must be below 14 brix. 4 Bunch Wt. Min. Bunch wt. 250 gm in pouch packing & only 1 below 200 gm in punnet packing 5 Trips Marks Not more than 5 bunches below 200 gms/ crates Not more than 2 bunches below 200 gms/per box Min-16Brix &Max.-20Brix

Not more than 3% by Not more than 8% by Not more than weight weight. 3% by weight

Mealy Bug

No live mealy bug or No live mealy bug. No live mealy mealy bug mark Mealy bug mark not bug or mealy more than 2 bunches/ bug mark 0% crates tolerance

Powdery Mildew

No bunch or berry affected

Not more than 2 bunches

No bunch or berry affected. 0% tolerance

Downey Mildew

No bunch or berry affected

Not more than 2 bunches

No bunch or berry affected. 0% tolerance

Water Berry

No water berry

Not more than 5% water berries b wt.

No water berry. 0% tolerance

10

Rotten BErrt

No rotten berry

Not more than 3% rotten berries by wt

No rotten berry. 0% tolerance

11

Compact Bunch

No compact bunch

Not more than 2 bunches/ crate

Not more than 2 bunches/ crate

12

Berry drop / Slit Not more than 4% by Berries weight No stem braowning

Not more than 8% berries by wt Not more than 2 bunches/ crate

Not more than 4% by weight No stem braowning

13

Stem Browning/Dehy dration

14

Black Spot, Dirt

with Clean bunches Dust& without black spot, dust &dirt 4.600 Kg/box in pouch packaging with avg. wt. of 510 gm./ pouch

Not more than 2 bunches/ crate

No black spot, dust &dirt bunches

15

Box Wt.

Wt. a mentioned specification 0% tolerance

16

Brusing

Intact bunches without any brusing

Not more than 2 bunches// crate

No brused bunch should packed

Note 1. Each packed box should not have more than 2 defective bunches of any type 2. not have more than 2 defective bunches of any type of above defect in a crate at entry level. 3. The total 4. No. insect

2.4 Three Major Quality Parameters For Export Of The Berries At Post Harvesting Are1. 2. 3. Size of the Grapes Bricks in the produce Contamination due to pests.

Thompson seedless contributed nearly 90%of the total exported the European Union and UK while Sharad Seedless was the major variety that was exported to Middle East. Table No.9 Quality of Thompson variety of seed with respect to the period of the procure ment is shown in the graphs below. Quality of grapes at the time of reception.( Thompson Seedless ) Week Price paid to farme r Average weight of one bunch (gms) 04 05 06 07 08 09 31 32 32 31 35 32 290.45 270.45 286.46 257 294.74 298.9 16 16.5 17 16 16.5 16.7 17 Less than 1 % 18 Less than 1 % 17.5 Less than 1 % 17 Less than 1 % 18 Less than 1 % 16 Less than 1 % Average Size (mm) Average Brix (%) Diseased grapes ( qt in Kg )

(Rs.)

10 11 12 13 14 Average

33 31 35 34 35 32.80

311.5 318 325.1 323.4 288.6 296.77

17 15 18 16.5 17 16.5 17.19

16.8 Less than 1 % 15.8 Less than 1 % 18 Less than 1 % 17 Less than 1 % 18 Less than 1 % Less than 1 %

2.4.1. WEIGHT OF GRAPES


From the table it can be established that Thompson varieties of grapes are generally available after the January end of from the period of the February. In the start of the season the average bunch weight is less as the grapes do not get much size and are harvested. Each berry of his variety weight around 4-6 gms and each bunch has nearly 70-80 berries. The average weight of the bunch is 296.77 gms.

Figure-3- The average weight (gms) of the Grapes (Thomps on seedless )

Weight of the Bunch 296 gm.

Weight of the Crates 4.6Kg.

2.4.2 AVERAGE SIZE OF THE BERRIAS (mm)


From the table 8 it can be established that the size of the produce is less in the start of the season as compared to the mid and the end of the season. From the below graph it is easily seen that the size of the fruit is height at end of the season which implies a better quality according to UK and EU Standards. Below 15 mm size berry bunch is rejected according to tolerance limit at entry and pack out level. The average size of the berries is 16.5mm.

