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,"Two students sitting~(thE;ba~kJ)faYear ; the birthday paity they are io,'Jttend

7 History lessonar~ whispering together about

on the weekend. The teacher, aware of what is

 

'goingon

at thebac.kof

 

the

class, walks slowly in their

direction,

continuing

with the

 

:5Iesson"imd' riot lookin.gatth~

 

t~dstudents.

They see her approach,

stop their

chatter

 

'alldbegin

to payatt~ntior:Wha.thas

happened

here? What

has th:

teacher

done and'

,

,

 

-';'iwhy

have the

student~.:t~;?~~~?'asthey

have? If we thinkabout.t~e'teacher's

role

in,a

,,';class;'~om,

twofun,cti?'ris"ieenfdominant:

the first is concemed\Viththe

contentofedu-

 
 

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second

is con~:iIie~;with

the

process, of

 

.",',"

<i"instr~ction;

or h()\ys~ilclrer::I~~In,:their

attitudes

to leaming;}he:resources

and tech~

 

,','(2;';}!;':';:'F;;1>'~9l9fu'neededto~lippptfc'~YSh.'J~~fJ1i~g,and the context inwpich.,itQccurs.

This ch~pter.'

 
 

"" ';;",<i is

concerned

with\he;s~cofrd_pfthese

two' aspects

of learning; thai i's,issues

associated

 

peda ~

,

withthe

instr~~t~~nTrocess'1J.~c~apter

focuses

in particular

on how teache~s manage

Ieart~f~~C~Ing,,' ""classroom

actlVI,tles 3:rldt~~~g~~,~glesthey

use to ensure

that classrooms

proVIde a con-

',./,.',

'fh?;;(f:;';;,text

t6supp°rt

 

and

facilit~te'ta'the:r

than

inhibit

learning.,

 

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374

MODULE

IV

classroom

management

Theplanning,organisation andcontrolof learners, the learningprocess andthe classroom environmentto create andmaintainaneffective !earningexperience

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

.c

Defining

classroom

management

If you ask someone

in the general community

\,hat

clas.sroom manag~ment

me~ns, th

"

probably

room management is about? Does it simply refer to controlling~ehaviour in i~strucf settings, or is it more than that? Classroom. management is certainly concerned behaviour, but it can also be defined more broadly as involving the planninD Oro

talk abo~t

discipline

.

and

controlling

.

dr:;ruptive students.

.

.

.

.

.

But is this' w

.

.

h

e~,.

at CJ;

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a

b"~

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and control of learners, the learning process and the classroom environment to create' maintain an effective learning experience in which expected. pedagogical outcornes achieve~. Within this definition, 'learners' include students and teac~ers, since in an eff tive classroom both gain in knowledge and understanding. The 'learning process' indul classroom activities and the teaching strategies that teachers use. The 'classroom envjr ment' provides a context for learning and includes not only the physical space, furnishin'il re resources and materials, but also the class atmosphere, participants' attitudes and emotio 0

and the social dynamics of the learning experience. The £eacher's role in this setting is co

8'

plex, reflecting the heterogeneous natu~. of ,the cJassroom~~'1ronm.ent,

which must

tit

mariaged successfully

if learning

i~.~o occur:. Doyle (1986,

face the following two main instructional tasks:

,

>.:::

p

,'-

394 >',s.u~sted

. (,

\'

that teach~

.'

0

bi

.

a teachil1g goal that must be achieved, invoh ingmc1Ximis-ingoppoi:tunities for students'

Ji,

learn

through

the

use

of effective

il1strl!ct~onai st~ategie~;aI;ld "classroom

organisati

a

procedures,

and

also if1volving tasks tha;,are'

well'pr~pared,

motivating and at ~

Sl

 

appropriate level in terms

of students'

needs

and prior learning

.

yj

.

a problem space that

must

be managed,

encompassing

the set of participants

or learner

tl

the learning

activities

that

are the focus of the lesson,

available materials

and resource

Ii

and a physical space'.

 

c

The

critical

task for teachers

is to achieve

their

stated

goals through

effective use of a\

v

the different

elements

that

are present

in the complex

setting

of a conventional

classroom

l-

As you consider approaches to managing students' behaviour, think about the context if

which

a classroom.

how students behave ir

learning

happens

and

the many

factors

that

may influence

Behaviour management

in practice

The teacher asks Ozturk a question at the beginnil1gof Science class, and \vhen Oztur.

gives a funny reply, all the students la1!fgh.J~e

whenever tha,t t~?cher asks O;w;~rka qu~st"~fi;~,'~'~';?i'.¥~~giQ~.What can the teacher do

t~acher becomes very angry. After that,!

to stop this behaviour?

.

'.

-

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,

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In most chissrooms,-'§tudents' behaviour i3 gen.@r.aUx

.'

'.

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.~

~.

ncfdoes

not

present

I

3;

ch~llel1ge to the teacher. However, there <1reS(i~mel'w childreh whose behaviour is at times inappropriate or anuisa~ce.Occa~o~~-h~s also eDcounter students whose behaviour is so disturbed or difficult to manage' thatteachers <need 10 seek addiJional help from experts, either to develop better strat~gies for coping with particular students or to find some other solution. An important elemehtof the classroom~ri1anagement process concerns

.

, the range of behaviours that may be presentjn a particular group of students, and the iden'

-

."

.-,.-.

-'.,"';

iscipline

system of rewards

ld punishments for anaging behaviour

tification and implementation

Behaviour management

of appropriate 'strategies Forhandling these beha\iours.

.---

in effective schoof~ and classrooms

In a study of what makes an effective school iri Australia, McGaw: Piper, Banks and Evans (1993, p. 174) reported that problems in discipline and behaviour management did not

appear to be majorbarriers to school effectivenessand improvement.Such problemswere

mentioned by some of the participants surveyed ill the study but were not of great concern

I l.

r-

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.

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

ft;them. ,to Only

"

t ~

'~

e

r

.

.

.

.

.

that

i\rcls'safe and congenial' (p. 124). Discipline was mentioned by 6% of participants" but they

12% referred

to the need for an eFFective school to have an environment

mainlY concerned that schools should ha\'e clear discipline policies ~hat ~\'ere well

~~WJ1to students and consistently applied. A fewemphasised the need for s~udents to ~e6eptauthority and submit to school discipline, and some also referred to the importance rS{'self-discipline. Only a small number (1%) commented on the difficulties presented by "ID~ruptivestudents, arguing that schools should have clear and effective strategies for !~!l1ovingsuch students so that teachers' attention was not distracted and so other students }6uldget on with their work. Studies of school effectiveness reported by Rutter, i\laughan,

}'Mbrtimoreand Ouston

(1979),

Mortimore,

Sammons,

Stoll, Lewis and Ecob

(1988)

and

CLASSROOMS

375

~"Siee(I995a)

suggested

that an important

component

of discipline

consists

of a system

of

'jewards and punishments,

with an emphasis

on praise and rewards.

