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The Path of Freedom
(Vimuttimagga)

Anupubbena medhiivi thokathokariJ. khal).e khal).e kammiiro rajatass'eva niddhame malam attano. Gradually should the perspicacious one, Moment by moment, little by little, expel His own dross, as would the smith That which is in silver. Dhammapada v. 239 (Trans. by Soma Thera)

The Path of Freedom
(Vimuttimagga)
By the Arahant Upatissa
Translated into Chinese as Cie-to-tao-lun by Tipitaka Sanghapiila of Funan Translated from the Chinese by Rev. N.R.M. Ehara, Soma Thera, and Kheminda Thera

Buddhist Publication Society
Kandy • Sri Lanka

Buddhist Publication Society P.O. Box 61 54, Sangharaja Mawatha Kandy, Sri Lanka First published in 1961 by Dr. D. Roland D. Weerasuria First BPS edition 1977 Reprinted 1995 Copyright © 1995 Buddhist Publication Society

ISBN 955-24-0054-6

Reprinted and Donated for free distribution by

The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation
IIF., 55 Hang Chow South Road Sec 1, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: 886-2-23951198, Fax: 886-2-23913415 Email: overseas@budaedu.org

PUBLISHER'S NOTE
In several places in the Preface and the Introduction (p. xxxi, 1.2; p. xxxvi, 1.13; p. xlviii, 1. 10), the Gedatsu-Do-Ron is referred to as being the Chinese name for the .Vimuttimagga. That title, however, is actually the Japanese rendering of the Chinese characters used to translate the original title. The proper Chinese title of the work (as indicated on p. xxxvi) is Cie-to-tiio-Iun.

ADDmONS AND CORRECTIONS
6, D. 3: read paccupat/hdna 13, n. 3, for achiddehi read acchiddehi 17, last line but one for (In his) read (In this) 21, D. 4, line 3: for sara1Jattamo read sara1Jattano 25, n. 5, line 2: read briihma1Ja-parisam 27, n. 10: read Khalupacchiibhattika-' 41, n. 2: read ManopubbaIigama 44, n. 5: alter 5 to 4; n. 4: alter 4 to 5 49, n. 2: read vacanakkhamo ca, gambhirafi ca 72, n .. 3: delete black 78, n. 1, line 3: read pa!ipajjati 91, n. 2, line 3: read thinamiddham 124, n. 1, last line: read paficamam 132, D. 1 (b) continued from previous page, line 1: read patipii!iyii 145, n. 5, par. 3, line 2: read yathiibhiitaril P. 161, n. 2: read kiiyasalikhiirehi P. 183, n. 3: read Surattam P. 187, n. 2, line 4: read appamii1Jena P. 195, n. 1, par. 5, line 1: read kimphald P. 208, D. 1: read Piiliputta P. 227, n. 3, line 2: read vijjii-carQ1Ja-sampanno P. 233, n. 2, line 6: read ta7;hd-samudaya-saccam P. 243, n. 1: read Gabbhaseyyaka-sattassa; n. 2: read Abhiiva-gabbhaseyydnam P. 244, line 10 from bottom: substitute kinds for hinds P. 290, n. 4 (a) continued from previous page, line 1: read attho P. 302, n. 4, line 4: read dukkham P. 315, n. 1: substitute-(a) D. II, 81, 84, 91, 98, 123, 126: Pafifiii-paribhdvitam cittam sammad eva iisavehi vimuccati, seyyathidam kdmiisavii bhaviisavii di!fhiisavd avijjiisavii ti. (b) Dhs. 195, par. 1096: Cattiiro iisal'ii-kiimiisavo bhavdsavo di!!hdsavo avijjiisavo. (c) NeW. 116: Tassa evam gandhitd kilesii iisavanti. Kuto ca vuccati iisavanti ti? Anusayato vii pariyu!!hiinato vii. Tattha abhijjhiikiiyagandhena kdmdsavo, byiipddakiiyagandliena bhaviisavo, pariimdsakiiyagandhena ditthiisavo, idarh-sacciibhinivesakdyagandhena avijjiisavo. (d) Pts. I, 94, 117: 'Asavd' ti. Katame te iisavd? Kdmdsavo, bhavdsavo, diUhdsavo, avijjdsavo. P. XXXII, line 8 read ask the P. XLII, line 3 from bottom delete to P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P.

DEDICATED to the memory of The Venerable Mahii Nayaka Thera, Paelaene Siri VajiraiiaI;la of Vajirarama, Colombo, Ceylon and The Venerable Myin Mu Myo Sayadaw, Pal}Qava Maha Thera of the SatipaUhiina Monastery, Moulmein, Burma.

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Bambalapitiya. as that was all he had. ' Soma Thera's translation in "Words Leading to Disenchant•. for. Colombo. This was his introduction to the Buddhadhamma. His name was Victor Emmanuel Perera Pulle.apetaviiiiiiir)o. like a useless piece of wood. Benedict's College. Dh. looking out for a book priced at one rupee or less. and passed away at Vajiriiriima. When we were tempted to give up the work on encountering really hard patches.m adhisessati Chuddho. nirattham va kalingaram. he was always ready with encouragement and with a way out of the difficulty. The teacher.In Memoriam SOMA MAHATHERA (1898 -1960) Aciram vat' ayam kiiyo pa/hav. Truly. Colo~bo. Theresa Rodrigo Babapulle. apparently unused to this sort -of question from his pupils. Whenever any difficulty arose it was to him that the others turned. Colombo. indeed. he promptly asked him. when he was told by his teacher that God made man. He receiyed his education at 5t. Tuesday. "Better wear out than rust out". "Who made God 7". 1898. However. ment". Often he used to say that this was the $ort of death. and half-hearted effort was unknown to him. bereft of consciousness. it was not long. but for his indomitable energy and earnestness this work would not have been undertaken. this incident pleased neither the teacher nor the pupil. persisted in. and brought to ·a conclusion in just four months. One day his mother gave him one rupee as pocket-money. He began to read and think for himself. He loved to work hard. and his mother. IX . he preferred. Not infrequently he used to say. after-just four months since he wrote this article-that he suddenly passed away. From that day' on he 1. Kotahena.1 Truly it will not be long before this body lies in the earth. which is thrown away. Once at the age of eleven. Finding an English translation of the Dhammapada being sold for a rupee he quickly bought and read it again and again. Oct. in Kotahena. Soma Maha Thera was born on December 23. Bosat. It is fitting to record here the life and work of the Venerable Soma Mahii Thera. 1960. and Victor walked !lbout three miles to a bookshop in the Fort.41. snapped back. His father was Emmanuel Marian Perera Pulle. "Do not question the antecedents of God". 1959. February 23.

Joseph Soysa. he would. Incms< And light To Th< Buddha. patience. who found the way to Happiness for all beings. Associat< Offering OJ Flowers. he founded the Fort Study Circle and was elected its organizing secretary. The following extracts are from Mr. After being actively engaged for sometime in the publication of the "Blessing" which was edited by the then president of the . W. and avoiding all the evil courses of 'action. and crusading apostleship of the Dhamma. fear and delusion. with incense. once again with his equally keen friend Mr. Shortly after this. along with Mr. one of the foundermembers of the Servants of the Buddha. Soma Thera was considered to represent the fine flower of Buddhist culture. history-in fact anything that would add to his knowledge. his compassion. his perfect enlightenment. W. qualities of tolerance. as work increased. begin reading by candle light under the bed. he. archaeology. x . He shed its fragrance wherever he moved. the very juice of the bitter thyme turned into honey at his touch. in an unusual degree. self-sacrifice. may we gain the strength to work together in friendliness. He composed "A formula of associate worship"l to be used by members of tbe Union at their monthly joint flower-offering at one of the many shrines in the city. personal sanctity.In Memoriam eagerly attended lectures and sermons on the Dhamma. Later. Sometimes he found that when he had finished reading it was already day. restraint and sympathy with fellow-beings. and presented a large collection of books to the Union library. and of which the Venerable Kassapa Thera is the founder-patron. in His service. With these flowers we honour the mainfold purity of the Master. after she had gone to sleep. Opposition and frustration left in him no sense of defeat or bitterness. He was the working bee in the Master's hive and. We have gathered here to pay homage to the Blessed One. joined the Colombo Buddhist Union in the early twenties. No wonder that. assistance was needed and Mr. A deep understanding of human nature and the human problem of suffering had mellowed him and bred in him. written on the passing away of Soma Maha Thera: 'The sudden death of Soma Thera has uprooted from our midst a personality distinguished at once by the versality of his talents. with the light of these lamps. monk and friend it may be aptly said of him: "Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit". the evil courses of selffish desire. During these years. preacher. in the Augustan age of Buddhist renascence in Ceylon. Such was his thirst for knowledge. as his mother objected to his reading late into the night. Soysa. And thus he moved further and further away from the faith of his fathers. Sometime in 1920 he had met Mr. art. 1. Cassius A. the well-known association which has its headquarters at Lauries Road. Pereira. Dr. organiser. Michael's article entitled "Apostle of the Dhamma". the while reading what literature came his way on philosophY. Bambalapitiya. sympathising with those in trouble. association. By our joint worship of the Buddha. namely. Don Michael was elected joint secretary. As scholar. hate. Soysa. rejoicing with those who are are fortunate.

Layman's Law. Yet in his twenties. He gave UNTO THIS LAST-unto death. The regular weekly programme of the Circle. 'For Victor Pulle reason Was the touchstone of truth.be the symbol of the homage of service of the world every Buddhist has to fulfil. Menon. chasti!. he was a rebel from the faith of his fathers and questing for the knowledge of the truth. Lucian De Zilwa prefaced his talk by saying that he accepted the invitation for a lecture with the major' object of making the acquaintance of Mr. Hindi. With what resourcefulness. P. In this quest. Virtue and Clear Thought. he organised and directed its activities towards the cultural and literary formation of the day are now matters of history . he was the leader of a band of young men who formed the Fort Study Circle under the Presidency of Mr. with Dr. PullC. He never spared himself. sculpture. with what prevision of judgement and success. K. truthful &n\l sober. still hot on the pursuit. 'Their motto was sacrifice and service and their main object was the economic and cultural development of the country. E. to become merciful. A. he took all knowledge' for his province. History. Tyagarajah.. Let us dedicate ourselves anew today to tread the Path of Service trodden by the Master-the 'path of Charity. Thera. began his lecture by saying that he was always anxious to see the set of young men who could produce an annual report of such literary excellence as that· turned out by the Fort Study Circle. Economics and politics. J. There was not a. were the proximate causes of the dire malady which struck down this jllighty oak of the Dhamma which was a shade and refuge of many a seeker after Truth. dashing young layman Victor E. music and even astrology. V. helper of all beings. philosophy-Dahlke and Schopenhauer had a particular appeal to him-art. Let III remind ourselves now and frequently that the greatest charity is in giving the mft of fearlessness (abhaya diina) to the world by refraining from killin. unchastityl fying and drink.In Memoriam 'These sterling qualities of Soma Thera were happily blended·in a character in which humility and service formed the keynote. He gave till it hurt. like Bacon. Ma). S.. In the 1930's. archaeologyY'$story. Nadarajah as Vice-Presidents. The child was the father of the man. all planned by Victor. Pulle. L. Soma Thera presents a remarkable character study. In~eed. R. steal1ilg. 'To those of us who knew him and enjoyd<i his friendship and affection for nearly four decades both as the.· g. ~t undemanding and right thought grow in the world I XI . Let this act of homage with flowers. (now Sir Lalita) Rajapakse and the late Mr. Overwork. logic. and as a monk of blessed memory. P. 'Young Victor's reputation for literary and critical scholarship was such that Dr. single individual in the Fort of his day who Service of the world is the highest homage we can pay to the Buddha. fatigue.had. Thus we shall be able. P. . honest. and Mr. incense and light. one of the most graceful and eloquent public speakers this country has ever . included classes iii Pali. the friend and . he studied comparative religion. and make the society in which we live a noble one. Today a void is left standing which may take years to fill..

"What is the reason for this"? and himself answers: "Not to be known is the.great pioneer and savant. and birth again and death... They all centre on the Dhamma. He used his pen as a tomahawk. W. a sister. mellowness and gentle movement which reflected the repose and. by a terrific ordeal of trial and error. But it was hardly necessary. in recent years. towards the end of 1928. clarity. he recognised a friend 0 XlI . 'Meditation. he made no bones about it but went and destroyed. 'As a writer. his thoughts· turned to poetry. See page XVI. a brother. teaching the Dhamma. in an earlier life. Later I was happy to find that the Buddha taught that it was not easy to find a being. The combative debater of yesteryear became the sedate teacher and friendly adviser.1 One day. sureness of his own mind. had not. Siinultaneously Victor and I knew that we had been friends before. mellificatis. introduced me to Victor. It was obvious even to us his old boon companions to whom he stili accorded the privilege of "ragging" him once in a way. a daughter. non vobis. a father. Whe·n Carthage had to be destroyed. Since writing this the Ven. apes"-not for yourself. The Blessed One then asks the question. who. One of them recalls so naturally the self-abnegation of the bees in Virgil's lines "Sic vas. The glint of battle which earlier rose to his eyes when argument waxed high grew into sparks of sympathy and compassion. The exposition and argument would at times be obscured by the weight of movement. been a mother. the terrific right fist which characteristically swung menacingly in debate would swing no more. It was in this august calling that his scholarship ripened and Buddhist revival throughout the World received from the results of his labour a new life and orientation. had at last subdued himself and that he had not only found the Middle Path but had established himself so firmly in it that he was a fitting exemplar of his Master's Way of Life. during the vast period of time covered in the process of birth and death. 2 But we were always grateful to Oliver for this. study. It is significant that. a son. your cells ye fill-that the verses "Giving· Up" deserve quotation'. Soma Thera belongs to the genre whom Buffon's dictum "Le style est l'homme meme" is perfectly applicable. I. The elan and impulsiveness of the layman turned into serene calm. The chiselled square jaws which hurled challenge softened their contours. our common friend. As a Thera. canonical research and his own trials and tribulation in the process produced a vast transformation in Soma Thera. In his Study Circle days.my attention to a sonnet in which Lord Tennyson describes how.In Memoriam combined ·in himself such a vast amalgam of knowledge. could not satisfy his ardent mind and he joined the Sangha. at one time or another. that this . he had a massive style. Above all. Literary and economic studies. Mr. ye bees. however. Vinita Thera of Vajiriiriima was kind enough to draw. the old asperity and venom disappeared and the style assumed a precision. Joseph Soysa (Oliver as we call him). 2.

and thence by bus. d'. we decided after careful thought to go to the Far East and return later to Burma for ordination. without exaggeration. and he was young. Wong Mow Lam.If one but speaks or hems or stirs his chair. Nichiki Kimura of Rissho University. Towards the end of 1935. Our thought gave answer each to each. The head of that temple. we arrived in Krum Teb (Deva Nagara . for exaggeration the Buddhas do not indulge in. I know not when or wh•.1. that th~re were great possibilities for spreading the Theravada in his country and that there was much that could be translated from the Mahayana literature of China. we were invited to Jozaiji. N.In Memoriam start of beings enmeshed in ignorance and fettered by craving. Finding there no facilities for study we proceeded to Tokyo. So that we say. And ebb into a former Ii/e. Pisalokc (Vi~lJuloka Vi~I. as at first sight it may appear to be. Because of that you should tum away from the formations (sankharas). This is the word of the Supremely Enlightened One who has done with poetic fancy. friend. We began our journey to China by way of Kawkerik. So when we went to Burma in 1934. patient.U's world). an earlier life. So. who invited us to attend his English lectures on Mahayana. who was in Ceylon for sometime. And in this interminable process. Ehara. the Rev. Nor can it be said of the running 'on and the speeding on of ignorant and craving beings that they are tending to an end. and become free of them"-S. speeding on through interminable births and deaths.the city of the gods) which is Bangkok. witty character with abundant laughter. so trueOpposed mirr(lrs each reffecting eachThat tho' I knew' n(lt in what time or place. over the misty Dawna Mountains and across the border for four days on foot to Raehaeng in Thailand. the Nichiren temple in Kawatana-Machi. This is no poetic fancy. through his good offices. In the late twenties. His is the vision of things as they are (yathabhUtanaa1Jdassana). Methought that I had often met with you. thus: "As when with downcast eyes we muse and brood. and by ship to Singapore and Hong Kong. He did everything within his power to make our stay as comfortable as possible. Ever the wonder waxeth more and more. river boat and train through Svankaloke (Svargaloka-heaven world). Then again. cut them off. And either lived in either's heart and speech". after travelling by train to Penang. He was the perfect host-a most understanding. Victor and I had heard from the late Mr. the Chinese scholar. 190 (Soma Thera's translation). 'All this hath been before.. had been a lecturer at Rissho for sometime. pleasant. M. wl!en first I look'd upon y(lur face. running on. There we met Prof. ¥IJI . for iong have you all experienced grief bitter and sharp and made the graveyards bigger and bigger. Nagasakiken. R. And this vision he describes. or seem To lapse far back in some confused dream To states of mystical similitude. we arrived in Shanghai. II. remembering the words of our scholar friend. All this hath been.

the section on virtue had to be cyc10styled thrice before Vir. "of the Lion Isle. readily agreed. The temple was here in ancient times. "in honour". They call it horseshoe. Some days after we went into residence in the Lion Hall. Jozaiji is beautifully situated a third of the way up the hill which rises abruptly from the broad paddy fields that stretch right up to the sea.In Memoriam When we arrived at Kawatana-Machi. translated the first few pages though he had much to do. the Flower Festival. binding. arid that originally it was supposed to have been written in Pali in Ceylon by a Sinhalese Thera.-of course. and our host was agreeably surprised to hear· that this was eaten in Ceylon. cyc1ostyling.:tor was satisfied with it. 1936. And our friend. With one voice both of us exclaimed that we were ready to begin translating it that very instant. the cypresses. During this period Victor knew no fatigue in that most agreeable climate of South Japan. Jozaiji was being rebuilt. 1936. XlV . which corresponds to Vesa~ in Theravtida lands. Perhaps it will not be out of place to mention here that when the late Ven. At first we thought they were well-grown violets. The word for word translation the draft translation. the hill rises higher and higher and is level at the top. Besides. it being very close to Hanamatsuri. And we immediately. our friend showed us around his new library. that adorn the grounds of Japanese temples. for. Nya~atiloka MaM Thera was in Japan during the years that followed the First World War. Working incessantly we managed to issue the translation of the first fascicle on Hanamatsuri. Vimuttimagga. as he said. to persuade any Japanese scholar to undertake this translation. Behind. We took a handful of them to the temple. He liked it so much that he introtiuced it to the whole village. Pointing to three thin volumes he said that that was the Chinese translation of th!. Continuing to work even up to twenty hours a day sometimes we were able to post the last copy of the last section of the translation to fifty scholars by the last day of September. the home of my friends". We spent a most· pleasant and fruitful year in our Lion Hall. May 28. Their stalks were nearly eighteen inches long with large leaves. the song of the Kawa of Kawatana. By the end of April. So when we sent him a copy of our translation he heartily welcomed it. the building operations over. were all done by the three of us and that during the brief space of four months. But soon found they were gotukola (Hydrocotyle Asiatica). with his help. and here Victor and I used to stroll under those attractively twisted and gnarled sungi trees. One summer day while walking there our attention was drawn to some plants we seemed to recognize. with his great big ringing laughter. the beauty of which they sing in Kawa-no-Kawatana. copying. In front is the river Kawa. our host set apart the new guesthouse for our use and called it the Lion Hall. This is how the translation began. packing for the post. it was here that the whole of the Gedatsu Do Ron (the Chinese translation of the Vimuttimagga) was translated into English for the first time. he tried. but failed.

We could not stay there long as the Venerable Soma fell ill arid had to go to Colombo for treatment and we stayed at the Vidyalankara Oriental College. 1936. This was sometime after he' had been appointed head of the Nichlren ~ect for the district of Omura. the late Mr. deputised for 'him. Ehara and a few others.that distressing thing called asthma. Tokyo. as teacher. and found that U. went to Nagasaki and took ship to Rangoon.!.In Memoriam During these four months of translation work the thought that repeatedly arose in out. also known as Jetavana Sayadaw.minds was how soon could we return to Burma for ordinatiop and put into practice the teaching of the Sambuddha so clearly set forth in the Vimuttimagga. His method was strictly in accordance with the Sa/ipatthana Suttas of the Digha and Majjhima Nikayas and their commentaries. But asthma or no asthma. had set apart a small house for our use in a quiet place at Belihuloya.hadayangama seemed to be the correct word to describe one's reaction on reading the Vimuttimagga for the first time. a dayaka. Before we decided to translate the Vimuttimagga our host was keen on translating some of the smaller treatises of Nichiren' Shonin which Victor did. A lay pupil of his who had earlier instructed us in the practice of the Satipatthana method of meditation. Some of them were published in the Young East. It was plain. Chit Su.H. U. Our friend was much grieved that we were leaving so soon and repeatedly said as the ship was leaving. There was no point in delaying. Bhikkhu Soma met a companion of his childhood days who became so attached to him that he would not leave him till his death . as requested by us. He said that the necessary instruction was found in them and no new interpretation was necessary. Kelaniya. Victor and I received our higher ordination With the' Venerable Pii. N. word came shortly after the Second World War that he had suddenlypa~sedaway. our dayaka. Moulmein. M. So we left Jozaiji with our friend the Rev. the Buddha called it tile sole way and that there was no otHer 'sole' way to the purification of beings. And on November 6. R. What it said reached the heart direct . Barnes de Silva. we visited him. That was the last time we were to see him. . On reaching Ceylon by way of India in the middle of 1937. and easy to understand. "Come back. W. fm a time. M. Chit Swe. xv . come back again". open. and had gone over to India on pilgrimage. His close friend. As he was then living in nearby Thaton. had made all arrangements for our ordination in an araiiiiavasa (forest residence). too. It would have rendered many a strong man useless for work quite early. Here we came to hear of the Venerable Narada Maha Thera. accompanied us to seethe Sayadaw. We reached Moulmein by the end of October. he worked on and on up to the end with increasing vigour. though we had hoped some day to see him again. the journal of the Japanese Buddhist Associations. For. Hearing that we were returning to Ceylon.lava Maha Thera of Taungwainggyi Shewgyin Kyaung Taik.

At one time the only available medicament was Himrod'·s Asthma Cure. Mr. Bhikkhu Soma could hardly walk two yards without this Himrod's cure. he sat at his table and scribbled these verses: Out ofthe womb of sightless night Rang out a word ()f healing strong. and both of us returned to Ceylon in 1940 owing to illness. the present adhipati (chief resident Thera) was then in. In giving up. In giving up. In giving up. And put to flight the evil throng That stood betwixt the eye and light. By giving up. we were able to go into residence at the Mahanadi Arama at Gampolawela. know the purest pleasure? Why on self a tight hand keep? Why the heart in culture steep? Why twn on to wisdom deep? Why care not to sow or reap? XVI In giving up. Dodanduwa. By giving up. de Soysa placed his bungalow. As Bhikkhu Soma needed rest for sometime. During this period the attacks of asthma were most severe. as leader of the Mission of Goodwill to India. For giving up. For giving up. and wishing to live in quiet surroundings for a while. all the German Theras of the Hermitage were interned and the Venerable Ny~I. As the Second World War had begun.liiloka Mahii Thera. come to rarest treasure? How.In Memoriam After he recovered from his illness. . In. By giving up.giving up. So about 2 a. in his estate in Kurunegala. B. C. In giving up. There the mission was able to secure from the Government of Mysore a site for a Buddhist Centre. and could not sleep at night without filling the room with these fumes. For giving up. friend. One night even this failed to help. By giving up. After a few months' stay there we were invited by the Venerable NyiiJfaponika Maha Thera to the Island Hermitage. charge of the place. Whf!re lies. A. For giving up. the golden mean 1 Where's the heatt forever clean? Where is life at its best seen? Where reaches one Peace Serene? When does one a/ways see things clear? When is one to all beings dear? When does one wipe away all fear? When does one to Truth adhere ? How does one give full measure? How. at our disposal. In giving up. end poverty's pressure? How. In giving up. Then at the invitation of the late Sir Baron Jayatilaka we visited Bangalore in 1939 with the Venerable Naravila Dhammaratana Mahii Thera.m. It had to be lit with a match and the fumes inhaled.

Beholding elfin gold and jewels bright.ses illustrate some aspect of it: E'er let me live and die with childlike sight. if no attention is paid to him. There. "I am thoroughly fit. Frequently he sat beneath the trees by the water's edge in deep thought. It is about this waterfall in Nuwara Eliya that he wrote: I E' er let me live and die where waters flow From hidden springs on heights that probe the sky. He used to watch the 'water'. walking along in Moon Plains once. And. from 1940-45 and from 1948-54. Cassius A. rushing down. :na silver streak. He wants attention. Pereira. He contributed articles to var). wavy forms I throv. These were the times when Soma Thera would say. has a peculiar trait.craji tamled brown by sun. like monk in russet clout. xvu . Upon the choppy sea of doubt and lust. he sharply retorts in return by paying no attention. Asthma. Once it was thought that his asthma might improve if he had a change and so he stayed at Asokarama in Nuwara Eliya for sometime. The tender palms of gold and light green fronds Remind me of my youth and boyhood's days.ce (1943) were written. and very often the asthma left him on those occasions crhe forgot it.In Memoriam He lived in this "our little island home".<lUS Buddhist journals regularly. reminiscent of the Lion Hall days when he really worked almost the whole day. He also edited here in 1943 Anapana Sati of Dr. he was absorbed in the beauty of a waterfall. and perhaps the following ver. Childlikeness was a prominent characteristic of his. And come to light as white foam falling by The negro face of rocks that shine and glow.e Imbibing nature's simple silent ways. as he liked to call the Hermitage. and the following verses might indicate some of the thoughts that occupied his mind then: Away against the lip of sea and sky A tiny fisher . sometimes. And dream-made treasure in the silent night Of travel on and on the Path of Light. In spite of his failing health he wrote unceasingly. Amidst their plumy. I can work even the whole day". The quiet of the Hermitage appealed to him a great deal. Pops up and down. These were years he treasured much. This tiresomefriend. For it was here that the first edition of The Way of Mindfulness (1941) and His Last Performa'.

spired the latter by his • great knowledge. history. and the Jayanti Miscellany. the ancient Buddhist Centre in Shensi Province. Soma Thera returned to the Island Hermitage at the end of 1948 and remained there till 1954. He also' conducted a Pali' class. but when both of them began t1> convene they forgot their xvru m .a Thera's radio sermons were mucll· appreciated. the Venerable Mac. Finding that the long stay at the Island Hermitage had worsened his asthma and seeing the advantage of being with the Venerable Paelaene Sirl Vajiraiia:t. Meanwhile Soma Thera delivered sermons and lectures to large gatherings both in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.ene Siri Vajiraiia:t. the home of Fa Hsien the famous pilgrim. nearly.A. were' formed in 1950 and 1956 respectively. alien to his nature. too. In November that year the Mission returned ·to Hong Kong where.J. Arriving in Shanghai in early July. on his initiative. for. understanding. During this period Som. Both the MahaNayaka Thera and Soma Thera were happy to meet. and respect for him kept on increasing during the years. and kindness. Arriving Singapore in January 1947. for hours at a time.la Maha NayaU Thera. besides original articles. we found that fighting had broken out in Shensi between the Nationalist and the Communist forces. he addressed many gatherings in various parts of the city. the rainy season residence. the well known Buddhist leader of China. and I. After his return from China. by the time the mission left. two important Buddhist' associations in Colombo.In Memoriam At the invitation of the late Venerable Tai Tsu. grammar. it was sugg~'te(i that a bi-monthly called 'Buddha Jayanti' be publi5hed for the duration of these celebrations for the benefit ·of the English reading public. went to China to establish a Pall College at Sianfu. The Sisanadhira Kanta'Samitiya and The Bank'S. were written at a time when he was much harassed by asthma. The Yassa-vasa.M. Whea in 1953 the organizers came to ask Soma Maha Thera for· his belp. the former had iJ. was spent in Shanghai after which the mission returned. Soma Thera's regard. folk-lore. The Mission returned to Ceylon in March that year.B. for half-hearted effort was. three hundred members. Venerable PaeHi. The Shanghai Y. Soma Thera came to reside once more at Vajirirama.' Asoka Society. were from his versatile pen. Tbere was no possibility of proceeding further. which he founded had. The Mahi Nayaka Thera. as far back as 1919. and so on. the Venerable Soma Thera. His masterly articles on 'The Greatest Mahanayaka Thera of Our Time' and the editorial 'A Maker of Good Men' on the passing away of the. he threw himself wholeheartedly into the work.lihe Paiiiiasiha Thera (now Mahi Nayaka' Thera). Besides.la Maha Nayaka Thera at Vajiririima with its well equipped library. He was the founder-patron of the latter~ With the approach of the Buddha Jpyanti celebrations. Most of the editorials 'on the Dhamma in the 'Buddha JayanW and a large number of translations from the Pali and the German. was always ailing. the mission had to wait two months for a boat. which was well attended. Soma Thera addressed various groups of Buddhillts. They used to converse on the Dhamma and on allied subjects such as literature. too.

I used to visit him in his room and talk t~ngs over many an evening.. S.. . F. This Victor had in XIX .. He was one who wanted to practise the Dhamma. much opposition may be expected.... Alert and intensely alive in the search and practice of the Truth. His face was an index to his 'earnestness and I often listened to him arguing a point . Once the questions put by Victor so interested the Mahii Niiyaka Thera that he continued the conversation till three o'clock in the moming. edition and notes of the Satipatthtina Sutta is characteristic of the man. Victor Palle some thirty years ago . I miss him very much as a friend but those who knew him have no cause to grieve for a life that had been so nobly spent. How this long and earriest practice of the Dhamma moulded Soma Mahii Thera's character is briefly shown in the following extracts from an article by Ceylon's Director of Education. He had acquitted himself heroically in all things he did to the end .. de Silva: 'I came to know the Venerable Soma Thera as Mr. My first impression' was of a remarkably earnest man who was determined to seek and find out the Truth.. It might be wondered how it was possible for one to get so interested in such atheme as grammar.d calmness of demeanour in everything he said and wrote. As a member of the Order he became a changed man. he was one of the most earnest and untiring in his study of the Dhamma . May the Venerable Soma Thera attain the Noble Quest he started some forty years ago'. We became very good friends and week in and week out I used to watch and realise that of the band that gathered together. The Venerable Soma Thera's edition of the Satipatthtina Sutta is a part of his own life because he was one who wanted to practise the Dhamma. I can see his mind in his introductory notes and his interpretations of the text. The Venerable Soma Maha Thera was very well known to English speaking audiences in the Island. I remember in the early thirties how the Mahii Niiyaka The. Mr. and the SatipaUhtina Sutta was to him 'the one way for the ending of unhappiness'. that there i~ nothing nobler for a Buddhist than to live the life that the Buddha has preached. This early earnestness he maintained to the very end. to walk the way He had walked and to follow Him on the Noble Quest. Many may remember his thoughtful talks over Radio Ceylon. I am aware how deeply he was respected by Buddhist students in schools all over the island . When one happens to be the only person in a powerful group to accept another teaching..ra discoursed on the Dhamma to a group of us young men whose leader was Victor. I noticed a strength of character al).. Occasionaly the eye would flash and I could see the old time fighter but there was an unmistakable sense of toleration of others and a remarkable kindliness in everything he said.... His life is an example to all ~ose who knew him.. To me his translation. it is of these that the Buddha has said that 'those who are heedful do not die'. But the Mahii Niiyaka Thera was such a master of the subject and an accomplished conversationalist that he was able to make even a subject like grammar interesting.In Memo-dam ailments.

as monk his attitude to those who'were opposed to him. Meanwhile xx . Knobelock. k. opposition had grown into hostility. like. Actually he went on board ship direct from the hospital.were pleasantly surpri~ed to see him. At the end of this period he could not move his left arm.Mahabodhi Society's Centre in Bangalore during the Buddha Jayanti ·celebratiol. and like tl). while residing at the Vidyiilankiira Oriental College. Some of the older members of the Buddhist Association there . 'and who later became hostile. Soma Thera participated in the making of the simd. or by Mr. Siigara Palansuriya and Mr. Dhammiinanda Niiyaka Thera. and the dressing had to be continued for another five weeks. when the Venerable Soma. On his return to Ceylon in early 1957.to leave. secured from the Government of Mysore for a Buddhist Centre. Yet the work which he had undertaken absorbed all Soma Thera's time and attention. "No other monk except another Soma Thera would have ventured forth ·on such a mission . Soma TQera was invited by the German pharmadiita Society to lead the first Buddhist Mission to Germany in June ·that yeat:. It was after a further three months' treatment that he recovered. time Soma Thera worked' with a fortitude which evoked the admiration of all around him. The interpretingat these meetings was done by Mr. Though the dry climate of Berlin helped his asthma he was not entirely free of attacks. the' late Mr.the other veneral¥e theras· of the College.lat.e Venerable Mahii Niiyaka Thera and the Venerable Niirada ·Mahii.givenby .he. sometimes for hours. at the . wherethe. But though he underwent a serious operation just two weeks before the mission was due . The wound had not. 'This progr~e was continued till the mission left Berlin. True follower of the Master. Guido Auster. Referring to his fortitude.. the other'members being Vinita Thera.In Memoriam plenty. healed completely then. . Mr. the then President of the Congress of German Buddhist Associations. Thera always found the time to speak with him. Yet during all this. he bore his sufferings· without rancour. and he went away stimulate!!. M. Kuruppu during this difficult period.lS in 1956. Was one of' kindness and l. the fragr~t sandal wood tree which perfumes the axe that Jays it low. chapter house. who were anxious to co-operate with the mission's work.mderstanding. a friend wrote. Later.is being· crushed.after· the serious operation he had to stand only a couple of weeks before". the Venerable Kirivattu4uve Siri Pafifiiisiira Niiyaka Thera (now ·Vice-Chancellor) and . for this was the site that the Mission of Goodwill had. F. But both as layman and . w. and soon there began a series of weekly • meetings at which Soma Thera read a paper in German which was followed by answering questions that the audience liked to ask. He met the leading Buddhists in Berlin. had the ready sympathy and unstint'edsuppo!t of the late Venerable Lunupokune.e sugarcane which sweetens the mouth where it . At these times he resorted to the calm atmosphere ~f Vajiriiriima. he insisted on not altering the travel arrangements. Kelaniya. found that the. in 1940. It is also fitting to record here the help readily . as a' bhikkhu. W Joseph Soysa and myself.

Just before leaving Berlin. from about midnight to 4 a. Berlin. The late Mr. When told that he tired himself overmuch. The children listened to him with the greatest interest. Mr.m. So he worked on to the end never caring for his health. When. organized. as he said. "I have gathered enough now but I have not time enough to give". One of them wrote from England thus: "I was mentioning to the Dons of the Faculty of Eastern Religions at Oxford that there was in Ceylon a monk (referring to Soma Thera) who was eminently qualified by way of knowledge and learning to fill the Chair of Eastern Religions which is now vacant".In Memoriam Soma Thera addressed schools in various parts of the city. Heidegger. With all this incessant work and travel Soma Thera grew weak. but he had not received such sat~fying answers as had been given by Soma Mahii Thera. all the addresses delivered in Germany by Soma Mahii Thera were published by the Hamburg Buddhist Society in their Bulletin the Mitteilungsblatt. So from Islerlohn the-mission left for Hamburg. hearing of his death wrote.Meditation Seminar during the "Indian Week" which was a part of the 'Sauerland Cultural Season'. the well-known Existentialist philosopher. Soma Mahii Thera his answers were prompt and so convincing that Mr. From here. where Mr. individually and in groups. and delivered lectures and led discussions on the Dhamma. welcomed us. Guido Auster. but with skilful medical attention and another operation he regained his former vigour and worked hard which he loved to do. Stegemann.these questions were put to the Yen. Vietta said that these same questions had been put by him to European scholars. Oxford. He much liked working among the Hamburg Budd-hists because. W. This time he slept hardly four hours a day. and Cambridge. Then again he fell ill-this time with renal colic-and after another spell in hospital he was once more in a fit condition to continue his work. they were well informed. the mission returned to Hamburg where Soma Thera conducted classes in meditation. and greatly interested in their work as a body. Yet he was happy doing it. He delivered lectures at various places. after making a brief visit to London. and when he returned to Ceylon from Germany in June 1958 he was very tired. who was ill and unable to travel. "He contacted many personalities of the religious and intellectuallife in Berlin and Germany. Egon Vietta was the organiser of the Seminar. He was held in affectionate and highest regard by all those who knew him for his qualities of heart and head. Prof. About one hundred people from all walks of life attended it. XXI . These meetings were well attended. the President of the Buddhist Society of Hamburg. In response to numerous requests. the mission received an inyitation from the Municipality of Isedohn to conduct a. the Director of the Oriental Department of the German State Library. he used to say. They were anxious to have us with them during Vesak time. Another invitation that the mission accepted was that of the Buddhists of Hamburg. On the last day of the Seminar he announced that he had brought a few questions from his teacher.

where at last he found the answers. with his time. the youthful Victor Pulle began asking questions-deep. His road is the road -of the Bilddha. but never. Ananda Pereira.ler him most for his humanity. never permitting himself the slightest infringement. He lived his Buddhism with every beat of his warm generous heart. never spared himself. sometimes even a shade pugnacious.at least the hope of satisfactory answers to his questions. 'Soma Thera was a genuine monk. 27.ed with half measures. 'Never one to be satisfi. 1898. the mighty ones. reminding me in his dignity of It high prelate during the Middle Ages. the Arahats. He was associated with Dr. As scholar.se who knew him.In Memoriam among them-most important in my opinion-several to pupils in our schools. he says. Again. He observed the Vinaya rules with absolute strictness. But he never let ill-health interfere with his work. He. 1960. has dissolved". weilding not only spiritual but also temporal power. His was not the cold way of the anaemic· academician. or deliberately unkind thing. or . duly baptised and brought up in the faith of his parents. he strove mightily in the BUddhist cause. 'But tho. He had an especially lucky hand in dealing with children and young people who admired him. He lived here a while and has XXII . will remem1. Pereira (later Ven. From the day he joined the Sangha. preacher and missionary. 'With the' death of the Venerable Soma Thera. translator. never. His standards were the highest. It was at this period that he laid the foundation of that sure grasp of the Teachings that served him so well in later years as a missionary. 'One does not need to feel sorrow on his behalf. Cassius A. Sometimes he seemed impulsive. and his work was always giving. direct questions-the answers to which as given by his parents and spiritual advisors did not satisfy him 'His inquiries in due course led him to Buddhism. Kassapa Thera) in the preparation of the Blessing. he was ordained as a Bhikkhu in 1936. I have seen him preaching sermons or reciting Pirith at times when the mere act of breathing was acutely difficult because of asthma. 'He was generous-with his advice. who. false. he adorned it. He was an -enthusiastic and hard-working member of the Servants of the Buddha. He made many friends. Mr. his health was never particularly robust. knew Soma Thera wrote thus of him in the Ceylon Daily News of February. writer. Lanka loses one. "This impressive personality. Though to outward appearance he was strong. with himself. The President of the Servants of the Buddha. 'He plunged into the study of the Buddha Dhamm(J. fIe was most patient towards enquirers and beginners". 19n9 before his 'teens. simple. His life was a shining example to others. did he say or do a mean. Born of Roman Catholic parents on December 23.of her noblest sons. Bhikkhus and lay-folk alike.

at the close of my life there is death. and from the commentary to the Dhammapada: "Uncertain is life. Reflects on death's hard hand ofpain. brave and smiling.-a. A. This is the advice I give you". serving him by loving deeds. III. 170. certain is death. gentle. did not seem so difficult a·thing to bear. Now it appeared in a different light. it is . During this period if the number of days we were absent from each other be added up it will not amount to more than a few months.Dh. 211: "Mindfully and with complete awareness should a bhikkhu meet his end. What Dhamma I now know was gleaned from him or in his company. The drive for gross material gain Grows limp like hide soaked through with rain.necessary that I should die. and from the Sutta-S. who was then only Sotiipanna. How he served the Buddha during thos~ years is shown in the following verses. And like his shadow followed after him. So when he passed away suddenly the blow was difficult to bear. thus: For five-and-twenty years a learner I. o see the seemly order of the Norm! For five-and-twenty years a learner I.In Memoriam gone on. The story is not done. "the separation from the loved is ill". great agitation of mind. quoting from the Suttas and other writings. strong and assured. When I met him I knew very little Dhamma. beautifully rendered by Mrs. For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One xxm . fOr instance. Before this event "the separation" referred to in the words of the Buddha: Piyehi vippayogo dukkho. Life is indeed unsure but death is sure. During the last few months of his life he often spoke and wrote on death. Rhys Davids. Yet during all these years our interests centred round the Dhamma only. untiring. No sensual consciousness arose in me. having but recently accepted the Teaching of the Buddha. in spite of his having been with the Buddha and learned the Dhamma from him for twenty-five years. o see the seemly order of the Norm! For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One I waited. Stream-entrant (he became Arahat later). The passing away of the Venerable Siiriputta Thera caused in the Venerable Ananda Thera. F. No hostile consciousness arose in me. kind. We shall meet again'. death is sure" .time comes. his own translations from the Sanskrit of Vi~l). IV. 'I knew the Venerable Soma Mahii Thera intimately for nearly thirty-two years. C. We too must fare onward when our .usarman thus: In him who ever and again.

of what is breakable by ordering that thing not to break'. did Sliriputta take the aggregate of virtue along with him and become extinct? Or did he take the aggregate of concentration along with him and become extinct? Or did he take along with him the aggregate of wisdom and become extinct? Or did he take along with him the aggregate of freedom and become extinct? Or did he take along with him the aggregate of the knowledge and insight of freedom and become extinct?'-'No Venerable Sir'. when the Venerable Sliriputta Thera passed away: The firmament on every hand Grows dim. and of what has the nature of breaking. yea. involved are change. And like his shadow followed after him.after him. 1039-44. But when this peerless comforter. serving him with loving speech. and compares the Venerable Sliriputta Thera to one of the greater branches of the mighty tree of the Community of Bhikkhus. Psalms of the Brethren. says the Buddha. And when the Norm was being taught.-'Have I not. in me knowledge and understanding ofit grew. produced. Psalms of the Brethren. . Behind his back I kept the pace alway. Comparable to the breaking o( a bigger branch of a mighty tree. who was upset. the Budaha walked. the Blessed One himse~. who was considered to be the Commander of the Army of Righteousness. For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One I waited. XXIV 2. an4 variation?" 'The Buddha shows that it is not possible to stop the breaking up of what is born. And like his shadow followed. told you before that with all that is dear. is the Venerable Sliriputta Thera's passing away and no one can stop the breaking . serving him with loving thoughts. 2 The following is a description by Soma Thera (Bosat. passed away 1. indeed. And dark is earth and heaven above. 1 And it is this 'knowledge and understanding' that he refers to as being 'confused' for him in the following verses. pleasing. October 1959. and put together. 1034. separation. all confus~d stand The truths I seemed to understand. "Tell me Ananda. 170-71) of how the Buddha comforted the Venerable Ananda Thera on this occasion: 'When the Buddha was told ofthe passing away of the Venerable Siiriputta Thera.In Memoriam I waited. When pacing up and down. Gone is the noble friend we love. the Blessed One said this to the Venerable Ananda Thera. pp.

the Brethren. in association. in intimacy with what is noble'.3-'the whole of this holy life consists in noble friendship. S. 8 Bambalapiliya. Alone to-day this child doth brood.• Rasavahini. casting no glance behind. methinks. staying a while. !. They of the older time are gone. nibbdnam paramam sukham. 4 Except the Dhamma of the Perfect One.. Psalms of xxv . the while having cheered some weary traveller on the way. J. thus: Dhammam vind natthi pitd ca mdtd Tameva td!lam sara!lam patit!hd Tasmd hi bho kiccamaiiiiam pahdya SU!ldtha dhdretha cardtha dhamme. And in the Dhamma is your shelter true. came uninvited and unbidden went away. 1960. Like nesting-bird when rain doth fall. Colombo. the Happiness Supreme I Visstisaparamd iidli. true friend'. And in death he has drawn me ever near to the Dhamma. ill. unbidden soon to go'. . 6. 5. I. 5 May that 'trusty.'uncalled he hither came. There is no father and no mother here. Sometimes birds fly into houses and. 3. that sure refuge and support. Dh. And is 'the Master gone from hence? No better friend is left. Vajirariima. higher than which there is none . 165 (Uraga Jataka). sing and cheer those there. To me Soma Mahii Thera was a kalyd!lamitta. Than to mount guard o'er deed and sense. as it is said: Anavhdto tato dga. staunch. none knowing where. but suddenly they flyaway. attain to that happiness. on the Dhamma think And spuming other things. Soma Mahii Thera. In like manner even. The Dhamma is your refuge and support. 1 Thus did the Venerable Ananda Thera find comfort. anuiiiidto ito gato B. The new men suit me not at all. the Venerable Soma Milia Thera. live up to it. 87-8. 1035-36. 204 . too. fina solace at the feet of the Teacher of divine and human beings. and we.In Memoriam shortly afterwards the Venerable Ananda Thera uttered the following verses: And is the comrade passed away. Soma Thera's translation. KHEMINDA THERA 2. So hear the Dhamma. September 3. too.Nibblina. as' has been sung by the ancients. In life he blessed me with the friendship extolled by the Blessed One in no uncertain terms: Sakalam eva h-idam Ananda brahmacariyam yad idam kalyd!la-mittatd kalyiir)a-sahdyatd kalyd!la-sampavankatd.

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E. Higata's Japanese translation of the Gedatsu Do Ron. R. May 28. 1293 in Nanjio's Catalogue). Pulle G. Ehara V. This is circulated with the hope of receiving suggestions and criticisms helpful towards bringing out a complete translation of the Vimuttimagga. We have derived much help from Prof R. 1936. S. No. Japan. Kawatana-Machi. Prelis Jozaiji. The pages of the text are giVen ~n square brackets. 1648 of the Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripi~aka (No.Prefatory Note to Original Draft Translation In the following pages is a draft translation of the first fascicle of Gedatsu Do Ron Wimuttimagga). P. Hanamatsuri. M. and Prof Pe Maung Tin's English Translation of the Visuddhimagga. the eighth day of the fourth lunar month. XXVII . N. I Nagasaki-Ken.

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Nagasaki-Ken. Baiye Henmi. Rev. M. Prof Yukio Sakamoto. Japan.' Dr. P. Niirada Thera (India and Ceylon). C. August 29. Prof Nichiki Kimura. Pulle G. Prof Dr. Wi/h. Ven. 1936. we offer our hearty thanks to Dr. F. For having encouraged us. Prelis XXIX . E. Makoto Nagai. Prof Kaijo Ishikawa. F. Kawatana-Machi. Law. S. Dr. Dr. Ven. B.zatiloka Mahii Thera. Prof Kairyu Yamamoto. Rhys Davids.. Prof Giokei Umada. Ehara V.Acknowledgments (Original Draft Translation) Jozaiji. C. Geiger(Germany). Dr. Giei Honda. McKechnie Esq. N. Prof Chizen Akanuma (Kyoto). A. Prof Ryusho Higata (Fukuoka). Unrai Woghihara. Nyiir. R. Sho-on Mizuno (Tokyo). f. (England). Dr. Prof Chotatsu Ikeda.

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leaving the publication itself to some future time. He said that the important thing. I was at first rather disinclined to undertake this work. But he. writing it death intervened. and they requested me to prepare it for publicatibn. of his time. though the Venerable Soma Thera wished to complete the tevision. With the end of the war. and there were many who welcomed its publication.my own limitations. All hope of publishing the revised edition of the Original Draft Translation during the war had to be given up. having seen the Original Draft Translation of the Vimuttimagga. This was a fitting occasion to pay a tribute to the memory of the two senior co-translators of the Vimuttimagga. the Reverend N. had been done. passed away within a week. Meanwhile. xv) the draft translation of the Gedatsu Do Ron (being the· Chinese name for the Vimuttimagga) was completed in four months. But he fell ill and by the end of 1939 the Second World War was already three months old.e took it up. (The Path of Freedom) revised and published some day. Balcombe Place. Roland D. This the Venerable Soma Thera intended to do on his· return to Ceylon in 1937. XXXI . Colombo. was keen on its publication. Weerasuria then requested the Venerable NalJamoli Thera to take up the work which. Sometime after this Dr. after ~ome hesitatio~. The Venerable Soma Thera had originally wished to have the English translation of the Vimuttimaggq. Further. . Knowing. modified the idea and was even content with merely revising the Draft Translation.but later acceded to their earnest request for the following reasons. M. When he passed away many venerable theras and dayakas were much interested in publishing. Weerasuria of Balcombe House. Dr. he. conditions were even less favourable. the Original Draft Translation as it was. It was a work that had inspired both the Venerable Soma Thera and me. he agreed to finish within a year. too. But shortly after he began. seeing difficulties. invited the Venerable Soma Thera sometime in 1959 to write an abridged version of the Visuddhimagga as he felt that such an edition would supply a long felt want. Therefore it was thought that it needed some revision.PREFACE As stated elsewhere (In Memoriam (p. Thus the work he intended to do on the Vimuttimagga translation had to be postponed each time h. Weerasuria. and that if people felt that they needed it they would see to its publication. Ehara and the Venerable Soma Mahii Thera. at least. however. other work he had undertaken prevented him from doing so. R. But later. the Draft Translation. I Dr. and await a favourable occasion to publish it. D. asthma robbed him of much.

Abhidharma Literature. Dr. They are given in full mainly with the idea of helping the general reader conversant with the Pali but "to whom reference books are not easily accessible. The first statement. the Paramatthamafijilsii does not say that the Vimuttimagga "belonged to the Abhayagirivihiira sect" as is claimed here.. Fascicule A-Ata) was out.. says that the.Preface And finally the urgent personal need to keep myself immersed in the Dhamma throughout the waking hours during this period of stress prompted me to take up the work. i.. as far as possible. From the above it will be seen that this work was taken up due to sheer force of circumstances and not because of any special qualification on my part. All the longer Pali quotations in the footnotes. as they appeared in the Original Draft Translation. the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera) evidently studied the Vimuttimagga. The fact that certain teachings are common to both the AbhayagiriXXXTJ . I should consider myself amply rewarded. By this attempt of mine if but just a few readers happen to be benefitted. the following is included here. What it says is that the Vimuttimagga is the work of the Venerable Upatissa Thera. says "Vimuttimagga. precisely" did probability in paragraph B became certainty in paragraph c? As for the third statement. with the help of the word for word translation in consultation with Soma Thera's notes. some things stated here could have been said in other and better ways. Since the Introduction had already been sent to the Printers by the time the 'Encyclopaedia of Buddhism' (1961 Government or Ceylon. Therefore. How. In preparing this work for printing I have made a few alterations in the rendering of certain terms and passages. (1) aboVe. Vimuttimagga "probably belonged to the Abhayagiri sect". while the second. which was a manual of the Abhayagirivihiira sect" (paragraph c). were inserted by me. was Upatissa's work and belonged to the Abhayagirivihiira sect is mentioned in the tikii (sub-commentary. The lacunae in the Draft Translation were filled. in accordance with notes and instructions left by the Venerable Soma Thera.) "probably belonged to the Abhayagiri sect and not to the Mahiivihiira sect" (paragraph B continued from the previous page). e. perhaps. and (3) "That the Vimuttimagga. (2) that "He (i. which was a manuel of the Abhayagirivihiira sect". the A!!hakavagga of the Suttanipiita etc. Dhammapiila's Paramatthamafijiisii) of the Visuddhimagga" (paragraph c). In his article. (2) above. Inexpert as I am in scholarly persuits there is bound to be many a lack in my portion of this work and so I ask reader to bear with me should he detect any errors of commission or omission here. (3) above. to any extent.e. except a few from the Visuddhimagga and some from the DhammasangmJi etc. K6gen Mizuno makes three statements on page 78 of the Encyclopaedia regarding the Vimuttimagga: (1) that the Vimuttimagga (along with the Dhammapada.

P. and Trenchner's Critical Pali Dictionary. Vijiriiriima. p. To Mr. Piyasena and those who helped. To ~ll those venerable monks who encouraged me by word and deed when that encouragement was most needed. To the Venerable 1'riiI)aVifa Thera for his welcome· suggestions and the readiness with which he helped in many ways. D. xxxvi. May the result of this pure deed redound in full measure to his lasting happiness. I have derived much help from Prof. Provision has been made by him to keep the price of this book within reach of the modest purse. Mudallyar D. XXXllI . Dr. Weerasuria who has generously borne the entire cost of publishing this translation. Lakshman de Mel who read through the type-script and made valuable suggestions. R. to Dr. Ceylon. To the Venerable MaQihe Paiiiiiisiha Mahii Niiyaka Thera of Vajiriiriima for his. Roland D. To Mr.him for taking a great deal of trouble in preparing the English Index.Preface vihiira and the Vimuttimagga does not prove that the latter belonged to the Abhayagirivihiira sect. Lastly. who passed away on 25. To Mr. October 2505/1961. V.P. Copenhagen 1924-1948 have been equally helpful. kindly and ready help and advice at all· times lacking which this work would not have been completed. the happiness of Nibbana. Joseph Soysa who helped in reading over some of the proofs. The Pall Text Society's Pall-English Dictionary 1921. The Printers have to be thanked for their patience and high quality'of work. 57 of the pre~ent translation. W. 5. He has always been much interested in the Vimuttimagga and in its publication. D. 1949.. It is with great pleasure that I make the following acknowledgements to all those whose help and encouragement made my work less difficUlt. D. KHEMINDA THERA. Bapat's Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga-a Comparative Study. For details see Introduction pp. 2. He has performed this meritorious act (puiiiiakamma) with great faith (saddhii) wishing his father. Colombo. Weerasuria I. XXXVII and n. and the Venerable 1'riiI)amoli Thera's translation of the Visuddhimagga-The Path of Purification.

.

amoli Thera): So may I in my last becoming Behold the joys of Tiivatirhsii. So.. and sentences was there any kind of deviation in all three books. 236-39. or else it has to be conceded that the Mahiivihiira Theras knew very well that the Bodhisatta Metteyya could not have been born in this world at this time. for. When this was done. Lord of Sages. that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera and the Bodhisatta Metteyya are two different persons has been established by the Venerable . Highest Of persons in the World. in the teaching of the Theras. this is Metteyya!" and handed over to him the books of the three Pitakas together with the commentary' Dr. perhaps. which is amply borne out by this (i.INTRODUCTION INby Prof. when we ·were immensely helped by the princely donations of your wealthy men. the earlier statement of the Mahtivarhsa at Ch. Further. the devas produced the first two copies. for instance. 1936 to the translators of the Gedatsu Do Ron (Vimuttimagga) said. making such references to his article as you thought fit". there appeared an article Referring to it Mrs. 'the Way to Deliverance'''. if you objected. 241-43): 'Then the bhikkhus read out all the three books together. Geiger's translation. And having in my last life seen Metteyya. . May I grace the Victor's Dispensation By realizing its Highest Fruit'. Then the community satisfied and exceedingly well pleased. XXXII. and Helper Delighting in all beings' welfare. Rhys Davids in a letter dated September 20. the devas had hidden it and he had to write it afresh.Buddhaghosa Thera himself in his Postscriflt to the Visuddhimagga (found only in the Sinhalese texts and translated by l"Iii1J. with anything he liked to add. it too was hidden by the devas. eried again and again: "without doubt. in words. By this statement it was.see.i's excellent article in our Journal. nor also as regards the sequence (of the subjects). XXXV . C. Neit)ler in composition and content. It was then found that the three copies agreed in every detail. Ch. according to the Culavamsa chapter XXXVII. Nagai took the Buddhist world by surprise. This article of Prof. when the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had written the Visuddhimagga at the behest of the Mahtisangha. M.own preface. I would undertake at once to publish the work with Prof. Nagai on "The Vimutti-Magga. as preface. And heard that Holy One proclaim The Teaching of the Noble Law. . the compassionate Bodhisatta Metteyya dwells in the Tusita-city'Dr. Dr. A. F. Or. 1919. only intended to stress the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera's great ability. when he wrote it for the third time and presented it to the Mahtisangha. the Visuddhimagga) and his later ·works. I should ask you three to write your . Nag'J. "Then as to the issuing of the book (referring to the Path of Freedom) in a volume of print: Were this society in easier circumstances enjoyed by it up to the Great War. XXXVII. 73: 'Awaiting the time when he shall become a Buddha. No other view seems to be warranted. The record goes on to say (Cv.e. Geiger's translation. in the quotations. the Journal of the Pall Text Society of 1919. it is said.

During this period they expounded the Vinaya and on one occasion the Venerable Upatissa Thera. the author being Arahant Upatissa. too. it is said that there were two elders. pronounced a ruling on a question that arose regarding the first Parajika. because he is often quoted in the Venerable Upatissa Thera's text. Upatissa Thera was superior to the other. 263). 4. the Mahavihara Theras would have known. Tena hi Vimuttimagge tatha vuttarh. Here is where the article of Prof. It will be noted that 'the three Pi/akas together with Commentary' were handed over to the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera by the Mahasangha only after he had written the Visuddhimagga. Prof. if he had access to the three Pilakas.-" 'Some' is said with reference to the Venerable Upatissa Thera. The teacher. From the foregoing it is clear that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had the Vimuttimagga of Venerable Upatissa Thera before him when he wrote the Visuddhimagga.Introduction And this. Bearing No. To show that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera was aware of the . XXXVI . p. and the Commentary only after he had 'written this General Commentary to the three Pilakas. Nanjio's Catalogue is a work in Chinese called Cilf-to-tao-lun. pupils of the same teacher who was proficient in the Vinaya. who was also called Upatissa. Nagai adduces the following reasons: 1. and his pupil the Venerable Mahapaduma Thera. while Mahapaduma Thera learned it eighteen times and was. Venerable MorontuQuve Dhammananda Nayake Thera's Sinhalese ed. 3. the Venerable Upatissa Thera. Now. It is quite probable that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had the Vimuttimagga in mind when he made this comment. Prof. Dr. 103) which says: Ekacce ti Upa(issattherarh sandhdyaha. There is a discrepancy in this account of the Cii!avamsa. It cannot be the Venerable Sariputta Thera. Nanjio has rendered the title of this work in Sanskrit as 'Vimok~a-Marga'. When the former left his teacher to live elsewhere Mahapaduma Thera remained with his teacher saying that as long as one's teacher was alive one should be with him and learn the Vinaya and the Commentaries many times more. which is correctly designated the General Commentary to the three Pifakas. Then he goes on to mention the account of the gift of King Vasabha's queen to the Venerable Mahapaduma Thera who accepted it as his teacher's share. It is also called Gedatsu Do Ron. named Upatissa Thera and Phussadeva Thera. The latter learned the Vinaya Pi/aka nine times from bis teacher. In trying to identify him with a Ceylon Thera. the superior. A teacher such as the Venerable Upatissa Thera was the most appropriate person to be the author of a work of such importance as the Vimuttimagga. at the request of the Mahasangha in assembly. recited the Vinaya in this manner for many years more. how did he do it? . 2. the Cii!avamsa account seems to make out that the visuddhimagga was written without recourse to other works. Prof. therefore. In the Samantapdsddika (1. and he had two pupils named Mahapaduma Thera and Mahasumana Thera. But in thus stressing his ability. This is difficult to comprehend. . for there is the definite statement of the Venerable Dhammapala Thera in his commentary to the Visuddhimagga (Paramatthamafijiisa. Nagai refers to the comments of the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera regarding the "fourteen cariya's" of the Vimuttimagga. 1293 in Prof.existence of the Vimuttimagga. p. Nagai appears to fit in. It is said thus by him in the Vimuttimagga".

it begins by saying that he who wishes to "lead those on the other shore to perfection.la­ moli Thera's opinion on the subject will be of interest: "However the Vimuttimagga itself contains nothing at all of the Mahayana. Regarding the statement (a) above. not of exegesis" (path of Purification Introduction pp. Prof. 134) referred to any high personage from Ceylon. do not in themselves constitute Abhidhamma in the sense of that Pitaka). n) no use is made of it to explain conscious workings. further. Bhadantacariya Buddhaghosa himself never mentions it" (Introduction. (b) He says. In support of his theory that the Vimuttimagga originated in India.. 66-109 A. has examined a great deal of material. 86). he puts for. II.· Nagai's view that the. The disputed points· are not schismatical. etc. See p. 321. 117-18. liv): (a) "It is very likely that Vimuttimagga. serving as a compendium for that portion of Buddhist literature . which is the keystone of Bhadantacariya Buddhaghosa's exegesis. V. P.lamoli Thera rightly says.. If·the view of "2. is not used at all in the Vimuttimagga (Aggregates. This name is found at S. and nothin"g from the Patthtina. G. even in its description of the Consciousness Aggregate. He says. the following reasons (p.. xxxvn . Again he says: "Also Abhidhamma. that if it is granted that theVimuttimagga was taken to China by some of the schools of approximately the· same tradition. Truths. no reference to the Dhamma: sailga1)i's classification of 89 types.Malalasekera has this io say on the subject: (a) "The Vimutti"magga is an Abhidhamma exegesis.the Thera-vdda" (pp. among others. liv) to his careful work "Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga. c. the late Yenerable :t\raJ. and in some points the Chinese wQrk ·seems to have been inlluenced by the Mahayana doctrine" (p. This Vimuttimagga is in fact a book of practical instruction.Introduction In his Pall Literature of Ceylon. Abhidhamma and Vinaya". The statement of the Venerable Dhammapiila Thera in the Paramatthamaiijiisti quoted earlier seems to disallow (b) above. "However. and though the 'Cognitive Series' is stated once in its full. "it would not be difficult to conclude thai the Visuddhi~magga and Vimutti-magga are more or less independent works. Unless the name Niirada (p. which seems to be very improbable". Dr. Regarding the view that the Vimuttimagga was a work written at the Abhayagiri Monastery.vard. "That it (the Vimuttimagga) contains some minor points accepted by the Abhayagiri Monastery does not necessarily imply that it had any special connection with that centre. xxvn-xxvm). Bapat in the Introduction (p. the late Venerable ~aJ. though of course. . vm). The Venerable Buddhadatta Maha Nayaka Thera in the Pall Text Society's edition of the Saddhammappajotikd refers to Prof. xxvm). for instance. should be versed in the Sutta. form (in Ch. Here.. The sources may have been common to both. written by men belonging to much the same school of thought . there is no such great difference as cannot be bridged between his supposition and mine" (Introduction p. it will be seen that very liitle Abhidhamma is found in the Vimuttimagga. P . 87-88). its unorthodoxies being well within the 'Hinayana' field".was one of the books brought over from India. A Comparative Study" (1937). Dr. From the internal evidence of the book we may say that there is no reference to any name2 or place in Ceylon". There is. author of the Vimuttimagga was the Venerable Upatissa Thera who :flourished during King Vasabha's reign.

liv). Can it suggest the black soil of the country of origin' of Upatissa?" The soil in many parts of Ceylon. in the texts and commentaries.is accepted. which we have alrea~y noticed. "We find Upatissa going into the details of the development or the foetus week·byweek" (p. in South or Dravidian India where there is a very strong prejudice against Ca1. appropriate similes were used by the Buddha and his Disciples. car:zrjdla is mentioned. "3. and the commentators who came after them.egardihg the statement. in the Satipauhiina Suttas. that the "Vimuttimagga is in fact a book of practical instruction. Caraka is not unknown. "Just as if a clever butcher or butcher's apprentice. and the Sangha for refuge) but who does not ob~erve the silas etc. III. then the Vimuttimagga most probably bases itself here on some other medical work of Indian origin known in Ceylon at the time. the reference to a Ca1. .. and if it is recognized that the whole style of the Vimuttimagga makes for brevity . 173-74.lQiilas" (p. these sentences occur in the Vimuttimagga itself. 214.Ul (as said by B. not of exegesis" . the Dhamma.lrjdla in a different context referring to an updsaka (i. Upatissa's change of the 'yellow' colour of the earth for kasi1.) -into 'black' (p. . liv). XXXVIU . But if the list of worms is not derived from the first two works or one of them. These names must have been taken by Upatissa from some old work or workS on medical science" (p. the car:zrjdla· was a person looked down upon.Introduction the late Venerable J. Here it should be borne in mind that in the society of the time. is black..· The first two works have been in use in Ceylon through the ages. The upholding of the caste system does not ·come in here. R. Colombo. If the word car:zrjdla was used in a simile. the motive behind it was nothing else thaR to facilitate the understanding of the point under discussion. when the Buddha.it is even abrupt sometimes -. Bapat himself (p.e. I. 116-42) may also be mentioned here. It does not mean that they thereby endorsed some of the statements made in their similes: For instance. (b) "We find in this book many words which are transliterations of Indian words.lvi). 3 particularly. References to Ca1. says.lrJdla. at A. 206). This is to ·Since writing the above the Caraka Samhitii has been translated into Sinhalese by Ayurveda Siistri R. 107 and A. it will be seen from pp.he being called updsakacar:zrJdla (A.. This is as it should be. and when medicine or anything related to medical science is mentioned it is natural for Ceylon writers to use Indian terms: for what medical knowledge Ceylon possessed at the time was of Indian origin. n. 3 that here the. The standard Ayurvedic medical works in use even now are SUSruta and Viigbhata. Vimuttimagga follows the Sutta and its commentary. seeing that the Dhamma is of Indian origin. thus: "Virtue is called exceII!:nt joy. Further. the highest of all castes .lrJdlas are found eslewhere. For instance. too.lamoli Thera." and so on. To illustrate certain points in a way that the large mass of the people would understand. III. then it will be seen that the exclusion of any 'name or place in Ceylon' is not surprising.which is also the view of the late Venerable Soma Thera and myself . as pointed out by Prof. having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions were sitting at the main cross-road. (c) "Besides. Buddhadasa. also points to the origin of the book in India.'itii1. it does not follow that the Buddha upheld the buchers' profession. one who has gone to . the Buddha and his disciples were opposed to it as we see in the use of the word ca1. The list of worms residing in different parts' of the body gives names which are transliterations ofIndian names.the Buddha. The Vasata Sutta (Sn. xlvi). 43) may be considered as significant. On the contrary. and also later.

to see a CQT)rjdla on the way is considered to be a sufficient reason for the laxity in the observance of the practice of sapadiina-cdrikti (going from house to house in succession for begging one's food)" (p. he should avoid elephants or horses that may be coming in his way. who reigned for eighteen year~.IIfdla where we are told in a simile that he has no desire for a princely throne" (p. as will be seen later. to say the least. the support from the large majority of the people would be liable to be withdrawn and the life of the bhikkhu rendered difficult.Here the story of the son and heir of the King Dunhagamal]. covering the bowl on seeing a cQT)rjdla is for self-protection. was succeeded by his brother. the receiving of alms from one they considered an outcast.tila. It is an offence not to do so. "As an outcast h!lS no desire for a king's throne" (p. Therefore King DunhagiimaQ. namely. It is plain that it is to avoid being hurt or even killed. or goes behind his preceptor. transliteration) covers his bowl. Further. Here is the relevant passage from the present translation (p. Regarding the preceptor or teacher . (2) With regard to the next objection: "At another place. 2-4). "Upatissa says that if a mendicant sees a CaT)rjdla on the way. Again. xlvi). He seems to have some kind of contempt for. there is a reference to a CaT.tila. he does not fail in 'regular almsround' ". "Nirdso saddhamme cQ1). . Ch."He isdesiteless for the Good Law as a caT)rjtila (outcast) is for a kingdom". a Car. he tenderly loved a caQ. This is the sacred caste" (p. Then on the same page he goes on to say the following. avoids them.Introduction wear the thread which must be worn. 36): "What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'regular almsround'? If a bhikkhu on seeing elephants or horses fighting or in rut. "Even if he has taken up the practice of a sapadiinactirika.<.tila" (pp.iiila woman of exceedingly great beauty. at the gate. 8). It is therefore not a statement peculiar to tlie Venerable Upatissa Thera.it is out of respect due to them. It is said that the people were prosperous and happy during his reign and that he had a son named SaIiriijakumiira. XXXIII. or did not favour. Saddhiitissa. Bapat to protest seems to be the statement found in Chapter m dealing with the Austerities. Now let us consider why the expedience in regard to elephants and horses may be resorted to. 54) . he should cover his beggingbowl. (1) "In one place. What has largely prompted Prof. after his death. The sarile idea is found in the Visuddhimagga too. xlvi). he cared nothing for kingly rulc" (Mv. xlvi-xlvii). who already in a former birth had been his consort. This is not quite what the text says. and his objection runs thus: "Let us note one peculiar fact about Upatissa. he should cover his begging-bowl and may skip over some houses and go further. Then the next sentence continues. which are possibly the reasons for the statement mentioned above. If the people objected to. . and thus commits certain faults for expedience' sake. at p. teacher or a visiting bhikkhu.i comes readily to mind.z401a" (p. concerning whom the following is recorded.q. "Greatly gifted was he and ever took delight in wor~ of merit. The society at that time was very much caste-conscious. 'Following one's dcariya or upajjhiiya' is also mentioned as an occasion for exception". XXXIX . The relevant passage is. xlvi). or low opinion of. In the third place we find a lack of conscientiousness (ahirika) is 'compared to a CaT)q. Seeing a caT)"t/. There is no question of laxity. because of her loveliness.i.rjdlakumdrako viya rajje" (p. Since he was greatly enamoured of the Asokamiiliidevi. 25 of the present translation). or on seeing an' putcast (cQ1). 23.

How appropriate the background provided by the prince's' story is for purposes of the simile. in part at least. "He is desireless for the Good Law as an outcast (cQlJd4la) is for a kingdom"! Have not both the Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga been making some sort of allusion.44/akurrui. nictikulino pi muni 4/titimti tijtiniyo hoti hirinisedho . namely.Iv). to this following statement. Katlhti have jtiyati jtitavedo. 136 No birth a wastrel. . liv . can be seen from the present translation. "My discovery of the Tibetan version of the third chapter on 'dhutas' is also important. As for the statement that the Vimuttimagga "reveals no special mastery .and lJrahmins too* is beyond doubt. as an outcast has no desire for a king's throne". and King Vasabha from 66-110 A. 25. Nagai for that Upatissa who lived in the first century A. which was perhaps even inspired by it.C. . 462 Judge not by birth but life. As any chips feed fire . this story will provide him with the most appropriate material for a simile to illustrate the regardlessness of an unvirtuous man for the Good Law. to this event. the Vimuttimagga is hardly the place to display such special knowledge. Nitiiso saddhamme i:m. Mean birth may breed a sage Noble and staunch and true* 2.rako viya rqjje. Na jaccti 'vasalo' hoti. Vi3Uddhimagga p. which would. An article which the late Lama Geshe La Gedum Chomphell originally contributed • Lord Chalmers' translation..or a Brahmin .Sn. noooubt. 'tis conduct wastrels makes . p. That the author of the Vimuttimagga. 25.makes. . whoever it was. lvi). 54. It does not appear to be probable that a text from Ceylon was taken over to India and there it was studied tn Buddhist schools and that it assumed such importa.C. knew such passages as ~. in Tibetan" (pp.. He has no desire for the Noble (Law).iiI this statement and the simile which is common to botl!. in Ceylon" (p.nce as to be translated. Surely something ~lar ."He carecinotbingfor kingly rule". Mti jtitirh puccha carm. the Vintuttimagga and the Vi3Uddhimagga.)? If our author is in fact this Upatissa Thera.wii ca puccha.is 1.of the' Vinaya which is claimed by Prof.Vimllttimagga p. Finally. This Tibetan text provides an additional evidence to show the Indian origin of the book. XL .So rajjam neva kiimayi.na jaccti hoti brtihma1)o. have shocked the whole land'1 Might it not seem that here was an actual story well-known in the land and even recent history as far as the Venerable Upatissa Thera of King Vasabha's reign was concerned (King Dutthagamar. kammanti 'vasalo' hoti kammanti hoti brtihma1)o . And it is inconceivable that he had a prejudice which he put down in writing knowing full well that it was entirely against the Teaching of the Buddha.U reigned from 161-137 B.D.Sn.

Colombo. was here in the eleventh century". he made many lamas his disciples through his preaching. This manuscript has been assigned to the twelfth. a Sarvastivdda work. during that time he studied all branches of Buddhism". The Venerable Vanaratana in his account of a pilgrimage he made to Sri Pada in Ceylon states that he received two bone relics there. Rahula Sankrityayana of the Vidylilankara University. as the last great Indian Mahapa1}rjita who came to live and teach in Tibet. The full admission of Vanaratana to the Sangha by Ceylon theras. or the thirteenth. he said. A native of Bengal. 1 In view of the above we are entitled to say that. This time he was able to speak Tibetan well. Vanaratana returned to his country and not long afterwards reentered Tibet. I myself remember the late lama. the founder of a new sect. probably dated back to the Venerable Vanaratana Thera's time. to him Vanaratana gave one of the relics he had got in Ceylon.A. On reaching Tibet his interpreter died. He received full ordination in Ceylon. the Ceylon Daily News reported. when he was prepa:uing this article.Introduction to The Buddhist. in the years between 1929 and 1938. and which was reprinted in the Buddha Jayanti of July 22. . 1956. Kelaniya. it has been shown that the very reasons put forward to support the view that it must have been written in India. only the tops of the horse's ears are still visible in the east and the west of the land'. The Venerable Vanaratana died fifteen years after he re-entered Tibet "at a monastery in Singpori in Tsang province. Since writing the above. known. Tibetan books show that Ratnakara Gupta of Vikramasila stayed in Ceylon for seven years on his way to Dhanyakataka. which must certainly have been current at the time. mentioning to the Venerable Soma Thera that he had seen in a monastery in Tibet a Sinhalese manuscript which. had seen and mentioned it in one of his writings. "With the relics and some books he had collected. XU . went to Tibet by way of Assam. Rong-Thong-Pa built near Lhasa a monastery called Nalanda". support equally well the view that it may well have been written in Ceylon. of the discovery of a Singhalese manuscript in a Buddhist monastery of Saiskya in Tibet by Prof. as a sama1}era. and AtiSa (Diparilkara Sri Jfiana). he was ordained young.'The horse of Buddhism iS'dead in India. though 1. "Vanaratana's second visit to Ceylon lasted six years. his tomb can still be seen in that monastery . the journal of the Y. The Lama says: "During the journey he is believed to have remembered his Sinhalese preceptor. and inscribed on a wayside rock these words: 'I salute Buddhaghosa the teacher of thousands of beings' ".M. after studying the Kalacakra. 1960. To this can be added the idea that the simile of the outcast having no desire for a king's throne. the Venerable Buddhaghosa and the Venerable Dhammakitti as' preceptor and teacher respectively. point to tke existence of cordial relations between the Indian and Ceylon Sangha of his time.B. century and is now deposited in the library of the Vidylilankara University. in Tibetan history. when at war with the Central Tibet government.. and so after a short stay there he returned to Bengal. . in its issue of September 9. The chief of Vanaratana's disciples was Rong-Thong-Pa. and the long stay here. Then he returned to his native country and. perhaps originated with the monk Vanaratana. with two well-known Theras. in a monastery of one thousand monks. says the lama. Then again the lama goes on to say. while it· is not proved that the Vimuttimagga was written in Ceylon. And he says further that in the middle of the seventeenth century the lama king of' Bhutan. He studied the Vinaya FrabM (Splendour of the Discipline). This saying which had gained currency in Tibet once. possibly drew inspiration from the story of Salirajakumara. Further. begins . who became abbot of Vikramasila.

and treated him with great consideration. and was famous in the lands of the Southern Sea.. he was a foreign scholar. volume 50 of the Taisho edition of the Chinese Tripi/aka. he was very clever. as he calls it. He was expert in the knowledge of the Abhidharma. being a translation. He further says. Karinenden (Flower-forest-garden). taking very simple fare.Introduction the account of it in the M ahl'ivarnsa came to be written later. according to Dr. Further Biographies of Famous Clerics. He translated for seventeen years. down to the reign of Mahasena (beginning of the fourth century A. No. he was offered by the emperor these five places of residence: Jukoden. After completing (possibly the study of the Abhidhamma). in various recensions which diverged only slightly from one another" (p. and Yo: Nurse. The Emperor Bii honoured and respected him. SanghapaIa: In the language of Ryo his name may be translated thus: So: Order. Tipi/aka Sanghapdla Thera of Funan Below is given the Life of Tipitaka SanghapaIa Thera of Funan. They are the great Asoka satra. He translated the Mahl'i Asoka Satra. x). wrote). After that he handed them over to the writer who was to make the printing blocks.. he studied the Vil7ayapi!aka. Vimok~a­ Mdrga-siistra. Sanghapala's knowledge was wide and deep and he was conversant with the languages and books of several countries .)". Geiger (Introduction. megha-vihara). Having mastered the Law. The following is from Zokukosoden. His translations amounted to eleven cases of forty-eight fascicles. Or So: Order. Pala was clean of body and of mind and was reluctant to engage in conversation. and others. 345). was ". "The chronicle must originally have come down only to the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. He . Hosho. He was a skilful debater. the "A!thakathd-Mahdvarnsa". Biographies of Famous Clerics. a sramaT. l!J1d "existed as did the Atthakatha generally. He was zealous in the propagation of the Vanquisher'S Faith. attended to the exposition of the Law by Sanghapala and himself wrote (down the translations). In the 5th year of Tenkwan. 50. he became a monk. Yet the Mahiivarizsa.from Kosoden. When the translations began the Emperor Bii himself came to Jukoden. in Vol. En-don-u and others assisted (lit. he took ship and came to the capital. He was a Funan-man. In the seclusion of his room he stayed and worked. . and Gui: Protector. Coming to the capital he stayed at ShOkwanji (Mahavidar~anarama). and hearing that the time was propitious for the spreading of the Truth in the country of Sai (Canton).jVas requested by the emperor to translate Buddhist scriptures in Jiikoden (Ayus-prabha vihara) and Sen-unkwan (. translation p. Taisho edition of the Chinese Tripi/aka: In the early years of the Ryo dynasty there was Sanghapala.la Hosho.based upon older material". But it was continued later. . the XLII . Here the life of SanghapaIa is given first. in different monasteries of the Island. He stayed in ShOkwanji and became a disciple of GU:Qabhadra. and indeed to all appearance.la of India and studied Vaipulya under him. the Vimok~a-Mdrga-sdstra and others. Mv. His bearing was noble and he was handsome of feature. number 2060.D. Shokwanji Senunkwan and Funankwan of the Capital Yoto (Sun City). IX). The· emperor commanded the sramaT. This occurs under the Biography of GU:Qavrddhi of Mid-India who built ShOkwanji and died in ShOkwanji in the second year of Chiiko (p. From his youth. 2059.

There is also the English translation of the Pall TeJ\:t Society by Prof. Therefore there is no need of repeating what has already been said at one time or another. He was sixty five years old. Of him and his work on the Visuddhimagga.) is reported to have written the paraphrase to the Visuddhimagga after he had handed over the kingdom to his son Bodhisatta Vijaya-Biihu (1271-72 A. points out that the influence of Sanskrit Buddhism. with his edition of the Visuddhi TeJ\:t. His translations were in elegant Chinese and faithful to the o~igina1. and I may be eJ\:cused if I go over ground already covered by others. however. The Visuddhimagga Much has been written about the Visuddhtmagga from the earliest times right down to the present day.. Dodanduwa. The Visuddhimagga is a houst:hold word in all Theravtida lands. Konstanz. But an introduction to the Vimuttimagga. Then again there is the late Venerable Pal)Qita Miitara Sri Dharmavamsa Maha Stavira's more recent translation which was completed by his pupil the Venerable Pa1)Qita Batuvita Nandarama Miiha Thera in 1957. and that of the late Venerable Niil)amoli Thera of the Island Hermitage. the Venerable Soma Thera wrote in the Buddha Jayanti of April 5. An endeavour. ~e Maung Tin of Rangoon. 1955 thus: "Had he not written any of the works mentioned above and not edited the paper. Dodanduwa in 1956. Dharmaratna revised this work. can hardly avoid all mention of the Visuddhimagga. founmer of the Island Herriritage. It IS saId that he altered many customs of the people. he died at Sbokwanji. He brought many Sanskrit texts and presented them . In the fifth year of Futsu. that it became a threat to the Mahiivihiira's XLIII . With offerings that were made to him Piila built the Ryu~l1ji (Arabdha-viryarama). They translated Ho-ung-ho-kai-taisho-monju-haiiiia-kyo: RIltna-megha-dharma-dhatu-ktiya-svabhava-maiijuiri-prajiiti-mtra. The emperor ordered him to translate them together with Piila. comprehensive work which is of never-failing interest and great usefulness to all students of the Dhamma and the Sinhalese language".Ul Sochi to assist $anghapiila. The minister Rinsenoko was deeply attached to hllD.). PaIa did not J:!oard treasure.C.la of Funan named Mandiira came to China. briefly and with a slightly new approach. the late Venerable Niil}. So in his translations there are many vague renderings (p.a. No scholar of Buddhism whether of Theraviida or of Mahtiyiina i§ unacquainted with it. completed in 1931. after carefully sifting a large collection of material.to the emperor.lhi by Parakrama-Biihu II. About the beginning of the Ryo dynasty another iramtll. 1952. King Pariikrama-Biihu II (1236-68 A. the centre of which was the Abhayagiri monastery in Anuradhapura. he could not understand Chinese well. is made to present some of these facts. was so great in the first century A. The German translation is by the late Venerable Nyiil)atiloka Mahii Thera. The Path of Purification. still people of this country would have been obliged to remem1:Jer him for his great gift of the tratlSlation of the Visuddhimagga.amoli Thera. During the last century Pandit M.C.Introduction iramana Echo and the sramaT. It is for the reader to assess how far this has been achieved. fascicle 1). The emper~r treat~d ~ most cordially and respectfully and made him the court chaplam. 426. the publishers being Verlag Christiani.c. In the introduction to his translation of the Visuddhimagga.. and the revised version of the ancient paraphrase of the Visudi. Though he translated.

even up to the present day. Ch. and for which express purpose he came to Ceylon (Cv.a. follower of Vetullavada". (2) the equally urgent need of the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera to prove his ability as a worthy scholar in the eyes of the Theras of the Mahavihara. with what knowledge he had already acquired of the Dhamma in India-(for he had written the Na(Zodaya. repenting of his deeds. but the Dipavamsa (dealing with historical evidence) belongs here (for it ends with Mahasena's reign and is quoted in the Samantaptisddikd). says the Venerable NaJ). The efforts of the Mahavihara monks since the beginning of the dispute with those of the Abhayagiri in the first century A. the Atthasalini and had begun""to compose a commentary to the Paritta". the Venerable Revata Maha Thera. Ch. not only did it provide instruction for those needing it in the practice of the Dhamma. commentaries and the expositipns of the teachers (dcariyavada) for translation into Pali as required by his teacher in India. and the founding of a school of Pali literary composition" (Intro. was able to write the Visuddhimagga. much of this is very conjectural" (Intro.amoli Thera. culminating in King Mahasena's (277-304) giving protection to Sanghamitta. and driving away the monks of the Mahavihara from Anuradhapura for nine years. were solely directed to the establishment. xiv). perhaps with the assistance of the Mahavihara Theras. "It is not known what was the first original Pali composition in this period. Two things seem to have played an impo'rtant part in making available for later generations.Introduction position as the central authority of orthodox Pali Buddhism in Ceylon. XXXVII. of "Pali as the lang_ uage for the study and discussion of Buddhist teachings. but it was also capable of holding its own as a work of literary composition. "a Cola monk.C. 227-32). xiv). a work of such excellence as is the Visuddhimagga. and quite possibly the Vimuttimagga (dealing with practice-see below) was another early attempt by the Great Monastery in this period (4th cent. Still it does not contradict the fact that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera had access to the Vimuttimagga of the Venerable Upatissa Thera when he wrote the Visuddhimagga. But by then Sanghamitta had got the Lohapasada destroyed. XXXVII. It will be noted here that the Venerable NaJ). p. That this dual need was supplied to the complete satisfaction of both parties is amply borne out by the recorded history of the centuries that followed. p.) to reassert its supremacy through original Pali literary composition: there will have been others too. restored the Mahavihara to its former position and burnt the Vetulyan books. were killed by a labourer on the orders of the queen when they attempted to destroy the Thiiparama. and he and his friend. 225-26-). If the suggestion that the Vimuttimagga "was another early attempt by the Great Monastery in this period to reassert its supremacy through Pali composition" is acceptable. Thus. but in the 4th century. Cv. Without this recognition he could not have obtained from them the. This work is more comprehensive than the Vimuttimagga and in every sense more scholarly.amoli Thera does not place the Vimuttimagga during the reign of King Vasabha. with a wealth of material drawn from every imaginable source and interspersed with numerous Ceylon stories. They are: (I) The desperate need of the Mahavihara for a work which would prove its claim to be the centre of Buddhist learning in Ceylon. Of course. Indeed that threat grew into open rivalry and even enmity between these two institutions. He then goes on to say. it would then not be difficult to suppose that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera. Then. Mahasena. the minister SOJ). XLIV .

In discussing the earth kasi~a. jhdnas arise".. 1he proper occasion for these signs to appear is when iJuddhtinussati is practised. The simile of the man sawing wood illustrating where the breath should be noted (i. 'By dwelling on white. For instance. 123) says. If. and (4) fixing. The Vimuttimagga on the other hand says that "from the recollection of the Buddha the four meditations. (2) connection. though this is sometimes imagined to be possible. or red. red. This statement seems to agree with the sutta and its commentary quoted in note 3 on pp. and only upaciira (access-concentration) is reached. that as the qualities of the Buddha are unfathomable or else owing to reflection on his numerous qualities appanii (fixed meditation) is not attained. p. black. The Visuddhimagga quotes other similes in illustration. the latter says that by developing the Buddhiinussati (the recollection of the Buddha) the factors of meditation.• at nose-tip or on the lip) is common to both works. The Vimuttimagga (p.for instance. The Visuddhimagga (p.Introduction The VimuJtimagga and the Visuddhimagga. They· agree that in practising Antipiinasati (mindfulness of respiration) the breath should not be followed inside or outside because it distracts the mind. Here both base themselves on authority outside the texts and the commentaries. (3) touching.ditation. the first four of which are (1) counting. though the seeing of these signs in itself is a good thing. This causes the body and the mind to waver and tremble. That the Vimuttimagga is an inspiring work is stated elsewhere. one sees the form of the Buddha or a Buddha statue while developing any other meditation. 278) says that there are eight stages in the practice of Antiptinasati. But it does not 'give any reason. 165) whjch warns against the practice of trying to follow the inhaled breath to the heart (hadaya) and the navel (ntibhi) and the outgoing breath ·back from the navel to the heart and nose-tip. he practises colour kasi~a'. Here the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera does not quote authority for this statement as he usually does. 159) supplies this omission by saying that 'certain predecessors' taught these four ways. then it is a clear case of failure in the practice of that particular me. Buddhtinussati. It also quotes '(po 280) the Pa!isambhidtimagga (I.e. yellow. On certain points the Vimuttimagga and the Visuddhimagga hold contrary views. both the mind and the body become 'disquieted and perturbed and . for. It is seen here that by practising one subject of meditation another cannot be developed . arise in a single moment.shaky' if this practice is resorted to. for instance. The Vimuttimagga (p. 'The four blemishes of the earth kasi~a are due to the intrusion of blue. It is confirmed by the spontaneous testimony of those who have read the XLV . say. the Visuddhimagga (p. jluintl. 148-49. when one practises Antiptinasati one does not become proficient in. or white'. 72) says.

Poona 1937.Introduction original draft translation.C. Bapat in his "Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga. caIIed the author of the Vimuttimagga 'Great Light'. XLVI . That is shown by the fact that the people of Ryo in the early years of the sixth century A. No mere can be expected in an introduction. in the foregoing pages. For a detailed study the reader may consult the thorough investigation made by Prof. What connection there is between these two works has been shown. though briefly. a comparative Study". It has inspired men of ancient times.

Paramatthamafijiisd (Vidsuddhimagga commentary) by Bhadantacariya Dhammapala . Translations - I. 1950.Venerable Morontu4uve Dhammananda Nayaka Thera's Sinhalese edition. 1922. The Ancient Paraphrase by King Parakramabahu II (1236-68 A. Der Weg zur Reinheit.). Munchen Neubiberg. 2.T. English: The M ahlivamsa or The Great Chronicle of Ceylon by Dr. London.BIBLIOGRAPHY Visuddhimagga Text - 1. 1953. The Path of Purification by the Venerable Bhikkhu NalJamoli. Ceylon Government Information Department. Verlag Christani. 1931. Colombo. Benares Verlag.. Sinhala Visuddhimargaya by PalJ4ita Matara Sn Dharmavarilsa Sthavira.C. 1908. 1952.S.) by Prof. 1956. German: 1. P. 1930. 2. 2. IV-VII). Colombo. English: Cu{avamsa. Pe Maung Tin. Edition of the Pali Text Society.T. Mass. Wilhelm Geiger. Cambridge. Edition of the Pall Text Society. by the Venerable NyalJatiloka Maha Thera (Vorwort pp. (2 Parts). Der Weg zur Reinheit.. En-ilish The Path of Purity (3 Vols. by the Venerable NyalJatiloka Mahli Thera (Vorwort pp. 1. XII). Mabel Rickmers. Mahdvamsa Text Translation Cii{avatizsa Translation - C.S London 1929. 41. being the more recent part of the Mahlivamsa by Dr. Wilhelm Geiger and Mrs. VIII-X. London 1920. 1931. Matara. 1928. 1908. Vol. complete edition. London. P. Sinhalese: 2. 1 Band. XV"II . 1950 (Reprint). Konstanz. Edition of the Harvard Oriental Series..

P. c. Bapat. XLVDI . English translation by Mrs. Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon by Dr. Poona. Adikaram. S. M. University of Calcutta. Royal Asiatic Society's Prize Publication Fund Vol. Colombo. a Comparative Study by Prof.Bibliography The Pali Literature of Ceylon by Dr.). A. P. London. Ketkar and Miss H. X. Malalasekera. Kohn. G. 1928. 1937. V. W. Winternitz. Vimuttimagga Translation - Chinese: Cie-to-tao-Iun or Gedatsu Do Ron by Tipitaka Sanghapala of Funan (6th cent. Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga. 1933. E. 1953 (Second Impression). History of Indian Literature by Dr.

I) Netti.-a. Pm. Abhms . (and Mhv.i AHhakathii Itivuttaka Itivuttaka Atthakathii= Paramattha-Dipani Udiina Udiina AHhakathii Cariyii-pitaka Ciijavarilsa Jiitaka (FausbCiIl's ed. Lal. Riipiiriip. Ud. Sp. Dhs.-a. M.V. Th.Pit. Saddh.-a.) Mil. Spk. Trenckner s ed. Vyut.) Thera-giithii Theri-giithii Digha Nikiiya Dhammapada Dhammapada AHhakathii DhammasangaI)..l Mahii vyutpatti Riipiirii pa 'i'ibhiiga Lalitavistara Vinaya Visuddhimagga Vibhanga Vibhanga Atthakathii= Sammoha-vinodani Sarilyutta Nikiiya Saddhammopiiyana Sutta-nipiita (Harvard Oriental Series) Sutta-nipiita AHhakathii=Paramatthajotikii Samantapiisiidikii= Vinaya Atthakathii Siirattha-ppakiisinI=Sarilyutta Nikiiya AHhakathii Sumangala-viliisini=Digha Nikiiya Att4akathii XLIX . Ps. C. It. ThL D..-a. Abhmv. Sv. Dh.-a. Petaka. It. Sn.i Mahii Niddesa Netti-PakaraI). S. M.-a. Vis. Mv.a Patisambhidiimagga Patisambhidii Atthakathii=Saddhammappakiisini Petakopadesa Paramatthamiijiisii= Visuddhimagga Atthakathii=Mahii Tikii Papaiicasiidani=Majjhima Nikiiya Atthakathii Majjhima Nikiiya Mahiivarilsa Milindapaiiha (Y. Nd1 (and Nidd. Vbh. Mag. Cv. Pts. Dh. Vbh. Ud. J. Anguttara Nikiiya Abhidhammattha-Saligaha Abhidha=iivatiira Apadiina of the Khuddaka Nikiiya Atthasiilini = Dha=asaligaI). Ap. Pts. Yin. As. Sn.ABBREVIATIONS A.

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CONTENTS FASCICLE I. Near Cause of Virtue Benefits of Virtue Meaning of Virtue Virtue and Mode of Life Three Kinds of Virtue What Produces Virtue Stages of Virtue Impediments and Causes of Virtue Groups of Virtue 01arious) What Purifies Virtue Causes Through Which One Dwells in Virtue FASCICLE II. CHAPTER ill I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 24 25 ON AUSTERITIES The Thirteen Austerities Brief Explanation of the Thirteen Austerities 'Dirt -rags' LI 27 28 . Manifestation. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE PAGE Salutation Introductory Stanza Path of Freedom Described Merits ~f Acknowledgement of the Path Three Trainings Meaning of Training Removal of the Impurities The Three Kinds of Good The Three Kinds of Happiness Perfection of the Middle Way CHAPTER II ON DlSTINGUISIDNG VIRTUE Virtue Defined Salient Characteristic of Virtue Function.

Contents PAGE 'Three Robes' 'Begged Food' 'Regular Alms-round' 'One-eating' 'Measured Food' 'No Food After Time' 'Dwelling in a Peaceful Place' 'Dwelling Under a Tree' 'Dwelling in a Dewy Place' 'Dwelling Among Graves' 'Any Chanced Upon Place' 'Always Sitting and Not Lying Down' 'Expedience in the Observance of the Austerities Miscellaneous Teachings CHAPTER 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 37 tv ON DISTINGUISHING CONCENTRATION Meaning of Concentration Salient Characteristic etc. CHAPTER VI 39 40 41 42 46 48 50 51 THE DISTINGUISHING OF BEHAVIOUR Kinds of Behaviour Fourteen Kinds of Persons Fourteen Kinds Reduced to Seven Modes of Practice LII 54 55 56 . Benefits Produced by Concentration Obstacles to Concentration Causes of Concentration Requisites of Concentration Kinds of Concentrarion (Various) Why Four and Five Meditations are Taught CHAPTER V ON APPROACHING A GOOD FRIEND Qualities of a Good Friend The Search for a Good Friend A Beginner's Duties FASCICLE ill.

SECTION I ENTRANCE INTO THE SUBJECT OF MEDITATION Earth KasiI}a. Begging. Its Practice. Salient Characteristic. and Resort Miscellaneous Teachings CHAPTER VII THE DISTINGUISHING OF THE SUBJECTS OF MEDITATION Thirty-eight Subjects of Meditation Method of Discerning the Qualities By Way of Meditation By Way of Tr<U1Scending By Way of Increasing By Way of Cause By Way of Object By Way of Speciality By Way of Plane By Way of Seizing By Way of Person 'FASCICLE IV. Sleeping. Function and Near Cause Benefits Meaning of KasiI}a Kinds of Earth Non-Prepared Earth On Making a MaI}~ala Method of Earth KasiI}a Meditation Tribulations of Sense-Desires Illustrated in Twenty Similes Renunciation and Its Benefits' Method of Practice of Earth KasiI}a Three Ways of Sign-Taking Grasping Sign The After-Image LID 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 . Sitting.Contents PAGE Seven Reduced to Three Causes of Behaviour Elements as Causes of Behaviour 'The Humours as Causes of Behaviour Seven Aspects of Behaviour On Robing. CHAPTER 57 58 61 62 63 64 65 67 68 vm.

Jhana Increasing the Kasil. Solitude Joy and Bliss Five Kinds of Joy Bliss Five Kinds of Bliss Difference Between Joy and Bliss First Meditation. Jhana L1V 78 79 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 9495 96 97 99 100 103 104 . Distinction and Penetration FASCICLE V. Jhana Simile of the Pool of Water The Third Meditation. Stability. CHAPTER VIII. (Jhana) Five Hindrances . SECTION II The Simile of the Young Cow Entrance Into the Second Meditation. Five Factors Similes of Chariot and Army Three Kinds of Goodness Ten Characteristics Twenty-five Benefits Simile of the Bath-Attendant Three Kinds of Rebirth Meditation Which Partakes of Deterioration. Jhana Ten Ways Simile of the Horse-Chariot Simile of the Inked-String The First Meditation. Jhana Three Kinds of Separation From Lust and Demeritorious States Two Kinds of Lust Roots of Demerit Reasons for Treating Lust and Demerit Separately Separation From Demeritorious States Difference Between Lust and Demerit Initial and Sustained Application of Thought Initial and Sustained Application of Thought Discriminated Similes of the Bell etc. Similes of the Bird etc.Contents PAGE The Sign Protecting the Sign Access-Meditation Fixed Meditation. Skilfulness in Fixed Meditation.ta .

Contents PAGE Simile of the Calf Simile of the Lotus Pond The Fourth Meditation.a . (2) The Perception of Discolouration (3) The Perception of Festering (4) The Perception of the Fissured . The Recollection of the Law The Recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus The Recollection Virtue The Recollection of Liberality The Recollection of Deities LV 107 108 109 112 113 116 117 118 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 CHAPTER VIII. (5) The Perception of the Gnawed (6) The Per.eption of the Dismembered (7) The Perception of the Cut and the Dismembered (8) The Perception of the Blood-Stained (9) The Perception of W orminess (10) The Perception of the Bony Miscellaneous Teachings The Recollection of the Buddha . The (Separated) Space KasiI).a . Jhana Simile of the White Cloth The Sphere of the Infinity of Space The Concentration of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness The Sphere of Nothingness .a Miscellaneous Teachings THE TEN PERCEPTIONS OF PUTRESCENCE (1) The Perception of Bloatedness . The Water KasiI). SECTION III 129 130 132 135 136 137 138 139 140 149 150 152 153 154 .a The Yellow KasiI). The White KasiI).a The Light KasiI).. The Air KasiI).a The Red KasiI).a The Fire KasiI).a The Consciousness KasiI). The Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non-Perception Miscellaneous Teachings ..a FASCICLE VI.a . The Blue-Green KasiI).

Some Diseases The Recollection of Peace Miscellaneous Te<Lchings FASCICLE VIII. Similes of the Foam. Plantain Trunk and Bubble Mindfulness of Body . Thirty-two Parts of the Body Mindfulness in Thirteen Ways The Worms that Rely on the Body Bones of the Body Impurity of the Body . CHAPTER VIII. Connection. Contacting and Fixing Sixteen Ways of Training in Mindfulness of Respiration The Three Trainings The Four Foundations of Mindfulness The Seven Enlightenment Factors Mindfulness of Death . CHAPTER VIII. SECTION IV PAGE Mindfulness of Respiration Benefits Procedure Counting. SECTION V The I=easurable Thought of Loving-kindness Disadvantages of Anger and Resentment Simile of the Saw Twelve Means of Removing Hatred Simile of the Pond Ten Perfections The Four Resolves The I=easurable Thought of Compassion The Immeasurable Thought of Appreciative Joy The I=easurable Thought of Equanimity Miscellaneous Teachings The Determining of the Four Elements Twenty Ways of Grasping the Element of Earth' Twelve Ways Grasping the Element of Water Four Ways of Grasping the Element of Fire Six Ways of Grasping the Element of Air The Four Elements Simile of the Puppet The Loathsomeness of Food The Dwelling of the Homeless LVI 156 157 159 160 161 164 166 168 170 171 172 174 176 177 179 181 182 185 188 190 192 193 197 198 200 204 205 206 .Contents FASCICLE VII.

Difference Between the Four Primaries and Derived Matter Similes of the Three Sticks . CHAPTER IX THE FIVE FORMS OF HIGHER KNOWLEDGE PAGE Three Kinds of Supernormal Power Seven Kinds of Supernormal Power Procedure of Developing Supernormal Power Supernormal Power of Resolve . Knowledge of Others' Thoughts Recollection Past Lives Divine Sight Miscellaneous Teachings CHAPTER X ON DISTINGUISHING WISDOM Wisdom Defined Benefits of Wisdom Meaning of Wisdom Two Kinds of Wisdom Groups of Wisdom (Various) FASCICLE X.-Groups of Two in Material Qualities . SECTION I 209 210 212 214 217 218 219 220 221 224 228 229 230 231 THE FIVE METHODS The Aggregate of Form Four Primaries Defined Derived Material Qualities Sense-Organ of Eye Sense-Organ of Ear Sense-Organ Nose Sense-Organ of Tongue Sense-Organ of Body . Material Qualities by Way of Arising Material Qualities by Way of Group Material Qualities by Way of Birth Material Qualities by Way of Diversity. LVII 237 238 239 240 241 243 244 . Supernormal Power of Transformation Supernormal Power Caused by Mind Miscellaneous Teachings Divine Hearing .Contents FASCICLE IX. CHAPTER XI.

Destiny. Shoot and Plant What Conditions Ignorance Simile of the Colours of a Painter Conditioned Arising to be Known in Seven Ways First Three links Death of the Ignorant Craving Evil-Doer Action. Action-Sign. Destiny-Sign Four Group Division . Twenty Modes Direct and Reverse Order Mundane and Supramundane Conditioned Arising Four Kinds of Conditioned Arising Through Comprehension LVIII 245 246 247 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 259 260 261 263 264 265 266 267 .Contents PAGE Groups of Three in Material Qualities Four Kinds of Material Qualities Material Qualities by Way of Unity Aggregate of Feeling " Aggregate of Perception Aggregate of Fonnations Thirty-one Similies Aggregate of Consciousness Through Sense-Organ-Object Through Object Through States Through"Word Meaning Through Characteristic Through Discrimination Through Comprehension Twelve Sense-Organs and Sense-Objects Through Word Meaning Through Limits " Through Condition Simile of the Thread Simile of the Mango Element Method Conditioned Arising Method (a) Direct Order (b) Reverse Order Ignorance Formations Simile of the Seeds Simile of the Sun Simile of the Two Bundles of Reeds Simile of the Seed.

Similes of the Three Hundred Halberds and of the Burning Head Procedure Differences Between Name and Form Summary of the Truth of ill Cause and Condition of ill The purity of Transcending Uncertainty Truth of Cessation Truth of the Path One Hundred and Eighty Ways of Knowing the Five Clinging Aggregates Impermanence. Elements. SECTION I ON DISCERNING TRUTH Aggregates.272 274 275 276 277 278 279 281 283 284 285 286 288 289 290 . Not-Self The Signless. The Ship. the Unhankered. Through Inclusion CHAPTER XII. and the Void The Knowledge of the Rise and Fall Defilement-Grasp Concentration-Grasp Insight-Grasp LlX 269 270 271 .Contents PAGE FASCICLE XI. Sense-Spheres . m. CHAPTER XI. The Burden Through Discrimination Through Enumeration Through Sameness Through Difference Through One Kind etc. SECTION IT THE FIVE METHODS The Four Noble Truths Truth of ill Five Groups of Clinging Two Kinds of ill Three Kinds of ill Truth of the Origin of ill Truth of the Cessation of ill Truth of the Path Leading to Cessation of ill Through Word Meaning Through Characteristics Through Series In Brief Similes of the Poisonous Tree.

293 294 295 296 299 300 301 302 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 314 .Contents PAGE Two Ways of Grasping Thought-Characteristics Characteristics of Rise and Fall in Three Ways Acquiring the Highest Knowledge Simile of the Bird Surrounded by Fire Four States Non-Effort in the Rising of the Formations Reviewing of Breaking.(a) Through assemblage (b) Through Duality (c) Through Understanding Similes of Drum-Sound. and Sun Simile of the Burning City Three Fetters Once-Returner Non-Returner Saintship Three Kinds of Stream-Entrant Five Kinds of Non-Returner Simile of the Fiery Sparks MisceIlaneous Teachings Serenity and Insight Initial Application of Thought and Bare Insight Joy Feeling Plane Faculties The Three Emancipations Emancipation and the Entrance Into it One Hundred and Thirty-four Defilements Three Immoral Roots The Three Kinds of Seeking LX 291 . CHAPTER XII. Up Breaking Up in Three Ways. Town of Gods. Lamp. SECTION II ON DISCERNING TRUTH Fear Knowledge Similes of the Man with the Sword. Poisonous Snake. and Heap of Fire Knowledge of the Desire For Release Adaptive Knowledge Knowledge of Adoption Similes of the Boat. Lightning FASCICLE XII.

Names and subjects 2.Contents PAGE The Four Corruptions The FourKnots The Four Floods The Four Yokes The Four Clingings The Four Wrong Courses of Action The Five Kinds of Meanness The Five Hindrances The Six Roots of Contention The Seven Latencies The Eight W orldy Conditions The Nine Conciets The Ten Defilements The Ten Courses of Unskilful Actions The Ten Fetters The Ten Errors The Twelve Reversals The Twelve Arisings of Unskilful Thought The Two Enjoyrn~nts Enjoyment of the Fruit A Second Point of View A Third Point of View The Signless Concentration of the Mind The Enjoyment of the Dissolution of Perception and Sensation Indexes 1. Pali words in footnotes Appendix (with index ofPali words in footnotes) 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 327 343 353 LXI .

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'ara. 3 He who wishes to be released from all trouble. D. concentration. 2. wishes to gain the pre-eminent mind. 'Awoke' means realized and understood through wisdom. Abhidhamma and Vinaya. Wisdom and the peerless freedom: To these verities awoke Illustrious Gotama. 4 'Concentration' means non-distractedness. wishes to be unloosed from all attachment. Nama lassa bhagavato al'ahalo salllll1iimmbuddhas. to achieve the yet unachieved extinction. wishes to be rid Of birth. Nibbana. wishtjs to enjoy bliss and freedom. 5. Hearken. should be versed in the Sutta. Now will I expound. the Consummate One.[399] THE PATH OF FREEDOM! FASCICLE THE FIRST WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATlSSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN TRANSLATED IN RYO BY RYO TIPlTAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN INTRODUCTORY DfSCOURSE CHAPTER THE FIRST SALUTATION Homage to the Blessed One." 'Gotarna' L Vimuttimagga 3. Question: What is 'virtue' '? Answer: 'Virtue' means restraint. This is the Path of Freedom. 'These verities' means the four noble verities. wishes. 'Freedom' means freedom from bondage. old age and death. A. Silam samiidhi pannii co vil1llltti ca anuttara Anubuddhii ime dhamma Golamena yasmsimi. Cntriiro ariyndhammii. n. 'Wisdom' means comprehension. . and lead those on the other shore to 'perfection.\'(/. the Supremely Enliehtened One. 2 INTRODUCTORY STANZA Virtue. 'Peerless' means canker-free. 123: 4. 2. II. ·Smi1}.

