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Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping-a bibliography (19764996)
Jaroslav
Linkdping Institute of Technology, Department

Mackerle
Engineering, S-581 83 Linkiiping, Sweden

of Mechanical

(Received 7 March 1996; accepted11 March, 1996)

The paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the analysisof pressurevesselstructures/components and piping from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applicationsof FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presentedin a single paper: therefore the aim of this review is to give the reader an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today for the finite elementanalysis in the fields of pressurevessels and piping. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains approximately 1900referencesto papers,conference proceedings and theses/dissertations the subject that were publishedin 197661996. on These are classifiedin the following categories:linear and non-linear, static and dynamic, stress and deflection analysis; stability problems; thermal problems; fracture mechanics problems; contact problems: fluid-structure interaction problems: manufacturing of pipes and tubes: welded pipes and pressure vessel components; development of special finite elements for pressurevesselsand pipes; finite element software; and other topics. Also finite element software, general purpose and specialpurpose codes, usedfor the analysisof pressurevessels and pipes are briefly discussed presented. and Copyright 0 1996Elsevier ScienceLtd. finite element, bibliography, pressurevessels, pipes, linear and non-linear static and dynamic analysis,fracture mechanics, contact problems, thermal problems,fluid-structure interaction, welding, finite elementsoftware.
Keywords:

1 INTRODUCTION

Pressure vessels and piping, with many more utilizations in reactor technology, the chemical industry, and marine and space engineering, operating under extremes of high and low temperatures and high pressures, are becoming highly sophisticated and therefore also need advanced methods for their analyses. Advances are also made with materials applied for their fabrication. Concrete and composite materials are used in pressure vessels and their components more frequently to replace in some cases conventional steels. During the last two decades considerable
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advances have been made in the applications of numerical techniques to analyse pressure vessel and piping problems. Among the numerical procedures, the finite element methods (FEMs) are the most frequently used. Pressure vessel and piping analyses may have some/all phases as: elastic stress and deformation analysis where both mechanical and thermal loads may be applied: heat transfer analysis; dynamic analysis; plastic and creep analysis. There is in existence a large number of general purpose and special purpose finite element programs available to cope with each phase of the analysis. This review on the subject is divided into the following parts and their concerns:

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Jaroslav

Mackerle

. linear and non-linear, static and dynamic, stress and deflection analyses (STR) stability problems (STA) thermal problems (THE) fracture mechanics problems (FRA) contact problems (CON) fluid-structure interaction problems (FLU) manufacturing of pipes and tubes (MAN) . welded pipes and pressure vessel components (WEL) development of special finite elements for pressure vessels and pipes (ELE) finite element software (SOF) other topics (OTH). The status of finite element literature published between 1976 and 1996, and divided into the categories described above, is illustrated in Fig. 1. Data presented in this figure include published technical papers in the primary literature; this means papers appearing in the various general and specialized journals, conference proceedings as well as theses and dissertations. If we take the number of published papers as a measure for research activity in these various subjects, we can see the priority trend in research in the past. This paper is organized into two parts. In the first, each subject listed above is briefly described by keywords, and current trends in application of finite element techniques are mentioned. The second part, Appendix A, is a listing of references on the papers published in the open literature for the period 1976-1996, from the authors database retrieved MAKEBASE.T~ Appendix B briefly describes and lists addresses of special purpose finite
l l l l l l l l l

element codes developed for analyses of pressure vessels and pipes.

2 FINITE ELEMENTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING 2.1 Linear and non-linear, static and dynamic, stress and deflection analyses The main subjects include: linear elastic static and dynamic analyses; stress concentration factors; free vibration analyses; dynamic response analyses; earthquake analyses; stress wave propagation; material and geometrical.non-linear static and dynamic analyses; plastic creep analyses; study of material and mechanical properties; propagation of shear band; effects of residual stresses; stress and deformation analyses; analyses of local stresses/strains; local creep analyses; pipe whip problems; analyses of sphere/cylinder intersections; cylinder/plate intersections; explosion/accidents in vessels; stochastic analyses; adaptive methods; piping bench mark problems; parametric studies; 2D and 3D analyses. Applications in: thick/thin tubes; thick/thin pipes; branched pipes; piping systems; tubular members; elbows/bends; pipe fittings/flanges; tubeplates; pipe coupling clamps; pipe armouring tendons; pipe culverts; pressure vesselsstructures and components; vessel heads/end closures; compound vessels; reactor vessels and components; containment vessels; perforated structures; steam generators and components; heat exchangers; liquid storage tanks; underground storage tanks; nozzles; bellows; valves; pumps; ligaments; expansion joints; support systems and spacing. Materials: steel; aluminium; hard metals; reinforced plastics; composites; reinforced concrete; pre-stressed concrete. 2.2 Stability problems \

700 630 560 i 490z ; 420 AZ 2 350 f

p. 280i; 210 6
z 14070 oSTR STA

sl
THE FRA CON

7 d-ill
FLU MAN WEL ELE SOF OTH

Applicationarea Fig. 1. Finite elements and various topics in pressure vessels . . ana piping.

The main subjects include: stability; instability; dynamic stability; non-linear stability; local stability; buckling; non-symmetric buckling; nonlinear buckling; creep buckling; buckle propagation; thermal buckling; cyclic inelastic buckling; post-buckling; local buckling; limit analysis; collanse: dvnamic collaose:, non-linear collause:, r - -, -., _~..~~~~. 1 I

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creep collapse; bifurcation and post-bifurcation phenomena; trifurcation phenomena; 2D and 3D analyses. Applications in: thick/thin pipes and tubes; buried pipes; pipe supports; tubular members; elbows/bends; nozzles; nozzle/sphere interacpressure vessels; pressure vessel tions; heads/closures; storage tanks; silos. Materials: steel; pre-stressed concrete; reinforced concrete.
2.3 Thermal problems

The main subjects include: heat transfer analyses; thermal thermoelastic analyses; transient analyses; thermal-elastoplastic analyses; creep; thermal-elastic-plastic creep; thermofracture analyses; high temperature stress and deformation analyses; heating and cooling process; freezing process; thermal shock experiments; residual stresses; thermal buckling; thermal thermal stratification; thermally ratchetting; loaded plate/cylinder and cylinder/sphere intersections; material and mechanical properties at high temperatures; thermal barriers; lossof-coolant accidents; stochastic analyses; parametric studies; benchmark projects; 2D and 3D analyses. Application in: thin/thick pipes and tubes; pipe flanges; tubesheets; elbows; pressure vessels and components; pressure vessel heads/enclosures; reactor vessels and components; nozzles, bellows; containment vessels; heat exchangers; high temperature storage tanks; desuperheater vessels; underground storage tanks. Materials: steel; ceramic; zircaloy; composites; pre-stressed concrete.
2.4 Fracture mechanics problems

cracks under seismic loads; leak-before-break; crack detection; determination of leakage; single and multiple cracks; surface cracks/flows; through cracks; part-through cracks; corner cracks; circumferential flaws; brittle and ductile cracks; delamination buckling; stochastic analyses; parametric studies, 2D and 3D analyses. Applications in: thick/thin pipes and tubes; tubesheets; elbows/bends; buried pipes; pipe/plate joints; expansion joints; nozzles; pressure vessels and components; pressure vessel ends/closure; reactor vessels and components; tubular joints; liners; bellows; gas bottles; storage tanks; containment vessels; steam generators and components. Materials: steel; ceramic; zircaloy; reinforced concrete; pre-stressed concrete; composites; polymers.
2.5 Contact problems

The main subjects include: linear and non-linear, static and dynamic fracture mechanics; crack initiation; crack opening; crack extension; stable/unstable crack growth; crack propagation; crack instability; creep crack growth; stress intensity factor computations; J-integral computations; collapse/burst strength; crushing strength; thermal fracture mechanics; thermal stratification and cracking; residual stresses; dynamic impact and fracture mechanics; damage mechanics; fatigue; fatigue-ratchetting; creep damage; stress-corrosion cracking; crack in joints; cracks in welds; sphere/cylinder intersections;

The main subjects include: linear and non-linear, static and dynamic analyses of contact problems; contact-impact problems; frictional contact problems; structures on elastic/viscoelastic foundations; contact and thermal effects/local imperfections; pipe whip and impact; indentation problems; threaded connections; branch connections; joining and bonding; residual stresses; cracks in joints; tubular joints; joint deformations and stresses; stress concentration; crash response; collision damage; intersection junctions; interfacial stresses; parametric studies; 2D and 3D analyses. Applications in: thin/thick tubes and pipes; cables and flexible pipes; buried pipes; pipeline closures; pressure vessel end closures; elbows; flange connections; fittings; bolt; pipe-nozzle joints; nozzle-plate junctions; tube-to-tube sheet joints; pressure vessels and components; reactor vessels and components; heat exchangers and components; containment vessels; storage tanks. Materials: steel; composites; reinforced concrete.
2.6 Fluid-structure interaction problems

The main subjects include: coupled fluidstructure response analyses; non-linear fluidstructure interaction; transient hydrodynamicstructural response; fluid-structure interaction in seismic response; random response analyses; acoustoelastic fluid-structure inter-

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action; sediment-structure interaction; seismic excitation; seismic-induced sloshing; flow-induced vibrations; flow-induced instability; fluid flow analyses; particle flow analyses; turbulent fluid flow; transient and stability behaviours of fluid-conveying structures; liquid-filling behaviour; partial fluid-filled structures; waterhammer response; effects of restraint conditions; solidification of flowing; 2D and 3D analyses. Applications in: thin/thick pipes and tubes; pipes; flexible submerged pipes; tube rows/bundles; nozzles; reactor vessels on components; liquid storage tanks, underwater storage vessels; waste storage tanks; anchored/unanchored storate tanks.
2.7 Manufacturing of pipes and tubes

Applications in: pipes and tubes; tube-totubesheet interactions; ring stiffened pipes; elbow ends; fluid-filled pipelines; shell structures; pressure vessels and components; reactor vessels and components. Materials: steel; stainless steel; bi-metals; polymers.
2.9 Development of special pressure vessels and pipes finite elements for

The main subjects include: rigid-plastic analyses; elastic-plastic analyses; viscoelastic analyses; stress state determination; deformation and springback analyses; thermomechanical analyses; thermal aspects of manufacturing processes; effects of constrained conditions; 2D and 3D analyses. Simulated pipes and tubes manufacturing processes: rolling; cold rolling; mandrel rolling; hot piercing rolling; extrusion; cold extrusion; forward extrusion; backward extrusion; radial extrusion; drawing; close-pass drawing; forging; injection forging; radial forging; open-die forging; axial-radial forming; moulding; injection moulding; bulging; extroll-forming; piercing; sinking process; magnetic pulse deformation; electric discharge forming; electromagnetic forming; bending process; injection forming upsetting; dieless hydroforming. Materials: steel; stainless steel; cast iron; aluminium; plastics; bi-metals; thermosetting polymers; composites.
2.8 Welded components pipes and pressure vessel

In this section, references dealing with developments as well as applications of special finite elements used for the linear and non-linear, static and dynamic analyses of pressure vessels and piping systems are given. Some element types included are: beam elements; combined beam elements; spare elements; Mindlin beam elements; pipe elements; plastic pipe elements; strain hardening pipe elements; 3D geometric non-linear pipe elements; pipe bend elements; flexible pipe elements; pipe elbow elements; elasto-plastic elbow elements; thin shell elements; semiloof shell elements; layered shell bending elements; quadrilateral cylindrical elements; ring elements; semianalytical ring elements; semimembrane ring elements; axisymmetric interface elements; geometric non-linear axisymmetric transition elements; high-order isoparametric solid elements; brick elements; friction finite elements; inelastic hinge elements; isoparametric axisymmetric crack-tip elements.
2.10 Finite element software

The main subjects include: thermomechanical analyses; heat analyses; inelastic analyses; residual stresses and deformations; creep deformations; longitudinal and circumferential welds; arc welds; butt welds; butt fusion welds; girth-butt welds; backlay welds; multipass welds; welds induction repair; stress/strain concentration; heating process; annealing process; 2D and 3D analyses.

The application of computers to do structural analysis and design of pressure vessels and piping systems is quite common these days, as the price of hardware is decreasing. The numerical methods, especially the FEMs, are now in many cases an important ingredient of the analysis, simulation and design. For an effective analysis of a problem, a suitable computer program has to be employed. At present, thousands FEM packages exist and new programs are under development. The existing software can vary from large, sophisticated, general purpose, integrated systems to small, special purpose programs for PCs. Finite element codes can be roughly divided into two main groups: general purpose and special purpose programs. General purpose

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programs are applicable in many areas of engineering activity and for many different types of structures. Special purpose programs are mainly aimed at solving problems restricted to certain classes of problems and/or classes of structures. General purpose finite element programs used for analyses of pressure vessels and piping are not handled here. For description of these programs the reader is referred to other reviews and books.3mx However, literature references for some well-known general purpose codes applied for analyses of pressure vessels and pipes are listed in Appendix A for programs such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, ADINA, BERSAFE, DYNA3D, MARC, GTSTRUDL, CEASEMT, MSC/NASTRAN, SYSTUS, SAPIV, etc. The focus of this section is on special purpose finite element codes developed in different countries during the last 20 years for linear and non-linear, static and dynamic analyses of pressure vessels and pipes. Listing of these programs can be seen as a historical review; not all codes are presently in use. Listed codes have been retrieved from the authors database, MAKEBASE., They are encyclopaedically presented together with addresses of program developers or distributors in Appendix B. The programs are listed in alphabetical order. Fracture mechanics programs developed for analyses of pressure vessels and pipes are not included. For other, and more detailed, surveys on general purpose and special purpose finite element programs for pressure vessels and piping see Refs 26-SOF, 29-SOF and 9%SOF in Appendix A. 2.11 Other topics The main subjects include: static and dynamic, linear and non-linear geomechanical analyses of pressure vessels and pipes in 2D and 3D; buried structures; soil-pipe interaction; pipe-soil-wave interaction; thermal effects on buried structures; structure response to excavation; effects of trenching; seismic response analyses; uplift behaviours; corroded structures; cathodic protection; galvanizing process; ultrasonic wave propagation; non-destructive testing and inspection. Applications in: buried pipes; pressure vessels and components; reactor vessels and components; underground waste storage tanks. Materials: steel; reinforced concrete; polymers; composites; geotechnical materials.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The bibliography presented in the Appendices is by no means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation of different finite element applications on the subjects. The author wishes to apologize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate receiving comments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update.

RERERENCES
1. Mackerle, J., MAKEBASE, An information retrieval system in structural mechanics for main-frames and personalcomputers,Engng Cornput., 6 (1989) 178-85. 2. Mackerle, J., An information retrieval system for finite element and boundary element literature and software, Engng Anal. Boundary Elem., 11(1993) 177-87. 3. Brebbia, C. A., ed., Finite Element Systems: A Handbook, 3rd Edn. Springer, New York, 1985. 4. Mackerle, J. & Fredriksson, B., Handbook of Finite Element Software. Studentlitteratur, Lund and Chartwell-Bratt Ltd, UK, 1988. 5. Niku-Lari, A., ed., Structural Analysis Systems: 6. 7. 8. 9.
Software-Hardware-Capability-Compatibility, Applications, Vol, 1. Pergamon,Oxford, UK, 1986. Niku-Lari, A., ed., Structural Analysis Systems: Software-Hardware-Capability-Compatibility, Applications, Vol. 2. Pergamon,Oxford, UK, 1986. Niku-Lari, A., ed., Structural Analysis Systems: Software-Hardware-Capability-Computability, Applications, Vol. 3, Pergamon,Oxford, UK, 1986. Niku-Lari, A., ed., Structural Analysis Systems: Software-Hardware-Capability-Compatibility, Applications, Vol 4. Pergamon,Oxford, UK, 1986. Niku-Lari, A. & Ghosh, S. K., eds, Structural Analysis Systems: CADfCAM and FEM in Metal Working, Vol.

7, Pergamon,Oxford, UK, 1987. 10. Perrone, N. & Pilkey, W., eds, Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. 1. University Pressof Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 1977. 11. Perrone, N. & Pilkey, W., eds, Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. 2. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 1978. 12. Perrone, N. & Pilkey, W., eds, Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. 3. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 1980. 13. Perrone, N. & Pilkey, W., eds, Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. 4. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 1982. 14. Perrone, N. & Pilkey, W., eds, Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. 5. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 1984. 15. Pilkey, W. & Pilkey, B., eds, Shock and Vibration Computer Programs, SAVIAC, Arlington, VA, USA, 1995. 16. Schrefler, B. A. & Lewis, R. W., eds,Microcomputers in
Engineering: Development and Application of Software,

Pineridge Press,Swansea, UK, 1986. 17. Scherefler, B. A. & Lewis, R. W., eds, Microcomputers in Engineering Applications, J. Wiley, NY, USA, 1987.

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Jaroslau Mackerle pipe flange modification, 57th Ann. Am. Power Conf, Chicago,57-2, 1995,pp. 1637-40. 13. STR Altaee, A. & Boivin, R., Laterally displaced pipelines: finite element analysis, 14th Int. Conf Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., OMAE 5, ASME, 1995, pp. 209-216. 14. STR Alujevic, A. et al., Analysis of heavy steel pressure vessels using the finite element method, Strojniski Vestn., 25 (1979) 157-9. 15. STR Amaldi, A. & Marchetti, M., Mechanical behaviour of filament would carbon fibre reinforced epoxy resin tubes. In Computer Aided Design Composite Materials Technology III, ed. S. G. Advani, CMP, pp. 79-88, 1992. 16. STR Amoneim, M. T., 3-Dimensionalfinite element formulation for elastic-plastic non-linear analysis of piping systems, Nucl. Tech., 51 (1980) 464-75. 17. STR Anagnostopoulos, S. A., Post-yield flexural propertiesof tubular members,J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 105(1979) 1757-68. 18. STR Anvick, T. E. et al., Dynamic behavior of cylindrical water tanks superimposed with a three-way lattice skeleton, 13th Struct. Conf, Boston, ASCE, pp. 60-3, 1995. 19. STR Ascough, J., Structural analysisand designof a GRP storage tank, 12th Ann. Energy-sources Tech. Co@, PD 24, ASME, pp. 29-35,1988. 20. STR Attwater, I. J. S. et al., Three-dimensionalfinite element analysisof sphere/cylinder intersectionsunder axisymmetric loading, Int. J. Pres. Vest. & Piping, 57 (1994) 231-6. 21. STR Autio, M. et al., Accuracy of the finite element method in analyzing laminated plate and pipe structures,Mech. Composite Mater., 28 (1992) 236-44. 22. STR Avent, R. R. & Sadd, M. H., Stress index development for trunnion pipe support. Report CEB-79-22, Mississippi State University, 1980. 23. STR Azegami, H. et al., An adaptive growth method for shaperefinement: methodology and applicationsto pressure vessels piping, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, and
114 (1992) 87-93.

18. Schrefler, B. A., Lewis, R. W. & Odorizzi, S. A., eds, Engineering Software for Microcomputers. Pineridge Press,Swansea, UK, 1984.