 

;>!~

r'definingand identifyingdisruptiveand disturbedbehaviour

!'Everyteacher experiences, at some-iIme, problems in classroom'management and i~~tfu~ (nonthat are the outcome of a student's disruptive or distuibld behaviour (see Figure 12.3). Overtime, most teachers develop strategies for responding to disturbances caused by such behaviour(Block, Oakar, & Hurt, 2002). All school systems have policies that address dif-

ficulties associated with inappropriate behaviour - that is, behaviour that interferes with

astudent's own learning and/or disrupts the class - in school settings. Such policies usually

set out general guidelines for student management, welfare

and Qiscipline, although indi-

.

vidualschool communities are often encouraged to develop policies and programs suited to theirstudents' particular needs. Issues addressed in school policy documents include guide- lines for creating safe, caring, orderly and productive learning environments, and a code of conduct that sets out expectations for appropriate behaviour, plus procedures to be followed when the code is disregarded. Other issues addressed in policy documents include bullying, harassment, violence, and the processes involved in student suspension and exclusion.

Doyle (1986) used the term 'problematic'

to refer to any behaviour perceived as inappropriate

fora given activity. Such

unnecessary and excessive movement, shouting, swearing, fighting and so on. According to Doyle (1986), problematic behaviours tend to occur ID'ost often during passive individual activities such as silent reading and seated work. Such behaviours are less likely to OCCUr during small-group and whole-class activities where, paradoxically, individual students

behaviour

may range from daydreaming

and mild interruptions,

to

FIGURE12.3

Whichof these

behaviourswould you

considerdisruptive?

Whichwould require

immediateattention?

"'-----

------

inappropriate

behaviour

A cehaviour tha t

interferes with a student's

own learning and/or disrupts the class

~

:j "

"

I i i

,

'

i

'

,

!I

376

.-

- -.-

----.-----

MODULE

IV

disruptive

behaviour

; Behaviourthat is problematicor inappropriatein the context of a givenactivityor for a certainteacher

behaviour

disturbance

Significant abnormalities in the behaviour of an individual who does not

have a diagnosable psychiatric illness

emotional

disturbance

Evidentfrom inappropriate behavioursthat require psychiatrictreatment in the form of ongoingtherapy

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

'f'

receive

on individual

a higher

level of teacher

(Galton,

attention

compared

Comber,

that received

Wall, & Pell, 1999).

\\ith

during solitary w O

I

behaviour at sch

~

,

~

\

tasks

Hargreaves,

Galloway, Ball, Bloomfield

Few children's

behmiour

and Seyd (1982)

is consistently

suggested

at

the

that children's

same

point

on

can be seen in terms of a continuum ranging from extremely cooperative to totally unacce

able.

Changes \vill occur \\ith age increases, different teachers, different learning areas, differet classrooms and so on. Some teachers may be unaffected by a behaviour that others fin~ :

such a CoOtinuuP I

irritating or disruptive. Disruptive behaviour is any behaviour that appears problematic 0 inappropriate in the .conte.\.1 of a given activity or to a certain teacher, Doyle (I986) als(

distinguished

between

beha,iours

that

minimise

learning

in

an

individual

student

- sue!

as daydreaming, drowsiness and \vriggling;and those that disrupt the flow of activityforth(

whole group - such as calling out, arguing and excessivemovement. Terms used to distinguis

different ~f

hehaviour - in addition to the terms 'inappropriam=t5ehav:loili'and 'disruptiv

behaviour' already discussed - include behaviot,lr disturbance

The distinction between all these descriptors is a matter of degree, and classroom teachersca have problems in distinguishing between tlfem. It is little wonder that when faced \vitha stu

dent whose behaviour they find inappropriate,disruptiveor disturbed, teachers are oftenl

uncertain about the exact nature of the problem they are dealing \vith, and what action should be taken (see Box 12.1).

and emotional

disturbance

"'-'

A difficult child

~c

STlJUY'

Lachlan was 5 years of age when he was referred

to

a

withdrawal

unit

for

children

with

language

and

communication

difficulties,

which

was located

dn

the campus of a metropolitan university, Lachlan was small, fair-haired, looked angelic and had delayed language, He waS reported to exhibit frequent episodes of disruptive, even destructive behaviour;

which had been noted

suc-

cessfully with the other children in his unit classroom, although there was evidence of disruptive behaviour during his f!r'st weeks in the class. Over time,

as Lachlan's limguage and communication ski'lls

showed signs of improvement,

in a psychologist's

and

report,

At

first

Lachlan

was playful

interacted

".'

.

.

his behaviour

began

to

deteriorate.

The teacher

and classroom

aide had

to

focusin~reasinglyon controlling Lachlan's behav"

iour and protecting the other children from his

destructive and aggressive outbursts. After about

It

4 months they asked the school principal

for help.

was decided

Lachlan should be referred to--aschool

psychologist

for further

assess~ent.

".

The psychologist visited the school and talked at length to Lachlan's teacher and the classroom aide, He observed the boy over an extended period and, after widespread consultation, everyone involved with Lachlan's case - including his parents - felt that Lachlan should be moved to a nearby residential support unit that could f provide a behaviour,

program and counselling for parents

and child, Lachlan entered the residential, unit and a

behaviour-management program was' instituted,

Hi~ destructive -and aggressive behaviour was ey~n~uallycontrol.led. It was also established that h'is delayed development, particularly in the area of language and communication, was associated with mild intellectual impairmentthat had been difficult to identify earlier because of his communication problems coupled with extre~ely disturbed behav- iour. Lachlan's relationship wIth his parents broke

down

declared

management

during

this, period,~hd

.

he was eventually

a state'

-

'.

""

',

.

'.

'

-"'

1 How would you desci-ibe Lachlan's behaviour?.,

"

'

2. Should greater

efforts

have been made to retaintachlan

in the unit?WhyIWhy

not?

3

What 'could have been done to help ~chlan

and his family once he entered the residential unit?

"-.,,

,',,""

.

"~-'."",--"'

-

at scho,

tnaccept

ntinuU/1}

differell

hers nIle

~rnatic°1

)86) als,'

- sucI

for th(

t

y

5tinguis}

isruptiVt trbance. hers can th a stu,

re often

n should

:ed at

aide.

j and,

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

-

~-"'~

,-,.,,~.

=.

-_h

,.,

 

,-

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

Whatbehaviours do teachers see as disruptive?