7. 'Illustriolls' means blessed. he has not the means. Tadanga-vimutti.u Therefore do I preach freedom. wisdom and freedom.Silakkhaltdha. I. This Path of Freedom is for the attainment ofJiberation. 5. 7 This is called 'freedom of parts'. 6 This is' called 'freedom of supression'. through two occasioning causes can one arouse Right Understanding. MERITS OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE PATH If a man acknowledges this Path of Freedom. They will fall away unless they hear the Truth"Jo Again the Buddha has declared: "0 bhikkbus. There is a good man. Pa/ippassaddlta6. 3. Katame dve? Para to ca ghoso yoltiso ca manasikiiro. Samuccheda-vimutti. . Through the excellent merits: virtue. 87: Dve'me bhikkhave paccayii jiitikii assaval. PATH OF FREEDOM DESCRIBED What is the meaning of the Path of Freedom? 'Freedom' means the five kinds of freedom: freedom of suppression. concentration. J3. 9 This is called 'freedom of emancipation'. s This is called 'freedom of eradication'. Since he is hemmed in by much suffering he cannot gain freedom. 14. This is like a traveller to a distant land getting a good guide. 9. 8. Vikkhambana-vimutti.13 the group of concentration. 105-6: Santi sattii apparajakkha11. Now will I preach concerning the Path of Freedom. 'Freedom of parts' is the freedom from views thrqugh the practice of concentration which partakes of penetration. Although he wishes to gain freedom.la-vimutti. he fulfilIs three groups. because he does not acknowledge freedom and because he wrongly acknowledges freedom. Pathamajjhiina. This perfect path is called the Path of Freedom through virtue. I preach freedom to those who do not acknowledge freedom in order to produce in them the feeling of detachment. Q.3 freedom of tranquillity. concentration and wisdom. A. because. although he wishes to gain freedom. The Buddha has declared: "There are beings covered with but a little dust. vimutti. Khandhii.2 freedom of eradication. Anupiidisesanibbiina. 2. 10. For what reason is the Path of Freedom taught? A. 'Freedom of tranquillity' is (to be understood) as the happy heart of a man who acquires fruit. 'Freedom of eradication' is the destruction of the fetters through the practice of the supramundane patb. sammiidi!lhijiii uppiidiiya.l freedom of parts. Nissaral. he does not listen to the teaching offreedom. Nibbedhabhiigiya-samiidhi. S. Lokuttara-magga. he gained boundless and. Intelligent attention is the second". T. Samiidhikkhandha. This is called [400] 'freedom of tranquillity'.4 and freedom of emancipation.12 What are the three? They are the group of virtue.latii dhalJlmassa parihayanfi. 12. Which two? Hearing from others is the first.14 and the group of wisdom. 5 What is 'freedom of suppression'? It is the suppression of the passions through the practice of the first meditation. highest fame.2 Vimuttimagga is the name of a family.15 ' 1. He is like a blind man who wanders to a distant land without guidance. 4. 15. 'Freedom of emancipation' is extinction without residue of tbe substratum of being. Paiiiiakkhandha. To gain freedom means are necessary.

There is wisdom which is the training of wisdom and there is wisdom which is the training of the higher wisdom.oup of wisdom? It is Right Understanding. Concentration partaking of penetration and concentration of the Path al:e called the training of the higher tbought.this is called the training of wisdom. What is the training of the higher thought? A. wisdom is the training of the higher wisdom. 3 (It is said:) Virtue is the training of the higher virtue. the training of the higher thought to a man of the middle type and the training of the higher wisdom to a man of the higher type. Virtue partaking of penetration G . Adilisilasikkhii. Q. Right Livelihood and the like.this is called the training of the higher virtue. The concentration that c. Kiimiivacara SGIIl. What is the training of thought? A. 6. training of the higher wisdom. And again. It is concentration pertaining to (the) sense (plane)'. Adhipaiilidsikkhd. Samddhisikkhd. And again (it is said:) There is virtue which is the training of virtue and there is virtue which is the training of the higher virtue. Thus these three groups are completed. 9.in be appreciated by ordinary men. concentration is the training of the higher thought. Ariipdvacara samiidhi. Q. the virtue of the commoner . Bodhipakkhiyadhamma Iliilla. Lit. There is concentra" tion' which is the training of thought and th~re is concentration which is the training of the higher thought. 10. 5. Or the group of virtue is the merit-ma.this is called the training of the highel virtue. Again. Adhicittasikkhii. Ariyan virtue .this is called the training of virtue. J. 8. Right Mindfulness. Rtipdvacara samiidhi. training of the higher virtue.Introductory Discourse 3 What is the group of virtue? It is Right Speech. What is the training of wisdom? Worldly knowledge . 2. This is called the training of the higher thought. indicated concentration10 is the tra1ning of thought. I. 7. l the training of the higher thought. The fOUl truths. The virtue that can be appreciated by ordinary men. It.this is called the training of virtue. THREE TRAININGS A man who acknowledges the Path of Freedom should be versed in the triple training: the.s of diverse virtues. Indicated virtue5 .idlu'. 4. Nibbedhabhiigiya. Or (the group of concentration is) the merit-mass of diverse forms of concentration. Right Action. What is the group of concentration? It is Right Effort. The Blessed One expoundeq the training of the higher virtue to a man of the lower type. Right Thought and the like.these are called the. What is the g.2 and the training of the higher wisdom. . What is the training of virtue? A. Or (the group of wisdom is) the merit-mass of diverse kinds of wisdom. Right Concentration and the like. (enlightenment) factors' knowledge l l and the knowledge of the Path . Q. [t is concentration pertaining to (the) form (plane)8 and (the) formless (plane)".

concentration is the medial (good). nibbidaviriigo. yathiibhlitaiiii/ladassanam nihbidaviriigattham nibbidaviriigiinisamsam. 'Wisdom is the final good' thus: U nderstanding things as they are. majjha-. paiiiiiiya dilfhisankilesavisodhanam. Concentration cleanses away the encompassing impurities-this is called the pUlification of the mind. vimutlilliir. 4 Cpo Vis. REMOVAL OF THE IMPURITIES Through these three kinds of training one attains to purity: purity of virtue. 2. 5. pariyosiina-kalyiir.4 THE MEANING OF TRAINING Vimuttimagga Q. 6. the final good. 6: lilfM silena kilesiinalil vilikkamapalipakkllO pakiis'Uo holi. 4 Through these three purities a man acknowledges Freedom's.! purity of thought. passaddhi slIkhatthii sukhiinisamsii. And again. Wisdom removes the impurities of ignorance-this is called the purification of views. Path. 5. having freed himself. piiinujjam pi/altham pit{lnisamsaIil.zadassanattho vimllltiMlJadassaniillisamso. his body is thrilled. wisdom is the final (good). Adi-. Virtue Cleanses away the impurities caused through transgression of precepts (. the medial good. on account of buoyancy. avippafisiiro piimujjallho piimujjiinisamso. Silavisllddhi. he knows it (the nature of his freedom). through disgust he separates from passion.this is called the purification of virtue). through separation from passion. sukham samiidhal/ham samiidhiinisan'lVan'l. he becomes buoyant. samiidhi yat habhiitaM/Iadassanaltho 'yathiibhlitaiiiilJadassaniinisan'lSo. on account of non-retrogression. on account of joy. Mag. Cpo A. he frees himself. on account of his body being thrilled. virtue removes the impurities of demeritorious action.this is called the medial good.this is called 'the initial good'.-fhuJlaln pakiisilarh hOli. Concenhation removes the encompassing impurities. to be trained in the excellent training and to be trained to transcend all training. he is happy.za. a man is disgusted. 2: IIi kho Allanda kusaliini siliini avippafisiirallhiini avippalisiiriinisamsiiJli. his mind is at ease . paiiiiiiya anllsayapafipakkho. 1. samiidhillii pal'iYlIl!hiillapalipakkho. . Silena ca duccaritasankilesaviso. he attains to the stage of non-retrogression. samiidhinii la{lhiisankilesavisodhanarh. What is the meaning of training? A. 3 Thus virtue is purity of virtue. J. a man acknoweldges the path through three kinds of good: the initial good. Ciltavisuddhi. he is joyful. and wisdom is purity of views. V. To be trained in the things wherein training is necessary.hrough concentration a man understands things as they are . Thus to be trained in these three trainings is called the acknowledgement of the Path of Freedom.6 Thus a man accomplishes the Path of the triple good. Vilihivisliddhi.' and purity of views. THE THREE KINDS OF GOOD Again. Wisdom removes the impurities of the latencies. 5 Virtue is the initial (good). concentration is purity of thought. on account of happiness. 'Concentration is the medial good' thus: T. Why is virtue the initial good? There is a man who is energetic. piti passaddhatthii passaddhiinisa1ilsii.

lO I. Through wisdom he understands the four noble truths 2 reaches the middle way and deeply cherishes the delectable happiness of Enlightenment. Apiiyu. Through concentration he removes the weariness of the body. paripiirakiiri pO/i/iaya na paripiirakiiri. samadhismiri. taltlllla sakadii. uddhamsoTo hoti akaniffhagiimi. . So tiJ. Callari ariya-sacciilli.4 through concentlation 'he transcends the sense plane. samyojaniinalil parikkhaya .amiidhismiril lIa paripiirakiiri paiiliiiya na paripllrak(lri. and he acquires the happiness of Enlightel)ment through wisdom.lali1 smil.Introductory Discourse THE THREE KINDS OF HAPPINESS After acknowledging the Path of Freedom. he will reach the stage of the Non-returner. So tilp)am samyojaniinam parikkhayii sattakkhatluparamo hoti. he will rea9h the stage of the Stream-entrant? and the stage of the Once-returner. IV. Puna ca parari. Cpo A. Alita.l'ojoIlO/il p'lI"ikkhayii riigadasamohiinari. 381: Puna ca paralil Siiriputta idh' ekacco pugga/o sUesu paripiirakiiri holi samiidhismim matlasokiiri pO/iliiiya matlasokiiri. Thus a man acquires the three kinds of happiness.tremes. After acknowledging the Path of Freedom. 9 If he practises virtue.. Thus. he attains to the perfection of the mid'dle wayl rejecting the two ex. 10. through virtue he transcends the way to states of regress. Siiriputla idh'ekacco plIgga/a siiesll paripllrakiiri hoti.lJ. Through this virtue he removes well the attachment to diverse sense-desires and arouses within him the joy of the fault-free. Subba bhava. the happiness of tranquillity and the happiness of Enlightenment. 6 If he practises virtue to the full and practises little of concentration and wisdom.5 through wisdom he transcends all becoming. He acquires the happiness of the faultfree through virtue. PERFECTION OF THE MIDDLE WAY After a man acknowledges the Path of Freedom.tfiimi hoti. he acquires the happiness of tranquillity through concentration. 380: Puna ca parad. . a man acquires three kinds of happiness: the happiness of the fault-free. Cpo Ibid. Kiimiivacara. cOncentration and wisdom to the full. he will reach the peerless freedom of the Consummate One. S. 7. 6. So PQJicannam orambhiigiyiillam . 2.tremes. he. 3. Majjhimii pa/ipadii.•. 9. Cpo lbid..s If he practises virtue and concentration to the full and practises little of wisdom. In the case of tranquillity he increases joy and bliss. Araham.3 attains to the l)erfection of the middle way. 4. 8. Siiriputta idll't'kacco pugga/o si/esu pariparakari' hoTi. rejecting the ex.

Mag. 12. the destruction of rigidity and torpor by the perception of brightness. lo What is 'virtue of volition'? It is this resolve: "1 will do no evil. the meaning of cutting is 'abstention'. the 'virtue of restraint'l3. the destruction (of perceptions ranging) from the :perception of form to (the perception of) sense-reaction and the perception of diversity by the concentration of the sphere of the infinity of space. Ptufatthiina. the destruction of bliss by the fourth meditation. What is virtue? What is its salient characteristic?1 What is its function?2 What is its manifest~tidn?3 What is its near cause?4 What are its benefits?5 What is the meaning of virtue? What is the difference between virtue and mode of life?" How many kinds of virtue are there? What produces (virtue)? What are the initial. 9. 'What is virtue?' It is virtue of volition. Verama{li sila. SQI. It is said in the Abhidhamma12 thus: "The destruction of sense desires by renunciation (is virtue). possibly due to copyist's error. the destruction of initial and sustained application of thought by the second meditation. 6. U the destruction of the perception of the sphere of the infinity of space by the LakkhQ/. 7. Cetanii sila. The destruction of ill will by not-ill will. Avitikkama sila: II. the destruction of agitation and anxiety by non-distraction. The beginning of the quotation from "Abhi· dhamma" in the Vim.vara sila. The repetition of 'destruction' or 'severance' (or is it 'rejection'?) is perhaps due to the needs of Chinese . 5. the destruction of happiness by the third meditation. I shall have to suffer for it". Mag. 10. Anisams~ Vata. the destruction of uncertainty by the determination of states. B virtue of abstention" and virtue of non-transgression. It is the 'virtue of volition'.. Rasa. The ideograph for 'pa/igha' is 'hatred'. This virtue can remove evil. the destruction of the five hindrances by the first meditation. medial and final stages in virtue? How many states? are obstacles to progress in virtue? How many are the causes of virtue? How many groups of virtue are there? What purifies virtue? Owing to how many causes does one dwell in virtue? VIRTUE DEFINED A. 4.ON DISTINGUISillNG VIRTUE CHAPTER THE SECOND Q. 3. Cpo parallel passage in the Vis. the destruction of ignorance by knowledge. beginning with "Vuffam h'etam Parisambhidiiyam". the destruction of discontent by gladness. 14. if I do evil. Again.. 2. composition. All good activitiesl l are virtue.a. I. What is 'virtue of non-transgression' ? (Here) a virtuous man has no fault of body and speech. 49·50. Sabbe kusalii dhammii. 8. What is 'virtue of abstention'? It is keeping away from occasions of evil. because. 13. Puccuppanh<7na. 6 . Dhammii. the 'virtue of abstention'. is confused.

Lit. the destruction of the sign by the view of the signless. Piitimokkha dhamma. I. 2. the destruction of the perception of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness by the concentration of the sphere of nothin'gness. What is 'transgression of virtue pertaining to the faculties'? It is separation from wise attentiveness through not closing the six sense doors. the destruction of adherence to the cankers of views by the path of the Streamentrant. the virtue of restraint' and the 'virtue of abstention'.gata owing to immodesty8 and indecorum. the destruction of non-reflection by the view of reflection. Anottappa. the destruction of the perception of self by the view of not-self. SALIENT CHARACTERISTlC OF VIRTUE 'What is the salient characteristic of virtue'?: The removal of non-dignity by dignity. he loses contentment. Mag. This is called the 'salient characteristic of virtue'. 8. Alaya. the destruction of yearning by the view of nOll-yearning. After this Vis. the destruction of the perception of bliss by the view of ill. . 6. Paccaya dhamma.· What is 'transgression of the virtue pertaining to the requisites'? When a man's life is concerned with the adornment of the body. These are called virtue. 5. And. the destruction of adherence to fetters by the view of the rolling back (of delusion). the destruction of fixity by the view of change. These three constitute 'non-dignity'. has 'pafinissaggiinupassaniiya iidiinassa'. the destruction of the gross cankers by the path of the Once-returner. There are three kinds of transgression of virtue: transgression of the virtue pertaining to the rules of th~ Community of Bhikkhus. lndriya dhamma. the destruction of the adherence to delusion by the knowledge and discernment of things as they are. 7. 'nibbidiinupassaniiya nandiyii' ofPts. Lit.On Distinguishing Virtue 1 concentration of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. the destruction of the subtle cankers by the path of the Non-returner. the destruction of union by the view of separation. 2 the destruction of the perception of passion by the' view' of the stainless.' the destruction of the perception of craving by the view of tribulation. the destruction of the perception of the pure by the view of the impure.46. 4.. the destruction of adherence to dwelling4 by the view of tribulation. 1. 7 What is 'transgression of the virtue pertaining to the Community of Bhikkhus'? [401]. 3. the destruction of origination by the view of cessation. It is loss of faith in the Tath1i. quoted in Vis.6 transgression of the virtue pertaining to the faculties.3 the destruction of density by the view of evanescence. It is transgression of virtue. is not here. Not in Vis. Mag. the 'virtue of volition'. and the destruction of all cankers by the path of the Consummate One" these are called the 'virtue of non-transgression'. What is called 'non-dignity"! A. Ahiri. the destruction of clinging and adherence (to essence?) by the view of the higher wisdom. the destruction of the (perception of the) sphere of nothingness by the concentration of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Mag. the destruction of adherence by the view of the void. the destruction of the perception of permanence by the view of impermanence.s transgression of the virtue pertaining to the requisites. 9.

The three meritorious activities are its 'near cause'. on account of that virtue. it means the head. . Thus the virtue of the bhikkhu is the . MANIFESTATION AND NEAR CAUSE OF VIRTUE What are its 'function'. Cpo Th. 86: Si/avii silasampanno asammulho kiilam karoti. This is the meaning of 'head' in virtue. peace. Why is it said that virtue means 'coolness'? A. Thus there are many merits of virtue. If a man practises virtue. virtue is called excellent joy. This is the place. excellent delight is its 'function'.!: Avippafisiiratthiini kho Ananda kusa/iini si/lini avippafisiiriinisamsiini. 4 This is the shadow accompanying form. And again. This is the good ornament. Thus in the teaching of the Buddha it is called. Cpo Th. Dhana. death. ·D. This is to bathe without water. Just as the exceedingly cool sandal allays the fever-h~t of the body. Th. This is the ground of growth in noble companionship. Non-repentance is its 'manifestation'. nature and natural condition of the nature of suffering and joy. MEANING OF VIRTUE 'What is the meaning of virtue'? A. action. 'manifestation' and 'near cause'? Excellent joy is its 'function'. The shielding of all faculties is its near cause. 2. . This is the meaning of virtue as ·coolness'. the highest of all castes.are the 'benefits' of virtue? Non-repentance is the benefit of virtue. 6. 3 This is to permeate with fragrance. the higher excellence. This is the peerless training. 6 Accomplishing the freedom of suppression he will experience the bliss of artifice (?). just so does virtue allay the fever of the mind that fears aftqr breaking the precepts. Then it IS called death. 8: Anile pana ·sirattho sila/altho Ii evam iidinii pi nayen' ev' eltha attham vaflflayanfi. He will fulfil purity of aspiration. II. of merit. 613: Titthan ca sabbabudc/hiinam tasmii si/am visodhaye. 614: Silam iibharal. Why is it said that virtue is the 'head'? A. and induce joy. ennoble his friends and be dear to the holy ones. BENEFITS OF VIRTUE What. 615: Si/am vilepanalil setfhalil. This is to wear the thread which must be worn. head."! And again. This is the field of offering. !'lon-repentance is its manifestation.· This is in accord with the words of the Blessed One addressed to (the Venerable Elder) Ananda: "Non-repentance is the benefit and gain of virtue.V. This is the ground of the Buddhas.8 Vimuttimagga FUNCTION. 5. A. It means coolness. Mag. the treasure z and the noble. 7. 4. Even in death he will be self-possessed. This is the course of well-faring.Ulm seuham. Why is it said that 'peace' is the meaning 1. (He who practises virtue) will be steadfast in all good. 3. Beheaded. See Vis. If a man has no head he cannot get rid of the dust of passion from his faculties. Again. coolness? and. he will become fearless. 5 This rules all conduct. (he) loses all good qualities. This is the sacred caste.

a How many are the 'obstacles' to and how many are the 'causes' of virtue? A. jealousy. 3 resolution. and 8. Not in Vis. What is 'noncharacterizable virtue'? It is bodily and verbal can ker-free activities and spotless livelihood. kllsaiu. evil views. resentment. Virtue produced in a non-characterizable heart is non-characterizable virtue. idleness.i. and final (stages in) virtue'? The keeping of precepts is the initial (stage). non-transgression is the medial (stage) and rejoicing is the final (stage) in' virtue. agitation. because of tribulation.On Distinguishing Virtue of virtue? A. Indescribable virtue. Feeling (?) is also called mode of life. Mag. 106. good result ensues. 4. 44: Kuti siianiln TilJi siliilli. 9. immodesty.wikufasilam. medial." What is skilful virtue? Bodily and verbal meritorious activities and right livelihood. Adiirluilla.' STAGES IN VIRTUE 'What are the initial. 104. Thirty-four states are 'causes' of virtue. ~ austerities? These are modes of life. ah. Virtue is called dignity. THREE KINDS OF VIRTUE 'How many (kinds of) virtue are there' '? There are three kinds of virtue: skilful virtue. 2. good result does not ensue. IMPEDIMENTS AND CAUSES OF VIRTUE Anger. negligence. Vala. 6. (Here) there is neither tcibuJation nor good result. 92. r. Valla. self-conceit. arrogance. (Here). because of a bsence of tribulation. 188. akllsa/asilati. Dhutallga. evil companionship. wile. If a man practises vhtue he will be quiet of behaviour. harsh speech. lust.l"i/mil. will not arouse fear. impatience. Pa!ipalli.. Lit. 1. unskilful virtue and non-charactt'iezable virtue. disputatiousness. covetousness. Dhamm." energy. WHAT PRODUCES VIRTUE 'What produces virtue'? Virtue produced in a good heart is skilful virtue. indulgence of body mouth and palate. pride. indecorum. Cpo Ndl 66. Virtue produced in an evil heart is unskilful virtue. craftiness. 5. non-contentment with litde. not virtue. want of faith. 7. This is the meaning of virtue as 'peace'. What is unskilful virtue? Bodily and verbal demeritorious activities and wrong livelihood.1. Thirty-four states· are 'obstacles'. VIRTUE AND MODE OF LIFE 9 He 'What is the difference between (virtue) and mode of life'?' Practice. . not following the wise. . PL~. (Here). non-mindfulness. hypocrisy. malice. Viriya. evil knowledge. Virtue is also called mode of life.

Pahiina. non-practice of restr~int of the senses. group of three and group of four. Through undertaking to keep good precepts he can enter the path of merit. 1 FIRST GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE 'How many groups of virtue are there'? Group of two. I. What is the group of two? Precepts governing usage 2 llnd precepts governing prohibitions. Just as light dispels d~rkness. SECOND GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. just so a man who discards non-virtues. 'Precepts governing usage' are accomplished through the effort of faith. non-practice of concentration in the first and last watches' of the night. Not in Vi~.and speech are 'precepts governing prohibitions'.these thirty-four states are 'obstacles'. Oirilla sila. Lokiya sila. contact with women. Those decisions of the Buddha which indicate what ought not to be done by body . 'discarding'? It is the destruction of non-virtue. Through the fulfilment of 'supramundane virtue' freedom is accomplished. What is called 'undertaking'? It is the undertaking to keep many goo'd precepts. 7.irilla sila. there is a group of two in virtue: the virtue of discarding4 and the vir-tue of undertaking. R What is 'supramundane virtue'? The virtue which is fulfilled together with the fruit of the noble Path . . 6. 6 THIRD GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. nihita-dal)t/o nihita-sattho lajii doytipanno sabba-piil)a-bhiita-hitiinukampi viharati. Mundane virtue 7 and supra. The thirty-four states which counteract these ('obstacles') are the 'cause' of virtue. 'Precepts governing prohibitions' are accomplished through being mindful of faith. 2. Mag. Samiidana. Not in Vis.10 Vimuttimagga vulgarity. not honouring 'the teacher. Adilzntidtinam pahdya . . 4. The rest is 'mundane virtue'. Through the fulfilment of 'mundane virtue' pre-eminence is accomplished. If his virtue is not perfected he will surely retrogress. 5. . not reciting the discourses in the first and last watches of the night . . A man impeded by anyone of these cannot perfect his virtue. Cpo with reference to both (1 and 2) D. V.3 Those decisions of the Buddha which indicate what ought to be done by body and speech are 'precepts governing usage'. Lokl/ttara sila. 5 What is called. there is a group of two in virtue.ffiundane virtue. by the discarding of those non-virtues. 3. Through the destruction of non-virtue he fulfils steadfastness. will be freed from ill-faring.this is 'supramundane virtue'. Mag. 63: Kathan ca maharaja bhi~kllll sila-sampanno hoti? Idha mahartija bhikkhl/ ptil)titiptitadz pah/iya ptil)titiptitii pa!/VIrato hoti. 8. I.

a sila.43-44: Atthi silmi' pal'iyalllalil. "ilikkamali . SIXTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. Adibrahlllacariyaka. silan. lat.idam lan. there is a group of two in virtue: dependent and non-dependel1t.~ Virtue that is connected with becoming is dependent on craving. silam na atigapfiriyall/mh. FI'FTH GROUP OF TWO IN. atigapariyanlan" atthi silam jivilapariyanlan.On Distinguishing Virtue FOURTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE II And· again. Pariyanla-'.? What is 'the virtue of the fundamentals of the holy life'? The virtue comprising . allhi silan. makes the body its limit. kil.this is called 'immeasurable' (virtue).this is called 'measurable virtue'. "atiga (limb).. 'Non-dependent' virtue is for the wise. 3. SEVENTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. How then Ivill he transgress it? This is called virtue 'without limit'. Kalamam lam silam na jivilapariyantam? fdh' ekacco jivitahela jivitapaccay(i . . s These are 'dependent' virtues.(. Cpo Pts. makes fame its limit. Tattha kalalllati.." yantat. there is a group bf two in virtue: the virtue of the fundamentals of the holy life6 and the virtue 01 enhanced practice. for the sake of fame.'.filaln na aligapariyantan/? Jdh' ekaeco atigahelu angapaccayo atigakdl'QlJdyal!riisamiieli!. Abhisamdeiirika. What is 'without limit'? Here a bhikkhu undertakes to keep a precept rightly and does 110t entertain even the thought of transgressing (lhe precept) for the sake of worldly welfare. makes life its limit. AppamiilJa sila. VIRTUE And again.purified bodily I. Pamii(. 7. pariyalllClfil? allhi silM' yasapariyanlal. passage quoted above reads t7tili (relatives). 6. Anissila. for the sake of fame. Virtue that is for the sake of freedom is 'non-dependent' virtue. 2. Kalamaln tam silam ltibhapariya/lfam? lelh' ekaeCiJ liihhahelll 1<iblrapaceayd IdbhakiiralJd yal!riisamiidilJ(. 'Dependent' virtue is not for wise men.to lhc declaration of the Buddha. The virtue that is connected with self-praise and blame of others is dependent on pride. 5. liiilipariyanlam. 4. there is a group of two in virtue: measurable virtue' and immeasurable virtue.. 2 Incomplete virtue . • PIS. The virtue that is connected with addiction to rites and ceremonies is dependent on opinions. Nissifa.iMlakiiralJii yalh<isamtidi('lJalir sikkh<ipadan' vilikkamiiya eillmil pi l1a IIpptideli. apariyanta-sila. then his virtue makes woi'ldly welfare its limit.. Complete virtue .' so vitikkal11issati: idmil lOIn silam lIa jivilapariyanlam." What is 'with limit'? If a man undertakes to keep any precept but transgresses it for the sake of worldly welfare. for the sake of the body** and for the sake of life.l. for the sake offriends*. idaln Ian.atthi silamapariAtthi silalir lt1bhapal'iyallltl/. 1. according.1 sikklllipadan/ vilikkamiiya cillam pi lIa IIppiideti kin' so vilikkami5sali. Katamam lam . for the sake of the body and for the sake of life. atthi silan.a'. Miifla. silam hihhapariyanlam.am sikkhtipadati.. there is '\ group of two in viltue: with limit and without limit.

6. . . !\tilg. (Therefore one does evil). NINTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. 5 What is practised for a short time and is not connected with life is called 'virtue practised within a time-limit'.ako!ika. . 4.12 Vimutlimagga action. 3. 'the virtue of enhanced practice'.e. TENTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. Kiiiapariyanra.. Mag.\'lllllll". 3 What is 'inviolable'? [t is hearer's virtue. 5.. What is 'not connected with mind'? The other. I .\'amnul kamman/a. purified verbal action and pure livelihood! is called 'the virtue of the fundamentals of the holy life'. [n observing 'the virtuc of the fundamentals of the holy life' the hearer 2 accomplishes the austere and the lofty virtue . there is a group of two in virtue: inviolable virtue and spotless virtue. Not in Vis. FIRST GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE What (is the group of) three (in virtue)? It is (the virtue of) quelling evil and not transgressing. There is no time in the reward of virtue practised tiII the dissolution of the body. Because the Buddha did not declare that (i. s{lJllmii. in his mind-this is called 'quelling evil and not transgressing'. 6 What is 'quelling evil and not transgressing'"! Though hitherto not experienced feelings not belonging to one's practice arise.·tici."I.al'UJ. extirpating and not transgressing. By this 'virtue of enhanced practice' one does evil. the virtue of enhanced practice).. yct one does not suffer even the thought of transgression. it is a hindrance to Enlightenment.' iijh'a. There is time in the reward of virtue practised within a time-limit.. What is 'connected with mind'? It is 'the virtue of the fundamentals of the holy life'. Apiil. 2. What is 'spotless'? It is the virtue of the Buddhas and the Paccekabuddhas. 5. experiencing and not transgressing. EIGHTH GROUP OF TWO IN VIRTUE And again. there is a group of two in virtue: connected with mind and not connected with mind. there is a group oLtwo in virtue: virtue pr~ctised within a time-limit4 and virtue practised till the dissolution of the body. The remaining virtue of training is called 'the virtue of enhanced practice'. What is practised to the end of life from the time a man follows his teacher and undertakes the precepts is called the 'virtue practised till the dissolution of the body'.. Nl)l in Vis.

Not in Vis. 3. II. Cpo A. through fear.' What is 'tarnished virtue'? One clings to the appearance of a put-togetherthing at first sight-this is called 'tarnished virtue'. virtue allied to no desires. What is 'virtue swayed by the Law'? A man. removes various evils in order to protect his life-this is called 'virtue swayed by the body and life'. 6. What is 'virtue swayed by the body and life'? A man. 7. Pafippassaddha sila. SECOND GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again. 94: DigharatlUli/ helUlil bhikkhal'e esa l11e alltili. S.' FOU RTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again. Apariimallha sita." not-tarnished virtue.this is called 'virtue swayed by the world'. through reverence.rmi 2. Pariimallha sita.this is called 'extirpating and not transgressing'. 5. It is the virtue of the Consummate One. there is a group of three (in virtue} thus: the virtue swayed by the world. 56-7: Puna ca parmil bhikkh{ll'f ariyasiil'ako ariyakanlehi silehi samanniigalo holi akkhalJqehi achiddehi asabalehi akamm{isehi bhujissehi viiiiiuppasarrhehi apariimaflhehi samiidhisaJnvalfal1ikehi. 6 the virtue swayed by the body and life. Kalall1iitli lil.this is called 'virtue swayed by the Law. transgressing'. through fear. 4. 147: Til. removes various evils following the will of the world .ti? Attiidhipalleyyam (okiidhipaleyyam dhammiidhipateyyaril. Cpo S. there is a group of three in virtue [402] thus: virtue allied to dispa rate desires. T.this is called 'experiencing and not. A. PUlhuJjana. there is a group of three in virtue thus: tarnished virtue. S What is virtue swayed by the world'? A man. 9.t' imiini hhikkhave adhipaley)'iini.On Dij'tinguisizing Virtue 13 What is 'experiencing and not transgressing'? Having experienced a feeling one does not on that account transgress ever after .3 tranquillized virtue. the Path~this'is The virtue of the commoner' which is also the means of entering into called 'not-tarnished' virtue. assufavafo plltlu~i/anassa ajjhositam mamdyitam partimaffharil efam mama eso 'hOlIl a. Ariya puggala.7 the virtue swayed by the Law. removes various demcritorlous states for the sake of the True Law . . virtue allied to like desires. II. What is 'extirpating and not transgressing'? The noble individual! extirpates various causes of evil through the noble Path ." I. What is 'tranquillized virtue'? THIRD GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again. Mag.

anxious 3. the third is the non-distinguishing of wrOl.this is called 'impul e virtue'. If a yogin's virtue is impure he confesses and experiences the bliss of the pul'ified.[4 Vimuttimagga What is 'virtue allied to disparate desires'? (A man. F[FTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again. What is 'doubtful virtue~ '! Through three causes 'doubtful virtue' is fulfilled: the first is the non-distinguishing of place.this is called 'doubtful virtue'.:! doubtful virtue. while) tormenting others. 2. What is 'neither learner's nor learning-ender's virtue'? It is the virtue of the commoner. s What is 'Iearner's·virtue'? It is the virtue of the sevcn learner-individuals. Avislld""a "i1iI. Visuddlla si/a. Mag." neither learner's nor learning-ender's virtue. s What is 'pure virtue'? Through two causes 'pure virtue' is fu[filled: the first is non-transgression. does not repent and benefits others . Cpo Vis. fearful virtue. SilUasekh(vapligga/a sila. Mag. . Not in Vis. Seklzu silu. 14. the second is non-confession after transgression . -l. fatuous virtue. Aseklltl sila. 8 I.' What is 'Iearning-ender's virtue'? It is the virtue of the Consummate One. there is a group of three in virtue: learner's virtuc. 6. Through two causes 'impure virtue' is fulfilled: the first is wilful transgression. 8. If he had doubt. Velllutika sila. there is a group of three in virtue thus: virtue.lgful deeds . the second is confession after transgressionthis is called 'pure virtue'. What is 'virtue allied to like desires'? A man undertakes to observe the precepts for the sake of happiness in the present life and for the sake of the happiness offreedom in the future .4 learningender's virtue. there is a group of three in virtue thus: pure virtue. Nevasekhalliisekha silu. Cpo Vis.this is called 'virtue allied to like desires'. 14.this is called 'virtue allied to' disparate desires'. What is 'virtue allied to no desires'? A man undertakes to observe the precepts. SIXTH GROUP OF THREE IN V[RTUE And again.. 7.! impure virtue. he presently finds out the blemish and acquires peace. the second is the nondistinguishing of transgression. undertakes to observe the precepts . Mag.this is called 'virtue allied to no desires'. ' 5. SEVENTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again.

~ partaking of' cxcellcncc. 427. I. FIRST GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE And again. remembering 'in intimate friend from whom he is separated. A similar result follows in the case of dog- asceticism. M. he will become a cow or a dog. 10. owing to anxiety he does not commit evil . lu What is 'partaking ofdctel:ioration'? A certain man does not remove what shuts O:lt the attainment Qf the Path.this is called 'partaking of stagnation'. . Mujjhimu si/". 3B8-9.otaro "ati siissa holi l1IicchiiC/iflhi. kiiyassa Medii pal'ammal'al. Micchadilfhikas.i. he is not energetic. lion.7 partaking of stugnation. I'ii tiracd. What is 'fatuous virtue'? There is a man. Visesabhcigiy". If a man fulfils 'fatuous virtue'. What is 'middling'? (A certain man) is affected with subtle passion and is impregnated with paucity of wishes .Q partaking of penetru.this is called 'superior' virtue. great passion and is impl'egnated with non-paucity of wishes . 5. What is 'partaking of stagnation'? A certain man keeps the precepts and is not heedless. Hanabhtigiya.s superior. there is a group of four in vh'tue: partaking of deterioralion. he will fall into hell.this is called 'anxious virtue'. commit evil . I. 7. (note 3).lii gUllnan..anayollim va. 13.va kho ahari. Mag. Sace kho pallassa evarn di/lhi holi: imina 'hanl si/ella va valeno wi tapena va brahmacal'iyena va <levo va bhavissami devan. 6.. virtue'? A certain man. Vis. bhiil'clvii paripl/(I!Iarn ahbokilJI. I.this is called 'partaking of deterioration'. through the fulfilment of 'superior' virtue.this is called 'middling' virtue. fhit/Miig/ya. So go vatan. 15. SCI! M. What is 'anxious. is troubled with anxiety. sabavyalarn uppajjali. 9. 38~ f. 3. N/bbec/lwMagiyl/. 4. 3 EIGHTH GROUP OF THREE IN VIRTUE And again. For details of I and 2. and he wilfully transgresses (lhe precepts) and thereafter conceals (his fault) . but he does not arouse aversion .an.this is called 'fatuous virtue'. one is reborn as a god. 1lI. Mug.4 middling. 8. Go Silo. If he does not fulfil. Through the fulfilment of 'inferior' virtue. there is a group of three in virtue: inferior. 2. one attians to freedom.this is called 'fearful virtue'. Cpo Vis. excessive passion.On Distinguishing Virtue 15 What is 'fearful virtue'? There is a man who through fear does not . Fol' 7-10: see A. What is 'superior'? (A certain man) is not affected with passion and is impregnated with paucity of wishes . one is reborn as a man i through the fulfilment of 'middling' virtue. Pallila situ. KukkuI'a silo. Seniya dvinnalil gatinalil aiiliataram gatinl "ac/cimi: nil'ay". .this is called 'inferior' virtue. he observes the precepts of cow-asceticism1 01 dog-asceticism 2 . Hilla silo.. 6 What is 'inferior'? (A certain man) is affected with much passion.

'ila. 3. 15.conditions'.7 virtue that is good manners.affltmiitll purisesl/ miillasam IIppajiati kiimagll{liipasarilhiraril. II. FOURTH GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE And again. caste..this is called 'partaking of excellence'. 15. 4. 8. Not in Vis. Bhikkhu sila. What is 'virtue that is (the result of) former conditions'? The virtue of the . SiimaIJera-siima!/eI·i dasa silo. The five precepts and the eight precepts for lay-disciples. What is 'virtue that is good manners'? Conduct conforming to rules of clan. 10. the precepts for bhikkhunis.•ila. lIa Botllri.16 Vimuttiniagga A certain man fulfils virtue and concentration. there is a group of four in virtue: virtue as virtue..Bodhisatta and the Venerable Elder MaM Kas~apa-this is called 'virtue that is (thc result of! former . Dhammatii sila. Mag. 7. beliefs and the like-this is called 'virtue that is good manners'. is not heedless.s virtue that is law9 and virtue that is (the result of) former conditions. Pllbbalretuka sila. to What is 'virtue that is natural' '! The virtue of the people of Uttarakuruthis is called 'virtue that is natural'. "amlltlhiilla sila. The ten preccpts for male and female novices· and the precepts for female probationersll-these are called 'the precepts for the not-yet ordained'. virtue as ending. is not heedless and arouses aversion . Cpo Vis. Pakati sila. 9. co Bodlrisattamiitii hoti kellaci purisena ratta-cittena. (What are) 'the precepts for bhikkhunis~?~ The Pdlimokkha-restraintsthese are 'the precepts for bhikkhunis'. SECOND GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE· And again.sila. Sikkhomiinii . 2. nirodlra sila. virtue as accumulation. male and femalethese are 'the precepts for the white-clothed householders'. What is 'virtue that is law'? The virtue (of the mother of the Bodhisatta) when he enters the womb . 125: Semli kilO palla lIIe Cllllda etarahi IIpiisakii siivakii gihi o{l<ila-vasallii bralrmaciirillo. allatikkalllolliYl. country.-KlIsala .this. 5. virtue as complete path of endingY I. Botlhisatto miitll kllcchi. Aciira sila. lIirotllla paripadii silo. Cpo Vis. . Otll. D. Mag.this is called 'virtue that is law'. A certain man fulfils virtue and concentration. 13: Dlrammatii esii bhikkave. III. Mag.' What are 'the precepts for bhikkhus'?3 The Pdlimokkha-restraintsthese are 'the precepts for bhikkhus'.iI okkallto hoti. Bhikkhlllli sila. ya".. there is a group of four in virtue: the precepts for bhikkhus. Cpo D. 6. there is a group of four in virtue· thus: Virtue that is naturaJ. is called 'partaking of penetration'. Ayam effha dlrammatii. 11.lII-vasalla gulla!!hlt . but does not arouse aversion .l and precepts for the white-clothed householders. Allllpasampalllla sila. the precepts for the not-yet-ordained. THIRD GROUP OF FOUR IN VrRTUE And again.

fears even a small fault and well trains himself in the precepts in which he should be trained. akusalasilii.. kusalwil vucikummulI'i. silasmilil I'adiimi. cpo (a) M. thapati. An(/eiira." What is 'virtue as complete path of ending' '? Namely. akllsalasi/ti? Akllsa/w. I(ii""piirisllddhilil pi kho allmil. []. sloughing and unbil1ding. 11. akIlPl'llIn. 10.. ilOSalll1l!!hiina akllsa/as.'llcikul1ImU'. 63-70. asekha. 1 What is 'virtue as accumulation'? A good heart accumulates skilful virtue. 110 ea silumayo.-iijiveltt' jil'lkalil kappeli.U. Allsa/asilii. being restrained by rules-of-tile-order restraint. Saddhammu.llhiin<j kusalasilcl. 27: Kalall/c Ct40 (/wpmi. . unshakable one. (b) M. 11. 9.iIl. pahiiya kiiyasllcaritanz Miivc(. P<ilimokkhasalin'ara sila. Indriyasalilvara si/a.. IIp/Jwmiinalil kusa/iil/m. beginning. (b) M. kiiyakammmil. 26: Katame ea. Mikkhli silawi hoti. 27: Idha. Jcarningender. is endowed with good behaviour and lawful resort. Etth'ele akusalasilii aparisesii lIimjihallli. 11..(In his) there is good behaviour!' and there is misbchaviourY l.((pali. pcipuko iij[vo. 4. Cpo M. 7 virtue connected with the requisites. a bad heart accumulates unskilful virtue. yallh'assa tl' kllsa/asikl aparisestj lIiYl(ijhanli. Cpo (a) M. I!.ime "Llccllnti. IIppanlIallanl akusa/analil dhammiinaril pahiiniiya-pe-al/llppa(miil/a/il akllsa/iinali! dhamm<inalil IIppiidaya. Also it means learner. Ajfvap<7risllddhi sila. 26: Sac iI/alii sart/gall'. 5. 'Dwells' means guards the four postures.' virtue of the purity of livelihood. J. thapali. By this the Good Law ll is accepted. kusa/anaril siliinanl nirodhaya pa!ipaltl1o lIoli. The four-fold activity is to be understood thus: It is called energy and is not real observance of virtue . Not transgressing through bodily and verbal action is 'restraint'.. Ihapali. 6. This is the meaning of'rllles-of-the-ordel".6 virtue of faculty restraint. akusa/m. InonodflccaritaJiz pahiiya Inanosllcaritmit b"ii~'eli. 2. lO 'Rllies-of-thc-order-restraint' means virtue. 27: [dha. II. Ime kIlO. s What is 'virtue of the rules-of-the-order-restraint'? Here a bhikkhu dwells. there is a group of four in virtue: virtue of the rules-of-thcorder restraint. D.. Illapali.' What is 'virtue as ending'? A man ends unskilful virtue through the acquisition of skilful virtue..this is named 'right effort'. 12. I. Paecayal/issi/a sTl".26 (a): Idha. sadosalil SflllIOhwil. 13. Allsa/asna? Kusalalil kdyakammalil. ilosaml. 'Is endowed with good behaviour and lawful resort':. taii ea celovimllttiril paiificil'imlllliliz yatl"iblllilam pajiillati. 'Restrained' means accomplished in the rules-of-the-order-restraint.l. Evam patipanllo kho. protection. restraint. activities. 'Bhikkhu' means good commoner. manifestation. /1licclf(i·iiji~'aJil pahiiya sammc1. ~.this is called 'virtue as complete path of ending'. a man ends skilful virtue through the accomplishment of sanctity. Cpo 1\1. bhiAkhu kiiyatillccaritali.On Distinguishing Virtue 17 What is 'virtue as virtue'? Two kinds: skilful and unskilful virtue . the four-fold right effort 4 . bhikkha allllppalll1iinaliz ptlpakiinariz akllsu/iilllJlil dhalllllltimllil anllppiidiiya chanda/iljaneli viiyamati viriymh <iraMali cittaliJpagga(lhiiti padahati.these are called 'virtue as virtue'. thapati. A-car'." 'Here' means in this Master's teaching. . (b) M. dhammanaril Ihiliy(i asamlllosiiyu bhiyyohhavaYI/ l'cplI/hiya bh(il'anaya p<iripl/riY(1 chandam janeti vayamali l'iriyam iirabhati cittan'l pagga(lhiili padahati. thaP(I(. If. . FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR fN VIRTUE And again.27: Yaril cit/mil vilariigan'l I'l/lidosmil vl/amohmil. -. 7. Sekha. This is the entrance into the doctrines. thapati.. 11.

or patting them (the venerable ones) on the shoulder. Without permission. Cpo Nd 1 230. or he runs hither and thither and to far off places contrary to the rule. or haughtily stands. Such misconduct is called 'misbehaviour' of body? What is 'verbal misbehaviour'? A certain bhikkhu has no reverence in his mind. or he' courts favour. ca pllpphakhtidaniyiini ca piJJljapiit~ ca sampanne ambe ama/akiini ca. or keeps back the venerable ones. While the venerable ones go barefooted. he recklessly pushes them. or flowers. he wears sandals. sits down and gets up in a disorderly manner. guards his senses and is abstemious as regards food and drink. he walks on the high and broad road above. or tooth-sticks and bath-powder. or sits on a high seat before the venerable ones (sit). He has enough always. When aged and venerable ones walk on the path below. or he is given to fawning. he enters it (the water) before them (the venerable ones) and twists and turns his body. is possessed of modesty and decorum and is thoroughly skilled in the postures. He withholds what is good from the younger bhikkhus. he speaks lightly to them. 3. Cpo Nd 1 228-9. In various ways he slights and troubles (others). or does such other actions censured by the Buddha and thus subsists by wrong livelihood-this is called 'misbehaviour''! And again. in order to invite folk to an assembly.. When he goes to another's house he enters abruptly. Vdcasika aniiciira. in the fashion of rustics. speaking well or ill of others.18 Vimuttimagga What is 'misbehaviour'? "Here a bhikkhu gives someone bamboo staves. or sits pompously. A certain bhikkhu has reverence in his mind. I want to get food". Or when he goes to the waterside. leaves and fruits. or he enters screened places and jokes with womcn and young girls and strokes their necks. Cpo Vbh. 246: Idh'ekacco vell/diinena va paltadiillena 1'</ pllpphadiillella va phaladiinena va siniinadanena vii dantakaf!hadcineno vii Cil!llkamyatc1ya vii l1111ggasfi. 937. is there or is there not anything to eat? If there is. 938: Mattikaril telam cUlJlJan ca udakasanabhojanam gihinam IIpanamellti akalikhantii bahullaram danta-pO(laril kapil/hm. there are two kinds of 'misbehaviour': bodily and verbal misbehaviour. or goes forward. Cpo also Th. or disdainful of the venerable ones disposes himself on a seat. is obedient. Without finding out the wishes of the venerable ones he preaches on the Law or he preaches on the Piitimokkha. Such words are 'verbal misbehaviour'. or he spe'lks to others patting them on the shoulder. either by the back or by the front door. He gives what is mean to the venerable ones. or he enters another's house and asks of a woman bluntly thus: "Madam so and so of such and such a family. patiiyavii piiribhatrhaliiya vii jangliapesanikena va annatara17iialarena bllddhapa/ikUf!hena micchd iijivenajivitan'l kappell: ay(un yucca!i anGeara. He 1. 2. brushing past the venerable ones. or pats. What is 'bodily misbehaviour'? A certain bhikkhu goes to the midst of the assembly of the Order with pride in his heart." What is 'good behaviour'? It is the opposite of 'misbehaviour'. let me have it. he bums fuel in the bath-room and opens and shuts the door. Kiiyika aniiciira. Kayika anaciira. .

Thus 'lawful resort' is fulfilled. He is endowed with wisdom and is aware of the paucity of his wislies. attains to right views and clarity (of mind).1 The Buddha has declared: "A bhikkhu transgresses (the precept against) impure unlawful resort. V. IV. Upallissayagocara. a virgin's abode. And again. liberality and wisdom. is of energetic mind and deeply honours his companions.· What is 'unlawful resort'? "A certain bhikkhu goes to a harlot's abode. Mag.iro satipalfizlilll/. upiisikllnarh. his bearing is dignified. heretical monks. or at men and women making merry. . vidhaviiguc". it is said. This is called 'lawful resort as protection'. Arakkhugocara. seyyarhidalil appicchakathii sanfulthikarhel pavivekakathii aSQlirsaggakathii "iriYllralllbhakarha silakalha samiidhikalhii pUllliiikarha rillll/Ifikafha vimuttiii</lladassanakathii.On Distinguishing Virtue 19 never sleeps in the first and last watches of the night. DasakalhiivattllllgulJasamalllliigatakalyiilJalllitta.·a paltligiiragocaro "ii. What is 'impure unlawful resort'? Jt is to go to a harlot's abode". a bhikkuni's abode. 247: ldh'ckaccu resiyiigocaru va IlOli. 'endowed with lawful resort'. 7. a widow's abode. What is 'lawful resort as a bond'? It is as the Buddha has said: "A bhikkhu dwells within the preqincts of his home and land"1 . 148: Ku ea bilikkhave bhikkhllllO gocelro sako peffiko "isoyo yad idalil col/. never benefit the four classes and who are disliked by them (the four classes).. he associates with kings. 3. learning. Cpo S. calm and orderly. and training himself well in the Law.. Gocara and agoeara. he walks looking groundwards and not further than a fathom's distance. evil monks and with such fellows as have no heart of faith. tathiiriipalli kuWui scvati bhajati payirupiisati: a)'Qfil vucca!i agocaro. there are three kinds of 'lawful resort': lawful resort Us clmc reliance.'u "Ii Ihu/lakl/l7lari![ocaro va pa11\/akagocoro vii blzikkllll11igocaro . 2. or at street-stalls. yiilli . A1cghiYll Mikkhu yaya'" kathii abilisallekhikii cetovivarallasappiiyii. ministers. 'Lawful resort' is obvious. he is reverenced by the people. This is called 'good behaviour'. t. Owing to these qualities a man hears what he has not heard before and what has been heard is further expounded to him. . he does not look at elephant-chariots 01 horscchariots. Cpo Vis.. to liquor shops. Therefore.' [403J What is 'lawful resort as close reliance"! It is a good friend endowed with the ten meritorious qualities. Cpo Vbh. This is called 'unlawful resort' ". 4. and increases III virtue. These are called 'lawful resort'. 19. 5. 'Lawful resort' means lawful resort and unlawful resort.of the palace. 6. upiisak<inaJi. swilS"(fho viharati riijiihi rcijal7lahiimattehi tilthiyehi titthiyasavakehi ananalomikella gihiSQlil." This is called 'I~\wflll resort as close reliance'. he destroys doubt.this is called 'lawful resort as a boneI'. Upaniballdhagocara. believes strongly and deeply." lawful resort as a bond. What is 'lawful resort as protection'? When a cC11ain bhikkhu goes to ethers' houses or to the village. lawful resort as protection.'a palla lani kulalli assaddhalli appasam. He is not troubled with worldly cares. 357: Puna caparali. a eunuch's abode.rQ[(gena. Cpo A. bhikkhlllli'nan. Thus he does not look up and down in the four dircctiol1~.iilli allopiillabliiitiilli akkosakapariMasakalli allat thakllmiilli ahitakiillliini aphiisukiilllani ayogakkhemakamiini bhikkhzinan. or at the balcony .

wishes to dwell far from this 'slight error' seeing and fearing the retribution thereof. tlzlllfaccaya. 4. desiring gain. he accepts the four requisites simulating compassion for others-this is called the 'trickery' of scheming for requisites.this is called the 'trickery' of the postures." "I possess the signs of a superman. dllkka!a. . dubbhiisita.? A. Nd klziitam kllhanavatthu. And again. 5. S What is 'trickery' ? There are three bases of 'trickery' : . What is wrong livelihood '! It is trickery. Nemittikatii. Nippesikatii. piiciltiY'I. What is 'insinuation'? A bhikkhu preaches the Law to a rich man whose support he desires. 6. 7. 8 A certain bhikkhu who is covetous and talkative.What is the meaning of 'should be trained'? It means the seven groups of restraint. 9. simulates dignified demeanour. One causes amusement longing to attract gain to oneself.a insinuation. Should read kuhanii. This is called 'virtue of the rules-of-the-order-restraint'.h klllzanavatthll.this is called 'fears even a small fault'.lo Talkativeness means one is not genuine. Q. Lapanii. he hands over excellent robes and food (to others). The ideograph means kosajja. hoping for gain. 2." or. Liibltena l 224: Paccayapatisevanasamliibham nijigiliuanatii. l. he pretends as if he did not want to get (any). 25-6 in the Vis. 10. and wants to have the four requisites. declares to others: "I possess the Ariyan Truth and dwell in solitude.One schemes. jests and poses. coarse and different (from the fine requisites offered to one): a certain bhikkhu corrects his behaviour. Ibid: Iriyiipathasamkhiitmh kllhalravatthll. 'Trains himself in the precepts in which he should be trained' .4 detraction. For 2-6 Cpo Vbh. This is called 'trains himself (in the precepts) in which he should be trained'.' A certain bhikkhu having evil desires and coveting property. These are quite different from the details given at pp. and says: 'I have attained to meditation (jllliTlo)'. Mag. 352-3. "I practise meditation. sanghiidisesa.s and giving in order to get more. or. or. pii(idesaniya.iijika.20 Vimuttimagga 'Fears even a small fault' means fears the small faults committed in the course of training . It is to be not guilty of wrong livelihood. One. 8. there is another teaching: One arouses unskilful states of consciousness . He longs for bencfits and does not endeavour for mastery over his own heart. or harbours evil desires. 3. advertises himself widely. This is called the 'trickery' (of roundabout talk). The ideograph also means vafikatii. This is called seeing danger in 'slight error'."· Thus. temporarily. This is called talkativeness. Ndl 226: Siimantajappanasamkhiita. flatters. and for himself wants what is coarse. What is 'virtue of purity (of livelihood).. he extols himself. on the same subject." "My preaching is deep and subtle. This is called 'insinuation'. l 'Trains himself' means follows all (as taught above).this is called slight en-or. Sattiipattikkhandha: pii.2 talkativeness.and recites the Discourses wishing to receive offerings . coveting property.

What is 'virtue of the restraint of the faculties'? A. and through living in the company of those who guard the faculties. Cpo A. 25: Etad aggam . These..o get more' . Through eight ways one wisely reflects in accepting alms thus: The first: one does not takc (food and drink) for the sake of violent sport or intoxication. or it is to deal in sharp weapons. or. through living apart from men who do not guard the faculties.. On seeing a form. or it is to lead armies. Jaheyya sabbasaiiiiogam kareyya sarQlJattamo Careyyiidittasiso va patthayam accutam padam. nI. the sixth: one always thinks that food and drink are intended to remove old ills and not to allow new ills 1.•. Q.' through restraint comparable to that of the Venerable Elder Nanda. The not doing of these is called 'virtue of the purity (of livelihood).erning the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness of modes of walking. or terrifies people with harmful actions. or to interpret the language of birds. indriyesu-gutta-dviiriinam yadidam Nando. 70. smelling an odour. the fourth: one takes (food and drink) in order to stay hunger and thirst. causes people to fear him. the third. I. through attaining to concentration of mind with ease. or to conjectUle conc. because he abuses them. through overcoming non-mindfulness. S. What is 'virtue connected with the requisites'? A. Cp. . the second: one does not take (food and drink) for the sake of personal charm or beautification. or it is to drive a prosperous trade. or because he creates dissensions among them.. tasting a flavour or contacting a tangible. or flowers. This is called 'giving in order t. 9: Aggi-homa. or tooth-sticks and path-powder. as (in the simile of) the man who saves his burning head. hearing a sound. These many evil actions constitute wrong livelihood. 4. 2 This is called 'virtue of the restraint of the faculties'. and such other activities constitute wrong livelihood. a man resolves to be (lot entranced by the defiling aspects thereof. it is to divine. leaves and fruits. or to interpret dreams. one takes (food and drink) in order to sustain the body and to preserve it. Cpo D.. through not letting (evil states of consciousness) to continue. D. This 'virtue of the restraint of the faculties' is fulfilled through nine activities 3 : - Through cutting down the signs of evil which arise in the faculties. Only eight are treated in the explanation which follows. I. 143: Evam khandhe avekkheyya bhikkhu iiraddhaviriyo divii vii yadi vii rattim sampajiino patissato. And again. 3. Q. or to make astrological predictions. 2.On Distinguishing Virtue 21 'Detraction' means that a man wishing to gain benefits. it is to wo·rship fire 1 and to offer flowers to it. I. there is another (teaching concerning) wrong livelihood: (It is) giving bamboo staves. S. What is 'giving in order to get more'? He makes small offerings and expects great returns. the fifth: one takes (food and drink) in order to observe the holy life. and he does not transgress.5 through conquering evil states of consciousness.

the consideration of being satisfied with little. rough _play. not being in a state of 'intoxication' and the state of not being concerned with 'personal charm and beautification' . If one's food is suitable. The state of not being addicted to 'violent sport'. Q. 1 . the eighth: one takes (food and drink) faultlessly and dwells in comfort. Using 'in order to sustain the body and to preserve it'. S. so one takes. .these are called 'the consideration of reality'. takes little food. Using in this way. one makes the body faultless and escapes the reproof of the wise. 'One takes (food and drink) finding satisfaction in little': One keeps one's body safe accepting little. the consideration of reality. and do not know contentment. being full of desires. As a. 'Intoxication' means self-arrogance and dissatisfaction. Thus 'one takes (food and drink) faultlessly and dwells in comfort'. Also Th. man uses medicine for a disease of the . one never feels tired and one does not sleep in the first. competing with others and running. 'Faultlessly' means one sets one's body at ease with little. Thus 'through eight ways one wisely reflects in accepting alms'. so one takes. As a man taking a mixture. always. I am strong. I. Uppajje ce rase rallhii pllflamari1Slipamalil sara. always treating one's body as a nurse (treats a patient). and 'in order to observe the holy life' . Thus one should accept. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to sustain the body and to preserve it': As a hub needs oil.these are calied 'the consideration of what ought to be cut down'. so one yearns for the peaceful preservation of the body. I like violent sport. the consideration of accepting little.kin. middle and last watches of the night. 'in order to stay hunger and thirst'. It is likened to the state of an angry man who beats anotheL 'Not for the sake of personal charm and beautification': (Not like) those who wish to be loved for the fullness of their body and limbs and good luoks. co 2. What is 'the consideration of what ought to be cut down'? A. 445: vedallan"z lIa uppiidessclmi. II." These constitute 'violent sport'. yarra ca me hhavissati onavajjalti ea phtisll-)lihiiro cati. 40: 'Mho bhikkhave bhikkhu pa!isOIikhii· yoniso iihii/'a/il iihiireri. these eight ways are shortened to four considerations: the consideration of what ought to be cut down. What is 'one does not take (food and drink) for the sake of violent sport or intoxication'? A. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to stay hunger and thirst': One. And again. n.' 'Intended to remove old ills and not to allow new ills to arise': One takes not too little and not too much.22 Vim ut timagga to arise. one takes. Therefore. "I take food greedily. Feeling as a man who eats the flesh of his child. Q. 'One takes (food and drink) in order to observe the holy life': One wishes to reach the Noble Path through the advantages of abstemiousness. 98. In this way one fulfils tranquillity. the seventh: one takes (food and drink) finding satisfaction with little. A. n'e"a daviiya na madiiya na mall<!aniiya na "ibh17saniiya yiivad era in/assa kiiyassa rhitiyii yiipaniiya "ihililSliparariy(i hrahmacal'iY(llIlIggah(lya: iri pllriilJaii co vedanaril pariharikhiimi lIarai.

does not attribute these four to the 'ancients' (porii1. dayajjaparibhoga. being faultless. M. Namely. .' What is 'use as theft'? Use (of requisites) by the transgressor of the precepts. use as inheritance and use like a master. A. heat.this is called 'unclean'. therefore. And again.a Thus one should consider everything. unclean use and clean use.lii) as it is done here. What is 'use as debt'? Use (of requisites) by individuals guilty of immodesty. 4. when should one make consideration? As regards food and the taking of medicine one should make consideration whenever one takes (food and medicine). What is 'use as inheritance'? Use (of requisites) by individuals who are strenuous. use as debt.l And again. Mag. The others should be practised in the 'consideration of mean' and thc 'consideration of completion'.2 If that is so. I ought always to refiecf. mosquitoes. gadflies and ants and for covering one's unsightly shame-producing parts. 10: Pa/isalikhii yoniso civaram pa/isevati yiivad eva sitassa pa/ighiiliiya IIlJhassa patighiiliiya cjamsamakasaviitiifapasirimsapa samphassiinaln patighiitiiya yiivad el'a hirikopinapa!icchiidanatlharil. consideration of mean (lit. Thus one practises 'consideration of completion'. I shall dwell in comfort" -this is called 'the consideration of accepting little'.. And again. What is 'unclean'? (Use of requisites by an) individual having modesty and decorum but who is not capable of wise reflection .this is called ~the consideration of being saHsfied with little'. These are the four considerations. As regards robes and bedding one should make consideration at the time one accepts. There are four kinds of use taught by predecessors thus: use as theft. 1. I. These four considerations are further shortened to three thus: consideration of cutting down. by this 'consideration' a man destroys karmic weariness of the body.On Distinguishing Virtue 23 "I shall subdue the old ills and I shall cause no new ills to arise" . Ibid. A man cuts down the attachment to sense-pleasures through the 'consideration of cutting down' i. 87-8: Parapatibaddhii me jivikii Ii pabbajitena abhi(lhaln paccavekkhitabbam. i(laparibhoga.V. indecorum and wljong livelihood. 3.e. taking the middle between two ends). siimiparibhoga. cold. 253: Theyyaparibhoga. removes hunger and thirst. consideration of completion. And when one reflects on robes he understands that robes are for protection against wind. one reflects on medicines·for ailments. Vis. Whatis 'use like a master'? Use (of requisites) by the consummate ones. there are two kinds of use. "I shall satisfy myself with little and. destroys the old ills and does not caus. J. And every day and every hour should one think thus: My life depends on others.e new ills to arise. 2. V.

[404] 'virtue of the restraint of faculties' should be fulfilled through higher faith and 'virtue connected with the requisites' should be fulfilled through higher wisdom.this' is called 'clean'. 4 If a bhikkhu sees another 5 committing wrong livelihood. he can well protect his bodily and verbal actions. What is the reason? If a man . 'Rules-of-the-order-restraint' and 'purity of livelihood' belong to the' 'group of virtue'. he resolves: "I will not do it again. he will acquire the excellent virtue. What is the reason? One knows the aggregations and their dependence and is disgusted with them. who reflects wisely. WHAT PURIFIES VIRTUE 'What purifies virtue'? If a bhikkhu who has accepted the teaching of meditation1 and is mindful of the seven groups of offences. This is called 'virtue connected with the requisites'. If he lives in complete virtue. through separation from worldly affairs owing to non-attachment. Pcltill1okkha. Thus 'virtue of the purity of livelihood' goes together with the rules of the order. knows.guards his mind in goodness. . This is the teaching of the predecessors. then he confesses concerning that transgression to one person. he will acquire the excellent truth. 2. If a bhikkhu sees another committing a Suspension-offence3 he confesses fully. 3." Thus having seen. Sanglriidisesa. In this cleanliness one ought to train oneself always. Thus one should understand the four requisites. 5. Why? Because. sees another committing a Defeat-offence 2 he falls from the state of a bhikkhu and lives in incomplete virtue. If he sees another committing any other offence. After he confesses. he resolves. FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR IN VIRTUE SUMMARIZED Thus 'virtue of the rules-of-thc-order-restraint' should be fulfilled through higher faith. '(Virtue) connected with the requisites' is 'restraint of faculties'. Probably should read "himself". one becomes quiet of behaviour and acquires restraint of bodily and verbal actions. 'virtue of purity of livelihood' should be fulfilled through higher energy. 'virtue of the restraint of faculties' belongs to the 'group of concentration' and 'virtue connected with the requisites' belongs to the 'group of wisdom'. 1. 4. It is as taught by the Blessed One thus: "A bhikkhu understands material food and the fivefold lust". These two kinds of virtue belong to the 'virtue of the restraint of faculties'. and dwells in Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. If he lives in complete virtue. is self-moderated and is possessed of aversion .24 Virnulfimagga (Use of requisites by an) individual having modesty and decorum. Piiriijika. he makes a proper confession concerning that transgression. JI/{ina dhamma. Apallidesallii.

He is anxious and dejected always. If a man wishes to forsake evil and fulfil the merits of virtue. blames the wise. He dislikes and hates (good) companions. He is always angry when he is amongst those of the four classes. especially. He is disliked even as excrement and urine are disliked by men. He is not taught meditation. 2. 85: Puna ca param gahapatayo dussilo sila-vipanno yonl yad eva parisam IljJasalnkamati yadi khattiya-parisam yadi briimQ{la-parisam yadi gahapati-parisalil yadi samalJaparisali1. and doubting. ugly. Kilesa. even as a dung-fire (is honoured by none). He opposes those who are virtuous and takes the side of evil companions. Mag. 54: Niriiso saddhamme calJqiilakllllliirako viya rajje. Thus doing he is able to purify his virtue. Thina. Sifavisl/ddhi. J. he has not the patience to enter into the way of excellent concentration. He has no desire for the Noble (Law). He does well and removes ill. avisiirado IljJasamkamati lIlaliku-bhulo.consider 'tribulation'? If a man transgresses virtue. grows in belief and becomes an energetic individual endowed with faith. 6 Though he is learned in the doctrine of wisdom. as an outcast has no desire for a king's throne. When he hears others praising the merit of those who are virtuous. 4 This is the salient characteristic of the purity of virtue. he makes demerit and prepares evil places (for himself) and fears the four classes. (He is worthless) even as mud is of no value in the present or the future. He reflects on his actions. He is ashamed and remorseful/of the evil he has done and he has no peace of mind. He cannot find a good place in this life and after death he will go to an evil state. Sanuidlti. the second: one considers the merits of virtue. . The.2 destroy rigidity3 and fulfU concentration. Those who are virtuous avoid him. When a bhikkhu practises the purity of virtue. day and night. He is hated and slighted by all. CAUSES THROUGH WHICH ONE DWELLS IN VIRTUE 'Owing to how many causes does one dwell in virtue?' Through two. 5. Heavenly beings despise him. he does bodily and verbal actions that ought to be done. 6. What is the salient characteristic of the purity of virtue?1 One can control the passions. he should consider thus: The mind of the transgressor of virtue is disu acted and dejected. What is to. like a thief in prison. Cpo D. through strenuous endeavour. Vis.virtuous man. (He does not endure) even as a makeshift article does not last long. he looks. yet none honour him. 3. one dwells in virtue. If he resolves he will acquire excellent restraint in the future. And again. Reflecting thus he dwells in the purity of virtue. he feels sorrowful but does not believe it (the merit of those who are virtuous).the restraint of faculties' or '(virtue) connected with the requisites' he says: "I will not do it again". The first: one considers the tribulation of the transgression of virtue. 4.On Distinguishing Virtue 25 When he transgresses '(virtue of). If he adorns himself. II.

36. tasmim yeva khaJJe uppannakilesam niggQIJhati. (a). In the Pali passages. III.urakhamanaka. (a) J.hdivam eha yare olokento kiki I'a a!'tfam viya eaman' va valadhbh viya mata piyapullam viya ekacakkhuko puriso eakkhU/.i as a diviner protects himself. (b) Vis Mag. More (strenuously) than these should he honour and protect the virtue he has undertaken to observe. as a poor man protects his treasure and as a fisherman protects his boat. with all his strength. as a yak loves his tail. he will dwell in the peace of concentration and his virtue will acquire protection. as an ant protects her egg.. (b) and (cl above instead of ant the bird.. as one protects an only son or one's sole eye. (c) Ap. (kiki) occurs. his mind will be guarded. Supesala hotha sada sagliravli.26 Vimuttimagga A man should protect his virtue. 375: Sa/fha a/fano savake rulliya layo yare divasassa la)'o Yare ti ra/f. 1.v.16: Kiki va alJtfariz rakkheyya eamari-r-iva valadhilh nipako silasampanno mamam rakkhi mahlimuni. lasmb. 61. v. Talh' eva silam al. 621: Kiki va a!. blue jay.tfam camariva valadhim Piyam va pUllam nayanam va ekakam. . If he thus observes.. and Sddh. l'iya rakkhati.

always sitting and not lying down. for solitude. Now. 7. 2 These are the excellent considerations. Sosiinika-'. Khalupacchiibhafika-". Abbhokiisika-'. 5. for the increase of energy. 10. for the sake of using little and not accepting the offerings made to others. III.Mag. THE THIRTEEN AUSTERITIES I What are the austerities? There are thirteen teachings: 3 two teachings connected with robes. 12. These are (practices of) the ancient lineage of the Ariyas. for freedom from doubt. namely. Pamsuklilika-anga. *11 the second: dwelling under a tree. 13. *'0 and there is a kind of sitting connected with energy. for the cutting down of clinging and for the protection of moral virtue. For paucity of wishes. dir"t-rags*'l and three robes. 16. PbJ<Japiifika-'.Vis. 9. for contentment with little. Araiiiiika-'. *7 one eating.59.*'0 five teachings connected with residence: the first: dwelling in a peaceful place.*'· I. *9 no food after time . *12 the third: dwelling in a dewy place. begged food. *13 the fourth: dwelling among the graves. 1. if a yogin who dwells in pure virtue aspires to accomplish excellent good merits and wishes to acquire the benefits of the austerities. *14 the fifth: any chanced upon place. 8. Dhllta (transliteration). 2. t" regular alms-round. Yalhiisanfhalika-'. Sapadiinaciirika-'. 3. he should consider thus: "Why should one acquire the benefits of the austerities"? A. PaflapilJ<Jika-'. Nesajjika-·. 6. for the destruction of cravi~g. . These (the merits of the austerities) are the equipment of concentration. namely. RukkhamLilika-'. 15. *8 measured food. Tecivarika-'. t A. • A. Cp. 4. Ibid. namely.THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE SECOND WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UP ATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPlTAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN oN A U S T E R I TIE 8' CHAPTER THE THIRD Q. Ekiisanika-'. Because of the varying disposition of the yogin. 219-20 27 II.38. t 5 five teachings connected wi th alms. 14.

Others are similar. What is the meaning of the observance of 'three robes'? The rejection of extra robes. What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling among the graves'? The abandoning of dwelling in other and in good places. What is the meaning of the observance of 'begged food'? The nonacceptance of the invitations of others. What is the meaning of the observance of 'any chanced upon place'? The abandoning of desire for pleasant places. .28 Vimuttimagga BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE THIRTEEN AUSTERITIES What is the quality of 'dirt-rags' ? A. I. 'DIRT-RAGS' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags'? One sees the fault of asking householders for robes and the merit of 'dirt-rags' (and undertakes thus:) "J refuse the offerings of householders and observe (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags'''. What is the meaning of the observance of 'measured food'? The abandoning of greed. What is the meaning of the observance of 'always sitting and not lying down'? The abandoning of beds. ('Dirt-rags') are always sufficient for one's purpose. What is the meaning of the observance of 'one-eating'? The not sitting again. robes offered by householders. What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'? The abandoning of dwelling in sheltered places. What is the meaning of the observance of dirt-rags'? The non-acceptance of gifts of householders. There is no fear of losing. What is the meaning of the observance of 'regular alms-round'? The abandoning of skipped begging. One does not depend on others.Dirt-rags') are just as useful as householders' robes l and are enough. What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'? The abandoning of dwelling in a house. What are the benefits of the observance of 'dirt-rags'? (. What is the meaning of the observance of 'refusing food after time'? The abandoning of the desire to eat afterwards. The quality of enabling to observethis is the quality of dirt-rags'. What is the meaning of the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'? The abandoning of dwelling in a village. Galrapalicivara. Thieves do not want 'dirt-rags'. and one is not attached.

How many kinds of 'dirt-rags' are there? Who observes 12 How does one fail 1 A. this should be "what is the observance of 'dirt-rags' 1" 3. torn pieces of cattle-bitten. from a dirt-heap. or from the road-side and cuts. Uttariisanga. 2. There are two kinds of 'dirt-rags'. Ill. cloth on corpses. [405] One gets a following of good men. The flrst: 'dirt-rags' which are ownerless. One lives happily in this life.. dyes. mouse-gnawed or burnt cloth and cloth thrown away. and cause them to practise rightly. Alltaravdsaka. in the street. 4. A bhikkhu gives up the hoarding of unneccssaries. 1. These are the benefits of the observance of 'dirt-rags' praised by the Buddha. What is the observance of 'dirt-rags'1 When a bhikkhu refuses the offerings of householders." These are cailed 'three robes'.On Austerities 29 In getting ('dirt-rags') one is not troubled and (this observance) will be an example to good folk. it is called the observance of 'three robes'. As a bird on wing that does not yearn for what it leaves behind is filled with content. 5. Remnants of cut-cloth. According to the explanation which follows. Sanghii!. lessens troubles and becomes m6dest. What is the observance of 'three robes'1 When a bhikkhll does not hoard extra robes. 'THREE ROBES' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'three robes'? One immediately gives up one's extra robes.! Q. so is he. are called" 'dirt-rags' which are ownerless". it is called failing. and cast-off cloth of ascetics are called " 'dirt-rags' which are thrown away by people". sews to completion and uses. (one undertakes thus:) "I refuse extra robes from today and observe (the austerity of) 'three robes' ". What are the benefits of the observance of 'three robes'? It is an obscl'vance of good men. This observance is doubt-free. This observance is proper to those who are doubt-free and virtuous. (This observance) will cause one to be liked by the people. the second: 'dirt-rags' which are thrown away by people. A. How does one fail? When a bhikkhu accepts the offerings of householders. pieces together. Shoulder cloak. When a bhikkhll accepts a fourth robe. Knowing the fault of keeping (extra robes) and seeing the benefits of the observance of 'three robes'. it is called the observance of 'dirt-rags'. it is called failing.3 upper garment 4 and waist-cloth. 219: 'ValJlJitam buddhehi buddhasiivakehi'. Q_ What are 'three robes'? What is the observance? How does one fail ? A. Those which one picks up in a cemetery. .

Cpo Vis. What are the benefits of the observance of 'begged food'? One is free to go or stay according to one's wishes. Mag. What is a 'regular alms-round'? What is the observance? How does one fail ? A. this is called failing.l The non-acceptance of these thtee kinds of invitations is the observance of 'begged food'.30 Vimuttimagga 'BEGGED FOOD' How does one undertake' to observe (the austerity of) 'begged food'? If a bhikkhu accepts an invitation. 'REGULAR ALMS-ROUND' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'regular alms-round'"? When a bhikkhu is able to obtain tasty food from any house by making a 'regular alms-round'. If he goes again. he fails in the observance of 'begged food'. Q. One is not greedy of delicacies. What are the benefits of the observance of 'regular alms-round'? One thinks of benefitting all beings equally. one appears and is appreciated and honoured. The first: (general) invitation. is not pleased with many words. he begs in regular order from the last house backwards. One gets ~ following of good men. There are three kinds of invitations. Rare as the moon at full. One gets a following of good men. he does not go again (in that direction). How does one fail? Skipped begging I. One does not walk hurriedly. One sees these faults (of going again etc. How many kinds of invitations are there? What is the observance? How does one fail? A. . If a bhikkhu accepts these three kinds of invitations. This observance is doubt-free. and does not call on householders. it is an ordinary alms-round. The Chinese is unclear. One is not pleased when invited.) and the benefits of the observance of 'regular alms-round' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon the irregular almsround from today and observe (the austerity of) 'regular alms-round'''. the second: invitation to visit. and destroys the fault of enjoyment. 66. One permits others to be benefitted and is never attached to any quarter. Q. If there is a doubtful place he avoids it. the third: repeated invitation. One does not need food to be prepared. One sees these draw-backs and the merits of the observance of 'begged food' (and undertakes thus:) "I refuse invitations from today and observe (the austerity of 'begged food')". When a bhikkhu enters a village for alms. One destroys rigidity and pride. he interrupts his activities and is not at ease. This is called 'regular alms-round'. This observance is doubt-free.

What is 'food-limit'? After one thinks: "This lump of food is the last. Mag. This is called undertaking to observe (the austerity of) 'measured food'. Q." he should not drink or eat any more. eating frequently. washing the bowl frequently . This is an observance of good men.On Austerities 'ONE-EATING' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'one-eating'? Eating in two places.the opposite of these is 'one-eating'. This is an observance of good men. 'MEASURED FOOD' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'measured food' '? If a bhikkhu drinks and eats too much. This is an observance of good men. and abandons rigidity. If a bhikkhu sits twice. he increases sleepiness. taking food frequently. water-limit. except in taking liquid-medicine and such other things. he fails in the observance of 'one-eating'. This observance is doubt-free. is not troubled with many ills. This is called 'food-limit'. This is called 'water-limit'. One does not eat for belly's sake. 69. always hankers for much food. This observance is doubt-free. One is not greedy of improper offerings. What is the observance of 'measured food'? How does one fail? J. What is 'sitting-limit'? After one ends eating one (cannot) sit again. What is the observance of 'one-eating'? What are the limits?1 How does one fail? A. One sees these faults and the merits of the observance of 'measured food' (and undertakes thus:) "From today. What are the benefits of the observance of 'one-eating'? One takes neither more nor less. This is called 'food-limit' . After a bhikkhu fetches water and washes his bowl. This has been disapproved by the Buddhas. he cannot eat agllin.) and the merits of the observance of 'one-eating' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon eating at two places from today and observe (the austerity of) 'one-eating'''. is untroubled as regards livelihood. and sets no linlit to his appetite. Cpo Vis. and observe· (the austerity of) 'measured food'''. Q. . There are three limits: sitting-limit. One sees the faults (of eating at two places etc. What are the benefits of the observance of 'measured food'? One measures one's meal. One knows that too much eating induces fatigue and therefore one does not desire much. food-limit. This observance is doubt-free. and is happy. and causes diseases to perish. I take food without greed.

This is an observance of good men. What are the merits of 'peaceful place'? Even when the village is crowded. one's mind is touched by the five objects of sense and saturated with the desire for pleasure. . does not ask others for things.) and sees the benefits of the observance of 'no food after time' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon extra food from today and observe (the austerity of) 'no food after time'''. This observance is doubt-free. 'NO FOOD AFTER TIME' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'no food after time'? One abandons expectation and avoids extra food. does not hanker. 1 He should not eat again. Uddesablralla. (This is) called the observance of 'measured food'. he considers the measure of his wants. 'DWELLlNG IN A PEACEFUL PLACE' How does one undertake (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a peaceful place' '! When the village is crowded. What is 'accepting limit'? A bhikkhu should not accept after he has eaten twenty-one handfuls. accepts extra food. he fails. What are the benefits of the observance of 'no food after time'? One abandons greed. his offence is (equal to) that of one who accepts food offered to a particular person or persons. How many kinds of '(no food) after time' are there? What is the observance? How does one fail? A.receives drink and food. He does not take too much food and knows well the (proper)' quantity and does not exceed the limit. One knows these faults (expectation etc. When one dwells in a crowded place.32 Vimuttimagga A. one is disturbed by people going and coming. If he accepts extra food he fails in the observance of 'no food after time'. accepting limit. If he observes 'no food after time'. does not follow his inclinations. Q. One sees these faults and the merits of the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place' (aad undertakes thus:) "I abandon dwelling in the village from today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a peaceful place'''. If he does otherwise. What is 'immoderate limit'? If a bhikkhu. There are two kinds of '(no food) after time': immoderate limit. and experiences the joy of self-restraint. If one dwells ill a crowded place. When a bhlkkhu. and avoids taking food in advance. he abandons extra food. one's mind is not touched by the five objects of sense and is kept away from attachment. one is disturbed by the going and coming of many: One knows the excellence of the ten kinds of words I. One protects the body. .

TV. and is free from attachment. . Q. Q. . What are the benefits of '(dwelling) under a tree'? One relies on the place one likes. One avoids roofed places.ca-dhanusatikam pacchimam. he fails in "the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. The place on which sbadows of trees fall during the day and the place where leaves of trees fall when there is no wind are the places to dwell in. 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. under trees. Vin. One does not search (for roofed places). one does not hold intercourse with the world. one is pleased because one is free from all work. Under what trees should a bhikkhu dwell? What trees should he avoid? What is the observance? How does one fail? A.On Austerities 33 praised by gods and men. the nearest distance of 'dwelling in a pe\lceful place'? What is the observance? How does one fail? A. One does not build or long for (roofed places). This observance is doubt-free. Thus one undertakes to observe. If bhikkhu dwells in a village. 'DWELLING UNDER A TREE' How does one undertake to ·observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling under a tree'? One avoids roofed places. The nearest distance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place' is five-hundred bow-Iengths. One avoids dangerous decayed trees. according to one's bent of mind. This is the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'. speaks little and meditates. One does not wish to become worldly. 'DWELLING IN A DEWY PLACE' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling in a dewy place' ? One does not desire to dwell in roofed places. If a bhikkhu goes to (live in) a roofed place. and in places where animals and goods are kept. rotten trees with hollows and trees haunted by evil spirits. This is an observance of good men. 18J: Araiiiiakam seniisanam pOI. One dwells outside (the village) keeping some distance from the walls and avoiding the far end of the suburb. What is. This is an observance of good men. he fails in the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'. l One bow-length is four Avoidance of dwelling in a village is c. One does not keep animals. One dwells in solitude. One sees the faults (of dwelling in roofed places) and the merits of the observance of '(dwelling) under a tree' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon roofed places from today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling under a tree'. and wishes to gain tranquillity. This observance is doubt-free. cuts down resentment due to residence. and I. One sees the faults of these.alled cubits of an average man. . one dwells with the gods.

Q. as it were. . Sn. One perceives that aM is impure. He should not fall into deep sleep. This observance is doubt-free.34 Vimuttimagga the benefits of 'dwelling in a dewy place' (and undertakes thus:) "r avoid unpleasant places from today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling. 1. he. 2. He should not sit facing the wind. Sal1ghiiriima (transliteration). overcomes passion and is much detached. This is the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'. What are the merits of the observance of '(dwelling) among the graves'? One understands the feeling of the time of death. If he dwells in any other place. he takes mat and robes and returns to the monastery2 and avoids other dwellingplaces. One goes whithersoever one wills. One contemplates on the emptiness of the body and is able to reject the thought of permanence. If one dwells in roofed places and under the shelter of trees. one should consider. He should not dwell in a house or use a platter. One does not fear what common folk dread. One sees these faults and the merits of 'dwelling among the graves' (and undertakes thus:) "r avoid other places from today and observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling among the graves' ". This is an observance of good men. and go to dwell there. 39: Migo arafiiiamhi yathii abandho yen' icchakam gacchati gocariiya. What is the observance? How does one fail? One avoids roofed places and the shelter of trees. (Wllat are the merits of 'dwelling among the graves' ?). This observance is doubt-free. If in a place of graves there is always weeping and wailing and smoke and fire. flings all his belongings afar. in a' dewy place'. At da. If a bhikkhu dwells 'among the graves'.. One does not cause heedlessness to arise. This is the undertaking to observe. A. When a person taking his mat and robes leaves (the monastery) and goes to dwell 'among the graves'. 'DWELLING AMONG THE GRAVES' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'dwelling among the graves'? One who dwells in other places becomes careless and does not fear wrongdoing. He should not eat fish. l This is an observance of good men. find out a calm place. he breaks or fails in the observance of 'dwelling among the graves'. like a forest-deer and is 110t attached to any particular place. He should not drink milk or buttermilk or eat sesamum or flesh of animals [406].!n. He should sit with his back to the wind. One acquin~s the homage of non-humans. one fails in the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'. he should not build a hut or make a comfortable bed. What are the benefits of 'dwelling in a dewy place'? One does not go to unpleasant places and abandons negligence and torpor. Where should one dwell? What is the observance? How does one fail? .

One sees these . This observance is doubt-free. .) and the merits of the observance of 'any chanced upon place'" (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon the greed for residence and observe (the austerity of) 'any chanced upon place' n.. This is an observance of good men. If a bhikkhu accepts these for expedience' sake. One diminishes the enshrouding torpor. cotton. EXPEDIENCE IN THE OBSERVANCE OF THE AUSTERITIES What are not 'dirt-rags'? They are hemp.a. abandons various comforts. . One is not troubled when others wish him to leave any place. What is the observance? How does one lail? (Its observance is in) the abandoning of sleep and not lying down. kappa. kamba/a-all transliterations. What are the benefits of 'always sitting and 110t lying down'? One avoius the place where idleness arises. longs for tranquillity. it is called failing. If a bhikkhu goes to dwell in a pleasant place. dwe\. he does not fail in the observance of 'dirt-rags'. What is the observance? How does one fail? To abandon the longing which is dependent on dwelling-this is calleo dependence on 'any chanced upon place'.alla and bhanga. This is the undertaking to observe.fauIts (greed for place etc. is honoured by others. J. it is called failing. This is an observance of good men. silk and woollen robesl and others 2 offered by house-holders. One removes resentment produced on account of one's body. This observance is doubt-free.On Austerities 'ANY CHANCED UPON PLACE' 35 How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'any chanced upon place'? One does not like the place which men want greedily. 'ALWAYS SITTING AND NOT LYING DOWN' How does one undertake to observe (the austerity of) 'always sitting and not lying down'? Onc sees the faults of sleeping and idling in the dwellingplace and the benefits of 'always sitting and not lying down' (and undertakes thus:) "I abandon sleeping and lying down from today and observe (the austerity of) 'always sitting and not lying down' n. Khoma. koseyya. This is the undertaking to observe. What are the benefits of 'any chanced upon place'? One dwells satisfied with any place. One is always tranquil and becomes fit for the practice of excellent concentration. two varieties of hemp. Samantapasadika" these are . According to the Chinese . and is freed from the pleasures which taint the organ of touch.s with heart of compassion. " If one lies down. 2.

Ganabhatta. Vihiirabhatta. one sees elephants. bed-spreads. he does not fail in the observance of 'dwelling under a tree'.4 should not be kept if they are not spotless gifts.' of food offered to the manyl0 and of food given in honour of a monastery. Uposathabhatta. hearing the Law. 16. and after that resumes one's meal. nursing the sick. 1. 6 of ticket food. 7. s of assured food. What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'oneeating'? If in the course of taking a meal at the proper time. 2. and stands up for expedience' sake. Niccabhatta.1t/iila (transliteration). Saliikabhatta. Expedience in the observance of 'dwelling in a dewy place'. goes to a roofed place and returns when it is bright. at the gate. .2 napkins. 15. 13. one does not fail in the observance of 'one-eating'. In 'measured food' and 'no food after time'.11 for expedience' sake is not to fail in the observance of 'begged food'. it is not failing in the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'beggedfood'? To partake of food given to the Order as a whole. cattle or snakes. By this one does not fail in 'always sitting and Qat lying down'.S of food offered on a sacred day. or on seeing an outcast12 covers his bowl. the service of the sacred day. 5. 9. and the like. Pakkhikabhatta.1 cloth for skin-ailments and the like. H. there is nothing by way of expedience. PaccattharalJa. If one sees faults. he does not fail in 'regular alms-round'. avoids them. There is nothing by way of expedience regarding 'always sitting and not lying down'. Yet there is a tradition as regards the expediency of pouring (medicine) into the nose. and 'any chanced upon place' is also like this.7 of food offered on lunar fortnights. 3. 'dwelling amongst the graves'. 14. KalJt/upa!icciidi. If a bhikkhu uses these for expedience' sake. Vassikasiilika. 6. Uposatha. Sanghabhalta. and thus commits certain faults for expedience' sake. 12.36 Vimuttimagga What are (not) 'three-robes'? Extra robes stored for more than ten days. 8. What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'dwelling in a peaceful place'? If one goes to the village for causing people to undertake the precepts. inquiries regarding doubts on the discourses. A bhikkhu may dwell elsewhere. PaviirfJ'!ii. Upajjhiiya (probably transliteration). or if it rains. Acariya (transliteration). confession of faults. 4. or goes behind his preceptor. tG sickness.15 the service of the termination of the rainy season residence. What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'dwelling under a tree' ? If a bhikkhu. horses. because of rain. teacher or a visiting bhikkhu. CaT. on\: should reject such food. he does not fail in the observance of 'three robes'. 10. Mukhapufichana. ka{hina robes and those other extra robes used as bedding-holders." rain-bath cloth.H or a visiting bhikkhu. What is the teaching as regards expedience in the observance of 'regularalms-round' ? If a bhikkhu on seeing elephants or horses fighting or in rut. or if one sees one's preceptor l3 or teacher.

'dwelling among the graves' are involved in 'dwelling in a peaceful place'.n.. There are thirteen austerities taught by the Buddha. and being free from doubt. 219: Imesam kho bhikkhave paifcannam iirannakiilUlm yviiyam iirafiiiako appicchatam yeva nissiiya santutthim yeva nissiiya sallekham yeva nissiiya pavivekam yeva nissiiya idam atthitam yeva nissiiya iirafiiiako hoti. one's mind isnot at ease. Who is called observer of the austerity-factors?2 How many kinds of teachings are there regarding austerities? Which of three persons observe the austerities? How many seasons are there for the observance of austerities? Who is an observer and teacher of the austerities? A. He is greedy of worldly advantages.yam tvaril iiranfiako ca assasi pilJl/apiitiko ca pamsukiiliko CD kiimesu ca antIpekkho vihareyyiisi. 281: Evam kho te Nanda • . How many kinds of teachings are there? There are two teachings of austerities: non-greed and non-delusion.He lives in wickedness. . Kusala. enjoys tranquillity. akusala.On Austerities. These are called austedty-factors. is contented with little. . he removes weariness of the flesh and crookedness. . Thus thinking one dwells in peace 'under a tree'. 'dwelling in a dewy place'. You should not see the objects of lust. the austerities are fulfilled. And again by this greedlessness which the Buddha made possible (a bhikkhu) arouses in his mind aversion. the third: 'begged food'. if one gathers funds for building a house. 2. Dhutanga. 'among the graves' or 'in a dewy place'''. 'dirt-rags' and 'begged food'."1 Q. You should not nurse your body and life. These are the two teachings of austerities.. or if one 'likes to (do remunerative) work. Here the skilful. MISCELLANEOUS TEACmNGS 37 And again one fulfils eight teachings through these thirteen austerities. ayam imesam pancannam iirannakiinam aggo ca &ettho ca mokkho ca ullamo ca pavaro ca. These are precepts of the Buddha. These are greedlessness and freedom from delusion. The Buddha has said. because the unskilful man is full of lust. the second: 'dirt-rags'.. 4. By means of this greedlessness. is doubt-free and relies on freedom. In the Abhidhamma these eight are taught: " 'Measured food' and 'oneeating' are involved in 'no food after time'. a bhikkhu removes ignorance in thirteen places. By these eight austerities three teachings are fulfilled: the first: 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. 1. Cpo A. Thus the eight are fulfilled. 3. reasonably removes the stain of lust and crookedness. because.m. avyiikata. If these three are pure. s. Therefore the Buddha taught the Venerable Elder Nanda thus: "Always you should observe 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. unskilful and the non-characterizable" should not be taught. He does not remove lust. "If a bhikkhu who observes (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags' is endowed with paucity of wishes. Therefore. keeps animals or is attached to 'dwelling in a peaceful place'. then he is called one who obserVes (the austerity of) 'dirt-rags"'. 'Dwelling under a tree'. unskill is (not) austerity. By this freedom from delusion.' The othel' austerities are all greedless and delusion-free.

38 Vimuttimagga 'Which of the three persons observe the austerities'? The man of greed and the man of delusion observe the austerities. The Buddha has permitted dwelling in roofed places in the rainy season. There is one who is an observer but not a teacher of austerities. If he is heedful. A heedless man should dwell 'in a peaceful place' or 'under a tree'. Non-doubting is the manifestation. Contentment is the function. he overcomes greed. Why should he dwell 'in a peaceful place. 1. just as a person afflicted with a disease of phlegm worsens on taking hot drinks. Who is 'neither an observer nor a teacher of austerities'? The learner or the commoner who has not fulfilled the observance of the austerities. If he becomes heedless. he can overcome delusion well. Moderation is the function. The man of greed and the man of delusion can observe the austerities. Who is 'an observer but not a teacher of austerities' ? The Consummate One who has not fulfilled the observance of the austerities. Q. Vassiina. How many seasons are there for the observance of austerities? Eight months are the period for three austerities. function and manifestation of the austerities? A. namely. Delusion is non-doubting. Paucity of wishes is the salient characteristic. There is one who is an observer and teacher of the austerities. he will increase his sufferings). 'dwelling in a dewy place' an~ 'dwelling among the graves'. The man of greed accomplishes heedfulness through attachment. The man of hate cannot' observe the austerities. And again there is a tradition. What is the salient characteristic. Who is 'not an observer but only a teacher of austerities'? The learner or the commoner who has fulfilled the observance of the austerities. Non-retrogression is the manifestation. Heedless men suffer and do evil.? Because there are no worldly troubles there. " What are the initial. A heedless man should not observe (because if he does. Practice is the medial stage and rejoicing is the final stage. By means of the austerities a bhikkhu can fulfil heedfulness. There is one who is not an observer but only a teacher of austerities. 'Who is an observer and teacher of the austerities'? A. medial and final stages of the austerities? The undertaking to observe is the initial stage. 'dwelling under a tree'. And again non-attachment is the salient characteristic.l Q. That is why the man of greed and the man of delusion observe the austerities. Who is 'an observer and teacher of austerities'? The Consummate One who has fulfilled the observance of the austerities. . and there is one who is neither an observer nor a teacher of austerities.

what should the yogin who dwells in pure virtue do. Concentration means that one has purity of mind. And again.to the evenness of oil in an oiled bowl. What are its salient characteristic. causes it to be not dependent on any. and rightens the faculty of concentration and the power of concentration [407] is called concentration. endeavours steadfastly. non-association with defilement and the mind obtaining freedom are i~s near cause. undisturbed. It is comparable . Prof. Now.'" SALIENT CHARACTERISTIC ETC.and is not distracted. It is comparable to the unfiickering flame of the lamp behind the palace. overcoming of hatred is its function. 39 I .ON DISTINGUISHING CONCENTRATION CHAPTER THE FOURTH Q. dwells with the truth having the benefit of tranquillity . 217: Ya cittilssa (hiti sanfhiti avatthiti avisaharo avikkhepo avisahatamanasata samatho samadhindriYOIiJ samadhibafam sammasamadhi: ayam vuccati samadhi. function. Dr. he who maintains the mind and the mental properties in a state of equilibrium. In his Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga. tranquillity is its manifestation. Bapat has traced this passage to Vbh. concentration. It is like the hand which holds a pair of scales evenly. The even practice of mindfulness and energy is. Q. p. 26. I. P. What is concentration? What is its salient characteristic ?What is its function? What is its manifestation? What is its near cause? Who observes it? What differences are there between meditation. when he has already observed the austerities and has reached an excellent station? A. it means not allowing one's mind to be bent by the strong wind of passion. It is said ill the Abhidhamma thus: "What fixes the mind aright. tranquillized and non-attached. causes it to be unmoved. Let him bring out concentration. freedom. Equilibrated tho\1ght. This is called concentration. Who observes concentration? Namely. concentration and right observance? How many are the causes which produce concentration? How many states are obstacles to progress in concentration? How many benefits of concentration are there? What are the requisites of concentration? How many kinds of concentration are there? What is the bringing out of concentration? MEANING OF CONCENTRATION A. V. . manifestation and near cause? Dwelling of mind is its salient characteristic.

dwells. entirely transcending the sphere of the infinity of space. destroying all perceptions of sense-reactions. BENEFITS PRODUCED BY CONCENTRATION How many benefits can concentration produce? There are four benefits which concentration can produce.. initial and sustained application of thought and others. to discard the hindrances. Not traced. to dwell in right observance. attaining to the sphere of nothingness. IV. one having internal perception of form reflects on external form and so on. one enters the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception and. attaining to it. attaining to and realizing the ~mancipation of purity through one's body.f of space. because it removes resentment. and. 2 'What is 'meditation'? It is to contemplate on reality. acquisition of worldly knowledge. attaining to and realizing it through the body. the first meditation and others. Cpo D.' It is like a drug which counteracts poison. It is said in the A'bhidhamma thus: "* .II. transcending all perceptions of form."3 And again. one enters limitless space. • Unintelligible. to equalize. In the Abhidharma Sailgiti Paryiiya Padasastra.. Riipi riipiini passali etc." This explanation of concentration is comprehensive. has the Blessed One said: "He produces joy from quietude. 3.. 306. dwells". one dwells. the attainment of perfection. to arouse concentration skilfully.l 'Concentration' means the three kinds of concentration. A. namely. to acquire liberation. one enters nothingness and.. is concentration. 2. becoming heedless of perceptions of diversity. to gain freedom. dwells.. the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. one enters limitless consciousness. namely. What is 'pleasant dwelling in the happiness of truth in the present life'? Namely. namely. dwells. acquires coolness and becomes perfect gradually. attaining to the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. the Buddha declared to the bhikkhus: "At '1."Having (or with) form one reflects on form. 'Right observance' means the right observance of the nine gradually ascending states.410: Nava anupubbavihiirii. Affha Vimokkha. one enters the state of the dissolution of perception and scnsation and. It is like the attentiveness of a fletcher scrutinizing the straightness of a shaft. one acquires concentration and is freed from corruption. to make the mind happy.40 Vimuttimagga like the equalized energy of four horses of a chariot.. not having internal perception of form. in the happiness of truth in the present life. One's mind arouses joy. entirely transcending. enjoyment of all objects through investigation. . and. dwells. 70. 71. What are the four? Pleasant dwelling. partakes of the joy of the supramundane and dwells pleasantly in the happiness of truth in the present life. to wish to arouse concentration and to aspire to possess freedom. entirely transcending the sphcrc of nothingness. IV.. Therefore. A. attaining to the sphere of the infinif. one reflects on external form. 'Meditation' means the four meditations.. the following account of the eight deliverances or kinds of freedom is given:. 'Freedom' means the eight kinds of freedom. and entirely transcending the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. to remove resentment.is the meaning of ~oncentration.

On Distinguishi'lg Concentration

41

first I was a naked ascetic; I did not move my body or open my mouth for seven days and seven nights; I sat in silence enwrapped in bliss."l This is the meaning, in the Noble Teaching, of 'pleasant dwelling in the happiness of truth in the present life'. 'Enjoyment of all objects through investigation' means that a' yogin acquires ,concentration and is not hindered by objects. Being pliant of mind, he is able to concentrate. He investigates the aggregations, the sense~spheres, the elements and others. He is well-disposed. Therefore, the Blessed One t'aught the bhikkhus thus: "Thus should you train yourselves. Everything depends on mind. Know this as it is."2 'Acquisition of worldly knowledge! means that one ,having acquired concentration, develops the five faculties of knowledge, namely, psychic power, divine ear, knowledge of others' thoughts, recollection of past existences, and the divine eye. Therefore, the Blessed One has declared: "With concentrated mind one is able to change one's body at will. Thus one produces psychic power in the various modes. "3 'The attainment of perfection' means that one having a concentrated mind, although one has yet to' reach the stage of the learning-ender, may not fall back at all. One gains (a good) reward through concentration. One attains to 'the form', 'the formless' and to perfection. The Buddha has declared: "Those who practise a little 'of the first meditation are able to join the retinue of Brahmii. All such are born in such a world.'" These four benefits can be produced by concentration. Each of them causes to arouse. OBSTACLES TO CONCENTRATION How many states are obstacles to progress in concentration? Namely, eight states: lust, hatred, indolence, rigidity, agitation, uncertainty, delusion, absence of joy and bliss. All other evil demeritorious states are obstacles.
J

CAUSES OF CONCENTRATION How many causes of concentration are there? Namely, eight states are causes: renunciation, non-hatred, brightness, non-disturbedness, all skilful states, sustained application of thought, gladness, and those states that arouse knowledge of the truth. These are causes of concentration.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Cpo Ud. 3. Cpo Dh. 1: Manopubbal,lgamii dhammii. M. II, 18. A. II, 126: Tdha bhikkhave ekaeeo puggalo vivie' eva kiimeh; vivieea akusalehi dhammehi . . . . . . .. palhamajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. So tad assiideti tam nikiimeti tena ea vittim iipajjati, tattha thito tad-adhimutto tabbahulavihiiri aparihino kiilam kurumiino Brahma-kiiyikiinam deviinam sahavyatam uppajjati.

42
REQUISITES OF CONCENTRATION

Vimuttimagga

What are the requisites of concentration? There are seven, namely: virtue, contentment, shielding of the faculties,. moderation in drink and food, not sleeping in the first, middle and last watches of the night, the being intent on wisdom and a calm and quiet dwelling-place. TWO KINDS OF CONCENTRATION How many kinds of concentration are there? There are two kinds of concentration. The first is mundane concentration; the second is· supramundane concentration. The acquisition of the Noble Fruit is called 'supramundane concentration'; the others are named 'mundane'. Mundane concentration is accompanied by corruption, is connected with the fetters and is bound. This is the flood. This is the bond. This is hindrance. This is the corruption of virtue and views. This is clinging. This is defilement. Such are the qualities of 'mundane concentration'. The opposite of this is named 'supramundane concentration'. And again, there are two kinds in concentration: wrong concentration! and Right Concentration. What is wrong concentration? Unskilful unification of mind is called 'wrong concentration'. Skilful unification of mind is called 'Right Concentration'. Wrong concentration should be abandoned. Right concentration should be practised. And again, there are two kinds of concentration: access concentration and fixed concentration. The antecedent portion - this is called 'access concentration'. Suppression. of the hindrances - this is called .'fixed concentration'. THREE KINDS OF CONCENTRATION And again, there are three kinds: concentration with initial and sustained application of thought; without initial and only with sustained application of thought; with neither initial nor sustained application of thought. 2 What is 'with initial and sustained application of thought'? The first meditation is 'with initial and sustained application of thought'. In the second meditation there is no initial application of thought, but there is sustained application of thought. In the other meditations there is 'neither initial nor sustained application of thought'. And again, there are three kinds of concentration. Namely, the concentration that is produced together with joy; the concentration that is produced
1. Micchiisamiidhl. 2. D.III, ·219: Tayo samiidhi. avitakko aviciiro samiidhi.

Savitakko saviciiro samiidhi, avitakko viciiramallo samiidhi,

On Distinguishing Concentration

43

together with bliss; the concentration that is produced together with indifference. The first and the second meditations (jhanas) are 'produced together with joy', the third is 'produced together with bliss' and the fourth meditation (jhiina) is 'produced together with equanimity'. And again, th~re are three kinds of concentration: skilful'concentration; skilful result (producing) concentration; real concentFation. What is 'skilful concentration'? The concentration pertaining to the form and the formless practised by the learner of the Noble Path and the commoner is called 'skilful concentration'. The concentration of the learner who is established in the Noble Fruit (in the spheres of form and the formless) and of the cQmmoner who is reborn in the spheres of the form and the formless is called 'result producing concentration'. The concentration of the form and the formless practised by the learning-ender is called 'real con centra [ion' . FOUR KINDS OF CONCENTRATION And again, there are four kinds of concentration: the sense plane concentration;l the form plane concentration;2 the formless plane concentration;3 uninc1uded concentration. 4 . The putting away of each of the five hindrances by its opposite and the maintaining of it is called 'the sense plane concentration'; the four meditations are called 'the form plane concentration'; the four formless plane meditations and the result of good action (1) are called 'the formless plane concentration'. The concentration of the four Paths and the four Fruits is called 'unincluded concentration' . And again, there are four practices in concentration: painful practice (of a man of) slow wit; painful practice (of a man of) quick wit; pleasant practice (of a man of) quick wit; pleasant practice (of a man of) slow wit. 5 (Here) the first of these four kinds of men has dense passion, and the second, rare passion; the third has keen faculties, and the fourth, dull faculties. To a man of dense passi6n and dull faclilties practice is 'painful'; he gains concentration with 'slow wit'. To a man of dense passion and keen faculties practice is 'painful', though he gains concentration with 'quick wit'. To a man of rare passion and dull faculties practice is 'pleasant', though he gains concentration with 'slow wit'. To a man of rare passion and keen faculties practice is 'pleasant'; he gains concentration with 'quick wit'.
l. Kiimiivacara samiidhi. Lit., 'That that' practice and 'true keeping'. The rendering is tentative. 2. Riipiivacara samiidhi. 3. Arupiivacara samiidhi. 4. Apariyiipanna samiidhi. S. A.II,149: Dukkhiipafipadii dandhiibhWiii, dukkhiipatipadii khippiibhiiiiiii, sukhiipatipadii
dandhiibhiii,iii,. sukhiipafipadii khippiibhiiiiiii.

44

Vimuttimagga

Because of the density of passion, a densely passionate man overcomes passion with difficulty. Therefore, his practice is painful. ' Because of the dullness of faculties, a man of dull faculties has to practise meditation assiduously for a long time and wake up his sluggish wit. Therefore, he is called (a man of) dull faculties. In this way the others also should be understood. And again, there are four kinds in concentration, namely, restricted concentration with restricted object; restricted concentration with immeasurable object; immeasurable concentration with restricted object; immeasurable concentration with immeasurable object.l What is 'restricted concentration with restricted o]Jject'? The concentration that is not able to keep pace with the mind and an object2 that is weak - these.are called 'restricted concentration with restricted object'. What is 'restricted concentration with immeasurable object'? The concentration that is not able to keep pace with the mind and an object that is powerful- these are called 'restricted concentration with immeasurable object'. What is 'immeasurable concentration with restricted object'? The concentration capable of keeping pace with the mind and an object that is weak - these are called 'immeasurable concentration with restricted object'. What is 'immeasurable concentration with .immeasurable object'? The concentration that is capable of keeping pace with the mind and an object that is powerful - these are called 'immeasurable concentration with immeasurable object'. And again, there are four kinds in concentration: will-concentration; effort-concentration; mind-concentration; scrutiny-concentration. 3 'Will-concentration' is attained by means of the will; 'effort-concentration' is attained by means of effort; what is attained by means of the mind is 'mindconcentration'; what is attained by means of scrutiny is 'scrutiny-concentration'. And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the concentration to which the Enlightened One attains but not the hearer; the concentration to which the hearer attains but not the Enlighteneq. One; the concentration to which both the Enlightened One and the hearer attain; the concentration to which neither the Enlightened One nor the hearer attains. The concentration of great comrniseration4 and the concentration of the twin-miracles are attainments of the Enliihtened One and not of the hearer. The fruition concentration of the learner" is an attainment of the hearer and not of the Enlightened One. The concentration of the nine gradually ascendi!1g states and the fruition concentration of the learning-ender are attainments of
1. Parilla-samtidhi, parilla-tirammalJa; parilla-samtidhi, appamtilJa-tirammalJa; appamtilJasamtidhi, parilla-tirammalJa; appamtilJa-samtidhi, appamtilJa-tirammalJa. 2. Lit. samtidhi. Possibly an error. 3. A.T, 39, 297-Chanda, viriya, cil/a and vimamsa. 5. Mahti karU/Jti samtipatti. 4. Yamakaptifihtiriya. 6. Sek hiya-phala-samiidhi.

