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Magnetic Refrigeration
Presented By:

Manu E Nampoothiri ME7

Introduction
Magnetic refrigeration is the response of a material to a changing magnetic field. It does not require any compressor or liquid refrigerants. Low temperature refrigeration (Less than 1 Kelvin). Low operating and maintenance cost. Solid refrigerant is used. COP can be up to 15. Works on Magneto-Caloric Effect (MCE).

Concept
Magneto-Caloric Effect (MCE)
When a magnetic field is applied, the unpaired spins get aligned parallel to the magnetic field. This lowers the entropy. To compensate for entropy reduction, the atoms starts vibrating. This increases the temperature.

Magneto-Caloric Effect (MCE)


As the field is removed, the pairs will return to high entropy state. For having high entropy they absorb heat from surroundings. Thus cooling effect is obtained.

Magneto-Caloric Effect

Materials Used
Magneto Caloric materials are used. Usually the materials in the Lanthanide series of periodic table are used. Material is used as alloy with other elements such as Silicon.(Si), Germanium.(Ge), Iron.(Fe) etc . Commonly used materials for preparation of the Refrigerants are Lanthanide.(La) and Gadolinium.(Gd).

Compounds :

Gd5(SixGe1 x)4,

La(FexSi1 x)13Hx

PERIODIC TABLE

Increase in Magneto-caloric Effect of Gadolinium as Magnetic Field increases by 1 Tesla

Thermodynamics
1. Adiabatic Magnetization (+H) 2. Isomagnetic Enthalpy Transfer (-Q)

3. Adiabatic Demagnetization (H=0) 4. Isomagnetic Entropy Transfer (+Q)

Thermodynamics

As it utilizes the Adiabatic


Demagnetization for the refrigeration effect, It is commonly known as Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator.

Working

Rotary Magnetic Refrigerator (Concept)

Other concept of Rotary Magnetic Refrigerator

Prototype of a Magnetic Refrigerator

Applications
1. Cryogenic coolers use magnetic refrigeration technique. 2. Superconductive materials are cooled to their superconducting temperature by using magnetic refrigerators. 3. It may substitute for the home use refrigerator.

Advantages
Less operating and maintenance cost High value of COP about 3-6. High efficiency at large magnetic fields (50%-60% at 0-5 Tesla). No use of inefficient compressors. No Ozone Layer Depleting refrigerants. Solid refrigerant is used.

Disadvantages
Use of high magnetic fields makes it unsuitable for home use. Refrigerant is less durable. Cost of Refrigerant is high (eg: Gd).

Conclusion

It is an environmental friendly
refrigeration technique, and requires less power and money for its operation. It can be used in many fields including cryogenics, superconductivity and much more. In a near future magnetic refrigerators may come to cool our home.

Thank You