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tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 1

This print-out should have 18 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page nd all choices
before answering.
001 10.0 points
You have 2.8 kg of water. One mole of water
has a mass of 18 g/mole and each molecule
of water contains 10 electrons since water is
H
2
O.
What is the total electron charge contained
in this volume of water? The elementary
charge is 1.6 10
19
C.
Correct answer: 1.49884 10
8
C.
Explanation:
Let : N
A
= 6.02214 10
23
molec/mol ,
m = 2.8 kg ,
M = 18 g/mol = 0.018 kg/mol ,
Z = 10 elec/molec , and
q
e
= 1.6 10
19
C/elec ,
The mass is proportional to the number of
molecules, so for m grams in n molecules and
M grams in N
A
molecules,
m
M
=
n
N
A
n =
m
M
N
A
Since 10 electrons are in each molecule of
water, then there are n
e
= Z n = Z
m
M
N
A
electrons in the coin and the total charge for
those electrons is
q = n
e
q
e
= Z
m N
A
q
e
M
= (10 elec/molec)
2.8 kg
0.018 kg/mol

_
6.02214 10
23
molec/mol
_

_
1.6 10
19
C/elec
_
= 1.49884 10
8
C .
002 10.0 points
A particle of mass 39 g and charge 47 C is
released from rest when it is 51 cm from a
second particle of charge 27 C.
Determine the magnitude of the initial ac-
celeration of the 39 g particle.
Correct answer: 1124.33 m/s
2
.
Explanation:
Let : m = 39 g ,
q = 47 C = 4.7 10
5
C,
d = 51 cm = 0.51 m,
Q = 27 C = 2.7 10
5
C, and
k
e
= 8.9875 10
9
.
The force exerted on the particle is
F = k
e
|q
1
| |q
2
|
r
2
= ma
a = k
e
q

Q
md
2
= k
e

4.7 10
5
C

2.7 10
5
C

(0.039 kg) (0.51 m


2
)
= 1124.33 m/s
2
.
003 10.0 points
A particle with charge 9 C is located on
the x-axis at the point 8 cm, and a second
particle with charge 4 C is placed on the
x-axis at 4 cm.
2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10

C
2

C
x (cm)
What is the magnitude of the total elec-
trostatic force on a third particle with charge
2 C placed on the x-axis at 2 cm? The
Coulomb constant is 8.9875 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 24.9653 N.
Explanation:
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 2
Let : q
1
= 9 C = 9 10
6
C,
q
2
= 4 C = 4 10
6
C,
q
3
= 2 C = 2 10
6
C,
x
1
= 8 cm = 0.08 m,
x
2
= 4 cm = 0.04 m, and
x
3
= 2 cm = 0.02 m.
Coulombs law (in vector form) for the elec-
tric force exerted by a charge q
1
on a second
charge q
3
, written

F
13
is

F
13
= k
e
q
1
q
3
r
2
r
13
,
where r
13
is a unit vector directed from q
1
to
q
3
; i.e., r
13
=r
3
r
1
.
x
13
= x
3
x
1
= (2 cm) (8 cm) = 0.06 m
x
23
= x
3
x
2
= (2 cm) (4 cm) = 0.06 m
x
13
=
x
3
x
1
_
(x
3
x
1
)
2
= +
x
23
=
x
3
x
2
_
(x
3
x
2
)
2
=
Since the forces are collinear, the force on
the third particle is the algebraic sum of the
forces between the rst and third and the
second and third particles.

F =

F
13
+

F
23
= k
e
_
q
1
r
2
13
r
13
+
q
2
r
2
23
r
23
_
q
3
= 8.9875 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

_
(9 10
6
C)
(0.06 m)
2
(+)
+
(4 10
6
C)
(0.06 m)
2
()
_
(2 10
6
C)
= 44.9375 N + (19.9722 N)
= 24.9653 N,
with a magnitude of 24.9653 N .
004 10.0 points
Four point charges, each of magnitude
4.61 C, are placed at the corners of a square
82.6 cm on a side.
If three of the charges are positive
and one is negative, nd the magnitude
of the force experienced by the negative
charge. The value of Coulombs constant is
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 0.535887 N.
Explanation:
Let : k
e
= 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
,
d = 82.6 cm = 0.826 m, and
Q = 4.61 C = 4.61 10
6
C.
F
24
F
34
F
14
+
3
+
1
+
2
-
4
The forces are
F
34
= F
24
= k
e
Q
2
d
2
=
_
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
_