On Distinguishing Concentration

45

both the Enlightened One and the hearer. And the concentration of inconscience 1 is an attainment neither of the Enlightened One nor the hearer. And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the concentration that is a cause of origination and not of cessation; of cessation and not of origination; of both origination and cessation; of neither origination nor cessation. Q. What are causes of 'origination and not of cessation'? Skilful and ':unskilful c'oncentration of the sense plane are causes of 'origination and not of cessation'. The concentration of the fourfold Noble Path causes cessation and not origination. Skilful concentration of the [earner and the commoner pertaining to the form plane and the formless plane cause 'origination and cessation'. [408] The concentrlltion of the Noble Fruit and object ,concentration caUse 'neither origination nor cessation'. And again, there are four kinds in concentration: the first meditation; the second meditation; the third meditation; the fourth meditation. Freedom from the five hindrances, the fulfilment of initial and sustained application of thought, joy, ease and unification of mind are called 'the first meditation' . Freedom from initial and sustained application of thought and the fulfilment of the other three (are called 'the second meditation'). Freedom rrom joy and the fulfilment of the other two (are called 'the third meditation'). Freedom from ease and the fulfilment of ~uanimity and unification of mind are called the fourth meditation. FIVE KINDS OF CONCENTRATION And again, there are five kinds in concentration, namely the first meditation; the second meditation; the third meditation; the fourth meditation; the fifth meditation. This fivefold (c1a~sification of) meditation is based on the five factors of meditation, namely, initial application of thought, sustained application of thought, joy, bliss, unification of mind. The separation from the five hindrances and the fulfilment of the five factors are called 'the first meditation'. The separation from initial application of thought and the fulfilment of the other four factors are called 'the second meditation'. The separation from initial and sustained application of thought and the fulfilment of the other three factors are called 'the third meditation'. The separation from (initial and sustained application of thought, joy) and the fulfilment of the other two factors are called 'the fourth meditation'.
1. The concentration that causes rebirth among the unconscious gods (asaiiifa samiipalli).

46

Vimuttimagga

The separation from. (initial and sustained application of thought, joy,) bliss and the fulfilment of two factors are called 'the fifth meditation. (The twofactors are) equanimity and unification of mind. WHY FOUR AND FIVE MEDITATIONS Aim TAUGHT
Q.

Why are four and five meditations taught?

A. Because the result depends on two sorts of men. In the second meditation there are two divisions: without initial and sustained application of thought, and without initial and only with sustained application of thought,

How does a yogin induce the second meditation from the first? He considers the coarseness of initial and sustained application of thought, knows the disadvantages of initial and sustained application of thought, and induces the second meditation which is free from initial and sustained application of thought. This is the way of progress in the four meditations.
Q.
A.

And again, there is another man. He is able to induce freely the second meditation out of the first meditation. He considers the coarseness of initial application of thought and knows the disadvantages· of initial application of thought. He discerns the state of being free from initial application of thought. Possessing restricted sustained application of thought, he induces the second meditation. Tlus is the way of progress in the five meditations. Therefore, the five me.ditations are taught. And again, there are five kinds in concentration, namely, complete fixed meditation in the five factors: joyfulness, blissfulness, mindfulness, luminousness and the perception of steadily moving thought. Here 'joyfulness' is in the first and the second meditations. 'Blissfulness' is in the third meditation. 'Mindfulness' is in the knowledge of others' thoughts. 'Luminousness' is in the knowledge of the divine eye. The knowledge of steadily moving thought is born of reflectionl concentration. This is called 'the perception of steadily moving thought''And again there are five kinds in concentration, namely, Right Concentration connected with the fivefold knowledge. These are consequences of present bliss and the bliss to be. These arise depending on the knowledge of the body. (1) This concentration is practised by the Noble Ones and is passion-free. (2) This concentration is practised by wise men. (3) This is the excellent bliss of solitude and the attainment of tranquillity. Although this accomplishes the unique, yet it does not overcome birth and death.
1. Lit. "That that knowledge".

On Distinguishing Concentration

41-

(4) This concentration is most pleasant and peaceful. This becomes one endowed with tranquillity. This does not overcome the (belief in) self (which is the cause) of birth and death. (5) This concentration moves in mindfulness and is a cause of mindfulness. These arise owing to knowledge of the body. And now, (the acceptance of) objects of meditation, what is connected with the requisites, and the inferior, the middling and the superior have been distinguished. Thus there are many divisions of concentration. (Further), it should be known that all concentration may be classified under the four meditations. 1

1. D. II, 313: Katamo ca bhikkllavesammii-Samiidhi? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhll VIVIC 'eva kiimehi vivicca akllsalehi <!hammehi savitakkam saviciiram vivekajam pili-sukham palhamajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. Vilakkaviciiriinam viipasamii ajjhattam sampasiidanam celaso ekodi-bhiivam avitakkam avi~iiram samiidhijam piti-sukham dutiyajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. Piliyii ca viriigii upekhako viharali sato ca sampajiino, sukham ca kiiyena patisamvedeti yan laI;' ariyii iicikkhanli: 'upekhako satimii sukha-vihiiri ti' tatiyajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahiinii dukkhassa ca pahiinii pubb' eva somanassa-domanassiinam atthagamii adukkham asukham upekhii-sali-piirisuddhim Ayam vl/ccati bhikkhave sammii-samiidhi. cafutthajjhanam IIpasampajja viharali.

ON APPROACHING A GOOD FRIEND
CHAPTER THE FIFTH

Q.

Then how is concentration brought out?

A. If a man wishes to bring out concentration, he, at first, should approach a pre-eminent friend. Why? If, at first, when a yogin wishes to accomplish excellent concentration, he dwells apart from a good friend, he will not acquire steadfastness. In a Discourse it is said: "Meghiya bhikkhu partakes of deterioration.'" It is comparable to a man who sets out alone on a distant journey. None guides him. When a man sets out alone, he is like an elephant that is not· guided by the goad. If, when a yogin practises, he listens to the discourses and Instructions of a good friend, he is able to remove his many difficulties and get into the right method and practice. If he strenuously endeavours and strictly trains himself, then he is able to acquire excellent concentration.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD FRIEND A good friend who may be likened to a wealthy chief of merchants honoured by all, to a kind good-hearted person, to a dearly loved parent, steadies one,_ as the chain the elephant. A good friend on whom one relies and accomplishes all meritorious activities is like a mahout who causes (the elephant) to go backwards and forwards, is like a good road on which a man can take a yoke of Qxen, like a physician who cures diseases and removes pain, like the rain from heaven which moistens everything, like a mother who nurses her child, like a father who guides his son, like parents who ward their children from perils and like a teacher who instructs (his pupils). Therefore, the Blessed One declared
1.
Hiinabhiigiya. Cpo A. IV, 357: Idha Meghiya bhikkhu kalyiilJamitto hoti kalyiinasahiiyo kaiyiilJsampavaliko, Aparipakkiiya Meghiya cetovimuttiyii ayan, pafhamo dhammo The following is a more or less free rendering of the relative paripakkiiya samvattati. passage from the Chinese Chu Agon (Madhyama Agama) No.5, Fascicle X, Sutra No. 56: "Thus have I heard. At one time, when the Enlightened One was wandering in the land of Magadha, he arrived at Jantugama, and his sole attendant was the Venerable Elder Meghiya. And in the morning, the Venerable Elder Meghiya taking bowl and robe went to the village of Jantugama for alms. And after completing his alms-round, he wended his way to the bank of the river Kimilala. The land there was level meadow, and it was known as the Grove of Sweet Mango. Beside it ran the excellent waters of Kimilala, sparklingly clear. Seeing the pleasant place, the Venerable Elder Meghiya was delighted and thought: 'The land here is level meadow and is known as the qrove of Sweet Mango, Beside it runs the excellent waters of Kimiliila, sparklingly clear. Meet is this spot for a clansman for the exercise of energy'. And having finished his meal, put aside his bowl and robe, washed his hands and feet, he, with one shoulder bared, went to the presence of the Enlightened One, bowed at the Enlightened One's feet, and sat on one side. And being seated he spoke thus: "Venerable Sir, in the morning, having taken bowl and robe, I went to the village of Jantugama for alms ........... : and I thought: 'The land here isJevel meadow and is known as the.Grove or-Sweet Mango. Beside it runs the excellent waters of Kimilala, 48

. a man preaches well: dwelling together happily. I..... there is no one except you here. But J. Mag. If these two kinds of merit-fulfillers cannot be found.rhen the Venerable Elder Meghiya thought of the Blessed One. They should be searched for. the Blessed One has nothing more to do.. arose from his seat and forthwith returned to the presence of the Blessed One (and told the Blessed One everything) and the Blessed One said: 'Your mind is' not yet ripe for deliverance. discursive tlioughts connected with hate and discursive thoughts connected with harming.. If you wish to cause it to ripen... 'Meghiya. .. you should train yourself in the five ttainings. S.also be searched for.. he went to the foot of a tree. 32: Sattahi bhikkhave dhammehi samanniigato bhikkhu mitlo sevitabbo bhajitabbo payirupiisitabbo api panujjamiinena pi. TV. having come to a mutual understanding and not abusing one another.. I do not stop you. J wish to enter that calm place in the Grove of Sweet Mango and exercise energy'..... Abhidhamma and Vinaya is called 'fulfilment of acquisition'. Katamehi sattahi? Piyo hoti maniipo ca.. this is the first training . the ability to deliver deep discourses and the not applying oneself to useless ends... one should search for the pre-eminently good man and make him the good friend.. the fulfiller of seven qualities should be. These two kinds of men are merit-fulfillers. considered as a good friend. a bhikkhu is a good friend and he should be in the company of a good friend. vattii ca. What is meant by pre-eminent good friend? (Here).. of the SUita.. garu ca. Such (a man) should . The Venerable Elder Meghiya hearing the words of the Enlightened One and accepting them. bhiivaniyo ca.... prepared a seat and sat down. if your mind is not ripe for deliverance. patience (in listening).. gambhiraif ca kathom katto hoti. have much to do yet.. . ifI should go' to that calm plae« in the Grove of Sweet Mango and exercise energy?" Then the Blessed One said: 'Meghiya.. and if you wish to cause it tp ripen. 2. sparklingly clear.On Approaching a Good Friend 49 to (A)nanda: "Good companionship is the whole of the holy life. namely. Then you may go to that calm place in the Grove of Sweet Mango to exercise energy' A second and a third time the Venerable Elder Meghiya requested permission and for a second and third time did the Blessed One refuse it. Then the Blessed One said: "Meghiya. The understanding.. One knows the Four Noble Truths. And when he was thus seated in the forest. Meet is this spot for a clansman for the exercise of energy': How. Venerable Sir. Stay awhile until another bhikkhu comes to wait on me. The Blessed One need not exert energy any longer. the fulfilment of acquisition is the meaning (of 'pre-eminent').. Nett! 164.. What are the seven qualities?2 Loveableness. he should closely associate with a good friend.. Cpo Vis.. esteemableness. A.. walked round Him three times and departed. Arriving at the Grove of Sweet Mango. bowed at the Enligh~ened One's feet.. Then the Venerable Elder Meghiya said: 'Venerable Sir. Venerable Sir..... no ca af!hiine niyojeti. vacanukkhamo ca. three demeritorious stl!tes of mind arose in him. What is 'lovableness'? Led by two kinds of practice. One understands the seed (?) of kamma and is endowed with beneficient worldly knowledge.. if you wish to exert yourself. Therefore... ' 1.. ness.. 87-8: Sakalam eva h-idaril Ananda brahmacariyaril yad idarillr"lyo/Ju-millatii kaiyo(lasahiiyatii kalyiilJa-sampavatikatii . venerable.. discursive thoughts connected with lust. Venerable Sir.."1 Therefore.. What are the five? Meghiya. 98. the ability to counsel well. Go Meghiya and do as you plea~e'...

These (are qualities of) a good friend who should be searched for. The fellow-student will answer: "In such and such a country. On hearing this. such and such a teacher of meditation is honoured by all".. • Unintelligible.•..... THE SEARCH FOR A GOOD FRIEND Q.. one should think on this and be happy. This is called 'the ability to counsel well'..t know. esteemable.. one should go and serve him.so Vimuttimagga 'Esteemableness' means that one is tranqnillized through the action of virtue... If in such and such a place there is one who knows the accomplishment of these merits and is a teacher of meditation. thus: "In which country and in which place is it safe for a bhikkhu to dwell '1 Which is the suitable place of meditation for a bhikkhu? What is the name of the teacher who dwells there? For what practices and for what merits is he honoured by all"? Thus one should inquire. one should go to that teacher... 'Venerableness' means that one is endQwed with the merit of much learning and appreciates well the value of meditation. one worships him and exchanges the customary greetings and consults him as to what one should do... This is called '(the ability to deliver) deep discourses'.. This is called 'patience (in listening). in such and such a place of meditation set apart' for the Order. fulfils the protection of mindfulness. At the proper time in a befitting way (one approaches a fellow-student) and without expressing one's wishes. and going thither serve that teacher and practise under him.. ana benefits others and esteems the truth. understands well..... venerable and fruitful". in such and such a monastery.. '(The ability to deliver) deep discourses' means that one well understands • . Thus one observes to the end and does not forsake... never hesitates in one's speech arid does not flatter* . Thus the seven qualities are completed. This is called 'esteemableness'. This is 'the not applying oneself to useless ends>. 'The not applying oneself to useless ends' means that he understands well the place of kamma. yet if a fellow-student knows.. Though one may no. . is not over-desirous and does not speak much. Therefore... This is 'venerableness'. 'Patience (in listening)' means that one is like a saint. one restrains oneseir from things that ought not to be done.. How should one search? A. 'The ability to counsel well' means that one considers thus: "Let my speech be lovable.

one should not hand one's bowl and robe. and obeys him just as a newly-wed bride her mother-in-law. bow at the feet of the teacher and circumambula~ him. When one sees the elder. I wish to see him. carrying bowP and robe and the meditation mat on his right shoulder. who is the elder here? I wish to see him".1 arranges his robes and. one should. But if he is junior.may be by the road or outside· the village. It is the practice that accompanies the truth. . I wish to see him. you should not be negligent". After bathing he wears the upper-garment. he goes to a certain spot. 4. then. one bows at his feet and sits at one side. one may understand and fulfil the practice. robe. Great is the merit of learning it and greater that of co-residence. one studies earnestly. One relies completely on the teacher in all things. honours (one's teacher) wholeheartedly. It is called co-residence with a good man and is the action of a good man.dirt-rags' man living here? Is there a 'beggedfood' man living here? Is there a teacher of discipline living here? Where does he dwell? Which is the way to his dwelling? [409J If there is one. If there is no teacher of discipline. If one uses gentle speech and guards the body and the mouth. not' for a while but always. he lowers his umbrella and circumambulates the relic mound. If that bhikkhu is a senior or a venerable one. Uttariisanga (transliteration). precept and p~ture . At the water-side which . 3. A BEGINNER'S DUTIES If one is good. . When on going there one is instructed (through) expClsition. On entering a monastery. Patta (transliteration). Sanghiifi (transliteration). A bhikkhu who lives there will give one a seat and water. If he sees any bhikkhu. Upajjhaya. one prepares (what is lacking) in the customary way. hear me. keeps his bowl. he goes to him and asks ~ "Is there a yogin living here? Is there a . Hearing this the preceptor will reply: "Sadhu! I too am glad. If there is none. You should go to him.in the Good Law-one should adjust one's robes. If one sees other bhikkhus lacking robes or liquid-medicine. one places one's bowl and robe on the ground. He does not use the water which is near by. does not slight him. 2. After you go there. and without noise he bathes. washing-vessel and the meditation mat on a high place. show the washing1. If there are no such persons and if there is a (sub-) teacher of discipline. sandals. rolls the shoulder-cloak4 or throws it across the shoulder. I wish to go and serve such and such a teacher of meditation".On Distinguishing Concentration 51 Adjusting one's robes one should go to the presence of one's preceptor1 and open to him one's happy heart: "0 preceptor. 'Your action is praiseworthy.

if one sees a teacher of Abhidluzmma. When the time for the alms-round comes. he watches the dwelling-place and keeps the bowls and robes. even if he be a junior. one wors~ps and says: '·'1 will now say what I wanted to say from the first. These are the rules for visiting bhikkhus. Should the teacher question. and which one has not yet committed. 1seeing a suitable time. salutes him respectfully. at the proper time. If one sees a teacher of discipline. one expresses everything. one washes the teacher's bowl and puts it in the proper place. Thus one observes and abstains from quarrelling. This is the practice that should be observed at first. one should express one's desires.52 Viinuttimagga place. and remaining silent a while. I wish to ask what I want". According to the rule of the teacher of meditation. If one wishes to leave. arrange his seat. before sundown. onel should inquire concerning the benefits of the austerities connected with wisdom. the yogin should not speak. Should the teacher of meditation question the yogin. one should wash the teacher's feet. If one dwells there. Or. Thus should one practise. one shQuld worship him.first. within the precincts of the monastery. If I am permitted. one should inquire concerning the method of acquiring wisdom and about the aggregates. one folds one's bedding and bows at the seniors' feet and informs them and leaves. According to the rules for visiting bhikkhus. serve. one should go to many and daily make inquiries. If one sees an observer of austerities. and should use them in the proper way. If the teacher of meditation does not question. Should the teacher not question. one approaches the teacher. After sometime has passed. Should the teacher not question. he should ask permission of the teacher and follow the usual way. give information. give him the bowl and inquire of the teacher what he wants from one's own· bowl. Should the teacher permit. one should practise that which ought to be practised or not practise the ought-not-to-be-practised. one should go round. Thereupon he should ask for tooth-sticks and water for washing. one should talk with him and ask him concerning any faults with regard to which one is in doubt. sits. respectfully salutes him. sits. and remaining silent a while. After finishing one's meal. elements and kamma. take care of bowl and robe and point out the place for easing. he. one gives what is left over to the juniors. If the yogin wishes to let others Jearn the Law at . and one should not abandon the practising (of that which ought to be practised and of that which ought not to be practised). one should take his bowl and robe. When the meal-time arrives. ' . How does a yogin dwell in a monastery? When the teacher of meditation comes. approaches the teacher of' meditation. Having partaken of the remainder. he expresses his desire. sense-spheres.

greed or pride. is not deluded. a winner of (he homage of gods and men. "Sadliu.I will instruct you in the regular manner. jests not. is not attached. . feeding on the joyous calm of truth. one should tell him regarding all one's wants. one should inform him (the teacher) concerning the reason for one's coming there thus: "0 teacher. conquer. He has done with ill will and slothfulness. possessor of an ample stock of virtues good. and reject. flatters not. For meditation's sake he knows and learns. when 'tis the right and proper time. heedless. revenge. You should observe well. The teacher will say. a follower of truth ·and a practiser-well. As when no wayward winds assail a tree. who causes the arising ofexcellent wit. unsuited ever is to know the truth. He never speaks in dispraise of the Law. feckless man. If the teacher listens. He dwells not in anger. The self-indulgent. and who has himself reached high wisdom's peak if there is such a teacher . whose lustrous splendour adds to his faith. Therefore. to him who guards the Law with holiness. with lowly heart devoid of thoughts of pride. kindly listen to me". lfthere's a man conversant with the Law. Not traced. Thus dwelling in the Law he knows the Law and so expounds that others too may know The Sublime Law. craves not.under him. in pleasant practice of the Law he dwells. Conceit of righteous life he does not nurse. Sincere are his words and always true. Thus does he practise. speaks no fearful words. who by much learning ably guards the Law. just as it truly is.On Distinguishing Concentration 53 Finding a suitable opportunity. the Blessed One uttered these stanzas :_1 'One goes. 1. and is not one who grows in wisdom's light. who is a happy hearer of tidings glad. should one with zeal unremitting practise well"'.

faith excogitation-behaviour. saddhii-buddhi-Yitakka-cariyii·. faith-intelligence-behaviour. The person walking in hate. passion-hate-behaviour. Acariya. intelligencebehaviour. opinion-behaviour. s. qualities of equal measure). Riiga-'. Tal.LA OF FUNAN THE DISTINGUISHING OF BEHAVIOURl CHAPTER THE SIXTH .THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE THIRD WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPA. pride-behaviour. Kammaflhiina. Here. faith-intelligence-excogitation-behaviour. 'behaviour' means the fourteen kinds 4 of behaviour: passionbehaviour. buddhi-·. buddhi-vitakka-'. dosa-moha-'. dosa-'. I. moha-'. saddhii-buddhi-'. there are other kinds of behaviour such as craving-behaviour.!hii-. hate-infatuation-behaviour. 3 he will instruct. passion-infatuationbehaviour. 4. 3. (OLit. faith-behaviour. riiga-dosa-moha-"." Here. KINDS OF BEHAVIOUR Now. saddhii-vitakka-'. when the teacher2 on whom one depends has observed one's behaviour for several months and has fixed upon a suitable subject of meditation. riiga-moha-'. vitakka-'. The Chinese is unintelligible. 6 FOURTEEN KINDS OF PERSONS There are fourteen kinds of persons corresponding to the fourteen kinds of behaviour thus: The person walking in passion. the meaning does not defer from the above. And again. intelligence-excogitation-behaviour. diTlhi-'. hate-behaviour. riiga-dosa-'. infatuation-behaviour. The person walking in infatuation. 2. passion-hate-infatuation-behaviour. excogitation-behaviour. saddhii-'. 6. Cariyii. miina-cariyii. in the case of greed and the rest. 54 .

Qualities of equal measure. And again. the walker in passion-hate and the walker in faith-intelligence becoming one. Riiga=stiddhii. Why does a walker in passion become one with a walker in faith? A. 'Faith' means the search for what is morally good. The others should be distinguished in the same way. dosa-buddhi.in excogitation. The person walking in passion-hate-infatuation. 4 Q. The person walking in passion-hate. riiga-mohasaddhii-vitakka. The person walking in intelligence-excogitation. 'Faith' means the being intent on good.3 One always behaves passionately and increases passion. the walker in hate and the walker in intelligence becoming one. the walker in passion-hate-infatuation and the walker in faith-intelligence-excogitation becoming one. Tentative rendering. faith is strong. dosa-moha= buddhi-vitakka. & 2. the walker in infatuation and the walker in excogitation becoming one. 3.l The person walking in faith-intelligence. riiga-dosa-stiddhii-buddhi. The nature of 'passion' is not to forsake what is bad. The nature of 'faith' is not to forsake what is good.The Distinguishing of Behaviour 55 The person walking in faith. 4. The person walking in passion-infatuation. Here 'passion' means the being intent on passion. because this quality approaches passion. In a passionate person" when he does good. searching for the good. The person walking in faith-excogitation. Therefore. the walker in hate-infatuation and the walker in intelligence-excogitation becoming one. The person walking in intelligence. the walker in passion-infatuation and the walker in faith-excogitation becoming one. passion and faith are alike owing to three traits: clinging. 2 Thus 'the person walking in passion'. 'the person walking in passioninfatuation' and 'the person walking in passion-hate-infatuation' are called 'persons walking in passion'. 'Passion' means the search for what is passionally good. the last literally means: Through the two who walk in qualities of equal measure becoming one. The person walking in faith-intelligence-excogitation. The person walking in hate-infatuation. . The person walking. I. non-repUlsion. moha~viltikka. FOURTEEN KINDS REDUCED TO SEVEN These fourteen kinds of men may be reduced to seven kinds: through the walker in passion and the walker in faith becoming one. This is called 'passion-behaviour'. a walker in 'passion' becomes one with a walker in 'faith'.

strong in faith and intelligence and because of the rarity of infatuation and excogitation in him.S6 Q. And again. so excogitation is not peaceful because of various trends of discursive thought. is strong in faith and because of the rarity of infatuation and excogitation in him. incertitude increases. MODES OF PRACTICE Among the seven which persons are or" quick practice and which are of slow practice? The walker in passion is of quick practice. As a hating person is given to faultfinding. In an infatuated person who endeavours to arouse virtuous states. A. The walker in hate is of quick .practice. repulsion. is strong in intelligence and because of the rarity of infatuation and excogitation in him. Why does a walker in infatuation become one with a walker in excogitation? A. because he is easily led. so an intelligent person does not cleave (to what is bad). so an intelligent person is given to the search for the faultsl of wrongful conduct. Thus they are reduced to seven persons. the walker in hate becomes one with the walker in intelligence. because this quality approaches infatuation and because of separation from faith and wisdom. hate and intelligence are alike owing to three traits: nonclinging. a walker 'in infatuation becomes one with a walker in excogitation. because he is led with difficulty owing to infatuation and excpgitation and because of the rarity of faith and intelligence in him. so excogitation moves because of levity. because he is easily led. Therefore. because he is easily led. . As infatuation is not peaceful because it is disturbed. They are equal.The others should be distinguished in the same way. . infatuation and excogitation are alike owing to two traits: instability and movement. so an intelligent person repulses the conformations. . They are alike. when he does good. Therefore. Adinava. The walker in infatuation is of slow practice. As infatuation moves. because this quality approaches hate. As a hating person does not cleave (to what is good). Vimuttimagga Why does a walker in hate become one with walker in intelligence·! In a hating person. As a hating person repulses others. intelligence is strong. searching for faults. not knowing where to go. And again. • The walker in passion-hate is of quick practice. 1. Q.

Thus deeds done in the past become causes of behaviour. lacks intelligence and because infatuation and excogitation are strong in him.Pm. The cardinal humours 2 are causes of behaviour. and also one who passing away from a hell or a serpent-state. maiming and capturing. Cpo Vis. tiracehanayoniya va cavilva idhupapanno Ii. One who (in past existemies) had perpetrated inimical deeds of killing. 2. 3. saggii va cavitva idhupapanno. Pubbe chedanavadhabalUlhanaverakammabahulo dosacarito hoti. through lovable means. becomes a walker in passion. these seven persons may be reduced to three according to their basic defilement.' sanc/hayiiha.). does not dwell in intelligence and because infatuation and excogitation are strong in him. in past existences.is of slow practice. How do deeds done in the past become causes of behaviour? One who had accumulated good actions. The walker in hate-infatuation is of slow practice. 3 1. Pubbe majiapanabahulo sutaparipucchiivihino ca mohacarito hoti. Ekacce above is commented thus by the Venerable Dhammapiila Thera: Ekacce ti upatissattherQl. The walker in qualities of equal measure (passion-hate-infatuation or faith-intelligence-excogitation) is of slow practice. because he is led with difficulty. resort and postures? A. food. and also one who passing away from a heavenly mansion is reborn here. that man is a walker in hate and yet another is a walker in infatuation ?1 How may they be distinguished through robes. because he is led with difficulty. do~a). Tena hi Vimuttlmagge tathtf vuttam . . One who (in past existences) had partaken freely of intoxicating drink and was devQid (of learning and conversation) becomes a walker in infatuation. becomes a walker in hate. CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR Q. 102-3: Tatra purima tava tisso cariya pubbaaiTJlJanidana dhCitudosanidana ea Ii ekaeee vadanti. 102: Ta pan' eta cariya kim nidiinii? etc. the walker in hate and the walker in infatuation. Mag. because he is led with difficulty. is not believing and because infatuation and excogitation are strong in him. What are the causes of these three kinds of behaviour? How may it be known that this man is a walker in passion. 103 (MorontuQuve Dhamma· nanda Thera's Sinhalese ed. Mag. cpo Vis. nirayanagayonihi vacavitva idhupapanno. Deeds done in the past are causes of behaviour. SEVEN REDUCED TO THREE Now. is reborn here. The elements are causes of behaviour. Dosa (Sk.. bedding. and also one who passing away from a bestial state is reborn here. They are: the walker in passion.The Distinguishing of Behaviour 57 The walker in passion-infatuation. Pubbe kira iffhappayogasubhakammabahulo ragaearito hoti.

through (the manner of seeing) objects. 103: Dvillllllmpana dhiitiinam ussannattiipuggalo mohacarito hoti: pathavidluituyii ca iipodluituyii ca. viitiidhilco mohacarito. And again. Cp. Even after he reflects he cannot mend his ways. One who has an excess of choler becomes a walker in hate. that man is a walker in hate and yet another is a walker in infatuation? SEVEN ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR A. one becomes Ii walker in passion. Vis. and one who has an excess of wind becomes a walker in passion. Dosesu co semhiidhiko riigacarito hoti. Thus it may be known that one is a walker in passion. 104ft": Iriyiipatho klccii bhojanii dassaniidito dhammappavattito c'eva cariyiiyo vibhiivaye ti. through the defilements. one becomes a walker in hate. and does not consider them. They aJ. Mag.z How may it be known 'through (the manner of seeing) objects'? One who walks in passion looks at an object as if he had not seen it before. One who walks in hate looks at an object thus: he does not look IOl1g at an object.e the element of mobility and the element of heat. I. He does not make light of even a little merit (of the object): He cannot free himself of the desire for it. Becausll of the equalizing of all elements. through (the manner of) eating. Vis. Itariisam dvilUllllh ussanattii dosacarito. semhiidhilco vii mohacarito. there is another teaching: One who has an excess of phlegm becomes a walker in infatuation. as though he were tired. through work and through (the manner of) sleeping. Sabbiisam samattii paM riigacarito ti. namely. 2. Mag.1 How may it be known that this man is a walker in passion. viitiidhilco vii riigacarito ti evam dhiitudosanidiinii ti vtuianti. Towards the other objects of sense also he behaves in the same way. Thus the different elements become causes of behaviour. through (the manner of) walking. THE HUMOURS AS CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR How do the cardinal humours become causes of behaviour? One who has an excess of phlegm becomes a walker in passion.58 Vimuttimagga ELEMENTS AS CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR How do elements become causes of behaviour? Because of the heightening of two elements one becomes a walker in infatuation. When he is affected by the humours. He does not see its faults. They are the element of extension and the element of cohesion. Because of the heightening of two elements. . Thus the cardinal humours become causes of behaviour. It may be known through the seven aspects of behaviour. through (the manner of) robing. Cp. and one who has an excess of wind becomes a walker in infatuation.

How may it be known 'through the defilements'? Five are the defilements of one who walks in passion.rejects all things. deceitfulness. wiliness. In walking. Five are the defilements of one who walks in hate. in many ways. How may it be mown 'through (the manner of) robing'? A. The natural gait of him who walks in infatuation is thus: Shuffiingly he lifts his feet up and shuffiingry he puts them down. in many ways. as if digging the ground. Thus it may be known. He praises what others praise. are inelegantly worn. ~s feet graze against each other. How may it be known 'through (the manner of) walking'? A. Thus it may be known 'through (the manner of) walking'. and in many . One who walks in infatuation looks at an object thus: he believes' others as regards merits and demerits (of anything). Q. Thus it may be known that one is a walker in hate. The natural manner of robing of him who walks in hate is thus: He robes hurriedly. infatuation. Q. Thus it may be known 'through (the manner of seeing) objects'. sensuality. pleasing to see. he walks swiftly. hatred. are not pleasing to see. His robes are not well-rounded. The natural manner of him who walks in infatuation is thus: He dresses 'tardily. His feet rub against each other as he puts them down half-wliY. he lifts his feet gracefully. elegantly wor1l. because he does not know. They are rigidity. with even pace. These are the five. Even with very good things he is not pleased. Thus is one who walks in infatuation known. The natural gait of him who walks in hate is thus: He lifts up his feet jerkily and jerkily puts them down. He raises his feet evenly and does not bring them down fiat. A. are not well-rounded. of sense also he behaves in the same way. and. Thus it may be known that one is a walker in infatuation.The Distinguishing of Behaviour 59 he quarrels with others often. hypocrisy. The natural gait of him who walks in passion is thus: Lifting up his feet.determined by the humours. Thus is one who walks in passion known 'through (the manner of) walking'. pride. They are anger. Towards other objects. The robes sit too high. 'through (the manner of) walking'. 'through (the manner of) walking'. They are jealousy. He considers worthless what others consider worthless. anxiety. vindictiveness. uncertainty.4o walks in passion is thus: He robes neither shabbily nor tardily. Towards the other objects of sense also he behaves in the same way. His way of life is . 'through the defilements'. niggardliness. Five are the defilements of one who walks in infatuation. Thus is one who walks in hate known. The natural manner of robing of him w. negligence. Thus he . These are the five. Q. are inelegantly worn and.' His robes do not sit too low and are well-rounded. These are the five.

sews and does everything evenly without letting his mind go astray. moderate lumps. sweet food. 'through (the manner of) eating'. Thus it may be known. When a walker in hate eats. Thus it may be known 'through work'. He lies down gently and sleeps drawing in his limbs. Q. Lit. is a walker in passion. A walker in hate relishes acid food. when a walker in passion eats. quickly. and slowly' enjoys its taste. When a walker in infatuation eats. On being awakened at night. A walker in passion prepares his bed unhurriedly and in proper order. dyes. How may it be known. Q. Though he goes over the ground. He smears his mouth with food. 'through (the manner of) robing'. but not evenly. he serves himself a moderate quantity of food. Q. certain parts are not swept well and not evenly. he gets up immediately and answers angrily. Without scattering the sand. he takes in big mouthfuls of immoderate lumps of food. A walker in hate hurriedly takes the broom and sweeps. but nothing successfully. With even body. he cleans well. scattering the sand on both sides and making a harsh noise. On being awakened at night. He frowns in his sleep. he is not mindful. Thus it may be known. A walker in infatuation relishes anything at all. he gets up lmmediately and answers hesitatingly. he is displeased. not well-rounded lumps of food. 1. A walker in hate does all things unevenly. How may it be known.60 Vimuttimagga ways are not pleasing to see. He does many things. not well-rounded. He sweeps clean. How may it be known 'through (the manner of) eating'? A walker in passion relishes tasty. In the act of eating. he enjoys it very much. 'through (the manner of) sleeping'? A. A walker in infatuation takes hold of the broom tardily. Even if it is of little taste. And again. but does not let his mind go astray.! and unhuriedly sweeps. . he takes in small. succulent. 'through work'? A walker in passion takes hold of the broom evenly. A. one end to the other. A walker in infatuation is disturbed in mind. A walker in hate hurries and lies down in any place he gets. A part of the food enters his mouth and a part falls back into the vessel. takes it (to the mouth) in well-rounded. One who washes. If the food is of little taste.

meat and drink are complete. go to the meanest quarter. facing the sun. BEGGING. in a level place. Thus should he robe himself. A walker in hate may look for succulent. or in a place where there are no beds. Thus should he sleep and sit. pure and tasty food. Mag. beg. The walker in infatuation should take what he gets. Thus it may be known 'through (the manner of) sleeping'. ·and only his body is covered. and his robes should not sit too low. he should not face the sun. AND RESORT Q. 1.l the walker in infatuation [411] should adopt the posture of walking. in a completed shrine. Text. and should go where there are many men of faith. in small secluded woodland glades. He should beg little. A walker in hate should sleep and sit under shade of trees. Cp. SLEEPING. A walker in passion should robe himself humbly. A walker in hate should robe himself with minute care.Vis. sit. On being awakened at night. . or in a place provided with beds and sheets. and for as mueh as he likes. A walker in passion1should beg humbly. The walker in passion should adopt the posture of standing or walking to and fro. ON ROBING. MohQcarlta. the walker in hate should adopt the posture of sitting or lying down. He should not wear bright robes. and sleep and what should be one's resort? A. by the water's edge. or in some half-built shrine. cleanly and with robes of bright colour. Thus should he robe himself. 108-9. The resort of a walker in hate is the place where rice. To such a place he should go. relying on him. In sleep. A walker in infatuation should wear whatever robes he gets. In what manner and with what thought should one wear the robes. should not look for clean and tasty food. murmurs and answers long after. When he enters the village for alms. A walker in infatuation should dwell near his teacher. SITTING. A walker in infatuation should be satisfied with what he gets. he. His robes should sit low and be elegant.his limbs are out. 2.The Distinguishing of Behaviour 61 A walker in infatuation does not prepare his bed in an orderly manner. The resort of a walker in passion should be a pI aGe of humble drink and food. To such a place he should go. water. When he enters the village for alms. . ObviouSly ail error. A walker ill passion should sleep and sit under shade of trees. by the water's edge. he should.

He does not remove the defilements. and does 110t allow himself to be stained by the defilements. A man walking in hate is quarrelsome. A hating man gains faith through being bound up with unlovely things. A hating man is like a master. A passionate man gains faith through lovable objects. A passionate mau is like a servant. A hating man is much affected by the humours. A man walking in infatuation is negligent. He does not remove the defilements. An infatuated man is like venom. A passionate man is little affected by the humours. there are miscellaneous teachings.62 MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS Vimuttimagga Here. An infatuated man is much affected by the humours. An infatuated man gains (faith) through non-investigation. . A man walking in passion is sensuous.

7. Q. the perception of festering. karUf14. pittJ. substitutes iiloka-' and paricchinniikiisa-kasi{las. mindfulness of death.THE DISTINGUISHING OF THE SUBJECTS OF MEDITATIONCHAPTER THE SEVENTH THIRTY-EIGHT SUBJECTS OF MEDITATION Now. Alu'ire patikkala-saifl!ii. recollection of liberality. 8 METHOD OF . Ak(Jfcal!llilyatana. appamii{IiJ citta.· the Perception of the foulness of food. the perception of the blood-stained. (4) by way of cause. eleven 1. the perception of the gnawed. mindfulness of respiration. PIS. nev4Stll/ll4lr49. pu/uvaka. viiyo. Mag.-Mettil. For the last two kasi{las VIS. nila. vipubbaka. white. consciousness. vicchiddaka. namely. the teacher on whom one depends. Sanghiinussati. the perception of the cut and the dismembered. Mag. 41: Pathavj. Vis. 4.I.S the Determining of the elements.. devatiinlls8lUi. lohitaka.· the ten perceptions of putrescence. S(lfil!iiyatana. yellow. The distinctive qualities of these thirty-eight subjects of meditation may be known (1) by way of meditation. 110 If. hatavikkhittakil. 223-4: catasso appamafllliiyo. What are the thirty-eight subjects of meditation? A. ten subjects of meditation fulfil access-meditation. space. 9 I BY WAY OF MEDITATION Q. And again. the perception of the dismembered.49: Uddhufhiitaka. viiiifii(la. telo. Cpo D. (9) by way of person. Recollection of the Buddha. 8. appreciative joy.m. 'by way of meditation'? A. 1. atthiklf. the perception of bloatedness. . the ten kasi{IQS. the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Cpo Vis. recollection of deities. Dhammiinussati. the perception of discolouration. Buddhiinussati. (3) by way of increasing. 3. mllllltil. (5) by way of object. kiiyagatii-.ka. How. Cp. teaches one the thirty-eight subjects of meditation. A. iipo. vikkhiiyitaka. water.' the sphere of nothingness. red. blue-green. namely. (7) by way of plane. .DISCERNING THE QUALITIES These are the thirty-eight subjects of meditation. 63 . upekkhii.' the four immeasurable thoughts: loving-kindness compassion. fire. 2. recollection of peace. lohita. odiita. Namely. (6) by way of speciality. vinilakq. vikkhitttJ. Namely. (8) by way of seizing. 6. Catudhiitavavatrhiina. ciigiinlUsati. 111 If. Lit.earth. mara{liinussati. the perception of worminess and the perception of the bony. S. (2) by way of transcending. recollection of virtue. having observed one's behaviour. siliinussali. Recollection of the Law. Mag. mindfulness of body. Recollection of the ·Community of Bhikkhus. the perception of the fissured. upasamiinlUsatl. he teaches one the two associated subjects of meditation. ' iiniipiina-sat i. The· order here is altered to suit the passage above. equammity. iikiisa.3 the ten recollections. air.

The ten perceptions of putrescence and mindfulness of body produce the first meditation. do not transcend form. The sphere-subjects of meditation transcend form.za and consciousness-kasi(1a. A. the remaining eight k asil:zas and Mindfulness of respiration. BY WAY OF TRANSCENDING Q. Q. Q. the remaining eight kasilJas and what remain of the thirty subjects of meditation. Whieb uine subjeCts of meditatJon comprise the four-fold and five-fold mcditatio.these are called the four subjects of meditation. Which of the eleven subjects of meditation produce the filst meditation? A. the determining of the four elements and the perception of the foulness of food are called the ten (objects of) accessmeditation. Thus these should be known 'by way of meditation'. And again. loving-kindness compassion and appreciative joy. the remaining eight recollections. four subjects of meditation fulfil the four-fold formless meditation. Excepting the . The other thirty-five subjects of meditation do not transcend the object. three subjects of meditation fulfil the three-fold meditation. the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception . How 'by way of transcending'? A. A. Which subject of meditation produces the fOllT-fold meditation? Namely. nine subjects of meditation fulfil the four-fold and five-fold meditation. p. Which three subjects of meditation produce the three-fold meditation "! Namely. A. one subject of meditation fulfils the four-fold meditation. Q. the sphere of nothingness. equanimity. Which ten subjects of meditation fulfil access-meditation? Excepting mindfulness of respiration and mindfulness of body. Space-kasil:za. Q. Which four subjects of meditation comprise the four-fold formless meditation? . A. . Excepting space-kasil. consciousness-kasi(1u. Q.64 Vimuttimagga subjects of meditation fulfil the first meditation.us-? A. And again. Three subjects of meditation transcend the object: the two formlesskasi(1as and the sphere of nothingness. formless-kasi/las.

the remaining nine kasiJ. Thus these should be known 'by way of cause'. Which five have neither the sign nor their intrinsic nature as object? Namely. A.la.Subjects of MedUation 65 And again. the ten perceptions of putrescence.las and the four immeasurables. A.la. BY WAY OF INCREASING Q. How.ion. Twenty-one subjects of meditation have the sign as object. 426: . The other thirty-seven subjects oLmeditation do not transcend perception and sensat. 1 And again:. the sphere of neither. one subject of meditation transcends perception and sensation. namely. 'by way of cause'? Nine subjects of meditation are causes of supernormal power. 1. Fourteen subjects of meditation should be increased. the ten kasiJ. namely.las and limited-space kasiJ. the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. BY WAY OF OBJECT Q. How.perception nor non-perception. 'by way of object'? A. A. BY WAY OF CAUSE Q How. Consciousness kasiJ. Excepting the consciousness kasiJ. What remain of the other thirty subjects of meditation do not become causes of supernormal power. The other twenty-four should not be increased.asamapatti. mindfulness of respiratic n and mindfulness of body. the four immeasurables and the sphere of nothingness. Which twenty-one su~jects of meditation have the sign as object? A. Which twelve (subjects of meditation) have their intrinsic nature as object? A. the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception and the ten objects of access-meditation. Twelve subjects of meditation have their intrinsic nature as object. namely. the remaining eight kasiJ. Thus these should be known 'by way of transcending'.las. IIi kho bhikkhave yava!a san. lavala annapativedho. 'by way of increasing'? A. Thus these should be known 'by way of increasing'. IV. namely.las. (all) except the sphere of neither perception nor nonperception.la. Thirty-seven subjects of meditation become insight-causes. Q. Q. excepting the formless kasiJ. Q.. . namely. one subject of meditation does not become insightcause.

And again. consciousness kasil).las. prepared (object). Two subjects of meditation: developed internal object. external object. nternal object. four subjects of meditation: internally developed object. And again. internal object. two subjects of meditation: internally developed object. four subjects of meditation: internally developed object. internal object. external object. And again. prepared external object. external 0 bject. two subjects of meditation have: internally developed object. twenty-one subjects of meditation: externally developed object. And again. . prepared internal object. prepared external object. prepared internal object. two subjects of meditation: internally developed object. namely. four subjects of meditation: prepared internal object. internal object. the four colour kasil. And again. Ahd again. indescribable internal object. And again. one subject of meditation: externally developed object. internal object. one subject of meditation: internal-external developed object. recollection of liberality. namely: recollection of death. the four In measurable thoughts.la. prepared developed external object. prepared external object. And again. namely. one subject of meditation: developed internal object. the determining of the four elements and the perception of the foulness of food. prepared externally developed external object.as. the four colour kasi1. And again. two subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed object.66 Vimuttimagga And again. And again. recollection of virtue. four subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed object. And again. external object. prepared external object. namely: mindfulness of respiration and mindfulness of body. internal object. prepared externally developed object. prepared externally developed object. one subject of meditation: externally developed object and internal object. twenty-one subjects of meditation: externally developed 0hject.a and sphere of neither perception nor nonperception. And again. And again. (limited-) space kasi1. And again. the ten perceptions of putrescence. namely. external object. ["('collection of the Buddha and recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus. two subjects of meditation: prepared internally developed object. namely. external object.

the ten perceptions of putrescence. And again. namely. the perception ofworininess aridrnindfulrtess of respiration.as and the four formless (objects of) concentration are named special. And· again. space. the sphere of nothingness. air kasilJ. All the other thirty-four have steady objects. And again. two subjects of meditation: prepared past object. . jhdna. the determining of the four elements and the perception of the foulness of food. form. two subjects of meditation belonging to the past. 'by way of spediality'? A. recollection of virtue. BY WAY OF SPECIALITY Q. Eight kasilJ.as. recollection of death. namely. And again~ one subject of meditation: inner developed object. but their after-image is steady. and because of the impurityperception-object. because of their subtility and because of attentiveness. one subject of meditation is of the present. consciousness kasilJa and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. one subject of meditation: internal-external prepared object. namely. prepared future object. The ten perceptions of putrescence arid' the perception of the foulness of food are called special perception. combination and coherence. sphere object. mindfulness of body and the sphere of nothingness. the four immeasurable thoughts. prepared non-characterizable past-future. recollection of the Law and recollection of peace. recollection of deities. nine kiisilJ. namely. four subjects of meditation. are called (objects of) speciality in concentration.as. distinctiveness. And because in the fourth meditation. six subjects of meditation: prepared past object. And again. And again. namely. namely.· inner object. direction. recollection of liberality. namely recollection of the Buddha. The ten recollections are called special recollections. being true objects. How. fire kasil:za. prepared present object. outer object. Thus these should be known 'by way of object'. Movement is their medium. namely. And again. one reaches a special plane. the four formles~ (objects of) concentration become special. namely. mindfulness of respiration. because of colour. The eight kasilJ. one subject of meditation is of the future. And again. have unsteady objects. recollection of deities.Subjects of Meditation 61 prepared external object. internal object. recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus.a.

Thus these should be known 'by way of speciality'. How. Seventeen subjects of meditation seize the sign through sight. f. Namely..e. 1 Namely. BY WAY OF PERSON Q. And again. mindfulness of respiration. one subject of meditation seizes the sign through sight or contact.68 Vitnuttimagga [412] The four immeasurable thoughts are called special. BY WAY OF SEIZING Q. i. one subject of meditation seizes the sign through contact. the formless and equanimity. . Namely. No subject of meditation except the four formless (ones) arise in the formless existence. 113. And again. excepting air kasif)a and the formless kasilJas. The determining of the four elements is called the speciality of wisdom. mindfulness of body and the perception of the foulness of food. Q. the remaining seven kasilJas and ten perceptions of putrescence. air kasilJa. The remaining nineteen subjects of meditation seize the sign through audition. the first twelve and mindfulness of respiration do not arise in the form existence. 'by way of plane'? Twelve subjects of meditation do not arise in the higher heavens. Thus these should be known 'by way of seizing'. because they cannot be surpassed. Ariipabhava. thirteen subjects of meditation do not arise in the form existence. Namely. The remaining thirty-five may be practised by the beginner. BY WAY OF PLANE How. Mag. five subjects of meditation should not be practised by the beginner. Brahmaloka. L Riipabhava. A walker in passion should not practis~ the four immeasurables. the ten perceptions of putrescence. because of its connection with the void. How 'by way of person'? A. According to Vis. Namely. 'by way of seizing'? A. 2 Thus these should be understood 'by way of plane'. And again. A. And again.

It (the practice of the four immeasurables by a walker in passion} is comparable to a man affected of a disorder ofphlegm partaking of very rich food that is harmful to him. Or he should practise colour kasilJa. 1 A walker in infatuation should make inquiries regarding the Law. namely. with reverential mind.t a goad. 1. recollection of death and recollection of peace because he is profound. a walker in intelligence is not debarred from working at any subject of meditation. through . A walker in hate is not . 449: Cetaso vikkhepassa pahtinaya iiniipiinasati bhiivetabbii. A walker in infatuation. A walker in passion who has dull faculties should practise the investigation of impurity in order to overcome lust. There are two kinds of men who walk in passion. who has not gathered wisdom. A walker in faith should practise the six recollections beginning with recollection of the Buddha. A walker in passion should practise the perception of impurity and mindfulness of body. The six persons may. because these help overcome lust. Recollection of death and the determining of the four elements are specially suited to him. the perception of the foulness of food. He should live with his teacher.Subjects o/Meditation 69 ·because oftheir auspicious sign. there is another teaching: "When I investigate the subjects of meditation. Thus he should practise and overcome lust. because it eradicates discursive thought. If that be so. I. because of the arising of resentment-perception. because his mind attends to such. because these help overcpme hatred.good at appreciating it and is comparable to a man with a bilious ailment partaking of hot drinks and food which are harmful to him. . And again. I see their distinctive qualities. should not work at any subject of meditation. Why? A wa~er in·passion is not good at appreciating the auspicious sign. (the man) of dull faculties and (the man) of keen faculties. A. A walker in excogitation should practise mindfulness of respiration. Q. should hear expositions of the Law in due season. Owing to lack of skill. faith 'will gain fixity. will there be difficulties at the beginning? A. A walker in intelligence should practise the determining of the four elements. Then his. his efforts will be fruitless. discernment. be reduced to three". because of his lack of skill. And again. A walker in hate should not practise the ten perceptions of putrescence. and should honour the Law. It (the practice of meditation by a walker in infatuation) is comparable to a man who rides an elephant withou. A walker in hate should practise the four ·immeasurables. He should heap up wisdom and should practise what pleases him of the thirty-eight subjects of meditation.

According to this teaching. should practise the (meditation of the) special sphere. increase faith. (the man) of no faculties and (the man) of dull faculties. The walker in infatuation who has no faculties should not work at any subject of meditation. By this he will be able to overcome hatred. There are two kinds of men who walk in hate. there should be no difficulty. All the activities can be fulfilled without difficulty. A walker in hate who has dull faculties should practise the four immeasurables. The walker in infatuation who has dull faculties should practise ntindfulness of respiration in order to dispel discursive thinking. at first. There are two kinds of men who walk in infatuation. If a man is endowed with merit. . He should practise the recollections.70 Vimuttimagga The walker in passion who has keen faculties should. being oile endowed with wisdom. he will have no difficulty in fulfilling all the excellent subjects of meditation. Thus he should practise and' overcome lust. Therefore. the kasilJas and mindfulness of respiration are developed (further) through space. Thus (the six persons) can be reduced to three. Thus should one practise and dispel hatred. namely. (the man) of dull faculties and (the man) of keen faculties. The walker in hate who has keen faculties. namely.

la. 1. mental activity is unimpeded.la . Nonabandonment is its function. Delight in being linked to the earth sign is its salient characteristic. Non-differentiated thought is its near cause. Mag. a man is able to walk on water just as' on earth and to move freely in space.this is called earth kasi1.la?1 What is the practice of it? What is its salient characteristic? What is its function? What is ·its near cause? What are its benefits? What is the meaning of kasi1. namely.THE PATII OF FREEDOM FASCICLE TIm FOURm WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAr LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN ENTRANCE INTO THE SUBJECT OF MEDITATION CHAPTER TIm EIGHTH Section One Q. at all times and in all actions. FUNCTION AND NEAR CAUSE A.this is called practice. he gains the supernormal power of mllnifoldness. acquiring supernormal power. 175. ITS PRACTICE. Cp.la? How many kinds of earth are there? What is the earth sign? How is a ma1. . the heavenly ear and worldly higher knowledge.prthvikrtsniiyatana (Sk. What is the earth kasi1. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind . SALIENT CHARACTERISTIC. Vis. the knowledge of past lives. BENEFITS What are its benefits?2 Twelve are its benefits. the sign is easy of acquisition through meditation on the earth kasi1.la? EARTH KASINA. The thought that is produced relying on the earth sign .la.) 2.l4ala made? What is the method of meditating on the earth kasi1. he fares well and draws near to the verge of the ambrosial. In this text the ideograph for pa{havikasil. 71 .

he will get the (after-) image. A beginner in the first I.za. namely.72 Vimuttimagga MEANING OF KASINA Q. 381: Buddham appameyyam anussara pasanno piliyii phu/asariro hohisi salalam udaggo. Solidity is the property of natural earth. white. Mag. Meditating thus one causes this ma. KINDS OF EARTH Q. This is called natural earth.e. One taught in the stanza:-1 It is even as the Enlightened "When a man remembers the worth of the 'wakened ones. 2. Here a yogin should not add anything to natural earth. when with spreading earth-thought Rose-apple Isle's suffused. 2.also sometimes rendered dark-blue. NON-PREPARED EARTH Q. How many kinds of earth are there? Taking which earth as sign should one practise? A.3 red and the colour of dawn. Natural earth. he practises colour kasi. There are two kinds of earth. within the range of v~sion and which arouses steady mental activity . A practised yogin gains the after-image of earth following either the difficult or the easy way. black or red. Why? When he meditates on earth of these colours.this is called kasil. he does not get the after-image. 3. What is the meaning of kasilJa? A.this is earth perception.. This is called non-prepared earth.2 1. Not traced. Level ground which is free from thickets. Prepared earth.. and dwells without falling. So. Nila . the earth-wrought state is likened to the body with bliss perfused". black. Cpo Vis. Cpo Th. Why? If a yogin meditates on natural earth or prepared earth. he should take that sign.rfala to prevail everywhere. free from roots of trees or tufts of grass. the joy that wells within him floods his body through.. blue-black. He should exclude white. What i& made of earth dug out by a man himself or by another is called prepared earth. By dwelling on white.. earth) is of dawncolour. Earth is of four colours. . Pervasiveness . 123 if. If it (i. What is non-prepared earth sign? A. black. black and red.a.

let him at first select a calm place in the monastery. It should be covered and protected until it is dry. roots and dirt from it. . When it is dry. triangular or square. TRIBULATIONS OF SENSE-DESIRES ILLUSTRATED IN TWENTY SIMILES Q..• •. jhtina. or a deserted. a metal gong and may be circular.••••••••• Ti1)ukkiJpama kama . A yogin who wishes to meditate upon the earth kasi1)a should at first consider the tribulations of sense-desires. bahudukkha bahiJpayasa. sweep the place clean and make it smooth. Let him screen the sitting place and exclude the light. Because they produce little pleasure and severe pain. iidinavo ettha bhiyo. or a place on an unused road.RukkhaphaliJpama kama • •••••• •Asisiiniipama kama . He should not meditate on non-prepared earth.1 (1) Sense-desires are likened to a bo~e because of scanty 1. MalhsapesiJpama kama -vutta Bhagavata . If a yogin desires to make a ma7. It may be of the size of a round rice-sifter. or a place under a tree. bahudukkhil bahiJpayiisa . neither too near nor too far. After that let watery clay unmixed with any other colour or unmixed with special colour be applied.. Let him make a circle according to rule. Let the circle be flat and full and without markings. . How should he consider the tribulations of sense-desires? A. Taking a moderate quantity in a vessel. let him carefully mix it with water and remove grass.. How should one meditate upon the earth kasi{la? A.and make a couch of meditation.•••••• Arigiirakiisiipama kama •••••••• SupillDkiJpama kama •••••• YacitakiJpama klima • •••••. METHOD OF EARTH KASINA MEDITATION Q.Subjects of Meditation 73 meditation. ••• SappasiriJpamii kama Futta Bhagavata. takes prepared earth and makes a ma{lt/ala. let him keep a distance of one fathom. they are full of tribulations. With the edge of a cloth let him remove any dirt that may be on the swept place. and again he should consider the benefits of renunciation. According to the principal teacher's instructions. In such places let him..lt/ala may be made on cloth. iidinavo ellha bhiyo. The first ten similes are at A. on a board or on a wall. The ma7. rectangular.lt/ala on the ground. 97: AllhisarikhaliJpama kama vutta Bhagavata. . [413] it should be edged with another colour.. prepare the ground in order to cause the arising of the sign. How is a ma{lt/ala made? A. III. with clay of the colour of dawn... or a cave.. This is the teaching of predecessor teachers. Thus it should be understood. covered place unlit by the sun. But it is best on the ground. In ali such places.••• SallisiJliJpama kama . a circle is the best. ON MAKING A MANDALA Q.

(15) sense-desires are likened to infatuation because they cause the loss of Right Mindfulness. and the eight doctrines taught in this sutta are illustrated with as many examples. (10) sense-desires are likened to the head of a venomous snake because they are fearful. not insane. It was taught by the Blessed One that sense-desires are like a venomous snake. householder. disliking sorrow very much. wishing to live. (8) sense-desires are likened to a sword because they cut. In the 'Pali there are only seven illustrations.flee from it". Simile No. sense-desires are likened to ripening because they are subject to decay. (12) sense-desires are likened to a mirage because they bewilder the fool. like the first meditation.74 Vimuttimagga yield of pleasure. becomes freed from evil states of mind and causes to perish all worldly enjoyment and clings to nothing". (13) sense-desires are likened to darkness because they are blinding. the learned. because on seeing the venomous snake he would think: 'If I were to stretch forth my hand or other member of my body and let the snake bite it. poisonous. produce much suffering and are pain-laden'. Namely. What do you think. were to come. (19) sense-desires are likened to a house of hate because they provoke quarrels. very vicious. he should consider the benefits of renunciation. (2) sense-desires are likened to a piece of flesh because they are followed by many (sufferings). in full possession of his senses. black and terrible of aspect.o. the simile of the snake is also found.these are named renunciation. jhiina. he wishes to. (7) sense-desires are likened to a fruit tree because they are chopped down by others. would that man stretch out his hand or any other member of his body to the snake. not deluded. 'Bite me. I. (5) sense-desires are likened to a dream because they vanish quickly. 245: Kama-gu!'a ariyassa vinaye andiiti pi vuccanti. And he abandons sense-desires. (16). bite me'1" Then the householder answered: "No. it is as if. not wishing to die and disliking death very much.A. TIl. not far from a village. (20) and sense-desires are pain-laden because they cause trials innumerable. 203: "Householder. 14 . 17 -·D. They yield little pleasure. on seeing that venomous snake. (14) sense-desires are likened to hindrances because they obstruct the way of good. . bantlhanan Ii pi vuccanti. desirous of weal and shunning woe. saying. though it is difficult to say exactly which illustration refers to which doctrine. from the time one retires from the world . In the Chinese 'Potaliya' (transliteration) Sutta. Householder. (9) sense-desires are likened to a pointed stake because they impale.1 (11) sense-desires are likened to a flock of cotton blown about by the wind'because they are unresisting by nature. there were a huge venomous snake. good practices. Simile No. I should die or suffer severely'. venerable Gotama. 63: Kiimacchando bhikkha~e avara!'o nivara!. The following is taken from the Chii Agon (Madhyama Agama) No. (4) sense-desires are likened to a pit of glowing embers because of the great and the small (?). in this manner. (18) sense-desires are likened (to thieves) because they rob the value of merit. And so. noble disciple also thinks in the same way: 'Sense-desires are like a venomous snake. RENUNCIATION AND ITS BENEFITS Renunciation. Having considered the tribulations of sense-desires. (6) sense-desires are likened to borrowed goods because they cannot be enjoyed long. (17) sense-desires are likened to fetters because they bind one to another. 1. and a man not foolish. (3) sense-desires are likened to a' (flaming) torch carried against the wind because they burn.

l the dwelling in freedom. and meditates either on the non-prepared or the prepared. What are the benefits of renunciation? A. METHOD OF PRACTICE OF EARTH KASINA Having. Sense-desires are defiling. renunciation is the friend of fruition. This (renunciation) is profound wisdom. 3. 1. renunciation is unconnected with hate. and sits down and meditates on the Buddha's Enlightenment. Therefore. Through this practice is merit gathered. long would it have been before I reached peace. collect his thoughts and unify his mind. This is solitude. holds the body erect and arouses mindfulness from the very depths of his being. renunciation is fine. one sits down with legs crossed under him. one washes the hands and feet. about the length of a plough-pole or a fathom (from the mal)rjaia). the benefitting of two places 2 through acceptance of gifts. Sense-desires are coarse. Through this practice inward calm is won. one should fix one's gaze on the mal)rjala. After sometime. Sense-desires are inferior. willi closed eyes. well. And taking the mat of meditation to a place neither too far from nor too near the mal)rjaia. 2. This is the super-excellent path. one observes the rules regarding the bowl and robes..e. Sense-desires are bound up with fear. This is the best of all stations. i. renunciation is fearless. Separation from the hindrances. renunciation is non-defiling. renunciation is superior. Having taken a moderate meal. Bodhi . I should endeavour earnestly". Had I not renounced. considered the tribulations of sense-desires and the benefits of renunciation. one accomplishes happiness through renunciation. Through the doing of good actions and through these recollections one becomes happy and thinks: "Nbw it is possible for me to acquire perfection. Panca nivaralJiini. II. faces the malJrjala. And again. One arouses the heart of faith and reverence. the dwelling in happiness and mindfulness and the ability to endure suffering. Sense-desires are not friendly towards fruition. what is called renunciation is the renunciation of sense-desires. This is freedom from all hindrances. Taking food in moderation. one is able to exclude all disturbances of body and mind.3 the Law and the Order. This is happiness. in this manner. accomplishment of much good and attainment of the ground of great fruition. This is the absence of defilement.Subjects of Meditation 75 Q. the joy of solitude. Then opening the eyes neither too wide nor too narrowly. This is called 'beyond the three worlds'. This washes away the dirt of the mind. Bodily or mentally one is not heedless. 80: Atthi bhikkhave dakkhifJii diiyakato c'eva visujjhati pafiggiihakato ca. Sense-desires are connected with hate. Cpo A. and accepts little.transliteration. .

76 Vimuttimagga THREE WAYS OF SIGN-TAKING The yogin should meditate on the form of the ma1:uJala and take the sign through three ways: through even gazing. and he will arouse negligence. he will not be able to know the true nature of the malJrjaia. How. He sits (to meditate) in the morning. Q. I. It is to stray away froin the way of meditation. third is to supply the deficiency should it partial sign or half the malJrjala appear. The yogin is impatient. they will grow weary. so the yogin dwelling on the malJrjaia sees the sign of concentration which arises. Q. Q. Thus one takes the sign through even gazing. (fourth:) at this time if his mind is distracted and becomes negligent. Cpo M. There are four kinds of disturbance: the first is endeavour that is too quick. i. By evening he ceases (to endeavour).e. Q. What is endeavour that is too slow? A. If he opens his eyes too wide. Q. because of the malJrjaia. The first is to put away any internal lack. Thus should the yogin dwell (on the malJt/aia) in order to gain fixity of mind. How. and letting' it pervade (his mind) fully and without faults consider calmness (?). the secorid is to view the malJrjala squarely. Therefore. How. through four ways. tam tad eva kareyyq abhinipphiideyya. As a man looking at his own face in a mirror sees his face because of the mirror. he will not see the sign because of darkness. the fourth is depression. This is called hurried doing. because of weariness of body. he should gaze on the malJrjaia. when his mind acquires fixity. It is hurried practice. the third is elation. dakkho kumbhakaro va kumbhakiirantevasi va suparikammakataya mallikaya yanl yad eva bhajanavikatim akatikheyya. the second is endeavour that is too slow. Thus should sklIfulness be known. Thus should he view it. through skilfulness? A. he should endeavour like a potter at the wheel l and. When the yogin dwells on the malJrjala. What is endeavour that is too quick? A. IJ. Thus should he take the sign by fixing the mind through even gazing. he should not open his eyes too wide nor shut them entirely. He should dwell with earnestness on the malJrjala. and the after-image will 110t arise. through neutralizing disturbance? A. . If he faces the malJrjaia closing the eyes fast. skilfulness and neutralizing disturbance. through even gazing? A. Often he lies down. Often he gets up. 18: Seyyathapi Udayi. Though the yogih sees the malJt/ala he does not dwell on it with reverence. he should refrain from opening his eyes too wide and closing them fast. because the face is reflected by the mirror. Namely..

When this yogin's mind falls into a state of agitation. he becomes discontented with the subject of meditation. If he dislikes the subject of meditation from the start he resents activity and. If his mind moves in one direction. he should abandon anger forthwith. he should overcome and abandon that state of mind-negligence with the faculty of mindfulness and the faculty of energy. The after-image means this: what when a man contem1. . at first. A. sometimes to the left. and dislikes the subject of meditation. Tasrila ti ha tvam SOlla viriyasamatam adhilfhaha indriyiinaii ca samatam pafivijjha tattha ca nimittam ¥a(lhiihi 'ti. quickly. his body and mind become dull and lazy and sleep overtakes him. Depression: The yogin fails owing to agitation and thereby partakes of uneasiness. sometimes small. III. sometimes near. he overcomes and abandons agitation. does not delight in frivolous thoughts. When the man of elatcd mind falls into a lustful state.1 Elation: If the yogin's mind becomes lax through losing itself in frivolous thoughts. if he does many deeds through the will for happiness and bliss. sometimes ugly. falls from distinction and. sometimes big. sometimes /ar. becomes depressed. his body becomes weary and his mind flags. What is the grasping sign? When a yogin. he gains the perception of the mmJrjala and sees it as it were in space. When he endeavours too slowly. his mind becomes depressed.Subjects of Meditation 77 When a yogin endeavours too vigorously. his mind becomes elated through willing. with undisturbed mind dwells on the ma/plata. the grasping sign and the afterimage. This is named grasping sign. without scanning the mavrj6la. And again. When his mind falls into a state of negligence. If he. In these four places a man accomplishes and makes his mind move in one direction. sometimes to the right. the mind wanders and loses itself in frivolous thoughts. accordingly through resentment. he should abandon lust forthwith. it becomes elated. He. THE AFTER-IMAGE Through the following of that (the grasping sign) again and again the after. sometimes lovely. with the faculty of mindfulness and the faculty of concentration. 375: Acciiraddhaviriyam uddhacciiya sarilvattati atilinaviriyam kosajjiiya samvattati. his mind becomes weary of initial and sustained application of thought. Occasionally (he sees it multiplied) many (times) and occasionally few (times). When the man of depressed mind falls into an angry state. Or again. owing to craving.-image arises. namely. the sign can be made to arise: GRASPING SIGN There are two kinds of signs. Or. causes the grasping sign to arise through skilful contemplation.

. Yatviidhika. of sleeping. How does one refrain from evil? One should refrain from pleasure of work. Q. without. it is said that the meaning of wisdom is the meaning of the sign. 274) bhikkhuno pa.iyam. are not wholesome. III. protect that excellent sign.78 Vimuttimagga plates appears together with mind. If he wills to see it far. he will.amatii nidda. 181: Sikkhii ekii sannii uppajjanti. Cpo D.am iipajjati. the company of bad friends and seeing improper objects of sense.iimatii. sangalJikii. It is like the thought a man has on seeing the reflection of his own face and image. and non-watchfulness in the first and last watches of the night.aniyassa -Mp. to the right. And again. . of frequenting assemblies.iye samva. of various kinds of trivial talk. sikkhii eM sanna ni./ala) only in thought. Katame panca? Kammiiriimatii. yathiivimuttam cittam na paechavekkhati. to the left. The Buddha has declared: "With trained perception one should forsake". jluinas. PROTECTING THE SIGN After acquiring the sign the yogin should. To partake of food. Q. it is said that the meaning of image is the meaning of the sign. If he does not protect.aja bhikkhu eakkhunii '''pam disva na nimittaggiihi hoti nanuvyanjanaggiihi. bhassa. 3. immoral habits.amata. And again. How should he protect it? A./ala. A. (one should refrain from) the non-protection of the faculties.2 This is called wisdom. surely.iyam asamvutam viharantam abhijjhii-domanassii piipakii akusala dhamma anvassaveyyum tassa samvaraya pii!ipaijati. with heart of reverence towards his teacher. eakkhund. He should protect it through three kinds of actions: through refraining from evil.I.al. non-reverence for that which he has learned (the rule). at the improper time. he sees it afar. What is the meaning of constant endeavour? 1. As regards seeing it near. within. 3 intemperance as regards food. lose it. behind. The after-image is obvious. it is the same.akkhati eakkhund. 116: Pane' ime bhikkhave dhamma sekhassa (=sekhassati sikkhakassa saka. practice of good and through constant endeavour. before. but it (the after-image) can be seen with closed eyes as before (while looking at the ma1}r. Here the mind does not gain collectedness through viewing the ma1}r. 2. 70: Idha mahii-. III.lam enam eakkhllnd.ujjhanti.I. It appears together with mind. above and below. non-practice of the meditations. THE SIGN What is the meaning of sign? The meaning of (conditioning) cause is the meaning of sign. Cpo D.! This is the meaning of conditioning cause. To conquer these states is (to do) good. to sit and to lie down. It" is even as the Buddha taught the bhikkhus: [414] "All evil demeritorious states occur depending on a sign". This is called the after-image. Thus he should always practise.ihiinaya' samvattanti.

he practises. Mag. kdlena bhavaligam otarati. jhana. kevalam pi rattim kevakam pi divasam tiffhati. joy. Arousing attention. mind and body having attained to tranquillity are steady like a ship on unruffled water. In fixed meditation. What is the difference between. And if access-meditation appears in his mind. Appandya palia aligdni thdmajdfdni honti. 2. he sees the sign and protecting the sign in this way. In his practice. he contemplates on the ma{l{lala. But he does not practise initial and sustained application of thought. kusalaJavanapatipii(ivasen'4va pavattafi ti. Appand jhdna. Though he gains meditation-strength. 3. are unsteady like a ship on waves. This state acquires the power of mental progress. This is the power of application of thought. he gains access-meditation. Cpo Vis. 1 ACCESS-MEDITATION Q. he arouses attention. like a child. Thus he· overcomes the hindrances. fesam thdmajdtattd. accomplishes fixed meditation. Because the factors 2 are not powerful the mind does not dwell long on the object. JHANA Fixed meditation. He practises constantly and much. Keeping his mind from straying hither and thither. he acquires facility. jhana. He is at ease when he lies down. in access-meditation. he. evam eva upacdre uppanne cittam kdlena nimittam drammaT]am karoti. This is called access-meditation. jhdna. Text has ariga. And if the (after-) image appears in his mind. What is access-meditation? A. The overcoming of the five hindrances is access. jhdna7 A. he meditates. bliss. follows access. faith and the others. Q. 3 All factors' being powerful (in fixed meditation. It means that the man follows the object unimpeded by his inclinations. Thus meditating. it is fixed meditation. and 4. FIXED MEDITATION. Through this constant endeavour. jhana. by means of this.lates on its merit as if it were a precious jewel. and 5. One overcomes these five and thereby fulfils fixed meditation. jhdna. Upholding the sign. . like a powerful man. access and fixed meditation. He is always 'glad and practises. Yathd ndma balavd puriso dsand vutthdya divasam pi fittheyya. He is glad when he is seated. This state does not move in the object. jhdnd. evam eva appandsamddhimhi uppanT]e cittam. not having attained to tranquillity. sakiln bhavaligavdram chinditvii. unification of mind and the five faculties of faith and so forth..Subjects of Meditation 79 A. In access-meditation mind and body. When distinction in meditation is accomplished. jMna) one dwells on the object peacefully and 10I\g. 126: Yathd ndma daharo kumdrako ukkhipitvd rhapiyamdno punappunam bhiimiyam patati. Through access one approaches distinction in meditation. 5 In access1. This is called fixed meditation. That yogin having taken the sign always contem. diverse trends of thought occur yet. he upholds the sign. He practises by day and by night.

JHANA If the yogin attains to a*rcess-meditation but is unable. INCREASING OF THE MSINA How should he increase? Namely. Continued repelling of the hindrances is called fixed meditati6n. If a man overcomes the hindrances weII. 1 In fixed meditation. as a road near a village is called a village road. should be gradually increased. Increasing it in this way. If a man does not overcome the (five) hindrances. becomes not-blind). It is like the forgetfulness of a discourse-reciter who has stopped.uberances. practice being facile. dwelling in access. jhana. A. heights. SKILFULNESS IN FIXED MEDITATION. is called access. He should not contemplate on such things as rivers. trees and prot.za. Q. the kasir. (reciting) for a long time. jhana. yoga is accomplished: It is like a discourse-reciter who keeps himself in training. and who does not forget when he recites. Thus should he progress gradually until he fills the great earth. 195: Asajjhiiyamalii bhikkhave manlii. IV. through causes. V. jhana? Fixed meditation. he should effect the arising of skilfulness in fixed meditation. through "good standing" . and he will be able gradually to increase with facility. he should contemplate on earth as if it were the great ocean. A. though the names differ. Concerning the accomplishment of fixed meditation.za which is a span and four fingers. he attains to distinction in meditation. jhana. the second. a village. mountains. it is called access. is like the mind entering the mar. 2. to obtain fixed meditation.. Q. the shadow of a tree. 97: Paficime bhikkhave nivara(lii andhakara(lii ackkhukara(lii. Thus should he contemplate.z These are the teachings regarding impurity. Fixed meditation. Here the yogin. What is the meaning of access? A. (jhana). There is no difference in meaning between renunciation. jhana. depths. a canopy.80 Vimuttimagga meditation one does not practise with facility. Let him progressively increase it to the size of a wheel. all of which are uneven. Cpo S. The meaning is the same. means yoga. he is blind as regards access-meditation. a small neighbourhood. meditation' (jhana) and fixed meditation. always. . fixed meditation (jluina) or the first meditation (jhana) should increase: the kasir. Therefore yoga is not accomplished. a cultivated field. at the start. jhana. a walled village and a city. he gains sight (lit. these are the teachings of purity:-From the state of facility in the sign to (the state of) repelling.z4ala. jhana. jhana. jhana. What is the meaning of fixed meditation. 1. in two ways: the first. 'Because it is near meditation.

nimittakusalatii. lets it go at the right moment and thereby marks an even. jhdna. A. through the partaking of suitable food. jhiinavimokkhapaccare. 97. one restrains the mind having considered the evil results (of such 1. (4). Through three kinds of action 'One accomplishes the cleansing of the physical basis. i. in taking the sign: The mind-faculty takes (the sign) well. 283: Api ca ekiidasa dhammii samiidhi-sambojjhangasSll uppiidiiya samvattanti: vatthuvisadakiriyatii. the enjoyment of the ease of agreeable weather and the practice of a posture that is pleasant. (7) By gladdening the mind. By these two. Through two ways one restrains the mind: One arouses energy. the mind is regulated: the first. (9) By separation from him who does not practise concentration and by associating with a concentration-practiser. 2 SIMILE OF THE INKED-STRING (3). samaye sampahamsanatii. 2. tad-adhimuttatii ti. (5) By repressing negligence. samaye ciftassa niggahalJatii. indrlyasamattapafipiidanatii. By restraining and regulating the mind: There are two ways. kkhanalii.-a. It is comparable to a swift horse-chariot. i. Seyyathiipi bhikkhave subhumiyariJ ciitummahiipathe iijaililaratho yutto assa thito odhaSfapatodo tam enam dakkho yoggiicariyo assadammasiirathi abhiruhUvii viimena hatthena rasmiyo gahetvii dakkhilJena hatthena patodam gahetvii yen'icchakam yad lcchakam siireyya pi pacciisiireyya pi. It is like a skilful carpenter. 'One takes (food) temperately every day. the second. Q. samaye citlassa paggahalJatii. having determined well.m. If the mind wanders to unsuitable spheres and objects. asamiihitapuggalaparivajjanatii. faith or any of the other four faculties should not be allowed to fall back. What is the consideration of cleansing the physical basis? A. By the consideration of equalizing (the work) of the faculties. (2) By the consideration of equalizing (the work of) the faculties..e. 176. uncurved line.rv. Namely. samiihifapuggalasevanatii. through negligence. (4) By restraining and regulating the mind. samaye ajjhupekkhanptii.28. (10) By intentness on fixed meditation concentration. (8) By steadying the mind and fulfilling equanimity.. through causes: (1) By the consideration of cleansing the physical basis. (3) By skilfulness in taking the sign. Skilfulnes:. (6) By (overcoming) mental inactivity.III. neither too hastily nor too slowly.thus disturbed. 1 (I). through profound investigation of the spheres or the mind becomes discursive.e. who. Cpo Vbh. SIMILE OF THE HORSE-CHARIOT (2). s. wandering to distant and unsuitable spheres and is .Subjects of Meditation TEN WAYS 81 By means of ten ways he effects the arising of skilfulness in fixed meditation. . pulls the inked-string. M. through intense effort.

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Vimuttimagga

actions). Thus one overcomes in two ways: through investigation of various sufferings and through the search for the reward of evil deeds. (5) (6) and (7). By repressing negligence: Through two ways negligence of mind is fulfilled: through lack of distinction jn concentration and through mental inactivity. When there is much negligence, the mind becomes sluggish and torpid. This means that, if the yogin does not gain distinction in concentration, his mind is steeped in negligence because of mental inactivity. Through two ways one should repress. Namely, through the consideration of merit and through the arousing of' energy. He should repress negligence of torpor and idleness of mind in four ways:- If he is a voracious person he considers (the faults of) negligence and practises the four restraints. Fixing his mind on the sign of brightness, he dwells in a dewy place, makes his mind rejoice and gets rid of attachment. Through three ways mental inactivity takes place: through insufficiency of skill, dullness of wit, non-obtainment of the ease of solitude. If a yogin's mind is inactive he makes it active in these two ways: through fear and through gladness. If he considers birth, decay, death and the four states of. woe, owing to fear, anxiety and mental agony arise in hJs mind. 1 If he practises the recollections of the Buddha, the Law, the Community of Bhikkhus, virtue, liberality and deities. he sees the merits of these objects and is gladdened. (8). By the mind becoming steady and fulfilling equanimity: Through two actions (the mind) fulfils access-meditation: by destroying the hindrances the mind fulfils fixity. Or, arousing the meditation (jhdna) factors on already acquired earth (kasiTJ.{l), the. mind attains· to fixity. After a yogin attains to calmness, there are two states to be abandoned ~ that which causes inattention, arid that which causes middling skill. (9). Separation from those· who do not practise concentration means that a man who has not attained to fixed meditation, access-meditation or restraint meditation, and he who does not train himself in these or practise these should not be served. Association with a meditation practiser means that if a man has attained to fixed meditation, jhana, he should be followed. Under him one should learn. Him should one serve. (10). By intentness on fixed meditation, jhdna, means that the yogin always reverences, enjoys (meditation) and practises much (regarding it) as the deepest depth, as a fountain and as a tender plant. Through the practice of these ten, fixed meditation, jhdna, is obtained. Q. How (does the yogin) produce skilfulness in fixed meditation, jhdnaJ well, through good standing? A. That yogin, having well understood the causes (which induce concentration), enters into solitude. With the sign of concentration which he has practised, he induces, in mind, desirous ease, with facility. Through this
1. Cpo Nd1 • 371: JiItlbhayamjariIbhayam byiIdhibhayam maraJ;labhayam .•• ',d(lggatibhayam.

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state, the mind acqul'res good standing. Through the arlsmg of joy, the mind acqwres good standing. [4.15] Through the arising of body-bliss, the mind acquires good standing. Through the arising of brightness, the mind acquires good standing. Through the arising of harmlessness, the mind attains to calmness. Through this calmness, the mind acquires good standing. Thus observing well, the mind attains to equanimity and acquires good standing. Liberating itself from limitless passions, the mind acquires good standing. By reason of freedom, the mind accomplishes the one-function-of-the-Law1 and practises. Therefore, owing to tllis excellence; the mind gains increase. Thus established in good standing, the yogin causes the arising of skilfulness in fixed meditation, jhdna. Understanding causes and good standing well, in this way, he, in no long time, brings out concentration. THE FIRST MEDITATION, JHANA That yogin, having separated himself from lust, having separated himself from demeritorious states, attains to the first meditation, jhdna, which is accompanied by. initial and sustained application of thought, born of solitude, and full of joy and bliss.s This is the merit of earth kasi1)Q. THREE KINDS OF SEPARATION FROM LUST AND DEMERITOR10Us STATES Now, there are thre,e kinds of separation from lust, viz., of ,the body, df the mind and of the defilements. 3 Q. What is separation from (lust of) the body? A. (A man) separates himself from desires, goes to a hill or moor and dwells there. What is separation from (lust of) the mind. With pure heart a man reaches a station of distinction. What is separation from (lust of) the defilements? A man is cut off ffom kindred, birth and death. And again, there are five kinds of separation, namely, suppressionseparation, part-separation, eradication-separation, tranquillity-separation, emancipation-separation. What is suppression-separation? Namely, practise of the first meditationjhdna, and the suppression of the five hindrances. What is part-separation? Namely, practice of penetration-concentration and the suppression of views. What is eradication-separation? Namely, the practice
1. A.IV, 203: Seyyathiipl Pahiiriida mahiisamuddho ekaraso I01;laraso, evam eva kho Pahiiriida ayam dhammavinayo ekaraso vimuiliraso. 2. A.III, 25: ldha hhlkkhave bhlkkhu vlvlcc'eva kiimehl vlvicca akusalehl dhammehi savitakkam sav/ciiram vlvekajam pir/-sukham pathamajjhiinam IIpasampajja vlharali. 3. (a) Nd 1• 26: Vivekii II layo vivekii, kiiyaviveko, cittaviveko, upadhiviveko. (b) Ibid. 27: Kiiyaviveko ca viipakafthakiiyiinam nekkhammiibh/raliillam; cittaviveko ca. parlsuddhacitliinam paramavodiinappattiinam; upadhlvlveko ca nirupadhinam puggaliinam vlsathkhiiragatiinam.

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of the supramundane Path and the cutting down of many defilements. What is tranquillity-separation? It is the joy of the time when one acquites the (Noble) Fruit. What is emancipation-separation? Namely, Nibbana. 1 TWO KINDS OF LUST There are two kinds of lust: the first is lust for things; the second is lust for pleasure. The lust for heavenly mansions and forms, odours, flavours and tangibles which men love is called lust for things. A man clings to this lust for things and attends to it. 2 The separation from these lusts through mind and through suppression - this is solitude, this is renunciation, this is freedom, this is the' unassociated, this is called separation from lust. ROOTS OF DEMERIT
Q. What is separation from demeritorious states? A. Namely, there are three kinds of roots of demerit: the first is lust, the second is hatred and the third is ignorance. 3 The sensations, perceptions, formations and consciousness connected with these and the actions of body, speech and mind (connected with these) are called demeritorious states. According to another tradition, there are three kinds of demerit: the first is natural; the second is associated; the third is causally produced. The three roots of demerit ale named natural. Sensations, perceptions, formations and consciousness which are connected with these' are named associated. The actions of body, speech and mind which are produced are called causally produced. The' separation from these three demeritorious states is called renunciation, freedom, the unassociated. This is called separation from demeritorious states. And again, separation from lust means the separation from the hindrance of lust. Separation from demeritorious states is separation from the other hindrances. 4
1. Pts. II, 220: Sammiidiflhiyii katame pai/ca vivekii? Vikkhambhanaviveko tadangaviveko samucchedaviveko pafippassaddhiviveko nissara~aviveko. Vikkhambhanaviveko ca nivara~iinQ1;' pa(hama/jhiinam bhiivayato, tadangaviveko ca di(fhigatiinarh nihbedhabhagiyarh samiidhirh bhiivayato, samucchedaviveko' ca lokuftararh khayagiimimaggarh bhiivayato, pa(ippassaddhiviveko ca phalakkhalle, nissaralJaviveko ca nirodho nibbiinarh. 2. Ndl 1-2: Dve kiimii, vatthukiimii ca kilesakiimii ca. Katame vatthukiimii? Maniipikii riipii, maniipikii sadda, maniipikii gandhii, maniipikii rasii, mariiipikii phoffhabbii; . .... . , dibba kiimii; . .... ,ime vuccanti vatrhukiimii. ,Katame kilesakiimii? Chando kiimo, rago kiimo, chandariigo kiimo, ...... sarhkappariigo kiimo; yo kiimesukiimacchando kiimariigo kiimanandi kiimata~hii kiimasneho kiimapari{dho kiimamucchii kiimajjhosiinarh kamogho kiimayogo kiimupiidiinarh kiimacchandanivara~am., ..... ime vuccanti kilesakiimii. 3. D. IU, 214: Ti~i akusala-miiliini. Lobho akusala-mUlarh, dasa akusala-miilarh, maho akusala-miilarh. ' 4. Vbh.256: Vivicc'eva kiimehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehiti: tattha katame kiimii? Chando kiima, riigo kiima, chandariiga kiima; sarhkappa kiima, riiga kiimo, sumkappariiga kama: ime vuccanti kiimii. Tattha katame akusalii dhammii? Kiimacchanda vyiipiido thinamiddham uddhaccakukkuccam vicikicchii: ime vuccanti akusalii dhammii.-Here see Vis. Mag. 141: Vivicca akusalehi dhammehi Ii imina pai/cannam pi nivarQ/;riinam, agahitaggaha~ena paiJa pafhamena kiimacchandassa, dutiyena
sesanivara~uinam.

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REASONS FOR TREATING LUST AND DEMERIT SEPARATELY

Q. Since separatipn from demeritorious states is preached and . lust as a demeritorious state is already within it, why should separation from lust be separately preached? A. Lust is conquered through emancipation. Every Buddha's teaching -can remove the defilements well. "The separation from lust is renunciatioa".l This is the teaching of the Buddha. It is like the attainment of the first meditation, jhdna. The thought connected with the perception of lust partakes of the state of deterioration. Thereby lust is connected with the defilements. With the dispersion of lust all defilements disperse. Therefore, separately, the separation from Iu,t is preached. And again, thus is separation from lust: Mter gaining emancipation, a man accomplishes the separation from lust.
SEPARATION FROM DEMERITORIOUS STATES Separation from demeritorious states is thus: Through the acquisition of non-hatred, a man fulfils separation from hatred; through the acquisition of the perception of brightness, he fulfils separation from torpor; through the acquisition of non-distraction, he fulfils separation from agitation and anxiety; through the acquisition of non-rigidity, he fulfils separation from rigidity; through the acquisition of fixed meditation, jhtina, he fulfils separation from uncertainty; through the acquisition of wisdom, he fulfils separation from ignorance; through the acquisition of right thought, he fulfils separation from wrong mindfulness; through the acquisition of bliss, he fulfils separation from non-bliss; through the acquisition of the twin bliss of the mind, he fulfils separation from suffering; through the acquisition of all meritorious states, he separates from all demerit. This is just as it is taught in the Tipitaka thus: "He is full of dispassion, therefore he fulfils separation from lust. He is full of non-hatred and non-delusion, therefore he fulfils separation from demeritorious states". 2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LUST AND DEMERIT And again, separation from lust is taught as the emancipation of the body, and separation from demeritorious states is taught as the emancipation of the mind.
1. It. 61: Kiimiinam-etam nissarafJam yad-idam nekkhammam. 2. Prof. Bapa! in his Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga, p.46 traces this passage to Petakopadesa. He quotes from the printed Burmese edition=P.T.S. Ed. 141: Tattha alobhassa piiripiiriyii, vivitto hot; kiimehi. Tattha adosassa piiripuriyii amohassa piiripuriyii ca vivitto hot; piipakehi akusalehi dhammehi.

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And again, separation from lust is taught as the abandoning of discursive sensuous thought, and the separation from demeritorious states is taught as, the abandoning of discursive thoughts of hate and harm. And again, separation from lust is taught as eschewing of sense-pleasures, and separation from demeritorious states is taught as the eschewing of negligence thlOUgh indulgence of the body. And again, separation from lust is taught as the abandoning of the sixfold pleasures of sense and of delight therein. Separation from demeritorious states is taught as the abandoning of discursive thoughts of hate and harm, anxiety and suffering. Also it is taught as (1) the mowing down of pleasure, (2) as indifference. And again, separation from lust is present bliss of relief from sensepleasures, and separation from demeritorious states is present bliss of relief from non-subjection to tribulation. And again, sepaffltion from lust is to get beyond the sense-flood entirely. Sepalation from demeritorious states is the surpassing of all other defilements which cause rebirth in. the sense and form (planes). INITIAL AND SUSTAINED APPLICATION OF THOUGHT Accompanied by initial application and sustained application of thought: What is initial application of thought? To perceive, to think, to be composed, to excogitate and to aspire rightly, though without understanding, constitute initial application of thought. Such are the qualities of initial application of thought. Owing to the fulfilment of initial application of thought there is initial application of thought in the first meditation, jhtina. And again, one dwells on the earth kasi7;la and considers the earth sign without end. These constitute initial application of thought. It is comparable to the reciting of discourses by heart. Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause cf initial application of thought?
A.l ...... ....................................................... .

What is sustained application of thought? When one practises sustained application of thought, the mind 'dwells in non-indifference following that which sustained application of thought investigates. This state is called sustained application of thought. In association with this one accomplishes the first meditation, jhtina. The first meditation, jhana, is (conjoined) with sustained application of thought. And again, the meditator who dwells on the earth kasi7;la considers many aspects which his mind discerns when working on the earth sign. This is sustained application of thought.
1. This passage is unintelligible.

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Q. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause of sustained application of thought? A. Reflection following investigation is its salient characteristic. The brightening of the mind - this is its function. The seeing that follows initial application of thought - this is its near cause.
INITIAL APPLICATION AND SUSTAINED APPLICATION OF THOUGHT DISCRIMINATED

Q. What is the difference between initial application and sustained application of thought?
SIMILES OF THE BELL ETC.
A. It is comparable to the striking of a bell. The 1hst sound is initial application of thought. The reverberations that follow constitute sustained application of thought. And 'again, it is comparable to the relation of the mind to its object. The beginning is initial application of thought; the rest is sustained application of thought. And again, to wish for meditation, jhtina, is initial application of thought; to maintain is sustained application of thought. And again, to recall is initial application of thought; to dwell on the recollection is sustained application of thought. And again, the state of the coarse mind is initial application of thought and the state of the fine mind is sustained application of thought. Where there is initial application ,of thought there is sustained application of thought, but where there is 'sustained application of thought, there mayor may not be initial application of thought. It is taught in' the Tipitaka thus: "The mind beginning to dwell on anything is initial application of thouiht. If, having acquired initial application of thought, the mind is still unfixed, it is sustained application of thought".l To see a person coming in the distance, without knowing whether one is a man or woman and to distinguish the form as male or female is initial application of thought. Thereafter to consider whether he or she is virtuous or not, is rich or poor, noble or humble~ is sustained application of thought. Initial application of thought wants (a thing), draws it·and brings it near.2 Sustained application of thought keeps it, holds it, follows and goes after it.

SIMILES OF THE BIRD ETC. Like a bird taking off from a hill flapping its wings, is initial application
1. Dhs. 10, paras 7, 8; 20, paras 84, '85; Yo tasmim samaye takko vitakko sa1ikappo appanlivyappana cetaso abhiniropanli sammlisaltkappo--ayam tasmlm samaye vitakko hoti. Yo tasmim samaye cliro vicliro anuvlcliro upavicliro cittassa anusandhanatli anupekkhanatli , -ayam tasmim samaye vicaro hoti. , 2. Pelaka. 142: Yathli puriso diirato purisan. passati ligacchantam na ca tliva jlinliti-eso itthi ti vii purlso ti vii. Yadli tu pafl/abhati: itthi ti vii puriso ti vii evamva1;/1,lo Ii vii evamsal)fhlino ti vii, ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti: kim nil kho ayam silavli udadu dussilo atlt/.ho vii duggato ti vii? Evam vlciiro vitakke apetl viciiro cariyati, ca, anl/vattatl ca. - Traced by Prof. Banat, ,

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of thought and the planing movement (of a bird in the sky) is sustained application of thought. The first spreading (of the wings) is initial application of' thought. The spreading (of the wings) when it is continued long is sustained application of thought,1 With initial application of thought one protects; with sustained application of thought one searches. With initial application of thought one considers; with sustained application of thought one continues to consider. The walker in initial application of thought does not think of wrong states; the walker in sustained application of thought induces meditation. Sustained application of thought is like a man who is able, while reciting the discourses in mind, to gather the meaning. Initial application of thought is like a man who sees what he wants to see and after seeing understands It well. Expertness in etymology and dialectic is initial application of thought; expertness in theory and practice is sustained application of thought. 2 To appreciate distinction is initial application of thought; to understand the distinction of things is sustained application of thought. These are the differences between initial application and sustained application of thought. SOLITUDE Born of solitude. It is called solitude because of separation from the five hindrances. This is named solitude. And again, it is the merit-faculty of the form plane. And again, it is taught as the access of the first meditation, jhiina. And again, it is taught as the meditation-thought. What is produced from this is called born of solitude, as the flower which grows on earth is called earth-flower and the flower which grows in water, water-flower. JOy AND BLISS Joy and bliss. The mind at this time is greatly glad and at ease. The mind is filled with coolness. This is called joy. Q. What are the salient characteristic,. function, manifestation and near cause of joy and how many kinds of joy are there? A. Joy: the being filled with joy is its salient characteristic; to gladden is its function; the overcoming of mental disturbance is its manifestation; buoyancy is its near cause. How many kinds of joy are there? There are six kinds of joy: one
1. Vis. Mag. 142: Dukanipii/allhakalhiiyam pana iikiise gacchalo mahiisakul,lassa ubhohi pakkhehi viilam gahelvii pakkhe sannisidiipelvii gamanam viya iirammal,le celaso abhiniropanabhiivena pavatto vilakko; (so hi ekaggo hu/vii appeli;) viilagahal,lalfham pakkhe phandiipayamiinassa gamanam viya anumajjanasabhiivena pavalfo viciiro Ii vulfam.-This simile is not in the Cy., i.e., ManorathapiiraJ;li. 2. Here again Prof. Bapat has traced this passage to the Petaka, 142; Yalhii paliko IUl,lhiko sajjhiiyam karoti evam vitakko, yalhii lam yeva anupassati evam viciiro. Yathii aparilillii evanl vitakko, ya/hii pariiiiiii evam viciiro. Niruttipafisambhidiiyall ca palibhiinapafisambhidiiyall Ca vi/akko, dhammapalisambhidiiyall ca atthapafisambhidiiyall ca viciiro.

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proceeds from lust; one, from faith; one, from non-rigidity; one from solitude; one, from concentration and one, from enlightenment factors. Which, from lust? . The joy of passion and the joy that is bound up with the defilements are called joy that proceeds from lust. 1 Which, from faith? The joy of a man of great faith and the joy produced on seeing a potter. s Which, from non-rigidity? [416] The great joy of the pure-hearted and the virtuous. Which, from solitude? The joy of the individual who enters the first . meditation, jhdna. 3 Which, from concentration? The joy of the individual who enters the second meditation, jhdna.' Which, from the enlightenment factors? . The joy that follows the treading of the supramundane path in the second meditation, jhdna. FIVE KINDS OF JOy And again, it is taught that there are five kinds of joy, namely, the lesser thrill, momentary joy, streaming joy, swiftly going joy, all-pervading joy.· The lesser thrill is like the raising of the hairs of the body caused by being wet with fine rain. Momentary joy suddenly arises and suddenly passes away. It is comparable to showers 'at night. Streaming joy is like oil that streaks down the body without spreading. Swiftly going joy is joy that spreads through the mind and vanishes not long after. It is comparable to the store of a poor man. All-pervading joy permeating the body, continues. It is like a thundercloud that is full of rain. Thus the lesser thrill and momentary joy cause the arising of the access through faith. Streaming joy becoming poweIful causes the arising of the access. Swiftly going joy dwelling on the ma7)r/.aia causes the arising of both the good and the bad, and depends on skill. Allpervaqing joy is produced in the state of fixed meditation. BLISS
Q.

What is bliss?

A. Contact with the lovable and the ease-giVing is

bliss.
1. S.IV, 235: Katama ca bhikkhave samisil piti. Pallcime bhikkhave kamaguf,la. Katam. pal/ca. Cakkhuviilileyyif rupa itlha kanta manifpif piyarupa kamupasaThhitif rajaniyif .... pe. " .kifyavil/I/eyya phQllhabbii iffhif kanta .... rajaniya. Ime kho bhikkhav. pal/cakamagUf)if. Ya kho bhikkhove ime pal/cakifmaguf,le paficca uppajjati piti, ayaTh vuccatl bhlkkhave samisa pitl. 2. What is meant by potter is not clear. 3. A.n, 126: Idha ekacco pugga/o vivicc'eva kifmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehl savitakkaTh savicaraTh vivekajaln pitisukhoTh pafhama/jhiinaTh upasampajja vihdrati. 4. Ibid. 127: VitakkavkaranaTh vupasamif a/jhattaTh sampasddo cetaso ekodibhavanl avitakkaTh avicaraTh samadhijaTh pitisukkaTh dutiyajjhanaTh upasampajja viharati. S. Dbs.-a. 115. Khuddakii piti, khaf,likii piti, okkantikii piti, pharaf,lii piti, ubbega piti ti pal/cavidhii hotl.

the bliss of solitude. fundamental bliss. jhdna? It is equalized meditation on an object. Tranquillity of mind is bliss. This. Joy belongs to the formations-group. the bliss of feeling. Concentration of mind is joy. 204: Nibbiinamparamam sukham. has the special characteristic of L Dh.l The bliss of solitude is the development of concentration-in4ifference and the destruction of meditation. having already touched. Cpo I. 3. and acquires good standing: Having already acquired. . jhlina. Tranquillity is its near cause. one dwells. but where there is bliss there mayor may not be joy. It is to meditate and to overcome. According to this'treatise. The meditation-factors are initial application of thought and sustained application of thought. And again. jhdna. Peaceful persuasion is its manifestation. Its function is its salient characteristic. 75: Punaca param mahii-riija bhikkhu pitiyii ca viriigd ca upekhako ca viharali salo ca sampajdno.this is its agreeable function. the bliss of dwelling should be enjoyed. function. 194: Sukho Buddhanam uppiido. sukhaif ca kdyena pafisamvedeli yan lam ariyii iickkihanri: "upekhako salima sukka-vihdri" II latiyajlhlinam upasampajja viharali. jhdna. What are the salient characteristic. caused bliss. having already proved. ~ The bliss of dwelling is generally called the bliss of dwelling. FIVE KINDS OF BLISS How many kinds of bliss are there? There are five kinds of bliss. bliss is fine. Dependence on an agreeable object . Enters the first meditation. namely. the bliss of non-defilement. thus is separation from lust and demeritorious states: The first meditation. bliss belongs to the sensation-group. 2. jhdna. The bliss of non-defilement is according to the Buddha's teaching "highest Nibbdna". Dh. ease of mind is bliss. joy. What is called caused bliss? Thus it is according to the Buddha's teaching: "The bliss of virtue lasts long". Where there is joy there is bliss.90 Vimuttimagga Q. is called the special characteristic of separation from the world of sense. After accomplishing the access one enters the first meditation. This is a merit of bliss. It is the plucking out of the five hindrances. The second meditation. bliss and unification of mind. is called caused bliss. jhlina. Thus is fundamental bliss according to the Buddha's teaching: "The Enlightened One produces worldly bliss". Joy is coarse. FIRST MEDITATION (JHANA) The first is the basis for producing the second. manifestation and near cause of bliss? How many kinds of bliss are there? What are the difference~ between joy and bliss? A. 3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JOY AND BLISS What are the differences between joy and bliss? Buoyancy is joy. What is meditation.

it is not a hindrance. . ayam jhiinaviseso. Kdmacchanda. Tattha katame jhiinavisesii? Vivicc' eva kiimehi vivicca piipqkehl akusalehi dhammehi cittacetasikasahagatii kiimadhiitusamatlkkamanatii pi. thinamiddham pahindm hotl. III will: This is the practice of the ten defilements. What are the five? Sense-desire. 90. thina-mlddha. and to overcome well. uddhaccakukkuccam pahfnam hotl. 4. If it proceeds from food and time as in the case of the Arah'ant. ill will. refers to the first meditation.I. Vis. (c) Petaka 136: Tattha katamam pafhamam jhiinam? PalfcangaVlppayuttam palfcangasamanniigatam. 147-8: 2. There are three kinds of torpor: the first. If it proceeds from food and time. 4 Sense-desire: (This refers to) a mind defiled by the dust of passion. therefore joy and bliss are called the special characteristics of solitude. proceeds from food. Mag. 139. the second. Th. S.1 And again. from time. have I not slept the sleep that proceeds from the mind. three kinds of g~od­ ness. (a) M. With initial application and sustained application of thought: This is said to be the characteristic of (the first) meditation. 294-~: Piifhamam kho iivuso jhiinam palfcaligavlppahinam palfcaligasamanniigatam: Idh'iivuso pafhamamjhiinam samiipannassa bhik7chuno kiimacchando pahfno holl byiipiido pahino hotl. If it proceeds from the mind. separates from five factors. & I I. because it does not proceed from the mind. jhiina. In solitude are joy and bliss. jhtina. agitation and anxiety. . ayam jhiinavlseso. Avltakkii c'eva aviciirii ca sappitikiiya satisahagatiiya pitlsahagatii salflfiimanasikiirii samudiicarantl. ten characteristics. one removes it with meditation. one cuts it with energy as the Venerable Elder Anuruddha taught: "Since first I destroyed the cankers for fifty-five years. jhdna. vicikicchii pahinii hoti. And during this period for twenty-five years. uddhaccakukkucca. thus is separation from lust and demeritorious states: It is to remove well. vyiipiida. . Acquires good standing enters and dwells: One acquires the first meditation. fonnula (p. s FIVE HINDRANCES Separation from five factors: This is separation from the five hindrances. 139: Palfcangavlppahinam pailcangasamanniigatam tividhakalyii1)am dasalakkharrasampannam pafhamajJhiinam. have I removed the sleep that proceeds from food and time". Petaka. 904 Pailcapaililiisa vassiini yatonesaDiko aham . fulfils five factors. Rigidity: This is negligence of the mind. Mag. from the mind. above) to "the Brahma or the deva world". the third. Torpor: This is the desire for sleep owing to heaviness of the body.Subjects of Meditation 91 separation from initial application and sustained application of thought. 3. Joy and bliss born of solitude: This state resembles meditation. . vlciklcchii. With these merits one can obtain rebirth in the Brahma or the deva world. uncertainty. pailcavisa/i vassiini ya/o middham samiiha/am. rigidity and torpor.2 and accomplishes the twenty-five merits. (b) Vis. From "The first is the basis for producing the second" (p. 83 above): Vivicc' eva kiimehi vivicca akusalehl dhammehl savitakkam saviciiram vlvevakajam pitlsukkam pathamam jhiinam upasampajja viharat/".