Figure-4- average size (mm) of berries Thompson Seedless

Ave. Berry Size 16.5 mm

Ave. Berry Size 17.5 mm

2.4.3. BRIX OF THE GRAPES


From the above table it can be clearly seen that there is not much variation in the brix of the fruit during the whole season. Brix of the fruit also depend on the irrigation of the field .if there is rain or the just irrigated then the average brix in the grapes will increase and make it unsuitable for the grape export. More brix means more sugar content in the grapes which increase its chance contamination during transportation of grapes.

Figure-5 Average brix (% ) of berries Thompson seedless

The berry contain 19.5 % brix

CHAPTER- III

GLOBAL GAP

GLOBAL GAP CERTIFICATION FOR GRAPES


Introduction: Due to global expansion in food trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has set as one of their objectives the opening up of trade between countriest and aims to address restrictive trade barriers. Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) issues have always been important in global trade and have become one of the most important potential Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Pests or pathogens may exist in one country but no t in another, thus ultimately resulting in restrictive TBT. In addition, food safety has become one of the most important minimum requirements for future trade with developed countries. The rapid increase in newly reported cases of outbreaks of food-borne diseases particularly associated with fresh produce has been the primary drive towards establishing minimum food safety standards. To be part of global trade in fresh produce and food related products it will in future require compliance to some kind of food safety assurance system. The global drive towards ensuring safe food supplies must also be seen as part of the focus on food security. Safe food must be ensured in both developed and developing countries and appropriate legislation needs to be put in place to address these concerns. The global emphasis on safe and secure food supplies must also be seen against a backdrop of an increasing number of immuno-compromises people (i.e. HIV / AIDS) as well as increased outbreaks of diseases such as cholera and typhoid, particularly in developing countries, which are often causes by inadequate sanitary measures and contaminated drinking water. With respect to developed countries such as the European Union, the importance of food safety was emphasized by the recent outbreaks of BSE (Mad Cow disease) and Food and Mouth disease as well as traditional concerns with environmental pollution, particularly pesticides and the issues surrounding Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). In contrast to this, the main focus of concern in the United States of America is the reported outbreaks of food borne diseases often associated with the consumption of fresh or processes food. In this scenario the importance of microbial contamination is of major concern and has been the driving force behind the establishment of the USA Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

policies and surveillance systems. Currently, there are numerous systems that growers can adopt to ensure safe food production, which include amongst others Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). One of the GAP systems that have taken off within the European community is GLOBALGAP. Apart from Germany and France, most other countries within the EU s upport this system, as do the major retailers, which consider it the minimum standard for food trade. It is important to note that these global standards will hopefully be harmonized but for the time being, major retailers will still have their own set of requirements that growers will have to adhere to. Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) issues have always been important in global trade and have become one of the most important potential Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Pests or pathogens may exist in one country but not in another, thus ultimately resulting in restrictive TBT. In addition, food safety has become one of the most important minimum requirements for future trade with developed countries. The rapid increase in newly reported cases of outbreaks of food-borne diseases particularly associated with fresh produce has been the primary drive towards establishing minimum food safety standards. To be part of global trade in fresh produce and food related products it will in future require compliance to some kind of food safety assurance system. What is GLOBAL GAP ce rtification? EUREPGAP

started as a retailer initiative in 1997 with major inputs and support from the chemical companies. EUREPGAP was established by the Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group (EUREP) with the aim of setting standard and procedures for the development of GAP. GLOBAL GAP is the new name of EUREPGAP. What are the objectives of GLOBAL GAP? The main objective of GLOBALGAP is, to lead the system to an EN 45011-based accredited certification system, referring to the cope of "EUREPGAP Fruits and Vegetables". Partners from the entire food chain for fruit and vegetable production have agreed upon the GLOBALGAP certification document and procedures, which were achieved after extensive consultation over a three-year period.