_
4.61 10
6
C
_
2
(0.826 m)
2
= 0.279952 N and
F
14
=
k
e
Q
2
_
2 d
_
2
=
1
2
k
e
Q
2
d
2
=
1
2
F
34
.
The vector sum of F
24
and F
34
is in the same
direction as F
14
, so
F = F
14
+
_
F
34
2
+ F
24
2
=
1
2
F
34
+
_
2 F
34
2
=
_
1
2
+

2
_
F
34
=
_
1
2
+

2
_
(0.279952 N)
= 0.535887 N .
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 3
005 10.0 points
A molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
lies along a straight line. It is 2.734 m
long. The ends of the molecule become singly
ionized; negative on one end, positive on the
other. The helical molecule acts as a spring
and compresses 1.2% upon becoming charged.
Determine the eective spring constant of
the molecule. Take into account the com-
pressed length when calculating the distance
between the ends of the molecule. The
Coulomb constant is 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 9.64029 10
10
N/m.
Explanation:
Let : = 2.734 m = 2.734 10
6
m,
= 0.012 = 3.2808 10
8
m,
k
C
= 8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
, and
q
e
= 1.60218 10
19
C.
The compressed length is
r = = 2.70119 10
6
m
and the compression force is
F
compression
= k
C
q
e
q
e
r
2
.
The eective force constant is
k =
F

=
k
C
q
2
e
r
2

=
8.99 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
(2.70119 10
6
m)
2

_
1.60218 10
19
C
_
2
3.2808 10
8
m
= 9.64029 10
10
N/m .
006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Three charges are arranged in the (x, y)
plane (as shown below, where the scale is in
meters).
4 nC 9 nC
2 nC
y (m)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x
(m)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
What is the magnitude of the resulting force
on the 4 nC charge at the origin?
Correct answer: 20.0968 nN.
Explanation:
Let : q
o
= 4 10
9
C,
q
a
= 9 10
9
C,
r
a
= 6 m,
q
b
= 2 10
9
C, and
r
b
= 2 m.
Applying Coulombs Law for q
o
and q
a
,

F
oa
= k
e
q
o
q
a
r
oa
= (8.98755 10
9
N C
2
/m
2
)

(4 10
9
C) (9 10
9
C)
6 m
= 8.98755 10
9
N
directed along the x-axis.
Applying Coulombs Law for q
o
and q
b
,

F
ob
= k
e
q
o
q
b
_
x
2
ob
+ y
2
ob
= (8.98755 10
9
N C
2
/m
2
)

(4 10
9
C) (2 10
9
C)
2 m
= 1.79751 10
8
N
directed along the y-axis.
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 4
The magnitude of the resultant force is

F =
_
F
2
x
+ F
2
y
=
_
(8.98755 10
9
N)
2
+(1.79751 10
8
N)
2

1/2
= 2.00968 10
8
N
= 20.0968 nN .
007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Select the gure showing the direction of
the resultant force on the 4 nC charge at the
origin.
1.
243

y (m)
10 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x
(m)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
F

2.
63

y (m)
10 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x
(m)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
F

3. None of these gures is correct.


4.
297

y (m)
10 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x
(m)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
F

5.
117

y (m)
10 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x
(m)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
F

cor-
rect
Explanation:
tan =
F
y
F
x
= arctan
_
F
y
F
x
_
= arctan
_
1.79751 10
8
N
8.98755 10
9
N
_
= 116.565

.
y (m)
10 6 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x
(m)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
F
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 5
008 10.0 points
Three point charges are located at the vertices
of an equilateral triangle. The charge at the
top vertex of the triangle is given in the gure.
The two charges q at the bottom vertices of
the triangle are equal. A fourth charge 4 C
is placed below the triangle on its symmetry-
axis, and experiences a zero net force from
the other three charges, as shown in the gure
below.
3
.
5
m
1
.
7
m
3 C
q q
4 C
Find q .
Correct answer: 0.572492 C.
Explanation:
Let : Q
1
= 3 C,
Q
2
= Q
3
= q ,
Q
4
= 4 C,
a = 3.5 m, and
d = 1.7 m.
a
d
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4

