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Drew Marine Division

SHIPBOARD WATER TREATMENT MANUAL


4.1 Edition

ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM

EVAPORATOR/ DISTILLER SYSTEM

BOILER SYSTEM

EXHAUST SYSTEM

TM-WT-1 (11/01)R7

SHIPBOARD WATER TREATMENT MANUAL


4.1 EDITION

Marine Chemical Products


BOILER WATER TREATMENT
ADJUNCT B phosphate boiler water treatment AGK 100 boiler and feedwater treatment AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor CATALYZED SULFITETM corrosion inhibitor DREWTM BWT-3 boiler water treatment DREW BWT-4 boiler water treatment GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid SLCC-ATM condensate corrosion inhibitor LIQUID COAGULANTTM boiler sludge conditioner

MAINTENANCE CHEMICALS (cont'd)


FERROCLEAN cleaning agent HDE-777TM heavy duty emulsifier NEVAMELTTM wire rope conditioner O&GRTM oil and grease remover OSD/LTTM oil spill dispersant SAF-ACIDTM descaling compound

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS
DREW ELECTRICTM 2000 motor and parts cleaner DREWCLEAN 2000 quick breaking degreaser SNCTM 2000 carbon remover

PERFORMANCE BOILER WATER TREATMENT


DREWPLEX AT boiler water treatment DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor

SANITATION PRODUCTS
AMEROID MSD-PAK organic waste treatment BIOTAL1 MDS 2000 shipboard waste treatment BIOTAL MDS 2000C shipboard waste systems treatment concentrate

EVAPORATOR TREATMENT
AMEROYAL evaporator treatment AMEROYAL CF concentrated evaporator treatment AMEROYAL CF/HG concentrated evaporator treatment

TANK CLEANERS COOLING WATER TREATMENT


AMERSPERSE 280 seawater cooling treatment DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment DREWSPERSE SWD seawater dispersant FERROFILM corrosion and erosion inhibitor MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment LIQUIDEWTTM cooling water treatment DREW ABD alkaline based degreaser DREW AF air freshener DREW BC buffering cleaner DREW CTC coal tar cleaner DREW LPA liquid pickling agent DREW NBD neutral based degreaser DREW PL passivating liquid DREW TC SEA tank cleaner EDGE heavy duty cleaner LACTM liquid alkaline cleaner TC#4TM tank cleaner

FUEL ADDITIVES
AMERGIZE deposit modifier/combustion improver AMERGY 222 fuel oil conditioner AMERGY 1000 combustion improver AMERGY 5000 combustion improver AMERGY 5800 PLUS deposit modifier/combustion improver AMERSTAT 25 microbiocide fuel treatment DREWCLEAN EST economizer soot treatment F.O.T.TM fuel oil treatment LT SOOT RELEASETM low temperature soot remover SOOT RELEASETM soot combustion catalyst

SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
MUD CONDITIONERTM ballast tank water treatment

TECHNICAL PRODUCTS
DREWFRESH 2000 heavy duty cleaner

CORROSION COATINGS
DREWTANTM RC rust converter DREW PD anticorrosion coating MAGNAKOTE rust preventative MAGNAKOTE PLUS rust preventative

MAINTENANCE CHEMICALS
ACC-9TM air cooler cleaner ACC/ME air cooler cleaner AMEROID DC disc cleaner AMEROID OSC one-step cleaner AMEROID OWS quick separating degreaser AMEROID RSR rust stain remover CARBON REMOVERTM solvent cleaner CILTM corrosion inhibitor DESCALE-ITTM liquid acid descaler DREW FC filter cleaner DREWCLEAN EOSD enviro oil spill dispersant ENVIROMATE 2000 general purpose cleaner

MISCELLANEOUS
MOTORGARDTM total motor vessel protection program ULTRAMARINESM water treatment program

FOREWORD
This manual is intended for use by persons who are concerned with the chemical testing, dosing, and control of a shipboard water treatment program. Included are explanations of why water treatment is required and a description of the methods used in modern marine practice. The purpose and application of each of the Drew Marine water treatment chemicals is explained. This edition has been updated to include the newest treatments and tests in our line. The power plants of modern steam and motor vessels are more efficient today than at any other time in history. Boilers and diesel engines are designed to extract the greatest possible amount of energy from the fuel and to turn that energy into work. Turbines, generators and auxiliary equipment are designed to make the most effective use of the steam or mechanical energy that is supplied to them. Efficient operation of the marine power plant depends significantly on the quality of the water that it receives. Contaminants such as dissolved minerals, gases, oil, and even the water itself can cause serious damage to power plant equipment unless proper control steps are taken. Testing is an important part of any water treatment program because the test results are the primary means of controlling the program and of detecting problems. All test procedures are described in this manual after discussion of the applicable treatment program. We refer the reader to the section entitled "General Information" which should be read before conducting tests. Here, recommendations are provided for proper sampling, general testing and recording techniques.

CREDITS FOR ILLUSTRATIONS


We wish to acknowledge the sources of some of the illustrations used in this manual. Reference CHEMetrics, Inc., Calverton, VA 46, 48, 49, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63 MARINE ENGINEERING, Roy L. Harrington, ed., The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, NY, NY 1971 Nirex, Alfa-Laval Group, Fort Lee, NJ Riley-Beaird, Inc., Shreveport, LA i 12 13 12, 13 Page(s)

Table of Contents
FOREWARD ................................................................................................................... i GENERAL INFORMATION ............................................................................................. Introduction ............................................................................................................ Water Sampling Procedures .................................................................................. Analytical Techniques ............................................................................................ Expression of Chemical Results ............................................................................ BOILER WATER SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT ............................................................ Introduction ............................................................................................................ Production of High Quality Distillate ....................................................................... Boiler Water System Circulation ............................................................................ Corrosion of Metals ................................................................................................ Chemical Treatment ............................................................................................... Composition and Formulation of Deposits .............................................................. Special Operating Conditions ................................................................................. Boiler Water Treatment Chemicals ........................................................................ Boiler Water Treatment Chemical Applications and Controls ................................. Introduction to Water Treatment Control Tests ...................................................... Alkalinity: Hydrate (AGK 100 and DREWPLEX AT) ......................................................... Medium to Low Pressure .................................................................................... High Pressure ..................................................................................................... Conversion Table (high, medium and low pressure) ........................................... Ammonia (condensate, high pressure) .................................................................. Chloride: HP Test Kit ......................................................................................................... Mercuric Nitrate Burette Titration ........................................................................ LMP Test Kit ....................................................................................................... Silver Nitrate Burette Titration ............................................................................. Conversion Table (high, medium and low pressure) ........................................... Conductivity (all pressures) .................................................................................... DEHA/DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor Ampoule Test ...................................... Hardness: Ampoule Method (high pressure) ........................................................................ Titret2 method ..................................................................................................... HYDRAZINE/AMERZINE: (High to low pressure) ......................................................................................... pH: Colormetric (high pressure boilers) ..................................................................... Meter (high pressure boilers) .............................................................................. Condensate (AGK 100 and DREWPLEX AT) ..................................................... Condensate (standard treatment) ....................................................................... Condensate (high pressure) ............................................................................... 1 1 2 4 7 9 9 10 14 16 19 21 24 25 26 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

ii

Phosphate: (High Pressure) .................................................................................................. (Medium to low pressure) ................................................................................... Silica (high pressure) ............................................................................................. Sulfite (medium to low pressure) ............................................................................

55 56 57 58

COOLING WATER SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT ......................................................... Introduction ............................................................................................................ Cooling Water System Circulation .......................................................................... Corrosion of Metals ................................................................................................ Composition and Formation of Deposits ................................................................ Cooling Water Treatment Chemicals ..................................................................... Cooling Water Treatment Chemical Applications and Controls .............................. Cooling Water Treatment Control Tests and Dosage Requirements ................................................................................. CWT Test (Titret2 Method) ...................................................................................... DEWT NC ............................................................................................................ Reference Tests: Chloride (treated water) ...................................................................................... Chloride Sample Pretreatment ......................................................................... Hardness ............................................................................................................

59 59 59 60 61 62 62 62 63 64-65 42 66 47

iii

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION Proper testing techniques are necessary to assure a well controlled water treatment program. This section describes the best methods for obtaining water samples and conducting chemical tests. Because test results must be recorded using the correct units of mass, volume and concentration measurements, a section entitled "Expression of Chemical Results" has been included for your reference.

PROPER RECORD KEEPING


An important part of an analytical program is the keeping of legible and accurate logs. Complete information is essential for an accurate evaluation of the progress of the treatment program. When recording the test data, remember the following pertinent points: Use the proper Onboard Graphing Logs for the system being treated. Record all information legibly. Distribute copies to Drew's Technical Department, owner's office and ship's records as indicated in the instructions on the log. All Drew Onboard Graphing Logs are printed on NCR paper so that carbon paper is not needed. Fill in all required information to identify the ship, the ship's operating company, the voyage number, the equipment being tested, the date of the the review period, the boiler type and pressure, and inport or full steaming conditions. Any additional relevant information relating to the condition of the vessel, the equipment being treated, or the treatment program should be recorded in the appropriate space. Record test results and treatment dosages, marking proper units of measurement on the Onboard Graphing Log. The colored band will indicate the satisfactory range for each control test. Reference test results should be recorded in the appropriate boxes.

IMPORTANT: Decimal points must be placed correctly to eliminate misunderstandings and inaccurate evaluations.

EXPRESSION OF CHEMICAL DOSAGES


CONVERSIONS (M = METRIC, E = English)*
UNITS MEASUREMENT SYMBOL MULTIPLY BY MASS (weight) TO FIND SYMBOL

M to M M to M E to E M to E M to E E to M E to M

kilogram gram pound gram kilogram ounce pound

kg gm lb gm kg oz lb

1000 1000 16 0.035 2.2 28 0.45 VOLUME

gram milligram ounce ounce pound gram kilogram

gm mg oz oz lb gm kg

M to M E to E E to E E to E E to E M to E M to E M to E M to E E to M E to M E to M E to M E to M

liter cup pint quart gallon milliliter liter liter liter fluid ounce cup pint quart gallon

ltr c pt qt gal ml ltr ltr ltr fl oz c pt qt gal

1000 8 2 2 4 0.03 2.1 1.06 0.26 30 0.24 0.47 0.95 3.785

milliliter fluid ounce cup pint quart fluid ounce pint quart gallon milliliter liter liter liter liter

ml fl oz c pt qt fl oz pt qt gal ml ltr ltr ltr ltr

*NOTE: The U.S. version of the English units is used in these calculations. 1

WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES


The main purposes of routine water testing are: 1. To ensure that the proper residuals of treatment cals are maintained at all times. chemiMakeup Water Sampling The sampling line for this water may be located in one or two positions: In the line between the distilled water storage tank and the point of entrance of makeup water to the condensate system. Directly from the distillate condenser.

2. To detect the presence of contaminants in the water that may be injurious to the boiler, diesel engine, and other equipment. Test results are meaningful and useful only when the samples tested are representative of the water in the system at the time of testing. Recommended procedures for obtaining representative samples of boiler water, condensate, makeup water, feedwater, and cooling water circuits are discussed in the following sections.

SAMPLING EQUIPMENT
Before testing, boiler water, hot condensate and feedwater samples must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample. Stainless steel sample coolers should be used except where seawater is used for cooling. Where seawater is the only coolant, contact your Drew Marine representative for proper handling procedures or a special coil. Stainless steel piping or tubing used for sample lines should be installed with the least possible number of fittings and/or sharp bends. This is a precaution against plugging the lines with solid contaminants. The stainless steel sampling lines must meet international pressure code requirements. Tubing size should be 1.0 cm (3/8 in.) O.D.; nominal pipe size should be 1.0 cm or 1.27cm (3/8 in. or 1/2 in.). Stainless steel is recommended to prevent contamination of sample by corrosion from the lines.

RECOMMENDED LOCATION FOR SAMPLING CONNECTIONS


Boiler Water Sampling Normally you can use the sampling connections provided by the boiler manufacturer. The sampling line is usually located in the steam drum, just above the generating tubes. In order to get proper results, it should be as far as possible from the internal feedwater line and the chemical feed line. Samples drawn for routine boiler water tests should be tested ONBOARD THE VESSEL. Boiler water samples for laboratory analysis should be taken only in special cases. Boiler water samples are not normally submitted for iron and copper analyses since results are not representative of the corrosion rate in the system. This is because of the boiler water alkalinity conditions and the tendency to collect iron and copper deposits from other parts of the system than in the boiler. Condensate and Feedwater Sampling Stainless steel sampling lines should be installed at three locations: Directly after the Main Condensate Extraction Pump. This line is to be used when the plant is under normal steaming conditions. Directly after the Auxiliary Condensate Extraction Pump. This line should be used only when the plant is under port operating conditions. The deaerator outlet line or from the suction or discharge of the main feedwater pump.

OBTAINING SAMPLES FOR SHIPBOARD TESTS


1. Allow the sample stream to run for 5-10 minutes in order to thoroughly flush out the line before taking a sample for testing. 2. A convenient and desirable procedure is to open the sample valve and allow the stream to run throughout the testing period. Appropriate samples for each individual test may be taken from the sample stream as needed. Test equipment, graduated cylinders, evaporating dishes, etc., should be clean and rinsed with the water to be tested and thoroughly drained. 3. If analysis of a sample must be delayed for any reason, the sample should be kept tightly capped in a clean sample bottle which has been thoroughly rinsed with water from the sample stream. After a long delay, resample. Test results for pH, alkalinity, hydrazine, sulfite or ammonia will be less accurate if testing is delayed because of the effect of air on these treatments.

The latter is the best position for samples drawn for iron and copper tests; these samples will give a direct indication of the amounts of metal oxides entering the boiler with the feedwater. These connections may be used for obtaining samples for dissolved oxygen tests if they are ever required. On motor vessels or for LPSG's, condensate samples should be taken after the condensor or condensate cooler and before the feed or cascade tank to avoid recirculation from the feed pump. See page 31.

OBTAINING SAMPLES FOR LABORATORY TESTING


The following special procedures are to be followed when obtaining samples for testing at shoreside laboratories: 1. A boiler water sample for laboratory analysis should be collected in a glass bottle. Minimum sample volume for boiler water analysis is 1,000 ml (one U.S. quart). 2. Condensate and feedwater samples for iron and copper analyses must be collected in special high purity plastic bottles. The minimum sample volume required for iron and copper analyses is 120 ml (4 oz.) 2

4. Draw samples while boilers are operating under full or normal steaming conditions. 5. Flush the sample line for 5-10 minutes prior to obtaining a sample for testing. Flush for a longer time if the line is rarely used. 6. The sample container should be thoroughly rinsed with the water being tested and completely filled to overflowing so there will be no air space at the top of the sample bottle. However, if there is a danger of freezing, leave some freeboard in the bottle for expansion; otherwise, the bottle will burst. Tightly seal and properly label the sample bottle with the following information: vessel name, source of the sample, date of sampling, and information which describes the reason for sampling and any existing problems. This information is essential in order to determine what tests should be conducted and in the evaluation of results. Request for Analysis Forms In order to assure that the samples you are taking are analyzed promptly, Drew Marine has developed ISO 9002 forms that accompany the Sample Paks. The instructions for filling out the form follow: Please print clearly the following information in the space provided: Vessel Name Owner or Manager Name Date Sample was drawn or collected Date Sample was landed to be sent to Laboratory Port where Sample was landed

In addition, fill in the line(s) that ask for sample identification (e.g., Port boiler water, Main engine jacket cooling, etc.) Check the box that is appropriate for the sample: MBW - Boiler water analysis MCW - Cooling water analysis MBAL - Ballast water analysis MPD - Boiler deposit sample analysis MCD - Cooling deposit sample analysis MFD - Fireside deposit analysis MHP - High purity feed and/or condensate analysis In Sections I through IV, please fill out the particulars of the equipment, symptom of the problem, if applicable, and anything else that can help us in interpreting the analysis results. Reports will be issued to the Account Executive responsible for your owner or manager. Distribution of these reports will be left to the discretion of your owner or manager.

ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Accurate analytical testing procedures are essential for proper control of chemical treatment programs. This section briefly describes the basic information common to all treatment programs and the procedures which should be followed for each of the analytical control tests.

READING CALIBRATED GLASSWARE

Meniscus Line of Measurement

PREVENT CONTAMINATION AND STORE REAGENTS PROPERLY


To ensure accurate test results, the analyst should take the necessary precautions to prevent contamination of the testing equipment before, during and after each test. It is imperative to have clean hands, a clean working surface, and, most important, clean test equipment and uncontaminated reagents within their normal shelf life.

When filling or reading liquid levels in calibrated glassware such as burettes and graduated cylinders, read the level where the bottom of the concave liquid surfaces reaches the line of measurement. The concave surface of a water solution is Calibrated called the meniscus. Glassware

BURETTE TITRATION
Proper titration technique is important to assure accurate test results. The titrating solution should be slowly added to the sample while stirring until the desired endpoint is reached. Addition of titrant should be slowed to one drop at a time as the endpoint approaches to avoid overshooting the endpoint. The approaching endpoint is signaled by temporary color change where the titrant enters the sample. The first permanent color change throughout the sample is the endpoint.

CARE OF REAGENTS
Reagents by their nature are reactive. Care must be taken to prevent contamination and deterioration.Closeall reagent bottles tightly with their original stoppers or caps. Use separate clean, dry spoons or droppers for each reagent to prevent cross-contamination of reagents. Never return excess reagent solution or powder to storage bottles. To ensure freshness, periodically replace reagents. Store spare chemical supplies in a clean, cool cabinet, preferably outside of hot, humid areas. Air-conditioned rooms are a good environment for reagents. Powdered reagents can absorb moisture if stored in refrigerators so storage in an airconditioned area is preferable. Some reagents are light sensitive so it is a good general rule to store them in the original bottles in which they are supplied in closed closets.

MEASURING SPOON
The brass measuring spoon has been specially selected to make the addition of reagent easy. It is used for delivering a specified amount of reagent to a cooling water sample when running the DEWT NC test procedure. It is also used for adding Gallic Acid to neutralize boiler water when testing conductivity.

