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A Seminar On

Equipment Qualification


B.Rakesh M.Pharm Pharmaceutics Priyadarshini College Of Pharmacy

1) Equipment Qualification 2) Types 3) Validation Of Cone Blender 4) Validation Of Fluidized Bed Dryer 5) References

Equipment Qualification (EQ)

Equipment Qualification is a formal process that provides documented evidence that an instrument is fit for it intended purpose and kept in safe of maintenance and calibration consistent with its use. EQ is mainly divided into four types; 1) Design Qualification 2) Installation Qualification 3) Operation Qualification 4) Performance Qualification

Design Qualification (DQ)

Performance Qualification (PQ)

Equipment Validation

Installation Qualificatio n (IQ)

Operational Qualification (OQ)

Stages of qualification

Design qualification Installation qualification Operational qualification Performance qualification Change control

Typical process flow of solid dosage form

Addition of raw material -active excipients Preble bending -high speed mixer granulator Granulatin g - high speed mixer granulator Drying -fluid bed dryer -tray dryer

Tableting -high speed rotary

Blending -v-blender

Addition of raw material -lubricant disintegrants

Sizing -mill/sieve

Validation For Conical Blender

Validation of Dry Powder Mixers

It is defined as documented act which provide the high degree of the assurance that Powder Mixer equipment actually leads to the desired mixing or blending.

Why it is essential
The mixing of the API and excipients is the critical step in the solid dosage form preparations that affect the content uniformity at great extent.

Types of the powder blenders

V cone blenders Double cone blenders Drum mixer Ribbon blenders Conical screw mixer Tumble blender

Variable and monitoring

Variable RPM Mixing time Mixing load Monitoring Blend uniformity


Installation qualification(IQ)
Details of the Equipment:
Equipment name, made by & model No. shall be noted down. Location for the installation equipment shall be checked. Utilities required shall be listed down. Any deviation observed while following above procedure should be informed for corrective action.

Installation Procedure:
After checking all the specifications as mentioned in the selection criteria, service engineer shall commission the equipment. Authorized validation team shall carry out installation checks. 11

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Method of evaluation


1. 2. 3.

Equipment type Capacity (L) Dimensions H L W

Check visually

Measure tape

4. 5.

Surface finish Driving motor Made by RPM Voltage Phase

Check visually Check visually


Gear box
Control panel & buttons

Made by Type

Check visually
Check visually

Operational qualification(OQ)
After completions of successful installation qualification, initiate the actual operation of to ensure that machine is operating within specification. Check the operation qualification parameters against their specifications. Document the deviation details The Quality head and the department head shall decide whether deviation is acceptable or not.

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Method of evaluation


On/off switch

Lift the switch to ON position & ensure that power supply gets ON & drum/cone starts rotating. Lower the switch to OFF position & ensure that power supply gets OFF



Measure the actual RPM using stop-watch Fill the drum/cone with potable water using measuring cylinder & record


Gross capacity

Performance qualification(PQ)
Load the materials to be mixed in the mixer Start the mixer and rotate it for the time as mentioned. After completion of mixing switch OFF the mixer and separate out the drum. Collect the sample as per sampling procedure. Send the samples to Quality control dept. for content uniformity, bulk density and sieve analysis.


Drum mixer

Double cone blender

V cone blender

Top Middle Bottom

Revalidation Criteria
Location of the equipment is changed. There is change of spare/ parts that have a direct effect on the performance of the equipment At normal revalidation schedule.



Fluidized Bed Dryer

FBD control parameters

Bowl change Porosity of filter bags Bowl sieve

Variable (monitor)
Inlet/exhaust air temperature Product temperature Drying time Air volume Humidity of incoming air Humidity of exhaust air

Response (Test)
Particle size distribution Densities Loss on drying Assay

Installation Qualification(IQ)
Installation Procedure: Authorized validation team shall carry out installation. Department Head of production, QA & engineering shall evaluate installation report Acceptance Criteria For Installation Qualification: The equipment shall fulfill the selection criteria & its purpose of Application. Name of the manufacturer & supplier shall be as mentioned in the Purchase order The manufacturer/supplier shall provide complete equipment manual along with the equipment

Revalidation Criteria:
The equipment shall be revalidated if; Location of the equipment is changed.

There is change of spare/parts, major maintenance o breakdown.

Operational Qualification (OQ)

Training record: Before initiating OQ ensure that SOP for Cleaning and operation of FBD is available.

Purpose: To train the qualification team for performing OQ


Procedure: Initiate the actual operation of the FBD to ensure that machine is operating within specification. Check the OQ parameters against their specifications. Observe the functioning of all controls available on control panel Record the observation Perform and attach report of heat distribution study as per ` Heat distribution study procedure

Acceptance criteria: All operating inputs provided on the equipment when tested shall-successfully comply -meet tolerance limit The equipment should successfully perform when operated as per SOP Critical gauges provided on the equipment--calibrated The equipment when operated shall not - produce abnormal sound - show any discrepancy in its smooth

Performance Qualification(PQ)
To check Heat Distribution by placing 10 thermocouples in geometric pattern with the FBD Shell and empty Product Container without any load to ensure heat distribution in the drying chamber Heat distribution study will be performed at 65 5C for two hour after achieving the temperature on the controlling sensors to ensure proper heat distribution.

Procedure for Drying Efficiency: After completion of OQ initiate the PQ of FBD. The effectiveness of drying will be qualified by determining reduction of % moisture content in drying process. 3 batches/ lots of any product will be taken for PQ of FBD. At least 2.0 gm of sample is sampled for % MC check from the top, middle and bottom and will be reported

In case of any deviation inform to department head for necessary action Document the deviation details Deviation is acceptable or not will be decided -if yes -if not

Acceptance criteria: The reduction in moisture content after drying should be as per the specification. % RSD of LOD should not be more than 6 % The equipment should produce intended outputs with respect to quality & quantity consistently

References :
1) nt/DOK_ID/14788116/type/pdf/lkz/PT/spkz/pt/TOKEN/HddpwCWfH3lq-8TDM8aiE315Z8/M/CliuUg 2) 3) Berry I.R., and Nash R.A., Pharmaceutical Process validation second edition, revised and expanded; Marcel Dekker series; 83-110. 4)