Consider the distances from Q


4
:
r
14
= a cos 30

+|d| =

3
2
a +|d|
=

3
2
(3.5 m) +|1.7 m|
= 4.73109 m and
r
24
= r
34
=
_
(a sin 30

)
2
+|d|
2
=

_
1
2
a
_
2
+|d|
2
=
1
2
_
a
2
+|d|
2
=
1
2
_
(3.5 m)
2
+|1.7 m|
2
= 2.43977 m.
The force on Q
4
is due to the Coulomb
forces from Q
1
, Q
2
, and Q
3
. Because Q
2
and
Q
3
have equal charge, the x-components of
their forces cancel out (by symmetry). Thus
we only need to consider the y-components of
their forces.
The forces fromQ
2
and Q
3
are equal to each
other, and must be opposite the direction of
the force from Q
1
, so Total force on Q
4
is
F
net
= k
Q
1
Q
4
r
2
14
+ 2 k
Q
2
Q
4
r
2
24
sin = 0
Q
1
r
2
14
= 2
q
r
2
24
|d|
r
24
q =
Q
1
r
3
24
2 r
2
14
|d|
=
(3 C)(2.43977 m)
3
2(4.73109 m)
2
|1.7 m|
= 0.572492 C .
009 10.0 points
Two identical small charged spheres hang in
equilibrium with equal masses as shown in
the gure. The length of the strings are equal
and the angle (shown in the gure) with the
vertical is identical.
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 6
0
.
1
5
m
7

0.02 kg 0.02 kg
Find the magnitude of the charge on
each sphere. The acceleration of gravity is
9.8 m/s
2
and the value of Coulombs constant
is 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 5.98267 10
8
C.
Explanation:
Let : L = 0.15 m,
m = 0.02 kg , and
= 7

.
L
a

m
m
q
q
From the right triangle,
sin =
a
L
a = Lsin = (0.15 m) sin 7

= 0.0182804 m.
The separation of the spheres is r = 2 a =
0.0365608 m. The forces acting on one of the
spheres are shown in the gure below.

mg
F
T
e
T sin
T cos
Because the sphere is in equilibrium, the
resultant of the forces in the horizontal and
vertical directions must separately add up to
zero:

F
x
= T sin F
e
= 0

F
y
= T cos mg = 0 .
Dividing,
F sin
F cos
=
F
e
mg
F
e
= mg tan
= (0.02 kg)
_
9.8 m/s
2
_
tan 7

= 0.0240658 N.
From Coulombs law, the electric force be-
tween the charges has magnitude
|F
e
| = k
e
|q|
2
r
2
|q| =

|F
e
| r
2
k
e
=

(0.0240658 N) (0.0365608 m)
2
(8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
)
= 5.98267 10
8
C .
010 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points
Atomic physicists usually ignore the eect of
gravity within an atom. To see why, we may
calculate and compare the magnitude of the
ratio of the electrical force and gravitational
force
F
e
F
g
between an electron and a proton
separated by a distance of 9 m.
What is the magnitude of the elec-
trical force? The Coulomb constant is
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
, the gravitational
constant is 6.67259 10
11
m
3
/kg s
2
, the
mass of a proton is 1.67262 10
27
kg, the
mass of an electron is 9.10939 10
31
kg,
and the elemental charge is 1.602 10
19
C.
Correct answer: 2.84762 10
30
N.
Explanation:
Let : r = 9 m,
k = 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
,
q
p
= 1.602 10
19
C, and
q
e
= 1.602 10
19
C.
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 7
The electrical force between electron and pro-
ton is
F
e
= k
q
p
q
e
r
2
= (8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
)

(1.602 10
19
C)
2
(9 m)
2
= 2.84762 10
30
N,
with a magnitude of 2.84762 10
30
N .
011 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the magnitude of the gravitational
force?
Correct answer: 1.25515 10
69
N.
Explanation:
Let : G = 6.67259 10
11
m
3
/kg s
2
,
m
p
= 1.67262 10
27
kg , and
m
e
= 9.10939 10
31
kg .
The gravitational force between electron
and proton is
F
g
= G
m
p
m
e
r
2
= (6.67259 10
11
m
3
/kg s
2
)
(1.67262 10
27
kg)

(9.10939 10
31
kg)
(9 m)
2
= 1.25515 10
69
N .
Note:

F
e

F
g
.
012 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the ratio of the magnitude of the
electrical force to the magnitude of the gravi-
tational force?
Correct answer: 2.26874 10
39
.
Explanation:

F
e

F
g

=
2.84762 10
30
N
1.25515 10
69
N
= 2.26874 10
39
.
Alternate Solution:

F
e

F
g

=
k
q
p
q
e
r
2
G
m
p
m
e
r
2
=
k
G
q
p
q
e
m
p
m
e
=
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
6.67259 10
11
m
3
/kg s
2

