Sie sind auf Seite 1von 100

ZXCBTS

CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station


(EV-DO)
General Description

ZTE CORPORATION
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,
Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen,
P. R. China
518057
Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830
Fax: (86) 755 26772236
URL: http://support.zte.com.cn
E-mail: doc@zte.com.cn
LEGAL INFORMATION

Copyright © 2006 ZTE CORPORATION.

The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or
distribution of this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written
consent of ZTE CORPORATION is prohibited. Additionally, the contents of this document are protected by
contractual confidentiality obligations.

All company, brand and product names are trade or service marks, or registered trade or service marks, of ZTE
CORPORATION or of their respective owners.

This document is provided “as is”, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions
are disclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,
title or non-infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the
use of or reliance on the information contained herein.

ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications
covering the subject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE
CORPORATION and its licensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter
herein.

The contents of this document and all policies of ZTE CORPORATION, including without limitation policies related to
support or training are subject to change without notice.

Revision History

Date Revision No. Serial No. Reason for Revision


07/06/2006 R1.0 sjzl20061038 First edition
ZTE CORPORATION
Values Your Comments & Suggestions!
Your opinion is of great value and will help us improve the quality of our product
documentation and offer better services to our customers.
Please fax to: (86) 755-26772236; or mail to Documentation R&D Department,
ZTE CORPORATION, ZTE Plaza, A Wing, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Shenzhen, P. R. China 518057.
Thank you for your cooperation!

Document
ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description
Name
Document Revision
Product Version - R1.0
Number
Equipment Installation Date

Presentation:
(Introductions, Procedures, Illustrations, Completeness, Level of Detail, Organization,
Appearance)
… Good … Fair … Average … Poor … Bad … N/A

Your evaluation Accessibility:


of this
(Contents, Index, Headings, Numbering, Glossary)
documentation
… Good … Fair … Average … Poor … Bad … N/A

Intelligibility:
(Language, Vocabulary, Readability & Clarity, Technical Accuracy, Content)
… Good … Fair … Average … Poor … Bad … N/A

Please check the suggestions which you feel can improve this documentation:
… Improve the overview/introduction … Make it more concise/brief
… Improve the Contents … Add more step-by-step procedures/tutorials
… Improve the organization … Add more troubleshooting information
… Include more figures … Make it less technical
Your … Add more examples … Add more/better quick reference aids
suggestions for … Add more detail … Improve the index
improvement of
this … Other suggestions
documentation __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
# Please feel free to write any comments on an attached sheet.

If you wish to be contacted regarding your comments, please complete the following:
Name Company
Postcode Address
Telephone E-mail
This page is intentionally blank.
Contents

About this Manual ............................................................. i


Purpose ................................................................................ i
Intended Audience ................................................................. i
Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge .............................................. i
What is in This Manual ............................................................ i
Related Documentation.......................................................... ii
Conventions ......................................................................... ii
How to Get in Touch............................................................. iii

Chapter 1....................................................................... 1
CDMA Basic Theory .......................................................... 1
CDMA Introduction ..........................................................2
CDMA Overview .................................................................... 2
Spreading Process................................................................ 2
CDMA Spread Code Selection.................................................. 3
Speech Coding Technology ..................................................... 6
Channel Encoding Technology ................................................. 7
Turbo Code ........................................................................ 11
Power Control..................................................................... 15
3G System Overview ........................................................... 15
CDMA2000 All-IP Network Overview ...................................... 16
Network Structure............................................................... 17
Interfaces Overview............................................................... 21
Basic Flow.................................................................... 22
Speech Call Process ............................................................ 22
Packet Data Call Process ...................................................... 23
Handoff Process.................................................................. 25
Basic Concepts ............................................................. 29

Chapter 2..................................................................... 31
Product Introduction .....................................................31
ZXCBTS M802/M192 Position in 1x EV-DO Rev. A Network .. 32
1x EV-DO Rev. A Radio Access Network Model......................... 32
M802/M192 Interfaces in 1x EV-DO Rev. A Networks................ 33
Product Features........................................................... 34
Product Functions ......................................................... 35

Chapter 3.....................................................................37
Product Indices..............................................................37
Technical Specification ................................................... 38
Product Performance ..................................................... 39
RF Indices.................................................................... 40
Applied Standards ......................................................... 41

Chapter 4.....................................................................41
System Structure ...........................................................41
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 Structure ............................... 41
Baseband Digital Subsystem........................................... 41
Radio Frequency Subsystem (RFS) .................................. 41
Micro BTS Transmitter Receiver (MTRX) ........................... 41
Micro BTS Power Amplification (MPA) ............................... 41
Micro BTS Low Noise Amplifier (MLNA) ............................. 41
Micro BTS Duplexer (MDUP) ........................................... 41
Micro BTS Diversity (MDIV) ............................................ 41
Timing and Frequency Subsystem (TFS) ........................... 41
Power Subsystem ......................................................... 41

Chapter 5.....................................................................41
Networking and Configuration ......................................41
Micro BTS Networking Modes .......................................... 41
Cell Splitting Solution .................................................... 41
System Configuration .................................................... 41
Single-Carrier Single-Sector.................................................. 41
Single-Carrier Two-Sector..................................................... 41
Single-Carrier Three-Sector .................................................. 41
Two-Carrier Single-Sector .................................................... 41
Three-Carrier Single-Sector .................................................. 41

Appendix A.................................................................. 41
Support Workflow.......................................................... 41
Fault Rectification Handling Flow ..................................... 41
Repair Workflow Description ........................................... 41
Service Guarantee......................................................... 41

Appendix B ................................................................ 41
Abbreviations ................................................................. 41

Index .............................................................................. 41

Figures............................................................................ 41

Tables ............................................................................. 41
This page is intentionally blank.
About this Manual

Purpose
This manual provides the basic information you need for the
ZXCBTS M802/M192 system.

Intended Audience
This document is intended for engineers and technicians who
perform operation activities on the ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base
Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description.

Prerequisite Skill and Knowledge


To use this document effectively, users should have a general
understanding of wireless telecommunications technology.
Familiarity with the following is helpful:
„ CDMA2000 technology
„ ZXC10 system and its various components

What is in This Manual


This Manual contains the following chapters:

TABLE 1 - CHAPTERS SUMMARY

Chapters Summary
Chapter 1 Overview CDMA Basic Theory
Chapter 2 Overview Product Introduction
Chapter 3 Overview Product Indices
Chapter 4 Overview System Structure
Chapter 5 Overview Networking and Configuration

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION i


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Related Documentation
The following documentation is related to this manual:
„ ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO)
Routine Maintenance Manual

Conventions
Typographical ZTE documents employ the following typographical conventions.
Conventions
TABLE 2 - TYPOGRAPHIC AL CONVENTIONS

Typeface Meaning
Italics References to other Manuals and documents.
“Quotes” Links on screens.
Bold Menus, menu options, function names, input
fields, radio button names, check boxes, drop-
down lists, dialog box names, window names.
CAPS Keys on the keyboard and buttons on screens
and company name.
Constant width Text that you type, program code, files and
directory names, and function names.
[] Optional parameters.
{} Mandatory parameters.
| Select one of the parameters that are delimited
by it.
Note: Provides additional information about a
certain topic.
Checkpoint: Indicates that a particular step needs
to be checked before proceeding further.
Tip: Indicates a suggestion or hint to make things
easier or more productive for the reader.

ii Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


About this Manual

Mouse TABLE 3 - MOUSE OPERATION CONVENTIONS


Operation
Conventions Typeface Meaning
Click Refers to clicking the primary mouse button (usually
the left mouse button) once.
Double-click Refers to quickly clicking the primary mouse button
(usually the left mouse button) twice.
Right-click Refers to clicking the secondary mouse button
(usually the right mouse button) once.
Drag Refers to pressing and holding a mouse button and
moving the mouse.

How to Get in Touch


The following sections provide information on how to obtain
support for the documentation and the software.
Customer If you have problems, questions, comments, or suggestions
Support regarding your product, contact us by e-mail at
support@zte.com.cn. You can also call our customer support
center at (86) 755 26771900 and (86) 800-9830-9830.
Documentation ZTE welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality
Support and usefulness of this document. For further questions,
comments, or suggestions on the documentation, you can
contact us by e-mail at doc@zte.com.cn; or you can fax your
comments and suggestions to (86) 755 26772236. You can also
browse our website at http://support.zte.com.cn, which contains
various interesting subjects like documentation, knowledge base,
forum and service request.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION iii


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

This page is intentionally blank.

iv Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1

CDMA Basic Theory

This chapter describes:


„ CDMA Introduction
f CDMA Overview
f Spreading Process
f CDMA Spread Code Selection
f Speech Coding Technology
f Channel Coding Technology
f Turbo Coding
f Power Control
f 3G system overview
f CDMA2000 All-IP Network Overview
f Network Structure
f Interface Overview
„ Basic Flow
f speech call process
f packet data call process
f soft handoff process
„ Basic Concepts

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 1


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

CDMA Introduction
CDMA Overview
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a radio communication
technology that defines channels based on pseudo random code.
CDMA uses a group of orthogonal (or quasi-orthogonal) random
PN sequences and related processes to implement the functions
that allow multiple users to share frequency resource in air
transmissions and to access and connect simultaneously. It is
one of the most widely applied technologies in 3G mobile
communication.
As a development direction of 3G, CDMA 1X (single-carrier
CDMA) proposed by the 3GPP2 has been in mass commercial
applications.

Spreading Process
CDMA uses Direct Sequence spreading, where spreading process
is done by directly combining the baseband information to high
chip rate binary code. Spreading Factor is the ratio of the chips
(UMTS = 3.84 Mchips/s) to baseband information rate.
Spreading factors vary from 4 to 512 in FDD UMTS. Spreading
process gain can be expressed in dBs (Spreading factor 128 =
21 dB gain). OVSF codes are used in channel coding.
Figure 1 shows the CDMA spreading process.

2 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

FIGURE 1 - CDMA SPREADING PROCESS

CDMA Spread Code Selection


Spread codes need to be able to differentiate, i.e. so-called
orthogonality. The appropriate spread codes should have the
following characteristics:
„ Correlation

The signal can only be de-spread by its own spread code but
not any other spread codes.
„ Self-correlation

Its own latency does not influence signal de-spreading.


„ Easy to generate

„ Randomness

„ Have possibly the longest period to resist interference

At present, CDMA spread codes include Walsh and PN codes (m


and M sequences).
Walsh Codes Walsh code is a quadrature spread code, obtained from a Walsh
function set. Walsh function is a two-variable orthogonal
function system that values 1 and –1. It has multiple equivalent
definition methods. Handmard numbering method, used in IS-95,
is the most frequently used.
Walsh function set is a complete nonsinusoidal orthogonal set,
often used as user access codes.
IS-95 standard gives out a Walsh function construction table for
r=6, n=26=64.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 3


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

The characteristics of Walsh function set are orthogonality and


normalization. Orthogonality is the multiplication of two different
Walsh functions with the same rank, and the integral within a
specified range is 0. Normalization means to multiply a Walsh
function by itself, and the average of the integrals within a
specified range is +1.
Multiple methods can be used to generate Walsh sequences, but
the most used is Handmard matrix. Iterative method is used in
the process of forming a Walsh sequence using Handmard
matrix.
The self-correlation and correlation of Walsh function are not
ideal for asynchronous case, and will worsen with
synchronization deviation.
M Sequence Walsh codes are available in small number and lacking in
random signal characteristics, so we need to use PN code
sequences when a large number of spread codes are needed. PN
code possesses the property similar to noise sequence. It is
seemingly like a random sequence but it is a regular and
periodic binary sequence. The mostly used PN code is m
sequence.
m sequence is the abbreviation of the longest linear shift
register sequence. As its name indicates, m sequence is the
longest code sequence generated by a multistage shift register
and other delay elements through linear feedback.
The structure of an m-sequence generator is an n-stage shift
register that can be constructed by two equivalent methods:
„ Simple sequence random generator (SSRG)

Its input is obtained by modulo-2 adding the stage outputs of


a shift register. It is equal to feedback input, which contains
at least the output from the last stage.
The feedback input expressed in a polynomial is called m
sequence generated polynomial.
f(x) = C0+C1x1+C2x2+……+ Cn-1xn-1+Cnxn
Where f(x) represents feedback input, xn represents nth
stage output and C0~Cn represents feedback. Note that the
addition in the formula is modulo-2 addition. The m
sequence generator requires that C0 and Cn be 1.
„ Modular sequence random generator (MSRG)

The output of every stage can be modulo-2 added to that of


the last stage and the result be used as input for the next
stage. This m sequence generator structure is called modular
sequence random generator.
SSRG is different from MSRG in that SSRG’s multistage
outputs module-2 adders are in series, which produces a
large latency and low speed; MSRG’s module-2 adders are in
parallel, which produces small latency and fast speed. CDMA
(IS-95) uses MSRG for m sequence generation.

4 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

The orthogonality of m sequence is not as good as Walsh


code. This is shown by the correlation characteristic of m
sequences at the same stage. m sequence correlation is
greater than 0. This is an important reason why Walsh code
is used and m sequence is not directly used.
m sequence self-correlation is strong. When the stage
number is big, m sequences at different phases can be
regarded as orthogonal.
m sequence period is 2r-1, where r stands for the number of
stages a shift register has. The number of m sequences is
related to the stage number.
When r=15, it is called PN short code.
When r=42, it is called PN long code.
The CDMA systems use the following two m sequences:
„ PN short code: The code length is 215.

„ PN long code: The code length is 242-1.

Three Codes The following is a comparison of the three codes used in CDMA
Comparison systems.
„ PN short code is used for orthogonal modulation of forward
and reverse channels. Different base stations use different
short codes in forward channels to identify themselves. The
length of short code is 215.

„ PN long code is obtained by and-gate modulo-2 adding a


pseudo random code generated by a 42-bit shift register and
a 42-bit long code mask. The long code mask for each
channel is different. It is also generated by a 42-bit shift
register. The length of a long code is 242-1. In CDMA systems,
long code is used to scramble forward link signals and spread
reverse link signals.

„ Walsh code, due to its orthogonality, is used for forward


spreading in CDMA systems.

Table 4 shows the comparison of three codes used in CDMA


systems.