~ehaviours that teachers see as disruptive vary across cultures. For example, in a study of reachers in the USA, Duke and Meckel (1984) reported that teachers regarded absenteeism

~ndlateness as having the most disruptive

effect on their teaching.

In the UK, WheldalI

and

Merrett (1988) found

some behaviours were students talking out of turn

at primary

that,

for teachers

and secondary

and hindering

levels, the most trouble-

Wheidall

other

students.

and Merrett's study found that boys were most ofteo the source of these irritating and time-

wasting disruptions. Behaviours identified as particularly annoying included disobedience

and slowness or idleness. Physical violence and verbal abuse were rarely cited as being

among the behaviours that annoyed teachers, probably because these behaviours' occur-

rence was less frequent (Wheldall & Merrett, 1988). Australian study findings are consistent with the data reported in studies of British schools. Forexample, Hyde and Robinson (1982, unpublished, cited by Louden, 1985) reported that

40% of suspensions from schools

in Western Australia were for kJehaviours classified as per-

sistent disobedience, refusal to obey instructions, and insolence. Galloway and Barrett (1984) . found a similar pattern in New Zealand. Field (1986), in a s~all study of Australian primary

teachers, found that distractibility was cited most often and concluded that acting-Qut or highly disruptive behaviours occurred only rarely in these classrooms. Stephenson, Limoot and Martin (2000) also reported that, in western Sydney, 130 teachers of children aged five to ' eight from 21 schools who were confident of their classroom-management skills were most concerned about aggressive behaviour and about their need for support in dealing with dis- tractibility. Less confident teachers were concerned about aggression, distractibility and disobedience, and also needed assistance with distractibility and disobedience. Bor, Presland, Lavery,Christie and Watson (1992) cited inattentiveness and, to a lesser extent, aggression, as the most commonly reported problems for students in primary and lower-secondary school levels. Aggression was most common in students who were experiencing more serious prob-

lems in adjusting to school life. Inattentiveness and aggression were both more common in

olved boys than in girls, and declined in freqlleocy in the upper-secondary level (possibly because

t that

ential

tiour-

Irents

some students have left school). The most severe but less frequent problems identified in Bor

~t aL's study included

is a

reminder that undesirable

but causing no disturbance to classroom activities (Chazan, Laing, Davies, & Phillips, 1998). ".

social withdrawal, anxiety, depression

behaviour can he directed

and self-destructi'{e.ne~s.This

internally, affecting

an indiVidual child ~

1d

uted.

a

was CRITICAL

that

REFLECTIONS

!\iWhat beha\iours

do you categorise as disruptive br problematic

in classrooms?

ea of

with

ficult

3tion

D Compare your list \vith those of others in your group and discuss strategies for dealing with

disrupti\e

or problematic

behaviours.

!hav- .~ Do you have concerns about managing disruptive behaviour in your classroom? If so, share ,

mke

ually

these \\ith your group and identify ways of addressing your concerns.

t?

Theinfluenceof homeandschool

According to Louden (1985), there was a shift during the latter part of the 20th century in thinking about the home-school relationship and the occurrence of troublesome or disturbed

behaviour.

that

than the home's in relation

For many years it was assumed

to student

the school's

influence

was less significant

But \vhile the home is

still seen as crucial-

intellectual development, and because parental expectations have an important influence on

primarily in relation to providing a secure base for social, emotional and

behaviour

and achievement.

"

378

MODULE

IV

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN

THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

~tudent

achievement

and~ehaVi~u~

- school-relat~d factors are also imp~rtant, particul

In

terms

of student

behavlOUI:that

IS a product

of Interplay between

the Individual and arI,

environment

(Bronfenbrenner,

1979).

Hemphill

(1996,

p.

113)

identified

three

risk fac tht

implicated in children developing.conduct disorders, these being maladaptive family into~1 action and communication, a high level of family stress, and socioeconomic disadvantage. ~r-J the other hand, Kauffman (2001, p. 262) noted seven school-based factors that can 11. tribute to inappropriate and dist~rbed behaviour in students. These include: Con-

e in5ensitivity

to students'

individuality

from teacher.s, school administrators

and peers

.

inappropriateteacher expectationsof students

.

inconsistent teacher managementof student behaviour

.

instructionin non-functionalor irrelevantskills

.

ineffectiveinstructionin critical skills

.

use of inappropriatereinforcementcontingencies

.

provisionby teachers and peers of inappropriateor undesirablebehaviouralmodels.,

.'

.,.

Studies of school effective~ess, such as,hat

reported by Rutter

et al. (1979), show that 11

children's

and by the'

school they attend. So while problem behaviour was once seen as a product of the child's heredity and home environment, it is increasingly viewedasa product of interaction between experiences children bring to school and their experiences within the school context. See also Box 12.2 on factors within the classroom environment that can affect student behaviour.

of getting into trouble with the police - are influenced by social background

behaviour at school ~

as well as their examination results, attendance andchances;'

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C1assroom environrrien.f'fi)dors

j\ /1

I

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.

the

. lii\Ji"".J '1'\1k'~C:

activity's nature

A number of factors have an impact on activities that take place within a classroom setting, regardless of

identified

shared

by

same

of

all

'classrooms

or

the

participants.

Doyle

(1986)

critical

as:

~le.ments

,',

th~."'Cif~c

,.

~"

~

Classroom

environment

factors

Multidimensionality:Thewiderangeof playersandeventsthatarepresentin a classroom

Simultaneity:Manydifferentthings happenatthesametimein a classroom

Immediacy.'Thespeedatwhichevents in a classroomunfold

Implications for teachers

II

Developstrategiesfor addressingthewiderangeof abilitylevels;preferences;andsocial, emotional,culturalandlinguisticbackgroundsof studentsin yourclassroom

 
 

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II

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Be awareofwhatis happeningat everylevel,includingthatof individualstudents,small groupsandtheclassasawhole

.,

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II

learn to have'eyesin thebackof yourhead'

,

II

Thechallengeof simultaneitymaycontributeto highlevelsof stressandburn-outunlessyou developcopingstrategies(see,for example,Brouwers& Tomic,1999)

.

 

II

Managetimeatbothmicroandmacrolevels

II

Giveimmediatefeedbackto studentsduringface-to-faceinteraction

 

II

learnto allocatetimeappropriatelyfor plannedlearningactivities

.

II

Behaviouralproblemsaremostlikelyto arisewhenstudents'attention,interestandmotivation beginto ebbasa resultof poortiming"

."

