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k 71zdosubmmd acam"fam gbv l(MIWgh-

of Uhe

fw E05= udwofty uVaYWRl(p, cf of

D=w of Phuemphy by lFomelcpWam much 1992.






Variable print quality


DG 439,3 Cr-344b; CED155; KH189 C(4-WK snq seemsto be a causativeform but there is no root nq 'to suck!attestedin Egyptian and in fact snq is more likely to be an onomatapoeic verb. At Edfu the verb is usedin the senseof 'suckle': in the 8th LE nome, the god is a chfld

n snty suckled by the two sistersIV 27,12 ; Isis dr-t."'

m IrLt

'nh-w3s. t suckles you on her milk H 54,7 ; the men-bit bed

sucklesyou on her milk 1142,17. Also in the senseof 'to suck!and in a usenot notedby Wb : in h. rw-' Offering.the drink is grapesor raisins in water or wine mash,so that whole fruits are in the drink, thus the god receivesthe drink with grapes object A4 'tY%'--im. sn he sucks of them and his body is revived VII 2W, 8 ; with direct them VII 234,16 [Meeks, Donations p. IIn. 61. st you suck
which both seem clear and must derive frorri this verb

Wb cites two examples of snq 'to nourish', Maat nourishes

you body Philae <1527> Phot 1373 and compare also :a goddess as a QLrdw) A ---I itw and nourishes fathers H 39,1 ke- pnqAo nourrish.

nurse who raises children


to pmise Wb IV 175 (3) GR I

Wb cites one reference of a verb snq 'to praise' from a text with many variants on this term, including at No. 14 Urk VIH <56k> which seemsclear. This may derive from'

the D. 18 useof snk (Wb IV 177,1)as tongue,which as an organ of speechcan also praise (c-f also snqi Wb IV 175,2 Hathor as the nurse rdi 4', "T % n Nebwenef TT 157 <1176> D. 19) . -Ttere r pt q3 praise to the k Urk VU 10,13 [FCD 2341'exalted of heart! which may be a

is also an exampleof gie word in an incenseoffering at Edfu height of heaven14_99,13. Comparealso the term

for this - it' describes Heka-ib'he is a man, free from haughtiness' MK. precedent


to slay 4

In an'oryx text, the king


vi" 1

fs! .n Yd3t, m. sp! *t 'kills the enemyof the eye on the Ttf; fl -- or, W

Sixth Day' III 139A. It may possiblAbe *, jitake for SKqr's'rq or even may be derived from n kn




being a causativewith the last n fallen away


darkness Wb IV 176 (4-10) NK, GR also Wb IV'176,11 snk. ti

A Stela from TT 65 of the man Akhtoy, dated by Gardinerto the Ilth dynasty usesthe word snk in "i, - R\'free from obscurity' [after Gardiner, JEA a moral sense.The man is describedas sw m0 e-! 4,1917 p.28-38 Stela 65,3 line7, translation p.34] which is exactly the same text as for Heka-ib above (Urk VII 10,13).In the BD particularly the early versionscollected by Sethe,a MX version has imy-kkw iry irykkwimy C3 'those in darkness those who belong to snk' , and NK version

Theo, Rdeterminatives do not suggestthat the original meaning of the

term was 'complete darkness'- for kkw is the black of night, snk is either a lighter stageof dark or exactly the samefrom the examplesabove - dependingon whether they are parallel or complementary. 'Obscurity' seemsto be the best translation for this envisagestwilight or gloom [Barguet LdM p.63

GR texts use the term often as a variant on the other terms for'darkness! and 'night' giving snk the a, in 'determinative rwv but it retains it also has thebad! bird -'g: some casesand , Sun gods generally sbd snk 'make the gloom lighe : Harakhty rises in the horizon sbd -

1478,11 ;,

, ft


1100,16; Horusin the sky sbd

-4'------. -.

r:p- V 57,12; Harsomthus shd


1 131,9 ; Horus sbIL

169,16 ; also of the moon sbd



by night

c:; 111210,10 Nfin as the moon shd 0 m-ht -*-b rp , ;

1375,17; Horusthe moonbd (brightens)

In the phrase'rdi sp m st snk 'giving light in the place of darkness'as a solar epithet : Horus the.


'4" 0

IV 56,13; Wadjet

, M%%

IV 248,4-5; Horus vv r-q IV night in darkness

VIII 82,13-14.In a variation- NekhbetandWadjet Ughtup knh. 205,2.

In an offering text Horusis calledthe creatorof light, the child in the morningandI--7=

'a" %

Lord of gloom ' 1137,17-18 showhe hasthe power to removeit as he is the sun god and to , controllerof light. In a moral sense, beeror wi- textsoften includethe gift from the godsto the king n(n) (wn) snk ne


m b3ty.k 'thereis no gloom in your-hearf : p3. mnw offering, Ihy n-. nn

4C4 %%

*" qc"

VI 283,6; also 1114,1


IV 245,8-9; beern


1368,1 ; nn 1.

wine nn wn

""- I-P H 422. snk is alwaysusedof the king [for other GR templesseeOtto,

GuM p.148-9onceusedof Hathorl.



Wb IV 177(8) GR terms : sn.f sbmt.k r snktkt is removedby the flood and is one of many analogous "I -5e(alsoalliterationof s) 1325,9 he makesthe impurity go away from your sanctuary 1581,8.


sister Wb IV 151(5-13)Pyr. DG 436,1 41

Cr.343a; CED 154; KH 188 C-WWE

e feminine form snt is of sn 'brothee (q.v.) with a similar wide range of uses, though at Edfu the writing Ican be 'brothee (of a goddess) : Isis protects her brother (Osiris) IV

99,12-13 - so the reading is not always clear. The uraei are also seen as sisters : Maat is given to the king with .17 exher sister 1173,17.


the two sisters

Wb IV 151(14-16) Usually the two sistersare Isis andNephthys to this seems be the casemostoften at Edfu : the and king is the heir of the two lands,nursedby 8th LE nome god is 'the child nursedby , + 26 1 '"" of priestesses nomesare called A f, & broughtfrom the handsof zl . IV in the placeof the successor 183 ; in the I IV 27,12; in the geographical text, the 1372,5 ; cloth madeby Isis and Nephthysis

1165,2 [collatedby Cauville , Osiris p.221 Doc.31].

Symbolically the two sistershold up the sky - their two pairs of handsforming the notional four by can and of heaven this role is also shared the pylonsof the temple.The pylonstherefore supports


be directly compared to ; the sun is raised up, to heaven 'upon the arms of gj of Behdet - both physically the pylons and symbolically the two nursing goddess sisters IV 3,1. The flag poles of the temple called snty are also 'the two sisters' as they reach up into the , clouds, 'die snty flag poles are beside the pylons, in their forms VIII 67,14-15 ; flagpoles

4 Ir


9. j, j.


-ff it #

who guardOsirisVII 19,6.

The Two, Sisters,as the ones who raise up the sun god in the morning are known from NK hymns [c f Manster, Isis p.971 as pillars of the sky possibly even in the Pyramid Texts [op.cit. p.3] and , the relationship betweenof Isis and Nephthys from those texts is clear from those texts. The.two sisterf mour. Osiris, their brother, in the Sokar Chamber: you I 201,9.,,inscribed on the walls of the chamber are 9j mouroing,him, I 211,6 ; in lists of mourners

they are behind

R 2"

Osiris VII 13,5 protecting

215,16-17 which represqntsin mythological terms the practice of having two female mourners at the A. funcN crxemony to re sent the two goddesses the best example of this being the Twins selected for this role at Memphis [D. Thompson, Ptolemaic Memphis p.232 ff. , c.f. LA III col. 196 and n. I 30f ; Quaegebeu CdE 46 Nr. 91 1971 p. 168-1711. r., have on their headsL BB is upon snty as Isis and Nephthys can be identified by the symbols they !hp arips of 11231,10 111,280,17 he rises on the arms of ;

Osiris IV 378,4 ; Horus is raised up on their arms IV. IV 72,1 sim. IV 377,3 ; they protect 381,4 IV 384,4 also. Isis nursed by Nephthys , raised by The king toq is is said to be 'born of , [not born of both , as in CdE 46,1971 p. 1691. M-sp- wl together 111242,7 from the heart of W %ZJJV71,16 is offered, Haroeris drives away sadness In general : when meat , to in this way, associatingIsis and Nephthys with Nekhbet and Wadjet, as the two uraci are referred the king/Horus V 176,15 ; the god Neferhotep (Osiris ?) to nurse his sisters in his temple V 194,5 ; the king as a child is nursed by unites with Ai J VIII 5,4 (Isis is right V 265,14 ; the pylon - its right and its left are like .. Nephthys -. left, cast) also at Esna Isis on the right, Nephth. on the left ys - west and , the two sisters Esna IV no.417 = p.24,3 ; the king as a child in Khemmis is reared by VII 78,2.


Without distinctiveheidgear: Horusflies on the armsof nursedby 11111,7 Ptahwtt ; A'

j IQ .

11255,13-14 1-16rus is ; IV 142,9 `%j j %2

unite to protect the king, parallel with roty IV 245,16; evening boatoffering
IV 261,8 ; the sun god I All raise up the sun god and rh.ty IV 261,1 ; the sun god is upon the hands of 9*-bnt 131 0"" V 189,2 ;R&"0 %% unites with the two sisters IV 322.3 ; Wa4jet snsn t%

protect Horus in Khemmis VII 124,2 ;A'j t,

protectOsiris VHI 120,12 off VII 314,10. *w-


also VIII 6,14 ; Horusdriving the calves



Wb IV 152(9-14)D.18usuaRy pluml. Flags upon flag poles are, in general,sacredsymbolsfor gods The fluttering flag shows'the . mark theplace presence god and of of abodeof a god [Hornung Conceptions God p22 ff-1-At of , MedinetHabutherewerefour flagstaffs frontof thepylonwhichhererepresented in Nekhbet Wadjet, , Isis and Nephthys,most templehadtwo, but the Karnak- Amun complexhad eight and the Aton templeat Amarnahadten. The flagswereheld on by woodenfastenings the flagstaffitself was and madepossiblyof a singletrunk which extended abovethepylon - the onesat Karnakbeingpossibly over 50 metreshigh. Branches the tree weretrimmedoff the pole was set inlnetal socketand of , threepennants to wereattached eachflagstaff(at Karnak,elsewhere therewasone-pennant varying of colours)[Holscher,TheExcavation MedinetHabuIII p.5-61. of At Edfu the first pylon hasfour nichesaltogether flag staffs[IX p13], thoughthe textsonly ever for

seemto refer to two. The word snt is attestedfrom D. 18 building texts [FCD 2301and it must derive from the identification of the flagstaffs with the sister goddesses and Nephthys [LA H 257-81.The Isis building texts at Edfu describe the flagstaffs thus of I wood worked with copper, they so are beside them in

are the 'Great two sisters' who protect Osiris VH 19,6 -,the pylons,

their form of the two sisters VIH 67,14-15. On the pylon is the ritual performed by the king of Hi', erecting the flagstaffs 'they are beside the pylon like the two sisters giving protection' VIII In return Horus gives the house to the king complete with everything and exalts his ka .

95,3 - 962

on earth - for the erecting of the flagstaffs is the final building operation. PI.671 shows the ritual, the


king with the Red crown (on the west mole of the pylon) standsbefore Horus and he holds in his hand a flagpole, a crook, a flail and a papyrus stem. Opposite him is Horus and betweenthem is the title of the text and at foot level a picture of the fagadeof the temple place. The parallel scene on the other pylon mole has its title damaged ///// - possibly for the construction of the pylon VIII 134 (no plate). n Hr. nbwt ME with the two flagstaffs in


price, value Wb IV 68 (3-13)MK DG414,1 Cr.369b*,CED168, KH r-OyNT-

in the prepositional r-swnt 'in exchange, phrase From MK swn.t [JEA 13,1926 p.189] and used termandbecoming foe (GG 178p.134).At Edfu the nounas suchis not used, beingan economic on in later texts,but thereis a newprepositional m-swnt : the king is established phrase redundant 2h, --"- , =Lft, Awl lit for his for building the templem-isw ... m-db3 .... his throneas a reward Uework 1180,8-9.

m-snt. r in the likeness of Wb 111457(3-8) MK In accordancewith (GG 180). Also often at Edfu : of Horus n njr VII. 255,10 ;. Sokar also ItL Vethere is no god like him V 295,3 like the lord of Egypt VI i81,14-15 nb swn, t in accordance with it VI 8,5 3ht is like the horizon V 5,5 ; the king zrethe hall of it. f

4? - ?=-

walls of the temple are inscribed appearanceof the falcon t= is like his father 1270,8.


mineral WbIU458(5)MK Harris,Nfinerals 181 p.

R found in the Wadi Natrun and was commerciallyexploited(Peas. 23). n the snt substance was


Edfu minerallist I--P .--



is explianed be sty perhaps type of ochreous to a earthVI 203,6. ,


braceletscord ,
-it0%%% 0 0

A wadjetpectoraloffering describes objectas the

wrw of gold , silver and real

111124,34. Literally this couldreadlikenessof thevulture! but at Dendera, word the precious stones , snty is usedin this way without the vulture sign : sIr tr braceletoffering) DIV 268,14; sametext 'I bring
060 AM %%

of gold to its place(in a being exactbeforeyou

(parallel with mnfty and4tr) CD Il 215,13-14. Also in this text the wadjetpectoralis tied to aroundhis headmnfyt CD IV 86,34. The vulture in the Edfu examplemay then be a for the tyw bird. The plateat Edfu showsthe king offering H mistake

(pl.62). It seems the that

snty is a cord or thick bandusedas a supportstrapfor pectorals also usedin the sameway as and bracelet ankletsto hold smalleramulets. or

snly W

enemies (3-6) Wb111464 OK

Wb records wordsnit (Wb111462,2) adjective participle (Pyr. 1837) 'hostile' a an or and meaning from the stemznJwhichalsogivesthenounsnlyw 'rebels! 'hostilepeople'[AEPTp.26 n.21. or Therelieffromthetemple Sahure brought theking includes to of showing prisoners '0' 'all rebels' in Blatt 5]. Ile termcontinues to whoseem beAsiatics Libyans[Sahure and the to usethrough CoffinTexts[c C FECT1155n.2] andin theEdfutextsit refers foesin generaL hostiles There (q. destroys and maybeanelement confusion gnityw however v.) : theIcing of with in k die fear sb n snd. yourrebels through of you'M 138,16 hereused thealliteradon of s; in an oryx slaying , 'I strengthen your knife alliteration).Thetermis archaic hasrestricted use. and "D 1175,4(also


to found Wb IV 177(10) to 178(15) Pyr. DG439 ls'-

Cr.345a; CED 156; KH 190 C-LJt4*r



verb snj is earlier than its noun and the determinative. suggests that 'founding' involved

measuring out the plan of a building or house, or of an area of land, by using a rope or cord. This original use could be extendedto coverforming limbs'and being seenas a mode of creation. At Edfa snj is primarily used of the founding of the temple and the usual spelling is i? St-wrt 1126,13 ; he leaves the palace to found the temple H 29,13 IV 14.4 ; 1138,6. Other places are founded : Sokar Osiris (9: d3t founds the underworld for his corpse1495,17. 3HF: the king founds

Bbdt n Bodt 1159,9 nomes 1376,13

snj andsnlt foundation Wb IV 178(16) to 179(8) MK (9-14)MK At Edfu snit refers mainly to the foundationsof the temple or parts of the temple building, especiallyin the phrase,the templeis mn.ti hr snit. s 'firmly established upon its foundation': 1161,3; 111105,10-11 w3h hr or 1514,4 VI 6,34. The settingout of the eq

foundationplan of the of the templeis connected The with two of the main foundationceremonies. stretchingof the cord is performedto mark out the areaor the templeand the position of its outer the walls : the king establishes templecomersand h3l the GreatPlaceIl 26,14 ? Seshatis --=-7 measures the foundationof out

of the templeis laid out (wt')by Seshat 19,14; at the ceremony IV -*place the

H 31,6 ; she usesthe merkhetto rdl st-wrt hr

GreatPlaceuponits foundations 14,14; oncethis is done,Horus VII receives


Ilie foundationsare then physically dug out and the foundationtrenchesfor the walls are made [archaeological evidence LA Il 356-359]in the 'hackingthe earth'ceremony: the king bbs.i see

I dig the foundations your templeH 60,8 Id of ,


106,8; VH n St-wnp 111

5,5-6sim ; of the enclosure wall VII 9,34.

The preparatory work for the foundation was believed to have been drawn up by Thoth and Seshat: Seshat imn 7 "-N 'C: n nst-rl IV 14,5 ; in texts for the builder gods , the temple is built 1A by Thoth and Seshat VI 173,8 ; it was Thoth %3' and Seshat wr made

Q, according to \V 4q VI 174,7.9 ; sim. p. 801.


VI 319,14 and VI 320,4 [c L Reymond, Hermetic Writings nrr

The most important aspect is that this 'plan' was worked out in ancient times and first set out for the


first primevaltempleon theFirst Occasion so that eachsubsequent templefoundation copiesit: the , I* temple -P dr-W its plan is precisely as in former times IV 7.5 III is like on wr n md3t

First Time IV 4,8 ; the temple is like that of primeval times and like -Itthe .., ,# tn h3 n pt mht inb-hd'the

great foundation plan of this book which came down from heaven

north of Memphis' VI 6,4 - testifying to the existence of a divine pattern book. Similary a text

mentionsthat the temples Egypt are'firmly upon of book of the two lands'VI 201,4.


%% "a'

foundationof the

As a resultthefoundations exact(tp-sb) VH 25,7; onetempledescription are givesthe 'thic%ness' P X-of thetempleasbeingfive cubitsVH 11,8. ofthe -11*--) Thetemplefoundations havedivineauthorityandre-enact First Time foundations. therefore the


to makedivine Wb IV 180(3-6) D.18

Causative n1ri 'be divine!. of At Edfu : as a rewardgranted the godsto the king by says. fR bm.k saysHorus 110 1,2 ; Behdet .1 U of the

9fYtk 1 105,8; as a rewardfor building the temple Horus Ai fg , fq 4

king Il 30,16 ; in a water purification the king 'purifies the headof god ,

3b3bW. I makedivine your bonesVH 202,13-14 Horus k the body of the Idng VII and . %J m T 203,6 *,in a procession your path 1569,12.The texts do not specifyhow this divinity
manifests itself further. 7bere may deliberate ambiguity with snir 'to cense!.


to cense Wb IV 180(7-15) Pyr.

Used oftenat Edfuand mostoftenspelled

With in

111218,5 ; snLr.kwI in hsmn 1209,2. st-wrt m sty-nLr i k3.k with natron H 199,2 ; temple1537.9 n. IV 331,3

Objects: person

111109.11 path b st-wrt

i sm3ty.k ==. dirt 1556,13 (c f. above) altar 1487,1. n. with his light 1591,5 ; usedto all houses st.k r 1-5L' 1321,10-11.

snir can be a generalterm for 'to purify': Horus flood 6 V"* describe purifying effect of the the


The root of the term is nir 'god implying that 'censing' and incense are direct contacts with god and that the burning of incenseand its scent signifies the presenceof god or is a meansof communicating with him.


incense Wb IV 180(18) to 181(17) Pyr. Wb Drog 449 ; Charpentier 596-601no.970 p. DG 440,2 ')d IIY

N Cr.346b; CED 156-,KH 190 CO C, C-0 Nt Loret examinedthe evidencefor snir to determineits identity. He concludedthat it was resin of terebinth[Pistacia terebinthusL. a type of conifer with aromaticresin] which grows in countries further north and colder than Egypt (W.Asia, Syria EuropeiM N.Africa) and must havebeen , Resinis foundin tombsfrom the from thoseregionsto Egypt [Lucas,Nbterialsp.118-119]. exported in dull and resins predynastic periodandappears on theoutside resinous theinterior.Whenburnt these but smell like burningvarnish, somecanbe morearomatic, neversweetsmellinglike frankincense in andmyrrh.Resinswereimportantfor mummification this maybe the significance earlygraves and (Sonter) [Lucasop.cit. p.365-375, Loret La rdsineTer6binthe dgyptiennesIFAO chezles anciens , , Le Caire 1949]. Recentstudieshavelookedagainat theproblem: Germersuggests it is a type of Boswellia(or that Burseraceae tree)which produces resin - at leastthe type of snir usedin medicalrecipesis this a and 'it seems unlikely that the Egyptianmedicin his recipesshouldhavedenotedtwo products,so different in odour, tasteand appearance, incenseand terebinthresin with the sameword'. snir as occursfrom the PyramidTextsonward, it is showngrowingin a gardenwith ssd fruit andlettuces; it is a treeproductfrom PuntandNubia; it is amongthe Syriantribute of TuthmosisIII ; andunder R III snir treeswereplantedfrom Punt ; it is usedin many ways in medicaltexts [GermerArznei Weihrauch]. p.69-82; LA VI col.1167-9 I

in At Edfu the word snjr appears censing in of all the rituals performed rituals - the most numerous the temple.The phrase<=> 'df . *. 'performingthe censing'(Cf. ir-ibt) occurs56 timesas a single Thereareslight variations on further 16timesin theprocession theking from the palace. rite anda of formula also.The rite is mainlygiven an Upper Egyptianemphasis for the king is most often this ,


itself is identifiedwith the described thesonof thevulturegoddess Nekhenandthesnir incense as of Lady of Fagetor %tyt.The king also hasUpperEgyptiantides (imy-r-st-bnt for example)and in is the scenes shownwearingtheWhite Crown , in someform , or theDoubleCrown.The offeringis is usuallymadeto Horus,with or withoutHathorandthe aim of the burningof the incense to revive by the gods,to makethemhappywith its scentand it is a duty very muchto be performed a sonfor his father.In returnthe godsgrantthe protectionof the king, specificallyby the vulture sometimes, the fameor fearof theking spreads throughthe foreignlandslike thepervading and smell of incense aboveall, he receivesthe kingship - including the destructionof, foes, loyalty of the Egyptians, tribute is brought from foreign landsand the White crown is put on his head.The sources the of incense usuallygivenasPunt,theGod'sLand,Kpn and stocksof incense kept are werepresumably from in the temple.Thesearegeneral con44usions the studyof the incense offering . In mostof them the word is spelled but thereare amplificationsof someof thesepoints in someof these

differentaimsin someof therituals. ritualsor variationswhich suggest for ir-snlr-n-ilrt is a specificform of the rite performed the cobrauraeus. This appears twice in the 'I &* -1 * sanctuary: -c> 133,12 ; 147.9 in which the two uraei are united as one the foe is ,

destroyed and the king wearsthe Double Crown - so it brings togetherthe kingship of Upper and Lower Egypt.The ritual is alsoan importantpartof theprocession the king from his palaceto the of temple. As he goes the Iurunutef priest performs this ritual - as a gift to the uraei goddesses , invoking their many namesand guaranteeing protectionof the king by removing foes, from the the path of the king. The priest precedesthe king and standardsin the procession: 1130,1-5 11 59,16-60,2; 111103,18 104,6; 113,7-13; 159,16-160,4 166,3-9; IV 50,18-51.11 70,7-14 IV ; ; 226,8 ;V 36,13-16 ; 137,11-14; VI 243,5-6 ; VII 43,15-44,3; VII 190,14-18and compareIII 111323,13-324. 330,11-14 337,8-11 performed theThirty Hathors for ; and ir-snjr is twice performed the divine barques 143,2-3andpl. 14 -.1313 pl-30c. for : Performed Nekhbetherself: 164,6-14(king wearsRedcrownpi. 16) ; IV 91.4-16;V 197.2-14. for For the sevenmortuarygodsof Edfu, as a funeraryritual : 1161,3-162,4 parallel1168,12-169,13 1 146,11-147,11different groupof gods1232,3-19 252,18-253,17 1271,6-272,4. ; (sexualeffectsof incense). For Min : 1180,17-181,6 1397,10-398,2 ; Osiris in variousforms : 1181-182; 1184,15-186,16 1207,4 as part of the mortuaryrituals in the ;


SokarisChamber. Amun (Khonsu): H 76,14-77,6;AmunRe of Thebes Sma-Behdet 111182,12-183,6. and Re and Mehit: H 105,11-106,8. Hathor (as the diadem): IV 93,7-94,4; 249,11-250,6 337,15-18; VH 257,12- 258,14 VIII ;V 139,14-140,11. Menat: IV 137,16-138,11 Maat: IV 152,8-153.2. Ile ritual precedes Litany to theGoodYearVI 93,2ff. the Ba-neb-djed IV 302,7-303,5 (womenrejoiceat seeing king); VU 171,11 172.6. the : Khnum : VH 270,4-271,2.The offering of incenseto ram gods in slightly unusual,especiallyas Ba-Neb-djedis the god of Mendesin the Delta . k3p on the fire is alsoperformedfor this

H 82,2-13and the textsstress of tkckt performance duty by the king resultsin the rewards this of god kingshipandpower- both physicaland sexualwhich areinherentin the ram - andmaybe thereason for these particularritesbeforeramgods. Most often the rite ir snir n iLf is for Horus : 196,9-97.2; XV 2,8-13 ; 3,15-4,4; 1261,5-10 1 . 16 IV 307,9-308,7 499,12-500,2 1H 185,15-186,4 IH 61,5-11; 65,10-17; 133,7-134,2 184, ; ; ; ;
IV 386,2-12 ;V 88,15-89,6 ; VI 192,18 - 193,4 ; VII 291,12-292,7 (as Horus in Nekhen) 102,2-14. With Hathor 65,13-66,13. Horus Hathor Mehit lboth : 1277,10-278,7. , , With HarsoMthus : 1530,17 to 53 1.11. 1 474,13-475,5 IV 61,15-62,12 IV 216,14-218,2 VI 296,9-297.9 VIII VM

As a rite of kinghip,offering incense occursbeforea kingshiphymn VI 136,11-139,10. 0,410 Min 1489,4-11 Horus Lexical variantsof ir-snjr : wdb 1142,10'-43,4 ; and1pyHemset 1 4. phr 03 sp mj3wn''&andNekhb6t rdi 149,6-11;'94 13-19; 6-7H 266,15-267,7 Horus VII 51,8-52,11 the'only -

hr bt IV 151,6-152,6; sw'b mA

k3p ritualwherepurficationby incens'e soemphasised; is 203,13-204,15,

.VII Horus Hathor and

'In all of thesecases treatment the incenseis the same.The king holds a vessel 0, the of

in his


left hand- in which would be charcoal produce flame the to 0 is shownplacing into it either M which the king

andon this aregrainsof incense XI [compare 282 lower

d******6* or

his registerwith 279]. If the king is not physicallyaddingincense right handis raisedin adoration is [pl.13b].Alternativelyandmorerealisticallythe vessel held on the endof an arm andhandshaped censer(the vesselwould probablyhavebeentoo hot to hold) and the incenseis droppedinto it in [pL22b].Eventhevariants incense offering textsconformto these methods burningthe incense. of five One text labelled'presenting grain-of

to Osiris showsthe Ung holding a tray

H 99,16-100,6 plAOj. and

The ritual is alluded to throughoutthe temple,incensebeing the sip -of god's presence and a with him. snLr is not howeverusedin the recipesin the workshopvery mediumof communicating EY often: 1b & 10 debenof freshincense usedin akyphi recipe11212,4; in makingxnr017 is uponthe branches a tree - showing of

areusedH210,3 ; inan'ntyw recipe its origins H 207,3.6.

snir conformsto its usein earlierperiodsand the rituals seemratherstaticwith little attemptmade 'makedivine!while the priestly form of the rite, its connections to pun on sntr 'incense! with Upper Egypt= kingshipand the right to rule of the king seemto be the most importantaspectof the rite., It could easily be usedto fill up wall space, of wassuitablefor any god and because its naturelost the sacredness the rituals in the temple.It also occurs in the mortuary ritual 'offering of none of qbtw snir libation and incense!vet qbhW.


to fear, beafraid Wb IV 182Q) to 183Pyr. DG 440 - 74 CN47r"

Cr.346b; CED156; KH190

Uncommonat Edfu : Horusputs fear in the heartsof thosewho seeyou , peopleon earth
-64i i's lk

they are afraid at seeingyou IV 208,8. %>`=*

sn1j,sndt fear
Wb IV 183(4) to 184(14)


snd is usuallyusedwith the geni tivus objectivus(snjj.k fear Of You)andit is the mostoftenused word for fear in Egyptian texts. Its useshave been widely discussed(see summaryin LA 11 Furchtwith references]. col.359-367 Ile word is usedin both of the formsrecordedby Wb and is usually spelled 4P be occasionally written in full. Object of certainverbs wd. f souls of Re ir (L:, but can I * in foes(amulet)199,14 ; wd. n (L: - to limits IV 10.3 44-' -, =:* in the heartsof

n bm.f sp 4 VI 336a ; the uraeusrdi

V--in heartsof men love in belliesof women'V 337,18. VI 337,3; Hathorrdi (! men , to spjLr 'cause go round! 289,11. shpr : cloth shpr. n. s UW PILr 131,5. phr the heartsof the rbyt VI'293,12. ib. k IV 203,10; landsare united V'D IV m br peopleon earth H 42,7. VI340,10; Horusisn-" 1127,2 1 ' hr nlrw beforethe gods1293.12 Irt YWcloth doesthis also I

v--- phr h3swt 1184,2-3 1181,4

Without verb : all landshLr 205,6

m rww-Ory-ib H 43,3

In epithets: '3-snd falcon geni 31,3.8 wr-snd : Horus VM 90,13; 1138,4. nb-snd: the god Menhi is K-0 &:5'

IV 240,17. VI 115,34 foestremble IV 58,8.

With prepositions the heartof the foe sinks In a different use the heartof god drivesaway &*the foe "", O -, t- CX3 -:?

(atef offering) ; in a pun Stb 111192,15 IV 323,3.

Fear is causedby seeingthe Icingin his clothesor crowns (thus this is a reward for the Idng in in incense to placesis compared the smellof incense pervading offerings offeringsof thoseobjects); the fear of the king in the landsand it is an emotionfor beingsinferior to the king and godsso that the
0S. 1=71 1. 'L. A I 4: Icing'

hasno fear VIII 153,3.It is a tool usedby the king and gods to

im des Elemente Schreckens Alten'Agypten [Yole Zaniolo de Vazquez-Presedo subjugate people , Diss. Gottingen, 1958].


CIA , cloffin%


Wb IV 185(7-8)GR to sndt seems be a later form of the OK word snd (Wb IV 181,18):a list of items for a festival includes CT 109aand t in' Urk 1296,9 (CoptosDecree); the beautifulwest is dressed is usedfor a sail Pyr 661c[c E FECr 1155 n.8]. zp-

The GR textsusesnd asa word for cloth usedto clothethedivine imagesin cloth offering textsand to thosewho seeit to fear the god or the underlyingimplicationseems be that this snd cloth causes king who wearsit It is not clearwhethersnAAcloth is a word inventedin thesetextsfor precisely . it bon-owing useof theearlierterm. this purpose whether represents Later a and or In mubt rituals : swr &*, Vfyt n.k the cloth increases awe of you 1 126,17; -in the Myth , 014 of Per-werto wearVI 218.5-6; Horusis wr 4j

V`1 Horusreceives er- (!


andlord of

iryw cloth VII 158,12; mnbt is called (V'12 n nb

VII 99,13.

1bere is a particularform of this cloth : sndt.n. Shmt : the bodiesof the godsare clothedwith (L* %P 0 0 it is the 318,14 VII work of the rbty VII 260,12 ; the king brings




in his handsV 247,14

f' ,o *2r '15'*r Am 40 J. 1W. d%


The IV 289.4.

term is also widely usedat Dendera:D HI 180,16;DH 102,3-4; 120,6and Philae<2997>Phot 863. This cloth may inspire even more fear in thosewho seeiL The word is commonin mnbt texts. offeringsat Edfu but not outsidethese III-II


Fearsome one Wb IV 185(6) GR

Sndt is an epithetof Hathorat Edfu andat Dendera reflectingher role as the fierce.lionessEye of Re: e '%N ZTI S Plum Lady of Imatl 330,10; 14 MD 11147 ab.


to settle fix ,
Wb IV 186(19) to 187(26) to rest. sit MK

makesthe Causativeof ndm with the nuance'to be comfortable'(ndm be sweet),the s-causative meaning'to makecomfortable' I Intransitive :-44 [c 'sit or settle!uponsomething L Kuhlmann,Thron p.44 n.5].

%=- you sit 1124,14

tne wn amenosition introaucine iniace


-whis brow IV 70,8-9: Or: bas Pj4AP

I sit in the right eye VI 244,10; Sakhmet

m wpLf sits on

May the gods sit there, saysRe VI 324,5-6. Or bjjA sit upon the pylon VIII 111,12.

imyt : Lady of Dendera

foes 118 (32). Transitive Horus

imyt wpt. f 1554,6; noblelord

m-br. k and drives away

nfrt br sts m nt I make the White Crown sit upon its place in the

Redcrown VI 186,16. X= 'sitting': the pylon is

the falcon when he comes from the place of sitting of

heaven VIH 92,17. In puns, Isis is Sndmt it hnt Msn V 77,16. 0 Wb IV 187,27alsorecordssndm 'chair, seae(E.Piehl 79 andNaophVatic.1 right Gewand- only C .91

). thesetwo refs.

sndm t

epithetof Hathor Wb IV 188(1) GR

Wb notes that at Dendera sndmt is a name for Hathor (seeBeleg for references)and at Edfu it is also appplied to this goddess but in different aspects: sistra text , Wrt joins called My IV 147,8 ; WIst-Hr is and they are

who protects 'Club Bearer' IV 294,5 and guards Osiris IV 277.7 ; in a mirror offering, Isis is

(dw3-nLr) ; Khent - Iabet

snjLm.t bnt Msn V 77,16. Literally it must be 'one who is installed' referring to the Miroirs the and goddess the uraeus as who sits andwatches protects king who wearsher [c f. Husson, p.84 n.10 and 1].


to make pleasant Wb IV 185(10)to 186(18)Pyr.,

Causative ndm I)e sweee used Edfu,mostoftenin thephrase the sndm-idt'make sweet of also at fragrance incense)'theking P4J, (of : H idt for thegodsH 43.9-10 for his majesty 201,12 ; ;

Place disk for theEnnead 1135,12 for goddesses - for thewinged H 217,1 for theGreat 10 ; ; . 1200,10.


With otherdirect objects

Il all godswith fragrance 217,6 the king


Wrt with the makepleasant

the scentof myrrh 1419,9 ; goddess

sadheartsH 15,0

hearts priestswith reverted of offeringsIV 331,13; the flood

nprt lands111100,5.

Theverbis usedmainlyof incense fragrances metaphorically theactionof theflood on the and and of fields.


Sethian animal -SW


1 .1:."

A turtle slaying text hai: hqt m tbtb

n wn 'the turtle is slain and Seth doesnot

into the wateror exisf 1114,14 hapaxhere, perhaps referringto the turtle asa creature who 'settles' mud.


hair Wb IV 191(3-4) and(5) Lit MK, Late Cr.353b; CED160; KH194 C-1p

The exactnatureof sr is disputed but it is something consistingof hair - whetherit is a tressof , hair, a wig madeof hair or animalhide [F6 2351. Edfu the word occursoncein the Myth : Horus At 1 612i k7 I)eautiful are your adornments "U of giraffe haie [seeJEA 29,1943p.7 n.k].


Wb IV 189, AnLex. 78.3660

sr is presumed to be a word for giraffe, since the giraffe sign is used to write sr 'to foretell'. Wb had no examples of the word used independantly , but since then, Meeks noted: CT VH 52 r list of animals which [FECT M 34 n.9 'perhaps a miswriting of sr ram] ; and at Edfu ,a

perform for Hathorin a sistraoffering , include

IV 301,2.GR texts may havemade

'giraffe' so that a certainexatnpleat Philaeis, 3by the samepresumptuion that sr was pantherandgiraffe PhilA1269,3andc f. Phill Il 5,32.


to foreteR, predict Wb IV 189(15) to 190(17) Pyr


DG441,4 cC C4) P

442,1 and 2 todistribute, let loose 1/4 possibly the sameas CED 160 and q.v. sr 'to show' below

The connection of the giraffe with this action is most likely due to the long neck of the giraffe which enables it to see things from a great distance. It reacts to what it seeslong before those at a lower vantage point are aware of them and particularly if danger approaches,it predicts the coming events [c f. LA 11600-6011. Gods have the ability to forecast those things which have not yet happened: Harsomthus nn iws who foretells what will come before it has come VII 133,18 iw. s who tells what will happen V 233,6 ; Thoth .... 4", his warship -the proclamation of a future event VI 62,9-10 ; '* iw

bpr r-dd ii n

umt n ]Vr the going of Horus to also VI 263,5-6 [for other gods

Otto GuM p. 149 and c f.p.20]. In thesecasesthe act is not necessarily magical or mysterious but it , the king or god to be in control of future events [for sr fit epithets see Graefe, shows the ability of Garantender Zukunft p.59-661.

the With the generalmeaning'to announce! in a metaphor, soundof oars is lik e heralds : f life in Behdetfor everVIH 161,8. 80.5-6; gods '4siL. '03 proclaimingwar VI %= proclaim sr. nfrw 'proclaim good things: god appears festival VIII 23.10*.whenthe king appears eldersto I135,1-2; Horus at his

nfrw of godsand rekhyt H 59,7 ; Horuscauses

9! _- 11, of of the king in lands1187,11.This is doneat the appearances a god or king

implies the impartingof informationby someone who is reputable wise for example and godsor and above).Similary sr-sndproclaim fearis usedasa synonymfor sphr'spreadaround!: eldersasused '%qr sndk in the landsand in the GreatGreenH 43.3 ; '%? a goddess L J sind. to the limits k

way of letting peopleknow thingsin advance. the world 1168, is an unmagical of

sr. bl3

proclaimmarvels Wb IV 195(5) epithetof Min = srpt

Yoyottediscussed collectedall examples known to him of this epithet - it is a tide of Min Erom and GR textsonly and is analogous his other titles of md3 and nww WE 9,1952 pp.125-131. to At Edfu sr-b13 occursoften, of Min: jg--jy-j -3 56,8-10; nfr of Punt 1185,6-7;,a JJrXu--j wr of Punt 1399 ;P nfr 11

'Mj of Punt Il 202,13-14; of the king



Im Desert1110,13; nfr of the Eastern Imr. , a0 .


of PuntI 1% " 'a of Punt HI 273,2 ;a titulary for Min of Coptos, the king is s3 IV -readywith his weapons

I. ' of Punt1425,12-13

111276,7-8 the god of the 4th LE nomeis also ;

24,12-14; in a bow andarrow text Horusis 3) 'Nm ,


Yoyotte suggested originally thephrase that referredto bi3w as the exoticproductsof Punt: a text A"%% ' mjqq III) of May (Amenhotcp Qb in of Punt Sinai211 and this was developed GR*,-

textsto apply to Min . thegod of thedesert its resources heknowswheretheyareandcanfind and them.He can also be an archerso that sr-bi3w hasan addedconnectionwith warfareand so the is expression usedin a bow andarrowofferingandalsoof Amun in the4th LE nome.


drum tambourine singlemembrane , Wb IV 191(6-9) D. 19, GR

A skin or hide is stretched over a frameor jar andis thenstruckwith a stick or the handto produce its sound.Tambourines, held in the handcould be round or squareand accompqnied dancers and in singers.This type of instrumentis first represented the time of TuthmosisIII (Rekhmire)but of the two types- the roundoneis usedmostoften in funeraryscenes religiousceremonies while and , [Vandier,ManuelTVp.381-2; Hickmann CGC Instruments du the rectangular type is for banquets , musique 110-111 p. with pl.79 and80 ; Ziegler,Instruments 71 ff. ]. Thi sr is the roundtambourine p. is for the determinative 0, andit maybe derivedfrom sr 'giraffe' whosehide wasusedto makethe , instrument.
At Edfu Z='P* jjrty 0 the two kites (Isis and Nephthys) play for you "=-

the drum 1204.14 (milk offering) ; also sb ... 106,7; DIH133,10; DVIII46,1; P.Br-Rhl, 5

D M 32,6 ; and most often at Dendera II funeraryuse.

The texeat Edfu also make use of the verb sr 'to beat, strike' (a tambourineor drum) Wb IV 191,101-2noted from D.22 and may derive from the nameof the drum or from the verb sr 'to proclaim'. the sound or proclaiming ceremony dance. a



goose,Anseranser L. Wb IV 191(17) to 192(4) OK srw 191(16) srt 192(5-6)


DG 442.6 is Ile identificationof sr asAnser anser the grey goose, generallyaccepted thoughthe term r3 , , to also seems apply to it [LA H 5041and they are notedin offering texts from the OK onward.The Nianchchnum 165no.58 andVandier, p. goosehasalsobeenidentifiedwith Anascrecca [Krichenke, They are shownbeing farmedin the tomb of Nefer [Manuel V Manuel V p.404 with references]. p.4071 kept for grease,meat and eggs. Their killing and offering to'the gods symbolisesthe destruction chaoticforcesand enemies. They seemto be especiallyslain to pacify Sakhmet or of : stp

pacifying Sakhmetwith their meatportions IV 343,12-13; sm3.n. nA 4 -c="o -%? V 65,1-2;s tf IV 342,7 ; the king r - 11 btr -li?! to V 224,12.

17hey offered in parallel with 0 fowl :0m are 0

dnb I 111.5 ; in an offering of

3?, these "' VH geese from the marshes 124,12; an offererbearerbrings0 from the rise bs 1565,10.17hey in marshareasand form part of live bring the

qbbw and c=w

the sacrificial offerings in the temple.One text refers to 'seizingfoes and s13

gooseand stuff food into its mouth!VI 88,7 - they would havebeenforce fed and fattenedto make betterofferings. As oneof the rituals of the templeat the festival the birds are setfree andin oneof theserites the ,
sr is used : di w3t n p3 44" '. -.Vol V 125,3.

The Edfu textsusethe word asa standard termfor a goose, not asoftenasr3 , thoughtheremaybe Ic, -7 and I=>, I i. an etymologicallink between . .


nobleman Wb IV 188(3) to 189(9) Pyr. DG 441,2 Z)1 J-4 CIQYP I?

Cr.371a; CED 168; KH 179

by English words 'official, noble,high born, prince [from The term sr can be translated numerous LeskoDLE M p.70] thoughoriginally a sr wasa rank markerwith specificdutiespertainingto that . that at the end of the fourth dyrAty the administrationneededto show the rank. Helck suggests his differencebetween peoplewho wererelatedto theking and shared ability to issuecommands the decrees and thosewho did not belongto the royal family but held 'scribal'office. Ile former and ,

- 1567

group were designatedsrw and the latter imi-st-'. The srw had the privilege of judging and punishing , so they were lords of the court and in the religious spherethere was a bwt-srw at A-4 Heliopolis.Ile role of magistrate particularlyclearin Peasant 43.98 [FCD 2351 is BI A-1

a who performiyt andnot Maat.In theNK srw hadbecome word for all 'officials, that is anyone, with the title 'royal scribe' to show they had come from the right scribal school [Helck in LA L 672-675].It is also a term to denoteofficials in chargeof stateoffices, not idthe temple [Helck, VerwaltungdesMR und NR p. 1361. Copticis usuallytranslatedeunuch! derivationfrom sr The and is unclear[Vycichl, DELC p.185-6] Most often the title sr is borneby Osiris at Edfu with variousdesignations following it. He is the , (perhaps in his capacity judgeandpunisher the dead)andtheleg of [I mainly sr par excellence as of 6 is kept as a relic at Oxyrbynchus 1342,16; he is LA in shrines the godsV 97.1 ; he is IAI of 1207,7-8; 1176,34 sr-wr Osiris :I "ie" m andruler of thosein the underworld1174,7 in earth and ity in the necropolis

in heaventj

andsolelord in the qbow 1208,2 : 1162,16. 258,13 It. in

Horus1160,2 ; 1161,13 ;4aH of WetJeset bnt ]Vwt-wtt.f 1311,4 ; Khonsuis

the GreatPlaceR 100,5 eI 108,2., sr-wsr 13

who risesin

Osiris who hasunitedhis limbs 11213,3 . V 193,10. in Heliopolis VI 157,7.

sr n 00: Osiris

Other godsas sr : Harsomthus Tr n Knmt VI 316,7; Aturn is

Osiris/Atumis sr in oWt-sr in Heliopolis,but manyothergodscanbe connected with it [seesurvey by-Kaplony in LA 11351Ffirstenhaus] is hippopotamus broughtto dismembered I VI 284,15; the king hasfounded

in the Heliopolite nome1333,11 ; the leg of the for Osiris VI 89,7 ; Hathor is lpst 13tin 1179,14; Osiris is lwn in 1203,7

by sr-Dilt a title of Osiris in GR texts and occurspassimat Edfu [first recognised Blackmanand Fairmanin AAA 25,1938 p.134n.6; Daumas,Mammisi p.330 nA , Winter, CdE 39 no.77 1964 t 414 41-43 ; Vernus,Athribis p.255 n.e] : the king is son of as he purifies funerary p. , offeringsVII 208,12; Horusis the child of nn-neferV 73,11; Nekhbetprotects andheir of We. IV 378A ; the crown of justification

in his temple111205,13 the goddesses it 41 11ANW protect ; brightensthe face of J4

VIII 119,13(at DenderaD 116,5 ; 107,12; 1442 ; 149,5;D III


153,8 ;D VIII 102,15). Khenty-Kherty, Horus at Athribis, is called living imageof VH 155,6. The title reflectstherightful ownership theWhite Crownby Osiris andWinter notesthat oftenthe of in the usualcrownof Osiris,andthe white crown areequated the title , especially UE so atef crown , their links with Osiriancults. templeshelpsto strengthen sr m3t title of Iloth usually , which occurspassimin Maat offerings (Wb IV 188,6GR) Isden 129,8 ; 1416,15 16 ; the king is imageof 117,4; sonof
Z: ]

143,10 ; 156,2 ; heir of

& T, is VU 254,15;once Horus ='who hates lies'VII 196,1.


to show Wb IV 190(20-23)MK cf KH 537 from s3r to introduceCr.330ato dissipate,to pervert CLJX -andpossibly

from sr'to fortell'(s ePabove) [Osing, Nom. 170and676n.755]. FauUmer that sr 'to show' also occursin Cr 1192 where the various writings of the term notes the scribesdid not know the meaning for it canbe spelledas if it weresr 'foretell'. but suggest O. A is correct.The verb is usedof 'showingthe way' [Cr 121la ; 404c] andof showingcrowns in [CT I 229d]. The giraffe sign can be a phonogram writings [FCET I p.39-40 n.3]. The verb may use well derivefrom srproclaim'as a secondary of it.
At Bershch H7 sr is used with m 'to show someone into' (FCD 235) and the verb also occurs at Edfu making the Coptic seem more likely : the Wrtyw gods IX 2,15' Wb cites E 1156 . but this is the title oAMin sr-bi3 wi3 'show the sun barque H withthe meaning 'proclaim' and

be 'proclaim 1.or show' and that the two nuances and spellings were easily showing that sr can

theyarereallyseparate words. conftsed- if indeed Also : Wien Wrez. 1112,9 no.20) . Of a place: BD 137 B4Aa bw nfr r gs.f "bring good things beside him (Ptol, Sarc. 7.5 R' ; Bershch'111 pt m-bt

.sr 'to le, . -area few examples There dsrt seems to b show' seems clear. wi m st wherethemeaning
justiflied,but the'Edfueunple not certain. is



plant a Wb IV 192(12) GR

Wb cites only H 208,2recipe for best 'ntyw

is used. Compare with earlier

from O.Tor.5762ro 5 whichcome into existence the day of drinking'and alsothe on MedicalBook p.147--'(;Ept; chicoryj. ' s3r (Wb Drog.423 unidentified plant; Reymond, word


to cause endure Wb IV 194(7-23)Pyr.

Causativeof rwd

the verb occursoften at Edfu, with partsof the body as object also Il 45,7 -,IV 58,6 holding the flail VI

"wy. k to smiteyourloes 1 69A 21,6 ; Isis Weapons: 452,11 Flame

Offerings : Buildings : king Maat :P -V


dt. k (of king for wadjetoffering) 1240,13. bgst m-s3 bdnw.k makerum the knife in your foes 1498,3-4 in his bonesH 74,7 ; &'*' I` ' I" lqwto bum foes1174 12.
n. f btpw upon the altar IV 48,12 -,sim. mnw. k 1160,9. 1173,13 ; protection IV, m t3 in your heart H 71,2.

also I

to slay the foes H 75,4.

VIH 163,16-164,1.

in The verb canbe easilyconfused with srd 'makegrow' andthe two musthavebeenpronounced a similar way which is reflectedin the spellingsof srd AA smw HI 169,4*,Horus,-, -IM ---

s3 (plant text) VI 253,7. It can be difficult to discern which verb is intendedand this ambiguityis mostlikely deliberate.


makerest , to rest Wb IV 197(5-9) NK, GR DG 443,1 Cr. 357a; CED 162; KH 196 C-p4e:, c-PO4"r

0 If' The Peasant 100 B1


'dasRuhegeben'[VogelsangKomm. p.93 -5-6] oi 'take

[FCD 236] is probablya MK example this verb (Wb IV 197 5 MK) whereit is parallel of s one! ease' breathein'. The 0 with nip'to (noseand face) shows it is a word of enjoymentand sign


tt" 401 happiness. Vogelsang Thoughthe word looks like a causative that postulated and havebeenthe V-' may unlikely. It may in ciL and thusthe root of it [oP. P-95.61 . this seems

fact come from srf 'warmth' implying that warmth gives a comfortablefeeling leadingto rest and relaxation. The word is usedat Edfu : of sitting on a chair or thronewun bik 49,10 ; in alliteration of s 1559,14. uponmy handsin procession Transitiveuse'makerest, sif (Late) : of crowns 11V the Red IV 371.17; the uraeus goddess I makethe White crown sit upon (h. r) Or sp3.k of Egypt 1539,8 the urazi , tr st.f I n. f

lmnt hnM iw.i m ON 'I make the right V AL IV 205,6. eyerest in me while I am the left eye (saysWadjet)VI 244,14; In the phrasesrf tkk 03 'makecalm the one who attacks'(after Cauville , Osiris p.121) : in the

Myth a gemdoesthis 4.1. 44,60 ; Goshen

VI 76,1 Horus ,

IV 379,13-14; also, Assoun ,

Ile usesof the verb areasusualbut it hasbeenbroughtinto the vocabulary coronation texts. of


be warm Wb IV 195(6-13)Pyr.

Adjective verb referring to the warmth of fever or fire - so it can have fairly widespread uses.It to be used at Edfu - though is not frequent.It seemsmost often to be used of 'warm' continues from earlier bread is attested (in the sense freshlyprepared) andsrf , usedto describe of offerings , , texts : Horus is contentwith 'your breadm. ftt'l VI 179.13; in the Abydosnome

its offerings are warm there is no loss of their smell V 112,7(sametext n wnb stysn

Mam.60,10; Opet 213) [Beinlich implies that this is the smell of incensein the offerings,but more likely to be the aromaof warm bread , SAK 7,1979 p.14-15] ; in btpw-nlrw offerings, god is called to come to lbtk ub my p.ti r I&- IC-AD 13 1 4 your warm food 1487,10-11; and an '3bt offering has 499.2-3 (Coll.- XII 362).. The, sense seems -C=0,01

the samebut the readingof the signsis not clear.


Wb IV 197(11-13)GR The t6resf uponthe land andthusderivesfrom srf 'to resC. termis srf is flood waterwhich comes commonat Dendera lessso at Edfu : hebrings and the igb flood goesover all mounds which comesfrom imbt R 242,10-11

over fields (3ht) 1582,8. washes


Wb IV 197 (14) GR

Wb'sich erlaben oA am Wind' - with only Edfu refs. The word occurs in the same phrase: libation water causesall kinds of food offerings to come into existence and 'you quench your thirst by them, live on them -w- lb J_ you the Sokar Chamber VA.T 1 XF m im. sn 1486,9 -E V &A.. 'T1F1m. 1377.3 ; in sn

1210,13. The phrase may be 'you rest on the wind by

by for them'i. e. you sail on the wind - meaning breathes them,as a metaphor life andwith srf one deriving from srf 'to resf .


beercontainer Wb IV 196(16) Med.

In a beer offering, Nephthys is the Great Beautiful One


Ira II

1 V-5 -6

w ho make srf pots

and shp pots (of beer) V11281,14. The latter vessel is mentioned also in 1459,14- 15 , but srf is not in W16. An indication of the meaning of the term may come from P.Ch.B. M rt. 7.4
dh M %-

translated 'warmbeee[notep.16 nA] thussrf may be a vesselfor specificallywarm as ,

beer, for warming beer or fliewarrn beee itself. At Dendera in a p3-mnw offering the king brings .

mnw pots and


CD 11175,7-9 the following text is damaged so it is unclear whether ,

this is the pot or its contents. P'Z-471to InEbers463 (W'b Drog 456 and 470-1) may be the heatedcoIndition in n sdr

liquid is workedwith the drug- but the dterrninative(4-suggests somethinglikea vessel which sdr for the fire is intended here.Ibis couldbe thepredecessor theEdfu tenn. of


makeyoung, rejuvenate Wb IV 198(6-22)Late, OR

Causative rnpi usedoften in appropriate at contexts Edfu of ,


Of partsof the body: Chamber

Odw.k (bones)with ointment 11212,17-213,1 geni in the Sokar ; 1193.11 JA 4'w. k by a cow with her milk 111 151,4-5.

dt 'body': greeneyeof Horus-\ Icing -j Of the moon:Pj*

himself a child doesthis for the 1555,12; Harsomthus, dt-f 1317,9. tp hrw 30 renews

dt. k 1572,12 Hathor -jP 'n-' JA,

1249,4 ; he restsin Ankhet and Dr I

himselfeveryon the 30thday IV 40,12. Pf The flood renewsitself 1567,12; Sopdet Osiris IV 99,13.


lotusleaf Wb IV 195(2-3)NK DG 442,8 >I! ) 4

Cr.356b; CED161; KH195 C-4PITOT ff. from a srpt is the later form of s3pt (Wb IV 18,5-6and LA 1111091 ). This spelling is attested love poem Harris 2,7-8 t3y. f C1

72.1 A k#Ke his lotus

; at Edfu a list of plantsincludes

=- .5-

13 (; )


sgnw leaves of lotus VI 200,2 it is clear here.


dime Wb IV 200 (3-14) D. 18 oft GR

framewith a designof recessed Ile Horusnameof theking written in a rectangular panellingat the from early dynastictimesandthebuilding shown which encloses king's name bottomis attested the . (that is the personof the king) , is most likely, to be his palace,and its copy for the afterlife - the The tomb or cenotaph. word for this structure 6 is not, however,attested until the 18thD. when

into morecomplexdesignations the king. He is seenas the Horus f igure it becameincorporated of became word for the dime of the standing uponthe serekhfor all the living to seeandthusserekh a Grammar 72; LA IV 647]. king [Gardiner, p. At Edfu the serekhsip itself can be written with varying degrees complexity 7be most usual of . phrasein which it occursis Horus or the king are br/tp srh bnt k3w 'nbw (dt) 'upon the serekh beforethe living kas forever' :2 IV 3.11 ;e 5- #: % ,V4,8 VI 15,18 :io @ IV 329,15 ; ; VI

123,15 (shownelaborately thus , but needscollating)


292,4. The kin9 or faleon 270,2; 13 -, 0- mm er 'standuponthe serekW


VI 271,11;P0 V 27,14.


142,9 ; bry-tp srb 1154,18; t'

Various : Horus is lord of his office hry in not carved)VIII 33,12 and n.2 ; Dr years br VI 277,6. E]

V 9,13


VIII 52A ; the king shinesfor thousands of

As the examplesimply srb has becomea word for 'throne' upon which the king sits and rules. Kuhlmannnotesthat this useof the word is illustratedfrom the 18thD. wherethronesof kings are block throneswith palacefacade decoration their sides srh hasto someextent shownas square on . had its meaning changed it is further noteworthythat it is from this time that srh is spelledout and fully for the first time and that the bwt thronealsocomesto prominence [KuhlmannThron p.60-61 that with TEI]. It seems at this time therewasa growinginterestin the hallowedinstitutionsof the for example, were past and that the bwt-mortuary complex and the srb palace and cenotaph incorporated thekingshipdogmato showlinks with the ancient into deliberately pastasa revivedand. threadin the kingshipto give a link with the pastand makeit morelegitimate.It is this continuous aspect srb which the Ptolemaictextsemphasise the original meaningmay havebeenlost and it of is striking how often the word hasto be spelledout, but it is a word denotingthe legitimatekingship of andthe transmission theoffice from ancienttimes. It is thus usedin parallelwith other words for 'throne!especiallyas one_ the variantsin the texts of
which use the formula 'king upon throne' : 9 V 167,16 ; 175,6 vii


VII 280,2.Also : the falcon at the templeis ]Vr.'3 4r


263,9andpl. 154showsthe falcon sitting in a boothupona marvellouslydecorated ; theking is srb ruler m . c=p 0 1152,17-53,1 Il 40,16also,the m suggesting that srh is remembered ; IV 52,14 ; the king is in the cult

upon the as a building , perhaps throneroom ; the king is established upon


as of the royal ancestors ruler


P,co"' M 146,6 ; the god sits upon

barque 165,15 ; Horus is in Thebes is nb

-0 in TbebesVIH 6,9 and 10 ;

195,6 ; Amun C-3

ga kt--

VII 303,6 ; VII 291,6 ; the king shows himself upon

on.his dais VI 93,12.



to awaken Wb IV 200 - 201 (10) Pyr.

Causativeof rsi 'to wake' thoughtranslated 'to take command (FCD 237) and infrequentat as of , Edfu : Lisa sayson receivinglibation water an. m 3bw.k I take commandof the best of

des your good things' [Vandier, je garde1essentiel paroles'RdE 16 1964p. 13211503,13 (Coll. Horusthe elder pl.363) ; in the SokarChamber, I, n nLrw lie takescommandof

by your headfor the gods'1221,18(not translated Junker,Stundenwachen n.6) pAI May you wakeme 1214,9 [Junker,Ts bewachen dich die basvon Heliopolis'op. ciL p.101]. Intransitive: Osiris


in in ttp awakens peace1221,13.


Wb IV 198(4) and(5) NK, GR

In the Onomasticon Amenernope listed amongwordsfor sky, earth,wateris . 6, oi , var. for a designation a tract of water (AEO 16 *]. Otherwise

the word is known from GR texts,at Edfu in a Nile procession oneof the wordsfor the flood is , which poursfrom the leg 1321,15; andin a si4ar text at Dendera. MD 179,3.


to to cause breathe to breathe , Wb IV 201 to 203 (10)

to The earliestuseof srq Pyr.1158, seems mean'to inhale but it hasthe underlyingnuance 'to of with Ptyt / i0ty can be 'to causethe throat to breathe''to open the and when compounded open' throae.At Edfu srq is usuallyusedin this epithet,which is appliedmainly to Horus: he is Lord of Life 1155.2* N=NVIII 10,1'4 11=6 V 259,5

VIII 31,13 in the 17thLE nome .

A4. A

IV 3'1,8 he does n bw-nb'for everyone4P this ;

'3bt offering VH 207,3 jz,, a VII 196J. '

19,17;V 262,16 ;V 146,15(h offering) 390,11; myrrh offering IR 41,2 ; MAat


Ile openingof the throatis a sign of life - so in receivinglife, Horus FU Homs in Maat texts,as sheis the throat,the phrasehasaddedsignificance,



m 'nb 1117,9; basalso -+ 3:W

(incense text) 1382,13 ; as the breathof life, Horus sn m OnD V 388,14-.

of his beloved(king) 1113(9) ; sim.

life Air is themain'means openingthe throatandby breathing is ensured:Horussends wind of (Maat) 1371,16; Amun 'a wind god JW
81,5 ; Horus creates air to

containingsweetair I
VIR 9,8

11167,16 (column texts) ; Horus sends air to ,a 30)

Onuris holding up the sky (an air god)

n. f ibty 1314,12 ; on a column , Horus

V 276,9. As a visible sign of air, incense also 'opens the throaf i

2V0 to offered 34=,, open your nostrils 196,10 [see Otto, GuM for examples from GR temples p.52-3 and 149-1521. Various: Hathor U#P of the btpyw (dead people) VI 136,5 ;a genhis called (A

4; 1293,1';
incense is

he who opens the heart of Khepri 1198,6. In later texts srq is used with different objects and it has the clear meaning 'to open'. 71tis suggests that this was always the underlying nuance of the verb and that the Egyptians say srq 'open' to mean 'inhale!. Tbus w3 tI have opened the way of heaven 1564,12 ; also 3V -A -D VIII

89,11; of a door 30 1- m3ht of the Placeof the Two gods1346,3 (also D <4496>parallel to sY
--41-. cz; b e '"

n. k sb3w nw d3t).

The scorpion determinative is used from the 19th D. Originally the sign is a mutilated human torso, showing the arms waving before it [Lk V 830-3 and Gardiner in PSBA 39,1917 p. 36 ff. ] Pyr. I 158a I receive the breath of lii'P for himself - clearly 'breathe', with the determinative 0-N n 3wt-ib 'he inhales joy Gardiner takes srq to be 'to open'

(after Piehl, RT H -1880p. 128) [PSBA 39,1917 p. 35 'to open or the like] and compares a sceneon a 19th D. stela from Copenhagen where a brp-srqt holds a wrt-bk3w before his lord and wand

the opening of the mouth [Piehl op.cit , perhaps a complementary ceremony of the wp-r3 performs I.


to slay , openup Wb IV 204 (11-13)GR Xo KH 558 ',but CED 242 from Semitic Cr.562b cC WJ


Wb has only Edfu references,and this use of the verb is most likely from srq lo open' showing that at this time, this was the meaning of the verb. srq in these contexts is 'open up , rip open' and so Id4 'kill'. In alliteration of s: the king is sbi n Sbmt 111 130,6 ; Horus spd. k r ready to open up (and kill crocodiles and hippopotami with his harpoon) VI 239.1. With foes as object: Hapy and sm3) 1288,3 'a bftyw 1169,10 ;A -C=21. f 1309,18 ; the oryx is I '=' rkyw. A Iwntyw (parallel to w

before Hathor 111146,5-6

as a falcon Or

brtyw. f and tastesthe tasteof his entrailsM 179,6. JLtbellies' IV 286,5; sharpclawsof the falcon Ibw of thosedisloyal to him H 55,3. 53,10-11; he is content -J b da

Partsof the body : the lion --0- 4 -f, rkyw4b 1434,12; Horus A

2P (sm3) and exultsmP 'c: 4V As a noun : Horus rejoicesat slaying with 4H 65,16-17.


scorpion Wb IV 104,1-3

At Edfu srq is an epithet of Isis : sheis PFj is fever-snake 120,7*,Renenet VII -OW H 284,2-

who drives away reptiles and the


canal. Wb IV 204 (7-9) and(6) NK, GR

Mts the word c-->'d Ile Hood onomasticon

IN .4 I C. .C=M'* and r1k A


-r= 7SL

61 1.7 ; but othertexts haveinstead and Gardinersuggests fonner is the

-r 'S'J) Ow ISLI ,

to to be the semiticword for'snow' [AEO 16 *1.Whatever intended appears be a body, was srq meant of waterhereand GR textsusea word srq for thepehuof the 8th LE nome(WadiTumilat area). At 75-=Z MD I 66b 19 but it is written -c be c3m P 4r 3= Denderathe term shouldreally =4o , , , CM lrn-IV 28,5.Ile areamusthavebeenan importantwaterwaybecause a list 1332,7 in -*3w Horus, there is w3d-wr Yn-wr and U72.6; thisis of such pehu under the control of repeated Kom Ombo at KO 180.93 and Philae <2067>Phot 946.7le P42'E. and nb r3-hwy

by reasonfor its inclusionis suggested a further Philaetext : Osiris is '=7

Seawhile the Heroonpolitenome is 868. The r3-h3wy lead to the Mediterranean <3027> Phot.


it situated overWadiTumilat whichleadsto themodemSuezcanalandBitter Lakes- soin a sense is link a furtheroutlet of the Nile, it is the eastern of theNile with the greatouterocean [c f Gauthier DG V p.43 andDG V 127I-srq only from GR textsandPithomStelaline 10 = Urk H p.90 whereit is the link between Kmour (in'lsmailaih Lake) and the Red Sea canalrestored Ptolemy11 by the ,a into so that it leadsfrom theNile andempties theRedSea].


a fish An.Lex. 77.3727 78.3685 and

In the SokarChamber,srq is a fish genie Athribis 139'n. 2].

0 1,2

-'comments Vernus, 1197,10[see of

srqtyw --mBefore an offering procession, Horus gives the king )- 4 carrying their produce IV



causeto grow Wb IV 205 (1-12) Pyr

Causative of rd 'grow'. not to be confused with srwd Of plants, Horus libation text, Horus
--+t-. C=W

III 169A ; HorusrUler of jr6encry smw -ev ago-

VI 2533

3hw UtsloIV 218.15 ;r P*N sht. k 1112,13 flood water pours W %0

out r


1318,3. 13w to plant seedin this earth VI 173,5; also

Of children: Khnum, makeseggs L3w bnt NjLm-'nb 111262,13-14.


type of cloth
Wb IV 193 (5) Ritual NK, GR

In the Abydos Ritual the king brings p 4h




for the pbwy of the god Tabl. 7 (Mariette)and III

0 -=P Y

the word is usedmore generallyat Edfu, wherein an idmi cloth offering, Horusgives to the king 131,14.