TABLE 4 - CODES COMPARISON USED IN CDM A

Code Lengt Usage Purpose Code Characteri


Seque h Rate stics
nce
PN long 242– 1 Reverse Direct 1.2288 M Have sharp
code access sequence 2-value self-
channel spreading correlation
Reverse traffic Identify
channel mobile
stations

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 5


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Code Lengt Usage Purpose Code Characteri


Seque h Rate stics
nce
Forward Data 19.2 K
paging scrambling
channel
Forward traffic
channel
PN 215 All reverse Quadrature 1.2288 M Equalization
short channels spreading
code good for
modulation
All forward Quadrature
channels spreading
good for
modulation
; identify
base
stations
Walsh 64 All reverse Orthogonal 307.2 K Orthogonalit
code channels modulation y
All forward Quadrature 1.2288 M
channels spreading;
identify
forward
channels

We can combine the advantages of Walsh and PN codes in a


supplementary way in real applications, i.e. using composite
code to overcome their respective weaknesses.

Speech Coding Technology


Data transmission efficiency has been a critical issue in
telecommunication networks development for a long time. It is
extremely important. To date, researchers have been studying
this issue in two ways.
„ Study new modulation methods and techniques to improve
channel transmission bit rate. The index is the number of bits
transmitted per Hz bandwidth.

„ Compress source coding bit rate. For example, using


standard PCM coding, a 3.4 k Hz frequency band signal
requires a transmission bit rate of 64 k bit/s. Obviously
compressing this bit rate can increase the number of voice
paths carried in a channel.

Voice coding, belonging to source coding, is completed by three


coding techniques: waveform, parameter, and hybrid.
Then, what kind of voice coding technique is appropriate for
mobile communication? This is mainly decided by the mobile

6 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

channel conditions. Because frequency resource is limited,


signal-coding rates must be low. Because mobile channel
transmission conditions are bad, coding algorithms must have
good capability to prevent code errors. In addition, from users
perspective, it also must offer good voice quality and small
latency. To sum up, mobile communication has the following
requirements for voice digital coding.
„ Low rate means pure coding rate should be lower than 16 k
bit/s.

„ Voice quality must be possibly the best for a given coding


rate.

„ Coding latency should be small, controlled within tens of


seconds.

„ In a very noisy environment, the algorithm should have good


capability to avoid code errors so as to maintain good voice
quality.

„ The algorithm complexity should be moderate and easy for


large-scale integration.

The rapid development of cellular systems all around the world


has brought about an increase in CDMA cellular system’s
capacity to 4~5 times other cellular mobile systems in the past,
and much better service quality and coverage.
In order to adapt the development trends, current CDMA
systems employ an effective voice coding technique: Qualcomm
Code Excited Linear Prediction (QCELP).
It is a voice coding standard (IS-95) for the 2nd generation
digital mobile systems (CDMA) in North America. This voice
coding algorithm is Qualcomm’s patent. Not only can it work for
fixed rates of 4/4.8/8/9.6 k bit/s etc, but also for variable rates
within the range of 800 ~9600 bit/s. This technique can reduce
the average data rate, which in turn doubles the capacity of
CDMA systems based on digital telephone system.
QCELP algorithm is considered the most effective to date. One of
its characteristics is using an appropriate threshold to decide the
rate needed. The threshold varies with the background noise
level, and thereby cancels the noise so that good voice quality
can be achieved even in a clamor environment. CDMA voice
quality is close to GSM 13 k bit/s.

Channel Encoding Technology


Due to the peculiarity of mobile communication systems, high
requirement is imposed on channel encoding—mainly error
control coding, also known as error correction coding, in order to
obtain a specified bit error rate (BER) index. Error control coding

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 7


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

techniques include cyclic redundancy check (CRC), convolutional


code, block interleaving code, Turbo code, and scramble code.
PHS uses: CRC and scramble codes.
GSM uses: Convolutional and block interleaving codes.
CDMA uses: CRC, convolutional, block interleaving, and
scramble codes.
CDMA2000 uses CRC, convolutional, block interleaving, Turbo
and scramble codes.

Mobile Radio signals may encounter various interferences during


Communicatio propagation. It can be said that mobile channels are the most
n Channel complicated communication channels. Besides the interferences
Features encountered in cabled channels, radio signals may come across
various obstacles during its propagation, which might produce
multipath and shadow effects on signals and make them
disperse, diffract, and fade. The terrain and weather change
might also influence radio signals and make them fade slowly. It
is even worse when the mobile station is moving at a high speed,
where signals may have Doppler frequency shift effect. All these
factors may vary with the mobile station’s movement.
„ Multipath propagation

Multipath interference refers to inter-symbol interference at the


receiver, induced by radio waves arriving at different times from
different paths. It may attenuate the amplitude of transmitted
data signals, broaden the waveforms, and thereby limit data
transmission rate. The multipath in mobile channels is mainly
caused by signal reflection on large buildings. From the
perspective of mobile station, it receives the same signal at
different times from different directions.
Figure 2 shows the radio signal multipath propagation.

FIGURE 2 - RADIO SIGNAL MULTIPATH PROPAGATION

Multipath not only significantly disperses the signal power, but


also makes the mobile station receive only a part of the

8 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

transmitted signal power. Also, multipath signals reach the


mobile station at different times through different paths,
resulting in different phases. Thus, multipath signals will weaken
each other, leading to serious fading, big S/N drop, and bad
receiving effect. Furthermore, for wideband communication
where signal frequency spectrum is wide, frequency selective
fading might also happen. This is mainly because different
multipath situations may produce a variable degree of fading for
different frequencies such that some frequency components are
totally cancelled by multipath effect.
Figure 3 shows the multipath effect details.

FIGURE 3 - MULTIPATH EFFECT DETAILS

In the figure, the vertical axis indicates the gain in dB, and the
horizontal axes are frequency and time respectively. We can see
there are many “valleys”, where serious fading happens. The
Rayleigh fading means the probability density function of signal
electromagnetic strength complies with Rayleigh probability
distribution of multipath fading. Another major contributor to
Rayleigh fading is Doppler frequency shift effect. Multipath is
unavoidable in mobile communications. Although it seriously
interfere communications, people can also take advantage of it.
For instance, when a mobile station moves to the back of a large
building and enters the signal shadow area, radio signals can
only reach the mobile station through reflection. People can
make use of the reflected waves and/or wound waves to
guarantee voice continuity. The technical measures taken
against multipath in GSM and CDMA are time-domain
equalization and receive diversity.
„ Doppler frequency shift

We often meet with such situations in our daily life, i.e. as a


police car drives speedily towards us, we feel the siren becomes
louder and sharper; and as it leaves us, the siren dulls down.
This is the frequency change resulted from Doppler frequency
shift. Doppler frequency shift means multipath effect can change
not only the amplitude of transmitted signals but also their
frequency structures, making the phases going up and down. It
leads to data signal receive errors. The amount of Doppler
frequency shift can be calculated using the following formula:

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 9


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Doppler frequency shift = (moving speed/wave length) * COS


(angle formed by incident wave and moving direction)
When people move slowly while talking on mobile phones,
Doppler frequency shift can be neglected. But when people take
a speedy car while talking on mobile phones, the influence of
Doppler frequency shift has to be considered.
„ Signal shadow and transmission loss

As stated above, when a mobile station enters the shadow of a


building, signals also fade because most of the signal power is
shielded by the building. In this case, the mobile station can only
receive those signals reflected and wound by other objects.
However, this kind of fading is much slower than that caused by
multipath, so it is called slow fading and is not as difficult to
handle as fast fading.
Fading refers to the phenomenon that the amplitude of received
signals keeps going up and down at random. The duration of
fading is used to distinguish fast fading from slow fading. Fast
fading is mostly caused by multipath. It seriously distorts signals.
Slow fading is induced by various types of atmospheric reflection
or obstacles such as terrain when the user is moving. With
frequency increase, the curvature of signal levels varying with
time gradually approaches Rayleigh distribution. Therefore,
Raleigh distribution can be used to estimate the worst situation
of fast fading.
Cyclic CRC uses cyclic code to check and correct not only independent
Redundancy random errors but also accidental errors. Cyclic code is easy to
Check implement in hardware using a feedback shift register. It is the
advantages of cyclic code -- clear algebraic structure, good
performance, easy coding and implementation that make it the
most frequently used anti-interference method. CRC tends to be
used only for error check in real applications.
Convolutional Convolutional coding technique can effectively overcome random
Coding individual data errors. Elias is the first to introduce convolutional
code in 1995 and named it so because the coding process can be
expressed with a convolutional arithmetic operation.
Convolutional coding uses a memory system, i.e. for any given
time period, the n encoder outputs are not only related to the k
inputs within this period, but also related to the m inputs stored
in the encoder.
Convolutional codes have a constraint length of l=m+1, where
m is the number of bytes (memory length) that the register in
the encoder has.
Convolutional codes require the selection of constraint length
and rate. The constraint length should be as large as possible so
as to produce good performance. However, the decoding
complexity grows with the constraint length. Today’s super
large-scale integrated circuits can process the convolutional
codes with a constraint length of 6. The code rate is decided by

10 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

the channel coherence time and the interleaver depth to be


discussed below.
Block The purpose of block interleaving technique is to serialize
Interleaving impulsive data errors so that the number of errors in each
Technique received word after de-interleaving is not greater than the error
correction code can handle. On these variable-parameter
channels in terrain mobile communications, bit errors tend to
happen in series. This is because the long-lasting fading valley
can influence the next series of bits. But the channel encoding is
only effective in checking and correcting limited number and
short series of errors. To solve this problem, hopefully a way can
be found to scatter the sequential bits of a message, i.e. sending
the sequential bits of a message in a non sequential order (in
disperse). In this way, even a series of errors happen during
transmission, the message recovered after de-interleaving
contains only one or a few errors. This technique is called
interleaving. Using error correction code can correct the random
errors contained in a de-interleaved word and recover the
original message.
As we know, radio channels can produce impulsive errors.
Interleaving can randomize these impulsive errors so
convolutional coding is very effective in preventing random
errors. Interleaving scheme falls in block interleaving and
convolutional interleaving. The cellular systems usually use block
interleaving.
The performance improvement brought in by interleaving is
decided by channel diversity level and average fading interval.
The interleaving length is determined by service delay
requirement. Voice service requires shorter delay than data
service. Therefore, the interleaving depth should be matched to
the specific service.

Turbo Code
Overview Turbo code is a new channel-coding scheme introduced in 1993,
and is an important breakthrough in the area of error correction
coding in recent years. Turbo code is encoded using relatively
simple RSC (Recursive Systematic Convolutional) code and
interleavers, and decoded using iteration and de-interleaving.
Turbo code can produce an error correction performance close to
the theoretic limit. It has strong anti-fading and anti-
interference capabilities. Therefore, Turbo code is defined as one
of the core systems in the 3rd generation mobile communication
systems. Due to the decoding complexity and delay, Turbo code
is suitable for data services that have slack delay requirement.
As for voice and data services that have stringent delay
requirement, convolutional code is used.
Turbo Code Turbo code encoder comprises of:
Encoder
„ Two member encoders (RSC1 and RSC2)

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 11


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ Turbo interleaver

„ Deletor

Figure 4 shows the turbo code encoder.

FIGURE 4 - TURBO CODE ENCODER

Nturbo
information

Symbol deletion and repetition


bit input
RSC1

( Nturbo+6) /R
symbol output
Turbo
interleaver

RSC2

Member Each RSC has two check bit outputs. RSC generated polynomial
encoders is G= [1, 15/13, 17/13]. The designed coding rate R can be 1/2,
1/3 or 1/4. Turbo encoder takes Nturbo bit inputs, including
information data, frame check (CRC), and two reserved bits, and
outputs (Nturbo+6)/R symbols, the last 6/R bits of which are the
system bit and check bit in the tail. The tail bits are used to zero
out the encoder.
The encoding process starts from RSC1 at the top of Figure 4
every time. Before that, the RSC1 registers are initialized to zero.
Then, the switch is turned upward within the clock cycles from 1
to Nturbo. The input data is fed to RSC1 bit by bit, and at the same
time it is written to the Turbo interleaver. Within the three clock
cycles after Nturbo, the switch is turned downward, and the tail
bits are generated to zero out the RSC1.
RSC2 works completely the same way as RSC1 does, except that
the input for RSC2 comes from the Turbo interleaver, and it has
to wait until the Turbo interleaver becomes full before it can
start to work. The Turbo interleaver is a storage area, which has
its input data read-in in a normal sequence and its output read-
out in a pre-defined sequence.
Finally, the outputs from these two RSCs, including those
corresponding to the tail bits, are deleted and multiplexed to
form an encoded Turbo code. The two RSCs in the cdma2000
Turbo coding are zeroed out at the end of encoding, but the tail
bits do not participate interleaving. This is different from the
“classic” Turbo code published by C.Berrou.

12 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

Interleaver Turbo interleaver interleaves the input data, frame quality


indicator bit (CRC), and reserved bit. Its function is to
sequentially read-in a frame of input bits and read-out the whole
frame of data in a pre-defined address sequence.
Note that the interleaver size is Nturbo, and the input address is
numbered from 0 to Nturbo-1. To define an interleaver is to
determine the address numbers of Nturbo outputs for read-out.
For example, if Nturbo=5, the input address is [01234]. We need
to define a group of 5 output addresses, e.g. [10423]. The
process in which the read-out addresses are generated by a
Turbo interleaver in cdma2000 is described as follows:
1. Define interleaver parameter n. n is the minimum integer
that satisfies Nturbo≤2n+5.
2. Construct an n+5 bit counter and initialize it to 0.
3. Take out the high-end n bits from this counter, plus 1, and
then take the low-end n bits of the sum.
4. Use the low-end 5 bits of the counter as an index to search
for the corresponding Turbo interleaver parameter.
5. Multiply the values obtained from step 3 and 4, and take the
low-end n bits.
6. Take the low-end 5 bits of the counter, and get its opposite
bit by bit.
7. Use the outcome of step 6 as high-end 5 bits and that of
step 5 as low-end n bits to form an n+5 bit address.
8. If this address is valid (<Nturb), it is an output address;
otherwise discard it.
9. Add 1 to the counter, and repeat the operations from step 3
to step 8 until all the Nturbo interleaver output addresses
are obtained.
Delete The output symbols from the two member encoders must go
through deletion operation to form the final Turbo code block.
Turbo Code The main constituents are two decoders for soft input/output
Decoder and encoder-related interleaver/de-interleaver.
Figure 5 shows the basic structure of turbo code decoder.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 13


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

FIGURE 5 - TURBO CODE DECODER BASIC STRUCTURE

Soft information De- Soft information


interleave

Soft
Check bit of 2nd
information
encoder
DEC1 Interleave
DEC2
Received
information bit

Interleave De-interleave

Check bit of 2nd encoder Decision output


T
he critical part of Turbo decoder is the member decoders
corresponding to the encoders at the transmitter, i.e. DEC1 and
DEC2 in Figure 5. Seen alone, DEC1 and DEC2 are the encoders
directly corresponding to DEC1 and DEC2 in Figure 5. But these
member encoders must be able to output soft information and
take input of prior information. It can be seen from Figure 5 that
the member decoders have three inputs. Besides the system bit
and check bit inputs that all common decoders have, there is
one more prior information input.

