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Title: Unethical Advertisement. Name of Author: Chaitanya Songirkar.

ABSTRACT
Once the product has been manufactured, price rightly and is distributed, the next task of the marketer is to inform potential customers about the product and persuade them to buy the same. There are thousands of products that may satisfy our wants but are not ever considered by us while making purchase decisions. This happen primarily because of failure of promotion function. The promotion efforts are directed at informing potential customers that the right product is available at the right place and at the right price. The core of promotion is communication. The promotional communication aims at informing and persuading the actual or potential customers about the merits of a product with an intention that it gets their continued patronage or customers try it out when the product is new. Many companies have ethical advertising policies. Furthermore, the media (i.e. TV, Radio, Magazines and Newspapers) have governmental and non-governmental organizations that are suppose to monitor the ethical content of advertisements. In this paper I want to study (a) whether this control is really maintaining a high level of ethics in advertising executions; (b) what are the main issues in advertising ethics that should be dealt with in order to ensure this high ethical level, and (c) if ethics impacts consumers attitudes and behaviors towards firms that maintain high levels of ethics in their business and advertisings, which may be reflected in the company's society and environment.

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Acknowledgement

It a very wonderful moment when we get a chance to show our gratefulness towards those who have helped us directly or indirectly. I would like to thank ______________ for giving me the opportunity and guidance to complete this project. She by her regular academic and guidance lectures always inspires us to go for new, creative projects; so that we can gain knowledge & can develop our skills. Further I thank all my friends who helped me and given me moral support and the respondents without whom it was impossible for me to complete this project.

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ADVERTISING Advertising pulls the product by directly appealing to potential customers forms the channels. Therefore, it is said to build pull effect in the market. The following are the important featured of advertising: 1. Reach: Advertising can reach a large market. As a communication tool it enjoys the benefit of mass reach. For instance, one commercial aired through All India Radio or Doordarshan has a potential to reach a very large customer base residing in different parts of the country. Similarly, one can reach a bigger English reading population by placing an advertisement in any of the English dailies like The Hindustan times or, The Times of India. 2. Choice: Advertising can reach a large market. As a communication tool it enjoys the benefit of mass reach.. For instance, if one chooses print media, one can choose magazines or newspapers. Further within each media type its target message more pointedly to a specific customer group and thereby minimize wastage involved in the communication process. 3. Legitimacy: When the products or services are promoted through advertising, the message is presented publicly to the audience. A publicly advertised product gets legitimacy in the eyes of the prospects as something, which is standardized. This in some way enhances the value of the product in the eyes of buying public. We all feel comfortable with products, which are widely advertised than the products, which do not fall within the knowledge domain of the market.

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4. Expressiveness: Advertising provides enough opportunities to dramatize message with the help of drawings, color, illustrations, sound, pictures, music, etc. this helps the advertiser achieve enhanced communication effectiveness.

5. Economy: Since advertising is capable of delivering message to a large audience, its use works out to be economical. That is the cost of reaching a prospect tends to be much less than other forms of communication. For instance, the cost of a ten seconds television commercial during the prime time may be as high as ten lac, but the reach of television the per prospect exposure would be very low. It is very effective in delivering standardized message to a large audience.

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BENEFITS OF ADVERTISING

Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. Advertising is everywhere in todays world, so that, as Pope Paul VI remarked, No one can escape the influence of advertising. Even people who are not themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society, a culture-other people-affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort. Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelieved negative terms. They condemn advertising as a waste of time, talent and money- an essentially parasitic activity. In this view, not only does advertising have no value of its own, but also its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. We do not agree. The is truth to the criticism, and we shall make criticisms of our own. But advertising also has magnificent potential for good, and sometimes it is realized. Here are some of the ways that happens.

1. Economic Benefits of Advertising: Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by morals norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies, which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which currently seem to be the most efficient instrument for utilizing resources and effectively responding to needs of a socio-economic kind. In such a system, advertising can be useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development. The Church looks with favor on the growth of mans productive capacity, and also on the ever widening network of relationships and exchanges between persons and social groupsFrom this point of view she encourages advertising, which can become a wholesome and efficacious instrument for reciprocal help among men. Advertising does this, among other ways, by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable products and services and improvements in existing ones, helping them to make informed, prudent consumer decisions, contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices, and stimulating economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. All of this can contribute to the creation of new jobs, higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. It also helps pay for the publications, programming and productions.