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II

Be alertto ongoingeventsin a busyclassroomsetting

 
 

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Unpredictability:Carefullyplanned

iii

Beflexible

 

classroomactivitiesdonotalways

II

Respondappropriatelywhentheunexpectedoccurs

 

proceedasplanned

 

II

Wherepossible,takeadvantageof surprisingorunanticipatedevents

Publicness:Manypeople,often . students,witnesswhatteachersdo, or learnaboutateacher'sactionsfrom otherwitnesses

II Beawarethatwhatyoudoandsayis observedandmaybediscussedoutsidetheclassroom

II Usethisasanopportunityto modelappropriateordesirablebehaviourfor students

<.

----

,.

"--.

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

,:Classroom environment factors ~.

- History:Cla~sgroupscontinueto meet regularlyov~rextendedperiodsof time

Implications for teachers

II Considertheeffectof accumulatedmemoriesof previousexperienceswhendevelopingplans forclassroomactivities

Source:Adapted

from

Doyle

(1986,

pp.

394-395).

Incidence rates of disruptive behaviour in schools

Boret a!. (1992) reported

that the teachers they studied

perceived

almost

17% of students

asexperiencing

adjustment

difficulties

(6.3%

mild,

7% moderate

and

3.7%

severe).

Zubrick,

Silbum, Gurrin, Teoh, Shepherd, Carlton and Laurence (1997) reported similar incidence

ratesin a study of child health conducted

pals reported that within the previous 6 months they had been' informed of emotional

in Western

Australia.

In this case, school princi-

and behavioural

problems

in

16% of students

in

their

schools.

Information

has also been reported

and disturbing

regarding

with

the numb,r

percentages

of students

of such children

who

exhibit

the

more disruptive

school-aged population in Aucstralia and New Zealand ranging from around 3% \Andrews,

Elkins, Berry, & Burge,

& Elkins, 1988; Norman, Sritheran, & Ridding, 1984) to &-8% (Barrie & Tomlinson, 1985; Mitchell, 1985). Studies of Catholic schools in Queensland (Quinn, Sultmann, & Elkins,

pri-

in the general

behmiours,

1979; Dohert:: 1982; Pickering & Dickens, 1992; Quinn,

& Dickens,

Sultmann,

1988)and Victoria

(Pickering

1992) cited rates of less than 4% in Catholic

mary and secondary schools. In a national study

et a!. (1979)

and special primary a'nd secondary gO\'ernment and non-government schools (primary 3. G%;' > secondary 3.4%); while for all New South Wales schools, Doherty (1982) cited incidence rates for students who are behaviourally disturbed at 3.2%. In New Zealand, Norman,

Sritheran and Ridding (198.4) suggested that 2,,,:-3%of children were judged t9 q<s.I~]o£i~l1y(

behaviourally maladjusted' (cited by \ \ 'Othersp6on, 1987 ,po 272)

of special education

difficulties

among

in Australia,

students

Andrews

found

rates of 3.4% for behavioural

in all regular

::

.'"

;.

C-'," ~;" here. is' based

It should

be noted

that

the iriformation

on incidence

rates reported

on

~

-'

379

~.-

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.

studies that have used highly \'ariest simples, different terminology and different criteria to identify and categorise their subjects. However, the figures of around 16% to 17% for stu-

dents with difficulties in adjustment and 3 to 4% for more serious behavi<?ural problems in countries such as Australia and Ne''\" Zealand are consistent with data rep6rt~d:in9~,F~~§"1,,.:W

studies

(Conway,

1998).

Behaviour-management

corporal punishment

strategies:

Alternative$

.

to

Managing student behaviour is clearly a complex process. Teachers must be multiskilled, tal- ented and able to deal with a range of behav1ours. Different behaviour-management strategies were used in classrooms during the 19th and 20th centuries. The last two decades of the 20th

century saw schools shifting from using corporal punishment in Australian and New Zealand

classrooms, to using

suspension and exclusion

as a means of last resort (Slee, 1995a, p.

In Australia

and

New

Zealand,

corporal

punishment

is

not

allowed. in government'

.

schools nor in most non-government schools (Association of Professional Teachers, 2001;

Youthlaw, 2003).

Registration

requirements

for non-government

schools

require

each

to

have a behaviour-management policy which states that corporal punishment

will only be

usedasa last resort. In addition, a register of corporalpunishmentincidents must be main-

tained (Slee,

1995a).

Corporal punishment has been replaced by alternative forms of discipline, which range

or

from detention,

extra written

work

time out, removal of privileges, behaviour

contracts

380

MODULE

IV

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN

THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

'

agreements,

(Youthlaw, 2003). Cl~ss,ro~m teachers have been give~ a,ddi,ti,onal.training on altel11at~~'):

methods

teachers

classrooms and to cope with students who exhibit disturbed behaviour. In addition, sornlt;i

in-school

suspension

and

and

c?mmunity

service

to

exclusion

and

expUlsi :;

1

o;~

Is- . e

,

of school

discIplme

have access

to specialist

teachers

Itmerant

teachers

or sup

control in the~ '1

whose purpose

is to assist regular

classroom

to maintain

special-class arrangements and special units and schools for students with behavioural d

, turbance

have been

established

(Conway, 2002;

Dempsey

& Foreman,

1997).

There have been objections regarding the use of suspension and exclusion as viable altet- ':

natives to other methods of student discipline. The Burdekin Report into homeless youth:~

"

(HREOC,

1989) demonstrated

links between school suspension, exclusion and the drift'1

towards juvenile

educ~~~j

tional program

from school. The program includes young people \vho have been out of school for two termS! or more, who have been excluded from sch~l on multiple occasions or who have a history 1

of dropping out of school. The initiative is seen as a response to the problems presented by ,~

crime, homelessness

In

1999,

the

New

for young people

and long-term

Zealand

dependency

on welfare agencies (Sle~'~~

an alternative

1995a,

p. 149).

government

introduced

from 13-and-a-half

to 15 years old who have been alienated

. students

whose needs

are not a~_equately provided for within

the regular school system due

'~

to demographic and social chan~~ (NZ Ministry of Education, 2002a),

Stren9th~, and I~mitations of classroom behaviour managemen~

"

While there are problems associated with using labels to identify a particular cluster of behaviours (see the discussion of labelling in Chapter 8), finding an appropriate label to describe the range of behaviours that a particular student exhibits can be an important first step in obtaining help. However, one of the problems associated with the guidelines pro- vided for teachers who need to manage inappropriate or disruptive behaviour concerns the confusing way in which key terms are defined. This lack of clarity can cause problems for teachers and others who try to find a label that is appropriate for the array of behaviours a

- particular?tudent presents. This uncertainty ,can:a1so leadtcidifficulties in.find.!ngan appro-

priate

solufion,

'

Although

the

types

of problems

teachers

see as disruptive

tend

to be mild

in nature,

teachers

need

an array of options

for responding

to difficult classroom behaviour, The move

away from

corporal

punishment

to using

alternatives

such

as extra work and

time

out -

together

with the possibility

of access

to specialist

support

-

gives

teachers

more

humane

options

for handling

inappropriate

behaviour.