The decoding process is as follows:


1. Send the soft decision information corresponding to the
system bit and check bit of the first member encoder (RSC1)
to the first decoder unit (DEC1) for decoding. The soft
information output from DEC1 can be decomposed into two
parts: internal and external information. The external
information is prior to DEC2 but sequentially it must go
through de-interleaving so as to match with the system bit of
DEC2.
2. The second member decoder starts to decode. Since the
RSC2 system bit duplicates that of RSC1, it is deleted at the
transmitter. The interleaved system bit of RSC1 can be sent
to DEC2 as its system bit input. The external information
output from DEC1 is used as DEC2’s prior information input.
The second decoder unit (DEC2) also outputs soft
information at the end of decoding. The external information
parsed from it can be sent back to the first decoder unit for
the next round of decoding. The connection between the
rounds of decoding is attained through external information.
3. The decoding process can be repeated many times. After
iterating for a specified times, make over-zero decision on
the soft information to get the final decoding output.

14 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

Power Control
CDMA is interference limited multiple access system. Because all
users transmit on the same frequency, internal interference
generated by the system is the most significant factor in
determining system capacity and call quality. The transmit
power for each user must be reduced to limit interference,
however, the power should be enough to maintain the required
Eb/No (signal to noise ratio) for a satisfactory call quality.
Maximum capacity is achieved when Eb/No of every user is at
the minimum level needed for the acceptable channel
performance. As the MS moves around, the RF environment
continuously changes due to fast and slow fading, external
interference, shadowing, and other factors. The aim of the
dynamic power control is to limit transmitted power on both the
links while maintaining link quality under all conditions.
Additional advantages are longer mobile battery life and longer
life span of BTS power amplifiers.

3G System Overview
With fast growth of wireless services and the rapid expansion of
Internet services, the wireless communication system has to
meet increasing demands for system capacity, data transmission
rate and strong support for diverse services. The 3G mobile
communication system (IMT2000) draws the attention of the
whole industry. The major feature of 3G mobile communication
system is the support of broadband service, especially the
multimedia data service efficiently using frequency spectrum.
The 3G system is designed to provide a larger system capacity
and better communication quality than 2G systems, implement
seamless roaming around the world, and provide subscribers
with multiple services.
Mainstream technical standards for the 3G are CDMA2000,
WCDMA and TD-SCDMA.
The CDMA2000 standards are usually implemented technically in
two phases. In the first phase, the CDMA2000 still adopts the
spread spectrum rate of CDMA ONE, i.e., 1 × 1.2288 Mbps. A
single carrier occupies 1.25 MHz bandwidth. It adopts DS spread
spectrum technology. The CDMA2000 system in the first phase
is also called CDMA2000 1X. In the second phase, the spread
spectrum rate is 3 × /6 × /9 × /12 ×/15× 1.2288 Mbps,
respectively occupies 5/10/12/15/20 MHz bandwidth. It adopts
multi-carrier modulation technology. The CDMA2000 system in
the second phase is also called CDMA2000 3X. In addition, the
1xEV-DO Rev.A, which serves as an enhanced standard
supplemental to IS2000, supports data transmission up to 3.1
Mbps in a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 15


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Technical CDMA was initially proposed in America in 1993. It evolved from


Evolution IS95, a 2G mobile communication to 3G CDMA2000 mobile
Overview communications. CDMA2000 is one of the mainstream 3G mobile
communication standards currently.
Figure 6 shows the evolution diagram of CDMA2000 1X
technology.

F I G U R E 6 - C D M A2 0 0 0 T E C H N O L O G Y E V O L U T I O N R O A D M A P

Currently, CDMA2000 1X has branched off into CDMA2000 1X


Release 0, CDMA2000 1X Release A, CDMA2000 1X Release B,
CDMA2000 1X Release C, and CDMA2000 1X Release D. In
particular, release 0 is most commercial version. 1X EV-DV
corresponds to Release C and Release A. 1X EV-DO is specially
designed for transport of high-speed packet data. Currently,
Release 0 and Release A have been developed.
1X EV-DV is more complicated than 1X EV-DO. In terms of
technology, 1X EV-DO does not have any obvious advantage. In
fact, CDMA2000 1X Release 0 will evolve towards CDMA2000 1X
Release A and CDMA2000 1X EV-DO at the same time.

CDMA2000 All-IP Network Overview


The evolution from traditional networks to All-IP networks helps
network builders and operators offer more flexible service
platform functions at lower costs. All-IP networks, when
integrated with 3G wireless access technologies, enable
provisioning of multimedia services over IP (including VoIP),
giving network builders and operators competitive edge.
The overall structure of the CDMA2000 All-IP network consists of
the radio access network and the core network. The evolution of
the core network is independent from that of the radio access
network.
The CDMA2000 network evolves to All-IP network in several
phases: Phase-0, Phase-1, Phase-2 and Phase-3.

16 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

„ Phase-0 is a traditional network based on circuit switching.


The access network is based on IOS 4.x, the air interface is
based on CDMA2000 and the core network is based on
TIA/EIA-41.

„ Since Phase-1, the core network separates from the access


network, forming independent signaling layer and bearer
layer. The access network signaling is transmitted over IP.

„ Phase-2 corresponds to the LMSD (Legacy MS Domain)


phase, which requires the IP network to support traditional
terminal services and provide new service functions (such as
TrFO/RTO) for users using new terminals.

„ Phase-3 corresponds to the MMD phase, and is the end point


of the evolution to All-IP. In this phase, the air interface
based on IP is implemented and finally IP-based transmission
is realized throughout the network.

Network Structure
Figure 7 shows CDMA system network structure.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 17


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

F I G U R E 7 - C D M A2 0 0 0 S Y S T E M N E T W O R K S T R U C T U R E

Note: CDMA system of ZTE also provides proprietary PTT


service functions. To implement these PTT functions, add PDS
sub-system on BSC side.

18 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

CDMA mobile communication system consists of:


„ Core Network (CN)

„ Base Station Sub-system (BSS)

„ Mobile Station (MS)

CN CN is control and switching center of entire CDMA system. It is


responsible for call connection, mobility management, user
equipment confidential authentication management, and other
functions related to mobile subscribers. In addition, it provides
inter-working between Public Switching Telephone Network
(PSTN) and Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). Core network
consists of further subsystems which are described as follows:
MSC The MSC is basically an ISDN-switch, coordinating and setting
up calls to and from MSs. An Inter-Working Function (IWF) may
be required to adapt GSM specific rates to that used in a
particular PSTN/ PLMN.
„ VLR

The VLR (Visitor Location Register) contains all the


subscriber data, both permanent and temporary, which are
necessary to control a MS in the MSCs coverage area. The
VLR is commonly realised as an integral part of the MSC,
rather than a separate entity.
„ AuC

The AuC (Authentication Centre) database contains the


subscriber authentication keys and the algorithm required to
calculate the authentication parameters to be transferred to
the HLR.
„ HLR

The HLR (Home Location Register) database is used to store


permanent and semi-permanent subscriber data; as such,
the HLR will always know in which location area the MS is
(assuming the MS is in a coverage area), and this data is
used to locate an MS in the event of a MS terminating call
set-up
„ EIR

The EIR (Equipment Identity Register) database contains


information on the MS and its capabilities. The IMEI
(International Mobile Subscriber Identity) is used to
interrogate the EIR.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 19


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ GMSC

The GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Centre) is the point to


which a MS terminating call is initially routed, without any
knowledge of the MS's location. The GMSC is thus in charge
of obtaining the MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)
from the HLR based on the MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN
number, the "directory number" of a MS) and routing the call
to the correct visited MSC. The "MSC" part of the term GMSC
is misleading, since the gateway operation does not require
any linking to a MSC.

MS As radio access network, BSS provides access of MS into CDMA


system. MS is the mobile terminal and mobile subscriber
equipment. It can initiate and receive a call and complete
communication with BSS.
BSS BSS is bridge between CN and MS to implement radio channel
management and radio transceiving functions. BSS consists of
base station controller (BSC) and base transceiver station (BTS).
In addition, to implement management of BSS, BBS also
provides operation and maintenance sub-system.
„ BSC

BSC can control and managing one or more BTS. It


implements radio channel allocation, power control, cross-
cell channel handoff and voice coding functions. BSC is also a
Private Branch Exchange (PBX). It converges voice stream
and connects to mobile switching center (MSC) via A
interface and converges data stream and connects to packet
data service node (PDSN) via A11 and A12 interface.
„ BTS

BTS is radio transceiving equipment of BSS and is controlled


by BSC. It implements radio transmission, channel control,
channel coding and diversity functions.
f TRAU

The TRAU (Transcoder Rate Adaptor Unit) functionally


belongs to the BTS. The TRAU enables the use of lower rates
(32, 16 or 8 kbps) over the Abis interface instead of the 64
kbps ISDN rate for which the MSC is designed. The TRAU can
be located at the BTS, the BSC, or (immediately in front of)
the MSC.
„ OMS

OMS is operation and maintenance part of BSS. All functional


units of BSS (BTS and BSC) can be connected to OMS
through BSC network. OMS can implement configuration,
monitoring, status reporting, statistics and fault diagnosis
functions of functional units of BSS network.

20 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

Interfaces Overview
The previous figure also shows the GSM interfaces; they are
briefly explained below.
„ UM: The air interface is used for exchanges between a MS
and a BTS. LAPDm, a modified version of the ISDN LAPD, is
used for signaling.

„ Abis: This is a BSS internal interface linking the BSC and a


BTS, and it has not been standardized. The Abis interface
allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency
allocation in the BTS.

„ A: The A interface is between the BSC and the MSC. The A


interface manages the allocation of suitable radio resources
to the MSs and mobility management.

„ B: The B interface between the MSC and the VLR uses the
MAP/B protocol. Most MSCs are associated with a VLR,
making the B interface "internal". Whenever the MSC needs
access to data regarding a MS located in its area, it
interrogates the VLR using the MAP/B protocol over the B
interface.

„ C: The C interface is between the HLR and a GMSC or a SMS-


G. Each call originating outside of GSM (i.e., a MS
terminating call from the PSTN) has to go through a Gateway
to obtain the routing information required to complete the
call, and the MAP/C protocol over the C interface is used for
this purpose. Also, the MSC may optionally forward billing
information to the HLR after call clearing.

„ D: The D interface is between the VLR and HLR, and uses the
MAP/D protocol to exchange the data related to the location
of the MS and to the management of the subscriber.

„ E: The E interface interconnects two MSCs. The E interface


exchanges data related to handover between the anchor and
relay MSCs using the MAP/E protocol.

„ F: The F interface connects the MSC to the EIR, and uses the
MAP/F protocol to verify the status of the IMEI that the MSC
has retrieved from the MS.

„ G: The G interface interconnects two VLRs of different MSCs


and uses the MAP/G protocol to transfer subscriber
information, during e.g. a location update procedure.

„ H: The H interface is between the MSC and the SMS-G, and


uses the MAP/H protocol to support the transfer of short
messages.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 21


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ I: The I interface (not shown in Figure 1) is the interface


between the MSC and the MS. Messages exchanged over the
I interface are relayed transparently through the BSS.

Basic Flow
Speech Call Process
A speech call refers to the process in which MS initiates a call or
responds to an incoming call. Process involves establishment of
a service channel. A speech call can be divided into MS calling
and MS called. Here MS calling process is utilized to exemplify
the details of a voice call.
Figure 8 shows the process in which MS initiates a speech call.

FIGURE 8 - MS INITIATING A C ALL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

time
MS BTS BSC MSC

Initiating
message
a
Initiating
acknowledgment b
Forward the MS
initiating message c
Service request
d
Provisioning
request
Allocate radio e
resource
Channel f
provisioning
g
Connection
completed
Provisioning h
completed
i
Return a ring
back tone j

1. MS initiates a call message in the access channel.


2. BTS will confirm it in the paging channel and if BTS rejects
this call due to control by overload level, the BTS will
return the initiating call rejection command to the MS.
3. Through Abis interface, BTS transmits the initiating call
message from MS to BSC requesting the BSC to establish a
call.

22 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

4. BSC creates a service request message and sends it to


MSC.
5. MSC assigns a terrestrial circuit to send a provisioning
request to BSC. If BSC finds the terrestrial circuit required
is valid and the device is faulty, it will return the
provisioning failure message to MSC. The flow is then over.
6. BSC allocates the radio resources (channel unit and radio
resource), and sends radio channel establishment request
message to BTS.
7. BTS sends channel provisioning message to MS in the
paging channel.
8. MS sends the prefix in backward service channel. If BTS
successfully captures it then BTS will send message to BSC,
indicating the connection is completed.
9. BSC informs MSC that the provisioning is completed and
call flow enters into conversation status.
10. MSC transfers a ring-back tone in the forward service
channel through SVM. The call establishment flow is then
completed.

Packet Data Call Process


Packet data service is most important function that differentiates
1x system from 95 systems. Supplementary channel serves to
provide high-speed packet data transmission of up to 153.6K
rate.
Take MS-initiated call establishment (from Null to Active status)
as an example to describe the process of data call establishment.
Figure 9 shows MS-originated data call establishment (from null
to active) procedure.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 23


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

FIGURE 9 - MS-INITIATED DAT A C ALL ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS

„ MS sends an initiating call message to BSC through BTS.

„ BSC receives call-initiating message and then examine


whether it is a data service, and sends service establishment
request to MSC.

