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Metamorphic Rocks

Adamson University College of Engineering Mining, Geology and Ceramic Engineering Jerali C. Rodrigo

TOPICS
Definitions Factors Controlling the Characteristics of Metamorphic rocks Grade of Metamorphism Types of Metamorphism Metamorphic Structures Characteristics of Depth Zone Metamorphism Metamorphic Minerals

Metamorphic Textures Metamorphic Fabrics Metamorphic Facies Classification of Metamorphic rocks Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics

Definitions
Metamorphic Rocks - are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, or the action of hot fluids. These rocks underwent the process of metamorphism. Metamorphism - is the process of mineralogical and structural changes of rocks in their solid state in response to physical and chemical conditions which differ from the conditions prevailing during the formation of the rocks.

Factors controlling the characteristics of metamorphic rocks


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Composition of the parent rock Temperature Pressure and stress Fluids Time

Pressure and Stress


confining pressure (or geostatic pressure) pressure applied on all direction.

Differential stress Compressive stress due to compression Shearing stress due to sliding of one body past another.

Foliation - is a planar texture that develops as a result of differential stress. Minerals that are subjected or formed under differential stress tend to follow the direction of shearing or align themselves perpendicular to the compressive stress.

Metamorphic Grade
One of the primary goals of metamorphic petrology is to interpret P-T conditions under which a rock (or set of rocks) formed Metamorphic grade
relative temperature and pressure conditions under which metamorphic rocks form

Low-grade metamorphism
T ~200 to 320C, relatively low pressure abundant hydrous minerals

High-grade metamorphism
T >320C and relatively high pressure Dehydration; less hydrous minerals common

Prograde metamorphism
T and/or P, grade of metamorphism increases

Retrograde metamorphism
T and/or P, grade of metamorphism decreases
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3. Contact metamorphism the


transformation of rocks caused by heat escaping from an igneous intrusion. The host rock is baked, recrystallized, or changed through reactions driven by the infusion of heat and by the fluids mobilized within the magma and the intruding rock itself.

4. Burial metamorphism results in


response to the pressure exerted by the weight of the overlying rock; occurs deep into thick sedimentary basins; includes hardening of the matrix, cementation, precipitation in pore spaces and the dissolving and recrystallization of mineral grains at points of contact.

5. Shock Metamorphism (Impact Metamorphism) 6. Pyrometamorphism 7. Autometamorphism 8. Pneumatolytic metamorphism 9. Injection metamorphism 10. Geothermal metamorphism 11. Plutonic metamorphism 12. Ultrametamorphism

Metamorphic Structures
1. Fold it is a curved or bent layer of rock.
Folded rocks

2. Crenulations parallel sets of very tiny folds up to 1 cm long.

3. Lineations lines on rocks at the edges of foliations, shear planes, slaty cleavages, or folds.

4. Stretched or sheared grains deformed pebbles, fossils, or mineral crystals that have been stretched out or shortened by shearing.

5. Kink bands in rock are small, abrupt folds that occur in pairs and results in narrow zones having a different orientation of foliation that that which characterizes the rock as a whole.

6. Fault is a fracture, break, or line of failure along which movement parallel to the fracture has occurred.

7. Boudin and Boudinage - A boudin is a rod-like structure, shaped like a sausage or football in cross-section. Boudinage is the term applied to the structure composed of a series of boudins.

8. Mullion rod-like or columnar masses of metamorphic rock representing folded layers. 9. Rock cleavage cleavage in rocks is the tendency of a rock to split along parallel to sub parallel planes. The term cleavage is also used to name the planes along which splitting occurs. 10. Banding - As a consequence of metamorphic crystallization or as a result of the presence of original layering in a rock, metamorphic rocks may exhibit bands.