Wb IV 207 (6-7) NK, GR

The earliest example is from SaIlier IV vsA, I where it seemsto stand for a drummer, as the context P ra r1k is a procession or parade (Caminos LEM 346-7]. Ziegler descTibes as a drum

(similar to the NK barrel drum) but of smaller size [RdE 29,1977 p-203 ; Catalogue des Instruments p.71 ; Hiclanann , CGC Instruments p. 108 n. 1]. Ile word occurs twice at Philae : it is forbidden to *rU -""- in the temple <1299>Phot4OO; and <397> (Junker, Abaton p.21 and p.31]. sh ra CC54 W

In the Mammisi at Edfu the sevenHathorscelebrate and AI the metaphor, soundof the harpoonstriking Sethis like al


M. 32,16andat Edfu, in a (the soundof) a drum in the

handsof a child VI 61,13 [for this spelling seeJEA 29 p.6 n.f ; and note on the tabooof playing , drumsin the templein MDAIK 16,1958p.277 n. (n)].


mineral for amulets Wb IV 208 (16-18) MedL

71be term puns on the word shr 'joy, make happy' and the evidence suggestsit is a term for a green gemi-precious stone, used to make amulets and in medicine. It came from Wadi Natrun, mountain quarries and Elephantine [Harris, Minerals p-130-11.AtEdfu the stone is used to M the wadjet eye:


shr-ib ims I)e happywith ie VM 137.14= Phill 1107 (12) ru



make content Wb TV 207 to 208 (15) MK DG 444,12 shr II kF/4

Causative of hr, at Edfu the term is always used in the compound expression shr-lb as a term for 'rejoice be happy' or sim. : in the pun filling the eye with shr mineral G11, & IM.S be happy , , nLrw 110 cols 5 and 8

by it! VIII 137,14 ; and often in the nebty name of the king

ra-& t3wy who makesthe Two landshappyIV 12,4.


to punish, to curb ,


Wb IV 209 (6) MK [Caminos, Tale of Woe p.62 n.10-11]. Causative hd and usedof curbingthe might of enemies of , it ThoughWb hasno GR examples is usedat Edfu : Horus sm3yw (of Seth)VI 286,17 affil 4: QI the king hr sm3y.f VI 288,1(both driving the calvestexts)'; also , the bull r; mrrkyw. f VIII 63,1.

chapel Wb IH 464 (3 - 21) Pyr. DG 445,2

As the sign ffi

Ileasta temporarystructurewith a showss was originally perhaps tent or at a

centralsupporting pole which heldup a covering'ofmatsor the like [GG 0 22 openboothsI upported for by a pole]. It waserected funeraryceremoniesit wasa meeting placefor councilsandcouldalso , The templedescriptions st in this way throughout the refer to the individual roomsof temples. use
texts, in particular to refer to the chapels around the sanctuary: spellings M'C`733, IV 5,6'; '


ng IV 6,3;

IV 6,5,0,

M-. IV 14,6; N-

in ihe Two'Shrine Rows nbw


Ma e- C3 IV 13,1 ; the first Sokar Chamber is I. I,,. ^1

180A ; the Mesen chamber is' 1"421 1 of the s3b-iwt in the temple 1350,5-6 -1 (Room 25) 1303.2 M
C-3 'r


Belidet 1228,6 ; the priests open the doors of

MC", 3rsy. i3bt "TM

-3'* 'nNC lot


m-gs 13btt m'WLst-kir

13b n mh3y are in MC, -3 tt M P3 vj

beside the east of the sanctuary 1302,9 ipn br itrty (Room 21) 1 120,4; fn in their -courtsVII'12,4-5 of the ennead

n'Msn nt nLrw nirwt are'm'arked out VII 6,1 gods

Mesen on the'axis is LL3


the first

chamber VIT 13,1. It can also be the sanctuary or temple itself wr-nht 118 (40). v

of Horus is wr

the creatorgod lives The role of the st is then as a smallershrinearoundthe main sanctuary where in this respectis the primeval templecomplexwith the creatorin the centreand the othergods and aroundhim. sh-nir hall of god Wb Ul 465 (1-13)Pyr. for boothmadeof light materials erected specificfunctionsduring Originally st-nir wasa temporary barque a festivalsof the gods,but by the 18thD. wasusedto refer to the templesanctuary, sacred the


shrine or way station and also it is a synonym for Pwt-njr. GR texts use it to refer to individual rooms in the temple and this may also have been the case earlier. It does not survive in Coptic [Spencer,Temple p. 114 ff. ]. At Cynopolis the god!s relics are kept in naming the temple sn In F73 and IM and Anubis is the hnty-st-njr W 1342,11 ; in

is Mesen, Great of Might, Place of the Two Gods 1358,16 ; the R its shrine is bwt-sbm V 347,5 ; 3wt-opt is the

temple of Dendera is T3rrt name of lull

of Harsomthus V 347,6.

In funerary texts from the earliest periods so. nLr of Anubis was a room in or part of the Valley Temple complex which also included the purifying hall and the cult place 'Sais'. The building was presided over by a female deity (at Giza Hathor who becamethe Goddessof the West in the NK) and was located near the entrance of the Valley temple , so that originally it was a kind of entrance hall. Here the main embalming rituals took place [H-AJtenmuller, JEOL 22,1971-2 p.305-3171.The place is also mentioned at Edfu in a text for presenting the adze of Anubis to the god he rules M in , fT ncl St-wrt IV 275,17 and raises up Osiris who is in the god's hall IV 276.8. One of the chambers at Edfu may have fulfilledthis role , perhapsthe Sokar Chamber Onty-sb-nir M sh n pr. lnb In the festival at Edfu, one of the places visited by the god is C-3 I q.v.). A3 V 132,2

V 135,9-10 also where rites for the day are performed. Alliot read this as so n 'nb-t3wy [Culte R that it a miswriting of pr-'nb [P.Salt 825 p. 102ff. l. In view of the p.530] , but Derchailn, -suggests fact that magic books are recited at this place they may well have been kept here for the ceremony and evidence from the P.Salt suggeststhat thesewere rites associatedwith the House of Life.


counsel advice , Wb IH 465 (17) to 466 (6) MK KH210

so is usedat Edfu in epithets.The spelling with

(and similar) indicates not that the sb ,

shrineis connected with the action of the verb but simply that due to the samepronunciationthe sign wasusedto write sb 'counsel'. iqr-sO.: ng in incense libation texts is -ki, 'q3-m-sh : king like lboth as a ritualist is 'q3 m 4 I Tj 111181,15. beforethe Two ShrineRows V 57,5.



mnb-s Aing causesthat Q-



IV 354,16; god inBehdet'"M'

III el happy with Maat IV 249,7 Horus

the counsel of the king is excellent 1524,5.

c,,, " Infrequentlythe word is usedalone: Thoth asvizier 11A)] ryl inscribes adviceIl 16A. The word is usedto emphasise competence thosewho perform rituals, for by knowing sb the of , theyknow how to actproperlyin thepresence god. of

makeglad Wb IV 211 (5-11)NK Causative h. andoccursoften in templetexts It is mostlikely a reduplicated form of the earli of ' ier . s' (Wb IV 211,14 MK) thoughin practicethereis no differencebetweenthem.The spelling seems'toread b" on the groundsthat and the 'The J is extra. earlier s4' hasless

to emphasis the root seems meanmorelike 'praise. greet'an actionby the performerof theaction as
towards the object , rather than 'to make glad! being the actor bringing about some emotion in the

All linkedhowever. objeCt. aresemantically At Edfu in the form st' m makeglad with: ....... 109,17-18 cloth text ; scent11'36,18 at the fes6al it. f m his foes 1273,15 ; Intyw text ' basof the godsV 17,12. greeneye of HorusI nirw with their


foodproducts c f. Wb IV 212 (16) GR

A derivationof stwi (Wb IV 212,6-15MK) which is usedasa collectiveterm for an assemblage or collection of things,rangingfrom a collectionof words (Adm. rto 1) to recruits (Urk IV 1820,18). With an appropriatedeterminativethis can becomea collection of food stuffs or producefrom
somewhere : the II th LE nome is brought with -Cr IV 3M


M-66,10; 4rJi it

DenderaDum.GI IVpl. 117; in the 3rd LE nomethereis wndw and M.65,5-6; the god # pw brings "1? field IV 47,6. -`0 of the'Shasef oil'

The determinative0

is underthe influenceof sDw(Wb IV 211.12'excrement').

by hasa further nuance, notedby Wb, but suggested Fairman[MDAIK 16,1958 p.89 not sbw also
1] In the instructions to priests they are ordered m 9sp -*--I n. . J) -A -Wrz. 11136 1.1
P- U


1% KO H 245,878;1 (2 %I

V 334A ; and also of the godsof the judgementhall (n) 9sp

P41E'D'-'311,7.This 'ItVI with the useof db3w. mustbe Toodgifts' asbribessynonymous sowi in general'collection' (Wb IV 212,6-1 MK) usedat Edfu only in the phrasem-sbw 'as a (twt)k'N, of group': the Ennead godsis assembled togetherto give praiseto Horus1402,9.


to make festive Wb IV 213 (8) to 214 (13) MK

A causative form of Ob 'be festive! from the word 4b for festival. It is often used at Edfu, especially in epithets :

sbb mndty 'makefestivethe eyes

-. 41--

in mirror offerings: Nephthys


qq 174,4

Hathor IV 389.6 ;I*.


Hathor V 275,16 ;


mnty VIII 4,7-8 ; Nephthys ZZ37

mnty (sistra text) 1101,14.

Partsof the body are madefestive : with amuletsor pectorals gnbt VI 133,8 132,13 also ; eyes with cosmetics ,

9nbt of his father1426,4 3bty 184,7

1420,5 ; the appearance the king -tz"-7 ib, the heartsof the peopleIV of w mnty with amulets 50.5. Buildings : incense r:;, pr. k 128,13; god "%M;; gs-prw with his beauties1353,4 ; places ' Mesen1110.13

Mesenwith smokeof sacrificesV 302,10: incense ]Vr-idbwy land with produce171.7. Altars vP at the festival timesIV 45,3 altars 1313,12

altarswith birds

VH 1164.6. for The word means makethingslook attractive- be it placesor peoplewith whateveris needed to be decoration it adornments offerings. or



from 13thhour of the day greetingis madeto a serpent in Onereference Wb : SokarChamber, ,



1210,6a cavernor hole (c E 4bbt and the root bb).



to , makereaw,


Wb IV 215 (2-8)Pyr. c.f. Coptic, C-WIM Cr.384b; CED 173derivesthis as 'causeto fall "overwhelm,pressdown'

from stm'to pound, crush'(Wb IV 215,9-20MK). At Edfu thecausative shm is usedoftenparticularlyin thephrase shm-nmt'tum awayfootsteps' of

(of foes):UN14
. -14-


L',.A 'n, n imyw-mw IV 211,10-11; t7z also VIII 34,13.

; of foesIV 374,8

n imyw-mw VIII 20,6

The verb takes foes as the object often with alliteration of s: ,

0 266- Al from the place 14

wherehe is 1188,5
-fe- 1--ti


sbiw r st-nirwy IV 106,16; also

wn. qd 1155,4

n.k nfyw 1293,2

11167,6-,the king 157 nbd -f5 1/1/

n.f ibw turns back the hearts'ofthe foe 1407,14.In a pun , not complete //// asa command Edfu guardian to godsVHI 147,12. with wordssuchasI&I for example. s4m,is synonymous


to pound. crush, destroy Wb IV 215 (9-20)MK

som is used in its strict technical sensein the workshop. It is Usedfrom the Pyramid Texts and is . the Coptic term noted above. With the pestle determinative it suggeststhe crushing is done by pestle and mortar [c L Breasted,PMdwin Smith p.340-1]. In the recipe for kyphi (ingredients) are ground up H 211,9,


PAx of bread Wb IV 216 (6) GR

includes A list of bread offerings

kind of warmbread bread or some perhaps

in cookedin a particularway VI 29,4(only this reference Wb).


officer Wb IV 218 (1-3) NK (4) Thoth DG 447,1 to commission

of derivedfrom the verbIto command'(WbIV 216) a causative bn (FCD 238).The epithetis A title


appliedto the king or a god. Wb notesthat in GR texts son can be appliedto Thoth , but in fact it evenin the NK examples quotesson is alwaysconnected with Thoth or his activities.In military titles from the 18th D. it is an attributeof scribesin the title sl-sbn 'scribe who writes commands for the army' [Schulmann, Military Rankp.161no.469 and470 also Wb IV 218,5-7] title also , ,a "' e [stelapublishedby R.Stadelmann, found in the Ramesside MDAIK periodTQ 32,1976,p.205-215especially210 n.121herea man belongingto the highestrank of the military administration.Scribeswho are s4n have the authority to 'command'or to be the instrumentof of commands whetherit is the military or in religioustermscommands the godsto the king. Thoth, , between godsandking so thetitle is connected the asthe scribeis the naturalintermediary with him , at MedinetHabu the king is (Thoth) MH 85,11 PI t't 61 ^L and goodof plans... like the counsels the moon of

like Mhy MH 27,22 ;a Ramesside stelaat Coptos, the king is

Or of all landswho adviseslike Thoth [Petrie, Koptospl. 18a] and more vaguelyin the AO-A 01 01 Harris Papyrus wherethe Icingis at the headof all landsandEgypt as of the whole AC*ZW7^ , P.Harris 75,10. Already the title is associated with Thoth in the religious sphereso it is not earth it shouldbe usedin this way in GR texts : as the Idng processes the temple,'god sees to surprising him -&*, s3 Pfo!, L2 Tg '-r* -uVI 240,7-8; or directly in presenting wd3t eye, the king is the qa-l IV76,2; alsoCDII 186.18 ; Nbattexts thekingis the secondof

147,1 ; the king smn Opw mi

MD I 73b; Seshat lboth and


CD VI 7,3 ;a fragmentfrom the templeat Assuanhas with him as Urk VM 86b.

264 (20) Khonsuis equated S"A

) accompanies wpti dicastes strategos the In demoticdocuments son (in Greek7rpovTtcrT71; the . judicial functions this time [Derchain-Unel Thot p.107-9andBoylan at who enjoyed andepistrates , Toth p. 196 ; tide in non-religious texts see discussion by W.Peremansand Van't Dack . , Hellenistica. Leiden, 1953p.95 - 104 : also Pestman Receuilde Textes 9, Prosographica Studia, . . d6motiques bilinguesR p.102-3]. et


to glorify Wb IV 219 (9) GR

Wb givesonly one ref. : in praisingthe greatPlace, the king

st-wnp m Ow sp-sn H


34,7. Most likely to be a caus'itive hn rovide' of


for structure Min andAmun WbIV218(10-11)D. 18and(12-13)GR

from at leastthe 6th dynasty The round hut of Min and lettucefield are known in representations [possiblyearlier, Bleeker,Die GeburteinesGottes,Leiden 1956Tf. 2] but the namefor it is not , written out until later. The son is a cylindrical structurewith a thin top part , from the 12thD. is with it. Lacau a door , and it can also havea pair of homs and a i3wt sip associated shownwith suggests connectionwith the term so 'tent' and that the structureis a deserttent of the god Min a [CdE no.55,1953 p.21]. The word son is known from the GR period and is connected with sont which is the climbing frameuponwhich Nubiansclimb at the festivalof Min [c f. LA IV p.136-140 Les andfor the ritual LA Il coIA54-5; alsoGauthier, Otesdu dieu Min p.145to 150].For the ritual
of erecting the central pole of the frame , see under k3-sbnt but note the spellings : s'b'
for Min 1188,9-8 9,2


'0' C

plAOi shows the sbnt shrine being consecrated by the king who ,

receives the Libyans and wester ners bringing tribute 375,9-376,2 and XII 329 show the Nubians on the rig A



P1 'W 31 I r3 a

to Min 1

on the outer part the Nubians climb

up and they come down on the inner ropes. Here Min gives the areas and people and produce of the fI staves. south to the king , who wears the atef and consecratesit with The rituals of s'b' sbn alone differ little from that described above and the two are clearly the same thing: s'b' it to Min Il 56,2-8 where the emphasis is on the control of the southern countries

including Punt and thus their produce and Nubian poeple [pIAOb shows the rig, king wears atef with his three staves] ; similar texts for s'b' Min as lord of the mining regions VII 304,2-12. It seemslikely that the guy ropes or frame for the eventual structureA represents V 165,17-166,7 pl. 118 with

be a kind of cylindrical wig wam and in the ritual especially agile Nubians were used to which may

The word spnt is also found in the title nb sbnt , usually applied to Min :M 1408,3 ;


'ae*lc"-l 1390,10andl5(hymntoMn);



V 166,5.


The epithetsny is howevergiven to HorusBehdet(Wb IV 218,14GR) : in wine texts 172,1 1294,16; in am jj offering 1134,2 ; andin one H 22 (55). This may havebeena bid to

of the official namelists , Horus is

closely identify Horus with the fertility andagriculturalaspects Min , but the textsin which it is of two usedareoftenriot clearlyin eitherof these categories.


to crown , to adorn Wb IV 219 (1) GR

Causative bn 'to provide(with)' andmayexist earlierin theannals Tuthmosis s1mwith gold M of of t%'^LAvkOb thn mY providedwith real turquoise'Urk IV 670,11[decorate FCD 2381. and--1, determinative the falcon .%V hasan appropriate In GR texts the verb : tp.k m nbty lie

IV and crownsyour headwith the Two Ladies! 54,6; alsoonceat Philae,Nekhbet Wadjetfor theking
P- b3t. k m blit <60> Phot. 9. -IQ? Zwv e


crown Wb IV 219 (2)

Literally 'that which is provided'- son refersto crownsin general: in the b pw offering the god 0 a- V& gives 0 pwt (White andRedcrowns)to the majestyof Re and of Horusin his house133,4 (colLXI 218) - the determinatives, Ile word is also used suggesting generalmeaning. a in the Canopus RosettaDecrees Urk H 149,3 : and A, D III 67a. ir Q, Ir * PacrtXeta ; Urk 11192,2


drive away. makedistant Wb IV 219 (9) to 220 (12) Pyr.

Causativeof Or be distant',cf. DG 448,3 sweep. To keep away.bad things'(direct object) : geni 276,2 ; Isis 4h

Cr386a,; CED 175 ; KH 214 Ck)Zp -


bftyw 1189,11 ;


bftyw I. -

the fever snakeVII 120,7; You are


drives awaygm3w, who

foes IV 131,2

demons VIH 6,12 ; Menhit

92 * foes IV 138,9 ; the lion 4=Pl


; Nekhbet hr 9, ivc With r Trom': majesty1100,5 ;0

jj3d3t IV 161,16. , foes IV 54,5I;Q your path A -C=M--*-

Ym3yw'from your

sbiw.f r bw hr. f 1270,1


dw r your body 1278,14 ,

*'- V 1203,7; Mehyt 1-0 -ibftyw snn 4--p pr'.k With 4r:
With m

r st-wr't VH 102,16.

1203,8. sbiw br your shrine

d3d3t m his path 155'5,4; sim. 1564,1 sh. sbi rn st-wnp (alliteration) done r

by HorusMerty 1575,11. With b3 With r-03: AP !j fA ' dw b3 their temple VI 235,12. bftyw r-b3 Om. IV 16,7. f 4A
q. &N

The verb sr takeson thewhole sense 'drive awaybadn' ic of ess': the gen*' night 1 167.2 f br sXt3. drive away evil from is shrine1 167,1

drive awayby tr. f drive

away (evil) from him 1205,18- 2063. Oneof the geni who protetOsiris is appropriately called by 1196,5 (Wb IV 220,14).

from D.20 [MC 335 ff. ; and Loret The sign with thejackal headis attested Man. no.1231. Wb notesthe word sor is in the'title of a magicalbook (Wb IV 220,15-16 Late) and Derchainlists examplesof the shr book, also P.Salt 825 X.3, ZAS 56,1920 21 VII sbr)[seealso Spiegelberg p. (p97 incorrectly transliterated as


to appease, make content Wb IV 221 (10) to 222 (20) Pyr. DG 449,5 Old Coptic f C ZTE Tr KH 543

Causativeof tp and occursfrequentlyat Edfu especiallyin the phrasesotp nLr or sotp nirw , is a ritual performedperformedby priestsor ritualists such as Thoth (IV 50,12 ; 52,4 for which the sttp SUmt.This embraces offering example),and also in the rite of pacifying raginggoddesses and but theyall havetheaim of calmingtheraging'goddess driving awayher anger. of variousobjects In this stateshebringsjoy to everyone from thepoint of view of theNew Year,shedoesnot send and by her pestilence this crucial time and the cosmicorder is not endangered her raging. In his at out


detailedstudyGermondshowedthat the ritual had its origins in the New Kingdommythsof the sun eye and the destructionof mankind, but the underlying themesgo back much further. Ile main four W-d oryxesandvessels beer.At Edfu the textsnot offeringsin the ritual arefour sr-geese, of only namethe the offeringsbut they are depictedin the scenes: A IV 311,8-312,6 ;V

(pL131showingonly the beervesseland geese perhaps red beerrepresents 224,10-225,5 the the blood of the oryx) ;V 163,5-14 118;V 64,15- 65,6pl. 114; 111304,7 ff. pl. Otherofferings are usedto pacify the goddess the soothingnoiseof the sistraM 129,16-130,11 : ff. ff. pl.61 ; 111312,11 ; IV 342.5-343,2 105 and 111318,2 with the menatalso : the smell of pl. f. burningincense 111301.18 : the wadjeteye(die goddess herselfis the Eye of Re) M 315,7f; VI 280,4-16 jL. adorationof the king also calm her , and the texts can pl. 151.The praisesand.

that the and stress the king is like Men, lord of songs praises, ritualist who knowsthecorrectwords q In onerite the king stands 111320.15 with his armsloweredby his sideas he singsto the goddess Sbmt. Thesearchitravescenes the emphasise rite all the more because they are performed beforethirty aspects Hathorat a time . The templelibrary contains copy of of a in suchrituals the king wearsthe ': Normally in 347,13-348,1. or DoubleCrownand in return

he receivesthe destructionof his foes and rejoicing in the two lands(in relief that the goddess has beencalmed).In this caseit is not the reciprocalrewardwhich is important,but the effect of the so and offerings- to calm the goddess that shedoesnot sendchaos, pestilence harminto the world Sekhmet 251-260with a templeof GR templeofferings; alsoDaumas LA 1724-727 [Germond, in p. incorrectlyas VIII 347 ; on rageas a trait of the, Beslinftigung- both stating the library reference femalecycle seete Veldein Studiesin EgyptianReligion. Fs-andee 127-137 p. especially 136-7]. p.
-4, a=. passim at Edfu , but note also : stp appears IV 2.22.5-6 ; and with the meaning

'cause resf Io place: to


nir pn upon a seatof god 1554,6.


type of incense .--rII




because smell of it burningsoothes gods.It is derivedfrom sotp A generaltern for incense, the the and at Edfu is alwaysconnected with snjr : the king perfoms rituals with including snLr priest brings different incenses 1570,16; a,,,

1559.14; in a snLr'text, the king brings




VI 296,11.Also usedoften at Dendera.


bread Wb IV 223 (6) GR

Also from s4tp 'to pacify"- because breadsatisfieshunger:a list of different typesof bread the offeredmcludes VI 29,5 ; also MD 131.


offeringtable Wb IV 223 (7) GR

Wb hasonly onereference provisionsarebroughtto the templeandput upon U. 0 :


///// 1282,14appropriate suchtexts", in because offeringswhich areplaceduponthetablemakethe the godscontent.

sDtp-qb4w flood water Wb IV 223 (9) GR

--0Wb has only one reference, from the Sokar Chamber, ? acify goddessesin Busiris with JIM'that which pacifies the flood'I 213,2 (or is it andpacify the flood).


censer Wb IV 222 (23) to 223 (3) D.18

stpyt refers to the arm-censer with a small pot of charcoalat one end in which the'incense was 'ithe burnt.It would havebeenmadeof metal.In this'case namederiesfrom sbtp because burning the incense pacifiesthe godswith its fragrance, censer 'that which pacifies'.The word is attested is the from D.18 Urk IV 98,7 and also occursat Edfu but the spelling 4-sil (pl.30c) ,
4ALA 4-: 2

Unlessthe term is written out fully or usedin a pun it is difficult to be may maskother readings. [c certainaboutexamples f. LA V 831; also seeI havereceived t6,A (ji

VIII 98,14-15 .


to smite , to thrash BrugschDHD 128F, An.Lex. 77.3766




Cr.386b; CED 175to rubdown, to plane Ckjcee From the Coptic useof the term the general to sense the verb sOSO be appreciated it means of can by removesomething pomdingor rubbing. The verb occursin Egyptiantextsfrom the Coffin Texts rR CT VI 1730, hereusedparallelto whn 'to overturn' and meaning I-Itt CRAEBL

'trampleunder(foot)' [FECT 173and 174n.13 passive exmple] ; also it

77, p.277 pl. col.30 'stampfeet' Ile verb seems be a reduplicatedform of OK zo (h 'pound' to . .) [MDAIK 29,1973 p.99 ; also P.Barguet,P.3176du Louvre p.4 and a noun sosbii in o.Toronto C 1.5 after Osing JEA 64 p.1881.The spelling with the bird may be comparedto skst (Wb M . 1 If T `.rw 466,12)which is a type of bird in the nameof a mountain [Pyr.389]and also 930,938 and shsh (Wb IV 221,2-3 Pyr) which is a lake and mountainin the --derworld Rllyr. 11181. At Edfu the verb is alwaysusedwith analogous terms: Horus
134,8 ; the king is like Horus -4 -*!M is one who -*- 1. -P nome , god -;

sbiw db3 bftyw H

b3swt IV 236,12 ; in the pehu of the 20th LE and netsthe Bow Men V 26,14-IS.


brighten makelight . Wb IV 224 (16) to 226 (6) Pyr. DG 450,1 Cr.387a; CED 175; KH 214 kindle fire, bum c-&. *L-rr=

Causative Odandusedoftenat Fdfu dueto thesolarnature HorusBehdet. of of . Transitive: Horus -*-- 0 '-% St-wrt with his beautyIV 331.7 V snk darkness 57,11 357.18;a door for the king
Of the face: Re O'll ,

his templeIV 49,8 0

t3wy with his beamsVI 1,15 Mesen11 21J.


your face 1129,11 (in the senseof make happy).


In puns Odtcloth :

'tfyt. k 1296,8


f n.f hdt(shrine). IV 17.13

br. k IV 242,1

Intransitive (from D. 18) I)e brighf : the gateof giving Maat 358,8-9


is bright with his Eght I .,

stwt. f his beamsare bright in the window of Horus 1574,1.


Slightly different:


m3wt. sn 'their shafts (of the harpoons) gleam in the back of the animals'

VI 79,3.


GreatLight ?, 1aker Wb IV 226 (11) MK afterFCD 239

An epithetof the sungod from MK textsat least.At Edfu it is a title borne, mainly by Horusas the Edfu :P ol 116 supreme solargod at P$1 '71 spd. t3wy VIE 130,8;0 possiblyVI 349,1 t sbil snk V 57,12;h I tj 41c, -also IV 211,5 c5='w

sDjL Owy m stwt.f VIII 132.4; V 323,1 Hathor is the m st ... ;

'r"4 P1"

uraeus -j of

'Lc\ aI

IV 238,12 also--*;


VII 2992.

Od-wrt is not to be confusedwith d-wr whosefestival is mentionedtwice at Edfu V 395,1 398,1[Husson Miroirs p.79 n.10 and Alliot Culte I p.208'n. 5]. ,


Wb IV 227 (6-7)NK - GR el,ck m stp-s3 - the flame is brought and a fire stick is

In the festival texts

"one who makes fire light in the palace V 335,7' -, Wb has this under (7) tichtanzanden. rubbed

dw sh..

Wb IV 227(1-2)BD

'Bright Ones'- the starsin the iky at night Wb cites 1160,1h3bw '93 h3bw Wb t . %0 This'may be 'who illumines the sky' and the lack of a determinative Wb
suggests this.

dt sh.

sanctuary Wb IV 228 (4-5) Late, GR

From Kairo Wb Nr.63 <1055>'a Late Period statuehas the phraseip. f sw m-hn 'palace'by WB. , a building translated In GR textsstdt most likely refersto the homeof a god : on the Rosettastonepriests'unite' with of MemphisUrk 11172,9 and the dernotichaswt-njr , greektf-Epoq where'it stands


for'temple'; KO H 95,653,6

P -


nfrt of gods and goddesses


with the -h C-3

dCh. -0-

temple shrines ; and at Edfu . Hathor is the Golden One shining in st-wrt in --*--

her beloved shrine VI 280.15 ; in handing Mesen to the god , the king holds his mace and 3ms mr. s x%r3 shrine n. k Bh.dt 193,4-5 - in this case the sceptre over depicted in the ceremony (pl. 20 I st reg left). The term is derived along the samelines as dt 'shrine! (q.v.).

h qqIr't.

sh W

to hit , strike Wb 111466(13) to 467 (13) Pyr. DG 451.1 4.711 1, 1strike CCOW

Cr. 374b; CED 170; KH206to

is used throughout Egyptian with the same basic meaning and in origin it may be an so At Edfu the word is not usually used in the same way as other terms for 'to onomatopoeic word. hiewith an enemy as object but there is an example where : the king upon the battlefield strike, , by striking IV 231.4. It is also used as a participle in the same way that hw can be used : the king holding the harpoon upon the battlefield is 157.3 (cf. ]Vw 'Smiter). sb is most often used of striking when the action produces noise : in a metaphor, the oars of the Horus barque 0 beat on the sides like the heralds announcing war VI 80,5 Most often . 'one who strikes' VII

is used of the action of 'shaking' the sistra to give its tinkling noise.,Tbe striking is of the metal sh W-e-

The together givethe, to sound. king,in sistra offerings, My says,0"-x as striking pieces, sounding POK 1500,15 523,8
st I shakethem for you' 1101,8 ; 1312,9 ; nA , 0 VIH 45,12-13 cm


-. 0X

J sistra in my right hand VIH struck for her ka 1447,14,

98,15; Qb " e-

n.s with the sistra H 119,5; sistra S!! j

by (cited separately Wb H 305,10as the only example nby 'to play sistra) .71iisuseis alsofound of throughoutother GR templesand perhapsearlieston the Metternich stela 246. It is also usedof 21 charmsbeing struck [c E Gotterdekret = Phill <91> phrasein the festival texts.: Jones Glossaryp.223 Q. , ! -j 0 OWN 71cre is also a

V, to strike (pull ?) the rope (hawser) 126,5[c E


sh3 w

call to mind, remember Wb IV 232 (12) to 223 (26) Pyr.

C f. gr I b. r-2-141 CI notes, memoranda Cr. 383b ; CED 173 KH

211 Causative W? [FCD 2401. of The verb is usedrarely at Edfu Thoth passesfrom your face 1562,2 in the Myth in-iw =; q: * sb m br. k I rememberfor you what n.k wnn.n rn Mbw 'Do you

remember whenwe were in Lower Egypt ? VI 77,34 (after JEA 29 p.18) ; of foesn bprsn AJ-A PI e,, their names'1174,14-15. - rnsn r nbo 'they do not exist , no one ever remembers Remembering thingsis a scribalattributeandbeingforgottenis aldn to non-existence.

sb3 In the festival texts the iry-b3t manat the prow of the barque says , , Throw out the ?V 31,13-14.Alliot translates term sb3 as la vergue!'sail yard' [Culte 11pA78 the Wb 5 ; alsop.546 n.51. IV 235,5hasa reference a furthertext, whereoneof the ship'screwis to andn. Pf q q PV 126,5and suggests sb3 is some part of the-ship's described that as 11 jj ---j apparatus. One expecthe translation'rope' - this being the man who throws out the rope for mooringor eventheanchor.


An.Lex. 78.3745 j7 'to send!-a causative the root b3 with tr

from CT VI 52d Not in Wb, but attested

'dispatcha message' [FECr Il 128n.15]. The verb also occursat Edfu : in the net ritual
'I,, I

/// VI 56,14Ahat which is sent', paraRel swd. to

sh3t-Hr sacred cow W Wb IV 235 (7-11)Pyr. from the PTs, thoughsheis mucholder than this in origin. Shewasreveredas a Sb3-k1ris attested herdsandcalvesandcameto beassociated HathorandIsis asthe two mostimportant with of guardian


cow goddesses,but she also had a cult of her own at Momemphis. In Pyr 1375 she suckles Horus and ht. name 'she oho remembersHorus'emphasisesthe solicitous care of the cow towards her calf. In later texts the S#3t-]Vr is renowned for her milk production parallel with the Hesat cow [Bonnet . Real p.4021. She is mentioned in texts throughout the Old and Middle Kingdoms, usually in connection with milk and Hathor [Lefebvre, Petosiris p.86 n2 ; Nlanunisi . Daumas p. 182 and n.41 . At Edfu Sb3t. kir is most often the provider of the milk offered by the king in rituals from the udder of god children "XP%U 4LI 0.4'0V 1453,1 V; N 167,16 he has milk she suckles 168,2 ;

PIU 364,18 ; the king (as Horus) is her son '6

also VH 65,15. She is listed as one the four sacredcows who accompany Hathor 524,16andas aform of oneof the templegods , V121A. She J a 1F? L

is also connected with the Imntt nome, where she is the mother of the calf god here IV 24,5. Wb also records her as S3bt-Ur (Wb IV 24,14) where a text at Edfu has brought with her milk 1469.6.


toraise up
WbIV 236(3-9)endNK--

Causative hy , used Edfuasa transitive or as with thehorizon heaven object and verb,usually at of , bwt to the horizonof tw3 k3wt etc.Ina tw3-pt scene:Shu as a varianton q LJ qqLY 3bt JLr3bty 111262.9Onuris Akhty 159,18; in thecolumn texts 4) 111277,15in a pun Hy -"-4q L 3bt with Behdet ; V
3bt n kir - the usewith 3bt is for alliterationof Slightly different: Horus his disk 1143,7 ; and raisesup


3bt 111260.4possibly also


tt. k I raise up -i

239,15(1 heapup - BlackmanJEA 31 p-63n-28)andc f. MD M your table with all goodthings'VI 26. The GR textsusethe verb with a moreextended meanmg.


c f. Wb IV 238 (4) GR verb

of Wb cites two'examples a verb sy 'to Protect! an S-causative bw 'to protect!: in an incense ' of text . the falcon flies over the king dil, ^PD -Y-he gives his protection11pl. 14 (a noun) .,


and in the name of the temple of Dendera is wso 0 e- =-J

rsy n0



(alsoa noun). hall of protection HerherefMD 11179 of Derivedfrom this is a nounsby 'protectoe the usedmainly at Edfu to describe guardiangodswho Horus accompany ; sbsb Sfth 1118,13 in the singular. Horus wr

The GreatProtectorwho guardsOrion 11132,18. word can also apply to the leaders the units of of genAvhoprotectHorusas 0qq J. -171-1 four guards down to this day 111187,5-6they form ; ,

n.4]. --


four guardianguardingRe in NekhenVI 332,7 [Goyon Gardiens 68 p. ,


to cause appear

Causative h"to appeae the of which occursoftenat Edfu to describe appearance the king or a god of V
-.0(spellings appeae : 111131,5for example) and especially in the ceremony of st'-Skr Skr VI 281,12 ; VI 139,12 ; E 'making Sokar

Skr V 163,16 - where the king pulls

the henu barque of Sokar around the temple or part of it (pl. 148 , 151 for example). With objects, most common is sh' shm 'making'the sistra appear' (with a pun on Shmt): T 180917; v" IH 294,12 IV288,2(stitsbm). 93 ' gmhs outside his sanctuary a c7

is the means of bringing cult statuesout in procession sh' w (at the New Year procession) 1554,4 ; the procession is to



I makethe imageappear

553,5 ;0

makinggodsappearat their festivals141,3 ; in the Sacredunion , nj '

is tn and her Ennead(Hathor)- wherethe goddess broughtout and c4ied aroundV 351,2.As nirt in on god appears procession so the king appears his throne: , ;, upon his dais 111162,15 M my lord (saythe basof Re) I--tw

131,5 ; Atwn -. m. f with the Two Ladies 111

P 2a king of UpperandLower Egypt 1396,6 ; in the Horusnameof the king makesyou appear as it. f his father madehim appear121,3 and 6 n sw More unusualis a text describingthe Horus falcon who ;Sj by madeto appear his wings 1429,8. also 1411,15412,1. '150V. makesappear is or m Ito --


butchees yard Wb IV 229 (1-7) OK


five possibleOK examples sbw/sbw-Hr spelledin one title Sbd Fischerdiscussed of .




an andthoughhe did not suggest identity for shw he thought it W

concerned with corv6es and taxes,and doubteda derivationfrom may be a placeof administration wsbt 'broad hall' [H.Fischer, Orientalia 30,1961 p. 170-1751.Eggebrechtshowed that sbw, particularlywhengiven the attributew'b referredto the courtyardof the 3bt abattoir. especiallyin Courtsin the templeof It temples. wasthe abattoirfor the cult andthis is confirmedin the Butcher's leading the bull to H Ramesses at Abydos.One text describes 4C3 wb the two pure

abattoirs,and the butcheringof bulls then follows [WrezinskiAtlas H pl.88].In the OKexamples of the term, the sign 6 may be relatedto the tOa block and represent particular slaughter a

[Eggrebrecht, Schlacht.p.176-7; LA V type of slab or altar upon which animalswere slaughtered 640-1]. havingbeenreceivedin DecreeB, a line refersto commands In the Koptos. prompting

from Urk 1172,6, that Owt-wr wasparallelto sbw.]Vr and it Goedicketo suggest with an example howeverthe termmay be relatedto wsbt which canbe usedas a law wasa law court.In thesecases court and parallel to wt-wrt. In certain of the examplesgiven by Fischer , this is also true . [Goedicke,Konigliche Dokumente the parallel titles are taken into consideration especiallywhen 10 termfor a wide courtyardor room.In theOld Kingdom p.109-1 n.19a].sbw thenmaybe a general it it courtof the building. administration hasjudicial functions,in NK temples is the butchees At Edfu sbw (Hr) aretheabattoirs. shw is the placewhereactualanimalssymbolisingfoes,or even a : the foesthemselves destroyed the king leadscattleto 4D are 424 Msn VII 107,10-11; cattle are destroyedtr, bnt rQ3 V Msn IV 128,3; foesare slain e C"'J VII 316.5-6; cutup or

VII 148,11 ; 142.15 - almost as a'slaughter block! here, and once parallel to nrnt. where


C3 for the choppingplace, 75,6-7; foesfall on (De C"3 1499 7. H P3 c VII 164,9. cSj andtheir
H 5,17 ; relatives of

and sbw-wlbt : gazelles oryx are led to

shw-Hr: similar usesto the above,gazelles desertgameare broughtto and V0

meat portions go to the temple altars VII 323,2 ; foes are for a c C3,

foesare for 0aA


11145,12. abattoiritself would havebeenlocatedoutsidethe temple. The

Ibis is implied by a text on the lintel, of the doorway leading into the treasury.The door is for his 'bringingmeatto the window of the falconby the butcherwho spends hoursin. -,

't t


:a and further the smell of the meatcomesto' 'k P09 broughtto L "4


11159,11-13 gazelles ; are

11160,1-2.In the templedescriptions also . texts to be slaughtered

fi'-w1bt and:W describe the doors in the enclosure wall of the temple and one of theseleads to the 10 C-73 17 outside the main complex VI 8,2. One of the doors (1'-J) leads to the well for eCL4.4. L Xnl. w'b and to. '21aC"3 ,A--1 4L VII 18,4, identified here by de Wit as a offering libations to the door from the treasury to the enclosing corridor [CdE 36 Nr. 72 p.315 n.3] Fairman notes that this . door (his door E) is the door by which food offering were introduced to the temple. The abattoirs and kitchens were to the east of the temple the offerings came through a door in the enclosure wall and , then into the inner hypostyle [BJRL 37 1954-5 p. 178-9 and plan p. 1691. The NK and GR temple shw are certainly distinct from the OK shw listed by Fischer. vW

shwn %o

to dispute

WbIV238(8-IO)D. 18-Late ' Stela Pahery from the 18thD. form of a'root bwn attested A causative as an instruction of , 0 "'%Ov%% in BD im. f 'there is no disputein if ; 'also with the determinative ic-j At 255,13and 14, showingit is a forceful, perhapsviolent argument. Edfu in a meatconsecration, th the foe in the place of slaying the foe! the king 0 -4tr'-sPL sbi m st sm3 sbi 'disputes . IV 66,7 - here with the implication'of 'fight with, again implying a physical rather than verbal action.


to protect

*10 -t: 'I 3 bm.k 'I like a wall VI (q.v.), a genitsays, Metathesis sbb your majesty encompass of 78,1.

sbb = slLb

rniiqe tn M tinbalanced.

---U: J`e'6hial natur&6f t6is verb can be seenby its usein parallel with Causativeof hbn At Edfu . k of (hrw) for the un-causa eS aid m3'-DTW bbn-hrw are the antithesis eachother,the smY , *" IW
V %zly'L C? %, W)

shbn w



f(xmer applies to Horus and the king and the latter to their foes : in a crown of justification offering, it hr sm3'. brw. tn (gods) br IN T,, J'Cor, hftyw. tn VI 275,14-15. Ile meaning is n

'make unbalanced!'make harsh'. 'faire MW [Derchain CdE 30 , 1955 p.2751 ; and also 0 Ci bftyw. k Mam. 160,15-16.


to bring , to conduct

Wb IV 239 (7) to 240 (1) Pyr. Causative hpi'to traver andcanbe usedof bringingpeople, offeringsor of 'displayinga decree of %P [FCD 240]. At Edfu it is usedof bringing varioustypesof offerings: of geese 13 mrotso for , the altarsI 111,6-7; of meatportions ib ia hasthe title C)0 -lc, -j
-.W- their forepartsto the altarsI 113a ;a scene

h3t stpw "bestof meaf to Great Sakhmet,pacifying the mistressof

by block with what shelovesH 85,9-17, theoffering is received Mehit . PI.40g shows the slaughter Ijt beforea meataltar,he wearsthe bmhmty crown, king with the maces consecration of the throughwhich offeringswerebroughtinto to a w--r-stpw text. The door in the enclosure similar the templeis called 0 C3 tp-njrw r ]Vwt-Vr-nbt in the eveningVI 349,14. V


. . ftyw. k I cause Causativeof hpi 'to die , usedin a gazefletext whereHorussays V0a foes to die VI 142,15.It is not shp 'to bring 'becauseof the determinative and it is usedin your

to cause die

with hbkb 'to slay'. parallel V


to create, makeexist Wb IV 240 (11) to 242 (17) Pyr. DG 454,1 ' , -9

offeringsto Causative bpr , asnotedby Wb theverbcantakemanydifferentobjectsfrom concrete of personalqualities : food more abstract tddwt 1140,11 ; darkness oil goddesses, w3oy (grain) IV 43,13 ; light , Horus 0 13 in the Mother cow IV 56,8 one,

grh H 69,10 gods

in WetjesetIIV 53,12.;. oneself BBI O"a nirwt raisedup,

himself 1412,6(andpassim) makean offering to 0 13 who created the one who


1155,8. him madeexisttheonewho created (i.e. grandfather king , herePtolemy11) of Abstracts: the king as the ritualist 1163,10;0 praises I m. '

'13' 1

n.k snsw creates songsfor you 1261,15


also1536,9-10. The Ogdoad O"a

createlife from god 1289,5; Horus


for godsand menH 19 (39).

bnrw l3t in every city IV 36,6.

t k 11199,3;0 -*- 13 qf3yt.

'Causeto happen': guardians evee 1199.17 ;PM


wdwt. f r nh.0-dt 'cause his decreesto happen for ever and

-O(L* wilt. k he causesto happen what you have decreed' IV 44,3.

In puns:X4 1919



I causeto exist what comesinto existence 156,9; the solegod VI

VI 101,3[ct noteby Blackmanin JEA 31 p.62 n22].

shpt W

a drink
Wb IV 240 (5-7) Wb Drog 461 Pyr.

drinkmentioned the as sbpt is probably same Wb IV 240(4) fromthe3rdD. sbpt is analcoholic 0 is from a earlyasthe2ndD. offeringlistsandis attested oftenin Old Kingdom beer) Saad in [Z. CeilingStelae 2ndDynasty Tombs, ph3 writtenovera jar beside andndm (sweet Opferindexp.1741. Supp. ASAE21,1957 31andpl. XVIII; Old Kingdom lists Barta, p. offering see in Apartfrom its useasa funerary in offeringsbpt wasused medical prescriptions themedium as It into weremixedandtheningested. couldalsobedropped theearsto helpwith'ear whichdrugs The [HelckLA 1 1268 26]Thewordis used Edfu of at problems. source sbptis however unknown n. 00 Cl in a list of offerings m dt. f (nextto grain)VI 204,7; andin a beeroffering is to make rejoice(ph3-JLt. 1459,14-15. k) you V


to write down Wb IV 242 (19) GR DG 454 sbf3t 'L-de! Cr.610b; CED261; KH339 U44ti

A metathesis sfb to provide a better writing of the word. It occurs in Late Egyptian texts of wn. sn.f 0 jOr tw. f LES Horus and Seth 14,11 where Gardiner notes this is a

'to answera lettee(from hsf) [LES 51a n.14,lal. The verb is written sbf at Edfu writing of sfh




-0nsyt n Oq3 t3wy 127,7 ; Thoth 0" r'O N. .1=:

wnnwt nb m0

1297,15 (not I

P0t, 387 as WB) ; also the king r If--

C; Urk VIH 94e. Y


Wb IV251 (18) to 252 (7) MK DG455,1 M56111 t and465,30ffy andoneof the typesof sistrais shownwith this form, perhaps

Theterm sbm is alsoasceptre

leadingto confusionof the two terms.In the Story of Sinuhesbm is the sistrumused 'attested for bring their menats the first time , to welcomeSinuhebackto Egypt [GNS 102] , theroyal daughters and fiI I s99t 'ki sn sistra the first being read as sbmw (Sin.268). They are the naos -j I ,

looks like the shm signandso theyreceived nameUA V 959-963; Ziegler this sistrawhoseshape , des Catalogue Instrumentsp.31ff.l. When the word is written with the sbm sign only in GR texts, it is difficult to decidehow it shouldberead, because thereareotherwordsfor this typeof sistrurn. Usually the contextcan help to decideon a reading and writings suchas , $are known D 11

32,17.The word is usedmost often in the ritual shl-sbm 'causingthe sistra to appeae.with the in and sistrabeing equated with Sakhmet theking is'son of Sakhmet.expressed the pun sbm-Sbmt 'sonof Sakhmee. phrase The alsohasthe ambiguous sense 'causingthe powerto appear'perhaps of referringto the might of theraginggoddess. The offering is madeto Hathor:q I JE1 IV 132,5-133,2; IV 102,12- 109.7.wherethe IV

takesher placeat the throat of the king as the beautiful imageon his breast;V goddess

288,2-15with Ihy, the goddess makesthe two landswell . In all of thesethe rite is Mthorian and for of especiallywhereit is performed the 30 aspects Hathor sn+ I IH 309,15-310,17 where the king offers up one ja VII % 133,7-134,2. Harsomthus.! 111294,12-295,14 and sistra (pl.78 and 79) *,with.

It is also offered to Nephthysin her capacityas a fire breath*4goddess who is thus equated with f
Sakhmet: IR 180,17-181,10; 4f. 3a -, IV 147.5-17 (made of gold

In IV andpreciousstones) 303,7-304a; s*Et- VII 307,8-308,4. all of them textsthe king actsasa musician,playing the sistra,singing and dancingin order to pacify the raging goddesses. return In they protecthim andhis reign from the forcesof chaosandpreserve land from 13dtpestilence. his it


for It also hasparticularimportance Nephthysfor is then very mucha Sakhmet-Hathor sbtp ritual. in sheis the goddess Hwt-shm, Diospolis,and sheis nbt W ro-3 IV 147,11also; ai
11 1

Osiris VII 307,15who guards

111181,8. his foes VII 308,34 i they protectthe prevail over

In puns godsmakethe the king

king's mummyasan evocation the protection OsirisIV 304,1-2. of of One remainingritual is S;ZV I in wherethe sistrais playedfor Neith V 87,10-88,3 Hwt-bit

Again the king is a musicianand his sistraplayirg makesthe goddess rejoice so that sheprotects. <c him. The king wearscomplexcrownsor the Doublecrown with hornsandcan offer one sistro, f. pl.88 or two (pl.93 and to Neith he offers a sistru, mwiththreew3d signson top , the

by left andright aresurmounted a serpent the middlew3d hasa Heh sign holdingup a falcon an (pl.114). In other textsNephthysis nbt 1311.13and the Diospolitenomeis 1339,5. 1523,4 may readas ,

In sistra texts otherwise the word is also used :



and sbm - thoughthe texts are not alwaysaccurate can give a nameof a naossistrumto an arch
sistrum and vice versa.


might, power

Wb IV 249 (1-16)Pyr. DG 454,8 c f. Co M KH 543 P.BM 10808p. 254 ,

by At Edfu this noun form of the verb (perhaps infinitive as suggested Wb) is usedin parallel an b3w andgfyt for it describes physicalpowerof the king and is given the with termssuchas wsr , , to him by the godsin return for offeringssuchas wine, mdt ointment,food and the sbm sistra.The J-J by It is the means in the templetextsandis usuallyspelledsimply word occurspassim . his which the king destroys foes. Given by the gods : Shu di. i wr gods s'

in the two lands 1144,10 ;


sim. 1235,12 ; temple to drive away foes VII AC--j to smite

IV 10,1; sbrn offering, Nephthyscauses

1 I 308,34 ; Horus puts ic-J of the king in hearts145,17 a geniOgives -1 1189,14; PtolemyII gives ufJ enemies

in southandnorth , nbt in eastand west 1155,13.



be mighty prevail over (with m) , Wb IV 245 (10) to 248 (21) Pyr.

sbm occurs often at Edfu. An attribute of the king : t might a; may you be mighty before the living 1505,5 ; Mehit gives great %3, -J your strength is mighty

prevailing (or being powerful) 1315,11 ; pty. k

I g. IV 54,2 ; Uw. f

his magicis powerful169.6-7. 1302,12*.%J I

With a substantive in the nameof the cult spearHorus : ,I D'L 3--J who hideshis name1366,3. 560.12; alsoHorus 4 With m "bemighty throughsomething: wine offering you drink , thereby'l 109,10. With m 'to prevail over: passim. foes' V 371,7-8 ; di. i With r 'prevail againse With direct object: --wJsbiw VII 148,11. %c--J 51J f-',---j



im -you are mighty

b3w.f m IL3kw.ibw 'his might prevails over

sbmt m sbi V 43,4. bm.f r rkyw. f IV 11,1.

nfyw wb-sp.f VII 143,2;, &c-J bftyw VII 263,5 ; god


WbIV244(12)to245(2)MK f) I-o DG 454,8 I PluralWbIV245(7-B)GR

Cr.589b; CED 253; KH327 statue,idol !yir-mc The singularform'of sbm occursvery oftenas a varianton'otherwords for imagesor cult statues. 'image The word occursfim early texts, it'is derivedfrom sbm 'mighewhich took on the meaning Decreethekeek translates the as a visible sign of the god'smight. In the Canopus of god!perhaps hicaw and tepbv d"WXpa [Daumas, Moyensp.1751. earlier texts it is often difficult to In term as determinevhethr is Imight!or 'image. In underworldliteraturethe nu'gh't'ofa deity proceeds

From Amduat 156,10 shm is parallel to b3 as a part of the from their external appearance. V from the personality. in personality an imagedetached sbm-Imn appears the fitular of mostof the


Ptolemies The derivingfrom earlierkingsof the 13thand17thdynasties. earliersubtleties theword of may havebeenlost by the GR texts, for heresbm is primarily an imageof a god either in relief [Homung,Mensch Bild p.137-139]. -, representations in threedimensional or statuary als I Horus comesfrom heavento join with his sbm imagein the sanctuary Effu: 1579.7; he at embraces L his imageIV 10,12; snsn lilt-in the barqueWLs.nfrw VIH 93.1 dmil. n.f ofhiska

VIII 145,17 Partsof his personality unite with the statue: his ba uniteswith IN'" JS 1536,16-17;I1 1564,9 ; 568,5;I IV 2.5 or ka 122,13-14. In sometexts sbm is usedcloseto analogous terms bs sXt3 ff of HB in his barque129,16; j of HB in the temple.

in the sanctuary 122,13

sbm of other gods are mentioned: Horus is tit RI -VJn nt 1pyn1ri 139,16 his limbs 1115,12.

imy Itn 181,16 ; the king is snn comesfrom

of Re Harakhtytakeshis course1576,34

The cult imageis broughtout in theNew Yearfestivalprocession takento theroof whereall the and for festivalrites are performed it includingthe 'uniting with the ba! with new clothing 1 1555,14. 1553,13ff ; it is dressed

This one sbm is the cult image of the temple god, Horus, but in the plural sbmw are the cult imagesor representations othertemplegods: theyarespecificallymalegods for femalegodsare of , nbtyw . In the templedescription ; the four walls of a room have and nbtyw are in it IV 6,7 ; IV 13,5sim. 9..

of godson themaccordingto the inventoryof the nome jj IV IV 8,1 ; the hall has IV 5,6 ; the walls are inscribed with bs n has 13,13; the sanctuary

V 8.6 -,walls areinscribedwith

of MesenVIII I 11.11 of gods152,14

III Asrw are in their shrines1110,2; the Two ShrineRowscontain Y. -

=, -ofor the New Year at the procession with IV 13,5 and their names

from their places 1562,14-15 ; walls are inscribed come 118 (43) ; Osiris has the temple built with

1144,15 ; the king s''

in the temples1552,15 ; in processions


before the king to make the path safe IV 50,5. There is a

hint at the connection between

J 11, '1 appearance sbrn : at seeing and

fear of themis in everyheartIV 56,2 (sn-t3 text). 't


In the New Year procession thereis the following pun :II the standards with

k 1543,12. The procession of the Ennead to Mesen has several cult images in it, including sbiw.


'four imagesof the lord of this land' IV 53.3. ) In the phrasesbm-n-pt (Wb IV 244,8two GR refs. : Min is F-I 13,, 401,17 T r-I

This is possiblydifferentfrom the NK term sbm-pt 'most powerful protectshis ka D 11142,2. rraharqap.53 n.71for refs]. of heaven!


attribute'powerfur ,
Wb IV 243 (5) to 244 (11) Pyr.

Wb cites the following : of the king pacifiesRe 1349.14;a geni is

9ps of the winged beetle1282,6 mighty of power1199,2; Osiris is of the shrinerows 1369,2

of gold who

Imy-d3t 'mighty one

in the underworld! 1224,16*; the king is

The examples uncertain, exceptwheremarked*, I think theothersaresbm 'image asthis seems are be by to be the main GR useof the term,as indicated Horming(op. cit). but sbm 'imagclpoweemust interchangeable during the NK becomingmore definite in later texts and even so is usedwith a deliberate of ambiguity. air


Wb H1468 (8-12)D.19 GR

Ile word appears be created error for it is a writing of hm. where. by hasbeenreinterpreted to -dW as and thussbm is simply a later form of bm, (q.v.). In order to readbm alliteration was the regarded word as bm cc sbm. In somecases usedto indicatewhetherthe Egyptians alliteration with s points to a reading stm : snsn

. de=N..

r3 ,,

r sn-t3 IV 56,1 ; sw'b



IV 331,3 ; snir

pb C3 ,

111 s3w.nsn -111,122.17; in procession texts, where ,n

-'e'-. is important IL3 alliteration shm r


(andtextcontinues a punon sbm)1543,12;sbn;, with

. dQCm- III 'm 0

n IV 55,5 ; s3w

IV 55,9. (D .0 #=-

Sometexts play.on both sbm 'and hm: hnd' r 538,11-12,;hm hpy. hw




nLrw I

IV 206,7- where b, within,.' the

frombm.andtheEgyptians for thewordis clearlyimportant it is different the recognised confusion.

Spencer the reads word asbm [Templep.104]. "F, In somecases readingof the term is uncertain: cZ', 3 the sn like HB VI 129,11; the room of -


the stairwayis a chamber of



3 mC:

pn 1513,16. IV shrines 44,14; wings enfold

of gods VIII 16,3

01-' 1 Uncertainexamples protectthe city andguard ' C-3 11 :

-la 1

.. necn--


IV 46,7 ; thosewho are in do,


--0. 0;;

I .

C30 -,*IV 49,6 ; "= mill




VIII 81.13; -,TIs

.. W.


shrines tgypt VIII 106,5; the council of of

thosewho are in

. VIII 112. their shrines


dieWhitecrown Wb IV 250 (10) to 251(10)Pyr. DG 457,1 -" I

Gr. 4fXcvr p3 sbnty [Daumas,Moyensp.1911.

The term shnty is literally 'the two powerful ones' and was originally a feminine dual but from the , 18th D. it was masculine with the article p3, hence the Greek form in the Rosetta stone. The word is from the PTs and later texts emphasisethat it is the united crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt attested the Double crown [Abubakr, Kronen p.61-2]. 91 At Edfu the two components are united as jU1374.2. ltisplacedontheheadoftheking:

I 1564,4 ; Vi 287,6 ; VM 7,16 ; 1261,9 IV13,8; 9 IV 55,1 ; w3o ...


255,6 dw3 43t.f rn V48,7; onktp. fm -VI246a; VHI122,18; W BBappearsin wr VI 83,11 ; 82,5 ; Aturn gives great'idngshipto the king JLr 147,1.It is connected with othercrowns: the southis underthe rule of V IV 329,16, hr Horus the falcon is ruler of the crown : bq3 G "tr 2 CV.9 1119(18) and Nfin is 11285,34 1405,14. north Z( westandeast


VI 308,13

Doublecrown for individually theyareidentified The two cobrauraeiarecloselyconnected with the thus: the Two Ladiesunite with its components Il 53.1 the two

brow of your ka VI 244,11(text for NekhbetandWadjet); theking offers powersareuniteduponthe -king jQ'O*'&&to his distinguishes brow with the greatgod 11115,2 the ; 0a 111119,1.

goddesses The word still appliesto the doublecrownbut it is inextricablyImked with the two uraeus so that they not only sit on the crownsthey= the crowns.


Ile Double Crown is also offered to Horus by the king in a ritual most eloquently attested in the

by hymn to the Diadem[Erom collectionof Golenischeff, the published Erman, Hymnen].At Edfu it is offered to Horus alone : hnk 10 tV VI 105,10-106,4 ;9 VH

The 125,13-126,12. textshereemphasise uniting of thetwo separate the crownsandthe godsgive to the king the right to rule a unitedEgypt asdo Atum , OsirisandRe. It is a rite to showthe claim of show the king wearing the Double crown and offering the the ling to the kingship. The scenes Doublecrown placedupona basein one hand,the other is raisedin adorationto the god (pl.22b pl. 145). More unusual two textswherethe Doublecrownis offeredto Horuswith Khent-labet. are who may herea Lower Egyptianform of Hathor,for in an offering to Horusand Hathorthe rite is represent V, biasedtowardsUpper Egypt. even thoughHorus is called Lord of Mesen: Onk the two Uniquely all areunited,theking receives theearthin returnandprotectionfrom thegoddess. crowns herethe king wearsthe Redcrown to present Doublecrown 111232,6-18 pl.75 ; IV the and Khent labet controlsthe uraei goddesses all of Egypt bows the headto Horus , here the king and and wearsthe DoublecrownV 101.6-102a pl.116. In a pun Nekhbet says sh-n-i W m rnw n IV 205,2.Ile crown is also the crownof Horus1140,1.

landskiss theearthto producing personified: peopleof incense

Shn V

I to cause alight to Wb IV 253 (6) to 254 (6) Pyr.

Causative bn andin useat Edfu of Transitive: wd3t eye sw in the brow of the one who madehim 1116,2[An.Lex.

C. 77.3811notesthat this is a late writing of An 'to arrive c.f. u4 N rz - KH 328 and500 ; also thus W in 77,1977 p.26 nn a meaning attested Wb but cf. Wb 111469,9]. by Sauneron BEFAO, not . Intransitive: r br his throne1128,1; the two crowns .sn upon

the brow of Horus 1116,13; dl. k

VI uponthe shoreof heaven 101,3 C=

of nk uponthe prow of the barque Hor-Akhty VI 109,1-2. With direct object Horus srh.f I'l 10,16-17.



to cmbr3cc to mect to occupy (3 place) . . ,

Wb 111468 (14) to 469 (18) Pyr. Wb 111469 (19) to 470 (6) GR unite

Fromthe dctcrminati%c meaning sbn is 'to embrace the of and with the arms', from this comethe is connectcd the mcartings'to unite''to mect'.71)c pureform 'u) embrace' not foundat Edfu - instead derivcd nuanccs mm frcqucnL we Beeroffering. the king with his cleanhands it fl 3bw 6- n nbt pt 'embraces vessels the of 1462,6(Wb has'to takeinto one'shands). thelady of heaven' Transitive plus m stability VIII 148.9. With hr: bm.k br shm.k your image V111110,3. xyeShu embraces in the Chapelof the Leg 1252,9. em. k mI unite your majestywith might life and

With directobject: Tefnut

Intransitive of the diadem'united'with the headof the king or god : the two ladies 0 m his brow IV 114,14; nbty-rhyt , eT

M-ht. f united with him IV 99,14 his diadem

br the head of the Lord of All 111146,10.

r-n'. f IV 18,4 ; Hathor sow Transitive of the diadem or crown b3t. k m the Double crown VI 244,13 Iyjj tp. k m

tp. f m the two girls (uraei) IV 89,11 Qb W, tp. k m-bt wnty MVIII

OD v 142,1

IV 248,3 ; goddesses -G*-Zr

03t. k m p3-shmt VI 244,14

p. 208 no. 101 also M. 69,16

tp. f rn shmt IV 145,10 [see Vandier PJumilhac Nekhbet

C3D ,-n

W i

nt in the names of the Double crown IV 205.2.

In the senseof 'install'


RI hr nst. f VI 93,10-11 ; custom of or 0 ., qj bm. f br the window of appearance

W of Re asking upon the serekh VI 102,34 VI 263,1 ; the gods come to Horus hr heir of the two lands VI 187,3. Also of clothes, thus 'to clothe' you have cast off 111300,16-17. Various: b3. k e-a 'Er

iw'. k r iw' t3wy to install your heir to be

lie has embraced you with that cloth which"

n bm. k

k3. k s3. k 1492,1 ?

s3 ]Vr r 'bm. f alight ? 111184,10. In the naine of the festival bb sbn nfr 'the festival of the beautiful embrace' (Wb 111470,6 only reference from Edfu), this is a celebration connectedwith Hathor as the sun eye who is brought back


to her father Re. He joyfully receives her and puts her back in his head - this is the act of sbn. Fairman however took it to be the tzpo'.; ya'toq of Horus Behdet and Hathor [BJRL 37.1954/5 196 ff. ] and Alliot before him translates it Ia Mte de la (bonne) r6union' [Culte H p.443ff. ). p. Bleeker suggestedthat Hathor however had no marriagepartner and that her visit to Edfu was a purely platonic one - bringing a feminine complementto the overtly masculine Horus [Blceker, Hathor and Thoth p.95-1011 - so in the true senseof the term it was not a'sacred marriage! but the reunion of . the sun god with his eye. The festival is mentioned thus : one of the.stagesin the great Edfu festival is when Hathor appearsin the city of Behdet V 356,8 ; Hathor appearsat 'qI7 0v every festival of the embrace V 352,1 ; Hathor enters the Great Place `cw 0 V. f 336,12-13 ; Hathor sails south at her time r ir ^R- C-1/i n nbt Iwnt V

On' JVrs 'to celebrate the happy

embrace with her Horus 1361.9 [Junker notes the sun-god (Horus) eye connection here, Onuris 118] ; Wetjeset Horus unites (sm3) with Dendera when DR eccx, p. the good embracein the Great PlaceVII 186,5-6. celebrating Edfu itself is called -A 42L Qft place of the happy embraceof Horus Behdet with his sister the m st-wrt after

Lady of Dendera IV 2.3 [de Wit'lieu de Ilieureuse rencontre (mariage) in CdE 36 Nr. 71 p.581 ; also

Horus comes to w34

P,0, c-i



to, n kir-3bty 1361.1a moregencrAreference

A c--3

Wadjetspeak3 of emphasised; the temple, with the solarconnection n SO s3w.nsn IV 164,11(Edfu) c-j -w

etbr t. )

of Hor-Akhty from the beginning

in the greatnome VII 333 is alsoreferringto Edfu. [Goyontakessbnw hemto be from the verb ..sbn 'rest, settle! (Wb IV 2.54,7MK) and thus,mean 'place of rese and sbnw in particular is with thehomes sacred of connected als,Confirmation 92 n.831. P.

The nounsbn 'embrace(Wb 111470,8-13 Pyr) occursin an interesting contextwhichitfers to the first heb-sed Horus whereHathor of , is in his embrace 1412,14.