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2. Benefits of Political Advertising: Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy analogous to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. As free and responsible media in a democratic system help to counteract tendencies toward the monopolization of power on the part of oligarchies and special interests, so political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates, including new candidates not previously known to public. 3. Cultural Benefits of Advertising: Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue, advertisers have an opportunity to extent a positive influence on decisions about media content. This they do by supporting material of excellent in view, and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations, which are oriented to minorities whose needs, might otherwise go unserved. Moreover, advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. Advertising can brighten lives simply being witty, tasteful and entertaining. Some advertisers are instances of popular art, with a vivacity and lan all their own. 4. Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising: In many cases, benevolent social institutions, including those of a religious nature, use advertising to communicate their messages-messages of faith, of patriotism, of tolerance, compassion and neighborly service, of charity toward the needy, messages concerning health and education, constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in variety of beneficial ways.

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OBJECTIONS TO ADVERTISING

Is advertising a Social Waste? Advertising is often criticized as a wasteful activity and an unnecessary evil. Its critics offer the following arguments to prove their contention:

1. Multiplication Of Needs: Advertising multiplies the needs of the people by inducing them to buy even those things, which are not required by them. Since an advertisement is continuously repeated, it creates a desire in the mind of people to buy the advertised product. Some critics have also pointed out that advertising promotes materialistic values when it creates a desire among people to produce luxurious goods.

2. Burden On The Buyers: the amount of money spent by an advertiser on his products advertisement is added to the distribution cost of the product. Thus, the customers have to pay more for the product advertised.

3. Creation Of Confusion: The confused when they are exposed to excessive advertising of certain products. For instance, different models of TVs of a large number of brands are advertised which makes it difficult for a buyer to make a choice of the right T.V. Similarly, there are so many brands of beauty soaps, detergents, tooth- pastes etc.

4. Creation Of Monopoly: Advertising may lead to monopoly of a brand. It is argued that the big manufacturers who can afford large amount of money on advertising can create brand monopoly and eliminate the small producers. Advertising may lead to other malpractices such as sale of inferior and dubious products. Innocent people act on advertisement thinking them to be true, but the reality is different.

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5. Wasteful Expenditure: Advertising does not always increase the demand of the product. When the demand is inelastic, advertising shifts demand from one product to another. That means a large amount of money spend on advertising by the manufacturers goes waste. It has also been observed that a large number of advertisements either escape the attention of the people or are ignored by them.

6. Socially Undesirable: Sometimes, advertising undermines ethical and aesthetic values. It may make the people start bothering for appearance and design of the product rather than the physical utility. Some advertisers also use indecent language and photographs to advertise their products which are highly objectionable from the societys point of view.

DYING TO BE NOTICED Thus advertisers and admen are increasingly under the fire for upsetting the socioreligious and sensibilities of the consumers. Unfortunately, things are looking only worse day by day. With slashing down of the ad budget and with the business slumping, everyone is even more desperate to stand out in a hurry, to boost short term sales or to win the awards. Their slogan is Love it or Hate it or think it offensive, but you have to notice it. Advertising is criticized because selling carries a stigma. Centuries ago, Anacharis had said, The market is the place set aside where men may deceive each other. Even to the date, despite the risk in consumerism and efforts to counter market deception, buyers are still gullible and are not particularly on guard against deception. To create and impact, the advertisers pit creative message-makers against blas sophisticates, hardened by thousands of commercials. The objective is to cut through the clutter, to grip ones attention and to create an impression that lingers on in the memory of the prospective buyers. While doing so, they create desires, shape attitudes, mould temperaments, after social values and raise many ethical questions, to which there is no answer. The measure of the advertisings success is the extent to which it increases demand. Competitions or the declining profits can blow good intention out of the boardroom. Under such circumstances, the perceptive shifts from what is the best in the long-run for the society to what is best in the short-run for the company. Ethics, the

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advertisers say, is fine for the secure, but a greater market share is all the slipping company needs! VARIOUS ACTS HAVING CONTROL ON ADVERTISEMENTS

All those engaged in advertising are strongly recommended to familiarize themselves with the legislation affecting advertising in this country, particularly the following Acts and the Rules framed under them:

1. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 2. Drugs Control Act, 1950 3. Drugs and Magic remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954. 4. Copyright act, 1957. 5. Trade and Merchandise marks Act, 1958 6. Prevention of food Adulteration Act, 1954. 7. Pharmacy Act, 1948 8. Prize competition Act, 1955. 9. Emblems and names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950. 10. Consumer Protection Act, 1986. 11. Indecent Representation of women (Prohibition) Act 1986 12. AIR/Doordarshan Code. 13. Code of Ethics for Advertisement in India issued by the Advertising Council of India. 14. Code of Standards in relation to the advertising of medicines and treatments. 15. Standards of practice for Advertising Agencies.