USE OF COLORIMETRIC EQUIPMENT


For accurate results using the color comparator slides, the path of light through the viewing tubes must be free of dirt or other obstructions. Before inserting the viewing tubes into the comparator, gently tap the tubes against the palm of your hand to dislodge any gas bubbles from the test solution. Clean the outer surface of each tube to remove water droplets and fingerprints. The outside surface of the comparator slide and color standards should also be clean. There should be sufficient lighting behind the comparator when running the test to obtain accurate color comparison and uniform results. Daylight fluorescent light is preferred.

Code:

0224-01-4

Description: Measuring Spoon, Brass

WATER ANALYZER BASE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS


The Water Analyzer is used to determine boiler pH in the ULTRAMARINESM program. The Water Analyzer consists of a base structure (A), three glass tubes (B)(C)(D), and one or more comparator slides (E) fitted with transparent color standards (F). The tubes are modified "Nessler" tubes, and each has an etched mark (G) at 150 mm or 250 mm above the bottom. The base has a compartmented holder (H) for the tubes, which supports them at a 45O angle above a mirror (J) set into the base. The slides move in a slot in the base (K) above the mirror and beneath the tubes.

6. Move the slide back and forth, while observing the colored ovals that will appear in the mirror. Continue until the color of the middle oval matches that of one of the side ovals. Note that the comparison can be made only when one of the arrows on the slide is opposite the middle tube. 7. When a color comparison is obtained, read the test result (in pH) from the numbers on the slide.

USE OF THE WATER ANALYZER


1. Set the appropriate comparator slide for the desired test in the slot in the base. The row of numbers on the slide (corresponding to pH values, ppm silica or ammonia, etc.) should be visible when the slide is viewed from above the mirror. 2. Fill the two outer tubes (B & D) to the etched mark with reference blanks according to the instructions for the particular test. Place these tubes in the two outer compartments in the base. 3. Add reagent chemicals to another portion of the sample, according to the instructions for the particular test. 4. Fill the middle tube (C) to the etched mark with the treated sample and place it in the middle compartment in the base. 5. Set the base on a flat surface so that the mirror faces the operator and a light shines into the open ends of the tubes.

FILTER PAPER
Filtration is required in some test procedures. This is especially true if suspended solids appear in the sample. Failure to filter a sample when required or the repeated use of the same filter will result in an incorrect value. There is one exception to this rule. If a sample remains cloudy after the first filtering, the sample should be refiltered through the same filter paper since the filter becomes more retentive on the second filtration. Some filter papers are specially prepared to minimize contaminanats. (Drew specifies a Whatman #5 filter paper). The most simple technique for folding filter paper is:

Fold the paper in half (Step 1) and then in half again (Step 2). Step 1

Step 2

Step 3 Pull three-quarters of the paper to one side and crease to hold the cone shape (Step 3). Insert the tip of the cone into the funnel (Step 4). Step 4

Pour the sample into the center of the cone. Do not fill the funnel above the upper surface edge of the filter paper. Sample which flows between the paper and funnel will add unwanted materials to the filtered sample.

EXPRESSION OF CHEMICAL RESULTS


REPORTING OF QUANTITY
When reporting the results of an analysis, it is necessary to express the quantity of each constituent that is determined. In the analysis of most materials, the quantity of each constituent is given in terms of percent--the amount of each constituent per 100 parts of the material. For example, an analysis of a metallic sample may show 60 percent copper which would mean that every 100 parts of the sample contain 60 parts of copper. Reporting by percent is not practical in water analysis since the amounts of the materials determined are extremely small. For example, the silica content of natural waters, if expressed in percent, would be in the range from 0.0001% to 0.01%. To avoid the use of very small numbers, the terms "parts per million" (ppm) and "parts per billion" (ppb) are used in water analysis. The terms ppm and ppb are utilized by Drew Marine in its publications and reports. Parts Per Million (ppm) One part per million (ppm) is an expression of the relationship of one part of a substance to one million parts of another. As examples, if a water contains one ppm of silica, there would be one part of silica in 1,000,000 parts of the sample. In a 1 gram silica 1,000,000 grams (1 metric ton) = 1 ppm silica Values below 7.0 are increasingly acidic, and those above 7.0 are increasingly alkaline. In common practice, pH can be determined by electrical instruments, color indicators, or specially treated test paper. Alkalinity is defined as the state of being alkaline or "basic". The alkalinity is determined by the concentrations of hydroxide, carbonate, and certain other chemicals, such as phosphate and silicate. Phenolphthalein ("P") Alkalinity is a measure of the alkalinity above a pH of 8.2-8.3. All of the hydroxide, one-half of the carbonate, and one-third of the phosphate, plus all other alkali-producing materials present in a water sample such as silicate are included in the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity. Total ("T") Alkalinity is a measure of the alkalinity above a pH of 4.2-4.3. All of the hydroxide, all of the carbonate, and twothirds of the phosphates, plus all other alkali materials are included in the Total Alkalinity.

REPORTING OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS CONCENTRATION AS CONDUCTIVITY


In boiler water, dissolved salts consist of contaminants, treatment chemicals, and naturally occurring chemical constituents. Dissolved salts ionize and conduct an electric current. The amount of current that a water sample carries from one electrode to another at a specific temperature is termed its conductivity. The concentration of ionized dissolved solids in any water is proportional to its electrical conductance. For example, distilled water has a very low conductivity; in contrast, seawater has a very high conductivity. Therefore, the amount of dissolved solids can be estimated by the water's conductivity. A conductivity meter, which records conductance in micromhos (mhos), is used to measure this characteristic of the water.

million grams (1 metric tonne) of this water, there would be one gram of silica; or in a million pounds of water, there would be one pound of silica. Expressing results in terms of parts per million is a simple method to use, and for most determinations, the results are given in whole numbers. Parts Per Billion (ppb) One part per billion (ppb) is used to express the relationship of one part of a known substance to one billion parts of another. For example, a sample of water may contain one part of silica to one billion (1,000,000,000) parts of water. As indicated above for "ppm", "ppb" may be applied to quantities expressed in any unit of measure.

REPORTING OF pH
Acidity, Neutrality, Alkalinity An aqueous solution can be either acidic, neutral or alkaline. The accepted manner of expressing this condition is pH. pH is the reciprocal of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in solution, -log[H+] on a scale of 0 to 14. The midpoint pH at 7.0 is considered "neutral".

(Neutralization is required before testing the conductivity of boiler water samples because strong bases (or strong acids) conduct more than a proportional amount of electricity) based on their actual solids concentration, giving a false high reading. The sample should be a cooled sample, its temperature taken and the temperature compensation dial on the meter, if there is one, should be properly set before taking the conductivity reading.

Dilution of a sample should always be done with distilled water. If a sample is diluted, the test result must be multiplied by the appropriate factor. Examples follow: EXAMPLE: Phosphate Test 1.Draw a 25 ml sample of water. 2.Dilute sample with 25 ml of distilled water. (Total volume = 50 ml) 3.Conduct phosphate test. (Result = 45 ppm phosphate) 4.Multiply test result by a factor of 2. (45 ppm x 2 = 90 ppm phosphate) 5.Final test result = 90 ppm phosphate *Avoid dilution of a sample when testing for an oxygen scavenger. When testing for oxygen scavenger, the water used to dilute the sample should be deoxygenated.

DILUTION OF WATER SAMPLES


There are two conditions under which dilution of a sample may be necessary: When a sample is highly colored, even after filtration, which would make it impossible to determine a colorimetric end point. When the initial test result is exceedingly high or beyond the normal range of the test procedure.

The following dilution and multiplication factors can be used for any sample. The accuracy of the result, however, is dependent upon the care taken in making the dilution.

WATER SAMPLE 25 ml 50 ml 10 ml 20 ml 10 ml

DISTILLED WATER DILUTION 25 ml 50 ml 40 ml 80 ml 90 ml

TOTAL VOLUME 50 ml 100 ml 50 ml 100 ml 100 ml

MULTIPLE TEST RESULT BY FACTOR OF: 2 2 5 5 10

BOILER WATER SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT


INTRODUCTION
A boiler converts the chemical energy in fuel to heat energy in steam for the purpose of doing work. There are many types of boiler plants, but all of them function on the same basic principles of thermodynamics. A complete discussion of either plant design or thermodynamics is beyond the scope of this presentation. However, some basic concepts will be presented here to introduce the systems which we will discuss in the sections below. In the world fleets today, we see some ships which operate boilers for propulsion (some at pressures over 60 kg/cm2, (850 psig) and motor vessels equipped with auxiliary oil-fired and waste heat boilers which operate at lower pressure levels (7-24 kg/cm2, 100-350 psig). All boilers operate on the common premise that heat is transferred to water to create steam which is then used to do work onboard. Diesel engines depend on scale-free heat transfer surfaces for cooling. They share common problems of scale formation and corrosion, although some forms of corrosion will be more evident in high pressure boilers and others are more often seen in engines. The water used onboard, for whatever purpose, comes primarily from the sea. In order for seawater to be safely used for steam production, the salts and other contaminants must be removed from the water. An evaporator or distiller is generally installed for the purpose of purifying the water until it contains only trace levels of minerals. Seawater also contains dissolved gases which have been absorbed from the air or formed by decaying organic matter. They can be mechanically removed by deaeration, thermally reduced by increased feedwater temperature and/or chemically scavenged. An effective water treatment program minimizes scale and corrosion in the boiler system. Since distillation and mechanical/thermal deaeration cannot remove all of the contaminants, routine chemical treatment programs are necessary for the efficient maintenance of all steam generating and cooling system equipment. The primary goals of a controlled water treatment program in any power generating plant are: To maintain clean, scale-free waterside heat transfer surfaces in steam generating and cooling water systems. To prevent metal loss due to corrosion. To ensure efficient production of steam in boiler systems without priming, foaming, or carryover contamination. To prevent formation of deposits in steam/condensate systems. To minimize heat loss from the system due to excessive blowdown from boilers. To keep all power generating and auxiliary equipment, and associated water and steam systems at their most efficient levels and thereby minimize costs.

PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY DISTILLATE


The water used on ships, for whatever purpose, comes primarily from the sea. In order for seawater to be used for steam production, the salts and other contaminants must be separated from the water to minimize scale formation and corrosion in boiler water and steam circuits. Mechanical and chemical technology is used in combination to do both. This section will discuss the production of high quality water, corrosion and scale mechanisms, mechanical and chemical corrections for these conditions before moving on to the test procedures used to control the chemical treatments and monitor the contamination. Distillation, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis (RO) are processes which may be used for the desalination of seawater. In the marine industry, distillation is the most widely used method because of its relative simplicity and cost effectiveness. Brief descriptions of the other methods follow. Ion exchange: Cation ion exchange units will effectively remove hardness constituents (calcium and magnesium) from water but not the anions, i.e., chloride and sulfate ions or other contaminants. The extremely high concentrations of the salts in seawater pose a challenge to these units. The most common ion exchange units must be regenerated with sodium chloride brines which can contribute chloride ions to the contamination. Ion exchange resin beds must be designed in such a way to prevent channels which will allow water to flow through untreated. Reverse osmosis is an effective means of desalination. However, a single pass unit will not produce water of sufficient quality for use in marine systems and further demineralization is necessary. A number of units in series could theoretically produce an effluence of acceptable quality and quantity for boiler feedwater. The normal process of osmosis involves two solutions of different dissolved solids concentration that are in a single container, separated by a semipermeable membrane. The common solvent in both solutions is water. The water flows from the more dilute solution through the membrane to the more concentrated solution. In time, the equalizing effect creates equal dissolved solids concentration in both compartments.

SOLUTION WILL RISE TO THIS POINT WHICH IS HEAD EQUAL TO APPARENT OSMOTIC PRESSURE SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

MORE CONCENTRATED SOLUTION

LESS CONCENTRATED SOLUTION WATER FLOW

OSMOSIS

PRESSURE

SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

MORE CONCENTRATED SOLUTION

LESS CONCENTRATED SOLUTION

WATER FLOW

REVERSE OSMOSIS
10

The reverse osmosis process is created when pressure is exerted upon the more concentrated solution so that the water flows in the reverse direction through the semipermeable membrane from the concentrated side to the dilute side, leaving the majority of the dissolved solids behind. When reverse osmosis is used to produce fresh water from seawater, a reverse osmotic pressure is created to force the water from the brine (seawater side) into the fresh water compartment. Theoretically, the only energy required is that which is needed to overcome the osmotic pressure and pump the feed water. In practice, much higher pressure (between 60-70 kg/cm2, 850-1000 psig) are required to produce useful volumes of water per unit area of membrane. Generally, the reverse osmosis process is not as widely used onboard ship as distillation.

When the bubbles burst, droplets containing concentrated salts are thrown into the vapor space and are carried over into the distillate. This results in reduced water quality. Foaming also may be caused by "organic" substances in the water, which are formed by the decay of organic materials or contamination with petroleum products.

Mechanical Control
Foaming and carryover from evaporators can be minimized by proper management of the water level and salinity (brine) control. Improper water level control is often due to the malfunction of the automatic controls and alarms. Automatic equipment and alarms should be maintained in good operating condition. Salinity control is an important factor in the prevention of scale deposits as well as carryover. Salinity management refers to the continuous removal of concentrated brine from the evaporator in order to control the amount of dissolved solids buildup. Normally the brine concentration should be maintained at 1.5 (1.5/32nds) concentrations, although some vapor compression units operate at 2.0 (2.0/32nds) concentrations or more.

DISTILLATION (EVAPORATION PROCESS)


A marine evaporator is normally used to provide high quality distillate from seawater for the vessel's water systems. There are many types of evaporators, but they are all designed for the same purpose. Hot cooling water or auxiliary steam is often used as a heat source increasing cost effectiveness. In some type of evaporators, seawater is heated or flows over a series of coils or tubes through which auxiliary steam is passed. Heat is transferred to the seawater under vacuum, vaporizing a major portion of the water. The resulting vapor is scrubbed by a mist eliminator as it leaves the evaporator unit to remove entrained moisture which contains a small amount of dissolved solids. The vapor is then cooled in a condenser to produce pure distillate. It is pumped to storage tanks for use as boiler water makeup, engine cooling water, potable water and other domestic purposes. The majority of dissolved solids are left behind, accumulated and concentrated in the brine section of the unit for overboard discharge. The purified water now contains only traces of minerals which can be easily handled with boiler and cooling water treatment chemicals.

Chemical Treatment
The problems of scale formation and foaming can be minimized by the addition of chemical treatments containing polymeric scale inhibitors and antifoams. The polymer molecules attach themselves to the scale-forming minerals to disrupt the densely packed crystalline structure. This prevents hard scale from building up on the heat transfer surfaces. Instead, nonadherent, suspended crystals are formed which will easily flow overboard with the brine discharge. Polymer treatments can remove existing scale from heat transfer surfaces by the same action. If treatment is used, water production can be maintained, and acid cleaning to remove scale can be minimized. Modern formulations include an antifoam ingredient which reduces the surface tension of the water and allows vapor to escape without the formation of foam. This helps to maintain water quality.

Evaporator Scaling
During the evaporation process, the solubility of most of the dissolved minerals, which remain in the evaporator brine, is exceeded and precipitation occurs, forming scale deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The three most common scales formed in an evaporator are calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. These are effecient heat transfer barriers. Reduced heat transfer results in reduced water production. Eventually, distillers must be shut down and cleaned to remove the insulating scale.

Drew Evaporator Treatments


AMEROYAL evaporator treatment is a liquid combination of an active polymer with a highly effective antifoam agent. It is effective in seawater and brackish water. The antiform agent in AMEROYAL treatment reduces surface tension and, thereby, prevents foaming and carryover. AMEROYAL treatment is the most widely used evaporator treatment in the marine industry. AMEROYAL CF concentrated evaporator treatment is a concentrated liquid formulation of active polymers and antifoam agents developed specifically to prevent scale deposition and carryover in high temperature, high production multi-stage evaporators. AMEROYAL CF treatment has been proven capable of significantly reducing the amount of acid cleaning required to maintain design distillate production. 11

Evaporator Foaming and Carryover


The higher concentration of dissolved solids in the brine increases the surface tension of the water, acting like an elastic skin at the water level. The increased surface tension hinders the release of vapor bubbles and gases and promotes foaming.

EXAMPLES OF EVAPORATOR UNITS


LOW-PRESSURE SUBMERGED HEATING ELEMENT DISTILLER
AMEROYAL

VAPOR-COMPRESSION DISTILLER

AMEROYAL CF

12

TWO-STAGE VACUUM-FLASH DISTILLER


AMEROYAL

Air Ejectors
Steam Supply to Air Ejectors Distillate Cooler

After Condenser
Condensers

Steam Supply to Feed Heater

Sea Water Pump

Salinity Indicator Vacuum Chamber #2 Vacuum Chamber #1

Drain

Sea Feed Heater

Reject Water to Waste

Brine Steam Distillate Distillate to Storage Distillate Pump Brine Pump

Drain Return

Brine Overboard

Condensate Pump

Sea Water Temperature Control Valve

LOW PRESSURE THIN-FILM DISTILLER

IN

CONDENSER

SEA WATER
OUT

DEMISTER JACKET WATER


OUT

IN AMEROYAL
ELECTRIC PANEL SALINOMETER FRESH W. PUMP BRINE EJECTOR

EVAPORATOR

ORIFICE OVER BOARD

AIR EJECTOR

TO BILGE TO FRESH W. TANK EJECTOR PUMP FROM SEA

13

BOILER WATER CIRCULATION


A boiler is designed to convert the chemical energy contained in fuel to heat energy in the steam. This steam is then available to do work in a variety of systems onboard. The figure below illustrates the circulation pattern of a water tube boiler system. (While only one design is shown, all marine oilfired boilers function in a similar pattern). In a water tube boiler, the furnace is surrounded by tube tanks which are connected through headers to the upper and lower drums. The fuel is burned in the furnace and the heat is passed by radiation to the surrounding generating tubes. The heat energy is passed by conduction to the recirculating boiler water in the tubes. In this way, the tube metal is cooled and steam is generated. As the water is heated, its density decreases and it tends to rise. Colder heavier water tends to sink. As the hot water/ steam rises in the generating tubes and the colder water sinks in the downcomer tubes, a natural circulation results in the boiler curcuit. As the steam/water mixture reaches the upper drum (steam drum), it separates. The steam passes to the upper half of the drum, then leaves the top of the drum to the superheater or directly to where it is needed as saturated steam. The recirculating water remains in the lower half of this drum, mixes with incoming feedwater and again passes through the complete water circuit. In boilers fitted with superheaters, the steam which is released into the top of the steam drum passes out of the boiler through the steam line to the superheater where more heat is added, increasing the energy in the steam. The superheated steam is then passed through a high pressure turbine and possibly a low pressure turbine where a major portion of steam's thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy. Before the steam is condensed and returned to the feed system, part of it may be bled off from the turbine system for feedwater heating and similar processes so that its thermal energy can be fully utilized. After passing through any auxiliary systems, the steam enters the condenser where it is condensed to form water which is pumped back to the feed line, completing the boiler/ feed system circuit. In systems operating at lower pressure levels without superheaters, the steam simply leaves the boiler from the steam drum and passes throughout the steam system before being condensed and returned as condensate to the feed equipment. On motor vessels, there are usually two steam generating systems: a waste heat economizer drawing its heat energy from the diesel engine exhaust gases and an auxiliary oil fired boiler. The waste heat economizer functions when the engine is in operation, and the auxiliary boiler functions when the ship is in port and the main engine secured. Although their design is different from the boilers used for propulsion, these boiler systems function under the same principles of heat transfer and are subject to many of the same problems due to scale and corrosion.