APPENDIX (1976-1996)

A: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography provides a list of literature references on finite element analysis of pressure vessel structures/components and pipes/tubes. Presented listings contain papers published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations retrospectively to 1976. References have been retrieved from the authors database, MAKEBASE. They are grouped into the same sections described in the first part of this paper, and sorted alphabetically according to the first authors name. In some cases, if a specific paper is relevant for several subject categories, the same reference is listed under respective section headings. Linear and non-linear, static and dynamic, stress and deflection analyses (STR)
1. STR A-Moneim, M. T., Three dimensional finite element formulation for elastic-plastic nonlinear analysis of piping systems, Nucl. Tech., 51 (1980)
464-75. 2. STR Abdel-Magid, B. M., Analyses and design of

ht. .I. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 19 (1985) 133-59. 6. STR Afshari, P. et al., A finite element approach to the analysisof pressurevesselsand piping, 1989 Int. ANSYS Conf, ed. D. E. Dietrich, SAS, Vol. 1, 1989,p.
41.

underground reinforced plastic mortar pipelines.Ph.D. Thesis,The University of Wisconsin,Madison, 1986. 3. STR Abhary, K. er al., An upper-bound approachto static stressanalysisof pipelines, Int. .I. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 63 (1995) 71-4. 4. STR Abushawashi,S. A. & Nath, B., Finite element analysis of prestressed concrete cylinder pipes: comparison with field test results, 1992 Eng. Syst. Design Anal., PD 47. ASME 1992,pp. 213-7. 5. STR Adams, N. J. I., A theoretical and experimental investigation of stressand stiffnesscoefficientsfor low entry nozzles in bulk liquid cylindrical storage tanks,

24. STR Azzam, T. & Scavuzzo, R. J., Elbow ratcheting-a comparison with data, Pressure Vessel Technology. Dusseldorf, 1992,pp. 1445-54. 25. STR Azzam, T. J., Ratcheting in cyclically loaded pressurizedelbows. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Akron, 1992. 26. STR Bakker, A. & Spaas, H. A. C. M., A computational procedure for the stressand deformation analysis of high-pressurevessel flanges, Znt. J.
Pres. Ves. & Piping, 5 (1977) l-22.

7. STR Aggarwal, S. K. & Nayak, G. C., Elasto-plastic

analysis as a basisfor design of cylindrical pressure vesselwith different end closures,Znt. J. Pres. Ves. &
Piping, 10 (1982) 271-96. 8. STR Aggarwal, S. K. et al., Comparisonof stresses in

different type pressurevesselheads by finite element method, Period. Polytech., 24 (1980) 91-108. 9. STR Ahmed, K. M., Free vibrations of skirt supported pressurevesselsby finite element method, J. Sound Vibr., 62 (1979)464-6. . 10. STR Aksoy, S. et al., Cyclic structural analysisof gas turbine nozzle, Comput. Struct., 27 (1987) 165-70. 11. STR Al-Obaid, Y. F., Creep of concrete pipes in Kuwait, Cement Concrete Aggreg., 12 (1990) 114-6. 12. STR Al-Shawaf, T. & Minichiello, J., Evaluation of

27. STR Baldur, R. & Sabourin, M., Finite element analysis cylindrical intersectionsloadedby moments. of ASME Paper 80-C2/PVP-3,198O. 28. STR Balendra, T., Earthquake finite element analysis of an annular cylindrical liquid storage tank, 3rd Int. Conf FEM, The University of NSW, Australia, 1979, pp. 365-77. 29. STR Balendra, T. & Nash, W. A., Earthquake analysisof a cylindrical liquid storagetank with a dome by finite element method. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Massachusetts, 1978. 30. STR Balendra, T. et al., Seismic design of flexible cylindrical liquid storage tanks, Earthquake Eng. Str.
Dyn., 10 (1982) 477-96.

31. STR Bangash,Y., Safe analysisfor cooling pipes for prestressed concrete reactor vessels, Nucl. Eng. Design, 55 (1979) 305-13.

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32. STR Bangash,Y., Reactor pressurevesseldesignand practice, Prog. Nucl. Energy, 9 (1982) l-56. 33. STR Baraf, L. & Braem, P., The stress analysisof the secondary piping system, uncoupled from a main piping system,6th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, pp. F4/4, 1981. 34. STR Barony, S. Y. et al., Finite element analysisof large prestressedconcrete pipes, 6th World Congress FEM, Banff, ed. J. Robinson, R&A, 1990, pp.

Chicago, 1983,pp. K2/11. 52. STR Birkemoe, P. C. et al., Nonlinear finite element analysis of fabricated steel tubes. In Inelastic Behaviour Design Frames, 1991,pp. 235-46. 53. STR Blach, A. E. et aZ., Rectangular pressurevessels of finite length, J. Pres. I/es. Tech., ASME, 112 (1990) Comparison of a nonlinear dynamic model of a piping system to test data, 7th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,pp. F5/4. 55. STR Blandford, G. E. et al., Design-by-analysisof layered pressurevessels, Adv. Syst. Manuf. 12th Conf. Prod. Res. Tech., Madison, 1985. 56. STR Blandford, G. E. et al, Nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric layered pressure vessels-part 1: theory, J. Pres. Ves. Technol., ASME, 111 (1989) 113-9. 57. STR Bloom, J. M. & Malik, S. N., Procedure for the assessment the integrity of nuclear pressure of vesselsand piping containing defects. Report EPRI NP-2431, Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, 1982. 5X. STR Booker, J. R. & Small, J. C., The analysisof liquid storagetanks on deep elasticfoundations, Int. J. Num. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 7 (1983) 187-207. 59. STR Bouckovalas, G., Ekofisk tank: performance prediction during the storm of November 6, 1973,
Proc. 10th Eur. Conf Soil Mech. Found. Eng.,

50-6. 54. STR Blakely, K. D. et al.,

628-34. 35. STR Barton, D. C. et al., the design of ends of


cylindrical pressurevesselsin glassreinforced plastic, ht. J. Mech. Sci., 26 (1984) 177-99. 36. STR Basavanhally,N. & Tonet, N., A study of stress distribution in elbowsmounted on stanchions,7th btt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech.. Chicago, 1983, pp. F8/7. 37. STR Basavaraju, C., Comparisionof local stresses in straight pipe and elbow at integral attachments, 1994 Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 275, ASME, 1994, pp. 217-26. 38. STR Basavaraju,C. & Lee, R. L., Stressdistribution in elbow due to external momentsusingfinite element methodology, 1993 Pres. Ves. Piping Corz$, Denver, ASME, 1993,pp. 103-12. 39. STR Bathe, K. J. & Almeida, C. A., Recent advancesin finite element analysisof piping systems, 5th Int. Sem. Comp. Asp. FEM, Berlin, 1979. 40. STR Batra, R. C. & Zhang, X., On the propagation of a shear band in a steel tube, J. Eng. Mater. Tech., ASME, 116 (1994) 155-61. 41. STR Becchi, R. et al., Safety and serviceability analysisof pipelinesin unstableslopes,13th Int. Conf Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., OMAE 5, ASME, 1994, pp. 101-6. 42. STR Becht, C. & Skopp, G., Stress analysis of bellows. In Metall. Bellows Expan. Joints, PVP51, ASME, NY, USA, 1981. 43. STR Beena, A. P. & Rao, B. N., Structural behaviour of misalignedsegments a pressurevessel, in Cornput. Struct., 56 (1995) 703-9. 44. STR Bellanca, C. P. et al., Experience with installation of new P-91 secondary supheater outlet headers, 1991 Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 230, ASME, 1992,pp. 53-9. 45. STR Beller, M. et aZ., Stress concentrations in pipelinesdue to the presence dents, 1st Int. Offshore of Polar Eng. Con&, Edinburgh, 1991,pp. 421-4. 46. STR Bercovier, M. & Pat, T., A C finite element method for the analysis of inextensible pipe lines, Comput. Struct., 18 (1984) 1019-23. 47. STR Bergeretto, G. et al., A parametric gross discontinuity interaction finite element analysis betweenadjacent nozzles of a vessel,4th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977. 48. STR Bernitsas, M. M. & Vlahopoulos, N., Threedimensional nonlinear statics of pipelaying using condensation in an incremental finite element algorithm, Comput. Struct., 35 (1990) 195-214. 49. STR Bertsch, 0. L. et al., A three-dimensional finite element analysis of a steam generator channel-headcomplex. Comparisonof theory and experiment, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 4 (1976) 29-46. 50. STR Bezler, P. & Subudhi, M., Dynamic simulation of Z-bend test and comparisonwith experimental data. ASME PVP-73, 1983. 51. STR Bezler, P. et al., HDR URL confirmatory evaluations, 7th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech.,

Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994,pp. 1311-4. 60. STR Bourgat, J. F. et al., Large displacement calculationsof flexible pipe-linesby finite element and non-linear programming methods. In Computer Methods and Non-linear Mechanics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980,pp. 109-75. 61. STR Bourgat, J. F. et al., Large displacement calculationsof flexible pipelines by finite element and nonlinear programming method, SIAM J. Sci. Stat.
Comp., l(1980) 34-81.

62. STR Bourrier, P. & Hoffmann, A., Plastic creep analysisof an elbow pipe, 4th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977,pp. L6/2. 63. STR Boussaa,D. et al., Axisymmetric elastic-plastic FE analysisof pressurizedelbows,.I. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
ASME,

117(1995)357-64.

64. STR Boyle, J. T. & Spence, J., Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems,Nucl. Eng. Design, 57

(1980)369-90. 65. STR Brading, K. F. & Hills, G., Use of structural


models in developing pressure vessel design, Proc.
Conf: PCPVs, Institute of Civil Engineers,1986.

66. STR Brandi, R. & Giuli, S., Nonlinear finite element analysisfor sealine connector. In Numerical Methods and Non-linear Problems, Vol. 2. Pineridge Press, Swansea, UK, 1984,pp. 525-36. 67. STR Braschel, R. A. et al., Calculation of the load carrying capacity of pipe elbows with the help of approximation, 7th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago,1983,pp. G/F/5. 68. STR Brochard, D. et al., Modelling of the dynamical behaviour of LWR internals by homogeneization methods, 9th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. B267-72. 69. STR Brown, S. J. & Brown, T. J., Analysis of thick walled, 90 degree and 45 degree pipe fittings, 1990 Pres. I/es. Piping Conf., PVP 188, ASME, 1990, pp.

25-34. 70. STR Brown, S. J. et al., Finite element, photoelastic,

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247. STR Kizhatil, R. K. et al., Isochronous GLOSS method for local creep analysis, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, Denver, PVP 265, ASME, 1993,pp. 145-9. 248. STR Klein, S. & Trujillo, D. M., A generalnonlinear analysis of piping structural systems. Report TR 001-82,Shellsand Piping Co., Irvine, 1982. 249. STR Knaust, U., Zur Berechnung leichter Innendruckbehalter aus Faser-Kunststoff-Verbunden mit Hilfe der Finite-Elemente-Methode, FE Eng. Appl. Conf, INTES Publ., Stuttgart, 1987,pp. 193-214. 250. STR Kobayashi, H. & Daimaruya, M., Finite element analysis concerning deformation of circular tubes in lateral compression,Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., Ser. A, 57 (1991) 1371-7. 251. STR Kobayashi, H. & Daimaruya, M., Deformation of circular tubes in lateral compression.In Fracture Strength 90, ed. K. Y. Lee. Trans. Tech. Publ., 1991, pp. 429-34. 252. STR Kobayashi, T. & Tateishi, M., Hot clamp design for LMFBR piping systems, Pres. Vex Tech., ASME, J.
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242. STR Khan, A. S. & Shah, S. S., Parametric study of two normally intersecting cylindrical shellssubjectedto out-of-plane moment, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 22 (1986) 197-223. 243. STR Killian, D. E. & Yoon, K. E., Inelastic dynamic analysis of piping systems,4th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco,1977,p. F2/1. 244. STR Kirkwood, M. G. et al., Finite element stress analysisof an equal diameter branch pipe intersection subjected to out-of-plane and twisting moments, J.
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290. STR Lashkari, B. & Karamchandani, A., Seismic analysisof multi-spanpiping, 4th Znt. Modal ConjI, Los Angeles, Union Coll., 1986,pp. 151-9. 291. STR Lashkari, M. & Weingarten, V. I., Continuum solution of simulated pipe whip problem, J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 107 (1981) 1443-63. 292. STR Laurent, P. et al., Advanced accuracy evaluation of the finite element stressanalysisperformed on the integral vessel.In Pressure Vessel Technology. Institute of Mechanical Engineering, UK, 1980,pp. 309-17. 293. STR Lay, D. M. & Piper, R. M., Modeling considerations for the analysis of LMFBR steam generator tube clamps, .I. Eng. Power, ASME, 105 (1983) 771-4. 294. STR Lazzeri, L., On the influence of multiple loadings to plastic pipe elements: application to pipe whip problems,4th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco,1977,p. F3/2. 295. STR Lazzeri, L., Analysis of elbow in the elastic and plastic fields. AMN Report IS79-02,Genova, 1979. 296. STR Lazzeri, L., Application of plastic analysisto the pipe whip problem, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 7 (1979) 183-97. 297. STR Lazzeri, L., Non-linear analysis of pipes and shells,Res. Mech. Lett., l(l981) 439-43. 298. STR Lazzeri, L., Non-linear analysis of pipes and shells,Res. Mech., 10 (1984) 127-43. 299. STR Lazzeri, L. et al., On the 3-D non-linear analysis of piping, Nucl. Eng. Design, 61 (1980) 209-22. 300. STR Lazzeri, L. et al., Containmentof explosive blast in a spherical vessel with nozzles, 11th Symp. New Direct Process. Safety, Manchester, 1991,pp. 135-53. 301. STR Leavesley, P. J. & Knight, C. E., An analytical model of strength loss in filament wound spherical vessels, Pres. Ves., ASME, 109 (1987) 352-6. J. 302. STR Lee, D. G. & Kim, N. H., Efficient analysisof framed-tube structures, Symp. Struct. Eng. Natural Hazzard Mit., ASCE, Irvine, 1993,pp. 1107-12. 303. STR Lee, D. G. & Song, Y. H., Efficient seismic analysisof piping systems with joint deformations,Eng.
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shellsof cylindrical tanks with unrestrainedupper edge. In Buckling Shell Structures, ed. J. F. Jullien. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991,pp. 223-32. 64. STA Salies,J. B. et al., Experimental and mathematical modeling of helical buckling of pipes in horizontal wellbores, Energy-Source Tech. Con& Exhib., PD 65, ASME, 1995,pp. 79-89. 65. STA Shaw, P. K. & Bomba, J. G., Finite-element analysisof pipeline upheaval buckling, 13th Int. Conf:
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302

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Mackerle 142. THE Terakawa, T., et al., Stiffening effects of tubes in heat exchanger tubesheet, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 106 (1984) 237-46. 143. THE ThomasK., Creep ratchetting tests and analysis of a pressurized elbow at 593 degree C subjected to cyclic bending, Nucl. Eng. Design, 116 (1989) 199-213. 144. THE Trauner, P. U. et al., Investigation of thermal loads applied to a desuperheatervessel steam inlet nozzle using the finite element method, 5th Znt. Co@ in Australia on FEM, Melbourne, 1987,pp. 306-11. 145. THE Tseng, A. A., Prestressing evaluation of a grooved duplex tube, Znt. J. Pres.-Ves. & Piping, 11 (1983) 191-205. 146. THE Underwood, J. H. & OHara, G. P., Thermal gradient induced deflection of a thick-walled cylinder with bending residual stresses, 1991 Pres. Ves. Piping Cant, PVP 238, ASME, 1992,pp. 237-44. 147. THE Wang, C. Y., Analysis of piping responseto thermal and operational transients, 9th Znt. Con$ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. E89-94. 148. THE Wang, C. Y., A numerical algorithm for analyzing piping responseto thermal transients and seismic excitations, Nucl. Eng. Design, 106 (1988) 147-60. 149. THE Wang, C. Y. et al., Integrated analysisof piping systems, Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 6th 1981,p. E6/1. 150. THE Wang, X. & Wang, X., Efficient methods applied to the real-time analysis of temperatures, displacements, stresses complex structures,Znt. and for J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 52 (1992) 111-27. 151. THE Wang, Z. P. & Hayhurst, D. R., Materials data for high-temperature design of ferritic steel pressure vesselweldments,Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 55 (1993) 461-79. 152. THE Wanner, R. et al., Influence of model geometry on stress intensity for cyclically thermally loaded nozzle corner crack, 9th Znt. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. G203-12. 153. THE Watanabe, 0. & Ohtsubo, H., Simplified analysis method of complex piping systems in thermal-elastic-plastic creep range, Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., 48A (1982)484-92. 154. THE Watanabe, 0. & Ohtsubo, H., A simplified analysis method for complex piping systems in thermal-elastic-plastic-creep range, J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
ASME,

123. THE Razzaque, M. M. et al., Finite element solution of heat transfer for gas flow through a tube, AZAA J., 20 (1982) 1015-19. 124. THE Razzaque, M. M. et al., Finite element solution of radiative heat transfer in a two-dimensional rectangular enclosurewith gray participating media, J. Heat Transt, ASME, 105 (1983) 933-6. 125. THE Reimers, P., Fracture mechanicalanalysisof a reactor pressurevessel under thermal shock loading, Comp. Struct. 47 (1993)815-27. 126. THE Revesz, Z., Qualification of unreinforced man-holes thin-walled piping of auxiliary emergency in cooling water systems, Proc. Znt. Mtg. Thermal Nuclear Safety, Washington,DC, 1982,p. 2092. 127. THE Sadeghipour, M. S. & Alborzi, K., Axial conduction in the transient laminar freezing of liquids in convectively cooled tubes, Num. Heat Transt, 25 (1994) 427-39. 128. THE Saito, T. et al., Thermal transient test of FBR piping bellows model, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 168, ASME, 1989,pp. 141-8. 129. THE Sanal, Z., Finite element analysis of discontinuity stresses at header-nozzle intersections of plate-fin heat exchangers,Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 1. Dusseldorf, 1992,pp. 215-27. 130. THE Sarmiento, G. S. & Bergmann, A. N., Thermal stresses nozzles of nuclear steel containmentsunder at LOCA conditions,Nucl. Eng. Design, 93 (1986)107-18. 131. THE Schmitt, W. et al., Linear elastic stress intensity factor for cracks in nuclear pressure vessel nozzles under pressureand temperature loading, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 8 (1980) 41-68. 132. THE Seetharamu,K. N., Modelling of heat exchangersusing finite element method. In Comp. Mech. 86, ed. G. Yagawa & S. N. Atluri. Springer, Berlin, 1986, pp. VIII-89. 133. THE Segall, A. E., Thermal shock and fatigue behavior of ceramic tubes, Ph.D. Thesis,Pennsylvania State University, 1992. 134. THE Segall, A. E. et al., Thermal shock and fatigue behavior of ceramic tubes, 10th ASME Design Tech. Co@, Albuquerque, 1993,pp. 81-91. 135. THE Severud, L. K., Experience with simplified inelastic analysis of piping designed for elevated temperature services,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 (1981)267-80. 136. THE Shadley, J. R. et al., The effect of induction heating stressremedieson existing flaws in pipes, J. Pres. Ves. & Tech. ASME, 104 (1982) 193-7. 137. THE Shum, D. K. M. et al., Potential changein flaw geometry during pressurized-thermal-shock transients, 1993Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 250, ASME, 1993, pp. 65-76. 138. THE Simos, N. et al., On the investigation of cracking in safety injection PWR lines due to thermal stratification, 1990 Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 197, ASME, 1990,pp. 28Y-Y4. 139. THE Smith, W. R. & Cassell,D. S., Solution for the temperature distribution in a pipe wall subjected to internally stratified flow, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power,

107(1985)148-56.