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ADD AREAS UNDER SCRUTINY OF ETHICS

Advertising ethics affects the practice of our lives and also the practice of business, in subtle and prominent ways. Indeed, ethics in ads concern us all in one way or the other. The areas under scrutiny of the critics are as follows:

TYPES OF ADS Ads for sex related products Instead of making people aware of the necessity of safe sex and the benefits of birth control, condom ads continue to intrigue the youngsters with the unique feel it has to offer. Ads for health care and professional services

The slimming centers that promise miraculous weight reduction, the cosmetic surgery clinics that assure permanent solution to beauty problems.

Ads for vices with fatal effects

Tobacco chewing ads, commercials of alcoholic beverages are there that tempt the nonalcoholics to have a sip.

TYPES OF APPEALS

Use of questionable appeals The ads that bank on the fear and negative appeal like neighbors envy, jealousy, feud between daughter-in-law and mother-in-law etc.

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Stereotypical appeals

Sexual or racial stereotyping is there. There are the Ads that imply that a woman, whether in kitchen or in the boardroom, ought to look sensuous and inviting under any circumstances. That fairness creams stereotype the dusky women as socially less desired for marriage.

LARGER EFFECTS ON THE SOCIETY Value formation Advertisements responsible for molding society, material wants. The ads displaying scantily clad female models commoditize women. The deluge of the ads increase ones propensity of consumption makes one feel that possessing a certain commodity is essential to show that one belongs to the higher echelon of the society. Media content. Information content of the ads that suggest the use of the preserved food items do that without the slightest mention of the face that many of these preservations have been proved to have carcinogenic effect. Use of deception The ads of brands that conceal their negative aspects are there in large numbers. The ads of cosmetics that say nothing about the long-term effects of regular usage of their products, the ads of the educational institution that wrongly claim to give 100% placements to its students are found in abundance. Advertising targeting children and adolescents The ads that target the vulnerability of the children and adolescents create role models whom the kids are expected to emulate and thus, they shape their dreams and aspirations in an unbecoming way.

ADVERTISERS CONCERN Voice/Tone of the ad

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Comparative ads that thrive on inflicting vitriolic attacks on their rivals; copying the idea in the ad world is another such menace.

Impediments to research: The impediments to research on advertising ethics are identified as follows: Lack of practitioner interest Research is impeded by the inapplicability of published findings to business operations, the disinterest of the corporations in sponsoring research on ad ethics and the funding constraints that cause researchers to rely on a convenience sample. Lack of sound measures and framework Research is impeded by the lack of psychometrically-sound measurement scales and the theoretical frameworks in advertising/marketing. Lack of relevant theories in related disciplines Research is impeded by theoretical shortcomings in anthropology, management, philosophy, psychology, sociology and advertising/marketing. Lack of academic interest Research is impeded by lack of a journal editor and the difficulty researchers face when they try to relate ethical issues to traditional advertising issues. Unethical ads are often found to have negative consequences, ranging from adverse publicity to diminished corporate reputation to consumer boycotts and even legal sanctions.

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WHY BE ETHICAL?