Thepossible is by platonicnature theencounter stressed otherref=nces to Had&s acquaintance., of ) with Khnum,Re andShu( Wb IV 254 (15-16)PhilaeandDebodrefs. andalsoa stelafrom Philae, whereKhnumis of HathorWAIK 34,1978 p.34 and 351.


the flood n i3dt m 0'"U iII : of

in (of is no pestflence his embrace the waters) -'there


1582,9. Also Wb 111570,3 the flood comesequippedwith : Sopdet 1583,1-2(only ref.) embraces'of


'I, ilt

n Spdt 'beautiful


boat Wb IV 255 (1-2) D. 19 GR

sbn occurs in late texts as the word for the boat of the god Sepa'and at Edfu in the


nome V 27,5

1-6 his boat IV 39,8 -* Sepa is brought to Kher-Aha upon ab-c 1122! ; also Tr Nab-qt-


st.k Or aw

MD IV 73-743; at Dendera hymn aboutthe Osiris Nile cult at a

MD IV 67, s.91

Babylon (Kher Aha) also links Sepa Osiris and --fr- C 0 -a .

[see Kees, ZAS 58,1923 p.871.This is the portable barqud of Sepa [c f. Corteggiani Hom. Saun. I , 136 n.2; Zivie, RdE 30 p. 158 nA and AEO II p. 141*] and is used as early as D. 19 tomb of Tanefer is the phrase h3y 4b whereinthe

JLnt bm-nir n Imn TT Nr. 158 <1374>. n Skr

For this reasonthe barqueof Sokarat Edfu can also be called sbn V 6,7 which is usedwhenthe godappears thetemple. in In the nomeof Hermopolis,the sacred barqueherealso hasthis name Glossary 2551. sbn-m3't 1333,17[otherreferences Jones, see p.

In the Heliopolitannome thereis a verb sbn to mooe 'to bring to reseusedof a boat: a barque , in the canal(the paralleltexts usethe verb'mni to moor) 1333,12 (Wb IV 254,12only ref) ., [Jones Glossaryp.2231. ,

sbn Rhyt Edfu necropolis w Cauville, RdE 32,1980p.135-6. the the at sbn-rbyt is the areaof Nag el Hassaia, necropolis Edfu, literally 'the onewho embraces I known to her: Euergetes and Berenice noble mummies are rbyt'. Cauville collectedall examples 46.10. ') A Q 3'Jo IV in 111 182,4; the children of Horus are in chargeof ,, C-lia

153,15-16 ancestors ; spendmillions of yearsin ry-tp) in,,

f1l A. "

. 0. Oft

j! aj

IV 279,9 ; Osiris is Lord


111247,15 sovereign of ;

V 96,17 ; sim.'Cr

VI 158,2; in a damaged text about Osiris

V 238,5-16.

There are also two stelae from the actual necropolis which have this name : offering formula for the


Ennead anr of 'IX I" AZ cja



CGC 22018.1[Karnal,StelaeI p.19) and


CGC 22050.1[Karnal,Stelae 461. p.

shnt w

pole . support Wb HI 471 (15) to 472 (7) Pyr.

sbn is a post (Pyr 1559 ideographically as YYIT

and four of them are the four supports of the sky, written (Urk IV 1662,11) which stand at the four compasspoints and hold

the sky over the earth (GG sign list 0.30 p-496). At Edfu the word is usually written in this way : the king is given a length of time to rule , equal to the hrw pt OrITYIA its supports' 126,18 ; Horus established IYYT days of heavenupon

VI 63,6 ; of the temple the roof , YTYT 11185.3 r-t p

(which is heaven fdthe ba of Horus ) is upon its columns like


VI 6,2-; the roof is like


raising up heaven IV 13a ; sim. V 3,5 ; and

P.0 -. Yi cr Horus smn pt br


to bring to the fore, to exalt Wb IV 255 (6) to 256 (11) Pyr.

Causative hnt I)e at the Erone, to thus'to cause be at the frone,occursat Efu : the goddess of says to Osiris, I" dead 1224,14 r 3hw I raiseup your seatto be over the blessed %0
III Ir mhrt n nLrw 'establishes food raises .

at afestival, Khonsu-Iboth smn k3w

serpent a,. up seats makesprovisionsfor the gods!1267.4 ;a lion headed and 'exaltshis plwe beforehee1509,8.

SU M. bnts

sbuty''', " setogqsouth

NbjY256(12-16)D. 18 Causative bnty 'to sail south', occursat Edfu to describe festival voyageof a god':, the of nb,Iwnt m t. n rnpt 'the king makesHathorgo southat the right time of year 1361.9 in' r the festival text itself, Horus H p.472). to causes sail southto HB V 125,10(after Alliot , Culte


sbn tg

' to makerejoice Wb IV 256 (17) to 257 (1) GR

Causative 'rejoice be happy' from GR textsonly and especially Dendera a= of at : , , Il 21,8 and also Edfu morerarely : burning incense Azw rejoicewith its smell 1489,4.

Us D

pr m bnm.f I make the house


Wb IV 257 (3) to 258 (5) Pyr. DG 457,2 -/ 01

Causative hr 'to fall' usedeverywhere destroying of of thoseof Osiris [Zandee, enemies especially , te
Death p. 1901. It is often used at Edfu in alliteration of s: 111,13; T-1 sn St9 1196,1 cp OQ sn Stb m-'b sm3w. f VIII

sbiw on the path of the ring VI 65,5

for Osiris 1224.5 ; 211,8 ; it is an epithet of Horus as Lord of the harpoon

sbiw 1119-20(46) ;0>

: 't? IV 45,14 ; r; Y1 y also


IV as gazeUes 33,5.


With other foes as object :" Pfy whenhe attacks1188,6

or" Mnttyw

bryw V 41.14 ; 0) gaq

'3pp 1196,11; 7-" -

]Vr hftyw with his weapons 86,9 ; VI 88,3 VI v

nhs 1205,6 of-In d3ji3t m

VI 87,17

r3-w3t 1358,8 -, VI 129,9-10. The word is parallel wih analogous terms such as bw (135,8 and sbr wbr bw sbiw IV 27,6). Foes are felled in a place : bftyw. f m tp-rM I-n bftyw bnt iw-nVn 1114,17 ; Thoth uses magic rc3=r-?.

VI 62,10.

Wb IV 258 (7) Late GR'cites a noun sb r 'the Felled One' with an example in 1 188 =1 188,6 where in fact sbr is a verb. The other example P.Salt 825,11.3 is read by Derchain as sbdyw [Text P.Salt 825 13*] - so this reL can be removed from Wb.

shrw w

a papyrus document Wb IV 21 (1-4 sbrt ,) FCD 243 shrt MK, V

sbrw is a particular type of papyrus document (not plant), perhapsa technical term and most likely derived from sbr 'plan' [Gardiner, Lit. Texts p. 12* n.61.


The earliest example is from a MK coffin where a list of writing equipment includes

a am,

[CGC 28036 no.74] describedby Lacau as'un paquet de tablettes' [SarcophagesI p. 106] and in the

[Kanopus12,Urk H 134,1; LSJ 9 2005b it is translated greekXpTjgZ'cxajLo; by Canopus Decree 4 At any public document]. Edfu sbrw is usedrarely : the deadgodsare in their tombsdr fL$-,

since Wa (a primeval god) until the sealing of their papyri (funerary texts ?) Il



Wb IV 258(10) to 260 (16) OK

Faulknergives eight sbrw is a generalword which coversa large numberof possiblemeanings. 'affair"fashion', 'custom'[FCD 242-3] wherethe headings rangingfrom 'plan''conduct' Yortune! He than threadis moreunderstood beingexplicable. doesnotethat it is written underlyingcommon demands singular[FCD 243]. In this caseEnglishhas the as a plural often whenthe Englishsense is Egyptianis economical too many optionswhereas with the one term sbrw and its 'vaugeness' LeskoDLE for desirable thenumber uses which the word is put [alsofor diversityof meanings to of from as many references]. Whateversbr really is it is a IH p.89-90 with 31 different meanings . depending the way in which it is used. 'good'term usually. thoughcanbe given a bad nuance on The English'things'maybestcoverall the meanings, thoughthis lacksan air of proprietyimparted by sbrw in somecases and'aspects' maybe better. [Sauneron, EsnaV p.328 n. (1)]. -- .-

At Edfu the word is usually vague is usedin epithets : and imn-strw 'one who hidesthings (forms): of KhonsuImn
139.8 ; sim. 111210,2; Horu: s

in the Houseof the Leg III ,'

(Osiris) r IV 55,8. in

& -*-J V, C! 0
r- i,,

Imn. s Pq J'4VI 59,11 ; Isis

heart of the king tr imn PC b ftyw. f 'hides his form from his foes VI 21,2 ; the ir-shrw tr-ldbwy : Horus <Csn t3wyy 7,3 ; the king builds two shrine rows and

4*jL&I 1790 ; Thoth Ir o, ly C? as Re said at the Primordial Time VI 59,9 perhaps also ... trity

in the temple description, the five rooms west of the sanctuary are mi like what was done for its plan before IV 5,7 [de Wit CdE 35 Nr. 71 p.66-671. IQ lqr. shrw : Idng W
C=M P6

(Maat text) IV 102,9 ; Khonsuq4



'?2* IV 247,6 [as an


in autobiographiesfrom the MK -, c f. Otto Gum p-34 and JanssenAutobiograrie IG 531. attribute

"' '13,1 mnb. sbrw: Idng is mnh C== C-i, v -C==p

EkeIlloth (maat text) IV 232.11[Otto .,GuM p.34 from -


NK of king andgods]. nb-sbrw : Thoth ',z7 cm 4ojb,

in st-wrt 1 561,18, Qb to know its condition119,2

Various : Horus flies to heavento seehis houser rh (after MG p.411) ; king wd'
his heart about
r. =3-

sn in the land 1293,18-294,1 Horus takesadvicefrom

for his son (king) IV 15,9 ; heaven and earth live by cam -tr III 9 Of

Horus IV 233,3 -, his majesty commands to s3h .

VII 118,13.'

q.v. also gsrw.


width , length WbIV261(10-13)GR c.f. cof-IU5 '12-13NK cf. inplacenameWb111331,

KH 180'a paie CED 169 from dernoticsyb (DG 409,9) KH has

Sbb is connected with bb (q.v.) and the sign of the plumb bob between two iticks indicates shb V

to to textsto 'width' asopposed 'length'. so something do with measurement. refersin temples sbb in the descriptionof the temple : of a room q3.s -2t.... .... 6,1 ;It VII 13,2 ; in adimensions of the Pronaos q3... 0 IV 5,2 ; VII 17,11-12 IV ; (35'cubits)-.... mdt

(andalsoin otherGR temples). 11187,1 is With 0 "breadth the eartW usedto describe courseof Horuswho as the sun travelsacross the of the earthfrom eastto west :T-...
0,3 " bpt. f VI 92,5 ;f Nzzr

1119(22); oe ...

1175,9. The king is given as a reward for building the temple 3w pt and br ndb. f 'the width of heavenand breadth of the entire earth' IV 16,2. The term is attestedfrom GR texts only.


to make green

Wb IV 24 (15-16)Pyr.
Causative of 3b3b and occurs at Edfu in an l3bt offering : the king V. 3bt makes

field bloom and offers everythingwhich existsin ie VIII 129.5-6; Horus M the

'-- 'makesfreshhis eye' 1109,17( XI 256). The earlier occurrences the word are clear: of , Am beforeyou'. A!f\ all marshes

P0 v%48 Pyr 1214and Lond <594>Osiris



to run , hasten Wb 111472(10) to 473 (9) Pyr sbsh Wb RI 473 (11-15) MK ss

The original form of sbsb is shsb ,a reduplicated form of a simplex, sb - perhaps the word sb Io beaf so that stsh representsthe beating of feet on the ground as one runs. In time the Mal b ,

though a strong sound would have been omitted or fallen away so that later texts from the Middle Kingdom write As However the verb sbs is attested earlier than the full form sbsb and this . implies either a different origin for two verbs with similar meaning, or that sbsh is the reduplicated version of sbs , not the simplex sb [thus FCD 243 enters the two separately At Edfu the older form sbs is used most often of pocple 'running"hurrying' as they bring their .

offerings to the king : foreign lands Jlands A

their tribute on their backs1129,1; eldersof 4b with htpw

with their tribute 1150,5; the greatofferer bull sm3. wr

1555.6-4. offering on his hands Otherthings: the flood of geese face -A n.k runs to you 1321,16 ; in the Myth, Horus hasthe bodies

hr wdbt which run uponthe shoreVI 77,10 ; also the wbr snakewith evil VI 160,11-12.


of a stretch water Wb IV 264 (10) GR

is a term for a canalor body of waterandmostlikely derivingfrom the verbsUtreferringto the sbt and to capturebirdsin the marshes pools.sbt mayspecificallybe a placewith water,where net used as eventhoughbirdsareneverspecified its fowl lived in abundance couldbeeasilycaught, and water EsnaV In fact sbt is usedas a varianton the manywordsfor the flood waters[Sauneron, produce. qab &, (q)]. In the Nile flood offering texts,the king brings. with blooming flowers 1, p318 n. Qx H 250,14 1126 '583,5; JJ -, =" plansfor VI 225,15, ZA 042 =r-VI 34,14; Sopdetmakes ~Aft spr r sbt poured from

everyyear DH5,14 ; in alliterationof s

Sopdetat his time MD 136,36. In a moregeneralsense an incense the king also has purification, : termfor flood waters. cool DH 23.5- general to makeyour heart.


U 121 0" 'GI Dum. 11176 ; sbt is,also the nameof the pehuin the 5th UE nome: -l O-f' 0 is brought its embrace heavywith its "' MD I 61a, ; andat Edfu MU 14 9 -A , 'r foesIV 180,10-12 Id W with flocks and herds,wheregod is -, who captures


cowsandbulls andgod is -AdJ 5--j

of foesV 113,10-12.


marsharea, field Wb IV 229 (8) to 231 (7) Pyr. DG 450,4 Cr.377a ; CED 170 ; KH 207 C-W! yC-' j wo I , -!

The sign


shows reeds growing side by side with shoots between them [GG M 201 and

originally referred to marshland or reed thickets where birds and fish were caught. The extent of this 'marshland' and its use however, varies in Egypt - for when the inundation receded the whole of the left behind would be a huge marsh area so that the term sbt could apply to all of this land country , and also to the land which was flooded to produce plant crops. During the year the sbt proper would be marshesby the river and also there would have been more extensive marshes0 year round in the Delta [c f. Montet Scbnesde la vie pp.5-81.With this wider meaning possible the ritual of offering , sbt came to have symbolic meaning. In th*Heb-Sed the rite allows the king to take possessionof the four comers of the world and thus sbt is all land flooded and therefore all the land worth having , becauseof its productive capacity - meat as well as vegetables and com [Kees ZAS 52,1914 p.60 Sed festival]. The offering in the temple representsthe giving of all the productive areasof Egypt to the god and thus of everything which dependson that land,. For this reason the stele of donation of Late Period often show this offering and the donation texts at Edfu begin and end with a nk sbt the [c f. Meeks, Donations p. 5 n. 11 : nk rite M Horus where the produce of the land is to ,

listed - seed,wine, milk of cows, cattle, birds, flowers VII 215.15



246,10-251,9 In return the king is given land producingcropsto fill the granaries all provisions , . andall partsof Egyptareunderhis control. 1,5-11 to Horus : 11148,18-149,6; 1115 is consistently Throughoutthe temple,the ritual offered oppositesidesof two doorjambs IV, 67,15-68,13 IV 223,12-224,14 oppositeeach and

Naosexterior ;V 145,6- 146,3;V 251,5-16; VII 71,2-18. otheron the


With Hathor: H 118,6-15;H4,13-5,7opposite 7,7-18-,VI 260,8-2622-,VU 85,13-86,17;VIII H 8,14-17opposite17,1- 18,8(plJ)CL*o ; XV 25,12-269 opposite30,4-16(Isis). The positioningof the textson eithersideof a door showsthe einphasis is given to the rituaL that Ite offering of the Icingensures the god who ownsall the productivelandsbenefitstheIcingin that kind. for In the textsthe king actsasa representative Shu, hry. wdb , responsible theprovisioningof of the tablesof thegodsin the temple.He bringsmainly grain , but also&en crops- which arenursed so andnurtured thatall peoplearemadeto live (VIII 17,8ff. ). Hecontrolslandsandcanwidentheir boundaries thatmoreis providedfor thegod.Thegodsgrantthatall theproduce thelandsis for so of the king - he rulesover all land to its limits, the fields areboweddownunderthe weightof produce, the fields bloom, storehouses filled and the seasons are producetheir crops. The flood is also favourable is up eachyear- to makethelandpregnanf,the sunshineraises thecropsandtheharvest the a time of ndm-lb. In short,the sbt offering encapsulates role of the king in his relationship with the gods - as the provider he is provided with food and it also represents successful the cycle- from flood to bumperharvest. agricultural To presentthe offering, the king wearsthe Doublecrown showinghe is king of all land in Upper the andLowerEgypt, or theRedcrownwith an atefcrownuponit to underline agricultural natureof 34 the rite [DC pL46a; pl. 132, RC andatef pl.40 k; pl.93 , pl. 118 XV phot. and381.7le offering M,, is shownas of raisedup on the hands the king (seeLA H 148-1501. A variationis the prr 'runningthe land!ritual 111116,13-117.8 pl.82) wherethe' (and

king runs over the boundaries his land before Horus . In return he makesall roadsfree from.' of The king wearsa Red Crown and holds the Opt oar and mks to showhis impurity and hindrance. with the right'of succession the king and of of the land (andwater?). It is a text concerned control his rule over all productiveland, for in the rite he performsOnk At n nb.f [c f. Guthub, K&ni , 16,1962 p.52 b and 53 d]. The Lower Egyptianslantis due to the tradition of the marshyareas of the Delta and the text for the ww-land of the Tanite nome, notesthat herethe god sin-gst hr fast with its marshland V 22,3.7be sense the land beingrightfully inheritedis also of runs
mvaxles LOO 3mverses implied in a rnpwt offering'. wherethe king'as'a farmer bns plir v. iand of the

his fathersH 66,14.

- 1617

Outsidethesetextssbt occursoften as a generalterm for productiveland in the Nile valley : the 01 flood floods it 1112,11 M
XA I =,, o

132,15 ; it growsplants


1112,14 ;I

476,6specifically amongthe produce of ,

is GreenEye of HorusVI 37,10.

In the Donation texts sbt again is used in aa general way :a list of fields is given amounting to ,

four landsVII 248,5-6; the numberof arourae given for are j

22A * 'it -

landsVII 246,5; VH 242,6; 219,1:a list of fields --->

11,1 for direelandsVII 249,2. . in


land personified goddess Wb IV 231 (8-12)OK

from the OK to Romantimes- sheis a personification floodedandwatered Sbt is attested land, of and is also the patron of fish spearingand bird catching. The god Hb is said to be her son (Pyr.555).Shedoesnot havea cult assuchbut is mentioned thereis fishing , fowling and wherever hippopotamus hunting.In GR timesshehasa festivalon the 23rd of Athyr andis an aspect adopted by Hathorand Isis Sheis depictedfrom the 18th D. in the 'Nile goT processions a symbolof as . fertility andregeneration [Guglielmi, Wd07,1974p. 206-22; LAV7781.
At Edfu : she appears with Hapy

as they follow the king 1464,4 ; in an '3bt

M 9% mistress of birds who '0

gives all birds in their pools 11164,3 ; also

captures them and Lady of hunting 11163,11-12; wild fowl are the children of Sekhet VII 124,13 ; she is the mother of wild fowl IV 199,9-10 ; the king is suckled by her VI 256,11 '.',The king'

presents msw-plants of



Horus VII 81,12-13 and here he is born of' to "o"


a; a. r

'strong in his worle VII 82,2 There is also the ritual of ms p3 mdw na . "PL loo' Sekhet 111142.6, where the king has a true harpoon blade like shown with birds attached to it (pl. 61) ; also ms msw n the king as son of IV 360,2 and 5. JU o

the staff of

(. 11) and the staff is

to his father with geese,

At Effu the festival of Sekhet occurs during the Hathor-Horus festival qQ17

V 350,6 - it

23rd day of the 3rd month of Akhet (8th October), and it representsan aspectof takes place on the Hathor - in October birds migrate to the south, so the swamps would be full of them and is for this goddess[Christophe CHE VII, 1955 p. 36 n. 131.Sekhet is also mentioned in the appropriate Myth (a hippopotamus hunt) where the harpoon of HoruS is made for VI 67,3 [JEA 29


p.10 andp34 n.241.


field of reeds Gauthier V p.50-51Pyr. DG

In funerarytextssbt-13rw is wherethe deadwork and it may in particularbe the swamps the of Delta. In mythologicaltermsthe sunriseshereand setsin the sht-btp, so that both arepart of the V ]. des domainof Osiris [Weill, Le Champ Roseaux. le ChampdesOffrandes, Paris,1936passim. et locale- the field of the nomeof Bubastisis At Edfu sbt-13rw is given a geographical IV 37,9which containsfertile lands;M I alsoV 25,15-17(thesbt-btp is in the Athribis nome)[Montet Geographie p.1841. The mythical term is given a terrestrialsettingandthe significance the field is in its connection of the rising of the sun. for in the 19th LE nome the god here is a child like the sun in the with morning [Weill , op.cit p.58-681. ry,

sbt-im3w field of trees Wb IV 230 (12-13)MK is a namefor Siwa Oasisin particulu, but in generaltermsit can refer to the groupof sbt-im3w from north to southin theLibyan desert(Gauthier V pA9-501:a text about DG running oases seven the oasesmentionsTmO and is: [4nw and west of Farafra) q0 8 oases 24,8 -,in a list of domains VI Ain el Wadi (north VH 230,12.It maybe alsomorespecif ically VI 22,8 (afterSetheZAS 56,1920 p.501.Ile oases were VI in comes a procession with wine andgrapes M on her head alsoIV 46,4-5.

grapeandwine producingareas: 227,4_5 pl. 159fine 44 showinga womanwith

sbt-it-lmnty, GauthierDG V 51 Edfu only

dik 4%

for The term is one of the names the 6th oasisof the l1byan desert- Wadi Natrun


VI 23,6, morelikely to readsht-imnty 'the westernfield! [SetheZAS 56,1920 p.51].

sbt. wsir - fieldof Osis



with grain in procAion VI 224,16-17.

The name of a productive land in a 'Nile god' procession : the king brings

with its grain, goodandpure,it is ploughedat its time VI 226,6-8, shownas a womanwith on her headholdinga tray with vessels plantshangingfrom it (pl.159line 36). and

sbt. nlr

Field of god Gauthier V 54 DG

The nameof the agriculturalland of the 18thLE nome with divine plants , also called sht-dsrt IV 36,9-11 V

I> Jr

with its inbw and field is the

V 25,3-7; ci

floodedland in the nome1335,7[OLA 6 p.629 n.92 ; MontetGeographie p.1801. I


Field of Re GauthierDG V p.55

Agricultural land of the Ist LE nome (Memphis)perhapsreminiscentof the old sun templeof Sahure Abusir at comeswith Lower Egyptiangrain,and the king is greatof heb 1330,2(parallelin IV damaged).

M? sedsV 13,101-1 the canalfloods

sbt-m3t field of salt

Wb IV 230 (11) MK in The Wadi Natrunis well attested texts,especiallyin the EloquentPeasanL it occursat Edfu and as the place which produces natron Osiris VI 23,5-6 jjA6

is on the north of the secretmountainof

T1 on, is brought to its produceIV 335,13.It wasattached the 3rd with

LE nome[GauthierDG V 56].

sht-tp field of offerings v GaudiierDG V p.56-7 In funerary texts sbt-btp is parallel to the sbt-i3rw as the west where the deadare [Weill , Le

Q 1620

, lN

Champ des Roseaux et le




term is applied to an area in the I Oth

LE nome(Athribis) [KO no.280 and 667] but at Edfu it is a word for productiveland in offering -I-I rI-IF. --,line with its grainsand plants VI 195,17ff. (pl.98 : processions the king brings fi !)A*xjbmq S 10!5m:; ')ff, "i 2n, rj G"We'gQa 11.01.159)- both shownas a 20) wlcl --suppaprovisions . N-I ji ")Iur, b, r, -, Fi aveVs(A AAV9 plafitshangingfrom it. loc; '111W Uj', ')6h"hii licid0;4roWni'l'ay s woinL'-wh,; ful-W zlvjitY' q brm;, ln'("' to be a termfor a fertilWfWd'inf)jJn'cTai'


field of Sakhmet

Lc, 10 -j
V 2ithJii)

1 -; a ..!kl?

Gauthier V 58 DG A 6ldV6fiii6h9dbf

it'ii'rTeno kegt its flowerswith beautifulfragrance f6r Late gits`ifier'e' g brings' with her food I 3mc)rt ai b=1 h5hoor) C"I 5di tsj'anais filled with lotusesand

It octae in thegeographicat the: processions-At'Edfif andlotuscsIV 193,1111291 plantsIV 192,2-3 335,1-2;a pehuis called 0 ga LU III

3 growsMWp

Ym3w plants blooming at their time and flowers IV with IM-10? t&il 0111.0 in 13 th LE nomeandsbt-srqt also'V 21,4. In ritual

" tA / OU 1! 1111F. 5i texts : with the lotus, the king comes to an gods rejoice H"'225,3 offering j uI t)iij k-, brM 1W-314) U00ming 'Intl with lotuses11293,17 AL 11; siudt; 2 11pudl., t"ivr P3177r)') -Q, bf 1--'; lotusi`Wijlithii asaproduceirof -sovercipftisbt-srqtlHlll, I . Oan Mrov I. I.

offeringsfor the Behde"fWOQV'a*1j"'j


Val lotus,g(x

and its with its lotus flowers IV 141,11; papyrusand geesetext , Horus gives H-'*-. 11r2.10 1 M1 with produceVII 242.7. produceIV 277,3; flower offering . Horusgives no .0 ' XM I if) OF V] (J"N but It is a Lower Egyptianplace- whether actualor not is unclear, is hereassmWid with sbt-srqt W U107, mnxYl iLr. oa *' -brg Ir AW )r; S. nit j?. '3S '71 VIII--) U Aa Iti twif ici4 BTMilai M &rl ffiy hAt " im pertumeof the plants is to also rgu5mq &Adw :xLlqoOies -)IJ &C "to f. posy.It balances Ia in ok-dFkage soothi-Wiif&ildfg"iW'illa'i"Z; 0 WilWWA ikl sbt-nje6,1h8'c6"r e0 jaz V DCIloidillso] =txi -qj


sbt-srqt field of Selkis

GaugiierDG V 58 r-pj? V Da loidwaD Mythological place or one whose location has not been identified in Lower gypt , but a block has -a texfkithl"O 'UU, &Ff 4* , A
BNOVY ; -Ii 'Perh* on It

tuatedon the

21X9,!r-filsf1u, III


ASAE 16,1916 224 226, p.235 and mapp.241and3 southern edgeof Lake Mariout [Daressy, p. from block CGC459361. 71be placeoccursin textsat Edfu , in similar contexts sbt-Shmt discussed as above:a papyrus and geese offering, the king bringsthe tribute of in king is sovereign
is mentioned V 21A ;040 .6

IV 2773 *.lotus offering the , RH w-7

111186,2;in the pehuof the 13thLE nome

P-Z>. Op I. 'm ,q -:

Opet 195also (c f. Gutbub Kemi 16, ,

1962p.57-58with notes).


field of Shu GauNer DG V 59

Agricultural land of the 22ndLE nome

containsplantsIV 40,7-9

the also V 28,3-5 - this last examplesuggests reading Shu rather than Maat of the first (etc sbt-m3't).


landin theTanite nome Gauthier V 59- 60Lateperiqd DG

Outside temple from ). for texts, landis mentioned statues Tanisitself(Gauthier refs. In this the on texts, thegeographical it is thename thepehuof the 14thLE nome of 3\ -r-= \ -x= lotuses 33,9-11 IV V 22,4-5;M ;M:: also processions : theking brings M:: I "r1r N with

In 1334,13. Nile

IV-48,14 flowers foodofferings with plants, and

can V

ff. In offering the Double crown to Khent-Iabet the king is before god in , 101,10 ; Horus is great of fear in Khent-Iabet and drives away Be in M>


it is the easternmostnome and thus most vulnerable to attack from the east [c f. Gutbub Ktmi 16 , , 1962 p.50 and passim in this article]. The earliest attestation is possibly in the Kamose Stela where a place : 11 ix is mentioned ,

this may have become sbt-d't [Habachi , Second Stela of Kamose p.53 line 7-8] and in Coptic *rxwM NTX4 t, CED 358) d'(n)t is the name of the place (Avaris - Tanis) and sht-d1t is the 6V pehu and land around it [Montet Geographic I p.20 U.


sbt-drtyw Field of ancestors

At the head of a procession of Wiles' the king brings the flood then JU , fields of the primeval era which provides offerings and grain IV 43,12 ff ; also , VI 224,4-5. Becausethe idrtyw are primeval ancestorsthis land may be a recreation of the primeval marsh or a place reputed to be this first swamp [c f. MOET p. 118]. with its

field sbt-dsrt sacred As a further namefor the sbt-nLr : LU "=E IV ':;,Oo' 36,11 xb=. .


knife q.v. s3bt


to make brick a WbIV 263(13-14) MK

'to sbt-dbt originallymeant lay bricks',usingthe verbsbt 'to weave' but from theNK it is a . phraseusedmainly of makingbricks [Tomb of Rekhmire 581and'in templefoundation pl. it the ceremonies describes moulding thefirst brick by theking [Spencer, of Brick Architecture in 11521 thehardmuddy p.3-4]. It wasthework of shabtis theafterlife[SchneiderShabtis and , in P. I workof corvee workers thislife [Simpson, Reisner p.77-781. a manufacturing in sbt process been of weavingmayhave used other such than processes is thedirect making bricks of rather - that , by layingthem[assuggested ASAE54,1957 641. originally Badawy p. is At Edfu oneof the foundation ceremonies sbt-Abt 13141 1 at thecomers of -&- 13 to build

the thetemple where king holdsthebrickmouldin hisownhand and -A ,

H (pl. thesanctuary 60,16-61,7 40e) thekingholdsthemouldandrm a brick;. 41b Aj Z also,andin thetextit is statedearth water mixednbLI msbntandI make bricksto and are A, foundyourhouse 111114,2-1362; pl. The jjbt alsoVII 48,5-49,2. scenes showthe 40,5-j -

king holdingthebrick mouldandsbt maydescribe actionof shaking mouldto release the the' the
brick - thus he 'strikes'a brick and sbt herederivesfrom the verb sh 'to shake,striki? - but the A spelling which is consistent militatesagainstthis derivation.The underlyingmeaningmustbe

'to weave', 'manufacture! it describes bondingtogether straw,mud. water,so that they, of and the and


form a brick, thenthe formationof the rectangular blcok from a the mass mud - this seems of more likely thanlaying downa bricle [MontetK6mi 17,1963p.87-89moulerla briquel. I

This ceremonyimplies that mud bricks were usedpossiblyin the foundations the temple as of , most of it was madeof stone - or may refer to the symbolic moulding of bricks for the outer bricksthemselves. enclosure wall or evenof thefoundation 11


to trap (with a net) Wb IV 262 (3) to 263 (2) OK

Representations trapping birds in a snarenet are well attestedfrom the OK [see Montet ScZnes de of la vie privde p.52 ff, Vandier Manuel V p.307 ff. ]. The verb is still used at Edfu in'offerings of 0 fowl : which the king has caught in your lake (pool) 374,11 AR 0 da 1111.5 and 10 ;. X6 I

1476,6. In the pehu of certain nomes the god

bw traps booty 80-0.

(4th LE) ; but in the pehu of the 18th LE nome the birds come as they wish

Ocatch Idd there is no catching them IV 37,2 ; geeseareof the field IV 392,2. The two rituals for trapping in a net birds which symbolise foes also uses sbt here: 'they capture marsh birds' VI 56,9 ; md 6cLj , d S-tj sn qbDw

VI 237.1 - even though a large clap net is used , VI 56,6 not the small snare net , the principal is the same. Thoth here has the epithet lint V


VI 236,12.'-

The ritual offering of the w staveis connected and with huntingin the marshes againthe activities the and : represent removalof enemies dangers the king themin the mouthof his net (i3dt) IV 293,4. catches The nounis also used: Horussnares foesin the of Khnum IV 293,6. 9j> in his net (9dyt) IV 293,3


bond to weave, WbIV 263(6-12) Pyr DG457,5sbt weave


A 124-

Cr-381a; CED172; KH 211weave,plait


sbt is possibly from the same root as sht 'to catch in a nef and the underlying notion of the root be something which is woven or plaited thus applying to the net as well as the action. sht would , W


Ile verb is known from the Pyramid Texts and shown in the Beni Hasantombs [BH 129 for example].It is usedat Edfu , mainly in cloth offerings , wherethe cloth is said to be 'woven'by a a 0YV A 190,7 VII 158,7; damaged text goddess usuallyTayet , AM VU 100,2. One of the epithetsof Khnum is s4t-igspt (Wb IV 264,9)and this may be translated 'one who as weaves i9spt cloth' (5ce ifspt) , but the epithet is given to him in his capacity as a builder :
AAA&% 4

Khnum builds the temple X


0 Iweaverof cloth (or marerof light) hasbuilt ir 1926 13

(with sbt usedhereasto build! ormanufacture Wb IV 263,16)IV 19,15; in the net text, the king is the bravemarshman of of c n"I'who di VI 56,2 ; offering a libation the king is the child

'4-- IV 218,11.The term occursin othertemples: the king is the imageof 13* Mal '. q

foesin his handiworle EsnaVI 165,2no.531,3; Khmun is 'd catches A B,, 1--y in AswanPhilae<327> ; settingout its cord by KO 182.96,65; who rises 1: l "=V--Mam. E 168,10; and alsoBadawi, Chnump.50-51.It is alsothe nameof one of the OZ q2l him builder gods aspects Khnurn, who accompany JSU of seven -M 317.15. .


Wb IV 263 (34) BD

ing in the are sbty is attested BD Chapter153'snarersare in the spell for escaP from the ft sh net -y Al "0 called on in this spell ; also Urk VI 69,2. ,At Edfu they are protectivegods who 441M Sokar 1 180,4 ; in the stt pehuof the 9th UE nome, god here is A0' sblw watch over
'c=her of fbee V 113,11-12 0 am k3w IV 180,11-12.


marshman Wb IV 231 (15) to 232 (7) MK

but In olderliteraturethis is translatedpeasant! moreaccurately sbty arepeoplewho live off the the 'I'heyboth capture birds and fish in the marshandcultivate produceof the floodedor marshyareas. with the fishing, fowling what land canbe cultivatedfor crops[of. GNS 9 11.It is their connection huntingactivitieswhich is particularlyimportantin the useof the term at Edfu.* and hippopotamus Fen Usually sbty is qualifiedasshty-qn 'strongmarshman' [Blackman-Fairman, manJEA 29 pA I-I-W


hunt : the harpoonis thrown'ir. n shty qn 'as the strong n.f] and in the Myth, a hippopotamus v marshmandoes' V161,10;

mf'Pml ri
LU. j'N..&'d7 Av-j

VI 216,12- 217J. In slayingthe hippopotamus,the king is

lu IV 212,6 ; in the net ritual' the 9

, "41. i),-j-RL-uj ,

VI 83,14;

IV 59,5-6; crocodile

king is M,

Pk . jj

-C 'd

VI 56,2.The Lower Egyptianemphasis the epithetis shown of %% 9% ' VI 60,9.In offering the harpoonthe 1ngis the second of VI 56,8 ;'p3 sqn

g4 'r whereit is usedof the lord of Mesen' qn VI 57,5 ;

21 kl

M, k '" t
16VI 91,3. v

Without adjective: the king presents harpoonto Horus the



%% .

ji-' V 214,7. rns

In the plural sbtyw are the companions Horus whosechildrengo to 'eat the flesh and drink of , , 2L4: 4,, ' VI 73,8 *,at the slayingof the hippopotamus the blood of the foes': msw msw LL4 "k k, IV 58,15; crocodileslaying portions the for 'm sw' of animal are i , ]%*IV 212,34. The shty-qn is the one who standsin the prow of the boat and throws the harpoonat the animal andthenholdsontotherope.


drive back repel , Wb IV 265 (5-7) NK, Mag.

Causative of htbt

itself a reduplicated form of h,t implying it is dparticularly strong or violent . ,

action . Wb has no GR examples, but it is mainly used in NK magical texts for repelling Apopis and foes in general (c If. P.Br-Rh 23,21). The word also appearsat Edfu in alliteration of 4D, a


bftyw V 142,6; in the phrase' the king receivesthe harpoon


239,8 ; Horus all

is tied On VI 87,2 ; in the ritual Of protection the S'nbplant , snb tsw to drive away for him one who overturns the boundaries- the pun
0 0

being most importanthereVI 301,3(parallelhas .a "r, snb-snb



beupside down

Wb IV 265 (8) to 266 (10) Pyr. X is to be with the headdownwards which canbe usedof people As the determinative shows, shd %J


beingupsidedownor falling down,or it is the modeof passing throughthe underworld. is thus skd thereversal normallife andin PT 323it is thehorrorof the king 'to walk in darkness he cannot of , see(bear)the going upsidedown. Ile Coffm Texts havespellsto preventit happening for it is , one of the dreadedhorrd'sof the underworld(Cr I 188d- 189b ; CT V 28 d-c). It has serious for consequences, upsidedown parts of the body do not have their usual functions- the mouth becomes anusandsospellsfor'not goingupsidedown!and'not eatingexcremenf the occurtogether (CT III 194e-j BD Budgep.492.7).sbd is alsoseenas a fate for all the dead(BD 101).In later , funerarybookssbd is a punishment sinnersand in the Am Duat the enemies Re are shown for of upsidedownin fire [Ilth Hour, Hornung,AmduatH p.182no.816 Deathp.75-781. Despitethis unnaturaland undesirable aspect sbd the GR textsusethe te-rnin a lessnegative of thoughstill with the implicationthat it is anaspect the abnormal of way underworld is outside and Maat : the beetleof the sun god J in the west122,5-6; Horus 0 -.seeZandee,

qb J*%

m m3nw R' to

and sleepsin Behdeteveryday 117 (15) ; Horus Xr P O&= unite with his mummy1166,12-13; sim.

in the westat night 142,1 ;I

d3t-n. b3 you go upside down to the andyou go

underworldVM 91.17; going to the west, he raisedup your house 92A. upsidedownin it asAtum V111

Heresbd describes suntruningupsidedownto go throughthe underworld but the underlying the , to notion is not negative simply a matterof fact andin this caseis moreanalogous btp. The word is alsousedto describe actionof the flood (from GR texts).After the flood hasrisen the the land , it then sinksdown on it andlike a vesselbeing turnedupsidedown to pour out its over contents sbd can imply the turning upsidedown of the flood waters onto the land. Again the disagreeable undesirable and nuances the term havebeenlost : Khunm saysdi. 1 T09 of hapy to pour out for you at his time 1115,1 hapy 01py I cause. time V 66,14-67,1. appointed With' r the flood a." Horusl484,16; tot_hesea With m r dmitf goesdown to his quay194,10; flood to the GreatGreen1164,14. Ifa-rbyt 1466,2 IV 369.7-8.1 01py r dmit of nA at his

the great green flood 4rm the flood hri

With -m-ht

rn-ht k0w-nbw IV 35,11 [Gardiner translatesthis as 'fall


headlonginto' JEA 30 p.53 ; Vercoutter'il se ddverse'(lit renverse)pour out BIFAO 46,1947 p.182-3].Vercoutter maybelongto theancientideaof theriver which notesthat this ideaof reversal flows aroundthe world (op. p.183). cit. I Transitive : the king sn I pour out their libation at their water mouthsI -kff 329,10; MD 161 a also.Herethe notion is clearly of taming a vesselupsidedown to pour out its downandpouringout arevirtually synonymous. contents so that theactionof turningupside -


to cause sail north Wb IV 266 (12-13)D.20, GR

1 Causativeof hd like sbntyt usedrarely at Edfu : god P r-3s:-11J. , the flood to go north and water the field ' IV 56,8 ; of Min cavern-sourcesto supplyEgypt 1402,11-12. ,

h'pi r swrh 3ht causes Nun from the two



to drink, swallow Wb IV 268 (13) to 269 (5) Med shPWb IV 269 (7-9) Med. CC CWL1T Cr.386a; CED 174

At Edfu the verb is written in the forin s1lb and is usually usedwith the object snf 'blood' (of foes) : Nekhbetis contentat P *c' * snf V 53,11 ; falcon sbiwV11323,6; Nekhbetbr-, Also wtr : lion Water ?: falcon m p. 124hasthb immerse, bathe). v shb is also usedof the Nile flood: his semen uniteswith 581,5= MD IV 18 ."I-' r .... .! q" " VC. c:, =O Qax I-

!J- I?

snf 1175,5-6-,Horus is contentat snf n snf VI 78.7.

snf n sm3y.k VII 164,9-10; griffin +[4snfl3lO, 2; ageniisrjl?

m wtr IV 286,3. Lz 't. f water from his limbs VI 151,4-5(Jankj)h, , Sch,, n m


of the vulva Mnldng in Tood watee


be hasty impetuous ,
Wb IV 269 (13-16) MK, GR FCD 244

In MK texts often in the phrase shm r m'r I)e in a rush', not always in a good senseand used at


Edfu in an artificial way -in the alliteration of sin a procession text:


shm. k shmw. k 1543,12 - the IL here is regarded as the same as b (compare comments of vu Otto p-504-5 Westendorf Das StrandendeSchiff, PeasantB1,58 =R 101 FS. , .


(later form of gr 'to milk) to providemilk, to milk Wb IV 295 (1-5)Pyr.

From the NK this verb waswritten asshr (FM 244) andat Edfu it is a verb usedin milk offering texts: Horusis one who . =,, -a Harsomthusgives cows tr 84,9-lo (literally 'milk milk). -.0Transitiveverb : the Idng *,-, i idwtk I milk your cows Vil 226,6-7. n Ownw provides milk for children H 39,1-2 iritsn r ILrt.k providing their milk for your rations V


to makeyoung Wb IV 271 (4-9) D.19 (KRI H 666,13)

Causative ILrd 'be a child, be young. of At Edfu sl1rd describes renewingof the moonevery30th day the who makeshimself youngon the 30th day IV 40,12 ; LE nome); alsoof a guardian god , who is like the moon Also - milk is used-, %! t a, A O j tp V 28.7-8(pehuof 22nd b'w. f 1197,9.

dt. f to renewthe body of the king H 38,15.


to adorn Wb IV 271 (10) to 272 (17) Pyr.

Causative hkr andusedoften at Edfu , usuallyin the alliterationof s: in the templedescription of f 'm s3wy decorate walls with gold IV 8,7 the s3wy. But also m nbw: X45
--4*C=p -


P-r' in s3wy 1283.1 IV 13.6-.19,11

1454,11; m-drw

Ile also. twosisters

tw adomyouwith theircloth 1396,16. n.k sw br %nbLk155,19-56,1.

With theobjectof decomdonMaat



An.Lex. 78.3797 An exampleat Edfu has long beenknown : in the net ritual sty. n.f (L inMJ 'he

hascasthis cord he hasensnared'VI 56,10-11 herethenthe termrefersto thecord of a net.Alliot , [RdE 5 p.86 n.3]. it as -""- (e) bbs but it is not necessary read This may comparewith a word from the CT net ritual written thus 0n
Spell for the net and fish trap CT VI 3a and another spell of coming out of


[FECT 11p. 109 n.6 fish trap Spell 473]. Bidoli suggesteda comparison with isi a verb 'to catch' , and this form is the active imperfective participle thus Odt isst is 'the net which captures' [Die

Sprache der Fangnetze, GlOckstadt 1976 p.45-461. The Edfa word could be a noun, the object of , 'pull the cord' of the clap net - or the phrasecould be three consecutive'actions 'he has pulled, he sty captures, he ensnares'The first alt'-.mative seemsbest 'he has cast his cord (i. e. pulled it ) he has ensnared'.


to bum up Wb IV 274 (6-7) Late, GR

ss occurs in P.Br-Rh 28,3 and also at Edfu

Pj 4*s the flame

D'w. f it bums his limbs 27,22

* also one,who

in the name of a lion headed serpent he is -A ?i , jP' IL3kw-ibw. k MD 1157. '

bums foes 1570,15 ; also at Dendera D_dt br

Most likely an abbreviated form of the late word ssf (q.v.)


nameof Apopis jnjvbt Apopis is in the flames V 79,13114 This m .

A slayingApopis text begins , may comefrom a term Pq


in 274,10)which describes evil beingpunished (Wb IV an

Tombs underworld texts -,Zandee , Death p.284 n. 10 an inimical serpent]. the underworld [Royal

Thereis alsoa term nome: %=7

ll^- --a404-


is the nameof the saciedsnakefrom the Sebermytos which GeogYap. pl. 10Frag.14-15.

--w1333,9 and "IC-7

is most appropriate being onomatopoeic for the noise of the hissing of a As a word for snake ss , (bad or good) and specifically Apopis and'also to the serpent. It can refer to any type of snake Apopian foe: Onuris slays IIV down Apopis Philae Phot 1549,1546,1545. and casts



to destroy

Wb IV 273(7-15)MK (Pyr.725for example) Causative a verbswn 'to perisW usedfrom the MK andalsoat Edfu of cre- dhAn hftyw n R' 1403,12; Hathor -e"-r A? sbiw of her father

Re 111146,13 Amun ; : =, -O- IS mdyw 1286,4.

sm3yw nt nbs VII 105,4-5; Horus as a warrior

is The destruction doneby fire : Hathor breathof Mehit Jr sbiw IX P1.30.

'3pp with her fire 111138,13 the fiery ;

The original sense sswn seems havebeen'to destroy'andthis is mostlikely to be the useat to of howeverthat in NK royal tombstexts it is usedof the punishment the Edfu. Zandeesuggests of [Deathp.2841 but evenherethe mslationpunish'seems rathersubjective. godless -


ashes Wb IV 276 (5-12)D. 19

(q. is relatedto ss 'to bum' and 'ashes' v.) as usedin SS72 ssf

(Wb IV 274.8).no

Sailor exampleis simply a mistakefor this term. the term becomes and perhaps Shipwrecked ssf is Goedicke m notesthat the 19thD. phrase ssf clarifiesthis earlierword andthe phrase a metaphor des At destruction [ItGoedicke Die Geschichte Schiffbrilchigen Aa 30 p.35-361. Edfu' for absolute , , is always usedin the phrasem-ssf '(be) as ashes, be burnt W and has alliteration of s for ssf effectiveness: sm3yw.f sbiw

VM 143,17; smstl snakec--

V 175,15

IV 375,2-3 Wadjetsb.n.s sbtl ;


R IV 322.17

j +-- IV 234,9-10; sbi n sns C-' IH 178.13; sbi nn m--, ICL sm3yw. f = %4% PqCPQfV234,2-3;, sim. 1556,16-17;I bring sblw.k sb m VII 161.14; 310,16also(a GR userecorded Philaeby WB). at Others: luntyu VH 156,15., All of these of textsfor thedestruction foes. exmnples in appropriate are VU 150,8; f: 4. V 293.7 mdwTPq'-#


S (sh)

to write , to inscribe
Wb 111475(6) to 476 (15) Pyr. DG 458,3 sh )7

Cr.381 b; CED 172-3 ; KH 211 Mis read as zJ13from the demotic and Coptic evidence [Osing Nom.I p. 166 and n.723 in Nom H

p.664-5]. At Edfu the verb and noun are frequent but usedin relatively restricted contextsand they are always written with the sign Vt

The verb refers to the writing of texts on papyrus or wooden boards and also on the temple walls

Trb eim

n shmw written with imagesIV 13,4. W fb

(16) hL= Wb 111476 to 479 (9) Pyr. IV 19,12; walls are inscribedwith Tfbn' s 16 1557.18; rituals all hieroglyphs1553,12; the lector holdsa writing boardwith 4h totall accordingto ancientwritings 1388,16; sim mi nty r, are performedr mitt r , 1115.17. Associated with certain tb *Vb 1267,7 1168,1: Thoth as the scribe-. 1h6 KhonsulovesMaat and <m> i%i gods: ff Ill fO 1180,8 Khonsu(as 1278,1 ; Seshat nb ; an aspect Thoth) c=-;, of ; ': " ITfb who first wrote IH 32,7.

At Edfu : the templeis inscribedwith

VIII 111.4; an offering is madenty r



s9, sILw scribe Wb HI 479 (14) to 481 (4) OK DG 460,1 &2, C-4q Cr383b; CED173; KH209 C. For the importance scribesin the Egyptianadministration LA V 698-700and for Thoth asa see of scribeseeBoylan, Thoth p.194-5. 6Off -27 6f At Edfu it is Thoth who i s usuallycalled'scribe': , m3't scribe who writes

betweeen writing andMaaL hereis theconnection MaatVII 322,9andinteresting


to go by , to passby



Wb HI 48 (2)
--*- is the writing from the MK of the verb sni 'to pass by' and FauUmer notes this verb is a(? ) t-VM

(sn 7) 'to pass'(seeGNS 72) Whateverthe readingof the term it is usedat Edfu in widespread contexts. 'to passby' : of the wind imyt pt passes between heaven 41,1-2 M
34M c'X

hr. s the wind passesbefore her VI 181,15 ; L3w

Imyt pt V 146,5-6; possibly r=

damaged VI 97,5-6. text of time : cause vessel a

x6 A


in to spendII days(standing) a recipeVI 163,6; Ir

nn VI 167,8: r-ir m-bt 3bd 4 hrw 3

also H 222,5 ; 50 days VI 163,7-8

-'"-A MX

Or nn %owafter four monthsandthreedayshadpassed after this' VI 214,8.10sim.


with bL: Horakhty C=3 foesV 155.7-8.

4r Lstyw 169,5-6; 1147,10-11

the imagesof

Various : of the king ,n CM A =, * Maat is 143,8 ; the god hasa road Am 184,6.


r bw ]Lrs 'you do not passfrom the place where (she) BI passby (or I open)IH 83.5 ; the falcon-*vi

beforethemVI 111.4-5 the falcon is Orsn he haspassed

Transitive'cause passaway'- of anger(Wb HI 483,7 GR) occursoften at Edfu andusuallythe to X' -c"z3angeris madeto go awayby the shakingof the sistra: 303,9 V11305.11; IV 303,9; 104.5 11166,4-5

nkn 1557,1 ; IV 282,16 ;

n.f n9n IV 144,9 CPU n.r n9n VII 6 V 78,17;V 184,1; VII 1740 111130,6 IL -A

dn VHI 142,9-10 (notethe alliterativequalitiesof this phrase) similarly in pacifyingSakhmet and


3t I havecaused angerto passby VI 284,4. n.t Odt I makedisease pass

things sYis also usedof removingotherunpleasant from his limbs IV 51,7.

Also in the description the throwingof theharpoon theking or Horus thereis a commonline by of , 'I havehurledwith the left handAn. 1m lib. i 'and this latter part mustrefer to the harpoonrope which is paid out by the other handwhen the harpoonhas been thrown. st here may thus be a transitiveform of the verb &to pass to makepass'andso 7 causeto passout (the rope) with my , left hand. Blackman Fairmantranslate as 7 havehurledwith my right handandswing with this and


my left' and note that sg. i is from 'I have spreadoue (Set- sY to open , spread), which is the n. blade[JEA 29 p.5 n.f]. Gardinerdescribes throwingof theropewhich wasattached the harpoon to has the actionfrom representations huntingin theTombof Amenemhet oncethe harpoon hit the of (Tombof animal,the bladeis controlledby the cord which canbe 'drawnin andletbut at pleasure' Amenernhet 28 andn.51. p. Examples frequentat Edfu : c= are VI 61,10; cx3

IV 213,9; VI 83,13-14; VI 216,12; C-30

VIII 98,15.

There is a further expression to' rdi-sg 'to give passage (Wb 111483 3-6 MK) [seeGNS 73 = Sinuhe 128] Faulkner suggests translations'appear''manifestoneself and 'draw` a weapon. the Examples are quoted as follows :R III to a god p]Lr.k m-s3 qrrty L-j -*-- 1n %=nr--n Med Habu <788> ; sungod 1--j n wB-n-oow TT Nr. III <1701>D. 19 'py

to n irt nbt creatorwho gavepassage everyeye Urk IV 495,7.At Edfu also : Horusin heaven &.J C=1 -'h n0 nty dg3.f to thosewho seehim -, that is his light allows them to n nty f 1148,3 ; also c=1 W.V

go and act as they please1110,3 ; also 1231,16 ; ReA-J 34.9.

n f VI 300,12 -, c f. also rdit C=

A variation on this phrase is in-sg: in the temple description the bolts on the temple doors . =3 I dr psd Un give freedom of entry when the sun-shines IV 13,4 (after de Wit, CdE 36

Nr. 71 p.88 and n.2).


nest (12) Wb 111483 to 485 (2) OK

The term sYfor a nestof birds is known from OK textsand it was also usedas a word for marsh for land wheresuchnestsmight be found.The word ocursin titles of thosewho we'reresponsible fowl or fish for royal pleasure parties[c L Gillam , GM theseareas ensuringthat therewasenough Horus is a falcon because 36 p.171. The term occursoften at Edfu, mainly in metaphorical senses, , following this imagery his homeas a child in the Delta is a bird nest, thus anywherethat Horus

lives is a nestand this is his ternpleat Edfu : the enclosure wall encloses


of s3b-%wt their nestsIII

VI 6,7 ; in the temple,Horusprotectshis chicks (othergods)in



87,20 ; the falcon is Horus as a child m-ILnw m 'A VI 301,2. Horus ruled as king in CM Upper and Lower Egypt VI 309.7 ; sim.-M C3 in (LU 9, protected the child 1 4. 1


his nest of Khemmis

the nest nursed by his mother to be king of 1286,3 ; while in the nest in Kh=n-ds Wadjet ,

IV 272,13. n Ow is the nest of the

The word is used in a metaphor : of Horus , 'your nose EM

116 (4) perhaps referring to the preyailing north/south wind in Egypt - so that Horus in the wind Delta proyides that wind. sl is also the word for marsh in the phrases3b-d q.Y. and alone :0 ;LS from 'ZISI= 1565.10 ; when the flood comes it floods. birds are brought as offerings

in the lands of Horus 1582.1-2.

to open
Wb 111481(14) to 482 (14)

sg is the later form of the rare older word s3l and sg is much used in GR texts. X C= Doors and door leaves : -t=-A OIL IV 101.12 sb3ws Or .
q CX3 -:!

r rsy open to the

southIV 13,2; c= -17 b--J A 83,3 ; c= m,

IV 10,12-13


'3wy IV 57,6 ;


and Wurninethe two landsHi IR 195.17

Z' hil

1 doorsof your houseIH 130,1-2 ""T "c=" 'c=r, n.

A IV 207,7 ; 9-30 ;! 5 sim.

sb3w VI 240,4-5 ; VII 78.8-9 also. st dsrt X -6 n. f pto

'!Ql2cn shrines': House of Min IV 55,4

C= 'r4l* open shrines int it IV 6,2 ; god

n. k. hwwt 3hw mansions of Akhu 111214,2-3 w

Ill 218.15-16 --h- r_r #- n.f ltrty IU 221,8-9 ; C= 191 n.f %t3wwith spellsIV 96,14 the ldng is lord of magic jy 40,4 ; sim. VI 241,2-3; WetjesetHorus -A hr-Xk

r'l oil

ltrty t3wy Ill 226.16-17 dryt n gs-prw V

beforeyou VI 245,5 list of opens

doorscK3, % , Imsn which opento every place... VII 12,1. o',, Oil' 111214.1 eSZ-7 r st 111113,6 Roads w3t. k C -ar n. k -wrt - k mtn to your belovedplaceM 117,6; 2; Y JS mtnatmomingVI16,5-6. n. Cavernsfor the flood to pour out.: Paitgq the body eyes of 'x*-3 3hty V, 173,12-13 -r' , &-Afi=V 272.1-2 C= J1 VI 145,910.

to seewhat you havedoneIV 54,12 open 3hty. f and he seesWetjesetVIII 43,1 . Nostrils - msty. k with the sweetwind 1269.11.

Ul of at the srneU incense 194,6-1. throat - r-3


mouth -



-"the food offering IV 65,11 ears - C= and eat

inhw y of

Osiris 1212,10 (parallel with analogousverbs). With prepQsitions (putting food upon the altar) IV 63,17-18 ; the road'

to the templeis commandedI-P3t.k IV 50,10; doors A

L; lz=t, 'Openbeforeyou I' IV 70,4 ; road cmm - --j openoutward VI 7.5.



to spread out, extend (17) Wb 111482 to 483 (1) MK

Coptic !YW US howeverhas

[Cr.605b], derivedby 6ern' from b3h3 'to winnow' [CE 2591,demotic 'is yD [DG 5221 but may comefrom the verbU ultimately [KH 337 from ,

Y(3)X(3)].This is most likely from the sameroot as the last verb but is attested from MK texts.,At Edfu it is rare apart from the phrases with 'claws' as object (but here the sY could just as well be open) Of claws spreadout, extend : Horus IV 210,8-9 :f5 'g3v4 1306,17 ;H 187,11 Xii 2-2, IV 179,10-11

V 50,1; 'g3wt'

are extended to slay foes 111186,11

(earliest on Amonsrit. Berlin 26,8).

sg-, Dwt Il 55,2-3 e111146,15 C30 VII 82,6 VII 125,11 VII

214,1 ; 'nwt Various 141,9-10

Y. E


are extended 111180,11. ;9 r-br-nbw spreading before everyone V

the gods give the love of king

VI 190,7'; also ; M. 141,12. To describe the sacrificial bull : gsr. k =3 hr W ...

Dr shw. k the bull is spread out (or opened up) in your abattoir VII 316,5-6.

13 A In describing a statue of Isis : br w'rt. s 'extended (squatting) upon her thighs VI 22,1 a dch . 11 l hr drt. f 'her hands stretched out by her side' VI 23,8. statue of the goddess 0-, t:: m


to lighten , makebright , be bright , white Wb IV 282 (7) to 283 (9) Pyr. c f. DG 501,3 sp iA,AWTT Cr.546b ; CED 249 ; KH 322 moment Lj

A word attested in the PTs and used often at Edfu, particularly because Horus of Edfu is a solar light


god , mostly with referenceto sun light.

Intransitive M : temple ZT 81 103 it is bright with his beams (m3w) 0:! being bright 1 3062 .

127,7 -, the Ennead rejoice

before Horus --

With Wowing noun: in the phrase 2sKp-4ddwy'bright of light' an epithetof Homs Behdet c:
ICU 1310,13 Re Horakhty 0) , stwt ml 3bty V 226,9; of eyes: itn 1385,2. Transitive - occurs more often and with various objects. -, r- 13 Land: Horus 2F_ 0 ndb 191,15 ; lotus child RJ'r-P0 0 pa with the beams of

'o3t PX Horus,

1287,11 ; the Horizon goddew is c 0 C' 0 3h ty H 27.16 *,Re Horakhty is 2p

eye V 245,8-9; uraei -"- %%%%t3w nb all landsV 138,14 your 31C: risesIV 211,3 ft\ A t3wy V 272,1



when he

by her fire (uraeus) 264,4. VI wn m kkw IR

2M, Ir3 kkw with her face1159,5 ; Horusrises Q0 Darkness:Hathor v -p Mr 1. 138,11; eye of Horus Heaven:F 0%% 1425,16 W ntt m snk , do

also 1443,3.

nwt V 221,11-12; the sunrises pt 2MOP. -ft 1294.9. brw when Horus showshimself V 268,6.

A-C')' Orw with his eyesIV 54,16; Metaphors:of Also PW9n. flood 0.

f sbtk it brightensyour field 1321,16. Stwt

irt-Hr m Odt.s (cloth) 1123,11; cloth and ointment

(beams light) like Akhty V 284,7-8. of in sYpis usedas might be expected a templewherea sungod Horusis the main god and the light by hasits source, principally, in his eyes. It is symbolised the fire of the uraci . which are alsohis, darlmess. his companion, As eyesandwhenHorusrisesin the morning,hebringslight andremoves Hathor,alsothegold of thegods,is closelyconnected with light, which is believedto be the means of life and signal in the morning that enemiesand foes have been defeated,so sYp may be light [usesof the verb sYpseeel-Sayed,ASAE 71 1987p.82-3 ; also specifically the morning, , BIFAO 78,1978 p.471 n-ml. Ile Ptolemaic is Alk 11 plus (D JASAE43, writing of the word p.1131 aW with a protheficL, and
-. 4, -


light Wb IV 283 (10) to 284 (4) MK


is sMP derivedfrom the verb&Vp' is usedastheobjectof certainverbs: and

ir : in the 3rd LE nome god ir , e3Q0 makes light those who are in the underworld IV 24,2.

wd : Horus

with his eyesVI 248,8.

'in the place of his

-*-0 bpr :a geni hpr 21 0A4: bpr kkw 1509,13 ; Horus bpr ME J3 LI.0Z, 0 " F&

-"*Nephthys wn 2M wn : In epithets :a geni is 13 0 and drives away darkness 1232,17. D 01 511A : Hathor is mz: 7


275,13 ; My is nb

A :, in his shrineD 11112,13.

i SVP -

Light One= sungod Wb IV 284 (5) RoyalTombs

" J03 in the place of darkness IV 56,12 ; Horus is M 11 (D

At Edfu : possiblyof Horus andLord of Mesen1563,13.


Light One, at Dendera it is Hathor Wb IV 284 (6) GR

Also applied to Hathor at Edfu in a pun : in a miffor text Isis/Hathor is .a-e sw mA (3 , brw she is the light who has lighted faces V 77,16 (doubly significant from the point of view of the offering involved also CD 11174,8).


bright (white) cloth Wb IV 284 (8-9) Pyr.

The PyramidArchivesof Neferirkarenote the existence 0 of


-J cloth*, also spelled

and not to be confusedwith gzp 'cloth' [c f. James,Hekanakhte 140 ; Arch.Abousir p.362-364] p. and in s9pt is mentioned Ritual textsfor the offering of cloth , beinga word probably'

for 'white cloth' (c f. bdt). At Edfu the word is not usedoften in the earlier cloth rituals (of the sanctuary and surrounding chapels), but the copy from the Amun ritual usesit in a pun : Xspn.k

Im D -d

pn receive this your cloth 1 122,16[c f. Amunsrit. XXVILIO - XXVIII. I. 9sp n.k

Moret, Rituel p.1791.


Later cloth offerings use sfpt always in puns in the introductory words of the ritual : the king


or4 Sr

0 AN ex%,white cloth which is bright VU 158,1 ; VU 306,8 -,VII 289,2 am


190,3 Also


U n1r. M ta
I G.

'your kas are

M 192,3

Yspn bright with the bright cloth VII 260,11 the deadancestors
is for your limbs -dP4" 4; m
-. *-

dt. k it has made your body bright V 196,3 ; Sakhmet

clothed in her light (garment) ? HI 293,12.

In somecms thereis nopun: Kspw'bt br br aT ///VII 99,13; the cloth is descnbcd as v mm F///// damaged V 247,12. 3bw bright cloth VII 318,8;I text qa I'he writing of q mayhavebeenan errorfor P in which wasthencopiedandrepeated subsequent



or grapes wine Wb IV 284 (12) GR

in in fact occurs earlier in a hieratic label for storehouses a tomb at Meir. 7U label lists the Paa0 13rrt [Meir IV pA9 and pl.XX no.121-Blackman : contentsof a store-housewd Apt-Orrt was'raisins'. but it may be two separate terms. suggested P ;? (Hier.Ostr. 54,2,2)which he equates V-t Janssen notesa plant with a plant s't/d [CP by of suggested Charpcnder 616-7). p.367-8]so this is not an example theEdfu s%Kas p. Tle word sipt 'grapes! clearly hasolder origins and in GR texts the word occursin appropriate
0 contexts : wine offerings a m erm

W. -0

in the placeof your heart171,14-15clearly a plant

(parallel to rwd-s3 andlrt-Ijr) ; sametext later

256) 1 109,8. In a recipe for kyphi : rdi A#**n a T

tie M in the&vt of yourh= (coil.XI

dsds called 13rrw wb3t 'grapes of at Philae <2886> Phot 850. In pw wine comes from him it Is eye of Am tv, V 356.5 - drunk by Sakhmet

Desdes am called raisins of the oasis'II 211.15 sim. the festival texts of Osiris Pr im. f Q'r Irt-kir

Horus - drink of it V 356,4 and 'one drinks (sw%' tw)

4 !9- 0-. mustbe wine. In a pun:

4 MT, 130

for IV grapes your sanctuary 124,10-11. andis boweddownby

At Dendera too: wine text, thevineyardof Dendera poursout wdgrapes CD 111188,10.