112 (1990)602-6.
140. THE Srinivasan, V., Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer and pressuredrop in flow through spirally fluted tubes. Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 1993. 141. THE Stegmeyer, R. et al., 3D-FE calculations of a pressure vessel under thermal shock loading, Nucl.
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155. THE Watanabe, 0. et al., Comparative study of complex piping systems elevated temperature by the in simplified finite element methods, Pres. Ves. Piping Cor$, ASME, 1982. 156. THE Watashi, K. & Iwata, K., Thermal buckling and progressiveovalization of pipes:experiencesat the ITS sodium test facility and their analysis, Nucl. Eng. Design, 153 (1995) 319-30. 157. THE Watashi, K. et al., Creep-fatigue strength evaluation of thick-walled vessel under thermal transient loadings, 9th Znt. Con5 Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. L/93-8. 158. THE Webster, J. J. et al., Inelastic behaviour of thick tubes subjectedto steady axial loadsand cyclic thermal loads, 5th Znt. Conf Press. Vess. Tech., San Francisco, 1984. 159. THE Wung, P. M. & Tauchert, T. R., Stationary temperature distribution in an orthotropic pressure vesselsubjectedto axisymmetric thermal loading, Nucl. Eng. Design, 64 (1981)347-59.

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elements

in the analysis

of pressure

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307

160. THE Yagawa, G. & Ishihara, K., Cleavage and ductile thermal shock fractures of corner-cracked nozzles, .I. Pres. Ves. Technol., ASME, 111 (1989) 241-6. 161. THE Yagawa, G. et al., Theoretical and experimental study on thermal shock fracture mechanics using A.508 steel plate, Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., 49A (1983) 1306-14. 162. THE Yamamoto, S. et al., Fatigue and creep-fatigue testing of bellowsat elevated temperature,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 110 (1988) 301-7. 163. THE Yen, R. H. & Lee, W. S., Conjugate heat transfer analysis in the entrance region of a circular pipe, J. Chin. Sot. Mech. Eng., 12 (1991) 233-40. 164. THE Yeow, Y. L. et al., Solidification at the entrance to a subcooledtube, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 29 (1990) 896-901. 16.5.THE Yu, L. C. A., Performance characteristics of round tube and plate fin heat transfer surfaces.Ph.D. Thesis, Council of National Academic Awards, UK, 1992. 166. THE Zarrabi, K. & Coade, R., Creep analysis of a primary superheater outlet header by finite-element analysis, 5th Int. Conf: in Australia on FEM, Melbourne, 1987,pp. 312-18. 167. THE Ziberstein, V. A. & Collins, S. O., Global deformation in main streamand hot reheat steamlines, Pres. Ves. Piping ConF, Denver, PVP 261, ASME, 1993,pp. 95-100.

surface flaws and nozzle corner cracks, .J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 102 (1980)278-86. 10. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan, K., 3-D analysisof surface flaws in thick-walled reactor pressure-vessel usingdisplacement-hybridfinite elementmethod, Nucl.
Eng. Design, 51(1980) 163-76.

FRACTURE WRA)
1. FRA

MECHANICS

PROBLEMS

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Abou-Sayed, I. S. et al., An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics prediction of stress-corrosion cracking in a girth-welded pipe, Fracture Mechanics: 14th Symp., ASTM, STP 791, 1983,pp. 482-96. FRA Ainsworth, R. A., Developmentsin the R5 high temperature defect assessment procedures,Pres. I/es. Piping Con$, Denver, PVP 266, ASME, 1993, pp. 127-34. FRA Akhurst, K. N. & Chell, G. G., Methods of calculating stress intensity factors for nozzle corner cracks,Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 14 (1983) 227-57. FRA Al-Obaid, Y. F., Dynamic crack propagation in pressurizedwater reactor tubes, PVP Conf., ASME, 1984. FRA Al-Obaid, Y. F., The finite element analysisof crack growth in zircaloy tubing under extreme temperatures,Eng. Fract. Mech., 23 (1986)875-82. FRA Assan, A. E. & Aliabadi, M. H., Analysis of cracked cylindrical shells by a strain-based finite element, Adv. Eng. Software, 17 (1993) 39-47. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan, K., Outer and inner surface flaws in thick-walled pressurevessels,4th Znt. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977, G5/4. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan, K., Stressintensity factor solutions for arbitrarily shapedsurface flaws in reactor pressurevessel nozzle corners, 5th Zrzt. Cant Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979,p. G4/3. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan,K., Influence of flaw shapeson stressintensity factors for pressurevessel

11. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan, K., Stressintensity factor solutionsfor arbitrarily shapedsurface flows in reactor pressure vesselnozzle corners,Int. J. Pres. Ves. Piping, 8 (1980) 313-22. 12. FRA Atluri, S. N. & Kathiresan, K., Hybrid-finiteelement analysisof somenonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineeringfracture mechanics,Comput. Struct., 12 (1980) 511-20. 13. FRA Attwater, I. J. S. et al., Three-dimensional finite element analysisof sphere/cylinder intersectionsunder axisymmetric loading, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 57 (1994)231-6. 14. FRA Aurich, D. et al., Elastic-elastic FEM analysis of a nozzle corner crack and discussion the results of by some fracture mechanics concepts, Nucl. Eng. Design, 72 (1982)43-52. 15. FRA Aurich, D. et al., Fracture mechanics analysisof a pressurevessel with a semi-pressure surface crack using elastic-plastic FEM calculations, Nucl. Eng. Design, 76 (1983)329-37. 16. FRA Aurich, D. et al., Fracture mechanics analysisof a pressure vessel with a semi-elliptic surface crack using elastic-plastic finite element calculations. In Fract. Mech.: 16th Symp., ASTM, STP 868, 1985,pp. 617-31. 17. FRA Ayres, D. J., Determination of the largest stable suddenly appearing axial and circumferential through cracks in ductile pressured pipe, 4th Int. ConfI Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977, p. F7/1. 18. FRA Ayres, D. J. & Griesbach, T. J., Opening and extension of circumferential cracks in a pipe subject to dynamic loads,5th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979,p. F5/1. 19. FRA Bangash, Y., A three-dimensional rupture analysisof steel liners anchored to concrete pressure and containment vessels, Eng. Fract. Mech., 28 (1987) 157-85. 20. FRA Barake, N. & Chaaban,A., Effect of cracks on load distribution in threaded end closuresand fracture detection, 1994 Pres. Ves. Piping Cor$, PVP 281, ASME, 1994,pp. 27-33. 21. FRA Barony, S. Y. et al., Finite element analysisof large prestressedconcrete pipes, 6th World Gong. FEM, ed. J. Robinson, Banff, R&A, 1990,pp. 628-34. 22. FRA Barsoum, R. A., An assessmentof the quarter-point elements in pressure vessel fracture analysis,6th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981,p. L6/5. 23. FRA Bartholome, G. et al., Experimental and theoretical determination of leakage areas due to subcritical cracks. In ECF6 Fracture Control Engineering Str., Vol. 2. Emas,1986,pp. 919-31. 24. FRA Bass, B. R. et al., Applications of energy release rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels,J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
ASME,

104(1982)308-16.

25. FRA Bass, B. R. et al., Computational methodsfor fracture analysis of heavy section steel technology (HSST) pressure vessel experiments, Nucl. Eng. Design, 86 (1985) 93-109. 26. FRA Baum, M. R. & Parry, A. A., Thrust exerted on

Jaroslav

Mackerle

a gas-pressurized vessel during axial rupture, Proc.


Inst. Mech. Eng., Part E, 206 (1992) 1.5-24.

27. FRA Beller, M. & Mattheck, C., A theoretical study of cracks in pipelinesinitiated due to the presenceof dents. In Localized Damage, ed. M. H. Aliabadi et al., Vol. 3. CMP, Southampton, 1990,pp. 263-76. 28. FRA Bennani, B. et al., Finite element computation of isotropic and elasto-plastic problems with damage occurrence, 3rd Int. Co@ Comp. Plast., ed. D. R. J. Owen. PineridgePress,Swansea, 1992,pp. 1443-54. 30. FRA Bergman, M. & Brickstad, B., Stressintensity factors for circumferential cracks in pipes analyzed by FEM using linear spring elements, Znt. J. Fract., 47 (1991) R17-19. 31. FRA Bergman, M. & Brickstad, B., A procedure for analysis of leak before break in pipes subjected to fatigue or IGSCC accounting for complex crack shapes,Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Strut., 18 (1995) 1173-88. 32. FRA Berman, I. & Rao, M. S. M., Sensitivity of estimated tube life to material property variation, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 105 (1983)73-9. 33. FRA Bernard, J. ef al., Fracture of longitudinally cracked ductile tubes, 4th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco,1977,p. F7/3. 34. FRA Besuner,P. M. & Caughey, W. R., Comparison of finite element and influence function methods for three-dimensional elastic analysis of boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle cracks. Electrical Power ResearchInstitute, Report EPRI NP-261, California, 1976. 35. FRA Bethmont, M. et al., Fatigue behaviour of 316L stainless steel pipescontaining flaws, 6th Int. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981,p. F6/3. 36. FRA Bhadari, S. et al., Computation of leak areasof circumferential cracks in piping for application in demonstrating leak-before-break behaviour, SMZRT 20. Anaheim, 1989,pp. 141-9. 37. FRA Bhandari, S. et al., Initiation and instability behaviour of cracked LMBFR piping: comparisonof different theoretical approaches and experiments,
Nucl. Eng. Design, 119 (1990) 337-45.

and piping containing defects. Report EPRI NP-2431, Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1982. 45. FRA Boussaa,D. et al., Fatigue-ratchetting analysis of pressurized elbows,Pres. Vex Piping Conf, Denver, PVP 266, ASME, 1993,pp. 13-21. 46. FRA Brickstad, B., Numerical analysis of IPIRG cracked pipe experiments subjected to dynamic and cyclic loading, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 55 (1993) 395-422. 47. FRA Brickstad, B. & Nilsson, F., Dynamic analysis of crack growth and arrest in a pressure vessel subjectedto thermal and pressureloading, Eng. Fract. Mech., 23 (1986) 61-70. 48. FRA Brickstad, B. & Nilsson,F., A dynamic analysis of crack propagation and arrest in pressurizedthermal shock (PTS) experiments,Eng. Fract. Mech., 23 (1986) 99-102. 49. FRA Brockenbrough, R. L., Fatigue life of seamless steel pressure vessels, Pres. I/es., ASME, 109 (1987) J. 323. 50. FRA Brocks, W. & Kunecke, G., Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysisof a pressure vesselwith an axial outer surfaceflaw, Nucl. Eng. Design, 119 (1990) 307-15. 51. FRA Brocks, W. & Noack, H. D., Three dimensional elastic-plasticfinite element analysisof a nozzle corner crack. In Numerical Methods Coupled Problems, ed. E. Hinton et al. Pineridge Press, Swansea, 1981, pp. 454-65. 52. FRA Brocks, W. & Noack, H. D., Elastic-plastic FEM-analysis of an inner surface flaw in a pressure vessel, 9th Int. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. Gl95-201. 54. FRA Brocks, W. & Noack, H. D., Elastic-plastic J analysisfor an inner surface flaw in a pressurevessel,
Exp. Mech., 28 (1988) 205-9.

55. FRA Brocks, W. & Noack, H. D., J-integral and stresses an inner surface flaw in a pressurevessel, at
Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping,

31 (1988) 187-203.

38. FRA Bhasin, V. et at., Fatigue evaluations of MAPS calandria tube sheet after installation of moderator sparger tube, Fatigue Fract. Steel Concr. Str., ISFF91, Vol. 1. Madras, 1991,pp. 91-105. 39. FRA Biggio, M. et al., Elasto-plastic stressanalysis of the cracked nozzle of a RPV model-theoretical and experimental investigation, 7th Int. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. G/F2/2. 40. FRA Billon, F. & Flesch, B., Unstable flaw size of defect in the perforated region of the steamgenerator tube sheet, 7th Int. ConJ: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. G/F4/7. 41. FRA Birades, M. et al., Unilateral contact between the sidesof an elasticcrack. In Fracture 84, ICF6, Vol. 2. Pergamon,Oxford, 1988,pp. 1161-7. 42. FRA Blachut, J. & Galletly, G. D., A numerical investigation of buckling/material failure modes in CFRP dome closures.In Composite Material Design Analysis, ed. W. P. de Wilde. Springer, Berlin, 1990, pp. 395-411. 43. FRA Bloom, J. M., Validation of the deformation of plasticity failure assessment diagram (DFFAD) approach-the caseof an axial flaw in a pressurized cylinder, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 112 (1990) 213-17. 44. FRA Bloom, J. M. & Malik, S. N., Procedurefor the assessment the integrity of nuclear pressurevessels of

56. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Fracture mechanics investigations on a pipe with a circumferential flaw supported by FEM, Nuct. Eng. Design, 143 (1993) 171-85. 57. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Elastic-plastic analysisof a nozzle corner crack by finite-element method, Znt. J.
Pres., 10(1982) 219-34.

58. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Elastic-plastic analysisof a nozzle corner crack by the finite element method. In Elasto-plastic Fracture, STP 803, ASTM, 1983, pp. 240-55. 59. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Stable crack growth of axial flaws in pressurevessels,SMIRT 10. Anaheim, 1989, pp. 151-60. 60. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Ductile crack growth of semi-elliptical surfaceflaws in pressurevessels, J. ht. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 43 (1990)301-16. 61. FRA Brocks, W. et al., Experimental and numerical investigationsof stablecrack growth of an axial surface flaw in a pressure vessel,IAEA Spec. Meet. Large-scale Test., Stuttgart, 1991,pp. 151-69. 62. FRA Broekhoven, M. J. G., Theoretical and experimental analysis of crack extension at nozzle junction. In Crack Fracture, ASTM, STP 601, 1976. 63. FRA Bros, J. et ai, Initial crack size for nuclear components,9th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. G143-8. 64. FRA Brown, D. K., On the life assessment a of through-cracked welded tubular T-node. In Fracture

Finite

elements

in the analysis

of pressure

vessels and piping

309

84, ICF6, Vol. 5. Pergamon, Oxford, 1984, pp. 3583-90. 65. FRA Brown, D. K. et al., On the finite element analysisof a welded tubular T-joint with a throughthickness crack, 3rd Int. Con$ Num. Meth. Fract. Mech., Swansea,1984,pp. 575-86. 66. FRA Brown, S. J. & Brown, T. J., Fatigue of a 45 degree pipeline lateral by cyclic pressure:a casestudy into the effects of lateral reinforcement, 1994Pres.Ves. Piping Conf, PFP 278, ASME, 1994,pp. 117-30. 67. FRA Brust, F. W. & Leis, B. N., Primary-creep crack growth at room temperature in surface-crackedpipes,
Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 52 (1992) 273-98.

68. FRA Brust, F. W. et al., Comparison between FE analysis predictions and pipe fracture experiments,
Nucl. Eng. Design, 143 (1993) 201-1.5.

69. FRA Brust, F. W. et al., Elastic-plastic analysisof small cracks in tubes, 11th Int. Conf. Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., Calgary, ASME, 1992,pp. 475-82. 70. FRA Brust, F. W. et al., Elastic-plastic analysisof small cracks in tubes, J. Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng.,
ASME, 117 (1995) 57-62.

71. FRA Bryan, R. H. et al., Test of thick vesselwith a flaw in residual stress field, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 (1981) pp. 85-93. 72. FRA Bryan, R. H. ef al., The heavy-section steel technology pressurized-thermal-shock experiment, PTSE-1, Eng. Fruct. Mech., 23 (1986) 81-97. 73. FRA Buchheim, G. M. & Osage,D. A., Fitness-forservice evaluation of a refinery pressurevessel, Pres. Ves. Piping Con&, Denver, PVP 261, ASME, 1993,pp. 265-74. 74. FRA Buchheim, G. M. et al., Failure investigation of a low chrome long-seamweld in a high-temperature refinery piping system, Pres. Ves. Piping ConJ, PVP 288, ASME, 1994,pp. 363-86. 75. FRA Buchheim, G. M. et al., Failure investigation of a low chrome long-seamweld in a high-temperature refinery piping system,1. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 117 (1995) 227-37. 76. FRA Caldis, E. S. & Owen, D. R. J., Gas depressurisation modelling for crack propagation studies in pressurisedpipelines, 2nd Int. Conf Num. Meth. Fruct. Mech., Swansea, 1980. 77. FRA Caldis,E. S. et al, Nonlinear dynamic transient methods in crack propagation studies. In Nonlinear Dynamic Fracture Mechanics, AMD 35, ASME, 1979, pp. 1-17. 78. FRA Caldis, E. S. et al., Transient dynamic crack propagation in gaspressurised pipelines, 7th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. B4/1. 79. FRA Cardinal, J. W. et al., Elastic-plastic finite element analysesof stable crack growth and fracture instability in a girth welded pipe, N&l. Eng. Design, 89 (1985) 283-93. 80. FRA Cardinal, J. W. et al., Modeling considerations in numerical analysis of ductile crack propagation in gas transmission pipelines. In Numerical Methods Fracture Mechanics, ed. A. R. Luxmoore. Pineridge Press,Swansea, 1987,pp. 135-51. 81. FRA Cella, A. et al., Experimental and numerical evaluation of J integral on tubes, 7th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. G/F4. 82. FRA Cesari, F. & Hellen, T. K., Evaluation of stress intensity factors for internally pressurized cylinders with surfaceflaws, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 7 (1979) 199-227. 83. FRA Chaaban, A. & Jutras, M., Static and fatigue

analysis of buttress threads of thick-walled vessels using the finite element method, Pres. Ves. Piping Cor$, PVP 148, ASME, 1988,pp. 35-41. 84. FRA Chaab,an, & Jutras, M., General Kl solution A. for circumferential cracks on threaded end closures, Pres. Ves. Piping Cant, PVP 165,1989,pp. 9-13. 85. FRA Chai, G. & Hong, Q., Approximate stressintensity factor solutionsfor nozzle corner cracks, ht. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 42 (1990)75-96. 86. FRA Chang, S. J., Probability of fracture for HFIR pressure vessel caused by random crack size or by random toughness,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 116 (1994)24-9. 87. FRA Chao, Y. J. & Chen, H., Stressintensity factors for complete internal and external cracks in spherical shells,Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 40 (1989) 315-26. 88. FRA Charras, T. et al., Applications of the leak-before-break concept on a ~-LOOP PWR: an exercise on primary piping, 9th Int. Con$ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. 6261-g. 89. FRA Chattopadhyay, J. et al., Elastoplastic fracture mechanics analysis of elbows using layered shell bending element, Fatigue Fruct. Steel Concr. Str., ISFF91, Vol. 1, Madras, 1991,pp. 79-89. 90. FRA Cheaitani, M. J., Ultimate strength of cracked and untracked tubular K joints, Weld. World, 33 (1994) 322-39. 91. FRA Chen, W. H. & Huang, C. C., Threedimensionalthermoelasticanalysisof a cylindrical pipe with an internal surface crack under convection cooling, Nucl. Eng. Design, 132 (1991) 143-51. 92. FRA Chiba, N. et al., Behavior of surface flaws in reactor pressurevesselsunder thermal shock loading conditions, Exp. Mech., 21 (1981) 155-62. 93. FRA Chiba, N. et al., Dynamic collapseanalysisfor pressurizedpipes containing axial through-wall cracks. In Comp. Mech. 86, ed. G. Yagawa & S. N. Atluri. Springer, Berlin, 1986,pp. V-313. 94. FRA Choi, Y. H. et al., A parametric study on the behavior of a crack located at stripping zone in thermally stratified pipe, Asian Pucif. Cor$ Fracture Strength, APCFS 93, 1993, pp. 653-8. 95. FRA Chue, C. H. & Hwang, C. J., The failure analysisof a cylindrical shell with arbitrarily oriented through cracks, Comput. Struct., 46 (1993) 371-9. 96. FRA Chun, R. C. & Chuang,T. Y., Impact analyses after pipe rupture. In Structure Impact Crashwort, ed. G. A. Davies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984,pp. 320-30. 97. FRA Cizelj, L. & Mavko, B., Stresses around the tip of an axial crack in a steam generator tube, Strojniski
Vestnik, 39 (1993) 23-34.