At the 83rd Annual management Conference of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Keith Reinhard, the 64 yrs old chairman and the chief executive of the US $15bollion DDB worldwide Communications Group, stood up to quote the legendary cofounder of DDB, Bill bernback: All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of the society. We can vulgarize that society. We can also brutalize it or we can help lift it onto a higher level. No, Reinhard is not against the edgy and the unconventional rather he is against prurient sex, filthy humor and the violence. By making a success story out of the ads that are offensive to the public decency, the message is disturbingly clear: more rude and shocking you can be, more successful you can and you will be in the advertising. Moreover, such ads send out faulty signal to the youngsters who represent the future of our society. The young creative directors who take pride in their eccentric thought process ought to be blamed for this. The ad award machineries from Cannes to Clios are the ones that place such creations on the pedestal. Passion is the most important ingredient in creative achievement. But, its flames need not to be necessarily leaped out for obscenity, bullets and falsehoods alone. It is essential to reinforce the virtue of positive passion in todays ad world. The need of ethics in advertising is essential as we have a duty to live a good moral life. This duty is as much applicable to our business lives as to our private lives. The marketing professionals also know that the ethics brings good business. Unethical ads are often found to have negative consequences ranging from adverse publicity to diminished corporate reputation and to the consumer boycotts and even the legal sanctions. Conversely, an ethical ad can contribute to a good corporate reputation, heighten morale and thus can increase repeated business.

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THE CODE

GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT IN ADVERTISING Advertising shall be designed as to confirm to the laws of the country and should not offend against morality, decency and religious susceptibilities of the people. No advertisement shall be permitted which:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Derides any race, caste, color, creed and nationality. Is against any of the directive principles or any provision of the constitution of India. Tends to incite people to crime, cause disorder or violence, or breach of law or glorifies violence or obscenity in any way. Presents criminality as desirable. Adversely affects friendly relations with foreign states. Exploits the national emblem, or any part of the constitution or the person or personality of a national leader or state Dignitary. Relates to or promotes cigarettes and tobacco products, liquor, wines and other intoxicants.

No advertisements message shall in any way be presented as NEWS. No advertisements shall be permitted the objects whereof are wholly or mainly of religious or political natures; advertisement must not be directed towards any religious or political end or have relation to any industrial dispute.

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Advertisements for services concerned with the following shall not be accepted:i. ii. iii. Money lenders. Chit funds. Saving schemes and lotteries other than those conducted by Central and State Government organizations, nationalized or recognized banks and public sector undertakings. Unlicensed employment services. Matrimonial Agencies. Fortune tellers or sooth-sayers etc. and those with claims of hypnotism. Foreign goods and foreign banks. Betting tips and guide books etc. related to horse-racing or the other games of chance.

iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

The items advertised shall not suffer from any defect or deficiency as mentioned in Consumer Protection Act 1986. No advertisement shall contain references which are likely to lead the public to infer the product advertised or any advertised or any of its ingredients has some special miraculous or super-natural property or quality, which is difficult of being proved, e.g. cure for baldness, skin whitener, etc. No advertisement shall contain the words Guarantee or Guaranteed etc., unless the full terms of the guarantee are available for inspection by the Directorate General. All India radio, are clearly set out in the advertisement and are made available to the purchaser in the writer at the point of the sale or with the goods; in all cases , terms must include details of the remedial action available to the purchaser. No advertisement shall contain a direct or implied reference to any guarantee which purports to take away or diminish the legal rights of the purchaser. Advertisers or the agents must be prepared to produce evidence to substantiate any claims or illustrations. The Director General reserves the right to ask for such proofs and

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get them examined to his full satisfaction. In case of goods covered by mandatory quality control orders, the advertiser shall produce quality certificate from the institutions recognized by the Government for this purpose. 1. Advertisements shall not contain disparaging or derogatory references to another product or service. 2. Testimonials must be genuine and used in a manner not to mislead the listeners. Advertisers or Advertising Agencies must be prepared to produce evidence in support of their claims. 3. No advertisement of any kind of jewelry (except artificial jewelry) or precious stones shall be accepted. 4. Information to consumers on matters to weight, quality or prices of the products were given shall be accurate. 5. Advertisements indicating price comparisons or reductions must comply with relevant laws. 6. No advertisements shall be accepted with violates AIR Broadcast Code. Any such effects which might startle the listening public must not be incorporated the advertisements. For example, and without limiting the scope, the use of the following sound effects will not be permitted: Rapid gunfire or rifle shots. Sirens. Bombardments. Screams. Raucous laughter and the like.

Any pretence in advertising copy must be avoided and such copy shall not be accepted by All India radio. The simulation of voices of a personality in connection with advertisements for commercial products is also prohibited unless bonafide evidence is available that such personality has given permission for the simulation and it is clearly understood that station broadcasting such announcements are indemnified by the advertiser or advertising agency against any possible legal action.