STEAM OUT

WATER IN

HEAT

14

15

CORROSION OF METALS
Ferrous and non-ferrous alloys are commonly used metals of construction in marine power plants although other metals are also being used. All of these metals will corrode slowly in contact with water, unless the water is properly treated. High temperatures and pressures increase the rate of corrosion. The purpose of any complete water treatment program is to protect all the preboiler, boiler and afterboiler auxiliary equipment and systems against corrosion, both during operation and during out-of-service periods.

GASEOUS CORROSION
Three gases are of primary concern in a water treatment program: oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia. Oxygen gas is one of the most undesirable contaminants which enters the preboiler/boiler/afterboiler water system. Oxygen dissolves in water and causes corrosion at an excessive rate. The severity of the oxygen attack depends on the concentration of the dissolved oxygen, pH value, and temperature of the water. Oxygen reacts with the ferrous metal surfaces to form red iron oxide (Fe2O3). Because this red iron oxide (ferric oxide) or rust is porous and does not protect the metal surface, the corrosion process continues. Ultimately, the entire metal structure will be converted to ferric oxide unless corrective measures are taken. The corrosion is often localized which results in pitting. Unless stopped by chemical or thorough mechanical cleaning, the corrosion reaction will proceed beneath a cap of porous oxide until it pierces the metal. Carbon Dioxide: Most of the carbon dioxide in marine power plant water systems is formed in the evaporators. Heat causes carbonate (CO3=) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), which are dissolved in the seawater, to break down to carbon dioxide gas (CO2). Carbon dioxide gas leaves the evaporator with the vapor and dissolves in the distillate. The carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid which reduces the pH of the water and accelerates general corrosion in the feedwater and ultimately in the boiler steam-condensate system. The carbonic acid (H2CO3), a weak acid, attacks the steel in the feed and condensate lines to form ferrous bicarbonate (Fe(HCO3)2). Ferrous bicarbonate is a highly soluble compound that has no protective or passivating effect. Carbonic acid produces a general type of corrosion, which is typified by grooving along the bottom of a pipe, overall metal thinning and, particularly, loss of metal at stressed areas such as pipe bends and threaded sections. Ammonia: The cooper-based metals are subject to attack by ammonia in the presence of oxygen. It is only the combined action of these gases which is corrosive. By eliminating the oxygen, the corrosive potential of ammonia is minimized. Ammonia is formed by the decomposition of organic material or the breakdown of excessive hydrazine. Mechanical Removal of Gases: Air naturally dissolved in the makeup water, in-leakage and the breakdown of other compounds introduces oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Air can enter through any opening such as makeup, drain or cascade tanks and especially systems under vacuum such as turbine seals and condensers. 16

CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES OF CORROSION


Corrosion is defined as the deterioration of a metal or alloy or its properties due to reaction with its environment. Characteristics of the damage caused by corrosion include the following: Pitting - A selective, localized metal attack characterized by the formation of rounded deep cavities in a metal surface. Pitting is considered to be one of the most serious forms of corrosion and often associated with oxygen attack. General corrosion - Thinning or metal loss in which the thickness of the metal is evenly reduced over a large surface area. Underdeposit - Accelerated corrosion that takes place under scale or sludge deposits. Underdeposit corrosion is accelerated since alkalinity left behind can become extremely concentrated. Caustic Cracking - A localized form of corrosion or physical destruction in which a facturing of the metal following grain boundaries occurs due to stress. Embrittlement - An effect of corrosion that changes the physical properties of a metal, its crystalline and intercrystalline structure, causing the metal to lose its strength and ductility, thereby becoming brittle and weak. Dealloying - The selective dissolution of one metal from an alloy.

CAUSES OF CORROSION REACTION AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES


Corrosion is a result of chemical and electrolytic action of water or air on a metal. The corrosion rate is influenced by the impurities in the metal and the water. Properly treated high purity water and metals reduce the rate of corrosion. All of these metals will corrode in water unless the water is properly treated. The most common causes of corrosion in boiler systems are dissolved gases, improper pH levels, chloride ion, and mechanical conditions. Brief discussions of the specific corrosion reactions follow.

To deal with this problem, marine steam systems are equipped with air ejectors, hot wells and sometimes, deaerating heaters. The efficient operation of this equipment is essential for the removal of a high percentage of the non-condensible gases which enter the system. The following is a list of the main points to check in plant operation to reduce the entry of corrosive oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases: Check all points of possible air in-leakage in the condensing and vacuum sections of the plant (i.e., defective flanges, condensing and vacuum sections of the plant, (i.e., defective flanges, gaskets, valve packing, cracked valve bonnets, open return line drain valves, insufficient steam pressure on gland seals, malfunctioning steam traps, etc.) Check the temperature of the water in tanks operating at atmospheric pressure. Since O2 and CO2 gases readily dissolve in cool water, the water in all atmospheric water tanks should be heated to the highest temperature posssible without creating a vapor lock at the pump suction. NOTE: In motor vessel systems without deaeration equipment, the feed-cascade-hot well tanks must be kept at as high a temperature as possible (90OC) in accordance with boiler manufacturers' recommendations to liberate the maximum amount of dissolved oxygen. Tanks which are covered must have vent lines fitted to carry away vented gases. Many ship systems have feed pumps functioning continuously with feedwater excess recirculated back to the feed tank. As the returning water may be simply dumped into the tank, any volatile chemicals which may have been dosed to the feedwater before the recirculation off-take can be lost from the system. To minimize this condition, the treatment chemicals are often dosed "downstream" of the off-take point by means of a dosing pump. Avoid piping drains with high oxygen concentrations to drain tanks or to any point where they may be used as boiler makeup.

Check for inefficient operation of the deaerating heater. One thermometer should be installed in the steam space and another in the water space of the deaerator. When the unit is operating efficiently, the temperatures in the water space and in the steam space should be within one to two degrees Centigrade of each other. If not, check thermometers for accuracy and replace if necessary. If the temperature difference is confirmed, the unit should be opened and inspected at the first opportunity to determine the cause of the problem. (See "Pressure/Temperature Table for Deaerator Checks," which follows). Provide adequate venting of gases from the deaerating heater directly to the atmosphere. The vent line must be open; and if an orifice is installed, it must be large enough to adequately remove the noncondensate gases. If the vent line is run to the gland seal exhauster, the fan on this unit must be in operation continually while the vessel is in port and when at sea. If the fan should fail, the auxiliary vent to the atmosphere on the deaerating heater must be opened until the fan is again in operation. Check for clogged, worn, or broken spray nozzles or springs in the deaerator. Poor atomization will result in poor deaeration regardless of the temperature. When taking on extra feed water: a) Take on feed as slowly as possible. If the feed is taken on too quickly, the deaerating heater may be overloaded, making it impossible to efficiently minimize the O2 and CO2 concentrations. b) A higher water temperature in the makeup feed tank will reduce the absorption of O2 and CO2. Use chemical treatment for maximum protection against the remaining O2 and CO2. While mechanical deaeration of the feed water is a major step in eliminating dissolved oxygen and other corrosive gases such as ammonia and carbon dioxide, it needs the assistance of chemical treatment.

17

Pressure/Temperature Table for Deaerator Checks


Malfunction of the deaerating heater will allow gases to remain in the feedwater which will result in fluctuations in the oxygen scavenger residual in the boiler water and cause condensate pH control difficulties. An indication of proper deaerator operation is provided by the operating temperatures and pressures. The steam and water space tempertures should be nearly equal. If the temperature difference is greater than 1OC or 2OF, the thermometers should be checked for accuracy and, if necessary, repaired or replaced. At the same time, the system should be checked for malfunctioning atomizing nozzles, steam inlet valves, vents, etc.

DEAERATOR SHELL PRESSURES AND CORRESPONDING SATURATION TEMPERATURES

Deaerator Shell Pressures psig kg/cm2 0.0 0.11 0.28 0.43 0.58 0.69 0.86 0.99 1.12 1.26 1.41 1.56 1.72 1.83 1.97 2.10 2.25 2.34 2.54 2.68 2.82 2.96 3.10 3.24 3.38 3.52 3.80 3.94 4.08 4.22 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 54 56 58 60

Correct Saturation Temperatures O O C F 100 103 107 110 113 115 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 131 133 134 136 137 139 140 141 143 144 145 146 148 150 151 152 153 212 218 224 230 235 239 244 248 252 255 259 262 265 268 271 274 277 279 282 284 287 289 291 294 296 298 302 304 305 307

18

CHEMICAL TREATMENT
Removal of Oxygen Any dissolved oxygen remaining after deaeration can be completely scavenged by the addition of a chemical oxygen scavenger, such as hydrazine, diethylhydroxylamine or sodium sulfite, to the boiler feed water. The reaction produts of the hydrazine treatment are water and nitrogen gas which is inert and will not attack the metal in the system. These reaction products will not add solids to the boiler water as do the reaction products of other oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite. N2H4 + O2 An alternative oxygen scavenger is sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). This compound readily combines with oxygen in solution to form a more stable compound, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). This process efficiently removes oxygen from solution, but it does add dissolved solids to the water. As a result, it is not generally recommended for high pressure boilers where minimum dissolved solids levels are critical. Sulfite is not volatile and it is not a metal passivator. It remains in the boiler water and does not offer protection for the condensate system. + Na2SO3 (Sodium Sulfite) + 1/2 O2 (Oxygen)

2H O + N
2

Na2SO4 (Sodium Sulfate)

Hydrazine has added benefits. After a boiler system has been operating for a short time with proper chemical control and adequate hydrazine concentrations, a protective film of black magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4, magnetitite) forms. At the same time, any non-protective red iron oxide, (Fe2O3, hematite), is slowly converted to magnetite. This magnetite film passivates the metal surfaces. If the hydrazine residual is allowed to be depleted, oxygen will not be removed from the system. At this point the magnetite film will be converted to hematite, and corrosion of the base metal will begin. Since hydrazine is volatile, some of it will carry over with the steam. In this way, the metals of the condensate system also can be protected. In a series of reactions similar to those described above for ferrous metals, nonferrous metals are rendered less sussceptible to corrosion. For example, cupric oxide (CuO) is converted to a protective form, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) 4CuO + N2H4

Control of Condensate pH As discussed above, CO2 gas reacts with the condensate to form carbonic acid. Without chemical treatment, this acid reduces the pH of the condensate. The pH can be controlled within a specified non-corrosive range by the continuous dosage of a neutralizing amine, such as morpholene or cyclohexylamine.

ACIDIC CORROSION - ACID ATTACK


Acid attack of boiler tubes and drums is usually in the form of general thinning of all metal surfaces. Acidic conditions, exclusive of those created by the presence of CO2, occur when the boiler feed water becomes contaminated by evaporator carryover or seawater inleakage at the condenser. When magnesium chloride (MgCl2), a seawater salt, is introduced to a boiler water system, it dissociates into ions of magnesium (Mg+2) and chloride (Cl-). The chloride ions (Cl-) react with the hydrogen ions, which lowers the pH of the water and attacks the metal surfaces. The magnesium ions (Mg+2) react with the phosphate (PO4-3) and hydroxyl ions (OH-), if these treatments are present, to form sludge. Magnesium ions may react only with the phosphate ions to form magnesium phosphate, a soft, adherent deposit which tends to bind all other deposits to the tube surfaces. Any deposits on metal surfaces can be heat transfer barriers and can lead to overheating and increasingly destructive conditions. Water trapped beneath these deposits on high heat transfer surfaces will concentrate the acid or caustic. When this occurs, the corrosion rates become extremely high and serious localized damage occurs in a very short time.

2Cu2O + 2H2O + N2

The most recent volatile oxygen scavenger introduced to the marine industry is diethylhydroxylamine, also known as DEHA. In addition to oxygen scavenging, DEHA forms a passive magnetite film providing a protective barrier against corrosion. The oxidation reaction products of DEHA are acetic acid, nitrogen and water. In a boiler water environment, the hydroxide alkalinity neutralizes the acetic acid and is removed by blowdown as sodium acetate. 4(C2H5)2NOH + 9O2

8CH3COOH + 2N2 + 6H2O

Another feature of DEHA is its volatility, which is similar to morpholine. It extends throughout the feedwater, boiler and into the condensate system where it scavenges oxygen, passivates metal surfaces and any remaining DEHA contributes to condensate pH neutralization.

19

HYDROGEN ATTACK
This type of corrosion results in embrittlement or cracking of the tube metal, damaging of the internal structure of the metal. Hydrogen ions are generated by the concentration of acids under a hard dense deposit. The hydrogen ions (H+) are the smallest of all elements and can penetrate the grain boundaries of the tube metal. They react with carbon atoms present in the steel to form methane. Methane (CH4) is a large gas molecule which exerts pressure within the metal. The high pressure combined with the weakening caused by degraphiting forces the grains of steel to separate. Eventually, cracks in the metal develop. Hydrogen attack can occur very rapidly. Tube metal fails and ruptures when the section can no longer withstand the internal pressure.

CORROSION FATIGUE
Corrosion fatigue manifests itself as a series of fine cracks in the tube wall. These cracks are aggravated by other corrosive conditions within the boiler which will ultimately result in tube failure. This form of corrosion usually attacks the tube walls of high pressure boilers. It occurs generally in the high temperature areas of the tubes where irregular water circulation has been experienced and alternating stresses have been set up in the tube material.

MECHANICAL CORRECTION
The evaporator should be operated properly to avoid carryover which will introduce contaminants as described above. Condenser piping must be maintained to prevent leaking condenser tubes which will introduce seawater. The boiler should be operated within the design specifications in order not to overload the steam production capacity which leads to steam blanketing. Proper burner alignment and correct atomization of the fuel oil are essential to avoid flame impingement of hot spots.

CAUSTIC CORROSION
Caustic attack is characterized by irregular patterns of gouging of the metal. It is often referred to as "caustic gouging". Caustic corrosion results from the presence of an excess of free hydroxide (OH) in the boiler water, indicated by a very high pH. Much like an acid, caustic corrosion may occur beneath layers of deposits which have formed on heat transfer surfaces allowing the hydroxide to concentrate and thereby causing severe localized corrosion. Caustic corrosion also will occur in the horizontal or inclined tubes when the interior surfaces become steam blanketed because of excessive boiling (hot spots) or separation of steam and water. Boiler water containing hydroxide can splash onto the steam blanketed surface, and as the water flashes off, the hydroxide remains and concentrates on the metal.

CHEMICAL TREATMENT
Acidic corrosion can be prevented by the maintenance of a proper boiler water alkalinity. Adequate dosages of an alkaline material such as sodium hydroxide (GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid) will maintain the recommended alkalinity range and eliminate the possibility of acid attack. Please note: The alkalinity level may be measured directly in "ppm" or indirectly using the corresponding pH ranges. Maintain the recommended range of alkalinity or pH according to the treatment program. Caustic corrosion readily takes place in ultra high pressure boilers (60 kg/cm2, 850 psig and over) in the presence of free caustic. The Drew ULTRAMARINESM coordinated phosphate-pH boiler water treatment program used in high pressure boilers eliminates free hydroxide (OH-) in the boiler water. (This program will be described in detail later in this book). Maintain the balance of treatment chemicals to minimize free caustic. The application of the ULTRAMARINE coordinated phosphate-pH boiler water treatment will also assist in inhibiting hydrogen embrittlement, primarily by the buffering action of the phosphate and the pH control in the boiler water.

CAUSTIC CRACKING CORROSION


Corrosion caused by caustic cracking is a type of intercrystalline cracking. When highly caustic (alkaline) water comes in contact with steel under stress, intercrystalline cracking can result. (Metals can be stress relieved, that is reheated at low temperatures to relieve internal stresses). This type of corrosion occurs along the crystal boundaries of a metal or an alloy.

