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1. PROPULSION (PROPELLER + RUDDER)

2. ANCHOR

3. BOW THRUSTER (IF FITTED)

4. Tug and mooring lines

1. WIND

2. CURRENT

3. SEAS AND SWELL

SHALLOW WATER

SHIP / BANK INTERACTION

WHAT INFORMATION IS
AVAILABLE FROM THE SHIPS
MANEOUVRING DATA?
Turning circle data
Stopping distance table
Speed / RPM Table
Thruster characteristics if fitted
Conditions of weather for which above data
is applicable

TURNING CIRCLE DATA

Transfer

e

Tactical Diameter
Final

Diameter

TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Advance: The distance traveled by the centre
of gravity along the original course (on the
fore and aft line).
TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Transfer: the distance the vessel moves
perpendicular to the original course during
the turn. i.e distance traveled by the centre of
gravity, measured from the original trace to
the point where the vessel has altered her
course by 90 degrees.
TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Tactical Diameter: Is the transfer for 180
degrees.
TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Drift Angle: The angle between the ship’s fore
and aft line and the tangent to the turning
circle.

The vessel turns with its bow inside and stern outside the tangent to the path of its centre of gravity.

PIVOT POINT

Drift Angle

The angle between the tangent to this path, the turning circle and the centerline

TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Which part of the vessel makes the turning
circle?
The PIVOT point
The PIVOT POINT is the point at any instant
during the turn, where the line drawn from the
centre of curvature of the path meets the ship’s
fore and aft line.

PIVOT POINT

PIVOT POINT WHEN SHIP IS STOPPED COINCIDES WITH THE SHIP’S CENTRE OF GRAVITY APPROXIMATELY AMIDSHIPS.

COG
Pivot Point
PIVOT POINT
WHEN MAKING HEADWAY TWO FORCES COME
INTO PLAY
FORWARD MOMENTUM OF THE SHIP.
LONGITUDINAL RESISTANCE TO FORWARD
MOMENTUM CREATED BY THE WATER AHEAD OF
THE SHIP. AS A ROUGH ESTIMATE AT STEADY
AHEAD SPEED THE PIVOT POINT SETTLES SOME
WHERE BETWEEN ¼ AND 1/3 rd OF SHIPS LENGTH
FROM FORWARD.

PIVOT POINT

PIVOT POINT
When making sternway the opposite happen and at
steady astern speed. The pivot point settles
somewhere between 1/3 rd and 1/4 th of the ships length
from the stern.
TURNING CIRCLE DATA
Now that we know that the pivot point is the
one making the turning circle. Do you know
for how many turning circles the data is
available on the ships maneouvring booklet.
MANOEUVRING STANDARDS

IMO Manoeuvring Standards (Resolution MSC.137 (76), 2002)

Turning ability

Initial turning ability

Yaw checking ability & course-keeping ability

Stopping ability

Are the IMO Manoeuvring Standards & the Criteria good measure for safe navigation at sea ?

1. Turning circle

Tactical diameter < 5 ship lengths

1. Zig-zag test

Initial Turning Ability

10 0 rudder angle, a 10 0 heading change in less than 2.5 ship lengths.

Yaw-checking and course – keeping ability

Overshoot angle < 25 0 in a turn when 20 0 rudder

Turning Ability

The advance should not exceed 4.5 ship lengths and the tactical diameter should not exceed 5 ship lengths in the 35 degree turning circle manoeuvre.

Turning ability indices from sea-trial (Quadvlieg et al 2003)

Initial Turning Ability

With the application of 10 deg. Rudder angle to port/starboard, the ship should not have traveled more than 2.5 ship lengths by the time the heading has changed by 10 deg. from the original heading.

Initial turning ability indices from sea-trial (IMO DE 34/WP.7, 1991)

Yaw checking & Course-keeping

Ship should not exceed the valuesabilityof the first and second overshoot angle (solid line in the figures) in the 10⁰/10⁰ zig-zag test & 25⁰ of the first overshoot angle in the 20⁰/20⁰ zig-zag test

(a) 1st overshoot angles of 10°/10° zigzag test

( b) 2nd overshoot angles of 10°/10° zigzag test

(c) 1st overshoot angles of 20°/20° zigzag test

Yaw-checking & course-keeping abilities indices from sea- trial. (IMO DE document by the Netherlands 2000)

1. Stopping Distance

Crash stop

The track reach should be < 15 ship lengths

At the Administration’s discretion Large Displacement vessels could be allowed to have a max track reach of upto 20 ship lengths

Stopping

The track reach in theAbilityfull astern stopping test should not exceed 15 ship lengths. However, this value may be modified by the Administration where the ships of large displacement make this criterion impracticable, but should in no case exceed 20 ship lengths.

Track reach of ships at full load condition (IMO DE 44/4 2000)

Stopping

Ability

Appendix 3 on Stopping ability of Very Large Ships (MSC/Circ.

1053)

Prediction of stopping distance by the expression in the MSC/Circ.1053 (IMO DE 47 2004)