Benefits:

Certification to GLOBALGAP will become mandatory as from March 2003 for farms gro wing produce for export to Europe, although the EC may allow some latitude in this regard. At this point in time different certification systems could be required for export to other countries such as the USA, and Australia. As Europe is our largest export destination, GLOBALGAP certification will in all likelihood become a minimum requirement for entry into the EU market. However, it should be kept in mind that additional retailer requirements will still have to be met. Discussions are already underway to ensure harmonization between the different food safety schemes and benchmarking will be essential to link the various systems. While certification to GLOBALGAP will result in additional costs to growers, there will be numerous benefits. Longterm benefits include more motivated farm workers due to improved facilities, training and better working conditions with a subsequent increase in living standards. This would obviously also result in better productivity and outputs to the ultimate benefit for the grower. Other benefits include More environmentally sound farming practices More judicious use of chemicals and Most importantly a cost benefit to the grower due to better management practices enforced by the standard. It is important to note that EUREPGAP only covers produce up to the farm gate and thereafter other systems such as GMP, HACCP etc will become essential. All food industries must also implement GMP and GHP, both of which are prerequisite programs for HACCP. Besides the fruit and vegetables other EUREPGAP certification procedures have been developed for fresh flower, while draft documents covering animal production protocols which includes beef and lamb; pig meat; poultry; eggs; dairy; fish farming; and game/exotic foodstuffs, have been issued. Other drafts for crops, such as barley, beans, wheat, linseed, maize, soybeans, etc. have also been prepared for release. Feed is also in the process of being addressed due to the many food scares over the past few years.

CHAPTER-IV

GRAPE NET

Grape net An Internet based traceability software system for fresh grapes exported from India to the European Union.
APEDA initiated Grape net in 2006-07 as a first of its initiative in India in the Indian Fresh produce sector, to put an end-to-end system for monitoring pesticide residue, achieve product standardization and facilitate tracing back from retail shelves to the farm of the Indian grower, through the various stages of sampling, testing, certification and packing. It was welcomed and actively participated by all stakeholders in the supply chain of grapes export, namely The

Farmers, State Government Horticulture Departments, The testing laboratories, AGMARK Certification Department, The Phyto-sanitary department, Pack houses, Exporters, etc., Grape net 2007 was a resounding success with every consignment of fresh grapes during the season from India to European Union was monitored through this system, positioning India as a dependable and quality supplier in the European Market for fresh grapes, and benefit large number of farmers and exporters in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka with better price realization and credibility. This success has motivated APEDA, and other stakeholders in the Grapes supply chain to further simplify as well as improve the procedures and introduce the globally renowned GS1 standards for company, product and consignment identification. Grape net 2008 is the result of these initiatives. Grape net 2008, as its predecessors, is an interactive web-based software system and requires only Internet Explorer (version 6.0 and above) web browser and internet connection, and can be accessed at www.apeda.com/grapenet.

Features of Grape Net This software system integrates all stakeholders in the supply chain of grapes export, namely The Farmers, State Government Horticulture Departments, The testing laboratories, AGMARK Certification Department, The Phyto-sanitary department, Pack houses, Exporters, and APEDA. Grape Net has been very well received and actively been

participated by all stakeholders in the supply chain and every consignment of fresh grapes during the season 2007 from India to European Union was monitored through this system. This system permits its stakeholders to carry out the following ac tivities involved in the grapes export process as indicated in the diagram below. Figure 6 The application of this system starts at the very root of the process; Registration of farmers up to plot level, at district headquarters, by the State Horticulture departments and subsequently issuing a Registration Certificate to the Farmers. Each plot is identified by unique 12 digit registration Number. It facilitates the State Horticulture departments to tabulate their inspection details on completing their visits to the farms, after which they can recommend to the Laboratories to take samples for testing for pesticide residues. Farmers can approach any of the APEDA recognized laboratories for testing their produce. The recommendation is mandatory & it is at plot level. The Laboratories record the details of the samples drawn from each plot for testing and conduct stringent testing for about 90 pesticides for residue levels. This system automatically finds out from the test measurements entered whether the sample q ualifies for export to specified countries and generates their test reports. These laboratories are among the best in the world, have high precision and calibrated equipments, use validated procedures and are ISO 17025 compliant. Each plot tested for pesticide residues. In case the tests fail, the National Referral Laboratory or NRL is informed and they confirm whether an internal alert is required for this farms produce, restricting it from export to European Union. Exporters can only source produce from the plots of the farmers whose samples pass through these tests. Then they proceed to apply for the necessary AGMARK certification for quality and grade. At this stage, they provide the lot details, listing the registration numbers of the plots, from wher e he has sourced. Exporters are identified by their APEDA registration no. District AGMARK officers employ accredited laboratories to check compliance for their standards through a physical inspection at the pack house where these lots are being put together to create consignment for export.

