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Functions Transmit all the building loads to the ground To limit settlement and prevent subsidence Provide a level bed to build on To anchor the building to the ground

Factors affecting foundation design Soil type Building size and loading Climate rise and fall of water table, Frost Heave Vegetation- Tree roots

Bulb of Pressure Pressure exerted from the foundation decreases with depth

Types of foundations Strip Foundation Raft Foundation Piled Foundation

Strip Foundation Most common for houses Good soil Cheap and easy to construct Sizing -3T x T with T being the width of wall being supported

Weight is supported on the suitable subsoil Trench is set out and dug to correct level Pegs are placed in trench at the finished level of foundation Reinforcement steel is placed 50mm from bottom of trench Concrete is poured to the level of the pegs and levelled

Raft Foundation Poor soils low bearing capacity ie peat More expensive than strip foundation due to more labour, steel and concrete Floating foundation If settlement occurs the whole house moves It is a concrete slab, edge is thicker to support external walls Site is cleared to a suitable load bearing Fill and compact hardcore in 225mm layers Layer sand blinding Position reinforcement, shuttering Pour concrete, vibrate and leave to cure

Piled Foundation A pile is a concrete column that extends downward deep into the soil Alluvial soils (river flood plains, silt soils) and sites that have been filled Large buildings, rarely used in housing Very expensive When piles are in ground beam is cast. Tied to pile with reinforcement.

Piles work in two different ways End Bearing Pile Base of pile sits on rock or a soil with a high bearing capacity Friction Pile Rock or soil with a high end bearing cannot be reached Friction between soil and pile support and transmit load

Two methods of placing pile Displacement Driven into ground with pile driver Precast pile No soil removed Replacement Ground is drilled, soil removed Concrete poured into hole Reinforcement dropped in