No advertising for a product or service shall be accepted if it suggests in any way that unless the children themselves buy or encourage other people to buy the products or services, they will be failing in their duty or lacking in loyalty to any person or
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organization. No advertisements shall be accepted which leads children to believe that if they do not own or use the product advertised they will be inferior in some way to the other children or that they are liable to the condemned or ridiculed for not owing or using it. No advertisement likely to bring advertising into contempt or disrepute shall be permitted. Advertising shall not take advantage of the superstition or ignorance of the general public. No advertising of talismans, charms and character-reading from photographs or such other matter as well as those which trade on superstition of general public shall be permitted. Advertisement shall be truthful, avoid distorting facts and misleading the public by means of implications by false statements, as to: 1. The character to merchandise, i.e. its utility, materials, ingredients, origin etc. 2. The price of the merchandise, its value, its suitability or terms of the purchase. 3. The services accompanying purchase, including delivery, exchange, return, repair, upkeep etc. 4. Personal recommendations of the article or the service. 5. The quality or the value of the competing goods or trustworthiness of statement made by the others.

Testimonials from any kind from experts etc. other than Government recognized standardization agencies shall not be permitted.

No advertisement shall be permitted to contain any claim so exaggerated as to lead inevitably to disappointment in the minds of the public. Methods of advertising designated to create confusion in the mind of the consumer as between goods by one maker and another maker are unfair and shall not be used. Such methods may consist in:

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i) The imitation of the trademark of the name of the competition or packaging of labeling of goods or; ii) The imitation of advertising devices, copy, layout or slogans. Indecent, vulgar, suggestive, repulsive or offensive themes or treatment shall be avoided in all advertisements. This also supplies to such advertisements which themselves are not objectionable as defined above, but which advertise objectionable books, photographs or other matter and thereby lead to their sale and circulation. No advertisement in respect of medicines and treatments shall be accepted which is in contravention of the code relating to standards of advertising medicines and treatments.

Note 1: In all other respect, The Director general will be guided for purposes of commercial broadcasting in All India radio by code of Ethics for Advertising in India as modified from time to time.

Note 2: Notwithstanding anything contained herein, this code is subject to such modification/ directions as may be made/issued by the Director General from time to time.

Note 3: All advertising agencies shall adhere to the standards of practice as prescribed by Advertising Agencies Association of India, Bombay.

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PROCEDURE FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE CODE

1. Complaints or reports of contraventions of the code, received by All India Radio may in the first instant be referred by Director General to Advertisers Association concerned with request for suitable action.

2. If complaints under the code cant be satisfactory resolved at Association-(s)s level, they shall be reported to Director General who will then consider suitable action.

3. For any complaints under the Code received by All India Radio concerning a party outside the preview of various member Association(s), the director General will draw attention of such party to the complaint and where necessary, take suitable action on his own.

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CODE OF STANDARDS IN RELATION TO THE ADVERTISING OF MEDICINES AND TREATMENT

This code has been drafted for the guidance of advertisers, manufacturers, distributors, advertising agents, publishers and suppliers or various advertising media. The harm to the individual that may result from exaggerated, misleading or unguaranteed claims justified the adoption of a very high standard and the inclusion of considerable detail on a code to guide those who are concerned with this form of advertising. Newspaper and other advertising media are urged not to accept advertisements in respect of any other product or treatment from any advertiser or advertising or publicity relating to that product or treatment. The provisions of this code do not apply to an advertisement published by or under the authority of a Government, ministry or Department, not to an advertisement published in journals circulated to registered Medical Practitioners, registered Dentists, Registered Pharmacists or Registered Nurses.

GENRAL PRINCIPLES:

1. Cure: No advertisement should contain a claim to cure any ailment or symptoms of illhealth, not should any advertisement contain a word or expression used in such a form or context as to mean in the positive sense the extirpation of any ailment, illness or disease. 2. Illness, properly requiring medical attention: No advertisement should contain any matter which can be regarded as offer of medicine or product for, or advice relating to treatment of serious diseases, complaints, conditions, indications or symptoms which should rightly receive the attention of a Registered Medical practitioner. 3. Misleading or exaggerated Claim: No advertisement should contain any matter which directly or by implication misleads or departs from the truth as to the composition, character or action of the medicine or treatment advertised or as to its suitably for the purpose which it is recommended for. 4. Appeals for fear: No advertisement should be calculated to induce fear on the part of the reader that he is suffering, or may without treatment suffer from an ailment, illness or disease.