98. FRA Cizelj, L. et al., Propagation of stresscorrosion cracks in steam generator tubes, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 63 (1995)35-43. 99. FRA Couterot, C. er al., Application of Kj rule to different specimens to a cracked elbow. In Shallow and Crack Fracture Mechanics. Cambridge, Abington, 1993,pp. Pap 18. 100. FRA Dai, Y. et al., Calculation of the stressintensity factor for a partial circumferentially cracked tube loaded in bending by using the shell line-spring model, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 14 (1991) 11-23. 101. FRA Daoud, 0. E. K., Energy release rates of straight-front edge-crack in a pipe under uniform tension or bending, Eng. Fract. Me&, 44 (1993) 327-33. 102. FRA DeLorenzi, H. G., Elastic-plastic analysis of

310

Jaroslav

Mackerle

the maximumpostulatedflaw in the beltline region of a reactor vessel,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104 (1982)

278-86.
103. FRA DeLorenzi, H. G. & Schumacher, B. I., The influence of residual stresseson small through-clad cracks in pressurevessels, Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, J.

106 (1984)383-91.
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268. FRA Muscati, A. & Bradford, R., A comparisonof the failure pressureaspredicted by finite element stress analysiswith the resultsof full scaleburst testson GRP flanges. In Composite Structures, ed. I. H. Marshall. Applied Science,1981,pp. 691-703. 269. FRA Muscati, A. & Lee, D. J., Elastic-plastic finite element analysis of thermally loaded cracked structures, Znt. J. Fract., 25 (1984) 227-46. 270. FRA Musicco, G. G. et al., Application of the tearing-mode crack-growth instability theory to a cracked pressure vessel nozzle, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 (1981)59-75. 271. FRA Nakamura, H. et al., Analyses of surfacecracks in weld pipe-an application of line spring model, 7th Int. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983, p. G/F7/5. 272. FRA Nakao, T. et al., An assessment the dynamic of effects accompanying unstable crack propagation and arrest in a thermal shock event in a nuclear pressure vessel. In Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics, ed. A. R. Luxmoore Pineridge Press,Swansea,1987, pp. 807-20. 273. FRA Nakayama, H. et al., On the evaluation of fatigue strength characteristics of adhesively bonded CFRP pipe/steel rod joint under rotating bending fatigue, J. Sot. Mater. Sci. Jpn., 43 (1994) 177-82. 274. FRA Natarajan, R. & Patel, R. M., Stresscorrosion cracking of a pipe bend-availability factor. In Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics, ed. A. R. Luxmoore. Pineridge Press,Swansea, 1987,pp. 795-805. 275. FRA Neale, B. K. et al., The fracture behaviour of an axial crack in a pressurizedpipe, Fatigue Fract. Eng.
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264. FRA Miyoshi, T. et al., Finite element elastic-plastic analysisof growth and penetration of a surface crack, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 33 (1988) 15-25. 265. FRA Mok, D. H. B. et a/., Bursting of line pipe with long external corrosion, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 46 (1991) 195-216. 266. FRA Moulin, D. & Brochard, J., Classification of stressin the ligament of a longitudinal crack in an ovalizing elbow, Pres. Ves. Piping Con$, Denver, PVP 266, ASME, 1993,pp. 147-54. 267. FRA Moussavi, Z. G. et al., Importance of the triaxiality modified J concept for the assessment of

279. FRA Nishiguchi, I. et al., A simplified method for predicting creep collapse of a tube under external pressure, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 112 (1990) 233-9. 280. FRA Nishioka, T. & Atluri, S. N., Efficient computational techniques for analysis of some problemsof fracture in pressurevessels and piping, ASME Preprint 80-C2/PVP-110, 1980. 281. FRA Nishioka, T. & Atluri, S. N., Analysis of surface flaw in pressure vessels by a new 3-dimensional alternating method, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104 (1982)299-307. 282. FRA Nordham, D. I. & Kaldor, L. M., Design procedure for stressintensification factors of 90-deg. Curved pipe having various tangent lengths, J. Pres.
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315

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286. FRA ODonoghue, P. E. et al., Fracture mechanics computational analysis of crack propagation in pressurized pipelines using a coupled fluid/structure model. In NUMETA 90, Vol. 1, eds G. N. Pande & J. Middleton, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990,pp. 28-37. 287. FRA Ochoa, 0. 0. et al., Damage tolerance of compositetubes under compressive loading, Composite
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297. FRA Pesti, L., Fracture assessment surface cracks of in pressure vessels and pipings by 3D FEM computations, ECFS-Fract. Behau. Design Mater. SLY., 1990,pp. 1582-91. ZZZ, 298. FRA Pesti, L. & Szabolcs, G., Fracture analysis of axial and circumferential belt-line cracks in a PWR pressurevessel under thermal transients by 3D FEM computations. In FEMCAD-80, Vol. 2, A. Niku-Lari, IITT, 1988,pp. 169-81. 299. FRA Petit, M. & Jamet, P., Numerical evaluation of cracked pipesunder dynamic loading, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 167,ASME, 1989,pp. 121-7. 300. FRA Poette, C. & Albaladejo, S., Stress intensity factors and influence functions for circumferential surface cracks in pipes, Eng. Fract. Me&., 39 (1991) 641-650. 301. FRA Poette, C. et al., Fatigue crack growth on a straight pipe element under sodiumthermal shocks,9th Int. Con& Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne, 1987, pp. G519-25. 302. FRA Popelar, C. H. & Sheu, Y. C., Characteristicsof viscoplastic effects in dynamic crack propagation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels, Nucl. Eng. Design, 134 (1992) 411-18. 303. FRA Prodan, M. & Radon, J. C., On the integrity of

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318. FRA Ramulu, M. et al., Dynamic crack curving and branching in line-pipe, .I. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104
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319. FRA Rebora, B. et al., Nonlinear analysis up to rupture of a model of a multicavity prestressed concrete pressure vessel, 4th Znt. Conf. Str. Me&. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977,p. H3/4. 320. FRA Reich, M., Inelastic analysisof finite length and depth cracked tubes, 4th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977,p. F7/4.

316

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107 (1985) 18-24.

348. FRA Simonen, F. A. 81 Jaske, C. E., A computational model for predicting the life of tubes used in petrochemical heater service, J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
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107(1985)239-46.

349. FRA Simos, N. et al., On the investigation of cracking in safety injection PWR lines due to thermal stratification, 1990 Pres. Ves. Piping Con&, PVP 197, ASME, 1990,pp. 289-94. 350. FRA Stegmeyer, R. et al., 3D-FE calculations of a pressure vessel under thermal shock loading, Nucl.
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of pressure

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375.

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378.

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Jaroslav

Mackerle

396. FRA Yamamoto, S. et al., Fatigue and creep-fatigue testing of bellowsat elevated temperature,J. Pres. Ves.
Tech., ASME,

110(1988)301-7.

416. FRA Zhukov, V. V. et al., Criteria of leakage occurrence and pressure vessel failure as applied to reactors,J. Pres. Ves. Tech. ASME, 114 (1992) 378-80.

397. FRA Yang, C. Y., Introduction of shifting core method for stable crack extension analysis. In Local Damage, Vol. 3, ed. M. H. Aliabadi et al. CMP, Southampton, 1990,pp. 113-28. 398. FRA Yang, C. Y. & Palusamy,S. S., VCE method of J determination for a pressurizedpipe under bending,
J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, Acoust., Stress, ASME,

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(CON)

105 (1983) 16-22.


1. CON Ainsworth, K., Low-velocity transverseimpact of filament wound E-Glass/Epoxy resin pipes. Ph.D. Thesis,University of Liverpool, UK, 1990. 2. CON Ainsworth, K. L. & Evans, K. E., Transverse impact of filament-wound pipes. In Composite Structures, Vol. 5, ed. I. H. Marshall. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989,pp. 333-45. 3. CON Ainsworth, K. L. & Evans, K. E., The measurementand modeling of filament wound pipes undergoing transverse impacts, 4th Znt. Conf. Fibre ReinJ: Comp., Liverpool, 1990,pp. 143-8. 4. CON Assanelli, A. P. 81 Dvorkin, E. N., Finite element models of OCTG threaded connections, Comput. Struct., 47 (1993)725-34. 5. CON Aufaure, M. et al., Analysis of residualstresses due to roll-expansionprocess:finite element computation and validation by experimental tests,9th Znt. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne, 1987, pp. B499-503. 6. CON Barake, N. & Chaaban,A., Effect of cracks on load distribution in threaded end closuresand fracture detection. Pres. Vex Piping Conf., PVP 281, 1994,pp.

399. FRA Yeh, H. Y., Stress analysis applications to service failures of traveling-wave tubes, J. Vibr.,

106 (1984) 533-7.

400. FRA Yener, M. & Wolcott, E., Damage assessment analysis of composite pressure vesselssubjected to random impact loading, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 146, 1988,pp. 219-26. 401. FRA Yener, M. & Wolcott, E., Progressiveimpact damageassessment compositepressurevessels, in Eng. Constr., Operat. Space: Space 88, Albuquerque ASCE, 1988,pp. 552-63. 402. FRA Yokomaku, T. & Saori, M., Creep-fatigue life evaluation of reformer tube for fuel cell application, Res. Deu. ( Kobe Steel, 40 (1990) 69-72. 403. FRA Yokomaku, T. et al., Creep-fatiguelife analysis of fuel-cell reformer tube by finite element method, J. Sot. Mater. Sci. Jpn., 38 (1989) 154-60. 404. FRA Yoshida, S. & Miyoshi, T., Stress intensity factor analysis surfacecracksof a cylindrical storage for tank under seismicloading, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 167,ASME, 1989,pp. 129-34. 405. FRA Younan. M. Y. A. & El-Zoghbv. A. A.. Application of finite element method to &k fracture mechanicsof pressurize PVC pipes, 1st Cairo Univ. Conf. Mech. Design Prod., Cairo, 1979. 406. FRA Younan, M. Y. A. & Tamin, M. A., A new edge loaded fracture mechanics pipe specimen,6th Znt. Con5 Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981,p. F7/12. 407. FRA Younan, M. Y. A. et al., Fracture mechanics analysisof a fire tube boiler, Eng. Fract. Mech., 17

27-33. 7. CON Bathe, K. J. & Chaudhary, A., A solution


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408. FRA Zahoor, A., J-integral estimation analysis for circumferential throughwall cracked pipes, Nucl. Eng. Design, 108 (1988)515-22. 409. FRA Zahoor, A., Advances in J-integral estimation analysisfor circumferentially flawed throughwall pipes in bending. In Advances in Fracture Research, ed. Vol. 3. K. Salama et al. Pergamon, Oxford, 1989, pp.

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410. FRA Zako, M. et al., Reliability analysis of evaluation of life for structures, Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., 50A (1984)920-27. 411. FRA Zarghamee, M. S. et al., Coating delamination by radial tension in prestressedconcrete pipes II: Analysis, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 119 (1993) 2720-32. 412. FRA Zarghamee, M. S. et al., Preventing coating delamination in prestressedconcrete pipe, Int. Conf. Pipeline Znfrastruct. II, San Antonio, ASCE, 1993,pp. 574-94. 413. FRA Zarrabi, K., Plastic collapse pressures for defected cylindrical vessels, J. Pres. Ves. d Piping, Inc. 60 (1994) 65-69. 414. FRA Zhao, Y. & Pang, S. S., Stress-strain and failure analysesof composite pipe under torsion, J.
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surfacecontact algorithm for the post-bucklinganalysis of shell structures, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., 78 (1990) 141-63. 9. CON Birades, M. et al., Unilateral contact between the sides an elastic crack. In Fracture 84, ICF6, Vol. of 2. Pergamon,Oxford, 1988,pp. 1161-7. 10. CON Bitner, J. L. & Rutherford, D. W., Stability of pipe supportsutilizing U-bolts, Pres. Ves. Piping Con&, PVP 282, ASME, 1994,pp. 23-34. 11. CON Booker, J. R. & Small, J. C., The analysisof liquid storagetanks on deep elasticfoundations, Znt. J. Num. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 7 (1983) 187-207. 12. CON Brown, S. J., Energy release protection for pressurized systems. Part II: review of studies into impact/terminal ballistics,Appl. Mech. Rev., 39 (1986) 177-201. 13. CON Chaaban,A. & Jutras, M., General Kl solution for circumferential cracks in threaded end closures, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 165, ASME, 1989, pp. 9-13. 14. CON Chaaban, A. & Jutras, M., Static analysis of buttress threads using the finite element method, J.
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114 (1992) 209-12.

117 (1995) 273-8.

415. FRA Zhu, H. et al., Effects of prestrain on the fracture properties of pressure vessel steel, Znt. J.

15. CON Chaaban, A. & Muzzo, U., Finite element analysisof residual stresses threaded end closures, in 1990 Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 192, ASME, 1990, pp. 23-7. 16. CON Chaaban, A. & Muzzo, U., Finite element analysisof residualstresses threaded end closures, in J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 113 (1991)398-401. 17. CON Chaaban, A. & Muzzo, U., On the design of

Finite

elements

in the analysis

of pressure

vessels and piping

319

threaded-end closuresfor high pressurevessels,Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, Denver, PVP 263, ASME, 1993,pp.
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Chen, H. & Chao, Y. J., Contact between vesselshell and welded pad in nozzle reinforcement, J.
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Joints, Chicago, MD 6, ASME, 1988, pp. 33-41. 36. CON Hibbitt, H. D. et al., Nonlinear analysis of some slender pipelines, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Adhesive Bonded Eng., 17/18 (1979) 203-25. 37. CON Hsu, K. H. et al., Analysis of interface sliding in a bolted closure,Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., PVP 158,

19. CON Chung, C. K., Nonlinear dynamic responseof submarine pipelines in contact with the ocean floor. Ph.D. Thesis,University of Houston, 1986. 20. CON Crum, A. S. D., Distribution of load over the threads of a threaded closure: including temperature effects and local imperfections,Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 148, ASME, 1988,pp. 43-53. 21. CON Dijkstra, 0. D. et al., Stress concentration factors in T and K-T tubular joints usingfinite element analysis,J. Energy Resource Tech., ASME, 110 (1988)
246-54. 22. CON Dilintas, G., Influence of the filament on the

ASME, 1989,pp. 87-95. 38. CON Hwang, D. Y. & Stallings,J. M., Finite element analysisof bolted flange connections,Comput. Struct.,
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39. CON Imanaka, M. et al., Evaluation of fatigue life of adhesively bonded CFRP pipe-steel rod joints,
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performance of a composite tubing connection, J. Composite Mater., 26 (1992) 1443-54. 23. CON Dixit, K. B. et al., Finite element analysisof inclined nozzle-plate junctions, 5th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979,p. G10/7. 24. CON Dong, M. Y. & Lee, H. M., Automation in local stress evaluation for pipe support and pipe attachment, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., Denver, PVP 256, ASME, 1993,pp. 235-41. 25. CON Dweib, A. H., Computer aided designof piping systemsupports,Pres. Ves. Conf, Nashville, PVP 185, ASME, 1990,pp. 73-5. 26. CON Ebecken, N. F. F. et al., Analysis of the static strength of tubular joints. In Numerical Methods Non-linear Problems, Vol. 2. PineridgePress,Swansea, 1984,421-31. 27. CON Fasiczka,R. G., Quantitative significanceof the designparametersof threaded end closures,Pres. Ves. Piping Con5 PVP 148, ASME, 1988,pp. 139-45. 28. CON Finch, D. M. & Burdekin, F. M., Finite element validation studies of the revised PD6493/CEGBR6. l-Failure assessment methodologiesapplied to welded flat plates and pipe plate joint, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 49 (1992) 187-212. 29. CON Finch, D. M. & Burdekin, F. M., Finite element validation studies of the revised PD6493/CEGBR6 2-Failure assessment methodologiesapplied to welded tubular joints, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 49 (1992) 213-30. 30. CON Galeao, A. C. et al., A numerical model to analyse the impact between piping and gapped restraints, 9th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. B119-24. 31. CON Garcia, J. L. et al., Studies of pipe whip and impact, 6th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981,F8/6. 32. CON Garcia, J. L. et al., Experimental studies of pipe impact on rigid restraints and concrete slabs,7th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983, p. F2/1. 33. CON Garud, Y. S., Service stressesin expansion transitionsof heat-exchangerU-tube joints, Nucl. Eng.
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46. CON Konig, M., Calculating the base plates of the tube-in-plate assemblyby means of finite elements,
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Mackerle Methode der Finiten Elemente. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Aachen, Germany, 1981. 74. CON Peng, L. C., Treatment of support friction in pipe stressanalysis,Pres. Ves. Piping Co@, PVP 169, ASME, 1989,pp. 143-8. 75. CON Peyrot, A. H., Cables and flexible pipes in contact with sea floor, Proc. Ses. Relat Steel Str. Str. Cong., San Francisco, ASCE, 1989,pp. 31-40. 76. CON Prinja, N. K., Numerical analysisof pipe impact on reinforced concrete structures, Res. Mech., 30 (1990)305-31. 77. CON Prinja, N. K. & Parker, J. V., Numerical analysis of pipe impact on reinforced concrete structures, 9th Znt. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. H363-8. 78. CON Pulmano, V. A. et aZ., Analysis of circular cylindrical storage tanks resting on an elastic foundation. In Computational Mechanics, ed. S. Valliapan et al. Lausanne,1993,pp. 189-92. 79. CON Rabern, D. A. & Lewis, M. W., Two- and three-dimensional simulations of moving pressure fronts in gun tubes, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 114 (1992) 181-8. 80. CON Raju, P. P., Stressindicesfor nonradial branch connections subjected to out-of-plane moment loadings, 9th Znt. Con8 Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne, 1987,pp. F371-8. 81. CON Raju, P. P., Development of stressindices for nonradial branch connections, Nucl. Eng. Design, 98 (1987)421-35. 82. CON Rogers, R. J. & Pick, R. J., On the dynamic spatial response of a heat exchanger tube with intermittent baffle contacts, Nucl. Eng. Design, 36 (1976)81-90. 83. CON Rogers, R. J. & Pick, R. J., Factors associated with support plate forces due to heat-exchanger tube vibratory contact, Nucl. Eng. Design, 44 (1977)247-53. 84. CON Rudolphi, T. J. & Rogge, T. R., Stress and deformation analysis of a tube and coupling device, Ames Laboratory Report No. USDOE, 1983. 85. CON Rudolphi, T. J. et al., Analysis of interfacial stresses between a NiTi coupler and a tube under large plastic deformation, Comput. Struct. 21 (1985) 121-7. 86. CON Saevik, S., A finite element model for predicting stresses and slip in flexible pipe armouring tendons, Comput. Struct., 46 (1993) 219-30. 87. CON Sakai, F. & Isoe, A., Influence of partial sliding of bottom plate in an anchored cylindrical tank during earthquakes, Proc. Jpn. Sot. Civil Eng., 410 (1989) 385-93. 88. CON Sauve, R. G. & Teper, W., Non-linear dynamic-impactsimulation of processequipmenttubes with tube/support plate interaction, 2nd Znt. Top Meet. Nucl. React. Therm.-Hydr., San Barbara, 1983. 89. CON Sauve, R. G. & Teper, W. W., Impact simulation of process equipment tubes and support plates-a numerical algorithm, J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
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(1993)407-21. 58. CON Liu, C. D. & Huang, C. H., New method for
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467-73. 60. CON Luo, Z. et al., Responseof a flexible tube to