11. Hydrothermal veins fractures that have been healed (filled) by minerals that precipitated from hydrothermal fluids.

Characteristic Aspects of Depth Zone of Metamorphism


1. Epizone
Less than 300C Strong Shearing stress, low hydrostatic pressures Minerals; Sericite, Chlorite, Chloritoid, Talc, Stilpnomelane, Antigorite, Brucite, Actinolite, Epidote, Zoisite, Albite, Glaucophane, Magnesium Garnet, Calcite, Dolomite and Magnetite. Slate, Chlorite and Mica Schist Kinetic Metamorphism

2. Mesozone
300-500C Moderate shearing stress and hydrostatic pressure; intermediate depth Minerals; Biotite, Muscovite, Staurolite, Kyanite, Anthophyllite, Epidote, Zoisite, Sodic Plagioclase, Common Hornblende, Alkalic Hornblende, Cummingtonite, Grunerite, Actinolite, Almandine, Calcite, Brucite, Associations of epizone minerals with some katazone minerals Regional Metamorphism

3. Katazone
500-700C Strong hydrostatic pressure, deep-seated crustal conditions Minerals; Biotite, Potassium Feldspars, Sillimanite, Andalusite, Enstatite Hypersthene, Olivine, Diopside-Hedenbergite, Omphacite, Common Hornblende, Alkalic Hornblende, Aegirine Augite, Jadeite, Cordierite, Garnets ( Almandine, Grossularite, Andradite), Calcic Plagioclase, Idocrase, Scapolite, Humite, Monticellite, Calcite and Brucite. Gneisses, Granulites, Eclogites, Amphibolites, High Grade Schists Deep-seated Metamorphism associated with Igneous Intrusions.

Characteristic Aspects of Depth Zones of Metamorphism


Zone Temperature Dominant pressure condition Strong shearing stress, low hydrostatic pressure Moderate shearing stress & hydrostatic pressure: intermediate depth Strong hydrostatic pressure, deep-seated crustal condition Typical minerals formed Sericite, chlorite, talc, epidote, albite,calcite, dolomite, etc Biotite, muscovite, kyanite, epidote, plagioclase, hornblende, calcite, Brucite, etc. Biotite,silimanite Andalusite, olivine,enstatitehypersthene, common hornblende, etc Rock type formed Types of metamorphism

Epiz one

Less than 300oC

Slate, Kinetic chlorite, and mica schists


Schists,biot ite,& hornblende schist,garn et schist
Gneisses, granulites, eclogites, amphibolites High grade schist

Meso 300 zone 500oC

Regional

Kata 500 zone 700oC

Deep-seated metamorphis m associated with igneous intrusions

Metamorphic Minerals
Mineral Quartz Formula SiO2

Andalusite, Sillimanite, Kyanite


Cordierite Pyrope

Al2SiO5
Mg2Al4Si5O18 Mg3Al2(SiO4)2

Chlorite
Enstatite Anthophyllite Talc

Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
MgSiO3 Mg7(Si4O11)2(OH)2 Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

Serpentine
Forsterite Staurolite Chloritoid

Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
Mg2SiO4 Fe2Al9Si4O23(OH) Fe2Al2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)4

Almandite Cummingtonite Wollastonite Grossularite Zoisite Anorthite Diopside Tremolite Jadeite Glaucophane

Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 Fe7(Si4O11)2(OH)2 CaSiO3 Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 Ca2Al3(SiO4)3(OH) CaAl2Si2O3 CaMgSi2O6 Ca2Mg5(Si4O11)2(OH)2 NaAlSi2O6 Na2Mg3Al2(Si4O11)2(OH)2

Albite Potash Feldspar Muscovite Phlogopite

NaAlSi3O8 KALSi3O8 KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

Minerals common in metamorphic rocks than in igneous rocks


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Diopside Chondrodite Graphite Garnet Tourmaline Axinite

Minor Accessory minerals in igneous rocks reappear in metamorphic rocks


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Apatite Zircon Sphene Corundum Magnetite Ilmenite

Most common feldspars 1. Orthoclase 2. Microcline 3. Perthite


All members of the plagioclase series may be found in metamorphic rocks. The Higher the grade of metamorphism, the higher the anorthite content in the plagioclase.

Metamorphic Textures
Granoblastic (granular): containing equidimensional generally xenoblastic crystals of approximately equal size.

Porphyroblastic: containing porphyroblasts.


Maculose or knotted rocks contain scattered porphyroblasts, generally all of the same species and of similar size, in an otherwise finegrained hornfels matrix.