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5. Diagnosis or treatment by correspondence: No advertisement should offer diagnose by correspondence diseases, conditions or any symptoms of ill-health in a human being or request from any person or a statement of his or any other persons symptoms of illhealth with a view to advertising as to or providing for treatment of such conditions of illhealth by correspondence, nor should any advertisement offer to treat by correspondence any ailment, illness, disease or symptoms thereof in an human being. 6. Disparaging reference: No advertisement should directly or by implication disparage the products, medicines or treatments of another advertiser or manufacturer or registered medical practitioner or the medical professionals. 7. College, clinic, institute, and laboratory: No advertisement should contain these or similar terms unless an establishment corresponding with the description used does in fact exists. 8. Doctors, hospitals etc.: No advertisement should contain any reference to doctors or hospitals, whether Indian or foreign unless such reference can be sustained by independent evidence and can properly be used in the manner proposed. 9. Products offered particularly to women: No advertisement of products, medicines, and treatments of disorders or irregularities peculiar to women should contain expression which may imply that product, medicine or treatment advertised can be effective in inducing miscarriage. 10. Family Planning: Advertisements for measures of or apparatus concerning family planning would be permissible in so far as they conform to the generally accepted national policy in this behalf. 11. Illustrations: No advertisement should contain illustration which by itself or in combination with words used in connection there with is likely to convey a misleading impression, or if the reasonable reference to be drawn from such advertisement infringes any of the provisions of the code. 12. Exaggerated copy: No advertisement should contain copy which is exaggerated by reason of improper use of words, phrases or methods of presentation e.g., the use of words magic, magical, miracle and miraculous etc. 13. Natural remedies: No advertisement should claim or suggest contrary to the fact that the article advertised is in the form in which it occurs in nature or that its value lies in its being a natural product.
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14. Special claim: No advertisement should contain any reference which is calculated to lead the public to assume that the article, product, medicine or treatment advertised has special property or quality which is in fact unknown or unrecognized. 15. Sexual weakness, premature ageing, and loss of virility: No advertisement should claim that the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote sexual virility or be effective in treating sexual weakness or habits associated with sexual excess or indulgence or any ailment, illness or disease associated with those habits. In particular such terms as Premature ageing, loss of virility will be regarded as conditions for which medicines, products, appliances or treatment may not be advertised. 16. Slimming, weight reduction or limitation or figure control: No advertisement should offer any medical product for the purpose of slimming, weight reduction or limitation or figure control. Medical products intended to reduce appetite will usually be regarded as being for slimming purposes. 17. Tonics: The use of this expression in advertisements should not imply that the product or medicine can be used in the treatment of sexual weakness. 18. Hypnosis: No advertisement should contain any offer to diagnose or treat complaints or conditions by hypnosis. 19. Materials for students: Materials meant for distribution in educational institutions must not carry advertisement of anything other than those of value to students.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research can be defined as a systemized effort to gain new knowledge. A research is carried out by different methodologies which have their own pros and cons. Research methodology is a way to solve research in study and solving research problems along with logic behind them are defined through research methodology. Thus while talking about research methodologies we are not only talking of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods. We are in context of our research studies and explain why it is being used a particular method or technique and why the others are not used. So that research result is capable of being evaluated either by researcher himself or by others.

ASSUMPTIONS: 1. It has been assumed that sample of 30 ad viewers represents the whole population. 2. The information given by the ad viewers is unbiased.

COLLECTION OF DATA: This research is based on (a) primary research done by means of questionnaires targeted to ad viewers. The sample size is 30. Survey has been conducted in Dombivli. (b) Case studies related to unethical advertisements. (c) Referred Various Books & links

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CASE STUDIES
(a) NIMBUS CASE