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94. CON

FLUID-STRUCTURE PROBLEMS (FLU)

INTERACTION

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linear fluid structure interaction in seismic response of nuclear components. In Numerical Methods Coupled Problems, eds E. Hinton et al. Pineridge Press, Swansea, 1981, pp. 398-409. 5. FLU Arros, J. K., Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tanks subjected to seismic excitation, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1985. I. & Kanarachos, A., Modal 6. FLU Antoniadis, decoupling methods for fluid-structure interaction in piping systems, Comput. Strut., 29 (1988) 577-85. M., Finite element analysis of 7. FLU Aslam. earthquake-induced sloshing in axisymmetric tanks, Znt. J. Nunz. Meth. Eng., 17 (1981) 159-70. 8. FLU Axisa, F. & Gibert, R. J., Flow induced vibrations of piping, 4th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977. 9. FLU Axisa, F. & Gibert, R. J., Nonlinear analysis of fluid-structure coupled transients in piping systems using finite elements-applications to the secondary loop of a pool LMFBR, Pres. Ves. Piping Confi, ASME, 1982. 10. FLU Axisa, F. et al., Flow induced vibrations of piping system, vibrations sources, mechanical response of the pipes. BNES Vib. Nuclear Plant, Keswick, UK, 1978. 11. FLU Balendra, T., Earthquake finite element analysis of an annular cylindrical liquid storage tank, 3rd Int. Conf Finite Elem. Meth., Sydney, Unisearch, 1979, pp. 365-77. 12. FLU Balendra, T. & Nash, W. A., Seismic analysis of a cylindrical liquid storage tank with a dome by the finite element method. ASME Report 80-C2/PVP-74, 1980. 13. FLU Balendra, T. et al., Free vibration analysis of cylindrical liquid storage tanks, Int. J. Mech. Sci.. 24 (1982) 47-59. 14. FLU Barton, D. C. & Parker, J. V., The effect of restraint conditions on the seismic response of liquid storage tanks, 9th Int. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne, 1987, pp. B243-8. 15. FLU Barton, D. C. & Parker, J. V., Finite element analysis of the seismic response of anchored and unanchored liquid storage tanks, Earthquake Eng. Strut. Dyn., 15 (1987) 299-322. 16. FLU Belytschko, T. et al., Fluid-structure interaction in waterhammer response of flexible piping, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 108 (1986) 249-55. 17. FLU Bhojanala, R. P., Analysis of pipeline-sediment interaction under vertical loads, Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University, 1990. 18. FLU Brauer, H. & Brander, B., Fluid flow and heat transfer for tube rows and bundles at low values of the Reynolds number, Forschung Ingenieurwes., 59 (1993) 204-16. 19. FLU Calayir, Y. & Dumanoglu, A. A., Static and dynamic analysis of fluid and fluid-structure systems by the Lagrangian method, Comput. Strut., 49 (1993) 204-16. 20. FLU Chang, Y. W. et al., EPRI/CRIEPI joint program on seismic sloshing of LMR reactors: Part II-numerical simulations, 9th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne, 1987, pp. E453-8. 21. FLU Chen, W. & Haroun, M. A., Dynamic coupling between flexible tanks and seismically induced nonlinear liquid sloshing, Fluid Transients, FED 198, ASME, 1994, pp. l-3. 22. FLU Chiang, C. K., A finite element large deflection random response of a pipe containing fluid flow. In

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42. FLU Fehppa, C. A. & Ohayon, R., Mixed variational formulation of finite element analysisof acoustoelastic and sloshfluid-structure interaction, J. Fluids Struct., 4 (1990) 35-57. 43. FLU Frid, A., Fluid vibration in piping systems-a structural mechanics approachPart I: Theory, J. Sol&
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26. FLU Chung, J. S. et al., Three-dimensionalcoupled responsesof a vertical deep-ocean pipe: Part I Excitation at pipe ends and external torsion, ht. J.
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Mackerle J. Mater. Process. Tech., 45 (1994) 187-92. 67. MAN Sun, J. et al., Finite element simulation of thick tube expansions, Polym Process., 9 (1994) 168-77. Int. 68. MAN Suzuki, H. et al., Finite element analysisof tube deformation under impulsive internal pressure, Advances in Technology of Plastics, Vol. 1. Japanese Society of Technology of Plastics,1984,pp. 367-72. 69. MAN Suzuki, H. et al., A study of electromagnetic forming. X-free expansion of tube under magnetic pressure, Jpn. Sot. Tech. Plast., 27 (1986) 1254-60. .I. 70. MAN Szulc, W. & Malinowski, Z., Theoretical and experimental investigation of the multilayer tube drawing, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 45 (1994) 347-52. 71. MAN Thieven, P. et al., Processsimulation for the developmentin tube rolling technology, Stahl Eisen, 112 (1992) 85-90. 72. MAN Tszeng, T. C., Residual stress calculations by finite element method in manufacturing. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1987. 73. MAN Udagawa, T. et al., Investigation of metal flow and temperaturesby FEM in the extrusion of Ti-6Al-4V tubes,J. Mater. Process. Tech., 33 (1992) 155-74. 74. MAN Urbanski, S. & Kazanecki, J., Assessment the of strain distribution in the rotary piercing processby the finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 45 (1994) 335-40. 75. MAN Urbanski, S. et al., Prediction of hardness distribution in drawn tubes by matrix method. In Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, ed. J. L. Chenot, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1992,pp. 675-80. 76. MAN Vacance, M. et al., Multi stand pipe mill finite element model, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 24 (1990) 421-30. 77. MAN Wang, N. M. & Tang, S. C., Applications of the finite element method to sheet metal flanging operations. In: Simulation of Metal Forming Processes FEM. SIMOP, Stuttgart, 1985,pp. 279-308. 78. MAN Wang, Z. & Hu, Z., Theory of pipe-bending to a small bend radius using induction heating, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 21(1990) 275-84.

injection forming upsetting-a finite element analysis, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 209 (1995) 107-14. 47. MAN Pietrzyk, M., Thermo-mechanicalfinite-element simulation of the tube sinking process,Steel Res., 60 (1989)459-63. 48. MAN Pietrzyk, M. & Sadok, L., Validation of the finite element model of the tube sinking process,J. Mater. Process Tech., 22 (1990) 65-74. 49. MAN Pittman, J. F. T. et al., Cooling and wall thickness uniformity in plastic pipe manufacture: an experimental study and computer simulation, ht. Polym. Process., 9 (1994) 130-40. 50. MAN Pittman, J. F. T. et al., Wall thickness uniformity in plastic pipes: Computer simulationsof the effectiveness die mandrel of setting and pipe rotation of in sag,Polym. Eng. Sci., 35 (1995) 921-8. 51. MAN Popelar, C. H. et al., A method for determining residual stresses pipes, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, in 104 (1982) 223-S. 52. MAN Ramacciotti, A., Thermomechanicalstresses in a mandrel during seamlesstubing rolling at MPM, Metall. Ital., 80 (1988) 777-85. 53. MAN Rasty, J., Application of FEM to the analysisof tube drawing process. l-Effect of temperature on drawing and residual stresses, 50th Anniv. Spring Con& Exp. Mech., Dearborn, SEM, 1993,pp. 233-47. 54. MAN Rasty, J. & Chapman, D., Effect of process variables on the tube drawing process and product integrity, Winter Ann Meet., Atlanta, PVP 225, ASME, 1991,pp. 81-94. 55. MAN Rasty, J. & Chapman, D., Isothermal and thermomechanicalfinite element analysis of the tube drawing processusing a fixed tapered plug, J. Mater.
Eng. Perform.,

l(1992) 547-54.

56. MAN Reid, S. R., Plastic deformation mechanisms in axially compressed metal tubes used as impact energy absorbers, J. Mech. Sci., 35 (1993) 1035-52. Znt. 57. MAN Rigaut, J. M. ef al., Numerical analysisof cold drawing of tubes. In Modelling Metal Forming Processes, ed. J. L. Chenot, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988, pp. 261-68. 58. MAN Rojc, T., Simulation of cold forming processof aluminium plated plate by inflation, 3rd World Gong. Comp. Mech., Chiba, Japan, 1994,pp. C7-3. 59. MAN Sadok, L., Strain state in the tube-sinking process, Arch. Metall., 33 (1988) 35-47. 60. MAN Sadok, L. & Urbanski, S., Theoretical and practical aspectsof tube sinking by a rotary die, Steel Res., 60 (1989)263-8. 61. MAN Sadok, L. et al., Strains in the tube-sinking processevaluated by the finite element method, Steel
Res., 62 (1991) 255-60.

79. MAN Webb, D. C. et al., Thin tube mechanical bulging by axial compression an enclosedrod using of the finite element analysistechnique, Sheet Metal 1992. Birmingham, UK, 1992,pp. 181-92. 80. MAN Yamada, K. et al., Three-dimensionalanalysis of mandrel rolling by rigid-plastic finite element method. Nippon Steel Technical Report 52, 1992, pp. 50-5. 81 MAN Zhang, S. H. & Wang, Z. R., Researchinto the dielesshydroforming of double layer spherical vessels, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 60 (1994) 145-9.

62. MAN Sadok, L. et al., Validation of the rigid-plastic finite-element model of the tube drawing process.In
Computational Methods in Experimental Measurements V, ed. A. Sousaet al. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991, pp.

481-92. 63. MAN Sawamiphakdi, K. et al., Simulation of a tube drawing process the finite element method, 1. Mater. by Process. Tech., 27 (1991) 179-92. 64. MAN Schmoeckel, D. & Speck, F. D., Axial-radial forming of tubular components,Ann. CZRP, 44 (1995) 235-8. 65. MAN Shiau, Y. C. & Kobayashi, S., Threedimensionalfinite-element analysisof open-die forging, Znt. J. Num. Meth. Eng, 25 (1988) 67-85. simulationof 66. MAN Sola, G., et al., Thermomechanical seamless tube rolling usinga 3D finite element method,

WELDED PIPES AND PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS (WEL)


1. WEL Anderson, M. & Josefson,B. L., Welding stress redistribution in a butt-welded pipe during later mechanicaland thermal loadings,J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
ASME,

110 (1988)402-4.

2. WEL Blevins, R. D., Elastic thermal stresses in bimetallic pipe welds, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 102 (1980) 430-l. 3. WEL Brust, F. W. & Rybicki, E. F., A computational model of backlay welding for controlling residual

Finite

elements

in the analysis

of pressure

uessels and piping

327

stresses welded pipes,.I. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 in (1981)226-32. 4. WEL Chandra, U., Determination of residual stresses due to girth-butt welds in pipes, J. Pres. Ves. Tech.,
ASME,

107 (1985)178-84.

5. WEL

Chandra, U. & Kumar, S., Pipe welds,Pres. Ves. Piping Tech., ASME, 1985,pp. 187-201. 6. WEL Daron, B. er al., LMFBR Steam generator tube-to-tubesheet weld with dissimilar ferritic steelsqualification tests and inelastic analyses,9th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. E259-64. 7. WEL Derbalian, G. et al., Finite element axisymmetric stress analysis of 4-inch diameter welded pipe with prescribed residual stresses,Proc. Pres. Ves. Piping Cor$, ASME, 1980. 8. WEL Derbalian, G. et al., Finite element analysisof BWR welded pipes, 6th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981,F3/5. 9. WEL Dhalla, A. K., Structural evaluation of a butt-welded elbow end: a simplified procedure, .I. Pres.
Ves. Tech., ASME,

106 (1984) 230-6.

10. WEL Goldak, J. et al., Computational heat transfer for weld mechanics, Advances in Welding Science Technology. ASM International, Gatlinburg, TN, 1986, pp. 15-20. 11. WEL Goldak, J. A. et al., Finite element analysisof welding on fluid-filled, pressurized pipelines,
International Trends in Welding Science Technology

ASM Interational, 1993,pp. 45-50. 12. WEL Hepworth, J. K., The effect of residual stresson the creep deformation of welded pipe, Int. .I. Pres. Ves.
& Piping,

15 (1984)271-90.

13. WEL Josefson, B. L., Residual stressesand their redistribution during annealing of a girth-butt welded thin-walled pipe, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104 (1982) 245-50. 14. WEL Josefson, B. L., Stress redistribution during annealing of a multi-pass butt-welded pipe, J. Pres.
Ves. Tech., ASME,

23. WEL Kasuga,Y. et al., Residualstressin arc-welded 304 stainless steel pipesand its elimination technique in production, Theor. Appl. Mech., 41 (1992) 95-102. 24. WEL Koch, R. L. et a/., A computational temperature analysisfor induction heating of welded pipes, J. Eng. Mater. Tech., ASME, 107 (1985) 148-53. 25. WEL Kysiak, A. & Sluzalec, A., Creep of welded tubes undergoing internal pressure, Arch. Budowy Maszyn., 39 (1992) 169-79. 26. WEL Lambert, S. B. & Bell, R., Stress intensity factors for a pipe-plate weldedjoint, Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 53 (1993)525-42. 27. WE1 Lee, H. J. & Na, S. J., A study on heat flow in circumferential pipe welding using a semi-analytical finite element method, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 205 (1991) 179-86. 28. WEL Lehnhoff, T. F. & Miller, B. J., Pressurevessel shell-flange fillet weld stress concentration by finite element analysis,Winter Ann. Meet., PVP 225, ASME, 1991,pp. 75-9. 29. WEL Lindgren, L. E. & Karlsson, L., Deformations and stresses welding of shell structures, Int. 1. Num. in Meth. Eng., 25 (1988) 635-55. 30. WEL Mazepa, A. G. et aZ.. Investigation of the influence of production method on the cyclic strength of welded assemblies thin-walled connectionsof atomic of power pressure vessels, Strength Mater., 23 (1991) 342-50. 31. WEL Murthy, Y. V. L. et al., Analysis of residual stresses hemisphericalhead to cylindrical shell joints in of steam generator by weld cycle simulation, J. Mater. Process. Tech., 44 (1995) 273-80. 32. WEL Nair, S. et al., Residual stressgeneration and relaxation in butt-welded pipes, J. Pres. I/es. Tech.,
ASME,

104 (1982)42-6.

105 (1983) 165-70.

15. WEL Josefson, B. L., Effects of transformation plasticity on the welding residual stress field in thin-walled pipes and thin plates, Calculations of internal Heat Treatment Metal Materials. Linkoping, Sweden,1984,pp. 487-97. 16. WEL Josefson,B. L., Prediction of residual stresses and deformations in welded structures, Offshore Mech.
Arctic Eng., ASME, Arctic Eng., ASME,

IIIA (1991) 25-30. 115 (1993) 52-7.

17. WEL Josefson,B. L., Prediction of residual stresses and distortions in welded structures, 1. Offshore Mech. 18. WEL Josefson,B. L. & Karlsson,C. T., FE-calculated stresses a multi-pass butt-welded pipe-a simplified in approach,Int. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 38 (1989) 227-43. 19. WEL Josefson, L. et al., Transient and residual stresses a single-passbutt welded pipe, Int. Con5 in Residual Stressess, ICRS2, ed. G. Beck. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989,pp. 497-503. 20. WEL Josefson,L. ef al., Welding residual distortions in ring-stiffened pipes, 14th Int. Co@ Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., OMAE 1, ASME, 1995,pp. 467-73. 21. WEL Karlsson, C. T., Finite element analysis of temperaturesand stresses a single-passbutt-welded in pipe-influence of meshdensity and material modelling,
Eng. Comput., 6 (1989) 133-41.

33. WEL Nasstrom,M. et al., Combined solid and shell element modelling of welding. In Mechanical Effects Welding. Springer, Berlin, 1992,pp. 197-205. 34. WEL Nasstrom, M. et al., Residual stresses and deformations due to longitudinal welding of pipes, International Trends Welding Science Technology ASM International, 1993,pp. 109-X. 35. WEL Ohsawa, Y. et al., Soft welded joints for steel pipes, Tube Int., 5 (1986) 223-8. 36. WEL Ravichandran, G. et al., Prediction of temperature distribution during circumferential welding of thin pipesusingfinite element method, Int. J. Joining Mater., 7 (1995) 34-44. 27. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & McGuire, P. A., A computational model for improving weld residual stresses small diameter pipes by induction heating, J. in Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 (1981)294-9. 38. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & McGuire, P. A., The effects of induction heating conditions on controlling residual stresses welded pipes, J. Eng. Mater. Tech., ASME, in

104 (1982)267-73.
39. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & Stonesifer,R. B., Computation of residual stresses due to multipass welds in piping systems,Joint ASMEICSME Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., Montreal, 1978. 40. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & Stonesifer, R. B., Computation of residual stresses due to multipass welds in piping systems, Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 101 (1979) J. 149-54. 41. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & Stonesifer, R. B., An analysis procedure for predicting weld reuair residual stresses in ihick-walled vessels,Jy Pres. Vks. Tech., ASME, 102 (1980) 323-331.

22. WEL Karlsson, R. I. & Josefson, B. L., Threedimensionalfinite element analysisof temperaturesand stresses a single-passbutt-welded pipe, J. Pres. Ves. in
Tech., ASME,

112 (1990) 76-84.

328

Jaroslav

Mackerle

42. WEL Rybicki, E. F. & Stonesifer, R. B., An LEFM analysisfor the effects of weld-repair-induced residual stresses the fracture of the HSST ITV-8 vessel,J. on
Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME,

102 (1980) 318-23.

