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AROMATIC WATERS

Also known as medicated waters A saturated aqueous solution of volatile oil or other aromatic or volatile substances Components o Volatile/aromatic substances active o Water vehicle/solvent o Talc clarifying/distributing agent Characteristics o Their odors and tastes are the same as those of the drugs or volatile substances from which they are prepared o They should be free from empyreumatic [smoke-like] and other foreign odors Uses o Flavored vehicle o Perfumed vehicle Methods of Preparation o By Distillation The slowest, most expensive, most ancient but the most satisfactory method Cohobation is a redistillation process Example: Strong Rose Water o By Solution By Direct Solution 2:1000 A method which saves time and dose not need a special equipment Example: Camphor water By Alternate Method Solution by intervention 15:1000 Most frequently employed, easiest and fastest method of preparing aromatic waters Example: Cinnamon water o Other Methods Use of soluble concentrates Incorporation of solubilizing agents Use of alcoholic solutions of volatile oils Incompatibilities o Salting out Preservation o Aromatic waters deteriorate with time as seen by the production of turbid solutions o They should be stored in airtight, light-resistant container and should be protected from light and excessive heat Preparation No. 14 Cinnamon Water o Synonym/s: Cassia water, Saigon cinnamon water o Latin name/s: Aqua cinnamoni o Use/s: Vehicle, antiseptic and carminative o Formulation: Cinnamon oil active 90% Ethanol solvent, preservative Purified talc clarifying/distributing agent Purified water - solvent

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Method of Preparation: Alternate method

Preparation No. 15 Camphor Water o Synonym/s: Gum laurel water, Laurel camphor water o Latin name/s: Aqua camphorae o Use/s: Vehicle for eye preparations o Formulation: Camphor active Purified water solvent o Method of Preparation: Direct solution

AQUEOUS ACIDS
Are solutions of acids and water Classification of Inorganic Acids o Hydracids Do not contain oxygen Examples: HI, HBr, HCl, HF o Oxyacids Contain oxygen Examples: HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4 Concentration of Acids o Expressed as percentage strength by weight o Examples: Hydrochloric acid 35 to 38% Nitric acid - 67 to 71% Sulfuric acid 94 to 98% Diluted Acids o Are aqueous solutions of acids of suitable strength for internal administration and for the manufacture of other preparations o Formula Used in Preparing Diluted Acids Strength of diluted acid (10%) x 1000 mL Strength of concentrated acid x SG Preparation No. 16 Diluted Acetic Acid o Synonym/s: Vinegar o Latin name/s: Acidum aceticum dilutum o Use/s: 36-37% as pharmaceutical solvent 1% as surgical dressing, spermatocidal and vaginal douche 5% for burn therapy 0.25% for irrigation o Formulation: Acetic acid active Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Simple solution

SOLUTIONS
Are liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances soluble in water Components o Solute

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o Solvent Types o Saturated solution o Unsaturated solution o Supersaturated solution Methods of Preparation o Simple solution Are prepared by dissolving the solute in most of the solvent, mixing until dissolved, then adding sufficient volume to bring the solution up to proper volume Example: Calcium hydroxide solution o Solution by chemical reaction Are prepared by reacting two or more solutes with each other in a suitable solvent Example: Aluminum subacetate solution o Solution by extraction Are prepared by extracting the drug with water or with water-containing other substances Example: Liver solution of NFXI Preparation No. 17 Calcium Hydroxide Solution o Synonym/s: Lime water, Hydrated lime o Latin name/s: Aqua calcariae, Liquor calcis, Liquor calci hydroxide o Use/s: Vehicle for calamine lotion and astringent o Formulation: Calcium hydroxide active Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Simple solution *Calcium hydroxide solution should be compounded under room temperature because solubility decreases as the temperature is increased. The undissolved portion of the mixture is not suitable for preparing additional quantities of the solution because lime water when exposed to air is quickly converted into insoluble carbonate. The reason for keeping lime water over undissolved calcium hydroxide is just to ensure a saturated solution. Ca (OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O Preparation No. 18 Strong Iodine Solution o Synonym/s: Lugols solution, Compound iodine solution, Aqueous solution of iodine o Latin name/s: Liquor iodi fortis, Solutio iodi aquosa o Use/s: Germicide, fungicide and indicated for thyritoxicosis o Formulation: Iodine active Potassium iodide solubilizing agent Purified water solvent o Method of Preparation: Simple solution *Easily stains surface and clothes Preparation No. 19 70% Alcohol o Synonym/s: 70% Ethanol, Rubbing alcohol o Latin name/s: Spiritus vini rectificatus o Use/s: Rubefacient externally, soothing rub for bedridden patients, germicide for instruments, skin cleanser prior to injection and antiseptic o Formulation:

