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By Sathish RAJAMANI M.

Sc (N) Lecturer, BKIN - Daudhar

A theory of teaching is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions, propositions which present a systematic view of teaching by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting.

Formal Theory of teaching

Descriptive theory of teahing

Normative theory of teaching

1. Meutic Theory of teaching 2. Communication Theory of teaching 3. Moulding theory of teaching 4. The mutual enquiry theory

1. Theories of instruction 2. Prescriptive theory of teaching

1. Cognitive theory of teaching 2. Theory of teacher behaviour

3. Psychological Theory of teaching

4. General theory of teaching

The theory which is based upon certain logic, certain metaphysical, epistemological assumptions and propositions is known as formal theory of teaching.

Meutic Theory of Teaching

This theory conceives that teaching process helps to recollect or unfold that knowledge with questioning techniques.
The socratics method is an essential for this theory.

The heredity plays an important role in teaching process.

The communication Theory of Teaching

This theory of teaching based upon assumptions that the teacher possesses all knowledge and information which student does not possess. the teacher presents, explains, demonstrates and performs in the classroom.

The moulding theory of teaching

John Dewey is the advocate of this moulding theory of teaching. It has the focus on shape, form and mould of the students behavior. human personality is formed, shaped and moulded by their environment.

The mutual inquiry theory

This theory assumes that each individual has the capacity to discover new knowledge with mutual inquiry. True knowledge is inquiry. This theory of teaching is clearly applicable to research and art.

Descriptive theory of teaching is based upon certain propositions and certain observations.

Theories of Instructions

Gagnes hierarchical theory of Instruction.


Atkinsons Decision Theoretic Analysis for optimizing learning. Bruners Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.


Gagnes hierarchical theory of Instruction

Learning event Reception Expectancy Retrieval Selective Perception Semantic encoding Responding Reinforcement Retrieval Generalization Corresponding instructional events Gaining attention Information learners of the objective Stimulation recall or prior learning Presenting the stimulus Providing learning guidance Eliciting performance Providing feedback Assessing performance Enhancing retention and transfer

Atkinsons Decision-theoretic Analysis for Optimizing Learning.

Atkinson Proposed four characteristics

Model of the learning process should be involved It should involve specified instructional actions The instructional objectives should be specified in behavioral terms. Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner advocates that a theory of instruction is designing measurement scale or questions.




Bruners Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.

Bruner has specified four features

Predisposition to learn - A theory of instruction must be concerned

with the experiences and context that will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school

Structure of knowledge - A theory of instruction should specify the

ways in which body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner.

Sequence of instruction A theory of instruction should specify the

most effective sequences to present the material

Reinforcement A theory of instruction should specify the nature

and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards of intrinsic one.

E. Stones and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of teaching with the help of three types of related variables:

The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes place. In the second Phase decision are made about the interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to teaching objectives The third phase concerns with evaluating effectiveness and workability of phase two the

The cognitive theory of teaching


Types of teachers activity Adviser, counselor, motivator, demonstrator, curriculum planner and evaluator. Types of educational objectives Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. Types of learning theories philosophical theories of learning Psychological theories of learning Types of components of learning - drive, cue, response and reward.




D.G. Ryan has tried to explain the concept of teacher-behaviour and formulated a theory of teacher-behaviour.

Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher performs typically in the classroom in order to induce-learning.

M. Meux and B.O. Smith

It is based upon two postulates.

Teacher behaviour is social in nature Teacher behaviour is relative

This theory considers teaching a sort contractual relationship between the teacher and the pupils.
That relationship consists of certain activities to be performed by the teacher such as : analyzing teaching task, determining learning goals, identifying entering behavior and selecting teaching strategy

S.C.T. Clarke has formulated a general theory of teaching. It assumes that teaching is process which is designed and performed to produce change in behavior of students.

Teaching theory is prescriptive. Teachers and pupils are the major variables of teaching theory. It is narrow and specific. It is based upon learning theory, learning conditions and learning components. While learning theory are formulated by conducting experiments on animals teaching theory is developed by dealing with human subjects in normal situations. I It is concerned with effective learning and development of pupils.

Sharma. R.K. Technological foundation of education, Theories of teaching. Mangal. S.K. Advanced Educational Psychology, Nature and theories of learning. PHI learning Private Limited. Pg.235 236.