43. WEL Rybicki, E. F. et aZ., A finite element model for residual stresses and deflections in girth-butt welded pipes,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 100 (1978) 256-62. 44. WEL Rybicki, E. F. et aL, A finite element model for residual stresses girth-butt welded pipes. In Num. in Meth. Manuf Process., PB 025, ASME, 1977. 45. WEL Rybicki, E. F. et al., A finite element model for residual stresses and deflections in girth-butt welded pipes,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 100 (1978) 256-62. 46. WEL Rybicki, E. F. et al., The effect of pipe thickness on residual stresses due to girth welds, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104 (1982) 204-9. 47. WEL Shillitoe, S., A study of the butt fusion welding of thermoplastic pipes: an investigation into heat transfer and flow characteristics.Ph.D. Thesis,University of Bradford, UK, 1989. 48. WEL Sik, J. & Prantl, A., FEM-based thermal and stresssimulation of welding during manufacture and repair of PWR vessel,6th Int. Conf Math. Meth. Eng., Vol. 2, Plzen, Czechoslovakia,1991,pp. 527-31. 49. WEL Sluzalec, A. & Kysiak, A., An analysisof weld geometry in creep of welded tubes undergoing internal pressure,Comput. Struct., 40 (1991) 931-8. 50. WEL Song, H. & Moshaiov, A., Modeling of distortion in girth-welded thin pipes, J. Pres. Ves.
Tech., ASME,

2. ELE Almeida, C. A. & Salles,A. C., On modelling of pipe mitred bends-linear analysis, 4th World Gong. FEM, Interlaken, 1984,pp. 437-46. 3. ELE Bathe, K. J. & Almeida, C. A., A simple and effective pipe elbow element-linear analysis,J. Appl. Mech., ASME, 47 (1980) 93-100. 4. ELE Bathe, K. J. & Almeida, C. A., A simple and effective pipe elbow element-interaction effects, J. Appl. Mech., ASME, 49 (1982) 165-71. 5. ELE Bathe, K. J. & Almeida, C. A., A simple and effective pipe elbow element-pressure stiffening effects,J. Appl. Mech., ASME, 49 (1982)914-16. 6. ELE Bathe, K. J. et al., A simple and effective pipe elbow element-some nonlinear capabilities, Comput.
Struct. 17(1983)659-67.

112 (1990)266-72.

51. WEL Wang, Y. S., Load capacity in tension and in pressureof welded pipes containing soft zones, 8th Znt. Conf Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., Hague, ASME, 1989, pp. 365-76. 52. WEL Wang, Z. P. & Hayhurst, D. R., Materials data for high-temperature design of ferritic steel pressure vesselweldments,Znt. J. Pres. Ves & Piping, 55 (1993) 461-79. 53. WEL Weickert, C. A. et al., The effects of welding residual stress in root pass welds of pipelines, J. Pipelines, 4 (1984) 267-77. 54. WEL Wilkening, W. W. & Snow, J. L., Analysis of welding-induced residual stresseswith the ADINA system,Comput. Struct., 47 (1993) 767-86. 55. WEL Worswick, M. J. & Pick, R. J., Effect of longitudinal weld misalignmenton the collapse of line pipe, J. Pipelines, 5 (1986) 221-9. 56. WEL Yada, T. et al., Consideration of strain concentration at a welded joint with angular distortion in a thin spherical pressure vessel (influence of the position), Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., Ser. A, 55 (1989) 326-31. 57. WEL Yang, H. Q., Finite element simulation of residual stresses distortions during the welding of a and pipe, 32nd Str., Str. Dyn. Mater. Conf, Baltimore, pp. 1402-13, 1991.

DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL FINITE ELEMENTS FOR PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPES (ELE)
1. ELE Abo-Elkhier, M., Analysis of pipe bends using pipe elbow element, Comput. Struct., 37 (1990) 9-15.

7. ELE Besseling,J. F., Large rotations in problems of structural mechanics.In FEM Nonlinear Problems, eds P. G. Bergan et al. Springer, Berlin, 1985,pp. 25-39. 8. ELE Boyle, J. T. & Spence, J., Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems,Nucl. Eng.. Design, 57 (1980) 369-90. 9. ELE Chattopadhyay, J. et al, Elastoplastic fracture mechanics analysis of elbows using layered shell bending element, Fatigue Fract. Steel Concr. Str., ZSFF91, Vol. 1. Madras, 1991,pp. 79-89. 10. ELE De Melo, F. J. M. Q. & De Castro, P. M. S. T., Stress and flexibility analysis of thin-walled curved pipes under out-of-plane bending with the semimembranering element, Znt. J. Pres. I/es. & Piping, 41 (1990) 159-67. 11 ELE De Melo, F. J. M. Q. & De Castro, P. M. S. T., A reduced integration Mindlin beam element for linear elastic stressanalysisof curved pipes under generalized in-plane loading, Comput. Struct., 43 (1992) 787-94. 12. ELE Grebner, H. & Hofler, A., Finite element analysisof a pipe elbow with longitudinal through crack. In Failure Analysis, ed. E. Czoboly. EMAS, 1988, pp. 263-5. 13. ELE Grebner, H. & Strathmeier, U., Investigation of different isoparametric axisymmetric crack tip elements applied to a complete circumferential surface crack in a pipe, Comput. Struct., 21 (1985) 1177-80. 14. ELE Habib, M. et al., Edge effect analysisin adhesive bonded composite tubes using axisymmetric interface finite-elements. In Computer Aided Design of Composite Materials, ed. C. A. Brebbia. Springer, Berlin, 1988 pp. 415-28. 15. ELE Habib, M. et al., Analysis of adhesively bonded composite tubes under different loading conditions using axisymmetric interface finite elements, Adu. Adhesive Bonded Joints, Chicago, MD 6, ASME, 1988, pp. 33-41. of 16. ELE Hellen, T. K., An assessment the semiloof shell element, Znt. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 22 (1986) 133-51. 17. ELE Kanodia, V. L. et al., Instability analysis of torispherical pressure vessel heads with triangular thin-shell finite element,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 99 (1977) 64-74. 18. ELE Kojic, M. et al., Elastic-plastic analysis of multilayered orthotropic pipe as a beam superelement with deformable cross-section,4th Znt. Conf Computational Plasticity, Vol. 2, edsD. R. J. Owen & E. Onate, Pineridge Press,Swansea,1995,2129-40. 19. ELE Kozluk, M. J. et al., Comparisonof finite element analysisof a steam generator tee-junction using shell and solid elements,ASME Paper No. 83-WA/PVP-4, 1983.

Finite

elements

in the analysis

of pressure

vessels and piping

329

20. ELE Lazzeri, L., A model for a strain hardening pipe element, ASME Paper NO. 77/PVP-47, 1977. 21. ELE Lazzeri, L., An elastoplastic elbow element: theory and applications, 5th Znt. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, F3/6, 1979. 22. ELE Lazzeri, L., An elasto-plastic elbow elementtheory and applications, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 8 (1980) 197-213. 23. ELE Lazzeri, L. & Scala, M., Simplified plastic elements for pipes, AMN Report 1879-03, Genova, 1979. 24. ELE Lazzeri, L. & Scala, M., SMAUG a nonlinear superelement PAULA, AMN Report IS79-11, 1979. for 25. ELE Lazzeri, L. et al., Inelastic hinge element to account for local crushing instability break. AMN Report IS, 1979,79-05. 26. ELE Liang, W. Z. & Cheng, L. K., Quadrilateral cylindrical element for elasto-plastic analysis of nozzle-vessel intersection, Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 39 (1989) 209-23. 27. ELE Liaw, C. Y. et al., Improved finite elementsfor analysis of welded tubular joints. OTC Paper 2642, 1976. 28. ELE Mackenzie, D. & Boyle, J. T., Analyses of piping elbowsusing two new elbow finite elements,Pres. Ves. Piping Conf, PVP 188, ASME, 1990,pp. l-10. 29. ELE Mackenzie, D. & Boyle, J. T., Simple pipe bend element for piping flexibility analysis,Znt. J. Pres. Ves. & Piping, 51 (1992) 85-106. 30. ELE Militello, C. & Huespe, A. E., A displacementbasedpipe elbow element, Comput. Struct., 29 (1988) 339-43. 31. ELE Millard, A. et al., Friction finite elements for numerical analysis of piping systems: theory and applications, 7th Znt. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. F6/10. 32. ELE Morgan, E. F., Use of high order isoparametric solid finite elements for the stressanalysis of welded tubular joint. Southwest Research Institute, Proj. 03-9217-001, Texas, 1979. 33. ELE Natarajan, R., A finite element for analysis of elbowssubjectedto different loads and end constraints, Comput. Struct., 26 (1987) 561-74. 34. ELE Nguyen, V. B. & Redekop, D., Experience using the elbow pipe element, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf: PVP 144, ASME, 1988,pp. 201-6. 35. ELE Odorizzi, S. & Schrefler, B. A., A threedimensionalgeometrically nonlinear analysisof pipelaying in an ocean environment, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 103 (1981) 201-5. 36. ELE Ohtsubo, H. & Watanabe, O., Stressanalysisof pipe bendsby ring elements, Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, J. 100 (1978) 112-22. 37. ELE Oliver, J. & Onate, E., A total Lagrangian formulation for the geometrically nonlinear analysisof structures using finite elements.Part II: arches, frames and axis shells, Znt. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 23 (1986) 253-74. 38. ELE Parkhouse, J. C., Improved modelling of tube wall intersectionsusing brick elements,Znt. Conj Steel Marine Struct., Paris, 1981. 39. ELE Peyrot, A. H., Statics and dynamics of offshore cable and flexible pipe systems, Revue de llnstit. Francais du Petrole, 35 (1980) 833-48. 40. ELE Powell, G. H., Inelastic pipe elements for analysisof pipe whip, 4th Znt. Con& Str. Me&. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977,p. F1/7. 41. ELE Prinja, N. K., Combinedbeam elementsfor large

dynamic motion of whipping pipes with fluid-structure interaction, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, 11 (1992) 117-52. 42. ELE Saevik, S., A finite element model for predicting stressesand slip in flexible pipe armouring tendons, Comput. Struct., 46 (1993) 219-30. 43. ELE Schwirian, R. E. & Karabin, M. E., Use of spar elementsto simulatefluid-solid interaction in the finite element analysisof piping systemdynamics,Nucl. Eng. Design, 66 (1981)47-59. 44. ELE Surana, K. S., Geometrically nonlinear formulation for the axi-symmetric transition finite elements,
Comput. Struct., 17 (1983) 243-55. 1977.

45. ELE Takeda, H. et al., A finite element for detailed analysisof piping systemsconsideringthe end effects,
56th Ann. Meet. JSME,

46. ELE Takeda, H. et al., A new finite element for structural analysisof piping systems.Century Research Corporation, Tokyo, 1978. 47. ELE Takeda, H. et al., A new finite element for structural analysisof piping systems, Znt. Conf Str. 5th Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979,p. M.515. 48. ELE Takeda, H. et al., New finite elements for structural analysis of piping systems,Trans. Jpn. Sot.
Mech. Eng., 48A (1982) 952-61.

49. ELE Watanabe, 0. & Ohtsubo, H., Elastic-plastic analysis of piping elbows, Vol. 26. University of Tokyo Press,1978. 50. ELE Watanabe, 0. & Ohtsubo, H., Stressanalysisof mitred bends by ring elements, J. Pres. I/es. Tech.,
ASME, 106 (1984) 54-62.

51. ELE Watanabe, 0. & Ohtsubo, H., A simplified analysis method for complex piping systems in elastic-plastic-creep range, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME,
107 (1985) 148-56.

52. ELE Wehner, E. et al., Canistertype blanket elements for NET under accident overpressure.Theoretical and experimental investigations,Fusion Eng. Des., 6 (1988) 69-78. 53. ELE Yao, Z. H. et al., A semianalyticalring element of slendertorus shell type for the analysisof elbows.In Composite Mechanics, edsY. K. Cheunget al. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991,pp. 81-96.

FINITE

ELEMENT

SOtTWARE

(SOF)

1. SOF A-Moneim, M. T., Comparison of ICEPEL code predictions with straight flexible pipe experiments,Nucl. Eng. Design, 49 (1987) 187-96. 2. SOF A-Moneim, M. T., ICEPEL analysis and comparison with simple elastic plastic piping experiments.ANL Report, 1978,78-105. 3 SOF A-Moneim, M. T., Recent applications and improvements of the hydrodynamic-structural piping code ICEPEL, Nucl. Tech., Sl(l980) 452-63. 4. SOF A-Moneim, M. T. & Chang, Y. W., Comparison of ICEPEL predictions with single flexible piping system experiment, Nucl. Eng. Design, 49 (1978) 187-196. 5. SOF Aamodt, A. et al., Application of a general purpose finite element program system in pressure vessel technology, 3rd Znt. ConjI Press, Vess. Tech., Tokyo, 1977.

330

Jam&u

Mackerle

6. SOF Agrone, M. et al., PAULA-A 3D code for non-linear pipe analysis.AMN Report, 1979. 7. SOF Anon., NONPIPE-ADINAP, A. D. Little Corp., Cambridge,MA, 1979. 8. SOF Anon., KWUROHR Benutzer-Handbuch, Version 4.4. TechnischeBericht R14-10-79, 1979. 9. SOF Anon., NUPIPE Users information manual, revision F. Nuclear ServicesCorp, 1979. 10. SOF Anon., Users Manual of the program PE30, piping and spacestructure stato-dynamics. C. F. Braun & Co., Alhambra, CA, 1983. 11. SOF Anon., TUSTRA, Tubular joint structural analysis module. The Otter Group/Sintef, 1983. 12. SOF Anon., DST/PIPESTRESS, Version 3.4, DST Computer Services,Geneva, 198.5. 13. SOF Anon., PRETUBE, finite-element preprocessor for tubular joint, usersmanual, RN 83-6143. Veritec, Oslo, 1985. 14. SOF Ashraf, O., Integration and data reuse between CAD and pipe stress,Pres. Ves. Piping Con&, PVP 274, ASME, 1994,pp. 127-31. 15. SOF Atluri, S. N. et al., NOZ-FLAW: A finite element program for direct evaluation of stress intensity factors for pressure vessel nozzle-corner flaws. Report ORNL/NUREG/TG-18, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1981. 16. SOF Atluri, S. N. et al., ORFLAW: A finite element program for direct evaluation of K-factors for user-defined flaws in plates, cylinders and pressurevesselnozzle corner. Report NUREG/CR-2494, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, 1982. 17. SOF Azodi, D. & Bachmann,P., Numerical analysis of cyclic deformations and crack growth of precracked steel componentsusing the ADINA program system,Comput. Struct., 47 (1993)565-89. 18. SOF Bartosek, L. et al., Some aspects of stress analysis of WWER-1000 Reactor pressure vessel under thermal shock with program system SYSTUS, 6fh Inf. Conf: Math. Meth. Eng., Vol. 1, Plzen, Czechoslovakia,1991,pp. 13-19. 19. SOF Bass, B. R. et al., Validation of the finite element stressanalysiscomputer program CORTESSA for analyzing piping tees and pressure vessel nozzles, Proc. ASME Petrol. Mech. Eng. Cor$ , Houston, 1977. 20. SOF Bazell, C. .I., DYNA3D analysis of missile impacts on J-shaped pipes.Structure Shock Impact II. Portsmouth, 1992,pp. 15-26. 21. SOF Bennett, .I. A., The developmentand usageof a computer program suite for the static and dynamic analysisof high pressure-high temperature pipework, CAD76. Imperial College,London, 1976,pp. 226-33. 22. SOF Bezler, P. et al., In situ and laboratory benchmarking of computer codes used for dynamic responsepredicting of nuclear reactor piping. Report NUREG/CR-3340, 1983. 23. SOF Boyle, J. T., A critical appraisal of available inelastic piping programs: methods and solved problems with reference to the development of suit benchmarks, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Structural Analysis Group, NY, 1977. 24. SOF Bung, H. et al., Piping benchmark problemscomputer analysiswith the CEASEMT finite element system,CEASEMT. Report EMT/78/61, 1978. 25. SOF Caumette, P. et al., Wave-structure interaction test problem and anisotropic mediumtransient analysis with the PLEXUS code, 9th Int. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. B257-65.

26. SOF Chen, M. C., Finite element computer programs for pressurevessles. Sfr. Me&. Sojtware Serices, ed. In N. Perrone & W. Pilkey, Vol. II. University Pressof Virginia, Charlottesville, 1978,pp. 429-49. 27. SOF Clinard, D. A. et al., Verification by comparison of independent computer program solutions. Pressure vesselsand piping computer program evaluation and qualification. ASME PVB-PB-024, 1977,pp. 27-50. 28. SOF Davis, A. J., Structural analysis of circular concrete tanks for water treatment and storage using SHELAX, a finite element analysis program for axisymmetric structures,2nd Int. Conf. Civil Structural Engineering Comp., Vol. 2. Civ-Comp Press, 1985 pp. 41-7. 29. SOF Dietrich, D. E., ed., Pressure Vessels and Piping
Computer Program Evaluation and Qualification.

ASME, NY, 1977. 30. SOF Diserens,N. J. & Sullivan, S. P., Simulation of a remote field eddy current detector in eccentric thin-walled non ferrous tubes usinga 3D finite element program, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, 30 (1994) 3737-40. 31. SOF Ducher, J. et al., Computer program for pressurevessels and piping-systemsnozzles subject to transient-thermomechanical loadings, 9th Int. Conj? Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Laussanne, 1987,pp. B39-42. 32. SOF Finck, P. ef al., The analysis of violent sodium-water reactions with PLEXUS, 9th Int. ConJ: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. E431-6. 33. SOF Garg, V. K. et al., The application of WEMAP to eddy current non-destructive evaluation. In Comp. Electromagnetics, ed. Z. J. Cendes. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1986,pp. 147-155. 34. SOF Geyer, A. & Schweiger, W., Multiple support excitation for NASTRAN piping analysis,MSC/NASTRAN UsersConf, Munich, 1982. 35. SOF Ghose, A. et al., A general purpose computer program for analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems,4th Int. Con& Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco, 1977,p. F2/2. 36. SOF Gordis, K., EBASCO/PIPESTRESS Version 3.2 Users Guide. DST Computer Services SA, Geneva, 1981. 37. SOF Grebner, H. & Hofler, A., J-integral evaluation from ADINA shell element results, Comput. Struct. 40 (1991) 365-74. 38. SOF Grebner, H. & Strathmeier, U., Elastic-plastic finite elementcalculation with ADINA of leak areasof a longitudinal crack in a pipe, Int. J. Fracf., 25 (1984) R77-R81. 39. SOF Hechmer, J. L. & Hollinger, G. L., Code Evaluation of 3D Stresses a Plane, Pres. Ves. Piping on Conf., ASME, 1989,pp. 33-46. 40. SOF Heylen, W. & Vanhonacker, P., An automated technique for improving model matrices by meansof experimentally obtained dynamic data, 24th Str., Str. Dyn. Mater. Con$, Lake Tahoe, 1983,pp, 782-5. 41. SOF Hisada, T. et al., Development of sensitivity analysiscode for elastic-plastic dynamic responseof piping systems, JSME Znt. J., Ser. I, 35 (1992) 515-22. 42. SOF Hutula, D. N. & Wiancko, B. E., ACCEPT: a three-dimensional finite element program for large deformation elastic-plastic-creep analysis of pressurized tubes. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, report WAPD-TM-1383,198O. 43. SOF Hypponen, P. & Raiko, H., Experiences in nonlinear shell analysisusingADINA, Comput. Struct. 17 (1983) 649-52. 44. SOF Isreb, M., Pipe finite element life synthesis

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software designfor petrochemical and power industry, Comput. Struct., 39 (1991) 431-4. 45. SOF Iwata, K. et al., Dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysisin the FINAS computer program and application to sloshing problems.In Computational Mechanics 88, vol. 2, ed. S. N. Atluri & G. Yagawa. Springer, Berlin, 1988,p. 33ii. 46. SOF Jeyapalan, J. K. & Saleira, W. S., SOILPIPEfinite element analysesof underground pipelines and tanks. User Manual, University of WisconsinMadison, 1986. 47. SOF Jeyapalan, J. K. & Saleira, W. S., Design of underground pipelines and storage tanks using personal computers. In Comp. Civil Engineering, ed. K. M. Will. ASCE, 1988,pp. 582-90. 48. SOF Kecman, D., Program WEST for optimisation of rectangular and squaresection tubesfrom the safety point of view, Int. Cot@ Vehicle Struct. Mech. Detroit, Paper 811312,1981. 49. SOF Kecman, D., Program WEST-EX for the optimisation of the rectangular section tubes meeting safety requirements. In Str. Design Crash Autom., ed. T. K. S. Murthy. Springer, Berlin, 1987,pp. 71-89. 50. SOF Keeney-Walker, J. & Bass,B. R., Applications of ADINA to evaluate analysis methodologies for predicting cleavage arrest and reinitiation of a deep crack in RPV, Comput. Struct., 47 (1993) 553-64. 51. SOF Kroenke, W. C. et al., Verification of ADINA for nonlinear solutionsof interest to the pressure vessel industry, ADINA Conf: MIT, Cambridge, 1977, pp. 22-39. 52. SOF Lam, C. K. et al., ADINA solutionsfor pressure vessel components, ADZNA ConfI MIT, Cambridge, 1979,pp. 267-291. 53. SOF Lazzeri, L., PAULA 82: a code for non linear analysisof pipes and shells,7th Int. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. L6/7. 54. SOF Lazzeri, L. et al., PAULA: a 3D code for the nonlinear analysisof piping. ASME Paper 80-C2/140, 1980. 55. SOF Lazzeri, L. et al., Developmentsin the analysis of 3D piping and shellsby meansof PAULA code, 6th Int. Conf: Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981, p. F2/5. 56. SOF Lazzeri, L. et al., PAULA: a 3D code for analysisof nonlinear pipes,J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 104 (1982)262-7. 57. SOF Lepareux, et al., PLEXUS-A general computer program for the fast dynamic analysis.The caseof pipe circuits, 8th Znt. Con& Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Bruxelles, 1985,p. F2/1. 58. SOF Lloyd, A. R. & Doyle, W. S., Computer-aided design of circular liquid retaining structures in accordancewith BS5337,Adu. Eng. Software, 3 (1981) 35-41. 59. SOF Marcal, P. V., The impact of computers on pressurevesseland piping technology, Proc. Pres. Ves. Tech.. Tokvo. 1977. 60. SOF Marchkrtas, A. H. et al., TEMP-STRESS Analysis of a reinforced concrete vesselunder internal pressure, 9th Int. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. H301-6. 61. SOF Marjanovic, L. & Sedmak,A., A contribution to the optimal numbering of a ring structure, Comput. Struct., 28 (1988) 573-8. 62. SOF Martin, A. F. & Alarcon, E., A contribution to the optimal numbering of tree structures, Comput. Struct., 15 (1982) 283-90.