This move is also consistent

with ideas con-

cerning

the

rights

of children.

However,

suspension

or exclusion from school may have a

more

long-lasting

and negative

impact

on students

than

do the more

traditional

forms of

punishment.

 

'

Strategies that teachers

can use asa first step in managing classrooms

are listed in Box 12.3,

IMPLICATIONS

Managing

.

classroom

Beprepared:

- devotetimeto planning

- havea clear,well-consideredplanfor man-

behaviour

in the

aging your classroom and student behaviour

- plan to provide a variety of tasks

FO.R"EDUCATORS

,~-

,

plan howy~G'willmotivate students whose

interest seems to wane'

- plan how students will spend time on task and

-,

how you will manage

. Be organised:

disruptive behaviour,

-

decide before teaching

begins what

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

procedures

and maintaining discipline in classrooms so your reactions to classroom-management problems can be quick, consistent and

you will follow

in establishing

congruent

- organise

, classroom,

with your

underlying

your time, resources

values

and

. Develop a classroom-management

plan:

-

decide

on prev'entative measures

ahead

of

time

- consider what verbal and non-verbal cues

 
 

you will use

 

- encowage their actions.

students

to take responsibility

for

. Be guided by your personal philosophy of teaching and learning. Think about:

- what you want your students to learn

- how you would like your students to learn

-

how you will foster such learning.

. Know your students:

- be aware of their needs (they may have spe- ciallearningneeds) and individual differences

- monitor, circulate, and assess students'

.

progress

regularly.

Know how your school operates:

- ensure your classroom-management plan is consistent with policies and procedures followed in the whole-school policy

- any classroom~management and discipline

.'

plan needs back-up support from colleagues

andthewider

school community.

Be aware of the power relations in your classroom:

-

!.

a critical feature

of an individual

teacher's

classroom~management plan is the extent to

which power is held by the teacher, or shared

in a relatively equal way between students'

differences

teacher

and

in the ways poweris.manage9

are a majorfgctorin

distinguishing

between

different- approaches

to classroom

manage-

ment.

.

.

.Be positive- .enjoyyour teaching!

.

Beenthusiastic- establish an atmosphere of

cooperation,

Source:

balance

Adapted

and mutual respect.

from

Girard

and

Koch (1996,p.

107).

Models of effective classroom management

To suni\"e in the classroom, every teacher needs to have a clear, well-thought-out plan that

provides an effectiye framework for maintaining discipline. Such a plan will i!lv9hr~\a set of beliefs about the instruction process, and also about the organisation and management of

the environment in which instruction occurs. To create such a plan, a teacher needs

understand the psychology of learning and development (as discussed in modules I and II)"

and the factors that playa role in leaming (see l\Iodule III). This understanding ihforms your personal philosophy of learning, or beliefs about how children learn and \V'hat consti- tutes an effective learning environment. Such beliefs provide guidelines for establishing an

to

;

effective

learning

environment

in aclassroom,

as \\"ell as strategies

for coping \\ith inappro-

priate or disruptive

behaviour.

.

Teachers'

ideas about

managing

classrooms

can bethought

of in terms

of the degree

of

balance between the teacher's arid the students' power (Porter, 2000). In a tradrtionalclass- room, the teacher's role is to retain firm control of all aspects of teaching and learning. However, as is evident in earlier chapters in this book, there has been a steady shift towards allowing students to have some level of control over. what happens dllring instructiotL

Examples of this development Chapter 6 and of self-assessment

can be seen in Chapter

in the

II.

discussions.

of cooperative

learning

in

The extent to which teachers retain or devolve some of their authority' to students is inflll-

enced by a given teacher's

used the

and discipline styles that differ in regard to their emphasis on teachers' and students'rela- tive power. We discuss each of these styles in turn in this section.

personal

philosophy

of classroom

and

management.

Wolfgang ( 1995)

teachino 0

terms

'interventionist',

'int o eractive'

'non-interventionist'

to describe

382

MODULE

IV

interventionist

teacher

Sees children's development

as an outcome

factors

of external

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

The interventionist

\

teacher

.

i:'

The interventionist

teacher is guided by the view that children's development isan

"

of extek l. al factors. Frederi~ H. Jones (1987) is a psychologist who spent man y ' hour

-

",

~Utc(

s~cl

. rooms <'isa teacher and as a researcher. He also has a background in child psychoth'.

family therapy in a humanistic

framework

discipline, Jones emphasises the need for teachers t() maintain firm control throu h1

following four aspects of classroom organisation (Wolfgang, 1995, p. 197):

Framework and parent training within ari operant-conditi:r,

of operant conditioning).

In his work on classrriJ

g

t

(see Chapter

4 for a discussion

.

limitsetting throughbodylanguage

.

responsibility'training

.

.

back-upsystem(supportedby policiesat the schoollevel)

.

classroomstructure.

Limitsettingthroughbodylanguage

il

a

E

A

a

e

~

(

(

According to Jones, teacher~ need to sl'llimits on. students' behaviour that are simple, pra,

 

tical and,

once

mastered,

easy to use.

Respon$es

to disruption

should

be physical, usit

"d'

-

,.

body language, and employ a minimal

number

of words, such

as when

a teacher stan(

limit-setting

beside

a student

and points

to the

student's

workbook

to indicate

that

the set task is to

strategies

Strategies that establish

 

completed. Teacher~ need to move around the classroom, using eye contact and proximil

boundaries

in regard to

to maintain students' engagement with their work. The ultimate effect of these limi

children's activities

setting

strategies

is to reduce the teacher's workload (see Table 12.2).

"

"~.~

Strategy

Sequence of strategies for limit-setting

Method

in the classroom

1

Eyesin the back of your head

2

Terminate instruction

"

-, ,.Yo-"

Teachers

need 'with-it-ness' so they can see everything that is happening around them

~

,""'-

,".' ~,,,"~.'--".7

.-

Discipline comes before instruction, so instruction must cease when disruption occurs

'.,

'.'2

,.'

,c~

""c

<'.".C&C>'.

"'''.

'

',,',"'"

""'''~'''~C'".,~''''o''''''='.'

."o""v,

>,

,~"

,

3

Turn, walk

desk,

to the

prompt'

edge

'

',~

4 Palms

,.n,',,,,,c""-",,

of the

student's

. -n

.