Poikiloblastic: texture denotes a porphyroblast containing inclusions of other minerals; corresponds to poikilitic texture of igneous rocks. Also called sieve texture.

Porphyroclast: Large grain surviving in an otherwise granulated or mylonitized rock. Feldspar is the most common porphyroclasts.

Crystalloblastic: textures result from growth of crystals in a solid medium. Xenoblastic: Crystal faces are poorly developed Idioblastic: Proper crystal form Crystalloblastic Series or Idioblastic Order
Usually Idioblastic Magnetite, Sphene, Rutile,Specularite,Ilmenite Tourmaline, Garnet, Kyanite, Staurolite,Andalusite Epidote, Zoisite Pyroxene, Amphiboles, Wollastonite Micas, Chlorite Calcite Scapolite, Cordierite Quartz, plagioclase Rarely Orthoclase, Microcline Idioblastic

Foliation: a texture characterized by parallelism of platy and acicular minerals in the rock. Cleavage, schistosity, and gneissic foliation or banding are types of foliation. 1. Slaty cleavage a planar foliation of finegrained platy minerals (mainly clay minerals, chlorite, or muscovite) developed parallel and subparallel to shear planes (microscopic faults) in tightly folded clayey and mica-rich rocks.

2. Schistosity a parallel to subparallel foliation medium- to coarse-grained platy minerals (mainly micas and chlorite) or an alignment of long, prismatic crystals (tourmaline, amphibole). 3. Gneissic texture a parallel to subparallel foliation of medium- to coarse-grained platy minerals, in alternating layers of different composition (dominated by different minerals). 4. Phyllite texture a wavy foliation of finegrained platy minerals (mainly muscovite or chlorite) that exhibit a somewhat metallic (silvery ) luster and wrinkled form.

Fabrics
Cataclastic Fabric Those of the broken and fragmented rocks developed by mechanical deformation of Cataclastic or dynamic metamorphism upon hard, brittle rocks. Flinty Rock and Pseudotachylite Glassy texture caused by frictional heat generated during thrust faults may cause fusion of minerals particles. Hornfelsic Fabric Developed from pelitic sediments undergoing thermal metamorphism and the resulting rock produced is a hornfel.

Decussate Fabric Randomly arranged crystals of biotite. Granulose Fabric Developed largely in rocks with granoblastic minerals. Porphyroblastic Fabric A fabric in which relatively metamorphic minerals are porphyroblasts of one or more species occur in a matrix of smaller grains.

Metamorphic facies
Facies Assemblage of mineral, rock (or fossil) features reflecting environment in which rock was formed; such features are used to differentiate one rock facies from other neighboring units. Rocks having the same mineral assemblage that formed within a welldefined set of pressure-temperature conditions are regarded as belonging to the same metamorphic facies. Such mineral that characterizes a given intensity of metamorphism are called index minerals.

Metamorphic Facies

Mineral assemblage present depends on protolith composition and P-T conditions


Ex: marble, metabasalt and schist all in amphibolite facies 42

1. Zeolite Facies represents the lowest grade of metamorphism, the mineral assemblage includes zeolite, chlorite, muscovite and quartz. 2. Greenschist Facies low grade metamorphic facies of many regionally metamorphosed terranes. The mineral assemblage may include chlorite, epidote, muscovite, albite and quartz. 3. Amphibolite Facies occurs in medium- to high-grade metamorphic terranes. The mineral constituents include hornblende, plagioclase, and almandine. This facies occurs where Staurolite and sillimanite-grade metamorphic conditions have prevailed.

4. Glaucophane-lawsonite schist (or blueschist) Facies - represented by relatively low temperatures but elevated pressures of metamorphism in young orogenic zones. Characteristic constituents are lawsonite, jadeite, albite, Glaucophane, muscovite, and garnet.
5. Granulite Facies reflects the maximum temperature conditions of regional metamorphism. Characteristic mineral constituents are plagioclase, orthopyroxene, garnet, and diopside. 6. Eclogite Facies represents the most deep-seated conditions of metamorphism. Characteristic mineral constituents are Pyrope-rich garnet and Omphacite.

