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Changing Culture?

Please take out your notebooks and answer the following:


QUESTION: Does culture EVOLVE or remain the SAME? ANSWER: Culture is ALWAYS changing! Change can occur or

Human Geography

What is Culture?
Culture:
The knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group.

What do the following have in common?

Are all FACTORS that INFLUENCE culture!

Language
Very important aspect of culture Helps to build cultural identity
Builds group identity and unity among those speaking the SAME language.

Impact of multiple languages within a group (or culture): Can lead to divisions among people
Ex: Canada (French and English)

Language
How many languages are spoken throughout the world?
Between 3,000 and 6,500

What is the term for different versions of a language spoken within a culture? DIALECT!
Examples: Southern drawl, Boston accent, and street slang

Religion
Very influential in cultures Religion Categories: 1. Monotheistic
Belief in one god Belief in many gods Belief in divine forces in nature (more traditional)

2. Polytheistic 3. Animistic

Major Religions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Judaism Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Taoism Shinto
How religions spread throughout the world: Religion spreads through diffusion and converts.

Religions
Judaism:
Oldest of the Southwest Asian religions Concentrated in Israel Established more than 3,200 years ago Oldest monotheistic religion Basic laws & teachings come from Torah (Holy book)

Christianity:
Evolved from the teachings of Judaism (2,000 yrs. ago) Monotheistic Based on teachings of Jesus Christ (Son of God to Christians) New Testament of Bible Found on every continent

Groups: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox

Religions
Islam: Based on teachings of Prophet Muhammad Monotheistic God is Allah (Arabic) Close ties to Judaism and Christianity Holy Book = Quran 2 major divisions: Sunni and Shiite Hinduism: One of the worlds oldest religions (dates back 5,000 years) Ethnic religion (India) Polytheistic One or many gods represent an aspect of the divine spirit, Brahman Includes a Caste system (shapes lives and
culture)

Hindu Caste System

Religions
Buddhism:
Offshoot of Hinduism Developed in India (563 B.C.)

Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha/Enlightened One)


Rejected Hindu caste system Focused teachings on correct way to live to reach enlightened spiritual state called NIRVANA

Government
State vs. Nation: State: independent unit occupying a specific territory with FULL control of its internal and external affairs. Nation: group of people with a common culture living in a territory What is a NATION-STATE?
When a state and a nation occupy the same territory

Types of Government
Democracy: Citizens hold political power; either directly or through elected representatives (U.S.)

Monarchy: A ruling family, headed by a king or queen, holds political power; may or may not share power with citizen bodies (UK or Saudi Arabia)
What is a constitutional monarchy?

Government
Dictatorship: An individual or group holds COMPLETE political power (North Korea)
Military dictatorship: where the government resides within the military.

Communism: Also an economic system in which nearly ALL political power and means of production are held by government in name of people (Soviet Union)

Economic Systems
Traditional: Barter; trade without use of money Command: Central government determines and owns all means of production Market: Capitalism; based on Supply and Demandconsumers play large role Mixed: Combination of command and market; wants to benefit ALL people

Economic System Examples

Social Organization
3 Basic Family Structures: 1. Patriarchal: When the FATHER is the head of the family/social organization.
Father makes the rules and decisions Men are the leaders

2. Matriarchal: When the WOMEN have greater authority in the family.


Examples: Iroquois and Navajo tribes (women hold leadership positions)

3. Egalitarian: When the mother AND father make decisions JOINTLY and EQUALLY.

Other Family Descriptors


Nuclear Family: refers to the parent or parents and children living together. Extended Family: includes relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles) who are close to the family, but dont live in the same house necessarily.