The teacher must turn to face the offending studeflt

.contact, maintain a flat expression (no smiles), walk

squqrely,

make unwavering eye

slowly to tile front of the student's

desk and prompt the action required from the student (e,g. completion

of a set of sums)

'W'.',

',',,'

-

",',

,,~e

.","

"""""""""''"-''",-,,''''''.

".'

",

,'",,,"<

',="""""'N~,-"

."~

>-""

c".,",

-,,"

""

 

If further intervention

is required,

the

teacher

places

both

hands,

palms

down,

on each

side of the student's work

5 Campingoutin front

6 Campingout from behind

If necessary, the teacherputsweightonorieelbowontheedgeof thedesk,still . maintainingeyecontact,andwaitsfor compliance

If two neighbouringstudentsarecreatingthedisruption,theteachercanmovebetween thetwodesks,keepingelbow,bodyandeyecontactwithoneof theoffendingstudents whileplacingawall betweellthem.Oncethefirststudentresumeswork,theteachercan beginto moveout,firstthankingthatstudentfor thecompliance.thenturningto holdeye cQntactwiththesecondstudentuntilthesecondstudentresumeswork.whenthatstudent canbethankedandthe processof classinstructionresumed

"

'sponsibility

aining

~ use of an incentive

tem to elicit new laviours or maintain

;tingones

-

'---'''

Responsibilitytraining

Source:

Adapte<f from

Wolfgang

(~995.

pp. 203-215).

In Jones's view, teachers need a system that is simple to implement and that ensures stU- dents will do anything the teacher requires at any time, with almost no effort on the part of the teacher. Responsibility training involves providing incentives through a groUP

reward, through 'preferred activitytime' ('PAT), or through periods of free or play time,

Students can \\'in time by working quickly and well, but can also lose time by dawdling, talking or playing up. According to Jones (1987), with this system in place, the teacher is

IY

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

in control and students

learn

to conform

and to complete

required

tasks. These

strategies

are discussed

in Chapter

4 in the section

on Skinner

and operant

cond,itioning.

Back-upsystem

I

.

Aback-up system is a set of hierarchically ordered penalties for misbehavioJr, ranging from a simple warning given privately to an individual student or group of students, to a confer- ence \vith the student, time out, detention, a conference with a parent and, as a last resort,

suspension or expulsion. To implement

bo~hprofessionally

such a system, support

policies,

is required

at the school level, and resources.

and in the form of appropriate

procedures

Classroomstructure

backup

system

A set of hierarchically

ordered penalties for

misbehaviour

classroom

structure

The rules, daily routines and physicalorganisation and environment of a classroom

Classroom structure encompasses the rules that are established in classrooms, daily rou- tines and the way classroom furniture is organised, since all affect what happens in a classroom. Students achieve a sense of predictability and security when they know how their classroom is organised and managed. Jones (1987) argued

that students should be taught the rules, routines and, FIGURE12.4 Theteacher'swalkingpathas an interiorloop.

standards

of behaviour

that

are critical

aspects

of suc-

(Source:Wolfgang,1995,F:qure8"4.)

. cessfulclassroomoperation.This instructionshouldbegin

at the start of a school year and be retaught periodically

during the year. Classroomfumiture should be arranged to maximise the teacher's mobility, physical access and prox- imity to students. Jones's (1987) ideas about classroom management included a plan for arranging desks so as to allow the teacher space to move around the classroom. A teacher's walking path enables the teacher to supervise students

through

An

example of a classroom arranged to provide a walking

proximity

(1-3

metres)

and

eye

contact.

path for the teacher

Box

12.4

is set out in Figure

some

12.4.

classroom-environment

discusses

 

I {~\Chalkboard'">1

"

(Front of room) "

&

<t0>1L-J L£JCJ u~ \) V

: Q

r:Tl r:1

0':

/\

<3Y~1D Cill[J D100

~&1@J~CJD1

/!)y:!

1""

''c''

'.

/\V

~ V 0

4!J!;Qr;vnn:0

,LJI:2:

ILJLJ.

&

'--

-,'

/\

0 (jjy

\) V

issues ~~a,chers need to consider.

--

"'''---

Teacher's walking path

'a:s911:~nteriorloop

CLA,SSROOf'v1

LIN,KS

Time

and

space

management

in classroom

.

should not interfere with effective communication.

and routines sh~uld be" posted

. Classroom rules

It is generally accepted that schools should provide

both a quality education and a caring, safe and should be displayed to add cqlour and interest to

orderly environment

be achieved if schools and classrooms have effective can contribute to lower levels of motivation and

behaviour-management plans and well-designed disruptive .behaviour (Weinstein & Mignano, 1993).

physical environments in classroom and playground Storage areas for classroom resources and student (Clark, Glew, Kelly, Lander, Lawlor, & SCO!!, n.d.). possessions should be well organised and easily

around the room for easy reference. Student work

the space, since dull and uninteresting classrooms

for all students. These aims can

Many aspects

of the classroom physical

erwiron:-ascessible

to students and the teacher (Gordon,

ment are .Iikely to

achievement. For example, sufficient seating and J :<Wragg(1993)identifiedtime and space as impor-

appropriate placement of students m'ust be consid- tant considerations in classroom management. ered, with students who are least likely to annoy or Issues here include decisions about using particular distract each other seated together and distractible teaching and work patterns (such as cooperative students seated away from possible distracters. learning or peer tutoring) for the whole class, for Lighting should be appropriate and noise levels small groups or for individuals, with all having iden-

have'.an

impact'q'n,istudent'oArthur,

&Butterfield,

'i

I .

j i

384

,

,

MODULE

IV

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN THE INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

tifiable advantages and disadvantages. Similarly,the

class-

way furniture and resources are arranged in a

room can have an impact on teacher decisions to ;;

introduce small-group or whole-class activities.

1

On a square

tangular

piece of paper,

draw the

or L-shaped). Assume that:

plan of a classroom you are familiar with (such as rec-

there

there

are 52 square metres of available space may be 24-30 students present at any time

.

.

.

. sixstudents sitting around a circular table will need 4-5 square metres of floor space

one student at a single desk will need about 1-1.25 square metres of floor space

.

.

.

.

three

of floor

students

sitting at a rectangular

or square

table will need

about 2-2.25

space

2 square metres

at

each square on your plan represents 1 square metre

least

of teacher's 'storage space wiJlbe required

[optional] your school has a n open planar

share resources

has pa

ir;d classrooms with moveable class or classes.