„ BSC receives provisioning request sent by MSC. During this


period BSC should examine whether the resources (radio
resources and terrestrial circuit resources) are available.

„ BSC sends channel provisioning message to BTS, which


sends this message to MS through the paging channel. This
message contains information such as configuration,
multiplexing mode and rate set of F-FCH, configuration,
recommended multiplexing mode and rate set of R-FCH and
pilot offset.

„ When message is received sent by BTS about assigned


channel, BSC creates A8 connection with PCF.

„ BSC sends message to PDSN for the establishment of A10


connection.

„ PDSN responds to message, indicating that A10 connection is


successfully established.

24 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

„ BSC performs service negotiation with MS through BS.

„ MS receives current configuration and sends service


connection establishment message to BS and service
negotiation has completed.

„ BSC sends provisioning completion message to MSC.

PPP connection between MS and PDSN is established and the


mobile IP registration process starts. FCH serves to transfer low
speed packet data between MS and PDSN.

Handoff Process
Soft handoff Soft handoff is a "Make before break" handoff. That is, the
mobile station (MS) is up on a call and moves from one base
station (BS) to another, but the MS starts communicating with a
new BS before terminating communications with the old BS.
„ Soft handoffs can only be used between BSs on the same
frequency. Technique improves reception as MSs move
between cells (on cell boundaries).

„ During soft handoff MS actually communicates with more


than one BS at a time, so that when it's time to move from
weaker BS to stronger one, MS is already in communication
with stronger one.

„ During a soft handoff, MS receives independent closed loop


power control bits from two BSs and perform "Or of Downs"
logic to determine how to adjust its power. That means MS
will increase its power level if and only if both power control
bits from two BSs are 0 (indicating up). If power control bit
from any base station equals to '1' (indicating down), MS
shall decrease its power.

„ Soft handoff takes place in following circumstances:

f Handoff between the same carrier frequencies of different


sectors in the same BTS.

f Handoff in the same carrier between different BTS in the


same BSC.

f Handoff in the same carrier between different BSC in the


same MSC.

Since the implementation processes of different soft handoffs


are similar, here we introduce only the implementation process
of soft handoff in the BSC. Soft handoff in BSC is divided into
soft and softer handoff addition and the soft/softer handoff
removal, which are to be described below.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 25


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Softer A softer handoff occurs when the MS is communicating with two


Handoffs sectors of a cell. Softer handoff is identical to the soft handoff
with the following exceptions.
MS receives identical power control from both sectors and
provides diversity combining of power control bits to determine
whether BSs are sending an up bit or a down bit (ignore the
weaker bits). It's NOT "or of downs" logic.
Soft Handoff CDMA system uses soft and softer handoff technique to improve
Vs softer receptions when mobile stations move between cells or sectors
Handoff (on cell or sector boundaries).
Figure 10 shows soft and softer handoff technique.

FIGURE 10 - SOFT VS SOFTER HANDOFF

Soft and Softer Figure 11 shows implementation of soft and softer handoff
Handoff addition process within BSC.
Addition

26 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

FIGURE 11 - SOFT AND SOFTER HANDOFF ADDITION PROCESS

1. When MS in the service status detects that the intensity of a


certain pilot in the candidate set satisfies the conditions, MS
sends to BS a pilot frequency measurement report message,
Umr Pilot Strength Measurement Msg, reporting to BSC pilot
phase, intensity, pilot holding indication bit (removal of timer
of handoff expired or not), and other information of each
pilot signal in current valid set and candidate set.
2. BSC analyzes pilot signal measurement report received.
When it judges a new pilot signal need be added, it applies
to database sub-system for channel unit and code-division
channel of BTS to be added. BSC can determine the handoff
type according to this resource. BSC sends a handoff request
message to destination BTS.
3. When destination BTS receives handoff request message, if it
is softer handoff, this BTS directly add a modulation path in
the corresponding channel unit, if it is soft handoff, this BTS
creates the service link and then returns handoff request
response to BSC.
4. BSC sends handoff instruction message to MS through
source and destination BTS, to guide MS operate the handoff
addition operation once.
5. After receiving handoff instruction, MS updates pilot signal
set, executes handoff, adds new pilot signal to valid set and

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 27


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

demodulates forward service channels in each pilot set in


valid set. It then combines demodulated message and sends
handoff completion message to BSC.
6. BSC informs MSC of reason causing handoff and all cell
identification information supporting this handoff. Based on
such information, MSC examine that BS has performed a
soft/softer handoff addition operation.
Soft and Softer Figure 12 shows procedure of soft and softer handoff removal.
Handoff
Removal FIGURE 12 - IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS OF SOFT/SOFTER HANDOFF
REMOVAL

Time
MS Source BTS Dstation BTS BSC MSC

a
Pilot Frequency
Measurement

b
Handoff
Indication

c
Handoff
Completed

Handoff d
Execution

Radio Channel
Released
e

Release
Acknowledgement

1. When MS, after the soft handoff addition process, detects


that intensity of a pilot signal of valid set is smaller than
T_DROP and reaches T-TDROP value for handoff
removing timer, it sends messages to BTSs
corresponding to valid sets through backward traffic
channel to report offset, phase, intensity and pilot
holding position (whether the handoff removing timer
has expired) of each pilot signal of valid sets to BSC.
2. BSC analyzes and examine pilot frequency measurement
report message received, and determines radio channel
to be removed. It sends a handoff instruction message to
MS to remove this pilot signal from valid set with
intensity lower than T_DROP and T_TROP timer expired.

28 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1 CDMA Basic Theory

3. MS sends a handoff completion message in backward


traffic channel and informs BTS about offset of each pilot
signal in the current valid set, indicating the completion
of handoff removal.
4. BSC sends a handoff execution message to inform MSC,
reason of handoff and all cell identification information
supporting this handoff. Based on such information, MSC
examine that BS has executed a soft or softer handoff
removal operation.
5. BTS releases the corresponding radio resources and
sends radio channel release message to BSC.
6. After completing radio channel release, BTS transmits
release confirmation message to BSC.

Basic Concepts
„ Service area

Service area refers to the area where MS can acquire


services. That is, it is an area where subscribers of different
communication networks (for example, CDMA, PLMN, and
PSTN) do not need to know actual location of MS and can
communicate with it.
A service area can be one or more in CDMA networks. It can
also be one country or part of a country. It can be a number
of countries.
„ Cellular

Mobile communication system adopts BTS to provide a radio


service scope. Coverage of BTS is called a cellular.
Reason that the mobile communication system adopts
cellular is to improve the frequency multiplexing.
„ Cell

A cell is minimal divided area of cellular mobile


communication. It is smallest radio coverage area that MS
can identify, and is also smallest division of radio
management.
In case of an omni antenna structure, a cell is coverage of
BTS.
„ Carrier

Carrier or carrier frequency is the fundamental frequency


used in both amplitude modulation i.e. it is the frequency of
carrier which is modulated and is frequency to which a
receiver should be tuned in order to demodulate information
signal. It is, simply, the fixed frequency upon which the

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 29


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

variable modulator frequency will be imposed, and the beat


frequency is what the listener will hear.
A carrier signal can transport a number of voice signals. After
each voice signal modulates the carrier, a modulated signal
is formed. It ensures that the modulated signal is correctly
transported. The bandwidth required by the channel is called
channel bandwidth.
„ Foreground

Foreground refers to the hardware equipment entity of


mobile communication system. In BSS system, it refers to
the hardware entities of BTS and BSC.
„ Background

Corresponding to the foreground, background refers to the


software system that performs operations and maintenance
of different components of the foreground equipment. In a
BSS system, it refers to the OMS

30 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2

Product Introduction

This chapter describes:


„ ZXCBTS M802/M192 Position in 1x EV-DO Rev. A Network
f 1x EV-DO Rev.A radio access network reference model
f M802/M192 interfaces in 1x EV-DO Rev.A Network
„ Product Features
„ Product Functions

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 31


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

ZXCBTS M802/M192
Position in 1x EV-DO Rev. A
Network
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 developed by ZTE is Micro-BTS that
functions on 800MHz and 1900 MHz frequency range
respectively, with Tx power of 20 W. It supports 1x EV-DO
service. In CDMA2000 1x EV-DO system, it forms the radio part
of Radio Access Network (RAN). It completes radio transmission
of subscribers over Access Terminals (AT) and implements
control of radio channels over Um air interface. Micro BTS also
provides wired interface with BSCB. Cells covered by ZXCBTS
MBTS M802/M192 are Omni directional (Omni) or follow sector
based structure.

Note: M802 mentioned in this document refers to ZXCBTS


Micro BTS (EV-DO) M802/ZXCBTS MBTS (EV-DO) M802, which
functions at 800 MHz, whereas M192 refers to ZXCBTS Micro
BTS (EV-DO) M192/ZXCBTS MBTS (EV-DO) M192, which
functions at 1900 MHz.

1x EV-DO Rev. A Radio Access


Network Model
Figure 13 shows the 1x EV-DO Rev.A radio access network
reference model.

FIGURE 13 - 1X EV-DO REV. A R ADIO ACCESS NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL

32 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2 Product Introduction

CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A system consists of Access Terminal


(AT), Radio Access Network (RAN) and core network.
RAN Radio Access Network (RAN) provides radio bearer between core
network and AT, and is responsible for establishing, maintaining
and releasing radio channels. In addition, it also manages radio
resources and mobility. RAN consists of functional entities such
as Access Network, Packet Control Function (PCF) and Access
Network AAA.
AN consists of BSCB and BTS, and provides data inter-
connection between packet network and access terminal, to
implement BTS transmission/reception, call control, and mobility
management.
AN-AAA is a logical entity for access networks to implement
access authentication and user authentication. It exchanges
parameters and results for access authentication with AN
through A12 interface.
PCF and AN jointly implement radio channel control function
related to packet data service. In the specific ZXC10-BSCB
implementation, joint PCF and BSCB configuration takes place.
A8/A9 interface is the internal AN/PCF interface. PCF
communicates with PDSN through A10/A11 interface.
CN Core network (CN) consists of core packet network and core
switching network. PS core network includes functional entities
such as PDSN and AAA. Switching core network includes MSCe.
AT Access Terminal (AT) is a device that provides data connection
for users. It can establish connection with a computing device,
such as PC, or serve as independent data device, such as mobile
phone.

M802/M192 Interfaces in 1x EV-DO


Rev. A Networks
Figure 14 shows the ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 interfaces in 1x
EV-DO Rev.A Network.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 33


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

FIGURE 14 - M802/M192 INTERFACES IN 1X EV-DO REV. A NETWORK

In 1x EV-DO Rev.A networks, ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192


connects with BSCB over Abis interface, and with AT over Air or
Um interface.

Abis Interface Abis protocol is an interface protocol between BSCB and BTSB. It
consists of two parts in the application layer, comprising control
part (Abisc) and service part (Abist). Control part converts Um
interface control channel signaling, and service part controls
traffic channel.
Um Interface UM interface is the interface between BTS and AT. It complies
with IS-856-A standards.

Product Features
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 incorporates existing CDMA features
along with improvements according to carrier requirements.
Following section lists ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 features.
Superior ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 absorbs advantages of existing CDMA
Performance micro BTS products locally and overseas to maintain unmatched
system design.
Forward System design takes into consideration, transition and
Compatibility integration to next generation mobile communication systems,
so that the system evolves to CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rev B.
High Integrity ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 applies vast portion of advanced
devices and design technologies, to improve system integrity,
while bringing down type and number of modules used.
Compact Shelf implements compatible indoor and outdoor wall-mounted
Structure structure. ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 implements a compatible
structure. Simple module replacement or shelf addition/deletion
enables implementation of mutual conversion between micro
BTS/remote station products.

34 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2 Product Introduction

High Reliability ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 design involves high integrity. A


small number of module types incorporate advanced fault
tolerance software design to improve system reliability.
Flexible ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 combines and implements multiple
Configuration configurations. It connects directly with BSCB or original macro
BTS in daisy chain mode supporting connections between ultra-
wide coverage micro BTSs and micro BTSs and between micro
BTSs. New micro BTSs and ultra-wide coverage micro BTSs do
not affect arrangement and connection of existing BSCBs and
macro BTSs. A single micro BTS or single ultra-wide coverage
micro BTS implements single-carrier omni-direction, and when
configured with remote station system, it implements system
configurations of “single-carrier two-sector”, “single-carrier
three-sector”, “two-carrier single-sector” and “three-carrier
single-sector”. Remote station system connects with micro BTS
or macro BTS.
System System supports monitoring external power supplies using dry
Management contact or RS-485 interface to facilitate monitoring,
management, and maintenance of system operations.

Product Functions
BTS has powerful functions such as radio resource assignment,
control and power control. Following section lists main ZXCBTS
MBTS M802/M192 functions.
„ 3GPP2 C.S0024-A (TIA/EIA IS-856-A) air interface
specifications.

„ CDMA 800 MHz and 1900 MHz frequency configuration.

„ Transmission Power Track Loop (TPTL) control of BTS in


CDMA cellular systems.

„ Normal call, Markov call services.

„ Land circuit and radio resource management.

„ Hand-off control from micro BTSs to micro BTSs and micro


BTSs to macro BTSs.

„ Equipment operation & maintenance, performance


management, alarm management, configuration
management, diagnosis management and security
management.

„ Support monitoring of external power.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 35


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

This page is intentionally blank.

36 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3

Product Indices

This chapter describes:


„ Technical Specification
„ Product performance
„ RF indices
„ Applied Standards

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 37


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Technical Specification
Dimensions Dimensions of a single cabinet: Integrated equipment
Dimensions (height × width × depth): 630 mm × 400 mm ×
285 mm.
Outer View ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 cabinet is silver gray in color.
and Color
Figure 15 shows the ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 outer view.

FIGURE 15 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 OUTER VIEW

Gross Single shelf weighs 37kg.


Equipment
Weight
Power Supply ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 power supplies operate in two modes:
Requirements 220 V AC power supply and -48 V DC power supply.
Table 5 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 working voltage.

