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# Classical Mechanics (PHY401)

Problem Set 1
Part 1: Mathematical Preliminaries Matrices: 1. For two matrices A and B, show that ! + ! ! ! = !! !! if and only if A and B commute. 2. A is a diagonal matrix, B is some other matrix. If A and B commutes, B is also diagonal. 3. Show that the trace of a matrix remains invariant under orthogonal similarity transformations. 4. Show that the property of antisymmetry is invariant under orthogonal similarity transformations. 5. ! = ! !"! Show if H is hermitian, then U is unitary. 6. For ! = ! ! , a) Show !!! = ! !! . b) Show ! !"! = !"!!! . c) If A is orthogonal find the condition on B. 7. Find conditions under which products of two hermitian matrices is also hermitian. Rotations: 8. Consider passive rotations in 2 dimensions. Show that they form a group. 9. Consider passive rotations about x and y axes, Rx(1) and Ry(2) respectively. Show that they do not commute. Take the limit 1, 2 0, and recheck the commutativity. 10. Show that !. ! is a scalar under coordinate rotations. 11. If !! = !, show that after a passive clockwise rotation about the z axis by an angle , !! = !! !"# ! + !! !"# !. 12. For a non-Euclidean space the norm of a vector is defined as !! = !! ! + !! ! . Show that the rotation of the form:
!!

Semester I, 2012

!"# ! !"# ! !"# ! !"# ! would preserve the norm for such a spatial geometry. Give example of such a transformation. ! ! = Levi Civita: 13. Consider a magnetic dipole with magnetic moment ! in a magnetic field !, in absence of currents, then the force is given as ! = ! ! . Use Levi Civita to show ! = ! ! = ! ! . Assume ! constant. 14. Using Levi Civita show ! !! !! = 0. 15. Using Levi Civita show ! !! = ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! + !(! !) 16. Calculate ![! ! !], where ! is the position vector and ! ! is a function of the radial coordinate only. 17. Is ! !! the same as (!!)! ? 18. Find !! !! . 19. Use antisymmetry of !!"# to show ! !! = 0. 20. Show !!"# !!!" = 6. Pauli Matrices: 21. The Pauli spin matrices are: 0 1 0 ! 1 0 !! = , !! = , !! = . 1 0 ! 0 0 1 Show: a) (!! )! = !! b) !! !! = !!!"# !! c) !! !! + !! !! = 2!!" !! 22. Using the commutators and anticommutators of Pauli spin matrices show: ! ! ! ! = ! ! !! + !! (!!) 23. Verify that for a rotation about x axis, the corresponding Q Matrix is given by: ! ! ! = cos !! + !!! sin 2 2 24. Use above relations to argue why infinitesimal rotations always commute.

Part 2: Lagrangian Dynamics and Application to Central Force Field: Lagrangian Dynamics: 25. Show that Lagranges equations are invariant under a point transformation of generalized coordinates defined as q i = q i (s 1 , s 2 ,.., s n ,t ) Hint: Show

d dt

## L L d L L = 0 given that = 0 for all i. s s dt qi qi & i i &

df (q, t ) also satisfies the Lagranges equation satisfied by L. dt
T T 2 = Qj q j q j

## 27. Prove Nelson Form of Lagranges equation

28. a) A particle of mass m is moving in a central potential, write down the Lagrangian and Lagranges Equation. Point out the cyclic coordinate and the conjugate momentum? Show that the differential equation for orbit is given by d 2u mf (u ) +u = 2 2 2 Also find out the effective potential and draw the energy diagram for the inverse square attractive force. b) A simple pendulum consisting of a mass m2 at one end and a mass m1 at the point of support that moves in a vertical plane. Find out the equation of motion using the Lagrangian. Comment on the limit m1 ! " . c) Consider a coplanar double pendulum in which mass !! hangs from a fixed point by a massless string of length !! and a mass !! hangs from !! . Find ! the frequencies of small oscillations. What happens in the limit ! !! d) A particle initially at rest starts falling from a height under the influence of gravity and air-resistance, which is given by kz ; derive the Lagaranges equation using appropriate Rayleigh dissipative function. At what rate energy is dissipated? Find the terminal velocity. e) Using Lagrangian find out the equation of a simple pendulum. Show that when amplitude (a) is not very small, the time-period of oscillation

ul

T = 2

l a2 + + O (a 4 ), g 16

29. Lagranges equation for system with non-holonomic constraint: (Refer to the relevant discussion from Goldstein, Chapter 2, given the differential form of constraint equation use Lagranges equation of first kind.) a) A cylinder rolling down an inclined plane with no slipping; find out the velocity at the bottom of the inclined plane. b) Particle moving on the surface of a sphere under the influence of gravity if starts from the top = 0 . At what angle it will fly off the sphere? 30. Show that if the potential in the Lagrangian contains velocity dependent terms, the canonical momentum conjugate to a coordinate denoting rotation ! of the entire system is no longer the angular momentum !! but is given by

rr p = L n ri r U
i
i

in the gradient operator, the derivative is with respect to the velocity components and n is the unit vector of rotation. Find out this conjugate momentum when particles with !! is moving in a magnetic field. Central Field Motion: 31. Find out the condition for the stability of circular orbits in a force field of ! ! potential ! ! = !"#( ).
! !

32. Determine the geometric trajectory !(!) for a particle of mass m moving in a central potential ! ! = . a) Solve the problem by solving the orbit equation given in terms of ! = 1 ! . (see previous problem set)
! !

b) Using the equivalent one-dimensional Hamiltonian derive the equation ! 1 ! = !! + !" ! ! ! !!"" 2! and use this to derive the orbit. (These two problems are solved in details in Goldstein and other books; you must study it from them). 33. A particle of mass m is moving in a central potential ! ! = ! !! ! ; use equation given in 2(b) to find out the trajectory. 34. Suppose there is a small correction to Newtons laws of gravitation so that the potential energy of a two-particle system is given by ! ! = Show that the shape of the orbit is described by
!"# ! !
!

+ ! ! .

a 2m = 1 + e cos 1 + 2 r l
(We have assumed that M>>m.)

1/2

( 0 )

35. a) Show that for a particle moving in an inverse square force field the Runge-Lenz vector is a constant of motion (Solved in Goldsetin) b) Consider a charged particle of mass m and charged q moving in the presence of r ! ! r r r an electromagnetic field of the form: E = Q 3 and B = M 3 show that the r r angular momentum is not conserved. Show that the angular momentum! = !(!!) is not constant but the ! ! ! qMr vector D = L ! is. (We are using Gaussian Unit with c=1.) r 36. A particle of mass m is moving in a circle of radius R in the presence of a central force whose origin lies on the circumference of a circle. Find the form of the potential. What is the total energy of the particle assuming V (r) ! 0 as r ! " . Find out the time period of motion as a function of the orbital angular momentum, R and m. Many problems those were discussed in the class or given as homework problems are not written explicitly. You must NOT forget them.