1.602 10
19
C
1.67262 10
27
kg

1.602 10
19
C
9.10939 10
31
kg
= 2.26874 10
39
.
013 10.0 points
A charge of +1.9 10
9
C is placed at the
origin, and another charge of +4 10
9
C is
placed at x = 2.4 m.
Find the point (coordinate) between these
two charges where a charge of +3.2 10
9
C
should be placed so that the net electric
force on it is zero. The Coulomb constant
is 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 0.979211 m.
Explanation:
Let : q
1
= 1.9 10
9
C,
q
2
= 4 10
9
C,
q
3
= 3.2 10
9
C, and
x
2
= 2.4 m.
q
3
is between q
1
and q
2
, so if r
1,3
= P, then
r
2,3
= x
2
P.
F
e
= k
C
q
1
q
2
r
2
The net electric force is zero, so
F
1,3
= F
2,3
k
C
q
1
q
3
r
2
1,3
= k
C
q
2
q
3
r
2
2,3
q
1
r
2
1,3
=
q
2
r
2
2,3
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 8
q
1
P
2
=
q
2
(x
2
P)
2
(x
2
P)
2
P
2
=
q
2
q
1
x
2
P
P
=
_
q
2
q
1
x
2
P = P
_
q
2
q
1
P
_
1 +
_
q
2
q
1
_
= x
2
P =
x
2
1 +

q
2
q
1
=
2.4 m
1 +

4 10
9
C
1.9 10
9
C
= 0.979211 m .
014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Two positive point charges, each of which
has a charge of 2.2 10
9
C, are located at
y = +0.60 m and y = 0.60 m.
Find the magnitude of the resultant electri-
cal force on a charge of 7.0 10
9
C located
at x = 0.55 m. The Coulomb constant is
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 2.82342 10
7
N.
Explanation:
Let : q
1
= q
2
= 2.2 10
9
C,
(x
1
, y
1
) = (0 m, 0.6 m) ,
(x
2
, y
2
) = (0 m, 0.6 m) ,
q
3
= 7.0 10
9
C,
(x
3
, y
3
) = (0.55 m, 0 m) , and
k
C
= 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Since |y
1
| = |y
2
| , r
3,1
= r
3,2
.
r
2
3,1
= (x
3
x
1
)
2
+ (y
3
y
1
)
2
= (x
3
0)
2
+ (0 y
1
)
2
= x
2
3
+ (y
1
)
2
= (0.55 m)
2
+ (0.6 m)
2
= 0.6625 m

F
net
=

F
i
and F
net
=
_
F
2
x
+ F
2
y
.
The repulsive force
F
3,1
= k
C
q
3
q
1
r
2
3,1
= 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2

(7 10
9
C) (2.2 10
9
C)
0.6625 m
= 2.08918 10
7
N
acts downward and to the right along the line
connecting q
3
and q
1
, and the repulsive force
F
3,2
= F
3,1
acts upward and to the right along the line
connecting q
3
and q
2
.
Consider the directions of the forces:
|y
1
| = |y
2
|,
1
=
2
= , cos =
x
3
r
3,1
, and
sin =
y
1
r
3,1
.
F
x
= F
3,1
cos + F
3,2
cos
= 2 F
3,1
cos
= 2 (2.08918 10
7
N)
_
0.55 m

0.6625 m
_
= 2.82342 10
7
N and
F
y
= F
3,1
sin + F
3,2
sin
= 0 N, so
F
net
=
_
F
2
x
+ F
2
y
=
_
(2.82342 10
7
N)
2
+ (0 N)
2
= 2.82342 10
7
N .
015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What is the direction of this force (measured
from the positive x-axis as an angle between
180

and 180

, with counterclockwise posi-


tive)?
Correct answer: 0

.
Explanation:
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 9
tan =
F
y
F
x
= tan
1
_
F
y
F
x
_
= tan
1
_
0 N
2.82342 10
7
N
_
= 0