Classification of Metamorphic Rocks


Mineralogical - The most distinguishing minerals are used as a prefix to a textural term. Thus, a schist containing biotite, garnet, quartz, and feldspar, would be called biotite-garnet schist. A gneiss containing hornblende, pyroxene, quartz, and feldspar would be called hornblendepyroxene gneiss. A schist containing porphyroblasts of K-feldspar would be called K-spar porphyroblastic schist. Chemical - If the general chemical composition can be determined from the mineral assemblage, then a chemical name can be employed. For example schist with a lot of quartz and feldspar and some garnet and muscovite would be called garnet-muscovite quartzo-feldspathic schist. Schist consisting mostly of talc would be called talc-magnesian schist. Protolithic - If a rock has undergone only slight metamorphism such that its original texture can still be observed then the rock is given a name based on its original name, with the prefix meta- applied. For example: metabasalt, metagraywacke, meta-andesite, metagranite.

Protolith Protolith refers to the original rock, prior to metamorphism. Pelitic - These rocks are derivatives of aluminous sedimentary rocks like shales and mudrocks. Because of their high concentrations of alumina they are recognized by an abundance of aluminous minerals, like clay minerals, micas, kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite, and garnet. Quartzo-Feldspathic- Rocks that originally contained mostly quartz and feldspar like granitic rocks and arkosic sandstones will also contain an abundance of quartz and feldspar as metamorphic rocks, since these minerals are stable over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Those that exhibit mostly quartz and feldspar with only minor amounts of aluminous minerals are termed quartzo-feldspathic.

Calcareous - Calcareous rocks are calcium rich. They are usually derivatives of carbonate rocks, although they contain other minerals that result from reaction of the carbonates with associated siliceous detrital minerals that were present in the rock. At low grades of metamorphism calcareous rocks are recognized by their abundance of carbonate minerals like calcite and dolomite. With increasing grade of metamorphism these are replaced by minerals like brucite, phlogopite (Mg-rich biotite), chlorite, and tremolite. At even higher grades anhydrous minerals like diopside, forsterite, wollastonite, grossularite, and calcic plagioclase. Basic - Just like in igneous rocks, the general term basic refers to low silica content. Basic metamorphic rocks are generally derivatives of basic igneous rocks like basalts and gabbros. They have an abundance of Fe-Mg minerals like biotite, chlorite, and hornblende, as well as calcic minerals like plagioclase and epidote.

Magnesian - Rocks that are rich in Mg with relatively less Fe are termed magnesian. Such rocks would contain Mg-rich minerals like serpentine, brucite, talc, dolomite, and tremolite. In general, such rocks usually have an ultrabasic protolith, like peridotite, dunite, or pyroxenite.
Ferriginous - Rocks that are rich in Fe with little Mg are termed ferriginous. Such rocks could be derivatives of Fe-rich cherts or ironstones. They are characterized by an abundance of Fe-rich minerals like greenalite (Fe-rich serpentine), minnesotaite (Fe-rich talc), ferroactinolite, ferrocummingtonite, hematite, and magnetite at low grades, and ferrosilite, fayalite, ferrohedenbergite, and almandine garnet at higher grades.

Manganiferrous - Rocks that are characterized by the presence of Mn-rich minerals are termed manganiferrous. They are characterized by such minerals as Stilpnomelane and Spessartite.

Slate fine-grained rocks that have remarkable property known as slaty cleavage which permits them to be split into thin, broad sheets. Their color is commonly gray to black but may be green, yellow brown, and red.

Phyllite Fine grained and very schistose rock, the platy mineral of which consists mainly of phengite. Phengite sericite gives an overall silky sheen to the schistosity planes. The grain size is coarser than in slates but finer than in mica schists.

Schists Distinguished by the presence of well-developed foliation or schistosity, along which rock may be easily broken. Low grade Schists presence of low temperature minerals; Albite, Muscovite, Chlorite, Actinolite, and Talc. High Grade Schists foliated porphyroblastic and are characterized by the presence of high-temperature minerals as garnet, biotite, sillimanite, staurolite, cordierite, andalusite and kyanite.