TABLE 5 - POWER SUPPLY WORKING VOLTAGE RANGE

SN Nominal Value Allowed Fluctuation

1 220 V AC 150 V ~ 300 V/45 Hz ~ 65 Hz

2 -48 V DC -40 V ~ -57 V

38 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

Power TABLE 6 - M802 POWER CONSUMPTION DURING NORMAL WORKING


Consumption
1x EV-DO
1x EV-DO Maximum
Typical Typical Power
Output Power
Configurati Consumption
Power Consumption (Full -
on (Half-
Loading)
Loading)
1 C(Carrier)
20 W 340 W 310 W
1 S(Sector)
2C1S 20 W 590 W 540 W
3C1S 20W 860 W 780 W
1C2S 20 W 590 W 540 W
1C3S 20 W 860 W 780 W
Working
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 equipment must operate reliably and
Environment
stably in the following environmental conditions.
Requirements

TABLE 7 - NORM AL WORKING ENVIRONMENT REQUIREMENTS

Item Requirements
Working Temperature -30 °C ~ +55 °C
Working Humidity 5% RH ~ 98% RH
Storage
Ambient temperature range is -45 °C ~ +75 °C.
conditions
Relative humidity is 5%~98%.
Mechanically Sand density ≤ 1000 mg/m3.
Active
Floating dust density ≤ 15 mg/m3.
Substances
Sediment dust density ≤ 1000 mg/m2.

Product Performance
Interface 1. Electrical interface (E1):
Indices
f Line rate is 2.048 Mbps (± 50 ppm)

f Impedance is 75 Ω unbalanced.

f Line Code: HDB3

2. Electrical interface (T1):


f Line rate: 1.544 Mbps (± 32 ppm)

f Impedance: 100 Ω unbalanced

f Line Code: AMI or B8ZS

Capacity „ One single ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 rack can support at


Indices most three carriers/sectors.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 39


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ Supports at most 192 traffic channels.

Reliability Following section describes system reliability indices:


Indices
„ Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) > 100,000 hours.

„ Availability > 99.9995%ion.

RF Indices
CDMA BTS RF indices follow 3GPP2 C.S0010-A (TIA-97-D),
Recommended Minimum Performance Standards for CDMA2000
Spread Spectrum Base Stations.

TABLE 8 - 800 MHZ TX INDICES

Working Frequency Band Class 0 (869 MHz ~ 894 MHz)


band
Frequency Tolerance ≤ 5 ×10-8
Channel bandwidth 1.23 MHz
Modulation mode QPSK
< -45 dBc @ ±750 KHz offset Center Freq
(RBW 30kHz)
< -60 dBc @ ±1.98 MHz offset Center Freq
(RBW 30 KHz)
>4MHz OFFSET:
< -36 dBm (RBW 1 KHz) @ 9 KHz < f <
150 KHz

Limitations on < -36 dBm (RBW 10kHz) @ 150KHz < f <


Conducted Spurious 30 MHz
Emissions and <-30 dBm (RBW 1MHz) @ 1GHz < f < 12.5
Limitations on GHz
Radiated Spurious 4-6.4 MHz OFFSET:
Emissions
<-36 dBm (RBW 1 KHz) @ 30 MHz < f <
1 GHz
6.4 M TO 16 M OFFSET:
<-36 dBm (RBW 10 KHz) @ 30 MHz < f <
1 GHz
>16 MHz OFFSET:
<-36 dBm (RBW 100 KHz) @ 30 MHz < f
< 1 GHz
Each inactive channel code domain power is
Code domain power
32 dB or more below total output power.
Total power is within +2 dB and -4 dB of
Total power manufacturer’s rated power (See IS-97D for
definition of total power and testing).
The normalized cross correlation
Waveform quality
coefficient,ρ is greater than 0.98.

40 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

Pilot time alignment error is less than 3 µs


and maximum error is less than 10 µs. Pilot
time tolerance of all CDMA channels
radiated by base station is within ± 1us of
Pilot time tolerance each other.
In the event of external system clock
interruption, timing error between BTS and
CDMA system must not be over ±10 us
within 8 hours.
Pilot Channel to Code < ±50 ns within one forward CDMA Channel
Channel
Time Tolerance
Phase difference between Pilot Channel and
Pilot Channel to Code
all other code channels sharing same
Channel Phase
forward CDMA Channel must not exceed
Tolerance
0.05 radians.
Pilot Channel power to total power ratio
Pilot power
must be within ±0.5 dB of configured value.
Output power 20 W
Dynamic linear > 30 dB
output range
RFE standing wave < 1.50
ratio

TABLE 9 - 800 MHZ RX INDICES

Working Band Class 0 (824 MHz ~ 849 MHz)


Frequency Band
Channel 1.23 MHz
bandwidth
Receiver Less than -127 dBm
sensitivity
Lower limit is less than -127 dBm.
Receiver Dynamic Upper limit noise power spectral density is -
Range 65 dBm/1.23 MHz (Eb/N0= 10 dB ± 1 dB),
the FER (Frame Error Rate) must be less than
1%.
In the presence of a single tone that is 50 dB
above CDMA signal level, and is at ±750
KHz offset from assigned channel center
frequency, mobile station output power
increases by no more than 3 dB, and FER
Single Tone must be less than 1.5%.
Desensitization In the presence of 87 dB single tone above
CDMA signal level, offset of ±900 KHz from
the center frequency of assigned channel,
mobile station output power increases by no
more than 3 dB, and FER must be less than
1.5%.
Intermodulation In the presence of two interfering tones 72
Spurious dB above CDMA signal level, at +900 KHz

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 41


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Response offset and +1700 KHz, and -900 KHz and -


Attenuation 1700 KHz from CDMA frequency assignment,
mobile station output power increases by no
more than 3 dB, and FER is less than 1.5%.
Less than -80 dBm, measured in a 30 KHz
resolution bandwidth at the base station RF
input ports, for frequencies within BTS
Conducted receiver band.
Spurious Less than -60 dBm, measured in a 30 KHz
Emissions and resolution bandwidth at BTS RF input ports,
Radiated Spurious for frequencies within base station
Emissions transmission band.
Less than -47 dBm measured in a 30 KHz
resolution bandwidth at base station RF input
ports for all other frequencies.
RFE standing wave < 1.50
ratio

TABLE 10 - 1900 MHZ RX INDICES

Working Band Band Class 6


Channel 1.25 MHz
Bandwidth
Receiving < -127 dBm
Sensitivity
Dynamic Receiving Lower limit stands for receiver sensitivity (<
Range -125 dBm) while upper limit for noise level
of antennae interface that should not be
less than -65 dBm / 1.25 MHz. If Eb/N0 is
equal to 10 dB ± 1 dB, FER should be less
than 1%
Blocking With central frequency offset being ±1.25
Performance KHz and single tone interference being 80
dB compared with CDMA signal level
without any interference, FER should be less
than 1.5% and increased output power of
MSs should be less than 3 dB
Inter-Modulation With central frequency offset being ±1.25
Spurious Response MHz / ±2.05 MHz, and dual tone
interference being 70 dB compared with
CDMA signal level without any interference,
FER should be less than 1.5 % and the
increased output power of MSs should be
less than 3 dB
Conductive and Within MBTS receiving band: < -80 dBm;
Spurious Radiation within transmitting band: < -60 dBm
Emission BAND 1:
Requirement of
< -47 dBm, RBW (30 KHz) All other
Receiving End
frequencies
BAND 6:
-57 dBm (RBW 100 KHz) 30 MHz< f< 1
GHz

42 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

-47 dBm (RBW 1 MHz) 1 GHz < f< 12.75


GHz
RF (Receiving) < 1.50
Front End
Standing Wave
Ratio

TABLE 11 - 1900 MHZ TX INDICES

Working Band Band Class 6


Transmitter ≤ 5×10-8
Frequency
Tolerance
Channel Bandwidth 1.25 MHz
Transmission Quadrature modulation
Modulation
Conductive Within Band Class 6:
Spurious Emission < -45 dBc @ ±885 KHz offset Center Freq
and Radiation (RBW 30 kHz)
Spurious Emission
< -55 dBc @ ±1.98 MHz offset Center Freq
(RBW 30 kHz)
< -13 dBm @ ±2.75 MHz offset Center
Freq (RBW 1 MHz)
>4 MHz OFFSET:
< -36 dBm (RBW 1 KHz) @ 9 KHz < f <
150 KHz
< -36 dBm (RBW 10 KHz) @ 150 KHz < f
< 30 MHz
< -36 dBm (RBW 100 KHz) @ 30 MHz < f
< 1 GHz
4 MHz to 16 MHz OFFSET:
< -30 dBm (RBW 30 KHz) @ 1 GHz < f <
12.5 GHz
16 MHz TO 19.2 MHz OFFSET:
< -30 dBm (RBW 300 KHz) @ 1 GHz < f <
12.5 GHz
Code Domain Power Inactive channel code domain power is
less than total output power and equals 32
dB. (Note: By definition is 32 dB in YDN
091.2-1998 specifications, while 27 dB in
the IS-97 specifications)
Total Power Total transmission is well within rated
offset power: -4 dB ~ +2 dB (for definition
and total power test, refer to IS-97D)
Waveform Quality Cross relation coefficient ρ > 0.97
Pilot Time Pilot time tolerance is less than 3 us.
Tolerance Difference between two CDMA channels is
less than ±1 us. Interruption of external
system clock leads to timing error of MBTS
less than ±10 us within eight hours as
compared with CDMA system time.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 43


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Time Tolerance Within same CDMA channel: < ±50 ns.


between Pilot
Channel and Code
Channel
Phase Tolerance Within same CDMA channel: ≤ 0.05 rad.
between Pilot
Channel and Code
Channel
Pilot Power Ratio of pilot power to total power is
within ±0.5 dB, as compared with
configured value.
Power Amplification 40 W / 80 W
Output Power
Output Linear > 30 dB
Dynamic Range
RF (Transmitting) < 1.50
Front End Standing
Wave Ratio
Clock Indices
Following section describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 clock
indices:
„ Frequency reference is 10 MHz with precision higher than 10-
11
in GPS locked mode or 10-10 in holdover mode.

„ Temperature variation is less than ±0.5×10-9.

„ Clock Synchronization Source: GPS adopts dual thermostat


crystal to guarantee clock stability within a short term in
case synchronization source is lost temporarily or BS clock is
out of synchronization. Here, HOLDOVER algorithm
guarantees recover from loss of GPS synchronization signals
within 72 hours. Phase shift is less than 10 μs, so that BS
keeps working normally.

„ Clock System Performance: Frequency difference < 0.05


ppm, and Phase difference < 10 μs.

EMC Indices EMC indices comply with Part 2, “Base Transceiver Station and
Its Auxiliary Equipment” in YD 1169.2-2001 EMC Requirements
and Measurements of 800 MHz/1900 MHz CDMA Digital Cellular
Mobile Communications System released by Ministry of
Information Industry.
Table 12 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 electrostatic
discharge immunity.

44 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

TABLE 12 - ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE IMMUNITY

Performanc
Standard Stress Grade Applicable Port
e Criterion

IEC61000-4-2 Applicable to any


(1995) surface that may
expose in EUT
EN 301 489-26 Contact ± 6 KV
B operation and in
(2001-9) Air ± 8 KV maintenance of the
YD 1169.2- operation
2001 personnel

Table 13 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 radiated RF


electromagnetic field immunity.

TABLE 13 - RADIATED RF ELECTROM AGNETIC FIELD IMMUNITY

Performance
Standard Stress Grade Applicable Port
Criterion

(27 MHz) 80 MHz ∼


IEC61000-4-3 800 MHz: 10 V/m
(1995) 800 MHz ∼ 960
Applicable to the
EN 301 489-26 MHz: 10 V/m
A integrated
(2001-9) 960 MHz ∼ 1400 equipment
YD 1169.2- MHz: 10 V/m
2001 1400 MHz ∼ 2000
MHz: 10 V/m.

Table 14 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 electrical fast


transient/burst immunity.

TABLE 14 - ELECTRICAL F AST TRANSIENT/BURST IMMUNITY

Performance
Standard Stress Grade Applicable Port
Criterion

IEC61000-4-4
Communication Communication
(1995)
port: 2 KV port
EN 301 489-26
Antenna feeder B Signal and
(2001-9)
port: 2 KV control port
YD 1169.2-
Power port: 2 KV DC power port
2001

Table 15 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 surge immunity.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 45


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

TABLE 15 - M802/M192 SURGE IMMUNITY

Performance Applicable
Standard Stress Grade
Criterion Port

Communication
port: 4 KV (1.2/50,
IEC61000-4-5 8/20)
(1995) Communication
Antenna feeder
ITU-T K.20 port: 6 KV (1.2/50, port
EN 301 489-26 8/20) B Signal and
(2001-9) Power port: control port
YD 1169.2- common mode 6 Power port
2001 KV, differential
mode 6 KV (1.2/50,
8/20)

Table 16 describes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 immunity to


conducted disturbances and radio-frequency field induction.

TABLE 16 - IMMUNITY TO CONDUCTED DISTURBANCES AND INDUCED BY


RADIO-FREQUENCY FIELD

Performance Applicable
Standard Stress Grade
Criterion Port

Communication
IEC61000-4-6 port, signal and
control port: Communication
(1995)
port
EN 301 489-26 3 V rms, 150 KHz ∼
80 MHz A Signal and
(2001-9)
control port
YD 1169.2- DC power port:
Power port
2001 3 V rms, 20 KHz ∼
80 MHz

„ Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations


immunity

Standard: IEC61000-4-11, YD 1169.2-2001.


Applicable port: AC power port.
The power supply voltage drops by 30%, lasting 10 ms.
The power supply voltage drops by 60%, lasting 100 ms.
The power supply voltage drops over >95%, lasting 5000 ms.
„ Shelf port radiated spurious disturbance

Standard: YD 1169.2-2001.
Applicable port: shelf.
Table 17 describes limits for spuriously radiated disturbance of
shelve port.

46 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

TABLE 17 - LIMITS FOR SHELF PORT SPURIOUSLY RADIATED DISTURBANCE

Frequency Range Limit (peak value)

30 MHz ∼ 88 MHz -57 dBm

88 MHz ∼ 216 MHz -54 dBm

216 MHz ∼ 960 MHz -51 dBm

960 MHz ∼ 10000 MHz -43 dBm

„ Power port conducted disturbances

Standard: CISPR22 (1997), EN 301 489-26 (2001-9), YD


1169.2-2001.
Applicable port: Power port.
Limit: CLASS B.
Table 18 describes AC power port limits for conducted
disturbances outside a telecommunication center.