.
The resultant electrical force on the +7.0 nC
charge is 2.82342 10
7
N acting along the
positive x-axis.
016 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Three positive point charges are arranged in
a triangular pattern in a plane, as shown.
+
4 nC
+
5 nC
+
2 nC
2
m
2
m
2 m
Find the magnitude of the net electric force
on the 5 nC charge. The Coulomb constant is
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 2.5121 10
8
N.
Explanation:
Let : q
1
= +4 nC = +4 10
9
C,
q
2
= +5 nC = +5 10
9
C,
q
3
= +2 nC = +2 10
9
C,
(x
1
, y
1
) = (0 m, 2 m) ,
(x
2
, y
2
) = (2 m, 0 m) ,
(x
3
, y
3
) = (0 m, 2 m) , and
k
C
= 8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
+
q
1
+
q
2
+
q
3
y
x
2 m

F
n
e
t
F
1
F
2
The distances between the 5 nC charge and
q
1
and q
2
are
r
2
1
= (x
2
x
1
)
2
+ (y
2
y
1
)
2
= x
2
2
+ y
2
1
= (2 m)
2
+ (2 m)
2
= 8 m
2
, and
r
2
3
= (x
3
x
2
)
2
+ (y
3
y
2
)
2
= x
2
2
+ y
2
3
= (2 m)
2
+ (2 m)
2
= 8 m
2
.
F
e
= k
C
q
1
q
2
r
2
.
Consider the magnitudes of the forces. The
repulsive force
F
1
= k
C
q
2
q
1
r
2
1
= (8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
)

_
5 10
9
C
_ _
4 10
9
C
_
(8 m
2
)
= 2.24689 10
8
N
acts downward and to the right along the line
connecting q
2
and q
1
, and the repulsive force
F
3
= k
C
q
2
q
3
r
2
3
= (8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
)

_
5 10
9
C
_ _
2 10
9
C
_
(8 m
2
)
= 1.12344 10
8
N
acts upward and to the right along the line
connecting q
2
and q
3
.
Since |x
2
| = |y
1
| = |y
3
|,
21
=
23
= 45

.
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 10
F
x
= F
1
cos 45

+ F
3
cos 45

= (2.24689 10
8
N) cos 45

+ (1.12344 10
8
N) cos 45

= 2.38318 10
8
N and
F
y
= F
1
sin 45

+ F
3
sin 45

= (2.24689 10
8
N) sin45

+ (1.12344 10
8
N) sin45

= 7.94395 10
9
N, so
F
net
=
_
F
2
x
+ F
2
y
=
_
_
2.38318 10
8
N
_
2
+
_
7.94395 10
9
N
_
2
_
1/2
= 2.5121 10
8
N .
017 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What is the direction of this force (as an angle
between 180

and 180

measured from the


positive x-axis, with counterclockwise posi-
tive)?
Correct answer: 18.4349

.
Explanation:
tan =
F
y
F
x
= arctan
_
F
y
F
x
_
= tan
1
_
7.94395 10
9
N
2.38318 10
8
N
_
= 18.4349

acting 18.4349

below the positive x-axis.


018 10.0 points
Three point charges are located at the corner
of an equilateral triangle.
0
.
1
7
6
m
0
.
1
7
6
m
60

4.22 C
1.07 C 3.76 C
What is the strength of the elec-
trostatic force on the top charge?
The value of the Coulomb constant is
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
.
Correct answer: 4.10851 N.
Explanation:
Let : q
1
= 4.22 C = 4.22 10
6
C,
q
2
= 1.07 C = 1.07 10
6
C,
q
3
= 3.76 C = 3.76 10
6
C, and
r = 0.176 m.
F
2
F
3
The repulsive force F
2
= k
|q
1
q
2
|
r
2
2
acts up
and to the right along the line connecting q
1
and q
2
and the attractive force F
3
= k
|q
1
q
3
|
r
2
2
acts down and to the right along the line
connecting q
1
and q
3
, so
F
x
= F
2
cos 60

+ F
3
cos 60

=
k |q
1
| cos 60

r
2
2
(|q
2
| +|q
3
|)
=
_
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
_
(0.176 m)
2
|4.22 10
6
C| cos 60

_
|1.07 10
6
C| +|3.76 10
6
C|
_
= 2.95696 N and
tajulislam (smt2477) HW1 mackie (10623) 11
F
y
= F
2
sin 60

F
3
sin 60

=
k |q
1
| sin 60

r
2
2
(|q
2
| |q
3
|)
=
_
8.98755 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
_
(0.176 m)
2
|4.22 10
6
C| sin 60

_
|1.07 10
6
C| |3.76 10
6
C|
_
= 2.85241 N,
and the strength of the electrostatic force on
the top charge is
F =
_
F
2
x
+ F
2
y
=
_
(2.95696 N)
2
+ (2.85241 N)
2
= 4.10851 N .