Gneiss medium- to coarse-grained rock having


a gneissic fabric. Light and dark minerals are found separate, parallel layers or lenses. Dark layers commonly include biotite and hornblende; light-colored layers consist of quartz and feldspars. Layers may be folded or contorted.

Amphibolite - These are medium to coarse grained, dark colored rocks whose principal minerals are hornblende and plagioclase. They result from metamorphism of basic igneous rocks.

Blueschist a blue amphibole-bearing metamorphosed mafic igneous rock or mafic greywacke. This term is so commonly applied to such rocks that it is even applied to nonschistose rocks. Greenschist - a low-grade metamorphic rock that typically contains chlorite, actinolite, epidote, and albite. Note that the first three minerals are green, which imparts the color to the rock. Such a rock is called greenschist if foliated, and greenstone if not. The protolith is either a mafic igneous rock or greywacke.

Argillites a low-grade, nonfoliated metamorphic rock made from a mudstone or other clay-rich sedimentary rock. Argillite breaks with an irregular or conchoidal fracture. Its lack of foliation may be attributable partly to a lower grade of deformation and partly to abundance in the parent mudstone of quartz silt or other minerals that are neither platy nor elongate.

Hornfels a high-temperature contact metamorphic


rock of uniform grain size that has undergone little or no deformation. Its platy or elongate crystals are oriented randomly, and foliated texture is absent. Hornfels have a granular texture overall, even though they commonly contain pyroxene, which makes elongate crystals, and some micas.

Greenstone metamorphosed mafic volcanic rocks.


Many of these low-grade rocks form when mafic lava and ash deposits react with percolating seawater or other solutions. Large areas of the seafloor are covered with basalts slightly or extensively altered in this way at mid-ocean ridges. On the continents, buried volcanic and plutonic mafic igneous rocks react with groundwater at temperatures of 150 to 300C and form similar greenstones. An abundance of chlorite gives these rocks their greenish cast.

Marbles - These are rocks composed mostly of calcite, and less commonly of dolomite. They result from metamorphism of limestones and dolostones. Some foliation may be present if the marble contains micas.

Eclogites - These are medium to coarse grained consisting mostly of garnet and green clinopyroxene called omphacite, that result from high grade metamorphism of basic igneous rocks. Eclogites usually do not show foliation.

Quartzites - Quartz arenites and chert both are


composed mostly of SiO2. Since quartz is stable over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, metamorphism of quartz arenites and cherts will result only in the recrystallization of quartz forming a hard rock with interlocking crystals of quartz. Such a rock is called a quartzite.

Serpentinites - Serpentinites are rocks that consist mostly of serpentine. These form by hydrothermal metamorphism of ultrabasic igneous rocks. Soapstones - Soapstones are rocks that contain an abundance of talc, which gives the rock a greasy feel, similar to that of soap. Talc is an Mg-rich mineral, and thus soapstones from ultrabasic igneous protoliths, like peridotites, dunites, and pyroxenites, usually by hydrothermal alteration.

Skarns - Skarns are rocks that originate from contact metamorphism of limestones or dolostones, and show evidence of having exchanged constituents with the intruding magma. Thus, skarns are generally composed of minerals like calcite and dolomite, from the original carbonate rock, but contain abundant calcium and magnesium silicate minerals like andradite, grossularite, epidote, vesuvianite, diopside, and wollastonite that form by reaction of the original carbonate minerals with silica from the magma. The chemical exchange is that takes place is called metasomatism.

Mylonites - Mylonites are cataclastic metamorphic rocks that are produced along shear zones deep in the crust. They are usually fine-grained, sometimes glassy, that are streaky or layered, with the layers and streaks having been drawn out by ductile shear.

Granulite - At the highest grades of


metamorphism most of the hydrous minerals and sheet silicates become unstable and thus there are few minerals present that would show a preferred orientation. The resulting rock will have a granulitic texture that is similar to a phaneritic texture in igneous rocks.

Metamorphism and plate tectonics

Seafloor metamorphism Fractures that develop within the MOR act as passageways for seawater circulating within the crust. The seawater heated by magma rises and reacts with the basaltic crust, converting it to hydrous rocks such as serpentinite. Metals extracted from the crust are redeposited and concentrated high within the crust and on the surface.