. If torpor is a bodily state and rigidity is a mental property. Vipassana (transliteration). the characteristics of these are equal. is serenity won through the ending of these uncertainties. Therefore they become one hindrance.3 superposing. town. There are many fetters such as those which cover the defilements. a the third.92 Vimuttimagga Q. Uncertainty concerning the Discourses is a hindrance to solitude. defilement. These two states have one object and one function. Thus should these be understood. Therefore. outside the five factors. 3. Samatha (transliteration). to both and the fourth. If there is a meditation. . And again. uncertainty concerning the Buddha. Q. name of man or woman is called hindrance to things non-doctrinal. and others. FIVE FACTORS Five factors: These are fulfilled (through the fulfilment of) initial and sustained application of thought. or is it possible or not to win tranquillity while having these uncertainties or the uncertainty concerning the self? If one has that uncertainty. and unification of mind. to things non-doctrinal. Thus should it be known. Q. They are fetters. bliss. to insight. road. how do these two states unite and become one hindrance? A. 1. all demeritorious states (of hatred) are included in the attachment to anger. how can it be said that the first meditation. What is the meaning of hindrance? Hindrance to vehicle. anxiety is unsteadiness of mind. agitation and anxiety and uncertainty. These are obvious. the attachment to sensedesires includes all attachment to passion. It is like a man drinking wine and taking food. Q. why are only five hindrances taught? A. fetter . the Law and the Community of Bhikkhus is called a hindrance to both. . uncertainty concerning the Four Noble Truths and the three worlds is called a hindrance to insight. how can it be a mental defilement? A. consists of the five factors? 2. Uncertainty concerning things like country. and all demeritorious states of infatuation are included in the attachment to rigidity and torpor. There are four kinds of uncertainty: the first is a hindrance to serenity. Agitation is non-tranquillity of mind. Because these five include all. What are called torpor and rigidity become one.l the second. It is said that the five factors together constitute the first meditationj jhdna. it is called a hindrance to serenity. jhdna.jhdna. Uncertainty is the clinging of the mind to diverse objects. Here. Because of this the five 'hindrances are taught. If torpor is a bodily state. Thus all defilements are included in the attachment to the five hindrances. joy. YalfQ. The body-is produced only by mental defilement. it cannot be said that there is a meditation Uhdna) outside the five factors. Then.

factors. one can speak of an army. If one is skilful. jhiina. Thus the overcoming of the five hindrances results in five meditations. Qwing to all the parts of an army. jhiina. And again. why are only five factors taught? A. the five are fulfilled. initial application of thought 1. they are named factors. as it is taught in the Tipitaka: "Unification of mind is the overcoming of sensuous desire. with the overcoming of the five hindrances. separate from the meditation (jhiina) factors. S. 135: Yalhii hi angasambhiirii h011 saddo ralho iti. With these four qualities the mind becomes peaceful. produce the heart of bliss. there is not. energy and others. These are called the characteristics of combination. Sustained application of thought goes together with the observing mind. jhiina. the hindrances are overcome by the perfection of the five. When initial and sustained application of thought are unmixed. 2. 146: Yalhii pana saralhii sapattisenii II vutte senaligesu eva senii eva senii samuttlevam idha p. Separately. initi~l application of thought is the special factor. one produces joy and bliss. The overcoming of the first hindrance is the first meditation. it is called meditation. meditation (jhtina) is fulfilled. 2 The factors combined are named meditation. And again. It is taught that the object is called meditation. Q. There is no meditation. I. jhiinas.. Among the five factors. sustained application of thought is the beginning of the second meditation. one can produce the heart of joy. There is no army separate from the parts. In spite of there being mindfulness. jhiina. Initial application of thought follows the object of mind and acquires fixed meditation.reasing that. Thus owing to meditation (jhiina) factors. What are the characteristics of combination? A. Sp. Such meditation./lcasu aligesu yeva jhiinasammuII vedllabbii. the other factors are also awakened. jhiina). jhtina. One can speak of a chariot because of all the parts of a chariot. Because these five through combination accomplish meditation. jhiina. it acquires concentration. If the mind becomes peaceful. Q. of the third meditation. separate from meditation (jhtina) factors. By way of clan they are meditation. jhtina. joy is the overcoming of anger. There is no meditation.1 There is no chariot outside the parts.Subjects of Meditation SIMILES OF CHARIOT AND ARMY 93 A. Thus. In the first meditation. These are the special factors of the meditations. they cause the arising of skilfulness. bliss. and the attributes. jhiina. and unification of mind. through initial application of thought lust is abandoned. of the fourth. If one is skilful. jhiina. through combination. and after inc. jhiinas. By means of the meditation. accomplish (meditation. jhiina. .. of the fifth. joy. these five. factors. If initial application of thought enters into right concentration. jhiina. By way of caste they are factors. I.

upekkhdnubriihalJii maJJhe. is quoted by Prof. Mag. Cp. the increase of equanimity is the medial stage. forsakes it. Cpo Vis. I. jhdna. These are called the three characteristics of the purity of practice. TEN CHARACTERISTICS Fulfilment of the ten characteristics: These comprise the three characteristics of the purity of practice. Because of purity. medial and final stages of goodness. . the mind acquires the middle sign of serenity. 144:) ekeli AbhayaglrlVQsino. The earth kasi1)a does not bring joy and bliss. And again because of his having skilfully rooted out the joy and bliss which he caused to arise at first.Ibid. bliss is the overcoming of agitation and anxiety. 3. p. Cpo Vis. Purity of practice is the initial stage. upekkhiinubruhalJQ niima appanii. Vis. The mind purifies itself of that hindrance to the meditation. Sinh. Q. They (joy and bliss) naturally follow the separation from the five hindrances. and Vis. If that be so. and because. viciiro viciklcchiiyii II Pefake vuttam. and because he removes joy and bliss in the fourth meditation. S. he does not cause the arising of joy and bliss. Mag. 49. 141: Talhd hi samiidhi kiimacchandassa pafipakkho. Dhammaputta. -But it is not in the Petaka. rejoicing is the final stage. Meditating on the earth kasi1)a sign. What is the increase of equanimity? It is fixed meditation. and attaches himself to deep tranqUillity.\'~jqiCing? It is reflection.jhdna.l Thus. Ed. Because it is not a suitable state. Bapat in his Vim. seeing the tribulation of bliss. why does the son of truth not arouse joy and bliss in the fourth meditation. sampahamsanii pariyosiinam. he. the three characteristics of the increase of equanimity and the four characteristics of rejoicing.·Mag. 4 Thus there are three kinds of goodness in the first meditation. 147: Pafhamassa jhiinassa pafipadii-visuddhi adl. The comment (in Pm. 148: Pafipadii-visuddhi niima sasambhiiriko upaciiro. THREE KINDS OF GOODNESS The three kinds of goodness: These are the initial. 2. pili vyiipiidassa. What are the three characteristics of the increase of equanimity? 1. Q. Mag. jhdna? A. and from that the mind leaps forward. Q. the five are fulfilled. jhdna. sustained application of thought is the overcoming of uncer~ tainty". 147. 4. If. vllakko Ihinamiddhassa. samapahamsana nama paccavekkhalJQ Ii evam eke valJlJayanli. 3 What is purity of practice? It is the foundation of all goodness. sukkham uddhacca-kukkuccassa. through the overcoming of the hindrances. Mag.94 Vimuttimagga is the overcoming of rigidity and torpor. For these reasons. 5 What are the three characteristics of the purity of practice? A. Thus the son of truth2 causes the arising of joy and bliss. What is . [417] how does the yogin cause the arising of joy and bliss? A.

bliss and unification of mind are accomplished. and Vis. Mag. there is rejoicing . What is the kas/r... 1 is acpomplished. and there is rejoicing by reason of devotion (to these states). 8 is accomplished. They are produced from tranquillity and are called the abodes of joy and bliss.by reaSOn of the possession of energy.. There is no place in his body or mind that is not saturated with joy and bliss born of solitude". 74 and A... Bapathas rendered them as: sankhepa-sangaha. 1 is accomplished .. kneads it. Prof.am hotl. ·it fulfils equanimity.. deities. jhdna.. These are called the four characteristics... Thus. there is rejoicing by reason of the functions of the faculties becoming one. .. These are the excellent stations of the.. What are the four characteristics of rejoicing? A.l.. having calmed his body and mind. produces joy and biiss and lets it eve'lly moisten and saturate (him) in such a way that there is no part of him that is not saturated with it. adds water to it. if it attains to solitude. niissa killci sabbiivilto kiiyassa vlv'ekajena pJ'f/-sukhena apphu. joy. Reflection is accomplished . in the first meditation.. Q.. Among these ten characteristics.za sign? A: As the copper vessel contains the hard 1~ 4. If the mind is pure. de~lared to the bhikkhus: SIMILE OF THE BATH-ATTENDANT "Just as a skilful bath-attendant or his apprentice heaps up bath-powder in a lovely copper vessel. .. sangaha. Q. Solitude is accomplished. if it dwells on one object. the ten characteristics are fulfilled. . Purity. and thc super-excellent purity is accomplished. the Buddha. anunaya and sevami respectively at p.. 25: Seyyathiipl bhikkhave dakkho nahiipako vii nahiipakanteviisi vii kamsathiile nahiiniyacuvviini iikiritvii udakena paripphosakam paripphosakam sannejyil... it fulfils equanimity. 49. Faith.Subjects of Meditation 9'5 A. These are called the three characteristics. energy..is accomplished. initial and sustained application of thought. Power is accomplished. In such excellent abodes surpassing the human do tho deities dwell. Practice is accomplished.. saturating it so that it adheres and does not scatter. The copper vessel is the kasilJa sign. mindfulness. Vim... Mag. ' is accomplished. Thus a man dwells togeth\)r with the twenty-five benefits. Dependence is accomplished . just so a bhikkhu.. D. S. These terms are not clear.. it fulfils equanimity.. Freedom is accomplished. 5 Like the skilf\d bath-attendallt or lIJis apprentice is the yogin.. there is rejoicing by reason of the gradual arising of the states produced.. The initial. and makes it round. III. sii'ssa nahiiniyapiv4i snehiinugatii snehaparetii santarabiihirii phUfii snehena na cn paggharati... Thus itshoukt be known.. medial and final stages (of goodness) are accomplished .. TWENTY-FIVE BENEFITS Twenty-five benefits: In the first meditation.. Hence the Blessed One. concentration and wisdom are accomplished.. evam eva kho bhikkhave bh/kkhu Imam eva kiiyam vivekajena pit/sukhena abhisandell par/sandell paripiireti parippharati...

joy and bliss and concentration. Thus the rounded bath-powder is like initial and sustained application of thought. And if they are separated from concentration they do not adhere and are scattered by the winds of the five hindrance~. initial and sustained application of thought. Just as the bath-powder is moistened thoroughly and just as it. If name is full of bliss. Thus it should be understood. Joy and bliss are called formless states. Form depends on name. mixes it with" water. Therefore. As a skilful bathattendant puts the bath-powder into the copper vessel. What is likened to the rounded thing? A. -Q. the copper vessel is said to be like the kasir. Thus they should be understood. And again. through adhering. so the yogin in the first meditation. makes it round. Thus one dwells in the realm of Brahma. and produce concentration. is filled with joy from head to foot and from foot to skull. Q. renders malleable. makes it round with his hand. does not adhere and is scattered by the wind. As water moistens. form that is bliss-produced.za sign. initial and sustained application of thought as tne hand that stirs and makes it (the powder) round. Because the mind and the mental properties fill the object. and owing to the bliss of form the entire body is tranquillized. and dwells without falling. Therefore it is said that the bath-powder is like the mind and mental properties. does not scatter. causes calm of body. Ie. if name is full of joy. he rounds it further with more wet powder and puts"it into the vessel without scattering. How then can they fill the body? A.the first meditation. Therefore water is like joy and bliss.' THREE KINDS OF REBIRTH The ment which can produce rebirth in the world of Brahma is thus: In . joy arid bliss should be regarded as water. In. so does the yogin place his mind and mental properties in the-object and produce tranquillity well. owing to coarseness. Namely.96 Vimuttimagga bath-powder which is made fine and bright. form also is full of joy. Thus there "is no contradiction. so the kasilJa sign contains the hard (earth). skin and hair. so the mind and mental properties when they are separated from joy and bliss. What is comparable to water? Namely. and having made it round. Q. Like the stirring of the bath-powder with water are initial and sustained application of thought. Mind and the mental properties are like the bath-powder.out of which one produces joy which is soft and pure and therefore' bright. become coarse. Thus one is able to produce tranquillity well. Name depends on form. so joy and bliss moisten and render malleable the mind and mental properties. The mind and mental properties become rounded with joy and bliss and are not scattered because of the mind being kept on the object of meditation. Why is the bath-powder likened to the mind and the mental properties? A. jhtina. jhtina. As bath-powder. form also is full of bliss.

jhiina. a man partakes of deterioration:. And again. jhiina. is given to talk. if he practises the higher first meditation. 3S . 77-8: Ayonisomanasikiirii kiimariigena additii. Cpo Pts. one falls back. When a man considers the special means. And there is yet another opinion: If a man does not practise for a long time on the sign he caused to arise in the past. he deteriorates. (2) Or. a man who is desirous of meditation. and his life-span will be half an aeon. there are three kinds: lower. jhiina. middling and upper. Mahii-Brahmii. . he will fall back. jhiina. but is heedless. jhiina. Hence he deteriorates. owing to the denseness of the encompassing impurities. jhiina. 2. there is an opinion: Through slow pollution of the mind. addicted to sleep. If a man of dull faculties dwells heedfully. if he practises the middling first meditation. fhitibhiigiyo dhammo. Brahma-piirisajja. Thus. after his death. he will be reborn as a Great Brahm a. it is called higher meditation. after his death he will join the retinue of Brahma. he acquires the recollectedness of that state and partakes of stability in meditation. A man partakes of deterioration. a man partakes of distinction and a man partakes of penetration. And again. a man partakes of stability. there is another opinion: If a man loses serenity.Cpo Thi. he becomes incapable of making it to arise as he likes and does not attain to concentration. ahosiril uddhafii pubbe eitte avasavattini.! MEDITATION WHICH PARTAKES OF DETERIORATION. but does not remove the five· hind'rances well and does not reach the state of freedom. Brahma-purohita.Subjects-oj Meditation 97 the first meditation. 2 A man of dull faculties causes the arising of meditation. jhiina. When a man considers the special means. Pariyuflhitii kilesehi sukhasaiiiiiinuvattini. jhiina. If a yogin attains to the lower first meditation. jhiina. Pariyulfhiina kilesa:. be reborn as a chief Brahma. it is called middling meditation. 3. tadanudhammatii sali santiffhati. jhiina. he will.(1) Owing to the denseness of the encompassing impurities 3 . nibbidiisahagatii sallllii manasikiirii samudiiearanti viriigiipasathhitii. 1. I. but does not reach the state of freedom. visesabhiigiyo dhammo. nibbdehabhiigiyo dhammo. he falls back. STABILITY. hiinabhiigiyo dhammo. a man has not sufficient energy to destroy the evil discursive thinking which he caused to arise in the past. it is called lower meditation. samaril eittassa nii'abhith riigacittavasiinugii. When a man considers the special means and removes the five hindrances. DISTINCTION AND PENETRATION There are four kinds of men who acquire the merit of rebirth in the world of Brahma. And agaiA. and his life-span will be one aeon. removes the hindrances well and reaches the state of freedom. avitakkasahagatii safiflii manasikiirii samudiiearanti. jhiina. through two kinds of conduct in meditation. vv.6: Pafhamajihiinassa liibhith kiimasahagatii sarlliiimanasikiirii samudiiearanti. and his life-span will be a third of an aeon. Q. and does not endeavour. So. he falls back. Who falls back and how? A. There is an opinion that if a man becomes impure of mind.

he partakes of distinction in meditation. partakes of penetration in meditation. he can attain to insight with ease. he. which .98 Vimuttimagga If a man of keen faculties dwells heedfully. Dispelling the thoughts of agitation and anxiety. he can acquire facility in the second meditation. and developing further. jhiina. jhiina. through absence of passion. If he develops ' further. If a man of keen faculties dwells heedfully.has no initial application of thought. . j/ulna.

being foolish. 2. jhdna. 418: Seyyathii pi bhikkhave giivi pabbateyyii biilii avyattii akhettailRu akusalii vlsame pabbate carltum. I consider the tribulation of the first meditation. though inexperienced. though he wishes to remove initial and sustained application of thought and attain to the second meditation. she thinks thus: "1 cannot go forward. and which. eat the grass I never ate before and drink the water I never drank before"? Without planting her fore leg firmly. jhdna. jhdna.1 1. jhdna. drink the water she never drank before. knows not good pasturage. This applies to all passages in italics in Section Two of Chapter Eight. and the 'benefits of the second meditation. Hence the Blessed One taught the simile of the young mountain cow which. And not being able to enter the place she never entered before. jhdna. jhdna. eat the grass she never ate before. with facility. wanders to a far off precipitous place. if I were to enter the place I never entered before. Further. akhiiditapubbiinl 99 . she raises her hind leg.[418] THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE FIFTH WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN CHAPTER THE EIGHTH Section Two Here I show how to get the second meditation.jhdna. IV.Now. She thinks: "How. tossii evam assa '. jhdna.1 THE SIMILE OF THE YOUNG COW . This passage does not occur in the Chinese Eleottara Agama. he cannot re-enter the first meditation. he falls back and is not able to enter the second meditation. jhtina. with facility wishes to cause the arising of the second· meditation.an nundham llfatapubbaR c'eva dlsam gaccheyyaril. Why? If the yogin is not able to practise the first meditation. the yogin who practises the first meditation. A. becomes restless and is not able to go forwald. The passage in italics does not occur in the Sung Dynasty edition in the library of the Japanese Imperial household. 1 must return to the old pasturage".

dissociated from initial and sustained application of thought. dwells on it.jhiina. jhiina. jhiina? A. according to his wish. and taking the kasilJa sign as the object of the second meditation.He does not know a subject of meditation. What are the tribulations of the first meditation. a' bhikkhu practises adverting. And he sees the tribulations of the first and the merits of the second meditation. akhiidltapubbanl ca tltranl khiideyyam. the second meditation. is coarse. apit4Pubbanl ca paniyani piveyyim' ti. 2 If he enters (the meditation. he again thinks: "I cannot enter the setond meditation. sa pur/nam piidam na suppatiffhitarhpatllfhiipetvapacchimampiidalh uddhareyya. Therefore. entering. apitapubbani ca paniyani piveyyan' tl. IV. jhiina. jhiina. Therefore. He should make the mind free (from lust). tall ca padesam na sotthlnii pacchiigaccheyya. and separate myself from lust". And again he thinks thus: "This first meditation. consist in the overcoming of these. 3.) stir up initial and sustained application of thought and cause negligence of body and disturbance of mind. jhiina. Q. jhiina. cause the arising of the second meditation. at ca titrani k/uitfeY)JQm. na ca akhiidl1apubbanl tifjanl khddeyya. 2.... A. 1 He has not yet separated . Tam klssa hetu? Taltha hi sa bhikkhave gavf pabbateyya haiti avyatta akhettallilu akusala vlsame pabbate carltum. and the merits of the second. na ca apitapubbanl pam'yanl plveyya. jhiina. in the first and in the last watches of the night. 440: So kho aham Anamla aparena sam~ena vlvicc' eva kamehi . . PIs. but thinks thus: "How. establishing. or partake of distinction in it. jhdna. jhiina. he should practise the first meditation. 1.100 Vimuttimagga There is a bhikkhu. I must retire.avajjanavasi samiipal/antivasf adhlffhiinavasi vUffhiinavasi paccavekkhQflavasi. jhiina..pafhamam jhanam upasampajja vlharaml. (from this). Thereby the concentration becomes coarse and incapable of producing higher knowledge. I. JHANA Before and after his meal.. ENTRANCE INTO THE SECOND MEDITATION. and rid myself of initial and sustained application of thought"? Being not at ease. one does not relish the first meditation.himself' from lust and does. he can acquire the bliss of facility. if I were to enter the second meditation. and I cannot rid myself of initial and sustained application of thought.. 3 The merits of the second meditation. enter the first meditation. jhiina. Here the mind separates itself from the first meditation.) often and goes out of it often and acquires facility in the practice of the first meditation. jhiina. is fine". This foolish bhikkhu is as ignorant and inexperienced as the young mountain cow. yasmlr!! c' assa pade Ihltaya evam assa 'yan nimaham agatapubbafl c' eva disam gaccheyyam. Thus we have seen the tribulations of the first meditation. sa na c'eva agatapubbam disam gaccheyya. Kammalfhiina. not know how to enter the first meditation.. and surpass the first meditation. jhtina.jhdna. jhiina. Tassa mayham Ananda Imina vlharena vihal'ato kiimasahagata sallilamanasikara samudacarantl. He has not yet attain. jhiina. He' does not practise this teaching nor study it.ed (meditation. . svassa me hotl iibadho. jhiina). The mind. jhana. jhiina. rising and reflecting. 99-100: Pallca vaslyo . These are the tribulations of the first meditation. The hindrances as the near enemy (of this meditation. jhtina.

jhtina). Q. and initial and sustained application of thought themselves. What are the salient characteristic. jhiina. A. jhiina. through the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. It is the destruction of the roots of all initial and sustained application of thought.za. and the nature of which is to understand is called "internal object". "Internal concentration": The contemplation on one's own bodily state is called "internal concentration". 2 right faith and the faith which develops meditation. Non-defilement is its manifestation. the second is internal concentration. and causes it (the lower) to perish. Here I show the four factors of the second meditation. after separating himself from the lower coarse meditation. . does not go outwards. It is the codestruction of the tribulations of initial and sustained application of thought. roots of initial and sustained application of thought. And also it is named ending. full of joy and bliss". There are three kinds in what is internal: the first is internal in the sense of personal. That yogin "attains to and dwells in the second meditation. He is at ease in joy and bliss born of concentration and cause the mind to abide tranquilly. is without initiarand sustained application of thought. jhiina. This is "the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought". the third is internal object. boni of concentration. jhiina. 2. Faith.' The thought which is inward (subjective). Saddhii. If the yogin strives. Initial and sustained application of thought are its near cause. attains (to the second meditation. manifestation and near cause of internal tranquillity? Non-disburbance is the salient characteristic of internal tranquillity. jhiina. function.Subjects of Meditation 101 ease in joy and bliss born of concentration. In internal concentration this is internal tranquillity. develops internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance. And again. the yogin attains to the upper fine meditation. What is "the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought"? A. jhtina. In this treatise "internal in the sense of personal" means "to be in a state of blissfulness". 1. 53: Vitakka-viciiriinam vupasamii ajjhattam sampasiidanam cetaso ektJdibhiivam 'lvitakkam aviciiram samiidhijam pitisukkam dutiyajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. What is "internal in the sense of personal"? The six internal sense spheres. he accomplishes the destruction of initial and sustained application of thought quickly. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought through clear understanding. I. are called "tranquillity".l This is the merit of the earth kasil. It is the destruction of the tribulations of initial and sustained application of thought pertaining to the first meditation. which. Repose is its function. "Internal": what is one's own is named "internal".

jhiina. 'Without initial and sustained application of thought": After the stilling of initial application of thought. The . state of mind-predominance". they are not included in the first meditation. jluina. Therefore. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought and the arousing of the state of mindpredominance through unification of mind is called "the development of the . unruffiedness is its manifestation. internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance are not clear. "State" has the same meaning as that of "natural state" which is taught in the science of sound. the mind is muddied. he abandons them. "Internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance": just as. the tribulation of initial and sustained application of thought. because of turbidity due to the movement of the waves of initial and sustained application of thought. water becoming turbid. If that be so. just so in the first meditation. Q. "Predominance" is a name for mindfulness. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is the state that is without initial and sustained application ot thought. And again. What is the meaning of "development of the state of mind-predominance"? "Mind" means mentality. In the first meditation. there is no sustained application of thought. owing to the waves of initial and sustained application of thought.zht? Why are two kinds taught? A. manifestation and near cause of 'the state of mind-predominance'? Pure righteousness is its salient characteristic. does not clearly reflect any image. The state of mind-predominance becomes the cause of the state that is without initial and sustained application of thought. (It is said that the yogin) '. After the stilling of sustained application of thought.'develops internal tranquillity and the state of mind-predominance". function. there is no initial application of thought. Are there two kinds of ending of initial and sustained application of thOl. the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is thus: Seeing through initial and sustained application of thought. cast on it. jhtina? A. owing to the appearance of the excellent characteristic of joy and bliss which is born of solitude.102 Vimuttimagg~ "Develops the state of mind-predominance": the dwelling of the mind in right concentration is called the development of the state of mind-predominance. The stilling of initial and sustained application of thought develops internal tranquillity. Q. owing to waves. repose is its function. "State" means nature. What are the salient characteristic. why are these not included in the first meditation. and the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought is its near cause. jhiina.

jhiina. endowed with two factors. without the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. comes from that consciousness and the second meditation. The first meditation. comes together with unification of mind. This is the heavenly abode. "Attains to the second meditation. tabba/. jhiina. (the second) is "without initial and sustained application of thought" that is due to the stilling ()f initial and sustained application of thought. A. jhdna".. which is free from two factors. "concentration" means that the second meditation. are without initial and sustained application of thought. SIMILE OF THE POOL OF WATER "Heavenly abode" means that he dwells in a plane surpassing the human because of joy and bliss that proceed from concentration. This is birth in the Abode of Resplendence. jhdna."Zavihiiri apirihino kiilam kurumiino Abhassariinam deviinam sahavyatam IIppajiati. So tad assiideti . jhiina". comes from the first meditation. This is merit. in what is without initial and sustained application of thought there are two divisions: the first is "without initial and sustained application of thought" that is not due to the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. jhdna. . "Meditation. Thus. Hence the Blessed One taught the bhikkhus thus: I. 127: Puna ca parmi! bhikkhave idh' ekacco puggalo vitakkaviciiriinam vupasamii ajjhattam sampasiido cetsao ekodibhiivam avitakkam avic{iyam samiidhijam pitisukham dutiyajjhiinaljl upasampu. And again. means that he enters the second meditation.Subjects of Meditation 103 state that is without initial and sustained application of thought is the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought of the form element. jhdna. three kinds of goodpess and ten c)1aracteristics and is associated with twenty-three merits. "Born of concentration": this refers to concentration. "Attains to and dwells in the second meditation. jhtina. "The second meditation. These are the two divisions.1I. 1 This has been expounded at length before.ija viharati. is without initial and sustained application of thought through skilful seclusion and the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. jhdna": He acquires the second meditation. jhiina": Internal tranquillity. the five branches of higher knowledge and the third meditation. jhtina. jhiina": It is called so because it follows the first. . Therefore it is called "heavenly abode". jhiina.. "Joy and bliss born of concentration": 'Joy and bliss have already been expounded. joy and bliss and unification of mind are called "meditation. The second meditation. And again.

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"As in a pool of water with a spring and into which no water flows from the four directions, nor rain descends, the water wells up cool and pure from Within, saturates the entire pool and over-flowing spreads afar, even so [419] joy and bliss, cool and pure, welling up from concentration saturate~ every part of the body of a bhikkhu. Thus joy which is produceed from concentration saturates the body and the mind".! A yogin entering the second meditation, jhiina, should consider his body in the light of this simile of the pool with water welling up from within. The absence of any stream flowing from any of the four directions is to be understood as· the stilling of initial and sustained application of thought. As the water welling up from within fills the pool without causing waves to arise in it, [419] so joy and bliss springing from concentration fills the mental and bodily factors and there is no disturbance of mind. As water that is cold cools the body, so joy and bliss born of concentration causes all the mental and bodily factors to be at ease. Thus is the reward of the practice of concentration: One is reborn in the Abode of Resplendence. There are three kinds of rewards pertaining to the three divisions of the second meditaton, jhdna: lower, middling and higher. The yogin who practises the lower meditation, jhdna, will, after his death, be reborn in the Abode of Lesser Light. His life-span will be two aeons. 2 If he practises the middling meditation,jhdna, he will, after his death, be reborn in the Abode of Measureless Light. His life-span will be four aeons. 3 If he practises the higher meditation, jhdna, he will, after his death, be reborn in the Abode of Resplendence and his life-span will be eight aeons.4 THE THIRD MEDITATION, JHANA I consider the tribulations of the second meditation, jhdna. Now a yogin having practised the second meditation, jhdna, and acquired facility therein thinks: "The second meditation, jhdna, is coarse; the third meditation, jhdna, is fine". Knowing the tribulations of the second meditaI. Chu AgOD No. 98: M.I, 276-7; D.I, 74; A.III, 25-6: Seyyathiipi bhikkave udakarahado ubbhidodako tassa nev' ossa puratthimiiya disiiya udakassa iiyumukhariz na pacchimiiya disiiya udakassa iiyamukhariz no uttariiya disiiya udakassa iiyamukham na dakkhilJiiya disiiya udakassa iiyamukhariz, devoca no kiilena kiilariz sammiidhiirariz anuppaveccheyya atha kho tamhii co udakarahadii sitii viiridhiirii ubbhijjitvii tam eva udakarahadariz sitena viirina abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripureyya paripphareyya, niissa kinci sabbiivato udakarahadassa sitena viirinii apphu{ariz assa, evam eva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kayam samiidhijena pitisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripiireti, parippharati, niissa kiiici sabbiivato kiiyassa samiidhijena pitisukhena apphulariz hoti. 2. Vbh. 424: Dutiyariz jhiinariz parittariz bhiivetvii parittiibhiinariz deviinariz sahavyatariz uppajjanti. Tesariz kittakariz iiyuppamiilJariz ? Dve kappii. 3. Ibid: Dutiyariz jhiinariz majjhimariz bhiivetvii appamiilJiibhiinariz deviinariz sahavyatariz uppajjanti. Tesariz kittakariz iiyuppamiilJariz? Cattaro kappii. 4. Ibid: Dutiyariz jhiinariz palJitariz bhiivetvii iibhassariinariz deviinariz sahavyatariz uppajjanti. Tesariz kittakariz iiyuppamiilJariz? Alfha kappii.

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lOS

tion, jhtina, and seeing the merits of the third meditation, jhiina, he causes the third meditation, jhiina, to arise. What are the tribulations of the second meditation, jhiina? This concentration has initial and sustained application of thought as its near enemy. This meditation, jhiina, being accompanied by joy, is coarse. The mind exults in the possession of joy and is not able to arouse other (higher) meditation (jhiina) factors. To be attached to joy is a fault. If he. understands these faults, he becomes fault-free. One is not able to acquire supernormal power; or one gains the second meditation, jhiina, and is not able to partake of distinction. Thus should one understand the tribulations· of the second meditation, jhiina. The merits of the third meditation, jhiina, lie in the overcoming of these (tribulations). If one considers the tribulations of the second meditation, jhiina, and the merits of the third, he can remove joy through meditation, jhiina, on the kasilJa sign and be at ease because of freedom from joy. Considering thus he can in no long time attain to fixed meditation, jhtina, through bliss free from joy.
I will elucidate the factors of the third meditatIOn, jhtina.

That yogin "through the absence of the desire for joy, abides in equanimity, mindful and completely conscious, experiencing in the body that bliss' of which the Noble Dues say: "Endowed with equanimity and mindfulness, and completely conscious, he abides in bliss. ·So he abides in the attainment of the third meditation, jhiina".l "Through absence of desire for joy": Joy has already been explained . .. Absence of desire": Removing joy one dwells· in equanimity. What is "equanimity"? Equipoise, protection, non-retreating, non-advancing, serenity and evenness of mind are called "equanimity". There are eight kinds of equanimity: equanimity of feeling, of effort, of insight, of the enlightenment factors, of the immeasurable states, of the six members (senses), of the meditation (jhiina) factors and of purity2. The equanimity of feeling is the equanimity of the five faculties. Reflection dn the sign of equanimity from time to timethis is the equanimity of effort. If, saying, "I will remove the cause of suffering", one attains to equanimity, it is called the equanimity of insight. The practising of the enlightenment factors is the equanimity of the enlightenment factors. Kindness, compassion, appreciative joy and equipoise - these are called the equanimity of the immeasurable states. If, on seeing a form, one, being indifferent, is neither glad nor sad, it is called the equanimity of the six members. The dwelling in the attainment of
1. A.1, 53: Pitiyii ea viriiga upekkhako ea viharati sato ea sampajiino sukhan ea kiiyena pafisamvedeti yan tam ariyii iicikkhanti upekkhako salimii sukha-vhiiri ti laliya}jhiinam upasampajja viharati. 2. Vedanupekkhii, viriyupekkhii, vipassanupekkhii, bojjhangupekkhii, appamiiIJupekkhii, ella/angupekkhii, jhiinupekkhii, piirisuddhupekkhii, Cpo Vis. Mag. 160 where brakmavihiirupekkhii is substituted for appamiiIJupekkhii.

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Vimuttimagga

equanimity because of dispassion is called the equanimity of the meditation Equanimity-mindfulness purity is the equanimity of purity. And again, there are three kinds of equanimity: equanimity r6garded as a vehicle of concentration; regarded as the state of little activity; and regarded as non-action. The equalized skilfulness that is present in all meditations, jhdnas, and is neither hasty nor slow is "equanimity considered as a vehicle of concentration". This inferior equanimity is near the second meditation, jhtina, and removes exultation of mind. If the mind is not active, it' is called "equanimity regarded as a state of little activity". This equanimity is near the third meditation, jhdna, and removes all exultation of mind. If one's mind is. not actively concerned with objects, through imperturbability of thought and body, it is called "equanimity regarded as non-action". This equanimity is near the fourth meditation, jhdna. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause of equanimity? Equipoise is its salient characteristic. Non-attachment is its function. Non-action is its manifestation. Dispassion is its near cause. Q. Why is it taught that equanimity is in this meditation, jhdna, and not in the second and the first meditations, jhtinas? A. In the second and the first meditations, jhdnas, the mind, being full of joy, does not become detached. Because of joy and bliss, exultation of mind is not removed. Therefore, this equanimity is not taught as being present in the second and the first meditations, jhtinas, Owing to absence of joy and bliss, owing to dispassion and owing to the removal of the process of combination in the third meditation, jhtina, this meditation (jhtina) factor arises . . Because of the mastering of the meditation (jhtina) factors, it is said "abides in equanimity, mindful and completely conscious". Q. What are the salient characteristic, func,tion, manifestation and near cause of "mindfulness"? A. Recollectedness is its salient characteristic; non-forgetting is its function; protection is its manifestation; and the four foundations of mindfulness are it near cause. What is it to be "completely conscious"? To be conscious is to be aware. It is to be completely conscious rightly. There are four kinds in being completely conscious rightly.1 They are the being completely conscious of oneself; the being completely conscious of one's distinctive mark; the being completely conscious undeludedly; the being completely conscious basically, Here, to be completely conscious of the four postures, is to be completely conscious "of oneself. Entering solitude is to be completely conscious of one's distinctive mark. To know the eight worldly conditions2 is to be completely conscious
1. Cp. D.- a. I, 184: Stitthaka-sampajaililam sappiiya-sampajaililam gocara-sampajwiiiam asammoha-sampajai/ilan ti catubbidham sampajailiiam. 2. Altha loka-dhammii.

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undeludedly. To dwell on the object of concentration is to be completely conscious basically. In this treatise ("completely conscious" in the sense of) "being completely conscious basically" has been taken. What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause of the being "completely conscious"? Non-bewilderment is its salient characteristic; decision is its function; investigation of states is its manifestation; to consider rightly is its near cause. Q. Should one be mindful and completely conscious in all places? A. If a man is not mindful and is not completely conscious he is not even able to cause the arising of the access stage of meditation, jhiina. Q. Why is it taught in the third meditation, jhiina and not in the second and the first meditations, jhiinas? A. Here, joy and all other coarse meditation (jhiina) factors are stilled. Concentration becomes fine, enters a place of fineness, and through the state of being completely conscious remains firm in the third meditation, jhiina. Thus he gains facility in the exercise of the meditation (jhdna) factors. Again, the foolish mind longs for happiness and easily turns to the bliss of this meditation, jhiina, for its exceedingly sweet and named "alluring". Thus (through mindfulness and through the state of being completely conscious) one is able to remove joy and acquires facility in this meditation, jhiina. SIMILE OF THE CALF Again, joy and bliss are intimate. So, understanding mindfulness and the state of being completely conscious one dwells on the object in bliss separate from joy. It is like a calf following its mother. Unless someone holds it back by the ears, it will follow its mother with its head against her side. One understands bliss that is separate from joy, conjoined with mindfulness, and the state of being completely conscious, and dwells on the object of concentration. l On the contrary, if one does not understand, one re-enters joy and partakes of deterioration in concentration. Por the acquiring of mastery over the meditation (jhiina) factors, mindfulness and the state of being completely conscious are taught. Thus equanimity, mindfulness and the state of be.ing completely conscious are accomplished. Therefore, it is said "abides in equanimity, mindful and completely conscious, experiencing in the body that bliss". Q. What is mental bliss? A. Bliss experienced in mind is mental bliss. It comes from mental contact. This is the meaning of mental bliss. This is called "bliss". Q. What is "body"? The perception-group, formations-group and consciousness-group - these are called "body".
I. Cpo Vis. Mag. 163: Yalhii dhenupago vaccho dhenulo apanilo arakkhiyamiino punad-eva dhenum upagacchali. This simile. common to both the Vis. Mag and the Vim. Mag .•

has not been traced to its source.

I

lOB

Vimuttimagga

"Experiencing in the body that bliss" means to acquire ease of body. Q. Then, why is it said that there is no joy in this bliss and that it is not experienced in the body? A. In the third mediUltion, jhdna, the faculty of bliss is removed. This is according to the teaching of the Blessed One which says, that in the third meditation, jhdna, the faculty of bliss is removed. "That bliss of which the Noble Ones say": "Noble Ones" means the Buddha and his disciples. "Say" means to reveal, establish, explain, point out. Thus is "that bliss of which the Noble Ones say" to be known.
Q. Why. do the Noble Ones praise this state of body and not any other? In the third meditation, jhdna, although the yogin can easily dwell in pleasing bliss, he does not hold to bliss. The 'Noble Ones dwell looking beyond bliss. This is an accomplishment of the Noble Ones. Therefore, the Noble Ones praise this excellent meditation, jhtina.
A.

"Endowed with equanimity and mindfulness, he abides in bliss": Equanimity, mindfulness and bliss have already been explained. "Abides in the attainment of the third meditation, jhiina": It is called "third" because of the second. The third meditation, jhdna, comprises equanimity, mindfulness, the state of being completely conscious, bliss and unification of mind. The accomplishment of these is called (the third) meditation, jhiina. "Abides in the attainment" means that one who acquires the third meditation, jhdna, separates from one factor, fulfils five factors, three kinds of goodness, ten characteristi~ and is associated with twenty-two merits. To dwell in the heaven world means to be born in the Abode of All Lustre. l It is to be understood in the same way as it was taught in the first meditation, jhiina. "To dwell in the heaven world" is to dwell in that pleasant dwelling which is free from joy. "To dwell in the heaven world" is to dwell in a manner surpassing humans. SIMILE OF THE LOTUS POND Hence, the Buddha taught the bhikkhu thus: "Just as in a pond of blue and white lotuses, the blue, red and white lotuses are born, grow and stand in the water and are immersed in the cold water from root to neck, so this body is filled and saturated with bliss thai is free from joy".1 As the blue, red and white lotuses stand in the water, so he abides in the third meditation,
2. Chu AgOD No. 98; M.I1, 16; A.m, 26: Seyyathii pi bhikkhave uppaliniyam vii paduminiyaril vii pU1;lt/arikiniyam vii app' ekacce uppaliini vii padumiini vii pU1;ltfarikiini vii udake iiitiini udake samvatft/hiini udakiinuggatiini antonimuggaposini tiini yiiva c'tlCgii yiiva ca mlilii sitena viirinii abhisanniini parisanniini paripiiriini paripphutiini. niissa kifici sabbiivatam uppaliinam vii padumiinam. vii pU1;lt/arikiinaril vii sitena viirinii apphutam assa, evam eva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imam eva kiiyam nippitikena sukhena abhisandeti pariSllntieti paripiireti parippharati. niissa kifici sabbiivato kiiyassa nippitikena sukhena apphutam hotl. 1. Subhaki1;l1J!l.

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jhlina. His body should be known thus: as the lotuses born in the water [420] -are immersed in the water from root to neck, so he abides in the third meditation, jhiina, with body and mind filled and saturated with bliss that -is free from joy. Thus is the reward of the practice of concentration: One is reborn in the Abode of the All Lustrous. There are three kinds of rewards pertaining to the three divisions of the third meditation, jhdna, namely: higher, middling and lower. If a yogin practises the lower meditation, jhdna, he will, after his death, be reborn in the Abode of Lesser Lustre. His life-span will be sixteen aeons. If he practises the middling meditation, jhiina, he will, after his aeath, be reborn in the Abode of Measureless Lustre. His life-span will be thirtytwo aeons. If he practises the higher meditation, he will be reborn in the Abode of All Lustre. His life-span will be sixty-four aeons l .

THE FOURTH MEDITATION, JHANA
I consider the tribulations of the third meditation, jhiina.

Now, a yogin, having practised the third meditation, jhiina, and acquired facility therein, wishes to cause the arising of the fourth meditation, jhiina,and to transcend the third meditation, jhdna. (He thinks), "The third is coarse. The fourth is fine". He sees the tribulations of the third meditation, jhiina, and the merits of the fourth meditation, jhdna. What are the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna? Joy is the near enemy. Right concentration with bliss is coarse. So he is not able to acquire supernormal power. The third meditation, jhdna, does not partake of distinction. Thus he sees the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna. The merits of the fourth meditation, jhdna, consist in the over-coming of these (tribulations). Thus the yogin, on seeing the tribulations of the third meditation, jhdna, and the merits of the fourth m~ditation, jhiina, meditates on the kasil)a sign and removes bliss at once. After removing it he can dwell with the mind of equanimity. Thus meditating his mind quickly attains to fixed meditation, jhdna, owing to equanimity.
I will elucidate the factors of the fourth meditation, jhiina.

That yogin, "having abandoned pleasure and pain, leaving behind former joy and grief, painless, pleasureless, in the purity of equanimity-mindfulness,
I. Vbh. 424-5: Tatiyam jhiinam parittam bhiivetllii pariltasubhiinam deviinam sahavyataih uppajjantl. Tesam kittakam iiyuppamiinam? _So/asa kappii ........ Tatiyam jhiinam majjhimaril bhiivetvii appamiilJQSubhiinam deviinam sahavyatam uppajjanti. Tesam kittakam iiyuppamiinam? Dvuttirhsa kappii . ..... Tatiyam Jhiinam pal;litam hhiivetvii subhakil;lhiinam deviinam sahavyatam uppaIJanti. Tesam kittakam dyuppamiinam? Catusa/fhi kappii.

IlO

Viinuttimagga

accomplishes the fourth meditation, jhiina, and dwells".1 This is a merit of the earth kasi1J.(1. "Baving abandoned pleasure": This is the abandoning of bodily pleasure. Having abandoned "pain": This is the abandoning of bodily pain. "Leaving behind former joy and glief": Joy is the bliss of the mental properties. 2 This is the leaving behind of these.
Q. It is said, "having abandoned pleasure and pain, leaving behind grief". Where were these abandoned and left behind? A. They were abandoned and left behind at the access moments of the meditation, jhiina. The Buddha taught the removal of pain in this fourth meditation, jhtina. Q. Where does the faculty of pain that has arisen cease entirely? A. The Buddha taught the bhikkhus thus: "In the first meditation, jhtina, separation from sense-desires is fulfilled. There the faculty of pain which has arisen ceases entirely".3 Q. Why does the faculty of pain cease entirely inthe first meditation, jhtina? A. Because of the fullness of joy, there is bodily ease. 4 Because of bodily ease, the faculty of pain is ended, Le., through transcending, it is abandoned. Therefore, in the first meditation, jhtina, the faculty of pain is removed. In the second meditation, jhtina, the faculty of grief is removed. According to the teaching of the Buddha, the removal of the faculty of grief is thus.: "Where does the faculty of grief that has arisen cease entirely? Bere, bhikkh'l!s, initial and sustained application of tliought are stilted, and he abides in the attainment of the second meditation,jhdna. Here, the faculty of grief which has arisen ceases enttrely".6 Why does the faculty of grief, cease in the second meditation, jhdna? If a man has initial and sustained application of thought for long, his body and mind become negligent. If his mind becomes negligent, the faculty of grief arises immediately. In the second meditation, jhiina, initial and sustained application of thOUght are stilled. In the third meditation, jhtina, the faculty of bliss is removed. The Buddha taught thus: "Where does the faculty of bliss which has arisen cease entirely? Here, bhikkhus, owing to the distaste for joy, one abides in the attainment of the third meditation, jhtina. Here the faculty of bliss which
1. A.III, 26-7; M. II, 16: Puna caparam, Udiiyi, bhikkhu sukhassa capahiinii dukkhassa ca pahiinii pubbe va somanassadomanassiinam allhagamii adukkham asukham upekhiisatipiirisuddhim catutthajjhiinam upasampajjaviharati. 2. Cetasika. 3. S. V, 213: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamallassa atapino pahitattassa viharafo uppajjati dukkhindriyam ...... Kallha cuppannam dukkhindriyarit aparisesam nirujjhati? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicc' eva kiimehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkafh saviciiram vivekajam pitisukham palhamam jhiinam upasampajja viharati. Ettha cuppannam dukkhindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati. 4. A. III, 285: Pitimanassa kayo passambhati, passaddhakayo sukham vediyati. S. S. V,213-4: Idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamatfassa atapino pahitattassa viharalo uppajjati domanassindriyam ...... Kallha cuppannam domanassindriyam apar;sesam nirujjhatl? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vitakkav/caranarit viipasama ajjhallam sampasadanam cetaso ekodibhiivam avitakkam avicaram samadhijam pitisukham dut/yam jhiinam upasampajja v/haratl. Ettha cuppanna,h domanassindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati.

Subjects of Meditation-

111

has arisen ceases entirely".l Q. Why does the faculty of bliss cease in the third meditation, jhdna? A. Joy perishes, and so, bliss that arises depending on joy aiso perishes. Therefore, in the third meditation, jhtina, the faculty of bliss perishes. Q. If the faculties of pain, bliss and grief were removed in the third meditation, jhdna, why is their ending taught in the fourth meditation, jhdna? A. These faculties were removed in the third meditation, jhdna. The third meditation, jhtina, is an approach to the fourth meditation, jhtina. In the third meditation, jhdna, these having arisen, passed away. Therefore, their removal is taught in the fourth meditation, jhdna. And again, "accomplishes" the "painless" and "pleasureless" means the overcoming of pain and pleasure. 2 Therefore, the overcoming of pain and pleasure is taught as the accomplishment of the painless and pleasureless. And again, it is because in the fourth meditation, jhdna, attainment and overeoming occur together. And again, equanimity removes the defilements immediately and entirely. The attaining to the "painless" and "pleasureless" means that the mind does not receive and thought does not reject. This is called the attaining to the "painless" and "pleasureless". What are the salient characteristic, function, manifestation and near cause of the accomplishing of the "painless" and "pleasureless" ? Middleness is the salient characteristic. Dwelling in a middle position is the function. Abandoning is the manifestation. Removal of joy is the near cause. What is the purity of equanimity-mindfulness? Ne.utrality is -called equanimity. That is called equanimity. "Mindfulness" is called attentiveness, recollectedness and Right Mindfulness. These are called "mindfulness". The mindfulness that is clarified and purified by equipoise is called "purity of equanimity-mindfulness". Q. How is mindfulness clarified and purified by equipoise? A. Here imperturbability and non-action are fulfilled, owing to the abandoning of all defilements and owing to resemplance and closeness to that attainment. This non-action is associated with equipoise. Tnerefore, mindfulness reaches imperturbability and fulfils impassivity. Therefore, this mindfulness is equanimity and acquires clarity and purity. " "Fourth": This means that because of the third, the fourth is fulfilled. "Accomplishes the meditation": This refers to the equanimity-mindfulness
1. S.V, 214: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa iiliipino pahilallassa viharalo uppajjali sukhindriyam ...... Kattha cuppannam sukhindriyam aparisesam nirujjhati1 Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu piliya ca viriigii upekhako ca viharali salo sampajiino sukhalh ca kiiyena pafisamvedeli ..... . Ialiyam jhiinam upasampajja viharali. Ellha cuppannam sukhindriyam aparisesam nirujjhali. 2. S.V., 215: Idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuno appamattassa iiliipino pahitattassa vlharalo uppajjali somanassindriyam ... ... Kattha cuppannam somanassindriyam aparisesam nirujjhali. Idha bhikkhave bhlkkhu sukhassa ca pahiinii dukkhassa ca pahiinii pubbeva somanassadomanassiinan', allhagamii adukkhamasukham upekhiisalipiirisuddhim calullham jhiinam upasampajja viharali. Ellha cuppannam somanassindriyam apar/sesam nlrujjhatl.

.I1I.•. or in one of the five Pure Abodes. evam eva kho bhlkkhave bhik/fhu Imam eva kiiyam parisuddheM eetasii pariyodiiteM pharitvii nisinno hoti. experiences an even temperature and is undisturbed in body and mind. 425: Catuttham jhiinam bhavetii .to foot with a white cloth is protected from extremes of heat and cold. niissa kiRei sabbiiva/o kiiyassa odii/eM vattheM apphu. (a) D.237: Pailea SlIddhiiviisa: Avihii. Thus should it be known.. is to dwell in the bliss of equanimity.... Sudassii. jhtinas) alld the partaking of distinction of the fruition-ground tlnlght ill the third and not in the fourth meditation. "Accomplishes" and "dwells": One.. sabbiiva/o kiiyassa parlsudtiheM eetaaii parlyodii/ena apphu. If his mind dislikes effort. he will be reborn in the Abode of Great Fruition. separates from one factor.. Why are the lower.. Thus is the· merit of concentrl'l lion: One js reborn in the Abode of Great Fruition.•.. III. appekaeee asaRRasattiinam deviinam sahilvyataril uppajjantl .appekaece akanlnhiinaril deviinam Sfihavyatam uppaj/anti.. . middling and upper (meditation. . This . "To dwell in the heaven world": This is to dwell in a manner surpassing humans. Atappii.112 Vimuttimagga and unification of mind of the fourth meditation. 27: Seyyathti pi bhikkhave purlso odiiteM vattheM sasisam piirupitvii nislnno assa.. 17. The merit of this causes rebirth in the Abode of Great Fruition. M. His life-span will be fifty aeons.1 This was taught fully before. jhlina. 425: Catunnamjhiinam bhiivetvii .. so a bhikkhu covers his body and limbs with purified mindfulness. 2 The yogin is like a man who has covered himself with a white cloth. . niissa kiffe. .. 'Freed from all subtle defilements. Vbh. 4.. 16. experiences neither pain nor pleasure. jhtina? 1. he will be reborn in the Abode of the Unconscious.. SIMILE OF THE WHITE CLOTH Therefore the Blessed One taught the bhikkhus thus: "As a man might sit down and cover his body with a white cloth from head to foot. Thus one abides in the attainment of the fourth meditation. II.. after his death.. 2. " appekacce sudasiinam deviinam . and is associated with twenty-two merits. he dwells in the fourth meditation. so that yogin who enters the fourth meditation. This is the meaning of "accomplishes the meditation". (b) Vbh.. jhtina.. . Akanifthii.. jhtina. The reward of this (meditation) is rebirth in the heaven world. fulfils three factors. be reborn in the Abode of Great Fruition. AsiiRiiasattiinaR ea vehapphaliinaR ea deviinam killakam iiyuppamiiflllm? PaRea kappasatiini 'Fifty aeons' is obviously an error and it should read 'five hundred'. This is called dwelling in the heaven world. Vehappha/a.. Chu Agoli No.. in such a way that no part of him is not covered with purified mindfulness". A.. jhtina.. jhtina. in such a way that no part of his body is left uncovered..ariI holl. 4 Such are the retributory fruits of this meditation.am assa.. Sudassi. Q. As the man who covers his body from head .appekaece sudassiinarN deviinam .. appekacce atappiinam deviinam . three kinds of goodliess and ten characteristics. will... A COIl1moner who practises the fourth meditation. jhlina. 3 If the yogin is a recluse. With it he fills his body. This is the bliss of equanimity. •appekacce avlhiinam deviinam sahtivyataril uppa/jantl . 98. 3.

That yogin "by passing enthely beyond perception of form. In the fourth meditation. But depending on space. jhiina. in form. jhiina. If he meditates thus. In this concentration one fulfils the gross. It is called coarse. according to result.jhdna. he quickly completes the destruction of the earth sign and his mind rises out of the earth sign and goes beyond the earth sign to space. ThUl! the yogin sees the tribulations of the fourth meditation. in the third meditation. abandons the earth kasifUl. Therefore. That yogin having seen form and the great tribulations thereof and the merits of space-concentration. There are differences of "coarse" and "fine". What are the tribulations of the fourth meditation. And now I show how to enter the concentration of the sphere of the infinity of space. beating. These are the severe trials of the sensuous form. wishes to enjoy the space-concentration and to transcend the realm of form.Subjects of Meditation 113 A. jhiina. the yogin reaches the limit of the partaking of distinction. the exceIlence of the fruitionground is taught through the partaking of distinction. jhdna. the earth sign and practises space-concentration. maiming and the like. The merits of space-concentration consist of the overcoming of these. What are the tribulantions of form'1 There are many (tribulations) such as the taking up of sticks and weapons. jhiina. Through the acquisition of facility in the perception of the sphere of the infinity of space he attains to fixed meditation. That yogin sees the tribulations of form and the merits of space-concentration. by being freed from attention to . spaceconcentration is fine". jhiina'1 The depending on form objects has satisfaction for near enemy. one liberates oneself peacefully. rises from that (form) concentration. He considers thus: "Concentration of form is coarse. cold and heat. THE SPHERE OF THE INFINITY OF SPACE I consider the tribulations of the fourth meditation. there is no partaking of distinction of the fruition-ground. slander. Therefore. He should dwell on space regarding it as an infinite object. lying. hunger and thirst. I have considered the troubles of the fourth meditation. the yogin who has acquired boundless happiness in the fourth meditation. jhiina. Outside this there is no other partaking of distinction. Now. quarrelling. by the disappearance of the perception of impact. One who is attached to form and delights in it cannot partake of distinction. There are many sufferings such as pain of the eye and other bodily ills.

Q. He dislikes form. 2 Thus disliking form.these are called the perception of impact. Hence the Blessed One taught the surpassing of perception of form with the intention of setting forth the surpassing {If all form-objects. thinking. because all (form) objects of concentration are dependent on perception. There is the perception of impact and diversity in form concentration. of flavours. he passes beyond all the others. "By being freed from attention to perceptions of diversity": What are perceptions of diversity? The perception. enters into and abides in the sphere of infinite space. "Freed from attention to perceptions of diversity" means that one is freed from attending to these perceptions of diversity. because these are removed (later). I. This is according to the teaching of the Buddha which says that. he goes further. Why is it that only the surpassing of perception is taught and not the surpassing of feeling. . A!iiIa Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta when they entered the formless attainment.e.these are called perceptions of diversity. He destroys them here.>fthe form-element .these are called perception of form.1 "Entirely" means without remainder. If a man passes beyond perception of form.. Why does he not proceed further in that concentration? A. and of tangibles . "By passing beyond perception of form": What is perception of form? The perception. If that does not happen (i. D. "Passing beyond" means the surpassing of this. jhana. V. 'Infinite is space'. sound is a thorn to one entering the first meditation. and if a man is not freed from perception of form. did not see nor hear those five hundred 1. 183: Puna ca param POf{hapiida bhikkhu sabbaso rupasaflfliinam samalikkamii patigha-saflFfiinam allhagamii niiriatta-saflFfiinam amanasi-kiirii "ananlo iikiiso -Ii" iikiisiin_ aflciiyalanam upasampajja viharali. A. the perceiving. of sounds. Q. 134--5: Pathamassa jhiinassa saddo kaTJfako. owing to the non-removal of these (perceptions of impact) in that (form concentration). 2. he does not remove (these perceptions) in that (concentration). he attains to the imperturbability of the formless attainment and the peacefulness of liberation. the state of having perceived pertaining to one who dwells in the concentration c. Therefore.114 Vimuttimagga perceptions of diversity. his mind is not capable of passing beyond the others. [421] "By the disappearance of the perception of impact": What is the perception of impact? The perception of visible objects. the state of having perceived pertaining to one who has not attained to concentration and who is endowed with the mind element and the consciousness element . of odours. if he does not transcend the perception of form) is there or is there not perception of impact and diversity? A. "Disappearance" means the ending of these var-ious kinds of (impact-) perception. Q. the perceiving. therefore. formations and consciousness? A.

As dwelling in heaven is called heaven. . "By these good qualities he will be reborn in (the sphere of infinite) space" means that he who practises the concentration of the sphere of space will. ahositi?" "Evam dvuso" tie 'So Ivam bhanle sanni samiino jiigaro pancamattiini sakata-satiini niss.. the element of space and vacuity. as it was fully taught before. taught as the destruction of the (sense) spheres. D.Subjects of Meditation us carts passing and repassing. na pana saddam sossalili". II.iiya nissiiya atikkamaTJIiini n' eva addasa na pana saddam assosi. . destruction of the inner disturbance to that concentration and the purification of the peacefulness of liberat~on. it is said that he thinks. surpassing of all form perception is taught as the destruction of the form states and the perception of impact. I. By reason of these good qualities. abbhulam vala Mol Sanlena vala Mo pabbajilii vihiirena viharanli yatra hi niima sailiii samiino jiigaro pancamattiini sakata-saliini . "Kim pana Manle sann. Infinite space means the entering into limitless space.2 That which is untouched by the four primaries . "By being freed from attention to perceptions of diversity" means the destruction of the sense states. he will be reborn in the sphere of infinite space. Again. Q. api hi te bhanle samghiiti rajena okilJl)ii' Ii. 'Alha kho bhanle lassa purisassa elad ahosi: "Acchariyam vala bho. "Enters into and abides in the sphere of infinite space" means that he acquires the concentration of the sphere of infinite space. passes beyond all form objects. What is "sphere of space"? Boundlessness is the nature of space..this is called vacuity. annalarasmimrrukkha-miile divq-vihiire nisidi. i'lnfinite is space". Lit. and thus. it is. 130-31: Bhiila-pubbam bhante A{. so (dwelling in) the concentration of the sphere of space is called "sphere of space". The mind and the mental properties which enter space are called "sphere of space". 2. .. three kinds of goodness and ten characteristics. "Kim pana bhante saddam assosili?" "Na kho aham iivuso saddam assosin" Ii. "Freed from attention to perceptions of diversity" is taught as. Aliire Kiiliime uliiram pasiidam pavedelvii pakkiimili'. 'Evam iivuso' Ii. Alha kho bhanle pancamalliini sakata-saliini Aliiram Kiiliimam nissiiya nissiiya alikkami1iJsu. When a man tranquillizes the mind by means of the perception of limitless space. Empty hole. It is the sphere of space. Atha kho bhanle annalaro puriso tassa sakala-sallhassa pilfhito iigacchanlo yena Aliiro Kiiliimo len'upasarilkami. fulfils three factors. with twenty-two merits and dwells peacefully in the enjoyment of the reward of concentration practice. This boundless nature is the "sphere 'If space". l Therefore. upasamkamitvii Aliiram Kiiliimam elad avoca: "Api Manle pancamalliini sakata-satiini alikkamanliini addasiiti7" "No kho aham iivuso addasan" Ii. is associated. "Kim pana Manle sullo ahositi7" "Na kho aham iivuso sutto ahosin" Ii. The disappearance of the perception of impact is taught as the destruction of the outer disturbance to that concentration (of the formless) and the purification of imperturbability.iro Kiiliimo addhanamaggapatipanno maggii okkamma avidiire. the surpassing of all form perception is taught as the attainment of the realm of the formless. "The sphere of infinite space": What is space? A. This js taught as the meaning of space. .

116 Vimuttimagga after his dc:ath.ta1h. 425. Vbh. Thus "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite space. having seen the severe troubles of the concentration of . . and passes into the sphere of infinite consciousness.UJ and to transcend the infinite space kasil. "Infinite space": "He attends to that consciousness as infinite with which space is filled". What are the tribulations of the sphere of infinite space? This concentration has form for near enemy. and steadily attend to the arising of the consciousness which proceeds spreading through space with the thought. Thus he meditates and in no long time the mind rises out of the perception of the sphere of infinite space. he sees the tribulations of the sphere of infinite space and the merits of the sphere of infinite consciousness. Cp. Here.means without remainder. jhtina. Now. In this perception of the sphere of infinite consciousness. 1 THE CONCENTRATION OF THE SPHERE OF INFINITE CONSCIOUSNESS I consider the tribulations of the concentration of the sphere of infinite space. A. and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness". 'Infinite is consciousness'. 267:· AkiisiiT/Qllciiyatanupagiinmh bhlkkhave devt1ntuh visatlm kappasahassiini iiyuppamiir. Thus he sees the tribulations of the concentration of the sphere of infinite space. Thus his mind is held in the perception of the sphere of infinite consciousness. l. should consider the sphere (of infinite consciousness) as calm. I show infinite consciousness. and the perception of impact and the perceptions of diversity have not yet broken away from each other. he sees the fineness (of the concentration) of the sphere of infinite consciousness. enters into. This is called "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite space". And again. be reborn in the sphere of infinite space. thinking. The merits of the consciousness kasiI. I. the mind attains to fixed meditation. The object of the concentration of the sphere of infinite space is gross.the sphere of infinite space and the merits of the sphere of infinite consciousness. owing to attachment. "Entirely" . That yogin. the yogin is not able to partake of distinction. that yogin. "Passing beyond the sphere of infinite space" means the passing beyond the spher:e of infinite space. "Passing beyond" means to go rightly beyond. "Infinite is consciousness". Here 'two thousand' is obviously an error. Considering the concentration of (the sphere of) space as coarse. His life-span will be two thousand aeons. Should read 'twenty thousand'.UJ.UJ lie in the overcoming of these. that yogin having acquired mastery in the practice of (the concentration of) the sphere of infinite space wishes to cause the ari~ing of~e concentration of the infinite consciousness kasiI.

And again. By reason of these good qualities. the word "infinite" is used. Again an error. 1 (The exposition of) the sphere of infinite consciousness has ended. When this consciousness is held in concentration. 425. so (dwelling in) the concentration of infinite' consciousness is called the sphere of infinite consciousness. What are the tribulations of the concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness? This concentration has space for near enemy. He fulfils three factors. Thus is the merit of the practice (of the concentration) of the sphere of infinite consciousness.Subjects of Meditation Q. 267: Viilfiii(lQilciiyatanilpagiinam bhikkhave' deviinam cattiirisam kappasahassiini iiyuppamiilJam. Only formless states are infinite. after his death. he will be reborn in the sphere of infinite consciousness. which are infinite? 117 A. So is the word consciousness. Thus. Again. it is called "the sphere of infinite consciousness". Here. is not able to partake qf 1. because there are no bounds to the fonnless. and dwells peacefully in the enjoyment of the reward of concentration-practice. The mind and the mental properties are called the sphere of infinite conscious~ ness. The word "infinite" (ananta) means infinite (ananta). having aCGluired mastery in the practice of the concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness. I. This is called "the sphere of infinite consciousness". What is the "sphere of infinite consciousness"? It is boundless consciousness. the concentration of the sphere of nothingness is fine". he considers thus: "The concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness is coarse. and to transcend the sphere of infinite consciousness. Now. A. space is limitless. the yogin. wishes to cause the arising of the concentration of the sphere of nothingness. Therefore. that yogin. "Abides in the sphere" means abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness. three kinds of goodness. This was fully taught before. . As dwelling in heaven is called heaven. Cpo Vbh. "Enters into and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness" means that he surpasses the spatial object in that concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness. His life-span will be four thousand aeons. Among the fonn and formless states. A man who practises the concentration of infinite consciousness will. The consciousness object is coarse. and because they cannot be held. And he sees the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness and the merits of the concentration of the sphere of nothingness. be reborn in the sphere of infinite consciousness. owing to attachment. should read 'forty thousand'. ten characteristics and is associated with twenty-two merits. it is called infinite. THE SPHERE OF NOTHINGNESS I consider the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness.

"Enters into and dwells-": He attains to the concentration of (the sphere of) nothingness. fulfils three factors. THE SPHERE OF NEITHER PERCEPTION NOR NON-PERCEPTION I consider the tribulations of the sphere of nothingness. "Enters into the sphere" means "attains to the concentration of the sphere of nothingness". "Nothingness" means that he does not practise (consciousness concentration) again. That yogin. The merit by which a man is reborn in the sphere of nothingness is thus: He who practises the concentration of the sphere of nothingness will be reborn. does not discern again. Thus should nothingness be known. Passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness. and dwells peacefully in the enjoyment of the reward of concentration. rises out of the sphere of infinite consciousness peacefully. "Sphere (of nothingness)" : The mind and the mental properties which enter the sphere of nothingness. are called "sphere of nothingness". he is reborn in the sphere of nothingness. passes beyond the consciousness object. Now. His life-span will be six thousand aeons. A.l (The exposition of) the concentration of the sphere of nothingness has ended. The sphere of nothingness is taught as "holding to nothing". jhtina. By reason of these good qualities. the yogin having acquired mastery in the practice of concentration of the sphere of nothingness wishes to cause the arising of the concentration of neither perception nor non-perception. that yogin. The merits of the sphere of nothingness lie in the overcoming of these. This was fully taught before. he wishes to attain to it. does not reflect on it again and puts away that consciousness.426. ten characteristics and is associated with twenty-two merits. "Entirely" means without remainder. enters into and abides in the sphere of nothingness. three kinds of goodness. Cp. I. in the sphere of nothingness. 268. goes out of that consciousness (sphere). Vbh. he attains to fixed meditation. "There is nothing whatsoever".118 Vimuttimagga distinction through the considering of infinite perception. AkiHcafiiliiyataniipaciinam bhikkhave c/eviinam saIFh.m kappasahassiini iiyuppamilt. should read 'sixty thousand'. and considering thus he quickly rises out of consciousness perception. . Owing to the perception of the sphere of nothingness. does not proceed along that consCiousness again. and to transcend the sphere of h Again an error.' This is called "passing entirely beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness". What is the sphere of nothingness? That which is without the nature of consciousness and empty. having seen the tribulations of the sphere of infinite consciousness and the merits of the sphere of nothingness.ram. "Passing beyond the sphere of infinite consciousness" means to go rightly beyond consciousness. thinking. after his death. and sees only nothingness. Seeing the freedom of the sphere of nothingness.

I will show the sphere of neither perception nor non-perceptio1J. "By reason of these good qualities he will be reborn in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception" means that he who practises the concentration of neither perception nor non-' . Through there being a remainder of fine perception.r. the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception'is fine". jhdna. [422] What are 'the tribulations of the sphere of nothingness'! It has consciousness for near enemy. he will be reborn in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Thus he sees the tribulations of the sphere of nothingness. and attains to fixed meditation. What is the meaning of "sphere of neither perception bor non-perception" 'I Through the removal of coarse perception.nothingness" means the surpassing of the sphere of nothingness and.gain. of neither perception nor non-perception."passing entirely beyond the sphere of nothingness". This is .sphere of nothingness and the merits of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Thus he sees the sphere. This is called the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. "Entirely" means without remaindl. fulfils three factors. having entered it and having reflected upon it. that yogin practises the other concentration by causing calmness to arise out of the solitude of the sphere of nothingness. "Sphere of neither perception nor non-perception": The mind and the mental properties which enter the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception are called the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. The merits of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception lie in the overcoming of these. that yogin enters into and dwells in the 'sphere of neither perception nor-non-perception". Meditating thus he passes out of the perception of the sphere of nothingness in no long time. He considers thus: "The sphere of nothingness is coarse. this perception is a disease. And having seen the sphere of nothingness. he sees the tribuiations of the .Subjects of Meditation 119 nothingness. And /!. This was fully taught before. "Passing beyond the sphere of . rightly. he is endowed with non-perception. "Enters into and abides": He attains to the concentration of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. passes beyond the sphere of nothIngness. in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Therefore it is gross. is associated with twenty-two merits and dwells in the enjoyment of the reward of concentration practice.to attachment to it one does not partake of distinction. "Neither perception nor non-perception": He. And again. tranquil and lofty. three kinds of goodness and ten characteristics. the going beyond it. a thorn. By reason of these good qualities. a boil.this is right. Owing.called . he enters the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. plactises. Non-perception . "Passing entirely beyond the sphere of nothingness.the other concentration by causing calmness to arise out of the solitude of the sphere of nothingness. Thus should "sphere" and "neither perception nor non-perception" be understood. It is accompanied by coarse perception.

This is after Prof. 266: Catutthajjhiinarh samiipannassa assiisa-passtisii niruddhii honti. On entering the fourth meditation. transcending. Higata. 426: Neva-salflfii-niisalflfiiyatanupagiinarh deviinarh kittakarh iiyuppamiil. it does not fulfil "overturning". sound is disturbing. And again this concentration is exceedingly fine. initial application of thought.120 Vimuttimagga perception will be reborn. Why are the cankers not destroyed through this concentration? A..jhana. III. uncertainty. It differs from the four kinds of overturning of perception.. 4. concentrating on the earth kasilJa develops earth perception through non-earth perception. Hence the Buddha taught: "To a man who enters meditation. 3.. What are the miscellaneous teachings in the field of concentration? Stoppage of sounds. rising. 2. Therefore it does not fulfil overturning". but he is not able to speak because the faculty of hearing and that of speech are not united. Vipalliisa. . and not "sphere of the infinity of consciousness"? A. he does not attain to the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. Q. does he not fulfil "overturning"? A. in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Therefore he is not able to destroy the cankers. overturning. MISGELLANEOUS TEACHINGS I further elucidate the meaning of the above. This earth perception should be known as that perception. he will not be able to see the Path. S "Overturning":4 A man. V. the yogin stops breathing.U1rh? Caturii. .2 Gradual stoppage of sounds: When the yogin enters into concentration. he hears sounds. access. 1 Q. VUlfhiina. S. To a man who enters form concentration.. Therefore. Q. sound is a thorn". Vbh. jhana. His life-span will be eighty-four thousand aeons.. A. (The exposition of the) sphere of neither perception nor non-perception has ended. feeling. Therefore. But the text is as follows: "It does not differ from the foUl' kinds of overturning of perception. jhana. If that be so.6 "Rising":6 The rising. If a man separates himself from gross perception.Pafhamassa jhiinassa saddo ka1Jfako. 134---5: Saddaka!l/akii hi bhikkhave jhiinii vuttii mayii . 6. "Stoppage of sounds": In the first meditatioD. speech is stopped.ti kappasahassiini. Q. Why is this called "sphere of neither perception nor non-perception". from concentration is conditioned 1. He separates from the attachment to infinitude and causes the arising of subtle perception. So he cannot discern the nature of neither perception nor non-perception. D. after his death. A. .

. samgho hhlnno hoti: imiini panca kammdni iinantarikiini. unequal skill.. fearing a poisonous snake. It consists of five factors. Vbh.. Cpo Vis. because he dwells in imperturbability. . (The exposition of) the earth kasi1)a has been concluded. jhlina. Q. "Uncertainty" : Owing to this. sanghapalimiinanaril. There are four kinds of men who cannot enter into concentration. If he enters the attainment of dissolution and the attainment of fruition. jhlina. What is the water kasi1)a? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. is called "transcending the factor". he does not "rise" owing to "many bonds". and abides in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. one does not remove the hindrances of sense-desires and the others. function and manifestation? What· are. 4. 705: Tathii iikiiieaifiiiiyatanam samiipajjitvii vat/hiiya eatubbidham pubbakieeam karoti: niiniibqddha-avikopanam. and the others. "Feeling": In the fourth meditation. 5 They are of perverted vision. pitii jivUii voropetii hoti. To pass from form meditation.. will be reborn in states of woe. The thought that is produced relying on the water sign -this is called the water kasi1)a. . l he can "rise" through previous action2 and not through any other cause. 378: Tattha katamiini panea kammiini iinantarikiini? Miitii jivUii voropelii hoti. and the others through continued suppression. Without cause they commit the five immediately effective deeds.Subjects of Meditation 121 by five causes. It is as if. THE WATER KASINA . This is called "with remainder". namely.this is called 1. "Access" is the access of all meditation. Arammll{la samalikkama. and inclination. jhlina. They. . jhdna.. jhlina. arising of hindrances. transcending the factor and transcending the objecU To pass from form meditation. to formless concentration.its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. many bonds. "Transcending": In transcending there are two kinds. dUllhena cittena lathiigatassa lohilam uppiiditam hotl. surely.. painfulness of posture. the state that is without initial and sustained application of thought is fulfilled. to form meditation. arahii jivilii voropelii hoti. Aliga-samatikkama. the state that is with equanimity arises without extremes. Mag. When a man enters formless concentration. "Initial application of thought": In the second meditation. namely. satthu pakkosanam addhiinaparieehedan ti. (The exposition of) Miscellaneous teachings has ended. 3. 5. and from formless concentration to formless concentration is called "transcending the object". through continued suppression. Nirodha. jhlina. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind . 2.and phala-samiipatti. a man were to climb up a tree. .

Thus he can see (the sign) wherever he likes. and take the sign through three ways: through even gazing. in the monastery or in a rock cave or under a tree. Undivided thought is its near cause. The (other) benefits of the water kasi1)a are the same as those of the earth kasi1)a. "How is the sign grasped"?: The man who accepts the water kasi1)a grasps the sign in water.. The bowl or pot should be full to the brim.e. In the question it is "manifestation". He is not able to practise the water ka. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind . natural or prepared water. lake or lagoon. One who practises the water kasi1)a well. Absorption in the water kaSi1)a is its salient characteristic. in a well. The water kasi1)a has ended. The skilfulness of sending the mind forth into the fire sign is its salient characteristic. i. "What are its benefits"? There are five distinctive benefits.rim level with the ground. A new yogin has to grasp the sign in a prepared place. A man is able to produce smoke and flame. He is unlike a new yogin. pond.122 Vimuttimagga practising. The circumference should be one fathom. and makes the . is able to reveal things through producing brightness. Thus that yogin. Undivided thOUght is its near cause. to bring down rain.. at first. . pot.e. which is not too dark and where the sun does not scorch.this is called practising. is able to destroy the 1. THE FIRE KASINA Q.i1)a with skill in an unprepared place. Here. should find out a calm place. 1 There are five distinctive kinds of benefits belonging to (the practice of) the water kasi1)a: a man is able to dive into the earth and come out of it easily.as fully-taught 'before under the earth kasi1)a and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. It should be filled with rain~water and unmixed with any colour. The rest is. gadflies or other impediments. mountains or the earth. swamp. cause \yater to gush from his body and make that (water) appear as it were the ocean.l dwell on the perception of water. . function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. Non-abandonment of fire perception is its function. he buries a bowl or a water pot in clean earth. In such a place. he shoulc. i. Nonabandonment of water perception is its function. Here.this is called the fire kasi1)a. What is the fire kasi1)a? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. These are dispiayed in the fire kasi1)a. The thought that is produced relying on fire . It should be a place where there is no dust or wind and where there are no mosquitoes. a practised yogin grasps the water SIgn in a place where there is no water or on seeing water in various places. river. sees water in all places. and can arouse the after-image of water. ·to shake palaces.

Undivided thought is its near cause. THE AIR KASINA Q. The new yogin should at first gather fuel. "How is the sign grasped 7": A new yogin grasps the air kasilJQ through two ways: through sight and touch. to cause wind to rise and coolness to prevail. How does he grasp the sign through sight? That yogin. He does not think of the smoke or the flames that rise up. The other benefits are the same as those taught in the earth kasil.1 is able to know fire through the arising of brightness. He develops the natural or the prepared as he pleases and sees the appropriate sign. a forest-fire or a house that is on fire. a practised yogin grasps the natural sign. "What are its benefits 7". The other benefits are equal to those of the earth kasil. at about the time the sun rises or sets. function and near cause 7 What are its benefits 7 How is the sign grasped? A.la. He sends his mind towards the fire sign by directing it to the middle of the thick flames and grasps the sign through three ways: through even gazing.la.e. heap it up in a clean place and burn it. . (He grasps the sign) on seeing any fire.la. There are three distinctive benefits in air kasilJa: a man is able to go about with the speed of air. One follow~ what is expedient in the practice of the air kasil. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind are called the practising of the air kasilJa. seeing a field of sweet potatoes. Thus the afterimage of fire occurs to him. skilfulness and the elimination I. a wood-fire. skilfulness [423] and the elimination of disturbance. is able to burn whatever he likes. Sending forth the mind into the air sign is its salient characteristic. a bamboo grove or a grass-land moved by the wind. The thought that is produced relying on the air sign . The first four are similar to those of Vis. reflects on air perception.. a man is able to see fire everywhere. The fire kasil. Here. He burns it from below.la. He grasps the sign through three ways. Owing to the practice of the fire kasil. : 175--6. The nOI)-abandoning of air perception is its function. Le.this is called the air kasil. through even gazing. The new yogin is different.la.. Mag. a grass-fire. What is the air kasilJa? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic.Subjects of Meditation 123 light of other forms. (The rest) is as was fully taught before. He is able to grasp the sign only in a prepared place and not in an unprepared place.la has ended. in a natural or a prepared place. i. "How is the sign grasped'''?: The man who takes up the fire sign -grasps the sign in fire.la. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the fire kasil.

A practised yogin is able to grasp the sign whenever the wind touches his body whether he is sitting. How does he grasp the sign through touch? In a calm abode.. He is unlike the new yogin. Only three are trea ted in Vis.G has ended... idam pancamam abhibhiiyatanam. standing or lying down. Thus the after-image of air occurs to him.. Seeing such fOmIS. walking. ThHs he perceives. in pleasure or in pain. "What are its benefits?": There are five benefits.this is called the blue-green kasi1J. indigo-coloured. deeply blue. "Tiini abhibhuyya jiiniimi passiimiti" evam-saiiiii hoti. Thus he grasps the air sign through touch.G. Non-abandoning of the blue-green perception is its function... the eight positions of mastery. function and near cause 7 What are its benefits 7 How is the sign grasped 7 A. Mag. a man attains to the emancipation of the beautiful. He is not able to grasp it in an unprepared place. 110: Ajjhattam arupa-saiiiii eko bahiddhii-riipiini passati ni/iini nila-vQ{I{liini nila-nidassaniini nila-nibhiisiini-seyyathii pi niima ummii-puppham ni/am ni/a-va(l(lam nila-nidassanam nila-nibhiisam-seyhathii vii pana tam vattham Biirii(IQSeyyakam ubOOtobhiigo-vimaflham nilam nila-vaMam nila-nidassanam ni/a-nibhiisam--evam eva ajjhattam arupa-saiiiii eko bahiddhii-riipiini passati niliini nila-va(l(liini nila-nidassaniini nila-nibhiisiini.. Lit. I see". is blue. D. inserts a pipe of bamboo or reed into it and sits near it. The air kasi1J. lIT. indigo in appearance. indigo-coloured. Sending forth the mind into the blue-green sign is its salient characteristic. D. a new yogin makes an opening in the wall.. Nila abhibhiiyatana.124 Vimuttimagga of disturbance. .One having no internal perception of form sees external forms. n. The training and undisturbed dwelling of the mind are called practising. 176. He can change all things to blue. 2 "How is the sign grasped 7": The yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place or in a natural place.. blue. A new yogin is different.. What is the blue-green kasi1J. he thinks: "I kriow. This is the fifth position of mastery. blue clothes or in blue-coloured things everywhere. That yogin sees (the sign) in blue flowers. indigo in appearance . 2. The thought that is produced relying on the blue-green kasi1)a . THE BLUE-GREEN KASINA Q. He sees it always before him.blue-green kasi1)a. The following is from the Abhidharma Sangiti Paryiiya Pada Siistra:. 260: AffOO abhibhiiyataniini. and thus the after-image of the blue-green sign occurs to him. Thus he grasps the sign through sight. He sees the colour of blue anywhere through the practice of the blue kasi1)a. letting the wind that comes through it touch his body.G? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. In the . As cloth of Benares dyed the colour of the Ummaka flower.. He grasps the sign in a prepared place. He follows what is expedient 1. Undivided thought is its near cause. He acquires the position of mastery of the blue l that is like a blue flower. so it is when one having no internal perception of form sees external forms . indigo in brightness.

and. He sees it always. Undivided thought is the near cause. II. Black colour (of ashes) black-blue. 2. The blue-green kasilJa has ended. He considers various yellow colours similar to that of the KalJiktira flower. What is the yellow kasilJa 7 What is the practising of it 7 What are its salient characteristic. The spirit weaves on silent loom: The Kar1.likiira (Sinhala.P. he sees yellow everywhere.Ul grasps the yellow sign either in a prepared place or in a natural place.Subjects of Meditation 125 in the practice of the blue-green kasiT. the grave of gloom. The new yogin is different. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mindthese are called the practising of it. Sending forth the mind into the yellow sign is its salient characteristic. . black . in pleasure or: in pain. one of the co-translators of the Vimuttimagga. function and near cause? What are its benefits 7 How is the sign grasped 7 A. A man is able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful. That yogin sees the yellow colour of yellow flowers or yellow clothes anywhere. D. THE YELLOW KASINA Q. According to the Siistra quoted in note 1 on page 124. This yogin makes a malJr/ala on a cloth.lQm pita-nidassanam pita-nibhiisam. Ay. He edges it round with another colour. wrote the following verses:- In our little island home Where free the winged and reptile roam.S. Ill.likiira is substituted. Thus he prepares the blue-green sign.likiira is in bloom. The thought that is produced relying on the yellow sign-this is called the yellow kasilJa. confirms this. The rest is as was fully taught before. "How is the sign grasped?": The man who takes up the yellow kasiT. in the form of a triangle or a square. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared I 1. Diet. Indigo plant. He grasps the sign through three ways: even gazing. For Ummaka. ki1.. in bloom in the early forties.l1.Seyyathii pi niima ka1. 2 Practising the yellow kasilJa. hearts grow happy in the loam Of quiet! 'tis the fecund womb Of thought serene. He acquires the position of mastery of the yellow. plank or wall with blue of the colour of the Asital flower. The late Venerable Soma Mahii Thera.Ul. Kar1. Pterospermum acerifolium) tree at the Island Hermitage in Dodanduwa. the sixth abhibhiiyatana differs from the fifth in colour and flower. Thus the after-image of yellow occurs to him.lihiri. "What are its benefits 7": There are five distinctive benefits. Non-abandoning of the perception of yellow is its function. skilfulness· and the elimination of disturbance. recalling this passage of the Vimuttimagga.T. seeing the kar1.likara-puppham pitam pita-va1. There may frolic elf and gnome. (The practised yogin) grasps the sign in a non-prepared place.

Stem will you the outward flow Of mind caught fast in maya-glow? Illusion's lure will you lay low? Then. according to the sastra quoted above.this is called the red kasilJa. "How is the sign grasped 1": A man who takes up the red kasilJa. For lustrous power nobly bought. Thus the afterimage of the red sign occurs to him. Should it. Your golden flow'r. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind these are called the practising of it. plank or wall. Should it for cool. skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. The yellow kasilJa has ended. in the shape of a triangle or square. Undivided thought is its near cause. grasps the red sign either in a prepared place or in a natural place. To sense the golden flower's song. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. He acquires the position of mastery of the red.. A man is able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful in the red kasilJa. . In the seventh abhibhayatana. Upward flows Ii/e's current strong. The other benefits are equal to those taught under the earth kasilJa. a symbol./a. The rest is as wl!s fully taught before. Sending forth the mind into the red sign is its salient characteristic. throng. on cluth. the flower associated with the redabhibhayatana is the Bandhujivaka. lei the golden flower blow. The new yogin is different. calm. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the yellow kasb. 1. on seeing red flowers or red clothes anywhere. This yogin makes a malJrjala with yellow of the colour of the KalJiktira flower. 111 confirms: Seyyathiipi nama bandhujivaka-puppham lohitakam 10hitaka-vUlJlJam lohitaka'nidassanam lohitaka-nibhiisam. The thought that is produced relying on the red sign . The practised yogin grasps the sign in a natural place. in pleasure or in pain. He sees always.126 Vimuttimagga place. II. and is not able to grasp it in a non-prepared place. He edges it with another colour. The new Lean grey tree with outstretched hands. "What are its benefits?": There are four distinctive benefits. What is the red kasilJa? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. D. He grasps the sign through three ways: even gazing. Thus he prepares the yellow sign. to sense the silence. clean bliss long. The non-abandoning of the perception of red is its function. He who practises the red kasiJ:za sees the colour of red prevailing everywhere. stands For inward vision yoga-wrought.e. i. l He is able to change things into the colour of red. THE RED KASINA Q.

in white flowers. "How is the sign grasped 1": A man who takes up the white kasi1)a grasps the white sign either in a prepared or natural place. Undivided thought is its near cause. produces brightness and arouses the divine eye through the white kasi1)Q. He who practises the white kasi1)a sees the colour of white prevailing everywhere. the seventh abhibhiiyatana. II. sunlight. Thus he prepares the white sign. He sees the sign in various places . he makes a ma1)t/aia of red flowers. Sending forth the mind into the white sign is its salient characteristic. . He grasps the sign through three ways: through even gazing. this. plank or wall in the shape of a triangle or a square.).Subjects of Meditation 127 yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place. plank or wall. Odiita abhibhiiyatana. skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. Thus he prepares the red. He grasps the sign through three ways: even gazing. THE WIDTE KASINA Q. is associated with UJanastiirakii (Sk. A man is able to attain to the emancipation of the beautiful. page 111 confirms: Seyyathii pi niima osadhi-tiirakii odiitii odiita-va1. and the positions of mastery of the white. in the shape of a triangle or a square. Thus the after-image of the white sign occurs to him.This yogin applies a red colour resembling that of the Bandhujivaka flower on cloth. D. The rest is as was fully taught before."What are its benefits?": There are eight distinctive benefits. The other benefits are the same as those taught in the earth kasi1)Q. function and near cause? How is the sign grasped? A. The non-abandoning of the perception of white is its function. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind .tii odiita-nidassanii odiita-nibhiisii. . . The practised yo·gin grasps the sign in a natural place. sign. starlight or a round mirror. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the white kasi1)a. 1 He overcomes rigidity and torpor. dispels darkness. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the red kasi1)a . Beginning with these. The new yogin is different. . The red kasi1)a has ended. The white kasi1)a has ended. In the Jiistra mentioned above. . (The rest) is as was fully taught before. he sees the sign always before him. Osadhitiirakii (pall). skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. He is not able to grasp "it in a non-prepared place. and is not able to do so in a non~ prepared place. .t1. He edges it with another colour. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place. the morning star. 1. Or. The thought that is produced relying on the white sign-this is called the white kasi1)a. with colour resembling that of the morning star.these are called the practising of it. moonlight. He edges it with another colour. through pleasure and through pain. This yogin makes a ma1)t/aia on cloth. What is the white kasi1)a? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic.

The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind . . He sees the sign in various places . "What are its benefits '/" : They are equal to those of the white kasi1)a. The new yogin is different. Here he sees the light sign. sunlight.this is called the light kasi1)a. and is not able to do so in a non-prepared place.these are called the practising of it. He fills a bowl with water and keeps it in a sunny place nearby. He who practises the light kasi1)Q sees light everywhere. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place. The thought that is produced relying on the light sign . Beginning with these he sees (the sign) always through pleasure or through pain. lamplight or in the light of gems.in moonlight. This yogin chooses a wall facing east or west. grasps the light. light rises and is reflected on the wall. skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance. This water causes a malJ4ala of light. Sending forth the mind into the white sign is its salient characteristic. From this ma1)r!ala. He follows what is expedient in the practice of the light kasi1)a. The light kasi1)Q has ended. What is the light kasi1)a? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. function and near cause? How is the sign grasped? A.128 THE LIGHT KASINA Vimuttimagga [424] Q. Thus the after-image of the light sign 'occurs to him. Undivided thought is its near cause.sign in a prepared or in a natural place. The non-abandoning of the perception of light is its function. He grasps it in three ways: through even gazing. The practised yogin grasps the sign in a natural place. "How is the sign grasped '/": A man who takes up the light kasi1)a. (The rest) is as was fully taught before.

Thus the after-image of the space sign occurs to him. Undivided thought is its near cause. grasps the sign in space that is natural or prepared. he sees it always. in the space of an open window. the second is space that is not separate from form. The practised yogin grasps the sign in a natural place. and not in a non-prepared place. "How is the sign grasped 1": The man who takes up the space kasi1Ja.these are called the practising of it. This yogin goes to a calm abode on the outside of which are no obstructions. "What are its benefits 1": There are two distinctive benefits. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind . Sending forth the mind into space perception is its function. He sees· the sign in various places . there are two kinds: The first is space that is separate from form. His bodily activities are not impeded. He makes a circular opening (in the wall) and grasps the space sign.THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE SIXTH WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAP.in some opening (in a wall). The sign of the space kasi1Ja is space that is separate from form. the space sign that is grasped in an opening is space that is not separate from form.ALA OF FUNAN CHAPTER THE EIGHTH Section Three THE (SEPARATED) SPACE KASINA What is the (separated) space kasi1Ja? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. The new yogin grasps the sign in a prepared place. mountains and the like. and he becomes fearless. through three ways: through even 129 . Beginning with these. The new yogin is different. in pleasure and in pain. thus: A man is able to pass through obstructions such as walls. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. In the space kasiQa. in the space which is between the branches of trees.

Lit. (5) in the direct order3 and (6) in the reverse order. 7. The rest is as was fully taught before. through one kasiIJa. one is able to acquire facility through the other kasiIJas also and is able to cause the arising of the second meditation. 5. Lit. The white kasiIJa is excellent. (14) by fixing9 the factor. Lit. Together with the factor. the fourth and the fifth meditations. jhtina. . Lit. A. 4. Q. 1 MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS Q. are produced. This and the subsequent passages in italics in this section do not occur in the Sung edition in the library of the Japanese Imperial household. Which are the most excellent of all kasiIJas? A. jhdna. 2.130 Vimuttimagga gazing. Making little or restricting the middle. Increasing each one. (15) by fixing the object. This is called the "Consciousness kasiIJa. jhdna. The ten kasiIJas have ended. Lit. jhdna. (4) without hindrance. (12) by limiting the object. The (separatecf) space kasiIJa has ended. reverse order. What are the miscellaneous teachings regarding these kasiIJQS? If one acquires facility in one sign. (13) by limiting the factor and the object. 3. It is the concentration of the sphere of infinite consciousness. one is able to cause the arising of the third meditation. jhdna. peacefully. (3) whenever he likes. In the same way. Ascending gradually. because through them one attains to the emancipations2 and the positions of mastery. If one acquires facility in the third meditation. skilfulness and the elimination of disturbance.7 (11) by limiting 8 the factor. Vimokkha. 8. Lit. (1) He dwells wherever he likes and (2) practises the concentration that he likes. The rest is as was fully taught before. 6 (8) by developing separately6 (9) by developing together. In this space kasiT)(l. (16) by fixing the factor and the object. Descending gradually. one is able to cause the arising of the fourth meditation. all other signs follow. jhdnas. Ascending and descending gradually. 9. . THE CONSCIOUSNESS KASINA Q. Lit. 6. (10) by skipping over the middle. Here (the yogin) produces the eight attainments on eight kasiIJas. because it illumines and because through it an unobstructed state of mind is attained. Making little or restricting the factor. The four colour kasiIJas are the most excellent. If one acquires facility in the first meditation. in sixteen ways.4 (7) in the direct and in the. if one acquires facility in the second meditation. What is the consciousness kasiIJa? A. 1. jhdna.

From the third meditation. ViffMr. jhiinas. Ayarh Tathiigatassa pacchimii viicii. (9) "By developing t{)gether": He enters the fourth meditation. jhiinas). two meditation. AkiltcaflfliiyatalUl-samiipattiyii vu/lhahitvii viflfliir. (7) "In the direct and in the reverse order": He excels in ascending . Starting from the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. and understands the sphere of the infinity of space. (3) "Whenever": He enters into concentration at the time he likes.and in descending. jhdna. jhiina. jhdna. (2) "Practises the concentration that he likes": He produces the concentration which he desires.jhana. 'Na iivuso Ananda Bhagavii parinibbuto. (11) "Limiting the factor": He enters into the concentration of one meditation. Thus he abides in that attainment. Cp. Catutthajjhiinii vUflhahitvii iikiisiinaflciiyatanarh samiipajji.Subjects of Meditation 131 (1) "He stays wherever he likes". on (Lit. From this he enters the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. (14) "Fixing the factor": On three kasi1Jas. jhiinas. and therefrom attains to the sphere of nothingness. jhdna. two. jhdna. Tatiyajjhiinii vUflhahltvii catutthajjhiinarh samiipajji. he ascends or descends. and from the second he enters the fourth. jhcina. (8) "By developing separately": Having gradually entered the fourth meditation.taffciiyatanarh samiipajji. Thus he enters into concentration in these two ways. Atha kho Bhagavii pafhamajjhiinarh samiipajji. (10) "Skipping over the middle": He enters the first meditation. Atha kho iiyasmii Anaado iiyasamantarh Anuruddharh etad avoca: 'Parinibbuto bhante Anuruddha Bhagavii'tI. AkiflcaflMyatana-samiipattiyii vUlfhahitvii nevasaffM-niisafffliiyatanarh .l Thus he enters the concentration of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perceptlon. on eight kasi1Jas. jhana. he comes down by degrees to the first meditation. (15) "Fixing the object": He enters two meditations. From this he enters the second meditation. (6) "In the reverse order". (12) "Limiting the object": He enters into eight kinds of concentration on three kasi1Jas. and by degrees rises up to the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. Atha kho Bhagavii saflflii-vedayita-nirodha-samiipattiyii vUlfhahitvii nevasaililiiniisaflfliiyatanarh samiipajji. saflM-vedaylta-nirodharh samiipanno'ti. jhcina. he likes-and enters into concentration. AkiisiilUlficiiyatana-samiipattiyii· vUflhahitvii vifllfiir. NevasaflMniisaflfliiyatalUl-samiipattiyii vUlfhahitvii saflflii-vedayita-nirodharh samiipajji. Dutiyajjhiinii vUflhahitvii tatiyajjhiinarh samiipajji. samiipajji. (a) D. (13) "Limiting the factor and the object": Two meditations. Palhamajjhiinii vutthahitvii dutiyajjhiinarh samiipajji. He enters the third meditation. . I Miscellaneous teachings have ended.taflciiyatana-samiipattiyii vUlfhahitvii iikiflcaffffiiyatanarh samiipajji. 1. jhiina. two. appamiidena sampiidethiiti". He dwells in the village or forestwhichever. jhiina. two kasi1Jas). he enters the second. and then enters the third meditation. II. from the first meditation.taflciiyatanarh . (5) "In the direct order": He enters the first meditation. NevasailM-niisailMyatana-samiipattiyii VUflhahitvii iikiflcailMyatQ1Ulrh samiipajji. he enters (Lit. (16) "Fixing the factor and the object": This consists of the two (preceding) sentences. (4) ("Without hindnmce"): He is able to remain finn in (concentration) at all times. From that he enters space. and one kasi1Ja. 156: 'Handa cliini bhikkhave iimantayiimi vo: "Vayadhammii sarhkhdrii.

M. liiva punappunam samiipajjanam jhiiniinulomam niima. He increases disgust and overcomes sense-desires. DUliyajjhiinii vutthahilvii pafhamajjhiinam samiipajji. 131: Uddhumiitakasaiiiiii bhikkhave bhiivitii bahu/ikalii mahato phiisuvihiiriiya samvattati. Duliyajjhiinii vUffhahilvii laliyajjhiinam samiipajji.132 Vimuttimagga THE TEN PERCEPTIONS OF PUTRESCENCE (1) THE PERCEPTION OF BLOATEDNESS Q. one with the object. with his faculties drawn in and his mind not going to things outside. established in mindfulness. D. Reflection on malodour and impurity are its near cause. The disgust connected with the perception of bloatedness is its function. (a) A.. "What are its benefits 1" : Nine are the benefits of the perception of bloatedness. so imam eva kiiyam upasarizharali: 'Ayampi kho kiiyo evam-dhammo evam-bhiivi elam analilo Ii'. The training and the undisturbed dwelling of the mind in that perception .. Taliyajjhiinii vUffhahilvii dUliyajjhiinam samiipajji.this is called "bloatedness". nevasaiiiiii-nasaiiiiiiyatanala patfhiiya yiiva pafhamajjhiinan Ii evam anulomapatilomavasena punappunam samiipajjanam jhiiniinulomapatilomam niima. with the putrescent sign before him. "The perception of bloatedness" : The state of being swollen throughout like a cast off smelly corpse which distends its bag of skin . Taliyajjhiinii vUffhahilvii calullhajjhiinam samiipajji.. Calullhajjhiinii vUffhahitvii samananlarii Bhagavii parinibbiiyi. II. And that yogin makes a rock. What is the perception of bloatedriess? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. thus: A man is able to gain mindfulness as regards the interior of his body.these are called the practising of it. 1. one with the sign. Avoiding contrary winds. (b) Vis. Mag. Pafhamajjhiinato patthiiya yiiva nevasaiiiiii-niisaiiiiiiyatanom. and considers thus: "This rock is impure.l The viewing of bloatedness with right knowledge . 323-4. he remains thele. V". Cp. . I. bush or a creeper. undeluded. Calullhajjhiinii vUffhahilvii laliyajjhiinam samiipajji. reflecting on the path of going and coming. this is the impure sign. Ill. function and near cause? What are "its benefits'r How is the sign grasped? A.. is able to gain the perception of impermanence and the perception of death. (b) S.•. . samiipajji. tree. 295: Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyalhii pi passeyya sariram sivalikiiya cha4t!ilam .this' !s called "perception". standing or sitting. uddhumiilakam • . ViiifliilJaiiriiyalana-samiipattiyii vUffhahilvii iikiisiinaiiciiyalanam samiipajji. He removes the clinging to form and well-being. near the place where the putrescent thing lies.. liiva punappunam samiipajjanam jhiinapafilomam nama. Thus he goes to the place of putrescent corpses. Nevasaiiflii-niisaiiiJiiyalanoto pafthiiya yiiva pathamajjhiinam. Paihamajjhiinii vuffhahilvii dUliyajjhiinam samiipajji. He fares well and approaches the ambrosial. . this is the rock". an ant-hill. "How is the sign grasped 7": The new yogin who grasps the sign of the putrescence of bloatedness goes alone. 58. And so also with the ant-hill and the others. without a companion. and not too far from nor too near it. 374: Pafhamajjhiinalo pana paffhiiya pafipiitiyii yiiva nevasaiiflii-niisaiiiiiiyatanam. The sending forth of the mind into the perception of bloatedness is its salient characteristic. Akiisiinaiiciiyalana-samiipalliyii vUffhahilvii calullhajjhiinam samiipajji.

understanding the whole body as an assemblage of dung". Why does he reflect on the path of going and coming? It is for the sake of acquiring calmness of body. the putrescent sign". he determines thus: '1 am in a low place. on this. because he does not grasp the sign by being too near it or too far from it. in this. sex. region. considering the putrescent -sign from its intrinsic nature in ten ways: From colour. goes alone. "From the cavities" means: "He determines whether the mouth is open or closed. 'The putrescent sign is in a low place. undeluded. "Sddhu! sddhu!". locality. and whether it is that of a young. Why does he sit neither far nor near the sign? If he sits far. Lit. an adult or an old person". he cannot grasp the sign. without a companion. "From locality" means: "He determines that on this place! is the hand. I am in a high place'''.the hollows -of the hands-and the feet". and considering all things. the sitting-place . He determines white as white and malodorous skin as malodorous". cavities. and whether the eyes are open or closed. These are known as the' fourteen great joints. from below up to the head and the edge of the scalp. Bright pla~ - a dO\lbl~ transilltion of avakiisa. the small as small. He determines. high parts and all sides. joints. That yogin having grasped the sign. the fat as fat. in this. a leg. established in mindfulness. "Established in mindfulness" means: "Owing to nondelusion the faculties are drawn in and the mind does not go to things outside". the neither black nor white as neither black nor white. in this. limitation. . To and fro he walks on the path orhe sits absorbed in the putrescent sign. the head. in this. reflecting on the path of going and coming. the abdomen. "From the joints" means: "He determines that there are six joints in the two hands. noted it well and determined it well. the sitting place. If he sits near. and that there is one joint of the neck and one at the waist". with his faculties drawn in and his mind not going to things outside.-parts" means: «He determines whether-the putrescent SIgn is In a low-place or. "From colour" means: "He determines black as black. the back. he practises. a hand. in this. Why does he go without a companion? It is for the sake of acquiring calmness of body. "He considers from all sides" means: "He determines a distance of two or three fathoms from the sign. Why does he avoid contrary winds? It is for the sake of avoiding malodour. he cannot 1. He considers all sides· of it. in this. a leg. "From low'parts and from h~. the short as short.Subjects 0/ Meditation 133 [425] After making the sign and making the object. Thus observing he is contented. To determine is to determine the long as long. or.in a high place. on this. and -again. on this. on this. he grasps the sign (saying). "From sex" means: "He determines whether it is the body of a male or a female. "From limitation" means: "He determines (the limit of the body) from head to foot. Thus he understands. the putrescent sign". low parts. six joints in the two legs. the putrescent sign is in a high place'. "From region" means: "He determines that in this direction is the head.

jhtina. Q. in the ten ways. resorts to it always. it is said that this putrescent sign is an unenduring object. In this way he knows. only developed through the perception of putrescence and not any other meditation. it is said that colour. In an impure place JOY and bliss can onlv HTise bv the rejection of initial and sustained application . On an unenduring object the mind does not go higher. the first meditation. bears it in mind. Therefore. jhlina. jhtina. regards well and fully investigates the sign. Therefore. And again. "Are considered in many ways": These (colour. fear arises in him. He investigates all signs.) are objects of initial and sustained application of thought. Separate from initial and sustained application of thought. Why does one reflect on the path of going and coming? It is for the sake of progress in the course. This is (the indication of) non-delusion. Therefore. Without initial and sustained application of thought. but reflects. meditating on a corpse. rightly understands. these cannot be considered. he is not able to grasp that sign. if the corpse appears to stand up before him. through the perception of putrescence. his mind is sometimes disturbed. and sees the sign as if it were with his eyes. a yogin investigates the sign with all his heart by reflecting on the path of going and coming. Why does he consider the sign on aU sides ? It is for the sake of non-delusion. he does not stand up. he abides in the attainment of the first meditation.134 Vimuttimagga get a dislike for it. recollects. rejoices. sex and the others of this putrescent sign are considered in many ways. Therefore. This is (the indication of) progress in the course. He investigates the place of meditation. born of solitude and full of joy and bliss. is developed and not any other. here. Q. at such a time. jhtina? A. Why is the fir3t meditation. jhlina. This perception always follows initial and sustained application of thought because (they go together) and because it is tied down to a place. When initial and sustained application of thought are present. It is for the sake of binding the mind. If he does not know its nature. which is with initial and sustained application of thought. And again. the yogin is not able. the putrescent sign does not arise. only the first meditation. That yogin thus investigates again and again. A new yogin. causes the hindrances to perish and arouses the factors of meditation. Thus should he investigate the sign to be grasped. to gain the calming of the mind. Remote form sense-desires and demeritorious states. or see its nature. Non-delusion is thus: When a yogin goes to a still place and sees the putrescent sign. Why does he grasp the sign in ten ways? A. etc. If he does not always investigate it. "Progress in the course" means: "Though a yogin enters a still place. perceiving (it as) a jewel. he sits neither too far from nor too near it. jhlina. is developed and not any other. this sign becomes manifest. In the same way he considers all signs.

is developed and not any other. 1 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the practjsing of it. III. The way of grasping the Sign is as Was fully taught above. function and near cause? What are its be}lefits? How. Q. cpo A. This is the festering of the body. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the perception of discolouration. depend on malodour. 58. On an unenduring object how do joy and bliss occur? A. What is discolouration? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. III.2 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the practising of it. D. This is the discolouration sign. joy and bliss arise owing to the removal of the heat of the hindrances and the training of the mind. only the first meditation. This discolouration is called the blue sign.I. bhikkhave. The perception of bloatedness has ended. 323-4. Therefore. The reflection on the festering sign is its salient characteristic.. What is perception offestering? What is the practising ofit? What are its salient characteristic. (3) THE PERCEPTION OF FESTERING Q. PERCEPTION OF DISCOLOURATION Q. Tassa evam appamattassa atapino pahitattassa viharato ye te gehasita sarasamkappa te pahiyanti.. (The perception of) discolouration has ended. "Festering": Two or three nights after death. The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the perception of festering. so imam eva kayam upasamharati: Ayam pi kho kayo evamdhammo evarhbluivi evamanatito ti.. The thought of non-durability is its near cause. The rest is as was fully taught above. the body becomes discoloured. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyatlui pi passeyya sariram sivathikaya cha</4itam ekahamatam va dvihamatam va tihamatam va .. jhdna. . Evam pi. II. the body festers and matter exudes from it like ghee that is poured out. (2) THE. One. And again. and appears as if it were stained blue. is the sign grasped? A. bhikkhave. The unenduring object is not the cause of joy and bliss. bhikkhu seyyatlui pi passeyya sariram sivathlkaya cFiar#itam ekahamatam va dvihamatam va tihamatam va uddhumatakam vini/akam vipubbakajatam.•• vinilakam .Subjects of Meditation 135 of thought. which. 91: Puna caparam. two or three nights after death. bhikkhu kavaf!atam satim bhaveli. 295: . in a place such as this. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function.. M. Cpo M. The reflection on the blue sign is its salient characteristic. so imam eva kayam upasamharati: 'Ayam pi kho kayo evarh-dhammo evam-bluivi etam anatito ti'. tesam paluina ajjhattam eva cillam santilfhati sannisidatl ekodihoti samadhiyati.. 2. I..

"The gnawed": (leavings of a) corpse on which crows.193 inches. What is the meaning of the fissured? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. wolves. The thought of putrescence is its near cause.295: Puna caparam . 58. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. The sight of two ears or two fingers that are separated (from a body) causes the arising of the fissured sign.I. The thought of no~­ durability is its near cause. "The fissured" means: "What resembles the scattered parts of a body that has been hacked with a sword". (on the sign). . .II. 3.amiinam. The reflection on the sign of the fissured is its salient characteristic. is also called the fissured. 131: Vlcchiddakasaffilii bhikkhave bhiivilii bahulikatii mahato phiisu~ihiiriiya samvattati. The consideration of putrescence is 1.this is (the perception of) the gnawed. wild pigs. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. III. magpies. so imam eVil kiiyam upasamharali: 'Ayam pi kho kiiyo evam-dhammo evam-bhiivi etam analito Ii'. D. . What is the meaning of the gnawed? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE FISSURED Q. is the practising of it. dogs. The reflection on the gnawed is its salient characteristic.this is called the gnawed. The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the perception of the fissured. a corpse that is thrown away . Cpo s. Again. function and near cause? A. eagles. 1 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind. kiikehi vii khajjamiinam kulalehi vii khaJjamiinam gijjhehi vii khajjamiinam supiilJehi vii khajjamiinariJ sigiilehi vii khajjamiinam v~vidhehi vii piil)aka-jiilehl khaj.8 The understanding of the gnawed sign through right knowledge .136 Vimuttimagga (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? . owls. The sign thus grasped appears with one or two lllches 2 of space intervening. Cpo A. M. (The perception of) the festering has ended. (5) THE PERCEPTION OF THE GNAWED Q. v.. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) -this is called the practising of it. The way of grasping the sign is as was fully taught above. (The perceptioll of) the fissured has. "How is the sign grasped·?" A. Q. 2. Its merits are equal to those of bloatedness. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. jackals. tigers or leopards have fared . brown kites. vultures. A. 324. This refers to the Chinese Sun -1. The rest is as was fully taught above. ended.

1 Cpo A. 324.these are called.. (61 THE PERCEPTION OF THE . The thought of putrescence is its near cause. function and near cause? What are its benefits? [426] How is the sign grasped? A. D. Kiikapiidiikiirena angapaceangesu saflhena hanitvii vuftanayena vikkhittassa ehavasarirass' elam adhivacanam. What is the meaning of the dismembered? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. II. one grasps the sign of the dismembered. affhikiini apagata-sambandhiini disii-vidisiisu vikkhittiini annena hatthatthikam annena piidaffhikam annena jarighaffhikam annena uratthikam aiinena kafaUhikam annena pitthi-kalJfakam annena sisa-kafiiham. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. "How is the sign grasped?": All the (scattered) limbs are gathered and placed together so that they are about two inche.. sword or arrow . of those done to death with stick. The rest is all wall fully taught ·above. What is the meaning of the cut and the dismembered? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. The rest is as was fully taught above. 58. (The perception oj) the dismembered has ended.l The understanding of this through right knowledgethis is called the perception of the dismembered. M. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is called the practising of it. lying in various places.lII. "The cut and the dismpmbered": Corpses. The thought of putrescence is its near cause.s apart from: each other. The reflection on the sign of the cut and the dismembered is its salient characteristic. function and near cause? What ate its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is the practising of it. Its merits are equal to those of bloatedness. Mag. I. so imam eva kiiyam upasamharali: 'Ayam pi kho kiiyo evam-dhammo evam-bhiivi elam anatfro Ii'. 179: Halan ea lampurimanayen' eva vikkhittakan eii Ii hatavikkhittakam.DISMEMBERED Q.subjects of Meditation 137 its near cause.. Cpo Vis. (7) THE PERCEPTION OF THE CUT AND THE DISMEMBERED Q. The state of (severed) limbs scattered hither and thither is called "the dismembered". Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. . 296-7: Puna eaparam . (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. Having arranged them thus. the cut and the dismembered. (The perception of) the gnawed has ended. 2. The reflection on the dismembered sign is its salient characteristic. This is how the sign is grasped. z To know the cut and the dismembered through right knowledge is called the perception of the cut and the dismembered.

2. . function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped 1 A. Cp. (8) THE PERCEPTION OF THE BLOOD-STAINED Q. What is the bony? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic.l The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is called the practising of it. 106. (9) THE PERCEPTION OF WORMINESS Q.138 Vimuttimagga "How is the sign grasped" ?: This is as was fully taught above. . A. The reflection on the sign of worminess is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) worminess has ended.310: PuluvakasaiiilO. so imam eva kayam upasamharati: 'Ayam pi kho kiiyo evamdhammo evam-bhiivi etam anatito tl'. 131: PufavakasaiiilO bhikkhave bhiivltii bahulikatii mahato phiisuvlhiiriiya samvattati. The thought of putrescence is its near cause.-A...the sign grasped 1 m. "How is the sign grasped 1": This was fully taught above. 324. 296: Puna ca param bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyathii pi passeyya sariram sivathikaya cha44itam affhi-samkhalikam sa-mamsa-Iohitam nahiirusambandham . 58. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. (10) THE PERCEPTION OF THE BONY Q. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is the sign grasped? A.. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. A. (The percepion of) the blood-stained has ended. The thought of putrescence is its near cause. The reflection on the blood-stained sign is its salient characteristic. (The perception of) disagreeableness is its function. II. D. The blood-besmeared state of the body and the severed limbs is known as "the blood-stained". "Worminess": The state of a body covered with worms as with a heap of white pearls is called worminess. Also S.pe . V. M. What is worminess'1 What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. "How is the sign grasped?": This is as was fully taught above. function and near cause? What are its benefits? How is . I. 17. What is the meaning of the blood-stained? What is practising of it? What are its salient characteristic.. 1... II. The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the perception of worminess. V. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. (The perception of the) cut and the dismembered has ended. 2 The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign ) is the practising of it.