If this term is derivedfrom sp 'be white, lighe Apt may specificallybe white grapesor a white


In GR templess9pis a metaphorical word for 'miW deriving from s9p 'be white, brighe , it refers to the colour of milk in the sameway as Odw'miW comesfrom Od"bewhite. 4 2'0 Horus with . The word was notedby Junkerat Philae: the,goddess nurses her milk

[Phild 123,11.It is usedat Edfu, as notedby Fairman[op. ] mainly in milk offering texts: cit. , 2V of cows V 265,10-11; in the pun stp -n
Yll 111125,5 ; give t 7 =,.

pst -V 392,2 ; to
, VII 285,5. It is also brought in

Harsomthus sp

'q"-: parallel to dw , irit -e! ;X of cows is controlledby the cow R offering processions / q m I in their uddersIV 445,14-15;q 154,11; cattle have E Mam. 71,8-9; 51-U- ', Mam. E 189,5-6. c! -;


heaven sky , Wb IV 284 (7) GR

Literally Mat which is bright! : the flood waters the fields she gives birth to her children 9d ,
e-p- Pv 17 -,--

xnt shehasraisedheaven with the north wind 1581,2.


cucumber - Cucumis melo Wb IV 284 (11)

The name for the vegetable derives from the colour of its flesh and sap - bright white. It was cultivated in Egypt and eaten [Keimer, Gartenpflanzen I p. 14.1301.Cucumbers were connected with the rise of the Nile and during the festivals at Edfu the priest of Sakhmet ate a cucumber as part of the

2T rituals: wK'

V 356,5[Von KAnel,Sekhmet p2761.


statue form .
Wb IV 291 (6-16)D.18 DG 463 s9mfigure of a god J, &3X

Cr.589b; CED253; KH327 L-Lqtc-me in NK underworldliterature.It can have is not attested beforethe Amduatand thenvery often s9m imagein the divine barque.In the Amduatthe ssvmw are 'cult' imageor processional the meaningof had beingswhich were madeby Horuswhom the deceased to know and they are of representations


shownin the 7th and 10th Hours.They generaflyrefer to static imagesand then usuaUythoseof and compare gods, deriving from s1fm'state,condition' [Hornung, Menschals Bild p.139-1411 1235 n.15] ; 'exteriorappearance! 'replique [Meeks,Hom.Sauneron [Husson.Miroirs p.103 n.8] 'statue, portrait image [FCD 248 alsoJEA 42 p.15]. , is At Edfu s9m. usedin a generalway to refer to the imageof a god (not the king) and it occursin terms suchas sbm : Osiris establishes shrineswith shmw.f and builds parallel with analogous W
temples for off vimages of him 1144,15 ; the ba of a god unites with

for 563,12-13 the templewasfounded ;

75,9- 10 ; as the falcon, 1" ""sl



of HorusV 8,6 ; he cmated euth for 'f` %-

191 +12

his image is upon the back of the oryx VII 324.15 ;

of Horus is established in the nomes of Upper Egypt VIII 8.10 ; the eyes of Horus mn. tI br +' 11167,11.In the temple cloth is used to bide . 'I "i 1553A. is the king who makes "' 4j tlie i cult image of god 1566.13 ; it'-

idea of the image being secret and hidden is also stressed: in 14th UEnome ' no-one knows the god's form IV 41,12 ; hide .9 of Horus VIII 93,10; kiss the earth

+-it .

p; x

1373,16.In the Myth HorusIr hp rJ mTmItt ,

nn Jr.n H13ILr-ptf

changed hirnself into this form as

v RB had done before him VI

121,5 [Fairman ,

JEA 21,1935p.321. the samemanner : after

to lead, guide, conduct Wb IV 285 (7) to 287 (20) Pyr. DG 463,9 3 or nbw n psdJ he 00w leads

With object of Im=n: in an epithetof Horus'wiLhmanyeyesandears 'f" leadseveryoneby his light! 1316,8 millions ... 11167,16-17 1240,7 ; "PIT 1169.5; sim.

to everyone their work VU 161,3; Horus P 'nir 13(Osiris) 1166,17 god who

sun folk VH 207,18. Also : the Eight guardians I, = I""u in Sa appears the flood .-*% ,

fromthefloodIV 27,15 -4leads *, gods


f-. A' yourka,andthekas of the godsIV 44,9; Horus

stnm br w3t nfrt leadsthe strayeronto a

good path M 63.12 [for the leadingqualitiesof gods c f. Otto GuM p.152 sIm lob p.55 ; with light p.30 ; of strayerin othertextsp.371.


Of bringingpersons godsto their share offerings: the benubird or of


leadseveryone to VIII 146,5[Otto,'GuM

Ir. -k' nLrw

VIII 107,16; sim.


h. nbw rE r

v-171,7 ; king

I* I

p.152to his protection]; the king

hrt you leadgoddesses you make(offering)shares 1380,6. and Of bringing offeringsto the gods(very common'to distribute. share): 45,12 , org, k3w(CM to everyone VII 329 meat 4w 3wtoyourkaIV

A Xb. (of oryx) to the Ennead f 'Vbw. sn VI 57,4 w'bw to your courtiersVH
Wbr to Ennead' h3tV166,11; -i hww'


gbw.f to the templeVI 9,7-8 butchers'

to stpw (of hippopotamus) cities and nomesVIII 27,2;

73,8-9 IV 199,3 -A C, Wbw of hippopotamus to temples IV 214,5 PU meat to all gods IV 128,4 ; +- -*%

(meat) to your followers V 302,18 ; other offerings IV eye of Horus to gods and goddesses 65,8.

pr-brw to the noble dead 1547,9-11

The king feedsthe gods: food is given (rdi) to gods


IV goddesses 223,9andfood is

distributedto his followersIV 350,14-15 to his courtiers(above) IV 124,11-13. ; and The action is a consequence the god receivingQksp) offerings: Horus in food offerings'We of the . 4receivethe gift in peaceand -, 1 distribute(it) upon the altars IV 42,12 ; IV 195,34. It is the

action of the taking food (of any kind) to the gods and goddesses also as a reversionto the and followers of the king. lead' a ritual especiallythe Openingof the Mouth rite. of s9m is also usedin the sense 'conduct! , for herethe king is s9m-bs 'onewho performsthe rite!. n.k hs V 96,17 ;V 238,15 as W A- Dsw for VII hs also 111276,34 the son of Sokar godsandgoddesses 326,10 hs IV 243,4 ; also performedat the foundingof the temple bs'by the

Lord of Ashmunein (Tboth)IV 330,15[noteby Blackman JEA 32 p.79 andn.9 and 10].Thelector in priest alsodoesthis 1567,19-568,1; and it is part of the hs beforegods and goddesses eA1.11 '-' hS nb nirw V 30,7 . One of the 4' [T leading IR 347.13; anotheris "
Y-^ --7
'CE7 Impo

proceedings the festival of Behdet of +bookskept in the library is t*

f(officiating) in the temple 111351,8 ; in the sakhmet Litany , the king


ipw he

for you thosefestivalsandbringsofferings111301,2the templeis constructed to, ; according conducts % wt-njr 'madeby the chief lector priest Imhotep, the great son of Ptah VI 10,10 the)ffd n


[note by Guthub

BdE 47 p28 ; 181 nar ; Blackman and Fairman Took of Designing a . ,

temple ' JEA 28 p36 giving ancient authenticity, to the temple plan . There is also a parallel snly wr s9m-4wt-njr the layout and design plan book , the correct ritual procedure to be followed Vi 6,41. In a dw3-njr text the Idng as a ritualist and as a title of lboth +' 2>' Ic' + 1> ey ( 'reads the ritual book! IV 57.2 T 1rnJ m

in Builder gods IV 14.7 ; also Aturn

]Vwt-'3 he leads (conducts) what he has done in Heliopolis VI 150J. Various : gods ceremony, Tboth +the king 4L lead the barque to the western horizon M 5,11 ; in the stretching the cord guides her (Seshat)arms as she measures1 90 ; in libation , leads out the flood 169,12 ; king -s T t3wy m sgrw. f guides the two lands hry-bbt for officiating V 126,34

by his advice 111132,2; all the priests of the hour [after Alliot , Culte p.471-5].


leader Wb IV 291 (18) RoyalTombs

sYmis used at Edfu in parallefwith other nounsfor 'rulers': Atum is nsw king in heaven, Ity in the two landsand ' 3bt nwt 'who leadsthroughthe horizonof Nut VI 150,2(or leaderin

: parallel with msw ... ity). This phraseoccurselsewhere protectionof m 3bi-nwt VI f30t-nwt VI 149,7. 149,6 ; Atum also ... a in a procession godsPhilae<243>Photo7 AsthenwneofagodWbIV191(19)GR: '-. of MD IV 37/76-77 in theAmduatdm is common an epithetfor deitieswho lead' the deceased and as [c AmduatH indexp.203]. throughtheunderworld E Hornung

ir dm fm heir Wb IV 287 (22-23)GR, [temp.Nectanebo 11 The earliest thisphrase of Pa-en-kheb-wadja example of on appears a statue 4r c3 m st Uhe inthe placeof his fathee as ascribe, Munich 82 . Une4 of succeeds

text [Vemus,Athribis p. 174text, Doc. 145andp. 176nm]. The term occursoften in GR textsas a is designation the king. It s meaning clearin ancestor texts: the deadgods of Ar


(cloth offering) ; in the procession the their heir is established their earthIV 122,16-17 of on
gods to Mesen , ? raise , praise -,=>

CZ3 2 A

4, VI uponthethrone 245.8; czc> A .


IV 207.5.

In offerings of various things the king is welcomed as 'successor': hnm vessel (Khnum) <M> V 199,5 ; driving calves -cz> amulet AW

on the throne of Re V 87,5-6 ; beetle fp* T 111142,3. of Hedjhotep IV

V 103,13 ; crown of justification (Osiris)

The king is named as the 'heir' of specific gods : cloth offering. he is -C='$-, 3" 289,6 ; bread offering he is <m> , Memphites (anestor text) is c=> c3p c9zJ Horus bn-brt V 152,15

The young Ptolemy .

of the One Lord (nb wl) IV 249,3 ; see also

M. 144,11 ;D 11140,5 (of Hathor); MD II 40d; III 74a; Ombos Il 65,611 [see JEA 36,1950 p.68].


pehuof the 7th nome

Wb IV 291 (22) GR

In the 7di LE nome, the name of the pehu is with produce of the Ut field IV 27.7-9 procession as TN. /to,

h,f- T=,

lr#; 0

- == with its boats supplied

V 17.11 earliest attestation in an Abydos ,

KRI 11538.13 Vist of Barguet in Mmi 16 p. 16 no.7e with spellings]. The * 9jc:,., 1332,2.

geographical text of the Couloir mysterieux names the pehu as

dM t

2nd hourof theday Wb IV 292 (2-3) GR . RoyalTomb

The nameof the fifth hour of the night in the Amduatis

Dry-ib wi3.s and the

form of this is sYmt[HomungAmduatI p.76 and H p.92 die geleitetinmittenihrer Barke shortened 93 n.7]. It is femininefrom 'onewho leads' referringto the goddess who sits in'the prow of with p. the sun boat. In the hoursof the day at Edfu hour,whengod sails in the sky is howeverthe second

by He is accompanied Nefertum, victorious over'foes and this causes gods and peopleto rejoice. Nephthys,Isis, Thoth, Neith, Re Behdet,Montu 111215,2-216,6 Nefertumis shownspearinga and turtle , while Re as a child sits in his barque(pl.70). At,Dendera hour alsothe second

it (Thes131 A) , but a further text usesthe term in way which suggests is a nightimehour


DurnIfist. I II 35b a 1. In both textsthe barque the sungod is led andpossiblygmt canbe a day or night hour. of

In the PTs


Wb IV 289 (5-8)Pyr. D.18GR Z-- is the snakeon the brow of the king Pyr.396cand can also be the 2038c. q qcx is raisedon

P '75P 61;5& doubleserpent diademof theTwo Ladies

S)(mt is one of the wordsfor the diademin the Hymn to the Diadem: the brow of Horus(4.1)

Zlk is theEye of Horus(4,3) the uraeus who leadspeople(4,4). ,

him The term is derivedfrom am 'to lee for the snake thebrow of the king precedes andleads on Ile uraeusis thus 'she who leads'or 'guiding him on - removing all hindrances his progress. to As [FCD 2481.The term occursoftenat Edfu, but not alwaysin the expected contexts. part serpent' 4, &on the brow of HorusIV 344,3 on the diadems9mt appears the headof theking or god : . of with '; in the 3rd UE nome, god appears &Imb V 108,13-14 as this is El-Kab, the serpent in TLis raisedup on the

goddess; may be Nekhbet,as an UpperEgypt= snake question

king's brow VI 242,1; *, It, 0,, jj. 4 -Y-- is beforethe king as protectionVI 302.8; Re appears with his Guide guiding him VI 302.18[Ghattas, Schutzp.79 nl and p.83 n.5] ; Re welcomes'f6' o tV1126,7.

is Ile serpent identifiedwith certaingoddessesMehit asRayet '16 : pL30,,sheuniteswith o T +* V, %ntyt IV 238,12. #- V43,10-12; Hathoris 4", that The evidencesuggests s9mt is primarily Nekhbet: greetingto the White Oneof Nekhen is H 15,6; incense offeredto IV andgodsandgoddesses 331.2; the king is WIL

n 418,7also

(incense 11186,1 offering)

', b VA. U



is Wadjet caUed 123,10. However n w3d 11144,13. &. 1120,7.

of Aturn11

+0 131,13 Hathor is: also and 0, The king is sdd of 14,4-51-I'

is thesnake thebtwof thekingor godandit canreferto Nekhbet Wadjet,it in general or on s9mt

is not importantwhich. Her signiflicance that sheprotectsand leadsthe king andin GR textsonly is in the singular, thereis no dual form drntY [c f. Goyon , Conrirmation 75 (317)]. p. occurs



eye Wb IV 292 (4) GR

The word occurs at Edfu in a mirror text, where the king raises up the sun mirror bdore his eye IV 238,9 ; in a Maat text, Harsomthus rests beside -- " qx> %e H 46a. Both

Wb and Husson [Mitoirs p.78 n.6] suggestthat this is the lunar eye for at Dendera among a list of ,

wordsfor 'eye'is 141 d" 6 andd.10].

m s%rn guidinghim and 'FiU s


CZI> 4126

with hm3g [Thes.


boat Jjr. tn the barque

+-1, T'A In a m'ndt offering, the king brings to Horus and Hathor x: a 1--

carrying you . you sail Manu in safety1115,13 on the parallel sideof the Hall 'I causegod to and appearin X= 4a his boat (msktt offering) 11130,6.

The termrefersto a barque the which contains god,be it eveningor morningboatandit is connected . in the NK. Nelsonshowedthat s9mw-hw could refer to the cult image with the term s9m-bwused [Fig 17 whengiven a barquedeterminative as a god and it barque,especially "r ib ps ; Fig 20 in WES 1,1950 Fig 18 r-C-Figs and p. 140-1421.It is used earliest in the Chapel of Hatshepsut : Block 284 U,acau-Chevrier, Chap.Hat. p.283 n.b] and also see KRI H 532,2 Ly Z.

0 JZ---j

137 Ifor p.
vpst! i

The term has a good earlier precedentsand the Edfu usesconfmn it is a barque for imges of gods.

drnt-rml snakegoddess'One who guidesmankind' Wb IV 289 (9) MK In the hymn to the'diadern Prt is , coffin MK 28083
. C=>


leadspeople(4,4) one who



Lacau,Sarc.Ant. NE I p.184no.851, an epithetrefemng to the T -a V, unites in GR texts,it is also usedin this way : the king -royal uraeusand , Hathorof wnyb) ; and is an epithetof Hathor(asthe with the uracusIV 82,12-13(offering madeto uracus) "'0 MD 125,6.



in j rPh3 &3, IV 72,17-73.1. TU 40

In praisinggod, Hathorgivesthe ling

offeringsandrefersto offaings divided out nounderivesfrom the useof the verb sMn'to distribute! in the templeexactly(nfr) .

s9mtyw butchers
Wb IV 292 (11-12) OK sing. Ile sign C::0 % read as sm [GG T 311 was identified by Gardiner with the Old Kingdom sip

rIT 331 also read as am which is a knife sharpenercarried by butchers [GG p.515 and

Fischer, Orientalia 29 1960 p. 170 Fig. 11. The word srm in OK texts denotes a butcher and is the term for this man in OK texts [Fischer, op.cit. p. 177 ; Ghoneim, Rhind p. 174] being usual later by sft and mnh. A scenefrom the tomb of TI shows NZA superceded actually performing

bull (sfj) and also cutting its throat (sbs) [Montet Sctnes de la vie priv& the cutting up of a , p. 1651. 'Ibough clearly an archaic term , sYmtyw occurs once, in a damagedcontext at Edfu : in the net text Onty n' //I't'Pkq or s9m gbwsn 'choppers and butchers distribute their (foes) meat

portions VI 57.5.


reed papynis An.Ux. 78.3844

The noun ocursin the Hymn to the Diadem: 8,2-3 'Awaken

snb.ti WIL m btp

Ant [Hymnenp.37,91 binds the papyrusstalk' Ermandoesnot translate in peacethe &Xntwhich . this Leibovitch rendered line as May the dn. t snt. t (as one word with determinative) papyrus but The verb On Wadjet serpententwinesawakenin peace'[ASAE 42,1943 p. 1001. stemwhich the der to be to weave. to plait! and is usedof plantingpapyrus[seeBidoli , Sprache Fangnetze, seems p.67,n.5] . is In Cr I 187g the deceased invited to bathewith Re in lotuses'FECT 136 and38 n.281. Faulknertranslates At Edfu the term dnt occursin a numberof texts : theJ3t-Vpsis broughtwith its reeds,Um and the pool of sht ,


to the god VI 227,10-11 Nekhbet,theLady of Nekhebis '1=1 ; which give protection


7 Onwt

lady of the srnt and mistressof the papyrus,she awakensto watch

Horus (a direct echoof the Diademhymn) V 318,15[PhilAIl 213 n.8] ; the diademis on the over
head of the king -c:7 I& Ap. 111113,11-12; also C= VI 243,9.

may be a term for the UpperEgyptianreed- not pirUs - so that the diademhymn reads'sYnt s9nt with the papyrus'.As the plant of Upper Egypt it is identified also with the plant which entwines gypt. Alternatively the term could be relatedwith sIn lotus' - but the usesand uraeusof Upper spellingsmakethis unlikely.


lotus Wb 111485 486 (14) MK to DG 464,5 Cr.608a; CED260; KH338 !dwujeJ Semitic -1 W

Nymphealotus L. (African lotus) andNympheacoerula Savig.(blue searose)are the two lotuses indigenousto Egypt and ssn is the word for the lotus in general- referring to the wholeplant - the leavesand openflower [Dittmar, Blumenp.47ff.]. The flower. root andleaveswere usedfor stalk, Arzneip.26-28; references from Charpentier 618-621; decoration in medicalrecipes[Germer, p. and 1091 ff. ]. At Edfu s9n alternates LA 111 with nhb as a word for lotus and there is no apparent W differencebetween thoughmostlikely to be nbb (q.v.) , it them.In textsfor the offering of could be dn. sXnis also the symbolof regeneration rebirth, the creationand the and as easily

First Time.It alsorepresents fertility of the fields after the flood andthe bloomingof plantsin the the summertime. Two texts are specifically bnk s9n offerings: c3la LdHorus and s'r nhb to Behdet 11 to

104,16-105,9 Horus, Isis and Seshat, to give many yearsas king and millions of who fields andmarshes PIAOjshowstheking of returns,plantsgrowingon the fields andall produce the . holding up two bunchesof lotuses; Pnk cm Y take et--upn from my hand,the Eye'

fields with plantsandY theking receives as of Re is given to Harsomthus the lotus child andagain (5) pl. king holdsonly one lotus V 220,13-221,6 131. the In 1 is often written out , but sn is also found within thesetexts , showing offeringsnbb


that the two terms are interchangeable: the king has many fields containing 150,5 ; the lotus containing the 043 !fps (primeval serpent creator) is in the 273,8 ;

r, =


is raised up decoratedwith gold VU 78,6 ; Horus gives canal areaswith G3

blooming and with flowers VU 162,15.In lotus offeringsallusion is madeto sfn. n-)(mw lotuses
of summee, the king smells their fragrance which is deemedto be especially pleasant
C333 40


V . -1 *, i"U, 40 VII 78,16;

111186,3 VI 339.13(alsoin parallelwith the nbb ;


V 221,6- in all cases readingdn is most likely. the XC3=0

'ntyw of lotus this oil is madeof -.0- 'cr t?: of In the offering of the rrm of gold filled with ) rm . has 3r Eye of Re IH 187,15; and the container the Wherotextsspecifythat fields contain;t-? (V 86,14for example V 150,9). IV in it M 187,13.

the signsmayreads)fnandnhb or oneor the other

In other texts, the plant produceof the fields can include lotus : from the sbt-d! C30 by 33,10 ; from fields managed Thoth r, =' -qu nwd-cloth CD V 89,6-7. Usesof this word at Dendera more varied Ihy is are Hathoris sweetlike A'=) DH 164,1-2. 42> V 284,6or (Vr cloth

VI 2W,2. Oil of lotus is usedto soak Ir V 284.10; also C=

nfr n Nbwt CD 1169,15



The canal of the 9th UE nomecontains

there is nothing like it V 113.8-,the

qq hascc=sc>l parallel
n.2591(c f. 16r).

nothingto equalit IV 180.7-a rAm of com or grain [ASAE 43 p238


Wb IV 293 (14-15)Med, Late and (16) CT sfnw

Ile Coffin Text spell for the nettingof foesincludesthe precaution know the nameof ,7

P c=3

and msnt. s its netting and its plaiting' Cr VI 5d = FECT H p.108 and n.15 ; also in other contextsVI 2211 (clothingtext) c== j ,.-`! ; Cr V 98c Onw ropes,cordage. andweaving SMI. [Wb MedLp.

in the medical texts,srnt is the term for the binding of a split ear CIM .0, -d


The term derivesfrom the verb gn 'to spin plait' and refersto something which is plaitedor spun , andcanthusbe usedto makenets,clothes coidage. or The termoccursat Edfu : in the driving of calves,theking holdstight to 4L PT which is attached

to the calves111168,18 in slaying the foes the king receivesthe w3r rope andholds : , which binds the foesVII 149,18.It possiblyoccursin the narnefor one of the crew of tfielestival A P =0 boat 13 1j QV 126,5.' readby Sauneron sXt3 cloth as

Wb cites threerefs : Eb.91,19 ; Bals Rit 9,22 X a-x cwt3

[Sauneron 5,22 p.18 line 5 he gives4nt in Black Bull 7] ; Urk V 161,7= BD Spell 99 receive (word is clear)Chapter bringinga boat in the underworld. of


to spin Wb IV 293 (9-13)OK

DG 464,6

& is depictedat Beni Hasanasone of the preparatory to processes spinning, then weaving[Beni 3 I; A=A, k5th also a paintedscenefrom Saqqara, D. tomb of Her-n-kauand SekehmHathor , shows EL->A P c=3 jL [Quibell Saqqara 1907pl.66 no.21; in the and die action is described as , , A^~ Id ,, P j Tomb of Daga at Thebes, man sits on the ground and pulls at something HasanII pl.IV a seated womanholdsfibres in her left handandpulls at a massof yam ?
[Davies, Five Theban Tombs pl. 35]. Moret translated this as 'plait papyrus fibres' (often with dt ' payrus plants) [La Vie Privde p.76-771and thus Bidoli in his description 'flechten' [Fangnetzep.66a] ; ''
Faulkner has 'to weave' [FCD 248 after Caminos Lit Frag. p. 131. Ile -91, described as"A c%J ,I process .'

complementaryto msn where a women disentangles massof yarn, at Beni Hasanis clearly a spinning however [H.Ling Roth, Ancient Egyptian and Greek Looms, Bedford, 1978- different khtin publications scene tombof Khnumhotep 4-51. of, p. In non-descriptive texts : MuK Rs. 2,1 f m bsf msn m mitt in 'making an tw. 3st msn n Nbt-hwt Here.

4. *ct -r": 2%Aft -1 amulet; V Rs. 6,1 greetings to you (amulets)

though the termssrh and msn are borroweddirectly from the real world of preparingthings to be' requiringforce - which can theyare usedin a ratherartificial way, astwo processes woven, -perhaps irjbe allocatedto Isis and Nephthys[c f. Erman, MuK p.37-38'to spin' and 1,5 c-4='n.t


m-bt msn.t mbtbt .-- or mnt]. At Edfu the term is always usedwith msn : mnht cloth W
122,11 also 1165, ; C30

by Isis msn by NephthysI

by Isis with by Isis VI

also VII 99.9 nwy C30

her own hands 131.12 ; bringing the boxes of cloth mnot ,

248,16. This use can be traced to the Mother and Child amulet ritual and also to the Ritual of Amun: cloth by Isis= XXX, 6 and Rituels dAbydos 11 and maybe connected with the

tying up of cloth in knots as a protective measure. Also : the net of Min used by Horus in the fight against Seth is -c"=-3 471 Hathor for him VI 79,8 [JEA 30 p.6woven spun]. ... Originally 4n could have been the twisting of flax or papyrus stems to break them and extract the fibres which were then spun and this is the action depicted in tombs. and msu by


to spread Wb IV 294 (8-15)

P c::3 I* At Edfu : the sun -C=P

t3wY In if m 'Spreadsthe Two Lands with clectrwn' 1518,7.


linen Wb IV 295 (13) to 296 (2) Pyr. D.18

This word for linen , or things madeof linen is well attestedfrom early texts [cf. FCD 248 for but occursonly rarelyat Edfu whereit seems refer to linencloth usedin mummification:to spelling] ibt nhh text, Shentayet makesOsiris live m mr4t and 213,8[col Cauville,, Osirisp. 108"mdelettesl.

H with her bandages


sanctuary =isrt WB IV 549(1)GRholyof holies

Ile termfor a sanctuary the sl occurs Edfu: theking opens sanctuary - *- C3 at before, h3Lk .'youseemy majesty, see I of the yourimage, open doorof thesanctuary my shrine
7 you and_... IV, 207,. (procession gods) ; the king Or -Iof _'.

ortewho ,,.

in to [Cauville Osirisp.124chapelle] giveWetjeset Horus', IV Sees mysteries thepalace 244,4-5 ,


-$ 'raise his beauty in 4=0

=6 C-3



a sistrum
Vb 111486 to 487 (6) MK (19) f, J-]P DG 46513 iiI

sKgtis an onomatopoeic term for the musical instrument which derives from the ancient expression apyrus' [Pyr. 385a] the shaking of the plants and the sound created, plus the' s99'w3d'to shake the connection with Hathor, would make sUt a natural term for the sistrum [c f. Gennond , Sekhmet p.263-4 ; in general , LA V 959 ff a C=, T Sin. 269 [GNS 1031 m3 =6 ; Ziegler, Instruments p.31]. The earliest example of the word is in r-j a naos type sistrurn. oil

The offerings in which the sistra feature are the sDtp-Shmt texts, the ir and the sh'-Shm, where the sistrurn offered is either the arched WW f


'playing the sistra7

or naos type . In the latter ritual

the word is written in various ways and is primarily performed before a goddess, usually Hathor. The most frequent offering is ir I? for Ha& 1 190,11-17 (parallel to a menat offering) ;1 P ? to Hathor 1528,4-10 ; Ir for

447,13-448,2 ; 1523,4-13 and written in full ir -w- r. 3 ? 7, -3s:

If(? T (T 154,15-55,6 ; possibly V 194,9-195,5 ; also for Isis and Nephthys 1 101,4-15 ; ir

five aspectsof Hathor (Nekhbet, Sakhmet, Bastet, Wadjet and Satis) 1153,10-154,13 ; for Nekhbet and Horus , as the mother of the king 1307,17-308,8 where the king is before a table With the two types of sistm and two menats upon it (pl. 30b). In all casesthe king holds two before the goddess. The offering is written as ir 11166,4-12; Tefhu IV 144,8-145,3 ; Nut IV 300,13-301,7 type sistra

IV 357,2-13 ;V 78,16-79,11 ; VII 104,4-16; 174,5-1; 305,10-306,5 ; Vill 142,7-143,2, and also ir 'f : 111134,4-16; VI 283,16-285,2 ; VIII 45,11-46,4.

In this case the king holds one of each type of sistra in each hand and also has on his head the Double crown (pl. 55,105), As ir White crown (pl. 77), triple atef crown (pl. 92) and complex crowns (pl. 152). T sistra ; I' Isis and Nephthys 1 162,12-168,3 , pl. 23a king holds two 1372,4-373,2, king holds two,? (XII 326) ; ir king

500,13-501,4 (pl. 35c) ; or ir

has one of each type IV 282,14-283,8 (pl. 89). The offering is also introduced as s'' + on a pair of columns in the Court (1), the king wears


firstly the Red thenWhite crownsand offers pl. pl. 133and V 205,17-206,10 131.

and perhaps

(damaged) 258,3-13 V

One scenewhosetitle is missingis mostlikely to be a sistrarite V 372.11- 373.3andpl. 141 ; one damaged /////M ? text for Hathor king holdsboth typesof sistra111267.10-268.2 77. pl. ,

The offering of the sistrais alsocombined with the offering of the menatnecklace rd it mn't : ?n mwtf 150,9-16 (XI 231, menatand naos sistrum) ; Onk mn't ? ? for MY H

296,16-297.5(plA5a) ; and in one text the king brings 'ntyw and-cm,

playsthe sistrafor

in Hathor,wherehe holdsa sistr-oln handandthreecensers theotherV 369.12- 370,8(pl.141). one In all textsthe king actsasMy the musicianchild sonof Hathorandhe playsthe sistrato calm the . drive awayall herrageandmakeherhappy. alsosingsandthegoddess He becomes goddess, peaceful and non-destructive that shegrantsthat all peoplesing to . ado: ind praisehim and that he is so Colouris importantin expressing from harmanddisease. changes emotion- the raging protected of is brst red eyed)andbecomes Mue faced that is 'happy and the king Ion goddess red (for example , is also saidto sw3d t3wy 'makethrive the two lands'andliterally 'to maketheTwo Landsgreen'(a good',happycolour). In the texts, thoughs9t can refer to any type of sistrumor both sistra . it can speciricallybe the of naossistrurn which is written as the determinative the word : musicis playedby 1528,10; the king brings in his right handand is said to be Lady of
(f ATO


194,11; the king has CXM

to drive awayangerIII 66k5 andpl.55 showsthis to be the case.Had" 1 of andmistress 1372,16-17 vice versa)and this can be written' (or cgg 111134.15 ;nbI (T 1167,16; bqt ubt V

out fully : Onwt '?? nbt

Y nbt

1153,17 ;nbtnwt

f `_-' 'z3 c Onwt 1523,11 ; Onwt C= -F

373,2 ; in an offering combinedwith the menatsheis onwt


In the procession the roof of the templeat the New Year four priestsgo up the stairwaywho,to ,
hold, alternately


and in one of the accompanying texts a priest says, "I hold (note the alliterative qualities of sf da imb

to drive away all rage with c3p C=

1569,34 and pl.38n ; the queenalso Ir 0 m &Ut)


beforegod 1570.11and

9 pl.38o.
Throughout suchpacificationtexts AA also (111130,6 sotp-sbmt for example) may reaclas

and especially as object of ir 'play...'.

Wb alsorecordsa verb 99'to play the sistrum'from Late and. texts(Wb 111487,7 8) but GR and .1 331and333quoted hereareuncertain. The sign usedin the writing of wordsfor sistra actualsignwhich isoftendetailed ornate. and is a stylisedandabbreviated writing of the


road, path . way Wb IV 296 (12) GR

The word Oft occursoftenat Kom OmboandEdfu in scenes theking leavingthepalaceto go to of the temple a ern w'b his path is purified IV 51,13 ; mk P Cc= A b1h m

msb3 your path is floodedwith joy IV 54,7 to the GreatPlace111113,6 the standards ; makesacred
.--0cm= CM ect.

ti sg. r st-wrt your path is clear his path KO 165,72; protect

KO 1143,188.

In the pehu text for the Sma-Behdetnome mnh h3.f -'*- 4- imn m WIL st3 nt hwnw , .. lot4. IV 36,1 ;-

1'-,. determinative so that mnb sff wasentre lacds'and that"t,C, provided the word forroad', without a thus'road hidden with payrus. Originally sUt was a covered path in the papyrus marshes[K8mi XIV 1957 p. 107]. Gardiner took sggt as the word for 'road, 'its ways hidden in the trackless papyrus' 9 [JEA 30 p.531. The parallel text in the Court has exactly the same sense but uses different words , which make the Naos text comprehensible --1P ILr ihy. f tbn m k3-hnw , without 1 is a road hidden

*t lot


sim Dum. GI IV 123. Montet considered that this was the adjectives1%

V 24,10-12. In this instance -"0- At adjective and the word mtn replaces &Xgt in the papyrus.


to hide, conceal makesecret , Wb IV 296 - 297 (18) Pyr.

Causative 90 andmuchusedat Edfu of

Transitive: Horus raises heavenand

V: " "' n.f .

he hasmadesecretit paths1163,14

; Ptah 'b-pt

Ka -ft

3ht 1157,2; :t: jV

(shrines)which contain the divine image sbmw

shm. f hides

- T 56,14.19 ; Khonsu -cm" 'c

hwt-sbqt 1361,3 ; the place of Horus


his image 165,16 ; Horus

sYm.f 1160,14 ; Horus

bides his ba 131,16. The 4W m ubt Irty 'hides EV sw m hhf

sun god hides his form in the following way : Imn jLt. f his body conceals his flesh with the fire of his eyes' 1304,8 ; Honis .

irw r nLrw rmL hides himself in his flame malcessecret his form from gods and men IV 71.16 -ft .

`- I e; Fir

hideshimself 154,12 ; god

frcxn god and men 1198,17.Mie

beams the sunare so bright that they conceal form of the sun- if one looks at the sundisk it the of because thelight. cannotbe seen of is Concealment alsonecessary thedead for in this way theyareprotected thecalvesaredriven for : , A-1 is hiddenfrom (r) 'your body jr-jr foes178,10-.Horus"'*- 0'76 d3t 9==3 "'? 39, your over the tomb, & =x ma dt. f hidesthe underworld(tomb)to hide his (Osiris)body 1170,7 ; the necropolis 111-is hiddenfrom all foes1102,1-2. Priests:
Ab 04% =p

imnw n Msn who makesecretthe hidden Irw r l1w mdw w rnA pfy n

-C3M4"4 flags of Mesen1557,13-14. In a pun :a goddess


. a .4

you have hidden the image from harm in that your name of Shentayet11 15,11.

Secrecyis known by thosewho have been initiated or who are particularly wise and it is an important part of scienceand religious beliefs. Officials are,Ory-sW as are gods, doctors and Templeshave secretrooms and imagesand the godshave hiddennamesand forms. astronomers. Knowing secretsor knowing things about somethinggives the knower power and influence especiallyin magicalcontexts, while being hiddenor secretgivesthat thing or pcrsonan advantage over what is easily perceivedand also protectsit againstharm, corruption or impurity. This is for their corpses their tombs- theyhaveto be hiddcnto escape therefore and essential the dead, attack' LA from Cr andPTs which provide the' with references and defilement.(Geheimnis H coL510-513 basisfor theEdfu texts].


semt (adjective) Wb IV 297 (19) BD

Also,ai Edfu in epithets In the'nwneof i geni 194,6.

'discrete of br. sgt3-%nbi east', this is someonewho is reticent and does not'reveal the secret

- 1655

knowledgewhich he possessesseeinggod the king is a waabpriest and : , IV not revealwhat he hasseen 55,1 king is

who doei

sametext IV 55,4 : in the New Yearprocession the ,

Mel. iL 'who seeswhat are hidden'(imnw) 1570.17 [see de Meulenaere ,

Grapowp.220 nn. 3,5,61. Adjective: god 4--t 1163,11. secret names %%I


secret Wb IV 298 (1) to 299 (13) Pyr. DG 465,5 rA -*j

Noun derived from the verb s913. Secretsbecome known by those who are permitted to know them and this is shown by the verb rh or lq 'to enter, be initiated' : the chief priest says 'q 3 . 569,14 ; priests Iq br S -: 1 enter the secretsof those in WeteJestI

enter the secretsof the Lord of nomes (Osiris) 1569,8. Ile extent of for the god's body -0,- 3 , pw n m33 n

secrecy is given in a recipe for making l3t-njr

in nLrw nb it is secret, no seeingor hearingby any god Il 214,8 ; of a god;gEZ' sdm m33 n sdm =pp x sp-sn n rb. s VI 22,9.
of heaven 11163. m stp-s3 who sees secrets

In general : when the sun rises he hides

An epithet of the king in the Opening of the Mouth rite is

in the palace IV 244,5 (from the late period statues, it is also an administrative title Cauville , , Osiris p. 125 n. 1 with references). Pry-sW 'he who is master of secrets' [Ibrahim, Kingship p. 186-7 ; LA 11 col. 510-1 Helck

Beamtentiteln p.43 Qa title taken from the administrative sphere and used in religious and ritual contexts. The title occurs rarely at Edfu as a title of the king : in a text for clothing the god with funerary clothes, he is 356,2 ; in the library he is IV 122,11 ; garland offering *P, \ . iqr of the winged disk IV

hieroglyphs 111347,10.Otherwise it is a title for one of the of A Edfu and is listed in the plural among the other priests in the New Year procession :-, priests at -: 1555,3 96) he is shown with two caskets of cloth 1540,3 (pl. 37b line ... carries cloth , 4. (pl. 37e). The e-it, :591\ iqr m wdb pr-h' 1544,7 lot W go along in the

like procession the lectorsreciting1554,9.


A text in the library with instruction to priests the categories list who work in the temple and
amonb.;t them taw-ftr w'bw-'3 , and


'are third in the list , though this is not

necessarilyan idication of rank 111360,12-13.


image Wb IV 299 (14-16)GR

s9t3 is usedoften at Edfu , it is the secretimage of a god : Horus is 10 n rh -:5=Ny-- secret,

no-one knows his form 1521,8 ; none knows :nl $is

I 63a -.a prkst comes to Horus

31t *- in his f(xm to bum incense 1347.5:

heaven holds -.0-

by of Osiris is guarded bqn geniil 167,1 ;

of Aten and Khepri H 1,8.12.

in With adjectives: Horusrisesin heaven --A-'43Wn s3b-%wt IV 13.8 ;I see the falcon in IV 71,5-6 ; sim.text sb3q. 1 sl3 ni ,

his greatimageof the falcon IV 10.11

says the king in seeing god IV 54,15.

In the plural s1t3w are the images of gods in the temple : temples hides (thn)-3--1,, 111 of the Ennead IV 13,12 ; people bend their arms to -3!* 112,4-5. IVIH Wb cites only GR examplesand it is in wide use at Denderaand Phil= The word can also be used in a more general way to mean 'form, body' : in the fining the eye usually the phrase m-110 'in its form' it used', but once in an offering of m 11ointmcnt, 9pr wjJ3 t
r -4

of gods IV 19,6 gods settle upon


the eye in its form .....their images are sacred in = -equip


their forms I




field Wb IV 300 (4) GR

Onereference in the Tentyritenomethe field or land is : textsas =3 geographical IV 177.6-7;


1 339A *,written in the V 111.1-2.

SIO ---, *w of brca

Wb IV 300(5) GR


Wb citesonereference in a list of bread asproduce theearthin general of : ,

x. for ', the king VI 28,13. 0,10




Wb IV 302(9) GR
Yv1bhas only one reference: Osiris is long of beard, km headed! I 149,8-9. Th seems clear but more difficult cL th

bsbd tp black haired and blue

in a text for presenting beer or wine to Hathor , the abomination of her majesty is s9d mourning'.,

she is 'Lady of dancing , 'VII 94a.

Like other tems foF'haie this may be a euphemism for'sadness'and


hairband Wb IV 301 (3-10)Pyr.

in s!fd is first mentioned the Pyramidtexts,is red in colour (Jms)andcomesfrom the greatIDt


P = 0r Pyr. I 147a. Later as the deceasedsails in heaven he has , da-

of green is for the

idmi cloth from the Eye of Horus 1202b-c. In later funerary literature ,

head or other parts of the body (BD Budge 34 -.46,3 Naville). The word is also written c= , -, Jdquier describes the 'diadem' as a band which kept the tressesof the wig in place on the head. .

Ornaments could also be attached to it for decoration for example the uraeus or lotus flower. , Originally a red band ad could also be made of metal. It is rarely shown on coffins but when it is 'it is a circle with alternative white and grey elementsseparatedby blue bands it is closed by a red clasp , and a knot and the two ends come away from it JO Wrises p.43-47]. On the head of the king

the band has a uraeus and it is a mark of his kingship. In particular the seshedmay be originally a Libyan tribal headdressand came to be shown on the atef crown or on the Abydos reliquary of Osiris, knotted at the back. It is like the archaic ankh sign Jthe magical power of the knots and the and

life [discussedby Bruyere , Fouilles de Deir el Medineh , sign ensuresprotection and maintenanceof 180-18I and p. 176 for the origin of the crown]. In the Ritual of Amun , god is whrn 1934-5 p.

. Ica-

kingship of Amun , connected here with the Shed festival , for as a sign of the

1 in thesrd headband[Moret. Rituelsp.131n. ; XVII, 2]. he is renewed comes here and roundagain robeson andhe king is shownwearingthebandwhenhe hashis heb-sed Goyoncommented the that


the while Thoth inscribes festivalsandthekinship for citesa text a Edfu wheretheking is so dressed the Idng XIV pl.DXCIV [Confirmationp.87-8 n.334]. Chassinat remarkedthat in the smn-gwty doesnot Edfu the 10 replaces &on the headband thoughthe accompanying the scene ritual at , showthe cloth band.The text notes VI 55,9 as part of this rite and

is attached this your image(of Horus)pl. 145[RdE 5 p.68 0]. to In the protectionof the body ritual ,I knot for you a knot Lj nwt p3qt VI

300.1 - here the knot being the important element[Ghattas Schutzp.55 nA Binde filr Zauber alsowith offerin9s of cloth Hedjhotep sprUche]. occursin connection s9d makes heartand creates haveunited with cloth in his

'S as his handiwork1127,6 ; mrt cloth box offering, the king says,'You VI 248,13(pl.152 Ist reg. showsthe king with the bandon his wig

Thereis one actualoffering of the s)(d: ms p3 -LJ, tP underan atef crown). " Year V 226,13ff and the Idng brings ffPf

receivethe Good

Or of pq3t cloth VI 227.3 it is described as ,

Je f C:-. 'goodyear,joyful year yearof health yearof millions and yearsof .

100,000sVI 227.1. The offering is madeto Hathor who grants the king millions of years and eternitiesas king'of Upper andLower Egypt. Pl.131(8th col.) showsthe king in an ordinary wig holding IT, for Hathor.

betweenHathorand the sId is strong: sheis mistress u At Dendera, the connection of DH 100,9; and lr-pt rite beginsm nA ti-k 'I it hasboundyour brow D 11112,12-113.1

attached thebandaroundit (pl.117).7le and theking alsoholdsup the Doublecrownwith feathers diademherephysicallyunitesthe two crownsand thusat the Sodfestival is the physicalsymbolof [Alliot Culte II p.544-51. unification , be this word : of Min, Maat is on his breast C.. Two examples may not his 405,16-17; in praisinggod, Horusreceives eye as ais on his brow 1

and appears Upper Egyptian as

king 1393,4. Is this s9d or is therea word swt - White crown . perhapsas an abbreviationand corruptionof n swt. A,

slfd ",,

to - whistle


IV 301(1-2)GR
Wb citesonly Edfu examples theworddescribes noiseof theharpoon whenthrownandwhen the and


it sticks into the body of the hippopotamus: female hippopotami do not give birth when they hear ge- IV -0-g( -"-I n bmt. k the sound of whistling of your harpoon VI 161,13 [JEA 29 p.6

With preposition m: harpoon


im. f hfty pfy n RA 'enters into him' that foe of

your father[JEA 30 p.121. The origin of the verb is not clear - it seems denotean action of the harpoonas it movesfast to 'entering andthe actioncreates noiseheardby hippopotami. verbAd (Wb IV 300,10-12) foe' The the 'flash' of stars(FCD 249) is perhaps ultimate sourcefor this refers to the flash of light on the the harpoon bladeas it goesthroughthe air -thoughssd mayalso be onomatopoeic origin. in
sVd as a verb of motion : Horus b3b ... 0"n.

C9_ i ifdw. f X3s where sYd means I go ,

fast in the four parts of the earth' in parallel with other verbs of speed111116,15-16.The connection

is light and speed madeclearin a further text at Edfu : the Goodyear --t between 548,10 perhaps shouldbe , -i6ccc, with .

A '=3

D VIII 106,15 Germondreads'se as an error; ,

d6placeen dclairaneand readsthis as smd. Theword mayredd sYd'to flash paseof light thus'to , in light'. flashes malcing go fast' , derivedfrom theearlierterm 'flash'of starlighe , so the goddess ) Howevera word smd (Wb IV 146,5-6 Late maybe related: (Saqqara) ASAE 17,1917p.

of a W'Awi



everyday ; Urk 114,11

U6 Ma

rush throughforeign landsbeing alone(from An.Lex.). The usesare clear and this term is usedat Edfu too in cosmogonical texts: m-' r sn.nw hr m -wnwt VI 323,11 ; ir

psdt m-ht. sn VI 329,1 (from Germond Sekhmet p.76n.a). may be read as m from mb,, so smd I is a confused form of an older verb sYd(perhapswhose true meaning has been forgotten) s9d 'flash of There could be confusion of and and thus v-( a star'. The connection with the crocodile is also retained and in the Saqqaraexample sXdcould refer to the fast movement of the crocodile.


window Wb IV 301 (14) to 302 (5) NK 523,999t window J, -'3 3 DG Cr.608b; CED 260; KH 338 qoy!


Egyptian windows are usually small and placed high up in buildings They are intended to allow air . to circulate and to give a small amount of light a practical purpose alluded to at Edfu : sbd styJ m -'" g- C-3 ,r . At -his beams give light by the window 1574,1-2. As an opening in a building the window

alsoprovidesa point of contactbetween what is insidethe building andwhat is outside,in termsof 'Me serdab'window' for exampleand windows of cult practice it is a meansof communication. By of appearance providethis facility [LA H col.168-91. means a window the king could comeinto contactwith his people- he would be in his palaceand appearat a window in order to receive [for or prisoners war and to watchtheir ritual execution to rewardhis officials andadministrators of development suchpalace thearchitecan-A p. of GarisDavies,ZAS 60,1925 50-561. in hall At MedinetHabuthereis a windowof appearance thehypostyle which connects with the royal in palaceon the other sideof the wall. This would allow the king to appear the templeand takepart in its rituals andalso it would allow god to appear in the form of a cult image, beforethe palace. , betwenpalaceand god in the temple.The king At the window the king is the physicalintermediary hereasthe sunandthewindowmayhavebeendecorated gold [P.Harris14,12describes with appears the complexwith its c"-3 'A'-' t described U.Halscher DasHoheTor by i sl rv? ,

von MedinetHAW Leipzig 1910pA8-55). havedd wherethe god in the form of a sacred By extension temples also animalor cult image cult Heregod is adored installedin his office for all to see.At Philaethis wassituated and above, appears. the gatewayto thepylon [Junker, WZKM 26,1912 p.58-9andJEA 31 p.62 nA. Falcon'at the temple.This combined At Edfu the s9dwasimportantin theCoronationof theSacred both the kingship ceremonies also the selection and and installationto his post of the actualsacred falcon in the temple.The statue Horus'chose' new falcon in the nearbyTempleof the Sacred the of Falconand the bird wasthenbroughtbackto theForecourt, the temple(1) andthenceup into the of eastpylon to the roof of the main door betweenthe two wings of the pylon and this was called his HereHorusdisplays new heir to thepeoplein Window of theFalconor Window of Appearance. the templeforecourtandbeforethepylons.After this thefalconwould becrownedan a block serekh dateas in was representing onebeingHorustheking andthefalcon. The ceremony held on the same BJRL 37 1954-5p.189-191). the Sedfestivalfor theking UFairman, in sgd-n-b": at the Smn-lw' his majestyappears VI 102,9; the Horus falcon is


established hnt

**""' "` =,L-3 2

at the beautiful festival of smn-iw'

-tt.0>V Zr Er

and establishing the sacred bird

VIII 148,12. The king appearsin dd-n-sB seds in living ba bnt

in a pr-m-'o text IV 69,6-7.

q"2 VI 93,11 ; Horus has millions of heb VII 25,14

also refers to this window

VIII 110,2-3 ; the living ba is in 1352,2-3 ;a geni protects

(perhaps the whole temple here) VI 76,2 ; in the procession to Mesen Harsomthus hurries to , --ttU C--3
d% v


IV 54,5 ; the enclosure wall is s3wy nV



VI 6,7 ; the

door Y-W is the door of bringing meatto ij

by the butcherH 159.11.


As the place from which the god watchesthe slaughterof foes : sbsb sbiw -

-.ItU P-3


297,6 [c.f. EdgertonandWilson Ifistorical Records 27 from MedinetHabuandn.37aalsofor this p. , practice]. s%d-n-s3b4wt : the bas of Pe at the festival , 'raise up his majesty r-rwt
s3b. *gwt VI 93,9-10 ; the king is on his throne in l

-: -e C--3

at the consecration of meat

VI following the installationceremony 153,5. The window is referredto as sl(d alone: living ba of Re in'
falcon unites with %j

every day VI 156,5-6; the c-i


as lord of the serekh VIII 107,10 ; the falcon is Dr : g!: r-3

WetjesetVI 152,5. Wb notes that s1rdtis a shrine of the falcon (Wb IV 302,6-7 BD GR) but it is a secondary . meaningof s9d.


to cut ?

c f. Wb IV 302 (11)
At Edfu the verb sq seems to mean 'to cut' hi popotam the harpoon is thrust at thepusr cuts out the heart of the

fnd. f to cut his nose 11115.7 ; in the destruction of foes Hathor , _J

foe in Behdet Re IV 371,5. The first of these examples could be sqr (q.v.) and the second sq3 'to make high' , but more certain is : the king offers rnpwt lotus Mam. 145,2. There is a much earlier term which may be related : Hotepy Nr. 17,6 (Wb IV 302,10 MK). n. f Hnt Mn-nfrt Hamm. plants n. 1 XEt) I plucked a


sq-'w 4 4L 0.4.

nameof a serpentguardiangenie. P AiL4t VVL is said to be his sacred 1360,5 = XH 324. In a hymn to Re the 4. ,

its VU a-anslates name'oneserpent 305,andit is alsomentioned EsnaIV 98,1 ; 254,1.Sauneron at

the who assembles body' [Esna V p. 106 n.dl and this is likely in view of its beneficent nature.


makehigh (17) Pyr. Wb IV 302-303

Causative q3 andused at Edfu of Of the sky: PA I n.f pt for his ba 1357,14; the sky raisesup the god! ba 1500,9 1199.7 s V am high like heaven 6,10. jj r Ort 1163.11 in giving food

hall the columnsof the hyp DStyle Of voice (makeloud) : in praisingtexts .PA v-- to the horizonVI 275,1-2. Hathor Ar

bftyw. k raisesyour arms againstyour foes IV 371.6.

A LY iwf. k among the gods by his singing 1231.13 ; king 4

7o exale : the king


f3wof godsof Mesen. 1541,4; sq3 nfrw of godat timesof the day_:-1 we makelong his (king) life IV 10.3.

in incense libation offerings1500,6; 503,6. and -.W. IF* 41 'Makelong: the godsof Edfu A Ij -,


to cause pourout , bring forth Wb IV 304 (4-5)Med.GR

Causativeof q' or q3' in a medicalcontext'to causeto vomie .

A. & j

[Wb MetL803, -P& j. e'111,

Eb.7501and in GR texts it describes fields pouringout plantsafter the flood : 3hi the s. rwds KO 1313,423,1 the srf flood is brought , pouring our (qs) plants r -1 n.k m imsn pouring out for you what is in them IV 336,8.



to cool Wb IV 3( (6) 305 (8) Pyr. KH 181 c-&Klf 'to spfinkle watee7


Causative qbb 'be coor andusedat Edfa- of partsof thebody: beeris broughtof
hr. k to make your face cool 1467,4-5 (thus'makercioice'afterwb). 0 Of the heart: Q ib. t with water D IV 6,5.

PAJ /I --.

Of fire : Thoth who brings back the eye /I


rYu J+ Z

'cools the fire (that is the rage of

Eye of Re) 1116,3; Tanenet P /1 7 JkQ the --73 A placecontainingwine andbeeris j; 2 r,.

cools her fire 1312,4. cool place1'443,14.


make strong Wb IV 306 (1-3) MK

Causative of qn : in the name of the king

4 V- -I"j -tt-

Lady of Sais makes him Nt nb-sw Neith ,

strong1517,6-7; god


Dm.k on the battlefield VIII 143,11.


makefat, enrich ., Wb IV 306 (6-7) GR

Causative qn 'befae,Wb citesexamples from Edfu andKom Ombo.In all cases Edfu theobject of at of the verb is an altar or offering table :I createfowl to -Oor-T h.k 1111.6-7; -ir

P '4zr 1476,6-7 ; with stpw of cattle IV 46,11 ; with b3w portions of with fat geese .0, U P AU 1467,8 K'O 162,66. In the title of an ; oxen 1 112,19-113,1 with cattle and geese XT--0' offering , stpw portionsare consecrated and. for his mother1490,5


to harm Wb IV 306 (4-5) GR

Causative of qn 'harm', only one reference in Wb of the killing of Osiris in. n. f n. k sbiw 1 225,9.


to strike , hit
Wb IV 306 (10) to 307 (11) Pyr. cL DG 525 s'k' to smite , wound Cr. 618b; CED265; KH 343 blow, wound


is synonymous with Ow as the Coptic shows, and the word always has the meaning 11if which sqr , in the death of a foe and this is the main use of the term at Edfu. It can have a wider usually results application than this [FCD 2501. To strike foes (often with alliteration of s) : king .4 sbi n wd3t VI 142,13 ; and to strike

PA )-I Mn snttyw IV their heads , as in the classic form of ceremonial execution by the king 0,4, Y 0, 30,6 IV 30,6; tpw Mew your knife 1174,14 ; enemies are fallen on the ground tp. sn r-.0 VI 112,4.7be weapon used is specified: your foes also VII 62.10 ; the king hurts the harpoon to m bILA VI 313,34 ; ,a ^-%-^ -M

n s3bt. k by your knife V 53,7 AA 3ms fnd. f 11 115,6-7 ; sbiw. k 9*

Horus of Pe and Mesen IV 235,6-7. Also: of

1w r. k I strike one who

attacks you VH 2015-6 m-sqr sbi-n-wWt m 1113,5 also H 75,2

Sim. VH1 105,12. The phrasesusually occur in slaying foe texts . or in the offering of meat protions , representing the destruction and butchery of enernies. Other things can be struck. there is the ritual of sqr-bm'striking the ball'( see-km3 and Borghouts JEA 59,1973 p. 114-149] where a ball representing the eye of Apopris is Struck with a wooden stick and thus destroyed 162,5.9 UV T 'I -"d-, k IV 149,4 ; t' t2 IV 305.6 so


VI 313.6.7 - the scenesshow the action of

both at Edfu and Dendera [pLs 16,151 . 87 and 901and it is a destructive action. striking, IntheMyththechorus --0-- -Wilt A> --

tb n 'we beatour dnuns for you' VI 83.4.

in In the texts describingthe substances the workshopof one of them it is said , Ir Idt. f m tiYps if it is struck , its smell is of tishepsH 207,8. -Justas #w can be an act of consecration wherean offering is touchedor hit in order for it to be , sqr can also be usedin this way : of the wdb offering offered, for consecrated your ka IV 46,5 ; sim. PA

k3.k it is

'R--70 wdb as the tribute of Dcsdes(both wine dt


texts)171,17 ; in the templededication

'for his ka V 5.6 ; the sm3.wr bull

Aa&. it ashis handiwork(food on the altar) 1472.12 -13. -.. -consecrates for bread' perfosmed Tboth Thereis alsoa ritual calledsqr-t-Ddt 'striking (consecrating) white .


-4 -c=-


1477.14 VII 70.2 for Hathor '--> 0.4

VIII 108.8 -.for Horus H 175,4. In the latter two

the king is always 'heir of Thoth'. The offering seemsto be connectedwith the relationship of Thoth to the Eye of Horus for the bread is the 'White Eye ofjJorus', but it is also a real food consecration and Thoth makes well the body of the king and grants him the kingship, the Double crown and the Two Lands while Hathor and Horus , grant food to eat and the land producing more produce than there is sand.The agricultural nature of the rite is emphasisedwhere the king wears the atef crown [pl. 42b , 35b] but for XI 241 he has the Red crown and two plumes. All scenesshow the king holding up before his face in adoration. The rite occurs at Dendera also CD IV 82,18 1 T -c"2z, 11190.16 ; VII 117,2 and Mam. E on one hand and raising the other

76,13 - listed by Derchain-Urtel [Thot p.238] who notes that the offering of white bread always' emphasisesThoth as the ritualist Lhry-b) and as one who appeases gods [Traunecker-Goyon the

Une Chapelle de Thoth in press p.224 nA8 and p. 1201.The ritual is attested at least from the MK , [Louvre C 13] and is well known from NK temples [ Abydos - David, Ritual, index p. 344 and p.263 Oconsecrating white bread' - the bread is brought as Eye of Horus carried by Thoth - so the king the acts as Thoth]. A scene at Beni Hasan shows a man kneading dough and this is labelled 0 1 h3d BHH7-, V

so sqr in this phrase could actually mean 'to knead! (translation after FCD 250) and also in the Red Chapel of Hatshepsut [Lacau-Chevrier, Hat.Chap. index pA34]. Wb records W-,A nhp. n. k nirw 1 214,8 ( sqr Wb, IV 308, -4). Junker

[Stundenwachen p. 101 1 writes this text as sqr. k

On k3. k strike the tambourine

for your ka from a comparison With MD IV 73 so the term seems to be an example of sqr 'to , , strike'.


prisoner, captive
Wb IV 307 (12-19)OK,

those Literally'onewhois struck lives' or 'onewhois for striking- alive' andtherefore who and Ceremonial Execution I [Schulmann, for brought ceremonial pp. execution arespecifically


The word occurs from the OK and refers to captives taken in wargefesselte zu Erschlagende!'tied up for ritual slaughtee. shown on royal monuments from the Narmer palette onwards, and perhaps comparable to an Akkadian phrase ana karasim . In fact some of thesepeople may have been used'as foreign labour [LA 11304 and notes for captives in general ; also Bakir Slavery p. 109 ff. ]. , The word is rare at Edfu : an oryx is slain the lwutyw-sttyw , am P AS H 75.7. '-'

sqr is the ceremonial ritual where the mace is brandished- but not used - and so die prLwner of war is returned to life, he is thus a living-prisonee [P.Kaplony Rollsiegel I p269 n.483 and for the . . epithet sqr MDAIK 20,1965 p.41 n.5 from p.401.


unbolt Wb IV 308 (2-3) D.21 . Late. GR

The verb is derived from sqr 'to strike , this is also a ritual act of unbolting the door of a gods 9W rl db* Stb m irt. tjr but in die Amun Ritual shrine.Wb cites : Mut Ritual 11 10 . " 111,9 AS rA is transcribed Moret as by the Mut Ritual word seems also to be W. The

from Ptolemaic is only attested textstherefore Usuallythe determinative the verb is CMr. - so of word . j door the king P in the ritual of openingthe shrine that , =A n Nwt 'opensthe doors of

die horizon' 140,8 (XI 222) andalso in the sameform at Dendcra: DIII 76.9 ; 11156,1 112,9and *, Philae- Osiris Z'r. -)c-A n.k sb3w n d3t opensfor you the doors of die underworld<1380> 3, -, Photo 1591-2; andalsoDend.<4966>Beleg.


to sail to go Wb IV 308 (7) to 309 (8) Pyr.

Glossary by causativeof a verb qd 'to go round!andthe usualway to express movement boat [Jones, p. 225]. It is usedat Edfu : of the sungod Isis goddess Ii*, % rn m3nw 'sailing in the weseIV 16.10-.the -A -A to his

shesailedwith her son ..'. VI 21.3 ; of a canal

in favouriteplaceIV 26.2 ;a standard procession

r stk (alliteration of s) 1539,8. It '.A0 n0 have we not

I be used of going on land or seaequally : 71oth says in the Myth ! n-1w can r-3w.f in-iw An 3w.f have we not travelled, the whole land mw r

(afterJEA 21 p.35). travelledthewholesea? VI 128,5-6


In puns : the king as a child of Horakhty pellets)IV 216,6.

hns rp (purifying with incense W


journey sailing , Wb IV 309 (9-15)

The infinitive of sq&ls used as the object of certain verbs such as ir 7th LE nome the god N'y n'y m sktt In a Maat offering the king as the son of Thoth is' ,

pr and at Edfu wd : in the

'm m'ndt IV 26,12. 9ty3t master of sailing raised by

IV 76,2 and in this context it may reflect the role of the king as the one who steers the sun boat. It could equally well read'master of sailors'however (Wb IV 309,16-18 has Imy-r sqdt). In the name 452 11 n waters of sailing , in the pun with sqd from the Myth for naming

places, which seemsto be a seanear or in Egypt VI 128,5-6 (reading mw-qd from BIFAO 55,1955 1M VI 9,4 ;a list of places visited in the Myth includes I 15c) and also in the name p. q TJ =r- P:% I KA-brt with the quay of VI 134,8 [JEA 21 p.35 n.21.

Thausing and Holaubek originally suggestedthat mw-qd was the Euphrates and the phrase p3 ym '3 n Mwqd P.Harris 77,9-10, equated with the Red Sea by Brugsch DG 760, was the Persian Gulf Ocean [GM 8,1973 p.53-551. Stork further added that mw. qd written with I and the Indian and

is the coastal strip of the Red Sea. perhaps near Qoseir [GM 9,1974 p.39-40]. Posenerimplied that the two phrases applied to the same area , but the Edfu texts do not really clarify the situation becausethe texts are mythological in nature [Mwqd V GM 11 1974 p.79]. , iA? A protective god of Osiris is called 1195,14 (Wb IV 310,4). it

A see isk particle


to perish, to destroy Wb IV 311 (9) to 313 (10) Pyr. Smith, DemoticPapyri IIII p. 179s9Y

Z)il,, V-l

verbs.It is the antonymof from the PTsand at Edfu thoughnot asoftenasotherdestructive In use , 'nb andrefersto utterdestruction death,beingparaUel often , to the useof trn [Zandee Death and , ,


P.50-511. The intransitiveverb at Edfu is often usedin the negativen-sk : god protectshis priests PF--1 'JP- 1382,14-15. dt IV 15.9; offering incense libation Comein peace-O and r n44 PT forheisHorus1147,2; of hm-sk 'be ignorantof, not Imow death': mostoften the king *A. A ro--+SPI Mesen (as a god) bm n. f VII 108,34 ; priestsat their posts 536,9 ; with mij ointment bm-n-k
iwty-sk : god in Nun lives for ever

's'cF'Z- do not know how to die 1376,7. you

there is none of his dying IV 22.12 13X 7f* .a 40 and no Otm. f VI 133,8. n04 and are destroyed forever VI 89,7.


rw-' makes festive the breast My +r Also: the foes of Horus bow down

Transitive'to destroy: the divine harpoon P-% IV230,8-0; Hathor

snlyw n.k it dcstroysyour focs for you

sbiw IL3kw-ib n R' VI 333,4.

stars (q.v.) [Caminos, Ut. Frags p.44-51: in a md

In the phrase ibm-sk referring to the circ=polar 01 offering , the king is like ='P "f1

for the unguent meanshe is always young and never dies I



to wipe , to touch Wb IV 3 10 (11) to 311 (3) Pyr.

Ile verb A is well attestedfrom the PTs onwards. Here the god the ka of the king 372d ;dk, 'R

lw( wipes ft

flesh of -

wipes your mouth 626b and

q PK= e

4r. k wipe your face 966a and 967b. The last text is about the services which the king does for Osiris when he lives again - he wipes his face and clothes him . 7bis must help to keep the dead god' free from dirt and corruption. The Opening of the Mouth ceremony incorporates this action pure and touching. The scenesof the rituals (Hornung nos.32,33,36) all use the term of wiping, or his father [32c MundOffnung H8 11and show the son touching his fathees mouth; 33c (op.ciL II of 85-6) the son touches his father's mouth with his little ringer ; in scene 36 the r3 ;

four IbI stonesare touched to the mouth and eyes 36b (H 89). Hornung translatesthe term as'sweep (ausfegen) presumably to remove all dirt which is in the mouth and eyes [Mundoffnung I p.91 ouf 93 remove dust and earth; diagrams of scenes32,33 , 36 from the Tomb of Rekhmire ; also and p. Sethe Pyr. Komm. I p.88 ; IH 161 and writings p.94 n.91. . J,


At Edfu in the consecration the temple,wherethe Openingof the Mouth ceremony takesplace, of -*- <W' this act also occursin the list of rituals =m IV 330,15; open eyeswith the adze + cleanmouthandeyes(touch, JEA 32 p.76 'b' stones IV 331,11. An with four E3 C3 + s'#. sn clean their mummiesin the

allusion to this is also found in the shebtiutext

Mansion of the Ram IV 359,2 [a funerary monumentMOET p.268 n.1] -, also in an offering
procession , the cloth of Renenet is brought + !cIr 99 '19= it has wiped your flesh it has ,

touched the face of god IV 48,3 - probably also a referenceto this type of ceremony.


to hide , conceal Wb IV 316(16-19)Med. NK

Causative k3p 'to be hidden, to hide' thus'to coverup' [FCD 2511.The verb occursinfrequently of , r,4 in n Edfu : the king at his purification appears the temple ::: 13 3tyw m Nbwt who at
hides the Lord of hearts in Nebut IV 52,1.


battle fray , Wb IV 313 (17) to 314 (11) MK , D. 18

The word can be confused with skyw 'companies' of soldiers [GAS 20] derived from sk 'to be destroyed -showingthat the frenzy of battle was regardedas often fatal. At Edfu the word occurs often in the phrase bs-r-skw 'go into the fray of battle': Horus bs-f r, +qq'; 17 1114,1 bc-J 11128,10 ; swift of foot bs IV 212,7 ; bs. f r+ qxq %c-J with fierce face IV 57,16 VI 61,2 ; bs. n. f r - --4,. r

bs. n. f r+

tramplesover his foes VI 77,13-14; bs r+*: and bs.k r J VII 293,6 sim.


in no-onestands his way VII 202,8; r "Ft IV 231,3day of going into the

fray [c L JEA 29 p.19 n.11.