On Februrary14, 2007, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of India issues a showcase notice to Nimbus Communication (Nimbus), a private broadcaster, for showing ads that were alleged to be racist during the India-West Indies cricket series that were held between January 21 and January31,2007. the Ministry alleged showed West-Indies in poor light. Nimbus Neo Sports (NEO) had the telecast rights for India-West Indies and the India-Srilanka series in India. In January 2007, Nimbus launched an ad campaign with the pay-off line 'Its tough being a West Indian in India'. One of these ads showed a West Indian, desperately searching for some water to drink as he is unable to handle the spicy Indian food, but the Indians put their fingers and dentures into the water to deny him from having a drink. Another ad showed a boatman taking a West Indian couple on a boat-ride. Upon reaching the middle of the lake, the boatman throws off the oars into the lake and disrobes (giving the impression that there would be an assault on the girl), then, jumps into the lake leaving the couple stuck in the center of the lake. Media experts opined that what Nimbus thought was a creative way of showing the competitive spirit in India, and create hype around its new channel, had actually trod a fine line between creative advertising and respecting ethical sensibilities. Some critics felt that the two ads shown in the campaign were in bad taste and offensive as it showed people being mistreated on the basis of nationality/color. The ads were also criticized for showing Indians in bad light as India was known for its hospitality.

Atithi Devo Bhava or 'The Guest is God' is ingrained in the Indian culture and the Indian Tourism Ministry had adopted this slogan as part of their 'Incredible India campaign'. The ads that showed Indians putting tourists in trouble was clearly not in sync with this communication. A public interest litigation (PIL) was filed against Neo, which demanded that Neo pay Rs 2 billion as 'damages' to the Union Government for hurting the "Indian pride and sentiments". The Advertising Standards Council of India's (ASCI) too received complaints against the ads. Nimbus had defended its ads and denied the allegations of racism.

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It said the idea behind the ads was 'light hearted'. Some ad experts too supported this view and said that the ads was designed to make the audience laugh by showing the competitive spirit and passion for cricket in India in a creative way. In fact, the ad agency that created these ads, Ogilvy & Mather (O&M), was highly regarded for its creative advertising and had consistently won awards for creative excellence in advertising. For instance, in March 2007, it had won the 'Creative Agency of the year' award in the coveted 40th Annual Abby Awards, with a tally of 20 Golds, 47 Silvers and 2 Special Gold. O&M too defended the ads and pointed out that though ASCI had asked Neo to stop airing the first ad, it had cleared its other ads including ads in another similar campaign with pay-off line 'Now, even Sri Lankans will have a tough time in India'. There was also no mention of racism by ASCI at that time.

The government had deferred any action till the outcome of the PIL on the related issue. If the charges were proved, Neo could face a minimum 30-day ban and even risked losing its uplinking-downlinking license. By and large, analysts felt that ad campaign was misconceived and badly executed. Some felt that for a newly established channel like Neo, which was trying to widen its viewer base, taking such risks was unwarranted. However, some analysts felt that the government should stay away from this issue and allow audience reactions and self-regulation to act as control mechanisms.

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(b) CONDOMS RELATED CASE

It is common knowledge that advertisements related to sex sell. But who is going to sell safe sex and how? That remains a complicated and tricky question. Unfortunately, contraceptive advertisements generate controversies and they are removed from the airwaves for one reason or another. Recently, an advertisement of flavored condoms indirectly urged couples to have fruit-flavored oral sex. The ad showed a woman biting into a strawberry and licking chocolate off her fingers. The Censor Board balked at the advertisement and registered a complaint with the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI). The ASCI got the ad removed claiming that it was "vulgar". While many of those who were interviewed at the time agreed that condom advertisements needed to be aired on TV, there was no consensus on how the ad should feature the product and when it should be aired. Media reports quoted the condom manufacturer's clarification that flavored condoms were not a promotion for oral sex; that they were being projected as an alternative choice for couples who dislike the smell of latex. In the meantime, the world's second most populated country is on the verge of an AIDS epidemic. Can Indians afford to be shy about sex and contraception? In urban settings, people seem to know that condoms, if used properly, can deter the spread of HIV/AIDS and prevent pregnancy. Yet, condoms are bought (if at all) with a blush that spreads across the shop. They are bought under cover of night, anonymity or, maybe, even disguise. Advertisements are seen as an effective means of mass communication; but when it comes to condoms, they seem to be failing in their basic function. It becomes a dangerous failing in a situation where information marks the difference between safety and fatality.