The thought of putrescence is its near cause. The others should be understood in the same way. :.. If a man grasps the sign of putrescence through space. the sign of putrescence ill grasped with difficulty. he should meditate on putrescence. he should meditate on the kasil)a. D. Why are there ten putrescences and neither more nor less? A. . The beginner.l The understanding of this through right knowledge is called the perception of the bony..dhammo eva.... upasarhharali: 'Ayam p. MISCELLANEOUS TEACmNGS Q. One causes the arising of the sign in one -bone and srasps the sign in the bone with . pe . (The perception of) disagreeableness is. A passionate person should meditate on the perception of bloatedness. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (on the sign) is called the practising of it. (The perception of) the bony has ended.kho kayo eva. 324. so imam eva kaya. Q.. A.. facility. blood and sinews or by sinews without flesh and blood.-bhtivi elam analito Ii'. III..taught above... because he. "What is the bony"? The state of bones linked chain-like by means of flesh. owtng to the close connection with these objects. A sensual person should meditate on discolouration. Its benefits are equal to those of bloatedness. 1. If one is of a calling associated with the perception of putrescence.II. Therefore. being one who is affected by severe passion.Subjects of Meditation 139 A. he should not grasp the putrescent sign. . he should meditate on that element. whenever the walker in passion sees the putrescent sign. 58. it is said that among the putrescences there are ten kinds of putrescence perception... . Because the faults of rhe body are of· ten kinds and because there are ten kinds of perception owing to ten kinds of persons. M. What are the miscellaneous teachings regarding putrescence? A. One does not cause the arising of pure perception on the bodies of beasts (7). apagala-malhSa-lohila. That which is "not of the same kind" means: "Like the body of a man to a woman". "How is the sign grasped"? This is as was fullY.. And again.' • . should not grasp the sign in that which is not of the same kind. If a man grasps the sign of putrescence through putrescence. I. if a man grasps the sign of putrescence through colour. Because of these reasons. All signs of putrescence are means of overcoming passion. its function. The reflection on the sign of the bony is its salient characteristic. Cp. 296: Aflhi-samkhalika. And again. IUlhiirusambandha'. he should grasp it. or without flesh and blood is called "the bony". A passionate lover ot the beautiful should always meditate on the festering. does not develop the idea of their disagreeableness.

in the fearful wood. taltha ca sabbaiiilutarir patio. he can quickly acquire the perception of its disagreeableness and cause the arising of the after-image. entirely. Because of these qualities. I. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in the recollection of the Buddha) . I. -18: AM buddhassa diiyado bhikkhu Bhesakafiivane. he will not be able to acquire the thought of disagreeableness quickly. ill. the almsman.this is called the practising of it. he is called the Enlightened One.n~ lont{ -tIme. The Enlightened One is the Blessed One who by his own efforts. And again.jhdna. if he has the perception of the nature of his body. function and near cause? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. Not traced. Th.it is taught that if a man is without passion. with. understands tlle Noble Truths which were never heard before.140- Vimuttimagga Q. does not forget to recollect on these. kevalarir allhisaiiiliiya aphari pafhavirir imath. dwells on the perception of bloatedness and causes the arising of the boundless object". 457: Buddho Ii yo so Bhagavii sayambhii aniicariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu siimarir sacciini abhlsambUjjhi. Thus is tlle recollection of tlle Buddha. 174 where 'pubbe' is substituted by 'Buddhe'. practises the first meditatio. The yogin remembers the Enlightened One. the Supremely Enlightened One and the worth of the Enlightenment. 2. Also Pts. he. out a teacher. When a man wishes to separate from passion. Therefore. Why are these (putrescence signs) not increased? A. He recollects. If he loses the perception of his own body. He possesses power.Q. He practises right recollectedness. Maniie 'harir kiimariigarir so khippam eva pahiyatiti. This is in accordance with the teaching of the Abhidhamma: "One dwells without passion and the rest. he causes the arising of the perception regarding the nature of his body. . He remembers (the Enlightened One's) faculties and powers. the Blessed One. Because. repeatedly recollects.1 The great Elder Singiilapita uttered this stanza: The heir of the Buddha.lust}! THE RECOLLECTION OF THE BUDDHA Q. The 1. I think this almsman will. he should not increase. What is tlle recollection or-the Buddha? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. 8 He is free. balesu ca vasibhiivarir patio. rightly. he may increase it for the sake of developing the great thought.. Nidd. If the perception of putrescence is increased. recollects again and again. 3. the sign which he has grasped in his body will disappear. He knows all. -Smgaiapita Thera. Iws with "bony-precept" filled this earth. abondon.

Cpo Vis. he is called the Blessed One.' "Supremely enlightened": Because he knows rightly all things.Subjects of Meditation 141 remembering of the Buddha's worth is its function. in all his activities. "What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed. the Blessed One. he is called the Blessed One. 5. enlightened. he is called the supremely enlightened. Netri Sutara. he is called the Blessed One. 201-2. wisdom. he is consummate.·a.lasampanno sugalo lokavidu anuttaro purisatiammasiiralhi salthii devamanussiinam buddho Bhagavii. Lit. he is consummate· Because he has killed the defilement-foes.1 According to the Netti Sutta. sublime. endowed with true knowledge and conduct. 8 Thus he reaches the further shore of merit. Because he has attained to excellent truth. . cp. he is called the supremely enlightened. ability to endure hardship. Sn.. enjoyment of activity belonging to the ground of the Buddhas. Sn. he is 'called the Blessed One and ~ecause he is the Lord of the Way-Truth. He who practises the recollection of the Buddha acquires the following eighteen benefits: increase of confidence. Mag. matchless guide of men to be tamed. he is consummate. Because he is worthy of offerings. worship Buddha images and such other objects. he remembers him who comes and goes in the same way.2 if a man wishes to meditate on the Buddha. the ignorance of the future with the know1. For these reasons is he called the Blessed One. fearlessness.·the knowledge of the passing away and the arising of beings and the knowledge of the extinction of the cankers. the knowledge of past existences. 198. teacher of divine and human beings. (the happiness of) faring wen and approaching the ambrosial. Cpo Vis. 3. great joy. With this undisturbed mind. consummate. knower of the world. The Blessed One has removed the ignorance of the past with the knowledge of past existences.e. he is called the Blessed One. 132 (Selasutta): Iii pi so Bhagavii araham Sammas. Ie ca nena kilesiirayo mOlfllena halii Ii ar. I. 168. Because he breaks the spokes of the wheel of birth and death. 76. merit. 441: Arakii hi so sabbakilesehi maggena saviisaniinam kilesiinam viddhamsila(lii Ii iirakallii araham..~ "Endowed with true knowledge and conduct": Knowledge means the three kinds of knowledge. 2.inam halallii pi araham. Mag. the state of living near the Teacher. supremely enlightened. D. by himself. mindfulness. III. 4. Because he has killed ignorance. reverence. "Blessed One": Because he' gets the praise of the world. i. he is called the supremely englightened and because he has attained to the enlightenment that is unrivalled. The growth in confidence is its near cause. Because he has acquired the highest merits. Only thirteen benefits are mentioned. A. shamefastness· in the presence of evil.ambuddho vijjiicaraJ. blessed. he should. "CiJnsummate": Because he is the recipient of gifts.

. all future states in the course of his activities. the Blessed One sees. eatutthajjiinam upasampajja vlharali. He is caIled "perfect "Perfect" means: "Endowed with supernormal powers". He saves through conduct.. "Conduct" means: "The being endowed with virtue' and concentration". 1. and the ignorance of the present with the knowledge of the extinction of the cankers. He. So dlbbena eakkhunii visuddhena alikkantamiinusakena salle passiiml eavamiine upapajjamiine .... 'Ayam vuceali Ambattha·.. So anekavlhltanl pubbenlviisam anussariiml. Thus.. Idam kho tam Amba/tha earaIJam. He opened the path of science. in knowled~e "Virtue" means: "Endowed with all good states". I. the Blessed One sees. ' . Cpo (a) D.. He is perfect in knowledge because none can surpass him.•... (b) Sn. all present states in the course of his activities. . when he recollects. Ayam kho sii Amballha vijjii..1 Having removed the ignorance of the past... without a teacher. Golama caraIJam. because he has acquired the supernormal power of the highest trutll. . He is perfectly enlightened through knowledge. Idam pi 'ssa hotl vijjiiya. seyyathidam: ekampi jiitM dve pi jiitiyo ...pe •. iinejjappatte saltiinam cutiipapiitaiiiiIJiiya clltanl abhininniimeslm.. because . . ' . niiparam itthattiiyiiti pajiiniili. .pe . Idam pi 'ssa hotl earQIJasmim.142 Vimuttimagga ledge-of the passing away and the arising of beings.. So evam samiihile citle . a 1.. .. . Hence he is called "perfect in knowledge and conduct". when he recollects.100: 'Katamampana tam Mo. So ldam dukkhanti yathiiMiitam abbhaililiisim . through being perfect in knowledge and conduct.. He acquired knowledge with facility. because he has promoted the weal of the world. iiiilJa-dassaniiya cit/am abhiniharati abhinlnniimetl . Imiiy~ ell Ambaltha vijjii-earQIJa-sampadiiya aiiiiii vijjii-sampadii earaIJa-sampadii uttaritarii' vii pa(!itatarii vii n'atthi. because he has become the eye of the world and because he has blessed those who were unblessed...pathamajjhiinam upasampajja viharati... because he has destroyed all defilements and because of pure right action.. M..pe . 22-4: So evam samiihlle citle parisuddhe parlyodiite anailgaIJe vlgatiipakkilese muduMiite kammanlye thite iinejjappatte pubbenlviisiinussatliiiilJiiya cittam aMinlnniimeslm. 441: Sammii siimail ea saeeiinam buddhattii sammiisambuddho.. evam kho Amballha Mikkhu silasampanno hoti.pe . all past states in the course of all activities. iinejjappalte iisaviinam khayaiiiiIJiiya ciltam abhininniimesith.. . bhikkhu vijjii-sampanno itl pi earaIJa-sampanno ItI pi vijjiiearQIJa-sampanno It I pi... . katamii sii vijjii ti?' 'Idha Ambattha Tathiigato loke uppajjatl araham sammiisamhuddho . 2.... Having removed all present ignorance. . He is perfect in conduct. Idam pi 'ssa hoti vijjiiya . . . the three kinds of knowledge and conduct. Thus is "perfect in knowledge and conduct" to be understood. and conduct". Idam pi 'ssa hotl earaIJasmim' . the Blessed One sees. has acquired that excellent equipose of behaviour towards all things... So evam samiihlte eilte .-a: II. when he recollects.pe . Thus the Blessed One has great compassion and appreciative joy because of omniscience. (Again) "endowed" means: "possessed of all concentration". because he knew all spheres.. he is caned the Blessed One. Having removed the ignorance of the future.. because he had benefitted the world [427]..he has become the mainstay of the world and because he has rescued the fear-stricken..' .

causehe will not return again. that is without residue of the substratum of being. "Matchless": Because he is unsurpassable. through various results. because his teachings are neither too many nor too few. the Blessed One knows the world of beings.-a. Satta-Ioka. cha loka cha ajjhattikani ayatanani. through various births. because his teachings are not untrue. so hi sabhiivato samudayato nirodhato nirodhiipiiyato ti sabbathii khamihiiyataniidibhedam samkhiiralokam avedi.Subjects of Meditation 143 "Sublime": Because he has reached the good road. affha loka arrha lokadhamma. Be. sattanam iisayam janati anusayam janati caritam janiiti adhimuttim jandti. satta loka satta viililiil.-a. and because he has attained to the extinction.3 "Guide of men to be tam~d": There are three kinds of persons: a man hears the Law and quickly is able to expound it. through causes and conditions. through combination. through the knowledge of the divine eye. he is named "matchless". Thus is "knower of the world" to be understood. i. having mastered the eightfold way of 1. because he is without an equal.e. through impermanence. the world of beings and the world of formations. through various spheres. allhiirasa lokii alfharasa dhaluyo' Ii evam pi sabbalha sarilkharalokam avedi. "Knower of the world": World is of two kinds. he is called "sublime".tallhitiyo. cpo It. and yet another makes clear-' the knowledge of past existences. dye loka ndmail ca rupail ca. dasa lokii dasa iiyatanani. another man elucidates the principles of causes and conditions. through the difference of faculties. in the world. the Blessed One knows the world of formations. Through concentration perception. Sn. And again it is said "the world of formations": The Blessed One knows all action and he knows the many formations. through various defilements. II. he is called "sublime". through past lives. through the knowledge of the passing away and arising of beings. sorrow and not-self and through the born and the unborn. through various states of durability and non-durability. Again.tehi visillhatarassa kassaci abhiiva anultaro. because he is incomparable and because others cannot excel him. Through the varying desires of beings. But the Blessed One. immoral and the amoral. through variqus planes. tayo loka tisso vedanii.-Cp. through various actions. nava loka nava sattiiviisii. through various states of birth. through fulfilment. apparajakkhe maharajakkhe tikkhindriye sviikare dvakare suviililiipaye duviililapaye bhabbe abhabbe satle janati ti subbathii sattalokam avedi. dvadasa lokii dvadasayalandni. cattiiro lokii cattaro ahara.! he is named "sublime". samkhiira-Ioka. And again.lI. 2. 443: Attano pana gUl. because his teachings are without disadvantages. Nibbtina. And again. Cpo Sn. because his teaching cannot be overturned he is called "sublime". pailca lokii pailc' upiidanakkhamiha. he is called "sublime". through various kinds of good and evil and through various kinds of binding and unbinding. through various worlds. And again. 2 The Blessed One knows the world of being in the course of all his actions. And again. . through various aggregations. he is called "matchless". through perfect . through moral. 3. 38: Anupiidisesa nibbiinadhiitu. through various modes of differentiation. 'eko loko sabbe sattii ahiirallhitika.understanding.. he is named "sublime". because he is most excellent. 442: Sabbathii pi viditalokattii lokavidii.

313. he had seen the faculties and the bases of faculties of countless 8 number of commoners.lr. through the Mahii Sutasoma birth-story. No. Therefore. through the Khanti birth-story. No. And again. 7. He was endowed with excellent virtue.zr. p.u One should also recollect on the word of the father in the Dighiti-Kosala birth-story15 and one should recollect on the reverence of the White Six-tusked Elephant-sage. decay and death.zo so Bhagavii tarar. Cpo (a) It. now. Kuhaka J. No. . 371. renunciation.8 on renunciation. jhiina. He was born as a hare and practised charity. Asankheyya. 1. II. 3. J. 14. danto so Bhagaviidamathiiya dhammam deseti. 10. 123: Danto damayatam settho santo samayatam isi. C. C. in order to encourage others to gain the light. 10. he has taught the way of insight and the way of meditation. 91. C. C.10 on loving-kindness.5 One should recollect on virtue through the SamkhapaIa birth"story. Thus.l "Teacher of divine and human beings": The Blessed One has rescued divine and human beings from the fearful forest of birth. No. Pit.12 on energy. virtue. J. S. During twenty incalculable 2 aeons from his first aspiration to his last birth. 538. I have gained knowledge. No. I have tamed myself. Temiya J. in these ways should a man recall (the qualities) of him who comes and goes in the same way. Therefore. 9. 10. II. 15.-a. 206 (1) 16.-No.' He has reached completion and contentment in the fulfilling of charity. through the Mahii-Govinda birthstory. J. 96. He came to the world for the last 'time by his own efforts in the past. multo mocayat<!m aggo ti1. I should tame these.3. 2. (b) D. 54-5: Buddho so Bhagavii bodhiiya dhammalh desett. now. Pit. He benefitted the world.000. 82-3. He revealed the birth stories of the time when he was a Bodhisatta. 89. D. now. 8. I should liberate these. he is called "teacher of divine and human beings". he is named "guide' of men to be tamed".B on truth. truth. Cpo Sn. fortitude. has tamed beings.ziiya dhammam deseti. 31. equanimity. I should cause knowledge to arise in these. energy and wisdom. he is called "teacher of divine and human beings".7 on fortitude. 12. through the Dumb-Cripple's birthstory. santo so Bhagavii samathiiya dhammam deseti. 524. 101-1. there is the teaching of the principal teacher:' In four ways should the Blessed One be remembered.000. m.000.zo tiirayatam varo. 76. parinibbuto so Bhagavii parinibbiiniiya dhammam desetili. Nidiina-kathii. C. Further. 1.. J. No. 11. No. Lit. Therefore. Pit. he pities the world thus: "I have attained to liberation. p. resolution. I have reached Nibbana. now. 13. 443: Vicitrehi vinayanilpiiyehi purisadamme siireti ti purisadammasiirathi•. 316. 102. 4.13 (on wisdom). Therefore. through the Deer birth-story. loving-kindness. through the Lomahamsa birth-story. No.1s 1. J. 537. through the Sakka birth-story.144 Vimuttimagga emancipation. Pit. Pit.9 on resolution. J. 514. I should cause these also to reach it". Pit. Seri Viinija J. tir. through the Chief of Merchants' birth-story. 230-251. ' 6. No.000. No. C.l1 on equanimity.

.. one should concentrate on the merits of the birth-stories of the Blessed One in many ways. 6. When he was young he removed the longing for all abodes. jhdnas. the fourteen kinds of Buddhaknowledge' and the eighteen Buddha-virtues.· One should recollect that the Bodhisatta. in the middle watch of the night. yatha tarh appamattassa aUlpino pahitattassa viharato.. hurt the Bodhisatta's head.. No. Thus one should recollect the sacrifices of the Blessed One in many ways. He sat under the Bodhi tree. wife.•. 196. J. . He lived alone in empty places.. He removed his body from the world and entered the highest and purest place of the extinction of the cankers. and fruits of trees and when that man.••. 1.•.& Through the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path.crossed the Neraiijarii in Magadha. Buddhadhamma. : khi~ii jati . 407. parents and friends. ayarh dukkhanirodhagamini patlpadiiti yathiIbhiitarh abbhaililiisirh•. J. and through reaching the further shore of freedom. He aspired after Nibbtina. In the first watch of the night. So idarh dukkhanti yathabhiitarh abbhaililiisirh. and in the last watch of the night. in the Great Monkey birth-story. and further one should remember that seeing a man who had fallen into a pit. Thus should the yogin recollect. thus: through being endowed with the ten powers of him who comes and goes in the same way. he understood sorrow and its cause and saw the excellent. No. 7... M.. avijja vihata vijja uppanna. niipararh itthattayatl abbhafliiiisirh. No. he remembered his past lives.. Iti dibbena cakkhuna visuddhena atikkantamanusakena satte passami cavamiine upapajjamane hine pQ(lite suvQ(l~e dubba~~e sugate duggate yathakammiipage satte pajanOmi. He forsook that which was hard to forsake. Ayarh kho me Aggivessana rattiya pathame yame pathama vijja adl)igata. I. ayarh dukkhanirodhotl yathabhiitarh abbhailfliisirh. He removed the longing for child. ayarh dukkhasamudayotl yathiIbhiitarh abbhaiiiiiisirh. he taught that man the truth and pointed out the right road to him. 4. No. 5. he rescued him with heart of compassion and offered him roots. he was able to destroy the cankers and attain to Enlighenment. Ayarh kha me Aggivessana rattiyO pacchime yame tatiya vijja adhigata. One should recollect that the Bodhisatta forsook his own life and saved another's life in the Deer birth-story. . How should one recollect the virtues with which the Blessed One was endowed? The Blessed One acquired emancipation and the state of mind that is together with it. conquered the king of death and the demon armies. J. wishing to eat flesh. Iti siikararh sauddesarh anekavihitarh pubbeniviisarh anussaraml.. tamo vihato a/oko uppanno . 3. .8 saved a being from great suffering.' Thus. avijja vihata vijJa uppanna. tamo vihato a/oko upanna .Butidhapaiiiiii. 248-9: 2. Ayarh kho me Aggivessana rattiya mojjhime yame dutiya v1}ja adhlgata. Lit. he gained the divine eye.. How should one recollect on the merits of the sacrifices of the Blessed One? The Blessed One fulfilled all things in his previous births. Lit. 12. He . tamo vihato a/bko uppanno. avijja vlhata vijja uppanna. J. 516.Subjects of Meditation Through the White-Horse birth-storyl one should recollect the visit of the Bodhisatta to help all beings.7 through fuifilment of many meditations. in the (Great) Monkey birth-story.

dukkhanirocihagiiminiyiL pafipadiiya-. 133: Dukkhe-. Mtthi viriyassa hiini.these six virtues has the Blessed One fulfilled. 3. S. dtlkkha-samudllye-. natlhi apphu/am. absence of deception. jhiinavimokkhasalniidhi-salniipattisamkilesavodiinavufthiina-. knowledge of the analysis of derivation. indriyaparopariyatte-. knowledge of sorrow. emancipation. knows the differences in the faculties of beings. knowledge of sorrow's cause. dukkha-nirodhe-. tisavakkhaya. according to reality. Mtthl clavii. non-impairment of energy. See Mil. concentration and attainment. all verbal actions are led by knowledge and appear in accord with it. sabbam vaei kammam. knowledge of the analysis of the law. knows his past existences. natthi abyiiila/amano. according to reality. 304-6: Thiinii(hiiJla-. natlhi dhammadesaniiya hani. I. (a)LaI. knowledge of sorrow's cessation. omniscience. according to reality.343: Atitamse. namely. niruttipafisambhide-. yamakapiifihire-. knowledge of the analysis of argument. aniigamse. knowledge of the great thought of compassion. according to reality. 2. 3. according to reality. pa(ibhiinapa(isambhi<k-. natlhi ravii. atthapa(isambhide-. according to reality. Absence of uncertainty. according to reality. II. according to reality. Non-impairment of the will. knows the causes and consequenceS' of good actions of the past. sabbatthagiimini-pa(ipadii-.(Atfhiirasa. V.asiidharalJa-iivelJika BuddhagulJii). sattiinam iisayiinusaye-. 175-6. pubbenivtisiinussati-. hrunans and others. knows the pure and that which is with defilement in meditation (jhtina). humans and others. non-impairment of wisdom.wed with these ten powers. according to reality. dhammapa(isambhide-. 1. 'cutfipapiita-. natthi vegayittatam. absence of equanimity that is removed from reflection. non-impairment of concentration. knows the extinction of the cankers. non-impairment of freedom .iIii(IIJm. 183. natthi samiid/Jissa hiini. all bodily actions are led by knowledge and appear in accord with it. indriyaparopariyatti-. absence of hurry. knows the various kinds of behaviour. knows the passing away and the arising of beings. knowledge of the differences in the faculties of beings. natthi paiiiliiya hani. What are the fourteen kinds of Buddha-knowledge 7 They are. knowledge of the twin miracle. knows the causes and consequences leading to the world of deities.146 Vimuttimagga What are the ten powers of the Blessed One? He knows the proper from the improper.these twelve virtues has the Blessed One fulfilled. all mental actions are led by knowledge and appear in accord with it . niinMhiitu-. Thus is the Blessed One endowed with these fourteen kinds of knowledge. absence of state that is not known. natiM appatisankhiinupekkhii . future and present. 105. knows the various intentions of beings. Cpo PIs. unobstructed Buddha-knowledge of the future.Uisamiipattiyii-. nonimpairment of mindfulness. kammavipiika-. paeeuppannamse.l The Blessed One is endo. 2 What are the eighteen virtues fulfilled by the Blessed One 7" Unobstructed Buddha-knowledge ofthe past. 285. sabbaflfluta-. absence of that which is not clear. according to reality. Sabbam kiiya kammam. niiniidhimutli-. Natthi chandassa hani. Cpo Pts. These are the fourteen kinds of Buddha-knowledge. and knowledge that is without the hindrances. natiM vimuttiyii hani. aniivara(IIJ. knowledge of the analysis of meaning. knowledge of the causes and consequences leading to the world of deities. . buddhassa bhagavato appafihatam iliilJam.iIii(IIJ. mahiikarUf. knowledge of the way. unobstructed Buddha-knowledge of the present. V. sabbam mano kammam iliilJapubbaligamam iiiilJiinuparivattam.

n'atthi rava. Pratyutpanne-. "Absence of hurry" means: "His behaviour is free from hurry".t. nosti prajiiaya hiini/. 3. .Subjects of Meditation 147 "Absence of uncertainty" means: "His bearing is dignified. 39: Aparuta tesam amatassa dvara. I. n'atthi viriyassa hani. n'atthi avyava{o mano. "Absence of state that is not known" means: "He is completely aware of his mental processes". through the Noble Eightfold Path. He has caused an incalculable (b) Sv. Thus one should recall to mind that Blessed One who has acquired the merits of the Excellent Law through these ways. Nasti chandasya hiini/. nosty-asamahitacittam. niisti smrter hiinifl.. through the four bases of supernormal power.tanuparivatti. Without making an esoteric and an exoteric division of doctrine. n' atthi mano-duccaritam: atite Buddhassa appalihatam i/iiJ.t. . there is nothing unseemly in his action". Cpo Vis. . III. 71: Cattarimani Soriputta Tathiigatassa vesarajjonl. nasti nanatva samjiia.. M.! And again.Iam. nasti skalitam. the five powers. nasti vimukter hiini/.994: Attharasa Buddhadhamma nama: N'atthi Tathagatassa kaya-duccaritam. through the five faculties. through the nine gradually ascending states. These eighteen virtues has the Blessed One fulfilled. through the ten Ariyan abodes and through the way of analytical science. "Absence of equanimity that is removed from reflection" means: "There is no state of equanimity in him of which he is not aware"..t: nast..t. Sarvakayakarmajiianapurvarizgamam jiiananuparivarti.. n'atthi vaci-duccaritam. nosti samodher hani/. n'atthi balitam. viriyasya hani/.2 through the four foundations of mindfulness. . the six kinds of supernormal knowledge. through the eight positions of mastery. Anagate-. Mag. nasti mu#tasmrtita. No other being could have turned the Wheel. "Absence of that which is not clear" means: "That there is nothing that his knowledge cannot sense". paccuppanne Buddhassa appalihatam iiaJ. Here the text is not quite clear. n'atthi sahasa. nasti ravitam. through the eight kinds of emancipation. The last six are not exactly according to the Pall or the Sanskrit.t. How should one remember the benefits with which the Blessed One has blessed the world? The Blessed One has fulfilled all merits and has reached the further shore.. nasty-apratisamkhiya- 1. 524. the Blessed One has reached the other shore with facility having fulfilled all good through the skilfulness belonging to him who comes and goes in the same waY. Sarvavakkarma-.. of the Law which the Blessed One set a-rolling out of compassion for all beings. 2.tanuparivatti: n'atthi chandassa hani. . (c) M. sabbam mano-kammam Buddhassa Bhagavato iial. yopek~a. n' atthi akusala-cittan ti.3 He has caused an incalculable number of deities and humans to acquire the fruit of holiness.. he has opened wide the gate of the immortaJ. Sarvamanaskarma-. anagate . II. through the four right efforts. D.Ulm: sabbam kaya-kammam Buddhassa Bhagavato iial. Vyut: Atite'dhvany asarigam apratihatamjiianadharsanam pravartate. the seven factors of enlightenment. n'atthi satiya hani: n'atthi dava. sabbam vaci-kammam . "Absence of deception" means: "He has no craftiness".

m. Thus the Blessed One. How then does he gain access? A. na mohapariyutthitam cillam hoti. owing to When he This is a In the highest sense. established beings in excellent merit. How is it that one who meditates on the Buddha attains to access and not to fixed meditation. pitimanassa kiiyo passam- . Ifhe thinks on many virtues. D. his mind is always undisturbed. his mind is not concentrated. labhari dhammavedam.. the yogin's mind becomes concentrated.. the miracle of mind reading and the miracle of instruction. 220: TilJi piilihiiriyiini. namely.. ujugatam ev' assa tasmim samaye cittam hoti Tathiigaram iirabbha. 1. l He has aroused confidence in the hearts of men.. Access is attained through concentration on a single object. wisdom.. he arouses confidence in his mind. Siivaka-dhamma. jhiinas. arise. fme kho iivuso tena Bhagavatii jiinatii passatii . That yogin recollects him who comes and goes in the same way. iidesanii-piilihiiriyam. If he recollects the virtues of him who comes and goes in the same way and of the Ellllghtened One. 3 The recollection of the Buddha has ended. jhiina. thus: Through these ways and these virtues. he is untroubled. tayo dhammii sammadakkhiitii. atthiiya hiriiya sukhaya deva-manussiinam. preached the Piilimokkha. given them the perfect teaching of the Enlightened One and filled the world full (with the Truth). I. All beings worship and honour him. jhiina. !abhat. fddhi-piitihiiriyam. na dosapariYUf/hitam cittam hoti. . dhammupasamhitam piimujjam.. He has obliterated the bad road and opened the good road and made men to acquire the fruit ofliberation or birth in the heaven world. has compassionated and benefitted the world. Again it is taught that from the recollection of the Buddha. 2. Q. has done what should be done. 285: Yasmim Mahiiniima samaye ariyasiivako Tathiigatam anussarati. jhiina? A. Therefore. And again." He has set down many precepts. the miracle of supernormal power.. thinks on many virtues he cannot attain to fixed meditation. anusiisani- piitihiiriyariz. Q. Tattha sabbeh 'eva samgiiyitabbam na vivaditabbam . he has to recollect not merely one virtue. the virtue of the Buddha is a subject of profound In this sense the yogin cannot attain to fixed meditation. he attains to accessmeditation. Being full of confidence and being easy in the recollection. pamuditassa piti jiiyoli. abstruseness. nev' assa tasmim samaye riigapariyutthitam cittam hoti. the four meditations. A. Because of his mind being undisturbed.pe . subject of meditation of all access-concentration. and all deities and humans hear him..148 Vimuttimagga number of beings to acquire merit with the three miracles. who dwells unperturbed. Ujugatacitto kho paM Mahiiniima ariyasiivako labhatf atrhavedam. 3. 212 If.. He has overthrown all soothsaying and all false views. He has caused his hearers to obtain peace and dwell in the law of the hearer. m..

Because one sees extinction. conducive to perfection. 1.Subjects of Meditation THE. Its benefits are equal to those of the recollection of the Buddha. the becoming stainless and tranquillized-these are called extinction. and the (other) Fruits of the Path. I. therefore it is called "well-taught". Y. This recollection is recollectedness and right recollectedness. Yo cayariJ attakiiamatMnuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasOlilhito. the seven factors. 10.l "The Law is well-taught by the Blessed One": It is free from extremes. It is completely spotless. it is called "visible". it is called "visible". Thus is recollection of the Law to be understood. There are no contradictions in it and it is endowed with the three kinds of goodness. Nibbdna. the four right efforts. each one for himself. it is called "not subject to time". The destruction of all activity. therefore it is called "weIr-taught". the five powers. 2. 207. Nibbdna. Saviikkhiito Bhagavata Dhammo sandi/!hiko akaliko ehi-passiko opanayiko paccattam veditabbo vififiiihiti. function and near cause? What is the procedure? A. kayo passambhati ti namakiiyo ca karajakayo ca darathapa(ippassadhiya pa(ippassambhati.). The Law means extinction. is reached. Therefore. to be attained by the wise. What are the practices leading to extinction. undisturbed mind. not subject to time. of enlightenment. I. Nibbiina. ( = Pamuditassa Ii duvidhena pilipamujjena pamuditassa. or the practice by means of which extinction. . therefore it is called "well-taught". II. bhati. the abandoning of all defilements. It leads beings to extinction. Corny. S. sukhan ti kiiyikacetasikam sukham. he recollects thus: The Law is well-taught by the Blessed One. The understanding of the meaning is its near cause. Nibbdna? Namely. Analysis of the Law is its function. D.) III. (Mp. "What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed. 421: Dve me bhikkhave antii pabbajitena na sevitabM. wherefore it is called "well-taught". Katame dye? Yo cayam kamesu kamasukhallikdnuyogo hino gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasamhlto. "Not subject to time": Without lapse of time fruition occurs. inviting. Nibbdna. There are no inconsistencies in it. RECOLLECTION OF THE LAW 149 Q. With. What is the recollection of the Law? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. is visible. Yin. samadhiyati II aramma(le samma Ihapitam hoti. 69. sukhino cittam samadhiyati. Ete te bhikkhave ubha ante anupagamma mqjjhlmd palipadii Tathiigatena abhisambuddha . The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in this recollection) is the practising of it. . the eradication of craving. The awareness of the virtues of the Law is its salient characteristic. Nibbdna. 5:. S. III. The recollection of the Law is the virtue of renunciatiou and the virtue of the Way. 337. the Noble Eightfold "Path -these are called the practices leading to Nibbdna. the four foundations of mindfulness. piti jayati Ii paficavidhii piti nibbattali.. "Visible": Because one gains the Paths and the Fruits in succession. 2 therefore it is called "well-taught". passaddhakayo sukham vediyati. A..

it is the place of refuge. It is not soothsaying. it is non-action.ISO Vimuttimagga "Inviting": It says: "Come and see my worth!". it is the best. (jhiina) factors and dwells in access-concentration. his mind is undisturbed. the yogin should recollect the Law in other ways thus: It is the eye. Awareness of the virtues of the Community of Bhikkhus is Its salient characteristic. "Conducive to perfection": If a man acknowledges it. it is called that which is "to be attained by the wise. solitude. Its benefits are equal to those of the recollection of the Buddha. The rest is as was fully taught above. and his mind is filled with confidence. it is peace. It is to cross over to the other shore. it is the way leading to the immortal. On account of this confidence. This recollection is recollectedness and right recollectedness. each one for himself": If a man acknowledges if and does not accept other teachings. the Community of Hearers of 'the Blessed One is of righteous conduct. it is the expedience whereby cessation is won. he destroys the hindrances. This is called the Community of Bhikkhus~ The yogin recollects the virtue of the observances of the Community of Bhikkhus. function and near cause 1 What is the procedure 1 A. arouses the meditation. appreciation of the virtues of the Community of Bhikkhus is its near cause. Therefore. In the same way. The congregation of the saints is the Community of Bhikkhus. undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this recollection is the practising of it. What leads to the fruition of holiness is called that which is "conducive to perfection". it is knowledge. The. THE RECOLLECTION OF THE COMMUNITY OF BHIKKHUS Q. It is the most excellent object for the wise man's mind. each one for himself". The recollection of the Law has . reverence is its function. That yogin in these ways and through these virtues recollects the Law. Such is that which is "conducive to perfection". he will reach the immortal. it is renunciation. it is non-retrogression. he causes the arising of the knowl edge of cessation. What is the recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus 1 (What is the practising of it 1) What are its salient characteristic. those who have the ability to teach are called men who say "Come and see!". the knowledge of the unborn and the knowledge of free dom. Further. the Community of . With undisturbed mind. the Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of upright conduct. Such is the recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus to be understood.. "To be attained by the wise. it is the way to the ambrosial. "What is the procedure 1" : The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed. Because of the undisturbed state of the mind. exquisiteness.enaed. he recollects thus: The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of good conduct.

"Hearers": It (the Community of hearers) accomplishes after having heard. I. It is worthy of hospitality. "righteous" is an appellation of extinction. yadidaril cattari purisayugani alfha-purisa-pllggala. is the incomparable field of merit of the world. seeing the great fruit of virtue and the increase of virtue which follow the practice of unity. because it follows the Four Noble Truths taught by the Buddha. "good conduct". worthy of gifts. These are called "the four pairs of men". It is of "dutiful conduct". it is said to consist of the four pairs of men. Therefore it is called (the Community of) hearers. 5: Supalipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho uju-palipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho. III. Nibblina. iiaya-palipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho. And again. esa Bhagavato savaka-samgho ahUl. The Path and Fruit of Non-returning are regarded as the attainments of a pair of men. 1. because. it observes this (unity). because it follows the Noble Eightfold Path and reaches extinction. "Is of dutiful conduct": It is of "dutiful conduct" because it is perfect in the practice of unity in the Community of Bhikkhus. because. s. samici-palipanno Bhagavato savaka-samgho. namely. "Community": The congregation of saints. because it is free from wickedness and crookedness and free from unclean action of body and speech. 69.Subjects of Meditation 151 Hearers of the Blessed One is of dutiful conduct. It is of "righteous". It is of "good conduct" and "uptight conduct". A. "Is of righteous conduct": It is of "righteous conduct" because it follows the Noble Eightfold Path.1eyyo pahureyyo dilkkhireyyo aiijali-kllrQ/Jiyo anuttaram pililiiakkheltam lokassati. It is of "good conduct" and "upright conduct" because it has no enemy.it is free from hypocrisy. This Community of Hearers of the Blessed One. The Path and Fruit of the Consummate One are regarded as the attainments of a pair of men. worthy of hpspitality. "good conduct". It is of "righteous". D. "The eight kinds of indi~iduals" are they who gain the four Paths and the four Fruits. . Because the Community of Bhikkhus dwells in these Paths and Fruits. It is of "good conduct" and "upright conduct" because it avoids the two extremes and takes the mean. worthy of reverential salutation. because it benefits itself and others. because it follows the good word. The Path and the Fruit of Once-returning are regarded as the attainment of a pair of men. the four pairs of men and the eight kinds of individuals. is worthy of offerings. "The four pairs of men and the eight kinds of individuals": The Path and the Fruit of Stream-entrance are regarded as the attainments of a pair of men. 208. lI. It is of ':'good conduct" and "upright conduct". It is "good conduct". Nibblina. 1 "The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of good conduct": The Community of Hearers of the Blessed One is of "good conduct". Those who dwell in the four Paths and the four Fruits are called the eight kinds of individuals. These are called the eight kinds of individuals.

freedom and the knowledge of freedom. Twelve are the benefits of the recollection of virtue thus: One honours th~ Teacher. And again.. To see the fearfulness of tribulation is its function.. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in the recollection of virtue is the practising of it. worthy of gifts. That yogin recollects these various Virtues in different ways. . This recollectedness is recollection and right recollectedness. "Field of merit of the world": This is the place where all beings acquire merit.of the world. respects the precepts crt" virtue. Therefore it is called incomparable. esteems the Law. THE RECOLLECTION OF VIRTUE Q. "Worthy of gifts: One acquires great fruit by gifting various things to it. Owing to the recollection of confidence. his mind is undisturbed. D. Through virtue one recollects pure morals. "Incomparable": It is possessed of many virtues. Awareness of the merit of virtue is its salient characteristic. These are the benefits of the recollection of virtue. and is the imcomparable field of merit of the world. Appreciation of the unsurpassable happiness (of virtue) is its near cause. The rest is as was fully taught above. With undisturbed mind he is able to destroy the hindrances. I. worthy of reverential salutation. "Worthy of offerings": Great is the fruit that could be obtained through offerings made to it. And again. function and near cause? What is the procedure? A. becomes heedful. it is worthy of receiving offerings. wisdom. has no fear of the other world and enjoys the many benefits accruing from the observance of all precepts. sees danger in and fears the smallest fault. The recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus haS ended. Therefore it is called worthy of reverential salutation. esteems offerings. Thus should the recollection of virtue be understood. 1. and the Contmunity 01 Bhikkhus. Whatis the recollection of virtue? What is the practising of it. arouse the meditation Uhiina) factors and attain to access. has no fear of this world. What are its salient characteristic. "Worthy of hospitality": Worthy of hospitality means worthy of receiving invitations. It is called the best. "Worthy of reverential salutation": It is fit to receive worship.l guards oneself. concentration.tfassiivi. It is endowed with virtue. the yogin should recollect through other ways thus: This Community of Bhikkhus is the congregation that is most excellent and good. Through this recollection of the various virtues~ he becomes confident. protects others.152 Vimuttimagga worthy of offerings. Therefore it is called the field of merit . 63: AlJumatfesu lIajjesu bhaya.

I A man who practises the recollection of liberality gains ten benefits thus: He gains bliss through liberality. they are called "conducive to concentration". untainted. they are unspotted. function and near cause? What is the procedure? A. The treasure of virtue is secure. If indefective. As they constitute the joy of the Consummate One. Owing to his recollectedness and confidence. they become the resorting-ground of all good states. 286: Puna ca param Mahiiniima ariyasiivako attano siliini anussarati akha'"fiini acchiddiini asabaliini akammiisiini bhujissiini viiiiiiipasaffhiini apariimaffhiini samiidhisamvattanikiini. the yogin should practise recollection of virtue in other ways thinking thus: "Virtue is the bliss of separation from tribulation. unspotted. Further. THE RECOLLECTION OF LIBERALITY Q. Non-covetousness is its near cause. Its benci1its have already been taught". they are indefective. arouses the meditation (jluina) factors and attains to access-meditation. 1. Awareness of the merit of liberality is its salient characteristic. they are called unspotted and unblemished. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this recollection is the practising of it. praised by the wise. because when virtue is pure. and in order to derive the happiness of benefitting others. they come to be called "unbroken and indefective". m. liberating. Again. With this undisturbed mind he destroys the hindrances. his mind is not disturbed. One dwells indifferent in the recollection of the virtue of liberality. As they lead to sure stations. The rest is as was fully taught above. The others should be known in the same way. unblemished. With this undisturbed mind.1 If unbroken. The recollection of virtue has ended. A. indefective. This caste is worthy of honour. Liberality means that one gives one's wealth to others wishing to benefit them. What is the Recollection of liberality? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. they are called "untainted". Non-miserliness is its function.Subjects of Meditation 153 "What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed. As they are untouched by views. he becomes non-covetous through liberality. This is called recollection of liberality. and bear no tribulation. As they constitute the honour of caste. Thus is liberality to be understood. . This recollectedness is recollection and right recollectedness. conducive to concentration". Thus should virtue be understood. That yogin practises recollection of virtue considering its merits through these ways. he recollects thus: "My virtue is unbroken. they are called "praised by the wise".

Considering the benefit of birth in a heaven. Because of this recollection and confidence. With undisturbed mind he practises recol!ection of liberality thus: "Through abandoning things I have benefitted others. becomes dear to others. With undisturbed mind he practises the recollection of deities thinking thus: "There are the Four Regents.154 Vimuttimagga he is not miserly. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this recollection is the practising of it. namely. he is happy in the anticipation of the reward of merit. This is called recollection of deities. he is able to practise virtue and recollection ofliberality also. With undisturbed mind he destroys the hindrances. learning. "What is the procedure 1": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed. liberality and wisdom. The rest is as was fully taught above. are drawn to things. He fares well and approaches the ambrosial. by reason of the dirt of covetousness. . one recollects one's own merits. has much joy. To admire merit is its function. thinks of others. function and near cause? What is the procedure? A. Through this. arouses the meditation (jhiina) factors and attains to access-concentration. he honours his body. yo' ham maccheramalaparlYU(fhitiiya pajiiya vigatamalamaccherena cetasii agiiram ajjhiivasiimi muttaciigo payatapii{li vossaggarato yiicayogo diinasamvibhiigarato'ti. What is the recollection of deities? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. does not fear in others' company. acquires the compassionate mind. fares well' and approaches the ambrosial. Always I give and distribute". Awareness of one's own merits and the merits of the deities is its salient characteristic. Through the recollection of liberality his mind is endowed with confidence. A. III. therefrom I have gained much merit. virtue. Always I give and enjoy giving to others. confidence. he can gain that which heavenly beings desire and to which they are devoted. he is reverenced by heavenly beings. There are the deities I. This recollectedness is recollection and right recollectedness. I live with mind non-coveting and not unclean. The vulgar. THE RECOLLECTION OF DEITIES Q. The recollection of liberality has ended. his mind is always undisturbed. A man who practises the recollection of deities gains eight benefits: he increases five qualities. Puna ca param Mahiilliima ariyasiivako attano ciigam anussarati 'liiMii vata me sllladdham vata me.1 That yogin in these ways practises the recollection of liberality. 287. Confidence in the fruit of merit is its near cause. "What is the procedure?": The new yogin goes to a place of solitude and keeps his mind undisturbed.

learning. TIl. Paranimmitavasavatti heavens. mayham pi tathiirilparh silarh sarhvijjati. virtue. I too have such wisdom". The sixth fascicle has-ended. santi devii Brahmakiiyikii. such learning. were born there. his mind is undisturbed. santi devii Tusitii. yathiiriipena silena samanniigatii tii devatii ito culii tattha uppannii. I too have such confidence. . santi devii Nimmiinaratino. Tusita. The rest is as was fully taught above. yathiiriipena sutena samanniigatii tii devatii tala cutii tattha uppannii. yathiirilpiiya saddhiiya samanniigalii Iii devatii ito cutii tattha uppannii. A. Nimmtinarati. yathiiriipena ciigena samanniigalii Iii devatii ito culii tattha Itppannii. Why does one recollect the merit of deities and not of humans? A. Owing to confidence and recollectedness.Subjects of Meditation 155 of Ttivatimsa. they are endowed with good. With undisturbed mind he destroys the hindrances. The recollection of deities has ended. santi devii Tiivatirhsii. santi devii Yiimii. arouses the meditation (jhtina) factors and attains to access-meditation. 1. That yogin in these ways and through these virtues practises the recollection of deities. Ytima. Q. The merit of the deities is the most excellent. There. on dying here. being endowed with such confidence. liberality and wisdom. such liberality and such wisdom. Endowed with such virtue. Having entered a good realm. those deities were born there. yathiiriipiiya paiiiiiiya samanniigatii Iii devalii ito cutii tattha IIppannii. mayham pi tathiiriiparh sularh sarhvijjati. They are born in excellent realms and are endowed with excellent minds. are the Brahma-group deities and other deities. mayham pi tathiirupo ciigo sarhvijjati. mayham Di tathiiruDii Daiiiiii sarhviiiatr ti. 287.l Thus he recollects his own and the deities' confidence. mayham pi talhiirilpii saddhii sarhvijjati. -santi devii Taduttari. Those deities. santi devii Paranimmilavasavattino. Puna ca porarh Mahiiniima arlyasiivako devaliinussatirh bhiiveli 'sanli devii Ciitummahiiriijikii. and is thereby endowed with confidence. Therefore one should recollect the merit of the deities and not the merits of men.

[418] THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE SEVENTH WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN R YO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN CHAPTER THE EIGHTH Section Four MINDFULNESS OF RESPIRATION Q.lr cause 7 What are its benefits 7 What is the procedure? A. and the blissful life. Apana. Removal of discursive thoughtG is its near cause. 7. Attending to contact4 is its function. 5. 6 He is not negligent as regards his body Of' his organ of sight. he attains to the peaceful. 3. Aniipanasati. What is mindfulness of respiration 71 What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. mindfulness and right mindfulness. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in this mindfulness) is the practising of it. 321-22: Aniipanasati samadhi bhlivito bahulikato santo ceva pal)ito ca asecanako ca sukho ca viharo uppannllpanne ca p{/pake akllsale dhamme thanaso antaradhapeti vupasameti. the seven enlightenment factors and freedom. 2. Phassa. the lovely. Vitakka. To cause the arising of perception as regards respiration is its salient characteristic. 6. S. S. V. The perceiving of the incoming breath and the outgoing breath-this is being mindful. Ana. function and ne. His body and mind do not waver or tremble. Inhalation2 is the incoming breath. V. 316: Anapanasatisamadhissa bhikkhave bhavitatta bahulikatatta neva kayassa ifijitattam va hoti phanditattam va na cittassa ifijitattam va hoti phanditattam Va. 4. the exquisite. BENEFITS "What are its benefits 7": If a man practises mindfulness of respiration. Exhalation3 is the outgoing breath. 7 He fulfils the four foundations of mindfulness. 156 . This has been praised by the 1. He causes evil and demeritorious states to disappear and to perish as soon as they arise.

1 These are the places connected with breathing 1. he trains himself in "breathing in" means: "mindfulness is fixed at the nose-tip or on the lip". nirodhiinupassi passasissiimiti sikkhati. mukha-samipe vii katvii ti altho. S. Z Here. Cittasarikhiirapafisamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati. 2. digham vii passasanto digham passasiimiti pajiiniiti. concentrating the mind. he knows: "I breathe out a short breath". . Passamhhayam kiiyasarikhiiram assasissiimiti sikkhati. thus he trains himself. . sukhapa(isamvedi passasissiimiti sikkhati. when he breathes in a short breath. samiidaham cittam passasissiimiti sikkhati. 3. "discerning renunciation. 1 breathe out in such and such a way". Samiidaham cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. with the body held erect. [430] when he breathes in a long breath. Mp. in such and such away". Ten' eva Vibhange. V. sabbakiiyapalisamvedi passasissiimiti sikkhati. Tena vuccati parimukham salim upaffhapetvii" (Vbh. 311-12: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu arannagato vii rukkhamiilagato vii suiiiliigiiragato vii nisidati palltuikam iibhujitvii ujum kiiyam ptu. he knows: "I breathe in a long breath". Mindful of the outgoing breath. AnicciinupaSsi assasissiimiti sikkhati. 202. kammatthiin' iibhimukham satim thapayitvii. he knows: "I breathe in a short breath".1 PROCEDURE "What is the procedure?": The new yogin having gone to a forest. (experiencing the mind). V. 238: Parimukham salim upatthapetvii ti. of Brahma and of the Tathagata. Passambhayam cittasarikhiiram assasissiimiti sikkhati. Thus he knows. S. cittasarikhiirapafisamvedi passasissiimiti sikkhati. Vimocayam cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. cittapa/isamvedi passasissiimiti sikkhati. Nirodhiinupassi assasissiimiti sikkhati. in such and such a way". "ayam sati upatthitii hoti supatthitii 1/iisik' agge vii mukha-nimitte vii. thus he trains himself. when he breathes out a long breath: "I breathe out a long breath". viriigiinupassi passasissiimiti sikkhati. Viriigiinupassi assasissiimiti sikkhati. This is the abode of the Noble Ones. Rassam Iii assasanto rassam assasiimiti pajiiniiti. discerning renunciation. thus he trains himself. Sabbakiiyapa/isamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati. "Discerning renunciation. calming the mental formations. passambhayam cittasarikhiiram passasissiimiti sikkhati. experiencing bliss. that yogin knows. Cittapafisamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati. thus he trains himself. discerning cessation. I. 252) Ii. passambhayam kiiyasarikhiiram passasissiimiti sikkhati. Pitipalisamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati. discerning dispassion. Pafinissaggiinupassi assasissiimiti sikkhati. Abhippamodayam cittam assasissiimiti sikkhati. thus he trains himself. when he breathes out a short breath. anicciinupassi passasissiimiti sikkhati. Digham vii assasanto dighalh assasiimiti pajiiniiti. sits down. with legs crossed under him. with mindfulness established in front.calming the bodily formations). vimocayam cittam passasissamiti sikkhati. pitipa(isamvedi passasissiimiti sikkhati. discerning impermanence. freeing the mind. (Experiencing the whole body. "I am breathing out. in such and such a way". experiencing joy. Sukhapalisamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati.Subjects 0/ Meditation 157 Blessed One. 1 breathe in. m. "I am breathing in. pa(inissaggiinupassi passasissiimiti sikkhati. experiencing the mental formations. abhippamotiayam cittam passasissiimiti sikkhati. gladdening the mind. 326: Aniipiinasatisamiidhim sammiivadDmiino vadeyya ariyavihiiro iti pi brah1rlllvihiiro iti pi talhiigatavihiiro iti pi ti. to the foot of a tree or to a wide open space. He is mindful in respiration. Spk.lidhiiya parimukham satim upatthapetvii so sato va assasati sato passasati. rassam vii passasanto rassam passasiimiti pajaniiti.

na iigatii vii gatii vii kakacadantii aviditti honti. Cpo Pts. . 1. tamenam puriso kakacena chindeyya. visesam adhigacchati-evamevam bhikkhii ntisikagge vii mukhanimitte vii satim upafthapetvii nisinno hoti. 3. These are the disadvantages. He should not purposely breathe very long or very short breaths. Cpo Pts. 1 He considers the contact of the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. In the same way the yogin does not attend to the perception of the incoming and the outgoing breath in mindfulness of respiration. mindfully. na iigate vii gate vii assiisapassiise manaslKaroti na iigatii vii gatii vii assiisapassiisii aviditii honti. passiisiidimajjhapariyosiinam satiyii anugacchato bahiddhii vikkhepagatena cittena kiiyo pi . .phanditii ca. 171: Seyyathiipi rukkho same bhUmibhiige nikkhitto. . when the breath comes in or goes out. with rinndfulness. He should be mindful and should not let the mind be distracted. He breathes in and breathes out with mindfulness. Pts. ~~~ . his body and mind will waver and tremble. It is as if a man were sawing wood. at the nose-tip or on the lip. These are the disadvantages. througfi mindfulness that is fixed at the nose-tip or on the lip. payogaii ca siidheti. yathii kakacadantii evam assiisapassiisii. his other mental factors will be disturbed. 3 These are the disadvantages. the yogin considers the inner or the outer. padhiinaii ca paiiiiiiyati. Also. rukkhe phutthakakacadantiinam vasena purisassa sati upatthitii hoti. 165: Assiisiidimajjhapariyosiinam satiyii anugacchato ajjhattam vikkhepagatena cittena kiiyo pi cittam pi siiraddhii ca honti iiijitii ca phanditii ca.pe . To the yogin who attends to the incoming breath with mind that is cleansed of the nine lesser defilements the image 4 arises with a pleasant feeling similar to that which is produced in the action of spinning cotton or silk cotton. I.. he will fall into rigidity and torpor. and he breathes in and out. If the yogin falls into rigidity and torpor or becomes restless. na iigatii vii gatii vii kakacadantii aviditii honti. If his mind is distracted. he will become restless. He is aware of the contact at the nose-tip or on the lip. If he essays too strenuously. .. evam upanibandhanii nimittam. If he essays too laxly. na iigate vii gate vii kakacadante manasikaroti. . 166: Linena cittena kosajjiinupatitena kiiyo pi cittam pi siiraddhii ca honti iiijitii ca phanditii ca. his mind will be distracted.phanditii ca.158 Vimuttimagga in and breathing out. That man does not attend to the going back and forth of the saw. payogaii ca siidheti. If he purposely breathes very long or very short breaths.. He should not essay too strenuously nor too laxly. padhiinaii ca paiiiiiiyati. He does not consider (the breath) when it has gone in and also when it has gone out. with mindfulness. Thus countless impediments arise because the points of contact of the incoming breath and the outgoing breath are countless. . If he does so. nti iigate vii gate vii kakacadante manasikaroti. That yogin attends to the incoming breath here. He considers the contact of the incoming and the outgoing breath. I. He should not attach himself to diverse perceptions connected with breathing in and breathing out. . his body and mind will waver and tremble. ~ If. yathii rukkhe phutthakakacadantiinam vasena purisassa sati upaUhitii hoti. he breathes in. he breathes out. visesam adhigacchati. padhiinaii ca paiiiiiiyati. Mindfully. If his mind is disturbed. his body and mind will waver and tremble. visesam adhigacchati: Yathii rukkho same bhiimibhiige nikkhitto. his mind will be distracted and his body and mind will waver and tremble. . 2.pe . . atipaggahitena cittena uddhacciinupatitena kiiyo pi . payogaii ca siidheti..

Cpo Vis. Ayam pana affhakathiisu vinicchayo:-. he follows respiration with mindfulness. If his mind becomes clear. Thus should counting be understood. Thus he dwells in mindfulness of respiration. Possibly Porii(lii. This is called connection. sand of gold. A new yogin counts the breaths from one to ten.2 This is called the image. phusanii. translation) of Yogavacara's Manual 8 If. dust. Cpo Manual of a Mystic (P. tUiapicu viya. He does not count beyond ten. there is a yogin: he sees several images from the beginning. desire arises.. COUNTING. Desire being free. it is ta1. mist.!ght that he counts from one to five but does not count beyond five. when he misses) he should count (the next) or stop that count. 1. CONTACTING AND FIXING And again. "Connection": Having counted. on the forehead or establishes it in several places. contacting and fixing. fhapanii. At that time (i. 285: Api ca kho kassaci sukhasamphassam uppiidayamiino.3 he feels as if his head were filled with air. What is counting? A. They are counting. / Again. Vis. certain predecessors4 taught four ways of practising mindfulness of respiration. CONNECTION.ga(lana. air touches the nose or the lip and causes the setting-up of air perception mindfulness. This does not depend on colour or form. Mag. he attends to respiration with equipoise. . If the yogin develops the image and increases it at the nose-tip. desire and joy being free. anubandhanii.T.1 Thus in breathing in and out. he will be confused. continuously.. He does not miss.Subjects of Meditation 159 it is likened to the pleasant feeling produced by a breeze. Mag. 4. that yogin attends to respiration and becomes joyful. This is called perfection. nor does he go to the Atthakalhii for authority. That image is free. Thus this yogin will reach the calm and sublime fourth meditation. attending to the object.S. Thus he fulfils overturning and does not gain the perception of respiration. 278: Tatrayam manasikiiravidhi:. This is as was funy taught above. Equipoise. he attends to respiration. the yogin does not experience confusion. Through increasing in this way his whole body is charged with bliss. and arouse the meditation Uhana) factors. 3. between the eye-brows. 5. And again. or he experiences something similar to the pricking of a needle or to an ant's bite. He sees various forms such as smoke. If his mind does not become clear regarding these different images. he will destroy the hindrances. Vis. connection. He attends to respiration and he does not cause the arising of other perceptions. and his mind is not disturbed. kappiisapicu viya. 2. jhiina. Because that image is free. Mag. Meditating thus he is able to end confusion and acquire the subtle image. Here it is interesting to note that the Venerable Buddhaghosa Thera does not ascribe this teaching to 'ekacce' as he usually does. na lakkha(lalO paccavekkhilabbam. If his mind is not disturbed. viiladhiirii viya ca upaffhiili Ii ekacce iihu. Desire and joy being free.e. beginning with the outgoing breath and ending with the incoming breath.. And he attends to respiration with mind that is free.. 286: Athii'nena lam nimitlam neva va(l(lato manasikiilabbam.5 Q.

Owing to the experiencing of contact accompanied by joy and bliss the whole body becomes non-confused.. The rest. This is called contacting. Sviiyam idhiipi nissattanijjivatiiyam eva vattati. That yogin knows tlj. (3) "Experiencing the whole body. The new yogin gains tranquillity of body and mind and abides in mindfulness of respiration..160 Vimuttimagga "Contacting": Having caused the arising of air perception. Thus should he practise. The respirations become subtle..INING IN MINDFULNESS OF RESPIRATION (1) and (2) "Breathing in a long breath.. The incoming breath and the outgoing breath comprise the bodily factors dwelling in one sphere. there is no being or soul". 93: Tasmim kho pana samaye dhammii honti dhammesu dhammiinupassi viharati ti iidisu nissattanijjivatiiyam.. Q. What is the knowledge of the whole body through the object? A. . Connection removes gross discursive thinking and causes unbroken mindfulness of respiration... are from S. the yogin causes the arising of the clear image through the object. 2. knows it is long.... 3. "Fixing": Having acquired facility in contacting. This paragraph is not clear.. V. Thus should non-confusion be known.s 1. thus he trains himself": In two ways he knows the whole body..considers it through its own nature. Contacting removes distraction and . That counting suppresses uncertainty. The quotations (1) and (2) are not in full. If at that time. I breathe in'. A yogin practises mindfulness of respiration and develops concentration through contact accompanied by joy and bliss. It causes the abandoning of uncertainty.. attending to the contact of respiration at the nose-tip or on the lip. What is non-confusion and what is the object? A. As. Sec . What is the knowledge of the whole body through nonconfusion? A. Because of subtility they are hard to lay hold of. . Cpo S.e whole body thus: "Though there is the body. SIXTEEN WAYS OF TRA. thus he trains himself"l .. breathing in a short breath. through non-confusion and through the object.. 38. through fixing. One attains to distinction through bliss. And again he should consider the breaths. and he should establish joy and bliss and other states which arise here. 329-30: Kiiyafifiatariiham Ananda etam vadiimi yad idam assiisapassiisam. These bodily factors are called "body"" Thus should the whole body be known. Unintelligibility is not an uncommon feature of this Chinese text.. he dwells.. Q. whether long or short (as the case may be). If the image arises he . The object of respiration and the mind and the mental properties are called "body". breathing out a short breath. he. And again. V. Thus should one practise. Knowledge causes the arising of non-confusion and the object.makes for steady perception.. Thus should fixing be known.. 311-12 quoted earlier. he should establish the image. (3) to (16). the yogin's breathing is long.. Q.

From there. recollects the object and trains himself. The first is the training of the higher virtue. See note 2 on page 120. vinamanii. through the still more subtle bodily formations. through the subtle bodily formations.' Here the yogin enters into concentration and experiences joy through non-confusion.lining of the higher virtue. quivering. 4. having ended (the bodily formations) without remainder. jhtinas. ealanii. he is able to develop the image and enter into meditation. If he causes the ending of respiration without remainder. the second is the training of the higher thought. through the more subtle bodily formations. iirammal)ato ea asammohato ca. thus he trains himself". ~atham asammohato? Sappitike dye jhiine samiipajjitvii vUffhiiya jhiinasampayuttam pitim khayato vayato sammasati. jhiinas. stooping. yo tattha samvaraffho ayam adhisilasikkhii. . jhiina. I. 184: Sabbaktiyapafisamvedi a~stisapasstistinam samvaraffhena silavisuddhi. he progresses to the third meditation. bending all over. Cp. the image· arises even when the respirations lapse. he progresses to the second meditation. [431] He attends to respiration. From there. And because of these many characteristics. Cpo Pts. Cpo "Vis. (4) "'Calming the bodily formation. tassa vipassaniikkhal)e lakkhal)apafivedhena asammohato piti pafisamviditii hoti. he progresses to the fourth meditation. 184-5: Yathtirilpehi kiiyasal)khiirehi yii kiiyassa tinamanii. I. He arouses joy in two meditations. through overcoming and through the object. he calms the gross bodily· formations and practises the first meditation. jhtina. This 1. 2. true concentration is called the training of the higher thought. dassanatthena diffhivisuddhi. phandanii. 'passambhayam kiiyasarikhiiram passasissiimiti' sikkhati. He arouses bliss in three meditations. (5) "'Experiencing joy through the object. 3. the third is the training of the higher wisdom. 287: Tattha dvihiikiirehi pili pafisamviditti hoti. kampanii 'passambhayarh kiiyasarikhiiram assasissiimiti' sikkhati. ifljanii. That yogin by these three kinds of training meditates on the object. A. From there.Subjects of Meditation THE THREE TRAININGS 161 "Thus he trains himself" refers to the three trainings. thus he trains himself": Which are the bodily formations? He breathes in and out with such bodily formations as bending down. Mag. bending forward. l True virtue is called the trl. This is the meaning of "thus he trains himself". 3 how is he able to practise mindfulness of respiration? A. pal)amanti. yo tattha dassanaffho ayam adhipaiiifiisikkhii. avikkhepaffhena eittavisuddhi. moving. trembling and shaking. yo tattha avikkhepaffho ayam adhieiltasikkhii. Katham iirammal)ato piti pafisamviditii hoti? Sappitike dye jhiine samiipajjati: tassa samt1pattikkhal)e jhiinapafiliibhena iirammQl)Qto piti pafisamviditii hoti. iirammal)assa· pafisamviditattii. through inVestigation. I breathe'. z And again. This joy can be known through two ways: through non-confusion and through the object. (6) "'Experiencing bliss. Pts. jhiina. Because he has grasped well the general characteristics. He practises repeatedly. I breathe in'. and true wisdom is called the training of the higher wisdom. jhiina. I breathe in'. sannamanii. jhiina. thus he trains himself": He attends to respiration.

he frees it from rigidity. jhtinas. If it is depressed. thus he trains himself": "Mental formations" means: "Perception and feeling". he frees it from hatred. He knows through two ways: through non-confusion and through the object. The rest is as was fully taught above. (10) "'Gladdening the mind. he causes the mind to exult. .. this is Nibbtina". (13) "'Discerning impermanence. thus he trains himself": He attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. The mind is aware of entering into and going out of the object. yii cittassa (hiti salJ(hiti avatthiti avisiihiiro avikkhepo . l Thus he trains himself. Discerning the incoming and the outgoing breath. thus he trains himself": That yogin attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. The rest is as was fully taught above. he frees it from the lesser defilements. Through mindfulness and through meditation. this is dispassion. he trains himself.162 Vimuttimagga bliss can be known through two ways: through non-confusion and through ' the object. he causes his mind to be inclined towards it. . . thus he trains himself": The mental formations are called perception and feeling. . through two ways: through non-confusion and through the object. (9) "'Experiencing the mind. Thus he trains himself. the mind and the mental properties and their arising and passing away. if it is too active. thus he trains himself": He attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath (thinking) thus: "This is impermanence. I breathe in'. the object of the incoming and the outgoing breath. thus he trains himself": Joy means rejoicing. Thus he trains himself. He arouses these mental formations in four meditations. this is extinction. jhtina.. If his mind is elated. In two meditations. Thus he trains himself. thus he trains himself": That yogin attends to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. 191: Digham assiisavasenacittassa ekaggatii avikkhepo samiidhi. thus he trains himself": He attends to· the incoming bre!lth and the outgoing breath. I breathe in'. (12) "'Freeing the mind. I breathe in'. If his mind is slow and slack. I. (7) "'Experiencing the mental formations. The rest is as was fully taught above. If his mind is sullied. jhtinas. Thus he trains himself.dighaJhpassiisavasena . I breathe in'. (8) "'Calming the mental formations. Thus he trains himself. he frees it from restlessness. he causes the mind to be intent on the object. Thus he trains himself. I breathe in'. I breathe in'. I breathe in'. 1. (14) "'Discerning dispassion. The rest is as was fully taught above. The rest is as was fuiIy taught above.. And again. he frees it from lust.. I breathe in'. He calms the gross mental formations and trains himself. Placing the mind well he establishes it. Cpo PIs. if his mind is not inclined towards the object and is not pleased with it. Thus he breathes in and trains himself. (11) "'Concentrating the mind.

gladdening the mind. the four foundations of mindfulness are fulfilled. I breathe in'. yad idam sabbasankharasamatho sabbiipadhipalinissaggo taTJhakkhayo viriigo nirodhd nibbanan II. They are practice and fulfilment. It is the peace 9f blowing out. 1. Savilakko savicaro samadhi. The first is that practice which leads to the completion of discernment. 8: Etam santam. thus he trains himself": Discerning many hindrances. etampaTJitam. "Experiencing the mind" means: "The completion of discernment". There is a time when one discerns (impermanence) through attending to the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. (he thinks). it is the cause of merit. one attains to the state which is with (-out. V. even) initial application of thought. (16) "'Discerning renunciation.this is called the arising of the knowledge of the whole body. l. And again. avitakko aviciiro samadhi. S. If mindfulness of respiration is practised. Vis. Evam calunnam calukkanam vasena so/asavalthukaya anapiinasaliya bhavana vedilabba. cing of the mind is the state of the fourth ~editation. Such practice as is included within fulfilment does not cause decrease of the sixteen bases. thus he trains himself": Discerning tribulation according to rel!lity. Craving is destroyed. jhiina) through mindfulness of respiration.breathe in'. Purimani pana tiTJi samalhavipassana vasena. Thus should serenity and insight be understood. concentrating the mind and freeing the mind . and freeing himself from tribulation. all these are of two kinds. (he thinks). The Theexperienexperiencing of bliss is the state df the third meditation. . Mag. 136. he abides in the peace of extinction. 3 The experiencing of joy is the state of the second meditation. A. 2. This is called the knowledge of the long and the short through practising.! Of these sixteen. The tranquil and the sublime are to be understood thus: All activities are brought to rest. III. Thus he trains himself and attains to bliss. Nibbiina. according to reality. And again.Subjects of Meditation 163 (15) "'Discerning cessation. all these are of four kinds. If the four foundations of mindfulness are practised. Calming the podily formations and the mental formations. That is the state which is with initial and sustained application of thought. Fulfilment is like a flower or a fruit. Through this mindfulness of respiration. jhiina. the first twelve fulfil serenity and insight. Nibbiina". . jhiina. 219: Tayo samadhi. because it proceeds from a similar thing. 291: Idam calullhacatukkam suddhavipassanii vasen'eva vullam. the destruction of these is extinction. 3. Thus with tranquillized vision he trains himself. D. avitakko vicara-matto samadhi. All defilements are forsaken. "There is a time when one discerns" and so forth refers to the four activities which always begin with the discernment of impermanence. Passion 'is absent. jhiina. "These are impermanent. This is practice. "These are impermanent". Practice is like a seed. and are discerned as impermanence. The last four fulfil only insight. bliss and the mental formations. I. practice means attaining to a state (of meditation. 2 And again. and the state of sustained application of thought.

. sabba{<iiyapa/isamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati..... passambhayam kiiyasaitkhiiram assasissiimiti sikkhati. . this is called the enlightenment factor of inquiry into states.. Thus one who practises mindfulness of respiration fulfils the four foundations of mindfulness. 323-4: Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu digham vii assasanto digham assasiimiti pajtiniiti. 2 THE SEVEN ENLIGHTENMENT FACTORS How are the seven enlightenment factors fulfilled through the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness? If the yogin practises the (four) foundations of mindfulness... vimocayariz cillam . Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu anicciinupassi assasissiimiti sikkhati . V. he is able to abide non-confused in mindfulness. .. Yasmim samaye' Ananda bhikkhu pitipa/isamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati . . this is called the enlightenment factor of mindfulness. . he arouses joy that is clean...... .' _That which begins with the experiencing of the mind is the reviewing of thought. this is called the enlightenment factor of joy. If the seven enlightenment factors are practised... nirodhiinupassi . investigates sUbjection to ill. abhippamodayam cit/am . ... That which begins with the discernment of impermanence is the reviewing of states.. he strives earnestly without slackening. this is called the enlightenment factor of exertion. Satta bojjhailgii bhiivitii bahulikatii vijjiivimultim paripiirenti. 1 THE FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS Q.. . citte citliinupassi Ananda bhikkhu tasmiril samaye viharati .. . dhammesu dhammiinupassi Ananda bhikkhu tasmim samaye viharati. . Caltiiro satipalfhiinii bhiivitii bahuikatii satta bojjhailge paripiirenti. The foundation of mindfulness which begins with the long incoming oreath and the long outgoing breath is the reviewing of the body. this is called the enlightenment factor of equanimity. abiding in mindfulness. . cittasailkhiirapa/isarilvedi . samadahanl cittam . .passambhayam cittasailkhiiram . . Thus because of the I..164 Vimuttimagga the seven enlightenment (actors are fulfilled. impermanence and phenomena.. vedaniisu vedaniinupassi Ananda bhikkhu tasmilh samaye viharati . .. Through the mind being full of joy. passasissiimiti sikkkati. .. kiiye kiiyiinupassi Ananda bhikkftu tasmim samaye viharati . S.. . rassam vii passasanto . . 2.. sukha. . this is called the enlightenment factor of concentration. .pa/isamvedi . V. .. . .. digham vii passasanto digham passasiimiti pajiinati. . the mind acquires equanimity. . S. 329: Aniipiinasatisamiidhi kho Ananda eko dhammo bhiivito bahulikato caltiiro satipalfhiine paripiireti. Owing to concentration. his body and mind are endowed with calm.... How is such a state attained? A. ... . That yogin.. . this is called the enlightenment factor of calm. . (For full text of abbreviated portions see J note 2 on page 157). . Developing exertion. Through calmness his body attains to ease and his mind is possessed of concentration. . rassam yci assasanto .. . Yasmim samaye Ananda bhikkhu cittapa(isamvedi assasissiimiti sikkhati . .. " patinissaggiinupassi .. . freedom and wisdom are fulfilled... . Inquiring into states (dhamma) thus. viriigiinupassi. passasissiimiti sikkhati. . That which begins with the experiencing of joy is the reviewing of feeling.

dhammavicayasambojjhatlgo. cittalil pi. Yasmim samaye Ananila bhikkhu . passambhati. Kafham bhiivifii ca sattabojjharigii kafhalil bahulikathii vijjiivimuttilil paripurenti? Idhiinanda bhikkhu satisambojjhatlgam bhaveti vivekanissitam • . viharanto talil dhammalilpaliiiaya pavicinati pavicarati parivimalilsalil iipajjati. upekhiisambojjhatlgalil tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti. four foundations of mindfulness. . viriyasambo. tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno iiraddlra hoti. upekhiisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivanii piiripiirilil gacchati. samaye bIJikkhu bhiiveti. " ' Evalil bhiivitii kho Ananda cattiiro satipallhiinii evalil bahulikathii sattabojjhatlge paripurenti.tathii samiihitalil cittalil siidhukam ajjhupekkhitii hoti. .: iiraddhaviriyassa uppajjati pili niriimisii.S@jects of Meditation 165 practice of the.bhavanii piiripurilil gacchafi. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhu tatha samiihilalil cittalil siidhllkalil ajjhupekkhitii hoti. pitistimbojjliarigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivtinii. 331-13: Yasmilil samaye Anandti bhikkhu kaye kiiyiinupassi viharati upanhitasati. tasmilil Ananda bhikkhuno sati hoti asammUl/hii.veti.. satisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti..gii evalil bahulikatii vijjiivimuttilil paripurentitt. 4. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhu vedaniJsu. So tathii samiihitalil 'cittalil siidhllkalil ajjhupekkhitii hoti. citte. samiidhisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhavanii piiripurilil gacchafi.bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti. dhammesu dhQlnmiillllpassi viharati upallhitasati tasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno sali hoti O9ammullhii. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno upallhitasati hoii asam. satisambojjharigalil tasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhu bhiJ. hoti. .1 How are freedom and wisdom fulfilled through the practice of the seven enlightenment factors? The yogin who has practised the seven enlightenment factors much. 5 That being so. a A. satisambojjhatlgo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti. All formations 4 are endowed with initial and sustained application of thought according to planes.pe . viriyasambojjhatlgo tasmililsamaye bhikkhuno iiraddho holi. the seven enlightenment factors are fulfilled.paiiiiiiya pavicinati pavicarati parivimamsdlil iipajjati. Cpo S. satisambojjhatlgalil tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti. . . satisambojjhatigo f09milil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivanii piiripurilil gacchati. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno iiraddhaviriyassa uppajjati piti niriimisii pitisambojjharigo. Bhumi. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno talil ilhammalil pai/niiya pavicinato pavicarato parivi~ malilsalil apajjato iiraddhalil hoti viriyalil asallinarh. •• • 1Iphekhiisambojjhatlgalil bhiiveti vivekanissitalil viriiganissitalil nirodl1anissitalil vgssqgaparil)iimilil. satisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivanii piiripurilil gacchati. So tafhii saf!Jiihitalil cittalil siidhukalil ajjhupekkhitii hoti. KshalJa (transliteration). . Yathii palhamalil satipallhiinam evalil vitthiiretabbalil.' paSsaddhisambojjhaligiuh t03milil.samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti. 333. S. samiidhisambojjharigalil tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti. tassa talil dhammaln pai/iiiiya pavicinald pavicarato parivimamsalil iipajjato iiraddhalil hoti viriyqlil asaTlinalil. so tathii sato 'viharanto tam' dlrammam . passaddhisambojjhQligo tasmim samaYe bhikkhuno . Yasmilil samaye Anatuia bhikkhuno pitimanassa kiiyo pi passambhati cittam pi passambhati. Yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno passaddlrakiiyassa sukhino cittan! samiidhiyafi. viriyasambojjhatlgo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivanii piiripurilil'gacchati. pifimanassa kiiyo pi passambhati. upekhiisambojjhatlgam lasmilil . wisdom and freedom are fulfilled. passaddhakiiyassa sukhino' cittant samiidhiyati. tasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti. . Y. yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhuno upalthitasati asammallhii.ijhangalil tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti. upekhiisambojjharigo tasmim samaye bhikkhuno bhiivanii piiripurilil gacchati. upekhiisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti. Thus because of the practice of the seven enlightenment factors.. Y. gains in a momenta the wisdom of the Path and the Fruit of freedorti. Sil1Ikhiirii. why is only initial application 1. 'Evam . 3. 2.mullhii. IIpekhiisambojjharigo tasmilil samaye . p09saddhisambojJha.piiripurilil gacchati.sato.bhiivitii kho Anancla sattabojjh". S. dhammavicayasambojjhatlgam tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveti~ Dhammavicayasambojjhatlgo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno bhiivaniipiiripurilil gacchati. samiidhisambhojjhatlgo tasmilil samaye bhikkhuno iiraddho hoti.pitisambojjharigalil tasmilil samaye bhikkhu bhiiveli. .go fo3milil' samaye bhikkhuniJ' iiraildlio. yasmilil samaye Ananda bhikkhu tathii .

Netri-pada-siitra. The cutting off of the life-faculty . He is not stingy. function and near cause? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. The mindfulness connected with the sudden death 1. 291 quoteo A. Disagreeableness is its function.this is called death. By this discursive thinking is suppressed. Thus it is taught in the Nettipada Sutta:" "If a man wishes to meditate on death. I shall enter the realm of death. The mindfulness associated with the loss of one's own beloved child is associated with anxiety. jhiina. 5. and of dislike as regards the demeritorious.166 Vimuttimagga of thought suppressed in mindfulness of respiration. he does not suffer bewilderment. (3) Associated with indifference. the perception of subjection to ill and the perception of not-self. Why is air contact pleasant? Because it calms the mind. ~Iiteratio". and not the other? A.this is called the practising of it. Therefore in mindfulness of respiration. And again. Well-being is its near cause. This and the subsequent passages in italics in this section do not occur in the Sung Dynasty edition mentioned earlier. In this sense. Here there are four kinds in mindfulness of death: (1) Associated with anxiety. He considers the death of beings with mind undistracted thus: "I shall die.wisdom. 449: Cetaso vikkhepassa pohiiniiya iiniipiinasati bhiivetabbii. (b) A. He fares well and approaches the ambrosial. indicate vitakka. river. (2) Associated with fear. probablY refers to Netrl-pada-liistrq of Upagupra referred to m AbhidharmakoJa Jiistra. (a) VIS. ITT. ·and 2. Itl is used here in a different sense. is endowed with the perception of impermanence. 3. does not cling to things. Discursiveness is a hindrance to meditation. He is able to live long. What are its benefits? He who practises mindfulness of death is possessed of diligence as regards the higher meritorious states. IV. It is comparable to the soothing of a heavenly musician's (gandhabba's) mind with sweet sounds. When he comes to die. he should contemplate a person who is on the point of being killed and he should know the causes of death". His mind is collected. (4) Associated with . What is mindfulness of d«ath? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. it is like· a person walking along the bank of Ii. . is directed towards one object and does not wander. the suppression of discursive thinking is taught. What is the procedure? The new yogin enters a place of solitude and guards his thoughts. 3 Mindfulness of respiration has ended.' MINDFULNESS OF DEATH· Q. 353: Aniipiinasati bhiivetabbii vitakkiipacchediiya. The undisturbed mindfulness of this . 4. The cutting off of one's life is its salient characteristic. He does not hoard clothes and ornaments. Mag. it 2 is suppressed. I shall not escape death".

no lam idho atihippelom. Vessamitta and Yamataggi. murder or disease. one develops aversion ~ this is called associated with wisdom. 3. 4. through the shortness of the moment. Death through the exhaustion of the life-span or through old age is called timely death. 230. iiyudubbolato. onimittoto. rukkho malo. momentary death. Q. through the distinguishing. or through being cut off in the prime of life without (assignable) cause is called untimely death. Thus should the yogin practise mindfulness of death "through the presence of a murderer". kho{loparilloto. Vodhokopoccupotthiinalo. lohom mOlom Ii iidisu sommulimoro(lllil co.l opinion. When the sun and the moon rise. Like a man who is being taken to a place to be killed.'" through inference. Mag. many sages of old. through the absence of the sign. 229: Yam pon'elom orahonliinam vOfladuKkhasomucchedaSankhiilom somucchetiamoro{lom. he thinks thus: "This man intends to kill me. fear or indifference.one practise mindfulness of death "through the absence of an efficient cause"? There is no cause or skill that can make life immortal. through the body being common to the many. How should . Mag. "Momentary death" means: "The momentary perishing of all formations". This is called "death according to general opinion". . There are three kinds of death" thus: death according to genera. Mahii Sudassana of great supernormal power. Here the yogin should not practise the mindfulness associated with anxiety. "Death as a complete cutting off" means: "The Consummate One has cut off the defilements". kiiyobahusiidhiiro{loto. there are two kinds in death: untimely death and timely death. I shall be killed at any step. Cpo Vis. Cpo Via. How should one practise mindfulness of death "thiough the presence of "a murderer"? A. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through inference"? A. predecessor-teachers8 have taught the practice of mindfulness of death in these eight ways:' through the presence of a murderer. I shall surely be killed if I sit down. sompotlivlpottilo (1). Cpo Ibid: Kiilomoro(lll and okiilomoro{lo. through the absence of an efficient cause. death as a complete cutting off. because [432] through them he is not able to remove tribulation.And again. Death through suicide. Porii{lokiicoriyii. Thus the yogin practises mindfulness of death. 2. of time. great vehicle-kings. And again. Many kings who possessed great treasures. And again. Remembering (the nature of) the" world. uposomhoro{lolO. Q. B One should recall to mind these two kinds of death. I shill be killed at any moment.Subjects of Meditation i67 of one's own child is associated with fear. • This ia different from Via. What is "death according to general opinion"? Death as it is understood in common parlance. oddhiinoporicchetialo. I shall surely be killed if I sleep".l . I shall surely be killed if I turn back. Tribulation can only be removed through the mindfulness associated with wisdom. The mindfulness of death by a burner (of corpses) is associated with indifference. who possessed l. through the weakness of the "life-principle. no cause ~r skill can make them turn back. Mag. sonkhiiriinam kha{labhangasonkhiilom kha{likomoro(lllm. When that man sees the murderer drawing out a sword and following him. Mandhiitu and all other kings entered the state of death.

the weakness of the life-principle is fulfilled.erlessness and through dependence pn the powerless. Through the disturbance of many worms or through lack of drink and food.lapilJllupamam r"pam. the Consummate. PLANTAIN TRUNK AND BUBBLE Q. Through the state of being placed in pow. also entered the state of death. Through the disorder of wind and phlegm. In two ways one practises mindfulness of death through the weakness of the life-principle. also entered the state of death. Miiyupamaffca viffffii1. Great hearers of old like the Venerable Elders Siiriputta. and who were endowed with all virtue. or through being gored by a cow. who have won the further shore of merit . the distinguishing of time"? A. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the weakness of the life-principle"? A. by drink and food. Q. by four postures and by warmth. Supremely Enlightened. endowed with knowledge and conduct. centipedes. Or through being bitten by poisonous snakes. Thus through the state of being placed in powerlessness. How is the life-principle weak through its being placed in powerlessness? A. SIMILES OF THE FOAM.lam dipitiidiccabandhunii. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through the weakness of the life-principle" Q. Thus it depends on the powerless. the life-principle is weak. Q. a tiger or a leopard. in the simile of the plantain trunk and in the simile of the bubble. At present.1 because it is devoid of reality and it is separate from reality. How is the life-principle weak through dependence on the powerless? A. Maricikupamii saf!ffii. And again. For details of the similes see the earlier portion of the sutta. by the four great primaries.many such also entered the state of death. s. Or through being killed by humans or non-humans. Q. death is fulfilled. III. Many Paccekabuddhas who attained enlightenment without owning a teacher. the state of death is fulfilled. the state of death is fulfilled..168 Vimuttimagga great supernormal power and who caused fire and water to issue forth from their bodies. (nearly) all enter the state of death without 1. Or through being mauled by a lion. vedanii bubbuiupamii. . How does one practise mindfulness of death "through in two ways. satikhiirii kadaiupamii. millepedes. who were possessed of immense wisdom and power also entered the state of death. or through being attacked by a demon (naga). How shall I with my brief life-span escape entry into the state of death? Thus the yo~n practises mindfulness of death "through inference". There is no substantiality in this body as it is taught in the simile of the foam. This is kept together by the incoming breath and the outgoing breath. How does one practise mindfulness of death" through the body being common to the many"? A. death is fulfilled. All beings were born is the past (and suffered death). Moggallana and others. Therefore the life-principle is weak. they who come and go in the same way. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through the body being common to the many". Matchless Ones. 142: Phel. death is fulfilled. or rats.

100 muhullas . 30 lavas . Evam hi vo bhlkkhave sikkhltabban II. No. or could I live long enough to breathe in having breathed out". .60 kha(lasl. 120 k. )!l> ciiyam bhlkkhave b/rlkkhu evam maralJasalim bhiivetl 'aho vatiiham tacianlaram jiveyyam yadantaram assasitvii vii passasiimi passasitvii vii assasiiml. yo eiiyam bhlkkhave bhikkhu evam maralJQsalim bhiiveli 'aho valdham ladanlaramjiveyyam yadantaram cattiiro pafica iilope samkhiidifvii ajjhohariimi. Yo ca khviiyam bhikkhave bhlkkhu evam maralJasatim bhiiveti 'aho. SO muhartas .6 seconds. (b) 120 k.1 hour. Ime vueeanti bhikkhave bhikkha: pamattii viharanti. 30 lavas·.. yo· ciiyam bhlkkhave ·bhlkkhu evam maralJQSallm bhiiveti 'aha valiiham divasam jivey)1Q!h Bhagavalo siisanam manaslkareyyam bahu vala me kalam assii' Ii. Therefore 24x6Ox6O 1 1 k.. 3 It is taught in the Abhidhamma thus: "In the past 1. beings exist but a single conscious moment. bahu vata me· katam assa' ti. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through the absence of the sign". Tasmii ti ha bhikkhave evam slkkhllabbam:Appamattii viharissiima. half a meal.6 x SO x 30 x 60 x 120 3. valdham ladantaram jiveyyam yadantaram ekam iilopam samkhiidllvii ajjhohariimi. And again one practises thus: "I wonder whether it is possible for me to live a day and a night. Nothing exists for two moments. 22. 60 lalk.0.alJQS = 1 lava. Or could I live for half a day. vala me katam assii' tl. likkham maralJQSallm bhiivessiinia iisaviinam khayiiyii Ii. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the absence of the sigu"? A.0133 . There is no sign.30 x 30 x 60 . If one reckons the causes of the present and not those of the past or the future. ciandham maralJQsatim bhiiventi iisaviinam khayiiya. of a second.0013 . Ilkkham maralJasallm bhiiventi iisaviinam khayiiya..alJQ... 305-6: Yviiyam bhikkhave bhikkhu evam maralJasalim bhiiveli 'aho valdham . 30 hours = 1 day.alJQS .1. 2. 146:. or for a short while. 1 k. 30 muharlas = 1 day and 1 night. p.1 muhutta. 60 tatk. 6 hours = 1 day.Subjects of Meditation 169 reaching a hundred years.1 muharla. 24 x 60 x 60 1 k. bahu vala me katam assii' ·fI. Transliteration of k. 30 layas ...1 Ititk. Fascicle 12). 24x6Ox6O 1 7SO = 0. 30 lavas = 1 muharta.alJa = 30 x 30 x 60 x 120 ~ 75 . Bhagavalo siisanam manasikareyyam. Thus one practises mindfulness of death "through the distinguishing of time".1 upamii.1aya·. Could I live long enough to partake of single meal. yo· ciiyam bhikkhave bhikkhu evam maralJasalim bhiivell 'aho valiiham ladantaram jiveyyaih yadanlaram eklilh pilJt/apiitam bhufijiimi.1 lava. A.. Taisho Edition. Bhagavato siisanam nianaslkareyyam.al.alJa. a Q. of a second. Bhagavato siisanam manasikareyyam. bahu vala me katam assii' Ii.'Ill1JQ .1 hour. Ime vuceanli bhikkhave bhikkha: appamattii viharanli. rattindivam jiveyyam.alJa.l Bhagavato siisanam manaslkareyyam bahu vala me katam dssii' II.alJQS . ClltakkhalJU.l (Thus) one practises mindfulness· of death "through the distinguishing of time". Q.alJ a . Below are two other tables:(a) 60 k. III. Bhagavalo siisanam manasikareyyam. (Abhldharmakosa. or even long enough to gather and partake of four or five morsels of food! Could 1 live long enough to breathe out having breathed in.alJQs = 1 latk. Thus all beings sink in the conscious moment. Therefore there is no fixed time for death. bahu.las = I lava. I wonder whether during that time I could think on the teaching of the Blessed One-could I have that opportunity! I wonder whether I could live even for a day. How does one practise mindfulness of death "through the shortness of the moment"?2 A. The following is given in the Dirgha Agama.

by the present one lives.. happiness and all are jomed to one thought. nothing is born. the world dies.less 0/ death has ended... What is the difference between the perception of impermanence and mindfulness of death? A... in Vis. Nd 1 ..... only one is living''.. sorrow. Mind/ul1.. quickly the moment passes........ :one did not live... For instance. What is mindfulness of body? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic and function? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? 1. one is not living. there is no important divergence to be Doted here. The perception of thc passing away of the aggregations is called the perception .l And again... one is not living. By the yet-not-become. one will not live. The practice of the perception of impermanence and the perception of not-self is called the rejection of pride...... When mind's shattered... one did not live.. his mind is not disturbed. .. paccuppannena jivati.. 117-18: Jfvltam attabhiivo ca sukhadukkhii ca kevalii ekacittasilmiiyuttii lahuso vattati-kkhQ{lo• Anibbattena na jiito..42. one will not' live....... cfttabharigamato loko . he is able to destroy the hindrances and cause the arising of the meditation Uhdna) factors and attain to access-concentration.2 so the world's end was taught". Owing to facility in (the perception of) disagreeableness and owing to facility in mindfulness... In the present conscious moment. Q....... yehi khandhehi te katam amaniipam niruddhii tekassa diini 'dha kujjhasi? The so-called being of the present did not exist in the past and will not exist in the future. Looked at Cram the point of view oC the changing khandhas.of impermanence. When his mind is undisturbed. 2. one did not live.... 301 this occurs: Kha{likattii ca dhammii1lll1h.. He who practises mindfulness of death can dwell in the perception of impermanence and the perception of SUbjection to ill through the thought of the cutting off of life and the destruction of the mind. The mindfulness of the destruction of the faculties is called mindfulness of death.. These are the differences between them... Thus one practises mindfulness of death through the shortness of the moment..170 Vimuttimagga conscious moment.. Mag. it is taught in this stanza: "Life ll1Id personality. . That yogin through these ways practises mindfulness of death and develops (the perception of) disagreeableness...... MINDFULNESS OF BODY Q.. one will not live.. . In the future conscious moment..

and the perception of tribul!ltion. ~ith ease. pus. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this 'mindfulness is the practising of it. Vbh. urine. and is impure. fares well and approaches the ambrosial.'D. the basis. through the elements. and a walker in wisdom. of disliking and of space. How does he practise mindfulness of body? THIRTY-TWO PARTS OF THE BODY This body consists of head-hair. If the yogin practises on impurity. 2 midriff. He may. he meditates on the nature of his body. intestines. he will get to the first meditation. teeth. a 1'. II. 293-94. III. the perception of not-self.sing of the sign through disliking he is able to meditate with facility on impurity. The indication of the unreal is its manifestation. liver. synovial fluid. When he causes the ari. This is not among the questions. bile. When'the yogin causes the arising of the sign through space. brain. kidneys. When the yogin causes the arising of the sign through colour. take one or two [433] or more and grasp the crude sign.lOS. And again. skin. phlegm. Vocally reciting well he should investigate always. he is able to meditate with facility on the elements. He should always vocally tecite well and investigate these (thirty-two parts).utuuh udariyam karisam pittam semham pubbo lohitam sedo medo assu vasa khelo . M. 57. Thus the yogin is able to cause the manifestation of three trends of thought. sits down and guards his thoughts. flesh. he is able to meditate with facility through the colour kasif. marrow. sinews. jhana. of colour. bones. The becoming manifest of the nature of the body is its salient characteristic. gains a clear view of things. he will get to access-concentration. spleen. cold and the like. IUIlgs. Ii the yogin practises on the kasif. a walker in hate should meditate through colour. body-hair.rill6htfnlkil lasikii muttan Ii.. That mindfulness is mindfulness and right mindfulness. He attains to·the four meditations. Mindfulness as regards the nature of the body is the 'practi$ini of. Thus is mindfulness of body to be understood. I. nasal mucus. excrement.193: (mallhalunga does not ace.. the fortp. mesentery. jluinas. 9O. What is the procedure? The neW yogin enters a place of solitudl:. Here a walker in hate causes the manifestation of the sign through colour. is pleased with his practice. through the formations.Subjects of Meditation 111 A. heart. With mind undisturbed. gorge. saliva. He is endowed with the perception of impermanence. The new yogin at first should recite vocally these thirty-two parts of the body in the direct and in the reverse order. 2. it. with discrimination. If he practises on the elements.l What are its benefits? A man who practises mindfulness of body can endure. blood. fat. a walker in passion.la.or in' these references:-) Althi imasmim kaye kesa loma nakha danIa taco 11Ul1hsam 1UIiulriJ atthi atlhimiffja vakkam hadayam yakanam kilomakam pihakam'papphiisam antam anla. namely. the perception of impurity. Thereafter he should reflect on them only mentally in these four ways: through colour. nails. sweat. The perception of disagreeableness is its function. grease. tears. through disliking. jhtina. He can bear to see the fearful and he can bear heat. he will get to the fourth meditation. .

. This body is filled with filth and urine. This body does not come out of uppala. 9. How should a man reflect on the nature of the body through "seed" ? A. Thus should one recall to mind the nature of the body through "condition" _ Q.. "dwelling peacefully". or lutfa acutangula or lutfa petandra. loathsomeness. condition.antbes dioeca. This body grows' in the womb of the mother and is mixed with nasal mucus.*3 kumuda*4 or pU1:uJarika. MINDFULNESS IN THIRTEEN WAYS And again. 3. This is impure. worms. Lit. silver or gems. 355. This body is not fed with gold.*5 This comes out of the place where impuritY. slobber and phlegm which are swallowed by the mother form part of this body. 5.lQpagandha·paribhiivile. impurity. nonawareness of obligation. As elaeagnus pungens. adhimattajegucche kllcchippadese piitimaccha-piitikummiisa-candanikiidisu kimi viya nibbat/ati. where "ukkipi/vii thitam" "patiUhi/am" are used in a similar description. paramasambiidhe. Blue lotus (Nymphaea Coerulea). This place is impure. so this body produced from the impure. slobber and the tears which the mother swallows: This body is nourished with foul-smelling food and drink produced in the mother's womb. oozing.ltakii" nam vemajjhe. These various A. finitude. Mag. This body is a conglomeration of drink and food taken in. On malodorous.8 aloe-wood and the like. Cp Vis. asuciparamaduggandha-pavana-vicarite. Therefore the body is also impure. dependence. saliva. /ibbandhakiire. The fragrant powder of the shrub Tabernaemontana coronaria.' beans. White lotus (Nymphaea Alba). 96: Ayam hi sat/o miituhucchimhi nibbat/amiirw na uppa/a·paduma·puJ.7 tagara*. • Transliteration. Thus one should recall to mind the nature of the body through "seed". connection. This body lies across the womb from left to right. 6 Q. saliva. Q. through elements. 2. 1. through disliking and a walker in wisdom. Rice. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "place"? A. Trichos. attha kho hettha iimiisayassa upari pakkiisayassa. It does not groW up through being fed with candana*. Q. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "condition"? A. Vbh. 8. Edible white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta).2 and the like burn. gradual formation. 7. one should recall to mind the nature of the body through thirteen ways: through seed. It leans against the back-bone. filthy fluid is this brought up.172 Vimuttimagga th~ walker in passion. 6. niiniiku'. seed of parents also burns. Unintelligible. kosiitaki*.U!arikiidisu nibbattati. 4. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "oozing"? This body is like a bag of skin with many holes exuding filth and urine. udarapatala-pitthika'. place. wrapped in the caul. nasal mucus. Thus should one recall the nature of the body through "place". under AUhisu. milk.malodour and uncleanness are pressed together.! assemblage.-a. filth and urine. saliva. Sandal wood. of nasal mucus. of the mother.

Thus one should reflect on the nature of the body through "gradual formation". In the twenty-fifth week the seventeen thousand textures of the skin are In the twenty-sixth week the body is endowed with hardness. In the twelfth week eight hundred parts are formed.wind. kalalii hoti abbudam. Yan cassa bhunjate miitii. At this time it is born. tena so taltha yapeti. kesii loma nakhiini ca. [formed. 2. In the sixth week four parts are formed. 394: dhiratthu puram navasotasandani. Aturam asucim putim passa Kulla samussayam uggharantam paggharantam biiliinam abhinanditam. turns its feet upwards and its head down and goes to the gate of birth. In the twenty-eighth week the ninety-nine thousand pores are produced. In the second week the abbuda* is formed. • Transliterations. In the world it is commonly known as a being. annam piinan ca bhojanam. 197: Ath' assa navahi sotehi asuci savati sabba4ii. In the fifteenth week blood is formed. In the eleventh week three hun<. by the aid of the kamma-produced . Atha kho tihi jati-u1){I' athsiihi kata-sutt' agge SQ{Ilhita-tela-bindup]1QlTlii(rmh .Subjects of Meditation 173 impurities ooze from the nine openings. In the thirteenth week nine hundred parts are formed. In the twentieth week the nine orifices are formed. (c) Th. In the seventh week again four parts are formed. pathamena patisand/Ji-viiIMrrena saddhith Tisso ti wi Phusso ti va niimath n' atthi.Tattha pathaman ti. These are stages of the embryo. In the nineteenth week the wind according to kamma fills the body. Q. In the eighteenth week the colour of the skin is formed. 1. In the twenty-seventh week the body is endowed with the powers. matukucchigato naro ti. abbudii jiiyate pesi. In the eighth week again twenty-eight parts are formed. In the fifth week five parts 2 are formed. In the ninth and tenth weeks the backbone is formed. In the seventeenth week the skin is formed..s 1. Cpo (a) Sn. (b) Th. In the fourteenth week one hundred lumps of flesh are formed. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "gradual formation"? A. This body gradually forms itself according to its previous kpmma. In the forty-second week. that it leans back with hanging head in a crouching position. In the fourth week the ghana" is formed. pesi nibbattati ghano.206: Pathamam kala/6f!h hoti.lred bones are formed. 1 Thus should one recall to mind the nature of the body through "oozing". Cpo S. 3. Pasiikhii. And again it is taught that in the seventh week the child's body is complete. In the twenty-ninth week the whole is completed. In the sixteenth week the midriff is formed. it reverses its position. In the third week the pesi* is formed. ghana pasiikhii jiiyanti. (. 1134: Najiitu bhastam dubhato mukham chupe. In the first week the kalala* is formed.

niima salljiiyati. kalalm hOli Ii. . vivaffamiinam lam bhiivam abblldam niima jiiyali ti. ayam satto anupubbena miilukucehiyam vat/4hali. Yam sandhiiy' elam vullam:. '" Tl'8IISliterations. dva-cattalise sattahe eliini jiiyanti. * The worm that relies on the root of the tongue is called motanta. Tila-Ielassa yalha bindu. vivaffamiinam lam bhavam ghano Ii niima jiiyali Ii. Giima-diiraka hi supakkani marieiini gahetvii. I. (a) S. Tena so laltha yiipeli Ii. * The second is called virokara. The first is called rukamuka. This body is gnawn by eighty thousand worms. '" The worm that relies on the tongue is called muka. * The fourth is called dakashira. The worm that relies on the ear is called "ear-licker". tasmii pi abbuda sattah' aeeayena vilina-lipu-sadisii pes. na ekappahiiren' eva nibballali' liildasseli. Cp. evamvalJlJa-patibhiigam kalalam sampavueeali Ii. lassa kusakOlJlakii ceva pade vijjheyyum arupakkani gatliini vilikkheyyum.* The worm that relies on the hair of the body Yam sandhaya vuttam:. vivaffamiinam lam bhiivam pesi nama ea jayali Ii. Vuttam hi e' etam:Salliiham kalalam holi paripakkam samiihatam. Evan so dasamase yapeli. iilape thapenli. The worm that relies on the skull is called "swollen ear". IV."e sallahe dvinnam hattha-padanam sisassa c' atthiiya pallea pilakii jiiyanli. The worm that relies on the hair is called "hair-iron". The worm that relies on the brain is called "maddener". lasmii kalalii sattah' aeeayena marilsa-dhovana-udaka-valJlJam abbudam niima holi. kueehiyii abbhanlara-galo Ii allho. Abbudii jayale pesi Ii. maluya liro-kueehi-galo. evam ghanassa sOlJthanam nibballam kamma-paceaya Ii.174 THE WORMS THAT RELY ON THE BODY Vimuttimagga Q. Tattha kesa lomii nakhani ca Ii. pallea. Kalalan Ii namam antaradhayali.'" The third is calleddaraka. Ka/a/ii hOli abbudan Ii. 'Tam sukkamiinam sabba-bhiigehi mueeali. 506: Seyyathiipi' Miigandiya kUffhi puriso arugallo pakkagatto kimmi khajjamdno nakIJehi vQIJOmukhani· vippalacchamii1)O. bhikkhave. 1. IIi Bhagava 'evam kho. Yalha kukkutiyii a1}t/am samanlii parimalJt/alam. salliihe pallea pilakii salJthahanli kammalo" (7) Ii. Tena ahara-rasa samsarilvii ahiiriisamutthiina-riipam samuffhiipeli. The first is called ukurimba. '" The worm that relies on the throat is called abasaka.•• (e) Mil 357: Arugatta-pakkagatto pu/uvakilJlJO-sabbakiiyq. pi/elVa malJifam adaya. sappi-malJifo aniivilo. Malu-kuechigalo naro Ii. Evariipa pesi hoti. 110 param chattha-sattamadini sal/ahani alikkamma desanam sankhipilvii dviieattii/ise salliihe parilJala-kiilam gahetva dassenlo kesii Ii adim aha. Ghanii pasakha jiiyanli Ii. '" The worm that relies on the eye is called "eye-licker". I. * The worm that relies on the teeth is called kuba. bhavali paripakkam samiihalam. lassa hi niibhilo uffhahilaniilo miilu-udara-patalena ekabaddho holi. The worm that relies WI the nose is called "nose-licker". VUllam pi c'elam:Sattaham abbudam hOli paripakkam samiihalam. * The second is called shibaTa. *1 The third is called manarumuka. Vuttam pi e'elam:Salliiham pes. . There are three kinds here. (b) M. * The worms that rely on the neck are of two kinds. So uppaladOlJtlako viya chidda.. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "worms"? A. 300-1). yakkha. Abbudan Ii niimam antaradhiiyali. 'In this class there are four kinds. * The worm that relies on the roots of the teeth is called ubakuba. The first is called rokara. 198: Seyyalhapi bhikkhave puriso arugatlo pakkagalto saravanam paviseyya. Pesi niballali ghana' Ii. Sii mariea-phalJilena dipelabba. Pesi Ii namam antaradhayali. kapale pakkhipitvii.. lalo pesilo sallah' aeeayena kukkut' alJt/asalJthiino ghana niima marilsa-pilJt/o nibballali. * The second is called aruka.-Spk. siitak' anle bhalJifikam katva. "Paiieame.

The third is called unaban.· The worms that rely on the root of the heart are of two kinds.· The third is called chiridabida. The first is called bisha.'" The second is called maharata. '" The second is called samakita. T!:te first is called araba. The first is called bara. ..The worms that rely on the skin are of two kinds. '" the worms that rely on vitality are of two kinds. • The second is called sira.· The second is called ubasisira.· The worms that rely on the root of the bladder are of two kinds.· The second is called ubadabita.· The worms that rely on the fat are of two kinds. '" The worms that rely on the mesentery are of two kinds.· The worms that rely on the bones are of four kinds.· The worms that rely on t1?e spleen are of two kinds.· The worm that relies on oil is called jidasaka. '" The third is called chishaba. The worms that rely on the blood are of two kinds. The 'first is called kara. '" The third is called sanamuka. '" The second. '" The fourt4 is called ranavarana . • The fourth is called senshiba. The first is called tuna.· The worms that rely on the bladder are of two kinds.· The worms that rely on the midriff are of two kinds. The first is called subakama.• The worm that relies on the veins is called karikuna. • The worm that Telies on the bile is called hitasoka.The worm that relies on sweat is called sudasaka.ond is called tunanda.· .· The worms that rely on the heart are of two kinds. '" The worms that rely on the intestines are of two kinds. The first is called kara. The first is called viramba. The first is call~d anabaka. The first is called sibita. '" The second is called ushaba.· The second is called bishashira.· The worms that rely on the flesh are of two kinds. '" The fourth is called punamaka.Subjects of Meditation 17S is called "body-hair licker".· The worms that rely on the stomach are of four kinds. The first is called rata. • The worms that rely on the roots of the veins are of two kinds.· .· The fourth is called kachigokara.· The second is called bita. '" The worm that relies on saliva is called senka. The first is called rotara.. The first is called sorata'" The second is called maharata.t rely on the ripened womb are of four kinds. '" The second is called darukamuka.· The second is called karasira: '" . '" The second is called mahavakana. The first is called vakana.· The second is called mahasiba.· The second is called kitaba.· The second is called badara.· The second is called maviramba.· The sec. The first is called sukamuka.· The third is called baravatara. 1. The first is called kachibida.· The worms that rely on the marrow are of two kinds. The first is called bikara. * The worms that rely on the tendons are of four kinds. Only four are explained below.· The second is called karasira. The first is called ujuka. '" The worms that rely on the root of the mesentery are of two kinds. The first is called manka. The first is called sivara. . T!:te first is called (si-) ba. '" There are five1 kinds of • Transliterations. '" The worms that rely on the root of vitality are of three kinds. '" The worms thl!. is called mahakara.· The second is called anabida.The worms that rely on the belly are of two kinds. The first is called nira.· The second is called kababaka.· The second is called raba. The worm that relies on the nails is Q}led "naillicker".

bedding. fourteen ribs. and bedspreads. canopies. Nobody makes this. a collection of urine and are called body. . These worms are called candasira. * hucura* and so forth. There are three kinds of worms that rely on the two lower orifices. the skull is connected with· the cheek-bones. Thus should one recollect on the nature of the body throu.in Ryo this is equal to four . sixty interstices. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "loathsomeness"? A man esteems purification most. eighty thousand worms. and various kinds of food and drink. Thus by the connection of the bones and the covering of the skin. unguents and pastes and beautiful clothes. sixty-four hand-bones.'" sinkasira. the shoulder-blade is connected with the humerus. The things which a man holds dear are such means of adorning himself as sweet perfume. eighteen joints of the spine. mats and cushions used for sleeping and sitting. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "connection"? A. sixty-four foot-bones.in Ryo this is equal to three shoo All these many and varied forms are only a heap of filth. the thigh-bone is connected with the hip-bone. the shin-bone is connected with the thigh-bolie. blankets. and sixty-four soft-bones which depend on the flesh. The cheek-bones are connected with the teeth. the backbone is connected with the shoulder-blade. seven neck-bones.and blood is one attha* in weight . twenty-four side-bones. this unclean body is kept in position and is complete. those that rely on the back of the body and gnaw the back of the body. BONES OF THE BODY How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "assemblage"? There are nine bones of the head. two hip-bones. saliva and brain are each a palata* in weight . Q . dwelling-places and gifts. two cheek bones. A man manifests much attachment to • Transliterations. seventeen thousand textures of the skin.. those that rely on the right side of the body and gnaw the right si4e of the body. This body is born of kamma. There are nine hundred muscles. the humerus is connected with the neck-bone. eight million hairs of the head. Bile. pillows.ryo .h "assemblage". Thus should one recall the nature of the body through "connection".176 Vimuttimagga worms: those that rely on the front of the body and gnaw the front of the body. The first is called kurukulayuyu.·· The second is called sarayu· The third is called kandupada. the neck-bone is connected with the skull. the hip-bone is connected with the backbone. The shin-bone is connected with the foot-bone. ninety-nine thousand hairs of the body. These three hundred bones and eight or nine hundered tendons are connected with each other. • Thus one should recall to mind the nature of the body through "wonns" . thirty-two teeth. those that rely on the left side of the body and gnaw the left side of the body. bolsters.