Figure-6 flow chart of grape net

SGA State Government Agency Labs - APEDA accredited Laboratories DB Database

NRL National Referral Laboratory

Before proceeding for their inspection, the laboratories use the online system to generate a unique AGMARK Inspection ID for each lot to be inspected and this ID is pasted on the pallet of Grapes. Only those lots are accepted by the system that has passed the residue tests for the destination country. After this inspection, an ID for the Certificate of AGMARK Grading or CAG ID is created by the laboratories, listing out the individual AGMARK Inspection Report IDs covered under them for this particular consignment of an exporter. AGMARK Officers issue AGMARK Certificate or CAG to the Exporter based on this, through this integrated software. The plot no. of farmer & Exporter Registration No. are all linked at this stage to the AGMARK Inspection ID & to the CAG ID The next in the chain are the Phyto-sanitary departments at district level who carry out verification of the consignment at the registered pack houses and issue Phyto-sanitary certificates through this system. CAG is mandatory for issue of Phyto-sanitary Certificate. Once this comprehensive, 360 degree evaluation procedure is complete, the consignment is declared fit & ready for shipment! The Grape net system facilitates generation of bar-coded labels for pallets ready for shipment.

CHAPTER-V

OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXPORT OF THE GRAPES

Flow Chart Of Total Grape Export Process


Identification O f Grapes Orchard

Harvesting of Grapes.

Transportation of Grapes from Field to Pack House

Process Quality Assurance

Sorting and Grading

Packing & weighment

Labeling

Palletization

Pre cooling And Storage

Finished Produce Dispatch

Traceability of Finished Produce Figure-7 Flow chart of operating process of grapes

5.1 Identification of Grapes Orchard: Selection of Grapes orchard which is free from diseases, pests or any nutritional/physiological deficiency with desired/Export quality produce. The farmer should be GLOBALGAP Registered (Individual or PMO), registered to Agriculture Dept. or MRL free where ever applicable. The farmer should maintain all the necessary documentation records of operation.

Assessment of orchard with respect to the following technical specifications .

Colour of bunches Berry Size TSS Bunch weight

Green to Amber Min 15 + mm Min 160 Brix Min 200 gms Bunches should be clean (free of dust ,cob webs etc. ) and physiologically matured Bunches should be free from external scratches, rough surface, cracking of skin, staining, mechanical injury/rubbing , black heads or any other physical damages. Bunches should be free from the downey/ powery mildew, rusting due to diseases.

Physical Apperance

Bunches should be free from the damages of thrips, mites, mealy bug or any other insect. Bunches should be free from water berry or any other nutritional disorder. Bunches should be free of defective berries viz., decay, cracked berries, water berries, stem browning, shriveling, sunburned or dried berries.

5.2 Harvesting of Grapes: Harvesting of grapes at proper maturity stage without any physical damage and as per Quality Specification required. Harvesting should be done as per the specified product qua lity and in the morning hours such that berry temperature should be more than 22 0 C. Harvesting of bunches shall be carried out with clean and sanitized scissors and technical labourer. After harvesting bunches shall be placed gently in clean and perforated plastic crates with cushion and special care shall be taken to reduce the berry drops. The crate should be lined with clean cushioning material. One thing is that crates should not be overfilled and over staked during handling.

5.3 Transportation of Grapes from Field to Pack House : After harvesting required care about transportation of grapes from field to pack house. After harvesting produce should to transported to pack house as early as possible (Before 10 am) to maintain the freshness of bunches and quality at destination. Temperature of Bunches at the time of receipt at pack house should not be more than 22C. The product should be transported within 2 hours from harvesting to pack house in order to achieve optimum shelf life.