Also in the phrase qn-m-skw 'strong in battle': (harpoon) the king is 424,8-9 ; (meat portions) 7144 1 IV 74,15 + '-j L-3 IV 221,12 + qq

X -tr 4j Pre

VI 60,7 ; Horus (harpoon)

VII 65,5. This last spelling is repeated in

texts on the outsideof the enclosure : Horusis in other wall fierce of face m+



VII 263,2 ; he is

VII 143,2- as if skyw hasbecomea word for "battlefield'. Ee-73


In othersimilar expressions: king doesnot showhis back in the Is-skw 'to begin battle : Horus sfsf sbiw m
S= --f-

IV 273,13.

IV 307,4and in a phrase-

not attested by Wb 9sp-skw 'to receive (begin) battle! : Horus is nhy Or

on the day of handto handfighting (bow and arrow text) IH 136,5-6; the guardiangods , they .=a- J- IqP rejoice p . 61 HI 8,14 [c f. GoyonGardiens 681. p.

sky-'O'w epithetof lboth Wb IV 314(13) GR An epithet of lboth 'who destroytime which showshis robber nature [SchotL CRAIBL 1970, the p.553-554; Derchain-Urtel Thot p.27 and 173n.51: in stretching cord , the king saysI am , ++ who looks at the plan of who countswith the mrht VII 44,10; also the temple123,12-13; again templeH 27,8 is besidehis merkhetto setout the comersof the alsoD IV 10,1.Thejob of Thoth usingthe merkhctmay have

Thoth p. 197] for the verb beenconnected with the control of time [Boylanhas'the time determinee, 'to ski (Wb IV 314 , 12) means passtime' [c f. FCD 251 Urk IV 62,5].


to makecomplete Wb IV 317 (2-11)MK

Causative km andalsoat Edfu usedmainlyof completing lifetime or existence foes; Haihor the of of 'h'w n hftyw. k 1177,15; Isis .6 of thosewho are disloyal to you I

king bringsan end to his attacker 46 JN6 tp-O R' of thosewho are disloyal 1185,13 317.4; the ; Sim. .23 '106 tp-O R' to one who rights him 115,12 (both in meat offering texts). This is is their existence madeto not end

deadgodsof Effu for negated the. H andtheir bascomefm1hflying to heaven 51,10-11.


to illumine, (noun)light Wb 111319 (5-6)GR 'Cr330a sunnyplace. room; KH 182(after AnJ-txl p351)- C-CkCIK cf.

with a star form and the root is an older term sk connected sksk is a reduplicated

(Wb IV


311,7and8 Pyr.). A reduplicated form would indicatestronger.brighterlight andsksk is mostoften usedof sunlight. N-M as the object of rdi : HorusAkhty r
--*-Re di. n. f -"4=6

ID * anddrivesawaydarkness VIII 90,12

and opens the doors of heaven

r st.f 1574,5 ; Akhu di 4z: j) o 7

IV 57.6 ; also Khonsu rdi

0 =1D

IV 91,1 ; the sungod

m-q3 spt.f his Lords of light

beams oppositehis nome!IV, 319,7; the godsof Egypt are are PhilA1108,3.

Y-ah : in a standardtext with alliterating s, the imy. wt standard P-P'c, 'Snwt , .... Egypt 1543,8. Thereis an apewho worshipsthe rising suncalled 4-


1286,12(Wb IV 319,7).

The word occursoften at Edfu because the solarnatureof Horus [listedby EI-Sayed ASAE 71 of , , 1985p.65].


to cry out ,a cry Wb IV 321 (1-5) D. 19 DG 469 sgp cry Cr. 556a; CED264; KH343 (A)uj6, krr

A word used from D. 19 onward and most often in Late Egyptian dernotic or stories [Khamuas 14,9].

It occursat Edfu in the Myth (a Late Egyptiancomposition) e 'ex in 3st Isis cried : ,-j VI 73,4 ; and in a copy of the text 't' nis -"*- 6M r* out m-jjr 3st tn' s3.s Isis and -j her songavea loud shoutVI 216,6-7. s .I


spear. lance Wb IV 321 (11) GR BM57371,18

Oneof the cult objectskept in the templeof Edfu wasa spearassociated with the falcon Horusand whoseorigins as a cult object went back to prehistorictimes.During the festivalsthe sgm4, along in broughtout to process the-festival,so that the sgmD of other cult spearsand lances'were with PIT 1 415, Horus is listed with the mdw of Khonsuand Hathor1 (3 of Horus V 131,2;. OPI



1V 34,3 *, 13

124,12. ne

full name of this spear is Hr (or bik) sbm-br

p3 sgmb whichcame

and it is listed among the gods or divine presences in the temple

=4 rj.of theweaponwhichappearsin moregeneraltexts: Maattext. . alludesto the primevalorigin

1269,6(M 308 shownas 4epHorus) 1302,12 1-*- T '51MR 11115,10

EromNun H 19 (7);

Yps comes from Nun 1 14 (6). This epithet of the spear

with two othercult standards the mdw of Khonsuand 1239,8 -M

296 accompanying Horus. The cult spearis inhabitedby Horusand the two canbe completelyfusedtogetheras one god. A dw3-nLr text shows the king wearing a Red crown adoring ]Vr-sbm-br , Behdet comesa sgmt spear of

111122,24 the god Horuswearsthe Doublecrown out of which and l. [pl.61 2nd reg. The spear a weapon the as represents means destroying of

it the foe - it spears - and it is the ultimatesymbolof the destruction chaos.of creationand the of of establishment MaaL It offers protectionagainstthe forcesof Sethand is the divine power which brings aboutMaat embodiedin a practicalobject: killing a turtle for the greatgod in WetjesetV 245,1(pl.13214thcol slayingnhs, god is f is usedto kill the animaland god wears

C%-'eBM of Behdetwho staysfoesIV 78.6-7(pl.94) (in the

paralleltext. god is sbrn-br andbd-wr). The primeval connections the sgmt lead to it playing an importantrole in the cosmogonical of by textsof the temple.They give an origin , as perceived the text writers . for pseudo-mythological to their cult spear- perhaps justify in mythologicaltermsthe reasonwhy Horus at Edfu could be in the god Hr-sbm-hr , bli-wr . p3 sgm4.Ile actualorigins of the cult spearmust have embodied background explanation thespear. for Their beenforgottenbut theseanciene textsgavea credible and is Late theuseof p3) but cannot datedany moreaccurately. (viz be composition A numberof thesetextsgive the role of the sgm at the primevalcreation in general,the shebdu OIL-wr, sbm-4r and text of the temple refers to them accompanying from Nun IV 358,2; 71-11 13 Ips who came

Ibis text also gives the role the of sim. VI 185,15-16.

spear , at the attackof the serpents the primeval abodeof the god , Tanenarriveswith his Jbw on alf<zt-and 0 fb IT spw and utters over it the name of br-shm-hr and a jM <Z>AVI', 183,7-8,so that theywould protectthe shrineof the god (after Reymond,Spear JEA 50p. 136); H.


13 'Jrj a brw-1 text


is the imageof Akhu with die faceof htr -hr

the livmg ba,VI 15.3-4; in ,

is Khepri who cameinto beingin the earth he waswith Re as the ,

Two texts give lord of Nun 4r-sbm-br is his name(perhapsa snakegod) VI 134,11-135.2. , ITI 'm" V falcon VI 'etymologies' the word he is the Si3 r for who looks out (or backwards) . 15,3-4; the earth god in the first templehad to s3w gmbw n tr 'break off the branchesof the shaftwhich wascalled willow'which waswheretheprimevalfalconsatandfrom madea spear k 1-1-1 "lr' VI 184,7.It shouldbe stressed this is an artificial etymologyonly. In one of these that (VI with %-- on his head, holding scenes 184ff. ) the god is shownasfalconheaded l. [pl.1493rd reg. Thereis no doubt the Horus spear actedas protectorafter it was made: (dw3.nlr) to templegods including bik-sbm-br J301TI -IN

in his hand

of Behdetwho protectthe Isle of Rage, imageof D4-wr in


(pl. HorusBehdetandHorusin Wetejeset the GreatPlaceIV 379,13-14 1072g III) ; it accompanies with

qI T1

VI 15,7-8 ; the king is beloved of.


sb sfth n 13


V 243,14 (in retrograde script) ; it is a war spear in a Orw-' text shm-hr . %0

of Behdet receives the offering

to protect his son it is the staff of Re in his secret place and ,

punishes his enemies VII 284,11-12. The sbm-hr p3-sgmh , hd-wr , Hor were created to protect the first cult area which was Edfu/Wetjeset

where the falcon god lived. The spear overthrew the enemy, stablishing creation and became a , context is explored by

in the temple embodied as a spear or falcon god. The mythological god Reymond [ JEA 49,1963

p. 140-146: Part II JEA 50,1964 p. 133-38] who emphasises the protective

the spear and discussed the mystical entry of the divine being into a wooden object to nature of become a cult power (op. cit. p137). Two bronze plaques from Denderi m-nlr Ijr-sbm-tr p3 sgm n wt-njr TO mention in demotic texts for

which must refer to the priest responsible

looking after and perhaps carrying in procession the cult spear of Horus [Shore in Glimpses p-145 BM 57371.18 and BM 57372 x+ 2].


makeweak. feeble Wb

321 - 322 (8) MK _IV Causativeof gnn 'be weak' also usedat Edfu in the senseof Ao make weak the strengthof an


: opponent! Horus strengthof his foes182,13; god P

; p*otamus)Min of your foes H 45,7 (hippo sim. VI 141 Horusthe strongbull

k3w who makesbuRsweakIV 231.2.


to anoint, perfume Wb IV 322 (9-15) NK DG 469.7 0'-* C060

Cr. 388b ; CED 176 ; KH 216 ointment

The root gnn indicates something soft and pliable and a noun gnn is variously translated as 'suef. ' [gnnwy FCD 2901 or as the 'soft part! of the two gums [Wb Med.5381.7be causative verb sgnn 'make sofe can also be used in the senseoianoinf, implying that the anointing of something makes

it soft and pliable, or, that in order to anoint , an unguent or ointment has to be. 'jnade sofe. A complementary noun sgnn is also known meaning 'ointmenf or 'oil for lamps' [Janssen, CP p. 336-71, 'tallow' [on wicks, JEA 22 p. 1781 and it can be made of animal or plant substances [Ghoneim, Rhind p.228, also Helck. MaterL-4n IV p.504ff. ]. The writings of the verb at Edfu often show the later form sknn sqn where the g>q. . , noun are found and are usedin a similar way to the pair snLr Incense! and lo cense. and Both verb

and used of different substances of anointing different parts of the body : tlYps -"c 2 Nbwt m Idts VI 166,17; peoplein the temple qz-* 9% m til(ps IV 19.6. z;, Intyw : king 2. *, dt. k of the god 1256,4 tr tp of Hathor1432.1 "-1


tp of bm. k H'

from Punt r the gods with what comesfrom them VHI 135,20; substances 193,7; king Vv 0'W of the ruler of Punt VI 314,6-7.

brings substances anoint the bodiesof the gods: 'ntyw An offering procession to 566,7 ; tknw 1555.14; ldt. 'nir 1566,8-9. -tr ZrIF sm3yw 'ointment anoints the b'w of Menit-bed (mIJ offering) I

There is also a pun : in a gms-Intyw text tresses Hathoe11140,10 the king has zrV of ; 78.4 (it givesprotectionagainst foes). At the festival god spends happyday 'in drinking a

anointingand rejoicing very greatly


with the people of the city' V 127,8. N= sim. t-nLr sgnn is used in certain recipes : for making 13 cu ndm VI 165,18. Also often at Dendera. n tktpi ndm is used 11214,9


makesilent Wb IV 323 (5-11)OK

Wb Causative gr 'be silent'(compare sg3 'beastonished' IV 320,5-6)froiii which is deriveda also of 'silence (Wb IV 323,12- 324,5MK) which is usedrarely at Edfu : in the SokarChamber, nounsgr the godsof the necropolisdi W*"ill

give silence, heresilenceis equated ;w. with death1'196,9 d


in the houseof his father1221,1.In the protectionrituals godsare madequiet with ,

0 11

the command Geb on C of


that day of silence(the day of tfie judiement of Horus

and Seth - JankuA , Schutz p. 119) VI 151J. Verb and noun occur together in the festival texts, where Horus in his barque 'py M imyW-MW t17 nifn. f

r-3w. sn 'he has quietened his rage (of the Sea) . hapy

rejoices ... those in the water are all quiet (again probably a euphemism for'dead! )V 30,5-6.


to pacify

Wb IV 324(7-12)MK DG 470,5 Cr.389b; CED 176; KH 216 CG P6. LT, CXP6? -T

Causative gro 'to finish' andusedrarely at Edfu, asfrom earliertexts,witli 0 'the'land, object as of
king -" the , -j IW pacifies the land and drives away rebels IV 8A.


yard anns Wb IV 324 (14) MK, GR

sgrgw occurs in the Eloquent Peasant (B 58)

'yards'[Gardiner,JEA 9 1923p.9

6] and thenlater at Edfu in the description the warshipof Horus: two lifts, hold whatappertains of n. to themuponthe 4=2. it I Glossarp. 188]. othersVI 80,4 [JEA 30 p.7 n.c andJones, like bro



to make a division -Z--=i to s makes

Causative of gsgs 'to divide : used to describe lboth smub ust tr the Ommeand divides out the hours IV 92,5-6. excellent



(16-17)Pyr. Wb IV 1 (5-6)OK andWb 111407 CD sr is a pintail duck and known from Old Kingdom textsas an offering [F; 206] : in a ms 0,. '1?. VII 145,10 ; and one text beginsbnk the text refersto % is offeredto Neith H 58,2-10. tnw n mwtf which,


3rd person pronoun pluraldependent Wb IV 325 (1-10)MK DG 471 I tu-

CED 144; KH 173 CF-is a later form of sn [GG p3921.Junkernotesd= it is a neuterform and is not usedas often as -, st -, sn [GrD P-411. As object : you havestruck them(foes)VIR 77,8 ; seeing-a*%-iii is like a marvelV 3,6., them


bolt GG pA96 -0 34

The sign-0-7

is a doorbolt, but the earliestattestation the word s.t "bolt' is from the stelaof of %-'-NP4, have opened their own "., you %rft* its

Sn-ms : open the doors of the horizon sgnk

bolts Urk IV 498,10-11.It occursin a similar contextat Edfu - in the templedescription

bolts are on the doorsgiving free entryIV 13,4(after Alliot, Culte I p.44 n.5 s.ww and de Wit CdE

36 Nr. 71 p.88 sw. s).



pl=, sct Wb IV 1-6Pyr. DG400,2 X


Cr. 316b; CED145; KH174

C-1- C-C-

7be usual writing Cf'3'is read as s.t and occurs in various forms from the early period onward : -A

4. .,

44 , -A , -9 -d firstly in the nameof

haveall beenreadas s.t. This readingcomesfrom the appearance of JT Isis and thenOsiris - in spellingssuchas A rld h * -, Cr V

27d [seeOsing,MDAIK 30,1 1974p.91-113]andthe useof

with the valuest in wordssuchas

m3st , nmst , Ims Vistedfirst by Grapow,ZAS 46,1909 p.107-8]and then finally Coptic (-E: I implies that st was always the true vocalisation. represents seator throneon a'small a for'steps, so that it seems indicatea raisedplaceupon to andis alsousedasa determinative platform illustrious or importantbeingssit, and with the E-3 determinative could be a moreenclosed which building or placecontainingsucha seat.As early as the time of Unasthe writing of st with is usual. The tcrm hastwo main uses- firstly in the concrete sense a scatwhich is a pieceof furniture or of elseuponwhich one restssuchas a bed or litter , but it is also the placewheregodsand something Secondly st is an abstract live, or it canbe a roomor a chamber. term for'place or rarWandis men also usedto constructwordssuchas st-ib [Firchow,ZAS 79 , 1954p.91-941. Kuhlmanncompared etymologyof st to pt 'heaveW notedsimilaritesbetweenthe two. He the and
suggesteda verb stem *sl meaning 'to sit, lie, live! and this was the origin of st [11wonp. 16-281. At Edfu the term enjoys a wide use , following the outline of Wb Seat or throne of the king : king upon - of his father IV 13,10 ; the king is given pr P-3

1527,10 ; Ot nst and imyt-pr 146,5 - in these cases as a symbol of legitimate rule. nst -d A Place of a god : Horus sails to ni of yesterday 1370,16 ; the sun is r-hnt c`SIV 3 1.11 ; of A to-El from impurity 1325,9. the temple , the flood protects As an abstract prefix - with parts of the body 'place of the heart, a favourite place : refers to Edfu 'your heart rejoices in st-ib (Drw-' offering) Il 71,3 ; Hathor is in -d (st-wrt) I- 35,4 -,many vines are in 10 1370,9-10 ; the sun disk is in 1109,9 ; 136,15-16 ; 138,10 also. C-3

'place of the mouth' as a euphemism for magical utterances Isis, Lady of spells, rb st-O who knows her utterances1307,9 ; 1484,4 also. In general of the body : bones are strong 1371,17 flesh of god is safe in


Pj Y-- IV 58,8. 272.11; heartis established r -d Irs-d c%l Of a goddess : makingher placesomewhere uraeus uraei 29.19; sim. 2, J: in your templeIV 44.12 ; two , sn m VA. I-

between ster your brows IV 52.13; Maat and her sL1 Irsn = 1475,2 ;R 73,17;A m; IV 94,1.

'in placeof *: sungiveslight T-d r'-j m-st '' r-st 'to theplaceor: sungiveslight -=3- -d C3
With adjectives : king is in 16,9 ; the living are -=J

in placeof dadmess 56,12; CD In 170,13. IV snk also VHI 137,15.

IV 16.6 ; st-wrt is -71 of the daughtersof the sun god IV x-=d :To IN k r`-3 exact of place V 6,11 ; the sun is in one place VI 122,7 ; temple is AI place of stnading of his,

'M fa! 135,7 ; foes are in -d c-3 ^ majesty IV 10,10.

ILr-st-r3 'undersomeone's :I command! receivethe kingship

command of the ancestorgod H 46,9.

C73 I



shrinesof the temple -d-d -A

IV 331,13.

i st-13b. place which I love.

Gauthier DG V p.69: and JEA 21 p.33 nA A place connected with Naref, the necropolis of Heracleopolis. Isis and Horus lived there and st-13b.i was situated on the banks of the canal of the town of st-nfrt. In the Myth , Iforus protecu I" A his father in VI 121.1 3 c--, is) VI 120.14 ; Isis is Great of Magic in in Homs prepareshis"Pli'aCe u3 C-.: A VI 123J. In the 6th LE nome however, god sails to I

his favourite plwe - here an absuxt not a real place IV 26a-3. ,

st-imnt hiddenplace, underworld A At Edfu st-imnt is a namefor the templeor part of it: Re created C-j the templedescriptionnotessip A W VI 319.7

49 73 E'*: C'73'the hiddenplacewasbuilt IV 7.6 . It may refer,

to the crypt of the templeandshouldnot be confused of with a termmcaning'place the wese.

st-'nt GO Place theclaw of

A.namefor,the templebecause of Horusis a lion or falcon god whoseclawsor talonsare his means


destroying foes : it is the sanctuary naos his light beams 2,4-5 A c-3 V of

C73 C-3

10--h. heaven 15.5-6; VII 3 of


of his ba whenhe lights up his city V 3,2 -,in M.56,12.

C---j =--' %Mammisi thegodgoes his the through templer. 0.. -d --j ,


placeof piercing Wb IV 5 (11), GauthierDG V p.72, Montet1135

St-wnp may be in origin a namefor a placeof execution or nearEdfu [Montet op.cit.] and each at for templeof the late periodhadsucha chamber a specialceremony slaughter At Edfu the term of ., for destruction wasadopted the whole templeitself - as the placewherethe final comprehensive of J Seth and his forces took place This is emphasised the pun wnp nhs m st-wnp : in V0 -A -41" . A-455 13 A 6,!! 0 IV 18,10; IV 10,9; IV 44,8 OS' of wnp foes 152,12 ; db3 -Dj -3 1292,11;at the deathof foes A+0 Tr '4'6' is in joy IV 375,1-2 bftyw mA r' vFj cb Sometexts makethe identity of the placeclear: Horus) IV 66,3 ; the lion is in templeis _sc__ ,w (3 0 a is the nameof your temple(to

V 396,8; Re creates

IV 285,10; in the official namelist the , & 13 VI 319,6 ; 3 -%A RZI -dC0:
C-'J 0

contains the spear for stabbing VII 35.11 -.the cult spearsare kept here VU 101,2-3 - and it is they which are used for'spearing (piercing) Seth.


great place - Edfu temple Wb IV 7 (4-20) Pyr. Gauthier DG V p.72-3 ,

Originally the term referred to the actual seat of a king or god and then became the pedestal upon which the barque of a god rested. It becamethe name for the whole sanctuary and then for the whole temple - this development occurring in a relatively short spaceof time in the 18th dynasty [Spencer, Temple p. 108 ff. ]. At Edfu st-wrt is the whole temple itself and its sanctuary for Horus - not differentiating between the whole temple and the sanctuarypart alone [Kuhlmann, Thron p.28-34]. It
occurs passim : build A L-3 0. C'3 111317,14 A 56 L-3 IV 2,9

J il 0

IV 11,6 ; build

A P. X di' IV 12,6 ; go in c73 V 4,1 ; build - C73

-arc 119,5; makebright C-3 Q -A '"

for Hor Akhty IV 330,2

IV 331,7 -d C-3


Like nst the term is deliberatelyambiguous, that when the king is said to be in st-wrt it could in


refer to the thronehall in the palace

Ax in 1153.7; the king appears

Cl and

of of rcceiv,s heb-se&, 408,4) to thesanctuary Horusin the temple,In a set= theyamaspects the or samething, so that trying to give a precisemeaningto st-wrt as one or the other of theseplaces 2"a 'Z. Ec, losesthe symbolism magicalimportance the term.Compare Horusappears of : and as - -a,
1232,11 ; the king is on before the kas of the living 1304,14-15

is Harsomthus



st-wrt is also personified as a goddess: at the end of the protection ritual of the king, among the deities mentioned here is A r3 throne of Re . the house of appearanceof Horakhty a %he

who gives protection to the god's image VI 152,9-10. She is shown as a goddesswith the vulture
crown and Hathor horns surmounted by the standard that the actual building of the st-wrt protects her child. AW C 9r[pl. 149 5th reg. j. It seems to suggest

is the ultimate protection of the god perhaps as a mother -

The three main names of the temple are listed as WLst-Hr Db3 and .

A -a

A. tr 11- 1 is called -= .6 dI E-73

original nucleus of the temple can be further specified as zt-WTt RI 152912 -9-"d AUA ' N it

this place, the temple of Horakhty VM

VII 5.1 -,


VI 11,9 ; enclosure wall of EP5 -d

which goes around the daune of the god VI

14,2 ;AYA

is called the sanctuary 1111,14. Again hem the sanctaary is equated

tetTple which actsasa singlethmnefor Horus. with the whole.

A K 0" is in Thename givenanair of ancient authority thephrase -ij



A iU wordcanalso referto theplace theuraeussheis in of :

d )(1 or

it IV 54,14 emphasisingis thecentre creation. of the of upon head theking

being IV used a more as general for resting word thewordfor throne, place seat 51,7. or

st-mo-lb ; Placeof confidence it In the Myth, a harpoonis stuckinto the nostrilsof the hippopotamus, Is firm In 64,3 [after JEA 29 p.71. i vi

st-w3o-iht Placeof Making Offering Offeringsare madeto theltemple godsin

I ?es-d

(in Chapelof Throneof Re) 1283,7'


= temple of Edfu.


Placeof Nun -d. # x= andbring forth a lotus' VI 247.17-18.

Offering of lotus,'Makesweetgrain(seeds) in

st-n-s3xd3 sbmw ,d ,a,

Place of making whole the divine images

j j , #

templeof Edfu VI 14,4.

st. nfrt

Gauthier V p.77 abd78 DG

This name is given to both the temples of Edfu and Dendera : Horus floods its requirements IV 9,8 [de Wit CdE 36 Nr. 71 p.78 has st-wrt] st-wrt and she makes festive -d c--3 I P-j C"3 Q" with

Renenet is the beautiful one in

1287,9-10. Some authorities suggest that the term

applies to a magazine of the temple, parallel to the pr-bd [LA H 1078 ; and Daumas OLA 6 p.690 n.6 a place where exotic produce was kept] , but this is not the case at Edfu , except perhapsin a text, 1 5.3', for the Hermopolite nome where Thoth is Am . of - r--73 C-3 V 118,2 where it may be a particular part of the temple in the charge of Thoth [Beinlich SAK 7 p. 17 with references of , this text copied in other temples].

st-nfrt is also the nameof the templeof Horus at Heracleopolis -d :

Mar.AbydosI pl.45

for 58 and at Edfu an 'etymology the nameis explained: in the Myth, Thoth called the nameof no.
the palace at Naref A 4b becauseRe exclaimed nfr. wy st tn when he saw it VI 123,10. -


place of the two gods Gauthier DG V p.81

One of the names for the temple of Edfu attested from the texts in the temple the gods are in , 21 j 1574,3 1541,6 ; priests are of 1569,7 ; Horus illumines Cc73 y-4 foes are driven from it rage is removed A 4101 IV 285,12 ;a serpent is repelled J3 V 80,2; 1589,11 ; it is the
T1 473

A 6273 IV 187,10 ; or impurity* -5-10

throne thegods of and

-1 L-3 -14

list it IV 17,6*; is in theofficialname A T-i

C'F. 1,

S (,,

1682 J Al

396,4; images the godsare in of

111176,14. but have

As to which two godsare indicatedby nirwy the textsprovideat leasttwo options the sameunderlyingemphasis the templeis : C'073 -d

it is for Re andTanenV 326,7-8 ofReandTanenIV330,5-6.

A 4&7(! JJej k of Re andhis ancestor (Dfn) TanenIV 1,14;

In cosmogonical. describing creationof the fu-sttemple,the falcon is in texts the

VI 324,6 so that A the falcon idol in another text where QDV

comes into existence VI 325,1 ; here Ptah protects Harus and Re as VI 325,9-10. The primeval nature of the place is also referred to in comes into being from Th VI 328,18. st-ftrwy



A0 ft d

is a place for the creator gods and as a name for Edfu representsthe tradition that the temple is the primeval temple createdat the beginning - this is the significance of the name. Other texts are more vague about which two gods are indicated : the throne of Re and Horus is established mA 'S-A-6 c"3 I. V A H 117,16-17; qrit is for Re and Horus IV

10,8 - here Horus replacesTanen, a natural changeas Horus is the temple god, but Re always retains his place of pre-eminence here in one form or another -dc'el 1, S. -%0 of Akhu 165,16.

in essencest-niry is a primordial term for the two gods of the past creation - Tanen and Re and the two gods of the presentcreation - Re and Horus.

st. nLrw Placeof the gods Horusis in -d d99'1 IS c--3 ,U it VI 23,5 andas notedby Gauthier[DO V p.811in the LE 1334.16- so it may be the main templein this nome

I in nomeof Behdet, god rests -d andthe first text refersto it.


Placeof Re GauthierDO V p.82

Namefor the templeof Edfu andperhaps a special for sanmwy of Re at Edfu As the throneroom or palaceof the king the king is upon a thronein 80,11; he sits in


VI 105,2


152,11 the king is on his thronein 117.13. C"-' :3

Horusreplaces father(Osiris)upon his

As the templeitself ': in the descriptionthe templeis referredto as

IV 7,8 ; in


the list of temple names 63,10 ; the falcon is in

'C' %(X 4D 0V 87,42 ;a

V 396,2 ; the Edfu god is wsr-' hnt

2 'CO3 VI 7,6 ; Horus is great sovereign in VI 152.11 ; the king leaves his palace to go to c"-j .4 This last equivalence of st-R' as an earthly heaven for the sun god is continued by giving st-R' a r-v sky determinative and using it as a word for'sky"heaven' [Kurth, ' lEmmelstiltzen p. 10 n.91 111176,13-14; metaphorically the VI 337,4-5 ; the king is in the C-3 VI 106,12 SVII 42,9 ; Horus goes quickly to enterJ .k the heaven of hisbaonearth IV 10,11.


OV 'a -d'% it door is described as, door of entering C-3 OM



*L "I images of god in Edfu are like his image in the -d crowns are on the head of the king like Re h.nt horizon of Re for ever tr frise text, the king establishes j protects C'3 -d ix P-v

VI 339,4 ; Sia protects Re in

with his hands 111278,15; W3-pt text the king ,

in his handsIV 349,8 ; also Dendera = Kurth op.cit. Text No2 ; Esna 60,3 no. '9CIA VI 144,1 which seemsto be the St-R' in

D VIII 126,9 the winged disk is in

Also in one case, Thoth is the great ape in

the Hermopolite nome mentioned thus at Dendera [Gauthier DG V p.821. ,


place of the mouth , authority

Wb IV 4 (7-11)NK

FCD 206 'utterance'

st-r3 caneitherbe a word for the mouthusingthe abstract and0 makingthe term morespecific st or it could be a substantive derivedfrom theactionof themouth. with a meaning At Edfu it is usedin the phrase hr-st-r3 'on account [Sethe-Gardiner, Lettersto the Deadp.241a of by compound preposition,compared Spiegelberg with the earlierphraseor-st-O [Correspondances p.68,70,71). Ina title of Iusas,sheis 'one for whom the ordersof Re comeforth pr wAt R'lir 1503.12 [Vandier, RdE 16 1964p.132 n.51 ; Iloth sh' nswv--J-E under V gives food and whoseleadershipthe king appears[Jankuhn,Schutzp. 16] VI 144,2; Harsomthus r-3 provisions 1146,9. Zy JL. VI 340,1 ; the king receiveskingship
,C4 d-->



'of deadgods

Otto notesthat the phrasemeans'under his/herutterance,andis a development formulaesuchas of tr st rM which is used especially of the king. Both forms can apply to Isis and reflect the importanceof her commanding role in later times.It stemsfrom the tradition of oracleswheregods


their will so that'place of the mouth! refers to the medium -a statueor the like - by which the speak C;-3 V_3h-c are conveyed to thoseon earth [GuM p. 16-18 and examplesp. 142-3 I: Isis god!s wishes the royal houseof appearance Lady of the utterance1376.1-2 (coll. ). and mistressof


place of the feet standingplace post Wb IV 4 (12) MK FCD 206 rank, stadon
PW it is

Attested from MK texts and perhaps also at Edfu : the gate,of giving Maat the standing place of everyone VIII 162,16-17; at the temenosgate it is the standing place of great and small VIII 164.9

f *- A J3Pa as@


1553,13-14 ;

It is the place where people stand in wait either in a festival 111362,12 place of standing of wcxnen. the gate in order to petition [Sauncron,Remarques,MdlangesMariette 161. processionor at


Placeof fire of your fathersVII

A 'r-3; I bring you the lotus , which comesfrom your nosein 3 321,10-11 perhaps to analogous 7sleof Fire ? ,


(place theface) of supervision Wb IV 4 (13) D.1I

of the sanctuary Horus,it is under of U

1110.8*.the In-n-pt is supervision your

the supe: -visionof HorusH 269,16.This is a similar kind of useto hr-st. r3 except V-- under

of vision- ratherthana command the mouth(notedby that this impliesan actionof theface- seeing, Otto, GuM P-181.


Placeof Hom DG cC Wb IV 7 (21-24)MK Gauthier V p.84 templeof Edfu

From NK texts the Idng can be described sitting or appearing uponthe 'throneof Horus'which as in GR texts: the king appears him asIdng and this phrase upon-d c--jk IV establishes alsoappears 6,10; is established upon IV 12,2; upon "kk - beforethe living for ever IV 330.8 -d d IV 331,6.To amrt a legitimate he receivesa rewardof life stability power upon , , A


fm to the kingshipthen the title b1wtr st Ur showsthis [Herhihor,Bonhame, BIFAO 79 p.283 cla, n c,f. Kuhlmann,Thron p.40]. t tdfu templeis truly the 'Seatof Horus'and so at Edfu the term not only refers to the templebut A AO is IV 53,3 makesit the seat of kingly and divine poweron earth: the s3b-%wt in c"-3 J P-3 1355,3 ; the is protected ;a door leadsinto the chapels of containing the s3b-lfwt , it is the placeof establishing heir VII 35,3 the 1 r' I

st-ry-nst throneof the heir Horus is nursedby Isis andNephthysin templeor its Mammisi.
P-9 och, Zrjm, =73 C73

IV 18,9referring either to Edfu

st-bb-tpi placeof the First festival

The st-bb-tpi was where parts of the New Year festival were held the texts describe how the god , AC-3 X; ock =r T-C'=disk 1513,12 here to see the sun '1579,12-13 ; the was taken ; sim. -13 priests of the temple perform their duties in this place IM7 ,c*, A temple to perform the services of -A r: -3 at the service the god 'enters heaven' d c`3 a"w13 1546.2 -,they'go through the


C3 jD -d

1555,9-10 ; his form is hidden

; sim. aa -d


1558,2-3 ; he unites with the sun beams image 1576,5-6.

1565,15 ; his ba unites with his

These latter texts describing the place as the actual place where the cult statue was exposed to sunlight imply that it was an open air chapel on the roof of the temple. The procession for the New Year festival goes up to the roof with the image and the Place of the First Festival is there. One text A Fm states, 'to leave their images for which is upon the roof 1357.9-10. The door at the top of

the eastern stairway is called sb3 (n) wd3 rA

7: F1 cnlj


by Behdet, 'so it may have lain on

that side of the roof (east) 1551,6. Alliot suggestedthat in the north east comer of the terrace of the temple roof there was a small kiosk which contained the st-tb-tpi. But he also argued that the open court of the temple, with the hall of the Enneadon the east side could also have this name, suggested by a text mentioning Horus in the Wabet (13) where Re rested at the first time (1415,5-6). This is rather tenuous however and the st-hb-tpy is never actually found as a name of this place., The


is [Affiot, CulteI p3O3-308]. for theroof shrine,however, overwhelming evidence

Jc3aD The festival texts also mention that on the I st of Thoth the god 'is causedto appear in
,C% 14=F

andall rituals of

'MIMP -d

V areperformed 395.2- the New YearFestival.


Place Appe; of uwv IV and he is Lord of slaughter 241,3, IV 241,11-12 (incense Mation text and IV

3210 A ram god caRednir-13-m-sput.f is in -dn J .'r-b3 2, 1:, Nb-wt-wrt is in one of his companions

dw Amun Re is a strongbull Ont for the Deadgodsof Edfu). The next text mentions 242,13.

st-ILnm-itn Placeof uniting with the sundisk GauthierDG V p.84 in A narnefor the town of Edfu : Re appears

A3 &q 7, c,

/// V 2,4. Gauthiergivestwo other

from Edfu. The templeis the place spellingsof the term from BrugschDG IV 198-99- apparently place. wherethe unificationof the sungodwith his disk takes

(enjoyment) the st-s3b-sXplaceof traversing marshes A r-h The termrefersto the hunt in the marshes is specificallya sanctuary Amun at Dcbod c-3 and of
'" v, - m Debodp.63 , but it is alsoused, with qualification, of the ternpleof Edfu cz5. JM ,Tn tin 1jr-3hty IV 1.13and he spends night in Belidet. the -06--

st-sndm nlrw pla= of makinggodssit lie temple descriptionrefers to the wsbt-try-It (11) as also. 4e P-3 A EP3 VII 15.7-8and

IV 5,12 ; in a cosmogonical text, Re bids the god comeand sit in A P-3q, 441 this of the

AI?ODVI 324,5-6- the site of the templeof Edfu. Compare with

Lord of the thronedaisVI 11,3(Gauthier V p.&5)alsoasa namefor Edfu.Mic term refersto the DG in placewheregodsatandsettled orderfor him to create.

st-sbn(afr) Placeof the happyembrace


Gauthier,DG V p.86 templeandtownof Edfu A 8b V 396,2-3; Re The official list of templenames, includes A from primeval timesas the first nome declares that C7: 1 was in existence VII 33,7-8.The shn may refer to the uniting of Horakhtywith his imageor of unitng with the sun disk. The term is also usedof of Horusandhis sisterHathorIV 2,34 - theplaceof

Marriage, distinctfrom thefirst examples. the 'Sacred

st-sdm-spr The placeof hearingthe petitions. The temenos gateof the templeis called: IIaatVIR 163,3. A AOc':3

17 :


gateof giving


Placeof beingfirst the primevaltemplemoundwherethe templeof Edfu -

A NIS-i Seshat the stretched cord in wasbuilt 1132,8.


Place of Shu

for A name Edfu, in theofficiallist -d

V 396A[Gauthier V p.87]. DG


Place of pleasure -1,1 -,also in the a name for Edfu temple VI 1 as

Gauthier [DG V p.87] notes form of his majesty IV 10,1.


placeof trapping
zc: -Iv= =Ip

fish are caughtthereVI 56,12-13 geese and




237,5 both in net texts (set. grg).

f-imytw qbwy Placeof raising him betweenthe Two Sources st-tw3. -d-+-L tc:, /14 X (Le in UpperandLower Egypt and the phrase are'those - the two sources


to thetempleasa perchor thronefor raisingthegodup in the middleof EgyptIV 10.10. refers


placeof raising 'Y

the placeof raising At the coronation,the king is established his serekhin -d '?,Lrk on KYC-3 I IV 225,8. ?) (heaven asking for everIV 52.14; his palace be called Ift" can

st-tD-n-Vr-3bty GauthierDG V p.89 in form st-th : adoretheNoble Namefor thetempleandtown of Dendera especially theabbreviated , Lady in V 300,15.


plwe of thetable j an, C-73 IV 46.7.

Ile bull Mer-Weris brought, he is master of

st-dw3-nLr placeof worshippinggod !7 * *A Edfu is -6 gY C-3

IV 2.3.

st.db3-sbiw. f placeof punishinghis foes I A C'O-'3 Edfu is of EgyptVI 18,11. .,.

Aj Ii IqtT k


place sacred DG Wb IV 5 (6-8) NK, Gauthier V p.90

the or st-dsrt can havevarioususes,but mostoften designates necropolis burial placeof Osiris and it canalsobe thetempleof certaingods suchasSobek canreferto Dcndcra. or At Edfu it is the sanctuary the temple: seeinggod. the king opens of for hidden)placeIV 55,46e-e- 11sr-st necropolis). also -III A die sacred(or



WbHI 407(9-14) MK DG 306,3s-hmt



Cr.385a; CED173; KH212 C21HIES. in [LA st-Dmt canbe specificallya marriedwomanin later textsandespecially legal documents 11 1051 The termoccursrarelyat Edfu,mainlybecause the'masculine' of natureof the templegod , but . the also because main goddess the temple, not Rely to be called 'woman'- sheis a of Howevera lioness the goddess in textswherewomendo appear word Vmwt is usuallypreferred. and G'is goddess called tla 1510,16; andit is possiblethat a term written as sl,,, maybe a

miswriting of st-bmt IV 303,1-2(q.v. spt).


uraeus restswith and

SN CZ-1 A text for the uraeinotes,the left eyeandright eye are united

they make their place betweenyour brows IV 52,14 . There is also a word stit, where Wadjet welcomesKhepri as 'onebom of,, a and nursedby the Lady of Nekhen'VI 310,5. It also

(D ;D occursat Dendera 11181,7 VIII 95,1)but is differentto Slyt'Satis! [AnJex. 78-39201.


fire flame , Wb IV 333 (12-13)NK, GR DG 472,11 stA 4.jj1A-j

The causative Wb cites two examples this term from NK sources. of verb st3 'makehot' (from 0 6,6 from the MK andthis is thenounderivedfrom it (Amenemope clearlyhas flame) is well attested
0 , O 4 incense is put onto an 3h t flame wb n w AM6 its fiame rises up

smell its scent128,13-14. andyou


earthymineralfrom Nubia (3-6) MK Wb 111488 P.Dem. Mag. 23,3

is usedas a pigmentand the term is derivedmostprobablyfrom T3-sty , the namefor Nubia. sty In medicinethe substance usedto reduceswellings,andespeciallyfor the liver. In Book of the was Deadvignettesit is paintedyellow [BD 130,44]andasa mineralit is mostlikely to be yellow ochre, p. thoughsty refersto the consistency the materialnot its colour [Harris,Nfinerals 150-2; Iversen of


PaintsandPigments 19-261. p. , In the protection rituals,the ritualist draws

a wadjet eye in ochre on the ground aruA

the god/king is protected inside it VI 145,7-8 [translated 'red coloue by Jankuhn, who must have misunderstood Harris whom he cites, Schutz p.24 and n. 1071. In the protection of the body, the &Aft image decoratedwith black and ,*0o ritualist makes an execration then he breaks red vessels sYti = ' -d ** ochre colour VI 300,2 and

inscribed with Yellow ochre VI 300.4 [Ghattas has

'yellow' for the first andred! for the second, Schutzp.56-57]. Ochre can be yellow or red so perhapsthis is the sourceof the confusion over the colour, red being a more obviously Sethianand bad colour than yellow and therefore more likely to be used in execration rituals.


to pourout Wb IV 328 (9) - 329 (16) Pyr.

the or sti is usedoftenat Edfu, of libationwaters to describe flood waterspouringfrom their source. Libation texts n.f qbOw for the noble mummy IV 84,4 ; sim V 82,11-12 into a

* basinand standVI 309,16; VI 312,2;,"%%.. mw beforethe ka of the godsIV 240,10;: *A' into a basin1555,10. Two libation ritualsbegin VI 253,14and -*pourswater ON :. 173,6 which showtheking holdingup a waterjug beforeKhnurn(M 242)but for the Wx=d into text, the king poursout two libation vessels a basinon a stand(pl. 153 1st reg) ; also "'4"- /,: * qbOw 169,9 (coll.). Similarly r-'M 1493.14(XII 359). vessels Flood: 421 J n-k Nwn at his time 1160,10; of hapy rv . A. I ^ n-k h'py hapy pours out for
n. k O'py 1160,12

br bnty is the,pouringof water onto a standholding

you to flood fields 175,1-2 ; the turtle (lord of caverns) goddess -1 s n. f h1py H 67,7 Horus

the flood n. k


Spdt at his time IV 48,11. Used in a reflexive sense si3t the flood pours from the leg IV 363a ; water, m


poursfrom the leg V 138,6-7; hapy

for SothisIV 146,4-6; Nun f-V)

m sl3t

1323,10; divine efflux

n sb3q 1114,13., Itrw m Inm n snf 'he pours out the river r

Of other things :a metaphor the MYth, in


with the colour of blood' VI 83,7 (after JEA'30 p. 10 n.c) ; of offerings by Hapy 1106,1-2 (coll. XI 254) ; offerings

--W, n t1py poured out

fi Ipy from the caverns 11190,3. dt n

Of the primeval gods-. they gave light before there was heaven and earth --W- zY ,a%% .-**




beforetherewerewomen? IV 240,6. ejaculated


to scatter,to sow Wb IV 346 (13) to 347 (7) Pyr. DG 475,5spit, ejaculate 4 )'1 41 Cr.360b,,CED164; KH c-ITC-

sLi is normally usedof scatteringsolid substances suchas incenseor corn. At Edfu it is usedof
scattering natron for purification purposesand in this case is often synonymous with wpg'to scattee X.. I have scattered it (natron) around Mesen to purify it for your ka H 62,6 ; sim. H 33,2. Also with other substances: faience, the fields 7Fm General : 1"I ibnw wplAi m bsn IV 3,6.

natron in the temple 111109,4and 8 when Horus builds his warship

m w3d the two landswere strewnwith greenmineml (so that it was madehappy)VI 70,10.


to shoot, to cast Wb IV 326 (1) to 327(14) OK and328(3-5)Pyr. cf. DG 475,6 T6 arrow CED 165 CO arrow.

In the phrase sti-r-mdd (q.v.) With direct gbk= of foe 441,11-12 Insw VI 78,6 tnmmw 1424,13 nsVIS6,1. iby I

i IV 57,10(title of a scene);
dm %%

Ofweapon: arrows

+-. qL

r flesh of his foe 1150,7

4; r-w

J* 'Csr. r hftyw 1158,7; t V r db cast harpoonat

also 114 (14).

111256,6 n.f arrowsat the noseof the hippopotamus . d"

hippopotamus IV 343,4 04 n. i at nose VI 84,7

Without a weapon being specifically mentioned

n. i r fnd n 43b I have cast at the'

1*' ' IV of the hippopotamus 343,5 ; the king AM t-4* r bftyw IV 374,7; -nose W VII 149,11 r db VII 168,13 n. i. r U-iy VI 67.5

r fnd n db


females VI 61,8-9.As oneof the ritualsat the festival the king takesthebow andarrowand of , #Ta,c=b fires towardsnorth, south, castandwestV 133A. llekinglzV He is also qn r-mnhmbftyw. fVH3l2,7-8; -? 01 r mnb VII 213.9 'throws excellently'.

strongof throwingIV 58,9; andthe god throwsfrom his warshipVI 61,9.Also he hascast(thenet)withwhich to catchfoesVI 56,10-11. who throwswith his

of the net , in a net text

With nt introducingthe object : the Apis bull is brought MadeIV 30,6.

In a festival text, whenthe godsproceed sail in their boats,all the watercreatures silent fall to eb -#"-


R' m b3osu iri (O)r sty 'Re is before them an shining ' (after Alliot

CulteH p.543n.I and2). Betterperhaps 'theyall expectto be shot/strucle 30,6. is V


to impregnate Wb IV 347 (10) to 348 (1) MK

Wb suggests this verb derivesfrom sly 'to sow, strew'.but the spelfings that with the determinative * that it is more likely to comefrom sti 'to shooein this case'shooeout semenor suggest

implying a forceful and strongaction [from stl thenas in FCD 253]. One of the earliest ejaculate, P WO-111, ZE-i: examples this term showsthe action of two antilopes[BH H pl.41and it is of c'I alsousedwith br [FECTIH p.100n.71. At Edfu the verb is usedwith direct object: Mn is the husband"r impregnates womenwith his phallus1391.2; possibly, buHof bulls a bull 1548,6; M --, 11CM

nfrwt m nfrw. f who in the nameof

rnnwt IV 102,6-7; buff


rnnwt IV 242,13. IV while ejacul4ting

Without object: Min causes phallusof the king to be strong br the 270,17. In epithets: Amun is r"Ol U sty IV 242,11-12; Min is k3*f* VRL, M 256,7; the ldng is C-0

1398,6-7; Horus VIII 5,1.

is the ram of Mendes ViN.C-w

m-sti-n compoundpreposition Vb IV 332 (7-10)D.21 oft GR , LiteraHy'in the sightof, derivedfrom stl 'to see! connected with stl lighe. and


The prepositionis usedof people: the foe is slain= 149,6; sim. J

450,bdore you (parallelto m-br. k) VII b , --:; 'with VI 332,12(in all cases

hm. k VII 159,10 =tiRV

alliterationof s). Of a place : stwt.f m,

A,!! -

d 4511

m spt.f the beamsof Horus are in the sight of his nome I n St-wrt. f 1 13,15.

537,9; Re appears morning at

The literal translationis more accurate than 'opposite'and helpsto underlinethe exactuseof this beforepeopleandplaces-so that they seethemdirectly andin phrase it refersto actionshappening The [JunkerGrD 226 it this sense is an act of visual communication. term is usedalso at Dendera, 166'before in the presence anqthoughWb attestsit from D.21 ni-sti is attested earlier in a of] p. , fLc73 kps Ramesses text: the king is second II n pth KRI Il 884,13. of


to look intently at

Wb IV 332 (4-6) Lit. MK The connection sty is derivedfrom the useof sty to meanlight, illumine! andusedof the sun-eye. light in steadycontinuous is madebetweenthe light of the sun,the sun as an eye dispensing rays oue raysare'projected or'shot oueuponall thingsandall beingsand eyesto see.These which cause ASAE 71,1987 p.83 n.5 and Moret, Rituel p.70 n.51. it derivesfrom sti 'to shooe[c f. EI-Sayed so in This is bestepitomised the gravestelashowingthe sunraysbeingshotout anddirectedby Re at a woman [A 94rwdoove
L664, (44 Uk+ ,

A (a -a'avy(c M14 U16.0064&lfle



'to I 'English hasan expression shoota glance/look'aL .

[OED XV 301a]implying a quick intense gaze at someone or something. sty has been someone 'stare' implying a longer action but no less intense or piercing. While English has many translated for making a glance or stare into some more tangible act, it is striking that often words are phrases 'shooe, 'pierce, 'direce 'flash' all of which are reflected in the imagery of an arrow being used such as It is exactly the same process in Egyptian, which uses one word sti and changes the shot. determinative as necessary to cover its various uses. , Pr.6,11 - 7,1 has the prohibition 'do not give pivrcing looks rn gmw sw M

13w do not shoot him with many stares' (also Les. MR p. 38 9-10 ; and Tomb of , at beginning). The relationship between 'shooe

Amenernhet, ZAS 47 pl. I p.88-9 line 4 without


of the eyes is establishedhere (,.

also Urk IV 1409,8 and P.Kah. pl. 2,2 and 4,2).

In GR texts sti is more often attestedwith this meaning rather than the Wb translation to stare,. *.r,, --(; Ir 1. 'to turn the face towards' : P.Kah.2.1 ; the king establishing the temple, nmt

'nbw turns his face to the course of the stars ; better - 'to direct! Ciaba, Astronomique p.58 n. 1061; also Urk VIII 87b , Amun Or.f Or Djeme ;91h god -. -. T* '41 It DrJ r the place , 1"51

2. Edfu, offering of Wadjet "four eyesseeto the extentof theTwo Lands , 1145,12 ; Horus Lord of Khemmis all placesto the limit of darkness

13, j_

you see Mesen rq.

established its foundations'(couldbe 'illumine) 1304.9-10 HB lord of light (stwt) on spt.f his nomeIV 17,12. 3. HB =45 m shootshis beamsonto the mammisi Mam.5.9.

17here some doubt over the precisemeaningof the term sti in each casebut the general is is a underlyingnuance of 'to shooe glanceof theeyes,which in the caseof the sungod bringslight.


eye? cf. WbIV332(11)GR (Wb cites1233erroneously).

An earlier exampleof this noun may occur from the NK: UrkIV1466,7 stwty. fy wherea .-. -. *jr-a J J#$ '%' beams his eyes,mostlikely to be sty eye. Urk IV 937,15has of parallel CE"I" I At Edfu : in a wnYb offering , the king br snb *4F* & makeshealthythe eye (of light) IV 4cring the left 82,12 ; in a Wadjet and right eye are on the handsof the king snsnIaI<z)P , 111139,15. sn.nw.s the right eye uniteswith its second


leg Wb IV 334 (3) GR

sty is aboveall the sacredleg of Osiris from which the flood water of the Nile comes.Itough written in this way, it would seemto be no morethana writing of the termsi3ty and Beinlich notes that there is no evidencefor a word in Wb IV 32,7 sj3jj , and that stl and s1311 not different are terms [Osirisreliquienp.209]. Further Beinlich indicatesthe obvious pun with stl - sil 'pour out watee,the leg is that which poursout and also with the nameof the nomewherethe flood hasits


t3-sti - either'land of the Bow' or land of the sti-mineral but sti herepunswith sti leg' sources , , so thereis a treblepun on the word sti [Beinlich, Osirisreliquien 209-213wherealso Satisis slit p. and a diagramshowsthe train of thoughtresultingin the Philaerepresentation the leg. sti is the of originatorof sbq , Wrt andmntl'
At Edfu the flood is said to come from the leg : bs (m) Elepharntine VII 166,1-2 ; whm. 'nh waters pr rn v cL a1582,8-9 ; bs near

IV 195,13-14 ;-'

also I %% 9-

Pe9I567,11 ; fresh water wbn m sty 1323,10.Horusgivesall watersof 11252,10 also11258,14.

11232,7; in a pun the flood = , H 143,14

r--w P

sty m %%


is usedparallelto qrrty

Also in the phrasest-sty : waterwith which to purify the king comesfrom AS of the nomesVI 2443. Beinlich alsocitesa text, whereKhonsuis guardian of

at the head

11258,34.The change

between two terms.sti is bestused that the of spellinghereandthe usesuggests thereis a difference to whenit punsin flood and watertexts, but the original word seems be si3ty andwhenit is usedit is a word for the leg relic of Osiris free from other word play implication it reverts to its true , , spelling. at sti is usedin a further sense, the festivalthe peoplerejoice and 'all their children sn IV 17.8; compare for the basof Nekhen, as they rejoice . , -Am

beforetheir lord

here V 39,3.This is a verb plus a nounfor legs and the verb is written sti perhaps be translated to , as 'throw out the legs , kick out their legs ' (in a dance).Beinlich takessti hereto be a word for'a p. shouldbe readassty-rdwy or sim. particularpart of the legs [Osirisreliquien 2101, but thephrase The word sti asa source theNile flood is very commonat Dendera with its Osirianemphasis. of


? stabor serpent mds m'b3.k m sty 111138,6.

The king thruststhe harpoon


makelike, makeresemble Wb IV 335 (1-11) MK

Causativeof twt usuallywith -=-


At Edfu most often used of 'strength' where the gods make the strength of the king to be like that of M--, I the gods Isis & e- nbLk c=,. Hr 1233,12 *-I poty. k mi R' 1 298,11. CL br b3w R' like

In the phrase m-stwt-r : things on the temple walls are inscribed

the bas of Re VI 14,12-13 (JEA 29 p.22 conformably with (?) c f. m-snt-r in VI 8,4-5).


to collect, assemble Wb IV 335(14-16)NK, GR

to stwt is the act of collectingor assembling something bring it together one. as Intransitive: birds of the marshes given are shrineEll 142,14. Transitive : the mnw vessel F. 93,7-8; also ., (-IIV ftC 206,13-14. the n-L mnw I assemble vessel filled with beer VH '3yt. k they are collected at your

In In embalmingtexts stwt refersto the collectingof the bonesof the mummytogether. other GR in or texts stwt can mean'to bring something' 'to presene this may be a better sense which to and In the mnw text above. fact therearetwo mnw vessels the incense anda wine vessel pot understand , so the act of bringingthemtogetheris theofferingstwt. and 'to At Ombosthe meaning'bring togethee offee is clear (Wb IV 335,17-19) sw3h.s n.k nn KO 161,65. a en. nfy


dirine, temple Wb IV 333 (2-3)GR

is attested earlier Om notedby Wb, for Cr I 219f has///// in styt

rAvp-? tE-3 because this god'. Faulkner[FECTI pA7 n.231notesthat sit is not known. of


IES In GR texts styt is a shrineof a god: the templeis called'perfectexcellentof cubits L-J ,a from the paLve, the standards his shrineVI 7,2 ; in the procession purify'Y' -0 IEir Y-49,12 ; god comesto his nomeand uniteswith . c,2 VII 3,1.

it is

of the god IV

The termalsooccursat Dendera VIII 334,2)andPhilae. The word maybe derivedfrom sty light! (D the aslight surrounds god in his shrine. ,



hypocrisy deceit c f. Fairman Orientalia 30 p.227 , , '" -q A phrase occurring in Phild 148,17 stp. i rn rk m. k 'I cut up the biased one in

the time of your majesty, so translated by Junker, who noted that stwt-br was a euphemism for'to gather the face' [op.cit. n.5]. The term is also used at Edfu in a Maat offering , 'you open your lips there is no need of bias s'm. k n9 d= you swallow and there is no 'deceit' IV 17,18.

Fairman suggeststhe translation 'hypocrisy, deceie deriving from 'making the face the same' used with a bad nuance (op.cit. ). It may refer to pulling a face in disagreement or dislike - thus is something undesirable - 'make the face come togethee. There is a damaged text from the Naos of Philae temple : 'I give to you Egypt content at , '221 n wnn. sn

and hypocrites they do not exise Bdn6dite 74,18 - here a noun.


light rays , Wb IV 331 (2-18)MK

f fiDG476,3 sunrays -k
Cr.362a; CED 165; KH 199bemof light C-ITIE
derives from sti 'to bum' (Wb IV 330) but with the underlying root being sti 'to throw' - in stwt this case the flames shoot out. stwt are thus 'that which is shot out' and so are the light or beams of the sun [for the noun- El Sayed ASAE 71 , 1987 p.831. At Edfu the word occurs often'due to the solar nature of the temple god rejoice at seeing he lights up with the temple'is called bw 'nt V 8,3 ; he makes bright mummies with 1111,7 ; the living live when they see sit V 2,4 ; the gods V 8,1 V

k 30,8 ; in a tautologous phrase %sp.

3hty you illumine light like Akhty V 284,8 mi too VI 260,5. 0.

he encloses throneby the ^'. ft %% %" ' 136?\ Horus is psd In epithets : 268,2 ; -550' -$he R

shiningof light 184,9

Lord of light I

who seeshis nomeIV 17,12. RN

The extentof the sun'srays showthe extentof the kingdomof the king : he rules south ! to the rays of the disk 1297,2 ; sim. *Pk itn IV 16,2 ; he rules the earth r-r, itn V 37,17

M. e- Aq, 1290,11 Im ; also the Iffyt'of the king goesr--r' T- Zz Q IV 10,3.


7be textsemphasise the light comesErom sun(disk) andalso : Horusraiseshis faceto see that the * 1515,4 ; he makes(ir) 34,9 ; Horusprotectsby -ff- o I)\ " .ae his light illuminesthroughthe window 1574,1. Light can comefrom other sources : g*,,
Q. iii

'a' JR 4,1 %%

from the beams his disk H of *9


also IV 36,4; Horus sVil


m dd

n irt from the eye of the sun god 1308,4 ; %%

the uraeus exaltsthe headof the king by -f-


her light IV 51,3.


to illumine, light up Wb IV 330 (13) to 331 (1) D-18

sty is a verb relatedto the nounstwt andalsowith the root sti 'to bum' from the root 'to throw, to shoof. 'F-,, With direct object: Horus,. -,
Intransitive : the two shrine rows shines in places 1357,17-18.1

illuminesthe two lands1127.15 sim. IV 16,8. ;

are lit with a mineral 1139,12 ; Horus jk

Also in a Maat offering, Horus is described VX74 as of underthe influence this word M 194,5.

lates th spelling ram which ejacu .e

The spelling A and sim. occursfrom at leastD.18 texts and is a corrupt writing of stwt, sti, Ilx r.:; dueto the confusionof the hieraticsignll* - : j; - 1- [WHer Heir.Pal. Il which cameabout , and no.1671 the group [op.cit M no.1671 by GR times-;jj ,
lc: xb


- Stl [seealso Caminos

Tale p.15 and plA,6 for the muddledwridng I--

-4, -





to destroy, cut to pieces Wb IV 336 (3-13)Pyr.

term the of stp is mostlikely to bea technical in originwhichdescribes cuttingup of pieces meat, into of portionsMe bp forelegof a bull is or the dismemberment an animalcarcase various forceto carryit out.Theactis shown by to removed theaction andit wouldseem involvesome stp knife [c f. Man.V, I p.128ff and in scenes butchery from theOK andthebutcher a broad of uses Fig. beingstp]. Theremoval theforeleg its offeringis the, and scenes 73 p.135with theforeleg of butchery thebeast, it is themostimportant of a butchery to part Prelude thefull scale ritual. so of


Symbolicallythe leg embodies strength the animalandits offeringnot only renders animal the the of but that the powerless, surrenders powerto the personwho receives forelegoffering. At Edfu texts often mentionthe ritual of stp-hp(,especiallyin parallel with the destructionof foreign enemies. V The sequence actionsis that the foe/bull is caught broughtto the abattoir threeof its legsare of , , tied up - leaving a M&g free , its throat is cut and the foreleg is removed , then animal is The dismembered. king thus says:
". 4pV--

VII 150,2; slayingthe crocodile


VIII 34,8 ; of a bull in a sm3-sm3 text king

before god VI 141.13 ; harpoon text, the slay the red bull , t;^ before his father III

of foes V 56,2 ;a scenehas the title sm3 dsr 12 ; the king .

t. - cut off his forelegs 111178.10 and bpg. wy I

178,15. It is part of the funerary rites which are performed by the king as his duties of heir and priest. The scene shows the king spearing a bull in the back so this is not precise (pl. 64 2g VI). In a recipe for making md an animal fat basedproduct, the text describeshow a bull is brought. tied up and , "%'Or-II 227,7 so that the carcasecan be used in the workshop. is also used of larger scale dismembermentof foes and creatures : the king stp %sr bulle-:; Sakhmet IV 342,12-13 ; pacify sr geeseto

before you VII 73,5-6 (consecration of stpw with a knife VIII 119,4

foes Q- e rn Yd. k (knife) 1575.7 ; bdnw ; portions) dc%

V 293.7 1565,14. hands

bryw V 283,15 ; in a pun stpw n sbiw.k

on my

"' As a generalverb of destruction: Hathorgives isft text I isft 111194,10.

Z in the king's reign 1572,14; simlAwt


to choose

Wb IV 337 (5) to 38 (7) MK DG 477,1 1"I

2WT61T C.

Cr. 365a ; CED 166 ; KH 201 r-wT*r7l,

is The cutting up of a carcase a modeof selection thebestpiecesof the beastfor consumption so of is linked with stp 'to cut up' and Faulknerputs the two that the verb'stp 'to choose! semantically entry [FCD 254]. verbsunderthe same The verb stp 'to choose'is not frequent at Edfu , occurring most often in royal titulary in the


formula stp n Pth Amn 'chosen by Ptah/Amun: .

VM 119,11 Even outside the . 1 formal cartouches this is the usual use of the verb : the king is the son of Isis chosen by .4 god from millions to be ruler VRI 118,1 and here the true nuanceof the verb is clear - god separates his Icing ftm the massof people and divides him from them.

13 1 &p a


choice things . best things Wb IV 338 - 339 (14) OK

stpw is the noun derivedfrom the verb stp - denotingthe best things in generalbe it offerings, goods,people,books: fields produce aII '*7 468,8 ; the altar fire is madefat with -: with d3isw ; IV 43,13; an offercr brings of fields I

IV 46,12 ; the walls of the templeare inscribed

the choicest spells IV 13,5.


to clothe

Wb IV 341 (16) GR Wb hasonly one example. one of the Anubis godsin a md andcloth offering says 4=0 m nLrI I clotheyour limbs with divine cloth' 1188,8 ()a 282). Med.NK) and is perhaps 'Me verb is derivedfrom stp 'cloth' (Wb IV 341,13-15 connected with stp 'to chooseso that it is 'bestcloth' . 61

stp. s3

to protect Wb IV 339(16) to 340 (6) Pyr. andOK

is attestedfrom the OK. ne elements3 'protection'is clear but stp in this context is stp-s3 If it is the verb 'to choose! a nounfrom it 'choicest! then it could literally be 'choice or unexpected. This doesnot seemconvincinghoweve the stp heremay be "to choose and protection'. protection it because has the phonetic no word is written with the adzesign, presumably more complicated. in this caseis not specificallylinked to stp 'to cut W, for a knife determines this value stp and in Theadzeitself hasmagicalimportance the Openingof the Mouth ritual for example, where action. it is instrumental bringing life to the deceased which derivesfrom the useof the adzeto create in , (Vitalisc)statues carpentry. stp-adze havesomesuchproperty.Wb IV 336 (1-2) hasan in A mayalso


OK word stp'to work with an adze'andit is conceivable working with an adzecould havebeen that part of the process manufacturing of amulets creatingmagicalprotectionas a symbolof magical and creation.stp-s3 may then be 'enactment protection'deriving from the original root ratherthan of beingconnected stp 'to cut up'. to Ile verboccurs rarelyat Edfu andis followedby prepositions 4r : of gods -"" ; Tanenet says h3 : uraei J br wrt-bk3w may you watch over the Great Magic IV 51,4 I 4r. k I protectyou with 1100,3 (parallel to bw). ' .... they protectyou 1406,16.