When his mind is undisturbed. heart-disease. Mindfulness of body has ended. Thus one should reflect on the nature of the body through "loathsomeness". THE RECOLLECTION OF PEACE Q. chills and others give endless trouble to this body. Their purity can be renewed because their nature is pure. practises minqfulness of body.Subjects of Meditation 177 these (at first) and afterwards dislikes them. Thus should one reflect on the nature of the body through "impurity". abdominal ache. Through the acquisition of facility in mindfulness and wisdom. leprosy. cause the arising of the meditation (jhana) factors and attain to the distinction for which he yearns. ungratefully. gonorrhoea. ague. But the body is impure. He bathes and perfumes his body and clothes it with garments for sleeping and sitting. diarrhoea and . ear. epilepsy. heat and cold. Thus one should reflect on the nature of the body through the "non-awareness of obligation". Thus shoula one reflect on the nature of the body through "finitude" . itch. various defilements and diseases are produced. depending on this body. vomiting of blood. But on the contrary. Thus one should reflect on the nature of the body through "dependence". to disease and to death. contagious diseases. skin-disease. This yogin. goitre. body. a man prepares tasty food and drink and takes them for his body's sake. mouth and teeth. fruits are produced. nose tongue. through these ways. In the same way. flatulence. his mind becomes undisturbed. Thus ache of eye. flowers are produced. smallpox. IMPURITY OF THE BODY How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "impurity"? When clothes and adornments become dirty they can be made clean again.vomiting. this body which is like a poisonous tree goes to decay. Thus he tends his body. SOME DISEASES How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "dependence"? Depending on a pond. shortness of the breath. Depending on a garden. throat-ailments. The body is like an intimate friend who does not know his obligations. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through the "nonawareness of obligation"? Now. head. he is able to destroy the hindrances. What is the recollection of peace? What is the practising of it? What . This body is finite. How should one reflect on the nature of the body through "finitude"? This body will be consumed by fire or devoured (by animals) or go to waste.

happily he awakes. jhtina.. His faculties are tranquil and he is able to fulfil his aspirations. I declare. The manifestation of lasting merit is its salient characteristic. endowed with concentration. Anupabbajjam piiham bhikkhave tesam bhikkhiinam bahukiiram vadiimi.. Anussatlm . Savanam .. endowed with freedom and is endowed with the knowledge of freedom.. This bhikkhu sees and hears. is endowed with calm. he destroyed initial and sustained application of thought.. he destroyed perception of form.. Ye te bhlkkhave bhikkhu silasampannii samiidhisampannii paffffiisampannii vlmuttlsampannii vlmuttiffiif/adassanasampannii dassanam piiham bhikkhave tesam bhikkhiinam bahukiiram vadiiml. modest of demeanour and is esteemed by others. I declare. fourth meditation. Payiriipiisanam .. is the advantage of one who goes near to that bhikkhu. One recollects: When he entered the third meditation. . V. If this bhikkhucalms his faculties. he destroyed the hindrances. he destroyed bliss. recollection and right recollectedness. O~e 2.. one recollects (that bhikkhu) thus: When that bhikkhu entered the first meditation. is the advantage of one who hears that bhikkhu. 67: 1. his mind will be quietened and he will enjoy tranquillity immediately. Peace is the stilling of the movements of the.. Non-restlessness is its function.. Great. It was taught by the Blessed One thus: "That bhikkhu is endowed with virtue. "How is that so? Bhikkhus who listen to the words of that bhikkhu will be able to gain the twofold seclusion. he destroyed joy. Great. Bhikkhu Oit). jhdna. well. function and near cause? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. One recollects: When he entered the second meditation. jhdna. S. that of the body and that of the mind". Tam klssa ht!tu.. great is the advantage of one l who sees that bhikkhu. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this recollection is called the practising of it. through the recollection of peace and through the merits of peace. verbal and mental action. I declare.•. Complete stilling is called peace.178 Vimuttimagga are its salient characteristic. is the gain. This is called the recollection of peace. He is pleasant of mein. Upasa1lkamanam .. is the advantage of one who reflects on that bhikkhu or lives the holy life under him. namely. Great. Great. I declare.. Tathiiriipiinam bhikkhave bhikkhiinam dhammam sutvii dvayena viipakiisena viipakallho vlharatl kiiyaviipakiisena ca clttaviipakiisena ca. What is the procedure? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude and sits down with mind intent (on the recolleCtion of peace) and undisturbed. 2 In the recollection of peace. One recollects: When he entered the sphere of the infinity of space.. He fares well and approaches the ambrosial. This is recollectedness. happily he sleeps.. through bodily. One recollects: When he entered the. perception of sense reaction and perception of diversity. Sublime freedom is its near cause. jhtina. What are its benefits? When a man practises the recollection of peace.. endowed with wisdom. I declare. One recalls peace to mind. is the advantage of one who pays homage to that bhikkhu. Great. mind and' body.

he destroyed coarse passion. vicikicchii. The recollection of peace has ended.) That yogin. fine passion and fine hate. 4. he destroyed fine defilements. Ibid.ed the defilem~nts which are togeth~r with views (Lit. in these ways and through these merits recalls peace to mind. he destroy. he gives to men who are 1. it is called the recollection of liberality. One recollects: When he attained to the Fruit of Stream-entrance. Nibbdna. If a man recalls to mind the merits of the life of one hearer. 156: Idha Mahiili bhikkhu tiIJIJath sathyojaniinath (sakkiiyadlllhl.: TiIJIJath sathyojaniinath parikkhayii riiga-dosa-mohiinath tanuttii sakadiigiimi hoti. If a man rejoices in the recollection of liberality. and is endowed with confidence. silabbatapariimiisa) parikkhayii sotiipanno hoti. he destroyed space. If a man recalls to mind one of the doctrines that has been taught. In the same way one recollects ort the Pacceka-buddhas.· One recollects: When he entered the state of the dissolution of perception and sensation. Ibid. he destroys the hindrances. he destroyed the perception of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. One recollects: When he attained to the' Fruit of Once-returning. causes the arising of meditation (jhana) factors and attains to access-meditation.' And one recollects: When he attains to extinction.2 One recollects: When he attained to the Fruit of Non-returning. When his mind is undisturbed. MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS The following are the miscellaneous teachings concerning these ten recollections. it is called the practice of the recollection of virtue. as that of views)1. 3 One recollects: When he attained to the Fruit of the Consummate One. One recollects: When he entered the sphere of nothingness. he destroyed the perception of the sphere of nothingness. D. One recalls to mind the merits of the Buddhas of the past and the future-this is called the practice of the recollection of the Buddha. I.SUbjects oj Meditation 179 recollects: When he entered the sphere of the infinity of consciousness. Thus in the recollection of peace (one recalls that bhikkhu to mind. Through bein& unrestricted in faith. Ibid. coarse hatred and coarse defilements.: Paifcannath orambhiigiyiinath sathyojaniinath parikkhayii opapiitiko hotl. he destroyed all defilements. If a man recollects liberality. it is called the practice of the recollection of the Law. 2. One recollects: When ne entered the sphere of neither perception nor· nonperception.: Asaviinath khayii aniisavath ceto-vimuttim paffffii-vimuttith dillhe va dhamme sayath abhlifffii sacchikatvii upasampajja viharati. is in mind undisturbed. If a man recalls virtue to mind. he destroyed perception and sensation. he destroys everything. 3. . he recollects with ease. it is called the recollection of the Community of Bhikkhus.

and resolves to make that (giving) his object. The recollection of deities endows one with confidence. There are five doctrines. .180 Vimuttimagga worthy. One should practise the recoIlection bf deities. The seventh fascicle has ended. [435] If he is offered food that is not (proper to be) offered. he should not partake of even a: handful of it.

l1. he is dear to humans. 130: Mettiiya bhikkhave cetovimuttiyii iisevitiiya bhiivitiiya bahulikatiiya yiinikatiiya vatthukatiiya anUf/hitiiya paricitiiya susamiiraddhiiya ekiidasiinisarilsii piifikalikhii. As parents. he is reborn in the world of Brahma. A. 342. 181 . happily he awakes. PIs. deities protect him. he is benefitted in eleven ways thus: Happily he sleeps. the colour of his face is pleasingly bright. asammufho kiilarh karoti. sukham paribujjhati. 2. mukkhavat. na piipakam supinam passati. uttarim appafivijjhantobrahmalokupago hoti. Katame ekiidasa? Sukham sllpati. Thus is lovingkindness to be known. amanussiinam piyo hoti. devatii rakkhanti niissa aggi vii visam vii sattham vii kamati. he is dear to non-humans. If a man I practises loving-kindness.THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE EIGHTH WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATIS SA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF CHAPTER THE EIGHTH FUNAN Section Five THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF LOVING-KINDNESS Q. 2 1. at the time of death he is not bewildered. What is loving-kindness '11 What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. To cause the arising of benevolence is its salient characteristic.lo vippasidati. if he attains not the sublime state. manussiinam piyo hoti. Non-hatred is its manifestation. he concentrates his mind quickly. he does not see bad dreams. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this practice is called the practising of it. on seeing their dear and only child. sword and stick come not near him. function and manifestation? What are its benefits? What i~ the procedure? A. . The thought of loving-kindness is its function. fire. II. poison. Mettii. so one arouses thoughts of loving-kindness and benevolence towards all beings. arouse thoughts of loving-kindness and benevolence towards that child. tuvafam cittam samiidhiyati. Y.

he will acquire misery. And again. and uncovered. 189: Ubhatodar. What is meant by "should at first reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment"? If a man arouses anger and resentment. owing to his wicked mind. thereafter he will hurl valuables hither and thither. if a man is angry and resentful always." if I do not overcome anger and resentment. 129. thereafter he will kill others or kill himself. if I do not remove anger and resentment. one reflects thus:) When a wise man grows angry and resentful. thereafter he 'will break many things. I shall be put to shame. if I do not remove anger and resentment. I am one who has heard much. I. if now I arouse anger and resentment.. 2. So he will be poisoned out of the fear of terrible punishment. I shall be cast away by the world like a painted vase containing filth. one should reflect on anger and resentment thus: He who arouses anger and resentment will be laughed at by his enemies. (Further.ulakena ce pi bhikkhave kakacena corii ocarakii arigamaligiini okanteyyum. and cause his friends to be ashamed of him. If a man who is bitten by a snake has the antidote and refrains from taking it. because he accumulates more fearful kamma than this anger and this resentment. 186. tatrapi yo mano padoseyya na me so tena sdsanakaro ti. thereafter he will stare in the four directions. a bhikkhu who arouses anger and resentment and does not suppress these. he is like one who seems to relish suffering and not happiness. he will be slighted by others. . (b) M. Thus should one reflect. is said to be one who relishes suffering and not happiness. his thoughts of loving-kindness will be consumed and his mind will become impure.182 DISADVANTAGES OF ANGER AND RESENTMENT Vimuttimagga What is the procedure? The new yogin who aspires to practise lovingkindness. entering into a cesspool. or kill a Consummate One or cause a schism in the Community of Bhikkhus. Aspiring after happiness. I shall be forsaken like a physician who is afflicted with vomiting and diarrhoea. he inflicts severe sufferings. In the same way. I am esteemed by the world. SIMILE OF THE SAW And again. or draw blood from the body of an Enlightened One. I shall be like a man desirous of taking a bath. he. quickly. I remember the simile of the Saw. Such fearful acts is he liable to do. (a) Th. Though he may have deep virtue. Thereafter he will frown. Outwardly calm. he will be inwardly perturbed. thereafter he will lay hold of stick and sword. is liable to kill his parents. one should reflect thus: I am called a hearer. thereafter he will convulse with rage and spit blood. he 1. And again. should at first reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment and on the advantages of patience and bear patience in mind. 445: Uppajjate sace kodho iivajja kakaciipamam. Bahussuta. If he was honour¢ before. 1 I like to enjoy good states (of mind). thereafter he will utter harsh words. Having eyes. he will be despised hereafter.

thus: "I esteem a man who is of such and such a nature. I will be patient. When people blame me. He should develop loving-kindness for such a one. whom he honours. beings without merit and dead men. this is a guardian. 3. learning.3 this patience is a practise of the Noble Ones. This protects the body well and removes anger and resentment. I am happily free from all defilements and perform all good". Being intelligent. he should practise loving-kindness. I will be meek and not haughty". a man endowed with honour. This is praised by the wise. 2. he will be ignorant. Thus one should reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment and on the advantages of patience. object. 2 I have received the alms of the country. (b) PIs. pabbajito niima adhiviisanasilo hoti Ii. Cpo Ps.? That yogin controls his mind and makes it pliant. Cpo Ud. 399: Khantibalaril baliitrikam. loving-kindness for enemies. 1 will cause others to call me a hearer in truth.should reflect on the disadvantages of anger and resentment. 961 S urrattaril arahaddhaJaril. therefore. I am benefitted through alms. towards whom he is not indifferent. whom he does not slight. What is meant by "I have no enemy. If there is the poison of anger and resentment in me. this patience is the sphere of knowledge in me. and resolve: "I will reach patience. concentration and wisdom. Th. In practising loving-kindness towards all beings. That yogin develops loving-kindness for one towards whom he behaves with respectful reserve. one should reflect thus: I have shorn off the hair of the head. through having a mind of patience. This is honour. This is called "putting others to shame". 1 am called a hearer. He makes his mind capable of attainment. and is able to bear the. These are of advantage to me".Subjects of Meditation 183 will not see.4 Thus the yogin proceeds towards the bliss of patience and benefits himself. 1 will cause great merit to accrue to the givers. This helps one to understand the meaning of things well. and with mind ~ndisturbed begins to fill his body (with the thought) thus: "I am happy. Thus he recalls to mind the virtues he esteems 1. Patience is power. the yogin cannot at the start develop . wicked men. I bear the form and the apparel of the Consummate Ones. now I must cultivate patience. He should regard all beings as (he regards) himself. this patience is the place of confidence in me. The givers of alms give me many things. therefore 1 will not allow anger to remain in my mind. sweet speech. 79: AVuso. I have no anger.45: Sutviina viikyarilpharusaril udiritam adhiviisaye bhikkhu adu/thacitto 'ti. I have knowledge. II. . 171: 'Byiipiidassa pahinattii abyiipiido khantiti' khantibalaril. And further. namely.l This is armour. This guards all. through this patience 1 will cause great merit to accrue to them. 1 have confidence. What is meant by "one should reflect on the advantages of patience"? A. liberality and intentness on that. (a) Dh. Thus one . If his mind is pliant. 4. My mind admits no suffering". He enters into a place of solitude. Q. this patience is the antidote which will counteract the poison in me. This causes the happiness of not falling away. in regard to whom he is not jealous or ill-disposed. virtue. I. and by whom he has been benefitted and.

After he has developed the thought of loving-kindness for a person whom he holds dear. to be endowed with virtue. to concentrate the mind quickly. Majjhimadesa. If one has not yet produced merit. poison. to perfect oneself. And again. One should wish to be endowed with tranquillity. to be endowed with all merits and to gain good advantages. one should recollect thus: If one has not yet produced demerit.. repeats it and understands unshakability. [436] Having by these means and through these activities developed the thought of loving-kindness and repeated it. a good name. to be born in the Middle Country. 2 And again. he gradually develops the thought of 1.zhiiti padahati. uppanniinam kusaliinam dhammiinam (hitiyii asammosiiya bhiyyobhiiviiya vepulliiya hhiivaniiya piiripiiriyii candam janeti viiyammi viriyam iirabhati cillam pagga1. uppanniinam piipakiinam akusaliinam dhammiinam pahiiniiya . II. One should develop the benevolent mind and always reflect and investigate. . 462: lmesam kho bhikkhave paficannam sikkhiidubbalyiinam pahiiniiya cat/iiro sammappadhiinii bhiivetabbii. through establishing that is free and through confidence that is free. liberality and wisdom.. One should wish to be protected by the gods. 3. Through confidence that is free.! to meet good men. After he has developed the thought of loving-kindness for an indifferent person. One should wish to become deat to humans and to be honoured by them. t6 be untouched by fire. A. and he understands the state of the unshakable (mind). One should wish to gain a good reward.. (One should wish to produce) desirable states of mind. and if one has already produced it. he makes his mind pliant and gradually develops the thought of loving-kindness for a person whom he holds dear. (and if one has) produced them. 15. knowledge.18"4 Vimuttimagga and the benefits he has acquired (in and through that one). to have a pleasant complexion. he can establish his mind. and to attain to the peace and happiness of the Immortal. That yogin is able to gain confidence by means of the heart of kindness. One should have a mind that is without anger and resentment. he is endowed with the unshakable mind. to be long-lived. . 'One should wish to have no evil dreams. he gradually develops the thought of lovingkindness for an indifferent person. one should not wish to produce undesirable states. to be free from hatred. and if one has produced them. That yogin by these means and through these activities develops the thought 3 of loving-kindness for himself. to gain happiness. one should wish not to produce it. one should wish to produce it. to end craving. Sannii. Through mindfulness that is free. Katame cat/iiro? ldha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppanniinam akusaliinam dhammiinam anuppiidiiya chandam janeti viiyamati viriyam iirabhati cillam pagga/:zhiiti padahati. . he can dwell in mindfulness. one should wish to increase it. . 2. one should wish to destroy it. IV. One should wish for happy sleep and happy awaking. one should wish to destroy them. to gain confidence. Through establishing that is free. sword or stick and the like. and develops loving-kindness towards that one. anuppanniinam kusaliina/h dhammiinam uppiidiiya . One should wish to become dear to non-humans and to be honoured by them. and if one has already produced it. one should wish to increase them).

tam enam annataro puriso passeyya addhtinamaggapatipanno. If he does not develop lovingkindness for an indifferent person or is unable to do so and develops dislike. one should give the other what he asks. One should consider: (2) merit. so na labheyya sapptiytini bhojantini. atha puriso tigaccheyya ghammtibhitatto ghammapareto kilanto tasito piptisito. having removed the duckweed. through the merit of the Great Teacher'. draws out water. This is not demerit". yassa aparisuddhavacisamticiiratti. so tam pokkhara(lim ogtihetvti ubhohi hatthehi iti c'iti ca sevtilapa(lakam apaviyahitvii aiijalinti pivitvti pakkameyya. TWELVE MEANS OF REMOVING HATRED Q. (7) one's own faults. I have dislike. (3) goodwill. (2) Merit-if one sees the merits of the other. he will fare ill". that yogin should not endeavour to develop loving-kindness. Thus he encompasses all beings (with lovingkindness) and identifies himself with them. Evam tasmim puggale tighato pativinetabbo. tassa purato pi 'ssa dare gtimo pacchato pi 'ssa dare gtimo. one should develop loving-kindness for him thus: "This man has no merit.Subjects of Meditation 185 loving-kindness for an enemy. (1) Even if one is angry. SIMILE OF THE POND It is like this: There is a pond covered with duckweed. By such action. one ought to think: "This is merit. the destruction of the anger of the one and the other takes place. (5) debt-cancellation. he should reflect thus: "In me are states of demerit.l If the other has no merit.2 (3) Goodwill-one should think thus (of 1. If I cannot develop lovingkindness towards one indifferent person. so tasmim purise kiiruiinam yeva upaffhapeyya. A. (6) kinship. One should do what the other does. One should bear the. And in speaking with rum. 189: Seyyathti pi tivuso puriso tibadhiko dukkhito balhagiltino addhanamaggapatipanno. surely. (12) One should investigate emptiness. evam eva klzo tivuso yvtiyam puggalo aparisudhavacisamtictiro parisuddhaktiyasamtictiro. yti ca khvtissa parisuddhaktiyasamtictiratti. One should investigate: (9) the nature of the faculties.se in mind. stissa tasmim samaye manasiktitabbti. (11) and aggregation. Ibid. (4) one's own kamma. Wishing to acquire merit. If that yogin is still unable to destroy dislike and hate. I stirred up confidence and was ordained. (8) One should not consider the suffering inflicted on oneself. 'I will develop great loving-kindness and compassion for the weal of all beings. I said. and one. What are the means of success in removing hatred? A. 2. (10) the momentary destruction of states. one should always use good words. And again. na stissa tasmim samaye manasiktitabba. (1) One should share in order to benefit the other (whom one hates). anudayam yeva upaUhapeyya anukampam yeVa . accept willingly what he gives. 187-8: Seyyatha pi tivuso pokkhara/)i sevtilapa(lakapariyonaddha. but should adopt another way to remove the hatred he has for that person. how shall I develop loving-kindness towards enemies?". III. na labheyya sapptiytini bhesajjtini na labheyya patiriipam upatthtikam na labheyya gtimantantiyakam.

I am glad". of the faculties. . All these states perish in one thought-moment. vaciduccaritam pahiiya vacisucarilam bluiveyya. Tam kissa helu? Miiyam iiyasmii kiiyassa bhedii parammarll{lii apiiyam duggatiih vinipiitam nirayam uppajjati' ti.186 Vimuttimagga gaining) the other's goodwill: If a man does not revere (the other) let him arouse the thought of goodwill. Tam kissa helu? Miiya. manoduccarilam pahiiya manosucarilam bhiiveyya. Thus arousing self-perception3 one sees one's own faults. Evam digharattam kho bhikkhave dukkham paccanubhiitam tibbam paccanubhiitam vyasanam pacca/lubhiitam kalasi vat/tlhitii. EYam eva kho iivuso yviiyam puggalo aparisuddhakiiyasamiiciiro aparisuddhavacisamiiciiro na ca labhati kiilena kiilam cetaso vivaram cetaso pasiidam. 88: Kammassako 'mhi kammadiiyiido. Na so bhlkkhave satto sulabhariipo yo na puttobhiltapubbo . One suffers by oneself. I acquire demerit on account of him". 390: Evam paham PU(I(UJ: kammadiiyiidii sallii ti vadiimi. (11) Aggregation . (4) One's own kamma-one should consider one's own evil kamma1 thus: "The evil that I do will cause anger to arise in others". others blame me. thus: "This is my kinsman". . Na so bhikkhave satto sulabharilpo yo na bhaginibhiltapubbo . Thus one should see. Alta saiiiiii. because one does not think on loving-kindness. he should make merit. . yo na miitiibhiitapubbo imind dighena addhunii. (10) The momentary destruction of states-one should investigate thus: "That man suffers because of birth. . and arouses the thought of kinship. (9) Nature of the faculties . V. M. If he is not revered. Now I am free from debt.one should investigate thus: "The inner and the outer aggregates produce suffering. A. yiivaiicidam bhikkhave alam eva sabbasalikhiiresu nibbindilllm alam virajjitum aram vimuccitunti. I. 2 (7) One's own faultsone arouses self-perception thus: "That man's anger is produced on account of me. It appears so (i. upallluipeyya 'aho valiiyam puriso labheyya sappiiyiini bhoJaniini labheyya sappiiyiini bhesajjiini labheyya pa/iriipam upatthiikam labheyya giimanlaniiyakam. I see my own suffering as a hindrance". ' And again. Therefore I hate. puriso idh' eva anayavyasanam iipajjati' ti. Suffering-(one thinks thus:) "Owing to folly. as a hindrance) because of mental suffering. . Evam tasmim puggale iigluito pa/ivinetabbo.. Na so bhikkhave sallo sulabhariipo yo na pitiibhiilapubbo . (12) Emptiness . Na so bhikkhave satto sulabhariipo yo na bhiitiibhiitapubbo . the destruction of demerit is well-faring. Reflecting on this evidence (of debt-cancellation). II. (8) One should not consider-one should not consider the perception (of one's own suffering) which is unrelated to hatred.3. 2. one should dwell where one does not hear (his voice) or see him. evariipe iivuso puggale kiiruililam yeva upatthiipetabbam anudayii yeva upallluipetabbii anukampii yeva upal/hiipetabbii 'aho vata ayam iiyasma kiiyaduccarilam pahiiya kiiyasucaritam bhiiveyya. S. It is not possible for me to be angry with any part or place". Because of this I am unmindful". .. "This man causes suffering" or "This man suffers". .e.• . (5) Debt-cancellation-(thus one thinks:) "Owing to my past kamma. Avoiding the place where the enemy lives. . Tam kissa hetu? Anamataggiiyam bhikkhave sarilsiiro pubbiikoti na paiiiiiiyaM avfjjpnivara/liinam salliinam tQ{lhiisamyoJandnam sandhiivalam samsaralam. With which state in him am'l angry?". (6) Kinship-he remembers that beings succeed one another in (the cycle of) birth and death. 189-90: Na so bhikkhave satto sulabhariipo.. Thus should the changing of hatred to goodwill be known. 1.one should investigate thus: In the absolute sense it cannot be said.one should investigate thus: "To be tied to the lovely and the unlovely is the nature.

Thus (he develops lovingkindness for beings) from village to village. 12: Giime araiiiie sukhadukkhapuflho nev' allato no parato dahetha. II. . and after that. the second.Subjects of Meditation lS1 This. There is no soul-entity in the aggregates. and in the same way for (beings of) many vill:}ges. He attains to fixed meditation. D. and after that. If he loses the object. jhana. tathii catuttham. Therefore the Blessed One uttered this stanza:He who dwells amidst the village grove. he cannot arouse loving-kindness. without enmity. through comprehending all village-domains 3 and through comprehending all directions. He attains to fixed meditation. through developing loving-kindness for one being. if that being is dead. through developing loving-kindness for beings of one village-domain. and in the same way (for beings) in the four directions. jhana. nirupadhim kena phuseyyum phassii 'ti. the third. D. 1. Thus he spreads loving-kindness towards all beings of the four directions. above-. 3. Iii uddham adho tir/yam sabbadhi sabballatiiya sabbiivantam lokam mellii-sahagatena cetasii vipuletui mahaggatena appamiinena averena avyiipajjhena pharitvii viharali. He attains to fixed meditation. indifferent ones and enemies with himself. Giimakkhetla. and acquired facility in the practice. from country to country. After that he should develop loving-kindness for the deities in his dwellillg-place. 186. below and pervades the whole world with thoughts of loving-kindness immense immeasurable. 2. and after that. for two. tathii duliyam. If one's mind were cleansed of passion's stain. After that he should develop loving-kindness for the Community of Bhikkhus in (his) dwelling-place. phusanti phassii upOOhim palicca. is not burned because of self or other but because his mind is passionate. Thus practising he can fulfil great fruition and merit. 2 Thus that yogin develops loving-kindness ~nd attains to fixed meditation in three ways: through comprehending all beings. and in the same way. through developing loving-kindness for one being in one direction. he should gradually arouse the thought of loving-kindness and develop it for various bhikkhus in (his) dwelling-place. experiencing pleasure and pain. who could touch that one immaculate'11 Thus after that yogin has clearly understood the way of destroying hatred. the fourth. Ud. body is the result of causes and conditions. has idep. tathii tatiyam.tified friends. jhana. without ill will. That yogin "pervades one quarter with thoughts of loving-kindness. that object is lost. III. After that he should develop loving-kindness for beings in the village outside his dwelling-place. Here when one develops lovingkindness for one being. three and for all beings. 223-4: Idh' iivuso bhikkhu mettii-sahagatena cetasii ekam disam pharitvii viharali. After that he should develop (loving-kindness for beings) in one direction. Therefore he should develop the thought of loving-kindness widely.

246: ldha bhikkha~e ariyasiivako pa1)iitipiitam pahiiya pii"atipalii pa/ivirato hoti.. Ud. pe . feadessness.. 428: ArhaMizhiisatto . "NOll-fulfilment" is produced when one arouses the feeling of enmity and rivalry.188 Vimuttimagga Q. 4 ' Thus they fulfil the "perfection of giving. What are the roots.. pe.am vamsaflflam porii1)Qm asamkir. fulfilment.1)am asamkifJIJapubbam na samkiyati na samkiyissati appatikuttham sama1)ehi briihmar.i holi. S. lokuttara pana na honti. it is said that there are beings.. removes impure affection and purifies his bodily. What is its "object"? Beings are its "object". avyiipajjhassa bhiigi hoti. II. : panca-maha-vilokanam nama vilokesi. pe. What is its "manifestation"? T. Willing is a root. 6. diffhadhommasukhavihiirii honti. Thus should "non-fulfilnient" be known.. tathii ayam pi Bhagava iigato. buddhi-cariyaya kotim patva iigatii. IV. ldam bhikkhave pathamaJiI diinam mahiidiinam aggaflflam rattan. dasa paramaltha-paramiyo ti samatimsa paramiyo puretva. sila-nekkhamma-pafinaviriya-khanli-sacca-adhif/hiina-mertii-upekkha-parami ti ima dasa paramiyo dasa-upaparamiyo..iitipiitii palivirato bhikkhave ariyasiivako aparimii"iinam sattiinam abhayam deti averam deti avyiipajjharh deti. in common parlance.. vipassaniipiidii honti. . non-fulfilment and object of loving-kindness? A.... 128: Yatha va te Bhagavanto diina-paramim puretva.he making visible of these roots is its manifestation... 3. . n.ehi viiinuhi . -a. aparimii"iinam sattiinam abhayam datva averam datva avyiipajjham da/vii aparima"assa abhayassa averassa avyiipajjhassa Miill. absence of delusion is a root. Cpo Sv.. Puna ca param Mikkhave ariyasavako adinniidiinam pahiiya adinniidiinii pa/ivirato hoti . Sattiiramma1)a. Sila.. 8 1. That is wrong. Abhaya... suriimerayamajjapamiidatthiinii pativirato hoti. musiiviidam pahaya musaviida pafivirato holi. pe.. pubba-yoga-pubba-cariya-dhamm' akkhana-nat' artha-cariyadayo purelva.Cpo A. verbal and mental actions. Absence of greed is a root.. What is its "non-fulfilment" ? Through two causes one fails in the practice of loving-kindness: through regarding friends as enemies and through impure affection. abhinniipiidii va nirodhapada va. 6 The Bodhisatta" and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kIndness for all beings. 3 Q. vaffapiida honti. In the absolute sense there is no being. kiimesu micchiiciiram pahiiya kiimesu micchiiciira pa/ivirato hoti . 2... absence of hatred is a root. Right considerationl is a root. panca maha-paricciige pariccajitva. Owing to differences in faculties.2 TEN PERFECTIONS Q. Piir. Stimmii·manasikiira.Cpo hlp. Diina-piirami(piirami is transliterated in this section). ldam bhikkhave paficamam diinam mahiidiinam aggaflflam. For the sake of benefitting all beings. Surii". pe . 4. This is called "fulfilment". they cause separation from suffering and do not lose the faculty of truth. 41: lme pana caffiiro brahmavihiirii vattii honti. It is like the relation of a father to his children. What is its "fulfilment"? When one is endowed with loving-kindness he destroys hatred... The Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kindness for all beings and resolve to benefit all beings and give them . How is it so? A... Kasmii? SattarammQ{latta ti. Thus they fulfil the perfection of virtue. Why then is it said that beings are its object? A. manifestation.erayamajjapamiidalthiina pafivirato bhikkhave ariyasiivako aparimii1)iinam sattiinam abhayam deti . • Transliteration. the Bodhisatta* and the Mahiisatta* develop loving-kindness for all beings and fulfil the ten perfections. . Now.

Thus they fulfil the perfection of patience. they acquire non-greed. 6 The Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. Thus they fulfil the perfection of truth. Cpo M. S. they do not break their promises but keep them faithfully unto life's end. dwell in the truth and keep the truth. I elucidate (further) loving-kindness and the four resolved 1.hisatta and the Mahiisatta practise lovingkindness and fulfil the ten perfections. For the sake of benefitting all beings. they practise patience and do not grow angry when others blame or hate them. they speak the truth. they regard friends. Adhillhiina. Pannii (transliteration). they identify themselves with all beings and fulfil the perfection of loving-kindness..Subjects of Meditation 189 The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness f~r all beings. 2. Nearly always this is partially transliterated. Thus they fulfil the perfection of energy. they attain to meditation. 8 The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. Sacca. they. without hatred and without attachment. without abandoning energy. Tassa mayham Aggivessana satiinusiiri villflii{lam ahosi: eSO va maggo bodhiiyiiti. 3. Thus they fulfil the perfection of renunciation. 4. Khanti. Thus they fulfil the perfection of equanimity. Upekkhii. For the sake of benefitting all beings. s The Bodhisatta and the Mahasatta [743] develop loving-kindness for all beings. jhiina. For the sake of benefitting all beings. I. Thus they fulfil the perfection of wisdom. siyii nu kho eso maggo bodhayiiti. l and enter into homelessness. equally. exert themselves at all times. Thus they fulfil the perfection of resolution. t This and all subsequent passages in italics and marked t are omitted in !be Sung edition mel1tioned before. For the sake of benefitting all beings. For the sake of benefitting all beings. 246: Na kho paniiham imiiya kalukiiya dukkarakiirikiiya adhigacchiimi u/tarim manussadhammii alamariyaflii{ladassanavisesam. Far the sake of benefitting all beings. For the sake of benefitting all beings. and in order to remove the non-merit of beings. 7 The Bodhisatta and Mahasatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. . Tassa mayham Aggivessana etadahosi: Abhijiiniimi kho paniiham pitu Sakkassa kammante sitiiya jambucchiiyiiya nisinno vivicc' eva kiimeht vivicca akusaleht dhammeht savitakkam saviciiram vivekajam pitisUkham palhamam jhiinam upasampajJa viharitii. they consider merit and non-merit. 2 The Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kindness for all beings. 7. Understanding in accordance with truth. devising clean expedients. 6. 8. 9 In these ways do the Bod. 9. indifferent ones and enemies. Nekkhamma. they rejeGt the bad and take the good. For the sake of benefitting all beings. siyii nu kho anno maggo bodhiiyiiti. Mettii. Viriya. 8 The Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kindness for all beings.4 The Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta develop loving-kindness for all beings.

Paillfil-addlffhiinarh 8acciidlffhiinarh. the resolve of truth. One dwells undisturbed in compassion . :So 8. upaaamiidhiffhiinarh. They cause the arising of the concentration of the twin-miracle3 and the concentration of the attainment of great compassion. The perfection of patience. Loving-kindness has ended. fulfil the resolve of peace. 6. serenity and insight. how it suffers!". the Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta having practised loving-kindness. 7. Through the fulfilment of serenity.fulfil the resolve of truth. A. YesiirlljJa. and hold to emancipation and concentration firmly. Yamakapiifihiirlya. 229: 2. fulfil the resolve of liberality. fulfil the four resolves. StII1IIItha. This is compassion. The resolve of wisdom fulfils insight. What is compassion? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. 8 Thereafter they cause the arising of natural knowledge 8 (?) and omniscience. 10. function and manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. the perfection of truth. the perfection of virtue and the perfection of lenunciation. they attain to all meditations. "0. Sabbaflflu1il-Riiqa. Bala. They are the resolve of truth.bhlflM. t THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF COMPASSION Q. s Here.190 Vimuttimagga THE FOUR RESOLVES Now. the resolve of peace and the resolve of wisdom. As parents who on seeing the suffering of their dear and only child. the perfection of resolution and the perfection of energy. The perfection of wisdom fulfil the resolve of wisdom. 9. vlpaasanii (transliteration). 8 the powers. The perfection of giving. Thus the Bodhisatta and the Mahiisatta having practised 10vi!1g-kindness and fulfilled the ten perfections. III. compassionate it.this t. 4 With the attainment of insight. 5 analytical knowledge. Cattiiri adillhiiniini. they are endowed with all supernormal knowledge. The order is different from D. PaJcali-Rii(IQ. the perfection of loving-kindness and the perfection of equanimity.10 Thus the Bodhisatta and the· Mahiisatta practise loving-kindness. 1 Here.ratniipatti. ciigiidiffhiinarh. namely. fulfil the four resolves and attain to two states. and gradually attain to Buddhahood. the resolve of liberality and the resolve of peace fulfil serenity. the resolve ofliberality. Mahiikaruqii. saying. jhdnas. 7 the confidences. 4. 3. having fulfiJIed the ten perfections. Paf/sambhld4. so one compassionates all beings. .

(a) PIS. Having by these means and through these activities developed the thought of compassion and repeated it. If he sees or hears of a person stricken with disease. (b) Sv.. ayaril vuccatl avihirilsii ti. 'Taflhiiya III/4lto lokasannivilso'tl . mohabandhanena .Subjects of Meditation 191 is called the practising of it.. Its benefits a. He is not affiicted. jariiya parivilrlto. Cp. Q. Harmlessness1 is its manifestation .. 'tihi duccaritehi vlppatipanno lokasanniviiso' ti passantilnam. The rest is as was fully taught above. . III.-a.. 2. He separates from impure affection. kllesbandhanena. 128-9: 'Mahilbandhanabandho lokasanniviiso . I. Thus he fiUs the four directions. (b) S. if he sees or hears of a person of perverted mind and bound with the defilements. he considers thus: "That person is stricken with suffering. I. Suffering does not prevail always. 3. or a person affected by decay. who.re equal to those of loving-kindness.1 And agRin. What is the fulfilment of compassion and what. (a) A. non-fulfilment? A. How will he escape suffering?".. 4.lokasanniviiso' ti . I. Thereafter he gradually develops (compassion) for an indifferent person and an enemy. or of a person who follows undesirable doctrines and does not follow desirable doctrines. or a person entering into ignorance. Vuttam pi c'etaril: tattha katamii avihirilii? Yii sattesu karUflii karufliifanii karufliiyitattaril karUflti-cetovimuttl.. 300: Yesaril divii ca ratio ca ahirilsfiya rato mano (-Ahirilsiiya rato ti 'so karufliisahagatena cetasii ekaril dlsam pharitvii viharati' ti evaril vuttiiya karUfliibhiivaniiya rato-Dh.. III. he will fare ill. . . . As all beings have at some previous time experienced suffering.. he considers thus: "That person is stricken with suffering. Q. tassa natth' aiilla kocl bandham mocetil aIIIIatra mayil'ti.. The non-manifestation of non-advantage is its salient characteristic. 40: Taflhiiya ut/tlito loko. When a matt fulfils compassion. he makes his mind pliant.. 129-30: 'Pailcahi kilmaguflehi rajjati lokasanniviiso' tl. having done merit in the past does not now train himself. if he sees or hears of a person who follows demeritorious doctrines and does not follow meritorious doctrines.' That yogin by these means and through these activities develops the thought of compassion for these persons and repeats it. 'atthahi micchattehi niyato . 250). (c) Dh. 982: Avihirilsii tl karuflii karUfla-pubba-bhiigopi. or a person who is full of greed.. and capable of bearing the object. . 459). Ahimsii.. avihirilsii. 'Byiidihl abhlbhlito lokasanniviiso'ti .. he separates from harming and from killing.. PIS. What is the procedure? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude and sits down with mind collected and undisturbed. I. 151: Sabbhi diinaril upaiiiiatlaril ahirilsiisaililamo damo (-Ahirilsii ti karuflii c'eva karuflii-pubbabhiigo ca-Mp. Ibid. he will fare ill.he escape suffering?".. he considers thus: "That person is stricken with suffering. Then how is it possible to compassionate all beings? A. II.. they Clln grasp the sign well and practise compassion 1. Through two causes compassion is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within himself and through affliction.. Happiness is its function.3 And again. 128: 'Jariiya anusahagato lokasannlviiso'tl passantiinaril Buddhilnaril Bhagavantilnam sattesu mahiikarUflii okkamati. How will he escape suffering?". How will.. or one. All do not suffer.

192 Vimuttimagga in all places. Appreciative joy has ended. Through two causes appreciative joy is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within himself and derisive action. Destruction of dislike is its manifestation. when one sees or hears that a certain person does not follow demeritorious doctrines. he makes his mind pliant. and capable of bearing the object. What is the fulfilment of appreciative joy? What is its non-fulfilment? A. sorrow of birth and death is the common property of all beings.this is called the practising of it. Non-fear is its function. Its benefits are equal to those ofloving-kindness. on seeing the happiness of their dear and only child . When one sees or hears that some person's qualities are esteemed by others. Having by these means and through these activities developed the thought of appreciative joy and repeated it. The rest is as was fully taught above. one thinks thus: "Sadhu! siidhu! may he continue joyful for a.are glad. long time I". What is equanimity? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. Therefore all beings can in all places practise compassion. Again. function and manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? . and that he is at peace and is joyful. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in appreciative joy . Compassion has ended. When one fulfils appreciative joy. Gladness is its salient characteristic. Q. That yogin by these means and through these activities develops the thought of appreciative joy and repeats it. does not arouse impure affection and does not speak untruth. As parents. Thus with appreciative joy he fills the four directions. Thus should appreciative joy be known. And again. who. What is appreciative joy? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. or that he does not follow undesirable doctrines and that he follows desirable doctrines. "Sadhu!" so. he removes unhappiness. and say. THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF EQUANIMITY Q. What is the procedure? The new yogin enters a place of solitude and sits down with mind collected and undisturbed. The rest is as was fully taught above. Thereafter he gradually develops appreciative joy for an indifferent person and an enemy.t THE IMMEASURABLE THOUGHT OF APPRECIATIVE JOy Q. function and manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. one develops appreciative joy for all beings. one thinks thus: "Sadhu! sadhu! may he continue joyful for a long time!".

. Liking and disliking are near.C. These (loving-kindness etc. 2.) are connected with fawning. compassion and appreciative joy. He speaks concerning beings. how does he consider beings? A. This portion is not in the three editions of the Sung. compassion and appreciative joy. In three ways he attains to fixed meditation. respectively. jhlina. one is overjoyed with beings". The miscellaneous teachings are in many places unintelligible as it is here. Also it is not found in the old Sung edition. . "Beings consider thus: What is the fulfilment of equanimity? What is its non-fulfilment?". The rest is as was fully taught above.. Thus he fills the four directions. so through equanimity one maintains an even mind towards all beings.C. Thereafter. roughly about 1239 A. What is tne procedure? That yogin at first attends to the third meditation. i. he gradually develops (it) towards an enemy and then towards a friend. one destroys disliking and liking and does not cause the arising of ignorance. neither likable nor not likable. compassion and appreciative joy and the merits of equanimity. Having developed and repeated it. That yogin practising thus attains to the f~urth meditation. he sees the severe trials of loving-kindness. so having lived long with loving-kindness. As parents are neither too attentive nor yet inattentive towards anyone of their children. Q. develops equanimity towards a neutral person! and makes the mind calm.Subjects oj Meditation 193 A.. The dwelling undisturbed in equanimity-this is called the practising of it. compassion and appreciative joy.. When equanimity is fulfilled. and removing joy. through equanimity.C. Equality is its function. Q. he induces equanimity. calm down. jhlina. Lit. through comprehending village-domains and through comprehending all directions. The merits of equanimity lie in the overcoming of these severe trials. belonging to the library of the Japanese Imperial Household. 1104-1148 A. Having attained to the third meditation. but regard them equally and maintain an even mind towards them. with loving-kindness. through comprehending beings. Thus should equanimity be known. That yogin. Its benefits are equal to those of loving-kindness. having been with him for sometime. When the yogin practises equanimity. Through two causes equanimity is not fulfilled: through resentment produced within oneself and through the arising of ignorance. Non-attachment is its salient characteristic. What follows is unintelligible. and 1601 A.. 3. the yogin attains to equanimity. The yogin considers thus: "In loving-kindness.e. The suppression of disliking and liking is ills manifestation. jhlina. Yuan and Ming dynasties. with compassion and with appreciative joy. 1290 A. jhlina. there is a man.8] and later.C. 2 MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS Again I elucidate the meaning of the four immeasurables. and acquired facility therein. And again. having seen the severe trials of loving-kindness. he makes his mind pliant and capable of bearing the object. As a man might leap for joy on meeting a long-lost friend [43.t What are the miscellaneous teachings concerning the four immeasurables?3 1. elation and gladness.

one accomplishes equanimity. compassion and appreciative joy. Were that so. And again. 360: Kalamo ca bhikkhave asankhalagiimi'maggo. 219: Tayo samiidhi. Equanimity is the purification of loving-kindness. moral persons. IV. attained ~n loving-kindness. The Blessed One has declared: "Further.4 Q. owing to the object which comprises beings. Again the plane of equanimity belongs to the fourth meditation. you should develop the concentration which is with initial and sustained application of thought. (you shonld develop that which is without joy). you should develop that which is accompanied by equanimity. avitakko aviciiro samiidhi (-Samiidhisu pa/hama-jjhiina-samt'idhi savitakka- . jhtina. because it is endowed with two kinds of equanimity. you should develop that which is without initial. jhtina. Therefore the third meditation. Why is the third and not the fourth meditation. Lit. 3 Dwelling in the plane of equanimity and regarding all beings with equal favour. one. jhtinas. III. Through constant dwelling on the sorrows (of others) one develops loving-kindness. Dhammassa majjhaltatii. 1008: Appamafiiili tipamiil}Qm agahelvii anavasesa-pharava-vasena appamafifiii. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave asankhatagiimi maggo. are produced with the four immeasurables. If one arouses (in oneself) hatred. III. the third meditation. And again. (a) S. cruelty. Q. Cpo Sv. dislike and lust. and only with. compassion and appreciative joy. Further. it is said that these four are (overcome with) only loving-kindness. without sustained application of thought (viciira) with only initial application of thought (vilakka) which is evidently an error. is attained and not the fourth. avitakko viciira-malto samiidhi. (b)D. Thus owing to the suppression of tribulation. compassion and appreciative joy? A. Cp. namely. 1. 0 bhikkhu. Savilakko saviciiro samiidhi. you should develop that which is with joy. 2. 4. Silent Buddhas and Supreme Buddhas regarding them as a mother regards her children according to their stage in life! (lit. it should be understood that the four immeasurables are of one nature though their signs are different.194 Vimuttimagga One attains to distinction in the four immeasurables through practising (them) towards animals. through suppressing them in the four ways. you should develop that which is without initial and without sustained application of thought. is produced. attains to distinction. seasons). sustained application of thought. Owing to the nature of the planes of the three immeasurables. hearers. neutral feeling2 and neutrality as regards states. in order to overcome hatred. owing to the wish to benefit. they fulfil one characteristic. (And so no equanimity is present). cruelty. jhtina. Savitakko saviciiro samiidhi avilakko viciiramalto samiidhi avitakko aviciiro samiidhi. one accomplishes the four immeasurables. and not the fourth. Vedanupekkhii. Why are these four immeasurables and not five or three taught? A. jhtina. 3. those who dislike passion. because through it hatred and lust are destroyed. And again. immoral persons. uncertainty might arise concerning all. unhappiness. it is said that the four meditations.

. na tato paramo Tasma subha-parama ti vutta-Spk. ·. Sace aka#hati appa/ikkiile ca palikkiile ca palikkiilasdflfli vihareyyanti. Sabbaso va pO/lQ iikiisallllficiiyatanam samatik. Sace iikalikhati appalikkulaflca pa/ikkulafica tad ubhayam abhinivajjetvii upekhako vihareyyam sato sampajiino tl. uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. Sace akalikhati patikkiile ca appa{ikkule ca appalikkulasafifii vihareyyantl. subhaparamaham ( = • Kasma pan' etasam metttidillllm subha-paramadita vutta Bhagavata ti? Sabhagavasena tassa tassa upanissayata..Subjects of Meditation 195 And again.. Why are they to be understood thus? A. upekha me cetovimutti bhtivita .. Idha paflflassa bhilckhuno.·· in the sphere of (infinite) consciousness.. 1. bhikkhave mettacetovimuttim vadami. kamma allllntam viflflii{lan ti viflflii{laflciiyatallllm upasampajJa viharati. appatikiilasafifii tattha v/harati.. Seso m. Idha paflflassa bhikkhuiro uttarim vimuttim appalivijjhato tl.. Katham bhavita ca bhikkhave karll{lacetovimuttl kithgatika hotl kimparama kimphala kimpariyosana? . pe . How? A.300: Metta me cetovimutti bhtivita bhavissati bahulikata yanikata vatthukatii anullhita paricita susamaraddhii ti. iikiisiinaflciiyatanaparamiiham·· bhikkhave karU{liicetovimuttim vadami.. Because they are always dear to hiin.t in the sphere of nothingness. Sabbaso va pana vififliinaficiiyatallll1h samatlkkamma IIIltthl killeiti iiklflcafllliiyatanam upasampajJa viharati. nippitikam pi bhtiveyyiisi satasahagatam pi bhtiveyyiisi. palikkiilasaflfli tattha viharatl .. . •. vossaggaparilJiimim. tato te bhikkhu evam sikkhitabbam:Karu{la me cetovimutti . .. Idha paflflassa billkkhuno uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. . Sabbaso Vii pallll riipasaflfliilitlm samatikkamii patighasafifliinam atthagamii niinattasafiiiiillllm ama/lllSikiirii allllnto iikiiso tl iikiisiinaflciiyatanam upasampajja vihorati. Katham bhiivltii ca bhikkhavlI muditacetovlmutti kithgatika hoti klmparama kimphata kimpariyosiinii ? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu muaftiisahagatam satisambojJhaligam bhavetl . avitakkam pi avicaram bhtiveyyiisi. palikku(Qsafifli tattha viharati. So sace akalikhati appalikkiile palikkiilasa.. upekkhtisahagatam pi bhaveyyiisi. avitakko-avicar~v. They should be understood thus because of their being the sufficing condition.. So sace iikalikhatl appalikkiile palikkiilasaflfli vihareyyantl. . as the Blessed One taught in the Hali. Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu karu{liisahagatam satisambojJhaligam bhaveti . kimpariyosiinii? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu upekhiisahagatmh satisambojJhaligam bhiivetl. If one develops the mind of loving-kindness. compassion is first. it is said that owing to the distinction in states.· in the sphere of (infinite) space. anullhita parlcita susamaraddhii ti. avitakkam pi viciiramattam bhaveyyiisi. Sace iikalikhati appatikkiilafica palikk/ilaflca tad ubhayam abhinivajjetvii ul1ekhako vihareyyam sato sampajano ti. Kathath bhiivitii ca bhikkhave upekhiicetovimuttl. A1ciiicaflfiiiyatO/lQparamahamt bhikkhave upekhiicetovimuttim vadiiml.. IV. appreciative joy is first. Yato kho te bhikkhu ayam samadhi evam bhtivito hoti subhavito. V... 119-21: Katham bhavita ca bhikkhave mettqcetovimutti kilhgatika hoti kimparama kimphala kimpariyosana? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu mettiisahagatam satisambojjha!igam bhtiveti . upekhako taltha viharatl sato sampajiino. .liii vihareyyanti... karUlJiisahagatam upekhiisambojJhaligam bhiiveti . VlfIfIii{laficiiydtallllparamahamt bhikkhave muditiicetovimuttim vadami. (c) A.. . Q. Iti metta subha-vimokhassa upanissayo hoti. he causes his mind Paficaka-lIIlyellll dutiya-jjhiina-samiidhi avitakka-vicaramatto.. owing to the appropriation of object (?) and advantage. Subham va kho pallll vimokkham upasampajJa viharati. Evam hi te bhikkhu sikkhitabbam. aU beings are dear to him.t Q. tato tvam bhikkhu imam samadhim savitakkam pi savicaram bhtiveyyiisi. Yato kho te bhikkhu ayam samadhi eva. muditiisahagatam upekhiisambojjhaligam bhiivetl . they are different. Mettaviharissa hi satta appa{ikkiila honti.. sav/caro.. 172-3).. loving-kindness is first. equanimity is first".ddavasana Sutta1 : "In the sphere of the beautiful.. mudita me cetovimutti .. Idha pafiflassa bhikkhuno uttarim vimuttim appativijjhato. mettiisahagatam upekhiisambojJhaligam bhtiveti viveka' viraga' nirodhanissitam vossaggaparil}iimiri/. Sace akalikhati palikkiile appalikkiilasaflfli vihareyyanti..jano.. nI. . appalikkiilasafifii tattha viharati. upekhako tattha viharati sato sampr. S. . pa/ikkiilasafifii tattha vihorati.h bhtivito hoti bahulikato. Ath'assa appa{ikkiila-paricaya appatikkiilesu parisuddha-vQ{l{lesu niladisu cittafi upasathharato appakasiren' eva tattha cittam pakkhandati.. 1003). sappitikam pi bhtiveyyt1sl.

akiiicaiiiiayiltana. After that. Iti karulJa akasanaiicayatanassa. he grasps the object of limitless consciousness. ill. in the sphere of the infinity of' consciousness. depending on loving-kindness which he has developed in the fourth meditation. 2 That yogin surpasses the sphere of the infinity of space through appreciative joy.-Spk. and attains to fixed meditation. 4. 172-3) passage marked * included in note 1 under mettti. page 195. jhdna. He practises loving-kindness. and is not attached to anything. His mind is not 1. when he practises appreciative joy. Q. Therefore. of the element of form. He attains to fixed meditation. That yogin. page 195. How? (Through) this appreciative joy (the yogin) attains to fixed meditation. "This being gets happiness". jhdna. jhtina. What is the meaning? A. yellow (or other) colour kasi1)a. page 195. . Freed from form and attached to space. Iti mudita villlliilJQifcayatanassa upanissayo hoti. upanissayo hoti. Q. Or he depends on joy or bliss. Therefore it is said that compassion is first in the sphere of the infinity of space. and attains to fixed meditation. How? If one does not practise equanimity. surpasses that (element). na tato paramo Tasma' 'viiiiitilJQiiciiyatana-paramii' II vutta. ill.196 Vimuttimagga to consider the blue-green. na tato paramo Tasma 'akasanaiicayatanaparama' tl vutta. without difficulty. That yogin. Karu{lii-vihtirissa daIJ4iibhighatddi-riipa-nimittam sattadukkham samanupassantassa karulJaya pavatti-sambhavato riipe adinavo -suparividito hoti. Thereafter he turns away from all attachment.jhtina. without difficulty. being not attached. he considers limitless consciousness and through contemplating many objects. because he depends on it. 2. of the element of form. See Comy. Lit. That yogin transcends the sphere of the infinity of consciousness through equanimity. he attains to fixed meditation without difficulty. 173-<:omment on passage marked t. practising equanimity fulfils freedom from attachment. appreciative joy is first. through contemplation on beings in the un-attached sphere of the infinity of consciousness. He causes the mind to consider the abandoning of forms and of space. At this time the yogin accomplishes' the fourth meditation. being comment on sutta passage marked ** in note 1. Mudita-viharissa pana tena tena pamojja-karalJena uppanna-pamojja-sattanalil viiiiiiilJQm samanupassantassa muditaya pavatti-sambhavato viiiiialJQ-ggahana-paricitalil cittam hoti. What is the meaning of it? A. jhtina. (Spk. Ath'assa anukkamadhigatam tikiisanaiicayatanam atikkamma iikiisa-nimitta-gocare viiiiiave cittam upasalhharato appakasiren' eva tattha cittam pakkhandati. (or this being) "gets suffering". contemplates on limitless consciousness. How is that shallow? A. How? Seeing the sufferings of beings he develops loving-kindness through a material cause. he will be attached (to things) and (think).-Spk. 173. lll. Ath' assa suparividitarupadinavatta pathavi kasilJadisu aFliiataram ugghatetva rupa-nissaralJe akase clttam upasalilharato appakasiren' eva tattha cittam pakkhandati. without difficulty in the sphere of the infinity of space. After that he understands the tribulations of the element of form. therefore he knows the tribulations of the element of form. 3. He turns away from the sphere of the infinity of consciousness' and is happy. Therefore loving-kindness is first in (the sphere of) the beautifuP At that time the yogin. 3 Q. jhdna.

its place. What are its benefits? There are eight benefits: One who practises the determining of the four elements overcomes fear. 3. Apo-dhtitu. He understands this body through understanding flesh. having under1. its place. That yogin enters a place of solitude." In this way one grasps the elements briefly. and with mind collected considers thus: "This body should be known by the four elements. Tejo-dhatu.' There is no soul". Q. Pathnvi-dhiitu. He understands the nature of the whole body through understanding the midriff. Ath' assa paramattha-ggahato vimukha-bhiiva-parieita-eittassa paramatthato avijjamana-ggllhal. dukkhato va vimuccantu.that is the fiery element. 4. There is no being. 6. 5. Upekkhii-viharissa pana 'salta sukhita va hontu. That yogin. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind (in determining) .4 (there is) the nature of heat . . its colour. is endowed with great wisdom.Subjects of M'editation 197 attached to any object. The removing of the thought of being" is its manifestation. p. Again it is said that the 'yogin grasps the elements briefly. He is able to perfect all his actions.lassa abhtive cittam upasarizharato appakasiren' eva taltha eittam pakkhandati. What is the grasping of the elements briefly? A. fares well and approaches the ambrosial. its place. equanimity is first. t THE DETERMINING OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS Q.la-dukkham eiltam hoti. its form. Nissatta nijjiva. destroys the idea of male and female. is even-minded towards desirable and undesirable (objects).6 Thus in this body there are only elements. Viiyo-dhatu. na tato paramo Tasma 'akiiieaiiiiayatanaparama' ti vulta ti.3 (there is) the nature of humiditythat is the watery element . Close investigation of the four elements is its salient characteristic. 1 Miscellaneous teachings have ended.Spk. Thus that yogin grasps the elements briefly.this is called the practising of it. The understanding of emptiness is its function. its colour.lanaiieayatanam samatikkama-sabhavato avijjamiine paramatthabhUtassa viiiiial. i and· 8. sampaltasukhato va ma vigacchantu' ti abhogabhiivato sukha-dukkhiidihi paramaltha-ggaha-vimukhasambhtivato avijjamana-ggahal. To discern the four elements within one's form . III. 2. Why? Because in the sphere of nothingness he cannot be attached either to consciousness or to infinity. He' understands the body through understanding the midriff. its form. in the sphere of nothingness. Iti upekkhti akiiieaiiiitiyatanassa upanissayo hoti. Therefore. its form. function and manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A.this is called distinguishing the four elements. 173-4-comment on sutta passage marked t in note 1. 229. worldly pleasure and discontent. See note 2. His states of mind are clear. Satta.la-dukkha-eiltassa ea anukkamiidhigatam viiiilal. There is in this body the nature of solidity-that is the earthy element.5 (there is) the nature of motion-that is the element of air. page 195). its colour. What is the procedure? The new yogin grasps the elements in two ways: briefly and in· detail. What is the determining of the four elements? What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic..

That yogin. . excrement. heart. their colour. in these four (other) ways knows that which has the nature of solidity as the element of earth. grease.1 the air which depends on the limbs. teeth. saliva. intestines. bones. These are called the element of fire. FOUR WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF FIRE One grasps the element of fire in detail through four ways. 2. Thus one grasps the elements briefly. 2 1. their place. their place. that which has the nature ofmotion as the element of air. its colour. understands tIris whole body through understanding the veins. weather. marrow. sweat. the air discharged downwards. TWELVE WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF WATER One grasps the element of water in detail through twelve ways. their place. the air which depends on the abdomen. he makes his mind pliant and capable of bearing the object. spleen.-a. pus. kidneys. that which has the natut'e of heat as the element of fire. in these four ways. [439] urine (that are) in the body. having understood the whole body through understanding the veins. veins. S: Vala Ii kucchivata-pillhivatiidi-vasena vedilahba. (through) bile. Thus that yogin. Netti 74: Katamehi chahi tikarehi vayodatum vitthiirena parlglJ1. TWENTY WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF EARTH How does one grasp the elements in detail? One grasps the element of earth in detail through twenty ways. their form. skin. that which has the nature of humidity as the element of water. namely. tears. understands the whole body through understanding the bones. blood. their form. lungs. equality of cold and heat and (the heat) by means of which one digests the fluid or solid nutriment which one takes. synovial fluid. mesentery. (through) hair of the head and of the body. That yogin in these four ways dominates his mind. nasal mucus. having in these four ways dominated his mind and having made his mind pliant and capable of bearing the object. their colour. namely. its place. their form. namely. SIX WAYS OF GRASPING THE ELEMENT OF AIR One grasps the element of air in detail through six ways. namely. slobber. (through) fever heat and normal heat of the body. liver.l/u'jli? Uddharilgamd vata adhogamd vata kucchisaya vata kollhasaya vala ancamtlllciinl/Siirino vala assiiso passiiso. midriff. brain (that are) in this body. sinews. fat. Vbh. nails. Mter dominating his mind. gorge. their colour. (through) " the air discharged upwards. flesh. knows that there are only elements and that there is no being and no soul. the air inhaled and exhaled. its form.198 Vimuttimagga stood the whole body through understanding flesh. That yogin. the air which depends on the back. Here the other ways also are fulfilled.

they are illusory. "I declare the size 0/ earth to be two hWldred thousand nahutas and/our.· characteristic. They are great. through the meaning or terms. aggregation. only the elements manifest themselves.Iato. 6. How should one determine the elements through terms? A. powder. Porii(lij. but appear real·and are called primaries. namely. Four hundred thousand nahutas and eight is of water the bulk. And element is neither long nor short. predecessor-teachers1 have said that one should determine the four elements through ten ways. s. . Thus the elements are grasped in detail. Therefore they are called "primaries" "Great" : By way of yakkha and others" the term great is applied. Two terms. but they appear real. air-element are special terms.are called the primaries. & similarity and dissimilarity. Vacanatthato. in that this world of ours lies. 7. viz. Niinattekattato. Sabhiigavisabhiigato. It is seen through the form of the long and the short. There is ill the world consuming fire that will in mighty flames rise up to Brahma's world for seven days" 8 "Great manifestation" is thus. Paccayato.1'herefore they.8 non-separation. Here the four primaries are common (terms). what are called primaries are neither male nor female. An element is neither a tree nor a mountain. 4. but it is seen through the form of a tree or a mountain. Through the possession of the yakkha that man's body would manifest four qualities: 1. 7 puppet. Why is the "great manifestation" called great? The elements are "great manifestation" as the Blessed One has declared in the following stanza: . IAkkha{riitJito. e sameness and difference. Great manifestation is called primary. fire-element. Q.' How do the primaries that are unreal appear as real? A. 2. And again. 8. Q. Not traced. What is the meaning of "by way of yakkha and others"? It is as if a yakkha were to enter into a man and take possession of him. the chapter which refers to the meaning of terms is as follows :Q. condition. a. There is no being. They are seen through the form of a man or a woman. water-element. First. Q. What is the meaning of "four primaries"? A..Subjects of Meditation 199 Thus when one sees this body in forty-two ways. There is no soul. I through object. Earth-element. ClI1)I. air's in space which reckoned is at nahutas six and nine times a hundred thousand. Thus the primaries are not real. the common and the special terms.

Q. The essence of air is the airy element. And again. the nature of permeation. the nature of coldness. Through the union of the watery element fluidity is fulfilled. These are called the essence of water. rolling on is the object. the nature of thickness. water-element. (excess of) water. And . fire-element and air-element? A. the nature of warmth. These are the meanings of the elements. Through the union of the. What is called the essence of fire? The nature of heating. heat and lightness of movement. And through the union of the airy element lightness of movement is fulfilled. the nature of trickling. the nature of easy movement. Drinkabilityand preservation . These are called the essence of earth. causing to go upwards is the object. In the element of fire. the nature of security. Extensiveness and immensity are called the meaning of earth. In the element of air interception is the object. and the nature of grasping. the nature of immobility. in the element of fire. The essence of water is the watery element. What is the essence of water? The nature of oozing. in the element of earth. fiery element heat is fulfilled. the nature of fluidity. cohesion is the object. the nature of maturing. These are called the essence of fire. the nature of evaporation. upstanding is the object. maturing is the object. and the nature of grasping. the nature of reaching low. Therefore the primaries are to be known "by way of yakkha and others". In the element of water. How should one determine the elements through "objects"? A. Movement back and forth is the meaning of air. and next the essence of earth is the earthy element. the nature of consuming. What is the essence of air? The nature of supporting. THE FOUR ELEMENTS Q.200 Vimuttimagga hardness. Thus one should determine the elements through the meaning of words. and the nature of supporting. and the nature of cohesion. Primary is the meaning of the word. in the element of water. What is the meaning of earth-element. stability is the object. Lighting up is the meaning of fire. In the same way' the four elements in union with the body fulfil four qualities. Through the union of the earthy element hardness is fulfilled. In the element of earth. in the element of air. These are called the essence of air. flowing down is the object. the nature of strength. What is the essence of carth? The nature of hardness. the nature of ingress and egress. The essence of fire is the fiery element.these constitute the meaning of water. the nature of humidity. What is the meaning of element? It means the retention of own form. the nature of leaping. the nature of increasing.

.. And owing to the proximity of two elements. This combination is. 3 This earth is mixed with water. aggregation of earth. there are four kinds. therefore it does not scatter. These eight are produced generally together. in order. one afterwards gets up and walks. the water-element. Tam kissa hetu? Atthi dvuso amusmim diirUkkhanelhe l!. . . aggregation of water.lam na papUl. become less. One determines the element of earth that is next the finest particle of space.lanti.lQm. ydyo tyeya adhimucceyya. one becomes energetic afterwards. there is lightness afterwards. In the aggregation of water. sannikkhepane pavattd sannirumbhanam na piipul. at. become less. become less.the fire-element. and . Cp.le palhavielhiitu iipodJiiitu ti dye dhiituyo omattd honti mandd. Vossajjane tejodhiitu-vdyodhdtuyo omattd honti mandd.· .. and the' earth-element. Owing to the proximity of two elements. and the water-element. aggregation of fire and aggregation of air. Tathd atiharal. it rolls.lesu. named aggregation.. first. Q.le pavattd vitiharal. the air-element and the fire-element gradually.IQnti. . How should one determine the four primaries through .. vitlhara1.•. the fire-element and the air-element gradually. vossajjane pavattd sannikkhepanam. Being matured by fire.'powder"? A. Owing to the proximity of two elements.. I being sUPl'orted by air. and the earth-element. yam nissdya bhikkhu iddhimii. owing to the proximity of two elements. in order. 2. Akll1ilChamano dvuso bhikkhu iddhimii cetovasippatto amum diirukkhandham dpo tveva adhimucceyya .le pavattd vossajjanam. . in order. one. one at first sits or sleeps. Akiisaparamiinu. and afterwards. Owing to the proximity of two elements. 3.. the fire-element and the air-element. the air-element and the water-element gradually. In the aggregation of earth. Akarikhamano iivuso bhikkhu iddhimd cetovasippatto amum diirUkkhandharil palhavi tveva adhimucceyya.. (in stepping forward) raises up one foot. I. 260-61: Tass' evaril abhikkamato ekekapiiduddharal. the air-element predominates. pe. become less. .Passatha no tumhe dvuso amum mahantam diirukkhandhan ti? Evam iivuso ti. pe. And again. predecessors have said: "If pulverized into dust. Itard dye adhimattd honti balavatiyo. Owing to the proximity of two elements. A. the earth-element in the body of an average person will amount to one koku 1. palhavi tveva adhlmucceYYII. Tathd sannikkhepana-sannirumbhanesu. In the aggregation of fire.Subjects of Meditation 201 again.alhavidhiitu. How should one determine the four primaries through "aggregation"? Aggregation consists of the earth-element. ill. one lifts up the (other) foot. itard dye adhimattd balavatiyo. rigidity and torpor are induced. Tattha tatth' eva pabbapabbam sandhisanelhim oelhi-oelhim hutva tattakapdle pakkhltta-tild viya talataldyantd bhijjanti. Tathii atihara1. 340·41: Atha kho dyasmd sariputto . the water-element predominates. By means of-these elements form. the earth-element predominates. t Thus one should determine the elements through "aggregation". Again. Cp. at first. Thus one should determine. Tattha uddharaQe pavattd rilpdrupadhammd atiharal. the fire-element predominates. ailliatarasmim padese mahantam diirUkkhandham disvd bhikkhU iimantesi:. they co-exist and do not go apart. tela tvlva aelhimucceyya. it is odourless. Thus one should determine the four primaries through "object"l.lQvitihara1. In the aggregation of air. the water-element and the earth-element gradually. there is heaviness in one at first.. taste and touch take place. Ps. namely. smell. in order. owing to the proximity of two elements. Owing to the proximity of two elements.

3.The four primaries that are produced from food fulfil three conditions. is matured by fire.13 presence-condition. XammJl-paccayii. is supportcd by air.dition. Nissaya-paccayii."powder". Matured by fire. The four primaries that are produced from season fulfil two conditions. the three elements are odourless. Paccayii. The other elements fulfil two conditions. the three elements roll on. . the three elements do not disperse.is matured by fire. nutriment-con. S. season and nutriment. Vipiika-paccayii. 14. producing-condition. Thus the three elements are united.8 support-condition.48 standard gallon. . 2.804litres. producing-condition. Thus the three elements are matured.S88 quart. result-condition.10 The other elements fulfil condition. 0. nutriment-. The· earth-element is held together by water. Q. namely. is matured by fire. What are the four? They are kamma. namely. How should one determine the body through "non-separation"? A.and presence-condition. Q. lndriya-paccayil. is supported by air. consciousness. The three elements rest on earth. 8. Thus one determines the elements through non-separation. 5 Consciousness:. namely. Held together by water. it is caused to roll by the wind". Matured by fire.11 support-condition and presence-condition. The element of water rests on earth. 4. Four causes and four conditions produce the elements. Ahiira-paccayil. and dwelling together. support-condition and presence-condition. Afllla-mtdIiID-paccayil. Thus the three elements are supported. What is kamma? The four elements that are produced from kamma fulfil two conditions. 1. post-nascence-condition/' support-condition . f!panissaya-paccayii• Saha-jiita-paccayii. namely.' The other elements fulfil the decisive-support-condition. 8 faculty-condition. it will become six sho and five gO. 1. the producing-condition3 and kamma-condition. l Then. Thus the four elements in mutual dependence dwell and do not separate. Pacchii-jiita-paccayii. The element of fire rests on the earth.6. 1 koku-l0 sbo. producing-condition and presence-condition.The four elements that are produced from consCiousness fulfil six conditions. 11. they do not scatter. 10 go-l sbo-1. Nutriment:. 13. 7 nutrimentcondition. is held together by water. Thus one should determine the body through . co-nascence-condition. namely. Janalul-paccayii. namely. 10. if mixed with water. Atthi-paccayii.12 support-condition. is supported by air.2. . mutuality-condition. Thus the three elements are held together. 9 presence-condition. condition and presence-condition. The element of air rests on earth. In the consciousness at the moment of entry into the womb. 7. Supported by air. The other elements fulfil two conditions. is held together by water. namely. faculty-condition. 12. The consciousness of the birth-to-be fulfils three conditions in regard to the pre-born body. corporeality fulfils seven conditions. co-nascence-condition. How should one determine the elements through "condition"? A.202 Vimuttimagga and two sho. 9.

namely. The water-element becomes a condition of the other elements by way of binding. co-nascence-condition. The (portions of the) earth-element of the four causes and conditions are of one nature owing to characteristics. the eatth-element and the air-element are dissimilar. namely. are different owing to differing nature of consciousness. the air-elem!'nt is able to destroy the earth-element. The characteristic of the earth-element is hardness. are of one nature owing to their impermanence. (Elements that are mutually dependent) fulfil four conditions. owing to their being great. [440] How should one determine the elements through "characteristic"? A. are of one nature owing to their being not-self. the fire. are of one nature owing to their suffering. are of one nature owing to their being things. The fire-element becomes a condition of the other elements by way of maturing. Thus one determines the elements according to "similarity and dissimilarity". The characteristic of the air-element is coldness. The fire-element and the air-element are similar because of lightness. Q. And again. Q. Thus one determines the elements according to "characteristic". because they arel produced from kamma.Subjects of Meditation 203 namely. are different owing to the differing nature of the season. from the point of characteristics they are different. Owing to mutuality. Here the four elements that are produced by kamma are co-nascent elements. are different owing to the different . presence-condition. are different owing to object. The earthy element and the watery element are similar because of ponderability. The four elements are of one nature owing to their being elements. produced from season and produced from food. In the same way one should know those that are produced from consciousness. They are different owing to characteristics. The air-element becomes a condition of the other elements by way of supporting. How should one determine the elements through "similarity and dissimilarity" ? A. mutuality-condition. Therefore they are dissimilar. In the same way one should know the air-element. The characteristic of the water-element is oozing. Other elements fulfil two conditions. The four elements that are produced from kamma are of one nature. primaries. from season and from nutriment. The water-element and the fire-element are dissimilar. The characteristic of the fire-element is heating. Thus one should know (the elements) produced from consciousness.element and the water-element of the four causes and conditions. are different owing to kamma. Thus one determines the elements through "condition". therefore they are dissimilar. from the point of cause they are different. The water-element can destroy the dryness of the fire-element. The earth-element hinders the passage of the air-element. the four elements are similar owing to mutuality or they are dissimilar owing to their natural characteristics. support-condition and presence-condition. How should one determine the elements through "sameness and difference"? A. support-condition. The earth-element becomes a condition of the other elements by way of resting-place. support-condition and presence-condition.

sit or squat through the pulling of strings. the formations and consciousness. dwell. the paint is the skin. and makes these walk. there is no soul". Thus one determines the elements through "sameness and difference". IS}.' Ill. The first beginning of such a puppet cannot be seen. again a new puppet will arise. 193-94: Caram vu yadi vu tiftham. converse or speak. or come in. sammiiijeti pasureti. and the faculty of life 2 keeps these puppets going. Thoughts (of men and women) are to be known as the tugging by the element of air. I. I. SIMILE OF THE PUPPET Q.: Anamataggayam bhikkhave samsiiro pubbukoti na paflfliiyati avijjanivaralJ<inam sattanam talJhasamyojananam sandhavata. are different owing to the differences in birth. S. Thus these puppets are called bodies. are different owing to differences of arising. born together with the element of consciousness. are different owing to differences of nature.204 Vimuttimagga nature of nutriment. the clay is flesh. also. the master of puppets is the past defilement by which. perception. Afthinaharusamyutto tacamamsuvalepano Chaviyu kuyo paticchanno yaihabhuram na dissati. I. (a) Sn. and that the Noble 1. 3 Thus one determines the elements through "puppet". the interstices are space.-esu kuyassa iiljana. raiment and ornaments (they) are called men and women.tha kayoyuti vulahato ayam. is the source of suffering. 1 These puppet-men. When that yogin has investigated through the object of the elements and through the arising of feeling. Thus they walk. dance. nisinno uda vu sayam. this body is made complete. and he discerns that in the destruction of craving lies the destruction of suffering. The ending oflife results in the dismembering of the puppet. 197: Abbhantare atta nama koci sammiiljento va pasarento va n'atthi. the strings are the tendons. 178. complete in every part. go out. in the form of man or woman.:~va cittasuttllvasen' idam payuttam kayayaiztam pi yati thatinisidati. are subject to anxiety. And that yogin by these ways and through tliese activities discerns this body through "puppet" thus: "There is no being. 2. They laugh or frolic or shoulder. Thenceforward he sees that name-and-form is suffering. Ko nama ettha so satto yo vina hetupaccaye attano anubhavena titthe vu yadi vu vaje' ti. n.' are different owing to differences in faring. grief and suffering through the causes and conditions of anxiety and torment. How should one determine the elements through "puppet"? A. It is comparable to a skilful master of puppets who makes of wood (effigies) of humans. 149. stretch out. Yantasuttavesen'. Jivitindriya. 3. Sv. (c) Ps. (b) Ps.. is craving. Food sustains these puppets. he discerns name and form. . (By) jeweis. Vutta-ppakara-citta-kiriya-vuyodhiitu-vippharena pana suttakat/tlhana-vasena daru-yantassa hattha-pada-lu/anam viya sammiiijana-pasaralJam hoUti evam pajiinanam pan' ettha asammoha-sampajailiian ti veditabbam. the end of such a puppet cannot be seen. draw in. 265. 252: "Nuvu mulutavegena jiyuvegenJ tejanam Yatha yati ta. If there happens to be defiling kamma./ samsaratam.

2. Thus that yogin discerns the Four Noble Truths fully. But after these foods enter into the body. THE LOATHSOMENESS OF FOOD Q. bojjhatiga. He sees the merit of the destruction of suffering through wisdom.Subjects of Meditation 205 Eightfold Path leads to the complete destruction of suffering. They are relished of the people. 1. sits down with mind composed ah. and through aggregation. Jeyya. I He makes manifest the consciousness that proceeds from perception of the formations and attains to the element of the most excellent. One develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food in five ways: through (the task of) searching for it. through receptacle. Always attending to these. licked. Not answered in comment. function. tranquillity and dispassion. 580: Rasesu anugiddhassa jhiine na ramati mano. 5 knows and knows well this perception. Khajja. drunk or eaten. his mind is undisturbed. attending to the loathsomeness of what in the form of nourishment is chewed. What are its benefits? The yogin can acquire eight benefits: He who develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food knows the nature of morsels of food. . he approaches the ambrosial. he knows the perception of impurity. 2 The determining of the four elements has ended. At that time he sees the tribulation of suffering through impermanence. rotten. baTa. Sappi-rnm. the powers and the factors of enlightenment.d undisturbed. Their colour and smell are perfect. he understands fully the five-fold lust. loathsome. 6. 3. abominable". seeing the tribulation of suffering and the merits of cessation. they become impure. Indriya. his mind shrinks from desiring what is tasty. The yogin. he develops fully the mindfulness as to the interior of his body. Disagreeableness is its function.peyya. In this way that yogin. bhojja. and considers the loathsomeness of what in the form of nourishment is chewed. The undisturbed dwelling of the mind in this perception is the practising of it.uIa dhiitu.6 he fares well. drunk or eaten as follows: "Such and such are the several hundred sorts of tasty food cooked clean. 4. What is the procedure? The new yogin enters into a place of solitude. sorrow and not-self. This is called the perception of the loathsomeness of food. They are fit for great nobles. The understanding of the disadvantages of food is its salient characteristic. through (the thought of) grinding it. Cpo Th. 5. through oozing. Ahiire palikkiiTa saiiilii. licked. near cause' and manifestation? What are its benefits? What is the procedure? A. What is the perception of the loathsomeness of food?3 What is the practising of it? What are its salient characteristic. dwells peacefully endowed with the faculties. The· overcoming of desire is its manifestation. he knows the material aggregate.

206 Vimuttimagga Q. How should the yogin develop the perception of the loathsomeness of food through (the task of) "searching for it"? A. In the text this precedes the previous sentence. The ground is flat and exceedingly clean. He has to go to the places where evil-doers live. This place where the homeless man trains for enlightenment is like the dwelling of Brahma. And again. groves and water which captivate the mind of others. he sees that such beings commit diverse evil actions such as eagerly searching for things. He traverses steep paths. elephants and other animals gather and the places where dogs and pigs live. He has to tread on mud or excreta 1. Th. yathii gamo tatha tayo koliihalam tatuttarin Ii. yuiljassu satthu vacane mahesino. he develops dislike through the thought: "Impure urine and excrement are due to drink and food". Thus these beings perform evil. In that prosperous field which the good man cultivates.lii sucittapattacchadana vihamgama sumailjughasatthanifiibhigajjino te tam ramissanti vanamhi jhaJiinam. . the yogin stirs up the thought of tribulation in his mind as follows: "Drink and food are impure. Cp. And again. Thus abandoning.' Seeing that. sees the dwelling of the homeless man in the clean forestretreat where fragrant flowers bloom. he begs for food. Further. he. he should look for the highest bliss. wind and dust. they commit many evil deeds such as killing and thieving (for the sake of food). VUffhamhi cleve caturangule til)e sampupphite meghanibhamhi kiinane nagantare vifapisamo sayissam tam me mudu hohili tiilasannibham. With bowl in hand. When he (the homeless man) begs. (Leaving such a place) the homeless man goes in search of food in cold and heat. 245: 4. Seeing food thus. men admire them with awe.MUI)r/o vir{. 3. Yathii Brahmii tatha eko yathii devo tatM duve. 1118: . reciting (the Law) and developing concentration always. 3 In such a place the mind is unfettered. deceiving and pretending to be energetic. mud and rain. the yogin sees the practice of the homeless man. he sees that these beings are the recipients of various forms of suffering and are killed or deprived of liberty. and he. and in begging enters others' houses. Cpo Th. Sunilagivii susikhii supekhul.1 THE DWELLING OF THE HOMELESS And again. Kadii mayiirassa sikhal)r/ino vane dijassa sutvii girigabbhare rutam paccu(fhahitvii amatassa pattiyii samcifitaye tam nu kadii bhavissali. For that orie goes in search of food".po abhisapam iigaf() kapalahattho 'va kulesu bhikkhasu. where birds sing and the cry of the wild is heard. This yogin sees that many beings encounter trouble in searching for drink and food. Variihael)eyyavigalhasevite pabbhiirakiite pakafe 'va sundare navambunii piivusasittakiinane tahim guhagehagato ramissasi. are shadows of trees. itissu mam ci/ta pure niyuiijasi." Seeing this. so there is nothing uneven. he has to pass the places where fierce horses. Here are no quarrels and noises. They come out in the form of excrement and urine. 540: Supupphite Sitatane sitale girikandare 1103: 1135: 1136: 1137: gattiini parisiilcitvii cankamissiimi ekako. 2. Cpo Th. enjoys the practice of good deeds.

These foods are digested by heat and mixed with new and old impurities. That yogin sees a man who. face and eyes. By flowing. ghiisesanam chinnakatho na ylicam payutam bhtu. They are eaten by hundreds of kinds of worms. and he amuses disagreeableness as regards food thus: "This searching for food is most hateful. and one part is assimilated with the body. How should one develop the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "oozing" 'I A. 711-12: Na muni giimam iigamma kulesu sahasii care. 'A lattham yad. grinds it in his mouth. silently. they flood the body. He kneads it with his hand.Subjects of Meditation 207 in unclean places. They cause to set up one hundred and one parts 1. How could I take this food'll will simply beg from others" Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "searching for it". Q. Further. Q. for sometime.u!. Q. he doubts as regards obtaining alms. having searched for and obtained drink and food. 1 This yogin thinks: "This man's food is like dog's food". . one part sustains the body. He has to conceal his body with a cloth. He has to stand at the gates of other's houses. This drink and food which flow become hair of the head and the body. by mixing it with fish sauce. gathers it with his lips. He makes the (solid food) soft. the loathsomeness of food through "aggregation"? A. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "oozing". Q. one part becomes urine. Thus they become most repugnant. unites it with his saliva and serum. Like fermented liquor escaping from a broken vat. How should one develop the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "receptacle" 'I A. Thus through flowing. they enter into the veins. pounds it with his teeth. they are digested. It is like one's vomit thrown into an unclean vessel. They ooze out of nine openings and ninety-nine thousand pores. 2. How should the yogin develop the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "grinding"? A. nails and the rest. Thin blood. 2 These are most repulsive and unsightly as the vomit of a dog. Cpo Sn. niilattham kusaliim iti'. Thus these foods are swallowed and go into the stomach mixed with impurities and remain there. How should one develop the perception of. After that they go to the intestines. turns it with his tongue. Being heated. [441] these foods separa'te into five partS: one part is eaten by worms. Lit. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "receptacle". the textures of the skin. ubhayen' eya so tiidi rukkham Ya upaniyattati. idam siidhu. sits down in front of these. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "grinding". one part is changed to heat.

208 Vimuttimagga of the body. just as it is. t The sphere of nothingness and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception are as was taught under the earth kasi{la before. Through disliking. the marks and the merits complete. one ought to know. From. That yogin by these ways and through these activities develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food. Here the stanza says:The subjects of meditation are here indicated to the yogin in brief as if a man were pointing out the way to Piitaliputta. his mind becomes free and is not distracted. The eighth chapter of the subjects of meditation has ended. He sees what lies before and what behind and with discernment viewing understands truth from untruth. Piilipufaf (transliteration).1 What's told concisely he can know in full. His mind being undistracted he destroys the hindrances. If they do not trickle out. what have been here in detail set forth. the scope of Freedom's Path. THE EIGHTH FASCICLE OF THE PATH OF FREEDOM. arouses the meditation Uhtina) factors and dwells in accessconcentration. they cause one hundred and one diseases. Thus one develops the perception of the loathsomeness of food through "aggregation" . 1. The chapter of the thirty"eight subjects of meditation has ended. namely. . The perception of the loathsomeness of food has ended.

What is the supernormal power of resolve? That yogin being one becomes many.& "Supernormal power" means "transformation". Dibbacakkhui/a(la. "Recollection of former lives" means "the remembrance of past lives". "Divine sight" means "beyond the reach of human vision". jhtina. and being many becomes one. "Knowledge of others' thoughts" means "the understanding of others' thoughts". Developing the body. This is called the supernormal power of resolve. dwells easy in the fourth meditation.' divine sight. he reaches the world of Brahma.knowledge of others' thoughts. namely. bahudha pi hutva eko hoti • ••• yava Brahmaloka pi kiiyena vasam vatteti. 207-10: Katama adillhand iddhl? Jdha bhikkhu anekaviditam icldhividham paccanubhoti: eko pi hutva bahudJui hoti. namely. 209 . 8 What is the supernormal power of transformation? That yogin discards his natural body and appears in the form of a boy or a snake 1. PubbenivQsanussatii/a(la. when that yogin. the supernormal power of transformation. Q. •• Ayam aditthana iddhi. having practised concentration. How many kinds of supernormal power are there? Who develops it? What is the procedure? THREE KINDS OF SUPERNORMAL POWER / A. 5.S recollection of former lives. II. 6. tlie supernormal power caused by mind. power of resolve. Cetopariyana(IIJ. DibbasotafUi(IIJ 3. "Divine hearing" means "beyond the reach of human audition". Cpo Pis. 2.l divine hearing. 4. JcldhividJui. supernormal power. the supernormal .THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE NINTH WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN THE FIVE FORMS OF IDGHER KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER THE NINTH Now. There are three kinds of supernormal power. he is able to cause the arising of the five forms of higher knowledge.

l"aiiiiassa samiidhivipphiirii icidhi. By the first meditation. the supernormal power accomplished by the application of the means of success.iafifia.l What is the supernormal power caused by mind? That yogin calls up from this body another body. Thus is the supernormal power diffused by concentration. Ibid. 4 1.l1JQm vijahitva kumarakavalJ1JQm va dasseti... there are seven kinds of supernormal power. This is called the supernormal power caused by mind. 210: Katama vikubbana iddhi? •. iiyasmato KhiiI. Brahmavat. the supernormal power of the Ai"iyas.lam va dasseti.u.... Ayam iiiit. one rejects the hindrances and accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by concentration. These constitute· the supernormal power of transformation. 211-12: Katamii samiidhivipphiirii icidhi? 'Palhamajjhiinena nivarat. Ayam samiidhivipphiirii icidhi.ravipphiirii iddhi.. Thus is supernormal power diffused by knowledge. namely. 2.. palillissaggiinupassaniiya iidiinassa pahiinallho ijjhatit/' iiiil)QVipphiirii iddhi.rukot. * SEVEN KINDS OF SUPERNORMAL POWER And again. What is the supernormal power diffused by concentration? A. 3 Q. iiyasmato Sarikiccassa iiii1JQvipphiira iddhi.• Ayam vikubbana iddhi. Ayasmato Siiriputtassa samiidhivipphiira icidhi. (b) A. one rejects the perception of permanence and accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by knowledge. So pakativat. 3. indaval)l)am va dasseti. nagavQl)t. By the Path of Sanctity.210 Vimuttimagga or a king of Brahmas. .lavipphiirii icidhi. I. It is as in the case of Venerable Elder Bakkula. ayasmato Saiijivassa samiidhivipphiirii iddhi. devavat. 26: Btad aggam bhikkhave mama siivikiinam upiisikiinam palhamam jhayinam yadidam Uttara Nandamata.. the supernl'nnal power born of kamma-result. readily... 0 . one rejects the perception of nothingness and accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by concentration.. 210-11: Katama manomaya iddhi? ldha bhikkhu imamha kiiyii aiiiiam kayam abhinimminiiti rupim manomayam sabbarigapaccarigam ahinindriyam . Ayam manomaya iddhi. •• pe. What is the supernormal power diffused by knowledge? A. the supernormal power of the meritorious.lam va dasseti. 4.lam va dasseti. II. Thus should supernormal power diffused by knowledge be understood. It is as in the case of the Venerable Elder Siii"iputta. the supernormal power accomplished by magic. Siimiivatiya upiisikaya samiidhlvipphiira iddhi. and endows it with all members and faculties.l1JQm va dasseti . 'nevasaiiiiiiniisaiiiiiiyatanasamiipattiy.l!ravat. By the attainment of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. according to his will.lavipphiirii iddhi? 'Anicctinupassaniiya nicca. (a) Ibid.lam va dasseti.lt. of the Venerable Elder Khii:QukoI. 211: Katama iiiit. anattiinupassanaya attasaiiiiiiya . Pts. . of the lay-sister Uttarii and of the lay-sister Siimiivati. Ibid.a iikiiicaiifliiyatanasaiiiiiiya pahiinallho ijjhatit/' samiidhivipphiirii icidhi. Uttariiya upasikiiya samadhivipphiira iddhi.lt.liinam pahanattho ijjhatiti' samadhivipphiirii icidhi. one rejects all defilements and accomplishes the supernormal power diffused by knowledge. the supernormal power diffused by concentration. Q.. By the view of impermanence. supat. the supernormal power diffused by knowledge. iiyasmato Bhatapiifassa iiiiI. yakkhavQl)t. . Ayasmato Bakkulassa iiii1JQvipphiira iddhi. of the Venerable Elder SaIikicca and of the Venerable Elder Bhtitapiila.vaiiiiiiya pahanattho ijjhatiti' iiiit. 'dukkhiinupassaniiya sukhasaiiiiiiya. jhdna.lavipphiirii iddhi.

ekacciinam manussiinam. . 2 Q. the 1.Subjects of Meditation 211 Q. apafikkiilasaiiiii taltha viharati. Q. all birds. How does one dwell perceiving repugnance in the nonrepugnant and in the repugnant? A. One diffuses the repugnant and the non-repugnant with thoughts of loving-kindness and regards them as elements. Q.utvii. aware. apafikkiilasaiiiii taltha viharati. upekkhako viharali sato sampajuno. All deities. II. What is the supernormal power born of kamma-result? A. How does one dwell perceiving non-repugnance in the repugnant and in the non-repugnant? A. Katham pa(ikkiile ca apafikkiile ca tadubhayam abhinivajjetvii upekkhako viharatl sato sampajiino? Idha bhikkhu cakkhunii rupam disvii n' eva sumano hot. dhiituto vii upasamharati. dhiituto vii upasamharati. Evam pa(ikkule ca apafikhile ca tadubhayam abhinivajjetvii upekkhako viharati sato sampajuno. What is the supernormal power of the meritorious? A. One fills the nO. sacce iikalikhati 'Apafikkiile pa/ikkiilasaiini vihareyyan' ti. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving repugnance in the repugnant and in the non-repugnant. jivhiiya rasam siiyitvii. upekkhako viharati sato sampajiino. some born in states of suffering. What is the supernormal power of the Noble Ones? A. of Jatila. aniccato vii upasamharati. sotena saddam . 2. One fills the non-repugnant and the repugnant with the thought that they are impure or regards them as impermanent. Here a bhikkhu. Ibid 213: Katamii kammavipiikajii iddhi? Sabbesam pakkhinam. sabbesam deviinam. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving non-repugnance in the non-repugnant and in the repugnant. Q. Evam patikkiile ca apa(ikkiile ca apafikkiilasaflfli viharati. the rich householder. he could dwell perceiving 'nonrepugnance. he could dwell perceiving non-repugnance. conscious and knowing separate from the non-repugnant and the repugnant? A. dwells indifferent. It is the same as to the (objects appearing at) the other doors. sace iikalikhati 'Pafikkiile ca apa/ikkiile ca apa/ikkiilasaiiiii vihareyyan' Ii. knowing. How does one dwell indifferent. Ayam kammavipiikajii iddhi. Katham apa/ikkiile pa(ikkiilasaiiiii viharati? I(thasmim vatthusmim asubhiiya vii pharati. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving non-repugnance in the repugnant. Here if a bhikkhu wishes to dwell perceiving repugnance in the non-repugnant. Evam apa(ikkiile pa(ikkUlasaflfli viharati. seeing a form with the eye is not delighted. Katham pafikkiile ca apatikkiile ca apa(ikkiilasaflfli viharati1 Anilfhasmim ca ittthasmim ca vatthusmim mettiiya vii pharati. Katham pa(ikkiile apa(ikkiilasafliii viharati? Ani!lhasmim vatthusmim mettiiya vii pharati. Pts. Q. upekkhako tattha viharati sato sampajiino. 212-13: Katamii ariyii iddhi? Idha bhikkhll sace iikalikhati 'Pa(ikkiile apafikkiilasaiiiii vihareyyan' ti. ghiinena gandham ghiiyitvii. Evam pa(ikkiile apa(ikkiilasaiiiii viharati. sace iikankhali 'Pa/ikkiile ca apafikkul~ ca tadubhayam (lbhinivajjetvii upekkhako vihareyyam sato sampajiino' ti. This is called the supernormal power of the Noble Ones. of Jotika.n-repugnant with the thought that is impure or regards it as impermanent. he could dwell perceiving repugnance. ekacciinam vinipiitikiinam. kiiyena pho//habbam phusitvii. manasii dhammam viiifliiya n'eva sumano hOli na dummano. some men. Evam apafikkiile ca pa(ikkiile ca patikkUlasaflfli viharati. It is as in the case of a wheel-king. pafikkzllasaflni taltha viharati. Katham apa(ikkaJe ca pa(ikkilJe ca palikkiilasaflni viharati? Ilfhasmim ca anilfhasmim ca vatthusmim asubhiiya vii pharati. 1 Q. This is called the supernormal power born of kammaresult. he could dwell perceiving repugnance. How does one dwell perceiving repugnance in the non-repugnant? A. pafikkiilasaiiiii taltha viharati. perform the supernormal power of traversing the sky. sace iikalikhati 'Apa(ikkiile ca pa/ikkiile ca pa/ikkUlasaflfli vihareyyan' ti. aniccato vii upasamharati. Ayam ariyii iddhi. na dummano. is not anxious.

213: Katamii puiiiiavato iddhi? Riijii Cakkavatti vehiisam gacchati saddhim caturaliginiyii sel/iiya antamaso assabandhagopake purise upiidiiya. II. pattim pi dassenti.. of the realm of form. Ghositassa gahapatissa puiiiiavato iddhi. It is said that there are nine connected with space. Ayam plliiiiavato iddhi. What is the supernormal power accomplished by magic? A. 213-14: Katham tattha tattha sammiipayogapaccayii ijjhanaffhena iddhi? 'Nekkham. develop supernormal power. This is called the.. How is supernormal power developed? A. Here a bhikkhu develops the basis of supernormal power which is endowed with the activities of endeavour and the concentration of will. Ibid. . He endeavours to preclude the arising of evil demeritorious states that have not yet arisen. piliicannari. Again it is said that two of the four meditations. develops supernormal power. What is the supernormal power accomplished by the application of the means of success. Ibid. with facility. Jafi/assa gahapatissa pufiiiavato iddhi. "Concentration" is non-distraction of the mind. by the Path of Sanctity. jhiina. and practises concentration and resolves upon the four kinds of endeavour.. it is said that it is as in the case of the five persons of great merit. MelJ4akassa gahapatissa puiiiiavato iddhi. vividham pi seniibyiiham dassenti . It is like a potter finishing his work. All men who attain to the fourth meditation.212 Vimuttimagga rich householder. jhlina. 2. That yogin wishes for supernormal power and the bases of supernormal power. one accomplishes the rejection of all defilements. mena kiimacchandassa pahiinaffho ijjhatiti' tattha tattha sammiipayogapaccayii ijjhanaffhena iddhi. 4. 213: Yiiva supaiiiiattii v'ime tena Bhagavatii jiinatii passatii arahatii sammasambuddhena cattiiro iddhipiidii iddhipahutiiya iddhi-visavitiiya iddhi-vikubbanatiiya. Pts. Evam tattha tattha sammiipayogapaccayii ijjhanaffhena iddhi. ratham pi dassenti. 3 PROCEDURE OF DEVELOPING SUPERNORMAL POWER Q.: Katamii vijjiimayii iddhi? Vijjadharii vijjam parijapetvii vehiisam gacchanti: akase antalikkhe hatthim pi dassenti. mahiipuiiiiiinam puiiiiavato iddhi. assam pi dassenti. 3.. Thus is supernormal power practised. Jotikassa gahapatissa puiiiiavato iddhi. Q. of Ghosita. the rich householder. viriya-samiidhi. D. There he causes to appear elephants. citta-samiidhi.. And again. Therefore one. A magician recites spells and goes through the sky. . horses. This is called the supernormal power accomplished by magic. Katame cattaro? Idha bho bhikkhu . Ayam vijjiimayii iddhi. Thus through the application of the means of success. By renunciation. Who practises supernormal power? How is supernormal power developed? A. This is called the supernormal power accomplished by the application of the means of success. chariots. It is the same with the concentration of energy.4 "Will" is the wish to do. 1 Q. the concentration of thought and the concentration of scrutiny. all things are accomplished. jhiina. Again it is said that there are five in space. . chanda-samiidhi-padhiina-samkhiira-samanniigatam iddhlpiidam bhiiveti. supernormal power of the meritorious. one accomplishes the rejection of lustful desire. II. he endeavours to reject the evil demeritI. Again it is said that the fourth meditation.. Arahattamaggena sabbakilesiinam pahiinaffho ijjhatiti' tattha tattha sammiipayogapaccayii ijjhanaffhena iddhi. makes for distinction. are ease-giving. infantry or various other groups of an army. A. vimamsii-samiidhi-padhiina-samkhiira-samanniigatam iddhipiidam bhiiveti. 2 Q.

the body changes.the "basis of supernormal power" is only that. And again. sometimes is perturbed. and attains to the capacity-limit of resolve. jhdna . six parts of the term are completed.Subjects of Meditation 213 orious states that have already arisen. and to develop them fully. Thus his body is able to rise up in space.Sometimes he falls back. Thus the. being wieldy. the body resolves. These are called "the activities of endeavour". He fulfils [442] this basis of supernormal power which is endowed with concentration of energy and the activities of endeavour. Practising thus. Thus that yogin practises. He causes the arising of energy. that yogin reaches the acme of lightness. Thus that yogin' sometU:hes controls the body with his mind. he. Thus that yogin develops the four bases of supernormal power. . The perception of bliss and lightness adheres to the body. depending on the mind. and is mindful and tranquil. the fulfilment of the activities of endeavour and the concentration of will-this is called the "basis of supernormal power". the mind resolves. he sometimes slackens. or "now is not the time to develop". He practises (sa:ying): "Now is the time ~o develop". When the mind slackens. when the mind falls away. he produces the characteristic of equaniinity. and resolves through knowledge. "Basis of supernormal power": That by which one attains to supernormal power . he produces concentration of mind. His mind. Depending on the body. and his body responds to the mind. Having resolved through knowledge. sometimes he abides. when the mind is perturbed. Therefore that state is called "basis of supernormal power". If one has a mind that is without defilement. (In) this means of success. Rising therefrom. makes his body exceedingly pliant. Depending on the body. rhus he accomplishes "the basis of supernormal power which is endowed with concentration of scrutiny and the activities of endeavour". This is called "the development of the basis of supernormal power endowed with the activities of endeavour and the concentration of will". the mind changes. This is the mean~ of success:. he knows space. responds to the body. he produces the mental characterjstic of alacrity. "Develops" means: "Practises and repeats it". This is the principal meaning. "Endowed" means that one is endowed with these three qualities. In that state he accomplishes and abides. sometimes falls back. even as a ball of iron made red-hot is capable of being fashioned into any shape easily. he endeavours to cause the arising of meritorious states that have not yet arisen. and sometimes the mind with his body. one understands advantage and disadvantage with ease. It is the means of attending to supernormal power. Thus his mind acquires the basis of supernormal power which is endowed with concentration of mind and the activities of endeavour. owing to the lightness of body. he endeavours to increase and to consciously reproduce the meritorious states that have already arisen. depending on the mind. enters the fourth meditation. Thus having through mental culture made his body light.

will fall away. Yiiva Brahmalokii pi kiiyena vasam valteli_ Seyydthiipi Ananda tUlapicu vii kappiisapicu vii lahuko viitupiidiino appakasireneva pathaviyii vehiisam abbhuggacchali. like Cullapanthaka. ciltampi kiiye samiidahati. If he stirs up fear. and rising therefrom peacefully resolves through knowledge: "May I be manyl". being many.samaye Tathiigato kiiyam pi citte samiidahati cittam pi ca kiiye samiidahati sukhasafliianca lahusannanca kiiye okkamitvii viharati. of his application. . He makes himself appear a hundred or a thousand. Yasmim Ananda samaye Tathiigato kiiyampi citte samiitiahati. he attempts one fathom according to his size. he goes across a hill. This begins from one's meditation-seat. yiiva Brahmalokii pi kiiyena vasam vattetiti. This is his serenity-practice".214 Vimuttimagga he can rise up in space. .. If. sukhasafliianca lahusaflflafica kiiye okkamitvii viharati. eko pi hutvii bahudhii hoti. he goes unimpeded as if he were in space. . It is comparable to cottonwool blown by the wind. evam eva kho Ananda yasmim samaye Tathiigato kiiyam pi citte samiitiahati. if he loses his meditation. having gone far. ciltamp} kiiye samiidahati. Cpo s. SUPERNORMAL POWER OF RESOLVE That yogin applies himself gradually. He can sink into the earth or come out of it. jhana. Thus one should reach gradually the point he desires to reach. He can move in space as a bird on the wing. he goes across a barrier. is lost. Or he becomes visible (or invisible) or he goes across a wall.2 then he gradually rises and applies himself. in the course. sukhasanflanca lahusaiifliiaca kiiye okkamitvii viharati. He should go gradually. tasmim Ananda samaye Tathiigatassa kiiyo lahutaro ceva holi mudutaro ca kamma•niyataro ca pabhassarataro ca. and becomes capable of easy attainment. cittam'pi kiiye samiidahati. 1. And again. he becomes one. his meditation. so anekavihitam iddhividham pacchanubhoti. "Being one. In the greatness of supernormal power and might. He can walk on water as on dry land. pe . so anekavihitam iddhividham paccanubhoti.m Ananda samaye Tathiigatassa kiiyo appakasireneva pathaviyii vehiisam abbhuggacchati. he can handle the sun and the moan. jhana. he becomes many. Being one. eko pi hutvii bahudhii hoti. One sees the body in the first posture (and thinks): "ThiS is the possessor of supernormal power. makes himself many. Q.. tasm. the meditation. one reaches the sitting place. or a ten thousand and so on through supernormal power. At first one shaku.. evam eva kho Ananda yasmim samaye Tathiigato kiiyam pi cltte samiidahatl. there? A. jhana. • pe . V.jhana. 2. No. .. Is it possible that the yogin will fall down from the sky. arouse fear. Seyyathiipi Ananda ayogulo divasam santalto lahutaro ceva hoti mudutaro ca kammaniyataro ca pabhassarataro ca. as if in water. "He is able to enjoy supernormal power in the various modes..1 Here the new yogin shouldno~ go far quickly. sukkhasafliianca lahusannanca kiiye okkamitvii viharati. being one. He enters the fourth meditation. tasmim Ananda samaye Tathiigatassa kiiyo appakasireneva pathaviyii vehiisam abbhuggacchati. because he might. Nearlv a fonf . He raises up his body and reaches the world of Brahma. tasmim Anandd samaye Tathiigatassa kiiyo lahutaro ceva hoti mudutaro ca kammaniyataro ca pabhassarataro ca. he becomes many": He. 283-85: Yasmirii Ananda. the Consummate One (arahant). Therefore the new yogin should not go far quickly.

Pakatiyii eko bahularh iivajjati. seyyathiipi iikiise. 'Tirobhiivan' Ii. goes across a barrier. iikiiso holi. 'Tirokuf/tlarh liropiikiirarh liropabbalam asajjamiino gaeehali. That yogin practises on the earth kasi{la and enters the fourth meditation.lf/ararh parisuddharh flpiidil. Yalhii manussii pakaliyii aniddhimanlo udake ummujjanimujjanl karon/i evamevarh so iddhimii eetovasippatto pa/haviyii ummujjanimujjarh karoli. Yt1/hiiyasmii Cullapanthako bahudhii pi hutvii eko hoti. Pakatiyii iikiisakasil. he goes unimpeded as if in space": . he resloves through knowledge thus: "May I change from many to one'''. What is the meaning of "He becomes invisible"? It means "not open". He goes across a wall.Subjects of Meditation 215 "Being many. evamevarh so iddhimii eelovasippatto bahudhii pi hutvii eko hoti. Yalhii manussii paka/iyii aniddhimanto kenaei aniivate aparikkhilte asajjamiinii gaeehanli. Pakatiyii iipokasil. Rising therefrom peacefully. He goes unimpeded as if in space. he goes across a hill.lena adhltlhiiti 'eko homili'. he marks off a part of water and resolves through knowledge thus: "Let there be earth!".tQparipiikarh iigamma tattha khayavayarh patlhapelvii eintesi: idarh eo/akha(lf/arh pakatiyii pal. and rising therefrom peacefully. goes across a wall. seyyalhiipi adake 'Ii. I. Samiidhim bhiivetvii eattiiri rupiivaearajjhiiniini padakiini katvii saha patisambhidiihi arahattarh piipUl. goes across a wall. in space.li.tQsamiipattiyii liiMi hOli. 2. That yogin can sink into the earth and come out of it as if in water. jhdna. I. 1. that yo gin is able to move on water without difficulty as if on land. having practised on the space kasi{la enters the fourth meditation. Pts. Rising therefrom peacefully. eko hOII. Having produced earth. and resolves through knowledge: "Let there be water'''. II. goes across a hill. .lakasariram nissiiya kilitlharh jiitam.lena adhitlhiili 'udakarh holuli'.That yogin. iivajjilvii iiiil.ll. bahudhii hulvii eko bhavitum samattho ahosi.lasamiipattiyii liibhi hOli. seyyalhiipi udake. iivajjitvii fliil. 207: 'Eko pi htltvii bhudhii hotiti'. iivajjitvii iiii{lena adhitthiiti 'bahulo homili'. he becomes one": Desiring to change from many to pne. Pakatiyii bahulo ekarh iivajjati. evamevarh so iddhimii eelovasippatto tirokuf/tlarh tiropiikiirarh tiropabbalarh asajjamiino gaeehati. 11. What is the meaning of "He becomes visible"? It means "opens". udakarh holi. evamevarh so iddhimii eetovasippatto eko pi hutvii bahudhii hoti. 216). Cp. iivajjitvii lliil. he resolves through knowledge thus: "Let there be space!". bahulo holi. jhdna.lena adhifthiili 'iikiiso hOIUli'. and he goes across a wall.-Mp.1 Without obstruction "he can walk on water as if on earth". seyyathiipi iikiise' ti.1 "He becomes visible or invisible. 207-8: 'Avibhavan'li. That yogin causes to open what is not open. Kenaei ifvatarh hoti patieehannarh pihitarh patikujjitarh. So pathaviyii ummujjanimujjarh karoli. 'Bahudhii pi hUlvii eko hOliti'. he goes across a barrier. the. Kenaei aniivatarh hoti appatieehannarh vivatampiikatarh. 24: Etad aggarh bhikkhilvt! mama siivakiinarh bhikkhiinarh manomayarh kiiyarh abhinimminantiinarh yadidarh . In going along. Consummate One. tirokul/tlarh tiropiikiirarh tiropabbatarh iivajjati. 'Pathaviyii pi ummujjanimujjarh karoti. he goes across a barrier. (b) Pts. Having attained to space.Cullapanlhako (~ So fliil. goes across a barrier. pathavirh iivajjati. So tirokuiftfarh tiropiikiirarh tiropabbatarh iivajjamiino gaeehall. So manomayafliil.laliibhi hutvii eko hutvii bahudhii. goes across a hill. he marks off a part of the earth. he goes across a hill. eittam pi evarhgalikam evii ti. satarh vii sahassarh vii salasahassarh vii iivajjati. What is the meaning of "He goes -unimpeded"? "He can sink into the earth and come out of it as if in water". That yogin practises ·on the water kasi{la and enters the fourth meditation. (a) A. Yalhiiyasmii Cullapanlhako eko pi hutvii bahudhii hotl. jhdna. like Cullapanthaka. that yogin.