Raw Material Receipt at Pack House : Consignments being received at pack house shall have farmer acknowledgement slip in order to ensure farmer & plot identity, quality & MRL status. After consignment received Pack house Manager should thoroughly inspect the stuff for all the quality parameter, documents , weight and should confirm the status of lot. (Accepted /on hold / rejected). Weighment shall be done properly (after checking the balance ) and shall be recorded in material quality report and Produce Receipt Report with traceability. After Weighment, it must be shifted to raw material holding area and for processing.

5.4 Process Quality Assurance: To set a procedure for maintaining the quality, safety, hygiene and integrity of product during different stages of process operation

In this Picture to check the quality of the sample at entry level 1.to check the no. of disease bunch in sample 2.Colour of the berries. 3.size of the berries. 4.Glossy or water berry bunch etc. According tolerance limit at entry level

The major quality attribute for the export Of grapes is suger percentage in the berries. The suger of the grapes measures by the Brixmeter. Generally brix percent in the berries contain Minimum 16%

5.5 Sorting and Grading : Sorting to be done for removal of undersized, much compact, diseased and defected bunc hes and for bunches which does not fit for export. Grading shall be done by skilled labour with the help of scissor by removing defective berries viz., undersize discolored, decayed, cracked berries, water berries, stem browning, shriveling, sunburned or dried berries. It is very important stage for maintaining the quality of the grapes.

5.6 Packing & Weighment: After grading of the product shall be packed in approved packing material ( Primary & secondary) provided by AAFL and as per the procedure and specification given by AAFL in such a way which will ensure product safety during transportation , handling and sale at Buyers end. Grapes shall be packed in corrugated board cartoon boxes with pouches or punnets properly lined with bubble sheet, linear and grape guard. 4.5Kg pouch packaging- For 4.5 kg Pouch packaging 9 pouches with weight of Av. 510gms. each should be packed with total net wt. of 4.600gms per box. (The extra 100gms for dehydration at the time of transportation) 5Kg punnet packagingFor 5kg. For punnet packaging 10 punnets with net wt. of 520 gms

each should be packed . Proper care for weighment should be taken. (The each punnet consist of extra 100gms for dehydration at the time of transportation)

(Sorting and Grading)

(Packaging)

5.7 Labeling: The lable should as per the approved packaging content: a) Identification: Packer and /or dispatcher name and address or officially issued or accepted code mark b) Nature of Produce: Grapes, if the contents are not visible from outside and name of the variety c) Origin of produce: Country of origin and optionally district where grown, or national, regional or local place name d) Commercial specification: Class /grade of product e) Net Weight- 4.5 kg for Pouch packing and 5 Kg for Punnet packing. f) Batch Code: for proper traceability and maintain FIFO

5.8 Palletisation: Palletisation should done in 16 layers to accommodate 160 boxes per pallet that is each layer consist 10 boxes for pouch packing and 24 layers to accommodate 120 boxes for punnet packing. The boxes shall be properly stacked, secured by plastic / fiber board and properly tied with plastic strap (5-6 horizontal straps and 4 vertical straps ) to ensure proper and effective transit till final destination without causing any type of damage to the stuff .

(Labeling)

(Pallatisation)

5.9 Pre cooling, Storage and Finis hed Product Dispatch:


After pallatization the pallet should be kept in pre-cooling. During pre-cooling the temperature of bunches shall be brought down to 0-1 degree C with in maximum period of 5 hours for removal of field heat. Then the pre-cooled produce should be transferred to cold store without breaking the cold chain of 00 C. The product shall be cold stored at 0-1 degree C and 92 to 96 % RH. Maintain daily temperature records of pre-cooling & cold storage. Soon after pre-cooling & cold storage the palletization should be carried out while maintaining cold chain, preferable cold chain.. At the time of dispatching container complete all the formalities of AGMARK certification, Grape- Net entry certification. Pack house manager should complete all the forma lities of AGMARK certification, Grape- Net entry and necessary document preparation for phytosanitory certification. When Container to be dispatched, reaches the pack house, it shall be checked for hygiene, cooling efficiency (by monitoring desired temperature level) etc and recorded in container dispatch report. The container shall be brought down to specific temperature (Preferably zero deg. Celsius.) before starting any loading. Two Data loggers shall be placed at the time of loading, at the centre of container or as specified by customer. After loading the container, temperature evident seal shall be placed at doors of container before dispatch. The company INVOICE given to the container driver for custom. In container should kept 20 pallet. For pouch the weight of the container is 14400 kg. and necessary document preparation for phytosanitory

Loading the container- 20 pallet per container

5.10 Traceability Of Finished Produce: Following format is use for traceability of finished produce It is 10 digit batch codes.