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Sir/Madam, Im conducting some research concerning the public's opinion about the level of ethics. In order to answer these questions, I need your help. Following to this is a short questionnaire. I would really appreciate your help in completing and returning it. Your responses are extremely valuable and will help me gain a better understanding of the issues of advertising ethics. I assure you that the information you provide will be kept strictly confidential and combined with all other responses so that no individuals can be identified. In addition, your name and/or e-mail address will remain in the highest levels of anonymity and privacy, and will not be given, sold or otherwise distributed to anyone, being destroyed from our records immediately after your questionnaire is gathered. Please take a few minutes now to complete and return the questionnaire. Thank you very much for your help.
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Please complete the following fields: Name :_________________________________________________ Age :___ City of residence :_________________ Gender (M/F) :___ Education Level (Elementary / High School / University / Post-Graduate):____________ Email Address :________________________________________ Please answer the following questions by placing an "x" in the appropriate space: "Businesses have responsibilities with society that go beyond job creation." 1. Strongly agree (__) 2. Agree (__) 3. No Opinion (__) 4. Disagree (__) 5. Strongly Disagree (__) "It is possible for a business to be both ethical and profitable." 1. Strongly agree (__) 2. Agree (__) 3. No Opinion (__) 4. Disagree (__) 5. Strongly Disagree (__) "Advertising shows an accurate view of reality." 1. Strongly agree (__) 2. Agree (__) 3. No Opinion (__) 4. Disagree (__) 5. Strongly Disagree (__) "Advertising helps to shape society's views of the world and itself." 1. Strongly agree (__) 2. Agree (__) 3. No Opinion (__) 4. Disagree (__) 5. Strongly Disagree (__)

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How do you view the level of ethics in general advertising? 1. Very High (__) 2. High (__) 3. Average (__) 4. Low (__) 5. Very Low (__)

Whose responsibility is it to deal with the unethical ads? (please mark with an "x", as appropriate) 01. Businesses (__) 02. Non-Profit Organizations (__) 03. Government (__) 04. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) (__) 05. Schools and Universities (__) 06. General Public (__) 07. Other - Please cite:___

Which of the following issues in general advertising would you consider being unethical? (please mark by placing an "x" in the appropriate place(s)) 1) 03. Ads for medical products and services (__) 2) 05. Ads for professional services (lawyers, doctors, etc.) (__) 3) 06. Ads for workers to replace striking workers (__) 4) 09. AIDS-awareness ads (__) 5) 10. Alcoholic beverage, Cigarette and tobacco ads (__) 6) 17. Comparative advertising (__) 7) 18. Condom ads (__) 8) 29. Lack of truth (__) 9) 32. Negative political ads (__) 10) 46. Use of sexual themes in ads (__)

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Please answer the following questions by placing an "x" on the appropriate space: Have you ever decided not to buy a product/service due to an advertisement that you perceived as unethical? Yes (__) No (__) In the future, would you refrain from buying a product/service because you perceive its advertisements as unethical? Yes (__) No (__) Would you invest in a fund/company with high ethical standards if it presented slightly lower returns than a fund/company with low ethical standards? Yes (__) No (__) Thank you very much for your cooperation!!

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CONCLUSION

While looking at advertisements with different perspective and interacting with people I observed that, despite of various laws and control agencies, every day we encounter with unethical advertisements, ex. many news paper promotes ads for slimming pills etc. but we are too used to these ads that we hardly notice it. Many people think that only sexual overtness is unethical. Few of them dont even know that advertising of medical products and services is not allowed. Most of the people think that Government & business houses are responsible for ethics in advertisement. Very few of them consider their role in controlling unethical advertisements. There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising. It is a tool, an instrument. It can be used well and can be used badly as well. Its up to us, how we use this tool ! Its truly said that judicious use of advertising can stimulate the developing countries to improve their standard of living. But the serious harm can be done if advertising and the commercial pressure become so irresponsible that communities seeking to rise from poverty to a reasonable standard of living are persuaded to seek this progress by satisfying wants that have been artificially created. The result of this is that they waste their resources and neglect their real needs and genuine development falls behind.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chhabra. T.N.-- Business Studies p.p.323-326. Arya publications. Gupta. Sen. Subruto-- Brand Positioning. Tata Mc Graw-hill Publishing Company Limited. Kotler. Philip-- Marketing Management. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. McCarthy. E. Jerome-- Essentials of Marketing. Irwin Publications. Moriary. Burnet. Wells-- Advertising. Pears on Education Pte. Ltd. Hindustan times, Balancing creativity and ethics in advertising, February 14,2007 www.Advertising.about.com www.Aef.com www.Icmrindia.org www.Rubak.com

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