Supernormal power and divine might.21'6 Vimuttimagga "He moves like a bird on the wing in space" : Here there are three kinds of movement: movement on foot. movement on air.l he can handle the sun and the moon": Having supernormal power. Yathii manussii pakaliyii aniddhimanto pathaviyii calikamanli pi litthanti pi nisiclanti pi seyyam pi kappenli. Having trained his mind. and goes through air like cottonwool. So abhijjamiine udake gacchati. That yogin has three formations. iikiisam iivajjati. He hears the voice of Brahma3 with divine hearing and he knows Brahma's mind with the knowledge of others' thoughts. seyyal/liipj pakkhi sakU{lo' ti. " •Akase pi pallalikena cankarnati. 3. "In the (greatness of) supernormal power and might. 2 "He raises up his body and reaches the world of Brahma": Having supernormal power that yogin gets control of the mind and goes up even to the world of Brahma. evamevam so iddhimii cetovasippatlo nisinnako vii nipannako vii candimasuriye pii{linii amasali pariimasati parimajjati. Lit.or that the few should become many. 2. The perception of bliss and lightness adheres to his body. He resolves that many should become few. Yalhii manussii pakaliyii aniddhimanto abhijjamiiniiya pathaviyii gacchanli. He sees Brahma's form with divine sight. Sankhara. Pakatiyii pathavikasil. 'Ime pi candimasuriye evam-mahiddhike evam-mahiinubhiive pii{linii pariimasati parimajiatiti'. iivajjitvii ii~ena adhitthati 'pathavi holiiti' pathavi hoti. Thus his body becomes buoyant. and moves on foot. ' 4. 208-9: 'Uclake pi abhijjamiine gacchati. Lit. or that the near should become distant. that yogin can handle the sun and the moon. evamevam so iddhimii celovasippatto iikiise antalikkhe cankamati pi titthati pi nisiclati pi seyyam pi kappeli.' He goes to Brahma's world through two formations. seyyathiipi pakkhi sakU{lO. These are the four bases of supernormal power. Yalhii manussii pakatiyii aniddhimanto kiiicid eva riipagalam hatthapiise" iimasanti pariimasanti parimajjanti. This is 1. Here the yogin gets the concentration of the earth kasi1:za and resolves through knowledge for a path in space. seyyathiipi pathaviyam. Pakaliyii pathavikasi{lasamiipattiyii liibhi hOII. Or if he gets the concentration of the air kasi1)a he resolves upon air. he enters the fourth meditation. Sitting or lying down. evamevam so iddhimii cetovasippatto abhijjamiine udake gacchati. iivajji/vii iiii(lena adhitthiiti 'hatlhapiise hotiiti'. hatthapiise hoti. So nlsinnako vii nipannako vii candimasuriye piininii iimasati pariimasati parimajjati. and rising from it peacefully. Devii. jhiina. . Pts. and he goes by the movement of the mind like a bird on the wing. happily. and mind-movement. seyyalhapi pathaviyan' Ii. ldha so iddhimii celovasippatto nislnnako vii nipannako vii candimasuriye iivajjati. IT. By training. Or he fills his body and mind with the movement of the mind.rasamiipatliyii liibhi holi. and he reaches them with his hand. pathavi hoti. the mind thus he resolves that the distant should "be near. udakam iivajjali. Thus he goes by the movement of the mind. iiviijjitvii Iiii{lena adhitthiiti 'pathavi hotiit!'. that yogin gets control of the mind. So iikiise antalikkh'e calikamati pi titthati pi nisiclali pi seyyam pi kappeli. he handles the sun and the moon with the resolve through knowledge thus: "Let my hand reach theml".

cetopariyaiialJena fassa Brahrnuna cittam pajanati. 210: Katama vikubbana iddhi? Sikhissa Bhagavato Arahalo Sammasambuddhassa Abhibhii nama savako Brahmaloke /hito sahassilokadhiitum sarena viiiiiapeti. He makes his body easy in his mind. sace so iddhimii seyyam kappeti. a leopard. Sace so iddhima carikamati. he resolves through knowledge: "May I fulfil the form of a boy!". sace so iddhima pajjalati. nimmito pi lattha dhiipayati. nimmito pi tallha dhammam bhasali. dibbena cakkhuna tassa Brahmuno rupam passati. he fulfils the form of infantry (and so on).Subjects of Meditation the teaching of the supernormal power of resolve in fulP Supernormal power. an asura. In that he abides. a forest. j!uina. Thus resolving. and he resolves upon his body with his mind. Sace so iddhima cetovasippatto Brahmalokam gantukamo hoti. a yakkha. he resolves through knowledge thus: "May I fulfil the form of infantry!" Resolving thus. I. He gets control of the mind. gradually. the ocean. 2. + 217 SUPERNORMAL POWER OF TRANSFORMATION Now the yogin. nimmito pi tallha pajjalali.lametva cittavasena kayam adhifthahitva sukhasaiiiiaii ca lahusaiiiiaii ca okkamitva adissamanena kayena Brahmalokam gacchati. Practising thus that yogin reaches the acme of lightness. kayavasena cittam parilJametva kayavasena cittam adhiflhahitva sukhasaiiiiaii ca lahusaiiiiaii ca okkamitva dissamanena kayena Brahmalokam gacchati. sace so iddhima dhammam bhasati. kayavasena cittam adhitfhati. cittavasena kayam adhitfhati. sace so iddhima dhiipayali. he resolves to fill his body with his mind. II. Sace so iddhima cetovasippatto dissamanena kayena Brahmalokam gantukamo holi. nimmito pi tattha liffhati. he can fulfil the form of a boy. and . If that yogin wishes to take the form of a boy. of resolve has ended. he. tan tad eva hi so nimmito karotiti. enters the fourth meditation. even as an iron ball made red-hot is capable of being fashioned into any shape easily. sace so iddhima titfhati. He makes his mind easy with his body. nimmito pi lattha seyyam kappeti. and he makes his mind easy in his body.lameti. a horse. and he makes his body easy with his mind.rising from it peacefully changes into the form of a boy. Ayam adhiffhana iddhi. Thus having through mental culture made his mind pliant and capable of resolve. thokam pi bahukaTiI adhiflhati •bahukam hotiiti' bahukam hoti. The perception of bliss and the perception of lightness adhere to his body. sace so iddhima nisidati. a mountain. groups of an army. So lassa Brahmuno purato rupam abhinimminali manomayam sabbarigapaccarigam ahinindriyam. nimmito pi tattha nisidali. wishing to acquire the supernormal power of transformation. kayavasena cittam parilJameli. In the same way in changing into the form of a snake or of a garulq. nimmito pi tattha calikamati. Pts. IT. Sace so iddhima cetovasippatto adissamanena kayena Brahmalokam gantukamo hoti.2 'Yava Brahmaloka pi kiiyena vasam valletili. or into the form afSakka-Inda or Brahma. nimmito pi lattha paiiham pUl!ho vissajjeli. sanlike pi dare adhi!fhati 'dure hotliti' dure hoti. nimmilo pi tattha paiiham pucchati. 209-10: . dure pi sanlike adhiflhati 'santike hotuti' santike holi. In changing his body. sace so iddhima paiiham puf/ho vissajjeli. a tiger. bahukam pi thokmit adhif!hati 'thokam hotiiti' thokam holi. cittavasena kayam paril. an elephant. So dissamanena pi kayena dhammam deseli. infantry. Yaii nad eva hi so iddhima karoti. making his body exceedingly pliant and reaches the capacity-limit of resolve. a lion. sace so iddhima lena Brahmuna saddhim santitthali saUapati sakaccham samapajjati. practises the four bases of supernormal power. cittavasena kayam paril. dibbaya sotadhatuya tassa Brahmuno sadda/it sUlJali. He resolves upon his mind with his body. sace so iddhima paiiham pucchali. Pts. discarding his form. nimmito pi Ii tattha lena Brahmuna saddhim santiffhali saUapati sakaccham samapajjati.

Evam evam bhikkhu imamhii kiiyii annam !ciiyam abhinimminiili rupim manomayam sabbarigapaccangam ahinindriyam.jhtina. he creates it in the form of a Brahma before entering the Brahma world. he resolves through knowledge thus: "Following itI will accomplishl" Thus considering. vanava!l!lam vii dasseli. he makes many forms. .4hakiiyena dhammam deseti. In the supernormal· power of resolve. ratham pi dasseti. dissamiinena pi uparimena upa44hakiiyena adissamiinena pi heffhimena upa44hakiiyena dhammam deseti. or lies down. kara!l4ii tv eva ahi ubbhalo' Ii. samuddava!l!lam vii dasseti. anilo asi anilo kara!l4o. By this means. Inclava!lnam vii dasseli. " 1. Thereafter he engages himself in various activities. he attends to the interior of his body with the thought: "It is like an empty pot". niigava!lnam vii dasseti. Seyyathiipi puriso munjamhii isikam paviiheyya. dipiva!I!IUm vii dasseli. Because that made fonn springs from supernonnal power. yakkhavalJ!lam vii dasseli. hatthivar:znam vii classeli. And in changing. tassa evam assa-'Ayam munjo ayam isikii. dissamiinena pi heffhimena upa44hakiiyena adissamiinena pi uparimena upat/. The fonn which is made according to his will is complete with all factors. tassa evam assa-' Ayam asi ayam karar:z4o. or answers. sends forth vapour and flame. Brahmava!l!lam vii classeli. that created man also sits or lies down. anna asi anfiii kosi. tassa evam assa-'Ayam asi ayam kosi. munjamhii tv eva isikii pavii/M'ti. Rising therefrom peacefully. he accomplishes the change. The supernormal power of transformation has ended. pabbatava!l!lam vii dasseti. II. pattim pi dasseli. Having got control of mind. it does SO.218 Vimuttimagga Q. supa!lnava!lnam vii dasseti. devava!lnam vii dassetl.t SUPERNORMAL POWER CAUSED BY MIND Now the yogin wishes to acquire the supernormal power caused by the mind. seyyathiipi vii pana puriso asim kosiyii paviiheyya. kosiyii tv eva asi pavii/ho' ti. Ayam manomayii iddhi. one discards the fonn. seyyalhapi vii puna puriso ahim kara!lr!ii uddhareyya. I will cause it to change". This is the difference. In the supernonnal power of transformation. 210-11: Katamii manomayii iddhi? Idha bhikkhu imamhii kiiyii afifiam kiiyam abhinimminiiti rupim manomayam sabbarigapaccaftgam ahinindriyam. that created man also walks to and fro. or asks questions. If the yogin wishes to go to the world of Brahma with a created body. or asks questions. anno munjo anfiii isikii. vivitiham pi seniibyiiham dasseli. and there is no faculty wanting in it. byagghavar:znam vii dasseti. Pis. If [443J the possessor of supernonnal power walks to and fro. sihava!l!lam vii dasseli. What is the difference between the 'supernonnal power of resolve and the supernormal power of transformation? A. or answers. <!lr sends forth vapour and flame. assam pi dasseti. Ayam vikqbbanii iddhi. So pakativa!l!lam vijahitvii kumiirakava!l!lam vii dasseti. one resolves without discarding the fann. Further that yogin meditates thus: "Within this hollow body of mine I will cause changes as I like.t MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS What are the miscellaneous teachings? The form which supernormal adissamiinena pi kiiyena dhammam deseti.l The supernormal power caused by mind has ended. If the possessor of supernormal power sits. he develops the bases of supernormal power and enters into the fourth meditation.

jhtina. I. future object. The new yogin practises the four bases of supernormal power and controls his mind. dibbe ca miinuse ca. How is it developed? A. ye diire scmtike ca. . Miscellaneous Teachings have ended. jhtina. Thus he strengthens attention gradually". Hearing a gross sound or hearing a fine sound. jhdna. 2.zas and two kasil:zas causes the arising of divine hearing relying on the physical organ of hearing. foods. He knows when it is not the time. things. namely.lava-det. Hearing a sound afar off. sublime object. 2 Here the predecessors have said: "At first the new yogin hears the sound of beings within ihimself after that he hears the sound of beings outside his body. Evam eva kho maharaja bhikkhu evam samahite citte parisuddhe pariyodate anangane vigatilpakkilese mudubhilte kammaniye {hite anejjappatte dibbaya sota-dhatuya cittam abhiniharati abhininniimeti. During that time shoul<I he wish to speak. Tassa evam assa: "Bheri-saddo" iii pi. So dibbiiya sota-dhatuya visuddhaya atikkanta-manusikaya ubho sadde . Through the practice of the purity of mind and the purification of the ear element. Again it is said: "At first the new yogin cannot hear the sound of beings within himself. Thus as to all regions. limitless object. That yogin hears what is beyond the reach of human ears owing to the purified divine hearing. he attends to the sound sign. internal object. One who enters the fourth meditation. namely.Subiects of Meditation 219 power creates could be distinguished at any time. Hearing a sound from the east.l Q. he attends to the sound sign. 79: Seyyathii pi maha-raja puriso addhaTUl-magga-palipanno so sU(leyya bheri-saddam pi mutinga-saddam pi sankha-pat. divine sounds and human sounds.u!lati. Who practises divine hearing? How is it developed? A. and various forms of knowledge created proceed by way of nine objects. internal-external object. D. "sairkha-pat. drums and the like. Rising therefrom peacefully and depending on the physical organ of hearing. he attends to the sound sign.. that yogin strengthens the mental formations.t DIVINE HEARING Q. limited object. At this time he does not appear. with the physical ear" 1. "mutinga-saddo" iti pi. He hears both sounds. He does not appear at any moment. But the new yogin could hear the sound of conchs. A. Q. He cannot reach the field of these (sounds) with the physical ear. Haw is the form element of the fourth meditation. He enters the fourth meditation. himself invisible. set free? It occurs then. The created form has no life-principle. present object. Thence he hears the sound of beings anywhere.ltjima-saddam pi.lava-deQtjima-saddo" iti pi. because he is not able to hear fine sounds. he makes. external object. past object. The question and the answer are not clear. with facility on eight kasil. or hearing a sound nearby. Drinks. also sounds afar and sounds near. he attends to the sound sign.

If the consciousness which is accompanied by the faculty of equanimity arises. There is no limit to the power of hearing of the Tathagata. it (the heart) is pure in colour. If the consciousness which is accompanied" by ignorance arises. it (the heart) is of the colour of honey. enters the light kasi1. At this time he diffuses other bodies with light and sees the colour of others' hearts through divine sight. the heart is of the colour of curds and ghee. If the consciousness which is accompanied by confidence and knowledge arises. one also loses divine hearing. Divine hearing has ended-t KNOWLEDGE OF OTHERS' THOUGHTS Q.la which is pure and immovable. If the consciousness which is accompanied by anger arises. limited object. and knows through the changes in colour the changes in his own mind: "This colour proceeds from the faculty of joy.220 Vimuttimagga Fine sounds or gross sounds. sounds afar off or sounds' nearby could be heard with divine hearing. because he will (going to the other extreme) become attached to lovable sounds. He understands the changing Colours through the changes in their hearts. Knowledge of divine hearing proceeds in three objects. it (the heart) is yellow in colour. on the light kasi1. it (the heart) is black in colour. at first.la and acquiring facility therein. gains divine sight and causes the arising of the knowledge of others' thoughts. it (the heart) is purple in colour. Thus that yogin understands the changes in colour through the changes within himself. present object and external object. He sees the colour of his own heart through divine sight. If the consciousness which is accompanied by lustful desire arises. and the changes . Rising from the fourth meditation. How is it developed? The new yogin having acquired the bases of supernormal power and having got control of the mind. One entering the fourth meditation. the hearer. If one loses physical hearing. namely. Who develops the knowledge of others' thoughts? it developed? How is A. it (the heart) is muddy in colour. Here the new yogin should not attend to extremely fearful sounds. If the consciousness which is accompanied by the faculty of melancholy arises. If the consciousness which is accompanied by the faculty of joy arises. this colour proceeds from the facuIty of equanimity". peacefully. this colour proceeds from the faculty of fear. fills his body with light. is able to listen to the sounds of a thousand world-systems. who acquires facility (in the practice). Through this colour he perceives his own states of consciousness. he. jhiina. Here. The Silent Buddhas can hear more. jhiina. and because he will stir up fear in his mind.

he knows that that individual has the heart of hate. 3. he causes the arising of the knowledge of others' thoughts. he knows the thoughts (of beings) of a thousand world-systems. Therefore his mind becomes pure. 2 Thus he knows alL The knowledge of others' thoughts proceeds in eight objects.. the present object and the external object. 121-22. S. 431: Cetopariyailii(lam paritta-mahaggata-appamii(la-magga-atitiiniigafa-paccuppanna-bahiddhiiramma(lO-vasena a"hasu iiramma(lesu pavalli. If a certain individual has not the heart of hate. . He who enters the fourth meditation. is able to cause the arising of the knowledge of the recollection of past lives. . . ... he leaves off attending to the changes of colour and holds to the heart only as object. avimuttam va ciftam . amahagattam vii cillam ..m vii cittam . he knows that that individual has not the heart of hate. . there is no limit. ... That yogin practises thus. ... jhdna. Mag. asamiihitam vii cittam. . . . how many kinds tS I. If the hearer gains freedom... Who practises the knowledge of the recollection of past lives ? How many kinds of knowledge of the recollection of past lives are there? How is it developed? A. . pe . vimuttam vii cittam . . pe ...I.. pe .possesses the heart ofloving-kindness.. . Sariigam vii cittam sariigam cillanti pajiiniiti... If a certain individual has the heart of loving-kindness. 79-80. pe . 3 The knowledge of the thoughts of those who are freed from the cankers is not within the power of the commoner. . . vikkhillam vii cittam .. Vis. pe . .. As to the Tathagata. pe . limited object... " vitamoham vii cittam . lofty object. sankhillam vii cillam . .. where only three colours are given and are different from those mentioned iddhipiidesu evam bahulikatesu parasattiinam parapuggaZiinam cetasii ceto parieea pajiiniiti.as and the two kasi1)as. 2. jhdna. the immeasurable object.... he (the yogin) knows that that individual..Subjects of Meditation 221 in their hearts through the changing colours.. }'itariigam vii cittam . 409. . The knowledge of others' thoughts has ended:' RECOLLECTION OF PAST LIVES Q. cpo Vis. with facility on the eight kasil.. . pe . Cpo A. the past object. anuttaram vii cittam. Again it is asked: "In the fourth meditation. 255... I. pe . pe •. the path object. V.1 Having understood thus.. pe . . jhiina. D. the future object.. Having aroused the knowledge of others' thoughts. The thoughts of the beings of the formless realms are knowable only by the Buddhas. pe . .. pe .... sauttaram vii cittam.. Mag. vitadosam vii cittam . of the form plane where there is freedom of the mind. vimuttam cittan Ii pajiiniiti.. 265: Evam bhiivitesu kho bhikkhu catusu here.. mahaggatam vii cillam . The Silent Buddhas know more. samiihitam vii cillam ...... samoha. sadosam vii cit tam . If a certain individual has the heart of hate. pe . namely. II. . Again it is asked: What the form plane meditation? The fourth meditation. pe ....

How is the knowledge of the recollection of past lives developed? The new yogin. itthi vii puriso vii daharo yuvii malJrfakajiiliko iidiise vii parisuddhe pariyodiile acche vii udakapatle sakam mukhanimittam paccavekkhamiino sakalJikam vii sakanikan Ii jiineyya. jhcina. and becomes immovable and pure. akalJikam vii akalJikan Ii jiineyya. jhcina. birth made. mentally and verbally. two lives. In the same way he remembers all that he had done during two months. Owing to mind-succession. how many kinds of recollection of past lives are possible? A. then one grasps the mental sign.. in developing meditation. one calms one's faculties and one develops that ability.222 Vimuttimagga of knowledge of the recollection of past lives can be made to arise"? A. He should develop meditation. The two (the preceding and the succeeding) are not disjoined and are produced in this world. viz. two years. having been produced in that world. Through "birth made" means: deities. • . he remembers his past exactly. practice made. . "Many lives" means: recollection of past lives produced through four ways. again and again. he is able to see the causes and conditions and remember the (backward) rolling of consciousness. The new yogin remembers all pertaining to this life. He. Owing to the mind and the mental properties of the preceding birth. well.such practice of the mind that is purified. There are three kinds of recollection of past lives: many lives. I. Thus also as regards the actions of the night. "Practice made" means to produce by way of the four bases of supernormal power. during two days and thus backwards to one month. Q. At this time the mind and the mental properties of the preceding birth and the mind and the mental properties of the succeeding birth appear. yalhii pafipannii me siivakii parasattiinam parapuggaliinam celasii celo paricca pajiinanli. These four ways produce the recollection of past lives.-evam eva kho. one year. I. four lives and so forth. Udiiyi. having sat down. . he gets (the succeeding) birth. one develops the sign well. akkluilii mayii siivakiinam pafijJadii. that yogin remembers his varied lot in the past. 80. M. U.l Having purified his mind. There are three kinds of knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He. D. Through . niigas (demons) and garulas (mythical birds) remember their past lives naturally. With the fourth meditation. a hundred years up to his last birth. jhiina. three lives. Q. Thus (he remembers) one life. three years. If any yogin is not able to remember his past births he should not give up exerting himself. In the same way he recollects all that he had done during a day. Of these the best remember fourteen past lives. sariigam vii Cittam: sariigam ciltan Ii pajiiniiti. 19-20: Seyyalluipi. If he continues A. Of these the recollection of seven past lives is the best. having practised the four bases of supernormal power. should purify the mind with action similar to the correct method of burnishing a mirror. Udiiyi. remembers what he had done in the day Qr all that he had done bodily. gains control of the mind through confidence.

Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena K01Jiigamano bhalfavii araham sammiisambuddho uppanno hoti . internal. and. The noble hearers remember ten thousand aeons. yathii patipannii me siivakii anekavihitam pubbeniviisam anussarantl.liiiiii udapiidi. pe . bhikkhave imesam manussiinam Miigadhakii tveva samaiiiiii udapiidi. D.lam ahosi. tassa evam assa:. Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena Kakusandho bhagavii araham sammiisambuddho loke uppanno hoti . M. I. so tamhii giimii sakam yeva giimam paeeiigaeeheyya. Outsiders remember forty aeons. activities. because of inconscience.. Tivariinam bhikkhave manussiinam cattiirisam vassasahassiini iiyuppamii1. 4. Tatra ea pana me siivakii bahii abhiiiiiiivosiinapiiramippattii viharanti.. the Silent Buddhas. Others recall gradually.. who are able to recall to mind their own and others' previous lives. They cannot remember more than that. lofty.lam ahosi. Tena kho pana bhikkave samayenq manussiinam Rohitassii tveva samaiiiiii udapiidi. births in the plane of the unconscious deities. more than this.. .1 The knowledge of the recollection of past lives proceeds in seven objects. Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena manussiinam Suppiyii tveva samaiiiiii udapiidi. Bhiitapubbam bhikkhave imassa Vepul/assa pabbatassa Supasso tveva samaRiiii ut/apiidi. the Supremely Enlightened Ones. The Supremely Enlightened Ones recall to mind everything they wish to recall. Rohitassiinam bhikkhave manussiinam 'timsavassasahassiini iiyuppamii1. II.lQvasena atthasu iiramma1Jesu pavattati. more than this.•. external and internalexternal.. he is exceedingly glad. Tena kho pana bhikkhave samayena Kassapo bhagavii araham sammiisambuddho loke uppanno hoti . 3. and more than this. The Supremely Enlightened Ones. the country and the village should be recalled to mind. tamhii pi giimii amum giimalh iigaiiehi1fl.. Miigadhakiinam bhikkhave manussiinam appakam iiyuppamiinam parittam .. so'mhl tamhii giimii sakam yeva giimam pacciigato ti. Tivarii bhikkhave manussii Piieinavalfisam pabbatalil catuhena iirohanti catuhena orohanti. In this the Venerable Elder Sobhita is most excellent. tatra evalil atthiisim evam nisidim evam abhiisim evam tU1Jhi ahosim. seyyathidam: ekam pi jiitim .Aham kho sakamhii giimii amum giimam iigaiichim. the chief hearers. Evam eva kho. pe . Suppiyii bhikkhave manussii Supassam pabbatam dvihena iirohanti dvihena orohanti. the Tathagatas. They are limited. pe .. Mag.. I. To remember the continuity of aggregates through knowledge is knowledge of the recollection of past lives. tamha pi giimii aiiiiam giimam gaecheyya. spheres and all else.. Bhiitapubbalil bhikkhave imassa Vepullassa pabbatassa Varikako tveva samt. S To remember the past is knowledge of the recollection of past lives. A. 4 The rest remember only their own previous lives and a few of the previous lives of others. immeasurable.s His lot in the past. Tena kho' pana bhikkhave samayena manussiinam Tivarii tveva samaiiiiii udapiidi. . 433: Pubbeniviisafiib. tatriipi evam atthiisim evam nisidim evam abhiisim evam tU1Jhi ahosim. pe .lam paritta-mahaggata-appamii1Ja-magga-atita-aJJhattabahiddhii na vattabbiiramma1. either through 1.puriso sakamhii giimii afliiDm giimam gaeeheyya. Having found out the way he should not recall to mind his states of existence in the animal world and in the formless realm. Rohitassii bhikkhave manussii Vairkakalil pabbatflm tihena iirohanti tihena orohanti. 25: Etad aggam bhikkhave mama siivakiinam bhikkhiinam pubbeniviisam annusSDrantiinalh yadidam Sobhito.II. 81-2. Udiiyi. Udiiyi. Etarahi kho pana bhikkhave imassa Vepul/assa pabbatassa Vepul/o tveva samaiiiiii ut/apiidi.lQm ahosi. 20-1: Seyyathiipi. Etarahi kho pana. Cpo Vis. past.Subjects of Meditation 223 to remember {444] his past beginning with one life. akkhiitii mayq siivakiinam patipadii. 190-92: Bhiitapubbam bhikkhave imissa Vepul/assa pabbatassa Piieinavamso tveva samaiiiiii udapiidi.. Suppiyiinam bhikkhave manussiinam visativassasahassiini iiyuppamii1. 2.. because of their feebleness. Cpo S.

that which is produced by well-wrought kamma2 and that which is produced by the strength of energetic developing. "That which is produced by the strength of energetic developing" means that which is produced by the practice of the four bases of supernormal power. coarse and fine. this night is like day" 4 His mind being free from all· obstruction and from all clinging. Yo ciram jivati S(J vassasatari! appam vii bhiyyo.l7. if one wishes to cause the a"rising of divine sight. The knowledge of the recollection of past iives has ended. being pure and immovable.. enters the light kasi1)a. Who practises divine sight? How many kinds of divine sight are there? How is divine sight developed? A. on. 3. It.t DIVINE SIGHT Q. that yogin "sees beings disappearing and reappearing. 3 Here. wrong joy. and by him who is in possession of natural sight. 223: Idh' avuso bhikkhu alokasannam manasi-karoti.l7. rigidity and torpor. How is divine sight developed? Having practised the four bases of supernormal power and gained control of the mind. according to their deeds. s. pride. Cpo D.le sugate duggate yathiikammiipage satte pajiinami. itl vivafena cetasii aparlyonaddhena sappabhasam cittam bhaveti.le dubba7. yatha rattim tatha diva. pe ••• Samadhi (transliteration). To that yogin who strengthens and increases his light. Practising thus. A. divine sight which is accumulated kamma is born of (kamma) result. excessive exercise of energy. Etarahi kho paniiham bhilckhave arahlzm sammasambuddho lake uppanno . are able to recall to mind always. He who enters the fourth meditation. namely. jhiina. the new yogin.lite suva7. wrong mindfulness. Thereby one can see whether there are jewels or not in a treasury. III. too little exercise of energy. he should suppress these defilements: uncertainty. Sucaritakammanibbatta. frivolous talk. slanderous talk. he is able to strengthen his mind and increase light. divii-sannam adhiffhiiti yathii divii tatha rattim. and he surpasses the sun in splendour. Miigadhakii bhikkhave manussii Vepullam pabbatam tnuhuttena arohanti muhuttena orohanti. 2. there is nothing obscure. Attaining to the fourth meditation. 5 Here. . There is nothing covered. faring well or faring ill. that yogin diffuses his body with light and attends to colour and form.. beautiful and ugly. hine pa7. he attends to and resolves upon the perception oflight and the perception of day thus: "This day is like night. 4. With the purified divine sight which surpasses human vision. jluina. 100. How many kinds of divine sight are there? A. 1. 178: Iti dibbena cakkhuna visuddhena atikkantamanusakena sattepassiimi cavamane upapajjamiine. the light kasi1)a and acquires faCility therein.224 Vimuttimagga entering into concentration1 or without entering into concentration. perceptions of diversity. IV. The rest can recall only through entering mto con-' centration. There are two kinds of divine sight. excessive lahukam. Viriyabhiiviinii balanibbatta.

his power of divine sight is limited. samiidhimhi cute obhiise antaradhiiyati dassanan ea riipiinam. Anuruddhii. So kho aham. (Seyyathiipi. Anuruddhii. vision of objects is lost.) So 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vieikicehii upajjissati no amanosikiiro . etad ahosi. Anuruddhii.. samiidhimhi cute oMiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan ea rupiinam. M.-pe-tassa mayham... Anuruddhii. etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paeeayo yena·me obhiiso antaradhiiyali dassanan ea riipiinan ti? Tassa mayham. etad ahosi: Chambhitattam kho me udapiidi. Anuruddhii. light is lost. ubbilliidhikaralJan ea pana me samiidhi cavi. concentration is lost. Anuruddhii.-evam eva kho. Ill. So kho pana me obhiiso na cirass' eva antaradhiiyati dassanan co rzipiinam. Therefore these defilements should be wei! suppressed. ubbilliidhikaralJan ea pana me samiidhi eavi.. His vision of forms is also limited. 157-162: Aham pi sudam. puriso ubhohi hatthehi vanakam giilham gal)heyya. therefore the Blessed One taught thus: "At a time when my concentration is limited... Anuruddhii. Anuruddhii. etad ahosi: Duffhllllam kho me udapiidi. Anuruddhii. aeeiiraddhaviriyam udapiidi aeeiii"addhaviriyiidhikaralJan ea . and with an immeasurable divine sight. Anuruddhii. atilinaviriyam udapiidi .) So 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vicikieehii uppajjissati na . pubbe va sambodhii anabhisambuddho Bodhisatto va samiino obhiisafi e' eva safijiiniimi dassanafi ea riipiinam. Anllruddhii. Anuruddhii-petassa mayham. So kho aham. At a time when my concentration is immeasurable. gal)heyya. That yogin sees a limited splendour with limited divine sight. etad ahosi: Vicikieehii kho me udapiidi. appamatto iitiipi pahitatto viharanto obhiisQli e' eva salijiiniimi dassanan ea rupiinam.) So 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna no vieikicchii uppajjissati na amanasikiiro na thinamiddham na ehambhitattam no ubbillam na dUffhullam no aeeiiraddhaviriyan ti. Anuruddhii. (Seyyathiipi. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan co rupiinam. So kho aham. amanasikiiriidhikaralJan ea pana me samiidhi cavi.. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyali dassanan ea rupiinam. etad ahosi: UbbiIIam kho me udapiidi. but does not acquire facility in concentration. chambhitattiidhikaralJali ea pana me samiidhi cavi. Anuruddhii.. etad ahosi: Atilinaviriyam kho me udapiidi atilinaviriyiidhikaranan ca .1 1. (Seyyathiipi. Anuruddhii-petassu mayham. So' ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vicikieehii uppajjissati na amanasikiiro Ii. Anuruddhii.-pe-tassa mayham. dU!fhulliidhikaraIJafi ca pana me samiidhi cavi.-evam eva kho me. (Seyyathiipi. So kho aham. If concentration is lost. my eye is limited.Subjects 0/ Meditation 225 investigation of forms.) So' ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vieikieehii uppajjissati na amanasikiiro na thinamiddham na ehambhitattam na ubbillan ti. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan ea ruplinam. Anuruddhii- . ehambhitattiidhikaralJan ea pana me samiidhi cavi. etad ahosi: Amanasikiiro kho me udapiidi. Thinamiddham kho me udapiidi. So' ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vicikieehii uppajjissati na amanasikiiro na thinamiddhan Ii. samiidltimhi cute oMiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan ea riipiinam.-evam eva kho me. dassanan ea riipiinam. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassanaij ca rupiinam. Anuruddhii. Anllruddhii. dassanan ca rupiinam. thillamiddhiidhikaralJan ea palla me samiidhi cavi. ehambhitattam lIdapiidi. Tassa mayham.amanasikiiro na thinamiddham na chambhitattan ti. tassa tatonidiinam ubbillam uppajjeyya. Anuruddhii. my eye is possessed of immeasurable divine sight. aceiiraddhaviriyiidhikaral)an ea pana me samadhi eavi. If anyone of these defilements appears in the course of the practice of divine sight. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassallan ea rupiinQlh. I know immeasurable ·splendour and I see immeasurable forms". If he suppresses these defilements. So kho aham. So kho pana me obhiiso na eirass' eva antaradhiiyati dassanan ea riipiinam. puriso vanakam sithilari. vieikieehiidhikaralJan ea pana me samiidhi eavi.-evam eva kho. Anuruddhii. dassanan ea riipiinam. and with a limited eye I know a limited splendour and I see limited forms.-pe-tassa mayham. na aeciiraddhaviriyam na atilinaviriyan Ii. Tassa mayham. Anuruddhii. owing to nonacquirement of facility. ubbiIIam kho me udapiidi. samiidhimhi cute obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan ea r upiinam. So kho aham. Anuruddhii. So kho aham. Alluruddhii. tassa ubhatopasse vadhakii uppateyyum. Anuruddhii-pe-tassa mayham. So 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me p"na na vicikieehii uppajjissati na amanasikiiro na thinamiddham na chambhitattam na ubbi/lam na dUffhullan ti. so tatth' eva matameyya. so 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vieikieehii uppajjissatili. puriso ekam nidhimukham gavesanto sakideva pdnea nidhimukhiini adhigaeeheyya. etad ahosi: Ko nU kho hetu ko paeeayo yena me obhiiso antaradhiiyati dassanan ea riipiinan ti? Tassa mayham. etad ahosi: Aeeiiraddhaviriyam kho me udapiidi. puriso addhiinamaggapafipanno. Anuruddhii. Anurl{ddhii. tassa ubhatonidiinam ehambhitattam uppajjeyya. so tassa hatthato uppateyya. So kho aham.

Acciiraddhaviriyam . pahino ahosi. Anuruddhii.. Yato kho me. hi kho tamh. avitakko viciiramafto samiidhi bhiivito ahosi. appamatto littipf pahitatto viharanto pariftafi c' eva obhtisa1h saiij{iniimi parittiini ca riipiini passiimi. Anurllddhii.. dassanafi ca nipiinam. Divine sight proceeds in five objects: limited-object. nippitiko pi samiidhi bhavito ahosi. Ubbillam .. appamiil.mi appamu]Jan c 'eva obhiisarh saiijiinom. Tassa mayham. etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yeno me obhaso antaradhiiyati dassanafi ca rupiinan ti? Tassa mayham... kevalam pi raftim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivam. Anuruddhii.. pajahim.. Chambhitattam . pajahim. faults are to be understood as in the explanation given before.. ayam antimii jiiti. rupiini hi kho passlimi na ca obhasam safijlinlimi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivan ti? Tassa mayham.. pajahim. present object pe-tassa mayham. Anuruddhli. Handa diinaham tividhena samiidhim ·bhiivemiti. avitakkam pi avicliram samiidhim bhiivesim. samaye passiimi na ca obhiisam safijiiniimi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivan ti.i appamiil.. Atinijjhayitattam rupiinam cittassa upakkileso ti iii viditvii alinijjhayitattam rupanam cittassa lIpakkileso ti iti viditvii atinijjhiiyitattam rupiinom cittassa lIpakkilesam pajahim.. Atili'naviriymh . te me pahinli. DUffhullam .1aii ca obhtisam safljdniimi appamiilJiini ca rupiini passiimi.. Anuruddha. Thfnamiddham cittassa upakkileso ti . Vicikicchii cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvii vicikicchii ciftassa upakkileso pahino ahosi.. Dutthullam .' Tassa mayham. etad ahosi: Ko nu kho heW ko paccayo yo 'ham obhasam hi kho safijiinami na ca rupiini passlimi. savitakkam pi savicaram samlidhim bhiivesim.. dassanafi ca rzipiinam. Anuruddhii. avitakkam pi vicaramattam samadhim bhiivesim. Tassa mayham. Anuruddhli. . Tassa mayham. pahino ahosi. So kho pana me obhiiso na cirass' eva antaradhayati dassanafi ca rupiinam. etad ahosi: Abhijappii kho me udapiidiabhijappiidhikara/Jafi ca pana .. Chambhitattam .. So kho aham.. Anuruddhii.. pahino ahosi. pahino ahosi. Aftamano liyasmii Anuruddho Bhagavalo bhiisitam abhinanditi. So kho aham. pajahim. etad ahosi: Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo yo 'hampariftafi c' eva obhlisam saiijiintimi parittdni ca rupiini passa.... 'etad ahosi: Yasmim kho ahmh samaye rupanimittam amanasikaritvli obhiisanimittam manasikaromi. Ubbillam . appamatto iitiipf pahitatto viharanto obhiisafi c' eva safijiiniimi dassanafi ca rupana/h.. na atilina. na niinattasafifiii no atinijjhiiyitattam rupiinan ti.. rupiini hi kho passlimi na ca obhiisam safijiinami kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivam.iriyam na abhijappii ti.ziini ca rupiini passlimi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi raftindivan Ii? Tassa mayham. Anuruddhii... pajahim. Yasmilh pana sarnaye apparitto me samiidhi hoti.. Abhijappii . so 'ham appamlilJena cakkhunii appamiilJaii c' eva obhiisam safijiiniimi appamiilJiini ca rzipiini passlimi kevalam pi rattim kevalam pi divasam kevalam pi rattindivan Ii... na 'tthi diini punabbhavo ti.. etad ahosi: Ye kho me cittassa upakkilesii. obhiisam hi kho tamhi samaye safijlinlimi na ca rupani passlimi. Niinattasafifia . pahino ahosi. . pailino ahosi. Niinattasafil1ii . Amanasikiiro cWassa upakkileso Ii iti viditvii amanasikiiram cittassa upakkilesam pajahiln. Vicikicchii cittassa upakkileso ti iti viditvii vicikiccham cittassa upakkilesam pajahim. So 'ham tathii karissami yathii me puna na vicikicchii uppajjissati .. sappitikam pi samiidhim bhiivesiri" nippitikm. savitakko saviciiro samlidhi bhiivito ahooi. the new yogin should neither cling to forms nor fear forms. Abhijappii . Anuruddhii. so' ham parittena cakkhunii pariftafi c' eva obhiisam safijliniimi pariftani ca rupiini passiimi. So kho aham. Yasmim panliham samaye obhiisanimittam amanasikaritvli rupanimittam manasikaromi. appamlilJam me tamhi samaye cakkhu hoti. Thinamiddham . pi samlidhim bhiivesim...... etad ahosi: Atinijjhayitattam kho me rupanam udapiidi . So kho aham. So kho aham. So 'ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vicikicchii uppajjissati . upekhlisahagato samadhi bhiivito ahosi. So kho aham. Anuruddhii. Anuruddhli.. avilakko aviciiro samiidhi bhiivito ahosi. slitasahagatam pi samiidhim hhiivesim. sappiliko pi samiidhi bhiivito ahosi.. Accliraddhaviriyam . Anuruddhli.226 Vimuttim agga These Here.. dassanafi ca rupiinam.. pajahim. pahino ahosi. fiiilJafi ca pana me dassanam udapadi: Akuppii me vimufti. pahino allOsi.. Anuruddhii. pariftam me tamhi samaye cakkhu hoti. Atilinaviriyam . upekhasahagatam pi samiidhim bhiivesim... ruplin. etad ahosi: Yasmim kho samaye parifto samiidhi hoti. etad ahosi: Niinattasafifiii kho me udapiidi .. Atinijjhiiyitaftam rupiinam cittassa upakkileso ti iii viditvii atinijjhiiyitattam rupiinam cittassa upakkileso pahino ahos. So' ham tathii karissiimi yathii me puna na vicikicchii uppajjissati . Anllrllddhii. Anuruddhii-pe-tassa mayham. Idam avoca Bhagavii. pajahim.. Amanasikiiro citassa upakkileso ti iti viditvii amanasikliro ciftassa upakkileso pahino ahosi.. pajahim. Yato kho me. na abhijappii fla nanattasaflifii Ii. appamatto iitiipi pahitatto viharanto obhasam hi kho safijliniimi na ca ruplini passlimi.. Anuruddhii.

Mag: 434: Vis. he knows the time of arrival here. 111-12: 1dha bhante ekacco SamalJo va BrtihmalJo vti titappam anvtiya padhtinam anvtiya . AniigatamsaiitilJa. D. and there is no limit to the vision of the Tathagata. he knows the kamma which others make. he knows the means of arrival here. KammasakataiitilJa (SvamaytikammaiitilJa). tam yiipam ussiipetvti ajjhtivasitvti daditvti vissajjetvti samalJa-brtihmalJa-kapafJiddhikavanibbaka-yticakiinam dtinam datvti Melleyyassa Bhagavato arahato Sammti-Sambuddhassa santike kesa-massum ohiiretvii ktisaytini vallhtini aechtidetvti agtirasmti anagtiriyam pabbajissati. he knows the defilement which causes the arrival here.. hine palJite suva1J1Je dubba1J1Je sugate duggate yathti-kammiipage satte pajtiniiti. So aneka-sahassam bhikkhu-samgham pariharissati. tad anuttaram brahmacariyam pariyostinam diffhe va dhamme sayam abhiiiiiti sacchikatvti upasampajja viharissati. he knows the state he will reach here. the knowledge of the passing away of beings according to their deeds and the knowledge of kammaresult. Mag. III. tathti-riipam ceto-iamtidhim phusati yathti samtihite citte dibbena cakkhunti visuddhena atikkanta-mtinusakena saile passati eavamtine upapajjamtine hine palJite suva1J1Je dubbalJlJe sugate duggate yathti·kammiipage salle pajtintiti: "lme vata bhonto sattti ktiyaduccaritena samanndgatii vaci~duccaritena samanndgata mano-{iuccaritena samanniigatii ariytinam upavtidakti micchti-diffhikti miechti-diffhi-kamma-samtidiinti. I. 3 Through the knowledge of the kamma sprung from each self.Subjects of Meditation 227 internal-object.•. ajjhattabahiddha-tirammalJa. 5. By that kamma he knows that such and such a man will go to such and such a world. and he knows that such and such a kamma will result in little. 65-6: Te 'allh' eso uptiyo' Ii sabbe ekaeehandti hUlvti 'yam kiiiei katvti tam mtiresstimti Ii aftano upallhtike samtidapetvti kahtipalJasahassam labhitvti purisaghtitakammam katvti carante core pakkostipetvii. he sees the world in which beings will appear.1 From divine sight four . . 5 Through the knowledge of the kahuna-result. and he knows that such and such a man will be born in such and such a world through such and such a kamma.. external-object and internal-external-object. Vis. 3. Here. te ktiyassa bhedti param maralJti sugatim saggam lokam ujJpannti ti". mentions only the first and the third. Atha kho bhikkhave Samkho ntima rtijti yen'assa yiipo raiiiiti Mahti-Pantidena ktirtipito. So evaln pabbajito samtino eko viipakaffho appamatto tittipi pahitallo viharanlo na cirass' eva yass' allhtiya kula-pullti sammad eva agiirasmti anagtiriyam pabbajanti. D. through the knowledge of the future. pe . . 2. D.. ITI.. .. The knowledge of the future. is not in . he knows the arising of the form of the future. 83: So dibbena cakkhunti visuddhena atikkanta-mtinusakena salle passati cavamtine upapajjamtine. 6. 6 Here the hearer who acquires freedom sees a thousand world-systems.kinds of knowledge are produced. 4. he knows that such and such a kamma will result in much. he knows that such and such a kamma will mature. DibbacakkhuiitilJam paritta-paccuppanna-ajjhatta-bahiddhtirammalJavasena calilsu tirammanesll pavattali. ITT.2 the knowledge of the kamma sprung from each self. Ie ktiyassa bhedii param·maralJti· aptiyam duggatim viniptitam nirayam uppannti. 1me vti pana bhonlo sattti kiiya-sucaritena samanmigatii vaei .' Through the knowledge of the passing away of beings according to their deeds. Mag. Cpo Vis. 75-6: Asiti-vassa-sahasstiyukesll bhikkhave manussesu Metteyyo ntima Bhagavti loke uppajjissati araham Sammti-Sambuddho vijjti-carlJa-sampanno .. seyyathti pi 'ham etarahi aneka-satam bhikkhu-sarilgham parihartimi. Dh-a. 'Mahtimoggalltinatthero ntima Kiilasiltiyam vasati. he knows that such and such a kamma will not mature. Divine sight has ended'+ 1. anupavtidakii summti-dillhikti sammti-diffhi-kammii-samtidtinti. YathtikammiipagafltilJa. The Silent Buddha sees more than that. The fifth.. pe . mano-sucaritena samanniigalii ariyiina. KammavipiikafliilJa..

t tattha gantvii tam miirelha' Ii lesam kahiipQ1Je adamsu. he can see. 'Kattha gantvii' ti. Atha nam "mato" ti sanniiya ekasmiril gumbapiffhe khipi/vii pakkamimsu. 'Parinibbiiyissasi Moggalliinii' ti. So 'evam karissiimi bhante' ti Satthararil vanditvii akiise uppatitva parinibbiinadivase Sariputtatthero viya niinappakiira iddhiyo katvii dhammam kathelva Satthiiram vanditvii Kiilasilatavim gantvii parinibbiiyi. The five kinds of higher knowledge are not produced in the formless plane. To the Consummate One belongs noncharacterizable higher knowledge. hearing and knowing others' thoughts. he cannot see in another direction. These are possessed by the denizens of the form plane who are with the cankers and commoners with the fetters. If he practises concentration for the purpose of seeing and hearing.228 MISCELLANEOUS TEACHINGS Vimuttimagga Here there are the following miscellaneous teachings: If one practises one kind of concentration with the purpose of seeing forms through divine sight. If he practises one kind of concentration for the purpose of hearing sounds through divine hearing. If he practises concentration much. Meritorious higher knowledge belongs to both the learner and the commoner. Five supernormal powers are worldly higher knowledge. Evan te pathamamiise pi majjhimamiise pi theram gahelum niisakkhimsu. If he practises concentration for the purpose of seeing in one direction. 'Tena hi Moggalliina mayham dhammam kathetvii yiihi. Pacchimamiise pana sampalte thero attanii katakammassa' iika¢¢hanabhiivam flotvii na apagaflchi. he can only see forms. tiidisassa hi me siivakassa idani dassanam natthi ti. He cannot hear sounds. Te tam divasam theram adisvii pun' ekadivasam gantvii parikkhipimsu. Ama bhante' ti. Thero flatvii kalJl)ikiimal)¢alam bhinditvii iikiisam pakkhandi. he can hear and he can know others' thoughts. The section on supernormal power in the Path of Freedom has ended. If he practises concentration for the purpose of seeing. Thero lehi parikkhittabhiivam flotvii kuflcikacchiddena nikkamitvii pakkiimi. He cannot see forms. he can hear sounds only. Corii gahetvii theram tal)¢ulakal)amattiini 'ssa al/hini karontii bhilldMlSU. hear and know others' thoughts. he cannot hear and he cannot know others' thoughts. he can see and hear. he can see in all directions. Kiilasiliipadesam bhante' ti. Corii dhanalobhena sampa/icchitvii 'theram miiressamii' Ii ganlvii lassa vasanaffhiinam pariviiresum. . Thero 'Satthiil'am passitvii va parillibbiiyissiimi' ti altabhiivam jhiinavethanena vethetvii thiram katvii iikiisena Satthu santikam galltvii Sattharam vanditvii 'bhante parinibbiiyissiimi' ti iiha.

. nibbidiipaniso virago. 31-2: Iti kho bhikkhave avijjiipanisii salikhiirii.. This 1. viriigiipanisii vimutti. higher thought and higher wisdom. sukhiipaniso samiidhi. What is wisdom? What is its salient characteristic? What is its function? What is its manifestation? What is its near cause? What are its benefits? What is the meaning of wisdom? Through what merits can wisdom be acquired? How many kinds of wisdom are there? A. (d) D. II. YathiibhiitaniilJadassana. II. hirottappe tisati hirottappavipannassa hatupaniso hoti indriyasamvaro.-Spk. sukhan ca kiiyena pafisamvedeti yan fam ariyii iicikkhallfi: 'upekhako sat/ma sukhavihiiri ti' tatiya-jjhiinam upasampajja vihara!i. sile· asati silavipannassa hatllpaniso hoti sammiisamadhi. beginning with sila and by way of samiidhi (jhiina). IT. Ayam vuccafi bhikkhave sammiisamiidhi. is called wisdom.ladassane asati yathiibhi1taliiil. nibPidiiviriiKe asati nibbidriviriiKavipannassa hatupanisam hotf vimuttifliinadassanam. samiihito yathribht7tam janati passali Ii vacanato pana samiidhi tassii padaUhiinam. From the foregoing it will beseen that without samiidhi (=four or anyone of thejhanas) no development of panflii is possible. bhaviipanisii jiiti. The seeing. (b) S. by the mind. 313: Katamo ca bhikkhave sa'mmii-samiidhi? Idha bhikkhave bhlkkhu vivicc' e. 219). Sukhassa ca pahiinii dukkhassa ca pahiinii pubb' eva somanassa-domanassiinam atth"Kamii adukkham asukham upekhiisati-piirisuddlzim catutthajjhiinam upasampajja viharali. In. passaddhlipanisam sukham. (c) A. <Jdhicitta-sikkhii. Ettha pana dhammasabhiivapativedhalakkhalJa pannii. dukkhiipanisii saddhri. yathiibhiitatiiil)adassaniipanisii nibbidii.. IV. the considering of advantage and non-advantage. yathiibhiitatiii1. (.dassanam. pe . of objects as they are-this is called wisdom.-adhisila-slkkha. (e) Vis Mag. Tad assa saddh' upanisam primojjam. Balavii piti daratha-patippassaddhiyri paccayo: sa appa1.la-pubbabhaKasukhassa: tam sukham piidaka-jjhiina-samMhissa: so samiidhinii citta-kallatam janetvri taru1. 149-50) and of the three trainings (of higher virtue.'a k'amehi vivfcca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam saviciiram vivekajam piti-sukham pathamajjhiinam upasampajja viharati. Vitakka-vicariinam viipasamii ajjhattam sampasiidanaril cetaso ekodi-bhiivam avitakktuiz aviciiram samiidhijam pitisukham dutiyajjhiinam upasampajja viharafi. (a) S. 438: Krin 'assii lakkha1.. indriyasamvare asati indriyasamvaravipannassa hatupanisam hoti silam.ladassanam. III. samahito bhikkhave bhikkhu yathiibhii!am pajiiniiti. come to paififii in keeping with the teaching of the seven purifications (Satta Visllddlri-M.Ia-vipassanii balava-vipassanaya: balava-vipassanri maKKassa: m"KKO phalavimuffiyii: phala-vimutti paccavekkha1. And it will be noted that this treatise as well as the Vis. piimojjiipanisiipiti. vimuUiipanisQln khaye niilJam. dhammiinam sabhiivapaficchiidaka-mohandhakiiraviddhamsanarasii.ON DISTINGUISlllNG WISDOM CHAPTER THE TENTH Q. 1 And again. tam balava-pitiyii ·paccayo hoti. asammohapaccupatthiinii.-Cp. Icc' assa piidaka-jjhiina-samiidhi taru1. It is according to the teaching of the Abhidhamma. adhipannii-sikkhii-D.lii-rasa-paccupattltiina-padatthiiniini Ii.. Mag. I.la-niil)assa ti. 336: Satisampajanne bhikkhave asati safisampajannavipannassa hatupanisam hotf hirottappam. jiitiipanisam dukkham. WISDOM DEFINED What is wisdom? This wisdom (panna) is understanding (panna).Ia-vipassanriya paccayo hoti: taru1. 229 .lavipassaniiya kammam karoti.adassanavipannassa hatllpaniso hoti nibbidiivirriKo.. 55-6). and of the sublilne. pi/iipanisii passaddhi. samiidhiipanisam yathiibhiitaniil. Pitiyii ca viriiKri upekhako viharati sato ca sampajiino.. saddhiipanisam piimojjam. 13: SamMh/m bhikkhave bhiivetha. .= Tassa kammalthiinam nissiiya dubbalii piti uppajjati. sammiisaniiidhimhi asati sammiisamridhivipannassa hatupallisaril hoti yathiibhiitaflii1.

2 The attainment of truth is its salient characteristic. 1. 2. Through wisdom does one break all heresy. the statement in brief:Through wisdom are all morals made to shine. which naught else ever can exterminate. cause. 1 synecdoche. Supreme is wisdom. BENIFITS OF WISDOM What are its benefits? Incalculable are the benefits of wisdom. Cpo Dhs. ignorance. clever. And again. Excellent characteristic. Unrivalled is the growth in wisdom's state. The vulgar drawn by craving practise ill. and wisdom is a gem. 16: Yii lasmim samaye pannii pajiinanii vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo sallakkhalJii upa/akkhQ/Jii paccupalakkhalJii paIJ4iccam kasallam nepufifiam vebhavyii cinlii upaparikkhii bhiiri medhii parilJiiyikii vipassanii sampajannam patado pannii paniiindriyam panniibalam panfiiisattham panniipiisiido pannii-iiloka pannii-obhiisa paflfliipajjala panniiralanam amoho dhammavicaya sammiidiflhi-idam tasmim samaye panfiindriyam hati. the entering into the true law is its function. Through wisdom does one tread the Holy Path and see the fruition great of sanctity. Two kinds of wisdom lead to jhdna-heights. it sees clearly' and draws knowledge (?). investigation of the truth. and know condition. wisdom is a tower. This wisdom is the doctrine of the Truths. right views-these are called wisdom. wisdom is splendour. Nondelusion is its manifestation.230 Vimuttimagga is knowledge. This is investigation of the truth. Lit. distinguishing. wisdom is a lamp. The loss of wisdom is impurity. wisdom is faculty. the four kinds of analytical science are its near cause. and birth and death. mind. Platter. and in considering. Not so the wise. the dispelling of the darkness of ignorance is its manifestation. wisdom is sword. Through wisdom one attains to excellence. clear understanding is its salient characteristic. wisdom is light. and all the rest that is. which are called craving. That investigation is learned. 'tis the eye of things. norm. This is . the highest of all kind. This wisdom is the pasture of the good. Non-delusion. Wisdom is good. 11. para. who rightly live and teach what profits both this world and that. Through wisdom one roots out the evil brood. wisdom is power. They being free and strong see states of woe and welfare multiform. hatred. The four truths are its near cause. skilful. Investigation is its' function.

ayam vuccati cintiimayii pannii. at all times. [445] namely. Two kinds. bhavana-maya panna (=cintamay' iidisu ayam vittharo. . ridding the mind of the hindrances. 3. Lokiya-. is without fetters.pe. Tattha katama cintamaya panna? Yoga-vihitesu va kamm' iiyatanesu yoga-vihitesu vii sipp'ayatanesu yoga-vihitesu va vijjiiyatanesu kamma-ssakatam vii sacciinulomikaril vii r{(pam aniccan Ii vii " . 2 Supramundane wisdom is without cankers. 125 para. 219: Cinta-maya panna. calming the mind. three kinds and four kinds. Yoga-vihitesu va kamm' iiyatanesu . III. 1002). serenity and insight. This is yoke. ayam vuccali sulamayii panna. Tattha kalama bhavaniimayii panna? Sabba pi sammiipannassa pannii bhiivaniimaya panna. Mundane wisdom and supramundane wisdom. the non-hindered. This is hindrance.. dwelling in meditation. 1 Here wisdom which is associated with the Noble Path and Fruit is supramundane wisdom. FIRST GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM The three kinds in wisdom are· wisdom sprung from thought. Cpo Dhs. yoganiyam. 2. Through what merits can wisdom be acquired? Through these eleven merits. SECOND GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM Again there are three kinds in wisdom: skill in profit.. is without tangle. 3 Here wisdom which one acquires without learning from others is the wisdom that kamma is property of each one or the wisdom which is conformable to the truth in respect of vocational works or works of science. dhamma-nijjhiina-khanlim parato sulvii pa!ilabhati. This is contamination. the non-flood. suta-maya panna. III. What are the two kinds in wisdom? A. jhiina. Mundane wisdom is with cankers. dwelling in purity..-Sv. It means "knowledge" and it means "removing well". vifliitilJam aniccan Ii va yam evarupam anulomikatil khanlim diflhim rucim muniril pekkham dhamma-nijjhiina-khantim parato asutvii pari/abhati. the Four Truths. wisdom sprung from stu(iy and wisdom sprung from culture. the non-contacted. . searching the meaning of the scriptures. This is faring on. the non-contaminated. The wisdom that is got by learning from others is called wisdom sprung from study. the not faring on. nivaralJiyam paramalfham upadaniyam sarikilesikam. 584: Lokiyam sasavam samyojaniyQlh ganthaniyam oghaniyam. This is contact... separating from the unwise and the habit of associating with the wise: TWO KINDS OF WISDOM How many kinds of wisdom are there? A. with fetters and with tangle. skill I. many gO'od deeds. work of-science (?). Thus is wisdom sprung from thought to be known. skill in loss. the non-yoked. Q. This is flood. What is the meaning of wisdom? A.Subjects of Meditation MEANING OF WISDOM 231 Q. . D. lokuttara-panna. Others are mundane wisdom. pe . Entering into concentration one develops all wisdomthis is wisdom sprung from comtentration.

apiiyo ti avaififhi. Tassa tassa kiira(lam upiiyo. Tesam pajiinanam kosallam. as one attends to these states. wisdom of the formless element and 1. apiiya-kosallam. uppannii ca akusalii dhammii nirujjhanti.. This wisdom is called skill in profit. lIT. 328: Tattha katamam kammassakatam nii(lam? Atthi dinnam attlii yiffham. !dam pana acciiyika-kicce vii bhaye vii uppanne tassa tassa tikicchan' atthum thiin' uppattiyii kiira(la-jiinana-vasen' eva veditabbam. uppannii ca kusalii dhammii bhiyyo-bhiiviiya vepulliiya bhiivaniiya piiripuriyii samvattanti. attM sattii opapiitikii. Yii tattha pannii pajiinanii sammii-dillhi idam vuccati iiya-kosallam.IIIIOOS).l THIRD GROUP OF THREE IN WISDOM And again. Cpo Vbh. and not-self is called knowledge that conforms to the truth. the wisdom that does not accumulate and the wisdom that neither accumulates nor does not accumulate.-Sv. idam vuccati apiiya-kosallam. Yii tattha pannii pajiinanii sammii-diffhi. uppannii ca kusalii dhammii nirujjhanti. . uppannii ca akusalii dhammii bhiyyo-bhiiviiya vepulliiya bhiivaniiya piiripuriyii samvattanti. demeritorious states are put away. 3. demeritorious states arise. D. Here. right view concerning the ten bases is the knowledge produced by one's own kamma. The neither describable nor non-describable wisdom of the Fruit of the four stages and the object of three stages-this is wisdom that neither accumulates nor does not accumulate.232 Vimuttimagga in means. Here as one attends to these states. amoho dhammavicayo sammiidilfhi: . atthi sukatadukkatiinam kammiinam phalavipiiko. atthi miitii. The wisdom of the Four Paths is called knowledge connected with the Four Paths.pe . TIsu bhumisu kiriyiivyiikate pannii neva iicayagiimini na apacayagiimini pannii. knowledge that conforms to the truth. atthi paraloko. "Adaptable patience" in one who regards the aggregates as impermanent. and meritorious states are put away. The wisdom of the Four Fruit~ is called knowldege connected with the Four Fruits. 326: Tisu bhumisu kusale paiiiiii iicayagiimini pannii. Ime vii pana me dhamme manasikaroto anuppannii c' eva kusalii dhammii uppajjanti. Cpo Vbh. atthi pitii. Sabbii pi tatr' IIpiiyii pannii upiiya-kosallan ti. meritorious states are made to increase. namely. 2 FIRST GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM The four kinds in wisdom are knowledge produced by one's own kamma. 3 SECOND GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again. ill. wisdom of the sensuous element. upiiya-kosallam (=Kosallesu iiyo ti va4rJhi. 2. there are three kinds in wisdom. Catusu bhiimisu panna apacayagiimini pannii. The wisdom of the Four Paths is called the wisdom that does not accumulate. Again. the wisdom that accumulates. the wisdom of all means of success is called "skill in means". knowledge connected with the Four Paths and knowledge connected with the Four Fruits. Here. atthi ayam loko. Vitthiiro pana Vibhange (32S-6) vutto yeva. Tattha katamam apiiya-kosallam? Ime me dhamme manasikaroto anuppannii C' eva akusalii dhammii uppajjqnti. Vuttam h' etam: Tattha katamam iiyakossallam? Ime dhamme manasikaroto anuppannii c' eva akusalii dhammii na uppajjanti. 220 TI(li kosalliini-Aya-kosallam. there are four kinds in wisdom. This wisdom is ·called "skill in loss". atthi hutam. atthi loke sama(labriihmaIJii sammaggatii sammiipatipannii ye imam ca lokam paran ca lokam sayam abhiiiiiii sacchikatvii pavedentiti: yii evarupii pannii pajiinanii . wisdom of the form element. Ime vii pana me dhamme manasikaroto anuppannii c' eva kusalii dhammii n'uppajjanti.. namely..

/hapetvii anvaye' iiiirram. dukkhanirodhagiiminiyii patipadiiya p' etam niirram. . Meritorious wisdom of the formless element which is neither characterizable nor non-characterizable is called wisdom of the formless element.lam. ayam eva tQlJhii-samadaya-saccam. Catusu maggesu ca eatiisu pha/esu Pannii apariyiipannii paiiflii. Rupiivacarakusaliivyiikate pannii rupiivacarii pannii. parieee niirrarh sammutiniirram. an.. Maggasamamgissa niirram dukkhe p' etam fliirram . evarh atite pi aniigate pi: Ime va pancakkhandhii dukkhasac&am. 1019-20). The kinds of knowledge that are other than these three are called general knowledge. The knowledge of the (four) truths is knowledge of succession. ( = Dhamme-/iiirram ti eka-pativedha-vasena catu-sacca-dhamme niirram. .' FOURTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again there are four kinds in wisdom. the future and the present through knowledge of the Law. ayam eva milggo magga-saccan ti.fi niil. Thapelvii pana imiini til. wisdom which is due to combination and also to non-combination. Yathiiha: "Tattha katamam sammuli-fliirram? Thapelvii dhamme-iiiirram.ls wisdom of the sensuous element which is neither characterizable nor non-characterizable is wisdom of the sensuous element Meritorious wisdom of the form element which is neither characterizable nor non-characterizable is called wisdom of the form element. and through this also he knows the distant past and the distant future. Yath' iiha: "Tattha katamam dhamme iiiil. III. catusu phalesu' niirram". D. meritoriOl. Wisdom of the Paths and the Fruits is called unfettered wisdom. knowledge of the Law. there are four kinds in wisdom. namely.lam? Riipam aniccan ti vii vedanii aniccii ti vii sannii aniceii ti vii salikhiirii aniccii ti vii viflniirram anicean ti vii yii evarupii anulomikii khanti di!fhi ruci muti pekkhii dhammilnijjhiinakhanti: idam vuccati saceiinulomikam niirram. Thapetvii sacciinulomikam liiirram sabbii pi siisavii kusalii pannii kammassakatam niirram. Ten' iiha: "So iminii dhammena niil)ena iJitlhena pattena viditena pariyogii/hena atifiinagatena yam neli" ti. Anvaye-iiiil)an t i eattiiri sacciini paccavekkhato disvii yathii idiini.. Catusu maggesu pannii maggasamamgissa niirram. namely. The knowledge of others' minds is called the knowledge of discrimination. evam tassa niirrassa anugatiyam niil. -Sv. wisdom which is due to combination and not due to non-combination. Catiisu phalesu pannii phalasamamgissa niirram. Catllsacc' abbhantare nirodha-dhamme niirraii ca. Yath' iiha: "Tattha kalamam paricceiiiirram? Idha bhikkhu para-sattiinam para-puggaliinam eetasii eeto-paricea pajiiniiti" ti vitthiiretabbam. III. wisdom which is due to neither combiidam vuccati kammassakqtam niirram. ' 1. /hapetvii paricee-iiiirram avasesam sammuli-fliil. 2. Vbh. Dhamme niirram.liini avasesam sammuti-iiiirram niima. That yogin knows the past. 329: Kiitniivacarakusaliivyiikate pannii kiimiivaearii panna. Arupiivacarakusaliivyiikate pannii arupiivacarii pannii. The wisdom of the Four Paths and the Four Fruits is called knowledge of the Law. 1 THIRD GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again.fam -? Catusu maggesu. ayam eva nirodlio nirodha-saceam. Tattha katamam sacciinulomikam niil.fan ti. wisdom which is due to non-combination and not to combination. 226: Cattiiri niirriini.vuye niil)am. and general knowledge. knowledge of succession. knowledge of discrimination. Paricce-iiiirran liparesalil citla-pariccliede niirram.Subjects of Meditation 233 the wisdom of the unfettered. Here.

293. Here meritorious wisdom of the sensuous element is due to combination and not to non-combination. There is wisdom which is due to aversion and also to penetration. Taira dhammaniruttiibhiliipe nii(IQm niruttipatisambhidii.1 FIFTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again. 331: Tattha kalamii' calasso patisambhidii? Atthapatisambhidii dhammapatisambhidii nir~ttipatisambhidii patibhiinapa(isambhidii. Ibid. Calusu maggesu paniiii nibbidiiya ceva pativedhiiya ca. The other kinds of wisdom are due neither to aversion nor to penetration. 2 SIXTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again.: Ta/tha katamii panifii nibbidiiya no pativedhiiya? Yiiya panniiya kiimesu vi/ariigo hoti. Atthe nii(lam atthapatisambhidii. . Characterizable wisdom of the Fruit of the four stages and of the object of the three stages is neither due to combination nor to non-combination. Meritorious wisdom of the form element and the formless element is due to combination and also to non-combination.Knowledge in regard to cause is analysis of the Law. Here the wisdom which is due to aversion and which is not due to penetration of supernormal knowledge and the knowledge of the Four Truths is called wisdom which is due to aversion and not due to penetration: That which is due to supernormal knowledge is due to penetration and not due to aversion. analysis of meaning. Knowledge in regard to doctrine is analysis of the Law.234 Vimuttimagga nation nor to non-combination. Knowledge in regard to knowledge is analysis of argument. 3. there are four kinds in wisdom. lmii catasso patisambh. Knowledge in regard to meaning is analysis of meaning.dii. there are four kinds in wisdom. 2. namely. 330: Tattha katamii pannii iicayiiya no apacayiiya? Kiimiivacarakusale pannii iicayiiya no apacayiiya. The wisdom of the Four Paths are due to aversion and also to penetration. of the Law. Ibid. Vbh. Avasesii paiiJiii neva iicayiiya no • apacayiiya.is due to non-combination and not to combination. R/ipiivacaraarupiivacarakusale paiiiiii iicayiiya ceva apacayiiya ca. Avasesii pa/inii neva nibbidiiya no pa(ivedhiiya. Understanding in 1. Dhamme lIii{Iam dhammapa(isambhidii. fitiqleslI iiii(IQm patibhii(IQpatisambhidii. Sveva paiiifiiya kiimesu vilariigo samiino abhiififiiyo pa(ivijjhati. The wisdom of the Four Paths . na ca abhiiiiiiiyo pativijjhati na ca sacciini: ayam vuccali paiiJiii nibbidiiya no pafivetlhiiya. There is wisdom which is due to aversion and not to penetration. 3 SEVENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM Knowledge in rega{d to consequence of cause is analysis of meaning. Catusu maggesu pannii apacayiiya no iicayiiya. na ca sacciini: ayam vuccali pannii pa(ivedhiiya no nibbidiiya. of interpretation and of argument. Knowledge in regard to etymological interpretation is analysis of interpretation. There is wisdom which is due to penetration and not to aversion. . There is wisdom which is due neither to aversion nor to penetration.

. iVci(!esu iici(!Qm palibhci(!apalisambhidii.lam pafibhii(!apafisambhidii. riipciramma(!am vci . Vbh. knowledge in respect of the eye is called analysis of the Law. itivuttakam jiitakam abbhutadhammam vedallam: ayam vuccati dhammapa/isambhidii. . divisions according to matter* is called analysis of the Law. solemn utterances. . knowledge of ill. namely.pe . expositions. 1. namely. The knowledge of the origin of ill and the Path is called analysis of the Law. Tesam vipiike flii(!am atthapafisambhidii. l EIGHTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM 235 Knowledge And again. Httuphale flcil. tasmim samaye phasso holi . Knowledge of the meaning of what has been preached is called the analysis of interpretation.lam nirutfipalisambhidci.lam dhammapafisambhidii. 296: Yasmim samaye akusalam cittam uppannam hoti somanassasahagatam diffhigatasampayultam. in regard to knowledge is analysis of argument. iiii(lesu iiii(lam pafibhiil)apalisambhidii. Knowledge in interpreting ~hat has been preached is called analysis of interpretation. Eye-knowledge in respect of views is called analysis of meaning. the knowledge of ill and cessation is analysis of meaning. iVii(!esu iiiil. dhammiiramma(lam vci yam yam vii pan' iirabbha. Ibid: Dukkhe iiii(!am atthapatisambhidii. [mesu dhammesu iiii(!am dhammapa(isambhidii. there are four kinds of knowledge. Yena iiii(!ena tiini iici(!iini jiiniiti: imcini iici(!cini idam atthajotakiiniti.jiitakci..' ELEVENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again. Yiiya niruttiyii tesam dhammiinam paiiiiatti holi. tatra dhammaniruttiibhi/ape iiii(!am niruttipatisambhidii. mixed verse and prose. 3. Vbh. . Tatra dhammanirutfiibhilcipe flii(!am niruttipafsambhidii. 2. Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. 294: [dha bhikkhu dhammam jiiniiti suttam geyyam veyyiikara(!am gcitham udiinali. 4. birth-stories. 293: Hetumhi iici(!am dhammapalisambhidii. . Tatra dhammaniruttcibhilcipe iiii(lam niruttipafisambhidii. 2 NINTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again. Tatra dhammaniruttcibhilcipe iicil. supernormal phenomena. geyya. the discourses. Dukkhanirodhagiiminiyci pafipadiiya flii(!am dhammapalisambhidii.giithii. abbhutadhamma vepulla(vedalla) -transliteration. Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. sayings.. Vbh. knowledge of the Law. avikkhepo holi: .Subjects of Meditation regard to the analysis of the Law is analysis of interpretation. Knowledge in regard to knowledge is called analysis of argument. This is called analysis of meaning.. pe . Dukkhanirodhe iiii(!am atthapafisambhidii. Etymological interpretation of the Law is called analysis of interpretation. • Sulta. One knows the meaning of what is spoken: "This is the meaning of what is spoken". iVii(!esu fliinam pafibhii(!apa/isambhidii. . 3 TENTH GROUP OF FOUR IN WISDOM And again. Dukkhasamudayeiicil.lam atthapa/isambhidci. itivuttaka. veyyiikara(!a. udiina. verse.ime dhammci akusalii. So fassa tass' eva bhiisitassa altham jciniiti: ayam imassa bhcisitassa altho... ayam imassa bhiisitassa altho Ii: ayam vuccati atthapatisambhidii.

227: Dukkhe fiiilJam. 1. D. The Ninth Fascicle has ended. samllday<.Ulm.Ulm. Knowledge in regard to the origin of ill is knowledge' of the origin of ill. iiii1. to completion is knowledge of the Path. Knowledge in regard to the ceasing of ill is knowledge of the ceasing of ill. tn/lgge iiii1. nirodhe fiiilJam. l The Distinguishing of Wisdom in the Path of Freedom has ended. Knowledge which practises. III. of the ceasing of ill and of the Path. . Knowledge in regard to ill is knowledge of ill.236 Vimuttimagga of the origin of ill.

sabbam riipam. 8. Ayatana-upiiya 4. to cut the rope of craving and to acquire holy wisdom. Viiyo-dhiitu 237 .? the aggregate of feeling.18 What is the earth-element? That which has 1. the aggregate of form. Vedanii 9. Dbs. The four primaries and the material qualities derived from the primaries.8 the aggregate of formation.n air-element. 584: Tattha katamam sabbam riipam? Cattiiro ca mahiibhutii catunnaff ca mahiibhUtiinam upiidiiya rupam-idam vuccat. namely. 124.13 water-element. Sairkhiirii 11. Khandha-upiiya 3. para. What is the aggregate of form? A. Paticcasamuppiida-upiiya 6. if the new yogin aspires after release from decay and death. What are the four primaries? Earth-element. Upiiya 2.1O and the aggregate of consciousness. 13. Viiiiiii(la 12. Dhiitu-upiiya 5. he should develop the methods. 4 conditioned-arising-method6 and truth-method. What is the aggregate-method? A.12 FOUR PRIMARIES DEFINED Q. Pathavi-dhiitu 14. Riipa . and wishes to remove the cause of arising and passing away. l l Q. Sacca-upiiya 7. 8 THE AGGREGATE OF FORM Q. The five aggregates are. wishes to dispel the darkness of ignorance.3 element-method. the aggregate-method. Saffna 10.THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE TIlE TENTII WRITTEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN THE FIVE METHODSl CHAPTER THE ELEVENTII Sedion One Here.2 sense-organ-method. Apo-dhiitu 15 Tejo-dhiitu 16.S the aggregate of perception. a fire-element.

kayo. solam. rogariipam. sound as sense-object. (a) Cpo Vis. evam iidJzihi virujjhanalo .jivhii. hadayavatthu. yo vi!thambhanabhiivo va samudira~abhiivo va. rupam. riipassa jaratii. . tongue. kharabhiivo va ayam pafhac vidhatu. Cpo Vis.). itthindriyam purisindriyam. buoyancy of matter. This is called the air-element. kabalinkiiro ahiiro eeti evam afrhavisatividhesu rupesu adito (paffhiiya?) eatubbidham rupam bhiitariipam nama. rilpassa kammafifiata: rupassa upacayo. kayadhiitu riipadhiitu saddadhiitu .. kayaviiinatti. pe . Visible objects 1. body-intimation. ito anitam rupam nama natthi. What is the air-element? That which has the nature of moving and the nature of supporting. namely. kiiyaviiinatti.. yo paripaeanabhavo va U/Jhabhiivo va.. 1: Cakkhudhiitu sotadhiitu . nose. natthi nivara!za lava" Ii ca. body. Cpo (a) Vis. riipassa sanlati. continuity of matter. impressibility of matter. yo abandha nabhavo va. 455.Pm. ear. '. decay of matter. This is called the earthelement. (=Ekaccilnan Ii Abhayagiriviisinam . na tam riipan Ii vifiitunii. akiisadhiitu. Dhammiinanda Thera's Ed.. This should be understood as was fully taught in the determining of the four elements. 2. . through viewing these briefly and through viewing these at length. What is the water-element? That which has the nature of flowing and the nature of cohesiveness. hadayavatthu. 3. 698. masculinity. rupassa muduta. jivitindriyam. This is called the fire-element. gandho. Mag. iikasadhiltu.. jaratii' aniecatii Ii aflhavisatividham holi. Ie "addhii muni 'si sambuddho. DERIVED MATERIAL QUALITIES What are the derived material qualities? The sense-organs of eye. element of space. c a k k h ii Y a I a n am .. ayam lejodhiitu.lena niVarOl. speech-intimation. Keci pana middhaviidino middhariipam niima atthili vadanli. rupassa mudutii. life-principle. solid food. rupassa lahuta. middhass' uppatti-palhalo niffham etth' iivagantabbam. 450: A((hakathiiyam pana balariipam . itthindriyam purisindiyam jivitindriyam.2 the basis of the material element and the material quality of torpor. ekaeeiinam matena middharupan ti evam annani pi riipiini iiharitva: addhii muni 'si sambuddho.. Arupe pi pan' etassa.. ayam viiyodhiilii ti evam sankhillena dhaluyo pariggahelvii punappunam: palhavidhiitu iipodhiitii Ii dhiitumattato nissattato nijjivalo avajjitabbam manasikatabbam paeeavekkhitabbam. mahiipakara~e Palfhiine: "nivara~am dhammam pa(icea nivara{lo dhammo uppajjati na purejata-jJaccayii" Ii ca. riipassa lahutii. (b) Abhmv. femininity. rilpassa kammafiiiatii. ghiinam.zam paficca thina-middha-uddhaeea-kukkuccavijjii-nivaralJani" ti ariipam eva middhan Ii pafikkhipilabba. matter as sense-object. 72: Tattha: "samodhiinan" Ii sabbam eva idam riipam samodhanato pafhavidhiilU apodhiitu tejodhiilu viiyodhiitu. adaptibility of matter. 3 SENSE-ORGAN OF EYE What is the sense-organ of eye? By this matter is seen. This is called the water-element. kaba/inkiiro iihtiro (b) Riiparup.238 Vimuttimagga the nature of hardness and the nature of solidity. Middhariipam.la-Sampayutfan" ti sampayutta-vacanato ca. odour as sense-object. dravabhavo vii ayam apodhiilu. riipassa jara/a rupassa aniccato. "arupe pi kiimacchanda-nivarat. 1 The new yogin overcomes difficulties in two ways. vaeivinnatti. sesam upada' J riipamniima. What is the firecelement? That which has the nature of heating and the nature of maturing matter. 351-2: Yo imasmim kaye thaddhabhavo va. taste as sense-object. riipassa anieealii. impermanency of matter. vacivifiiiatti. Mag. rupassa upacayo. Mag. nalfhi nivara~a lava Ii Mini valvii middhariipam lava nallhi yeva Ii pa{ikkhittam.. integration of matter. 444: Cakkhu. "thinammiddha-nivara{larh nivara{laii c' eva avijjanivaral. saddo. raso. phOffhabbadhiitu. rupassa santati.

S. according to past kamma. phlegm and serum. -is fringed by tawny hair. Dbs. Diet. And again. Cp. where the' three meet. the sensory matter that. SENSE-ORGAN OF TONGUE What is the sense-organ of tongue? By this tastes are known. tam sasambhtira-ghtilJabilassa anto ajapada-sQIJfhane padese yathtivuttappaktiram hutvti tiffhati. is called the senseorgan of nose. Mag. 66: SUlJtititi sotam. the sensory matter that is in the interior of the two ear-holes. This is called the 1. olfactory consciousness arises. sotaviiiiitilJtidinam vatthu-dvtira-bhtivam stidhayamtinalil tiffhali. 3. is half a poppy-seed in size. 446. TV. And again.T. pe . wind. and the white and black of the eye-ball that is in five layers of flesh. is like the stem of a blue-green bean. Abhmv. auditory consciousness is aroused. bhikkhave. And again. A sort of ebony.. is like a Kovi!tira 6 (flower in shape). in the interior of the nose. gustatory consciousness is aroused. is called the sense-organ of the eye. 5. is produced by the four primaries. the' Venerable Elder Sariputta. . eye. by which one sees objects. Tast-e impinging on this. is called the senseorgan of ear. is soall and subtle like (the head of) a louse". 4.2 and in which the primary of heat is in excess. Sound impinging on this. A. 132: Cakkhum bhikkhave purtilJakammam abhisaJikhatam abhisaiicetayitam vedaniyam daffhabbam . 307: Vuttampi c' etam Dhammasentipatinti: Yena cakkhuppastidena raptini samanupassati parittam sukhumam c' etam ilktisirasamapaman Ii.. [446] It is as has been taught by the Possessor of Great Skill. Bauhinia variegata. 5 is dependent on one small opening. is made by the four primaries according to past kamma. visual consciousness is aroused. givlrti purtilJakammam abhisankhatti abhisaiicetayitti vedaniyti daffhabbti •• . IbId: Ghtiyatiti ghtilJam. and in which the primary of air is in excess. 1 This is called the senseorgan of. is like the head of a louseling. "The organ of visual sense. 6. Odour impinging on this.. 285: Cakkhuii ca.P.S. The common source of this verse has not been traced. paficca rape ca uppajjati cakkhuviiiiitilJam. Vis. III.66. tam tanu'tamba-lomticite angulivefhaka-salJfhtine padese vuttappaktirtihi dhtilahi kat' apaktiram utu-cW' tihtirehi upatthambhiyamtinam tiYlmti pariptil!yamtinam.8 SENSE-ORGAN OF EAR What is the sense-organ of ear? By this sounds are heard.' SENSE-ORGAN OF NOSE What is the sense-organ of nose? By this odours are sensed. blood. Mano purtilJakammam abhisankhato abhisaiicetayito vedaniyo daffhabbo. Cpo Abhmv. M. is produced by the four primaries according to kamma and in which the element of space is in excess. the sensory matter that depends on the three small fleshy discs round the' pupil.. This is called the senseorgan of nose.The Five Methods 23-9 impinging on this. 2. is dependent on the membrane. This is called the senseorgan of ear.

is called solid food. This is called the sense-organ of body. (a) Uppala. sa sasambhara-jivhamajjhassa upari uppala-dalagga-sa1Jfhane padese yathavuttappakara hutva ti!fhafi. upiidii catuvisati atthavisati rupani. is called the sense-otgan of tongue. is in shape like a blue lotus. and in which the primary of water is in excess. These twenty-six material qualities and the four primaries make up thirty kinds of matter. what delimits matter is called the element of space. is a product of the four primaries. speech intimation means verbal activities. This integration of matter is called the continuity of matter. See P. The growth which is dependent on the primaries. adaptibility of matter means. 2. tactual consciousness is aroused. olfactory sense-object is the reaction of odour. V. the maturing of material objects is the decay of matter.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FOUR PRIMARIES AND DERIVED MATTER Q. the plasticity-characteristic of material nature. the workability-characteristic of material nature. is wrought according to past kamma. there are twenty-eight only . . the sensory matter that is two-finger breadths in size. Materia! sense-object is the reaction of visible objects. According to Abhmv. according to past kamma. What is the difference between the four primaries and the matter" I. and in which the primary of earth is in excess. impressibility of matter means. matter decays-this is called the impermanency of matter. All primaries are characterized by the material quality of torpor.! is located in the flesh of the tongue. Femininity is the characteristic of female nature. And again. seta-kumuda. that which preserves the body wrought by kamma. kallahara-The seven kinds of lotuses. (b) Abhmv. the accumulation of these sense-organs is called the integration of matter. 37: Nila-ratta-set-uppala. Diet. masculinity is the characteristic of male nature. 66: Sayatiti jivha.. And again. gustatory sense-object is the reaction of flavour. by which beings get nutritive essence. it is the sensory matter that is in the entire body. nails. teeth and other insensitive parts.240 Vimuttimagga sense-organ of tongue. Buoyancy of matter means. the lightness-characteristic of material nature.verse 695:Bhiita rupiini catttiri. jiviatm avhayatiti va jivha. is produced by the four primaries. body intimation means bodily activities. excepting the hair of the body and of the head. auditory sense-object is the reaction of sound.T. sabban' eva bhavanti hi. SENSE-ORGAN OF BODY What is the sense-organ of body? By this tangibles are knowp. By the impact of tangibles on this. is called lifeprinciple. The arising of material objects is the coming to birth of matter.and the element of consciousness.S. ratta-seta-paduma. is called the sense-organ of the material element. Cpo J. This is called sense-organ of body. these three are the characteristics of non-sluggishness in material nature. 71. That.

2. One material quality arises owing to the cause-condition of the caloric order and consciousness. group. nose. life-ennead. ear-decad. consciousness and nutriment. which support each other. tongue and body. femininity. and the basis of the material element. Two material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of consciousness. the four primaries do not depend on the derived material qualities and the material qualities derived from the four primaries are not interdependent. SIMILE OF THE THREE STICKS The four primaries should be known as three sticks which stand supporting one another. How. This is the difference between them. namely decay of matter and impermanency of matter. basis-decad. Cakkhu-dasaka-. by way of group?l A. diversity.hus one should know the character of these by way of arising. Nine groups are produced by consciousness. itthindriya-dasaka-. purisindriya-dasaka-. space-element. They are buoyancy of matter. What are the nine groups produced by kamma? A. by way of arising? A. They are the eye-decad. birth of matter. tongue-decad. the four piimaries are produced. masculinity. gustatory sense-object. ear. integration of matter. They are material sense-object. there is no arising. Four material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of caloricity. Q. They are body-intimation and speech-intimation. impressibility of matter. Nine groups are produced by kamma. nose-decad. olfactory senseobject. unity. Twelve material qualities arise owing to four cause-conditions. adaptibility of matter and the material quality of torpor. MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF ARISING Q. and depending on decay. kiiya-dasaka-. decay depends on birth.The Five Methods 241 derived from the four primaries? A. there is impermanenpy. solid food and the four elements. Of two material qualities. Nine material qualities arise owing to the cause-condition of kamma. Though the four derived material qualities are produced in dependence on the four primaries. Depending on one another. The material qualities derived from the four primaries should be known as the shadow cast by the three sticks. They are the sense-organs of eye. Kaliipa. masculinity-decad. jivita-navaka-kaliipa. Three groups are produced by nutriment. T. life-principle. birth. And again. 2 1. continuity of matter. ghiina-dasaka-. MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF GROUP Q. Here the yogin knows that all these thirty material qualities are of five kinds by way of arising. iiyalana-dasaka-kaliipa (possibly for hadayavatthu). It is the auditory sense-object. sota-dasaka-. Six groups are produced by caloric order. . body-decad femininity-decad. How.

242 Vimuttimagga Q. the second eye-decad produces a third oecad. * In the same way. And again. flavour. Bare-octad. bare-speech-intimation-heptad. what delimits these is space-element. lifeprinciple-ennead at length. bare-buoyancyennead. He sees the succession of the eye. These. Coming after is called succession. the second decad decays. it produces a second decad. the body-decad. Coming after is called succession. The rest should be known. What is the eye-decad? A. these four and the group arise together. Bare-body-intimation. this bare octad sets going a second bare-octad together with the second consciousness. • This line is unintelligible. eye-speech-intimationundecad. What is the consciousness-born-bare-octad? A. what delimits it is called space-element. There is a yogin. bare-body-intimation-ennead. eye-body-intimation-decad. Q. Ojii according to abhms. form. the second and the third eye-decads are called "group". the third decad arises. This decad is produced together . . These eight are named the bare-octad. the tongue-decad.2 Thus should the eye-decad be known. it consists of the four primaries.l life-principle and the sentient eye. These six states arise together. These six groups 3 are not destroyed in the first and not produced in the second. buoyancy-body-intimation. What are the nine consciousness-born groups? A. arising of this is birth. The four elements of eye-sentience ar\} its basis. 1. This is called "group" and this is called the eye-decad. eye-body-intimation. do not occur in one instant. buoyancy-speech-intimation-undecad. Q. the bare-buoyancy-nonary and the bare-eye-ennead (should be understood). The. 3. bare-speech-intimation. 'contact. 10: Catu-samuuhiina-rupii-kaliipa-santafi kiimaloke dipa-jiilii vlya nodi sofo piya. VI. its destruction is called impermanency. buoyancy-body-intimation-decad. Destruction of the first bare (-octad) and the arising of the second bare (-octad) occur in a moment. these two kinds of decads should be known as "group". It is like a flowing stream. flavour and contact which depend on the elements. Thus the eye-decad arises. In the same way one should know the ear-decad. When the eye-decad decays. the nose-decad. 2. femininity-decad. . its maturing is called decay. the maturing of these is decay. The first decad is scattered. odour. These occur in one moment. It is like the flame of a lamp. bare-eye-ennead. in the way it was fully taught before. odour. masculinity-decad. So quick it is that by worldly knowledge it cannot be known. destruction of these is impermanency. Abhms. At the time of their destruction. Ch. because no two intimations can take place in one conscious track. eye-speech-intimation. When decay sets in.and does not separate. these four states arise in them. The arising of these is birth. buoyancyspeech-intimation. The four elements and visible object. None can discern the interval.

Th~ are the basis-decad. masculinity or femininity. through groups. When a blind male or female is born in an evil state. bare-sound-ennead. 77. masculinity-decad. 2. twenty material qualities are produced. in an evil state. namely. Bareoctad. 1. the femininity or masculinity-decad. a male or a female possessed of the faculties and the sense-organs arouses seventy material qualities at the time of birth. body. (all) except the eye-decad. femininity-decad. kiiyavatthuvasena tu. the body-decad. sabhiivass' eva dehino. (all) except the ear-decad. It should be known by way of a male or female entering a womb. A person. Q. In the case of a person who is neither a male nor a female. through birth? A. (all) except the masculinity or femininity decad. These are not in the form-element. patisandikkhal. namely. kamma and basis should be known as equal.ze pana timsa rupiini jiiyante.The Five Methods 243 Q. the eye-decad. tasmii lesam vltthiirena ruparilpalo visali-dhammii tayo ca ariipino khandhii ti ele levisati-dhammii vlfflliilJOpaccayii niimariipan Ii veditabbii. having faculties and sense-organs. In the same way a deaf person [447] arouses sixty material qualities. What are the six groups produced by the caloric order? A. (all) except the eye-decad and the ear-decad. A deaf and blind person arouses fifty material qualities namely. aI. When one who is neither a male nor a female is born. v. the continuity. (b) Cpo Vbh-a. In the first moment thirty material qualities are produced. bare-buoyancy-ennead and bare-eye-ennead. 746: . buoyancy-sound-decad bare-eye-ennead. at the moment of birth. MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF BIRTH Q. How. (Thus one should know). namely. 747: Abhiiva-gabbaseyyiinam. 1 They are the basis-decad. that person arouses sixty material qualities. tongue. In their body all the sense-organs exist. the nose-decad. and the three beginning with buoyancy. v. that person arouses sixty material qualities at the moment of birth. Of groups that are produced by caloric order and nutriment. Eight groups continue because of life: nose. Abhms. eye-sound-decad. who is neither a male nor a female and is blind. the ear-decad. the tongue-decad.lIjajiinaii ca visati bhavanti pana rapiini. The divine life-ennead is fulfilled in the sensuous element and in the sphere of action. External groups are of two kinds: bare: octad and sound-ennead. body-decad. bare-buoyancy-ennead. Bare octad. 169-70: Evam pavattamiine c' etasmim niimarupe yasmii abhiivakagabbhaseyyakiinam alJllajiinaii ca patisandhikkhalJe vatthu-kiiyavasena rupato dYe san/atisisiini tayo ca arupino khandhii piitubhavanti. The divine life-ennead pertains to the unconscious Brahmas. and torpidity. The rest is as was taught above. (a) Ibid. Taking birth in the sensuous element. 2 They are the basis-decad and the body-decad. Gabbaseyyaka-sattassa. at the beginning of an aeon. What are the three groups which are produced in nutriment? A.

2.244 Vimuttimagga produces fifty material qualities. Brahma arouses forty-nine material qualities at the moment of birth. 125-27. because they are not limited. Thus one should know through birth. the ear-decad. The other twenty-two are non-faculty.y-decad and the masculinity or femininity-decad. A person who is neither a male nor a female. buoyancy of matter. the body-decad. because internal and external material sense-objects are seized through impact. the nose-decad and the tongue-decad. 3. the life-principle-enlIead. (all) except the ear-decad and masculinity or femininity. . namely. five material qualities are internal. MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF DIVERSITY. five sentient organs). (all) except the eye-facult. How. decay of matter. They are the basis-decad.' namely. These are not produced through kamma-result. invisible and reacting and invisible and 1.GROUPS OF TWO IN MATERIAL QUALITIES Q. They are gross or subtle. They are the five internals (possibly. And again. They are the eight faculties and the material basis. The other eighteen material qualities are subtle. the basis-decad. namely. they are so because of dependence. workability of matter. para. impermanency of matter and torpidity. the eye-decad. the faculty of femininity. 585. because they are non-dependent. The other thirty-five material qualities are external matter. And again. material qualities are of three kinds: visible and reacting. Lit. cpo Dbs. there are two kinds of material qualities.l Here eight material qualities are faculty. They are internal and external. They are faculty and non-faculty. speech-intimation. A person who is neither a male nor' a female and who is deaf arouses fifty material qualities. of masculinity and life. Nine material qualities are the senseobject of sound. because they are produced owing to kamma-result. because they are not seized through impact. the body-decad and the life-principleennead. And again. twelve material qualities are gross. Life-faculty and non-life-faculty. because the five sense-organs of eye and others are limited. body-intimation. The other twelve material qualities are breakable ones because they have two kinds of significance (?). Having broken material qualities. 2 GROUPS OF THREE IN MATERIAL QUALITIES All material qualities can be divided into three hinds. there are two kinds. All material qualities are of two kinds. namely. The beings of the divine-plane of inconscience arouse nine material qualities at the moment of birth. They are nonmaterial qualities and arrested material qualities. 3 Here nine material qualities are feeling. Here. and is blind and deaf. through diversity? A. impressibility of matter. arouses forty material qualities. Here. Lit.

All material qualities are one. Cakkhu-viiiiia1Jllsalikhalam nassa nidassanan Ii anidassanam. dissociated from mind. through intrinsic nature one discriminates. femininity. How. Three material qualities are material characteristics. material characteristics and delimitation of matter. that is. hindrance. Tam atlhato (hapetva das' ayat. material form. 997). It is space-element. as neither group nor non-group. put-together. as neither learning nor non-learning. One material quality is delimitation of matter. masculinity. FOUR KINDS OF MATERIAL QUALITIES Again. as being with faring-on. III. non-mental. causally related. because they limit (?). buoyancy of matter. Tam atlhalo cakkhayalanan' adini nava ayalanani. Here nineteen material qualities are intrinsic. decay of matter and impermanency of matter. III. Thus one should know the character of matter through unity. They are gross matter except material sense-object. Here. element of water. objectl6ss. because they are conditioned. as not arising together with pain. solid food. Seven material qualities are material form. yoke. Eleven material qualities are invisible and reacting.' workability of matter. Sanidassana-sappaligham riipam. anidassanasappaligham riipam. anidassana-appaligham rupam (= Sanidassan' adisu attanam arabbha pavatlena cakkhuviiiiialJa-sarikhalena saha nidassanen ali. D. because they cannot be seen but can be touched. Tam attlzato riip' ayatalJam eva. Thus one should understand through diversity. because they change. cankerous. binding. because it can be seen and touched. because it defines the groups. 217: Tividhena rupa-samgaho. passion. material basis and material quality of eye. worldly. Vuttappakaram nassa nidassanan Ii anidassanam. life-principle. They are birth of matter. 1. This is called the aggregate of matter. as being with flood. speech-intimation. as arising together with non-pain and non-pleasure. They are body-intimation. as being dissociated from condition. all material qualities are of four kinds. Sot' adi-palihananasamatthalo saha-pa/ighena Ii sappa/igham. continuity of matter and intrinsic nature of matter. All other subtle matter is invisible and non-reacting. as not arising together with pleasure. MATERIAL QUALITIES BY WAY OF UNITY Q. as neither broken by views nor broken by concentration. Nassa paligho Ii appaligham. as not being non-conditioned. Cakkhu-pa/ihananasamatthalo saha-patighena Ii sappaliglzam. integration of matter. impressibility of matter. material sense-object. by way of intrinsic nature of matter. through unity? A.The Five Methods 245 non-reacting. . 1 Here one material quality is visible and reacting. not through the others.sanidassanam. They are the twelve gross material qualities. as being not a condition. anani avasesOln sukhuma-riipam-Sv. fettering. as being infected. as being indeterminate. Eighteen material qualities are invisible and non-reacting.

3 AGGREGATE OF PERCEPTION Q. of nose-contact. it is of seven kinds thus: feeling born of eye-contact. From the point of method. of tongue-contact. Fully one hundred and eight kinds of feeling are fulfilled. What is the aggregate of perception? A. 3. Nekkhamma-sanna.246 Vimuttimagga AGGREGATE OF FEELING Q. From the point of characteristic. [ma vuccanti bhikkhave dvevedana. contact of mind-element. the perception of the ugly as beautiful. What is the aggregate of feeling? A. Kayika ca celasika ca. 232: Kalama ca bhikkhave panca vedana. Tisso kusal(Nannii. it is of four kinds: meritorious. lustful-perception. joy-faculty. 5. namely. From the point of intrinsic nature. feeling is of one kind. six from equanimity-craving. non-cankerous feeling of pain. it is of four kinds. 2. as being experienced by the mind only. Six times six are thirty-six. it is of two kinds thus: bodily and mental. 232: Kalama ca bhikkhave chattitizsa vedana. From the point of black and white. it is of four kinds. S. Ibid. Cha gehasitani somanassani cha nekkhammasitani somanassani cha gehasilani domanassani cha nekkhammasilani domanassiini cha gehasita upekkha cha nekkhammasila upekkha. it is of three kinds: blissful feeling. Sukhindriyatiz dukkhindriyatiz somanassindriyatiz domanassindriyatiz upekkhindriyatiz. Kalama ca bhikkhave tisso vedana. six from grief-craving. nonhating-perception and non-harming-perception. namely. grief-faculty. D. feeling that is neither blissful nor painfuJ. From the point of faculties. namely. cankerous feeling of pain. and in the three divisions of time. Kama-sqfifiii. it is of three kinds. S. IV. IV. Six states of feeling are aroused from craving. 5 From the point of not knowing the significant nature of sense-organ. namely. 215: ' Tisso akusala-sanna. namely. demeritorious. From the point of characteristic. six from equanimity-renunciation. lmii vuccanli bhikkhave chattitizsa vedana. namely. six from grief-renunciation. sanna avipallasa. Ima vuccanli bhikkhave lisso vedana. 231-32: Kalama ca bhikkhave dve vedana. it is of six kinds. six from renunciation. TIl. . non-cankerous feeling of pleasure. retributive and objective. of ill as well. perception is single. cankerous feeling of pleasure. Sukha vedana dukkha vedana adukkhamasukhii vedana. From the point of knowing the significant nature of sense-organ. painful feeling.4 From the point of demerit. hating-perception and harming-perception. of body-contact. pleasure-faculty. vyapiida-sanna. there are five kinds. namely. these thirty-six are increased three times. of impermanence as non-impermanence. cankerous feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. indifference-faculty? From the point of black and white. painfaculty. avihitizsa-saiifla. Safifia vipalliisa. 4. of not-self as self. This is called the aggregate of feeling. From the point of merit. contact of mindconsciousness. perception of the 1. From the point of sense-organ. of ear-contact. avyapiida-saflfla. because only the mind apprehends objects. renunciation-perception.1 From the point of the Law. it is of three kinds. non-cankerous feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. it is of two kinds. lma vuccanli bhikkhave panca vedana. perception-reversal and perception-non_reversal. vihitizsa sanna.

mind-element-contact. 4. Contact. eJi. confidence. Anicce niccasaiiiiino dukkhe ca sakhasaiiiiino Anattani ca atta ti asubhe sulJhasaiiiiino Micchadit!higalii satta . II. Tattha cakklzllsamplzassalo. ettha nirujjhamallii nirujjhali. wish to do. anattani bhikkhave anatta ti na saiina viptilliiso . celana. perception of odour. hatred. manasikiira... repose. uncertainty. 2. A. of the beautiful as beautiful and the perception of uncertainty.. thus: the perception of the. . cakkhusamphassasmim va jata chakkhllsamphassaja nama. moha. saddhii. .. agitation and anxiety. Sabbii catubhiimika-saniia. dukkhe bhikkhave dukkha" Ii na saiiiiiivipallaso . lobha. . nose-contact. 104: Rlipasaiiiiii loke piya"'pam satariipam etth' esa lalJhd pahiyamana pahiyati. body-contact. gandhasaniiii . resolve. ottappa passaddhi. tongue-contact..cept feeling and perception. asubhe bhikkhtive asubhan Ii na saiiiiavipallaso . •. ugly as beautiful. From the point of object. This is called the aggregate of perception... . It is likened to a sunbeam 1. Ettha ca purima paiica cakkhuppasiidiidivatthukii va. adosa. etth' esa talJhii pahiyamiinii pahiyali. (removal of) hindrance. kosajja.. initial application of thought. pili. Phassa. diffhi. hiri. ear-contact. 52: Anicce'bhikkhave niccan Ii saiiiiavipallaso ciltavipallaso dilthivipallaso. of the ugly. attention. vuttani. anottappa. volition. indolence. samadhi. dhammasaiina loke piyarupa'. equanimity... 2 By way of door. mana.The Five Methods 247 ugly. viciira.-suggested by Prof. vitakka.a .. non-greed. ettha nirujjhamanii nirujjhati. joy. as ugly. it is of five kinds.. delusion. OF FORMATIONS Q. . modesty. Saddasan. asubhe bhikkhave subhan Ii saiiiiavipal/aso cittavipalliiso ditthivipallaso . 102... conceit. there are seven kinds thus: perception that is born of eye-contact. Cpo Vbh. . sound-perception. chanda. . perception of taste. non-hate. nirvaralJe (pahina. greed. there are six kinds thus: formperception. sati.. perception of impermanence and perception of not-self. ahiri... Aniccan aniccalo dakkhum dukklwm addakkhu dukkhato Anattani anatta Ii asubham asubhat' addasllm Sammaditfhisamadiinii sabbadukkham upaccagun ti. . rasasaiiiia . jivitindriya.. indecorum4 and all other mental properties. THIRTY-ONE SIMILES Here contact means mind touches object.. views. consciousness-elementcontact. viriya. upekkha. alobha. dosa.pe . 3. adukkhe bhikkhave dukkhan Ii saiinavipallaso . concentration. al/altani bhikkhave attii ti saiiiiiivipallaso . Sesesu pi es'eva nayo.. perception of ideas.l According to the Vinaya. adhimokkha. . wisdom. 3 AGGREGATE. vicikicchd. paiiiiii. Anicce bhikkhave aniccan Ii na saiiiial'ipallaso . energy. perception of ill.. Higata). Thus should the several kinds of perception be known. sustained application of thought. immodesty. decorum.. mindfulness... uddhaccakukkucca (in the explanation thina is substituted for kukkucca). life-principle. 19: Cakkhusamphassajii sanna Ii adini atitiidivasena niddiffha-saniiam sabhiivato dasselu.-a. perception of contact. Vbh. photthabbasan/iii . belong to the aggregate of formations. What is the aggregate of formations? A. Manosamphassaja hadaya-vatthuka pi avatthuka pi..