20

COMPOSITION AND FORMATION OF DEPOSITS


Since water is a universal solvent, it dissolves practically all materials which it contacts to a certain extent. However, materials have differing solubilities in water depending upon the temperature, pressure, pH, mineral composition, and contact time. Solubilities are grouped into three general categories: very soluble solids, slightly soluble solids, and relatively insoluble solids. Under certain operating conditions, any one of these may produce undesirable deposits which will reduce operating efficiency. DISSOLVED INORGANIC SOLIDS are materials which dissociate in water into their ionic parts (cations and anions). Most organic materials are not highly ionized (see discussion later in this section). The major minerals encountered in seawater are combinations of the following dissolved (ionized) constituents: Positive Ions (Cations) Calcium+2 Magnesium+2 Sodium+1 Potassium+1 Negative Ions (Anions) Carbonate-2 Bicarbonate-1 Sulfate-2 Silicate-2 Chloride-1 Salts may enter the boiler system as poor quality evaporator distillate, seawater in-leakage, or shore water makeup. Some are very soluble and cause few problems because of their relative solubility. For example, sodium salts are very soluble compounds. However, contaminants can volatilize and carry over with the steam and deposit on superheater tubes or on turbine blading. Slightly soluble solids are soluble at atmospheric conditions; however, an increase in the temperature and pressure will cause precipitation and/or deposition. The primary examples of this type of solid are salts of calcium and magnesium. For example, the solubility of calcium sulfate increases up to approximately 38OC (100OF) but then decreases rapidly as the temperature is increased above this level. Only a very small quantity of the so-called insoluble solids will dissolve in water. Suspended solids, which do not dissolve, will deposit or disperse and circulate with the water. Following is a list of these materials that are most likely to be found as boiler water suspended solids:

Material Red iron oxide Magnetic iron Copper metal and copper oxides Clay Calcium carbonate

Composition Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Cu, Cu2O and CuO Complex silicates of Al, Fe, and Mg CaCO3 CaSiO3 Ca3(PO4)2) 3Ca3(PO4)2Ca(OH)2 Mg(OH2) 3MgO2SIO22H2O Mg3(PO4)2 Organic Mixtures

Source Corrosion of feed or return lines or boilers. Corrosion of return lines or boilers or conversion of suspended Fe2O3. Corrosion of condenser tubes and evaporators. Introduced by contamination of feed water with seawater, low quality shore or brackish water. Introduced by seawater contamination as a reaction product formed by heating water that contains calcium bicarbonate. Reaction product from water that contains calcium and silica Formed when water is overtreated with phosphate and undertreated with sodium hydroxide, and this material is very likely to adhere to metal surfaces. Formed when proper treatment controls are maintained. Formed when proper treatment controls are maintained. Formed in water that contains silica when proper treatment controls are maintained. Formed when water is overtreated with phosphate. This material is very likely to adhere to metal surfaces. Formed when any of the above solids absorb oil present in the system.

Calcilum silicate Tricalcium phosphate

Calcium hydroxyapatite* Magnesium hydroxide* Magnesium silicate* ("Serpentine") Magnesium phosphate Oily sludge

*Starred items are minerals that may be produced as a result of normal chemical water treatment and which are the least likely to form adherent sludge deposits. Of the suspended solids in the boiler water, these substances are preferred since they easily can be removed by blowdown.

21

In addition to the above, there are metallic oxides and salts of iron and copper which enter the boiler as corrosion products. The sources of iron may be from corrosion in steam systems and in return lines. Some oxides are from internal corrosion in boiler generating tubes, the drum surfaces or feed line. Corrosion of the main and auxiliary condensers or of evaporator condensers is one of the sources of the copper and copper oxide materials. (See the previous section on "Formation of Oxides"). Organic contamination may enter the boiler system via leaks in the cargo or fuel heating coils or other auxiliary feed lines. Types of organics include petroleum products (e.g., oil or lubes), cargo liquids (e.g., organic chemicals), or microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). Organic materials tend to decompose and can act as binders for the suspended solids so that they adhere to the interior tube metal walls. DEPOSIT FORMATION AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES Scale: A "true" scale is a crystalline solid which is found at the point in the boiler system at which it is formed. Scale materials are formed by oversaturation and precipitation of hardness constituents (calcium and magnesium) on heat transfer surfaces. Metal oxide deposits are formed by the reaction of an aggressive solution or gas in contact with the metal surface at the point where the oxide is found. It may come from another part of the system and accumulate at that location. Metal oxides can combine with other contaminants to form deposits. This is another reason why corrosion should be controlled by mechanical as well as chemical methods. (See previous section on "Corrosion of Metals"). Sludge is generally a mixture of loose fluid particles composed of organic, inorganic and/or corrosion products. The sludges that result from water treatment reactions are preferred to the scale that would otherwise form. Sludges must be removed on a regular schedule or the accumulation of sludges at the low flow points may block the water flow patterns. Restriction of this flow may cause "starvation" of some areas and ultimately the overheating of metal. Scales and baked-on sludges in any heat transfer area can act as "insulators". Interference with heat transfer results in reduced fuel efficiency and potentially tube failure. Mechanical Correction Blowdown is the method used to remove the dissolved and suspended solids from the boiler systems, and blowdown procedures should be based on boiler manufacturers' instructions. There are three types of blowdown--bottom, header and continuous--each used for a specific purpose. Bottom blowdown (blowdown from the bottom of the boiler) removes suspended solids and residual sludges that have settled out of the water. If these contaminants are not removed regularly, they will build up until they hinder circulation patterns.

Continuous or surface blowdown (blowdown from the upper areas of the boiler) removes circulating boiler water which contains a high percent of the dissolved solids. This blowdown location keeps the concentration of dissolved solids under control. Header blowdown (an intermittent blow from a header location) reduces accumulated, suspended or floating solids, and also removes high dissolved solids concentrations. Chemical Treatment Not all contaminants can be removed naturally by blowdown but require chemical assistance. The formation of undesirable deposits can be prevented by treating the water with chemicals that convert the undesirable dissolved hardness constituents to harmless suspended solids. These solids gradually settle out in the mud drum of the boiler as a nonadherent fluid sludge which can be removed by blowdown. The standard treatment used is a combination of soluble phosphate (ADJUNCT B phosphate boiler water treatment) and an alkaline liquid (GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid). Some one drum combination products, such as AGK 100 boiler and feedwater treatment, combine phosphate, alkali, oxygen scavenger amines and other water conditions into a complete treatment. AGK 100 treatment is not a "one-shot" treatment but rather a complete package which must be fed continuously to provide complete protection. (Also, see the section on "Coordinated Phosphate-pH Treatment" that follows). Any existing hardness scales are not rapidly removed by the boiler water treatment chemicals and special chemical cleaning methods should be employed. (See the section entitled "Chemical Cleaning"). If the water treatment program is controlled within the limits set for the phosphate and alkalinity, the sludges which will develop will not be sticky and will not adhere to the metal surfaces. If feedwater becomes contaminated by oil, LIQUID COAGULANTTM boiler sludge conditioner should be dosed to the boiler to coagulate the oil droplets. These conditioned suspended solids will settle to the low points of the boiler where they are removed by blowdown, thus preventing foaming and carryover and lowering deposit adherence characteristics. Coordinated Phosphate-pH Program (ULTRAMARINESM) Caustic corrosion is one of the most frequent and most serious causes of metal damage in high pressure boilers (over 60 kg/cm2, 850 psig). This type of corrosion results from the action of "free caustic" at heat transfer surfaces causing severe corrosion and metal loss. The caustic conconcentrates in crevices or localized areas beneath porous metal oxide deposits or where thin films of steam are formed leaving concentrated caustic behind on the metal surface. This localization of caustic can cause severe corrosion and may be the result of some physical features of the boiler such as design or the mode of operation.

22

The Drew ULTRAMARINESM program has been specifically designed to minimize "free caustic" conditions in high pressure boilers by adjusting and controlling the chemical balance of pH and phosphate in the boiler water. The Drew ULTRAMARINE Program is a coordinate phosphate-pH boiler water treatment program. The addition of Drew GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid and ADJUNCT B boiler water treatment establishes an equilibrium in the boiler water as shown in the equation below: Na2HPO4 + NaOH disodium + sodium (ortho) hydroxide phosphate Na3PO4 + H2O trisodium + water (ortho) phosphate

The alkalinity or pH range is controlled so that it protects the boiler steel in a passivated state and coordinates with the phosphate concentration to insure the formation of fluid non-adherent sludges. These levels are coordinated in a balance that will prevent a condition of excess or "free caustic". (See the graph of coordinated phsophate-pH control below). All the other water treatment controls must be monitored closely because high pressure boilers have lower tolerances for variations in chemical levels and total dissolved solids. This lower tolerance for chemicals and solids does not distinguish between treatment chemicals and contaminants so overall control of all critical boiler water chemistry is a necessity.

PPM PO4 (DERIVED FROM TSP) ULTRAMARINE COORDINATED PHOSPHATE-----pH CURVE

23

SPECIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS


Special attention must be given to operating conditions which are unusual or those which are not directly related to normal steaming conditions. The water treatment procedures which are employed during "slow-speed" steaming are just as important as the chemical treatment program during the normal boiler operations. The following situations should be given full consideration. If the boiler has been drained, the AMERZINE inhibitor should be added as it is filled to the normal level and fired up. The boiler must be operated long enough to provide sufficient circulation to obtain a uniform concentration of the oxygen scavenger throughout the boiler water to eliminate the oxygen. If the boiler has been in operation, dose 1.3 liters of AMERZINE inhibitor for each ton of boiler capacity at the test level (100% full). After inspection or cleaning, a boiler should not be allowed to stand open or wet since atmospheric corrosion or "flash rusting" will occur. In addition, boilers should not be returned to service if residual corrosion products or deposits are present. They should be cleaned before their return to service.

LOW SPEED STEAMING


If a boiler is to be operated at substantially reduced loads, the correct water treatment chemical concentrations must be maintained at all times. This is because excessive corrosion and deposition conditions may be exaggerated by the decreased water circulation rates especially in high heat input areas and reduced efficiency of pre-boiler equipment such as deaerations. A potentially more serious situation occurs when firing rates are reduced, which disrupts temperature gradients across all of the boiler sections. In effect, some generating tubes which normally are risers may become stagnant or even downcomers. At extremely reduced steaming conditions, many tubes can become stagnant since they are in a transition zone where they are neither risers nor downcomers but rather "percolate" in a static condition. If percolation occurs, the lack of circulation in high heat input areas tends to permit steam blanketing and tube overheating, thereby concentrating the dissolved solids at the metal-water interfaces. To help alleviate this condition in a two boiler system, it may be advisable to put one boiler in standby and operate the other at a more normal load condition.

CHEMICAL CLEANING
Efficient operation of the boiler system, as with all equipment, is dependent upon cleanliness and freedom from obstructions in the water or gas pass circuits. Precommission cleaning of new equipment is required to remove oils, corrosion products, millscale and debris which may have accumulated during construction. Carefully controlled treatment programs can keep most systems trouble-free; however, in certain conditions an emergency cleaning action may be necessary because of accidental contamination, tube failure, or accumulations of deposits and oxide deposits. All chemical treatment programs require strict adherence to the recommended procedures to produce the desired results. Chemical cleaning solutions, their byproducts, and residuals must be removed before returning the system to service, thereby avoiding any additional contamination or corrosion.

STANDBY AND IDLE BOILERS


Boiler water chemical levels (non-volatile) in standby boilers should be kept within the same ranges that are indicated for the full steaming conditions. When any boiler is off-line for extended periods of time, proper dry or wet layup procedures are essential to prevent corrosion. Successful dry layup procedures depend upon the elimination of all moisture from inside the boiler. Corrosion will not occur if moisture is eliminated. However, it is almost impossible to eliminate all moisture; therefore, the use of "wet" layup procedures is the most practical and preferred corrosion control method for all but very extended layup periods. Boilers placed in "wet" layup are not maintained under pressure. During these periods adequate protection against oxygen gas corrosion must be employed by introducing a high concentration of AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor (approximately 150-200 ppm or 1.3 liter/ton).

24

BOILER WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS


ADJUNCT B phosphate boiler water treatment: ADJUNCT B treatment is a specially formulated powdered phosphate used in conjunction with GCTM liquid in both high and low pressure boilers to control scale formation due to hardness. The soluble phosphate from ADJUNCT B treatment in alkaline boiler water combines with the incoming hardness to form a soft, nonadherent sludge. GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid: GC liquid neutralizes acid and controls corrosion. GC liquid provides a suitable pH environment for the efficient reaction of the phosphate treatment with the hardness constituents to maintain the resulting sludges in a fluid state. AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor: AMERZINE inhibitor is a liquid catalyzed oxygen scavenger used to minimize oxygen corrosion in boiler steam and condensate systems. AMERZINE (hydrazine) prevents the corrosion of iron and copper by oxygen and promotes the formation of protective iron and copper oxide films. SLCC-ATM condensate corrosion inhibitor: SLCC-A inhibitor is a volatile liquid organic amine designed to minimize corrosion in steam and condensate systems. SLCC-A inhibitor condenses with the steam, providing a pH environment which neutralizes the corrosive effects of carbon dioxide (Carbonic Acid). LIQUID COAGULANTTM boiler sludge conditioner: LIQUID COAGULANT conditioner is a colorless, high molecular weight solution used in both medium and low pressure boilers to prevent sludge deposits. It is especially useful when feedwater becomes contaminated by oil. Dosing LIQUID COAGULANT conditioner to the boiler coagulates the oil droplets, causing these suspended solids to settle to the low points of the boiler where they are removed from blowdown. AGK 100 boiler and feedwater treatment: AGK 100 treatment is a unique multi-functional liquid formulation of organic sludge conditioners, coagulants, oxygen scavengers, and inorganic contaminant dispersing and precipitating agents. AGK 100 treatment controls waterside scale and sludge deposits and corrosion conditions in low pressure boilers using distilled water as makeup (up to 32 kg/cm2, 450 psig). The single multi-functional production formulation of the Drew AGK 100 treatment program can replace multiproduct conventional water treatments in these systems. DREWPLEX AT 100 boiler water treatment: DREWPLEX AT treatment is a phosphate-based treatment combined with synthetic polymers providing the ultimate in simplicity, system flexibility and treatment control for all motor vessel auxiliary and exhaust gas economizer boilers. DREWPLEX AT boiler water treatment provides a cleaner boiler by allowing greater tolerance of feedwater quality fluctuations. DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor: DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor is a safe-to-use, unique, and fast-acting catalyzed oxygen scavenger for use in low, medium and high pressure steam generating systems. Because DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor is volatile, excess in the feedwater will be carried through the boiler with the steam and into the condensate system, thereby protecting the entire boiler system from oxygen corrosion. The catalyst in DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor accelerates the rate of oxygen removal in the feedwater, thereby improving corrosion protection in the preboiler section.

25

BOILER WATER TREATMENT CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS AND CONTROLS Control Limits for Boiler Water and Condensate
ULTRAMARINESM program: Boiler Pressure 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) Boiler Water Tests
Phosphate pH HYDRAZINE/AMERZINE Chloride Conductivity Silica

Treatment
ADJUNCT B GCTM AMERZINE Blowdown Blowdown Blowdown

Control Limits
15 - 25 ppm 9.8 - 10.2 0.03 - 0.10 ppm 16 ppm max. 120 mhos max. 6 ppm max.

Condensate Tests
pH Ammonia SLCC-ATM Deaeration 8.6 - 9.0 0.5 ppm max.

STANDARD: Boiler Pressure 32-60 kg/cm2 (450-850 psig) Boiler Water Tests
Phosphate P. Alkalinity T. Alkalinity HYDRAZINE*/AMERZINE Sulfite Chloride Conductivity

Treatment
ADJUNCT B GC GC AMERZINE CATALYZED SULFITE Blowdown Blowdown

Control Limits
20 - 40 ppm 90 - 130 ppm Less than 2 x P. Alkalinity 0.03 - 0.10 ppm 10 - 15 ppm 36 ppm max. 700 mhos max.

Condensate Tests
pH SLCC-A 8.3 - 8.6

STANDARD: Boiler Pressure 0-32 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig) Boiler Water Tests
Phosphate P. Alkalinity T. Alkalinity HYDRAZINE*/AMERZINE Sulfite Chloride Conductivity

Treatment
ADJUNCT B GC GC AMERZINE or CATALYZED SULFITE Blowdown Blowdown

Control Limits
20 - 40 ppm 100 - 150 ppm Less than 2 x P. Alkalinity 0.03 - 0.10 ppm 20 - 30 ppm 300 ppm max. 700 mhos maximum

Condensate Tests
pH SLCC-A 8.3 - 8.6

NOTE: Hardness tests of boiler water are not necessary when the phosphate is above the lower limit of the control range. *Use of either hydrazine or sulfite is recommended for oxygen scavenging. Use of both scavengers is not necessary.

26

BOILER WATER TREATMENT PHOSPHATE: Dosage of ADJUNCT B phosphate boiler water treatment per ton boiler water.

Phosphate Test Results (ppm)

0-32 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig)

P r e s s u r e R a n g e 32-60 kg/cm2 60-84 kg/cm2 (450-850 psig) (850-1200 psig) Dosage Requirements

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 20 - 25 25 - 40 40+

30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) Satisfactory Satisfactory Blowdown

30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) 15 gm (.5 oz.) Satisfactory Satisfactory Blowdown

30 gm (1 oz.) 30 gm (1 oz.) 26 gm (1 oz.) 22 gm (1 oz.) 18 gm (1 oz.) 14 gm (1 oz.) 9 gm (1 oz.) Satisfactory Satisfactory Blowdown

CAUSTIC: Dosage of GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid per ton boiler water P r e s s u r e R a n g e 32-60 kg/cm2 (450-850 psig) Dosage Requirements 0 - 20 30 - 50 60 - 80 90 - 130 100 - 150 130+ 150+ 0.15 liter 0.10 liter 0.05 liter -Satisfactory -Blowdown 0.15 liter 0.10 liter 0.05 liter Satisfactory -Blowdown --

P. Alkalinity Test Results (ppm)

0-32 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig)

CAUSTIC: Dosage of GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid per ton boiler water Pressure Range 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) Dosage Requirements 14 ml 13 ml 12 ml 11 ml 10 ml 9 ml 8 ml 7 ml 5 ml Satisfactory Blowdown

pH Boiler Water Test Results 8.6 or less 9.0 9.0 - 9.3 9.4 - 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 or above

27

SULFITE: Dosage of CATALYZED SULFITETM corrosion inhibitor

BOILER PRESSURE PSI kg/cm2 (a) Up to 450 (b) 450-850 (a) or (b) (a) or (b) Up to 32 32-60

RESIDUAL RANGE (ppm as SO3) 20-30 10-15 Below satisfactory, Increase 25% Above satisfactory, Decrease 25%

DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS Satisfactory Satisfactory

HYDRAZINE/AMERZINE: Continuous Dosage of AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor Treatment Standard Pressure Range 0-60 kg/cm2 (0-850 psig) Hydrazine Test Result AMERZINE Dosage Increase dosage by 25% Maintain Decrease dosage by 25%

less than 0.03 0.03 - 0.10 greater than 0.10 Initial dosage is 0.15 liters per ton of boiler water.