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95% Ethanol active Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Simple solution *Alcohol is also known as spirit of wine and methylcarbinol The different concentrations of alcohol are: Concentrated alcohol 94.9 to 96% Dehydrated alcohol99.5 % Diluted alcohol 49 % Rubbing alcohol 70 % Alcohol concentrations are computed by alligation alternate method. Preparation No. 25 Magnesium Citrate Solution o Synonym/s: Citrate of magnesia, Magnesia citrate o Latin name/s: Liquor magnesii citratis o Use/s: Saline cathartic o Formulation: Magnesium carbonate active Citric acid acidifying agent Potassium bicarbonate alkalinizing agent Syrup sweetening agent Talc clarifying agent Lemon oil flavorant Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Solution by chemical reaction *Magnesium citrate solution is a colorless to slightly yellow, clear, effervescent liquid having a sweet, aciduous taste and a lemon flavor. *It is required to contain an amount of magnesium citrate that is equivalent to 1.55-1.9g of MgO in each 100mL solution and it provides an excellent medium for the growth of molds, to remain stable it should be heated to boiling prior to carbonation.

MOUTHWASHES
Are aqueous, pleasantly-flavored solutions employed for their deodorant, refreshing or antiseptic effect. Types o Therapeutic Rinses Are mouthwashes formulated to reduce plaque, gingivitis, dental caries and stomatitis o Cosmetic Mouthwashes Are mouthwashes formulated to reduce bad breath Components A. Alcohols Are used at a concentration of 10-20% Functions Enhances the flavor Provides a certain sharpness to the taste Aids in making the unpleasant taste of active ingredients Solubilizing agent for flavorants Preservative *Humectants such as glycerin and sorbitol are used in mouthwashes. Usually at a concentration of 5-20% and they are mainly to a) Increase the viscosity of the product,

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b) Provide a certain body or mouth-feel to the product, c) Enhance the sweetness of the product and d) Preservative. B. Surfactants Used at a concentration of 0.1 to 0.5% Functions Solubilizing agent for flavors Provides a foaming action Examples Polyoxyethyulene / Polyoxypropylene polymers Sodium lauryl sulfate Cetylpyridium chloride C. Flavors Used to overcome disagreeable taste Examples Peppermint Spearmint Cinnamon Wintergreen oils Menthol D. Colorants Used to enhance or to make the product pleasing to the sight Preparation No. 21 Alkaline Mouthwash o Synonym/s: Alkaline antiseptic solution, alkaline aromatic solution o Latin name/s: Liquor aromaticus alkalinus, Liquor antisepticus alkalinus o Use/s: Antibacterial mouthwash o Formulation: Potassium bicarbonate active Sodium borate active Thymol flavor Eucalyptol - flavor Methyl salicylate - flavor Alcohol preservative and solvent Glycerin humectant Purified water vehicle o Method of Preparation: Incorporation with agitation

GARGLES
Are aqueous solutions used for treating the pharynx and nasopharynx by forcing air from the lung through the gargle which is held in throat, subsequently, the gargle is expectorated. DOs in the administration o Gargles are diluted with 10 volumes of warm water prior to use. o It should be labeled properly so that is cannot be mistaken for preparations intended for internal administration. Preparation No. 22 Phenol Gargle o Synonym/s: Carbolic acid gargle o Latin name/s: Gargarism phenole o Use/s: Gargle o Formulation:

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Phenol glycerin active FDC Red #3 colorant Purified water solvent Method of Preparation: Simple solution

ENEMAS
Also known as clysters Are oily or aqueous solutions that are administered rectally Are rectal injections used to evacuate the bowel, influence the general system by absorption or to affect locally the seat of the disease Types o Evacuation Enema o Retention Enema Nutritive enema Medicated enema Diagnostic enema DOs in their Administration o Usually given in large volumes by injecting through the rectum slowly o Should be warmed to body temperature prior to administration o The patient should lie on one side during administration and remains in that position for 30 minutes Preparation No. 20 Barium Sulfate Enema o Synonym/s: Barium salt enema, Artificial barites enema o Latin name/s: Barii sulfas, Sulfato de bario o Use/s: X-ray contrast media o Formulation: Barium sulfate active Acacia mucilage suspending agent Starch enema vehicle o Method of Preparation: Incorporation *Barium sulfate is used in roentgenography for the purpose of making the intestinal tract opaque to the x-ray so that it may be photographed. It is warmed to body temperature prior administration and injected into the rectum from a height of 3 to 6 feet. Examination is made with a fluoroscope while the injection is passing into the rectum.