./am vii nigacchiimi maralJamattam vii dllkkhan ti? No h' e/am Man/e. avoiding poison. aniigate vattamiilakam dukkham. It is likened to a man gaining something. Concentration is unification of mind.tiiya vii piiciniiya vii viilapiinii suriye uggacchante viitapiinena rasmi pavisitvii kviissa patillhitii Ii? Pacchimiiya bhante bhittiyan ti./hii . Sn. 347:' Sappurisasamsevo hi bhante sotiipattialig"am. pe . It is likened to a man. . Apo ce bhikkhave niissa kviissa patitthitii ti? Appatillhitii bhante Ii. III. 103: Seyyathiipi bhikkhave ku(iigiiram vii kutiigiirasiilii vii uttariiya vii dakkh'i. Sunakkhalfa. II. 'Energy is vigour of mind.. v. D. It is likened to a man purifying water through the uttering of spells. 123: Visam jivitukiimo 'va. namassamiino vivasemi rattirh~' -ten' eva maiiiiiimi avippaviisarh. It is like water to lotus. . Initial application of thought is mental action. The four foundations of mindfulness are its near cause. Vinniif.the mind. 4. Phasse ce bhikkhave ohiire . It is likened to the flame of the lamp behind the palace.. Joy is delight of mind. pe . S. The four meditations. 1142: Passiimi nam manasii cakkhunii va rattindivam. is its near cause. It is likened to the oil which protects the bowl. 3. jhanas. (a) Dh. apiiyadllkkham pancamam. tani yava c' aggii yava co mUlii sitena varinii abhisanniini parisanniini paripiiriini paripphullhiini. Manosancetaniiya ce bhikkhave iihiire . saddhamma-saValJam sotiipattiarigam./e ce bhikkhave iihare natthi riigo natthi nandi natthi ta1)hii appatil!hitam tattha vinniif.. . It is likened to a man wbo has eyes. appamatto. TGlil kim mannasi. It is likened to a man who gets rid of something that torments 1. I. 75: Seyyathiipi mahii-riija uppaliniyam paduminiyampu1)t!arikiniyam app ekacciini uppaliini vii padumiini vii pUIJt!arikiini vii udake-jiitiini ukade-samvatft!hiini udakii 'nuggatiifii anfo-llimuggti·posini.. niissa kinci sabbavantam uppaliinum vii padumiinum vii pUIJt!arikiinam vii sitena viirinii apphutam assa. briihmalJa. are its near cause.-a. 547: Allhasamvegavatthiini niima: Jiiti-jarii-byiidhi-maraniiIJi cattiiri. paccuppanne iihiirapariyellhimiilakam dukkhan 'ti. Evam eva kho bhikkhave kabalinkiire ce bhikkhave iihiire natthi riigo natthi nandi natthi taf. Non-greed is the expelling of attachment from. atha puriso iigaccheyya jivitukiimo amaritukiimo dukkhaparikkulo.1 This is the basis of perception.. Initial application of thought is its near cause. Confidence is purity of mind. Life-faculty is formless dhamma. Pacchimii ce bhikkhave bhitti niissa kviissa patitthitii ti? Pathaviyam blante ti. Perception is its near cause. 4 The Four Noble Truths are its near cause. It is likened to the energy of an ox bearing a burden.. The four attributes of stream-entrance 2 are its near cause. 260: Seyyathiipi. Pts. Pathavi ce bhikkhave niissa kviissa patilfhitii tt? Apasmim bhante Ii. atite vattamulakam dukkham. iipiiniyakamso valJlJasampanno gandhasampanno. 5. jhanas. wishing to enjoy life. V. It is likened to the reciting of discourses by heart. The activity of tbe four meditations. pe . 6. Sunakkha/ta? Api nu so puriso amum iipaniyakamsam piveyya yam jannii: Imiiham pitvii maraf. . (b) M. so ca kho visena samsattho.ion means th~ movement of mind. Exulting is its near cause. Wisdom is seeing with the mind. piipiini parivajjaye. It is likened to thought that follows the sense. 2. II. Mindfulness is the guarding of the mind. Volit.. Sustained application of thought is investigation of objects by the mind.. It is like the movement of the foot or like the scaffolding to' the builder of a house. S. The rejection of the hindrances is the breaking free from the evils of the mind. This is life.. . This is the near cause of door-object. The eight bases of agitation3 are its near cause. yonisomanasikiiro sotiipattiaizgam.248 Vimuttimagga touching a wall./am avirulham. dhamniinudhammapatipatti sotiipattiaizgan ti. v. 5 Name and form are its near cause.

kaflhena va kajhalena va sarasaram kareyya bharabharam kareyyali? No h' etam bhante. Resolve is the inclination of the mind. Both merit and demerit are its near cause. I. yam labbhati tena pi hotu me alam.. bhavissali na ca. V.!!hitam oltappam. Lokadhipaleyyam oltappam. Tatrapi kho bhikkhave evam sikkhitabbmn: Na c'eva no cittam viparil}atati. It is likened to the loathing one has for excrement and urine. Attention regulates the mind. IV. api nu so puriso amum bi/arabhastam madditam . Non-hatred is the state of a mind that is not angry. Sn.Sv. Decorum is the fear to do what is wrong.). va yatha sumadditari•. 128-29: Seyyathapi bhikkhave bi/arabhasta madditd sumaddita sllparimaddita muduka tuTini chinnasassara chinnababbhara atha puriso agaccheyya kaf/ham va kathalam va adaya. III. 1138 2. III. Tattha sabbeh'eva samgayilabbam . tali. yavadeva ca pana so puriso kilamathassa vighatassa bhagi assati.·papikam vacam niccharessama hitanukampi ca viharissamq meftaciffa nO dosantara. Bahiddha samUf/hanam ottappam. so evam vadeyya: ahalh iman'. kim maiinatha bhikkhave. Respect for others is its near cause. Evam eva kho bhikkhave pailc'ime vacanapatha yehi va pare vadamana vadeyyum: kalena va akalena va bhiitena va abhiilena va sal)hena va pharusena vii atthasamhitena va anatthasarizhitena va meltacitta va dosantara va.suparimadditam mudukam tiilinim chinnasassaram chinnababbharam katthena va kathalena va sarasaram karissami bhal71bharam karissamiti: Tari. 114: Seyyatha pi bhikkhave upari pabbate thullaphusitake deve vassante deve galagalayante lam udakam yathaninnam pavattmnlinam pabbatakandarapadarasakha paripllreti.•• atthaya hitaya sukhaya deva-manussanam.. pe . Renunciation is its near cause. It is like fearing one's superior.!am? pada pi nam samphusitum na icche.!ham Aratiii ca Ragam nahosi chanda api methunasmim.The Five Methods 249 him. A. Kim ev' idam multakarisapul)f. Tatha tu kassami yathapi issaro. Kalame dye ? Hiri ca o!tappan ca. Joy is its near cause. Bhaya-sabhava-saf. It is like a helmsman. Kalena va bhikkhave pare vadamana vadeyyum akalena va. Attadhipateyya hiri. D. metta cilta va bhikkhave pare vadamanii vadeyyum dosantai'a va. The wish to do is the wish to do. (= Hiri ca ottappan ca Ii yam hiriyati hiriyitabbena oltappati ottappitabbena Ii evam vittharitani hiri-ottapplini. 3 (448) Calm is the appeasement of mental excitement. 4. samena celasli vipulena mahaggatena appama(lena a"erena abyapajjhena pharitva viharissamati. Lajja sabhava-sal)fhita hiri. bhlitena vii abhiitena va. good. It is like water flowing deep downwards... 835: Disvana Taf. (a) Th.. mettiisahagalena cetesa pharitvii viharissama. 978. Equanimity is that state of mind where it does not move back and forth. (b) M. 212: Atthi kho avuso tena Bhagavata janata passala arahata Samma-Sambuddhena dye dhamma sammadakkhata. It is like a man holding a pair of scales.! The four immeasurables are its near cause. Api c' ettha ajjhalta-samuflhana hiri.. tail ca puggalari. It is like a believing giver of alms. v.tari. . atthasmnhitena va anathuearizhitena va. s Energy and the others are its near cause. Greed is the clinging of the mind. It 1. bi/arabhm. Modesty is the feeling of shame in a man when he does wrong. v. It is likened to cat-skin. sa(thena va . 4 Initial and sustained application of thought are its near cause. It is like taking a cold bath in the heat of summer. madditam sumadditam . . tam karissami yatha atandito bi/arabhastali. The four supernormal powers are its near cause. 3. 282: Seyyatha pi Byagghapajja tuladharo va tuliidhliranlevasi va tulam paggahetva jlinali 'eltakena vii cmatam etlakena ·va unnatan' Ii.. tadarm1Hl1a(7an ca sabbavanlam lokam bi/araMasta. 2 Self-respect is its near cause. tam kissa hetu: asu hi bhante bi/arabhasta maddita sumaddita suparimaddita muduka tiilini chinnasassara chilinababbhara sa na sukara kaf/hena va kafhalena va sarasaram katum bharabharam kiitum. pharusena va. 5. Evam hi va Mikk/:!ave sikkhitabbam. A.

S. The falling off of good owing to the performance of evil is its near cause. 261 : Seyyathiipi. seyyalhidam micchiiditthiyii . . Anxiety is its near cause. seyyalhidam sammiidi!fhiyii . It is eye-consciousness.. Conceit is haughtiness of mind. Viimamaggo Ii kho Tissa atfhaligikasselam micchiimaggassa adhivacanam. tongue-consciousness. Delusion is mental blindness. 4 Wrong attention is its near cause. III. sammiisamiidhissa. yam jannii: Iminii 'ham daf/ho ."aral)am vii nigacchiimi maral)amattam vii dukkhan Ii? No h' elam. l The ten bases of hatred are its near cause. Tam kim manilasi. They are compared to the blind men feeling the elephant. micchiisamiidhissa.. Mind-element I. Ear-consciousness is the cognizing of sounds dependent on the ear. ear-consciousness. atha puriso iigaccheyya jivitukiimo amaritl/kiimo sukhakiimo dukkhapa!ikkil{o. Andham tamam ladii holi yam moho sahale naram. . The eight bases of indolence are its near cause. AGGREGATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS Q. Tongue-consciousness is the cognizing of flavours dependent on the tongue. 108-9: Dvidhiipalho ti kho Tissa vicikicchiiyelam adhivacanam. Views are mental obsessions. 2 The four reversals are its near cause. eye-consciousness is the cognizing of forms dependent on the eye. It is like a traveller to a distant land who is bewildered at a junction of two roads. Mante. 3. Body-consciousness is the cognizing of tangibles dependent on the body.. What is the aggregate of consciousness? A. Irreverence is its near cause. These are called the aggregate of formations.. M. nose-consciousness. Dakkhil)amaggo Ii kho Tissa ariyasselam attlrangikassa maggassa adhivacanam. Hatred is the excitement of mind. 84: Mil/ho attham na jiiniili MUlho dhammam na passati. sannlpii/itii kho te deva yiivatikii Siivatthiyam jaccandhii 'Ii.s The not giving heed to another's voice is its near cause. Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa sisam dif/hU1n ahosi. body-consciousness. It is like a man without eyes.250 Vimuttimagga is likened to a goose. This is called body-consciousness. This is called eye-consciousness. It is like a wicked king. The three kinds are its near cause. It is like water that is boiling. Ud. mind-element and mind-consciousness-element. Here. II. Excitement is the non-tranquil state of mind. Sluggishness is the slackening of mind. Nose-consciousness is the cognizing of odol1rs dependent on the nose. Immodesty is that state of mind which is not ashamed of doing ill. Indolence is negligence of mind. Sunakkhatta. This is called tongue-consciousness.. Uncertainty is the leaping of thc mind on to diverse objects. It is compared to a hibernating snake. Lovable and desirable forms are its near cause. Ekacciinam jaccandhiinam hatthissa sisam dassesi: ediso jaccandhii hatthi'li. The non-esteem of the six is its near cause. iisiviso ghoraviso. It is comparable to a caQ4iila. Sunakkhatta? Apu nu so pl/riso amussa iisivisassa ghoravissa hattham vii U1igUf/ham vii dajiii. Evam devii 'Ii kho bhikkhave so puriso tassa ranno pa(issutvii jaccandhiinam hatthim dassesi: ediso jaccandhii hatthi' Ii. This is c~lled nose-consciousness. te evam iihamsu: ediso deva hatthi seyyathii pi kumbho 'Ii ••• 4. This is called ear-consciousness. 68: . . It. Tena hi bhQl)e jaccandhiinaril hatthim dassehi' ti. 2. It is like two men fighting. Indecorum is the non-fearing of the mind to do evil. It is compared to desiring the foul... It is like an angered venomous snake.

. perishing and production are caused. through object? A. as to organ. Through apperceptionl there is the fixing of them. external. through object. In respect of mind-consciousness-element.is called mind-element. as to organ. In respect of the six kinds of consciousness. internal. Olle does not enter or emerge out of concentration. is called mind-consciousness-element. These seven kinds of consciousness should be known through these three ways: through organ-object. only the first arising can be known. internal. external. Thus it should be understood through organ-object. as to organ. Through overcoming of opposites or through registration. They are produced neither before nor after but at once. Through apperception. through states. Through I. Through the six kinds of consciousness. through sense-organ-object? A.s to sense-organ and as· to object. Each of the five kinds of consciousness has its limits. only those which proceed in the mind can be known. (Through apperception these are fixed). excepting these six kinds of consciousness. Through the mind-element. The cognizing (of form etc. and are not produced separately. Through the six kinds of consciousness one does not sl eep. How. Through the six kinds of consciousness there is no fixing of bodily and verbal activity. How. nothing is caused to perish or to be produced. Mind-element is as to state. Through the six kinds of consciousness.) . Six-fold is the object of mind-consciousness-element. internal. awake or dream. external. Mind-element and mind consciouness-element are one as to sense-organ. immediatefy after the five kinds of consciousness. THROUGH SENSE-ORGAN-OBJECT Q. as to object. Five kinds of consciousness are different a. THROUGH OBJECT Q. external. Through the six kinds of consciousness there is no establlshing of postures. Five-fold is the object of mind-element. Through apperception these are fixed. all states cannot be known. Through the six kinds of consciousness. Five kinds of consciousness are as to state. Through the five kinds of consciousness. as to object. organ-production· occurs at the moment of conception. Mind-consciousness-element: The mind. as to object. organ and object proceed from the past. There is no object of organ in the formless sphere because organ is produced first. internal. Mindconsciousne ss-element is born of result. one enters into concentration and is pacified through overcoming opposites. all states cannot be known. These (five) are not produced by one another. meritorious and demeritorious states are not fixed.The Five Methods 251 depends on the five-door-adverting and the receiving of the desirable and the non-desirable. internal and external. Javana. Mind-consciousness-element is as to state. Through opposites one sleeps.

through discrimination. They are neither training nor non-training.consciousness-element acts together with joy or grief or equanimity. Thus one should know to distinguish by way of states. with yoke. Mind-consciousness-element is with initial and sustained application of thought. know through object. Mind-element is with initial and sustained application of thought. And again. with flood. Consciousness means awareness. with cankers. with hindrance. are not fixed and are not vehicle. infected. clinging. This is called the aggregate of consciousness. The four primaries are its near cause. They are the subtle fetters of the sense-plane. Thus one should know through word meaning. Material object means thing that is visible. are worldly states. defiling. It is compared to an image. through characteristic? A. through characteristic. It is like disliking a leper. It is like the turning of the wheel. Five kinds of consciousness are results. Thus one should subtle light one awakes. ·one should know the distinctive qualities of the five aggregates through four ways thus: through word meaning. How. THROUGH CHARACTERISTIC Q. through comprehension. Thus should the five aggregares be known. or is without initial and only with sustained application of thought. with fetters. Six kinds of consciousness do not arise without condition. The characteristic of formation is unity. Contact is near cause. through states? A. I:ive kinds of consciousness act together with equanimity. . like a thorn. Five kinds of consciousness are with initial and sustained application of thought. Contact is its near cause. Mind consciousness-element has the nature of breaking up. Material quality is its own characteristic. Mind. Formations means work. The characteristic of consciousness is awareness. Its near cause is contact. with tangle. it is likened to the perceiving of taste. are not removed through seeing or through meditation. Bodyconsciousness acts either together with pleasure or with pain. Mindconsciousness-element is meritorious or demeritorious or result or means. How. Aggregate means variety and group. Feeling means sensibility. They are neither "group" nor "non-group".252 Vimuttimagga Through apperception one dreams. THROUGH STATES Q. The characteristiq of feeling is sensitiveness. How. To support is the characteristic of perception. through word meaning? A. Thus one should know through characteristic. Mind-element is either result or means. THROUGH WORD MEANING Q. Name and form are Ilear cause. or is neither with initial nor with sustained application of thought.

The aggregate of freedom is not comprehended in the Truths. How. the element of states and the mind-consciousness-element. 4. A. 134: Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu asekhena silakkhandhena samannagato hOli. paiicadhammakkhandha. paiicupadanakkhandha. the aggregate of wisdom. the sense-sphere of mind. The aggregates of virtue. The aggregate of virtue. aseklrena pannakkhandhena samannagalo hoti. through discrimination? A. asekhena samadhikkhandhena samannagalo holi." The five clinging aggregates are all cankerous states. Some states are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths. The recluse-fruit is comprehended in the aggregates and not in the Truths. asekhena vimuttikkhandhima samannagalo hoti. Some states are comprehended neither in the Truths nor in the aggregates. asekhena vimuttiiialJOdassanakkhandhena samannagato hoti. 4 Here the aggregate of form is comprehended in eleven sense-spheres. the aggregate of wisdom. The aggregate of consciousness is comprehended in seven elements. the aggregate of concentration.The Five Methods THROUGH DISCRIMINATION 253 Q. How. through comprehension? A. Nibbiina is comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates.3 Here the five aggregates are to be taken. the ma:terial qualities that are linked with the faculties do not associate with the Path (?). dhatu. Sankhata-dhamma. The aggregates are discriminated by the threefold discrimination of the five aggregates. the aggregate of freedom and the aggregate of the knowledge and discernment of freedom. Here. Paiicakkhandha. the five clinging aggregates and the five aggregates of the Law. 2. element-comprehension. Ayatana. Some states are comprehended in the Truths and not in the aggregates. aggregates of the Law are: the aggregate of virtue. the aggregate of concentration. The aggregate of freedom is comprehended in the sense-sphere of states. . I. . The five aggregates are comprehended in the Truths or not comprehended in the Truths. The aggregate of consciousness is comprehended in the sense-sphere of the mind. III. THROUGH COMPREHENSION Q. sacca. the aggregate of the knowledge and discernment of freedom are comprehended in the sense-sphere and element of states. 3. The aggr~gate of knowledge and discernment of freedom is comprehended in the Truth of Ill. There are three comprehensions: sense-sphere-comprehension. Three aggregates are comprehended in the sense-sphere of states. 1 Here the five aggregates are all phenoThe five mena. Some states are compreherlded in the aggregates and not in the Truths. concentration and wisdom are comprehended in the ·Path-Truth. truth-comprehension. The aggregate of matter is comprehended in eleven elements. The five aggregates of clinging are comprehended in the Truth of III and in the Truth of Origin. Three aggregates are comprehended in the element of states.

There are twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects): sense-organ of eye. D. It is the field of the nose. What is the sense-organ method? A. How. the eighteen subtle material qualities and Nibbdna. through word meaning? A. Sound means. By this one sees material objects. sense-organ of nose. sense-organ of body. The aggregate method has ended. This is called the aggregate method. hearing. contact. Restraint is not comprehended in the aggregates and also not in the Truths. noise. coolness and warmth of the elements of earth. fire and air. Touch means. arising of . seeing. smoothness (and so on). Material object means appearance. sense-object of ideas. Idea means. These are the twelve sense-organs (and sense-objects). 102: Chay imani bhante ajjhattlka-biihiriini ayatantini. This is the field of the tongue. Odour means. Mind organ is the element of the seven kinds of consciousness. Lit. Thus should one discern the method of understanding the aggregates. Taste-object is elemental flavour. these tw!:lve sense-organs (and sense-objects) should be known by their distinctive qualities in five ways: through word meaning. entrance into the' formless. kayo c' eva pholfhabba co. Body means. sotan c' -eva sadda co. This is the field of the body. Eye means. THROUGH WORD MEANING Q. smell. senseorgan of tongue. Thus one should know through word meaning. By this one hears sounds. Tongue means. ghanan c' eva gantiha co.2 Organ means. III. olfaction. * distinctive thought and comprehension. Nijjiva. sense-organ of mind. Nose-organ is sentient element..254 Vimuttimagga Three Truths are comprehended in the aggregates and also in the Truths.. tasting. And again. Sound~object is elemental expression. l Here. water. Material object is elemental form. TWELVE SENSE-ORGANS AND SENSE-OBJECTS Q. 2. sense-object of matter. Touch-object is hardness. flavour. 1. Tongue-organ is sentient element. The ear-organ is sentient element. experiencing. Ear means. This is the field of eye. This is the field of the ear. By this one tastes. The body-organ is sentient element: By it one feels fineness. Taste means. limits. By this one smells. sense-object of odour. sense-object of sound. non-living. condition. resting-place. • Unintelligible. mono c' eva dhamma ca. . Element of ideas comprises the three formless aggregates. Odourobject is elemental scent. sense-organ of ear. Nose means. eye-organ is sentient element. sense-object of taste. softness. sense-object of touch. place. cakkhum c' eva rupa co. jlvha c' eva rasa co. knowing. Mind means.

Thus should one know through limits. Eye and ear do not reach the object. It is like light. Mind is together with object. to the arising of eyeconsciousness. THROUGH CONDITION Q.. How. .. ear-cavity and attention. life-continuum and attention. They are the objects of very great intensity. Depending on nose.2 Of these. Compendium of Philosophy.."'''' These are called the object of states. nose-consciousness arises. And again. as when a spell is wrought. those of very great intensity 1. because one cannot see the reverse side of a wall. Depending on ear. Here. future and present of five external sense-objects. through limits? A. Q. season. Here. There is another teaching: Ear reaches the object. in this translation. great intensity and slight intensity. . touch and attention. we have generally followed Venerable NyaQatiloka Maha Thera's "Paticcasamuppiida". Depending on body. mind is in the relation of support-condition. comprise the second. being. eye-consciousness arises. There are four kinds in this: Past. to mindconsciousness. air and attention. . direction. Attention is mind-do or-adverting. tongue and body reach the object. l (To eye-consciousness) material object is in the threefold relation of post-nascence-condition. presence-condition. material object. Ideas are in the relation of object-condition. 127. Concentration is intentness of mind on object. present and future of six internal sense-organs comprise the first. There are eleven things viz. Thus should it be understood through condition. bodily consciousness arises. water and attention. Depending on mind. Depending on eye. here and elsewhere. The third is the sense-object of ideas.. Depending on tongue.condition. presence-condition. Consciousness is apperception. Three kinds are fulfilled at the eye-door. because if there is an obstruction nearby one does not hear sounds. Nose. ·through condition? A.. object-condition. faculty-condition. Here. 2. Life-continuum is in the relation of supportcondition. smell. through the arising of distinctive thought? A. Attention is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and absence-condition. past. Thus should' one know through the distinguishing of condition. support-condition. id. How. tongue-consciousness arises. sound. '" comprise the fourth. mind-consciousness arises.The Five Methods THROUGH LIMITS 255 Q. Cp. the eye is in the fourfold relation of pre-nascence-condition. Attention is in the twofold relation of continuity-condition and presence-condition. In rendering the paccayas. Light is in the threefold relation of pre-nascence.eas. mind is . How. there is another teaching: Eye by itself reaches the object.. support-condition and presence-condition. taste. • Unintelligible •• The meaning is not clear. ear-consciousness arises. '" ideas are the object of states. excepting non-sense-organ faculty. light and attention.

. examining. SIMILE OF THE MANGO Q. bringing mangoes and knocking at the door. Through the visible object entering the field (of presentation 1). Cpo D. Determining proceeds and is followed by apperception according to action. receiving. the king awakes. The presentation of the fruits by the minister to the queen is examining.256 Vimuttimagga fulfil seven stages and are born in avici. places them in a vessel and gives them to the king. The queen sits near him. illustrate the vibration of the life-continuum. is the impact of the visible object on the eye-door. Ministers and courtiers are ranged in front of him. knocks at the door. mangoes illustrate eye-consciousness. The awakening of the king by the knocking at the door. Adverting which depends on the eye is followed by discerning. determining. and his command to open the door. is followed by registration of effect. Seyyatha pi nama sutta-gu/e khitte nibbefhiyamanam eva phaleti. and is followed by adverting to the visible object. apperceiving and registering follow. and says to the slave-girl. After that comes determining in the sense of understanding. A slave-girl massages the king's feet. 1 Adverting is conditioned by the visible object at the eye-door. At that time the king's gardener. Apperception proceeding in the sense of full cognition and not in the sense of means. discerning. Then f()llows examining in the sense of (investigating) experience. the great hell. The minister presents them to the queen. adverting. I. That deaf door-keeper understands her wish and opens the door and sees the mangoes. he talks of the merit or non-merit of them. the king eats the fruits. After that consciousness lapses into the life-continuum. The sleeping king is the life-continuum. having closed the door. The opening of the door by the deaf door-keeper and the sight of the. bringing mangoes. A deaf man is guarding the door with his back against it. This is followed by reception in the sense of experience. The 1. The taking of the sword by the king and the handing of the fruits by the slave to the minister illustrate reception. The king takes his sword. The queen washes them and sorts the ripe from the raw. After eating them. 54:. the life-continuum vibrates. The slave-girl's gestures. The king sleeps in his chamber. It is likened to the drawing of thread. in requesting the door-keeper to open the door. Hearing that sound. After that he sleeps again. is adverting. The king's gardener. The slave goes to the door-keeper and speaks to him in gesture. SIMILE OF THE THREAD Here the life-continuum is the consciousness-faculty of becoming. "Go and open the door". The slave brings the fruits and hands them to a minister. What is the illustration? A. Getting them. Perhaps the simile was drawn from this portion of the sutta. After the vibration of the life-continuum.

namely. aggregate-comprehension. The sense-sphere of states is either comprehended or p. sotting. Through the . What is the element-method? A. Compendium of Philosophy. Cpo Ibid. In this way one 'develops discernment through the sense-sphere method. various kinds of merit and demerit should be known. feeling and perception should be known through various conditions. consciousness lapses into the life-continuum immediately after determining. namely. apperception and registration. eye-consciousness-element. element-comprehension. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in seven elements. Here.1 Here. with reference to a very great object three stages are produced (after vibration) of the life-continuum. Conditioned by attention. Samma-manasikiira (1) • Not quite clear. 2 Here. ear1. The five internal sense-spheres are comprehended in the Truth of m. ten sense-spheres are comprehended in the aggregate of matter. There are three kinds of comprehension. and his sleeping again is the lapsing into the life-continuum. and free from activities is the object grasped at the mind-door. 3. With reference to the objects of great and slight intensity two stages are fqlfilled: adverting and apperception. 128.conditioning of right-attention3 and non-right-attention. placing the fruits in a vessel and offering them to . There are eighteen elements. The sense-sphere of mind is comprehended in the aggregate of consciousness. This is called sense-sphere method. The. Thus one should know through manifestation of the interlocking of distinctive thought. The eating by the king is apperception. Here. .· Q. The sense-sphere of states. 2. through comprehension? A. adverting. truth-comprehension. eye-element.the king illustrate determining. His talking as to the merits or demerits of the fruits illustrate registration of effect. excepting Nibbdna. At the mind-door there is no impact of object.five external sense-spheres are either comprehended or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. In the same way the procedure at the other doors should be understood.' 30 for mango simile. Thus should comprehension be known. Eleven sense-spheres are comprehended in eleven elements.The Five Methods 257 actions of wa~ing. How. namely. Sense-sphere method has ended. material-element. Through the impact of objects of lower intensity. Cp.ot comprehended in the Truth of Ill. is comprehended in the four aggregates. The sense-sphere of mind is either comprehended or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. ELEMENT METHOD Q. consciousness depending on the impact of objects of middling intensity at the eye-door proceeds up to apperception and immediately lapses into the life-continuum.

he has expoun!1ed the intrinsic nature of the sense-spheres. or not comprehended in the Truth of Ill. Here. sound-element. Eleven elements are comprehended in elev~n sense-organs (and sense'-objects). mind-element. in brief. Again. nose-consciousness-element. touch-element. He taught the Truth of III by way of the sense-sphere for the average man. Mindelement decides the result. Just the sphere of ideas-element is the limit.arising of consciousness and element. and he taught the Truth of III by way of the elements for the slow witted man.ended in the Truth of Ill. by way of discernment of name. Mind-door-adverting translates the objects. he has expounded form in brief to those who have the characteristic of attachment to name and aggregate. body-element. through (internal) sense-sphere and 1. Eye-consciousness is ey'e-consciousness-element. taste-element. The rest is as was taught at length under sensesphere. through the determining of form. tongue-element. nose-element. The characteristic of intrinsic nature is called element. states-element. The tdeas-element"excepting Nibbtina. In the same way the others should be lrnown. odourelement. spheres and objects. the Blessed One has taught the Truth of III by way of the aggregates for the quick 'witted man. 1 Here. Seven-elements are comprehended in the mind-organ. He has taught the . the senspry organ of eye is eye-element. The assemblage of the characteristics of a variety of states is called aggregate. Mind-consciousness-element is comprehended in the Truth of III or not comprehended in the Truth of TIL Q. [450] The mind-element is just mind-sphere. Eleven elements are coinpreh. Material form is material element. Seven elements are comprehended in the consciousness-aggregate. And again. to those inclined towards attachment to form. The characteristic of entrance is called sense-organ. or not comprehended in the Fonr Truths. Vbh. He has expounded the (internal) sense". Ideas-element is comprehended in the Four Truths. All kinds of consciousness except the ideas-element and the six consciousness-elements are mindeonsciousness-element.258 Vimuttimagga element.Uldhdtu sotadhdtu saddadhdtu sotaviiiildJ. He has expounded the aggregates. tongueconsciousness-element. mind-consciousness-element. is comprehended in the four aggregates. body-consciousnesselement. Five elements are comprehended in the Truth of Ill. 87: Alfhdrasa dhdtuyo: cakkhudhdtu riipadhdtu cakkhuviifiiQI. . And again.ladhdtu ghdnadhdtu gandhadhdtu ghdnaviiiiid1)adhdtu jivluidhdtu rasadhdtu jivhdviiiiid1)ad"dtu kdyadhdtu' phoffhabbadhdtu kdyaviiiiid1)adhdtu manodhdtu dhammadhtitu manoviiiiid1)adhdtu. ear-consciousness-element. He has expounded the elements through determining mind and form to those inclined to be attached to mind and form. And he has expounded the sense-spheres. He has expounded name and sense-sphere. ten elements are comprehended in the form-aggregate. What is the limit of manifestation? A.

by the cessation of the formations. conditioned by feeling. conditioned by becoming.lam. clinging. conditioned by clinging. CONDITIONED ARISING METHOD (a) DIRECT ORDER Q. viiifiii1. conditioned by consciousness. conditioned by rebirth.lam soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassupiiyiisii nirujjhanti. conditioned by contact. sa/iiyatallanirodhii phassanirodho. consciousness. by the' cessation of name-form. Ud. by the cessation of rebirth. phassapaccayii vedanii. Ud. grief and despair cease. by the cessation of consciousness. salikhiiranirodhii viiifiii1. 1-2: Avijjiiya tveva asesaviriiganirodhii salikhiiranirodho. Element method has ended.l (b) REVERSE ORDER By the cessation of ignorance. by the cessation of clinging. grief and despair spring up. name-form. the cessation of consciousness. the cessation of feeling. niimartipapaccayii sa/iiyatanam. What is the conditioned arIsmg method? A. 2. Formations are bodily. by the cessation of craving. II.lhiinirodhii upiidiinanirodho. vedaniinirodhii tQ1. contact. Conditioned by ignorance . by the cessation of the six-sphered-sense. craving. the cessation of beCQming. the cessation of the formations (occurs). This is called element method. the cessation of the six-sphered-sense.lhii.lanirodhii niimariipanirodho. Consciousness is rebirth consciousness. 1: .The Five Methods 259 object. death. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of ilJ. NameAvijjiipaccayii bh(kkhave sali/c. bhavapaccayii jiiti. Evam 'etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotifi. upiidiinanirodhii bhavanirodho. the cessation of name-form. the cessation of craving. II.lanirodho. S. niimariipanirodhii sa/iiyatananirodho.. pain. stilikhiirapaccayii viiifiii1. by the cessation of feeling. rebirth. conditioned by the formations. 2. by the cessation of becoming. conditioned by craving. ta1. sa/iiyatanapaccayii phasso. the cessa~ tion of rebirth. bhavanirodhii jiitinirodho. lamentation.hiirii. sorrow. verbal and mental actions. decay. Such is the origin of this entire mass of ill. viiifiii1. jiitipaccayii jariimara1)am soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassupiiyiisii sambhavanti. conditioned by name-form. phassanirodhii vedaniinirodho. the cessation of clinging. 1. death. S. the cessation of contact. tQ1)hiipaccayii upiidiinam. upiidiinapaccayii bhavo. by the cessation of contact.Iapaccayii niimariipam. feeling. I. decay. the six-sphered-sense.lhiinirodho. lamentation. Evam' etassa kevalassa dllkkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.are the formations. pain. Thus should the ~stinctions in the element method be known. conditioned by the six-sphered-sense. sorrow. vedalliipaccayii tQ1.2 IGNORANCE Here ignorance is ignorance of the Four Truths. becoming. jiitinirodhii jariimara1.

II. niimariipapaccayii sa/iiyalanam. II. How do the formations arise. In that thought of becoming there is no knowledge. Contact means the six groups of contact. In the long night (of ignorance). Thus he enjoys and clings to enjoyment. there is in the world neither light nor any increase of it. he clings to self and goods thinking: "These are my goods. enter the course of. Becoming proceeds. SIMILE OF THE SUN As without the sun. He clings to becoming because he desires it. The five clinging groups arise for the uninstructed commoner. this is my self". Therefore. •• 1. formplane becoming and formless-plane becoming where kamma works. 2 The development Yaii ca kho elam bhikkhave vuccali cillam iii pi mano iii pi villi141}Q1ir III pi tatriissulavii puthujjano niilam nibblndlturh niilam virajjitum niilarh vimuccitum. conditioned by ignorance. Conditioned by the (internal) sense-spheres.1 SIMILE OF THE SEEDS It is like seeds placed in a fertile field. evam eva khiJ iivuso. The thought of becoming brings about reconception. Decay means the maturing of the aggregates. conditioned by ignorance? How do decay and death arise.260 Vimuttimagga form means the mental properties which arise together with the continuity of mind and the embryo (kalala). sa/tiyalanapaccayii phasso'. is extinguished. so without consciousness. Rebirth means the arising of the aggregates in becoming. If consciousness is extinguished. This is the meaning of conditioned by ignorance the formations arise. becoming. S. conditoned by the formations. S. name-form dees not take shape and there is no growth of it. and integrate. 114: Seyyathiipi iivuso dve na/akaliipiyo aiiiiamaiiiialir nissiiya tiftheyyum. Tasmii talriissutavii puthujjano niilam nibbinditum niilam virajjituril niifam vimucciturh. consciousness arises. Craving means the six groups of craving. thus it. Feeling means the six groups of feeling. niimariiptipaccayii viiiiiiiI}Qm viiiiiiirrapaccayii niimariipam. conditioned by rebirth? A. 94: . becoming. Tam kissa helu? Digharattam helam bhikkhave assulavalo puthujjanassa ajjhosUaril mamdyltam pariimaftham etam mama eso hamasmi eso me attii ti. Clinging means the four clingings. Consciousness does not separate from mind in becoming. so conditioned by consciousness. Six-sphered-sense means the six internal sense-spheres. 2. SIMILE OF THE TWO BUNDLES OF REEDS As (in the simile of the bundles of) reeds depending on each other. is continued. FORMATIONS Q. Becoming means sense-plane becoming. name-form arises. because of his ignorance of the Four Truths. Death means the destruction of the aggregates. the other mental qualities arise together. Mental formations.

196: Bije sati ankuro viya. by nameform. ~p. nutriment and caloric order. one clings to what is lov. there is decay and death.g it (pain). Cp. so is the arising of clinging. Conditioned by the seed is the bud. II. Conditioned by the flower is the nectar. Through the sense of touch one experiences'pain. by the six-sphered-sense. (b) Mhv. conditioned by name-form. The other does not depend on these. Thus birth succeeds beginning with the causal condition of ignorance. clinging arises. Conditioned by the nectar is the ear of rice. conditioned by the six-sphered-sense. Therefore there is rebirth. by clinging. Of it the past or the future cannot be known. Therefore.ely. or equanimity. . by craving. by feeling. desiring ease. Therefore. 3 WHAT CONDITIONS IGNORANCE Q. Thus. (a) Vbh. 43: Bijamhii nikkhamma ankuro. SHOOT AND PLANT As paddy-seeds are conditioned by the paddy plant. conditioned by clinging. Therefore.3. by contact. there is decay and death. feeling arises. Conditioned by the plant is the flower. objects.-a. and overcomin. so is the arising of contact. 180: Dukkhi sukhath patthayati.rhiisathyojaniinath sandhiivatath sathsaratam. conditioned by feeling. Thus the several successions come to be.2 sCi is the arising of consciousness. one sows the seed of becoming. Thus one cannot know the past or the future.The Five Methods 261 of the mind-sphere is due to name. so is the arising of the six-sphered-sense. By what is ignorance conditioned? A. SIMILE OF THE SEED. conditioned by craving. . and through birth. so is the' arising of name-form. contact arises. by becoming. sukhi bhiyyo pi icchati. Conditioned by the ear of rice is the seed. conditioned by birth. Conditioned by the seed is the bud. Ignorance is indeed con- 1. so is the arising of birth. S. so conditioned by ignorance the formations arise. 178: Anamataggiiyath bhikkhave sathsiiro pubbiikoli na paiiiiiiyati avijjiinivarapilna#! spft(jnRm lat. Conditioned by the branch is the plant. Through craving. Therefore. conditioned by contact. Therefore. so is the arising of feeling. XV. Should one not be touched (then there would be no feeling for him). there is becoming. The uninstructed commoner experiences pleasure and clings to it and craving for more. pleasure and neither pain nor pleasure. craving arises. by the formations. by consciousness. Conditioned by the leaf is the branch. elements and consciousness. so is the arising of becoming. he experiences pain. 2. By the union of the other faculties. he. develops the feeling of neither pain nor pleasure. upekhii pana santattii sukham icc' eva bhiisitii. Cpo Vbh. . contact arises. so is· the arising of craving. According to one's deeds one is born in various states. Conditioned by the foUr primaries. Through that clinging. Conditioned by the bud is the leaf. the six-sphered-sense arises.1 Therefore.-a. the other five (internal) sense-spheres develop and increase.

how many are future. Thus conditioned by name-form the six-sphered-sense . feeling arises. sarilkhiirapaccayii vrnna(Ulm. (b) Netti. Evam sabbo paliccasamuppiido. pacchimikii avijjii avijjiipariyullhiinam_ Purimiko avijjiinusayo pacehimikassa avijjiipariYUf/hiinassa hetubhuto paribruhaniiya bijaJikuro viya samanantarahetutiiya. there is becoming . anusayesu pahinesu pariyullhiinii pahiyyanti. origin of'ignorance arises".. Kissa anusayassa pahinattii? Tam yathii khandhavantassa rukkhassa anavasesamUiuddharalJe kate pupphaphalapavii{Q/ikurasantati samueehinnii bhavati. Conditioned by the craving for feeling. Through attachment to bare pleasure and conditioned by craving. idam tassa paramparahetutiiya hetubhutam. Cp. how many are defilements. Conditioned by joy and conditioned by the joyproducing material object. . and knows the associated states of mind and the material object produced by'the formations. name-form arises. all defilements become the condition of ignorance according to the teaching of the Buddha thus: "From the origin of the cankers. This is called ignorance. ASflvllSflmudayii avifiiisamudayo. Purimikii avijjii pacchimikiiya avijjiiya hetu. (b) Netti. 54. Cpo (a) Dhs.. the bare faculties arise. how many are past. 79: Vuttam hi: avijjiipaccayii samkhiirii. (c) Petaka. craving arises. iisavanir(Jdhii avijiiinirodho. Conditioned by becoming. avijjiilllligi moho akusalamUiam-ayam tasmim samaye moho hoti. 390: Yam tasmim samaye afziiiir:zam adassanam anabhisamayo ananubodho asambodho appalivedho asamgiihanii apariyogiihanii asamapekkhanii apaeeavekkhanii apaecakkhakammam dummejjham balyam asampajafzfzam moho pamoho sammoho avijjii avijjogho avijjiiyogo avijjiinusayo avijjiipariyullhiinari. Evam avijjiiya pi duvidho hetu: samanantarahetu paramparahetu ca. how many have already developed? What is conditioned arising? What is conditioned arising doctrine? What are the differences between these two? Why is conditioned arising so profound? 1. Thus in one moment the twelvefold conditioned arising is fulfilled. Through attachment to these formations. birth arises. 2 And again. 79. Conditioned by this consciousness. Of the factors of the twelvefold conditioned arising. tattha avijjiinusayo avijjiipariulfhiinassa helu purimii helu pacehii paecayo sii pi avijjii saJikhiiriinaril paccayo. Q. how many are results. Kena? Pafzfziiya. arises. one conditions consciousness. To scatter and to destroy--this is death. Tattha purimikii avijjii avijjiinusayo. The bare enjoyment of that time is delusion of mind. Duvidho hi hetu: samanantarahetu paralhparahetu ca. I. (a) cpo S.262 Vimuttimagga ditioned by ignorance. 3 And again. the uninstructed commoner develops craving. 105: Tathii hi purimii kOli na pafziiiiyati. ayonisomanasikiiro paccayo. Conditioned by pleasurable contact. how many are cause-conditions. 1 T:he latencies become the condition of the encompassing defilements. and when living (begins) to end-this is decay. Through attachment to this ignorance. 3. evam anusayesu pahinesu pariyullhiinasantati samucehinnii bhavati pidahitii palicehannii. Through attachment to and conditioned by clinging. Sec. 14: Pafzfziiya anusayii pahiyyanti. IV. From feeling joy is produced. clinging arises. how many are present. 2. how many are actions. M. Seeing a form with the eye. Iti avijjii avijjiiya hetu. The encompassing defilements become the condition of the latencies. Yam pana yatthii phalam nibbattati. it is likened to a single thought-state (?). 50: Avijjii kho bhikkhu eko dhammo yassa pahiinq bhikkhuno avijjii pahiyati vijjii uppajjatiti. one conditions the formations.

. FIRST THREE LINKS Q. Sankhata.actions.Just these twelve which in turn become condition·.l they cannot be explained. craving and clinging. Gambhiro cciyam AnaMa pa/icca-samuppcido gambhircivabhcisv ca. Their objects are not self-produced. . Then. have finished their task and . this conditioned arisin! should be known through seven ways thus: through the three links. 2. Why is this conditioned arising profound? One is able to know the way and characteristic by which ignorance cQnditiot:l& the formations .it. is able to di. D. 55: 'Acchariyam bhante abbhutam bhante yciva gambhiro cciyam bhante pa(icca-samuppcido gambhircivabhciso ca. namely. the twenty modes. These constitute the profound nature of conditioned arising. mci h'evam Ananda avaca. Further. ignorance and the formations. These two are past. ignorance. Atha ca pana me utl. Therefore this is called conditioned arising. Defilements cause becoming like the different colours of the painter. The factors of the twelvefold conditioned arising should not be taught (separately). namely. what is conditioned arising. CONDITIONED ARISING TO BE KNOWN IN SEVEN WAYS [451] And again.? . asankhata. the interval between feeling and craving is the second link. The other seven results. S. Three are the defilements. . characteristics and nature. How. the wheel. one cannot speak of. the formations and becoming.cinakuttcinako viya khayatiti. no conditioned arising should be taught which does not consist of these twelve. through the three links? A. Here the interval between the· formations and consciousness is the first lirlk. The twelve factors are states which have already developed.are cenditioned. The conditioning of the present effect by past actions through the defilements 1. the four groups. discernment and through· comprehension. Be they conditioned or nonconditioned. This is the difference between the two. the defilements are a cause of future life. SIMILE OF THE COLOURS OF A PAINTER Here. 'birth and decay-and-death. namely. order.scern its working. What is the difference betwees. namely. without the aid of another. as also are the colour-object of the painter. like the colours of a painter. ~ . The other eight are of the present. the two? The working of conditioned arising being different (in each case) and being not complete. These two are of the futu~e. Thus it is as to the three divisions of time.The Five Meihods 263 A. II. 92. Therefore one should know that birth and death proceed from beginniugless time. Two are .' Mci h'evam Ananda avaca. 'A delivered one. II. Stlltes of conditioned arising that have already developed. the interval between becoming and rebirth is the third link.

bhava-sandlti. 12: .1ink. At this time he is like one asleep and dreaming. The first and the third are condition-effect-link1 and becoming-link. is an evil-doer. Destiny-sign: At the time of entry into the womb. kal. Cpo Spk. 3. sankhiire pari8al. he does not see this world. 4.la-bhlitaii ca kamma-nimittam vii anantaram uppajjamiinabhave upalabhitabbam upabhoga-bhiitai! ca gail-nimillam vii kamma-balena channariz dviiriinam aiiiiatarasmim paccupatlhiiti. sukkhiipetvii.' Q. 372-73: EttakeJu thiinesu Channa-tthero Siiriputta-ttherena pucchila-. 218: Marizsa-pesi-vatthuimim: goghiitako Ii. DESTINY.lrhanii/ariz chindl. Ath' assa tasmim khm. ACTION..lhi yel'a ahosi. go again and 'again to various modes of birth.!). Siiriputta-tthero pana tassa puthuJjana-bhiivam ifatviipi 'tvam puthuJJano' ti vii 'aniisavo' ti vii avatva tUf. Destiny: A happy destiny arises through the conditioning of merit.lhanto arahattam patvii. (c) Ibid. . He loses mindfulness and cannot recover it. destiny-sign. and strength from his body. What is becoming-link? A. Endlessly. 72: S. This is becoming-birth-link.SIGN. by present effects is called the second. Tathii ca marantiinam pana martJ{lakiile yathiiraham abhimukhibhiitam bhavantare parisandhi-janakam kammam vii tam kamma-kara/Jllkiile rupiidikam upaladdha-pubbam upakaral. The action-sign that uprises (as result) conforms to the action already done. Here a man. V. Jivita-hiiraka-sattham ahari. An evil destiny arises through the conditioning of demerit. They are heavy or light: many or few. At this time he suffers the ill of rebirth. Lying on his death-couch. 5 What is action? The merit and non-merit one has made. So altano puthujjanabhilvam ifatvii. three objects unite to produce rebirth.'. vallura-vik1cayena anek4ni vassiini jivikam kappesi. Bhava-jiitl-sandhi. II. They are 'action. Rebirth 1. Hetu-phala-sandhi.• Sattham iiharesi ti. who performs actions which are associated with ignorance and craving..B The second link is effect-condition links and non-becominglink. When he comes to die. How is it fulfilled? DEATH OF THE IGNORANT CRAVING EVIL-DOER A. The body quakes. Phala-hetu-sandhi. Q. Mindfulness draws away from his mind. The action-sign resembles action already done. ACTION. the oonditioning of future effects by present deftlements is called the third link. (b) Spk. hutvii. destiny. .. He does not see that world. go-marizsapesiyo kalvii. somas. sense-organs and elements. DESTINY-SIGN Through action. Cpo (a) Abhs. parinilllm. II. So marizsa-pesi-peto jiilo. pucchitam pailham arahatte pakkhipitvii kalhesi. gatinimittam upatlhilsi. sarizvigga-citto vipassanam pallhapetvii.Vimuttimagga ·is the first link. Bhava-jiitinam antare ekoti. Ten' assa narakii cavana-kiile marizsa pesf yeva nimitt~m ahosi. . the not yet enlightened aggregates. Cunda-tthero pan' assa puthujjana-bhiivam i!apessiimi Ii cintetvii oviidam adiisi. He'loses his faculties gradually.le bhayam okkami. Vitality ebbs and his body becomes like a dried tdla leaf. 2. he suffers. action-sign. par. four states arise. through the conditioning of past actions and defilements. The oonditiooing of the present defilements.

Manussaloke upatthahante matukucchi kambalayana-sadisa hutva upaflhati. name-form. How. 2. leaning or sitting or lying (on his death-couch).. vififlii/lQpaccaya niimarupam. and decay-and-death are divisions of effect of the future.Yatha maharaja kocid eva puriso padipato padipam padipeyya. • The text is very confused here. 262 If. through twenty modes? A. and defilement of the present.The Five Methods 265 depends on the place of birth. thirty material qualities are fulfilled by action of ten (?) sense-spheres.: Samvattanikam viilfiallam. Through the grasping of the form~tions of past becoming and through the action-sign being grasped. or river. the six-sphered-sense. according to destiny.-Kalham bhallte Nagasena na ca sankamati patisandahati ca. niimarupapaccaya salayatanam. . of name(d) Vbh. na ca sankamali palisandahali cati. through the four groups? A. Ignorance and the formations are divisions of the groups of action and defilement of the past. The appropriate grasping-sign arises. 3. 71: Raja aha: Bhanle Nagasena. the last consciousness arises without a break gradually through apperceptional consciousness. contact and feeling are divisions of the groups of effect in the present. Tattha niraye upatthahante lohakumbhi-sadiso hutva uppalthati. Here.-a. through the impurity of parents. a palace. Consciousness. TWENTY MODES Q.zam. forty-six material qualities are fulfilled. Through the grasping of ignorance and of past craving and clinging and through the defilement-sign being grasped. na ca sankamati patisandahati cati. habitation.* Thus consciousness conditions name-form. Only that action or actionsign or destiny or destiny-sign becomes the object of the basic resultant consciousness.. FOUR GROUP DIVISION Q.Evam eva kho maharaja na ca sankamati pa(isandahali cati. In the moment of decay.! or like fire issuing from a flame' is re-linking consciousness. mountain. How. . Name-form conditions consciousness. .pe . 3 Thus the link of becoming' is fulfilled. and the man. M. tree. After the consciousness which apperceives the past action or the action-sign or the destiny or the destiny-sign ends. namely.-Ama mahiiraja. II.. S. Through the grasping of consciousness. Devaloke upatthahante kapparukkha-vimana-sayanadini upatfhahanti.. Mil. opammam karohiti. kin nu kho so maharaja padipo padipamha sankanto ti. Craving. Thus one should know through the fourgroup division. ellavata jayetha vii jiyetha vii miyetha vii cavetha vii upapajjetha va yad idam niimariipapaccaya viilfiiil. II.-Na hi bhante ti. grasps that. 104: Paccudavattati kho idam vififiallam niimarl'pamha naparam gacchati. Like the lighting of a lamp by a lamp. the fulfilment of the three links should be understood. 156: Gatinimillam mima nibballanaka-okase eko va/1llo upa{fhati. 2 In the womb of the mother. Rebirth. ' 1. clinging and becoming' are divisions of action.

Thus these five states. feeling are grasped. iiyuhanii sairkhiirii. here. Thus the whole aggregate of ill arises. nikanli la(lhii. sensory organism is senseorgan. delusion is ignorance.l How. celanii bhavo. of contact. upagamanariz upiidiinariz. the answer should be in the reverse order. celallii Mavo. Through the grasping of birth. contact. one should answer in the direct order. pajiinanaflhena paiiiiii. Thus should it be known by way of the wheel. Thus one should know through order. the being touched is touch. okkanti niiman'pariz. Questioned as to that which begins from ignorance.266 Vimuttimagga form. the formations condition consciousness. delusion is ignorance. Idha paripakkallii iiyalaniinariz moho avijjii. volition is becoming. desire is craving. And again. descent is name-form. here in kamma-becoming are causes of rebirth in the future. nikanli fa"hii. grasping is clinging. Iii ime calusalikhepe layo addhe Taii visatiyii iikiirehi lisandhiriz pa!iccasamuppiidariz jiiniili passati aiiiiiiti pafivijjhati. Thus these five states. Thus one should know through twenty ways". decay and death. DIRECT AND REVERSE ORDER How.. Through the grasping of becoming the present formations are grasped through the action-sign. and questioned as to that which . These twenty-four states become twenty. grasping is clinging. here. ime paiica dhammii purimakammabhavasmiriz idha pa!isandhiyii paccayii . effort is the formations. through order? Order is of two kinds. rebirth is consciousness. ime paiica dhammii iiyaliriz upapatlibhavasmiriz idha kalassa kammassa paccayii. that which begins from ignorance is fixed. . of the six-sphered-sense. future consciousness. the being felt is feeling. 52: Purimakammabhavasmiriz moho avijjii. of feeling and through birth and decay-and-death of the result-sign of the present being grasped. volition is becoming. one can see the way to the past. It is according to the teaching in the Abhidhamma: "In the previous kamma-becoming. ime paiica dhammii idhakammabhavasmiriz iiyaliriz pa!isandhiyii paccayii. name-form. vedayitariz vedanii. Not knowing is called ignorance. one can see the way to the future. Ignorance conditions the formations. J. iiyuhanii salikhiirii. the one which begins from ignorance and the one which begins from decay and death. effort is the formations. lena vuccali-'Paccaya pariggahe paiiiiii dhamma/fhitiiiii"ariz' . Therefore all constitute the aggregate of ill.. From the maturity of the sense-organs. Here. They are. the six-sphcred-sense. iiiilaf!hena iialJQriz. clinging and through the defilement-sign of the present being grasped. upagamanariz upiidiinarh.begins from decay and death. thus birth conditions decay and death. Ayaliriz pa!isandhi viiiiiii"ariz. Pts. 1. of the previous kamma-becoming are causes of the present rebirth. in rebirth-becoming are cause of kamma ~lready done. Thus these five states. through whecl? Ignorance conditions the formations. phU!lho phasso. desire is craving. Through the grasping of craving. pasiido iiyalanariz. That which begins with decay is the end.

Dispassion depends on dispassion. snow. /okuttal'o: silavalo avippalisdro jdyati yiiva ndparam itthattdyd Ii pajdndli. and by itself comes the fruit of merit won} Thus one should know through discernment. na pUlto pitu kammella. none can rob it. doing is cause. seed is cause. and last note of appendix. Confidence depends on confidence. . according to the teaching of the Blessed One thus: With none is kamma shared. There is no common action. There are four kinds of comprehension: aggregate-comprehension. What is meant by "doing is cause"? It is likened to the change of material qualities. Right views depend on right Views. III depends on ill. So duvidho: lokiko ca lokullaro ca.The Five Methods MUNDANE AND SUPRAMUNDANE CONDITIONED ARISING 267 Q. Q. sense-organ-comprehension. What is supramundane conditioned arising? A.. What is meant by "common action is cause"? It is likened to earth.arising.nt? A. na anteviisi iicariyassa kammena gacchati. There is another teaching. There is another classification of conditioned arising at Netti. elementcomprehension and truth-comprehension. l FOUR KINDS OF CONDITIONED ARISING Again. ignorance. THROUGH COMPREHENSION Q. 67: Es' ev' anlo dukkhassii Ii pa!iccasamuppiido. common action is cause. Aversion depends on aversion. Not traced. Here. through comprehension? A. na iicariyo anlevQsino. the formations. Material qualities. na mata puttassa. How. Q. What is meant by "defilement-action is cause"? A. consciousness. This is called supramundane conditioned arising. J. four kinds of conditioned arising are taught thus: the defilementaction is cause. 2. 37: Kammassakd hi sattd. n'eva pita puttassa kammena gacchati. Calm depends on calm. al/ano kammdnuriipam eva galim gacchanti. Freedom depends on the knowledge of the freedom of extinction. Cpo Sv. Rapture depends on rapture. states and caloricity are causes. Tal/ha lokiko: avijjiipaccayii sarizkhiirii yiiva jariimaralJd. Concentration depends on concentration. Joy depends on joy. Here. Jt is that which begins from ignorance. na bhdla bhaginiyii. Bliss depends on bliss. through discernme. See p. sea sun and moon. What is meant by "seed is cause"? it is likened to the succession of seed and bud. I. 229. mountain. How. Common action is not a' cause. that which begins from ignorance is mundane. nQ putta miituyii. note 1 (c). There are two kinds of conditioned arising: mundane conditioned arising and supramundane conditioned .

Ignorance. The sixsphered-sense is comprehended in the two aggregates. The Tenth Fascicle of the Path of Freedom . clinging and becoming are comprehended in the aggregate of the formations.has ended. craving. craving. Through these ways should one understand the method of conditioned arising. clinging. This is . craving. Consciousness is comprehended in the consciousness-aggregate. . rebirth and decay and death are comprehended in the element of ideas. feeling. The extinction of conditioned arising is comprehended in the Truth of Cessation. becoming. Ignorance. Ignorance. craving and clinging arc comprehended in the tenfold truth.268 Vimuttimagga contact. The other' nine. Supramundane conditioned 'arising way-factor is comprehended in the Path-truth. Name-form is comprehended in the five internal sense-spheres. The six· sphered-sense is comprehended in the twelvefold truth. The six-sphered-sense is comprehended in the six internal sense-spheres. Consciousness is comprehended in the rnind-consciousness-element. Thus one should know through comprehension. Name-form is comprehended in the five elements. rebirth and decay and death are comprehended in the sense-sphere of ideas. Name-form is comprehended in the four aggregates. contact.called conditioned arising method. the formations. the formations. Birth and decay and death arecomprehended in the aggregate of form and in the aggregate of the formations. feeling. Conditil7l1ed arising method has ended. clinging. Consciousness is comprehended in the mind-sphere. becoming. Feeling is comprehended in the feeling-aggregate. are comprehended in the Truth of Ill. contact.

This is the burning within. lamentation and misery are. supiiyiisii pi dukkhd appiyehi sampayogo dukkho piyehi vippayogo dukkho yam p'iccham na labhati tam pi dukkham: sankhittena pancupiidiinakkhandhii pi dukkhii.· II. "Birth is ill. grief and despair are ill. separation from those one likes is ill. the Noble Truth of the Origin of Ill. fear arises. old age is ill. All these are assemblages of ill.1 "Birth is ill": This is the arising of the aggregates of various beings. the not getting @f what is wished for is ill: in short the five aggregates of clinging are ill". colour. association with those one does not like is ill. sorrow is ill. 269 . "Death.verbal expression. . "Lamentation is ill": Suffering reaches . What is the Noble Truth of Ill? A. is ill": Fear of the ending of life. ill. Tattha katamam dukkham ariyasaccam? Jiitl pi dukkhii jarii pi d"kkhii maratlam pi dukkham sokaparidevadukkhadomanas. D. come to maturity and lose vigour. 99: Cattiiri ariyasacciini: dukkham ariyasaccam dukkhasamudayo ariyasaccam dukkhanirodho ariyasaccam dukkhanirodhagiimini paflpadii arlyasaccam. Vbh. the Noble Truth of the Cessation of III and the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Ill. There are Four Noble Truths: the Noble Truth of Ill. "sorrow is ill": On going to the place of suffering. memory and intellect. What is the method of understanding the Noble Truths? A. faculties. "Old age is ill": All the elements. This is to burn within I. 304 If. TRUTH OF ILL Q.[452] THE PATH OF FREEDOM FASCICLE THE ELEVENTH WRITfEN BY THE ARAHANT UPATISSA WHO WAS CALLED GREAT LIGHT IN RYO TRANSLATED IN RYO BY TIPITAKA SANGHAPALA OF FUNAN THE FIVE METHODS CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH Section Two THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Q. proceeding from birth. death is ill.

the ill of separation from those one likes. "Grief and despair are ill": These are sufferings of the mind. the ill of association with those one dislikes.l FIVE GROUPS OF CLINGING Q. By these one suffers mental anguish: This is the meaning. "Separation from those one likes is ill": This means that one is separated from persons one likes. the ill of lamentation and the ill of grief and despair are called innate ill. . Tattha katamam dukkham? Yam kiiyikam asiitam kiiyikam dukkham kiiyasamphassajam asiitam. Ibid. By this one suifers bodily pain. TWO KINDS OF ILL Here ill is of two kinds thus: ill of sense-sphere and innate ill. This is the meaning.-The explanation given above is quite different. are called ill of sense-sphere. the formation aggregate of clinging. iidevo paridevo iidevanii paridevanii iidevitattam parfdevitattam viicii paliipo vippaliipo liilapo liilapanii liilapitattam: Ayam vuccati pariclevo.that one is united with persons one dislikes. MaraI.or": A man loses happiness because he is not able to separate from those whom he dislikes.). 99: Tattha katamii jiiti? Yii tesam tesam sattiinam tamhi tamhi saltanikiiye jiiti saiijiiti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhiinam piitubhiivo iiyataniinam pa!iliibho ayam vuccati jiiti. ''The not getting of what is wished f. "Misery is ill": This is the suffering of the body. These should be understood according to the full explanation under the method of (understanding) the aggregates. Tattha katamam marQl)QJiI? Yii tesam tesam . the consciousness aggregate of clinging. the perception aggregate of clin~ng. "Association with those one does not like is ill": This means . the feeling aggregate of clinging.l4iccam piiliccam valittacatii iiyuno samhiini indriyiinam paripiiko: ayam vuccati jarii.270 _ Vimuttimagga and without. Cpo Ibid. 367:. 1. 99-100: Tattha katamo soko? fiiitivyasanena vii phufthassa bhogavyasanena vii phUfthassa rogavyasanena vii phUfthassa silavyasanena vii phutthassa ditthivyasanena vii phufthassa aiiiiataraiiiiatarena vyasanena samanniigatassa aiiiiataraiiiiatarena dukkhadhammena phunhassa soko socanii socitattam antosoko antoparisoko cetaso parijjhiiyana domanassam sokasallam: ayam vuccati soko (-Cp. Vbh. cuti cavanatii bhedo antaradhiinam maccu maraI.lam kiilakiriyii khandhiinam bhedo kalevarassa nikkhepo jivitindriyassa upacchedo: idam vuccati marQl)am. 128 which adds antot/iiho antoparit/iiho to the list. The ill of sorrow.labhayam. The form aggregate of clinging. the ill of death. What are the five aggregates of clinging? A.lam paticca bhayam bhayiiriakam chambhitattam lomahamso cetaso ufriiso: idorh vuccati maraI. The ill of birth. Tattha katamii jarii? Yii tesam tesam sattiinam tamhi tamhi sattanikiiye jarii jirQl)atii khaI.he loses happiness. Tattha katama pariclevo? iiiitivyasanena vii phufthassa . Cp. and because he is not able to unite with those· whom he likes..•. dukkham vedayitam kiiyasamphassajii asiitii dukkhii vedanii: ldam vuccati dukkham. Being unable to secure these . Nidd. the ill of the aggregates of clinging. in short.. "In short the five aggregates of clinging are ill": One is not able to separate oneself from these five aggregates of clinging. I. Therefore these five aggregates of clinging are ill. the ill of not getting what is wished for.

. I. causes rebirth". .ye vii pan'assa Ie honli a/lhakiimiihitakamii phiisllkiimii yogakkhemakiima. pi yam p' iccham na labhati lam pi dukkharil. yii lehi samgali samiigamo samodhiinam missibhiivo: aym. change and existence. 1 Here bodily and mental suffering are the ill of misery.? Jiilidhammiinam saftiinam evarh icchd uppajjati: aha vata mayarh na jiitidhammd assiima. What is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Ill? A. Jariidhammiinam salliinam . miitii vii pilii vii bhiitii vii bhagini vii mitlii va amaccii vii iiatisalohitii vii. Here "causing new rebirth" means: "Craving. causing new rebirths. yii lehi asamgali asamiigamo asamodhiinam amissibhavo: ayam vuccati piyehi vippayogo dukkho. "Accompanied by delight and passion" means: "Craving causes the arising of delight. na ca vala no jiili iigaccheyyiili. It causes to stain. na ca vata no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupiiyasii iigaccheyyun Ii. it is not a coarising". dllkkham celosamphassajaril asiilam dllkkhal.. namely... "Even this craving.. is ·comprehended in Tattha kalamam domanassam? Yam celasikaril asiilam celasikm. III. renewal. na kho pan' etam icchiiya pattabbam: idam pi yam p' iccham na labhati lam pi dukkham. D. "Finding gratification now here and now there" means "It causes individuality to arise in various places where there are lovable forms and so forth.. vyiidhidhammiinam salliinam maralJadhammiinam salliinam sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupiiyiisadhammiinam sattiinam evam icchii uppajjali: aho vala mayam na sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupiiyiisadhammii assiima.. Tattha kalamo appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa Ie honli aniflhii akanlii amaniipii riipa sadda gandhii rasa phollhabba ye vii pan' assa Ie honli anatthakiimii ahitakiimii aphiisukiimii ayogakkhemakiimii. . Pleasurable feeling connected with the cankers is subject to. Ibid. This is called passion. the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation": Everything.The Five Methods THREE KINDS OF ILL 271 III is of three kinds thus: the ill of misery. wherever it is. The five aggregates of clinging constitute the ill of existence. This is called manifestation. TRUTH OF THE ORIGIJW' OF ILL Q. vuccati appiyehi sampayogo dukkho. Tattha kalamo upiiyiiso? iiiitivyasanena va phu!!hassa . accompanied by delight and passion. and to delight and find gratification therein". samkhiira-dukkhalii. pe . Tattha kalame samkhittena paiicupiidiinakkhandhii pi dukkha? Seyyalhidam: riipiipiidiinakkhandho vedaniipiidiinakkhandho saiiiiiipiidiinakkhandho samkhiiriipiidiinakkhandho vifiiiiilJiipiidiinakkhandho: ime vuccanti samkhittena paiicupiidiillakkhandhii pi dllkkhii. the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation". !dam vuccali dukkham ariyasaccam. the craving for pleasure. except the craving for existence and the craving for annihilation. 101: Tattha kalamam yam p' iccham na labhati lam pi dukkhm. vipariniimadukkhalii The order is difierent here.. Therefore it is called the ill of change. na kho pan 'etam icchiiya pattabbam: idm. ayaso upayiiso iiyiisilattam upiiyiisitattam: ayam vuccati upiiyiiso.. the craving for pleasure.' vedayitam celosamphassajii asiila dukkha vedana: idam vuccati domanassarh. 216: Tisso dukkhalii: Dukkha-dukkhalii. . . "Namely. "Even this craving" means: "Craving is the origin of ill. Tattha kalamo piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa Ie honli illhii kanlii maniipii riipii saddii . Thus should the Noble Truth of III be known.. finding gratification now here and now there. It stirs up delight conjoined with passion".

.1 The craving for annihilation arises together with theo view of nihilism..· Thus should the Noble Truth of the Origin of ill be known. Ibid. What is the Path leading to the Cessation of Ill? A. Cakkhu-samphassajii vedana loke ••• pe . 101-3.• lUipii loke . . . Right Action. s TRUTH OF THE CESSATION OF ILL Q.. V. The craving for existence arises together the with view of etemalism. Therefore the Blessed One taught: "The ending of the origin is the ending of ill". the doing away with it". pe . pe .• lUipa-vitakko loke.• pe.. Therefore the state of not coming to birth and of not perishing is accomplished. Right Speech is the separation from the four wrong (verbal) actions. pe .. because the Blessed One has said: "The cause of ill is destroyed".. Saasatatifllhi. What is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Ill? A.• ye . Cakkhu-samphasso loke . Right Mindfulness..• Dhamma-viciiro Ioke piya-riipam siita-rapam etlh' esii ta{lhii uppajjamiinii uppajjati. Q.. -. No. pe .. . Right View is the knowledge of the Four Truths. The cause of ill is destroyed. Right Action is separation from the three wrong actions. Mano loke . kattha nivisamiinii nivfsati? Yam loke piya-rapam siita-rapam.. This is also the ending of the origin.• Idam vuccati bhikkhave dukkha-nirodham ariya-saccam.uJm loke . . 310-11: Katamafi ca bhikkhave dukkha-nirodham ariya-saccam? Yo tassii yeva ta{lhiiya asesa-viriiga-nirodho ciigo pa(inissaggo multi aniilayo .. It is the Noble Eightfold Path of Right View. Riipa-saflcetanii loke. •.' Thus should be known the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Ill. seyyathidam kiima-ta{lhii bhava-ta{lhii vibha. 2. Right Thought means the three meritorious thoughts. Kifici loke piya-rapam siita-rapam? Cakkhum loke piya-rapam siita-rapam •. •. Right Thought.• Sotam loke • •• Ghiinath loke . ettha nMsamiinii nivisati. A.Vbh. Right livelihood is separation from wrong livelihood. Vin. I.. ..a-ta{lhii. . D. Right Concentration. 10:. ettha nivisamiinii nl¥isati. Riipa-ta{lhii IOke. 308-10: Katamafi ca bhikkhave dukkhasamudayari. . the being delivered from. . Sii kho pan' esii bhikkhave ta{lhii kattha uppajjamiinii uppajjati. 3. .. Kiiyo loke . Ucchedadhitthi.. S.. giving it up.... pe .. TRUTH OF THE PATH LEADING TO CESSATION OF ILL Q.. Idam vuccati bhlkkhave dukkha-samudayam ariya-saccam. 421. Cakkhu-vifl/IiiJ. II.• Rapa-viciiro loke. Right livelihood.272 Yimuttimagga the craving for pleasure. 4. Right 1. pe . pe . Right Exertion. .•• Riipa-safifiii loke. Right Speech. "The utter fading away and cessation of that very craving. . .• Jivhii loke . ariya-saccam ? Yiiyam ta{lhii ponobhavikii nandi-riiga-sa/lQgatii tatra tatriibhinandini. It corresponds to realization. etth' esii ta{lhii uppajjamiinii uppajjati. leaving it.

the faculty of faith.dukkhe liti(lam dukkhasamudaye iiti(lam dukkha-nirodhe liti(lmil dukkha-nirodha-gtiminiyti patipadtiya Ilti(lam. Upanntinam kusaltinam dhammtinam Ihitiyti asammostiya bhiyyobhtivtiya vepulltiya bhtivantiya piiripiiriyii chandam janeti vtiyamati. cittam pagga(lhtiti padahati. Anuppanniinam kusaltinam dhammtinam uppiidtiya chandam janeti vtiyamati. the enlightenment factor of mindfulness and the four foundations of mindfulness accomplish the entry into internal Right Mindfulness. He concentrates on Nibblina-this is Right Concentration. viriyam tirabhati. Right Concentration is the fourfold meditation. D. ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammti-samkappo. the.. Here. viriyam iirabhati. and the fourfold right exertion accomplish the entry into internal Right Effort. He abandons wrong speech-this is Right Speech. cittam pagga(lhtiti padahati..zi.. The faculty of mindfulness. Thus should the Four Noble Truths be understood. jh{ina. basis of supernormal power of scrutiny and the enlightenment factor of the investIgation of states accomplish the entry into internal Right View. the enlightenment factor of concentration. he sees Nibbana-this is called Right View. dhammtinam pahaniiya chandam janeti viiyamati. the enlightenment factor of calm and the enlightenment factor of equanimity accomplish the entry into internal Right Concentration. the basis of supernormal power of will. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammti-vtiyiimo. vedaniisu . Right Mindfulness means the four foundations of mindfulness. the basis of supernormal power of thought. He recalls Nibbana to mind-this is Right Mindfulness. aya'. . ayam vuccati bhikkhave samma-tijivo. the basis of supernormal power of exertion. viriyam iirabhati. These thirty-seven enlightenment accessories accQmplish the entry into the Noble Eightfold Path. The faculty of concentration. cittam pagga(lhtiti padahati.. Katamo ca bhikkhave sammii-. dhammesu dhammiinupassi viharati tittipi sampajtino satimii vlneyya loke abhijjhii-domanassam. adinntidtinti verama(li.mi/kappo? Nekkhamma-samkappo avytiptida-samkappo avihlmsti-samkappo. Katamo ca bhikkhave sammti-tijivo? Idha bhikkhave ariya-stivako micchii-tijivam pahtiya sammti-tijivena jfvikam kappeti.. the power of exertion. Katamo ca bhikkhave sammti-viiytimo? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppanntinam ptipaktinam akusaltinam dhammtinam anupptidiiya chandam janeti viiyamati.l vuccati bhikkhave sammti-ditthi. 311-13: Katamaii ca Mikkhave dukkha-nirodha-giimini-palipadii ariya-saccam? Ayam eva Ariyo Atthangiko Maggo. the enlightenment factor of exertion. the power of faith. He rejects wrong doingthis is Right Action. 1 And again.The Five Methods Exertion is the fourfold right exertion. II. the power of mindfulness. the faculty of wisdom. abhijjhii-domanassam.tiya vtictiya verama(li.. ktimesu micchtictirii verama(li.ammti-diflhi? Yam kilo bhikkhave . Katama ca bhikkhave sammti-vticti ? Musti-vtidti verama(li. the power of wisdqm. the enlightenment factor of joy. ayam vuccati bhikkhave samma-kammanto. vtictiya veramafll~ pharu. ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammti-vticti. . Katamti ca bhikkhave . citte . pisu(ltiya. 1. He abandons wrong exertion-this is Right Exertion. pe . pe . seyyathidam sammtidiffhi sammti-samkappo sammaviica sammii-kammanto sammii~ajfvo sammii-Vtlyiimo sammd-safi sammii-samiidhi. samphappaltipti veramm. citiam pagga(lhtiti padahati. Thus should the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of TIl be known. Uppanntinam paptiktinam akusaltinam. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave samma-sat!. The faculty of exertion. He awakes only in Nibbana-this is called Right Thought. if a man practises the Noble Path. Katamti ca -Qhikkhave sammti-sati? ldha bhikkhave bhikkhu kaye ktiytinupassi viharati iitiipi sampajiino satimii vineyya loke. viriyam tirabhati. the power of concentration. He gives up wrong livelihood-this is Right Livelihood. Katamo ca bhikkhave sammti-kammanto? Pti(ltitiptitti verama(li..

Sukhassa ca pahiinii dukkhassa ca pahiinii pubb' eva somanassadomanassiinam allhagamii adukkham asukham upekhii-sati-parisuddhim catutthajjhiinam . · . ii/oko udapiidi.. Through understanding these well. one should abandon. through sameness.. Tam kho paniOOm dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam sacchikiilabban Ii me bhikkhave pubbe .274 Vimuttimagga Q. through characteristics. (a) S. Thus should these be known through the meaning of words. THROUGH CHARACTERISTICS Q. These are the consequences . the cause) of mundane truth? A. pariiifiiilan ti me bhikkhave . V... PaOOttha.6 through inclusion. Katamo ea bhikkhave sammii-samiidhi? Jdha bhikkhave bhikkhu viviee' eva kiimehi vivicca akusa/ehi dhammehi savitakkam saviciiram vivekajam pili-sukham palhamajjhiinam upasampajja viharali. sacchikatan Ii me bhikkhave pubbe . Tam kho panidam dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccampahiilabban Ii me bhikkhave pubbe . 1382-83: Pariiifiabhisamayena. 2.. bhcivanii-vidhina yeva. What is the consequence (and what. Q. through the meaning of words? A. pahinan Ii me bhikkhave pubbe . Piliyii ca viriigii upekhako viharali salo ca sampajiino. Ekavidhiidi. "Truth" means: "Thus-isness.ough eleven ways: through the meaning of words. non-variability. Kama... dllkkham abhisameli so pahiinabhisamen' esa.5 through discrimination..lakriyiiy' eva. Therefore four and not three or five are taught. Why are four Noble Truths taught and not three or five? A. III is the characteristic of suffering.! there are four. identity". Origin is the cause.. The characteristics of these Four Noble Truths should be known thr. Cessation is the consequence of supramundane truth. How. 3 through series in beiiefs.. Therefore they are called Noble Truths. sukhan ca kiiyena palisamvedeli yan lam ariyii iicikkhanti: 'upekhako salimii-sukha vihiiri Ii' latiya-jjhiinam upasampajja viharati. one should realize. through characteristics? A. LakkhalJa. (If three or five were taught) all might be doubted.•. one should practise''. Cessation is ending continued. Vitakka-vieiiriinaril viipasamii ajjhallam sampasiiOOnam celaso ekodi-bhiivam avitakkam avieiiram samiidhijam piti-sukham dUliyajjhiinam upasampajja viharati.. THROUGH WORD MEANING Q.. ii/oko udapiidi.and causes of the mundane and the supramundane. through difference. lathii samudayam pi ca. through enumeration. . biliivilan ti me bhikkhave pubbe .. III is the consequence.upasampajja viharati.. nirodham sacchikaroti so. maggam abhisameti tam iiramma1. 1. vv. The Noble Truths are the teaching of the Holy One.lam uOOpiidi pannii udapiidi vijjii udapiidi ii/oko udapiidi . 3.. The Path is the highest view. Ayam vuccati bhikkhave sammii-samiidhi.. ii/oko udiipiidi. ii/oko udapiidi. Tam kho paniOOm . · . 6. through one kind and so forth. Upamii. 422: Tam kho panidam dukkham ariyasaccam parinneyyan Ii me bhikkhave pubbe ananussulesu dhammesu cakkhum udapiidi iiii1.. How. Therefore they are four. because of the four sentences: "One should comprehend. loom vuccati bhikkhave dukkha-nirodha-giimini-palipadii ariya-saccam. The Path is the cause of supramundane truth. · . 4. ill and origin are the consequence and cause of mundance truth.. And again. Tam kho panidam dukkhanirodhagamini palipadii ariyasaccam bhiivelabban ti me bhikkhave pubbe . (b) Cpo Abhmv. one fulfils the Four Noble Truths.4 through analogy.. 5.

Thus should these be known through series. Cessation is the characteristic of nonbirth. clinging.ssation. The ending of the origin is the ending of ill.li antimadehadharo anUllaro bhisakko sallakatto (=Anullaro bhisak(k)o sallakatto Ii duttikicchassa vaffadukkharogassa tikicchanato "lIamo bhisakCk)o. (The Truth of III removes the illusion of self. The Truth of Origin is taught next. tassa kusalo bhisakko fhanaso abadharil nihareyya. he prescribes according to the nature of the disease. How. the non-conditioned and the choice. 123-24: Tallha dve roga sattanarh avijja ca bhavata(lha ca. How. the put together. tato tato sokaparidevadllkkhadomanassupayasa abbhattharh gacchanti. in brief? A. who at first gets at the root of the disease and later inquires as to the contributory causes. For the ending of the disease. evant eva' kho bho yato yato tassa bhoto Gotamassa dhammam sU(lati yadi suttaso yadi geyyaso yadi veyyakara(laso yadi abbhutadhammaso. lIT. Avijjarogassa vipassana bhesajjarh. Thus should these be known through characteristics. And the Path is taught last. Etesarh dvinnaril roganarh nighataya Bhagavata dve bhesajjani vUllanl samatho ca vipassana ca. II. The Truth of III is taught first. and the medicine as the Path. THROUGH SERIES Q. This (method) is like (that of) a clever physician. despair. the being born is the ongm.! IN BRIEF Q. Cessation is the characteristic of renunciation. the cause and condition as origin. arriving~ seeing. the path leading to the cessation of ill is the Path. fetters.lato uttamo sallakantanavejjo-lt. dve dhamma pahatabba avijja ca bhavata(lha ca. annehi anuddhara(liyanarh ragadisallanarh" kantanato samucchedavasena samuddharaT. Here. Evarh hi Bhagava c' aha: dve dhamma pariilneyya namail ca rripail ca. 143). one should know the disease as ill. And again. the ending of the disease as cessation. solitude. Tattha ta(lharogassa samatho bhesajjarh. After that the Truth of Cessation is taught for the purpose of ending completely. Imani dve bhesajjani pafisevento dve aroge sacchikaroti: raga-viragarh cetovimuttirh avijjaviragan ca pannavimullirh. cause. The removal of defilement is cessation. The means of removal is the Path. Birth is ill. condition.view of eternalism. Cpo (a) A. It. (the Truth of) the Path removes all wrong views. there is ill. ill is the characteristic of grief. (b) A. avijjaviraga pafiliavimu/ti arogarh. 340: 'Bhisakko' Ii bhikkhave Tathagatass' etarh adhivacanarh arahato sammiisambuddhassa. . Thus should these be known in brief. reliance.The Five Methods 275 Origin is the characteristic of cause. dve dhamma bhavetabba samatho ca (e) . Defilement is the origin. the ending of ill is ce. 101: Aham-asmi bhikkhave brahma(lo yacayogo sada payatapaT. Origin is the characteristic of accumulation. (the Truth of) Cessation removes the . the limited. 1. (the Truth of) Origin removes the view of nihilism. Cd) Petaka.-a. IV. The Path is the characteristic of the means of success. The Path is the characteristic of vehicle. ragaviraga cetovimutti arogarh. becuase it is gross and because it could be easily understood in this world. 238: Seyyatha pi bho puriso abadhiko' dukkhito ba/hagilano. through series? A. Where there is defilement.

139-40: Kathan ca bhikkhave bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhiiro visamyutto hoti? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno asmimiino pahino hoti ucchinnamulo tiilavatthukalo anabhiivakalo iiyatim anuppiidadhammo. so taraye tatlha baM pi anne tatr' iipiiyaiinu kusalo mutimii. Yadii bhikkhuno dye dhammii pariflniilii bhavanli naman ca rlipan ca. I. as the parching of the seed. Investigation of falsehood . . as· the flood. (b) Sn. Ta1Jham pajahanto riigaviriiga cetovimuttim sacchikaroti. TIl should be regarded as a poisonous tree. oghiinam adhivacanam. Cp. How. Tatlha samatham bhavenlo riipam parijiiniili. kamoghassa bhavoghassa dillhoghassa avijjoghassa. through discrimination? A. (a) S.. and the Path. 1 [453] One should regard ill as the carrying of a burden. origin. Orimanliram siisaJikam sappatibhayall Ii kho bhikkhave sakkiiyassetam adhiVQcanam.this is called speech that is true. as the other shore that is free from suffering and fear. . How. TilJlJo piirangato thale litfhati brahmalJo ti kho bhikkhave arahato etam adhi-" vacanan ti. Here. Avijjam paJahanto avijjiivlriigii paiiiiiivimuttim sacchikaroti. . appatibhayan ti kho bhikkhave nibbiinassetam adhivacanam. knowledge. THE SHIP. vipassanii ca. sammiis'fmiidhissa. the Path as fire. dye dhammii sacchikiilabbii vijja ca vimutli ca Ii. and the Path.this is knOWledge. Vipassanam bhiivenlo niimam parijanati. Here. as the method of laying down the burden. a man speaks true words and not words that are untrue . (a) M. THE BURDEN Vimuttimagga Q. as the laying down of the burden. There are four kinds in truth: Speech that is true. Kullan ti kho bhikkhave ·ariyasselam Puhangikassa maggassa adhivacanam. . origin. Evam kho bhikkhave bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pallnabhiiro visamyutlo hOli. Thus should these be known through discrimination. seyyathidam sammadillhiyii . Ariyan Truth should be realized. as the taking on of the burden. as a seed. through analogy? A. The truth practised by the Saint is Ariyan Truth. Hatthehi ca padehi ca viiyiimo ti kho bhikkhave viriyiirambhassetam adhivacanam. MaM udakalJlJavo Ii kho bhikkhave catunnUli. cessation. Dve dhammii bhiivitii bhavanti samatho ca vipassana ca. 2. Dve dhammii sacchikiitabbii bhavanti vijjii ca vimutli ca. Nibbdna is absolute truth. 321: Yathii pi niivam darham iiruhitvii phiyen' arittena samangibhiito. RiJpam parijiinanlo ta7)haliJ pajahati. 174-5: Atha kho so bhikkhave tassa purisassa evam assa: Ayam kho mahii udakalJlJavo orimantiram siisaJikam sappatibhayam piirimantiram khemam appatibhayam natlhi ca niivii sanliiralJi utlaraselu vii apariipiiramiamanaya. as the ship that sails well. IV. origin.s THROUGH DISCRIMINATION Q. cessation. Thus should these be known through analogy. tatM'ssa dukkhadhammii pahinii bhavantl avijjii ca bhavat01Jhii ca. Yam niiniiham tilJakatthasiikhii-palasam saJika#hilva kullam bandhitvii tam kullam nissiiya hatthehi ca padehi ca viiyamamiino sotlhinii piiram gaccheyyanli. One should regard ill as this shore of fear. absolute truth and Ariyan Truth. I. cessation.276 SIMILES OF THE POISONOUS TREE. pe • . Piirimantiram khemari. Niimam parijananto avijjam pajahati.

'.. pe . craving and the defilements..' gotlo. unskilful states and skilful states of the three planes compose the (Truth of) Origin.. Here.' brumi 'BriihmalJQ'.. craving. the path is the Truth of the Path.. the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation. unskilful and indeterminate· states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill. Again.. Bhdran ca vo bhikkhave desissiimi." kiimatQt. the Noble Eightfold Path is tIie Truth of the Path. all defilements and skil(ul. craving and the defilements (associated with it) compose the Truth of Origin. Ida'.. Nikkhipitvii garu. Here. riipupiidtinakkhandho . Other defilements are origin in the sense of removing and in the sense of manifestation of becoming.'. craving and the other defilements are origin.."tam aha'. How. through enumeration? A.. (c) Dh. bhiiriidtina. Kataman ca bhikkhave bhiiriidiina. the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation... III. Again..lhd bhavatalJhii vibhavatalJhii.latent tendencies"... Katame panca? Seyyathida. sUlJiitha . niechiito parinibbuto..The. bhiirahdro ca puggalo. the removal of these is the Truth of Cessation.' niimo eva'. Ta. Merit of the three planes is origin. visa." anna'. bhiiranikkhepana.. and all the unskilful states compose the Truth of Origin..Five Methods THROUGH ENUMERATION 277 Q. Origin means "with craving" and "with . the path is the Truth of the Path.. Idam avoca Bhagavii . loke. tQt. talJha. aniidiya.lhtiya asesaviriiganirodho ciigo palinissaggo mutti aniilayo. Ida'. seyyathida...yutta.? Yo tassii-yeva tQt. 25-6: Siivatthiyam Tatra klzo . dukkha. 656: ParicilJrw mayii satlhii... Katamo ca bhikkhave bhiirahiiro? Puggalo tissa vacaniya'. 402. vuccati bhikkhave bhiirahiieo. Katamo ca bhikkhave bhiiro? Pancupiidiinakkhandhii tissa vacaniyanr.' vuccati bhikkhave bhiiriidtina'. viMiit..lhd ponobhavikii nandiriigasahagatii tatra tratriiblrinandini. ... the path is the Truth of the Path.. 604.. Sn. Aya.. abbhltyha.. (d) S. all skilful. (b) Th. pann¢Jhiirti...' bhiira.. . except craving. all other defilements and the skilful. katam buddhassa siisana.. unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the TnJth of Ill. samula. All unskilful states are origin in the sense of causing to be... craving is the Truth of Origin. idh' eva khayam atlano.' vuccatl bhikkhave bhiiranikkhepanan Ii.. Kataman ca bhikkhave bhiiranikkhepana." ohito garuko bhiiro bhavanetti samiihatii.... Aya. sllkha'.. except craving. Except craving. the removal of craving is the Truth of Cessation. to wish for the delightful is craving. iiyasmii eva'.... 626: Yo dukkhassa pajiilJiiti. . etad avoca Satthd: Bhdrii have pancakkhandhii. Yoya.lupiidiinakkhandho. vuccati bhlkkhave bhii~o..'..". bhiira. And again.? Yiiya. the remaining defilements. unskilful and indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill... except craving and the defilements and all unskilful states (associated with it) the other unskilful states of the three planes and the indeterminate states of the three planes compose the Truth of Ill. bhiirahiiran ca bhiiriidtinan ca bhdranikkhepanaii ca.

clinging. . Avitathli ti yathli vuttli na talhli na honti. without yoke. 112: Samlic/ayasaccam akusalam. saccli riipli. Vbh. " 3.' Mundane truth is canker. there is the Truth of Ill. and the Truth of the Path enables to practise. . defilement. maggilsaccam kusalath..itli tacchli tathli. Vbh. through difference? A. Cpo (a) D' III. 298). 2. Katamlini cattliri? loom dukkhan Ii bhikkhave tatham etam avitalham etam anaiiflatatham etam. without hindrance. Thus these should be known through sameness. 3 It is called ill and origin. 116: Dve saccli lokiyli.. dukkasaccam styli riipam siyli ariipam. the Truth of Origin enables to remove. Aiiiia-sabhliviinupagamena anaiiliatham. These Four Truths are one through four ways: through the meaning of truth. THROUGH SAMENESS Q.. 4 Three Truths are without* form. the meaning of thus-isness.· The Truth of Origin is unskilflil. Dukkham hi dukkham eva vuttath sabhlivassa amoghalliya avitatham. tangle. 1057). Vbh. par. and the meaning of the void. Because of the characteristics of despair. I (a) p.. (-Sabhliva-vijahan' atthena tatham. without contact. Perhaps an error (see n. hindrance. I. Tacchli ti yathlivli. 116: TilJi saccli samkhatli. Dhs. ayam dukkhanirodho ti tatham etam ••.s The Truth of III enables to understand. yoke. The Truth of III is with and without fohn. There are two truths: mundane and supramundane truth. without defilement. The Truth of the Path is skilful. 6. How. Thus should these be understood through enumeration. Three Truths are conditioned. the put together and the limited. It is Cessation and the Path. 5 below). Tathli Ii yathli vuttli 'tathli sabhlivli. Ibid. unskilful and indeterminate. nirodhasaccam asamkhatam. Vbh.? Thus should these be known through difference. Ayam dukkhanirodhaglimini pafipadli ti tatham etam avilatham etam anaiiflatham etam. clinging and combination. 584-85: Sabbath riipam . avitatliii anaiiflathli sammd Tathligatena abhisambuddhd: (-Bhiitti ti sabhlivato vijjamlinii. without clinging. 430-31: Cattlirimlini bhikkhave tathlini avithatiini anaiiflathlini. fetter. Samudaylidisu pi es' eva nayo ti-Spk. 4. 5. the Truth of Origin is fulfilled. III. 116: TilJi. The Truth of Cessation is indeterminate. III. 7.1 THROUGH DIFFERENCE Q. without tangle. How. misery. See n. The Truth of III is skilful. 12.278 Vimuttimagga All merit of the three planes belong to the Truth of III or the Truth of Origin. flood.' 274. contact. Because of the characteristics of accumulation. cause and condition.nirodhasaccam avylikatam dukkhasaccam siyli kusalam styli akusalam siyli avylikatam. the Truth of Cessation enables to attain. lokiyam siisavamsamyojaniyam ganthaniyam oghaniyam yoganiyam nivaralJiyam parlimaffham uplidiiniyam smikileslkam. the meaning Qf doctrine. without fetter. Na hi dukkham samudaylidisabhlivam upagacchati. • Should read 'with'. V. without flood. 273: It' ime OOsa dhammii bh. Supramundane truth is without canker. The truth of Cessation is unconditioned. . through sameness? A. Na dukkham adukkham nlima hoti. dve saccli lokuttarli. (b) S. Anaiiflalhli ti vutta-ppaklirato na aiiflathti-Sv. Ayam dukkhasamuOOyo ti tatham etam .

the removal of these is cessation. 5. uddhacca-kukkucca-nivara{lam. . Sila. the three unskilful faculties** are origin. 8. vyiipiido. the removal of the groups of craving is cessation. Netti. Cpo A. and the removal of that is Cessation..Ylpallasavatthu: anattanl atiii· tl. asekhena vimuflikkhandhena samanniigato hoti. *This whole sentence is given as dukkha-dukkha. yadidam muditii ceto-vimutti . Samatha. V. pettlvisayo.fsiiyatatram adantam •.. •.. They are of fpur kinds thus: (The.. S. **Perhaps should read 'roots' -Ti{li akusala miiliini. 234: Paiica gatiyo..han _~i. vyiipiida-nivara{lam. asekhena paiiiiiikkhandhena samanniigato hoti. Ayiim vuccati bhikkhilve ta{lhii. 10. paiiiiii. Evam kho bhlkkhave bhikkhu pancaligasamanniigato hoti. asekhena samiidhikkha7!dhena samanniigato hoti. . samiidhi.lam h' etam iivuso riigassa. 279 Q. (b) nissarQ(lam h' etam iivuso vihesiiya. Mindfulness of the body is the Path. through . asekhena vimuttiiiii1. Pailcaligavippahino kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pancaligasamanniigato imasmim dhammavinaye 'kevali vlIsitavii ullamapuriso' ti vuccati ti. They are of one kind thu$: The body which has consciousness is ill. S.one kind and so forth? A. 12. Ibid: Panca nivarQ{liini. yadidam 'asmiti' miinasamugghiito. 85: Tattha . sanna samkhara ca lattyam . yadidam upekhii ceto-vimutti . vipalliisavallhu: dukkhe sl/khan It. The ·text is not quite clear. (c) nissara(!am h' etam iivuso aratiyii. yadidam mellii ceto-vimutti . manussii.am. the ·removal of these is cessation. (0 nissarat)aril h' etam iiVIlSO vicikicchii-kathamkathii-sallassa. the five faculties are the Path. ·2.lo the six groups of cravingll are origin. mano bhlkkhave pha. ignorance and craving are Orign. Kathan ca . four kinds of nutriment)' are ill.riip.. p. (a) nissarQ(lam h' etam iivuso vyiipiidassa. Katame cha? Cakkhum •..The Five Methods THROUGH ONE KIND ETC. serenityl and insight2 are the Path. Cattiiro satipallhana..!m palhampm !!p"allii~ava!l~u: a~u~he . Evam kho bhikkhave bhikkhu pailcaliguvippahino hoti. 3: Katamii ca bhikkhave tQ. (e) nissarat)am h' etam iivuso sabba-nimilliinam. . 247-50: Cha nissara1. Virtue. (d) nissara1. the removal of the hindrances is cessation. n. thina-middhanivara{lam. Kiimacchanda-nivara{lam. the removal of overturning is cessation. A. 11. 70: Chay ime bhikkhave phassiiyatanii liPantii aguttii arakkhitii asamvutii dukkhiidhiviihii honti.ladassanakkhandhena samanniigato hoti. . •. Nirayo. pahino hoti. the six elements of escape12 are the Path. . . 16: Pancaligavippahino bhikkhave bhikkhu pancaligasamanniigato imasmim dhammavinaye 'kevali vusitavii ullamapllriso' ti vl/ccati. the five hindrances 8 are origin. pailcaligasamannagato hoti? ldha bhikkhaye bhikkhu asekhena silakkhandhena samanniigato hoti. .(lhii? ch4 ylme bhikkhave tQ(lhiikiiyii. They are of five kinds thus: The five states of birth7 are ill. m. vicikicchii-nivarQ(lam. devii. D. RiipatQ. They are of three kinds thus: (Misery of the suffering of the three planes*) is the Truth of m. yadidam karut)ii ceto-vimuttl . 9 They are of six kinds thus: rhe six organs of contact are ill. . tiracchiina-yoni.. IIf. yadidam animittii ceto-vimutti . 3. III. How. concentration and wisdom3 are the Path. vicikicchii pahinii hoti.. 7. 1. Kathan ca bhikkhave bhlkkhu pancangavippahino hoti? ldha bhlkkhave bhlkkhuno kiimacchando pahino hoti.J:uh. villilii(lam catullham vipalliisavatthu: anlcce niccan ti. . IV. vedani!_dutj)1. 290-92. They are of two kinds thus: Name and form are ill.. 4. . 6..liya dhiituyo .· Vipassanii. thinamiddham pahinam hoti.(lhii saddata{lhii gandhata{lhii rasata(!hii phoflhabbata{lhii dhammata(lhii. The four kinds of overturning& are origin. Origin is pride. 9. the four foundations of Mindfulness 6 are the Path. uddhaccakukkuccam pahinam hoti.

!iibharhpaf/eea vinieehayo. 'ayam (Jukkhasamudayo' ti yathiibhatarh pajiiniitl. pe ••. mieehif-sati. 251-2: Satta sambojjhmiga. Sati-sambojjharigo. Ayarh paiieama sattiiviiso . 400-1: Ta1)ham palieea pariyesanii. the removal of these is 'cessation. niinatta-saiiiiiinam amanasikiirii. 'ayam dukkhasamudayo' ti yathiibhatam paJiinati. viiiifiil. . Ayarh parhamii. upekhii-sambojjhaligo.. saftkhiire. (6) Sant' iivuso satta sabbaso iikiisiinaiieayatanam sa11Ultikkam11Ul 'Anantarh. ' 5. 253: Satta vi~a-tfhitiyo (1) Sant' avuso sattii nanatta-kiiyii niinatta"safliiino. miiniilwsayo.• vedanarh. anattato yoniso 11Ulnasikaroto piimojjarh jiiyati . Vbh. 86: Nova yoniso manasikaramalaka dhamma:.• sizmniii-sizmiidhi.. A. .dThey are of nine kinds thus: The nine abodes of beings? are ill. . vinieehayarh patieea ehandariigo. 255: 'Auha sam11Ulttif. viiiifiil. Ayarh paiieami viiiiiii1)Q-tfhiti. samiihitena cittena'idam dukkhan' ti yathiibhatarh pajiiniiti. samahitena cittena 'Idam dukkhan' ti yathiibhatarh pajiiniiti. patigha-saiiiiiinam atthagamii. tthltiya). (7) Sant' iivuso sattii. pe . 2. . pariyesanarh pafieea liibho.anieeato yoniso 11Ul1IaSikaroto piirirojjarh jiiyati. Mieehii-ditfhi.. seyyathii pi deva Abhassara. [me nava yoniso manaslkiiramalaka dhammii. S. 'aY4rh dukkhanirodho' ti yathiibhatam pajliniiti. (3) Sant' iivuso sattii ekatta-kiiyii niinattasailiiino.•. . D.zn{o. Kamariigiinusayo"patighiinusayo. 'Ananto iikiiso ti' iikiisiinaiieayatanapaga.•• pe •. m. They are of ten kinds thus: 1. jarii11Ulra1)arh anieeato yoniso manas/karoto piimojjam jiiyati .. 'ayam dukkhanirodho' ti yathiibhatam pajiinati. ayam dukkhanirodhagiimini patipada' ti yathiibhatam pajiiniiti. miccM-viicii. anattato yonlso 11Ulnaslkaroto piimojjam jiiyati . eakkhurh . d4lJl!adiinasatthadiinakalahaviggahaviviidii tuvamtuvampesuililamusiiviidii aneke piipakii akusalii dhammii sambhavanti.. . 260: Altha loka-dhammii. pitimanassa kayo passambhati. bhavariiganusayo. piti-sambojjharigo. pe . the nine roots of cravingS are origin. IV. 1 above (Satta viilJfdila. m. eakkhurh . 1 above. (5) Sant' iivuso sattii sabbaso rapa-saiiiiiinarh sa11Ultikkama. the Noble Eightfold Path is the Path.• sukhino eittarh samiidhiyat/. pe . Ibid.254: Satta anusaya. 'ayath dukkhasamudayo' ti yathiibhatarh pojiiniiti. mieehii-samiidhi. seyyatha pi deva Subhaki1)hii.. saiiiiarh.• pe • . 'ayam dukk/uzrtirodho' tlyathabhatarh pajiiniiti.. 'ayarh dukkhanirotihagiimini potipadii' II yathaMatam pajiiniiti. Sammii-ditthi . 11Uleehariyarh paflceQ arakkhiidhlkara1)am. Ruparh al!iecato yoniso manaslkaroto piimojjarh jiiyati . saftkhiire. sukhino eittam samiidhiyati. Ibid. Ayarh sattami viiiilli1)a-tthiti. (4) Sant' iivuso sattii ekatta-kiiyii ekatta-saiiiiino.Vi'muttimagga They"are of seven kinds thus: The seven stations of consciousness1 ate ill. avijjifnusayo. the seven latent tendencies! are origin. I:bid. viililii1)am. (2) Sant' iivuso sattii niinatta-kiiya ekatta-safliiino seyyathii pi devii Brahma-kayika pathamiibhinibbattii..• pe . pariggaharh patieea maechariyam. mieehii-ifjivo. Ayarh dutiyii viiiiiii1)Q-Uhiti. ' 4. Pts. tl' vliiiiii1)Qiieiiyataniipaga.. the seven enlightenment factors 3 are the Path. (6). ditthiimMlyo. 3. pasiaddhakayo sukham vedeti. seyyathii pi 11Ulnussii ekacee ea deva ekaeee ea vinipiitikii. mieehii_karimll. 254: Atfha mi~ehattii... riiparh. D. passaddJii-sambojjhaftgo. the removal of the 1leven latent tendencies is cessation. III... the nine basic states of wise attention9 are the Path.uzn. pe ••• rapam dakkhato yoniso manasikaroto pifmojjarh jiiyati • . samifdhi-Sambojjharigo.• pe •. 'Ibid. I. dukkhato yoniso manaslkaroto piimojjarh jiiyati. ••• pe .. Ayarh catutthii vifliiii1)Q-tlhiti. . viiiiiiinariJ.viriya-sambojjharigo.. sabbaso vliiiiiil)aileayatanarh sa11Ultikkamma 'N'atthi kiiieiti' iikiiicailiiiiyataniipaga. pe • •. jariimaral)arh anattato yoniso manasikaroto piimojjarh jiiyati . the fifth-San/' avuso sattii asaiiiiino appatisamvedino seyyathii pi devii Asafll/asattii. 7.•. ehandariigam patieea ajjhosiinarh. The first four= thdirst four at n.. [me kho bhikkhave nava ta1)hiimalaka dhamma ti. pamuditassa piti jiiyati. •• . vedanarh._ micchij-vii)liimo. Ayam ehatthi viiiiiii1)a-tfhiti. 9.uz-Uhiti. and the last-Sant' iivusa sattii sabbaso akiileailiiiiyatanam samatlkamma nevasaiiiliiniisaiiilii'yataniipagii. (7) of n. pamuditassa piti jiiyati. mieehii-sarilkappo. the removal of the eight errors is cessation. ajjhosiinaril patieea pariggaho. sukhino eittam samiidhiyati. Ayarh tatiyii viiiiiii1)Q-tfhiti. 6. tihamma~vieaya-sambojjharigo. 'ayam dukkhanirodhagiimini palipadii' ti yathiibhatarh pajiiniiti. saiiilarh. viCikieehifnusayo. . 390. Ayam navamo sattiiviiso. D. the next three = (5). They are of eight kinds thus: The eight worldly conditions4 are ill. jariimara1)am dukkhato yoniso manasikaroto piimojjaril jayati . 263: Nova sattiiviisii. the eight errors' are origin. samiihitena cittena 'idam dukkhan' ti yathiibhzitarh pajiiniiti.. Labho ea aliibho ea yaso ea ayaso ea nindif ca pasarhsii ea sukhaii ea dukkhaii ca.

of sense-sphere. N'rJlth. III. the removal of the fetters is cessation. 234: Panc' aram-bhiigiyiini sarilyojaniini. iihiire patikktilasaiiiiii. kiimadhiilum upal:cagam. V. Cpo (a) S.. How.§amkhiirii.samkharii. miina. and of element. vedana dukkha. There arc three kinds of inclusion. 148). ye dasadisiisu samkharii. ye uparimiiya disiiya. I. avijjii. 26). kiimacchando. the Truth of III is included in the five aggregates. 448. n'althi sanliparam sukham.5 The Truth of Origin and the Truth of the Path are included in the aggregate of mental formations. dukkhe anattasanna. Here. (e) Netti. Ie pi erilii sameritii calilii ghaffilii aniceatiiya jiiliyii anugalii jariiya anusatii byiidhinii abhibhUlii mara(lena abbhahalii dukkhe patif{hilii alii(lii ale(lii asara!lii asara!libhulii. Ye puratthimiiya disiiya sarilkharii. VI. akuppii me vimuttiti sabbasmhyojanakkhayii' ti. sankharii dukkha. (d) Dh. khandhiidisii dukkha.The Five MethOds 281 The formations in the ten directions are ill. te pi eritii samerilii calilii ghallitii aniccaliiya jiiliyii anugalii jariiya anusatii byadhinii abhibhtllii mara(lena abbhiihalii dukkhe palillhitii alii(lii ale(lii asara(lii asara(libhutii. ye hellhimiiya disiiya samkhiirii. 5. Cpo (a) It. (S.l the ten fetters2 are origin. 50: Yad aniccam lam dukkhan Ii" vacanalo pana lad eva khandhapaiicakam dukkham. I. cpo Nd 410: Disii sabbii samerilii Ii. Cessation is not included in any aggregate. aniccasaiiiiii.3 the ten perceptions are the Path. (b) Th. A. saniiii. Rupa-riiga. III. inclusion of aggregation.42: Paiicakkhandhii dukkham. Maccun' abbhahalo lako jariiya pariviirita 1000hasailena atiIJlJo icchiidhumiiyika sada. 105: Dasa yimii bikkhave saiiiiii bhiivitii bahulikalii mahapphalii honli mahanisamsii amalogadhii amalapariyosiinii. . 196: Dukkham dukkhan Ii bhanle vuccati. Kalamii dasa? Asubhasaniiii. 181-2: Yalo ahampabbajito sammiisambuddhasiisane. 202: N'althi riigasama aggi. D. ye puralIhimiiya anudisiiya samkhiirii. 4. dukkha. namely. disii sabba samerilii. anicce dukkhasaiiiiii. lasmii rupe na ramali sumedho. 3. vinfliilJam dukkham. sabba loka padhr1pito. n'atthi dosasamo kali. Three Truths are included in the sense-sphere of ideas. . cpo Jat. marQlJOsaiiiiii. Ill. pahiinasaniia. THROUGH INCLUSION Q. Sakkiiya-dlflhi. viriigasaiiiid. sabbaloke anabhiralasaiiiiii. arupa-riigo. vicikicchii. Brahmuno pekkhamiinassa lalo ciltam vimucci me. vimuccamiino uggacchim. (Th. uddhaccalil. ye dakkhi(liiya disiiya samkharii. ·S. ye dakkhi(liiya anudisiiya . Sabbo adipita loka. Bhasitam pi c'elam: Kincii pi celam jalati vimiinam obhiisayam uttariyam disiiya rupe ra!laril disvii sadii pavedhilam. sabbo loka pakampita· Ii. nirodhasanful. Kasmii? AbhilJhasampalipitanalo. silabbaiapariimiiso. ye pacchimiiya anudisiiya samkhiirii. ye uttariiya anudisiiya samkhiirii. The Truth of III is included in the twelvesense-spheres. Kalamannu kho bhanle dukkhan Ii? Rupam kha Riidha dukkham. (b) Vbh-a. Ye pacchimiiya disiiya samkharii. The 1.4 Thus one should know through one kind and so forth. sabbo pajjalila lako. (S. 18: Sa sallakkhatluril paralllmi! sandhiivitviina puggala. Abhi(lhasampalipilaniikiiro dukkhalakkhaJJmh. through inclusion? A. ye utlariiya disiiya samkharii. 133). 2. dukkhassanlakaro hati sabbosamyojanakkhaYii·li. Panc'uddham-bhagiyiini samyojaniini. vyiipada . 22 passim.

This is called the method of understanding the Noble Truths. Through these ways knowledge of the Noble Truths should be known. Thus one should know through inclusion. Three Truths are included in the element of ideas.282 Vimuttimagga Truth of III is included in the eighteen elements. .

he should proceed to discern the Noble Truths by way of analogy. If after contemplating on the fearfulness of ill-faring and of beginningless birth and death. 100: Seyyathiipi bhikkhave corath iigucarith gahetva raiiiio dasseYYllm. 2 the yogin is· yet unable to understand the Four Noble Truths.. evath vadeyya. 'Gacchalha bho tath pwisath majjhan!ikath samayath sattisatena hanalhati.ON DISCERNING TRUTH CHAPTER THE TWELFTH Section One AGGREGATES. 2. 283 . 58. or on the similes of the points of the three hundred halberds. I.thaaamayath satt/satena hanathati. II.u!ath pa1. jhdna.? At first the yogin should listen to the Four Noble Truths expounded in brief or in detail or in brief and in detail. (a) A. tass' eva celassa va sisassa va nibbiipanaya adhimattam chandan ca vayaman ca ussahan ca ussolhiii cli appativaniii ca satiii ca sampajaiiiiaii ca kareyya. 440: Adittath bhikkhave celam va sisath va anajjhupekkhitva amanasikaritva anabhisametiinam catunnath ariyasaccanath yathiibhiitath abhisamayaya adhimatto chando ca vayamo ca IIssaho ca ussothi ca appa{iviini ca sati ca sampajaiiiian ca kara1.lhasamayath evam vadeyya. conditioned arising and the Truths. Imissa yam icchitam tath da1. austerities. Ekissa pi bhante sattiya hannamano t410 nidanath dukkhath domanassam patisamvediyetha ko pana vado tihi satt/satehi haiiiiamiino Ii? Evam eva kvaham bhikkhave vinnrit. What is the procedure. because he is not enlightened. Through I. (a) M. Ambho katham so puriso ti? Tatheva deva jivatiti.thasamayam sattisatena haneyyuth.lhasamayath sattisatena haneyyuth. III. V. II. S. Ayante deva coro iigucari. ELEMENTS. 141: Sattisiiliipama kama khandhanath adhikulfana. sense-spheres.lehiti. tam enam majjhantikam samayath sattisatena haneyyum. Tath kim mannatha bhikkhave ? Api nu so puriso divasam tihi sattisatehi haiiiiamano tato nidanam dukkham domanassath patisamvediyethali? . strive earnestly. Alha raja saya1. lam enath rap/. He should develop the wish to do. lam enam raja evath vadeyya: Gacchatha bho tath purisath saya1.liyath. (b) S.tahaJ-o datthabbo ti vadiimi.lhasamayam sattisatena hanathati. tam enath pubba1. He has also heard concerning virtue. Atha raja majjhantikanl samayath evath vadeyya: Ambho katham so purisoli? Tatheva deva jivatiti. tam enath sayat. and meditation. tam enath raja evam vadeyya: Gacchatha jJho imath purisam pubbat. eyam eva kilo bhikkhave tena pugga/ena tesam yeva kusa/anath dhammanath patilabhaya adhimatto chanda ca . he should think of not missing this opportunity. and . . yath tvath kamaratith bfl. SENSE-SPHERES Now the yogin has understood the aggregates. 165-66.l and o(the man· desiro