ULTRAMARINE

less than 0.03 0.03 - 0.10 greater than 0.10 Initial dosage is 0.10 liters per ton of boiler water.

60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig)

Increase dosage by 25% Maintain Decrease dosage by 25%

CONDENSATE pH: Continuous Dosage of SLCC-ATM condensate corrosion inhibitor Treatment Standard Pressure Range 0-60 kg/cm2 (0-850 psig) Condensate pH SLCC-A Dosage Increase dosage by 25% Maintain Decrease dosage by 25%

less than 8.3 8.3 - 8.6 greater than 8.6 Initial dosage is 0.15 liters per ton of boiler water.

ULTRAMARINE

less than 8.6 8.6 - 9.0 greater than 9.0 Initial dosage is 0.10 liters per ton of boiler water.

60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig)

Increase dosage by 25% Maintain Decrease dosage by 25%

28

AGK 100 treatment Supplemented with AMERZINE treatment


AGK 100 Treatment Initial Dosage: Continuous Dosage: 2.5-5 liters per ton of water in the boiler system Maintain 40-65 ppm hydrate alkalinity and 10-20 ppm phosphate in the boiler water.

AGK 100 Dosage Adjustment


Hydrate Alkalinity is the primary parameter for adjusting AGK 100 Dosage
HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY

<40 ppm PO4 <10ppm Increase dosage by 25% and check for seawater or shore water or in-leakage. Increase dosage by 20% Check condensate for acidic material in-leakage. Increase dosage by 20% Check condensate for acidic material in-leakage. Make up and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

40 - 65 ppm Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for possible hardness in-leakage. Normal condition. No dosage adjustment necessary. adjustment Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for acidic material in-leakage. Alkalinity may be destroyed by acid contamination. Make up and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

>65 ppm Reduce dosage by 10%. Check for shore water in-leakage. Reduce dosage by 20% Check for shore water in-leakage. Reduce dosage by 25%. Feedwater quality may be better than usual.

PO4 10 20 ppm

PO4 >20ppm

NEUTRALIZED CONDUCTIVITY in mhos Up to 700 Satisfactory

BLOWDOWN ADJUSTMENT Normal maintenance blowdown is sufficient. Regular flash blowdown to remove suspended solids should be carried out a minimum of once per week. Increase frequency of blowdown.

Above 700

High

Boiler Water Hydrazine in ppm

AMERZINE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT Dosage is necessary only when HYDRAZINE test results are low with AGK 100 dosage alone. Initial Dosage: 100 ml/day Decrease No Change Increase

Above 0.10 0.03 - 0.10 Below 0.03

High Satisfactory Low

29

DREWPLEX AT boiler water treatment and DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor for Motor Vessels
DREWPLEX AT/DREWPLEX OX Treatment Initial Dosage: 2.5-5 liters per ton of water in the boiler system Continuous Dosage: Maintain 40-65 ppm hydrate alkalinity and 10-20 ppm phosphate in the boiler water

DREWPLEX AT Dosage Adjustment


Hydrate Alkalinity is the primary parameter for adjusting DREWPLEX AT Dosage
HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY

<40 ppm Increase dosage PO4 by 25% and check <10ppm for seawater or shore water or in-leakage. PO4 10 20 ppm Increase dosage by 20%. Check condensate for acidic material in-leakage.

40 - 65 ppm Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for possible hardness in-leakage. Normal condition. No dosage adjustment necessary. Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for acidic material in-leakage. Alkalinity may be destroyed by acid contamination. Makeup and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

>65 ppm Reduce dosage by 10%. Check for shore water in-leakage.

Reduce dosage by 10%. Check for shore water in-leakage. Reduce dosage by 25%. Feedwater quality may be better than usual.

Increase dosage by 10%. Check condensate for PO4 acidic material >20ppm in-leakage. Make up and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

NEUTRALIZED CONDUCTIVITY in mhos Up to 700 Satisfactory

BLOWDOWN ADJUSTMENT Normal maintenance blowdown is sufficient. Regular flash blowdown to remove suspended solids should be carried out a minimum of once per week. Increase frequency of blowdown. DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT DREWPLEX OX Continuous Dosage Initial Dosage: 0.4 liters/ton of water in the boiler system Decrease No Change Increase

Above 700

High

Feedwater DEHA in ppm Above 0.8 0.4 - 0.8 Below 0.4 High Satisfactory Low

30

DREWPLEX AT boiler water treatment/AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor for Motor Vessels


DREWPLEX AT/AMERZINE treatment Initial Dosage: 2.5-5 liters per ton of water in the boiler system Continuous Dosage: Maintain 40-65 ppm hydrate alkalinity and 10-20 ppm phosphate in the boiler water

DREWPLEX AT Dosage Adjustment


Hydrate Alkalinity is the primary parameter for adjusting DREWPLEX AT Dosage
HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY HYDRATE ALKALINITY

<40 ppm Increase dosage by 25% and check PO4 <10ppm for seawater or shore water or in-leakage. PO4 10 20 ppm Increase dosage by 20%. Check condensate for acidic material in-leakage.

40 - 65 ppm Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for possible hardness in-leakage. Normal condition. No dosage adjustment necessary. Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Check for acidic material in-leakage. Alkalinity may be destroyed by acid contamination. Makeup and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

>65 ppm Reduce dosage by 10%. Check for shore water in-leakage.

Reduce dosage by 10%. Check for shore water in-leakage. Reduce dosage by 25%. Feedwater quality may be better than usual.

Increase dosage by 10%.Check condensate for PO4 acidic material >20ppm in-leakage. Make up and/or feedwater volume may be low or quality may be better than usual.

NEUTRALIZED CONDUCTIVITY in mhos Up to 700 Satisfactory

BLOWDOWN ADJUSTMENT Normal maintenance blowdown is sufficient. Regular flash blowdown to remove suspended solids should be carried out a minimum of once per week. Increase frequency of blowdown. DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT AMERZINE Continuous Dosage Initial Dosage: 0.15 liters/ton of water in the boiler system Decrease No Change Increase

Above 700

High

Boiler Water Hydrazine in ppm Above 0.10 0.03 - 0.10 Below 0.03 High Satisfactory Low

31

Dosage of LIQUID COAGULANTTM boiler sludge conditioner


LIQUID COAGULANT boiler sludge conditioner is "slugfed" daily at a dosage of 30 mls (1 oz.) per ton of boiler water capacity to minimize the effects of oil contamination. When dosing LIQUID COAGULANT conditioner, both bottom flash blowdowns and fast surface blowdowns are recommended. Do not continue to operate a boiler system with severe oil contamination. For systems experiencing severe oil contamination, locate and secure the leak. Then an off-line cleaning is recommended. Consult your Drew Marine representative for specific maintenance chemicals. After the equipment is cleaned, LIQUID COAGULANT conditioner should be dosed at 30 mls (1 oz.) per ton of boiler water capacity per day for two weeks or until complete oil removal is accomplished. LIQUID COAGULANT conditioner should not be used in high pressure boilers.

MAKEUP TURBO ALTERNATOR AUX. CONDENSER

L.O. COOLER BOILER H.P. TURBINE L.P. TURBINE MAIN CONDENSER

DISTILLER

GLAND EXHAUST CONDENSER L.P. HEATER

H.P. HEATERS

FEED PUMP

DEAERATOR

HEATING SERVICES
OBSERVATION TANK

DRAINS RETURN TANK

STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM 1. AMERZINE 2. SLCC-A INJECTION POINTS 3. ADJUNCT B INJECTION POINTS 4. GC INJECTION POINTS

32

33

Boiler Water Treatment Control Tests In Alphabetical Order (pages 35-58)

Cooling Water Treatment Control Tests In Alphabetical Order (pages 63-66)

34

HYDRATE ALKALINITY TEST FOR AGK 100 and DREWPLEX AT TREATMENTS

Before testing, boiler water, hot condensate, and feedwater samples must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample. Read MSDS before running these tests. NOTE: If the sample is colored or turbid, filter before running the test. If the sample remains cloudy after the first filtering, the sample should be refiltered through the same filter paper since the filter becomes more retentive on the second filtration. (Filter paper is supplied separately). HYDRATE ALKALINITY TEST KIT (PCN #0388-01-8)

APPARATUS
1 Plastic Titration Vial Marked at 12ml 1 Dropper Pipette Marked at 0.5 and 1.0ml

REAGENTS
7 x 60ml Barium Chloride 10% 3 x 60ml Sulfuric Acid N/10 1 x 30ml Phenolphthalein

PROCEDURE

1. Rinse and fill the plastic titration vial to the line (12 ml) with cooled boiler water sample. 2. Pipette 2 ml of Barium Chloride 10% into the vial and swirl to mix.

12 ml

1 2

3. Add 2 drops of Phenolphthalein Indicator and swirl. IF THE SAMPLE DOES NOT TURN PINK, the Hydrate Alkalinity level is zero. Record zero on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust dosage to increase hydrate alkalinity. IF THE SAMPLE TURNS PINK, counting the drops, add Sulfuric Acid N/10 until the sample is colorless (disregard the eventual reappearance of a pink color). Swirl the vial between drops. 4. Calculate the Hydrate Alkalinity concentration as follows:
Number of drops of Sulfuric Acid N/10 x 5 = ppm Hydrate Alkalinity as OH.

5. Record the Hydrate Alkalinity level on the Onboard Graphing Log. Make dosage adjustments as needed.

CONTROL LIMITS Hydrate Alkalinity Below 40 ppm 40-65 ppm Above 65 ppm Dosage Increase No change Decrease

35

ALKALINITY TITRATION FOR MEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Read the MSDS before performing this test procedure. Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample.

APPARATUS
LP Alkalinity Titration Assembly Graduated Cylinder, 50 ml Evaporating Dish Plastic Stirring Rod PCN 0380-01-4 PCN 0237-02-5 PCN 0218-01-7 PCN 0417-01-5
1. 2. 3.

REAGENTS
N/10 Sulfuric Acid, 500 ml Phenolphthalein Indicator, 120 ml Total Alkalinity Indicator GP, 120 ml PCN 0319-09-6 PCN 0311-01-9 PCN 0355-19-9

PROCEDURE

Fill the burette by squeezing the plastic bottle of N/10 Sulfuric Acid. Allow the solution in the burette to settle to the 0.0 mark. Measure 50 ml of cooled sample using a graduated cylinder. Transfer the measured sample into an evaporating dish.

Phenolphthalein Endpoint 4. Add 4 drops of Phenolphthalein to the sample. If the solution turns pink, proceed to step 5. If the solution does not turn pink, record Phenolphthalein Alkalinity as 0.0 on the Onboard Graphing Log and refer to the GC Dosage Chart for immediate dosage of GC. Turning the stopcock on the burette, add N/10 Sulfuric Acid to the sample drop by drop while stirring continuously until the pink color disappears and the sample is back to its original color. This is the Phenolphthalein Endpoint. NOTE: Do not dispose of the sample in the evaporating dish or refill the burette. This same sample is used for the Total Alkalinity Test and the total amount of acid added must be measured. Read the level of the N/10 Sulfuric Acid solution on the burette. Refer to the Medium to Low Pressure Alkalinity Conversion Table on Page 36 and find the number which corresponds to the burette reading. Beside this number you will find the equivalent Phenolphthalein (P) Alkalinity expressed in parts per million (ppm). The parts per million Phenolphthalein Alkalinity can also be calculated as follows: ppm Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = mls of N/10 Sulfuric Acid x 100 7. Record the Phenolphthalein (P) Alkalinity as ppm on the Onboard Graphing Log. Control Limits: Total Alkalinity Endpoint 8. 9.
4&8

2 1

5.

6.
3

0-32 kg/cm2 32-60 kg/cm2

100-150 ppm 90-130 ppm

Using the same water sample in the evaporating dish, add 4 drops of Total Alkalinity Indicator GP The sample will turn a blue green color. . Without refilling the burette, turn the stopcock and add N/10 Sulfuric Acid drop by drop stirring continuously. A pinkish purple color will begin to form around the drops as they fall into the sample. Continue titrating and stir until a permanent pinkish purple color develops throughout the sample. This is the Total Alkalinity Endpoint.

10. Read the level of the N/10 Sulfuric Acid solution on the burette. Refer to the Medium to Low Pressure Alkalinity Conversion Table and find the number closest to the burette reading. Beside this number you will find the equivalent Total (T) Alkalinity in the sample expressed in parts per million (ppm). The parts per million Total Alkalinity can also be calculated as follows: ppm Total Alkalinity = mls of N/10 Sulfuric Acid x 100 11. Record the Total (T) Alkalinity as ppm on the Onboard Graphing Log. 12. Refer to the Control and Dosing Chart for instructions on dosing GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid. The total alkalinity endpoint test is only a reference test and should determine GC dosage adjustment only if the T. Alkalinity is out of balance.
5&9 6 & 10

Control Limits: 0-60 kg/cm2

< 2 P Alkalinity

36

ALKALINITY TITRATION FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Read the MSDS before performing this test procedure. Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample.

APPARATUS (included in PCN 0441-04-8)


HP Alkalinity Titration Assembly Graduated Cylinder, 50 ml Evaporating Dish Plastic Stirring Rod

REAGENTS (included in PCN 0437-04-7)


PCN 0485-01-2 PCN 0311- -- PCN 0355- -- -

PCN 0379-01-7 N/50 Sulfuric Acid, 1000 ml PCN 0237-02-5 Phenolphthalein Indicator, 60 ml PCN 0218-01-7 Total Alkalinity Indicator GP, 60 ml PCN 0417-01-5
1. 2. 3.

PROCEDURE

Fill the burette by squeezing the plastic bottle of N/50 Sulfuric Acid. Allow the solution in the burette to settle to the 0.0 mark. Measure 50 ml of cooled sample using a graduated cylinder. Transfer the measured sample into an evaporating dish.

Phenolphthalein Endpoint 4.
1 2

Add 4 drops of Phenolphthalein to the sample. If the solution turns pink, proceed to step 5. If the solution does not turn pink, record Phenolphthalein Alkalinity as 0.0 on the Onboard Graphing Log and proceed to step 8. Turning the stopcock on the burette, add N/50 Sulfuric Acid to the sample drop by drop while stirring continuously until the pink color disappears and the sample is back to its original color. This is the Phenolphthalein Endpoint. NOTE: Do not dispose of the sample in the evaporating dish or refill the burette. This same sample is used for the Total Alkalinity Test and the total amount of acid added must be measured. Read the level of the N/50 Sulfuric Acid solution on the burette. Refer to the High Pressure Alkalinity Conversion Table on Page 36 and find the number which corresponds to the burette reading. Beside this number you will find the equivalent Phenolphthalein (P) Alkalinity expressed in parts per million (ppm). The parts per million Phenolphthalein Alkalinity can also be calculated as follows: ppm Phenolphthalein Alkalinity = mls of N/50 Sulfuric Acid x 20

5.

6.

7.

Record the Phenolphthalein (P) Alkalinity as ppm on the Onboard Graphing Log.

Total Alkalinity Endpoint


4&8

8. 9.

Using the same water sample in the evaporating dish, add 4 drops of Total Alkalinity Indicator GP The sample will turn a blue green color. . Without refilling the burette, turn the stopcock and add N/50 Sulfuric Acid drop by drop stirring continuously. A pinkish purple color will begin to form around the drops as they fall into the sample. As the titration continues a slate gray color will be observed. Continue titrating and stir until a permanent pinkish purple color develops throughout the sample. This is the Total Alkalinity Endpoint.

10. Read the level of the N/50 Sulfuric Acid solution on the burette. Refer to the High Pressure Alkalinity Conversion Table and find the number closest to the burette reading. Beside this number you will find the equivalent Total (T) Alkalinity in the sample expressed in parts per million (ppm). The parts per million Total Alkalinity can also be calculated as follows:
5&9 6 & 10

ppm Total Alkalinity = mls of N/50 Sulfuric Acid x 20 11. Record the Total (T) Alkalinity as ppm on the Onboard Graphing Log. 12. The alkalinity tests are conducted only as reference tests for high pressure boiler systems.

37

ALKALINITY TESTS
HIGH PRESSURE BOILERS (Pressure Range: 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig)
Titrated with N/50 Sulfuric Acid Phenolphthalein and Total Alkalinity Control Tests

Conversion Table
mls of titrant (N/50 Sulfuric Acid
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.2

ppm Alkalinity as CaCO3


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 28 32 36 40 48 52 56 68 80 92 104

MMEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILERS (Pressure Range: Up to 60 kg/cm2 (850 psig)


Titrated with N/10 Sulfuric Acid Phenolphthalein and Total Alkalinity Control Tests

Conversion Table
mls of titrant (N/10 Sulfuric Acid)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

ppm Alkalinity
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

mls of titrant (N/10 Sulfuric Acid)


2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0

ppm Alkalinity as CaCO3


260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500

38

AMMONIA TEST (CONDENSATE) FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS

Not a Required Test for Medium to Low Pressure Boilers

AMMONIA TEST AMPOULES (PCN 0384-01-6) INCLUDES:


30 Ampoules 1 Snapping Cup 1 Color Comparator Card Included in the ULTRAMARINESM 6-Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-04-7)

PROCEDURE Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25C (77F) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample.

1. Fill the snapping cup completely with cooled condensate.


SNAPPING CUP FILL COMPLETELY

2.

1 2 3.

Place the tapered tip of an ammonia ampoule into one of the holes in the snapping cup. Keeping the tip immersed in the sample, break the tip by tilting the ampoule towards the opposite wall of the snapping cup and allow the ampoule to fill completely.

Remove the ampoule from the snapping cup. Mix the contents by inverting the ampoule back and forth several times for 30 seconds.

