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The TdS Equations

Consider the entropy S as a function of temperature and volume: S = S ( T ,V ) :


S S dS = dT + dV T V V T

We apply the definition of the heat capacity to the first term and a Maxwell relation to the second, and obtain

CV p dT + dV or T T V p TdS = CV dT + T dV (first TdS equation) T V dS = The second TdS equation follows from considering S as a function of temperature and pressure: S = S (T , P ) :
S S dS = dT + dP T P P T

We again use the definition of heat capacity and a Maxwell relation to obtain CP V dT dP or T T P V TdS = CP dT T dP (second TdS equation) T P dS = In summary, p TdS = CV dT + T dV T V V TdS = CP dT T dP T P (first TdS equation) (second TdS equation)

The TdS equations are frequently useful in deriving relationships among various thermodynamic derivatives. Exercise: Consider S = S ( P,V ) and derive the third TdS equation.