FORMAT: P

PFFFNYMMDD : Pack house/ cold store location & Name (1 digit), from 1 to 9

FFF : Farmer identification number (3 digits), from 001 to 999 N Y : Plot number of the specified farmer (1 digit), from 1 to 9 : Last digit of the year (1 digit), from 0 to 9

MM : Month of the specified year (2 digits), from 1 to 12 DD : Date of packing (2 digits), from 1 to 31

CONCLUSION
The advent of new varieties having high consumer preference and technical advancement in cultivation has made this crop more popular. Owing to the nutritional and medicinal values of the fruits, there is preference among the consumers in the domestic and international markets. Thomson seedless and sharad seedless variety is best suited for cultivation in the tropical areas. This variety is one of the best varieties suitable for export purpose and it is gaining popularity among consumers. Most of the Grapes produced is consumed locally and about 1 per cent is exported. The exports have not been substantial since the international standards were not known. Of late, Indian grapes have penetrated into the European Union since suitable varieties conforming to international standards are being produced. There is potential for export to the United State of America also. Diseases such as Powdery mildew, Downy Mildew, etc., have created problems in obtaining economic yields. Proper varietal selection, crop and post harvest management, infrastructure such as cold chain, facilities for marketing etc, will augment the cultivation of quality grapes and will help in increasing the exports to a tune of about 20,000 30,000 MT tons.

In this background, India can definitely make a dent in Grapes trade in the world
market.

APPENDIX I COMPANY PROFILE


Adani Group, founded in 1988, is one of the fastest growing business houses in India.

The Adani Group has its roots in its flagship company, Adani Enterprises Ltd. (formerly known as Adani Exports Ltd.), which has been established by Mr. Gautam S Adani in 1988 as a partnership firm with an initial capital of Rs. 5 lacs.

Through his entrepreneurial vision, global aspirations, hard work, quality standards and customer centric approach, Mr. Gautam Adani has transformed the Group in one of its kinds which has crossed the total revenue of INR 180 billion on March 31, 2007.

ADANI AGRI FRESH LTD. Prolonging the shelve life of fruits and vegetables and there by creating a business plan. Project conceived by June 2005 and completed in 14 months, 3 CA stores within a year including procurement of land.

Focus Strong backward integration for product availability.

Developing procedures and systems in both infrastructure and manpower to meet t he world standards.

To tap potential of Indian market.

Vision -

To provide safe, hygienic, and fresh quality fruits.

Investment in technology and infrastructure to build and integrated supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

Build strong network with farmers, right from their growing by assisting them in technology.

To bring transparent product handling system that will benefit farmers.

Achievement Started in 2006 by investing Rs. 200 crores to set up controlled atmospheric pack houses in Shimla district at three different placed Viz. Rampur, Sainj and Rohru.

First time in India introduced Controlled Atmospheric storage facility.

First time in India introduced Optical Sorting- Grading facility for fruits.

Procured 18000 MT apples from Shimla and Kinnor district of Himachal Pradesh.

Set up strong marketing network in 30 Major towns of India. Introduced first brand Farm Pik in apple.

REFERANCES
APEDA Features of Grape Net, (http://www.apeda.com/GrapeNet/Features.htm, ) Bhosale, S. 2001. Diagnostic Study SME: Grape Cluster Nasik (Maharashtra), State Bank of India, Pune, UNIDO CDP, New Delhi, and the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, (EDII), Ahmadabad GLOBALGAP http://www.globalgap.org Initiatives to Develop the Grape Sector (http://www.globalgap.org) Adani agrifresh Ltd. Internal data of the company. NABARDS Model Bankable Project - 2007