15:00

Ashland Specialty Chemical Drew Marine Division AMMONIA, ppm

4. Wait 15 minutes for full color development.

4
0 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7

5. Compare the color of the ampoule with the color standards. Report the ammonia level on the ULTRAMARINE Onboard Graphing Log as ppm ammonia.

Control Limit 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 0.5 ppm maximum

39

CHLORIDE TEST FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS

DREW CHLORIDE HP TEST KIT (PCN 0372-01-1) INCLUDES: 1 Glass Flask for Sample 1 Plastic Dropper Plug for Mixed Chloride Indicator 1 White Plastic Bottle Cap for Mixed Chloride Indicator 2 x 60 ml (2 oz.) Mercuric Nitrate 1 x 30 ml (1 oz.) Nitric Acid N/5 1 x 30 ml (1 oz.) Mixed Chloride Indicator Solution 1 Glass Vial Powder Indicator This test kit is included in the ULTRAMARINESM 6 Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-04-7).

... ... ... ...

Prepare the Mixed Chloride Indicator as follows:


a
Mixed Chloride Indicator

Mixed Chloride Indicator

a. Unscrew the black caps of the small glass vial and the 1 oz. plastic bottle labeled "Mixed Chloride Indicator". b. Pour the powder contents of the small glass vial into the liquid contents of the 1 oz. plastic bottle.

Dropper Plug

Mixed Chloride Indicator

Mixed Chloride Indicator

c. Screw the black cap back onto the Mixed Chloride Indicator bottle and mix for 5 seconds. d. Remove the black screw cap. Insert the plastic dropper plug into the mouth of the plastic bottle and screw the white cap onto the bottle. Proceed with the test.

Mixed Chloride Indicator

1 2

PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the sample flask by rinsing the glass flask and fill to the mark (24 ml) with the water to be tested. 2. Adjust the color of the sample by adding 6 drops of Mixed Chloride Indicator and swirl to mix. The resulting color will be light red.
Nitric Acid

3. Adjust the pH by adding Nitric Acid N/5 dropwise, swirling between drops until the sample is yellow. Add 1 more drop. 4. Counting the drops, hold the glass flask in a vertical position and add Mercuric Nitrate dropwise with swirling until the color turns to a permanent purple. 5. Calculate the chloride concentration Number of drops of Mercuric Nitrate x 1 = ppm chloride as Cl 6. Record results as ppm chloride on the Onboard Graphing Log. Control Limit 16 ppm maximum 40

Mercuric Nitrate

CHLORIDE TITRATION FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Read MSDS before performing this test procedure. Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25C (77F) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample. Note: If the sample is colored or turbid, it should be filtered before testing. If the sample remains cloudy after the first filtering, the sample should be refiltered through the same filter paper since the filter becomes more retentive on the second filtration.

This procedure is preferred for systems which are expected to contain low chloride levels because it is more sensitive than the method for medium to low pressure boiler systems. THIS TEST IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR USE ON TREATED COOLING WATER.

APPARATUS
HP Chloride Titration Assembly Graduated Cylinder, 50 ml Evaporating Dish Plastic Stirring Rod PCN 0382-01-0 PCN 0237-02-5 PCN 0218-01-7 PCN 0417-01-5

REAGENTS
Mercuric Nitrate, 500 ml N/5 Nitric Acid, 120 ml Mixed Chloride Indicator Solution, 100 ml Mixed Chloride Indicator Powder, 5 caps PCN 0475-09-6 PCN 0479-19-7 PCN 0477-19-1 PCN 0478-01-7

PROCEDURE

1. At least every four weeks prepare fresh Mixed Chloride Indicator Solution. Discard any Mixed Chloride Indicator Solution that is more than four weeks old. Prepare new solution as follows: a. Empty a capsule of Mixed Chloride Indicator Powder into the bottle of Mixed Chloride Indicator Solution. b. Cap and mix by swirling or shaking the bottle gently.
2

2. Fill the burette by squeezing the plastic bottle of Mercuric Nitrate. Allow the solution in the burette to settle to the 0.0 mark. 3. Measure 50 ml of cooled sample using a graduated cylinder.

50 ml

4. Transfer the measured sample into an evaporating dish.


4 3

5. Add 10 drops of prepared Mixed Indicator Solution and stir. 6. Add N/5 Nitric Acid, drop by drop, stirring continuously until the sample just turns yellow. Add 5 more drops of acid. 7. Turning the stopcock on the burette, add Mercuric Nitrate to the sample drop by drop while stirring continuously. The endpoint is reached when the color changes to a permanant violet. 8. Read the level of the Mercuric Nitrate solution on the burette. Refer to the Chloride/Mercuric Nitrate Conversion Table on Page 42 and find the number which corresponds to the burette reading. Next to this number you will find the equivalent chloride content expressed in parts per million (ppm). The parts per million chloride can also be calculated as follows: ppm chloride = mls of Mercuric Nitrate x 10 9. Record results as ppm chloride on the Onboard Graphing Log.
7

5&6

Control Limit: 16 ppm maximum

41

CHLORIDE TEST FOR MEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


DREW CHLORIDE LMP TEST KIT (PCN 0373-01-9) INCLUDES: 1 Plastic Vial (10 ml mark) 1 Glass Tube (1 ml mark) 2 x 60 ml (2 oz.) Silver Nitrate 1 x 30 ml (1 oz.) Sulfuric Acid N/10 1 x 30 ml (1 oz.) Phenolphthalein 1 x 60 ml (2 oz.) Potassium Chromate This test kit is included in the Alkalinity/Chloride Reagent Set (PCN 0301-02-8).

PROCEDURE
1. For samples less than 100 ppm chloride Rinse the plastic vial and fill to the mark (10 ml) with sample to be tested.
1 or

plastic vial

glass tube

For samples greater than 100 ppm chloride Rinse the tall glass test tube and fill to the mark (2 ml) with sample to be tested. 2. Neutralize the sample by adding 3 drops of Phenolphthalein Indicator to the sample. Swirl to mix. If the sample turns pink, add Sulfuric Acid N/10 dropwise with swirling until the sample turns clear. Add 1 more drop. If the sample does not turn pink, add 1 drop of Sulfuric Acid N/10. 3. Adjust the color of the sample by adding 6 drops of Potassium Chromate. The sample will be yellow.

2, 3, 4, 5

4. Counting the drops, add Silver Nitrate N/10 dropwise. Swirl between drops until the sample turns orange. 5. Calculate the Chloride Concentration If the plastic vial was used in Step 1: Number of drops of Silver Nitrate x 10 = ppm chloride If the glass test tube was used in Step 1: Number of drops of Silver Nitrate x 50 = ppm chloride as Cl 6. Record results as ppm chloride on the Onboard Graphing Log.

Control Limits 0-32 kg/cm2 32-60 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig) (450-850 psig) 300 ppm max. 40 ppm max.

NOTE: This test can be used to detect chloride in makeup water and cooling water treated with DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment. THIS METHOD IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR COOLING WATER TREATED WITH MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment or LIQUIDEWTTM cooling water treatment WITHOUT SAMPLE PRETREATMENT. See page 66 for sample pretreatment procedure.

42

CHLORIDE TITRATION FOR MEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Read MSDS before performing this test procedure. Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25C (77F) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample. Note: If the sample is colored or turbid, it should be filtered before testing. If the sample remains cloudy after the first filtering, the sample should be refiltered through the same filter paper since the filter becomes more retentive on the second filtration.

This procedure is generally recommended for chloride determinations on all waters. An accurate chloride determination can be made only with water having a pH below the Phenolphthalein Alkalinity Indicator end point (pH 8.3).

APPARATUS
LP Chloride Titration Assembly Graduated Cylinder, 50 ml Evaporating Dish Plastic Stirring Rod PCN 0381-01-2 PCN 0237-02-5 PCN 0218-01-7 PCN 0417-01-5

REAGENTS
N/10 Silver Nitrate, 500 ml Potassium Chromate, 120 ml Phenolphthalein, 120 ml N/10 Sulfuric Acid, 120 ml PCN 0315-09-4 PCN 0313-19-7 PCN 0311-19-1 PCN 0319-19-5

PROCEDURE
1. Fill the burette by squeezing the plastic bottle of Silver Nirate. Allow the solution in the burette to settle to the 0.0 mark.
1 50 ml

2. Measure 50 ml of cooled sample using a graduated cylinder. 3. Transfer the measured sample into an evaporating dish. 4. Add 4 drops of Phenolphthalein to the sample. If the sample turns pink, add N/10 Sulfuric Acid dropwise until the pink disappears. If the sample does not turn pink, proceed to step 5. 5. Add one dropperful of Potassium Chromate to the sample. This will turn the sample a yellow color.
6

Step 2

4&5

6. Turning the stopcock on the burette, add Silver Nitrate to the sample drop by drop while stirring continuously. The endpoint is reached when the color changes to a permanent light red. Do not "overtitrate" to a "brick red" color as this will result in an erroneously high determination. 7. Read the level of the Silver Nitrate solution on the burette. Refer to the Chloride/Silver Nitrate Conversion Table on Page 42 and find the number which corresponds to the burette reading. Next to this number you will find the equivalent chloride content expressed in parts per million (ppm). 8. Record results as ppm chloride on the Onboard Graphing Log. Control Limits 0-31 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig) 300 ppm max 43 32-60 kg/cm2 (450-850 psig) 40 ppm max

CHLORIDE TESTS
HIGH PRESSURE BOILERS Pressure Range: 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig)
Titrated with Mercuric Nitrate

Conversion Table
mls of Titrant (Mercuric Nitrate)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 4.0 4.6 5.2

ppm Chloride
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 40 46 52

MEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILERS Pressure Range: Up to 60 kg/cm2 (850 psig)


Titrated with Silver Nitrate

Conversion Table
mls of Titrant (Silver Nitrate)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

ppm Chloride
7 14 21 28 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 85 92 99 107 114 121 128 135 142 149 156 163 170

mls of Titrant (Silver Nitrate)


2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

ppm Chloride
178 185 192 199 206 213 220 227 234 241 248 256 263 270 277 284 291 298 305 312 319 326 334

mls of Titrant (Silver Nitrate)


4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0

ppm Chloride
341 348 355 362 369 376 383 390 398 405 412 418 426 434 440 447 455 461 468 476 483 490 497

44

CONDUCTIVITY TEST FOR HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


CONDUCTIVITY KIT (PCN 0173-01-3) INCLUDES: APPARATUS
Conductivity Meter Low Range Cell (White Band) High Range Cell (Black Band) Conductivity Cylinder, Plastic Dial Thermometer Brass Spoon, 0.2gm PCN 0156-01-9 PCN 0117-01-1 PCN 0116-01-3 PCN 0232-02-5 PCN 0143-02-4 PCN 0224-01-4

REAGENTS
Gallic Acid, 100 gm Phenolphthalein Indicator, 480ml (16 oz.) (Not provided in PCN 0173-01-3) PCN 0309-01-4 PCN 0311-01-9

PROCEDURE
NOTE: Neutralization (Steps 3 and 4) is necessary for boiler water. It is not necessary for high purity waters such as condensate
or for feedwater. The other steps of the procedure are the same.

Before using the meter, be sure the voltage switch is set for the proper voltage. CAUTION: ALWAYS DISCONNECT THE METER FROM THE POWER SOURCE BEFORE OPENING THE CASE. 1. Press the power switch and allow the meter to warm up for one minute. 2. Connect the conductivity cell for the appropriate testing range. White band (inner scale) for condensate and low conductivity waters. Black band (outer scale) for boiler water and other high conductivity solutions. 3. For a boiler water sample, add two drops of Phenolphthalein Indicator to the sample and stir. If the sample remains clear, go to Step 5.
3

Gallic Acid

4. a. If the sample turns pink, neutralize by adding Gallic Acid, one level spoonful at a time, stirring after each spoonful, until the pink color just disappears. NOTE: Do not add excess Gallic Acid, Failure to neutralize sample or addition of excess acid beyond the end point will cause erroneously high conductivity readings. b. If Liquid Neutralizing solution is being used, the first drops will turn the solution pink. Continue to add solution dropwise until the pink color disappears. 5. Submerge the cell in the water sample to a depth to cover the vent holes. Agitate the cell to vent all trapped air bubbles from the cell interior. 6. Measure the temperature of the sample and set the temperature knob to this value. 7. Rotate the conductivity knob until both the red and the green indicator lamps are lighted at the same time.

8. Read the conductivity value on the appropriate scale. 9. Record the test result on the Onboard Graphing Log (mhos). Control Limits 0-60 kg/cm2 60-84 kg/cm2 (0-850 psig) (850-1200 psig) 700 mhos max 120 mhos max 10. Remove the cell from the sample and rinse it with clean water. 11. Press the power switch to shut off the meter. 12. Compare results to the Control and Dosing charts and adjust blowdown schedule as required. 45

DEHA/DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor Ampoule Test


DREWPLEX OX Ampoule Test Kit (PCN 0387-01-0) INCLUDES: APPARATUS
1 Comparator 1 Snap Cup

REAGENTS
Activator Solution Ampoule Refill PCN 0387-03-6 PCN 0387-02-8

PROCEDURE
Read MSDS before performing this test procedure. NOTE: Before testing, samples must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to pevent flashing which concentrates the sample. If the sample is colored or turbid, filter before running this test.
mL 25 20 15 10 5

1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with cooled feedwater sample. 2. Add 2 drops of Activator Solution. Stir gently with the tip of an ampoule from the DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor Ampoule Test Kit to mix the contents of the sample cup. 3. Immediately snap the tip of the ampoule by pressing the ampoule against the side of the sample cup. The sample will fill the ampoule and begin to mix with the reagent, leaving a small bubble to facilitate the mixing. 4. Remove the ampoule from the cup. Mix the contents of the ampoule by inverting it several times, allowing the small bubble to travel from end to end each time. 5. Wipe all liquid from the exterior of the ampoule and WAIT EXACTLY 10 MINUTES for full color development. 6. When using the comparator, be sure it is illuminated by a white light directly above the comparator. The filled DEHA ampoule should be placed between the color standards for viewing. It is important that the DEHA ampoule be compared by placing it on both sides of the standard tube before concluding that it is darker, lighter or equal to the standard. 7. Record the results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust the DREWPLEX OX corrosion inhibitor dosage as necessary.

1 2 3

10:00

6 7 CONTROL LIMITS 0-32 kg/cm2 0-450 psig 0.4 - 0.8 ppm in feedwater

46

HARDNESS TEST, TOTAL FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS (MAKEUP and FEEDWATER)

HARDNESS TEST AMPOULES INCLUDES:


2 boxes of 30 Ampoules (PCN 0365-01-6) This test material is included in the ULTRAMARINESM 6-Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-04-7).

PROCEDURE

SNAPPING CUP FILL COMPLETELY

1. Rinse and fill the snapping cup with the sample to be tested.

2. Place the tip of the hardness ampoule into one of the holes in the bottom of the snapping cup.

3. While applying downward pressure, break the tip by tilting the ampoule toward the edge of the snapping cup. Keep the tip immersed in the water while drawing sample.

4. Mix by inverting the hardness ampoule back and forth to dissolve the reagent.

5. Wait 30 seconds.

6. Place the ampoule in front of a white background and view the color. A pure blue color indicates less than 0.1 ppm hardness. A pink color indicates hardness is present.

7. To confirm a pure blue color, run a zero standard by performing the test on distilled water.

8. Record results on the Onboard Graphing Log.

Control Limit 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) <0.1ppm

47

HARDNESS TEST TITRET2 METHOD


This test may be used on treated waters as well as makeup water.

TOTAL HARDNESS TITRETS2 (PCN 0378-01-9) INCLUDES:


50 Titrets 30 Valve Assemblies 1 Sample Cup

PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the sample is colored or turbid, it should be filtered before testing. 1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with sample (Figure 1).

2. Slide the open end of the valve assembly over the tapered tip of the Titret so that it fits snugly to the Reference Line (Figure 2). 3. Snap the tip of the Titret at the Score Mark (Figure 3).

Valve Assembly

Bead Valve

Score Mark Reference Line Ampoule 2 3

4. With the tip of the valve assembly immersed in the sample, squeeze the bead valve briefly to add a small amount of sample to the Titret (Figure 4). The red indicator in the valve assembly will also be added to the Titret. CAUTION: Do not squeeze the bead valve unless the tip of the valve is immersed below the surface of the liquid. 5. Rock the Titret to mix the contents. The contents of the Titret will turn a BLUE color. 6. Continue to add small amounts of sample until the liquid in the Titret turns from BLUE TO PINK. Be sure to rock the Titret to mix the contents after each addition of sample. When the color of the liquid in the Titret changes to PINK, the end point has been reached. Stop the test, hold the Titret with its tip pointed upward and read the scale opposite the liquid level to obtain the test results in ppm total hardness as calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (Figure 5). 7. Record results on the Onboard Graphing Log.
Read Here

Hardness should not exceed 170 ppm in waters used as makeup to diesel engine cooling systems treated with MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment or LIQUIDEWTTM cooling water treatment.

48

HYDRAZINE/AMERZINE TEST FOR HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


AMERZINE CORROSION INHIBITOR AMPOULE TEST KIT (PCN 0369-01-8) INCLUDES:
1 Cylindrical Comparator 1 Sample Cup 1 Set of Instructions 30 Ampoules

AMERZINE CORROSION INHIBITOR AMPOULE REFILL (PCN 0369-02-6) INCLUDES:


30 Ampoules This test kit and refills are included in the ULTRAMARINESM 6 Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-04-7)

PROCEDURE

1. To insure accurate results, the sample should be collected with minimum contact to air and tested promptly. A sample cooler should be used for sampling boiler water.
1&2

2. Fill the sample cup to the 25ml mark with sample.

3. Place the AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor ampoule's tapered tip into one of the four depressions in the bottom of the sample cup. Snap the tip by squeezing the ampoule toward the side of the cup. Keep the tip immersed in the water while drawing sample. The sample will fill the ampoule and begin to mix with the reagent.

4. Remove the AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor ampoule from the cup. Mix the contents of the ampoule by inverting it several times, allowing the bubble to travel from end to end each time.