TABLE 18 - AC POWER PORT LIMITS FOR CONDUCTED DISTURBANCES


OUTSIDE A TELECOMMUNICATION CENTRE

Limit (dB μV)


Frequency Range (MHz)
Quasi-peak Value Average Value

0.15 ~ 0.50 66 ~ 56 56 ~ 46

0.50 ~ 5 56 46

5 ~ 30 60 50

Note:
„ Make sure to use lower limit at transitional frequencies in the
range 0.50 MHz and 5 MHz.
„ Limit decreases linearly with logarithm of frequency in the
range 0.15 MHz ~ 0.50 MHz.
„ Signal and control line port conducted disturbances :

Standard: CISPR22 (1997), EN 301 489-26 (2001-9), YD


1169.2-2001.
Applicable port: Signal and control line port.
Limits: CLASS B.
Table 19 describes limits for signal and control line port
conducted disturbances.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 47


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

TABLE 19 - LIMITS FOR SIGNAL AND CONTROL LINE PORT CONDUCTED


DISTURBANCES

Voltage Limit (dB μV) Current Limit (dB μA)


Frequency
Range (MHz) Quasi-Peak Average Quasi-Peak Average
Value Value Value Value

0.15 ∼ 0.5 84 ∼ 74 74 ∼ 64 40 ∼ 30 30 ∼ 20

0.5 ∼ 30 74 64 30 20

„ Harmonic current and flicker

Standard: IEC 61000-3-2 (2001-10); IEC 61000-3-3 (2001-01).


Applicable port: AC port.

Safety Indices Safety indices comply with IEC 60950-2001 Safety of


Information Technology Equipment specifications.
„ Protective grounding conductor resistance

Limit: Protective grounding resistance is less than 0.1Ω.


„ Contact current and protective conductor current

Applicable port: AC port.


Limit: Make sure contact current is less than 3.5 mA and
protective conduction current is less than 5% of input current.
„ Dielectric strength

Applicable port: AC power.


Limit: 1500 V AC between primary circuit and ground, 3000 V A
between primary circuit and secondary circuit, 500 V DC
between secondary circuit and group or between mutually
independent secondary circuits.

Applied Standards
„ 3GPP2 C.S0024-A (TIA/EIA IS-856-A): CDMA2000 High Rate
Packet Data Air Interface Specification, August 2005

„ 3GPP2 C.S0024 (TIA/EIA IS-856): CDMA2000 High Rate


Packet Data Air Interface Specification, October 2002

„ 3GPP2 A.S0008 (TIA/EIA IS-878), IOS Specification for High


Rate Packet Data (HRPD) Radio Access Network Interfaces

„ 3GPP2 A.S0008-A

48 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 3 Product Indices

„ 3GPP2 A.S0007, Inter-Operability Specification (IOS) for


High Rate Packet Data (HRPD) Access Network Interfaces,
November 2001

„ 3GPP2 C.S0029: Test Application Specification (TAS) for High


Rate Packet Data Air Interface

„ 3GPP2 C.S0032-A, Recommended Minimum Performance


Standards for CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data Access
Network, December 2005

„ 3GPP2 C.S0032, Recommended Minimum Performance


Standards for CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data Access
Network, January 2004

„ 3GPP2 C.S0010-A (TIA-97-D), Recommended Minimum


Performance Standards for CDMA2000 Spread Spectrum
Base Stations, March 2001

„ ITU-T G.652 Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber


and cable

„ ITU-T G.703 Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical


digital interfaces

„ ITU-T G.773 Protocol suites for Q-interfaces for management


of transmission systems

„ ITU-T G.803 Architecture of transport networks based on the


synchronous digital hierarchy

„ ITU-T G.811 Timing characteristics of primary reference


clocks

„ ITU-T G.812 Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for


use as node clocks in synchronization networks

„ ITU-T G.831 Management capabilities of transport networks


based on the synchronous digital hierarchy

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 49


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

This page is intentionally blank.

50 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4

System Structure

This chapter describes:


„ ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 system structure
„ Baseband Digital Subsystem (BDS)
„ Radio Frequency Subsystem (RFS)
„ Micro BTS Transmitter Receiver(MTRX)
„ Micro BTS Power Amplification (MPA)
„ Micro BTS Low Noise amplifier (MLNA)
„ Micro BTS Duplexer (MDUP)
„ Micro BTS Diversity (MDIV)
„ Timing and Frequency Subsystem (TFS)
„ Power Subsystem

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 51


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192


Structure
Figure 16 shows the ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 system
structure. It consists of five main subsystems: Baseband Digital
Subsystem (BDS), Timing & Frequency Subsystem (TFS), Radio
Frequency Subsystem (RFS), Power Subsystem (PS), and
Lightning-protection Subsystem.

FIGURE 16 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 STRUCTURE

BDS completes CDMA baseband signal modulation/demodulation


and provides functions such as resource management, signal
processing and operation & maintenance. In addition, BDS
provides Abis interface with BSCB.
TFS provides time and frequency signals necessary for BDS and
RFS. Using an antenna, RFS provides air interface, completes
transmitter side modulation and receiver side demodulation of
CDMA signals and implements associated detection, monitoring,
configuration and control functions.
Power subsystem supplies system power for the entire system.
Micro-BTS lightning protection consists of antenna feeder
lightning protection, power lightning protection and signal line
lightning protection. Antenna feeder lightning protection involves
lightning protection of Tx/Rx antennas and GPS antenna feeder.

52 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4 System Structure

Figure 17 illustrates logic relation of ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192


internal components.

FIGURE 17 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Baseband Digital Subsystem


Overview Baseband Digital Subsystem (BDS) is a part that characterizes
CDMA features present in ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192. Several
key CDMA technologies apply to BDS such as diversity
technology, RAKE receiving, softer handoff and, power control.
Primary BDS functions are to complete baseband signal
modulation & demodulation and to provide RF interface and Abis
interface with BSCB.
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 Baseband Digital Subsystem (BDS) is
a digital board Baseband Processor Module (BPM). The board
also provides interfaces between BDS, and TFS and RFS.
Baseband Baseband Processor Module (BPM) is the core ZXCBTS MBTS
Processor M802/M192 module, which completes baseband data modulation
Module & demodulation, signal processing, resource management, and
operation & maintenance.
BPM implements following functions:
„ Receives Rx antenna digital sampling signals from RFS,
implements demodulation and then sends service/signal
frames to BSCB via E1/T1 links.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 53


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ Performs service/signaling frame demodulation from BSCB


and sends data to Radio Frequency Subsystem (RFS).

„ Completes Abis interface protocol processing


(NAT/CUDP/MPPP/HDLC).

„ Completes ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 centralized monitoring


and maintenance.

Radio Frequency
Subsystem (RFS)
Overview Radio Frequency Subsystem (RFS) is an important ZXCBTS
MBTS M802/M192 part. Following section lists RFS functions:
„ Provides air interface over antenna.

„ Implements interface with BDS over RFCM.

„ Completes modulation transmission and demodulation


receiving of CDMA signals.

„ Implements detection, monitoring, configuration, and control


functions.

FIGURE 18 - RFS POSITION IN ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192

Figure 16 shows RFS block diagram. At present, the subsystem


supports “single-carrier single-sector”, “two-carrier two-sectors
(where, second carrier is a remote station) and “single-carrier
two-sector” configurations. Compared with “single-carrier single-
sector” configuration, hardware configuration of dual-carrier
micro BTS is slightly different from “two-carrier two-sector” or
“single-carrier two-sector” configuration, as it does not require
MDIV’s presence. Normally, RFS comprises modules such as
Micro Transmitter & Receiver (MTRX), Micro Power Amplifier

54 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4 System Structure

(MPA), Duplexer (MDUP), Diversity (MDIV), Micro Low Noise


Amplifier (MLNA) and arrestor.

FIGURE 19 - SINGLE-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR RFS SUBSYSTEM

Antenna 0 Antenna 1

MDUP MDIV

MPA

RFS TX RX0 RX1

RFCM

BDS

Note: TX, RX0, RX1 and RFCM boards comprise an MTRX


module.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 55


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

FIGURE 20 - TWO-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR RFS

Interconnection
cable

Antenna 0 Antenna
GPS 1
antenna

MDUP MDUP
MGPSTM

MPA MPA

RFCM RFCM

RFS RFS

BPM OIB RFM

Fiber
Remote station shelf
ZXCBTS - M802 shelf

Note: TX, RX0, RX1 and RFCM boards comprise an MTRX


module.

56 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4 System Structure

FIGURE 21 - SINGLE-CARRIER TWO-SECTOR RFS

Antenna0 Antenna1 Antenna0 Antenna1


GPS
antenna

MDUP MDUP MDUP MDUP


MGPSTM

MPA MPA

RX RX RX RX
TX TX
0 1 0 1

RFCM RFCM

RFS RFS

BPM OIB RFM

Fiber
ZXCBTS – M802 shelf Remote station shelf

Note: TX, RX0, RX1 and RFCM boards comprise an MTRX


module.

Micro BTS Transmitter


Receiver (MTRX)
MTRX connects radio frequencies and baseband signals. An
MTRX corresponds to a sector and carrier. MTRX receives master
receiving and diversity receiving signals of two RFEs of a sector.
MTRX separately conducts down conversion and intermediate
frequency filtering, completes I/Q demodulation after AGC
processing and converts received RF modulation signals into
baseband I/Q signals. During that time, MTRX also receives
forward baseband I/Q signals, implements I/Q modulation,
intermediate frequency filtering, and converts them to RF
modulation signals by means of up conversion. In addition,
MTRX implements TPTL power control operation. MTRX is the
key to Tx/Rx link signal processing in RFS.
Following section lists basic MTRX functions:

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 57


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

„ Provides interfaces between baseband signals, MPA, and RFE


modules. Transfers Tx/Rx baseband data and transmits
information about configuration, control, status, and alarm
maintenance.

„ Converts baseband digital signals to RF debugging signals in


forward link.

„ Converts RF signals to baseband digital signals in reverse


link.

„ Completes system power control and cell breathing.

Micro BTS Power


Amplification (MPA)
MPA is a very important RFS module. Its power determines BTS
coverage. Major power amplifier examination indices consist of
work efficiency, ACPR, gain flatness and gain fluctuation.
Following section lists primary MPA functions:
„ RF signal amplification.

„ Input, output and reverse output power detection.

„ Temperature detection.

„ Alarm signal generation and reporting.

Micro Power Amplifier (MPA) receives CDMA forward Tx signals


from MTRX amplifies power so that RF signals can reach
requisite power value. After duplex filter processing at RF front
end, antennas transmit signals to cells to cover corresponding
areas. A CDMA system has special requirements for BTS MPA.
Forward Tx CDMA signals follow QPSK modulation mode and
belong to non-constant envelope signals in linear modulation
with peak-to-average ratio of signals relatively higher.
To ensure lower Tx signal distortion and spread spectrum signal
prevention, the MPA must have linearity. System applies, “power
backoff” technology, feed-forward technology, and digital pre-
distortion technology to guarantee MPA linearity.
Power amplifier is a high-temperature device that has high heat
dissipation requirements. Inefficient power amplifier heat
dissipation control leads to easy amplifier damage due to high
operating temperature environment for a long duration. Better
power amplifier protection and efficient fault diagnosis requires
proper software configuration to monitor temperature alarm,
standing wave alarm, excess power alarm and device failure
alarm/switch off.

58 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4 System Structure

„ Over Temperature Alarm


If MCU in power amplifier detects amplifier operating
temperature exceeding a preset value, it switches off RF signal
voltage bias and amplifier tube and switches on amplifier again
when temperature drops to a specific value.
„ Standing Wave Alarm
Improper RFE cable connection leads to inefficient amplifier
power transmitted to the air, resulting in standing wave alarm
generation to switch off amplifier. Standing wave alarm
generation requires manual intervention to restart amplifier.
„ Over Power Alarm
Power amplifier output reaches “rated power + 3 dB” leading to
excess power alarm generation leading to amplifier switch off.
When input power is less than -9 dBm, amplifier switches on
restarting operations automatically.
„ Device Failure Alarm
Power amplifier gain of 6 dB leads to device failure alarm
generation, which switches off amplifier, and necessitates
manual intervention to restart amplifier.

Micro BTS Low Noise


Amplifier (MLNA)
MLNA board is an independent ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192
module. Each ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 has two MLNA boards
connected with MDUP and MDIV separately that implements low-
noise amplification of weak signals received by antenna.
Following section lists MLNA board Functions:
„ Low-noise amplification of small signals received by antenna.

„ Power distribution of received signals after low-noise


amplification.

„ Low-noise amplifier status monitoring.

Micro BTS Duplexer (MDUP)


RFE-MDUP module is ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 RF front-end
RFE module, which is an important module that implements
transmission and reception functions simultaneously in RFE. This
module enables antenna to implement transmission and
reception of RF signals that reduces costs. The frequent use of
this module is common in frequency division duplexer systems.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 59


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Following section lists RFE-MDUP functions:


„ Filtering small signals received by antenna.

„ Tx/Rx duplex.

„ Filtering forward Tx power signals.

Micro BTS Diversity (MDIV)


MDIV module is ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 RF front-end RFE
module, which is an important module that implements RFE
diversity receiving function.
MDIV filters small signals received by antenna.

Timing and Frequency


Subsystem (TFS)
Overview TFS is an acronym for Timing & Frequency Subsystem. TFS
provides synchronous clock and frequency reference for entire
CDMA radio section systems, in addition to providing standard
system time.
TFS provides BDS with clocks like 16 CHIP and PP2S necessary
for the system, while providing TOD (Time of Date) message.
TFS provides 10 MHz and 12 MHz sinusoidal signals for RFS.
MGPSTM – Figure 22 illustrates MGPSTM position in ZXCBTS MBTS
Micro BTS GPS M802/M192.
Timing Module
In CDMA mobile communications system, synchronization
contains transmission and radio synchronization. Transmission
synchronization operates in master/slave mode, while radio
synchronization operates in GPS synchronization mode in most
CDMA systems. All cellular system radio interfaces synchronize
to the same standard time. GPS system provides standard time,
which is synchronous with UTC (Universal Time Coordinated).
In ZTE CDMA systems, synchronization timing scheme requires
MBTS and BSCB synchronization according to a standard GPS
time signal. MPSTM provides ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 with
standard timing signals and related system references.