,

and activity areas with another

,

square

metres'

walls, and you

2 On your classroom

plan, show:

'I

a

b

c

where the students

will sit and work

where the facilitiesyou would like to have (such as a sink and power outlets) are located

any other resources or facilities you would like located in a shared 10 square metres per class of resource area that is shared with other teachers.

check that it alJows for your preferred way of working. Indicate

3 When your plan is complete,

on

a freedom

b flexibility for students

c provision for you to work with the class as a whole

d proper display of work

e flexibility to vary activities from day to day or lesson to lesson with minimal disruption.

the plan that it will allow:

of movement

for the teacher

and students

to work alone or in groups

4 Finally, in looking at any management

problems

that may arise, identify:

~

~

i

'

I

I

I

}

1

~

I

~

j

I

.,

a where movement by students or the teacher might be difficult

b whether the teacher will be able to see all that is happening in the room, or whether there

ar~ plind spots,

;"

>

'.

'.,

/

C how you wovfa deal with students working independent1y iri the shared resource afea -'that

is, rules you would establish, whether permission would be required to go there, whether students would have to report back and soon

d whether the arrangements you have made would enhance or inhibit learning

e whether you have made the best possible use of the space available to you and your class.

Source:

Activities

adapted

from

Wragg

(1993,

pp,

43 and

45).

inreractive

teacher

Sees children's development

as an interacti9n' between internal and external factors

The interactive

teacher

The interactive teacher sees children's development as a pmdL1ctof interaction between internal and external factars. Alfred Adler (1930), Rudalf Dreikurs (1968) and Maurice

Balson. (1992) exemplify theorists who. ernphasised the

students

schaal in preparing

role af the

to. live in a demacratic

society thraugh the sharing af pO\\'er between

teachers,

and students,

Adler "vas a Viennese psychiatrist who. argued that human beipgs are essentially sacial creatures whase basic psychalagical characteri~ticsenable them to live in demacratiC way. Dreikurs was an assaciate af Adler's who emigrated to the USA in the late 193Qs(see Bax 12.5 appasite).

\.:

,,,.G*~~,;,c:'

CHAPTER

',

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

ABOUT

RUDOLFD,RCiKURS

RudolfDreikurs (1897-1972) spent

his early years in

Vienna,Austria. He graduated

in Medicine fram the

.-University of Vienna and worked

for

a

time

with

AlfredAdler. Dreikurs emigrated

to the USA in 1937, obtaining

aposition as Director of the Alfred Adler Institute in Chicago(Edwards, 1997). His primary interest was in childand family counselling and this work led to an interest in classroom management. Influenced by

11 Adler's ideas

about

children's

behaviour,

Dreikurs '-,"1

' I

~

.I

argued that

behaviour

is always

purposeful

and:':

directed towards social goals such as gaining status,

attracting

attention

and

achieving

a

sense

of

belonging through

These ideas are set out in Dreikurs's key publications

psychology in the classroom: A manual for teachers (Dreikurs,1968),A new approach to discipline (Dreikurs &Grey, 1968) and Discipline without tears (Dreikurs & Cassel,1990).In Australia and New Zealand, Dreikurs's ideas are evident in Maurice Balson's work (1992).

membership

of a social

group.

FIGURE 12.6 Dreikurs believed tI1at in order to

live in a democracy, children need~o learn ~hat freedom implies order and responsibility.

Oreikurs and Balson shared the neo-Adlerian idea that humans are social beings whose maindesire is to belong. From these basic premises, they have argued that children have a basicneed to be accepted and to belong, and in order to achieve this, human behaviour is

orderly,purposeful and directed towards achieving social recogmtion. Misbehaviour in students is perceived to be caused by mistaken goals and misperceptions that lead to dis- tortions in their relationships with others. Faced \\ith such behaviour, teachers need to look notat the actual behaviour but at students' underl)ing motives (see Box 12.6). Teachers can alsouse techniques such as a sociogram (see. Figure 11.4 on page 356) to study the social

makeup of a class, identifying students

those who are ignored or socially rejected.

who are socially successful

and,

more importantly,

C

I

'-I

AC: r'

: ~::::,

R C'"""\

\

-J

0

1\ J1

I V I LINKS

Understanding

student

misbehaviour

According to neo-Adlerian

research,

children's

r:nis-

.

out at others, destrctyill9 prop~rty, hitting other children and/or insulting the teacher

display

feelings

of

inadequacy

and

failure

-

j

;

I

behaviour is generally

motivated

by four

possl~le

becoming discouraged,

avoiding participation

in

hierarchically organised

goals.

Children,

may miS-'

group activities, giving up to feelings of helpless-

behave in order to:

'.

ness (Edwards,

1997) and appearing

to others as

.

gain attention - using any means, both active and

inadequate.

in a stu- carefullyin

. overcome feelings of inferiority ~ rea.I}?L i!T)ag~,,<;~18rderto id~ntify the underlying goal motivating the ined, by exercising power and contralto become'!'fbehaviour. ConClusions can be verified by further model students through exaggerated conscien~' observation and by questioning the student. Teachers tiousness or by competing hard to gain praise or should also examine their own reactions to the stu-

passive,

constructive

and

destructive

(D[eikurs" .

',-

,

'.

''''':'v''

'A teacher's

should

,response to such behaviour

be to observe

the student

Grunwald, & Pepper, 1982)

,':;\'dent

recognition

. exact revenge - attempting

to overcome

feelings

of unequal status and lack of attention

by lashing

dent's

to correction,

underlying

behaviour

responses

as these will help explain the student's motives (see Table 12.3 following).

as well as the student's

386,

MODULE

IV

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN

THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

Student's goals

Seekingattention

FeelslT1,inorannoyance

,~-' ',-C'-," "',""'",""",,,"

Seekingpower

Feelspersonallychallenged

<'~",''',~~,~"","""",~,,=

"",'"

",--

Seekingrevenge

Feelsdeeplyhurtk

".""""""""h",:,~~<.,h,"'"''''

",,,',"

'",w"

Displayinginadequacy

",A',""""~"'''''''''''''=''C~'''''''''''''''',

Feelslikegiving'up

",,.'c'--

,',

,',"'

,

",_,~,hW_--'-",~

"'''',

Behaviourinfensifies

,0>,.-.,,,. ,"

-

,."-"",'

",,,.,.,,,'

, Disinterestremains

,

"

"".):"

',",',',':}!"

Source:

','''""""-,,,

,,;J~L':-"~~~~"'\'

,

,

',,-''cO''

;('(.')'7,<°"

-,.,

"":'::;:,;"::'~;":,.3'

Adapted

from

Balson

(1992

 

'

'"

'",.,'

,

,:.

'-',,-~

~""

",:-':r'

,

P

,.)

--

"

31

)

~'

~

,

~

,.