This useof stp is found with other addedelements for examplein the phrasestp-3hw (Wb IV , 339,15D. 18): Thoth re the Luxor and MedinetHabubuilding texts from I enactspellsfor you VI 335,1; two examples dl--, [Barguet,RdE 9' 1952p.14.15

'protectionis assured (chosen)'] other examplein Wb is TT 4 and p.6 linelO of text translating n. , , 57 Khaemhet Mem.Miss 1115,3. The rite of stp-s3 also hasfuneraryconnections text for bringing Sokarends :a bft

ddw.f 'performthe ritual of protectionaccording his words'IV 272,5(afterCauville , Osirisp.127 to the n.9). Alliot discussed two protectionrituals at Edfu s3-pr andmk-b'w , as being the stp. s3 of Horusand the living falcon,but neitherritual mentionsthe verb or hasthis phrasein the title , so it is morea generalterm for protection rituals [CulteH p.632ff.]. ,


protector, guardian Wb IV 340 (8-10) OK

of In the OK stp-O is a title of peoplewho werecloseto the king . At Edfd it is one of the names templeandits god e--% the troop of guardiangodswho protectthe as a varianton similar termsit is clearlyarchaic. 11132,9 while used and


palace, house, temple Wb IV 340 (11) to 341 (11) OK

As the palacewherein the king or god is protected, stp-s3 applies to both palaceand temple depending context.At Edfu it is a convenient on varianton othersuchterms


Temple: making bricks . the king gives


r, 73

built to perfection 111114,10. in r-7 VI 144,10; Thoth

palace : in the protection of the house, Seshat is nbt-nmt

d"-% J L-73issuescommands in the palace VI 144,2. wd-mdw m In the scenesof the king leaving his palace to go to the temple : the king comes from mnqb r IV 50.2 and this associationwith the mnqb is found elsewhere : in handing the temple to Horus the god gives in return 4"'N 0 . the throne and mnqb with the If y-t of the king c"2-i with 1393,2 - suggestingperhaps that it was the

1 1107,1-2 ; the king as Thoth is foremost in 61-%

workingpart of the Residence quarters.The festivaltextsmentionthath ratherthanthe domestic m JC the flame is bright in the palace(or temple)V 355,7. -5)p C-3
ACA all4: k


trapsfor birds
'%1 with aH kinds of C3 .3d 9 CL sharp-clawed birds V

Ile pehu of the 19th LE nome contains

262.7be parallel text in IV 37,14 has htr 'traps or cages'which makes the meaning clear. The stpw are madeof wood , and the occurrencehere is a hapax.


choice(or cut up) meatportions Wb IV 336 (14) to 337 Pyr.

in stpw meatprotionsare consecrated the ritual Ow-t-r-stpw 'strike the arm on the meaewhich is I performedby the king holding macein his right handand t\ in his left. 7bis occurs I 113,6, or" Ut nl3w 1-

is usuallyspelledel-% 4%. rarely in full -: a throughoutthe temple and stpw jmD 1315,8-16 ; IV 128,17-129,14.7be origin of the meatcanbe directly stated k3w n Dryw 1 112,19-113,12 or most often 414-U;

nt Iw3w gbsw W-0ji

497.13498.4 ; IV 65,17-66.16 VI 257,10-258,16 VII 319,8-320.7 ; or ;

of gazelles, oxen,,,' -',

fowl and desertanimals1165,8-17 11165,5-8 or the youngof gazelles ; and antilopes1452,4-13. , long and shorthomedcattleandantilopes shownin the scenes- either Theseanimals,gazelles, are four of them (two types of cattle and two of gazelles)trussedup and with the headand fbieleg from the trunk (pl.30b 2nd reg, ; pl.40a mt.) or threeanimals(one bull two antilope) separated , . decapitated pl.237) ; or two cattleandonefowl with a tray of ducks(pl.46a); rive animals(pl.105 (XI ) 3rd reg. ; or with a numberof offering trays containingbread,vessels, cattle (two types),baskets


) with meat(? (pl.116 Istreg.) andalsoall kindsof offerings(pl.153). The ritual is %, the soklly performedfor Horus(13 out of 19 times)and the text emphasises martial attributesof the king and gods.They are both described being strongandare destroyers their as of by In enemies who are symbolised the animalsofferedto the god in pieces. return the godsgive the king moremight to destroyhis foesandthey alsohelp to removedangers threatsand guardthe and king in battle.Befitting this warlike emphasis king most often wearsthe hmhmty crown or the T and the Doublecrown once.The rite can be performedfor other warlike deities : Nekhbet(I 497,13ff. ); the lionessMehyt 1112.19; 1315,8; or the gargoylelions on the exteriorof the NaosIV MaihesIV 128,17-129,14Maiwerpehty 284,15-285,13. ; The textsimply the stpw areportionsof the abovenamed gazelles antilopeI,oryx . cattleand fowl . IV 168,16-69.7;-Zfi'M% 221,7-222,7 IV 350,13-351,6 VII 73,4-74,2; VIII 166,13-167,12. ; ; (four times); V 52,12-53,12 VII 213,2-214.3. Also to Hathor: 115,10-6,2 ; Thereareotherrituals involving stpw : hnk, e"i"I for the ancestor the godsV 166.9-14-,for guardiandeitiesVI 158,11-160,16 king holds a tray of meatportions(pl. 145). rdi
4. it t

ft '

uponthe fire, the king holdshis handsdown over a braziercontainingmeatportionsV

47,2-12 pl. 105 ; VII 61,13-62,15 both for Horus (and last with Hathor). hnp V lr GALL for Horus Hathor and Harsomthus, the text precedes the installation of the ,

falcon, the Grace before meat and has the Litany to the Table god the king offers a tray of meat VI , 152,14-157,2.1 for hrp ""-N 0,42' the primeval gods of Effu VII 107,2-108,11. W




of gazelles, cattle and fowl for the guardiangeni , king holds a tray of meatVI

(pl. ). 327,14-331,17 1533rd reg.

sbp for Mehyt 1185,9-17 king holds consecration maces over q 6%; er *A &Aegt-

(pl.40g) andVII 102,5-18. w3-'b m .V dd3w setting up the brazier with fattenedmeat portions of gazelles for Isis ,

who givesBastetfiring flameat foes1490,5-11. In all the-ritualsthe meatrepresents enemies foeswho havebeendestroyed it is implied that and and lion the godsto whomthemeatis offeredhelp to maintainthedestruction foes(guardians, gods)or of


benefit by it (ancestors,primordial gods who are madesafe in Edfu). lbe ldng again most often wears the hmhmty (pl. 149), and once the atef crown upon a pair of horns (pl35c). 1 In other ritual offerings of meat, stpw can also be mentioned : the Idng fills the a!tar with Z"-11'141 496,5 ; of animals is put on the fur, 111197.1-2; w'bt are offered , -:; I 6^4-4-L% sbiw stpAi

before you VII 127,11 39rw are offered and a vessel filled with ceg. , presentedV11 142,8 ; bull

of cattle and gazelles is of

of it make the altar content VH 148,7 ; desert animals

them make altars festive VII 323,2-3 ; in the pun stpw stp. tI IV 128,18.

In general the offering ritual providesthe god with meat: bnp Q falcon IV 15,7; in an offering procession maleofferer has a 149 ,n

sn to the mansionof the sbiw.k stp.ti on his

hands1565,14 - he holdsvariouscuts of meat- the foreleg thigh ribs, headand I=ps of flesh , , (pl.381); the door Y-W is for bringing 159,11. wherefowl and perhapssmall gameanimals stpw are also the produceof the sbt . the marshes abound: sbb sbtk m e"-% 999 IV 40,12.7lie stpw can also havethe effect of quenchingthirst

to the window of the falcon by the'butcher11


1555,17andof all the templegods,it is Bastetwho declares 'How happyI wn with I' HI 301.5.


to cut (15-24)OK FCD 225 sfj Wb IV 342 seesfj Wb 111443 DG 478,1 &f:, +/ 4

A word usedfrom the OK in scenes slaughtering of animals.In the Tomb of Ti it is somekind of performed with a knife on thebodyof thedeadbull or cow. It occursin parallelwith cuttingoperation the action Idt-43ty 'removing the heart!of the animal and may be related - perhapsbeing the disembowelling the animalor similar process pLI27 for example]and somescenes [7t of show the knife deeplyinsertedinto the body of the animal IT1pL1381. the tomb of Ptahhotep action is In the sfj r nfr - eitherto cut at the bodyandremovepieces flesh after the foreleghasbeenremoved, or of Murray Saqqara Mastabas pLXII. removingthe viscera[for example , in Montetsuggested sfl wasa generaltermto encompass the scenes butchery- especially that of all view of Siut 1302 'everybull in the temple [Sctnesde vie priv6ep.167ff.] and it has


its this generalusein later texts,thoughit is not necessarily original meaning[Zandee Death'to , 1511. slaughteep. By GR textsthe word is consistently in written stf and wasmost likely pronounced this way. It is 5 not a metathesis of but writings with --I; Z df imply the order of the consonants d-f > t-f. is 4 SttYW sbiw'

As with analogousterms sft is usedwith a view to alliteration of s: Horus e. 4V (Asiatics)TV 374,2-3; E2 232,6 also V 214,34 VII 111,4-5 Otherobjects: R V n.t sr (geese) 224,12;

sbiw V 165,9-10.

P'w of hippopotamus 1381,15-16; sim. in the Myth, the butcher

of hippopotamus in

dn cuts up the hippopotamus VI 87,7-8 (JEA 30 p. 13) ; -40- -%il

the morningVI 74,5-6; the king

*? l

VI 142,14

h3b VI 51,2 lsftyw

IV iw3 and w9n 0 'cutscattle and wrings the necksof geese' 331,12 foes V 53,3 ; strongforearm r 4 bd9w IV 221,13.

k e., "o- A 1553,16 ; bulls ik. -, Stative foms : gazelles fP-111C da

in Egypt IV 11.10 ; sbiw

VH 149,6-7; eyeof sdf serpent

IV 149,6-7. 1497,6.

bulls rm-stf :

1113.1 ; enemyof the eye +$. -

the Without gbiect : as the duty of the butcherin the Myth who comesto dismember hippopotamus 4 by the butcherVI 88,2 (actualkilling is sd) ; of animalscaptured the net stfyw r by , VI 57,3. In a driving of the calvesritual, the king says, I havecut off their tails' 111168,13

it Originally is clear when action tookplace animal already the (referring serpents). that the sif was to dead thatstf is to cutat something thankill it, butclearlythiscouldhave fataloutcome a rather so 'cuf. for anything In origin compare root fd (Wb 1581,16 582.1ff) 'to wipeoff' or 'tearout' - sfLcouldbe a a and form of causative of thiswith themodification d>I.


butcher Wb 111444 (1-2) MK godssQiw (3) Royal Tombs 4KI 6: IJU Mythus 11,18

A noun derived from the verb and used rarely at Edfu, where the usual word for a butcher is mnDw: P A b 'I' in the net text, it is a. r stf the butchersbutcher VI 57,3.



snake JEA 59 1973p.126n.6

PZaWj%t Ina sqr-om3 text, oneof the names givento the Apopissnakeis


Borghouts translates'slaughter snakeandsuggests comparison another with eyesarecut up IV 149,6. text which has bM -N

readingdsty or sfity VU 112,14.

The word seems be derivedErom to sfl'to butchee.


liquid andits actions Wb IV 342(5-12)Med

entries in Wb and all havethe sameroot *tf 'to spit out water/liquid' , stf stf has six separate derivedfrom it andalsovariousnouns beingthecausative to pertaining liquids4privingfrom the verb verb. Pic Wb Y=h 'to pour ouf from Medical texts(Med. p.818) Ebers307 do ,
medicine in a particular quantity
,c 0.
AMA. pour out a

use continued at Edfu and Denderain texts for making substances ,a


in the quantityof I+ 115+ 1/10hin H 221,5 ; Sirn.4% *" I 'D 1 1/5 hin 4L.
Oknw pn MD 147e. -41

quantity, here of grain H 221,7 ; at Dendem, of water

stf is used also of the Nile flood and thus is parallel with WO 'to flood: inundation all lands KO 1174,228. Also it is used of the overflow of beer (Orb 8.6; 129-10). in the expression mw-stf 'water which pours oue : in the 12th LE nome . the canal contains

Dum. GI IV 118


V 31,7. The canal of the 14th LE nome contains


Gl first existedin the Lake of Horus Dum. Ul pl.23 (Dendera). The Edfu which
Z:= ,-

'S of this text calls this area a% equivalent I

'IV 27,15.

This useof the verb is alsofoundin theNK wheresheet to copper(asopposed ingotsis brought)and is referredto as L7 o** N= 0 'poured coppeeUrk IV 708.2[FCD 2541. out

liquid in general(COA 111175) at Edfu : in a grapeoffering. Nephthys givestheking and a the handiworkof the king, either grapejuice or water with grapesin it 1460,13. as

Usually however stf is flood waterin Nile processions the king gives your place (alliteration of s) 1581,7




at its time 1320,18 renewed


also Il 243,12 ;



P. "L--

with all things'of the marsh MD 179,2 ; Osiris pours'out (sty)

--fe- %x MD IV 75,2. dmQ.

V^ **, In additon Montet notes a place near Nby in the nome of the Two Falcons called P '06 dv I listed in P.Golenischef IV 19 otherwise unknown [Geographie d'Egypte Ancienne p. 83]. , ///

AlsoCoptic 1&J-YI


'to purify

to cause to drip to pour' Cr. 366b CED 166 ; DG 478,2 , ,

'to pour out purify' which seemsto come from this root. ,


to send astray , make stray Wb IV 343 (6-15) LiLMK, to confuse FCD 254

Causative of tnm 'to stray' and used in various constructions [see Vernus, Athribis p. 176 nj]. The verb is used of leading foes away from places , in particular the paths followed by the king or god With of a guardian in the Sokar Chamber 4'n. i nhs -c=hwt-sr I have led hftyw. f

away Nehes from the House of the Prince 1196,1 *,Horus

leadsawaythepathsfrom his foes1407,3. Without : Nekhbetshineslight bry mtn. f to lead'astrayone who is upon

his (king's) path 1308,5 - differencesin light in the desertcan confusethe paths going acrossit 3-- ZZ-F, HQ p.31 n.42]; the god Heka -. [Derchain, In a positive sense Horus is sYm . 'Er' sbiw.k VI 101,9. Or w3t-nfrt one who guides the one who "II

[Otto, GuM p.371. straysuponthe correctpath11163,12

Horus is

n th mtn. f 'the 'confuseeof the one who attacks his road 1424,15 tx-,.

(after Alliot, Culte I p.362).


to manufacturejewellry Wb IV 344 (5-7) Ute, GR

Wb notesa word sti (Wb IV 334,2)which is something and usedto makenecklaces also a word (Wb IV 77). of swti.t 'beads a necklace' The earliestuseof str is on the PiankhyStela line 112 listing jewellry including bbt -X-.=-J

m '3t 'necklaces 'made' of precious stones'. Grimal transliterates stwr and had Wl; it misunderstood s note for the comparisonwith sti , insteadsuggesting is sli 'scattered with


983. the king gives Isis a bbt estones' [Pianchi p. 149 nA531. At Philae <2626> PhOt. precious `=*gold, with clear meaningto make with the preposition m (PhilA H p.303.15-16). of . A-2. hkrw manufacture adornments for Horus With direct object: amulet offering, the king iM7--J wsb/bbt for his mother MD I 69a. J iwf. f


str can also have the meaning 'to adorn. array: in the Embalming Ritual

he adorns his flesh with cloth Bals. Rit 10,13 [Sauneron pA2 1-2]. Sauneron notes that it is a . technical verb and it also occurs in the Vienna Ritual 2,19 (OP. p.57) ;r Cit. hkrw to adorn his limbs with jewels CD V 89,8 ; the spd ka. ankles/wrists 111101,9. Tle use of the verb was being extendedin Wer texts to becomea general term 'provide, manufacture .21, t--J the ms-plant is offered .o==m dt-f made in its form CD H 13,8. , -J O'w.f m

tp. 'tk he adorns your


cL Wb IV 344 (8) to slay

A text describing doorthroughwhichmcatis broughtto thewindowof thefalcon(Y-W) includes the

qq -=j -pI the text

N6 & by 'k. o-aglj, A-%v^ sbpr.u.s sw r ]Vr.sb3w, translated -=-

Alliot 'the censerof the falcon washestheir smelr and then he takes them to the abattoir of the falcon H 159,13. In a note he suggests'this is the title of the purifer of animals butchered in the temple [Culte I p.30 and n3]. Fairman suggestedit was str. hLr 'god's butcheeand connected with str 'to slay'(Wb IV 344,8 example from Kom Ombo) [MSS Fairman]. 71is seemsplausible but the term is otherwise unattested.


plants Wb IV 344 (2) GR

is with the earlierexamplefrom the Hatnubgraffiti: the official Sobekemhat str may be connected Me ndm sty //// the sweetsmellingstr Hatnubgraffiti 22.3 (Wb IV 344.3)and the of snir (fmm Cairo 20016) ; witha writing PJ3erlin'i' (Dendera) and Rahun. Durn GI 11178 plants

comparison with editor Anthessuggested 'Aphroditopolisbloomswith 10035

OS 59,1924 p.12] commenting all thesereferences belongtogether. that

Further examplesat Edfu confirm that str is somekind Of Plant the land in the 14th LE nome



P 'cZ-o I-

I f=-w titz-7-01 its plantsIV 28,2 ; and pr-ms n s3w.f the House

Births is decoratedwith plants of gold for his children (or is this str 'to adorn' above M. 196, of Kamal noted that sdr/str in texts was unidentified and compared an Arabic term :)O. A. " sidr,

a plant which occurs in two types. He cites the Edfu and Dendera examples [ASAE 12,1912p.242-3 and n. I and 2; Charpentierp.628-9 no. 1022and Brugsch DHD 1159J


to opena doorbolt Wb IV 344 (12-13)Late, GR

in First attested Buch.V.Durchwandelnvon Bergmann,Zeile 69. ,

With n: in a gate text PP 1 ! d.. -4

-" A!

n.k you haveopenedthe doorsof HasettDum. GI Il 50


(Dendera) ;Iq%%% Az

n. k doors of the west OP. P.51 * Cit.

Nwt n //// the doors

of heavenfor ... D VHI 16,16; ell

one opensthe doorsof the Placeof the falcon I

-,0, m r-ara fowl a - 4D r---v 't350,7 (doors of the couloir mysterieux) -,offer the marsh with many r" P--V for their birds openheaven you ? 111193,5-6. With 'z-=- r southof the temple MD II 22i. : amp! --

In all casesthe verb sdh is used as a variant on other more usual words for 'to open' such as sY, wp The origin of the word is unclear : (1) it could be a miswriting of sJ3 'to pull , to bring' in wn. this case referring to the pulling open, either of the bolt 'dragged' from its socket or of the door VC dragged back as it is opened. Wb cites a spelling where the seems to be 0 and it

could be a writing of :)-, = I--

thoughis unlikely to

Q from bdAmisunderstanding hieratic [

-:; r

Pal. nos. 159and 4P MOHer



miseryWb IV 371 (2) thereareotherverbssd4 'bring low the armof an evil doer,bring down (ease) FCD 257 (root dh be lowly). and nouns- shank, shin or sd ringedploverWb IV 394. Itn (3) a causative stemthencouldbe t 14or jl , d , Jw to rejoice!(Wb V 389)and canbe Lb 'to touch'.Also a verb it 'to go'. written Wb hasa spelling which 'is qM a underworldliteratureexampleand suggests

with rto 'dragout' - implying st may be alef rt with the r lost. Certainly the action comparison of draggingbreadout of the oven and draggingthe bolt from its socketcould be seenas similar


Thenthe root maybe tb 'to drag"pulr. actions.

In this casethe HI 193.5-6example from Edfu may be trarislatedasdrag down (from the sky) for you birds (hyw)' - the exact scenetitle here is 'offer papyrus and I(drag) ro-goese'so capture-

the two sdP and rt are here closely connected and sdk here may even be an erroneouswriting of

rt4 .
to pull , drag Wb IV 351 (7) to 353 (17) Pyr. DG 473,1 J


Cr.362a; CED 165; KH 200 redeem,rescue CAJTCKH from thePTsonwardandis usedin a number waysat Edfu The termis well attested of . In the rite sL3-mrt 'draggingin the boxes'which containcloth. The boxesaremounted uponsleds, so that sJ3 is more accurately'pulling a sled!in this context 183,2 VII 153,12; 302.14 125A. t 140,12 ;H 58,11 ;V

IV 310,9andit is alsoa ritual performed the at

festivalof Behdet --C--Ln AN oV .4

In the Sokarprocession, god is towed in his barquewhich is also mountedupona sled so the the ritual can be called s13-Skr : --C-IV 271.6; -4-- A* 187,11; makeappear Sokar

lh%.Skr uponthe sledgoing roundMesenVI 139.13 pl. 148showstheking holdinga ropeattached $eeto the barqueitself (for the procession Skr ). WhenHorusappears the festivalat Behdet: in IRWLin bringing him by the peopleof the domain V 355,2- the cult statueis broughton its barque or sled. Sokarprocession this is doneby Hathor IN- -L' Also in the festival texts at the , tp) half turn (demi tour Alliot, Culte I p226 n.5) andstops(h. V 350,10. In the ritual of unboltingthe naosor shrinedoors13-ldr [seeE.Graefe,MDAIK 27,2,1971 p.1471 k140 34 (XI 222) ;A 125,10 (XI 214) wherethe king withdrawsthe bolt of the-who makesa

door and then undoesthe cord so that the shrinedoor can be opened(0 in the last example shrine be an error for Idr); in orderto readthe ritual book at the festival , the priest -A', must
N --*-

trw sfb

md3t V 356,2*,andalso rn,

ii 165,10.
sb3w n st-wrt 1350,14 ; and as a synonymof

can be usedto mean'to open'a door sL3


wp 'to openthe eyes'


(of'statues) with an adze, in the Opening of the

mouth and eyes ceiemony at the dedication of the temple IV 33 1,11. A door is labelled sb3 n 122door of bringing the hb offering to provision the altar 11161,8 [after Alliot Culte I p.261. thesecalves which I k animals .1n. p3

In the more general senseof 'to bring', especially of animals : bsw nn 19r bring to you V 86,16-17 drtyw falcons before this god VI 102,7

of the desert VII 323,6 . in the Myth , there are some stagedirections (after JEA 30 p. 14j b3b bringing the hippopotamus cake VI 88,1 e=

t3 srt bring the goose VI 88,7. sJ3 used of

bringing animals is apt becausesJ3 invloves force in bringing and it suggeststhe action of dragging in animals reluctant to go where they are'wanwA 'To presene -A s.w presenting pools by the overseer of singers V 133.5 n. f

mw he brings for him water for the libation basin 1464,11 (though in both of these the word could be sti 'to pour oue, written with this sign). The writing of s13 with the jackal looking back, a GR sign implies when one pulls a ,

sle4 one looks back, or even goes backward to exert more force, so that in processionsthe pullers of the cult barqueswalk back facing the statueor sled which they pull [W 463 - 467 Montpellier].

to flow (of water) , to drag out , to move to '-WbIV353(18)to354(4)D. 18

Ilis is the intransitiveuseof ihe last verbandalsooccursat Edfu Of water: the flood Or Ir Of a bolt: 4r w3d-wr flows to the GreatGreenIl 246,4-5.

your ka 1158,15. '1jr a bouquetof ishednd ima plants1569,9 Horus moveto the

Of peoplein procession priest -C-:a

m-htp goesin peace1414,10 ; all the choir and instruments singing of templeV 348,6-7[Alliot Culte I p.219 retournent versplus r hfty-r). v In the sense 'go back' perform a rite of Uis completed 03 3yt n nsw

V 351,2;a rite also V 358,4(all translated

go back to the temple, rest in it V 358a

'on retourne'by Alliot, Culte I p.236).




Derived from the verb W 'to drag' 'bring forcibly': in the canal of the 9th LE nome s'q , r bbt-njr. k cause the cattle to enter the god's abattoir IV 29,5 (not preservedin V).


to spin Wb IV 355 (4-5)Pyr. DG 474,1spin Cr.359a; CED 163 Cu.)rFCHT"

Perhaps originof s13 itself,meaning drawout'. 'pullthreads! 'to the during spinning the and process PZ it is attested thisuseat Edfu: Shentayet onewhoweaves is (msn)in Behdet, e, with in the,

Houseof Life 1208,3 Cauville ( Osiris p.30) readsthe word as str (q.v.) 'one who wraps in . in bandages theHouse Life - this is theonly Edfureference this wordin Wb. for of

sJ3 m

to clothe array , Wb IV 357 (1-6) Med. and oft GR

Causative of L3m a bandage and verb meaning 'to veil covee (FCD 303) thus it is 'to cause to . , covee and is used from medical texts, where it is usedof covering or binding wounds (MULWI) 821) and in GR texts it is a variant on other words forIclothe (the image of a god in his shrine) : the work. of Hedjhotep is brought Tayet also 98,4-5. rj,, . Y IWU to clothe his flesh 1555,13 ; the work of clothes H 163,16 ; cloth


the body of ancestor gods I

With m: Tefnut receives cloth from the king and*


clothe you with (m) wabet

--ff- rj--r-, dt, of the ancestors n 1421,11. ims. 1125.18; cloth '6 cloth

With JLr: Serclet k I&




w body of godo-a- mIrt cloth 1566,12;_;

alsoIV 48,5.

odour scent,perfume. ,
Vb IV 349 (5) to 350 (1) Pyr.

Cr.362b; CED 165; KH 201- C-TOI
C-001 i

is known from the PyramidTexts at leastand occursoften at Edfu. In origin there may be a sLy


common link betweensli and sti 'cast out' and the determinativeoften used with sly /0 pustulegiving out liquid. Most often sli is the smell of incenses the templeis filled with : 536,13; unite the sanctuary with

is a

I of burningincense %%

IV 47.15 ; the roadsof Wetjesethave

IV 51,12; god 'q Ist br sty 'ntyw entersheavenwith/upon the smell of myrrh VII 60,7 uniteswith 210,17; smell beingoffered. It can be the smell of other things: burningmeat rejoice at 9-, 7 VIII 169,11; of gods- goddesses her also IV 62,6 ; Hathormakesgodsrejoice with of myrrh VII 325.11; nd F.. br incense
da :

VII 210,8; heaven is for your noseVII

1559.12and passimin textswith incense myrrh your smell of incense or

of Min 1398,9 -,Isis makesthe templefestivewith 1487,16. Z-4

--- V,

smell 1280,16; of plants The best smell is 'sweet': ndm. wy sweetsmell 11206,7 smell of offerings-b 9 M,

11217,14 4=1 of a substance

njim wr very V 272,17.The

ipn ndm of Osiris 1213,5 -,md is ndm

sn ndm r fnd.f is sweetto his noseV 117.4[with parallelsfrom

other temples, Beinlich, SAK 7 p. 17 n.521. Slightly different: slay Meg with
9= %k A4

91=1 I=;A-

the smeU of his wounds 1378,18 ; and

to this . 'the bull is slain= =7! Eby the smell of what he hasdoneVI 141,8-9., similar perhaps the noseand it 'uniteswith' the nose(snsn,3bb, sm3) , the pleasantsmell of incense sly affects brings pleasure possiblyarousal.Oils, perfumes,incenses flowers are and and causes rejoicing and with god. and this pleasant smell [LA 11555-6] it is a way of communicating creditedwith


divine smell Wb IV 350 (24) Pyr.

The nameof an incenseor unguent- from the PyramidTexts.This is the methodby which Amun impregnatedthe mother of Hatshepsut he camein a cloud of sti-nir, with the pun betweensli [c 'smell' andsli 'impregnate! f. Urk IV 219 f. and 1714(Luxor)]. At Edfa the termis a synonym wordsfor incense snir offering , Take ; of fire 1232,4; gms-k3m9 eno IV 47,12(or is this a writing of go(fs land burningon the



breakfast Wb IV 350 (5-6) Med. FCD 253 mid-day meal and p.255 from sly'odour, sme1r.

literally thought to be 'perfume of the mouth' [GG p.206 .n.5 ; ZAS 71 p.86 with two examplesof nw sty-01 with the secondary meaning 'breakfase [cf. Schaedel. ZAS 71,1935 p.96-7]. It occurs in NK tomb texts and clearly has funerary connotations. In a text for a gameof Senet the deceased , Petosiris relaxes with his friends after Senet p. 146]. Compare also : IT 85 Amenemhab (A H to T HI) , wXAw n. k Osp ////// (Mem. Miss V2p. 283 Virey) smsmt plants made by Re
. C. 'qc-; b


until the time of purifying the chamber [Pusch ,

3 cm, same text Tr 5o Neferhotep 'come out to you perfume your mouth br

0- "r-I 0sp

Mss. V3 p13 2nd reg.line 11)writtenbeforethedeceased his wife. with 93tw plantsetc. (Mem. and At Edfu this word alsooccursin the nettingof the foestext : hecaptures them,he takesthem for his breakfastVI 56,13-14 Alliot compared sectionto the PyramidText 1. this it outlining the mealsfor the day [RdE5 p.88 n.1] but suggested wasnot copiedbecause passage 'FQ0.doesnot appear Tabl.14]. until the MK [PMbers50,20; Cam. Sauneron notesthat it is a parallelexpression 'bw-r -,Vw-r 'purify/washthe mouth' [Malinine' to in MeMIasperoI p.897 n.4 ; Sauneron MDAIK 16,1958p.276 nel indicatesthe purification of , the mouth by or after eating- st in this case- incense.


of perfume festivals Wb IV 350 (7-11)Pyi-

Oneof the sevensacred [listedby Tawrik CM 30,1979p.79 Festduft]andknown from the Old' Oils in is Kingdom.It is usedat Edfu infrequentlyasa general term: theorigin of the substance suggested burning snjr -,lr-tw %% one makesfestival oil for all the gods from 1464.17

the fragmce which comesfrom HathorIV 217,13; the king hasmadefor,him'ra D IV 6,14-15.It canbe usedas an oil to anointthe body 4C! sim. 7w

-0--ftqw +1,

is derived ftm ihe noun and is usedin a pun in a mil offering: A verb

-: it,

that it makesyour heartbe-(smell) festiveIV 114,8.6uville notes' the verb is not found, festival oil


in Wb and it seems that the verb is an artificial creationsimply to fit with the variousalliterations andpunsin the text [Osirisp.128n.4]. .


southernperfume AnJ, ex. 78.3954 (not Wb)

The tomb of Nianchchnum has an example of

Nubian oil p. 106 no. 13 but


be the sameas an oil mentioned at Edfu. In an incenseand libation text for the dead gods of Edfu not iw jrJ 4 r-tn m Nbn Upper Egyptian perfume come to you from Nekhen IV 83.4-5 ; alsofzp' 40 VI 296.9 [see Phi'll 11335 n. 1, where the word is read sli bdt]. At DVIII1149;: 41 trd is presentedto HathorD'

IV 307,11

Dendera: images are fumigated with VIH 116,14 ; the House of Hathor is purified with which comes from Nekhen D VIH 154,4.

4 D VRI 148,15; the king brings 16


to crown, be distinguished Wb IV 358 (3) to 359(4) MK 4 PI DG 480,3 o-l IOXNC= Cr.615b; CED 263; KH425 to counsel, to takecounsel L_!

9j Causativeof in : the greatwalkway (-9myt)

I is distinguished containingcoluMnsVI 6,2. wpt. f with she e-

To crown usuallywritten only with theWhite crown sign (endD.18): Horus is in the palaceIV 76,10(maat)andthis is an epithetof Osiris (Wb' IV 359.7) who
wr 1185,5 ; and Lord of the uraei 1186,4;

also 1311,5 'the crowned one'

The implication is that sIn is crowningwith the White crown only. The king can also im. f crownedandLord 9f many thingsby it IX pl.30c. In other epithets: the king is imageof Re 1114,6 ;
-it. ei--

14a IC7 be

moo1, h. 3t-rn wr n nlr-nb and exaltedof births msw //// and lord

-tr e 40

VI 59,12; HorusBehdetis also

Xfyt moretim all the godsVII 138,7; in a crownoffering the king is .&- we'd of


11 IF From Lni 'to be numerous',the causativeform is sin : god providesplantsand 1487,15. vegetation makesnumerous



epithet of Sothis Wb IV 359 (8) GR

Only one reference in Wb : Sothis is

her 1317,18 an epithetwhich emphasiscs ,

with UpperEgyptandwith Osiriswho is theoriginatorof theNile fkxxL a. ssociation


White crown Wb IV 359 (5) D21 , Late, GR

Derived from sLn 'to crown' with the White crown It is first attestedin the Ritual of Amun, where . the king brings to god

4 P; ut %ov, .

which you embrace[Moret . Rituel IX, 7 which replaces wrrt

from the same spell in the Pyramid Texts p.95 n.31 : Stela of Isperet (215th D.) king is given .a P;: L Horus gives Pd Us upon his head as the insignia of kingship Urk 11197,4and 8 -,in a crown offering 0 'C4 mDH in praise at


H 72.3 ; at Dendera the term is used in puns . with the Red united

113,10 ; and also I receive

crown'D 111117,10-11.

sin w

best quality grains

. =aoAL

Cited effoncouslyby Charpentier 684-5no.1035- VI 135) (p.

tT 2 ...


71e word is in a list of grainin an offeringof dates Osiris TV 135,7.It is derivedfrom the verb sin to 'to disbguishand is a hapax [CauviUc, Rd[32,1980 48 Doc. I n.8]. p.


eyelid upper Meeks,BEFA077,1977p. ff. 79 , Brugsch DHDp. 1355; BudgeHD H 713.

This word occursfrom theCoffm Texts(Cr IV 46 h-k) asMeeksshowsandthe contextindicatesit family'of wordswith the root *Lr'covering. At to the coverof the eye,perhaps comingEroln'a refers Edfu, in a striking the eye text: Of the snake 'c' , 're stf his eyelids a cut IV 149,7.

this 'gleamingeyes'and suggests is styty derivedfrom fits thecontext. Borghouts; translates which sty'to shoof of the eyes[JEA 59 . 1973p.126 n.71.

sLrty ,




In slaying the oryx Nekhbet gives to the king , Borghouts suggesteda connection with --0<m> I


A fallen on the block 1175,6.

eyes'IV 149(se'stity) [JEA 59 1973 CZMIP

p. 126 n.7] but it could be an effor for Istyw or simply a mistake in the copying by Chassinat.


clouds Wb IV 361 (15) to 362 (2) BD NK ,

The underlyingroot is is 'to raiseup' (or w1s)andthe form sis is the nounderivedfrom a causative verb,'thatwhich is raisedup. In the Book of the Deadthe the phrase sjs-9w is usedasa euphemism for 'sky' [Wb IV 361,8-14Die Hochhebung Schu` Allen BD p.302 index 'the uplifted of Shu; des , FCD 256 'thepropsof Shu'supporting sky andmetaphorically cloudswhich hold up the sky]. the the The form sjs.w refers also to the sky or clouds,as it can be written with a cloud determinative, implying that cloudswereto be seen visible entitieswhich held up the sky. as
-4", -


: Re sails br


and illumines the Two lands with his

Edifice at Karnak lines 34-35theba of the sun beams 300,11[pamUels this from the Taharqa VI to , travelshere,Taharqa 76 n.51 and521. p.
sl;sw alone : the noble ba bird flies lff' IT 1307,11-12 ; p3yw birds settle m ' V 333,2.

1113 0 1) *,Horus stretchesout hi's wings 'to unite with (dmd)

2F Wb also notes the example: Horus, Lord of wings comesforth Vr spellingof s1sw. may be an effoneous




m-sis 'flying' usedin the adverbialphrase Wb IV 362 (3) GR

from The word is connected with the flight of birds in the form m-sts, with the following examples Wb : Horus opens out his wings (dwn dd. f) = --v
13,m -Nt*E-a


ex%% is %

qg x--

bi3t 1

373,17-18 Dweny who flies (bdd.f) holdingup the sky with his marvellous wings'- thusa verb'to hold up' [Alliot p.282 Culte I p.338-9] and 'Duny qui vole,les ailes ploy&s' [Gutbub TextesFond. , , -A IV 188,4(not V). MD IV 73,24 ; in the Dweny

the falcon in the Dweny nome hdd.f rn

nome also , dwn. 'wy dd. f




causeto rut , to impregnate Wb IV 362 (17) GR

Wb cites one reference: Khonsu the moon is Causative of Ls 'to implant impregnate% , bulls rut, who makes cow pregnant, who makesstrong the egg in the body' one who makes UrK VIH <89b> ; but also at Edfu : the flood -4give birth IV 337,6. Z:: r -u, nf ID he has made yo ur cows

sl n

to makebright , to makeblue Wb IV 359 (14) to 360 (14) D.18, GR

Causative Itn 'be blue/green turquoise colourof joy andhappiness so that st4n 'to make of , ,a , blue' is the sameas 'to makebright or happy. A numberof of'-fingsdo this : the wsb collar W bb n wtt sw makesbright the throat of the one who begathim H 53,34 ; HI 183,8 ; 197,6 implying that this collar is made of faience turquoise. or Green plants : rnpwt V he make bright the face of the god - the greenfrom the plants is Or.f with the produceof

reflectedin the faceV 340,13 1189A ;H 66,12: andalso the field 1555,11.

Theplayingof thesistratakeawayrage(redness) bring happiness for (blueness) the goddesses and 10 Songsalso: OrA 1523,9 *.1570,13 ; 1447,13., Or of Hathor H 69,12. 1" n.f 1565.8; peopleof

foesareoffered Various: birds symbolisingthe destroyed


the underworld-



by the raysof the sundisk at night 1370,17.

The verb is usedoften with the close connectionbetweencolour as a sign of emotion and the is speRing consistent.


Wb IV 348 (3-5) Iyr. l The area to the north cast of Egypt 'so'called from earliest times. Ile origin of the name is but it maybe confused sty 'fire an arrow' [Gauthier, with uncertain At Edfu : the doorsof the templeare workedwith copper06* V p.951. -DG IV 13,3 all goodthingsof



by are given to the king Il 7,4 ; in a list of landssubjugated the king



A text with the title sm3 .a.


is for the Bow menof Nubia VII 161.9or a mistakefor

Asia ? It is difficult to discern herebecause plateis unpublished, thegod but the which foe is intended for whomthis is doneis Sopduthe god of the north eastern foreign lands.The textsconcern the and
ritual destruction of enemiesand the king is a mighty warrior.

Sityw Asiatic people, Wb IV 348 (6) D.XI GauthierDG V p.95-6. , At Edfu : in a list of peopleunderthe sandals the king tfi; i -k of king VI 15,16; Horusgivesthe king CnO too N; bowing down to the

1142,3. to be his servants


cloth Wb IV 355 (6) MK

bundles A type of Obsfabric andthe word is derivedfrom s13'to weave!.A MK coffin lists 'seven
of cloth, white JD,


J- Cp [Kairo 28027, LacauSarc. Ant. NE I p.701. OM m hnn.f createsher 'cloth' upon his headI

At Edfu in a meatoffering, Nekhbetbpr W

is 498,2-3which seems be a typeof headdress, thedeterminative an errorfor a similarsign. to and



cloffiing for thegod'simages Wb IV 349 (3) GR

sit is probably not the sameas the last word : sJjkr 4= -t,

r dsr. f 1340,4 ;'adorn goddesses -

r their cloth 1347,7 ; in a pun 'shegives ?5;;? her clothes... I am indeed*I;Wff with jl 212,16. This may havederivedfrom the sign RPF to which seems be a fringedgarment

K kind. It occursin a copiedtext in Ptolemiacdecrees sm1rnirw m %=. : or piece of cloth of some r-; P 3); (Kanop. Urk H 201,3(PhilaeStela13) the godslovely in their clothingUrk 11126,8 make

(Rosetta N7). ; Urk 11174,4


tail Wb IV 363 (4) to 364 (2) Pyr. DG 472,6 j"I


7 IL


sd is Qrst attestedin the Pyramid TeAts, but is undoubtedlymuch older and it remainedthe word for &FtlciWd; rs are Iifie-iion 'tail!,,, int&Coptic At IWu -i"boldW rWy like m3l ., liorl, holding, (bi bi6k iti W (4&bait) 6Fffi6kkft' doods shurand-this iS Of reptiles: the king stf .aW, cuts thei&'&f ts to a r 'nb 'I 01, -oib 01) iIIt]il- I A ilI &Vit! ntioi6 t metaphor is that the 2,5f "b M)ew .1'1

IIr, , &9tcIn the ves HI 168,11, v 14. who

Of birds : the god as a falcon standsUPo'fi

Iru al owcl) , "iriAod gad

r, -, 3 'ju

PIP 381,111-

w 3

sd-m-r3 tail in mo&

Ma`r' ld 151 I-P

; cm-

vvl, nroR

Wb IV 364 (4-7) Pyr. - NK andverbSaite GR , O'xfo Metaphorically phrase this meansabesiigingarmyaround city' andtheverboccurs thePianchy a on 'i I., (,), ! V, ff j line 5: ir. n.f sw ma stela [Grimal' Hinchi p.292 17 line 51 sege , edA' ': ?i j-jDf, ipyll Doi!)nL!jrj(1z1. tExt) Edfif, ,I _t-); consecration meat(war and WS"O'Id u ram. a in a of "water 221,10 Horus t 74,15-16 -mw sitgeioiFinl i-. j; rg jPb, jA, iukhf&4 16e ,VI 313,3. 11 gives to theking CL lo 1 11 '4 DdC,vati".e"'e; *t Wr SWU In The wh6lePq 1"'i anli6ilg'i mojuth` siiiilia whir - thm fnffn4t an enclosinq JEA 50,1964 p.85-86lines 11-12of the Nitocris Adoption Stela].The association circle (Caminos WI be ifi your mouth, 0 %5- your kW '/I """' g"I snt snakeI Pyr 689b(andothersfrom AmduatandP.Br-Rh) Caminos testhe phraseas "be .
t L

iswith the snake, seenin the earliestexample

,. I, gA @is'leS , MiCe &-lis -TAC;, fiwol ,?1'. ; surrounde&bY)rAfi&k"9&u"' iU6'apparent






and d"V46 a'


to Nit=is example); MD If -w re Oin 14

H It"J

FO j j 72aals6.0CimbT. O6rkb n .1 T,.W-llff I'mz

sd (F-i Sk; ocjij I? JU, 11Aj

-jolqni -)jcinj
(brio'le 4) ? "0', ,

b suffoun" ,z-; w; r., -1:: 4,,


10 t*wq -tu

Wb IV 364 (10) GR

celebrate the heb-sed in the House of Rejoicing, as a gift of SAE961

sd is derivedfrom bb-sd, the Sedfestivalso that sd in its own right became word for 'to celebrate a I'Msyyou (a festival)'or'to be festive. The verb is usedoften and usuallyin puns: 2t Mt -P IV' 4a r.,
99, eting, ,U


152,10 Harsomthus that ; grants theking


912,5 r3nlnA ; in


incense and libation offerings the king Dr ir hb-sd hr "2t7QU Gr.Oases 11).


IV 149,2(also

The term hasa moreextended than suggested Wb : in a meatoffering god-.eatsmeatof by use , gazelles=0 't9, in joy V 151,11-12.

The verb may alsohaveconnotations the legitimacyof kingshipandfulfillment of duty, the sign of -'t, (horn) is the writing by error of c3 the tail. the cairn or


to beclothed Wb IV 365 (1-6)Pyr.

sd is connected with the sd from the sd festival , where the king may originally haveonly referredto the ritual clothing of the king and the term quickly cameinto more but generaluse.Wb hasno Edfu examples, theremay be some: a greetingwith the menat,the king comes and says iw. 1 *mH. Ir're14-1; 0

r iw.i bnd.kwi m Dbwty 'I am clothed as Horus,

I am dressed Thoth to performall therites thereinIl 235,10-11 mostlikely based a mucholder as on -



to tremble

Wb IV 365 (15) to 366 (12) Pyr. Cr.366b; CED166; KH202

sd3d3 = sdd Wb IV 366 to 367 (9) NK and GR C4TF-

sd3 wasoriginally written with a bird sign,which was identifiedby Gardineras a buff-backed egret [GG p.470 G 331or by Wb (365,14)as 'die Rohrdommel'(bittem) sd3 or 'trembling' may have . been a particular trait of this timorous bird, but Gardiner notes that the bird is no more than a of phoneticdeterminative W. Latertextsput a circle of dotsaroundtheheadof thebird or aroundthe that wholebody of the bird. This may indicatemovement, is trembling,in the sameway as is donein modemcomic strips.Later texts usea flying bird as determinative, againto indicatea fluttering or form sd3d3d areoften written stt at Edfu and it can tremulousmovement.sd3 and its reduplicated be difficult to distinguish the two forms. sdd/stt looks the more usual form at this time and this Coptic CATE becomes Intransitive Verb plus n 'to trembleat someone':the luntyu and Settyu sn n nsrt, -


they tremble at the Fiery one H 13 (3).

n-snIL'tremble throughfear: king) 510,3.

Also : foes see the king Transitive Verb (only at Edfu VI 128,9 snjLn. s rmt NM

sbi n sndk IV 58.8 (a gift to the t3wy n snd.s I

t3wy throughfear of HathorVI 264.6; Lady of fire

they tremblein all dieir limbs.

sbiw make foes tremble in their bodies sbiw VI 328,9 ; possibly , Bastet

the uraei

also VI 114,4 ; Nekhbet Vr IT C rA q il

she has made men afraid and gods tremble M 311.5. (Wb IV 366,13-20 Pyr) p3 sd3d3 (sdd) (Wb IV 367j(15 NK) most . trembling at you H 43,3 ; sim. VIII 77,16 ; Khonsu gives all lands ILr:.. P! -!: (pl. )a 315


often following JLr : foreign lands JLr 96,17 ; west and east lir ?i!" -I

possibly a bird in a cloth bag or net of somekind - so the sign representsthe frightened flapping of k a bird trapped in a net) 1279,17. Also : Ack :. . Yp]Lr m Ibwsn tremblirrs (fear) of hi In d% ...: pervadesthe heartsof gods and men H 80,13 . In the nameof a lion headedserpent,Lady of fire'"' great of trembling, no god prevails against her 1570,14. Protection is given to the king in Vie yearof "' '

greattrembling'VI 149,14[Jankuh Schutzp.99 a comment]. n,


cE JEA 36 1950 p.68 n.22

This word, not recorded in Wb. occurs at Edfu : Nun is brought, I causethe inundation to approach

or rwd

q4a,i fil j4

uponthe fields (alliterationof s) 11259,15(XII 413) ; he brings the Mright Field lir smnw m-'b tit the fields grow with grain IV 337,8 ; the Wadj-wer floods-

and sand creates


m rmrmw'VI 225,8-9."is , s%

: , text implies the My are reclaimed

The tcrm maybe an effor for Xdy(q.v.). sandyarm.

sdw3 -,

to t6 spendthe morrung, to cause be early-

- *, - Wb IV 368 (13) MK UL, The earliestattestation the term is in Dw3-ljty wherethe excellentgardener of [Helck Dw3-t Ity p.72 the eveningwateringcOriander and the SPends Morningwateringvegetables ,


XII c= An.VII 1,7 and p.75 n.b]. The meaningseemsclear and the verb is a causativeof dw3 'morning'. Wb doesnot attestit in GR texts but it is usedat Edfu : Horusthe child is conceived at , night *a 111,4. r m, dw3 and spends morning until he is born in the morning III the


to cat, chew Wb IV 368 (12) to 369 (2) Med. NK Late , C6,T6r: *' CAOMI is used after

Cr.363a; CED 165; KH 200 to chew

Faulkner notes a t4K example from Deir el Bahri (XI) III Ab where ,9

wnm and describes eating funerary offerings. Wb has no GR examples, but it occurs at Edfu. In medical texts sdb has a more specialised use - it is the opposite of s'm , for it refers to taking medicine with the help of some other substance,usually honey. This is to either improve the taste or easethe swallowing of the medicine [Wb Med.825]. Later sdb has the determinative is rendered 'to drinle [P.Rhind 17,2 ; 18,9]. The uses at Edfu reflect both of these nuances,though the strict technical medical use has gone and sdb is simply a variant on other terms for. consume' : Maat is your throat you consume by her 111128,5-6; sim. im. S and

An ims VI 310.14 ; of libation water

the basof Edfu

'; N An you drink and you are well by it IV 239,15-16.

The tonguesign usedhereimpliesa verbof actionof the mouthor sim. A further example occursat
Philae, Phot 672 = Abaton 20 n, of milk o_j -T im. sn to your'hearfs content Junker .

translates this as 'taste' (kosten) implying a connection with dpt 'taste', perhaps as a causative form from this. The GR verb may therefore be simply sdp (cause)to taste.


make sharp 1310,1. 3bt. k kr sm3 snlyw 'I sharpen your knife . ....

Casuative of dm be sharp


to attach, to addon to Wb IV 370 (12-13)Pyr. MK FCD 257

Causative dmi 'to touch'.The verb occursat Edfu in a particulartext which is repeated:cloth is of


brought by the weaving goddess Serket sks n #'w. k




it clothes your sLn. f ,

limbs, she has touched (attached it to ) god (Horus) 1566,13 ; Hedjhotep brings jjb3-Rnnt #'w. k epnir IV 48,3.


to hide , conceal Wb IV 372 (5-13)Lit. MK

Causative dg 'to hide, usedwiflnuanceof putting something of away from view as a protective Horus -Z-1y ratherthan secretive action: child, m'zs 49 n.k lt3. s he hidesimages1116,17; Horus the ZT 1=1 m st-10 is hiddenin the

hiddenby Isis in KhemmisVI 299,2; godis

(<zc,, of secret placein mansion thebenubird 11111,9-10 writtenthroughconfusion with sdg3'cause to see) ; god shines 52,5(purificationtext). sbi m he conceals foe in the two mountainrangesIV the


to cause see Wb IV 373(3-6) D.19

Causative dg3 andusedoften in GR textsin muchthe sameway as dg3 : in the phrase of by onessees, the light of the sungod m m3w.f 1 521,8. .0, U m 3btyl (by his eyes)125,6-7 ; of Horus


to break Wb IV 373 (8) to 375 (7) Pyr.

at no sd is usedinfrequentlyat Edfu (but Wb quotes GR examples all) Transitive the king 159,6. lands'P Possibleexample:a pehubrings its waterand floods the g-ww into high land' ? IV 25.8 ;V 16,10hasthe sametext but is damaged after , (Wb IV 374 20-22) to scaresomeone death . literally 'break their heart . kill . It is an,;, to sd-ib . 5i t. 19. in the palaceof his lord IV epithetof one of the lion gargoyles Edfu :I am'. at 268,13(after do Wit CdE 29 Nr.57 pA2 and n.154) *,an epithetof the righting bull q3yt 'broken ///gsw.f Irw m 'bb I breakall his bones(turtle) with the lance VII


breaker of heartswho makesWetjeset well IV 231,4.

sd3 i

to speak, say?VI'nn nfrw nty

In a templedescription 'listen to my words hearmy songs . . m ibJ I sayto you thesebeautifulthingswhich are in my heartVI 5,7-8.

The word seems most likely to be relatedto d3isw 'words'and is either a confusedwriting of that' word, or a genuineverb form derivedfrom it usingthe prefix s. Alternatively it may be 6e verb sd3i 'to bring' but Wb has no examples this verb with 'words' as the object (Wb IV 378,12-16 of Pyr.).


hoe Wb'IV 380 (3) NK

From the NK templefoundationtexts,the king Urk IV 837,9(Luxor); dust uponhis limbs of (an odd phrase); at Abydos the king holdslir .

M) dust uponhis'back of (Tuthmosis (Amenhotep'HlUrk IV 1682,15 the andestablishes four comers, in a

building text Mar. Abydos I 50a,14 ; in digging the earth the king b3kt m working with the hoe by the king himself <17> Room C. sd3mt is a general term for the hoe used in the foundation ceremonies of temples, it may be specifically a ritual instrument and the word is used as a variant of bnn and irrt at Edfu in the

'digging the earth 'foundation ritual : the king holds igr and bnn VII 45,15.

111167,1 or ;


Words for 'hoe! in general can have a more metaphoricalapplication and are connectedwith 'procreation'.Dnn is 'hoe' and also 'phallus' while sd3mt is 'hoe!and a verb sd3m 'to fertilise a , woman'(ZAS 47,95)the simplexthenbeingd3m 'child, youth'., ,, -I


to restoreto life, makelive Wb IV 380 - 381 (6) Pyr synonymous with 'to live!

Wb cites a number of Edfu examples : libation water for your throat 'nh. k


. im

his you drink thereof169,10 ;,Osiris , you haveopened mouth, you havepouredout to him


24.0-tj r. 'nb. f havecaused to drink andhe lives you makeOsirisjustified in the West him you , 1220,10(Junker,Stundenwachen sdb p35'you givethathebecomes andlives); old peoplebecome as children shpr. k 13w. 1211.19 ( Junker Stundenwachen 87 translates k p. ,

'you will exist, you will live andbecome andremainwell) ; libationtext. theking says,lord of old life, you live -.*aj; 1486,8. wd3.k imsn you drink ? and you are well thereon! cz; %

This seemsto be a verb 'to drink! (but q.v. stb andsib and see stp Wb IV 338,8"befussy' in from theFTsonward: eatingwhenthereis no appetite) which is attested (1) d! sdb.f 'nb.f Pyr 167 174 824 originally perhaps drink but takenas a synonymfor 'to , , . live' (2) without 'nb Pyr 1340(3) di sdb.f br nLrw Pyr 1333(4) with m and offering Kam <250> D.19 ; Kenamun45 (5) with drink AbydosMar. 1286,2 , Debod 166 Kenamun45 ; Ombos191,11 ; Philae<2796>Photo 1013(6) with air, AncientEgypt V taf. 65 Komm, to Pyr 514. Fau lkner notesthe useinPTs andtranslates'to to restore life or in BD 307.14lorestore something 9, ' FCD 2581.Similarly Meekssugg*estsvivm maintenirenvieand cC !MWXTT to its owner , KH_342andCED264 CWXIT Cr.616bbe over and above. remainover= sdb remain alive. with relationsin Aramaic, SyriacandAkkadian'guzubu [An.Lex. 77AO38]. Ile verb thenseems be 'to maintainlife (with food drink andair) andthus'to makenve, but it to , is infrequent perhaps specificcontexts in and only .,


obstacle,impediment Wb IV 381 (7) - 382 (15) Pyr

The sign

(0 30 andalsoU 12p.517 ) is probablya pitchfork and is phoneticsdb thususedin ,

(FCD 258)and later with the meaning 'impurity' either the writing of the word Iiindrance,obstacle! , throughnaturaldevelopment by metathesis confusionwith At. As an 'obstaclethe pitchfork and or could be usedto hold back a dangerous snakeand keep it still, but by GR texts, as a word for impurity, it denoted havebeensuggested A to thingsin general. wholerangeof meanings undesirable fit different contexts-opposidon'(FCD 258 from BD 107,2); 'evil'Urk IV 269.16; 'guile Urk IV 459.14 111 will' Pr. 12,7,9. Purffication from sdb : he purifies the greatplace r dw 1581.7-8 ;I purify your


I lssotlimbs -=> remove

11123,7-8; Horus preservesyour majesty -:=> I lf

, (incense) 137,4 ;I

flood water 148,13 ; milk preserves you from 1"101- 1325,7 ; limbs are with 1321.11 ; of Mn

1126PI (parallel ' perfect against to 'b) ; purify your place 1392,12

The translation 'impurity' seems clear and it is used as a variant on .

synonymousterms and can be removed by water or incensepurification. It is the object of verbs Owi-sdb 'to impose an obstacle' [Gunn, ASAE 27 1927 p.227-8] Gunn further noted (after a . I suggestionby Mde Garis Davies) that was used for catching snakesand as the object of three verbs in particular - Owedr, wd. In some contexts Owi-sdb is 'to implant an obstacle ' [Ptahhotep 217 j Admon. 12/2 BD Nu 130/71though it can also be used in a favourable sense'an'obstacle is smitten , down' [CT V 273 Wb IV 382,5 and FECT 11p.71 n.61 or perhaps in the Pyramid Texts Ow-sdb n , 'to pronounce a blessing for' [Pyr. 1299b ; Kees op.citl., Kees suggestedthat the phrase had a much stronger implication and from texts of the Heracleopolitan period [Assiut Tomb IV 79/801could be a curse formula ' to curse, to damn someone! . He cited as examples the Admonitions passageand P) J4r Merikare - P.Petersburg 1116 A p. 50 Pw snf 'he da`mnshim to blood (punishment)'. From the 22nd and 25th dynastiesit is used in the tomb curse against tomb and monument despoilers [ASAE 2 p. 143 statue from Saft el Henneh ; Kees ZAS 63,1928 p.75-61. Zandee noted that in underworld literature , sdb is the punishment to which sinnersand enemiesof the god are delivered, it is closely related to Otrnyt, another torture in a division of hell. It may also be a word spoken to the detriment of the dead [Zandee, Death p.249-50 'calamity]. Gardiner translated the term 'repressevils' from looking at the word in non-religious texts [P.Kahun 13,34 t'it; Rekhmire 2,14 see ,

GAS p.82 and p.781.Faullcnerrenderedan example in P.Br.Rh. 23,20 as'to render impotent! [JEA 23 p. 176] , adding to the diversity of translations. At Edfu an example of the intended use with snakesis found: in the 7th LE nome god has a stick to fell wbr and bw 1 -10' T , lei Or J"UV 27,6

J-1i?- -T(remove obstacles or put out obstacles for.. ) IV 27,6 -,in the II th LE nome god hw , IV 30,9. dr-s,db, used especially in judicial and administrative texts, but also has the meaning 'to chase away

impurities' : with water

sn (waters)

(parallel to rwi - iww V 138,8

from Vemus,Orientalia48,1979 p.179-180 n. 14]. [examples and


In the medical texts there is a verb sdb 'to pierce thmgh' which may be related [Wb IV 382,12-18 Breasted PXdL Smith p.564 , FCD 295 to penetrateof an injury). and .

sif 3

to provision , supply Wb IV 383 (1-22) OK

Causative X3, usedoften at Edfu andusuallyof supplyingfood or provisions, especiallyin the of Pxl'aI I-1 'to supply Xm withr :construction m with all goodthings1497.16-17;
-4every day IV 26.11 ; 'I!it with meat IV 39.4 ; -Z2-V (no m) IV 48,8 1?, table

with offerings 1112,5: Apis bull --I? every good thing IV 13.13 offerings H 37.14 L CL .

- table with food 1520,2 ;a hall is a granary with grain IV 15,5

C. supplied with z3-3't*-"

itrty with its

P "-N -JA J 13t (mounds) 111155,10*.

Om.f with food and


game1555,4-5; -ZNlit

-;-L WctjesetHoruswith mifflonsof offerings1308,16; of the eye images 49,10; vesselsC1 IV 't,, with sand1131.16

dt. f m innw VIII 137.6;' , snb vessel

S& . with nun waterH 78,4 . In a differentuse: cut off theheads foes like a goose of

(Le. rengraisst'Alliot RdE 5 p.68 n-91VI 55,12-13. which hasbeenprovisioned fattened)

In puns: thed(3 ka ZZ% Lt provisions tableM 97,10-12 the

8.3.In general verbis frequently the usedin offeringcontexts.

prI m 3j&C4 IMI

A secondary attested Wb only at Edfu isto prepare in for use, weapons! rightingandhunting- In this VL it is usedrather like grg : Z=\ -. respect handVI 74.5 VEA 29 P.l6f T 'S is by Wb cites also : the hippopotamus lassooed Shesemu 1 -1 n nbt Obt 'as the m3wt.k m-'. k your shaft is madeready in your.

booty of the Lady of the hunt' (JEA 29 p.18) asa noun'spoil' or stadveverb following m VI 77.3. ,

to hear Wb IV 384 (4) to 387 (14) Pyr. DG478,4stm Cr.363b; CED 165; KH 201

it because is a sign of the presence god. Amun.In the divine world sdm hasa specialimportance of eventhoughhe is invisible,canbe heard; the falcon in the sky may n,)t alwaysbe seen, a wind god,


but his cry is heard.In certaincases 'hearing god is akin to a manifestation that god- it is a contact of between hearingmanand the invisible god [c f. Otto GuM p.21 ff. ]. An epithetof god at Edfu the . this aspect god : t!91 'g2n,hrw. t n f his voice is heard but he is not seenIII reflects of ,
19,18 ;V 268,3 p. 153]. Specific things are heard - usually words in some form : in funerary offerings 86 %words 1118,6; gods JJ W ddw I hear

e e ,: dm

VI 15,3 Ad 2k. .

IV 143.14 [Otto

p.22 and examples o'op-cit.

we hear your snsw songs (libation) 1289,10; Sakhmet says,

sw39 n R' I hear the praises of Re 111303,8.Most important is the hearing of sprw 'petitions' for this is the mews of communication between man and god. A man makes his petition or prayer to god for help and god hears and responds with help - or so it is hoped. The texts stress that Horus at Edfu has this capacity to hear people and,more than this, that the temple of a temple town was used by ordinary people who addressedtheir prayers to god through it. At Edfu the place in the temple where this was done was the temenos gate 'gate of giving Maae which was st the place of hearing the petitions of petitioners VIII 163,1 *,Horus ; VII 256,5 and he opens his ears to everyone to hear od %, sprw n sprw

sprw V 262,14 ; 111358,9 VII 91,9-10 -,Horus !! sprw

of one who calls to him VII 114,9 ; Horus hears millions of people VII 58,12 and Hathor also sprw VII 93,2 millions of people V 59,11 V 156A The gods of the temple in general . sprw of

VII 20,11 ; tJ

sn sprw. sn 1151,5 ; the benu bird 4iO

n. f spr n sprw in his city VIII 106,12 [Otto , GuM p. 154 ff. for examples, discussed . pp.28ff. l. Originally this is the role of the good vizier who listens to know what people are saying Urk IV 1117. Non-hearing (especailly in conjunction with non-seeing) indicates secrecy (as in the building of the tomb of Tutmosis I by Ineni Urk IV 57,4-5) : at the festival an offering is performed any one V 349,10 ; god is secret n m33 by

and no-one knows him VI 22,9. This hidden

aspect of god has its advantages,for Horus deprives his foes of their sensesand then destroys them, becausehe can attack them secretly : foes do not see with their eyes and -A- Ak4 do not hear with their ears VI 111,6 ; 166 In epithets Horus is qn m JA I , 1357,15. m 'nhwy. sn

(text for praising him) strong in hearing VIII 162,4.



judges (listeners) Wb IV 388 (13) to 389 (4) MK

The ibis termfor a judge,asonewho listens, the emphasises basisof Egyptianlegalprocedure. case is reported all sidesconcerned thejudgeslistento whatis saidsothattheycangive adviceor a by and decision.sdm thus implies not only hearingbut understanding. judgesat Edfu are thosewho The Vb decideMaat,andare foundin Maatofferingtexts: theycanbe men- Horus'gives king the [it judging words 111143,12 Hu giveswordsin IJ3t n t ; the hall of judges

VIII 123.7- perhaps namefor the viziershall of judgement. sdmw alsoform a divine tribunal TU a upontheir matsjudging 1521.9-12; possiblyalso//// S1 offersup 1507.15and the king

4 1.following Horus decide it to uponMax andestablish for him 1521.6.


to sleep, to spendthe night Wb IV 390 (9) to 392 (6) Pyr. DG 480,5 str /A'q I* I.