60 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 4 System Structure

FIGURE 22 - MGPSTM POSITION IN MICRO BTS

In ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 system, MGPSTM provides input to


BDS. Physically, BPM board and RFS comprise modules such as
MTRX, HPA, LNA and RFE in addition to timing moment reference
and frequency reference signals. Timing moment reference
signals are PP2S (even seconds), 16 Chip, and 10 MHz and 12
MHz frequency reference signal. MGPSTM provides BPM with
TOD interface and control interface.
MGPSTM provides BPM module with 16 Chip and PP2S clock
necessary for system, and TOD message. MGPSTM also provides
MTRX module with 10 MHz and 12 MHz sine signals.
Following section lists output interfaces:
„ One 16 CHIP signal, one PP2S signal, with PECL signal level
connected with BPM module via DB25 cable.

„ One 10 MHz signal, with level 1 SINE signal connected with


MTRX module via coaxial cable.

„ One 12 MHz signal, with level 1 SINE signal connected with


MTRX module via coaxial cable.

„ One TOD message, with RS232 level connected with BPM


module via DB25 cable.

Following section lists MGPSTM input signals:


„ GPS antenna, receiving GPS satellite signals transmission on
a shielded coaxial cable.

„ One TOD message, with RS232 level connected with BDM


module via DB25 cable.

„ +12 V and +5 V power supplies.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 61


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Power Subsystem
Power subsystem supplies power for modules in ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192.
Figure 23 shows the power subsystem block diagram.

FIGURE 23 - POWER SUBSYSTEM BLOCK DIAGR AM (220 V AC INPUT)

FIGURE 24 - POWER SUBSYSTEM BLOCK DIAGR AM (-48 V DC INPUT)

Power subsystem transforms 220 V AC or -48 V DC power into


appropriate voltages to supply power for modules in micro
BTS/remote station system.
Power subsystem controls switching of heater in micro
BTS/remote station system to stabilize internal system
environment.
Power distribution module also supports power monitoring.

62 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5

Networking and
Configuration

This chapter describes:


„ Micro BTS Networking Modes
„ Cell Splitting Solution
„ System Configuration
f single-carrier single-sector
f single-carrier Two-sector
f single-carrier Three-sector
f Two-carrier Single-sector
f Three-carrier Single-sector

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 63


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Micro BTS Networking


Modes
ZXCBTS MBTS CDMA micro BTSs and remote stations can
implement multiple networking modes. A remote station directly
connects with macro BTS or micro BTS to extend one or more
sectors of macro/micro BTS to implement different networking
modes. As Figure 25 illustrates, micro BTS directly connects with
ZXC10 BSCB over Abis interface or connects with macro/micro
BTS in daisy chain mode.

FIGURE 25 – MICRO BTS AND REMOTE STATION NETWORKING

BSC

Macro Macro
Micro BTS Micro BTS Micro BTS
BTS BTS

Micro BTS

Typical application Three - carrier single


Four- carrier single sector
of remote station Single - carrier three sector application
system composed of remote sector application Micro-BTS composed of micro
station and macro station composed of remote cascade BTS and remote
station and BTS application station

Cell Splitting Solution


Use of cell splitting solution enables coverage in two special
areas. The solution saves user investment. Figure 26 illustrates
cell splitting solution implementation.

64 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5 Networking and Configuration

FIGURE 26 - M802/M192 CELL SPLITTING SOLUTION

System Configuration
Following two tables separately list unit/board configurations of
a single ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 shelf. A single ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 shelf supports a sector and implements “single-
carrier single-sector” configuration. A single remote station
supports one sector signal. The sector signal is either a ZXCBTS
MBTS M802/M192 sector or that of macro BTS. ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 sector remote station necessitates addition of OIB
module. Macro BTS sector remote station necessitates LFM
module addition. ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and remote station
combination can implement multiple system configurations, such
as “single-carrier two-sector”, “single-carrier three-sector”,
“two-carrier single-sector” and “three-carrier single-sector”.

Single-Carrier Single-Sector
Figure 27 illustrates ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 single-carrier
single-sector configuration. ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192
connection with upper-level BTS or BSCB via E1/T1 can
implement ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 single-carrier single-
sector configuration.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 65


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

FIGURE 27 - M802/M192 SINGLE-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR CONFIGURATION

Single-Carrier Two-Sector
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and remote station combine to
implement single-carrier two-sector configuration. Connect
remote station to ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 remote station
sector using fiber. Connect ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 to upper-
level BTS or BSCB using E1/T1, and configure single-carrier two-
sector, as illustrated in Table 20.

TABLE 20 - M802/M192 SINGLE-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR CONFIGURATION

ZXCBTS MBTS
Unit/Module
S.No Unit M802/M192 Remarks
Name
(single shelf)
1 MGPSTM PCS 1
2 MDUP PCS 1
3 MDIV PCS 1
4 MTRX PCS 1
5 MPA PCS 1
6 MPD PCS 1
7 MLNA PCS 2
8 BPM PCS 1
Provided if a
9 OIB PCS 0 remote station
is available
MTRX
10 BRFS PCS 1
backplane
11 Shelf PCS 1

66 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5 Networking and Configuration

FIGURE 28 - M802/M192/REMOTE STATION SINGLE-CARRIER TWO-SECTOR


CONFIGURATION

TABLE 21 - M802/M192 AND REMOTE STATION SINGLE-CARRIER TWO-


SECTOR CONFIGURATION

ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 + Remote
Unit/Module
S.No Unit Station Remarks
Name
ZXCBTS MBTS Remote
M802/M192 Station
1 MGPSTM PCS 1 0
2 MDUP PCS 1 1
3 MDIV PCS 1 1
4 MTRX PCS 1 1
5 MPA PCS 1 1
6 MPD PCS 1 1
7 MLNA PCS 2 2
8 BPM PCS 1 0
9 RFM PCS 0 1
10 OIB PCS 1 0
MTRX
11 BRFS PCS 1 1
backplane
12 Shelf PCS 1 1

Single-Carrier Three-Sector
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and two remote stations combine to
implement single-carrier three-sector configuration. Connect two

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 67


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

remote stations to two ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 remote


station sectors using fiber, connect ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 to
an upper-level BTS or BSCB using E1/T1, and configure single-
carrier three-sector configuration, as illustrated in Figure 29.

FIGURE 29 - M802/M192 REMOTE STATION SINGLE-CARRIER THREE-SECTOR


CONFIGURATION

Table 22 describes single-carrier three-sector configuration that


consists of ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and two remote stations.

TABLE 22 - SINGLE-CARRIER THREE-SECTOR CONFIGURATION WITH ONE


M802/M192 AND TWO REMOTE STATIONS

ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 + Remote
Unit/Module Station Remar
S.No Unit
Name ks
ZXCBTS MBTS Remote
M802/M192 Station
1 MGPSTM PCS 1 0
2 MDUP PCS 1 2
3 MDIV PCS 1 2
4 MTRX PCS 1 2
5 MPA PCS 1 2
6 MPD PCS 1 2
7 MLNA PCS 2 4
8 BPM PCS 1 0

68 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5 Networking and Configuration

ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 + Remote
Unit/Module Station Remar
S.No Unit
Name ks
ZXCBTS MBTS Remote
M802/M192 Station
9 RFM PCS 0 2
10 OIB PCS 2 0
MTRX
11 BRFS PCS 1 2 backpla
ne
12 Shelf PCS 1 2

Two-Carrier Single-Sector
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and remote station combine to
implement two-carrier single-sector configuration. Connect
remote station to ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 remote station
sector using fiber, and configure ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and
remote station MDUPs as mutual diversity receivers. Connect
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 MDUP to remote station diversity
receiving end using RF cable. Connect remote station MDUP to
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 diversity receiving end, and connect
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 to upper-level BTS or BSCB using
E1/T1. Figure 30 shows the two-carrier single-sector
configuration.

FIGURE 30 - M802/M192/REMOTE STATION TWO-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR


CONFIGURATION

Table 23 describes two-carrier single-sector configuration that


consists of ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and remote station.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 69


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

TABLE 23 - TWO-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR WITH M802/M192 AND REMOTE


STATION

ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192 + Remote
Unit/Module Station
S.No Unit Remarks
Name ZXCBTS
Remote
MBTS
Station
M802/M192
1 MGPSTM PCS 1 0
2 MDUP PCS 1 1
3 MDIV PCS 0 0
4 MTRX PCS 1 1
5 MPA PCS 1 1
6 MPD PCS 1 1
7 MLNA PCS 1 1
8 BPM PCS 1 0
9 RFM PCS 0 1
10 OIB PCS 1 0
MTRX
11 BRFS PCS 1 1
backplane
12 Shelf PCS 1 1

Three-Carrier Single-Sector
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and two remote stations combine to
implement three-carrier single-sector configuration. Connect
remote station (a) to ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 remote station
sector using fiber, and connect remote station (b) to the other
ZXCBTS MBTS M802 remote station sector using fiber. Configure
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 MDUPs and two remote stations as
mutual diversity receivers. Connect ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192
MDUP to remote station (a) diversity receiving end using RF
cable, and connect remote station (a) MDUP to remote station (b)
diversity receiving end. Connect remote station (b) MDUP to
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 diversity receiving end, and connect
ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 to upper-level BTS or BSCB using
E1/T1. Figure 31 illustrates three-carrier single-sector
configuration.

70 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 5 Networking and Configuration

FIGURE 31 - M802/M192/REMOTE STATION THREE-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR


CONFIGURATION

Table 24 describes three-carrier single-sector configuration that


consists of ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 and two remote stations.

TABLE 24 - THREE-CARRIER SINGLE-SECTOR CONFIGURATION COMPRISING


M802/M192 AND TWO REMOTE STATIONS

ZXCBTS MBTS
M802/M192+ two
Unit/Module Remote Stations
S.No Unit Remarks
Name
ZXCBTS Two
MBTS Remote
M802/M192 Stations

1 MGPSTM PCS 1 0

2 MDUP PCS 1 1*2

3 MDIV PCS 0 0

4 MTRX PCS 1 1*2

5 MPA PCS 1 1*2

6 MPD PCS 1 1*2

7 MLNA PCS 1 1*2

8 BPM PCS 1 0

9 RFM PCS 0 1*2

10 OIB PCS 2 0

MTRX
11 BRFS PCS 1 1*2
backplane

12 Shelf PCS 1 1*2

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 71


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

This page is intentionally blank.

72 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix A

Support Workflow

This Chapter describes:


„ Fault Rectification Handling Flow
„ Repair workflow
„ Service guarantee

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 73


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Fault Rectification Handling


Flow
With strict operation regulation, clear responsibility allocation
and simple service flow, each department in ZTE runs in a
customer oriented way.
Figure 32 shows the ZTE customer service center general fault
handling flow.

FIGURE 32 - ZTE CUSTOMER SERVICE CENTER GENERAL FAULT HANDLING


FLOW

74 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix A Support Workflow

Figure 33 shows the ZTE customer service center fatal fault


handling flow.

FIGURE 33 - ZTE CUSTOMER SERVICE CENTER FAT AL F AULT HANDLING


FLOW

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 75


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Repair Workflow Description


This document describes the flow of sending ZTE’s faulty
hardware for repair. It is intended to use the standard flow to
make the process of repairing or replacing faulty hardware
prompt and effective manner. This document is applicable to all
users. If any discrepancy arises between this document and the
service contract, the clauses in the service contract shall prevail.
This flow applies only to faulty hardware occurs during the
maintenance period. If maintenance personal wants to know the
handling flow for faulty hardware occurs during the maintenance
period, please consult the local ZTE office.
Contact If maintenance personal have any problem, like application for
Information repair services and spare part services, “Fault Record Card”,
“RMA Label” and “Form to Send Faulty Devices for Repair”, and
inquires information on relevant hardware services (including
information on ZTE’s transport agents), please contact the local
ZTE office.
Maintenance personal can send the feed back about complaints
and suggestions by E-mail at RRCN@zte.com.cn.
Service Time ZTE normal working hours are 8:30 to 18:00 on Monday to
Friday. If ZTE receives repair applications in working hours, ZTE
will begin to provide services immediately. If ZTE receives repair
applications in non-working hours or statutory national festivals
holidays and public holidays, ZTE will begin to provide services
on the first working day after the applications are received.
Emergency services: If an emergency fault occurs in non-
working hours, please call the hotline of ZTE’s Global Customer
Support Center: 800–8301118 and 400-8301118 (for mobile
users).
Common Flow Figure 34 shows the common Flow Chart for sending Faulty
Chart for Hardware.
sending Faulty
Hardware

76 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix A Support Workflow

FIGURE 34 - COMMON FLOW CHART FOR SENDING FAULTY HARDW ARE

1. Before remove the faulty hardware, wear the anti-static


shoes and an anti-static wrist strap. Fill in a Fault Record
Card for faulty hardware. Tie the Fault Record Card on the
faulty hardware.
2. Faulty Devices Form for Repair Send by E-mails or Fax to
the local ZTE office.
3. ZTE relevant personnel confirm the application and the
confirmation number will send by E-mails or fax on the same
day.
4. Attach in the box the Form to Send Faulty Devices for Repair
confirmed by ZTE as the packing list. Fill the RMA number
confirmed by ZTE in the RMA label and stick the label outside
the box. Send the box to local ZTE office in a secure, prompt
way.
5. ZTE receives the faulty hardware and verifies it according to
the Faulty Devices Form. Sending by E-mails or fax a receipt
confirmation for maintenance personal.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 77


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

6. ZTE repairs or replaces each piece of faulty hardware


according to the service contract.
7. ZTE sends the repaired or replaced hardware to the
maintenance personal with the Receipt Feedback Form for
Repaired Devices (Attachment 4) attached, and notifies the
maintenance personal of delivery information.
After receiving and checking hardware, the maintenance
personal signs the Receipt Feedback Form for Repaired Devices
and sends it back to local ZTE office. If the hardware gets faulty
again within three months of receipt, operate according to the
flow described in the following Section.
Handling Flow If replacement hardware gets faulty again within three months,
Chart For After just call ZTE local service hotline. Maintenance personal does not
Repair or need to send the hardware for repair according to the common
Replacement flow; instead, use the following DOS flow:
(Dos –Dead On
1. Maintenance personal Call to ZTE local service hotline and
Swap)
inform related problems, so that ZTE can learn details of fault
and create a record to trace the fault.
2. Maintenance personal received an E-mails or fax and
feedback – DOS Confirmation Form (Attachment 5) – for
Maintenance personal future verification and query.
3. If ZTE gets the DOS Confirmation Form, next day ZTE sends
the corresponding spare part(s). Please confirm it and send
back to a receipt confirmation.
Pack the faulty hardware and attach the DOS Confirmation Form.
After that, notify local ZTE office arrange transport agent for
collection.
Precautions 1. When Maintenance personal finds hardware gets faulty, with
out ZTE’s permission do not attempt to repair for further
damage.
2. Pay attention to ESD when dismount and pack the hardware.
Avoid touching circuit components to prevent ESD from
damaging circuit boards.
3. If faulty hardware damaged in transportation because of
improper packing, ZTE will not provide repair or replacement
services.
4. Faulty hardware is received but not confirmed by ZTE, or the
RMA confirmation number is incorrect, or information in the
Form for Sending Faulty Devices for Repair does not agree
with the real object, the faulty hardware will not be handled
on time and the whole service process will be delayed.
5. Please fill in the Fault Record Card in time when Maintenance
personal hardware to ensure the fault information is
complete and accurate.
6. To enhance handling efficiency, please send the faulty
hardware in time and avoid backlogging.