63. SOF Millard, A. & Hoffman, A., Refined inelastic analysisof piping systemusing a beam-type program, 6th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Paris, 1981. 64. SOF Millard, A. & Ricard, A., Accounting for straight parts effects on elbows flexibilities in a beam type finite element program, 7th Znt. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Chicago, 1983,p. G/F5. 65. SOF Monkar, D. P., DIAPRS, a computer program for dynamic inelastic analysisof ruptured piping, 5th Int. Co@ Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979, p. F7/3. 66. SOF Mosby, W. R. & Dooley, W. T., Comparisonof NUPIPE-II & SAP IV displacementand acceleration response predictions for German standard problem 4A. EGG-EA-5566, EG&G Idaho Inc., 1981. 67. SOF Muller, G., The current state of use of finite-element methods in industry, Int. J. Comp. Appl. Tech., 5 (1992)216-23. 68. SOF Muller, W. C., Piping analysis of large scale experiments with ADINA and DAPSY, Comput. Struct. 26 (1987) 111-21. 69. SOF Powell, G. H. et a/., Computer code development for pipe whip and impact analysis. Report NUREC/CR-1721, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, 1981. 70. SOF Quezon, A. J. & Everstine, G. C., Comparison of finite element analyses of a piping tee using NASTRAN and CORTES/SA, 9th NASTRAN Users Coll. NASA Publ. 2151, 1980. 71. SOF Rao, M. S. & Madhava, PACC-A computer program for ASME section III categorization of finite element stresses. ASME paper No. 77-PVP-17, 1977. 72. SOF Revesz, Z., Piping analysis and interactive design, version A/2, users manual. Electrowatt Engineering ServicesLtd., Zurich, 1982. 73. SOF Revesz, Z., PAID-An interactive graphics package to support piping analysis. In Engineering Software, ed. R. A. Adey, III, Springer, Berlin, 1983. 74. SOF Revesz, Z., Piping analysis and interactive designwith emphasis computer graphics,Adv. Eng. on Sofhyare, 7 (1985) 36-41. 75. SOF Revesz, Z., PAID: Piping analysisand interactive designwith the stand-alone graphicspackage. In Str. Analysis Systems, Vol. 1, ed. A. Niku-Lari. Pergamon,Oxford, 1986,pp. 161-70. 76. SOF Revesz, Z., Piping stressanalysiswith personal computers, 9th Int. Conf. Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Lausanne,1987,pp. B205-11. 77. SOF Revesz, Z., Analysis of piping structures with personal computers, 108th Winter Annual Meeting, ASME, Boston, 1987. 78. SOF Revesz, Z. & Gordis, K., PSTAR: Piping stress analysis and reporting, STRUCAD86, SAS World Conf, Paris, 1986. 79. SOF Revez, T. R. & Gordis, K., TSTAR: T-joints stressanalysiswith reporting software, STRUCAD86, SAS World Conf , Paris, 1986. 80. SOF ROSS,B. A. & Ulrich, R. D., Putting finite element modeling to work on heat transfer problems, CZME, 2 (1984) 16-19. 81. SOF Rotelli, R. L. et al., The IBM-PC as a low cost engineeringworkstation for the FEA of welded metal bellows,Con5 Comp. Eng., ASME, 1985. 82. SOF Roughgarden,J. D. et al., Computerized model development technique for substructured 3-D nonlinear finite element analysesof pipe and pipe clamp interaction, PVP 54, ASME, 1981,pp. 15-29.

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83. SOF Sandstrom, S., Vibration analysis of a heat exchanger tube row with ADINA, Comput. Struct, 26 (1987)297-305. 84. SOF Sato, T. et al., Development of user-friendly structural design system for pressure vessels,Trans. Jpn. Sot. Mech. Eng., Ser. A, 61 (199.5) 191-7. 85. SOF Schoentgen, P. A., FLEXAN: Static and dynamic analysis of underwater cables and flexible pipes systems. Stress Analysis Systems Vol. 3, ed. A. In Niku-Lari. Pergamon,Oxford, 1986,pp. 137-42. 86. SOF Schwirian, R. E., On the useof structural finite element computer codes to perform fluid-dynamical and fluid-structure interactive analyses.In Numerical Methods for Transient and Coupled Problems, ed. R. W. Lewis. Pineridge Press,Swansea,1984,pp. 186-97. 87. SOF Stafford, J. R. & Tabaddor, F., ADINA load updating for pressurized structures, ADZNA Conf MIT, Cambridge,1979,pp. 537-57. 88. SOF Steinbock, L. H., Structural analysisof subassembly wrapper tubes with three-dimensional finite element code KASTEN, 4th Znt. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., San Francisco,1977,p. D2/5. 89. SOF Subudhi, M. & Bezler, P., PSAFE2-Piping analysis program-users manual. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, 1981. 90. SOF Sussman, & Bathe, K. J., Studies of finite T. element procedures-on mesh selection, Comput.
Struct. 21(1985) 257-64.

finite element analysis and their application in GTSTRUDL software, Adu. Eng. Software, 17 (1993) 141-5.

OTHER

TOPICS

(OTH)

91. SOF Uesaka,M. & Miya, K., Eddy current and stress analyses of toroidal bellows by personal and mini-computers, IUTAM Symposium, eds Y. Yamamoto & K. Miya. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 75-80. 92. SOF Vignjevic, R. et al., Extraction of the momentrotation curves from the DYNA3D analysis of the deep bendingcollapseof a thin walled tube, DYNA3D User Group Conf, Bournemouth, 1990. 93. SOF Wang, C. Y., Comparison of ICECO code predictionswith flexible vesselexperiments,Nucl. Eng. Design, 49 (1978) 145-54. 94. SOF Wang, Z. P. & Hayhurst, D. R., Use of supercomputer modelling of high-temperature failure in pipe weldmentsto optimize weld and heat affected zone materials selection, Proc. R. Sot. Lond. A, 446 (1994) 127-8. 95. SOF Wilkening, W. W. & Snow, J. L., Analysis of welding-induced residual stresseswith the ADINA system,Comput. Struct., 47 (1993) 767-86. 96. SOF Willis, H. & Stasiak,A., Reducedinstruction set computers versus complex instruction set computers for gasket finite element analysis, Int. Off-Highway Powerplant Cons., SAE, 1992,pp. 1-8. 97. SOF Winter, J. R., NASTRAN analysis of heattransfer fluid fill pipe failures, 9th NASTRAN USERS Coll. NASA, Publ. 2151,1980,140-60. 98. SOF Wright, W. B., Piping engineering. In Str. Mechanical Software Series, ed. Vol. III, N. Perrone & W. Pilkey, University Pressof Virginia, Charlottesville, 1980,pp. 191-203. 99. SOF Xu, C. D. et al., Automatic meshingtechnique usedin the mixed FEM for stressanalysisof reinforced conical branch pipe junctions, Appl. Math. Mech., 3 (1982)667-74. 100. SOF Yagawa, G. et al., EPAS-finite element program for analysisof nonlinear behavior of nuclear power piping, 5th Int. Conf Str. Mech. Reactor Tech., Berlin, 1979,p. M6/4. 101. SOF Yang, J. & Lan, S., Models of pad layers in

1. OTH Ahmed, I., Pipeline response to excavationinduced ground movements. PhD Thesis, Cornell University, 1990. 2. OTH Barla, G. et al., Finite element analysis of soil-pipeline interaction. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, ed. W. Wittke. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1979,pp. 1153-63. 3. OTH Behn, M. T., High pressure pipelines beneath railroads. Ph.D. Thesis,Cornell University, 1993. 4. OTH Bobby, W. et al., Finite element analysis of pipe-soil-wave interaction, 2nd Int. Conf Behav. Off-Shore Struct., BOSS79, 1979,pp. 503-6. 5. OTH Brichau, F. & Deconinck, J., Numerical model for cathodic protection of buried pipes, Corrosion, 50 (1994) 39-49. 6. OTH Bubenik, T. A. et aZ., Analyzing the pressure strength of corroded line pipe, 11th Znt. Conf Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., Calgary, ASME, 1992,pp. 225-31. 7. OTH Bubenik, T. A. et al., Pipeline simulation facilities for the development of in-line inspection technologies for gas transmission pipelines, Mater. Eual., 53 (1995) 484-7. 8. OTH Buggy, F. J. et al., Performance of oil storage tanks on vibroflotation improved hydraulic fill in the Port of Tampa, Florida, Geotech. Spec. Pubb, ASCE, I (1994)548-60. 9. OTH Chin, Y. F. et al., Dynamics of buried pipes in back-filled trench, Soil Dynam. Earthquake Eng., 6 (1987) 158-63. 10. OTH Chouchaoul, B., Evaluating the remaining strength of corroded pipelines.Ph.D. Thesis,University of Waterloo, Canada,1995. 11. OTH Chouchaoul, B. A. et al., Burst pressure predictions of line pipe containing single corrosion pits using the finite element method, 11th Znt. Conf Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng., Calgary ASME, 1992, pp. 203-10. 12. OTH Damjanic, F., Finite element analysisof a buried reinforced concrete pipe under internal pressure. In NUMETA 85, vol. 2, eds J. Middleton & G. N. Pande. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1985,pp. 679-86. 13. OTH Diab, Y. G., Mechanical method to evaluate safety factors in buried pipes, J. Transport. Eng., 121 (1995) 94-101. 14. OTH Fourie, A. B. & Beer, G., Comparison of numerical and experimental results for buried pipes, 2nd Int. Symp. Num. Models Geomech., Ghent. Jackson Publ., 1986,pp. 325-331. 15. OTH Galdos, A. et al., Simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in pipe or pressurevesselwalls. In Finite Elem. Meth., Model., New Appl., PVP 101, ASME, 1986,pp. 135-41. 16. OTH He, Y. A. & Liang, J. W., Finite element analysis of 3-way joint of buried pipelines under earthquake loads. In Lifeline Earthq. Eng., ed. M. A. Cassaro. ASCE, 1991,pp. 425-31. 17. OTH Hjelmquist, E. & Storakers, B., Long-term deformation and failure of buried plastic pipes,J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 113 (1987) 1033-49. 18. OTH Hu, J. & Selvadurai, A. P. S., Influence of tertiary creep on the uplift behaviour of a pipe

Finite elements in the analysis of pressure embeddedin a frozen soil, 2nd Int. Conj Adv. Undergr. Eng., Bellevue, ASCE, 1995,pp. 345-58. 19. OTH Jeyapalan, J. K. et al., Behaviour and designof buried very flexible plastic pipes, J. Transp. Eng.,
Pipeline ASCE, 113 (1987) 642-57. 20. OTH Jeyapalan, J. K. et al., Analysis and design of RPM and other composite underground pipelines, J. Transp. Eng., ASCE, 115 (1989) 219-31.

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21. OTH Kawabata, T. & Mohri, Y., Behavior of buried large thin wall flexible pipe-field test and numerical analysisconsideredwith stageof construction of buried flexible pipe, 2nd Int. Conf. Adv. Undergr. Pipeline Eng., Bellevue, ASCE, 1995,pp. 13-24. 22. OTH Keaton, J. R. et al., Philosophy for treatment of high-pressure natural gas pipelines at active fault crossings,3rd US Conf Lifeline Earthq. Eng., Los Angeles, ASCE, 1991,pp. 898-906. 23. OTH Kikuchi, M. & Iezawa, T., Deformation of steel pipe during hot dip zinc galvanizing, J. Sot. Mater. Sci. Jpn., 30 (1981) 562-8. 24. OTH Kim, Y. J. & Vanderglas, M. L., Elastic-plastic analysisof hydride blistersin Zircaloy-2 pressuretubes,
J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 110 (1988) 276-82.

25. OTH Kitaura, M. et al., Responseanalysisof buried pipelines considering rise of ground water table in liquefaction processes, Proc. JSCE 3801-7 (1987) 173-80. 26. OTH Kopke, U. G., Transverse vibration of buried pipelinesdue to internal excitation at a point, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part E, 207 (1993)41-58. 27. OTH Kyrou, K., The effect of trench excavations induced ground movements on adjacent buried pipelines.Ph.D. Thesis,University of Surrey, UK 1980. 28. OTH Kyrou, K. & Kalteziotis, N. A., The effect of trenching on adjacent pipelines, 11th. Co@ Soil Mech. Found. Eng., Balkema, Rotterdam, 1985,pp. 1657-60. 29. OTH Lin, G., Buckling of underground pipeswith soil interaction, 10th Con& Eng. Mech., Boulder, ASCE, 1995,pp. 357-60. 30. OTH Mohri, Y. et al., Measured performance and numerical analysisof buried pipe, Pipeline Des. Install. Int. Conf, Las Vegas, ASCE, 1990,pp. 535-45. 31. OTH Moore, I. D., Three dimensionaltime dependent model for buried HDPE pipe. In Comp. Methods Advanced Geomechanics, ed. H. J. Siriwardane. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994,pp. 1515-20. 32. OTH Morgner, W., New possibilities nondestructive of pipe corrosion monitoring, Werkstoffe Korrosion, 46, (1995) 398-404. 33. OTH Nath, B. & Soh, C. H., Transverse seismic responseanalysisof offshore pipelines in proximity to the sea-bed, Earthquake Eng. Strut. Dyn., 6 (1978)
569-83. 34. OTH Nath, P., Trench excavation effects on adjacent buried pipes: finite element study, J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 109 (1983) 1399-15.

mechanical behavior of LNG underground tanks subjected to horizontal forces, Ann. Conf JSCE, Division 1, 36 (1981) 99-100. 39. OTH Ohuchi, H. & Takeda, T., Analytical study of ultimate behavior of underground LNG storage tanks subjected to both thermal and seismicearth pressure load. In Finite Elem. Anal. Reinf. Concrete Str., ASCE, 1985,pp. 645-55. 40. OTH Olofsson, K. & Lindgren, L. E., Holographic interferometry measurements of transient bending waves in tubes and rings, Exp. Mech., 33 (1993) 308-13. 41. OTH Prakash, S. et al., Analysis of buried pipe under embankment. In Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, ed. C. S. Desai, ASCE, 1976,pp. 886-900. 42. OTH Rabern, D. A. & Lewis, M. W., Two- and three-dimensional simulationsof moving pressure fronts in gun tubes, J. Pres. Ves. Tech., ASME, 114 (1992) 181-8. 43. OTH Rude, L. C., Load reductions on buried rigid pipe, J. Transp. Eng., ASCE, 109 (1983) 107-23. 44. OTH Shah, K. R. & Razaqpur, A. G., A twodimensional frost-heave model for buried pipelines,Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 36 (1993) 2.545-66. 45. OTH Shoji, T. et al., Computer simulation of stress corrosion cracking behavior of reactor pressurevessel steelsin light reactor environments in slow strain rate, Comp. Model. Corrosion, ASTM, STP 1154, 1992 pp. 44-66. 46. OTH Shum, P. W., Critical analysis of acoustic emission monitoring of pressure vessels, Pres. I/es. Piping Conf, Denver ASME, 1993pp. l-5. 47. OTH Simonen, F. A., The impact of NDE unreliability on pressurevesselfracture predictions,J. Pres. Ves.
Tech., ASME, 107 (1985) 18-24. 48. OTH Singh, S. & Pal, N., Analysis of ovalization of buried steelpipe due to earth-fill, J. Pert Constr. Facil.,

35. OTH Nath, P., Movements and strains induced in buried pipes due to parallel trench excavations: finite element predictions,J. Pipelines, 5 (1986) 233-49. 36. OTH Nestleroth, J. B. et al., Pipeline simulation facilities for the development of in-line inspection technologies for gas transmission pipelines, Mater. Eval., 53 (1995) 484-7. 37. OTH ORourke, T. D. & Trautmann, C. H., Buried pipeline response to permanent earthquake ground movements, Pres. Ves. Piping Conf., ASME, San Francisco, PVP-78, 1980. 38. OTH Ohuchi, H. & Takeda, T., Nonlinear analysisof

4 (1990) 111-23. 49. OTH Small, J. C. & Ngu, J. T. M., Longitudinal bending in pipelines subjectedto embankmentloading. In Comp. Methods Advances in Geomechanics, Vol. 2, ed. G. Beer et al. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991, pp. 1233-9. 50. OTH Spitzley, J. E., Finite element analysis of pressurized buried pipe. Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University, 1987. 51. OTH Takada, S. & Highashi, S., Seismic response analysisfor jointed buried pipeline by using shell FEM model, Int. Symp. Strut. Tech. Pipeline Eng., Beijing, 1992,pp. 251-60. 52. OTH Tohda, J. et al., Soil pressures and structural on behaviors of concrete pipe bedded on concrete cradle, Proc. JSCE, 310 (1981)97-112. 53. OTH Tohda, J. et al., Earth pressureacting on buried rigid pipes--centrifuge model tests and FEM elastic analysis,Proc. JSCE, 406 (1989) 263-72. 54. OTH Tohda, J. et al., Finite element elasticanalysisof measured earth pressure on buried rigid pipes in centrifuged models,Pipeline Des. Install. Int. Conf, Las Vegas, ASCE, 1990,pp. 557-71. 55. OTH Vaslestad, J., Load reduction on buried rigid pipes, 10th Eur. Co@ Soil Me&. Found. Eng., Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991,pp. 771-4. 56. OTH Wang, L. R. L. et al., Seismic response buried of pipeline system in a soil liquefaction environment, 3rd US Con$ Lifeline Earthq. Eng., Los Angeles, ASCE, 1991,pp. 460-9. 57. OTH Ku, J. et al., Structural analysis of an underground reinforced concrete waste storage tank

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due to over-pressurization, 2nd ASME-JSME Nucl. Eng. Joint Conf., San Francisco, 1993,pp. 151-5. 58. OTH Xu, J. et al., Spacingeffects on seismic responses of underground waste storage tanks, Pres. Ves. Piping ConjI, PVP 271, ASME, 1994,13-18. 59. OTH Yeh, Y. H. & Wang, C. M., Inelastic behaviors of pipelines buried through liquefiable zone, 3rd US Conf: Lifeline Earthq. Eng., Los Angeles, ASCE, 1991, pp. 480-9. 60. OTH Zaman, M. & Laguros, J. G., Predicting the behavior of buried pipes using a mixed finite element approach. In Structural Performance of Flexible Pipes, ed. S. M. Sargand.Balkema, Rotterdam, 1990,p. 163. 61. OTH Zarghamee, M. S., Postfailure behavior of buried pipe, Tramp. Res. Record, 1415 (1993) 51-7. 62. OTH Zarrabi, K. et al., Laser holographic interferometry and finite element analysis: a comparative assessment with reference to pressure vessels,NonDestr. Test., Australia, 27 (1990)64-S. of 63. OTH Zhang, H., Seismicresponse pipeline systems in a soil liquefaction environment. Ph.D. Thesis, Old Dominion University, 1992. 64. OTH Zimmerman, T. J. E. et al., Compressivestrain limits for buried pipelines, 14th Int. ConJ: Ofihore Mech. Arctic Eng., OMAES, ASME, 1995,pp. 36.5-78.

APPENDIX B: ADDRESSES OF FEM PROGRAM DEVELOPERS OR DISTRIBUTORS This descriptive part contains for each finite element program the address of program developer or distributor. Contact persons are not given because their positions within a company/university are often changed and it is impossible for the author of this paper to update their database continuously. For each program a comment on their capabilities is added, but very briefly. Some of the presented programs are industrial, in-house programs, and usually these are not available for outside users. ACCEPT Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin, Pennsylvania, USA Non-linear analysis of pressurized tubes. Both material and geometrical non-linearities may be treated. Deformation and collapse of fuel rod cladding may be analysed. The program has a capability to model frictionless contactseparation interaction of inner or outer surfaces of the tube with one or more rigid surfaces. ADINAP A D Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA ADINAP is a modified version of ADINA for the analysis of piping systems.

ADLPIPE A D Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA Linear static and dynamic analysis of complex piping systems. Modelling capabilities include straight pipes, springs, elbows and linear constraints. ASME and ANSI code report generators. AXSHEL Structural Analysis Unit, Nuclear System Department, Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X6 Analysis of elasto-plastic thin shells of revolution under axisymmetric loading. The solution is based on a double curved axisymmetric thin shell element formulated using Novozhilovs theory. The code is set up to analyse thin shells of elastic-perfectly plastic and isotropic hardening materials using von Mises yield criteria. In addition, elastic or elasto-plastic buckling can be handled. A conduction heat transfer analyser is also included. B16.9TJ Engineering Decision Analysis Co., Inc., 480 California Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94306, USA Stress analysis of B16.9 tee joints. Both transient heat flow analysis as well as thermal stress analysis can be performed. Thick- and thinwalled tubular tee joints under arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads may be handled. CAEPIPE SST Systems, Inc., 355 W Olive Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA Linear static analysis of 3D process/power piping systems with verification of results against design rules in ANSI B31.3 code and ANSI B31.1 code, respectively. The program has been developed for PCs. Pre- and postprocessors are included. CANDE Civil Engineering Laboratory, Naval Construction Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, CA 93043, USA Design and analysis of pipe culverts including corrugated steel, corrugated aluminium, reinforced concrete and plastic pipe. The program has an executive routine that provides for selection of common type of pipe culvert and five soil models. Interface and bending elements for pipes. Non-linear soil models including metal yielding. Concrete modelling. COLLAPSE Applied Mechanics Research Laboratory, Technical Research Laboratory, Sumitomo Metal

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Industries Ltd, l-3 Nishinagasu Hondori Amagasaki, Japan Elastic and plastic collapse of a tube. The effects of geometry and residual stresses on the collapse strength can also be studied. The incremental load method is used to find the collapse pressure. Material library available: elasto-plastic material, isotropic, linear-hardening and power-hardening models.
CORTES-SA

Dynamic analysis of piping systems. Time history and response spectra may be handled.
DYNAPIPE

Sargent & Lundy Engineers, 140 S Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60603, USA Dynamic analysis of piping systems. Modal and transient analysis. The program allows for lumped masses only.
DYNPLA

National Energy Software Center, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA The program is basically a modified version of the SAP program with a special purpose input processor for setting up a wide variety of tee joints and reinforced pressure nozzle geometries. Linear static and dynamic analyses.
DIAPRS

Fluor Pioneer, Inc., 200 West Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60606, USA Non-linear dynamic plastic analyses of pipe systems. Interaction of gapped restraints and pipe whipping may be studied. The characteristics of the restraints are derived from corresponding load deflection curves. Loading modes: monotonic, unloading, reloading. Inelastic behaviour of pipe cross-section can be treated.
E400

Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, 508 Davis Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Dynamic inelastic analysis of ruptured piping. The program is based on the ANSR code. The user can select parameters of the solution strategy. Non-linear analysis of the general piping system can also be performed for multisupport in-phase or out-of-phase support excitations.
DINASAW

Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Irvine, CA 92730, USA The program is based on the SAP code. A non-linear program module is also available. Various non-linear effects can be studied, e.g. deformations, non-linear material behaviours, non-linear restraints and non-linear soils. Static and dynamic problems can be handled.
ELBOW

Stone & Webster Engineering Co., PO Box 2325, Boston, MA 02107, USA Large deflection, elastic-plastic dynamic analysis of piping systems. Beams, rings and pipes with tubular cross-section may be handled. Material models: non-linear kinematic strain hardening, the Bauschinger effect and the strain-rate effect are incorporated in the model by means of a mechanical sublayer technique. The effect of local buckling may be treated. Impact problems, pipe whip evaluation.
DST/PIPESTRESS

Department of Production Engineering and Machine Design, Faculty of Engineering. Menoufia University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt Stress and cross-section ovalization analyses for straight pipes and pipe bends. The pipe bends may be terminated with straight or fixed ends. In-plane and out-of-plane loads. The program handles flange effects and gives the reactions due to flanges.
EPAS

DST Computer Services SA, 81 Av Louis Casai, CH-1216 Geneva, Switzerland Linear elastic analysis of 3D piping systems subjected to variety of loading conditions. Static and dynamic analyses. Chemical process piping, nuclear and conventional power generation piping systems may be investigated for compliance with piping codes and with other constraints on system response.
DYNAL

Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan Analysis of non-linear behaviour of piping systems under mechanical and thermal loads. 3D elasto-plastic analysis. The connection of different types of elements is possible with special-type elements (fictitious elements), placed between the real elements.
EPIPE

Ontario Hydro, 620 University Avenue, Toronto 2, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X6

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Energy, Structural Analysis Group, Upton, NY 11973, USA Linear and non-linear dynamic analyses of piping systems. Elastic foundation capability.
ETA/PIPLAY

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Engineering Technology Analysts, Inc., 4140 Southwest Freeway, Houston, TX 77027, USA Non-linear analyses of 3D pipe laying operations. The geometric non-linearities are included. Static and dynamic analyses may be performed. FAUN United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group, Risley, Warrington, Lancastershire WA3 GAT, UK Static and dynamic elastic analyses of frameworks, shells and piping systems. Shells can be reinforced by beams and supported by beams. Arbitrary mechanical and thermal loadings. FAUN is included in the UNCLE program
system.

FENAP Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0046, USA Solution of axisymmetric, non-linear heat conduction and stress analysis problems. Axisymmetric geometry is based on the r-z plane of the layered pressure vessels. Program capabilities: thermal stresses, interlayer gap effects, temperature-dependent material properties, stress-dependent thermal resistance, time-varying loading, etc. FLEXAN Institut du Petrole, 4 Av de Bois Preau, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, France Study of complex offshore structures, the main components of which are cables or flexible pipes. Static and dynamic analyses of underwater cables and pipes can be handled. Geometric and kinematic non-linearities are included. Fluidstructure interaction problems. FLUSTR Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201, USA Linear and non-linear analysis of fluid-structure interaction and sloshing problems. For linear problems, the surface wave effects can be approximated by a perturbation method on the body force term if the surface displacements are small. Other capabilities: seismic response analysis of shells containing a fluid. FRUSTA CNEN, Divisione Sicurezza e Controlli, Rome, Italy Linear and non-linear, static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. Pipe whip accidents may be studied. Both the circumferential and

longitudinal breakage can be considered. The pipe crushing due to the impact of the restraint may be simulated. H2DMAP, H3DMAP Structural Analysis Unit, Nuclear Systems Department, Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X6 Linear and non-linear, static and dynamic analyses of 2D and 3D pressure vessels and piping systems. Other features: transient nonlinear dynamic analysis, flow induced vibration, fluid-elastic instability analysis, etc. ICECO Reactor Analysis and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Developed for the treatment of large displacement fluid-structure dynamic analysis problems. It consists of an explicit non-linear code WHAMS coupled to an implicit continuous Eulerian fluid treatment procedure. Other capabilities: moving boundary, sodium flow through the core-support structure coolant passage openings, slug impact, sodium spillage, etc. ICEPEL Reactor Analysis and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA 2D program for coupled hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of piping systems under the effect of internally travelling pressure pulses. Large displacements, small strains, elastic-plastic dynamic analyses can be handled. Hydrodynamic models for pipes, elbows, generalized piping components are available. KWUROHR Kraftwerk Union AG, Berliner Strasse 295-299, D-6050 Offenbach/Main, Germany Linear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. Dynamic capabilities include linear response analysis and response spectrum computations. Aircraft accident loads and seismic loads are accepted. The program has been developed from SAP IV.
MEC21

Computing Department, Philips Petroleum Co., Adams Building, Bartlesville, OK 74004, USA Linear static analysis of piping systems and beam-type structures. Weight effects, thermal expansion, internal pressure, stress intensifiers, corrosion allowance, etc. may be handled. Stresses are computed to meet B31.3 Petroleum Refinery Piping requirements.

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Babcock & Wilcox Co., 1570 S Hawkins Avenue Akron, OH 44320, USA Linear static analysis of piping systems and beam-type structures. Mechanical and thermal loads are permitted. Stresses are computed to meet the B31.1 Power Piping requirements and the B31.7 Nuclear Power Piping requirements.
MEL40

Static, thermal, seismic and other dynamic loads are permitted. Stresses are computed to meet Section III of ASME Code for Nuclear Class 1, 2 or 3; ANSI B31.1-1967 and B31.1-1977 Power Piping; ANSI B31.3-1976 Petroleum Refinery Piping requirements. Specialized routines for European industry.
PAULA, PAULA82

Naval Ship R & D Center, Annapolis, Maryland 22402, USA Linear static analysis of piping systems and beam-type structures. Mechanical and thermal loads are permitted. Stresses are computed to meet the B31.1 Power Piping requirements as well as the B31.3 Petroleum Refinery Piping requirements and the B31.5 L. P. Transportation Piping requirements.
MULT-NOZZLE

Ansaldo Impianti SpA, Via G. DAnnunzio 113, I-16121 Genova, Italy Linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic, analyses of 2D and 3D pipe and shell systems. An extensive element library contains: pipe elements, elbows, pipe restraint interaction, non-linear superelement, shell elements, membrane elements, transition element between pipe and shell.
PIPDYN

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Engineering Technology, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA Analysis of cylindrical pressure vessels with closely spaced nozzles. Two or three closely spaced reinforced nozzles may be handled. It is an improved version of SAP program.
NOPAP

Babcock & Wilcox Co., Nuclear Power Generation Division, PO Box 1260, Lynchburg, VA 24505, USA Inelastic dynamic analysis of piping systems. Material non-linearity only. Pipe whip problems may be studied. Kinematic strain hardening material model. NOPAP is an extension of the NONSAP. NSHOR Engineering Mechanics Research Corp., 1607 East Big Beaver Road, Troy, MI 48083, USA Non-linear analysis of shells of revolution. Problems involving geometric and/or material nonlinear behaviour can be solved. Nonaxisymmetric loads and deformations can be handled by including appropriate number of harmonics.
NUPIPE

The Franklin Institute Research Laboratory, Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA Linear elastic static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. Temperature-dependent material properties and proportional viscous damping can be handled. Dynamic condensation is included in the program. Mechanical and thermal loads are permitted.
PIPERUP

Nuclear Services Co., 1700 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 9500, USA Linear static and dynamic analysis. Inelastic static analyses of piping systems. Elastic-plastic analysis using isotropic hardening may be handled. Other capabilities: time-dependent loading, time-history plot routines are included.
PIPESD

EG & G Idaho, Inc., Applied Mechanics Branch, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA Linear static and dynamic analysis of piping system can be performed. NUPIPE Quadrex Corp., 1700 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008, USA Linear elastic analysis of 3D piping systems.

Control Data Co., PO Box 0, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55440, USA Static, dynamic and thermal analyses of piping systems. Dynamic analysis: eigenvalues, dynamic response to earthquake, response spectrum analysis. Other options: general linear constraints; multiple load cases and combinations. Stress capabilities meet the provisions of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III.
PIPESTRESS

Babcock & Wilcox Ltd, Computing Service Department 165 Great Dover Street, London SE1 4YB, UK Linear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems subjected to mechanical and therma loads. Non-linear analysis is available as an

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option. Stresses are computed to meet the ASME III and BS806 requirements.
PIRAX

Batelle Columbus, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201, USA Static analysis of piping systems subjected to thermal, dead weight and external applied loads. Transient thermal analysis may be handled, namely linear and non-linear response. Plasticity and creep response problems can be studied.
PLAST-E

by beams or springs and having 2 degrees of freedom in horizontal and rotating directions. The program is suitable for the analysis of piping systems.
SHAPS

EBASCO Services, Inc., 2 World Trade Center, 79th Floor, New York, NY 10048, USA Dynamic analyses of piping systems subjected to severe pipe rupture blowdown forced and finite deformations. Elasto-plastic and large deformations may be handled.
PSAFE

Reactor Analysis and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439, USA Structural hydrodynamic analysis of piping systems. Fluid-structure-thermal interaction can be handled. Element library contains a 3D pipe element to account for the stresses arising from internal pressurization as well as those arising from the flexural motion of the piping system. A spring element is used to model piping supports.
SIMFLEX

Department of Nuclear Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA Linear elastic, static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. This code is a special version of the SAFE code.
PSTAR

Peng Engineering, 3010 Manila Ln., Houston, TX 77043, USA Linear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems subject to pressure, weight, thermal expansion, thermal bowing wind, earthquake, support displacement, external force, and other loads. Support friction, support gap, and elastic-plastic restraints can be handled.
SINAP

Associated Consulting Engineers, PO Box 1126, CH-5401 Baden, Switzerland It is a group of programs designed for linear elastic, static and dynamic analyses of 3D piping systems. DST/PIPESTRESS and PAID software is included. Full interactive graphics pre- and post-processing.
PWHIP

Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd l-15, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-91, Japan Inelastic analysis of piping systems. The simplified creep analysis is performed through the simple beam and no integrations over the cross-section are necessary. Straight pipes and bends may be analysed.
STRAW

EDS Nuclear, Inc., 220 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA Dynamic non-linear analysis of 3D piping systems subjected to arbitrary time-varying forces. The effects of inelastic pipe response, inelastic restraint behaviour and rupture restraint clearancess are included. Time-history analysis. Concentrated masses for non-structural components may be specified.
SAPROHR

Reactor Analysis and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Non-linear dynamic analysis of 2D structures. Both material and geometrical non-linearities may be included. Other options: thermoelastoplastic analysis; fluid-structure interaction; thermal effects. The explicit and implicit versions of STRAW are available.
SUPERPIPE

Kraftwerk Union AG, Berliner Strasse 295-299, D-6050 Offenbach/Main, Germany Linear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. Element library contains straight and curved pipe elements and axial and torsional spring elements. The program is a modified version of the SAP program.
SEISIS-H

EDS Nuclear, Inc., 220 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA Linear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems with emphasis on nuclear power piping thermal and internal applications. Gravity, pressurization analysis, support movement, response spectrum seismic loads, time-history seismic response, etc.
TEDEL CEA, Service des Etudes Mecanique

Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Systems Marketing Department, 6-4 Tukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104, Japan Seismic response analysis of structures idealized

at Thermique, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France Inelastic analyses of 3D piping systems. Static

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and dynamic, elastic or plastic analyses may be handled. Both material and geometrical nonlinearities are permitted. The creep analysis as well as elastic and elastoplastic buckling analyses can also be performed. TEDEL is a module of the CEASEMT system.
TRIFLEX

are treated by the initial strain approach with a forward time-step procedure. Details of the model of the tube wall are generated automatically.
VIBIC

Wolfe1 Beratende Ing., Otto-Hahn-Strasse 2a, D-8706 Hochberg bei Wurzburg, Germany (developed by AAA Technology) Static and dynamic analyses of piping systems. The program calculates non-linear supporting conditions and wind loads. TRIFLEX does spring hanger and owns piping code compliance reports like ANSI B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, ASME NC Section 3, class 2, 3, Navy, flange loading and rotating equipment loading reports, user-defined data banks, AutoCAD interface, etc.
TSTAR

Engineering Research Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada KOJ 1JO Linear static and dynamic analysis of piping systems. Tube-support problem may be handled. Tube is simulated by beam elements. Support contact forces of a multiple-span tube are computed.
VPIPE

Associated Consulting Engineers, PO Box 1126, CH-5401 Baden, Switzerland TSTAR is a series of four programs developed for the linear elastic and elasto-plastic stress and thermal analyses of tee-junctions and for the graphic presentation of selected results.
TUBE

Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory PO Box 999, Richland, W 99352, USA Creep analysis of thick-wall tubes. Creep strains

Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Systems Marketing Department 6-4 Tukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104, Japan The program calculates the natural frequencies and frequency response of space piping systems. WIPS Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA A special purpose implicit code for the structural analysis of pipe whip dynamic effects following a postulated pipe rupture in a nuclear power plant. The overall motions of a piping system, the detailed deformations of individual piping components, and the impact forces and local deformations at points of pipe-to-pipe or pipe-to-wall impact are determined.