,

w<

\

Ci

te

1 Are,theseideas

on student

:misbehavioLl'':consist~nt with your own beliefs about the causes of

'"

'-

'

"

with a t,acher

or other adult:

'

inapproprjate or disturbing behaviour? "

interactfdg

2 Observe 'a g'rotJp ofchHdren

~~-~!~"~",~:.::::.~

[1'2':5

More

about

"

natural

~~~,I~giCal

consequence$

a How does the adult respond 1:0inappropriate behaviour?

b How do the children react to the, adult's actions?

1 :"

tr

cWhat

else could the adult do when a child behaves

inappropriately?

; '

[<

d What would you do?

:

(I

 

',1

i

iI

 

e

Teachers' 'responses to the different motives that underlie student behmiour should include the use of both encouragement and natural or logical consequences that follow the behaviour, Procedures thai can be used to encourage students include recognising and i building on their strengths while minimising any weaknesses, and emphasising engage','!

I

a

natural

consequences

Outcomes

without

that occur

interference

logical

consequences

Outcomes

influence behaviour

contrived to

ment

comments

pare for your exam', rather than praise such as 'Your artwork is excellent' and 'You have the

highest

that

behaviour.

of their actions

of a natural

Balson (1992) gives the following examples

in an activity rather

than the result

that is achieved

(Balson,

1992). Examples include',!

such as 'You seem to really enjoy your art' and '1 can tell you worked hard to pre-;

1997, p. 110), Natural

consequences

are outcomes

,logical

consequences

are cODJriv~d,tolnfluence

to experience

the consequences

mark in the exam' (Edwards,

(see Figure

consequence:

oC<;;!l{c)Y!f,f;\putjl1terveJltion~whjle

In:each

case,

the focus IS on allowing students

12,6), For example,

.

students who do not put their equipment away in the correct place and cannot find it the next time they need it

.

students who do not study for a test and then

get poor marks on the

test.

:No~

WE ~"-

7"

-:Y

PJ-AI«Nt:;P I r-NP~Nt;-

FIGURE 12.6

In some situations, natural

consequences may not be

the best option. (Source:

Martin

in Ward, Bochner,

Center

et

aI., 1987, p. 159.)

 

C

:

-"--C'

,,,,",';:'''''-,_L:"""""&idi,!14.,T."'~,c,,;".

'

-,----

CHAPTER

12

MANAGING

BEHAVIOUR

AND

CLASSROOMS

!Examples of a logical consequence

include:

,

- students who activity

,.-, stUdents who draw on a ,>\'alland then have to clean their marks off the wall.

forget to bring required

materials

to a class

and as a result

miss out

on an

"1rhe non-interventionist

Non-interventionist

teachers

teacher

allow the

process

of development

to occur

naturally.

The

Iworkof William Glasser (1992) and William ('Bill') Rogers (1998) represents a model of !classroommanagement and discipline in which power is shared more equally between teacherand students than in the interventionist and interactive approaches just discussed, withgreater weight on students' roles and responsibilities. A more extreme example of a

non.interventionist model can be found in the form of Summerhill, A S. Neill's school (see

IBox6.6, on page

180).

I I

William Glasser, a psychiatrist known for 'reality therapy' (Glasser, 1965) and 'control

1992),

became

young

interested

delinquent

1996)

in behaviour

girls

Box 12.7).

ma~agement

in classrooms

as

a

with

in a residential

His

institution

in California

described,

prin-

& Butterfield,

failure

(see

educational

ideas

(Glasser,

1969)

are a blend

of humanist

and behavioural

I theory'(1969,

!

i 1 in Schools

result of his work

(Gordon, Arthur,

without

:II

e

ciples. The focus is on teachers helping students to become more responsible for thei.r own behaviour, leading to students' increased social acceptance and enh~nced status among peers.

.

:J

non-

interventionist

teacher

Allows d-ldren's developm~!1t to occur

naturally

A,BOUT

VVILLIAM

GL.ASSER

William Glasser (1925-) was born in Cleveland,

Ohio. He gained

1948, an MD in Psychiatry in 1953 and subsequently

an MA in Clinical Psychology

in

worked

turing widely o.n his ideas. His most influential, publications include Reality therapy (Glasser, 1965),

as a psychiatrist

in private

practice,

lec-

in

which he rejected

Freudian

psychoanalysis

fora

more behaviourist

approach

to

correcting

behav-

.

ioural problems;

and

Control

theory

in ,the

.'

classroom (Glasser, 1986), an extension

of his ideas

on reality therapy but more concerned

withpre~

;

FIGURE 12.7

Glasser's ideas

have significantly

influenced ideas

about

management

classroom

and

~isdpltn~in.

',Australia

Zealand.

.

and New

-

venting rather than correcting

A later

reflects the influence of industrial-management

expert W. Edwards Denning's

Glasser's thinking

Denning's ideas, which involved introducing demo- tasks over which they have no control. cratic practices to Japanese factories, are Glasser's ideas have been highly influentia1 considered to have contributed significantly to the among educators in,Au.stralia and New Zealand. In

success of Japanese industry after World 'l!arl}. ,1989, the WiliiafT)Glas,,~r Institute was established Glasser (1992) suggested thatthere were manysirr:;:,"in,Australia, an ~~teqsionof a similar Institute in ilarities between traditional factory m~magen,~~I}{~~f.~alifo;'nia':'Theinfl~e'~~e"'pf Glasser's approach to

discipline problem,s:

(Glasser,

1992),

(1982)

ideas

on

schools.

book,

The

quality

about

school

managing

control and students

given apparently

meaningless

"

.,.".

""'P""'",,"',

".

"

""'.:

practices and the way schools and dassrooms were~"~i'-;schb61discipline can be found in management and managed, arguing that a democratic model that' ,discipline policies in Australian and New Zealand

values students and provides a supportive work

environment is more effective, in terms of out- 2003) and in the teaching and publications of Bill comes, than a hierarchical system with teachers in Rogers (1989, 1998).

schools (for example, see Balmain High School,

388

MODULE

IV

EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY

IN THE

INCLUSIVE

CLASSROOM

Bill Rogers (1998)

sees discipline

direct,

manage,

or confront

a student

as a teacher-directed

activity that seeks to 'lead, guid

about behaviour

that disrupts

the rights of others

be,

~

they teachers

or students'

and the teacher's

(Bogers,

1998, p. 11). Here, the

to guide students

responsibility

focus is on causes

of beha~oue

self-col1trot

difficulties

towards enhanced

self-esteem

and personal

accountability

for their oWn behaviour.

 

'

Glasser

and Rogers

have both

argued

that

students

misbehave

because

schools

fail to

fulfil their

basic needs.

These

needs,

clearly reflecting

elements

of Maslow's

hierarchy of

needs

(see Chapter

6), include:

.

belonging~

security, .comfort

and group membership

 

.

power-

importance,

status

and being taken into account

by others

.

freedom-