78 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix A Support Workflow

7. If any changes occur to Maintenance personal contact person,


address or telephone number, notify ZTE through E-mail or
fax as soon as possible.
8. If any changes occur to this document or related
documentation, the contents in our Website
http://support.zte.com.cn shall prevail.
Attachments Attachment 1: Fault Record Card
Attachment 2: Form to Send Faulty Devices for Repair
Attachment 3: RMA Label
Attachment 4: Receipt Feedback Form for Repaired Devices
Attachment 5: DOS Confirmation Form

Service Guarantee
Process ZTE global customer service center works at 7 × 24 (including
guarantee public holidays) for customer complaints processing.
Tel :0755-26771776
Fax :0755-26770801
Email :800@zte.com.cn
Website :http://support.zte.com.cn
Address :ZTE Global Customer Service Center, 3rd Floor,
Bldg.A,Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen, P.R.CHINA – 518057.
ZTE will notify to customers before 1 month any changing about
contact details.
Response „ Definition of reaction
guarantee
Reaction refers to the initial communication between ZTE
complaints operator and customer in the complaint processing
flow:
„ Prompt reaction guarantee
ZTE guarantees prompt response is only for working day
„ Prompt response guarantee
„ Definition of response
Response refers to the initial solution provides by quality
manager.
„ Response promise
i. 4 hours in the working day (complaint about service)
ii. 1 working day (complaint about product quality)

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 79


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Prompt „ Definition of problem solving


problem
The satisfactory solution provides by zte.
solving
guarantee „ Prompt problem solving guarantee (complaint about service)
i. 2 working days
„ Prompt problem solving guarantee (complaint about product
quality)
i. 3 days (category A products)
ii. 15 days (category B products)
iii. 30 days (category c products)
Close-loop „ Definition of close-loop time
guarantee
Close-loop time refers to the duration from customer complaint.
„ Prompt close-loop guarantee
i. 1 month (complaint about service)
ii. 2 months (complaint about product quality)

80 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix B

Abbreviations

Abbreviation Full Name

AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

Abis Interface Abis Interface — Interface between BSC--BTS

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode

A Interface A Interface — Interface between BSC and MSC

BPM Baseband Process Module

BDS Baseband Digital Subsystem

BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying

BSC Base Station Controller

BSS Base Station Subsystem

BTS Base Transceiver Station

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

CE Channel Element

DBS Database Subsystem

DUP Duplexer

EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

FE Front End

FPGA field programmable gate array

GPS Global Position System

HA Home Agent

HDLC High-level Data Link Control

HLR Home Location Register

LFM Local Fiber Module

LNA Low Noise Amplifier

MBTS Micro Base Station Transceiver

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 81


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Abbreviation Full Name

MCU Media Control Unit

MDIV Micro BTS Diversity

MDUP Micro BTS Duplex

MGPSTM Micro BTS GPS Timing Module

MLNA Micro BTS Low Noise Amplifier

MPA Micro-BTS Power Amplifier

MPD Micro-BTS Power Distribution

MSC Mobile Switching Center

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures

MTRX Micro Transmitter & Receiver

OIB Optical Interface Board

PCF Packet Control Function

PDSN Packet Data Serving Node

PP2S Pulse Per 2S

PWS Power System

QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RFE Radio Front End

RFM Remote Fiber Module

RFS Radio Frequency Subsystem

RX Receiver

SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

TFS Timing & Frequency Subsystem

TOD Time of Date

TPTL Transmission Power Track Loop

TRX Transmitter and Receiver

TX Transmitter

Um Interface Um Interface - Interface between MS and BTS

UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply

VLR Visitor Location Register

82 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Index

AAA ................ , 33, 81 CRC ........... , 8, 10, 12, 13


AC ....... , 38, 46, 47, 48, 62 DB25 .................. , 61
ACPR ..................., 58 DBS ................... , 81
AN ....................., 33 DC ....... , 38, 45, 46, 48, 62
AT .............. , 32, 33, 34 DROP .................. , 28
ATM ...................., 81 DUP ................ , 59, 81
BAND ..................., 42 DV .................... , 16
BDS ....................... E1 ........................
. , 51, 52, 53, 54, 60, 61, 81 ., 39, 53, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70
BS ........ , 25, 27, 28, 29, 44 E1/T1 .....................
BSC ....................... .... , 53, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70
. , 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, EMC ................ , 44, 81
26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, EMI ................... , 81
35, 52, 53, 54, 60, 64, 65, EV ........................
66, 68, 69, 70, 81 , 1, 3, i, 16, 31, 32, 33, 34,
BSCB ...................... 39
, i, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53, 54, EV-DO .....................
60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70 , 1, 3, i, 16, 31, 32, 33, 34,
BSC--BTS ..............., 81 39
BSS ...., 19, 20, 21, 22, 30, 81 FCH ................ , 24, 25
BSSB .................... , i FE .................... , 81
BTS ....................... FER ................ , 41, 42
. , 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, FPGA .................. , 81
27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, Front End Standing Wave Ratio.
40, 41, 42, 43, 52, 54, 57, ................. , 43, 44
58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, GPS ... , 44, 52, 60, 61, 81, 82
65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 81, 82 HA .................... , 81
CDMA ...................... HDB3 .................. , 39
, 1, 3, i, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, HDLC ............... , 54, 81
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 29, HLR .......... , 19, 20, 21, 81
31, 34, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, HOLDOVER .............. , 44
43, 44, 52, 53, 54, 58, 60, HRPD ............... , 48, 49
64, 81 INFORMATION ............ , 2
CDMA2000 ..................
Inter-Modulation Spurious
. , i, 1, 8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, Response ............, 42
33, 34, 40, 48, 49 IOS ..........., 17, 48, 49
CE ....................., 81 IP ............ , 1, 16, 17, 25
channel ............. , 43, 44 IS ........................
Channel Bandwidth ... , 42, 43 ., 3, 4, 7, 34, 35, 40, 43, 48
CHIP ............... , 60, 61 IS2000 ................ , 15
CLASS.................., 47 IS-97, 40 .............. , 43
CN ..........., 19, 20, 32, 33
IS-97D ............. , 40, 43
Code Domain Power ......, 43
ITU ................ , 46, 49
CONTROL ............... , 15

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 83


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

ITU-T ..............., 46, 49 RF ........................


LEGAL ................... , 2 , 15, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45,
LNA ................., 61, 81 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 70
MAP .................... , 21 RF (Receiving) Front End
MCU ................., 59, 82 Standing Wave Ratio ... , 43
MS ........................ RFE .......................
. , 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, . , 41, 42, 58, 59, 60, 61, 82
RFS .......................
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 82
, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,
MSC .......................
58, 60, 61, 82
. , 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
RS232 .................. , 61
28, 29, 81, 82
RS-485 ................. , 35
MTBF ................, 40, 82
RX ..................... , 82
NAT .................... , 54 RX0 ............. , 55, 56, 57
NOT .................... , 26 RX1 ............. , 55, 56, 57
OFFSET .............., 40, 43 S0007 .................. , 49
OIB .......................
S0024 .............. , 35, 48
. , 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 82
S0029 .................. , 49
ONE .................... , 15
P ........................ SDH .................... , 82
, 1, 3, 20, 24, 25, 33, 79, 82 SN ..................... , 38
PA ..................... , 58 SPREADING ............... , 2
PCF ............. , 24, 33, 82 TAS .................... , 49
PCS ... , 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 TD-SCDMA ............... , 15
PDS .................... , 18 TFS .......... , 52, 53, 60, 82
PDSN ...... , 20, 24, 25, 33, 82 TO ................. , 40, 43
Pilot Power.............. , 44 TOD ............. , 60, 61, 82
POWER .................. , 15 TPTL ............ , 35, 57, 82
PP2S ............ , 60, 61, 82 TRX .................... , 82
PPP .................... , 25 TX ........... , 55, 56, 57, 82
PROCESS ................. , 2 URL ..................... , 1
PTT .................... , 18 UTC .................... , 60
PWS .................... , 82 V ........................
Quadrature modulation ... , 43 . , 38, 45, 46, 47, 48, 61, 62
R&D ..................... , 3 VLR ............. , 19, 21, 82
R1 .................... , 2, 3 WCDMA .................. , 15
RAKE ................... , 53 ZXC10 ............. , i, 33, 64
RBW ............. , 40, 42, 43

84 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Figures

Figure 1 - CDMA Spreading Process.......................................3


Figure 2 - Radio Signal Multipath Propagation .........................8
Figure 3 - Multipath Effect Details .........................................9
Figure 4 - Turbo Code Encoder ........................................... 12
Figure 5 - Turbo Code Decoder Basic Structure ..................... 14
Figure 6 - CDMA2000 Technology Evolution Roadmap............ 16
Figure 7 - CDMA2000 System Network Structure .................. 18
Figure 8 - MS Initiating a Call Implementation Process........... 22
Figure 9 - MS-Initiated Data Call establishment Process ......... 24
Figure 10 - Soft Vs Softer Handoff ...................................... 26
Figure 11 - Soft And Softer Handoff Addition Process ............. 27
Figure 12 - Implementation Process of Soft/Softer Handoff
Removal ......................................................................... 28
Figure 13 - 1x EV-DO Rev. A Radio Access Network Reference
Model ............................................................................. 32
Figure 14 - M802/M192 Interfaces in 1x EV-DO Rev.A Network ..
..................................................................................... 34
Figure 15 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 Outer View................ 38
Figure 16 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 Structure .................. 41
Figure 17 – ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192 Block Diagram ........... 41
Figure 18 - RFS Position in ZXCBTS MBTS M802/M192........... 41
Figure 19 - Single-Carrier Single-Sector RFS Subsystem ........ 41
Figure 20 - Two-Carrier Single-Sector RFS ........................... 41
Figure 21 - Single-Carrier Two-Sector RFS ........................... 41
Figure 22 - MGPSTM Position in Micro BTS............................ 41
Figure 23 - Power Subsystem Block Diagram (220 V AC input)...
..................................................................................... 41
Figure 24 - Power Subsystem Block Diagram (-48 V DC input) ...
..................................................................................... 41
Figure 25 – Micro BTS and Remote Station Networking .......... 41
Figure 26 - M802/M192 Cell Splitting Solution ...................... 41

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 85


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Figure 27 - M802/M192 Single-Carrier Single-Sector


Configuration ................................................................... 41
Figure 28 - M802/M192/Remote Station Single-Carrier Two-
Sector Configuration ......................................................... 41
Figure 29 - M802/M192 Remote Station Single-Carrier Three-
Sector Configuration ......................................................... 41
Figure 30 - M802/M192/Remote Station Two-Carrier Single-
Sector Configuration ......................................................... 41
Figure 31 - M802/M192/Remote Station Three-Carrier Single-
Sector Configuration ......................................................... 41
Figure 32 - ZTE Customer Service Center General Fault Handling
Flow ............................................................................... 41
Figure 33 - ZTE Customer Service Center Fatal Fault Handling
Flow ............................................................................... 41
Figure 34 - Common Flow Chart For Sending Faulty Hardware ....
..................................................................................... 41

86 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Tables

Table 1 - Chapters Summary.................................................i


Table 2 - Typographical Conventions ..................................... ii
Table 3 - Mouse Operation Conventions ................................ iii
Table 4 - Codes Comparison used in CDMA ............................5
Table 5 - Power Supply Working Voltage Range .................... 38
Table 6 - M802 Power Consumption during Normal Working ... 39
Table 11 - Normal Working Environment Requirements.......... 39
Table 8 - 800 MHz Tx Indices ............................................. 40
Table 9 - 800 MHz Rx Indices ............................................. 41
Table 10 - 1900 MHz Rx Indices ......................................... 41
Table 11 - 1900 MHz Tx Indices.......................................... 41
Table 12 - Electrostatic Discharge Immunity......................... 41
Table 13 - Radiated RF Electromagnetic Field Immunity ......... 41
Table 14 - Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity............... 41
Table 15 - M802/M192 Surge Immunity............................... 41
Table 16 - Immunity to Conducted Disturbances and Induced by
Radio-Frequency Field ....................................................... 41
Table 17 - Limits for Shelf Port Spuriously Radiated Disturbance
..................................................................................... 41
Table 18 - AC Power Port Limits for Conducted Disturbances
Outside a Telecommunication Centre................................... 41
Table 19 - Limits for Signal and Control Line Port Conducted
Disturbances.................................................................... 41
Table 20 - M802/M192 Single-Carrier Single-Sector
Configuration ................................................................... 41
Table 21 - M802/M192 and Remote Station Single-Carrier Two-
Sector Configuration ......................................................... 41
Table 22 - Single-Carrier Three-Sector Configuration With One
M802/M192 and Two Remote Stations ................................. 41
Table 23 - Two-Carrier single-Sector With M802/M192 and
Remote Station ................................................................ 41

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 87


ZXCBTS CDMA Micro Base Transceiver Station (EV-DO) General Description

Table 24 - Three-Carrier Single-Sector Configuration Comprising


M802/M192 and two Remote Stations ................................. 41

88 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION