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THE HEART OF CHANGE - JOHN P. KOTTER & DAN S.

COHEN

LEARNINGS
Successful organisations know how to overcome resistance to change
Grab opportunities, avoid hazards Make big leaps

Eight stages of change


Urgency, put together a guiding team, create the vision, communicate the vision, remove barriers to action, accomplish short-term wins, keep pushing for change, and create a new culture

Changing peoples behaviour


Not strategy, not systems, not culture

Influence peoples feelings


the heart of change is in the emotions

8 STEPS OF CHANGE
Increase urgency Build the guiding team
Get the vision right Communicate for buy-in Empower action Create short-term wins Dont let up Make change stick

PATTERN ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL CHANGE

SEE

FEEL
CHANGE

STEP 1 INCREASE URGENCY

STEP 1 INCREASE URGENCY


Complacency

Immobilization
You-cant-make-me-move

Off to a bad start

Pessimistic attitude

OFF TO A GOOD START


Seeing - Establish credibility Feeling - Surprise, fear, urgency Changing Shift in behaviour

STEP 2 BUILD THE GUIDING TEAM

THE SECOND STEP IN MAKING YOUR CHANGE SUCCESSFUL


Helping pull together the right group of people with the right characteristics and sufficient power to drive the change effort Helping them to behave with trust and emotional commitment to one another. Help form a group that has the capability in membership and method of operating to guide a very difficult change process.

WHAT WORKS
Showing enthusiasm or commitment (or helping someone to do so) to help draw the right people into the group. Modelling the trust and teamwork needed in the group (or helping someone to do that) Structuring meeting formats for the guiding team so as to minimise frustration and increase trust Putting your energy into step 1 (raising urgency) if you cannot take on the step 2 challenge and if the right people will not

WHAT DOES NOT WORK


Guiding change with weak task forces, single individuals, complex governance structures, or fragmented top teams Not confronting the situation when momentum and entrenched power centres undermine the creation of the right group Trying to leave out work or work around the head of the unit to be changed because he or she is hopeless

REAL LIFE EXAMPLES


The Blues Vs. The Greens Meetings Down under

STEP 3 GET THE VISION RIGHT

GET THE VISION RIGHT


Guiding teams-No clear direction or embrace vision Catastrophic for Organization Charting the future Large scale change Planning exercise

PAINTING PICTURES OF THE FRAME


Deregulation and liberalization Diversified Conglomerate

Orthodox Planning Process


Incremental Change Planning and Budgeting

GRAPPLE THE PROBLEM


Carry on business as usual Limited growth Opportunities Retrench and batten down the hatches Series of meetings Magnitude of the Changes

FORMAL DISCUSSIONS
Multiutility

New Alternatives Summary of the options

Testing the Conclusion

Triple the size of the company Consensus on the vision

PROCESS
Seeing

Feeling

Changing

LARGE SCALE CHANGE


Budget, Plans ,Strategies and Vision Budgeting- A math exercise Planning-Logical and linear Process Strategizing-Conceptual Skills Venturing into unknown territory

EFFICIENCY VERSUS SERVICE


Innovation and Customer Service Fear, anger and Cynicism grow Service Oriented Visions

COST VERSUS SERVICE


Streamlining the Organization Funding inefficiencies Removing impediments Duplicative Practices Purchase of new technology

BOLD STRATEGIES
Industry leader Small modifications in culture Strategic need for speed Corrosive effect Move-quick Strategy

NEW VISION
Trying to seeliterallypossible futures Visions being Clear Visions-Commitment

Strategies Bold Vision


Paying careful attention

STEP 4 COMMUNICATE FOR BUY-IN

CHANGE IS WIDELY COMMUNICATED FOR UNDERSTANDING & FOR GUT LEVEL BUY- IN
More than data transfer
Cutting through the Avalanche of Information Matching Works & Deeds New Technologies

MORE THAN DATA TRANSFER PREPARING FOR Q&A

SEE

FEEL
CHANGE

CUTTING THROUGH THE AVALANCHE OF INFORMATION

MY PORTAL

MATCHING WORDS & DEEDS NUKING THE EXECUTIVE FLOOR

NEW TECHNOLOGIES THE SCREEN SAVER

What Works?
Keep communicating simple &heartfelt not complex & technocratic Do homework before communicating especially to understand feelings of people Speaking to anxieties, confusions & distrust Ridding communication channels of junk so that important messages can go through Use new technologies to help people see the vision

What Doesn't Work?


Under communicating which happens all the time Speaking as though you are only transferring information Accidently fostering cynicism by not walking the talk

STEP 5 EMPOWER ACTION

It is not about giving people new authority and new responsibilities and then walking away.

It is all about removing barriers.


Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs magnificently. We define empowerment as letting this power out - Blanchard. K

REMOVING THE BOSS BARRIER


Subordinates either give up or spend an inordinate amount of time trying to maneuver around this barrier. Retooling the Boss From Tim Wallace Superintendent Old School Joe Stint at the customers plant Transformation of a change resistor into a best manager

RETOOLING THE BOSS

Seeing

Changing

Feeling

REMOVING THE SYSTEM BARRIER


Overwhelming bureaucracy Layers in hierarchy, rules and procedures. Performance evaluation & Rewards stickiest part of the system. The addition of bonuses and raises does not necessarily motivate a change in behavior, nor does it necessarily convince people. The Worldwide Competition From Louise Berringer

THE WORLDWIDE COMPETITION


To have a dramatic recognition program, dramatic improvements are needed. Teams working on Improvement idea both at local level and then having a global competition. Innovative ways of presentation. 300 875 1400 teams. Emotionally moving moments People feeling empowered

REMOVING BARRIERS IN THE MIND


Never underestimate the power of the mind to disempower. Never underestimate the power of clever people to help others see the possibilities, to help them generate a feeling of faith, and to change behavior. I Survived, So You Can Too from Greg Hughes & Dalene McCann

I SURVIVED, SO YOU CAN TOO


21 teams formed
Ron briefing about the Lexmark way of bracing change jolt of new energy All-out, knock em dead brawl Old and new employees like oil and water This is possible; you wont die in the process; the end result can be very important.

REMOVING INFORMATION BARRIERS


Making Movies on the Factory Floor from Rick Simmons

Tim, Division executive


Inspections done away with New change effort Meetings proved fruitless Filming production work Change in outlook Wooden models of factory setup Archiving the videos

NOT DOING EVERYTHING AT ONCE


Harold and Lidia from Jeff Collins Barriers in their department to a big new-product development concept. First, engineering team leaders. Second, lack of any formal process for capturing new-product brainstorms. Forming a team of ten good performers Generating new and promising prototypes

WHAT WORKS
Finding individuals with change experience who can bolster peoples selfconfidence with we-won-you-can too anecdotes. Recognition and reward systems that inspire, promote optimism, and build selfconfidence. Feedback that can help people make better vision-related decisions. Retooling disempowering managers by giving them new jobs that clearly show the need for change.

WHAT DOES NOT WORK


Ignoring bosses who seriously disempower their subordinates. Solving the boss problem by taking away their power (making them mad and scared) and giving it to their subordinates. Trying to remove all the barriers at once. Giving in to your own pessimism and fears.

STEP 6 CREATE SHORT-TERM WINS

WHY SHORT TERM??


Producing sufficient short term wins, sufficiently fast to, Energize the change helpers Enlighten the pessimists Defuse the cynics Build momentum for the effort

WHAT WORKS??
Early wins that come fast (Process Timeline) Wins that are visible to as many people as possible (Visibility) Wins that penetrate emotional defenses by being unambiguous (Defusing cynics and enlightening pessimists)

WHAT WORKS??
Wins that are meaningful to others-the more deeply meaningful the better (Universal Clarity) Early wins that speak to powerful players whose support you need and do not have (Gain support) Wins that can be achieved easily and cheaply, even if they seem small compared to the grand vision (Small, small steps)

WHAT WONT WORK??


Juggling too much balls than what you can handle Providing the first win too slowly Stretching the truth

STORIES TO LEARN FROM


The list on the bulletin boards Creating the new navy The senator owned a trucking company Hoopla

STEP 7 DONT LET UP

AFTER 1ST SET OF SHORT TERM WINS


Direction & Momentum

Urgency up
Feeling of false pride down Eliminating exhausting work BUT not declaring victory prematurely

KEEPING URGENCY UP
Urgency to drop

Complacent yourself

Short term wins

Become frustrated

Declare victory soon


PE ratios

TACKLING MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT CHANGES


Attitude of Solving easier problems and creating momentum

Courage & perseverance help


Structure situations to gain power Power = Authority + Time + Resources + Access

The merchant of Fear

NOT KILLING OURSELVES


Urgency high
People want to take on big problems Succeed in generating change

Still fail

Ways to overcome
Conscious effort as early as possible Anticipate the issue Stop unnecessary meetings Delegate more People are not machines Rejuvenation from sleep, relaxation and fun off the job is must

25 2

FAVOURITE STEP 7 STORY


This is creative.

The Streets

WHAT HELPS
Aggressively riding yourself of work that wears you down Looking constantly for ways to keep urgency up Using new situations opportunistically

WHAT DOES NOT HELP


Developing rigid 4 year plan Convincing yourself that you are done & you can get the job done without confronting some of the major problems Working hard ( physical + mental collapse)

STEP 8 MAKE CHANGE STICK

MAKE CHANGE STICK


Powerful force Tradition

Permanent Change Creation of new, supportive and strong org. culture


Revolutionary technology, globalized organization, innovative strategy, efficient processes Winner Fragile Change Successful change More fragile Challenges have to be met Case Boss who went to Switzerland Lack of continuity in vision Change held in place by guiding team

Keys Peers & Not really thinking


Large scale change Power of culture

MAKE CHANGE STICK


New Employee Orientation

Employee turnover Disruption of culture


Case - The path to the patient Lack of co-ordination Loss of money Change Leadership support from parent organization Influencing R&D and training sessions Communication Events Making it a way of life

MAKE CHANGE STICK


Employee orientation program

1. R&Ds new operating ways


2. Video conveyance 3. Creative animation 4. Projection of core value in the form of a real customer

MAKE CHANGE STICK


The Promotions Process

Reinforcing fragile culture Promotions process


Case Promoting the Thirty-Something Clarity of path Successful communication Real success by acting per the new rules Denise Warren Flexible schedule Promoting similar persons Promotions Solid & Stable foundation

MAKE CHANGE STICK


Power of Emotion

Case Home Mortgage


Risk of culture dilution Visionquest re-examination of values Story Video of a son True culture change New way of operating has to succeed over a period of time Shifting norms & values before new way of operation Does not work

Behaviors End of process

CONCLUSION

Example is not the main thing influencing others. It is the only thing. Albert Schweitzer

Turbulence Ever present


Winning organizations Eight step process of adaptation & transformation Key Less emphasis on analysis & thinking and more emphasis on seeing & feeling Clear thinking Large scale change Emotions Anger, False pride, Pessimism, Arrogance, Cynicism, Panic, Exhaustion, Insecurity & Anxiety Facilitating emotions Faith, Trust, Optimism, Urgency, Reality based pride, Passion, Excitement, Hope & Enthusiasm

CONCLUSION

See
Identify problem Visualize it Show emotionally engaging solutions

Feel
Visualizations capture attention Increases emotions that facilitate change

Change
Different feelings Change of heart Transform behavior