MUCILAGES
Are thick, viscid, adhesive liquids produced by dispersing gum in water or by extracting the mucilaginous principle from vegetable substances with water Characteristics o Prone to decomposition (decrease in viscosity upon storage), they should never be made in larger quantities that cannot be used immediately unless a preservative is added o Uniformly smooth mucilages are sometimes difficult to prepare due to uneven wetting of gums, it is best to use fine gum particles and disperse them in a little 95% alcohol or in cold water Use o To aid in suspending insoluble substances in liquid o Example Sulfur in lotions

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Resin in mixtures Oils in emulsions Mucilage Substitutes o Polyvinyl alcohol o Methylcellulose o Carboxymethylcellulose Preparation No. 26 Acacia Mucilage o Synonym/s: Mucilage of gum arabic o Latin name/s: Mucilago acacia, Mucilago de goma de acacia o Use/s: Demulcent, Suspending agent, Excipient in pills and troches, Emulsifying agent o Formulation: Acacia active Benzoic acid preservative Purified water vehicle o Method of Preparation: Trituration

SYRUPS
Are concentrated solutions of sugar in water Types o Medicated syrups o Flavored syrups Concentration o Dilute solutions of sucrose provides an excellent nutrient for molds, yeasts and other microorganisms o Concentrations of 65% by weight or more will retar the growth of microorganisms Methods of Preparation o Solution by Heat Employed when the valuable constituent is neither volatile nor injured by heat and when syrups are prepared rapidly Heat should be regulated because it will lead to caramelization or the formation of invert sugar o Agitation Without Heat Used in cases where heat would cause the loss of valuable volatile consituents o Addition of Medicating Liquid to Syrups Employed in cases where fluidextracts, tinctures or other liquids are added to syrup to medicate it o Percolation It permits purified water or aqueous solution to pass slowly through a bed of crystalline sucrose to dissolve it o Reconstitution Employed to improve stability and minimize microbial contamination They are prepared as dry syrup formulations and it is just diluted with water prior to dispensing Preservation and Storage o Syrups should be prepared in small quantities that can be used within a few months o Ways of Preserving Syrups Preparation and storage at low temperatures not above 25C Concentration without supersaturation Addition of preservatives

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Preparation No. 23 Simple Syrup o Synonym/s: Syrup o Latin name/s: Simple syrup o Use/s: Flavored vehicle, sweetening agent o Formulation: Sucrose active Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Solution by heat Preparation No. 24 Citric Acid Syrup o Synonym/s: Syrup of lemon, Syrup of citrus o Latin name/s: Syrupus acidi citrici o Use/s: Flavored vehicle o Formulation: Lemon tincture flavorant Citric acid active Purified water solvent Syrup sweet vehicle o Method of Preparation: Agitation without heat

ELIXIRS
Hydroalcoholic or alcoholic solutions Are clear, pleasantly-flavored, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquids intended for oral use More fluid than syrups because of the less viscous ingredients and minimal use of viscosity builders Primary Solvents o Alcohol o Water Other Solvents for Elixirs [important in aiding solubility of some drugs/constituents] o Glycerin o Sorbitol or syrups o Propylene glycol Methods of Preparation o Simple solution o Admixture of several ingredients Types of Elixirs o Flavored Elixirs Used for flavors and vehicles in prescriptions Example: Aromatic elixir o Medicated Elixirs Used for the therapeutic effect of the active constituent Example: Amobarbital elixir Preparation No. 27 Aromatic Elixir o Synonym/s: Simple elixir o Latin name/s: Elixir aromaticum o Use/s: Flavored vehicle o Formulation: Orange oil flavorant

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Lemon oil flavorant Coriander oil flavorant Anise oil flavorant Syrup sweetening agent Alcohol solvent for oil, preservative and vehicle Purified water - vehicle o Method of Preparation: Solution by agitation *A pleasantly-flavored vehicle used in the preparation of many elixirs. The chief objection to its extensive use is the high alcoholic content [about 22%] which at times counteracts the effects of other medicines.

LINIMENTS
Oleaginous solutions Also known as embrocations [applied with rubbing to the affected area] Are solutions or mixtures of various substances in oil, alcoholic solution of soap or emulsion intended for external applications Are usually applied to the skin with friction and rubbing, with the oil and soap base providing for ease of application and massage Types o Alcoholic liniments Are intended for their rubefacient, counterirritant, mildly astringent and penetrating effects o Oily liniments Are milder in their action but are more useful when massage is desired o Dental liniments Are solutions of active constituents which are rubbed into the gums; but are no longer official Caution o Liniments should not be applied in bruises and broken skin Preparation No. 28 White Liniment o Synonym/s: White embrocation o Latin name/s: Linimentum album o Use/s: Rubefacient o Formulation: Turpentine oil active Oleic acid solvent Dilute ammonia solution alkalinizing agent Ammonium chloride systemic acidifier Purified water - solvent o Method of Preparation: Simple solution with trituration

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