Cr.792 a; CED 321 XTO contexts. sdr is in useat Edfu but in restricted In a phrase to the usedto describe what happens the sunat night - it spends night beingconceived PO" g')'*' Horus iwr and he isbom at morning181,17-18; 1276,3-4; in

the 10thLE nome,Re the child

1W--j iwr 1294,14[Vernus,Athribis p237 n.b with references from othersolarhymns]. Ile templeis regarded theplacewhereHorusspentthe night: 04f as

bq3.ti and is bom at morningIV 29.8 ; Aturn

in Behdeteveryday IV. '

day and night in it IV 1,13.During the festival procession 16,8 ; wrV 4r' m-bnt. s he spends certain placesare namedfor the gods to spendthe night there : Ir Ort m st tn

V spending happynight in this place, 1340 ; 135,10.In the festival , peoplerejoice a in thereis no sleeping it till dawnIV 3,8. 6X2 A The verb may alsobe usedin the sense lie down' of the lion greatof might 9: u--j of br

JLU m-b3h s3b-Ywtwho lies upon his belly beforethe falcon and drivesaway foes IV 285.10-11. The transliteration fits besthere. sdr



lassoesSeth 111188,11. Though the word may be a spelling of Stb

The king sn4 Wb IV 394,6notes ", ) I 'Lis example not attested.,

from Pyr.430a the nameof a snake but an intervening as ,


Wb IV 375(12) to 377 (7) Pyr DG 475,7 11ec-AT61 c-kt

Cr.360a; CED164; KH198 The spelling 4,4

is readas sdt by Wb and FCD 257 and the crossrepresents sticks or two , firewoodcrossed occursas the phoneticdeterminative P"-. 1 qL two perhaps piecesof and of
then replaces the, consonants completely [GG Z9 p. 538]. It has been suggested that the term is connected with the verb sd'to break [Cannuyer, ZAS 117,1990 p. 1081.The word occurs often at Edfu in contexts where things are burnt in or put into a flame. It seesmprimarily to be the flame of , a brazier or open fire. Rituals involving the placing of offerings upon the fire have various forms and purposes : rdi 'ntyw r, placing myrrh upon the fire 111144,12;V 274,12 ; VII 59,13

Vill 140,13 where the gods Horus and Hathor give the lands which produce myrrh and all their , produce; or snjr r VI 134,10; 111166,3; 111113,7- coming from the palace performed IV 151,6 ; Iunmutef also bums incense upon
149,13 ; 1422,4. The burning of the incense

by the Iunmutef priest and as a scenetitle

111330,11 and plir b3 sp4 m snir hr

in aH these cases results in the purification of the gods or king and occurs outside these specific texts in a list of rituals ' 4 IV 330,13 ; sty-nLr brightens upon % 1232,4 Where there is a . it is either

published scene for the rituals the incense is burned in a small pot with charcoal

already in the vessel burning (phr D3 ritual) or is put , in the form of granules, onto the flame by the king [PI. 12 3rd *,33a 2nd or pl. 62 4th ; pl. 88 4th]. The king often wears the hemhemty crown , or a complex crown. A further purifying ritual is sw'b wdw m. snir r for Horus two -

scenes occur back to back 11137,19 ; 11138,13 where the king places granules into a censer flame , which is held over the wjjw In k3p snir Dr ,'It table upon which three vessels are placed (pl. 41 lintel).

for Banebdjed and Hat-mehyt, the scent of the incense released is connected


the gods and the rule over Mendes which they give to the king H 82a pL40C. to the sexual potency of A Meat, in various forms , is the other main offering burnt on the fire : sb r -PL gazelles , antilopes IV 19,1 ; and this becomessb n sb-n-silt) b3w tr 1549,11. In rituals the form is rdl 'dt hr of cattle,

the burnt offering of oxen and geese V 146,5 ; rdl 'lit tr bt rdi

1478,6 ; sim. 1489.13 for Osiris In these the meat symbolisesthe defeated .

foes of the king and gods and the burning of the meat is their utter destruction.In theserituals the fire is on a small altar or brazier and the meat is upon it, while the king lowers his hands to the fire [pl. 35b 3rd ; pl. 119 Ist reg] he wears similar crowns to the incenserituals , In both of theseinstancesthe fire bums the substanceto release- in the caseof incenseand myrrh the purifying and scentedsmoke which rises to the gods - in the caseof meat",smoke with the scent ication of enemies. of burning meat which is smelledby the gods and indicatesthe er : 'T"', 4L Enemies can be placed directly into the fire : the ss serpentis V 79,13-14 -,snttyw lei into ;"LT VIH 37.5-6 ; the bones of the hippopotamusare burnt in 1403.12 foes go da

foesareput into foesV 53,8-9.

figuresin the Sokarritual VI 141.12 Hadiorfires asexecration -,


The term occurspassim Edfu andis useto showthesdt flameasdangerous enemies those to of at in and who useit for it destroys purifies [fire is the ultimateagentof destruction funcraryliterature, Deathp.139-141 asa method execution A.Leahy.JOHO 37 PartIl 'infenW fire Zandee. and of see and p.199-206 Willems,JEA 76,1990 pAOwith the verbwbdj.


child Wb IV 377 (8-12)OK

In the OK sliti is usedas part of a title of officials, for examplesjLt-nsw 'child of the Lower not Egyptianking' and may havebeensimply to stress closerelationshipto the king - perhaps the a necessarily blood relationship H 6481. him The inscriptionof Khnumhotep'describes as 'B*H'I26,184-5 and both terms

B4 125,69andthenlater as

in be takento be the fosterchild of the king (in the first caseof Lower Egypt and perhaps the' CI ould court tides or' Egypt FCD 18 FCD 260).Thesetwo termsmaybe complementary Upper of second Id link viththe king making their rank an artificially inventedto give officials a'closer'and'personal


status higher. By GR texts sdt is simply a variant on other words for 'child'. It is mainly applied to child gods Harsomthus is oftheEyeofReVII08, of Hathor and heir of Horakhty 138,3 ; My is the'son of Hathor-*'1 I0; 7'4j_f ofEyeofRe114I, mnb!

2-3. The complementary nature of

9P S, .0

imt and sdt is also suggestedby an Edfu text : in the 19th LE nome, god is imt hnt imnt. f hnt dbt. f 'the child in his right eye and noble infant in his left eye' IV 37,5'; similarly in the nome god is the pupil of the wadjet eye and VI 46,10 -

here thepupil of god's eyes being specifically regardedas a child. In the filling of the eye rituals, the pupil of the wadjet eye is called sdt : sb3q S. p. 105 nO.

with innqw plants VIII 137.2 = Phill I"

In onetext the king is saidto be the eldestsonof the Asiatics ,


-and child of

his to thesdd3w peopleVIII 117.15 perhaps suggest closerties with rulersof foreignlands. -


female child Wb IV 377(13-14)GR

The term is derived from sdt in the late period and usedto describeHathor - mainly at Dendera [Goyon,Gardiens 59 n.6 seeD 1182,14 11195,17 103,6; 138ult . for example]. ;D ; p. fire At Edfu the word departsfrom this useand is usedof a femaleguardiangeni who breathes Wenhedjis " 0

falcon headedman with a knife and spearlike her companions(pl. 143 3rd reg.).

-\ J 01

flame prevailsagainstfoes VI 159,14 The text showsher as a whose .


to establish Wb IV 395 - 396 (7) D.19, oft GR

be Causative lid 'establish, firm', the verb occursat Edfu with usesas outlinedby Wb : gods of

nswt. f we establishhis kingship IV 10,4 ; in building, the builder gods

0 1#

ifdw. f

establishits four sidesIV 14,7; affn king E C-If


four comersof your templeIl 61,2 ; of the lifetime of the

it is established 16,4 IV .




Wb IV 396 (10-14)GR An earlier example of sdd is known from P-Deir el MedinaI vo. 2,7 Irxk nJ p3

&m' comments sdd is that 'you makefor him the imageof Osiris' - the meaningseems clearand y saidto be from GR textsonly [P.Hier. de Deir el Medinap.7 nm]. thusthis is the The earlier writing suggests the origin of the term is dd 'to endure, that remain'and form of this, in muchthe same and and way as mn I)e firm, endure! mnw monumenf smn s-preffix 'image! related. are At Edfu the word occursmostoften in the phrase saf describing templegod who 'seeshis Df the image': he is established upon his smn image, bf he sees imageandhe is happy his

A9t. 1 13,19-20 bf ;
templesand hf sbmw

upon his wall 1328,10-,the king opensthe doorsof the shrinesof VI of godsand goddesses 2412-3 ; the benubird bf

in the GreatPlaceVIII 146,8. in It is the imagewith which the ba of the god uniteswhenhe is manifest the temple 1.12-13 with paralleltermsIV 17.14. The king is alsosaidto be led form to be a

1120,15- perhaps imageof the god. Horusmakes(1r) his by the uraeus the lion greatof might andattacks foes1375.2. his In the canal texts of the nome , Atum is

IV 39.14 ;V 27,10.

Principally sdd is the imageof a god, eitheras a statuein temples representation the temple,. on or GR (Wb from Dendera Kom Omboandalso wall. The termoccursthroughout temples, hasexamples , 6,3 Goshen andUrk VIII 37band55k).


the pool, lake c3m. 90


Writings -Direct: Phonetic Change:


Error 43,1945 p.77 BEFAO


kind of plant?

includes In tyw, snLr and rt-V'53///in this contextX seemsto be an A list of items from Punt incenseplant rather than a writing of smw IV 47,15 demoticterm Ir3 .A is readasXw 'dry

herb'by Reymond(afterWb Drog. 483), but because the damaged Edfu text cannotbe definitely of relatedto it [MedicalText p.279no.151].

lake pool , Wb IV 397 (1) to 398(7) Pyr. DG 494.13gy lake, well ZI)IIJ ViI _Lq pit , cistern.

Cr.547b; CED 236 ; KH 306

ilandI476,6. Accordingto the Edfu texts,this is a placewhere0 fowl arecaught: CZ3 1374, lake at Edfu : waterfor makingmd ointmentcomes is an abbreviation the nameof the sacred for from %% the lake of the temple11227,5



Gauthier [DG V 1141records this only from the geographical list at Dendera (Room H, Roman Period) as the name of the lake of the 15th UE nome. According to Gauthier this is the only spelling

in the form cm

19 1 -=z At Edfu howeverin a text wherea lotus is as all the othersare . 'IV 141,10-11 In . andearlier

in 'Causing to appear the Re to presented the Ogdoadof Hermopolis,

C13 19 Tomb of Petosiristhe nameof the lake is spelledin this way 61,18,at. the W-. CSS: in the SpeosArtemidos inscription of Hatshepsut L3 .6-co :, v, --j

[JEA 32,1946 p.52 n. (n) ; Ratid,

Hatshepsout 178 n.9 = Urk.IV 387,101. It would seemto be a variant spelling of 93-'3 and is' p. lakeat Ashmunein. probablythe nameof the sacred



Lake of the evening barque Gauthier, DG V 114-115 unidentified text.

At Edfu the Field of Maat is brought with plants for Geb. the pupil of the Eye of Re the moon in . r IV 40,9 - which Gauthier thought to be the name of the ww land of the extra 22nd'

nome of Lower Egypt. In other texts this land is called sht. lfw (or sht-mYt). The name of the barque however, with which the moon would be associated,is m1ndt, andr=35, , seems evening _i, quite close to this . The word at Edfu may then be an intentional pun or a mistake on the part of the copyist.


I.Ac of Baal Gauthier, V 116 DG

Nameof the ww -landof the 12thnomeof UE on theright handbankof ft Nile. It is only found in GR lists of nomes similar texts.Its name beforethis periodis not known. and =r 230% '33,01010 is brought In the textsof the 12thnomeof UE at Edfu: IV 1839 andc., crcjlc i (Dum. GI 3 pl.82) wherec33 with sometype of grain - this text also appears Dendera at comesbringing 340,13. its sp3w-grain. waterfrom the =. -Jjjr ?,; IM

to the pchu I goes


Lakeof Maat? Gauthier, V 117-8 DG

1-m3' is the nameof one of the two sacred Magna poolsin the templeof Herishefat Heracloopolis B (20th nomeUE), or it may be a domainconsecrated Herishefin theNaref necropolis. Peasant I. ', to 'BauerKomm. p.65-66] mentionsc :354-55 [Vogelsang, 4 but it appears Edfu too in R' at

nms-clothoffering. Amongthe godspresent HerishefandAdjet andthechildrenof the godswere are firstcreatedinthelakeofMaatc=8` ., ]181.16-17.'


Lakeof Life -.

It The nameof the swred hikebelongingto the templeof Hathorat Dcndera[Gauthier,DO V 1191.


M is alsofound at Edfu : four nemset vessels brought,filled with waterfrom P-11nat Edfu and are f 1
C3 : rE M

(at Dendera) 11123,1. the purificationof thepharaoh, In four gods comeforth around/behind ts, f VI 244,7.


Lake of Fighting Gauthier, V 114 DG

Thenameof the sacred lakeof the templi of Oxyrhynchus (19thUE nome).At Edfu is preserved the ideathat this wastheplacewheretherewasa battlebetween HorusandSeth,the sacred lakeis called rim FI VI 120,5 .


Lake of Eternity 1581,12. This is a text concerning

When the Nile subsidesit goes back, at its time to the ,

the northern Nile offering bearer and so this lake seemsto be the place to which the Nile was thought to go to after the flood. I


Ile divine lake Gauthier, DG V 122

A general term for the sacred lake of Egyptian temples. It was not only a water supply close to the temple which provided water for the priests to wash themselves in and whose waters could be used inside the temple.,but rituals and processionsin the festivals, especially the Behdet festival could take place upon the lake [Alliot, Culte I p.6-7, II p.694 ff] . The sacreddrama of the temple may have also been enacted here [after Blackman-Fairman, summarised by GeBler-L45hr, Seen,p.8-9]. Perhapsthe lake is Pyr. I 140b - where the 5 9' r= is connected with the sun cult earliest reference to this : [Blackman, PSBA XL 1918 p.88 n.97]. The term Y-niri applied to the sacred lake of temples seems to be from GR texts only [GeBler-Lohr op.cit. p. 12-13,24,32-38 1. At Edfu the Myth texts relate that the ou name of Cm is also called the Lake of Fighting (q.v.) VI 120,5-6 ; in the geographical text, the 'I N 2 V 396,9-397,1 ; as is Lake of the Hippopotamus 1359,14-15 ; sim.

CM C Oft Mesenj= I' ,:I VI 186,6-7[seeGeBler-Lbhr cit. p.278-282]. RTII of oneof the names the canalat op. !



Lake of Re Gauthier, DG V 123 GeBler-LOhr,Seenp.283

lake at Edfu perhapsconnectedwith the Onuris legend: BB purifies his limbs A name of the sacred
in -a t ICU 148,14; a list of places in the temple includes r .=0 dD

0 152,11; (gmeting with

nemscts) BB is upon his throne before




take southern 11287,12-13,

is heir of the serpentbom in C*3c3o In offering the Eye of gold, the king c="3: t as which may not be the same the VI 134,10-11.

in lake southern of Behdet the templecomplex


Lakeof Horus Wb IV 397 (3-4) Gauthier,DG V 124 GeBler-Lohr, Seen 278 ff, 297 p.

I. Vr describes Egypt,but themostfrequent at Edfu is as the nameof differentlakesthroughout use lake at Edfu Gauthiersuggested it wasthe nameof the canalat Edfu. but Fairman that the sacred . dramawouldhave lake it thatit wasthesacred andhebelieved wastheplacewherethesacred showed beenperformed[JEA 29 p.16-17n.361. The actuallakeis no longervisible at Edfu as it is underthe The templedescription textsdo not referto thelakeby this namebut theydo indicate modemvillage. to thatthe lakewassituated thecastof thetemple(VII 18,3). lake as'Lakeof Horus!or 'Lakeof the I-lippopotamus! Textsat Edfu give the nameof the sacred :3 S IM 1359,15 V 397,1anda list of the sacred watersof Mesenincludes Cz'=MVI

in Libation waterfor purificationpurposes the templecomesfrom the takeof Horus:W 186,6-7. r k= VI 244,6; 165,15-16;cm'! V11191,5-.=%4 = J&"m 11145,12; IV

IV 63,1-2;'da'%31&6 218,5-6. The barqueof Ho6s was mooredin the Lake of Horus and the god a herej& c33 IV211,10. IntheMyth thegods say . 'ComeI Letushurryto C= CV embarked .41 by Horusin his war galley I' VI 79,5 and herethe body of Horus, wasprotected his mother and see Isis VI 59,6-7 CM IV 213,2 19 I 1324,5 and among

take from*stagnation cn=Horushimself is responsible protectingthe for '<-7 :& -I his epithetshe is Lord o' the lake of Horus : cm= f

'L gL 1306.14 from 476,4;,1c: 7". .


for geese plantoffering textsandwhereHorusbringstheNile to fill libation vessels his fatherhe and is"vAl cm 194,11.The lake alsoprovidesgeese the offeringsin the temple for 137.4,11. 1111,4

-'arU3 4311 VIII 13,9 Nephthys In other texts : the morningbarqueis put onto the ; saysthat im

"2' is sacred the land 1384,7 in CD


Lake of Horus Gauthier, DG V 124-5

)-Hr is the name of the fluvial lake of the 14th nome of Lower Egypt (Unt-13bt) at the extreme north east of the Delta - it is probably also the name of the port here, which is named in the Bible as V(IsaiahXXI2-3 Jeremiah H 18 I Chron. XHI 5). GardinI Chihor -11-1 -, er suggested [JEA 5,1918 ; p.251-352 and 10 p.931 that it was actually a branch of the Nile, which formed the western edge of the 14th nome and separatedit from the 19th nome, then flowed into the seanear Pelusium. The Greeks called this nome the SethroiLeit has been suggestedthat this derives from the nome and

9-Ijr [Kees, 'Sethrod' in Paulys Encyclo.] Egyptian

At Edfu in the geographical processions the Khent-Iabet nome comes with its waterway 'lake of Horus' 90, -'kl IV 33,3 cm: 2--b-, A It brings its flood water and here Horus shines in his boat, .

felling foes. Similarly,

geographical texts dealing with this nome mention the lakoeorus is other

lord of the boat on

then the sacred trees are listed 1334,11; eb


: 2,

c 1,33

and 1: 6


brought with its bbt-water, pouring onto the fields V 21,12.13. A text mentions Re setting in the 3, ':, it mentions r,: ' :in the m1ndt boat and then east (0with its shipsheavily laden and seafarin g

by connection as craft without limit, which mayrefer to theport of Khent-Iabet, suggested the eastern VII 175,15-16. II) III The namedatesfrom the NK at least- P.Anastasi (Ram. p.1 line 12; 2 1.g (JEA 5,251-1).


Lake of Horus c f. Gauthier, DG V 124

%-Vr is the name of the agricultural land (ww) of the 15th nome of Upper Egypt (Hermopolis) 'Ile brings to you =%, c% % with its fields 'V 118,7-8 and in the Hare nome is brought but


the text is then destroyed and onlye'e 'Co, so that its main produce cannot be determined IV. remains,



Lake of the hippopotamus Gauthier, DG V 126 nameof a canal or areaof Edfu.

1-b3b is a name for the sacred lake at Edfu, together with Y-kir : r, 3 Ij -: =:

Q- 1359,15;

Q (5 V ==

397,1 and water from it was used to fill nemset vessels for purification purposes C=3 . (di-qb text) IV 218,12.


Lakeof the scorpion Selkis or Gauthier, V 127 DG

Its Nameof the pehuland of the 8th nomeof Lower Egypt,centreat Pithom, (Tell el Maskhutah). actualposition hasnot beenidentifiedbut the PithornStela(Urk.VIII p.90, Stelaline 10) indicates between lake Kmour and the Red Sea.It may be modem that it was part of the connection

s, [Naville ZAS 40,1903 p.731. 5.5.3 == brings its

in At Edfu this pehuappears the geographical textsfor the 8th LE nome load - ducksandfish for the brazierIV 28,4and U r= .5; 1332,7

chair, support Wb IV 399(4-6) GR AtEdfu the god restsin his chair which is madeof nbw-gold cc 1554,6ors3wy -gold

1571,7.In the latter example thewingedbeetleis saidto be uponthe armsof thepriestswithin the it may actuallybe a box or shrinefor a god.The chair is furthercalledr"2co, %rol"the chair st-s3wy so Of rese1554,7. The word is also usedat Dendera god on the dais is try. tp nM,, =MD I 62j; :a Wosretin her nobleshrineis madeto rest upon CM nt nbw MD IV 9,6; line 8 refersto golden' IbIhor restsupon

'3, of r-c%3. a shrineandfour comersof r, columns, everyoneat everycomerof M 37 i.

vm or plants


Wb IV 400 (10-14)MK
From the Middle Kingdom, X3 is used to describe various types of plants, for example there is a %3. used in medicinal preparations (Wb IV 400,15-17) and X3.wt (MK/NK) w which is an edible gardenplant (Wb IV 400,18-19). 1

The Edfu examples show an uncertainty over the actual plant involved: in a 'presentingthe field texf Horus gives the king of the four comers of the earth VH 71,14 It is possible that this . Vill

may read Y3.t 'field' but the tree determinative could indicate it is a plant. The same text has 8I *I

wine of the vines 7' which is given to the 'Master of rww-lands, to the limit of the sun' VII

81 EIrs 111, "07 of the land 71,4 In anotherfield presentation, Horus gives in return rww-land and . (plants?) Il 5,1; in presenting rnpwt-plants liffing upftvgTto the , the GreatOneof the gods'

tf A6 '0. perhaps type of fragrantplant VII 83,3 ; Hathorreceives4Ai a with sweetwine V 302,6and
Mq Horus gives the king I 'I vines loaded with grapes VII 234,2 - 238,13 . Earlier in this text

bloom in Hor-Maa,bendingdown underthe grapes. This spelling showsthe derivationof %3Dw Erom field andthe vineyardis thusa specialised field. Wb Drog. 474 (1) suggeststhat pr. t If3w is Coptic 86P. H0Y (coriander). and SW may I be of sometimes an abbreviation this.


?) wine Oars Wb IV 401 (3) GR,

A word derived from the previous term for plants and perhaps especially vines/grapes.At Edfu this 9 8 'W"O* 60,13, she is called Lady 1; 14. The vessel is offered to the Golden One V wine of . determinatives here indicate that this is 'wine in jars' and not just 'grapes'. A wine offering text begins, receives aM flourishing in Hor-Maa V 248,5, are given in Shefyt . 14 and Horus

and drinks from them . 15 . In a vineyard presentation Hathor receives vines with

ag UC 'sweet wine TV 302,6 . On the basis of this it may be more realistic to see 3 as a wine vessel,perhapsof a special capacity. The word is more frequent at Dendera,as might be expected,and Wb examples come from only here. However OstracoNo.4 from Amarna has the text -'Given to the' -Great House I. p.h. wine in jars; 4 mn -vessels and ... SAJA t' capacity of mn-jars' [Fairman, 2.

COA 111161 4, pl.84,41. But for the determinative hereonemight be inclined to equate'93w n. with -


Ptol. 93 'wine and translatethe ostracon,'wine of x mn-jars" Unlessthis provides the earliest 'wine containee= example the1(3w of and wine capacity from this laterwasderiveda word meaning A vessel. furtherexample notedin blocksof thePtolemaic was periodfrom Armant[MDAIK 35,65.7, Farid - Ptol.Blocks from Armant] the text reads give to you Satis I -

)(3. t

field Wb IV 399 (7) to 400 (5) Pyr.

At Edfu X3. is a generalterm for inundated t landwhichcanthenbe cultivatedfor a variety of crops, usuallyunspecified:a pehuis brought,equipped with produce of king lifts up produceof 9 IV 27.9 similarly th is brought',

Lord of the Pool of Horus1306.14 ; 19 to the

with sbt-fields , which containGreenEye of HorusVI 37,10;ar, -u is broughtwith its lotusesin IV 33911. writing of 93A canbe influencedby b', the NorthernNile comeswith Ile Ur -. *- 'their fields'IV 25,10. M plantsin E3 *71 1 ,I

93A Imn

Field of Armin Gauthier, V 97 DG

Outsidethe geographical lists at Edfu and Dendera, nameappears Otis rarely. It is the nameof the for agriculturallandof the 3rd nomeof LE, renowned its vineyards: IV 23.11and24,1 is

brought with its produce the text is too mutilated to read however ; but in the parallel. the land

containsgardens vines and 1330,13.

3 a e.!

V 15.6

Ilk' 7; the field hereis c4aled19 ^M-1 .


vineyard. literally Tield of Grapes' 13 cg, T.


At Edfu the king is numerous in Dendera whereHathormakesbloom


in Egypt V 248,15and the word also appears at D 1188,15 in and 16.The term also appears fitles' + cNe bloom I. with

of offering texts: 'Presenting

V 301.10and in this text,

Opt-grapes, BehdetwiLhGreenEye of Horusfor theirjuice is greater thanthe flood which inundates the daily rationof all the gods. 11.This is madeto Hadior,Lady of Drunkenness, givestheking. who in returnunending drunkennessin the scene this text - the king offers ismaU vine arbour of .


[plate 1341.


IM x

. HorusBelidetis Seshem (:::3 =. in -:

field IV 36,11.'llis is the andupraised arm in the sacred of

text of the 'God! Field' sbt-nir so bothY3-wr andsbt-dsrt ar. synonyms it. s of


Field of ? Gauthier, V 107 DG

A namefor the agriculturalland of the 9th LE occursearlieston a Late Periodstatue[now A RTXVP. 150119"l' V- u: in Cairo - Daressy, 'and lists at Edf then in the geographical in the

Busirite nome,'Horus thbs every yearandbringsthe flood to it 1332,12; 'He raises V g '14 'V, 'IV 47,6 ; the Ij3rm canalcontainswater which floods the IS7 up to you ducksof II!
, --9


IV 27,15 In othertexts this same 9th LE nomeis called3-tp-nt part of the .


Gauthier, V 110DG 111

A variant name for the 93-s(t)f in the nome of Busiris It appearsin the GR geographical texts and . f$ 0 with its 0- plants IV 28,13 - 29J. not before. At Edfu :


to command,to ordain Wb IV 402 (8) to 403 (5)

because two verbssounded At Edfu this canbe written 93' presumably the very similar.
In phrasesmi-Di r= 'as NN ordained about if (literally) : items in the workshop, 'without fault ..... J1 9 c: in their measures, mi as if Thoth had decided it 11196,6; the temple foundations are mi n tpyw-' f 40-'as the ancestorsordained' [de Wit also translates this 'as the ancestors

did at the first time'] IV 4,8; the chapelsof the temple wnsn mi a. 'they are as Thoth commanded-it!1265,10;all preciousstonesare U-IL IL-A L.

n 12bwty T. '--*

as if
t -*-

LnuLn nau uxuaineu Lnem ii )z, y ; Lne iounaauon oi uic Lempie is m, t: =j





- -





u tpyw--



VI 6A. m.X3i: Imageof gold, worked of at the command IsdenII 11,10


In the GR periodverb%31 begin,initiate canbe written without ayin and so writings of IN and 'to YX can be confused This can be detected early as a Ramesside copy of Sinuhe[J.Barns,lie as . Ostracon Sinuhe,Oxford 1952line 28 and seep.61where,amongother errors,the Ashmolean of 93' for D. However, 101 alsohavethe meaning create,it becomes lo if can scribewrites evenmore to susceptible confusionwith 93' and it almostseems if in somewaysthe two verbsoverlap in as meaning.This may indeedhavebeencoliously usedin GR texts,wherethe ambiguity of words makestheir meaningshidden and thus more magically potent.13' however.has 'to create'as a secondary meaning,but 'to initiaW or 'to do first' is the primary function. It should always be possibleto determinefrom the contextof a passage which verb is involved [for discussion,see Quaegebeur, p. 73 - 75 especially]. Shai


to do first , to begin Wb IV 406 (4) to 407 (6) MK DG 489,2 1-13

Cr.542b; CED 234 ; KH 299 M -! 93, usuallyhasa verb in the infinitive following it as in the phrase 93'-bpr, thus lo first comeinto first! existence/be creation, god HB8- 013 first existedas king of the Two Lands1136,12;at the time of first to exist (herethe first inscribed

first existedasoneIV 38,7;High groundwas

whole phraseis treatedas a noun)V 84,16;with otherverbs- Seshat 11132,7 names

Accordingto Wb IV 407 it is rare to find W without an infinitive. but it doeshappen Edfu and, at 'be the verb canhavethe nuance firse : BB sim. 57,7. ' sdm.n. f form : Horus 'R- he wasfirst to be protectorof his father (r S, 2 nd) VI 70.49, -o VI 190,8 A wasfirst to be king, beforekings VI 190,5

A VM 148,11 Re

was first to be KULE in Wctjcset-HorVI

X3t. bpg. M nbt Iiis arm was Mist strong' VI 70,2. f n With th_ meaning'to initiateAo start rirse : the god of the pool..;3 e initiated

from theFirst Occasion [MOET 68] V 94,15; thegodswho dividedup this landcorrectly' radiance 9; t?who first maderecords inscriptions(p3lsn splLr) IV 389.18[MG 424 n.116]. In and wrote


suchcreationexpressions parallelsp3i - oneis 'to do first! oneis 'to havedonein the past!- both s3' the referringto the samemomentof time - the First Occasion creation.c f. Seshat, Great of + VI 174,9 .


initiate to create(in thebeginning), Wb IV 407 (1)

At Edfu : Ptah

createdthe first beings(Ow) and broughthprw into existence1137.9-10; v the onewho first created creators my he who first caused land to be 11142,14 the

text for the ancestor gods, For the fatherandmotherof q)articipleform) IV 304,11;KULE, greatlotus

9 land 11113,1 Ptahwho created creation his [MG 424 n.1201 Akhty 1ME bwho created ; ; bb]. VI 16,7-8[CdE 79,1965 p.66n.


primordialwaters Wb IV 409 (10) GR Gauthier, DG V 98

lists whereit is the nameof the canalof the 15th nomeof Upper in the geographical appears Egypt (Hermopolis):S %31.13 118,4-6 V Dum. GI IV 185,12-14 Dendera, ;

11110 whereit bringsits flood waters. The primordiallake is mentioned Edfu in lotusoffering textsand thesemakeit clearthat thebl is at 1! V 84,14; in == the pool from which the first lotus grew : the greatlotus which camefrom MX-nVII 162,7-8; the king says,I havebroughtto you that lotus EromA the Islandof Fire also -r7T and it is receivedby the god VI 339,10-11 ;A words : the lotus comesfrom pun on similar sounding --,. alsoVII 321,15. The word is usedin a 85,2 ; the eyeof Re himself is in -V

VI his field c3n'T3=- 247,11.It is the PrimordialPool of the Islandof the Two Flamesof the ancestors g' in Wenet(Hermopolis)VI 338,14. This is the lotus from the pool and the god receives wasactually termandthe mythologicaltermoverlap- thepool at Hermopolis the geographical where 1341,14 One of the7 . Ur -j in the Isle of it is 'Houseof Birth of Harsomthus, is like namesof the Mammisi at Edfu 93' for in the Hermopolitenomethe boat goesto the quayof called E Fire (that is the original placeof birth of the lotuschild) Mam. 52,2.



in/from the beginning 407 Wb i T-* (7)

This adverbial phrase most often occurs at Edfu in the phrasenb-m-b' 'One who manufactured in tu *- c. VII 5%9-10; the king Il 37,5 or of HB beginning' as an epithet of Ptah: I Ei the is the son of IH t 61,11 It is a reference to the beginning of creation for, 'the noble kas . V 85,9; 11oth, who initiated writing V91,34.



goddess primordLad Wb IV 409 (3-4) GR

131 The goddess represents first femalecreatordeity andit is usedparticularlyat Dendcraasan the epithetof Hathorwhereshewas the 'creatrix'.The termis alsofoundat Edfu andagainit appliesto Hathor: Hathoris V of the goddesses 154,34 . Theepithetis alsoborneby Seshat who first beganwriting VI 174,9; Isis-Shentayet

rM who first existedM 323 ;oS I" ! 0

Augustone,Noble one of Busiris1171,3 . ..... %31 ordaW. 'to It is derivedfrom the verb13' 'to be first, to create, thoughcouldbe confused with Miroirs It is appliedto goddesses economysuchas Renenet (D VIR 47,10: 148,4)[Husson, of too ; p.182n.14 and MeeksAn.Lex. 78AO35 Cauville,Osiris pA6 n.5].


destiny, goodfortune Wb IV 403 (11) to 404 (11) DG485.1 lfizpC CED234; KH306 012401 Cr.544a;

fate forturle ,

Quaegebeur that conceptwho could not be easily proposes Shai is the ideaof destiny,an abstract from ft in and who appears popularworship.He comesinto religiousvocabuLtry represented 18th

to Dynastyonwards particularlyduringthe Amarnaperiod- but continued be importantinto ft GR influencedthe idea of Aya0o; A&igv period and even , In Coptic Shai survivedas a protective

). Shai passim. PSBA XV , pp33-6 and J.Quaegebeur, genieMehl, bw is the verbYN (Wb 402,8 to 403,5OK)to fix,'determine -which is' 7be etymologicalroot of theking. 7bus Shaiis'Onc who detem-dnes'. powerof thegodsor will of with thecreative connected


The godsweredeemed be responsible %3w theyusedit as their creativewill to determine for to and life everyday for men- so it is attributed manydifferentgods.Theking asthe maintainer cosmic to of 93w to havehis will donein EgypL orderuses At Edfu 13w is associated Shai 0 with a numberof different gods: 31D2Lwhodetermines from birth 127,5; he is lord of Shai 0j 9101'uL IV 248,11: P-Wh created he Shai in his

Renenet 11134,26: H= capacityas Lord of the Birth brick, who established Oe2 0 for one whom he hates1113(10); he created


in the beginningon his potter'swheel VI

92,17;Child gods- 1hywho is Shaiof Egyptgr-%qqjt VIII 142,17-18;Harsomthu he is Shai 0 %'\- raisedby the Noble Lady V 209,6. It is also connected with goddesses Meskhenet : ShaiandRenenetg'X commands I is Lady of ShaiandReret1Z IV 83,2; sherearsHarsomthus Shai 197-3hqqj1149,10. is 203,13;Reret-Shai on her hands Marn. for It is Shaiwho is responsible choosing king at birth andthis is expressed two mainphrases in the in the king is one 'whom Shai distinguished his swaddlingclothes' II5,3; Sr3LqQ1 QI U 91,6 11 I 111149,9 Nut is Shai-Reret EdfuOVJIV 11014 Hathor ; at ; VII 95.0 ; andIhy-Shai

11128,12: whom Shai'distinguished the birth bricks' or on VIII 134,16.

V 144,16

V 304,8;0 W2

The king is Shaiof Behdet: PtolemyIV U 0' aY 230,8 .

118,5;PtolemyIX as Shaiprotectsthe whole land

He also appears a geni god in his own right : Shai is brought who distinguishes as creatures and Srls, carriesall that exists 1,149,5 ; sim. 'Or_'-. IV 196,6; the ShebtiuadoreShai when he r3.

OC-A IV 358,15; king lifts the comesas a greatgod, beautifulof face up the sky and is like Shai lb whenhe goesto thebarqueof Harakhty oftheTlironeofRe tIPV11269,10.

VI 109,7. The geniW-nfr is saidto be Noble Shai

As a concept, there is an interesting passagein the lion gargoyle texts : "his (bad) destiny approaches

him who makesdeathhurry towardshim" IV 274,15,thebadbird determinative makesit seemlike a bad destinyperhaps mortal destinyaboutto overtakethe wrongdoer[de Wit, CdE 29, Nr.57,1954 Shai p.43 n.168. Quaegebeur, p.128] c.f. the Horustextsabove. As a god in the Late Period- Shai wasa primevalgod, protectivegeni and geniusloci (at Fayum, Akhmim, Schashotep, Gebel el SiIsilah, Northern Nubia) and he is a hypostase the ka [LA-V of


524-526Schai ; L V 598-600Schicksal- S.Morenz,D.Muller - Untemchungenzur Rolle des'

Schicksals in der Mtische Religion, ASAW 52.1,19601.


in a methodof killing Wb IV 410 (12) GR

is The only reference in the Myth : Sethis wfwf n

in andbandaged the

House of embalming VI 220,6. It seems to be some stage of dismembermentprior to mummification.


to go proceed Wb IV 412 (3-7) Pyr.

1393(q.v.) It appears the Edfu texts and T'hisseems be the verb which reduplicates become in to to %: ". q N Xwt, the king is urgedtoS may be an archaism: as heir of the s3b. ft qz: Go I to the window of the falcon' IV 54,4 ; the GreatGreenflows uponthe land andit Ipsw 1582.5 ; as an epithetof Horus,secretof forms S4=010'0 m 9 Af13w.k'

tkn m O'w 140.12 (XI

222).Originally the verb wastransitiveandintransitive from the late, but periodonly the intransitive form appears perhaps measure theverbwasgoingout of use.Also notethe spellingin a text that a for the NorthernCity - it is broughtwith all its garden plots 1: "61V35,14-15

Thereis a placecalled193s-Ort in a remoteplace, which is in Nubia andconnected 'run with Tefnut*' Ona V281,10-11, and the bringing back of the eye of Re: the king is'3 IfYt ingl 9 r:MQ. On Harsomthus gives with gold (wadjetof gold offering) VII 95,8 ; greatof might R db 4 AQ: am in VU 48,2-3; Horusmoorsaty the Myth VI 128,7 F-v V-'% a%, P. S. VI 9,34 [discussed Sauneron-Yoyottet by
daAb Dola ,

; VI 134,8; he sailedsouthto BIFAO 50,1952 177ffl., p.


to avoid= to go through, pervade. Wb IV 413 (1-2) LiLMK: GR -,andFCD 261 to avoid

in Ile earliestreference Wb is a MK hymn- P"un

2,15 - the king is isanctuary

Hand man nicht I 'excluding the marauder [so Griffith,'P. Kahun p.3 and index p.1111'dessen


kann- whosehandonecannotmiss'[H.Grapow,MIO 1,1953p.189-209]. verfehlen In the GR texts M3 appearsin the phrase939'3sb (q.v.) but it can also appearby itself incenses called snt and bnty areto SS -A your temple,to sanctifyyour roadat your going

'avoid'it clearly is' go through,pervade' the like. It out' VI 203,6.This doesnot havethe nuance or form, not represented Wb meaning go through' in 'to maybea reduplicated

9393-tsbw to violate the domain Wb IV 413 (3) GR and405 (5) Dw is At Edfu thewholephrase treated a substantive'one/ones violatesyour domain'- it refersto as who 'trespassers': hostileforceswho setfoot in the territoriesof die king of Egypt.They are in a sense 97A;'85 '1: the oneswho violateyour domain they succumb your slaughter 1543,4;the same 10 to A0 V19 21'9 rEl 111127.6 rr-Mss' they do not exist fate meets they =1 your trespassers, are slaughtered

VIII 76,10-11. The use of the phrase is not restricted to one particular type of text as theseexamples

are : comefrom differenttextsandin differentpartsof thetemple In furtherexamples the trespassers A c= s8. by %t3t text) IV 217,8-9 in the title of a giving wine text, 'your Oet -=* (censing stabbed 98A knife cutsoff the testicles regarded the as an allusionto Seth- who is perhaps of
trespasserpar excellence IV 280,12-13. As he had been assignedthe Red Land, his intrusions into the

Similarly a staircase declares, thereshallbe no entryfor those text Black Landwould not be tolerated. violate the domainof the godsof Behdet who 284,13-14. kc= is discussed JJ.Cl6re [BEFAO79,1979 p.285L] who by The readingof the secondelement inclines towardsa readingbsbw . Fairmanreadit as93w [ASAE 44,1944 p.274-277]thoughCl6re Fairmanwascomingroundto DO (in a privatecommunication). states
CM3Oe- -"-

-M A rm Is 1575.11;sim.


r- = --. IV


throat Wb IV 413 (6-9) MedL GR

'throat'with the CM It is possiblethat this may be a spellingof hw3h.


as often

however in happens latertexts.Therearemedicalreferences which indicatethatthis is a differentword 34 859a; Sm. (12,1+2)] In the Edwin Smith to mean'throat' [Wb Med. 839 'Vorderhats'Eb. used .


it is named with the btyt and Breasted translated it Iosoml Lefebvre suggested 9393yt papyrus . Ebbell, Acta Orientatia 15.1937 'colW [Tableau 22 in Smith 349 'upper part of the oesophagus' p3OO ; Laca% Corps 172 p.67 oesophagus- with reduplicatedradical]. At Edfu the word is used in alliteration : Intyw T Mc.: j foes have their dumts cut I your daw IV 280,11; in a

201 538,10-, where wine (or a wine vessel) 93 is presentedfor cc3:

text for the collar to the neck of his father Mrightening the b3b of the one who begat him dim noble plants decoratecS8 throaf 197,7. 46myour of the breast and throat of Re VIII

9393yt is a synonym of Maat : 1-bat is called elf*37

123,5-6;in the presentation Maat, sheis of 1 298 MaaL. is your throat,you are contentat seeing 1252,2.From the NK a word' her she 9393tis usedof a necklace pectoralsymbolising Maat [Goyon,Conramation 128n.3881. or p.

Q. 192, your throat,you cat food with it 1143.17 K=; ra

The word alsooccursat Dendera but that with similar uses againindicates it is both the outsideand inside of the diroat :a vulture pendantis for e lbebes andDendem (MD IV 25a; Urk VIH t <1lc>). ILDIV 123,5-6; a synonymfor Maat at'


talon . foot of a bird (of prey) ' Wb IV 402 (5) GR

The Wb citesoneexample this word andit is at Edfu The term seems to occur in the name of also . of a foreignpeoplefrom theNew it musthavebeenearlierin origin. At Edfu theUt are usuallythe talonsof HorusBehdetas a falconwho seizes enemies his 111278,11; 973k VIII 316,13-14; 319,13; Behdctyseizesan oryx I with his -4VII and kills cattle

VI-143,4: more graphically. talon'94-11M74 'Horus standsuponhis talons with his claws ('nt) VIE 6,14-15; the talonsof HoruslA%riki=

his enemies 1120(67).


foreignpeople Wb IV 402 (6) Dyn.18

1 7be %3tyware one of the Nine Bows who lived on the plain'of Naharin[Gauthicr.DO V P'. 10 and' 'RcvMg.- H p.325 = Mesopotamia].Vercoutter places the V3tyw in the Sinai in the OK Brugsch, [BIFAO 48,1949, p. 108ff.l. However Uphill in his survey of the Nine Bows. shows that the


Egyptians themselves their ideasaboutwheresomeof theNine Bowswerelocated.As time changed lands,fartherafield.He placed so of wenton andtheworld'expanded' some theNine Bowsdesignated the 13tyw to the south, beyondKush in Nubia [JEOL 19.1965-6pp.394-420]. At Edfu thelf3tyw generallyappear lists of theNine Bows and thereis not usuallyan indication in 's' to Horus Behdet from : the king brings 0041, OL of exactly wherethe peoplecome who is foremost BusirisVI 198,8-11. in Theycomefrom the land of Hekeu(n.Arabia) oAdlive on the water Ill in the areaof Sinai. In other texts: -L3 of springsandwells, ,ferkafs !, %cUc"9 a list of the Nine Bows are the servantsof the king VI 15,17; 1 (in a mistake for

mntiw-stt) VH 230.11.Ile etymologyof the nameof the peopleis obscure- it would be tempting to connectthem with i3t 'claw.


Wb IV 419 (23) to 420 (9) Pyr. DG 489,3 > W Harris,Mineralsp.205 -

Cr.549a; CED 236 ; KH 302 At Edfu

in than phrases theprovisionsof the templeweremorenumerous appears metaphorical

3 *, 2j *0 IV 3a Nun is provided cv: *, exactly123,7; the GreatGreen the sandof the shore with qq. CM3 -. IV 46.1 is brought 3gb Oncethefoundation deposit had Sandwasalsousedin oneof theritualsof the foundation ceremony. beenplacedin a pit or trench,then cleansandwas pouredover the top of it, as a symbol of ritual Depositsp.131.In the ritual purity and the fresh sandof the primevalhill [Weinstein,Foundation foundationwith 535 0.0.0.U 31.13(plAOb); strengthening GreatPlacewith the preparingthe

CS 2 16; pouringout G3 s .

clu, -* .

Horus gives the sand dweUersas, sand(w3 91)and in return

of servants the king M 107,2.

to y

cakes 24 honeycakesare broughtV 132,7; 135,8[c.f.

At the festival of Edfu AEO 114 andH 233* ].



type of vessel Wb IV 421 (9) OK-MK

In a column text, the X'wty vessels appear in two references close together They were used to . for ritual purification from the SacredLake, the Pool of HorusS =A collect water falcon of gold is said to have begun (created?) thesevessels Il, 46,5-6. 11145,12,6c'

In the Old Kingdom the Pty vesselswere lustration basins [Arch. Abusir I p.69 n.ql while the ewer du Buisson connected the word with f' 'sand' which could be used as a, was the nemset vessel. [Vases p.591. Ile determinative in 11145,12shows four nemset vessels in a rty cleansing agent shown here as a flat bowl or tray. 91y ritual vessels are associatedwith 4 protective goddesses: in a d? vessel purification (rt
4114 1,

yt come to your majesty, purifying your form with what is in them, one is the nurse in

Heliopolis, 2nd is Mehenet, 3rd is Bastet and 4th Eye of Horus, Wadjet IV 59 4. A text with the title

l 1. im 31ELZS-ZL U litt sw'b m 4a

four vessels Your Majesty to purify Ilorid. here one approach

111122.6. vesselis Bastet,one Mehenetin Heliopolis,oneEye of Horus- Wadjet,one is damaged Theseare concerned with purifying the king. templeand shrines.Also in connectionwith the LE the aspect, king canweartheRedCrown(c f. pl.61).

to cut in pieces Wb IV 415 (13) - 416 (10) Pyr., Ile verb V was largely replacedby I'd from the NK onwardsand in the Book of the Dead and Amduat it seemsto havethe nuance'to chop off [Zandee.Deathp.1534]. At Edfu : in a slaying Apopis text - the gntyw foe are cut up 90' A beforethe sanctuary HB (alliteration)VII 157,7 of C554 cuts up Xntyw (slaying the crocodile)V 169,9. similarly the king It is possiblethat the sculptoror scribemadean error in copying the word and simply omitted at in hieraticwouldbe little morethana dot, so the word at Edfu shouldbetd. accidentally,which

slaughter injury , Wb IV 416 (11) - 417 (7) Pyr. DG 490

/, I ') 3L --'


Tt is the substantive derived from the verb V lo cut up' (not to be confused with the verb I'd). Ile word mad as I'd has a number of variant orthographieswhich seemto derive from the sameidea. Ile most frequent sign is the backboneof an animal with attachedmuscle and ribs, or a stylised version of this, with or without a knife sticking into it; thus as det,of I't lust for bloodl? Ile ribs of beef F 43 sp4t). and (sign list: see GG F41

noun is usually the object of the verb ir 'to do, to make' slaughter : in a chopping up the of your foes IV 57,11;

VA making a slaughter of those in the water DI 4,3; -=, ir crocodile text -r.,,

I slaughter him (lit. I make a slaughter of him) (text for slaying Seth) V 90,7 ; in a killing the text, the heart is content at lb"rantilope As object of rdi As object of wdi you cause VH 324,1-.when Seth attacks -c=,!53 n VI'55.6-7.

among the rebels V 52,15-16. 1-2. 'VH 15P.

with the mace, the king puts its slaughter before god

The sign ly. and its variants is probably better mad I't and not Idt becausethere am instance's where two are used in parallel : You see his slaughter Va the 77,13. I't In non-verbal sentences, forms part of the adverbial predicate : one who does evil to the king 6 the king is JLr ZY is (as) a massacre(Le. is slain) VII 213,16-17 ; one who does evil under th you are content with his massacre I

k VH 261,5. the king's majestyVH 262.14; also50of massaue .0ibex, andbulls is described dns 7heivy 9 In an offering text, the slaughter antilope.oryx, as of cUlk 1565,34; 16-17.T'hebutchergodsof Sakhmet the weresentout to slaughter badand . of her butchersVI 264,9 i4'-, "'

in a hymn to her sheis calledon to protectthe Icingfrom the Sim.

do not allow your massacre prevail oviihim'VI'266, to &her

is Sakhmet onewho terrifies the godsby

268,10*.,Isis tells the king that massacre'VI

c. V slaughter established the'ey'es the king's,criinies 1172,8 5 in is of the sunfolk praisehim, but VI In'thi eyesof therebels(tine 2j. and in the sametext the offeredmjl ointmentputsslaughter


Harris,Mineralsp.182-3 '

5 ml I d% In the Mineml list is The VI 203,5. substance a kind of stoneor ochieous earth.



to cut to pieces (to butcher ? kill? ), to chop off [Zandee,Death p. 1541 Wb IV 422 (3-17 MK

DG 492,6


64tocut(off), slay

Cr. 590b; CED254; KH330 jW1,JT,! tiWr-

I'd replaces 9' from the New Kingdom and may have derived from the confusion of 9' and Vt 'massacre'. The end result of the action is 'to kill' but the actual process involved is not clear. Originally as the determinative suggests-a ribvertebrae - it involves butchery and cutting up inty pieces of the enemy. It is possible that by Ptolemaic times the verb was simply a further alternative I

for Ur. In a text for the consecration meatofferings(stpw) foesarebutcheredca"da4VII 73,16-17 of jointing meatportionsfrom the foe. The title of a scene is this suggests 'cutting up a'l

gazellefor his motheeandthe text goeson to describe choppingup of foesbeforeWadjet and the NekhbetI 309,16.7he sceneshowsthe king aboutto cut the throatof a gazelle(pl.30b). A similar API, for Nekhbet sceneshowsthe king cutting the throatof a gazellebut this is described as 4!J (alsoreadN ?) 1174,17 pl.40c. and I Differentfrom this is anexample wheretheking presents bow andarrowandthe bow is described a
as CM 4 enemiesIH 135,14-15- this could be hardly'cut uV and shows datt'd was also a geneml

term, for 'to slay. kilr. cm' * Sethian animals are dispatIched this method: hippopotami by ,, VIII 26.13-14 ; crocodile

VIH 34,14- both, theseactionsaredisplayed the pylon wherethe king is shownin of on - ,

theactof spearing creatures. the ! An examplewhich is uncertain: (tts-g4s) Horusgives the king his foes be an example X'd in the stative. 187,4. V of in this land - may


sunlight, radiance WbIV430(6)to431(12) Am t DG 348,2 MK verb-IV431(13) by g4re of sun GR

Cr.630a; CED 267 ; KH 357, sun %ww'lighe and9ww 'Shu!,the god. It may be At Edfu it is often difficult to differentiatebetween


that the term was deliberately to ambiguous imply that theologicallytherewas no differenceto the Egyptians between two. the P9 fww is associated with varioussun gods: Re - who rises'with light/Shu) and fills the earth with gold dust IV 18,2; HB shineswith/as Horakhtyis the celestialvault as (or who shinesas/with 1473.3-4 Re

the shiningin heaven, godsseeby his light 1288,1;R-H as the disk shine in s VM 93,10;the sundisk is rising and settingV 154,7.A text

describing templesaysthat whenRe appears St-Wrt the disk shines the templeis called in the and , dN*. AabodeofShuV2,4. raqq Also Khonsu,the moongod, is connected Yww: Khonsu with V C'1 is 9-10. Peopleseeby meansof %ww (d' 1471,12-13;VU 111.0-10above.Land is given to the Rc- R19-114,14; Horus givesthe rww-land it comesforth when in heaven, substitute Akhty 1255,13;Khonsis the second Shu the of of VH I 11.

limit of the light: openboundaries -=,

5,1 lww canalsobe connected with the eyesof goddesses . her Hathor opens eyes111267.7.


to soarup / miseup Wb IV 431 (14-16) Pyr.

f. KH 328; PY = incense 335 from 'to riseup '; also tioy in '!joytl+? 4C'' c
Cr.668b. AtEdfu, Wb givesoneexample: YV-hyt he risesup to heaven the noble child 1 22,8.-' r as

I tJrh This may actuallybe ty as thephrase Y pt would seemto be morecorrect.Derchainsuggests ,, that the nameof Shuis derivedfrom this old verb 'to raiseoneselfup' so that Shuis one who raises keepsthe sky In himself WE 30.1978 P.57 ]. Ilis conformsto the functionof the god as'one'who between heaven earth. its place,he is an intermediary and


to be empty, freeErom Wb IV 426 (6) to 427 (19) Pyr. DG 495,3 Cr.602 a; CED 258: KH 302'-OYO', GY61T .


Yw follows the uses indicated by Wb which shows its long history from the Pyramid Texts to Coptic. It may be semantically lin ked to the god Shu - who is the emptinessbetween earth and sky -, but Derchain (op.CiL) rejects this as being an invention of later Greek speculative and metaphysical thought. To the Egyptlans the area between heavenand earth was not empty - it contained Shu and' Tefnut - light and moisture. In a positive sense- things are free from bad influences: Osiris the Watcher is 29,14 ; the Lord of Maat is free from 472-p' -2x from sleep IV ,

confusion IV 34,5; Mehit gives the king drunkenness

C-free from hangover (sorrow heart) 1459,17. of .lp.

ideas thingsare= freefrom goodinfluences thatis theyhavegoodinfluences In doublenegative 1-1113,2; No land is fiee of HB kcr 119,10; no city is free no shrineis freeof his image from his name (king) VIII 133,2;for foesthereis nc 1-. edorn-Ale- from what Horus

doesin battle VH 110,11; the wadjeteye is put on the brow of the king thereis no freedomfrom herfor you 1152,8. In the phrasen-tp4w it seems meantiredness1t;4 to : in the staircase texts . to describethe"

-SP11, priests'thereis no headfree (?) no feet are tired' 1513,12; also a year without 'b-nl3w tr free for his ka ? 1583,11. In the qualitativeuseit means'be lacking': saidof the king, 'complaints arelackingin

f. 143,15 Cc Junker,Phill 1 48,18 n.23 sprw 9wt 'the unjust wail in your time, your time 111 = paralleledin the previousphraseby stwt-Or referring to thejudge. wherethe bias to claimantsis' mentioned]. In the nomecapitalSma-Behdet no king is without his seat : J4e IV -50- 35.9 .

The bird sign and pustulesign imply that 'be free from, lack!is a bad stateto be in - prcsumably it originally wasmeantto refer to lack of goodthingssuchas food , clothes.


blanksheet papyrus of Wb IV 248 (5-12) MK

At Edfu the names the foesof theking areentered of on

blank papyrusV 134,1-2this would

Whereasmore then be destroyedin order to destroy the namesand thus the foes themselves. it of textshavesurvived,if the destruction the papyruswas successful is substantial clay execration


not surprisingno examples this havebeenfound in Egypt.7be word derivesfrom 1w 'be empty. of ftW (in this casefrom writing). 9ww is found in medicaltexts [Wb Drog. 483 a blank leaf of papyrusis usedin a recipe] and at the destruction Apopis his nameis written in greenink on a new blank sheetof papyrusand then of destroyed P.Br.Rh. 28,16; 29,13; 32,43; 23,6. -


dry pieces wood of cf. Wb IV 430 (3)

it In the laboratorytextsa recipeusingwhite wooddescribes aswhmw like

dry wood

? of the d3rt treeH 207,10(FairmanMSS translates as'foliage, only Wb reference) type of this ;a is not permittedin the laboratoryis 64 woodwhich is wood which similarly bt-br-93t is dry not give out water (sap)11207,13 a dry woodanddoes

de- anddead.14.

because would not produceresinswhich were usedin the it Drynessin a wood was undesirable Most of thewoodslabelledasunfit for the laboratory havethis quality. laboratory.


dry land Wb IV 430 (4) Late, GR DG 494,2verbandnounbe dry' Y/A, Cr.60lb 600yrc ',bedry; CED258 !jOOY'C-'whaiis dry; ci. KH306, '

The Donationtextsat Edfu usethis word [Meeks,Donations 83 n.96 'dry land ; W"dbour 94 ] it' H p.
I is equivalent to the Greek term ZepouH;.

Examples Edfu at

: V VII 244,3;

VII 240,7;

VH 2419 -'all of dw'w" wer'e

S1e 4L

from the reckoningpresumably because produced crop and they no excepted arethe fields to the southeastVU 237,9.

Its 'the dry'lafids


Wb TV423 (10) to 424 (15). Pyr. Two Plumes andthe" ,5: onhis head1 576.4-

Ywt-nfrt referringto a featheron the crownof the king In the phrase P joined with his brow IV 13,8; 40,,., and the TmioPIUMCS uponthihoir


This is an extra piece of headgear - different from the Double Plume.

The most common occurrenceof the word is in the epithet of HB s3b-&t (passim) conventionally 'ftv 1-Ov 56,6. IV Ibn Ywt translated 'he of the dappled (or brilliant) plumage! : and the latter correspondsto plAOf a barqueprocessionwith featheredfans. The word also describesthe feather of Nfaat : Hathor gives the king of 9tyt = Maat and the 1135.9

king is shown wearing a triple atef upon horns, surmountedby a sun-disk, uraci and falcons - at the back is the feather 3 IV 76,9 and pl. 88.


Crown the doubleplume. Two Feather Wb IV 425 (4-14) MK

The DoublePlumeCrownis oneof the majorpieces headgearfor kingsandgods.It canbe worn of it aloneor aspart of the DoubleCrown.In particular is associated godslike Amun andMin . At with 0 andthis is takento Edfu the word for thecrown is usuallywritten,with thetwo feathers sign read 9Wty. In the headdress Ywt 'single featheeand gwty-wrt greatdoubleplume are on the headof the the king, with the DoubleCrown : 1576,4-5 ; IV 13,8.

0 1425,17; $ V11109,14-15; The Akhty eyes(uraei)canjoin with theplumeson the head: UpperandLower Egyptiancrownsare unitedon 0f the the Ontty hornson the headof the king: they reachup to heaven: 9 147.2.The DoublePlumealsojoins with

VI 24.3. The plumesare supposed be so tall that to

1374.3; 41 1167,12. VII 110.7;11arsomthus

IV 31.5;Amun f df In the divine epithet q3-Ywty'high plumed7:, fI 385a; 0 1533,2; Mn AT IV 89.13;@ 0 1400,10. '%OZ VIII 142,1 V & 3. .

Nb-Ywty : Horus

Vwty-wrty : Min is raisedup with Be 0 the epithetof Sopdu

1400.2; Amun-Mn

on his head1394,9 . In

Wide of plumes IV 38,4.

Thereis alsoa type of offering text wherethe doubleplumeis presented godssuchas Amun and' to Horus. Herethe doubleplumeis oftenparalleled with the eyesof a god - and often R by Maat Pt is Shu paired

; andShubroughtbackTefnut , the Eye of Re from Nubia . 71e title of the texts i

is either bnk YWty(VIII 141,12)or smn-Ywty (VI 55,15).The doubleplume is given to Horusor


Amun and is accompanied offering up the 3bty-eyes (1 148,8)or 'nht and wd3feyes (IV by %0 245,14-246,8)'. feathers tied to die headandheretoo 'this your eye'is tied to your hcid! IV The are 89,4 so that the DoublePlume seems be representative the uniting of the left and right eyes. to of Like eyestheplumeshavewar-likeandprotective powers'-so theydefeatthe enemyandbring peace (Maat?) VI 55,5 Otherexamples 11295,8-14 VIH 141,12 ; VII 109,13- 110,12. -142,5 . The king is shownoffering pl.22b pl.45a and the king or g6d wear a crown which

in hasat leastthe DoublePlumeelement it.


shadow ' Wb IV 432 (6) to 433(10)Pyr.

At Edfu the word is usedto describe sungod in his falcon form flying over the earth HB goes the over all of the Two Landsm IV with his shadow 246,8,the dark circle hereshowing with his shadow

it is fwt 'shadow' not Yeather; so that Horusgoesfast over the land and that

is also9wt H 283,9.The sign 'T could be confused with bpt 'come. but here it is the sun shade JEA 29, p.19line 28; LA V 535-6Shadow]. [in general which providesshadow


gang'.troop Wb IV 426 (5) lit. MK; Dyn.18

The readingof the word


is uncertainbut its-meaningand writing are clearly'estabfished'. [Gardiens n.13].Reymond p9 as doubtful and later readsit It. w

to Goyonreadsthis It as it seems be interchangeable with [CdE 38 Nr.75 p.56 n.71 readsit as hwtyw buts regards

'company'[MOET 195 n.41.The Montpellier sign list readsthis as Lt, but this is basedon Goyon. in the feather,shouldchange this Ilere seems reasonwhy the readingof a perfectlyclear sign, no but My to Lt One may expectgs perhaps not Lt. ' instance'Erom . do'not resolvethe situation: Urk IV 945,11the stelaof a man mentionsin a' Ile earliestexamples
XD mutilated text 13 AbhAnger. PYrisse 15.2 (Ptahhotep) rb i

At Edfu the word occursin four main groupsof texts : 1. Text in the Pronaos on the'doorway Thoth, Horui andPtah two groupsof fifteen guardiandeitiescarryingknivesaccompany


human headed

On 1118,3. theopposite from beforel/N/protection yourenemies to yourgang knowyourcrew, -.,

inscribestextfor Horus Ptah, and a sideof thedoorSeshat

listingthetroops thegodwhich'theSia.falcon 11132.4 it continues, of trusted and ones' your b9determines (9sr him' The ? gang alliterates)his andMauprotects 11132,10. text abovethe, Its
and of of protectordietiesgivesthenames the groups soldiers
I; b 1, U includes


of commanders

`sA,'who go onto the battlefield' -their namesare then listed M 332,2nd register. The 3rd register also contains a line of text for thesegods : the As to the sanctuary ' 11133,15- is this go up

or a variantwriting of gwtyw ? synonymous 'perceiving -%%-6 their posts they sit thereslayingand cutting off 2. Cosmogonical k at the texts: , ? the heads the -* of them'- in a description the battlesof the primevalageon the of opposite

Enclosure Wall VI 17,13. 3. At the 'Stretching the cord ceremony' variousgroupsof minor deitiesarepresentincluding: of . 'who exult W') and danceat the building work! VI 170,2. In a text next to this one at the A"21' creationof theoriginal groundfor the templesitethreesetsof deitiesarepresent 11dwandXbtyw VI 177,1(Positions texts- ro 3d.VIH pl. 147and ro 3d. IX pl. 1481. of 4. In a Dts-b ceremony, the endof the originalcreation: the butchers at their postsand are at 110,71ikewise 320,10. Ile next text to this s'r-stpw describes primevalbattle whereHoruswas VI a helpedby four groupsof protectivedeitiesof which onewas martialandprotectivesoldiergodsof theFirst Occasion. VI 328,15 Theseare the .


plant aromatic Wb IV 438 (6-7) GR Charpentier, <1079>p. 66()-l cf. FCD2639wb-perseatree

Among substances which appear ingredients kyphi are lb :. of as


"tr?. 3 2 dcbcnIl 211.8;

deben11203,8.It may be the solid, dried resin of the%bplant In a geographical text of the bsb,, . Ttv: P tfjie"i4lV30.12. nome,the piry land is broughtwith its sons. Z O-and drivesawayrageof Sethfrom Lesscertainexamples theking is onewho 'causes groweto : Egypf 1287,16[Derchain,CdE 30 no.60 1955p.273 readsthis as a miswriting of wbs]; fields have andthw plants E.Mam. 185,3.


Chassinat by the examples 9b andthat it hasto be explained the gloss.'it is called notes of 'lI 211,8.He proposed it is liqjid of PistaciakndscusL [Khoiak I p.394-51 that .


meat offerings Wb IV 437 (34) Dyn. 18

Xbt is distinct at Edfu from 9bw which are more generalofferings. 7be former are determined by a , flesh sign 0- and the latter with a bread sign. ctzY2&(L 351,5; IV 'Me Ot'are offered to gods and received meat portions of the U-n-bnp are

TcL VI 116,8. Usually the meat offerings received by HB and are given to all gods and goddesses -a 1 to their recipients : s9m cm.. z--6 (to the Ennead) 177,13; tj Q. Q. (shared for the were conducted

temples)V19,6-7 VI 57,4.

the butchers chopup th 2ortionsand give themto thewnyw to cat

A text lists the variousportionsof Sethas a hippopotamus which were

io go to particulargodsand

Tq. I 'a includes greatportion of him to Khnurnin the temple VI 89,9. One of the earliesttextsrecordsthat this is a meatoffering to the gods Giving to every

(Wb Beleg): by Thoth'Tr 107(Late)Nefer-Secheru the word is usedin otherGR temples and god ,
C30 1. 10CI for the Ennead MD M 73b; Khons divides for his Mowers Urk VM<83g>; N kC.: an image of Montu <21d>. Ito

king kills the hippopotamus and gives


foodofferings Wb IV 437 (6-9) Pyr.

it 1bw is an olderversionof the lastwordJbt, which maybe derivedErom andgivena morespecific it is a generalterm for the offerings brought by At Edfu, in geographical processions, meaning. Am clo"iD, 3%' 40,2. Also the Nile comes IV IV 32,3; OD nome rz: 22j4sE, : 13thLE nome nomes bearing=A'j! andprovisioningthe altarsIV 48.8. In the ritual In nLr r gbw.f 'bringing god to his food' 111129,8-9; title of the text is the it is'a ritual attested often

'fumigatingwith myrrh andbringingthe god to his food offeringse

bringsthe heartof j6d VI 305a. A variationoccurswherethe Hem-gemhes from earliertexts priest +a. Vl 153,2. ..=..


Like Xbt it is also found after sXm'distribute : at the festival of Behdet C1 are distributed to the cb children of Re V 29,13, to the temples CMVII 25,4 ; Re gives.+=to .., IT 9s VI 134.4 his children V11 251.8-9


(restore Om). The offering is also made pure: 5P

J3 42D In offering rites are presentedby the king as Shu H 169.19 and 170,2 , and in return -J % Horus gives plants and crops. 7lere is also a double offering of incenseand 1bw: w Cj,, probably brcad which Horus cats V 281,5 and the king holds 86 in his hands (pl. 134) a bread mould and VI 305.2. the heart of god 'M I'

and incense vessel. Also ' burning myrrh and bringing god to v receives, cPcL

and its scent (. 14 ); uraeus goddessesare exhorted to come (1w) to

their food 1548.8.

to mix Wb IV 436(4-14) Dyn.18 I/. DGA97,1 to mix,change jjsi

Cr.551a; CED237 ; KH303tochange yse"

tb. Yb occursat Edfu in the phrase iht 'to transform,change [see MOET p.203 *.ZAS 87 pA2 V n.b] usedin the creationtexts : the shebtywand the ghosts

VI 177,1; 'the nameof the

is WetjesetHor. the Ynbt-place2P (created to protectits lord that is the nameof the ?) pay-land . . It alsoto havethis sense PhilaewhereKhnum is the divine image at shebtiw'VI 184,14-15. seems 'who causedthe egg to live and dispelled the darknessand lb the mothee<2392> PhOt. 450 . to Reymondbelievedthat lb-ibt corresponds sw.iht so theVb is 'to aiteeor 'transform'hencethe W Coptic 'to change! . On a festival day, Ixt us unite with HB with unite (mix) with him for his handiwork,let

us give him the rewardof this his building'1328.13


diroat Wb IV 439 (3-4) GR Med.Xbb , DG 515,8 43, j'4'--3 Ynbt , Cr.603a; CED258*, KH335 Noyw6i! -!

28 28 %bbt is usedin medicaltexts[Wb Med. 843 (e.g. in Sm. (9,19)and Sm. (9a2) rj? II and is ojj


a technicalterm for the air passage food tube.lie GR textsuse9bbt to refer to the throatof the and antilope or oryx which is cut when it is ritually slaughtered the animal has its throat cut on a V=3 d%

slaughter block jjq.