5. Wipe all liquid from the exterior of the ampoule and wait 10 minutes for full color development.

Control Limit 0-84 kg/cm2 (0-1200 psig) 0.03-0.10 ppm

6. Place the AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor ampoule, flat end downward into the center tube of the comparator. Direct the comparator toward a source of bright white light while viewing from the bottom. Hold the comparator in a nearly horizontal position and rotate it until the color standard below the AMERZINE corrosion inhibitor ampoule shows the closest match. 7. Record the AMERZINE level on the Onboard Graphing Log. Results are expressed as ppm hydrazine.

49

pH TEST (COLORMETRIC) FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS

Not a Required Test for Medium to Low Pressure Boilers.

APPARATUS
Included in the ULTRAMARINESM Glassware Set (PCN 0441-04-8)
Water Analyzer Base Phthalein Red Comparator Slide (8.6 to 10.2 pH range) Tolyl Red Comparator Slide (10.0 to 11.6 pH range) Nessler Tubes, 3 Short, 150mm Graduated Cylinder, 100ml, Plastic Dropper Pipettes, Plastic, marked at 0.5ml (cc) and 1.0ml (cc) Stirring Rod, 150 mm, Plastic Bottle, 60ml (2 oz.), Glass, with dropper (for Phthalein Red Indicator) Bottle, 60 ml (2 oz.), Glass, with dropper (for Tolyl Red Indicator) PCN 0427-01-4 PCN 0422-01-4 PCN 0425-01-8 PCN 0423-01-2 PCN 0410-01-9 PCN 0411-01-7 PCN 0417-01-5 PCN 0433-01-1 PCN 0434-01-9

REAGENTS Included in the Ultratest 6 Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-02-1)


1 x 500ml Phthalein Red 1 x 500ml Tolyl Red PCN 0481-01-0 PCN 0486-01-0

PROCEDURE
1. Fill the two outside Nessler Tubes (end tubes B&D) to the 150 mm mark with untreated sample water and place in the outside compartments of the Water Analyzer Base. 2. Rinse the center Nessler Tube (C) with a small amount of boiler water. 3. Measure exactly 75 ml of sample in the 100 ml graduated cylinder, and add to this exactly 0.5 ml (cc) of the appropriate pH indicator (using dropper pipette). Stir thoroughly with the stirring rod to obtain uniform color throughout.
U Contreate nde d nsat e

ed reat te Untndensa Co

4. Put treated sample (from Step 3) into the center Nessler Tube (C), adding only enough to bring the level in the tube to the 150 mm mark. Place this tube in the center compartment. 5. Place the appropriate pH comparator slide in the slot in the support base. Determine the pH according to the General Instructions for the Water Analyzer on page 5. 6. Record the pH value on the Onboard Graphing Log. 7. Compare test results to those on the Control and Dosing Chart. Adjust the pH of the boiler water with GCTM concentrated alkaline liquid as necessary.

1&4

Control Limits 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 9.8-10.2 boiler water

50

pH TEST (METER) FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Not a Required Test for Medium to Low Pressure Boilers

APPARATUS
PORTABLE pH METER Low Maintenance Triode pH Electrode PCN 0246-01-8 PCN 0246-02-6

REAGENTS
pH Buffer 7 (500ml) pH Buffer 10 (500 ml) pH Electrode Storage Solution (500ml) PCN 6255-09-6 PCN 6444-09-5 PCN 0246-03-4

PROCEDURE (Boiler Water)


Two Point Autocalibration (Weekly) Attach the pH Electrode to the meter. Press the "power" button to turn the meter on. Place the electrode into pH buffer 7 solution. Press the "mode" button until CALIBRATE is displayed. Press the "no" button until the buffer sequence 7-10 is displayed and then press the "yes" button. The buffer chosen will be displayed in the main field, P1 will be displayed in the lower field, and an arrow in the bottom of the display will point to "7". 7. When ready is displayed, press the "yes" button. P2 will then be displayed in the lower field and an arrow in the bottom of the display will point to "10". This indicates that the meter is ready for the second buffer calibration using a pH buffer 10 solution. 8. Rinse the electrode with distilled water and place into pH buffer 10 solution. 9. When ready is displayed, press the "yes" key. The meter will automatically advance to the MEASURE mode. Sample pH Measurement (Daily) 1. 2. 3. 4. Rinse the electrode with distilled water. Place the electrode into the sample. Record the reading when ready is displayed. Both the temperature corrected pH reading and temperature reading are displayed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Electrode Storage For short-term (up to one week) electrode storage, soak the electrode in pH Electrode Storage Solution. For long-term (greater than one week) electrode storage, rinse the electrode with distilled water and remove any salt buildup or deposits. Cover the end of the electrode with the protective cap and store dry. Consult the Orion Instruction Manual for more information.

Control Limits 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 9.8-10.2 boiler water

51

pH TEST CONDENSATE MEDIUM AND LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS USING STANDARD TREATMENT

This test can be performed with the indicators and acids already available in the testing program. The procedures differ slightly because of acid strengths. The desired pH in a condensate system is 8.3-8.6 because this is the least corrosive pH for nonferrous metals of construction. This pH is in the same range as the endpoint of phenolphthalein. If the addition of phenolphthalein turns the sample pink, then it is sufficiently alkaline. To be sure that the water is not excessively alkaline, we back titrate with acid. If a very small amount of acid is needed to reach the endpoint in these titrations, then we can say that the pH of the condensate is in the proper range.

APPARATUS
LP Alkalinity Titration Assembly Graduated Cylinder, 50 ml Evaporating Dish Plastic Stirring Rod PCN 0380-01-4 PCN 0237-02-5 PCN 0218-01-7 PCN 0417-01-5

REAGENTS
N/10 Sulfuric Acid, 500 ml Phenolphthalein Indicator, 120 ml PCN 0319-09-6 PCN 0311-01-9

PROCEDURE
1. Collect 50ml cooled condensate sample and pour into evaporating dish.
1

2. Add 3 drops phenolphthalein. Sample should turn pink.

3. Add sulfuric acid N/10 drop by drop until pink color disappears.

4. Record results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust SLCC-ATM treatment dosage as necessary.

Control Limit 0-60 kg/cm2 (0-850 psig) 1-2 drops or pH 8.3-8.6

53

pH TEST CONDENSATE FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS

APPARATUS
(1) Beaker, 100ml , PCN 0247-01-6 (1) Stirring Rod, PCN 0417-01-5

REAGENTS
(1) Phenolphthalein, 120ml, PCN 0311-19-1 (1) N/50 Sulfuric Acid, 1000ml, PCN 0485-01-2

PROCEDURE
1. Obtain a cooled 50ml condensate sample and add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein.

2. Add N/50 Sulfuric Acid dropwise, counting drops, until the pink color disappears.

3. Record results on the Onboard Graphing Log.

4. Record results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust SLCC-ATM treatment dosage as necessary.

Control Limit 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 1-2 drops or pH 8.6-9.0

54

PHOSPHATE TEST FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


PHOSPHATE VACU-VIALS2 TEST KIT (PCN 0390-01-3) INCLUDES:
1 Photometer 30 Vacu-Vials (PCN 0390-02-1) 1 Sample Cup 1 Light Shield 1 Test Tube 1 Blank Vacu-Vial

PROCEDURE
Read Material Data Sheet before using. Do not snap the ampoule tip in air or in any liquid except water. NOTE: Filter a cooled boiler water sample before running this test. Filter paper and funnel are supplied separately.

1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with cooled, filtered boiler water. 2. Place the phosphate VACU-VIALS ampoule in the sample cup. Snap the tip by pressing the ampoule against the side of the cup. The ampoule will fill, leaving a small bubble to facilitate mixing. 1 2 3. Mix the contents by inverting the ampoule, showing the bubble to travel from end to end. Wipe all liquid from the exterior. Wait 5 minutes. 4. Press ON. When the display shows ---, the photometer is ready. 5. Zero the photometer by inserting the VACU-VIALS blank ampoule into the cell compartment, aligning the vertical line on the ampoule with the water droplet on the photometer. Cover the ampoule with the light shield. Press the ZERO button. The display will show S1P momentarily, then it will read -0.0-. 6. After the 5 minute wait required in step 3, insert the phosphate VACU-VIALS ampoule with proper cell alignment into the cell compartment. Cover the ampoule with the light shield. Press the READ button. The meter will show S1P momentarily, then it will display the test result in ppm ortho phosphate as PO4. 7. Record the results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust the ADJUNCT B treatment dosage as necessary.

05:00

Control Limit 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 15-25 ppm

55

PHOSPHATE TEST FOR MEDIUM TO LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Before testing, sample must be cooled to 25OC (77OF) by collecting through a sample cooler for safety and to prevent flashing which concentrates the sample. NOTE: Filter the boiler water sample before running this test. Filter paper and funnel are supplied separately.

APPARATUS
Boiler Phosphate Ampoule Test Kit (Product Code #1AA0003) contains: 1 comparator 1 set of instructions 1 snap cup 30 ampoules Boiler Phosphate Ampoule Refill (Product Code #1AA0004) contains: 30 ampoules Filter Paper, box of 100 sheets Funnel, Plastic P/C #0225-01-2 P/C #0221-01-0

PROCEDURE
1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with sample (Figure 1).
mL 25 20 15 10 5

2. Place the Boiler Phosphate ampoules tapered tip into one of the four depressions in the bottom of the sample cup. Snap the tip by squeezing the ampoule toward the side of the cup. The sample will fill the ampoule and begin to mix with reagent (Figure 2). 3. Remove the Boiler Phosphate ampoule from the cup. Mix the contents of the ampoule by inverting it several times allowing the bubble to travel from end to end each time (Figure 3). 4. Wipe all liquid from the exterior of the ampoule and wait 5 minutes for full color development (Figure 4). 5. When using the comparator, be sure it is illuminated by a white light directly above the comparator. The filled Boiler Phosphate ampoule should be placed between the color standards for viewing. It is important that the ampoule be compared by placing it on both sides of the standard tube before concluding that it is darker, lighter or equal to the standard (Figure 5). 6. Record the results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust product dosage as necessary.

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3

05:00

Figure 4

Figure 5

Control Limits AGK 100 & DREWPLEX AT Programs 10-20 ppm Standard Treatment Programs 0-60 kg/cm2 (0-850 psig) 20-40 ppm

56

SILICA TEST FOR HIGH PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS


Not a Required Test for Medium to Low Pressure Boilers.

SILICA AMPOULE TEST KIT (PCN 0376-01-3) INCLUDES:


30 Ampoules 2 x A-9000 Neutralizer Solution 2 x A-9001 Activator Solution 1 Cylindrical Comparator, 0-1 ppm 1 Flat Comparator, 1-10 ppm 1 Sample Cup Included in the ULTRAMARINESM 6 Month Reagent Set (PCN 0437-04-7)

PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the sample is colored or turbid, it should be filtered before testing. 1. Fill the sample cup to the 15 ml mark with sample (Figure 1). 2. Add 10 drops of A-9001 Activator Solution (Figure 2). Cap the sample cup and shake it to mix the contents well. Wait 4 minutes. 3. Add 5 drops of A-9000 Neutralizer Solution (Figure 2). Cap the sample cup and shake it to mix the contents well. Wait 1 minute. 1 2 4. Place the silica ampoule's tapered tip into one of the four depressions in the bottom of the sample cup. Snap the tip by squeezing the ampoule toward the side of the cup. The sample will fill the ampoule and begin to mix with reagent (Figure 3). 5. Remove the silica ampoule from the cup. Mix the contents of the ampoule by inverting it several times allowing the bubble to travel from end to end each time. 6. Wipe all liquid from the exterior of the ampoule and wait 2 minutes for full color development. 3 4 7. After 2 minutes, use the comparator to determine the level of silica in the sample. a. When using the lower range comparator (0-1.0 ppm), place the silica ampoule, flat end downward into the center tube of the comparator. Direct the comparator toward a source of bright white light while viewing from the bottom. Hold the comparator in a nearly horizontal position and rotate it until the color standard below the silica ampoule shows the closest match (Figure 4). 5 b. When using the high range comparator (1-10 ppm), be sure it is illuminated by a white light directly above the comparator. The filled silica ampoule should be placed between the color standards for viewing. It is important that the silica ampoule be compared by placing it on both sides of the standard tube before concluding that it is darker, lighter or equal to the standard (Figure 5). 8. Record the results on the Onboard Graphing Log. 57

Control Limit 60-84 kg/cm2 (850-1200 psig) 6 pm maximum

SULFITE FOR MEDIUM AND LOW PRESSURE BOILER SYSTEMS

DREW MARINE SULFITE TITRETS2 (P/C #0377-01-1) INCLUDES:


30 Titrets 30 Valve Assemblies 1 A-9600 Neutralizer Solution 1 Sample Cup 1 Set of Instructions

PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the sample is colored or turbid, it should be filtered before testing. 1. Fill the sample cup to the 25 ml mark with sample (Figure 1). 2. Add 5 drops of A-9600 Neutralizer Solution (Figure 2). Stir lightly and briefly. Wait 30 seconds. 3. Slide the open end of the valve assembly over the tapered tip of the Titrets1 so that it fits snugly to the Reference Line (Figure 3). 4. Snap the tip of the Titrets at the Score Mark (Figure 4). 5. With the tip of the valve assembly immersed in the sample, squeeze the bead valve briefly to add a small amount of sample to the Titrets (Figure 5). The colorless indicator in the valve assembly will also be added to the Titret. CAUTION: Do not squeeze the bead valve unless the tip of the valve assembly is immersed below the surface of the liquid. 6. Rock the Titrets to mix the contents. The contents of the Titrets will turn a DEEP BLUE color. Wait 30 seconds. 7. Continue to add small amounts of sample until the liquid in the Titrets turns from BLUE TO COLORLESS. Be sure to rock the Titret to mix the contents after each addition of sample. When the color of the liquid in the Titrets changes to COLORLESS, the end point has been reached. Stop the test, hold the Titrets with its tip pointed upward and read the scale opposite the liquid level to obtain the test results in ppm sulfite as SO3 (Figure 6). 8. Record the results on the Onboard Graphing Log and adjust product dosage as necessary. Figure 6 Control Limit 0-32 kg/cm2 36-60 kg/cm2 (0-450 psig) (450-850 psig) 20-30 ppm 10-15 ppm Figure 4
Valve Assembly

Figure 1

Figure 2

Bead Valve

Score Mark Reference Line

Figure 3

Figure 5

58

COOLING WATER SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT


INTRODUCTION
Cooling water circuits on motor vessels encompass several different types of systems. Of primary concern to us are the cooling water systems for main and auxiliary engines and air conditioning systems. While we will mention refrigeration brine systems briefly in our discussions, we will not include them or seawater cooling systems except to say that fouling of these units will lead to overheating and ultimate system failure. Chemical and mechanical treatments* of these systems are available, but will not be discussed at this time. Marine diesel engines have continually undergone improvement in performance ratings and power to weight ratios. These design changes often increase the complexity of the system. Where ferrous and some cuprous metals were the standard of the past construction for medium and slow speed engines, todays designs are beginning to utilize a wider variety of metals including aluminum components. Improved performance characteristics have subjected the cylinder liners, covers and pistons to higher temperatures, pressures and heat transfer rates. These factors in combination with the variety of metals in use have created a challenge for the efficiency of the cooling water systems and the capability of chemical treatments formulated for them. The higher engine temperatures result in accelerated mineral deposition rates on the water side. Because of the design of diesel engines, the use of high quality makeup water is the best means of controlling scale formation. As a result, the use of distilled water as the coolant has become essential. However, untreated distilled water is many times more corrosive to metals than a water with a degree of contamination and it has therefore become an operational and economic necessity to treat the engine cooling water with a corrosion inhibitor. Testing of treated cooling water is a vital part of the treatment program and the required test procedures will be discussed at the end of this section. Contact your local Drew representative for more information about the use of corrosion inhibitors and AMERSPERSE 280 seawater cooling treatment in these systems.

COOLING WATER SYSTEM CIRCULATION


The importance of an efficient engine cannot be overstated. The temperature of the gases produced during combustion exceed the melting point of case iron and, without cooling, the piston and other metal parts would fuse and eventually seize. This is the result of overheating in the extreme. However, even if actual melting does not occur there can be substantial loss of the metals strength and ductility which can lead to premature failure. Lube oil films also can be destroyed by overheating, leading to wear, deposits and premature system failure. Diesel engines can be cooled with water or air heat exchange equipment. The most commonly used medium in the commercial marine market is water. Its treatment is of primary concern to us. There are three main systems in a diesel engine which require cooling: the engine jacket, the piston areas and the fuel valves. The cooling water system can be one large closed loop with main circulating pumps and a common head tank or there can be three separate cooling water circuits employed to independently cool the cylinder jacket, piston, and fuel valve. The systems can be cross-connected in the event of equipment failure so that the cooling load can be picked up by another system. Conversely, cooling circuits also can be isolated if contamination is encountered. Consideration of each system design and the metals of construction is important in deciding on the type of treatment to be used and how and where it should be dosed. 59 The cooling water enters at a low point in the cooling circuit and flows upward to exit at the top of the engine. This arrangement minimizes the formation of air pockets which prevent the proper wetting of metal surfaces. This interrupts proper heat transfer and allows overheating to occur. The hot water is extracted and passed through a heat exchanger system where the heat energy is passed to a secondary coolant, often seawater. The cooled water is then recirculated back to the engine to complete the closed circuit. This heat exchange process also can provide heat for evaporators and auxiliary systems. Many modern motor vessels are equipped with evaporators that use the diesel engine cooling water as a primary heat source to generate distilled water at minimum cost. After passing through the evaporator, the cooling water may continue through another heat exchanger to further utilize the energy available and control the water inlet temperature to the diesel engine systems. Because of the space considerations and economic factors, the design of marine plants often interrelates a number of systems to maximize the efficiency which could be discussed at length. However, that is not the central topic of this discussion. Instead, the prevention of scale and corrosion in these various systems is.

CORROSION OF METALS
TYPES OF CORROSION AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES
Distilled water is desirable for scale prevention but it is very aggressive in itself. In addition, other corrosion mechanisms are at work in the system. Oxygen Pitting: Dissolved oxygen is a primary cause of corrosion and is involved in practically all corrosion processes. Cooling water is not deaerated. Although there are air release units in the circuit, the water usually contains a much higher concentration of dissolved oxygen than does boiler feed water. The cooling water is exposed to the air while in open head tanks and air contains 20% (200,000 ppm) oxygen. The amount of oxygen that the water contains is dependent upon the temperature of the water since cold water will dissolve more oxygen than hot water. Some oxygen is brought in by makeup water additions and inleakage at seals or other points throughout the mechanical system. Cavitation: Because of engine vibrations and high impingement flow conditions, metal parts of the cooling system can be damaged by cavitation corrosion/erosion. Cavitation damage appears as shallow pitting or gouging of the metal surface, but, unlike oxygen attack it is caused by mechanical as well as chemical conditions. High frequency vibration, high velocity flow conditions, or changes in temperature which cause a localized reduction in water pressure below the vapor pressure can lead to cavitation/erosion. In these areas of low pressure, bubbles of vapor will form next to the metal surface. As the pressure returns to normal, the bubble collapses striking the metal with great force (hundreds of kilograms/centimeter2 or thousands of pounds/inch2). The protective film is destroyed leading to further corrosion. This action is repeated in a cycle that erodes the metal surfaces. Acid Attack: Acid attack is brought about by low pH water. Some minerals and gases can, when dissolved in the water, produce acid which lowers the pH and causes corrosion. Not only will the acidic water be more corrosive to the metal, it will not be an environment in which the modern cooling water corrosion inhibitors will be effective. Chemical Treatment Inhibitors are chemicals that protect metals by creating a barrier between the water and the metal or by reacting with the metal surface to form a thin protective or passivation film which makes the metal underneath more resistant to attack. Soluble oil is a barrier type inhibitor which functions well up to the point of breakdown when deposits may form. Other barrier-type inhibitors, such as silicates which function well in ambient temperatures, interfere with heat transfer and are not applicable in engine cooling systems. Most protective films are so thin that they cannot be seen and they do not interfere with heat transfer. They are formed by the chemical combination of the inhibitor and the metal surface and tightly adhere to the metal. The film can be damaged or torn away by water flow. However, a residual of inhibitor is maintained in the water so that if the protective film is damaged in any way, the film is rapidly repaired. Modern chemicals are normally a nitrite-borate-organic mixture. Nitrite is a film forming inhibitor. The nitrite primarily protects against corrosion of the ferrous metals in a cooling water system. Other inhibitors are included in the formulation designed to minimize corrosion of nonferrous metals. Borate is included to adjust pH to aid in corrosion inhibition and to provide the proper environment for the reaction of nitrite. Where cavitation erosion is known to exist, there is some evidence that large doses of corrosion inhibitors will reduce the erosion. Special formulations are available for medium and highspeed diesel engines which combine nitrite-borate organic corrosion inhibitors and polymeric scale inhibitors. In the past, buffered chromate treatment was the primary inhibitor but this approach has lost favor due to environmental concerns and the toxicity of chromate. Chromate is still used in refrigeration brine systems where other inhibitors are not very effective. In systems where glycol antifreezes are needed, nitrite borate treatments should be used because they are compatible with the glycol. Chromate should not be used with glycol because of a reaction which forms a curd-like precipitate.

60

COMPOSITION AND FORMATION OF DEPOSITS


DEPOSIT FORMATION AND PREVENTATIVE TREATMENT
Scale Deposits: The diesel engine has a very low tolerance for mineral scale buildup. Calcium and magnesium compounds will form scale in high heat transfer sections of the cooling water system. Calcium carbonate and sulfate salts are the first to deposit because their solubility decreases as the water temperature increases. Mineral scales are hard and dense and are excellent insulators. Their presence drastically reduces heat transfer. For example, one mm of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) scale is equivalent as a heat transfer barrier to 40 mm of metal. The effect of scale on heat transfer characteristics is illustrated in the following diagram. Effect of Scale Scale often allows corrosion to progress underneath the deposits which can ultimately lead to system failure. This type of corrosion is more fully described in the Boiler Water Systems and Treatment section. Scale-forming minerals may be introduced by seawater inleakage or by the use of poor quality makeup. Distilled water is the recommended makeup to minimize scale formation. On ships which do not produce or have an inadequate supply of distilled water, fresh water from a shore supply is used. Shore water is not preferred because it contains varying amounts of scale-forming constituents and other contaminants. Oil Deposits: Soluble oils are used as treatments in some cooling systems, especially in the piston cooling circuits. If overheating occurs due to reduced circulation or overload conditions, the soluble oil may decompose and can form deposits. These oils are not truly soluble, but are emulsions which breakdown in time with the same undesirable result as any oil contamination would cause in a cooling system. The cooling water may become contaminated by fuel or lubricating oils. The insulating effects of oil deposits on heat transfer surfaces are the same as mineral scale deposits. As with all other contaminants, the source of oil inleakage should be located and eliminated. The entire cooling system should be cleaned with a solvent cleaner at the earliest opportunity. HDE-777TM heavy duty emulsifier is an effective cleaner for the purpose. Light to medium oily deposits combined with scale and oxide deposits can be removed using AMEROlD OSC one-step cleaner. (There are other maintenance chemical cleaner choices. Consult your local Drew Marine representative for specific recommendations.) Mechanical Correction The only means of mechanically preventing scaling is by removing minerals before the makeup water enters the engine system. The evaporator, a bank of reverse osmosis units or a demineralizer must be operated efficiently to provide high quality make up. Shore water can be used if the needed volume of high quality water is not available, but, as stated above, it is not preferred because its quality is poor and so variable around the world. However, if it is used, an analysis of the water should be obtained from the supplier and/or a local governmental office. Chemical Correction The antiscalant chemicals used in boiler water treatment are not applicable for diesel engine systems because there is no practical method to blow down a diesel cooling water system to remove the normal sludges formed by a boiler water treatment process. The sludges can block small cooling passages in the system restricting water flow and compounding the problems of overheating. Treatments are now available which contain polymeric antiscalants which can sequester and disperse a certain amount of hardness. Unlike the phosphate-alkalinity treatments common to boiler water treatments, the polymers in modern cooling water treatments will hold hardness constituents in suspension until they can be removed by bleed off.

COMBUSTION SIDE

WATER SIDE TEMP GRADIENT ACROSS 25 MM LINER 570OC

WATER SIDE

270OC

COMBUSTION SIDE

TEMP TEMP GRADIENT GRADIENT ACROSS ACROSS 1 MM 25 MM SCALE LINER

70OC (A) Clean Cylinder Wall (B) 1mm Mineral Scale on Waterside

61

COOLING WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS


DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment is a nitriteborate type corrosion inhibitor used in closed cooling water systems. This low toxicity product is particularly applicable in diesel engine cooling water circuits, where the jacket water is the heat source for the evaporators which produce potable water. DEWT NC treatment has no deleterious effects on glands, seals, rubber hoses, valve packing, etc. It is compatible with antifreeze materials and will not form objectionable sludges. MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment is a multifunctional liquid blend of nitrite-borate-organic corrosion inhibitor and mineral deposit modifiers. MAXIGARD treatment is specially formulated for the closed cooling water systems in medium and high speed diesel engines. It is suitable for distilled or fresh water systems with or without antifreeze chemicals. MAXIGARD treatment is safe for use in systems where jacket water is the heat source for the evaporators which product potable water supplies. LIQUIDEWTTM cooling water treatment is a multifunctional liquid blend of nitrite-borate-organic corrosion inhibitor and mineral deposit modifiers for scale prevention. LIQUIDEWT treatment is formulated for use in medium speed diesel engines. This product can be used in both distilled and shore waters. It has low toxicity and is compatible with glycol antifreezes. Glycol is used as an antifreeze only--it is not a corrosion inhibitor.

COOLING WATER TREATMENT CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS AND CONTROLS


SYSTEM High and medium speed diesel engines APPLICATION MAXIGARD cooling water treatment to minimize corrosion and prevent deposition compatible with glycol antifreeze. CONTROL LIMITS 20,000 ppm

MAN/B&W Medium Speed 4-Stroke Engines (L&V32/40; L40/54; L&V48/60; L58/64) Medium and slow speed diesel engines DEWT NC cooling water treatment to minimize corrosion compatible with glycol antifreeze.

40-43,000 ppm 3,000 - 4,500 ppm

MAN/B&W Medium Speed 4-Stroke Engines (L&V32/40; L40/54; L&V48/60; L58/64) Medium and slow speed diesel engines LIQUIDEWT cooling water treatment to minimize corrosion and prevent deposition. Compatible with glycol antifreeze.

4,500-4,900 ppm 10,000 ppm

MAN/B&W Medium Speed 4-Stroke Engines (L&V32/40; L40/54; L&V48/60; L58/64)

15-17,000 ppm

COOLING WATER TREATMENT CONTROL TESTS AND DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS


Because the cooling water system is an essential part of the diesel engine, a carefully controlled water treatment program is essential for the efficient operaton of the engine. The water treatment program is monitored by means of a few simple tests. The control tests are the basis on which the chemical dosage is adjusted. The following pages outline the test procedures which are used in conjunction with the Drew cooling water treatments. In some instances, an additional chloride determination of the water may be desirable. The chloride test procedure on page 42 can be used for DEWT NC treated systems. This method is not recommended for cooling water treated with MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment or LIQUIDEWT cooling water treatment without Sample Pretreatment. See page 66 for Sample Pretreatment procedure. As in the steam generating system, the accuracy of the test results is dependent upon proper sampling, testing, and recording procedures as well as the corrective action 62 taken. Refer to the General Information section before proceeding with any of the tests. Testing Frequency Testing and chemical dosing should be done on a regular basis. The test should be conducted 24 hours after the initial dosage and once a week thereafter unless a problem is suspected. If abnormal water loss and makeup or other problems are known to exist, then the test results will probably be low and should be used compared with a control and dosing chart to increase treatment levels. Dose, allow time for circulation (approximately 30 minutes) and retest until treatment levels are satisfactory. If treatment levels are high, suspend dosage. Although not normally necessary, you may wish to bleed off some cooling water and makeup with untreated water to dilute.

CWT TEST TITRET METHOD


2

For use with LIQUIDEWTTM cooling water treatment, MAXIGARD diesel engine water treatment, and DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment.

CWT TITRETS (PCN 0367-01-2) INCLUDES:


1 Titrettor3 30 Titrets (contains reagent) 1 Sample Vial 1 Instruction Sheet 30 Valve Assemblies (contains reagent)

PROCEDURE
1. Slide the open end of the valve assembly over the tapered tip of the Titret so that it fits snugly to the Reference Line.
Valve Assembly

Snap the tip at the score mark

2. Snap the tip of the Titret at the Score Mark and proceed with the regular test instructions below or use the Titrettor assembly as covered on page 5. 3. With the tip of the sample pipe immersed in the sample, squeeze the bead valve briefly to pull in a small amount of sample. CAUTION: Do not squeeze the bead valve unless the sample pipe is immersed below the surface of the liquid or vacuum will be lost and the test ruined.

Score Mark Reference Line Ampoule 1 2

4. Rock the Titret to mix the contents. The first addition of sample will pull in the reagent in the ampoule. The contents of the ampoule will turn a GREEN color. 5. Continue to add small amounts of sample water until the liquid in the Titret turns from GREEN to a bright ORANGE.* When the ORANGE color appears, the end point has been reached. Stop test, hold the Titret with its tip pointed upward and read liquid level. Check the control and dosing chart below for the appropriate product concentrations. *NOTE: Immediately before the end point is reached, the contents will turn BLUE. Make further additions with care.

To test makeup water for hardness using the Titret method, see page 48.

Satisfactory Ranges
Product LIQUIDEWT MAXIGARD DEWT NC Scale 1.2-1.8 1.6-3.5 3.5-5.0 PPM, Product 10,000-15,000 20,000-40,000 3,000- 4,500 Initial Dosage 8 ltr/ton (2.13 gal/ton) 16 ltr/ton (1.6 gal/ton) 3.2 kg/ton (7 lbs/ton)

Control and Dosing Chart

Below Satisfactory Satisfactory Above Satisfactory

Increase Dosage Maintain Dosage Decrease Dosage

MAN/B&W Medium-Speed 4-Stroke Engines


Models: L&V32/40 L40/54 L&V48/60 L58/64

Satisfactory Ranges
Product LIQUIDEWT MAXIGARD DEWT NC Scale 1.8-2.0 3.3-3.6 5.6-5.8 PPM, Product 15,000-17,000 40,000-43,000 4,500 - 4,900 63 Initial Dosage 3.0 ltr/ton 3.3 ltr/ton 4.5 kg/ton

TEST FOR DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment


DEWT NC TEST KIT (PCN 0302-01-8) INCLUDES:
Graduated Cylinder, with Stopper, 50 ml Brass Measuring Spoon, 0.2 gm PCN 0236-01-9 PCN 0224-01-4 DEWT NC Reagent No. 1, 100 gms PCN 0306-01-0 DEWT NC Reagent No. 2, 100 gms PCN 0307-01-8

PROCEDURE
1. Draw a cooling water sample from a full flowing part of the system into the graduated mixing cylinder to the 25 ml mark. 2. Add 5 level measuring spoons of DEWT NC Reagent No. 1 and mix until all of the reagent is dissolved. 3. Add 1 level measuring spoon of DEWT NC Reagent No. 2, stopper the mixing cylinder, and thoroughly mix. 4. If the sample turns purple-red and the color lasts for at least 30 seconds, the test indicates that the treatment level is below 50 ppm. However, if the color disappears within 30 seconds, add additional Reagent No. 2, one level measuring spoon at a time (counting spoonfuls) with thorough mixing until the purple-red color persists for over 30 seconds. 5. To determine the concentration of DEWT NC, count the total number of measuring spoons of Reagent No. 2 added and convert to ppm. Calculation: ppm DEWT NC = (number of spoons -1) x 500 6. Record results as pm DEWT NC on the onboard graphing log. 7. Determine the dosage of DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment required per ton of circulating water as indicated on the Dosage Requirement Chart which follows:

DOSAGE REQUIREMENT CHART - DEWT NC


TOTAL NUMBER OF MEASURING SPOONS OF REAGENT NO. 2 USED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ppm OF DEWT NC RECORDED None 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 64 DOSAGE REQUIREMENT PER TON OF CIRCULATING WATER 3.2 kg (7 lbs.) 2.7 kg (6 lbs.) 2.3 kg (5 lbs.) 1.8 kg (4 lbs.) 1.4 kg (3 lbs.) 0.9 kg (2 lbs.) Satisfactory - No Dose Required. Satisfactory - No Dose Required. Satisfactory - No Dose Required. Satisfactory - No Dose Required. High - No Dose Required.

TEST FOR DEWT NC diesel engine water treatment (continued)


DEWT NC TEST KIT (PCN 0302-01-8) INCLUDES:
Graduated Cylinder, with Stopper, 50 ml Brass Measuring Spoon, 0.2 gm PCN 0236-01-9 PCN 0224-01-4 DEWT NC Reagent No. 1, 100 gms PCN 0306-01-0 DEWT NC Reagent No. 2, 100 gms PCN 0307-01-8

MAN/B&W Medium-Speed 4-Stroke Engines


Models: L&V32/40 L40/54 L&V48/60 L58/64

DOSAGE REQUIREMENT CHART - DEWT NC


TOTAL NUMBER OF MEASURING SPOONS OF REAGENT NO. 2 USED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ppm OF DEWT NC RECORDED None 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 DOSAGE REQUIREMENT PER TON OF CIRCULATING WATER 4.5 kg (10.0 lbs.) 4.0 kg (8.8 lbs.) 3.5 kg (7.7 lbs.) 3.0 kg (6.6 lbs.) 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs.) 2.0 kg (4.4 lbs.) 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs.) 1.0 kg (2.2 lbs.) 0.5 kg (1.1 lbs.) Satisfactory - No Dose Required. Satisfactory - No Dose Required. High - No Dose Required. High - No Dose Required. High - No Dose Required.

65

Chloride Sample Pretreatment


SAMPLE PRETREATMENT SHOULD BE USED WHEN TESTING FOR CHLORIDE IN COOLING WATER TREATED WITH MAXIGARD DIESEL ENGINE WATER TREATMENT OR LIQUIDEWTTM COOLING WATER TREATMENT. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS
Drew Chloride LMP Test Kit Sample Pretreatment, 50 gm (includes 0.5 gm scoop) Filter Paper, Box of 100 Funnel, Plastic Stirring Rod, Plastic, 150mm PCN 0373-01-9 PCN 0374-02-5 PCN 0225-01-2 PCN 0221-01-0 PCN 0417-01-5

PROCEDURE
1. Add one scoop (0.5 gm) of Sample Pretreatment to approximately 70 ml of cooling water and stir well. 2. Let stand for two minutes to allow precipitate to settle. 3. Filter the sample and proceed with the chloride determination using the Drew Chloride LMP Test Kit as shown on page 42.

66

All statements, information and data presented herein are believed to be accurate and reliable but are not to be taken as a guarantee, express warranty or implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, or representation, express or implied, for which seller assumes legal responsibility, and they are offered solely for your consideration, investigation and verification. Statements or suggestions concerning possible use of this product are made without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patent. 2001 Inc. All Rights Reserved. Registered trademark, TMTrademark of Ashland Inc. SMService Mark of Ashland Inc. *Responsible Care and the Responsible Care logo are registered service marks of the American Chemistry Council in the U.S., of the Canadian Chemical Producers Association in Canada and of different entities in other countries. 1 Registered trademark of Biotal, Inc. 2 Registered trademark of CHEMetrics, Inc. 3Trademark of CHEMetrics, Inc.

One Drew Plaza Boonton, NJ 07005 USA Telephone: (973) 263-7600 FAX: (973) 263-4491/7463
Web Site: www.drew-marine.com E-mail: drewmarine@ashland.com Emergency Safety #: (1-800-ASHLAND) U.S. Outside U.S.: (606) 324-1133

Printed in U.S.A. TM-WT-1 (11/01)R7