111146.6.At Philae too it appears in this context : 'I cut off his head and <1594> Phot.204.

('d ) his throat, ra:: 'M '-"slit C31-


trewer CM 6 from Wb IV 442,11 which occurs at Dendera :r ,

Xbbty may be rehited to a word Mb


in king is the Good9696 the placeof maldngCool (king offers a mn-vessel)MD 11120:MD 131



The nounderivesfrom a verb%bb'to mix togetheeWb IV 439 (5-7) which canbe usedspecifically 6WCr. referst6a beer to mean'to brewbeeeasat KO 161,65andtherefore


to mix, mingle 40 Wb IV 4: (5) to 441 (3) MK DG 499,1 1.4--3 %bn I -4-'J' fib to unite . join with

Cr.573b; CED247; KH320 !!IwW5, nwW4 that it was pronounced to Ile later Coptic word seems suggest -IJOWS not On so the final

from demoticshowthat this change Two examples hadchanged wasoccurringin places. consonants *'n. kepto the classial. the but in the traditionalscriptof thetemples, scribes word the Late Period,
%bn is used, like other words meaning 'to join ' such as JLum, of the cioN4 or uraei joiInIng the

headof the king . It bestalliterateswith Ayt, the vulturepart of the diadem: shejoMs with the headof theking IV 103,2-3.


i c3o

The word canalsomean'mixcd : the fields in a nomebring'all kinds of grain s"Cil-*T up IV 35a. from this verb%bn: (offering the md3-bnr to Osiris) the text saysthat, lbere is alsoa substantive the offering is a cm J cm '1_91 [seeCauvWcin RE 32 p.49'n_. of your sisterIsis IV 2913 Inw D, gift. presene.

Denderahas virtually the sameline but ftn'is replac text at

Dedera did not uderstand wordI -theEdfu scribemadeanI . the 1450-10soeitherthe or scribe effor.


be a word for food offerings :' sDw offerings are for its front , df3w for the back and may also JT for its middle' where 9bn is synonymouswith general words for food offerings IV 49X, -


ingredientsof Kyphi

Wb IV 442 (1) GR
CM lop )bn is used in recipes : making 'ntyw t7,T is -+r text I deben 11227,14 -,tips n nnib is. '. VI 167,2; v-. - Ja

*4 fdo 4Cr"Ios 11221.2

H 229.4

11221.8 ; rn 1L

also , and the copy of this .9

VI 167,6. A recipe for makingWry good k3p for use

in the temples ' uses3 hin of OU 0

H 203,10. A substanceVbw appearsearlier in the text in'a pot determinative would not

solid , granular form and it is posssible thatfbn is liquid Ybw Ater

be a value n but a determinative indicating a liquid. This is why measurements then given in hin. arc Chassinat, however, noted that bn is not usually written with the be connected with Coptic !dSW W and he believed it to sign

(Cyperus exulentus) [Cr. 553a -. CED 237 'grain' KH 304 Xbn would

'corn' DG 499 ; also see Charpentier 1089 p.666-7 ; Osing Nom. 11820 n. 1089 . , thereforebe somekind of seed. used to make perfumesand unguents[Khoiak p.394-51


to dividecorrectly, apportion
Wb IV 442 (4-7) Ijt. MK, Dyn. 18 , GR

Xb9b may originate in tb*bb

'to chop up, divide' which is attested earlier solgUb could be a ,

different writing of this word [Brugsch DHD p. 1374). Ile earhest use of IbYb is for the division of, is found at Edfu in a particular instance: 'A happy day on this day divided into its time and this use , happy day on moments; a night divided into its hours; a happy day divided in this month divided

into its 15 day festival ;a happy day in this year divided into its months ;a happy day in this eternity divided by its years' t, cP )t 0tj xCCI 00 W-j [JEA29,23n. 8]VI61,4-6.

The mostusualuseat Edu (andoneaccordingto Wb only from the GR periodIV 442,16) is in the division of land. In this caseit may well be related to bbi-Inw. the taking of taxes. 17hothis C! efor the 1b9b n0 pn 'division of this land7- presumably a scribewould be tj a as responsible C PIII 190A is 111251,15-16 in particularwhen77hoth associated with the b3w.R' he also and V

divides land the

IV 91,2

r3'2 tA=J V 91,2. Thegods alsodividetheland: ty 11 can



IV, 389,17-18; they correctly divide the Nile flood into/by handbreadths streams) (or IV c5n T, IV Jc--J 246,12-13;the king'dividesthe

309,13. Khonsdividesthe land by his brightness :

into its componentsc: T, ar-J IV 265.1;in the foundationceremony'the wd3t- eye king divides o2n the movements the starsusingthe merkhetcjl of VII 44,13-14;a paletteis offeredby the

king to lboth andSeshat who apportioned reckoned tribute by means it Mo, "5'F and grain of , IV 299,1-2.


to brew , mix Wb IV 442 (8-10) GR cl. kbb 439 (5-7) to mix together.

Fairman suggested XbIb in beer texts meant'to divide ouC,so that vesselsheld the correct that quantitiesof beer [JEA 29 . p.23 n. 81.In a beeroffering text the Idng says,' e,, havebrewedmnq (of beer)andI sanctifyfor you tnmmt* 1462,15andC& a-JD 11216,11; c in the Sokarchamber, ck ' -'j rIA. -to drive awayfoesfrom the temple!1222,8 I

0-eI bring to you nbtyw vesselstrCj. king to Osiris: &c-J n Mnqt 11216,11;

Philae<3351>Phot.1271;words of Menket Q*WIV 6; king offering beer'How goodare these tar

' r5233 1, "17


"u"MD 11 IjI

80i. Xb9brefers to a mixture of ingredients not only for beer : in a date offering, Isis A substantive . =23J ricalk-i IV 291.1 [Cauville.RdE 32,1980 pA9 n.191. prepares ---:, ""-L

Yb tyw

primordial creatorbeings Wb IV 438 (9) GR

EA. E.Reymond, 7be Shebtiuin the Ternpleat Edfu, ZAS 87,1962. pAI-54. 7be Shebtiu only foundat Edfu [BarucqBIFAO 64 p.132n-pl but thereareindicationstheymay----,. are tradition for examplein a dw3-njr, text which gives originally have come from Heracleopolitan beingsIV 357,16-359.8. informationaboutthese Theyarein the retinueof Re-Behdet bring into and the existence p'y land of everyGreatPlace.They are the very greatgods,the shebduin Naret (IV 358,9) thedb3w childrenof Tanen,begotten Hy. They established reeduponwhich Hor'us the of
Behdet perches,they create Edfu and they adore Shai when he cmes. as the one with a beatiful face" I--


[Quaegebeuer,Shai, p. 1671.Once this is done they return with the other creator gods to Nn-nsw in r=r -73 Neb-Shefyt like Re in his Great Place. Their ( (Ihnas/Heracloopolis) and are established in Hwt-b3 (temple of Harsaphesat Ihnas), there is no end of their images in Mesen mummies are forever. The names of the shebtiu are given : Wa, Aa. Nay, D.Sr-tp, One who Creates the 043, Nb-h3tyw, nb-'nh-w3s, Nb-shm-wsrw ir %JW 'nb m snf. The shebtiu grant the king all -

the lands of the earth. This text comcsas one of a series of mythological tableaux which follow episodesof the temple foundation ceremony. This scene(pl. 105) shows the king adoring a spear and Horus standing in a reed thicket The 8 shebtiu who follow him . was-sceptm and ankh signs. Other texts add a little more to this overall picture : here the shebtiu appear with the d3isw and when they say the names of things they come into existence, 'I sun disk joins Nut and this are shown as human but hold

happens' 1117,3-6 ; the seven builder gods are the brethren of the d3isw and the shebtiu and their ghosts (3bw) of Nen-nesu (also VI 173,6)- together they finish the work of the creation of the begetter Ptah IV 353,3. In a text where palette and water bowl are presentedto 71oLh and Seshat'others beings are mentioned who helped at the foundation , including 'lirtyw who are brethren of the

shebtiu' IV 390,5. At the founding of the four comers of the temple the shebtiu praisc,sing hymns and rejoice with the Ennead VI 170,2. Among epithets of Ptah - he is the one 'who made the builder gods , the father of the d3isw regenerator (m3w) of the shebdu and bcgatter of the first Ennead' VI 175,8. In the ritual at the completion of the temple the shebtiu arrive with the builder gods et al. and the enclosure of the temple , when they go to the temple itself it is named by Tanen VI approach 320,11. The cosmogonical role of the shebtiu is most important for they uead the bw-ILnm, they invoke the of iDt names and as they name things they come into existence (VI A similar

text in content is more detailed - here the two separators Wa and Aa (one who is distant and one who, is near), are at the head of the shebtiu VI 181,12-13 . The shebtiu then mark stagesof the creation short invocations or songs - when the god emerges as a divine falcon they say," Who comes with from Dat". "Dat of the falcon is this place" so the falcon rcplys, "Dat of the falcon is the name of this VI 182,5-6. When an offering is made to the Urd of Edfu ... the shebdu say ."come beautiful place' Horus (iw nfr i3w Hr) thus Beautiful Island (iw. nfr) came into being and Praise one . praise of


Horus (13w k1r) was the name of this cityVI

182,10. They create ILnm-itn

and Tp-t3wy

in the

same way VI 182,12-13. They announce the arrival of Tanen VI 183,3 , the name of the temple at this early stage is 'Shelter of the Shebtiu" and in reply to a hymn of Tanen they pronounce the words at the hour (dm-iht-3t) VI 183,10. When they say "Invent the creation" Tanen sends them to the

place of rest, the Place of Wa VI 184a. Then the Shebtiu relate the whole dogma of creation, "The creative words are perceived (understood) Wa and Aa invent (ho) and put in this place which is here in the land" - then the flood recedes and the pay land emerges VI 184,11. When they announce that'this is the place of the crew ' Horus goes there and sits on the reed - so this is the place of the shebtiu

from wheretheydrovebacktheflood waterVI 184,13-17..J a3.0


3 CX,



! 111 61 a
-ju I dCb 6.0 J.: 1

The spellingsof the nameof the Shebtiu very consistent the main variationsam am and

to The origin of the nameis not clear : at the creationtheylb-lbt VI 177,1which later seems be VI 177,14andReymondsuggested this was from 1b with a modified meaning'to alter, that sw-ibt by alreadyexisted transform!so they werethe beingswho could create altering,changingwhatever Xbtyw as 'pouvoyers!, [ZAS 87, pA3 Goyon translates providers' [GardiensH p3Oa index], following Alliot who derivedthe word from w9b 'to provide food (Wb 1371,3) [BEFAO64,1966 p.132 in the Borghoutshasrecentlyconnected Xbtlw with the passage DiodorusSiculuswherehe states Egyptiansworshipped five elements[Bibl. Hist. 112,91.He notesthat in one of the Vbtiw' the the figues in another headed (pl.105)thereareeighthuman therearethreerowsof eightfigures vignettes . lion's heads, with falcon heads,one with ram heads(pl. 149).Whennamedthey are one - one with from Imn -fire, hh air, nwn waterandkkw land - with femaleaspects andthe world wascreated Ile The four elements. eight godshavethreeaspects. animalsshownherepermnifiedthe four these temple- falcon , lion , serpentand ox [MOET p.34-51.Ilus Ybtiw are priestly phyles aroundthe into themselves are transformed animals(Coptic and thuswho 'change! 16 change) -'the'

DE -., Wto change! only attested from demotic[Borghouts 1,1985 p.43-45]. is that only problem


to now out
Wb IV 443 (14) to 444 (7) Med.

flows Nile is likenedto a bull and'his semen ne southern

into (hr) the womb! (metaphoricid


for the groundor soil) 1582.15 .


to be noble- adjective verb Wb IV 445 (8) - 448 (12)Pyr. adj. 448 (13-20) verb DG 503,5 fII 3'r3o -. I.--IV 37,8; El

!fps appears often at Edfu as an epithet of gods, places, kings and it is spelled CD

2C V 155,5-6; a -,

IV 9,8;tAp

IIII, 14-butusuallydP

j or!

which both occur'

Usesas in Wb. passim.


libation vase Wb IV 451 (12-14) MK, NK, GR

Originally and mostoften tpsy is a cult libation vessel a container oil but in the Late Period for or for it wasalsoa container reliesof Osiris [M.du Buisson, Vases 1181. p. At Edfu the Kpsappears a watervesselin libationofferings : Going round4 timesritualA as q'"' beforeBehedty11145.12 in the sametext Horusreceives4A are and with the 10 vesselanf

11146,4; king brings the vesselto Red 1 17 ennobled(fps) with canal water V the nemsetvase Ij 82,14.In a libation text the king receives theJ2 V with othervessels 66,12.Ile waterfrom the

9ps canbe usedto purify the divine imagesin the temple45f 77,7.7be nameof the i7o E.Mam. vesselis usedin puns 'J 48,9. The vessel seemsto have the same function as the nemst, vessel (nmst q.v.) and from the it determinative may be the samebasicshapethoughperhaps little rounder.7be vesselsactually, a depictedin the ritual scene quite variableso Ypsymayhavebeenappliedto any libation vesselin are general- thoughprobablyone with a sidespoutrl (pl.114= VI 66,12)or 43 four of theseon a Ch Xps. m Vpsw. 'the vessel is ennobledwith your glories' 11 k ti

tray are offered ( pl.52 = 11145.12 sim. pl.23b = 1163 ; andmostelaborate all pl.40f - 1148 ; of t The earliestexamplefrom Wb is Siut IV 27 [Siut Tomb IV pl. 13 line 271 JWH in the andit continues usethroughout NK.

Ypss ,_

to provision, enri, - transitiveverb,. ch


WblV448(I8-19)D. 19 GR, toprovide(13-20) Toprovisionabuilding: e atempleR269,11; 902 IV41,2; tAp 'I516,9; Ip

houseH 277,5-6; country 0 houses contain, provided4l., 40 '1

theseprovisionsQfpssw)provide Egypt VIH 137,16; or kas Behdet1135,18 ; heaven-

for their kas IV 19,8; places-or


H with whatNun created 36,10.

The origiAqInuanceof 9ps 'onewho provides'and when it appears an epithet'noble it implies as 'one who is providedwith' food boats clothing or 'one who provides'thoseitems and can be , ., therefore with W 'oneprovidedfoe. compared


provisions, exotic things Wb IV 453 (1-8) produceof foreign lands ; Wb IV 450 (16) to 451 (6) gifts and

offerings- Pyr. oft GR. Ypsswoccursoften at Edfu and is found mainly in offering texts . It can refer to any offering libation water, the fps vesselis ennobled with H 48,9 ; gifts of foreign landsl

'll211'follow him 1583,7.Ili Nile comes* after comefrom Punt 1216,6;whenthe southern which king is ruler of W 9pssw 1308,17. In nome offering texts they are specifiedas the IV 28.8; In& dw 840 nomeIV 39.4-5.Ile

certain nomes : Ity nome offerings of is brought with t1l, queen

at'the IV of the granary/magazine 43,5 ; the Niles bring provisions

'd PassiD, mixedprovisionsare for its middle IV 49,2 ; the marshes beginning, end andmiddle
are brought with 4, =D aa H


NobleLady - asanepidietof Hathor(pardcularly Dendera) at Wb IV 449 (10) to 450 (14) DG504top 2A P' 1170,8 1 57.8, Aa,

Cr. 582a; CED250; KH323 (0) noble, distinguished woman jM-kTrvS%-. --'

As an epithetof Hathor .40H8,11,4 in Behdet174.7; 4o


for ephth's ,J'j y in Behdet1185,14

andEye of Re 1168,1:Shentayet*

4 lpst king is son'Of

'b" (Hathor) 162,8.

Inknd, the in the DIUMIit is a izeneral term for izoddessesHathorincreases love'of the king in me :


women so that

rejoice when the name of the king is pronounced V 156,4 ; 1011390,14.

the king is

Lord , 'love and a.noble god before'% -,


vexation. anger Wb IV 453 (10-16) verb; 454 (1-12)nounfrom Pyr. Cr.778b: CED3I7-. KH429 XTTIG to blame upbraid cf. ,

9pt, but as at Edfu it is written pd. In In the GR period the word hardly ever appears written as 'vexation'is driven away: dr a 555,16-17; king asa child drivesawayanger mostcases the -c>4111 T010-454 9P -C4 IV 283,2-3;Hathordrivesit VI 285,1; 1523.11: Or or dr 'drive away va. (anger '5g: %-121 Sakhmet 163-9 Hathor)playing the sistraV 79,10-, V away': 13%% of of b13
1% from the Isle of Fire V 352,3 rwira".: W- IV 303,10-, > 89,5 : hb alliteration of V
4N ---A

1373,16: bon


d% %%

4: _4


t3 ','-9Pfrom the throne of Re IV 1289.In particular the rattling of the ; ]C. c, VI 284,1; -Sr V 78,17-79,11,1.6&P VH -44 1175,12. The ultimate aim

0-?, lfb sistra can dispel anger and soothe

104,6-7 and by burning incense one drives off anger lb

of the sistra. is to calm and pacify the angry god , king or goddess so that the face is bright and is not angry n-hpd V 0"13144 IV 357,8; IV 357.10 ^4also E30 -52Ga% '" `7IV 283,2: (D 0 4W 1101,6:

a"j' 'p. 16 (3). In her dual 1 m-h pd c3m role as a goddessof love and rage . Hathor is Lady of Anger V

fte. -C=F 4V 65.5-6. When the face is bright, ah %, -2-L


&7 then it is far from rage 00-; CrP4 111134,

The fish shown as the determinative of this word is theKugelrisch' [Gamcr-Wallert Fische pA243] . When these fish are in danger they puff up like a ball and the scales stick out like .

spines - to the Egyptians this was a demonstration of anger and thus the fish became associatedwith the word be angry (c.f. qnd baboon). The oldest example of the fish name is from the Osorkon H festival Hall at Bubastis (Wb Beleg) but it is clearly older than this for the fish appears as the determinative of 'angeefrom the Coffin Texts (CT V 151a *.VII 238h etc. and see also 5th dynasty . Veltkammee, Wreszinski - Altas III p. 121 Taf. 60). The bpd fish also had its own cult - but not at

Edfu [c f. Helck, GM 29,1978 p.27 ; GM 36,1979 p.31 ff. ].


swelling(of illness) cf. WbIV455(8-11) Med. BD, GR . Wb847=swelUng Med.


Cr.610a; CED261; KH339

2 LSk46


At Edfu Xfy describes the swelling of the Nile at the time of inundation it comes from the same Wb word but has a different application (11) : Re gives Hapy E root as the 0 4-. for his ka - he r": ' q40

has brightened all fields with his efflux H 13 (8); the king brings to BB the keku-flood

swollen for his canal, raised up to the place of your heart VI 244.7 ; 'He floods for you the Two Lmids it swells and hts r mrk in him T-0 qq with water -04 Wb Beleg. (11) Gr. Oase Urgotterlied VI 244,8.

28 <38> the sun god brings the Nile bs. n. f

0 At---


Philac <3247>PhoL277rdi. i n.f b'py IwP ;

Dum. GI sameas R 13 ; DendL swollenas whenHapy

11191-the g3w3Ycanal-he brings- the canalwith its floodiyou spills over for you.


tator aweinspired Wb IV 457 (2) - 459 (7) DG 504,6 21Vft power. awe, esteem
6 !5(16

Cr.551a; CED237; KH302

Xfyt can be translatedby a numberof terms,'awesomeness, majesty,fear, terroe, which are all but the Englishequivalents like translations M3't they do not express Egyptianconceptexactly.'of The phrase'mysteriurntremendum' god perhapsevokesmore of the underlying effect of the of The word is usuallydetermined [Van der Plas,Cruep.92-31. with the headof a ram or the emotion the a forepartof a ram and it may thenrepresent feelingsinspiredby the appearance'of ram in the, The bothphysicalandsexual. rain shownis theAfrican ramwhich hasa' and of strength powerprime feelingsof to horizontalhornsandits magnificent appearance enough inspire. was projectingchestand Vy from theword for a ram head andmaybe relatedto the'The word probablyderives terrorandawe. if sti=gthf, -ZLe PageRenouf[PSBAIX p.285 I trarislated asram like = powerful, swell. word%Wto, [seealso: Spiegelberg ZAS 62,1927p-23f I. die word = Mowed andIfyt is a powergivenby the godsto theking At Edfu the classical usesof is especiallyassociated with Min : Min gives and 182,12-13; Isis gives of Min upon

his terrace182,15-16 -, Min is nb %fyt njim sly I 397,14.In this caseit proablYrefers to the -, by implicit in Min which is shared the ram. The king givesVfyback to his father potency sexual


IT-3 andmother:

0`2N %fytgreat terror'o '-"? - IV 25,17;0"":, in he IV 122.11; epithets is '3 of

VI 237,7 While 9fyt is positive in this sensei. e. the terrifying power of a king or god - it is a. *ying for ordinary people: -7Yexperience the king is put in the heartsof men VI 249,15; of as of the

of the king is put in the foreign lands VI 252,6, the foreign lands reu= king pervades their hearts VI 2949; Harsomthusputs Cm x. -W

of the king in men's hearts 1112,5.

This mention of hearts implies that it is an emotion or experience not a concept like Maat, though , ffyt can be regardedas a synonym of Maat due to its connection with the forepart or throat of the rarn

in a maatoffering,'This C1 7; EVI 310,11. A?

-L5 '%%' ar-' IFii all whichpacifies the godssbpr.ns

Among gods: Horusis Lord of Vfyt cT-c2W-VII 138,7; HaLhor 37- 1424,17; capitalof the --ar' Fe theHeracleopolite is nome 1343,4 anaspect theinundation ob Vyt 1334.7-8 '' is ; of the' maydisguise

Thewordoccurs at attested earlier- butthewriting'Y_ passim Edfuin uses

JEA form%fgyt whichdoes otherwise not occur Edfu[see 25,1939 15801. There at p. reduplicated bringsinto existence : arealsothespellings Hathor in theland133.8:Horussaysto the 125,18.

2M king'Thehorizon theTwoLordscontains majesty. of your

Ihnasya Medina 148n.3 ; Hassan, Hymnes al p. see: Mokhtar, religieuxdu MoyenEmpire p.11: 'teffce; Sethe AmunP. 32; LA VI col.1243-1245'Widdee. 23 -


cake bread or ct Wb IV 456 (1-3)

The Wb examplefrom the medicaltextshasa word determined with a vessel, implying that Vw is somekind of liquid. The Edfu example occursin the geographical procession where(EFI)


T4,121, its %to provisionyour childrenwith provisions(9ps msw.k m Ypsw)IV 39,4 . Here the ,, food offerings.Wb Drog. 491 has9fW impliesit is breadof somekind or evengeneral determinative is an ingredientof beer.It can comefrom srm.t yeastor beer.7bere is aW a word Mt which mud, dough( Eb. 176; 643 ; 735) which may be related.


Tybi - the first monthof Peret ' -

Wb IV 454 (17) - 455 (1) D.18 GR


letters[VII 11 and James, Hekanakhte 7be earliestmentionof the nameis in the Hekanakhte p-68 n.11] whereit is the second monthof Peretin the civil calendar.Accordingto Parkerin the lunar it calendar was the.I st monthin Peret[Parker. Calendars 45 ; 491Tw p. ' RdE 10,1955p. 181. theHekanakhte example Gardiner and in At Edfu the monthnameappears the templedescription It is recorded that in Year 5 Ist day of . 0 VII 7,1. Wb recordstwo PtolemyVI the greatportal waserec' IV 8A andcon ted of Dendem: "Mey harvested the festival of Tybi 2-23 4 on at other examples also c f. Dum. Baug: 15,17 day of the festivalof Tybi M v-Dum.Baug.32 and LA H 173quotes

MD IV 37/62-3 the priestssail south//// on the first


rainhead Wb IV 456 (9-15) Dyn.19 GR

in kYyappears epithetsof variousgodsfor examplePtah [Wolf, ZAS 64,1929 p., 7 ZAS 62 1927p.24 Amon [W.Spiegelberg, andalsoof The epithetVfy.b3ty is the epithetof a barqueor a boat'with 'ram heads both ends!and this cwne at Berlin 3048,10,7 to be appliedto godstoo - Pap. I miso ; Nesichons Off Neb-wenn-ef var.'Tomb of Tjay (Memiptah) (Rarneses"I'l)Ibeepithet-i-s 0 Esna IV 88a)-'. 'Suchosat

625.627)and also applied to later gods - Khnum at PhUae'CMes

it Ombos(OmbosH 101) ; Osiris - Miss V 641 - Sethe Amun p.8] suggests may be connected the Atef crown which thesegodswear (it can be set on'ram horns )., b3Vy-03A !ram with with
fi-onf [Mokhtar, Dmasyaal Medina p. 148 also. BadawL Chnurn p.34 Sa von majestAfischen majestic

it in a Maat giving tCXt, is's epithetof the ldni'(or IHcrus)'; ba Ausschn or ram headed ] at Edfu : *uIE 'Horus Akhty in a, horns VIH 15,10; -I, , sharpof -ti I " ii NH 9'. 17;' Horus is in the underworld Wof 3IN I, I ms. M3nw text, when he'sets %, . -a' Heracleopolitan Vt from Naret beforeIcrtyUo&-Q VI 58,1 : the Enneadcomes god VIII -4141% 3,13; Horus 276,5;wherecloth is presented theking COMCS Khrium*V to , V 190.7 j-A

'if n

thornsor thom bushes , Anlex 77.4164 79.2993 NK and


for is At Edfu in the lion gargoyletexts,the way to the sanctuary full of danger all its pathshave -. c3OT thom bushes, De the enemy IV 116,9-10. Wit read the term as bfn or, whosespinesprick hwnt but thereis reason think thatit is a wordIfn. Thoughthe word doesnot appearin the Wb to thereare a largenumberof examples a similarword, mainlyfrom die NK rnurion RdE 31 1979! of 25,1 [Gardiner, LiLTextsp.36 and27*] b) Dum.III I p.22-23= MH 11 83 pl. p.90 I: a) P.Anastasi like the <bushes>' *,c) col 45 , Edgerton-Wilson SAOC 12 , 84 nA5c 'Our heart is destroyed U-9P.Ch.B. 5 ro7, I- ]HPBM11148n.1 r--n *.Ao% Te 640 v 'A man is in sorestraitsas he pusheson

OIC is by sandalless impeded therushes and while theundergrowth abundant thick!; d) Ostracon and 12974- te-AHG HO pl.78,79p.22 end of line 2 ////// . The word is also found in

Harris 161,12 and 61 b.2 - administrator the templesat Akhmirn and namesand titles : Pap. of Assiut (PN 135,24) it is an abbreviation the nameImn-in gfnw ; Wb IV 455 (2) in title of a of miller Kairo Wb Nr.224 <450>D.18 stela -Y ril - refs to U9 ,i,. and Kairo Wb

T i-Nr.256 <475>NR

In all of these is the examples determinative it t



is indicatingthat a meaning- bushes, trees,undergrowths not so far of the mark.The title In-Yfnw in lie who brings the branches the domainof Amon' may be someone for respov%sible collecting brushwood for fires.TheEdfu example to seems specificallyindicatethat it is a thorny undergrwoth,, 'camelthomin Egyptwhich is low growing,thorny,difficult to walk andone is reminded modern of (carefully) beused fuel. through canbegathered to and as

Mf t

deity - Wb IV 461 (6) nameof guardian c f. Wb IV 460 (6) to 461 (5) Pyr. MIK

Xf9ft is the reduplicatedform of 9fy and it occursat Edfu only in the nameof a guardiandeity [Goyon,Gardiens 107] p. 1119,,,;2 g W. 2VI 178,12-,,,:'I r,, '-" VI 330,4;

VIR 85,15.The latter is shownas a manarmedwith two knives. or can alsobe a bull headed man knife [Goyon Gardiens PLIV A- XXVHl]. M II with a , is the old form of the original word which 3L reading%f9ftsee

by the late period becamealmost exclusively%fyt for the possibility of , 9fy t.




Wb IV 461 (11-17) MK At Edfu L;dw is usedof the book rolls usedin the planningof the temple: the templebuilding was r3r3c'% Planning set out accordingto that which was written in the Book the Temple [MOET of VI p.316-71 10.10; the foundations the templeweresetout accordingto the writings of .13of this book, which is called Xsr Ut n, p3wtyw.tpyw "ro know the mound of the Primeval Beings' VI 326.1-2.1 %fdwis alsousedin moregeneral contexts in a protectionof the housespell - the protectionof the is bed and headrest doneaccording E-3 to 'I haveread(W) fromT procession Webernotes in this book VI 145.9;The lector priest declares a %413 thebook to fell your foe on your path'1568,3.

canbe a namefor eithera singlesheet papyrus a roll [Buchwesen 101. of or p.

The word comesfrom the verb%fd'to tic, to pack!(Wb IV 461,9-10)and it is specifically a book It in showthat which canbe heldin thehand-a handbook. is well attested Wb andtheEdfu examples wereconcerned with rituals andthe%fdwwasmeantto be used'in the field! at this time the contents in ratheram beingstored anarchive.

to go Wb IV 462 (7) to 465 (18) DG 505,7+ ir-, Km go CED 235: KH 301 LA Cr.544b; tie At Edfu the verb maintainsits classicaluses,which can be extende&When usedin parallel with, 'to come'm is 'to go back;to return!: the Nile comesat his time andT A, goesai verbsmeaning hour VI 206,4-5;sim. VI 227,8; the priestenters templein impurity and 5r- goes his appointed the out in purity IV 55,5., W. A die battlefieldIV 49,11; c3l' In the phrasewsr-Im : on %rnrefersto the retreatof an enemy IV 50.13 IV. 54,4'.,, I.,

theyretreatat the attackof the king IV 58.5.

ft In the sense 'to go away, passaway= die (Wb IV 463 (8) to die) : because Sakhmet Jing of of doesnot die at any evil affow VI 265,15;the litany of Sakhmet -A- 9V 'VI 266,4. '

A on the roadsof Iwnt. IV 51,12. Referringto the marchingof a procession:the sovereign walks2? P-WI destrov HnD In nuns : %smw -2 - to and seize the eazelles and antiloDes 1555-8-9-. Xq3t emblem -4
-----. ------.---.


A 1543,4. is carriedand'=30 -. n %I. they go at your knife/slaughter k

9: m-iwXm-iy

one who comes and goes Wb IV 462 (12) cE Cr.547a; CED 236; KH 306 !MCGI be carried to and fro

Ptolemy V Epiphanesand his wife Cleopatra are ones who visit the necropolis in Behdet go to the crypt in Mesen and zKF3r3 go freely in Upper D-dt IV 123.6. The phrase 1(m-iw, implies that, _)FjS%_ they had freedom of accessto all these sacredplaces. The phrase is well attested earlier and in the Tomb of Petosiris [65,5-6] cR Vernus, Athribis p.203 n.(a)]. -A those who come and go to lay offerings in the tomb [See also


partof a pair of scales

Wb IV 466 (15) GR measuring rod Kurth discusses word for at Edfu it is foundin tidesof the king - only in Maatoffering scenes. this it From the determinative is a wooden objectandwhile theWb takesit to be a measuring usedin rod it be Ile most likley part is the beamor arm of the craft scenes, may actuaUy part of the scales. scales.Kurth readsit gm-th 'post of the weigheand it refers to the balancestandfrom which the is weight hangsdown. In punsthis would mean'the weight goes'for when something weighedthe weight moves up and down [DekorationpA8-9 ; also Otto , Gott und Mensch'p.75 gm-lb &Bstabl. king as the sonof Thoth :co--" The term appliesto the ", c=23 111143,9; simply as king or ^SVII 322,15; I: 111266,14; as a beneficent also god . VIII 122,12. Theseare all Maat

is andstress put on the fact thattheking loathes partiality.The Wb givesonly onereference offerings from a 1batoffering the king is sonof Thoth GP '& I MD 1171b- CD 111186,12-13. ,



"the Ym-wd3is part of the Horusheaded by gods batoncarried At Edfu actualharpoon part of -71e spearis called the WO or em.wd3 . It is carried by primordial godsat the creation Horus : as, %Vl 182,17-18 it is usedto dealwith chaoticforces Rise up and seize Heter-hor9? "- hv. , .



183,5-6. the willow treethe Sia falcon raisesup the spear At


194,5-6 in 64 [discussed BEPAO 144(18-19)and 162; alsoGoyon Gardiens (7) and33(2)]. 32 , .


Wb IV 467 (1-2)GR

aL--j is madein the templeworkshops usein the temple: 5i 'cP" for The myrrh . 10


H 206,1

andalsoH207,4 [Charpentierno. 1111 p.676-7 with refcrencesl.,

m-or-mw to be loyal Wb IV 463 (16) A designation loyalty and trust [ Otto, GuM p.43 of 'nstendorf GM H. 4748 Ie dependant on ,

lit. walk upon someones water] and at Edfu it is usedin epithetsof child gods : 1hy someone, 'Makeslife for C--one loyal to him (king) VI 164,17; Harsomthus gives life to cjp

V 76,9 ; alsoV 210,2.


be loyal to liL 'walk upon the land!, .

The reading of the secondelement is proposed to be Osbw rather than Y3w [J.Cltre ; BIFAO 79 1979 p.285 f. ]. At Edfu, a door in the couloir mystdrieux has a text, 'describing those who can enter by it and in this list is Cp'? 034t 'one who is loyar 1346.15. As an epithet it is applied -the king

at Edfu : die great gods are the mooring post of C3P initiated, single minded and loyal c9P c=ei

IV 390,7; the Idng is lonelully

VIT193.5 'in a taking the two cro wns text t h

in king is pre-eminent the temples Egypt andthe godsof the two outpourings loyal to you! of are
C33 5) VIH 84,8-9 0" 5rC=

stake, palisade Wb IV 467 (11) GR andWb IV 467 (12) MK Ymyt xDG 510,4,, -1.. -Ir5 Cr. 565a; CED 244; KH 313 Jmoy

The only referencein Wb from is Edfu :. I encloseyour majesty,with a wall (inb)W%


ka! VI 78,17. The inb may go with Im however and Inb-Vm be one word palisade protecting your [JEA 29,17 n.a] but it is difficult to be certain. The word Imyt is well attestedfrom the MK onward and is certainly the basis for !Jmy- but the Ifm here is not so clear. There are no parallel examples to compare but cL: m in


be wild, untamed Wb IV 470 (5) Late, GR

In the festival texts, one of the animals brought for rittial sacrifice is donkey - which representsSeth V 399.3 [Alliot. Culte I p.2101.

a wild


flowers Wb IV 472 (1-3) Wb Drog.492 Med.Late GR 670-1; LA 1833 Charpentier

W not a flower thoughthis doesnot meanthey are Ww are determined sign with a vegetation Ww differentplantsandin dernotic is translated brrt'flowers' [Dittmar, Blumenp.591. by

At Edfu : (giving w3d and 0 wild fowl) the SoleNfistress givesbackto ft king the Nile mouths, with their >V with tribute and all mnw waterways land is illumined with rays of the sun disk and C. C 1307,2(alsoVI 37,13 ; the

bloom at what comesfrom 11111371,1;

17 Iltlf bloom 194.7; in the '3bt offering, the king createsC9 7qc(j--O (ms-msw-bouquet)aa,,! . 6*W 9ny. sn 1487,15; (giving rnpt plants) the king as the s3b-0 rn Ido bringsits cQ'?Vl and rnpwt flowers - the king makesthe and makesthe flowers bloom VI 2503 1; Presenting 5, 9Pr. eiLlpi R 177,1 bloom H 66,14;also . in The emphasis theseoffering texts is on the marshes waterwaysso that ft and word is not a',

is chiefly from fields 7be earliestexamplefrom the Wb is Hearst for smw 'herbage' mistake which . > rl, SLJ, T 15,17 ,, it apparently to the Towee of the rnnq tree . Wb Drog. where refers

that comments this is a word foundin late texts.It occursalsoat Kom Ombo:the king as the Lord of HathorgivesIdEz gardens makesbloomtYa,. 1,113 andat Dendera11115.13

to the king.,

Ym 3w,



Wb IV 470 (7-11) OK 14 "' DG 510,1 13

Cr.565b;CED244; KH314 tMmmo stranger

Vm3wessentially in refersto someone who is not Egyptian.At Edfu it appears epithets,particularly wheregodshave influenceover areaswith foreign contacts- so that HB is the Lord of Cusaeand of-Tt, master 1301,9 ; 309,1 andsimilarly Hathoris Mistressof Cusae -r: of VI 266,9.

demons' Ile word may be at the root of im3w 'disease and it is difficult often to tell them aparL Theearliestoccurrences the word showexactlyhow the Egyptians regardedXm3w.The Tomb of of Mereruka. showschildren playing a gamecalled ii Ww 'the foreigner comes. Here they march alongdriving a differentlookingchild beforethem. This child hasa differenthair lock andis tied up , 6 the accompanying childrenhold sticksandwands[A 13northwall- scene pl. 162].7he origin of the word is not clear.


demons disease Wb IV 471 (1-6) Magic Texts, NK, Late, GR

The namefor theseemissaries may derive from the term for foreignersXm3w.If thesedo indeed desert settledthenthey may havebeenseenasposinga who werenot permanently nomads represent to Egyptiansecurity.fm3w we divine emissaries genii not attached one cult locus.At or threatto 9: Edfu it can be difficult to separate m3w 'foreigners' tm3w..emissaries' it may actuallybe an and 9 distinctionby this stage thelanguage exceptfor fossilised epithets. of artificial , lie Ifin3w at Edfu are often in the company butchergodsor otherdivine messengersIle texts of . for protection from the lfm3w ask : 1272.9 H 75.16-, andthey are seen 17

[Breasted PXASmith 477 and Vandier, demons in magicaltextsas disease epidemics who spread P.Jumilhac p.203 n.629]. As such.they are, under the control of the, goddess disease.,. --of knives In carrydeath-dealing Sakhmet-Bastet-Hathor.the invocations Sakhmet Edfu, the Wm3w to at doesnot repelher emissaries in their hands, of representative their fatal powers: the goddess


IH 317.14;the uraeusis askedto protectthe king Erom 3: 1



M_ butchersunderthe authorityof Sakhmet 322,11;the king knows the nameof him ' is able to control them himself 111322,12 the king comesto,the Hathorswho resc-u'e Erom., ;


h3tyw wpwtyw , W

///T and

0 T111 111303,13: Hathor-Sakhmet is AD

master of the

demons and the wpwtyw cut off heads for her VI 267,16 ; presenting the sistra, Hathor says 7 protect your (king) body with the sceptreof Sakhmet.I drive away T /"T are! V 258,11 ; Horus is the one who drives away you 0, m from the place where VIII 6,12 ; for pacifying'

Sakhmet, 'Take the gazelle and geeseand d3tyw on my hand. I make excellent for you your bas, I cause to live for you your men and I do not give to you t1IV CM Z; :4 311.11. which

In an invocation to Hathor-Sakhmet, the gods are tied up (qis) on the days of cmr>

may be an elaborateword play and perhapsshould be taken as the Xrn3w'foreigners! 111293,1415 . Elsewhere at Edfu the emphasis is on the protection of the gods against the demons : gods of protection are given to drive away'D,


from the king 1100,5; Hathor drives away

from the king 1184,10; Khonsu gives the Enneadto protect the king from r= To I1 1164,14 These kind of 278,14 ; purification text - 11oth gives the flood to purify against . phrasesoccur in amulet presentationsor the giving of incense. In purif ication texts at Dendera - the Nile water is especially used to wash away %m3w-a use of the Nile to exorcize evil -Fr, CD 150,8; T,,, CD11203,3; -T MY"' VI 22,5. Perhaps H 219,2 ; connected with this is a Nile procession:

the southern Nile comes and brings a flood covering the fields so that'there is no famine (qn-rnpt) .. J" e-k 1jr and t:: %% no handsof Xm3w carrying knives' 1582.12-13 -J Outside Edfu the 9m3w occur at Dendera(MDIV 68) ; Kom Ombo 144,459 -.1373,497 and earlier, on the Bentresh Stela, but again it is unclear whether demons or foreigners are meant : Khonsu of Ilebes drives away r-= !ke it, KRI Il 284,12 (also 285,15; 186,17). In the medical texts there is

(Wb Med p. 851) which means'strange,abnormal'and is used to describe unusual diseasesfor a verb example in the description of a wound which will not heal 093> name of demons -Sm. 18,14 *,20,1 ; 20,9 _rY 852). 1'(p. SmA I s,and also as the'

A late text quoted by Alhot [RdE 5 p.78 nA] at Esna [LD IV p1.88band 89a = Esna VI no.5311has a word applied to foreign adversaries(servants of Seth) of a king who is in fact a Roman Emperor. Bibliography of Ym3w : NtValloggia, Messagersp.44 n.9 messengersof Bastet ; Guthub Textes, 241-246. On"emissaries in general : Goyon, Gaidiens p.311 (8) * Vandier, PJumilhac p.203 n. p. 629 ; SauneronBIFAO 64,5-7 ; Cauville, Osiris P.45 n-2 ; TESEdwards, 1IPBM IVth series 1 (1960)'


p.6 n37 .

bw-gm3w cult placeof Geb Wb IV 471 (9) GR Brugsch Dict.Geog.1068 , .

in From a LatePeriodPapyrus Turin thereis a list of the maingodsof UE includingGebwho is god J in c

r:!;:'p'34, StLqq

C3 RT 164]. At Edfu HorusBehdetis Gebin-d C-3 'tm [ 'M AW .,

C, 1504 (45)

in Horusis protected the embrace his fatherGebin of

the Placeof Im3w, (this is

in Pyr. 601 1663a) written hereasif it weretheword forflowers'VI 146,9.


corridor(in temple) Wb IV 472 (5-7) GR DG 486,3 and 4 **X>iI '_) discussionof dernotictermsby Nur el Din, Leiden

Demotic Ostraca. 52-3 wherevarioustermsreadfmit or similar can be differentiatedonly by pp. HenneticWrigsp. 1-iscontext; morecerudnReymond, CED 242


Ile templedescriptions Edfu showwhich partsof the templecould be referredto asYmyt It is at . thecorridoraroundthe GreatPlace IV 5,10-,VU 15.3andall thedoorsof the minor sanctuaries open into it IV 5,9 ; VH 15.2 Ile dimensions this corridor are given as 3 5/6 cubits (= 2.05m),also of . 3yt) on the eastandwestof the corridorgive entry to the roomsthere4Tq c-3 VII 15,4 the doors(h.

Miis Mysterieux (Y). JqT IV and L-3 5,11. is theCouloir

Vxnyt is also used of the larger corridor between the main temple building and the stone enclosure wan(X): Pqq. N4cn Great Place of Re "the surrounding the temple= the great wall outside the .

myt suffounding bwt-bik. Nbt VI 6,5. has The externalwaU of the sanctuary as a tide of one of its texts Im m om the text compares templeto heaven and mentionsthe 155.8 a"

Greatcorridor containingcolumns

if around/outside HI 85.2. Ilis text is in. the Outer Hypostyleso it may refer to this part of the hall beyondthehypostyle which is indeed walkwaywith columns. templeor evento thecolonnade a q'q Texts on the enclosure has seenPr-R' andr-1-3 C3 wall may refer to diis : the king


VI greatcorridor.ennobled with columnslike heaven uponits four supports 6,2 ; the doorwayin the,


enclosure wall going to the well is arrangedupon the plan of the =qT4corridor Wall of Wetjeset of Protector of his father ,I JqkC"'korridor

Mn i). q . VI 8.1 - the Great

Ile goddessIsis-Hedeyt is particularf)A&LQ'&
iq, thjcI ffll5wa AP Win" is1abVSfi4WeM 1Y 141"OffeWsli L O'D 14
ih'e'CW Xmm. t is perhaps ,

of the sanctuaryof the harpooner VI d3DIO=r, f(',! TU3 wEru-wd

Zd) Cr OeTWInytqarou3nI Isis-Hedeyt theqljr=atPlacce

LOhtq D;Lj 1; rnaiq sonq 1253.5 ; I-H in r3mr-L: ' -i d",, -3 Lj Tp r3 her son Horus in the' alcf protection as bel:%n; CM2 i zu DdJn. zid !o
fili ac, .10d rnr., Tw an extension of an earlier the outer enclosure wall

. -iIa 1b)'! ? .1. HT% ! -)4Ijn'Icr'3I=j Q, ri djD


sarMary- w Em Io =Iq

Wb attests this word onlyWbhi text from temple Illahun Pap. l. 0050,4


In a

of the whole

pyramid I

of S'nh-Sn-wsrt

both the north and south enclosures Hayes [Ostraca

Nirml. 1 [I[-) Iribrr-3 are named --Mr3word cp:

[A. Scharff,

ZAS 59,1924,471.

p391 notes the feminine Q01/e5

a noun 'passage



aC I- t)(IL I'(W. rn 'to go' . meaning


(I O Oljotll:, Po6gi? uyln*valp='gegor6lclorridor of

Tvff Tomb 71 ;0 74,2-3is 0 9mmAhbli.-ti%K\Ie KA &FYIM ly96- pr n? rro%-aldl northern extension'or the Y'71' wing of the transversehaH. These then are both parts of temples or
30 Puni ) , " !, (1*.2, .11 chapels but there may
*. 1L-

bca, alsq.

09 cl

emus,BEFAO75,1975 1 142"Ili C --'Iu'




1i I-'SIz 1 0 ltkjdbcrg. 4 65,1030? 561 oini wa 6f thetaiptc-Ef YM tfiv rikar6j. p.

s m*rlj amom 5ill Oj YVAO fnvi-, lobinto bar, jzncp51b (to Q'F. ') 0"141. 110.4t --ob 34


UpperEgypt, the southland ni . LEBW '011j *Iqffl-'j Of") 1Zt'78

i. t. V1 C"JTRbr l bi-tia; 7-jair. orij lo b!aatla 2ktwv ' -tr. y, mj! ) nA () :(*'0.ILIrV' IV -.1j V) Pew ftrrilx,?-dT -), i" 10

PM jd4f8,? Ij)1 ol:-w,Wb1V!4j,: o-w?

Ym' Occurs passimat Edfu . with standard spellingsincluding rl JV%, F 14,12-,8,4 -4!
BY t as two

wjo51ja PA, V. Fjo Jo - el. VL-r -it7t( -6'V. ')'gunctm 0-p ,I o: oej z3-jcqr,. ) lxw oi !M -if; had'been
nalves which &Witg fen

united by thi 6 ?i 1y. alli-I 4.0.111 ']1 obiziuc"ORuc-IL 01 061 d6ghia - whatever the historical or contemporary wi L&wCr -1 Egypt and where one text

reaIityz.Thui', UljjjP-r EgyRrt ik

Vr',: ? Ct., ji p to refers.

A 077

# 6h rr

? nojx!f jlaw-yool, ''. va-a which = oej the, 4'jr" n unity, . 7prcsent. To s ", f CY10MIA, TW400-fnov!

establishirient tfAWfli ofthlj

Sj"'5-'. S Pace 'L'Ower 'Meflood Egypt. e" rst over


Upper Egypt first so for this to waterswere supposed comefrom the southern caverns reached and ZAS 44,1907 p.1-29].77he reasonit was given a more importantrole [K.Sethe, adjectivefrom this nounis alsoused : the inundation contains UpperEgyptianwaterIV 34,13.

7bere is a text at Edfa which implies that Edfu wasitself se6 thereas the'centreof Egypt: at the Festivalof Behdet 4d ", 'UpperEgypt sailsnorth andLower Egypt sails south(to meetat Edfu),

whereHorusruleshis kingdom'IV 19,4.


thecrownof UpperEgypt Wb IV 476 (2) GR

gin' for the'WhiteCrown is probablyan abbreviation IfnVi, andit occursonly in the GR period of J (after to Wb) : Horusis Lord'of andruler of Skgl - 1244.2 ; Horusgives to the king 41 7,9 his headVI'245,10 ; alsoat Dendera, UpperEgypt is in praiseat your' cl & on S &MD 145; in a procession crowns7ake of and Lower

Egypt rejoicesat

united (crowns The king brings a double

muddledby the scribe)- the doublecrown is actuallybrought'MD H5 *, O 49 the text says"rake for youself , seize crownand cV ,

I' MD H 68a.

i(M 1.S

White Crown of Upper Egypt Wb IV 476 (3-7) MK

A word for the White Crown since the MK and frequent in the GR period in temple inscriptions [Abubakr, Kronen p.31-32].It was usedby the later scribes in preferenceto other'words for the White Crown - but the reason for this is not clear. Ile feminine suffix 'appears with'the s which r

mos is used especially to indicate words for the insignia of the king [Spiegelberg, companion word Sonnenaugep. 15 p. 130] but the 'hee indicated here is unknown. It may perhaps refer back to the

Nekhbet Wadjet. Mid crowns- in thiscase goddesses eachof these of patron Lord *of Xm'.s are followed by mw. : Harsiese'is At Edfu usually examplesof BB Ruler of theLower Egyptiancrown VI 186,15-16; is Urd'40 -VH in 91,8.Ile two crownsarepresented offerings: On',!,

-i4j'; heis ride'rof'14 I Vi andmowsV210, T41.1311'

the king holding two q--7 baskets with the two crownsin them. In returnHorus gives the shows' In a Onk wd3ty"text, Nephthyssays1-giv'eyoup4joining'th-e *PSIking Southand north.


149,13. In the phrasenb Im'. s Dq3 mbws : Horus

e406a; Hathor 4=1

1163,8; NEn, <;,

but in the previous line Horus is nb em' only, as might be expected,

becausehe is primarily an Upper Egyptian god 1244,3. The word occurs as early as Sin.217 and SharpeEg.Ins. I 79QT`%JP and throughout NK texts. _


UpperEgyptian grain Wb 476 (8) to 477 (7) OK Charpentier 1104P.672-3

Ym'w at Edfu is oneof theproducts broughtin thegeographical processionsaspart of the offering : by I of the Sbt-d' IV 49,3.It is alsoreaped the king: the king saysto Harsomthus reap foryou t! tj '1384,12; also TT is cut (bb). 5. AO Tte word is alsofound in otherGR temples.Wb citesone example the Im Is crown in parael of Ym'.s grain :4P: :-0 with ijI Dum. GI IV, 105. herethe grain is given in the moonfestival VI 281,1,and c.f.

Accordingto Sethe but often UpperandLower Egyptiangrain arefound together the occurrence of in UpperEgyptian grainaloneseem#ore frequent theLatePeriod [ ZAS 44,1907 p.19).


musician, priestess Wb IV 479 (8) to 480 (4) MK - NK DG 509,3 Z-vi <i

In Ptolemaictimesall templeshad musicianpriestesses one of thew groupswas called gin't and 113thor (Blackman,JEA 7 the they played the sistrain rituals and festivals,impersonating goddess had tide 1921p.81.By theNK this termgrn't'chantress' become standard for womenpriests[lA the IV 1102; Ward,FeminineTitles p.19'musicianj At Edfu they perform their role jubilate at the adorationof the god 1329,8 Ile .

determinativehere shows a woman playing a tambourineand the Vm't would also play menat textsthe chantress each of necklaces, their hands singduringrituals etc. In the geographical clap and nomeis namedand at Behdetsheis called'MenatNecklace 1359,14 When Isis drives .



awayBe from Naref , the chanUtss . deed 123,9. VI


of the areais calledIady of Magic' in honourof this


(summer) season Wb IV 480 (5-14) OK DG 508,1 a W\ Cr.564b: CED243; KH314 I! IWM

for Two possibleetymologies this term havebeensuggested either from WKrmw lack of watee : in (Sethe) from the word)(mm'behof [seeWilbour 11 24 n.3). At Edfu this season p. appears dates or in Wetejeset on the third monthof '53-0is ( the stretchingof the cord
cVr3' 11 the fourth month of IV 17,3

IV 14A ;a festival is on

the flying beetle shows himself is .A ritual where

cr-MM C"I " on celebrated

the 18thday of the 4th monthof summerIV 11,4 [CdE 36 Nr. 71,

274 281] In the HypostyleHall thereis the dateof anotherfestival which occursin Xmw : the p. . , hall is the placethat the Lady of Dendera enterson the New Moon of the monthof Shemw zz [Alliot Culte H 507 n3] H 10,15. in the geographical king bringsto BB C As the harvest processionthe : season X3=2 at his good

for the time - thereis no knowingthe numberof everything _. he c'UtS Ifinw-harvest your sanctuary I Shemuseason 11208,4.In a IV 42,4 ; the earth bloomsby HB as when he shinesat c3-use metaphorical : the scentof a god is like lotusesof the summer VH 190J.


harvest crop , Wb IV 481 (1-11) MK DG 507,1 yA harvest tax , ,

CED 243 !: wH tax, tribute

Xmwcanrefer to the crop usedfor taxationpurposes, deriving Erom word for the season the 17hough Xmw [Wilbour 11 24]. at Edfu &w in which the harvestand subsequent assessment place took tax p. its free Erom. technicalimplications: mx= for 'crop!or 'harvest'. is the more generalword IV broughtfor the sanctuary 42,5; their is

VH for the storehouse. 76,16;peoplecomecarrying,

harvestto your granaries 243,2-3;whenthe king bringsthe Field of theDrtyw the VII


gods make prosper 10" field is made abundant and 468,9.

harvest at its time IV 43,15; a woman offering bearer says. 'the 3bt the ? is content at his time, then the king reaps it in jo Y' 1 summer



Wb IV 468 (1-17) vb. OK 469 (1-8) noun NX

hot! DG 380,6JLmmverb 'to become Cr.677b; CED283; KH372Zmme becomehotZmom mom


fever, heat; andverb - Cr.677a-,CED 283

In Medicaltextsfmm. t is the technicalterm for heat,inflammation feverof a patient [Wb Med or for it 8534 ] andwhentheword Irmmis associated Sakhmet refersto the feverof disease which with is the goddess responsible Sakhmet calledon to saveRe from .-all : was T 44,01 vi 264,14; fever

3; rWI t Zl'-O 22, VI 1266,6; sim. 1, Sakmetsavesthe king from ... "IcIT IF 0ev ery eviIf everV -A, 4c7all fevers111298.14; is 302,15;Sakhmet askedto savetheking from her emissaries ct-'-O and = +L*T fever'A' Sakhmet and guardsthe king against(r)cmgAevery feverIII 3oi. i: WT protects Sakhmet doesnot prevail over the king VI 264,16.In an offering of an amuletit is askedthat the of feverr-=3 P- at the bad timesof the year VI 303.13 (see: Germond, king doesnot suffer any Sekhmet, 30-31n.20'fibvre'; IES Edwards BPBM 4 p.32 n.1I the spocialised of Vmm'heae use P. to mean'feveel. SAN,, The 'fire' of Sakhmetcan work in a positive way for the king : c= - OF 1487,7. majestyis in the foreigncountries The verb also appears Edfu : in a stayingthe crocodiletext the king receivesall his focsST4at burnt in flames111137,10. as Derivedfrom this term for 'feverof illness'is a word for serpents who may havebeenenvisaged this fever by means their venom: in a libation text, Isis as Selkis'drivesaway reptiles of spreading and T fLT C=313 VII 120,8; as the king digs a foundationtrenchhe repels the fire of Her

Ile he finds in the earth111106,10. term is attestedfrom earlier magicaltexts which BeattyVII ro 7,5 ; P.Brooklyn47218.138x+9 col. X and An.Lex. 78.4113). ', [P.Chester ". I '' i



bow Wb IV 482 (5-7) RoyalTombs

in 1fmr first appears NK war texts(for example MH 79,18; 19,3; 62,7)and it may haveto do with into the newtriangularbow introduced Egyptat this time [Wolf, Bewaffming 82]. Thereis a verbin p. Hebrew -10 W 'to keep,watch,to preserve' [HebrewLex. p.1036a]which may be the sernitic

of root of theEgyptianword andreferto thebow asa weapon usedin thedefence townsor armies. . In theEdfu textsit is usedasa variantfor 1)ow'andthereis no distinctionin representations between this bow and iwn or pdt . It is used in bow and arrow offering texts : the king wearing the hemhemty crown says Receive (Ynttyw) 'and it fits with (K'd) your enemies and slaughter

Sais thec%31c=3 arrow to Amun of Southern and the alliteration of If M 135,15; the king presents The god then confirms that he receivesthe t--- SZ-2 VII 143,12. -. destroythe enemies the king with it. of In the geographical texts in the nomeof (2a Horus is called "One with carnelianeyeswho in (VII 144,4)and proceeds to

--Z and the arrow' IV 39.5.The king as masterof the iwn-bow seizes ther-2 seizesr=3 %-Z

SaisandNeith 111256,3. Anothergod associated thebow is Amunof Southern with thepresence of is Min who Masterof the Bow 1403,10 an exceptional exampleof Min as an archer

[Yoyotte,RdE 9,1952 p.137n.31. ftr 419 ; DVIII 100,1has is usedin other GR temples(Ombos1150,198; Philae<2484>Phot. -

Kmrt-wrt a protectivegoddess).


to follow , serve Wb IV 482 to 484 (18) Pyr. DG 511,2 41% 11

Cr. 567a; CED245; KH315 gins hasthe classicalusesat Edfu and the spellingsare not unusual. Examples: thetwosisters the Two Combattants everyday IV 27,12;Horusto king serve to you the peopleof Egypf 1501,3 1187.14; Hathor"I give

your ka with god'sefflux IV 47,12. present for his mother1419,8 IH 40,9 IH 171,16


P20 for his father1256,3; 'to presentmyffh: r .. 130,12.Writings VHI 133.7



-IV 133,4

VI 251,16; 1150,5 Me sign usedto write Im s he is not a word for the re .

sphinx statue but it representsthe action of presentinga vesselcontaining myrrh. %ms.f 'in his service, following him': m. the crew go round IV li, 2 c f. "How joyful

T Ir-,,,. V 343,14. (or is he who doesnot cease serveyour house in the serviceof your house)to ...


followers retainers ,

Wb IV 485(6-14)plural486(4-15) msw is used Edfuto denote of servants theking or a god at of theking aregivena

1 'wide! life spanIV 44,6; of servants theking are allowedto eat the meatof the enemyIV -' ill 57,12;whenmeatis roasted a brazier,Hor-Akhty givesthe king on brazier1478,12-13 . lr. 'b servants the of


to foRowthe heart. be happy Wb IV 483 (11)

Lorton studied Kms-ib in the context of Wisdom texts, mainly with a view to establishing whethci' it had hedonistic implications. He decided that the word had more than one use, but in wisdom or not texts it should be more properly translatedas 'follow the conscience [ JARCE 7.1968, pA If At Edfu ms-lb implies relaxation of a person and the resulting contentment : the king is content 1 -8and relaxes in a place called the the Mammisis at Edfu IV 14.1 (c CIV 10,711"tw" intheValleyofMyffhVi

Horus relaxes in his boat on a pehu IV 24,11; HB relaxes 252,2.7-8.


a plant

In medicaltexts, this plant is usedto cure certainillnesses and hasmagicalprotectivepowers.At VIII 136,18; Phill 1106.3alsoandhasbeenidentifiedwith Edfu it is usedto fill the Eye z--V. Anacyclus PyrethriurnD.C. le pyrethre [Aufrtre, BIFAO 87.1987 pp.22-26 ; Germer, Arznei pp.318=21; Wb Drog. ppA77-91.



Wb IV 465 (19-22) Pyr.

Igmt is the noun derived from the verb m 'to go', also used at Edfu : the king sin. ti m

-A V

fast in your movementIV 206,14 ; also in a processionir stm 5F 207,5.


of the king IV


atree WbIV 498(6) - 499(4) NK - Amarna ZI DG513,2 YK). Cr.568b;CED245; KH317 !!jtiW1

term As theCoptic termandis notto word!Mtio is a general for'tree sognmayalsobe a generic Vandier PJumilhac 51-2]. beconfused thename thesacred Ynd[see tree of p. with , 4" CUL lightsup In At Effu : in a collaroffering,Horus everytreewhenhe risesVI 333,17. a description thebarkof Horustheprowis made i3m.andthestemof Vnd woodbothbeing of of 'iw. trees Edfu.Thetextthensays w ma at sacred trees theyaresacred downto thisday'

Xn trees VI 122,1 Againhere is a general wordfor tree. TheMythatEdfugoes to list thesacred on . in thevarious trees mentionedat thetownof H3-di-nlr -)(nd andnbsarethesacred places JJVI 115,9 at St-Ob. P- 13mandIfnd are &! j VI 269.3 Thesacred i trees Edfuare' at ; i3m, ied and9nd.


hugenumber Wb IV 488(12)

fn is usedat Edfu as an infinite number: In the protectionof the house,'it is the protectionof 10 million 0with millions andprovidedwith 100,000s'VI 151,1. -filled


to enclose encompass , Wb IV 489 (1) to 491 (5) Pyr. DG 515,2 01 . -


At Edfu the word is used to describe "gs temple VI 6,6; a haH laIr

encircle : the fmyt corridor which


encloses the

four sides of stone VI 63 ; also the beetle is with walls on , ; the sun god is surrounded with the fire of his

1-1412,6 fire of the divine cow CL surrounded with eyes 01 -1411,5. N=

refers to the king, 'one who encloses,surrounds' : the king is heir of CL CL:t of Egypt (lotus offering) VI 51.6.

the earth'V

48,16 ; he is

Yn. m-. f : in the temple description the corridor hall goes around the Great Pbce so that one can enter the chamberssurrounding it c-- C(or - on its circurnfierence)IV 5,11.


circuit. circumference Wb IV 491 (6) to 493 (7) D.18

As the sign DL represents tied loop of cord forming an unending eternalcircuit - so the word a , too canbe a circuit or circumference some of concrete object.This is usuallyapart of the world: Circuitof the earth: a L^qW fI556, l; -CL!! ' IV46,15 *,Horus gives A. t3hrndb. under the 1472,3: the king sea as far as

sandals the king 1141,11;Apis givesthe king a of 1233,14;Satisgives Q. 115,3 Circuit of heaven: . *,
450,11; CL

mi qd.f 1 154,10. Q 117,12 is underthe wings of 11111119 (23); 1

under his wings 1472,9; the king is the ruler of and the inheritance of the earth" 132.1;

1274,8; Ilorus says to the given under the sandals

king and queen "take of the king H 50,4.

CV1 552,2. Circuit of the banks (idbwy) : his eyes illumine ZVZSII R-q^^ 1121,13; Q Circuit of the sun disk : 1115,2 ; Re Ilarakhty is ruler of 91 what 1135.13;' 0 circuit of

the sun disk H 38,10; the king is made to drive out darkness from C1 the circuit of the king is the ruler of the 'CL circuit of the sun disk 137,19; Isis gives the '60 VI 270,2.

the sun disk 1134,14 . All the circuit of the sun disk Circuit of the celestial vault (gbt) 1128 a 15-16. .

G Circuit of the underworld: CLaxi IV 32.13 . (z9 Various: %n-n-]Vr the falcongoesaroundthe circuit of 110rus the sky) [c f. DG V 139- EsnaII DL-or no.31 56 restore Goyon,Gardiens 9n.71VI 328.13; The Mansionof the Lcg is established p.


Q on the cast of Mesen 1251,2; Sutekh gives the 0 %--'tt 174.4; Th. A gives CL'etEi 449,6 ; Horus is ' CI

circuit of what the Lord of All sees1


of the Eye of Re 1278,6; Hathor gives and Lord of the Sun Disk 1158,18;


of the Two LighLi I and the four


comersof the earthhavehis throne1158,19. Ifn is the concept a circle beinga 'whole!'complete, without endin space total in time. of and implying that the earth,sky, sun,moonand Most of the phrases using%nrefer to universal'wholes! circuit.The 9n sign is alsoa sign of protectionunderworldwere seenas beingpart of an unending for it is a barrier without breaches a safeplacefor anythinginside it - suchas the nameof the and king.


symbolbehindtheking asa protective Wb IV 488 (1)

Thein sign is usually paintedgreenor blue and the inside is left empty . It is a ring of reed or is thedeterminative in to enclose?.is heldin vultureclawsandis usedas, It of similar - not a seal and in jewellfy. It represents complexideaof the eternityof thingson earthand in heaven a an amulet renewal[Mquier , BIFAO asif theyarein a circle,in a regularrevolution,in perpetual which carryon II 9) --T r--% Ty- the but j. 11 1914p. 137ff. In the formulaicphrase cl nL D_ meaning is obscure the , A is important[RT 27,1905. p.170; Kees,Opfertanz 1191. p.


globe,circuit of theworld Wb TV493 (9-10) GR

form of Vn-t3.At Fdfu A word which occursfairly frequentlyin GR texts- perhaps abbreviated an the sunfills the C1 with his rays1552,1 -,you walk Q in peaceH 15,2;openingthe wings to the 0. ^A. -A Sutekhgives limits of D- and everyone rejoices1115,18; of theLord of All 1152,4. 964 70 Also at Dendera:D 111113,12 D 11106,1;Philae <3060>Phot. ; Philae <2112> Phot. -, KO 198,122. the whole circuit

'to repeatthe circuit! that is "become youngagain'= the moonbecomingfull whm-In ,


Wb IV 491 (11-13) Dyn. 18 GR oft. Wb stressesthe connection with the moon, but at Edfu the phraseretains a more liteml meaning in Maat text - Horus gives to the king 'the year at its' seasons a giving
your time (lit. it repeats the cycle) EAlam27,14;

a zr 15

in this la'n* at d

Proceeding to Mesen text - Horus says to the king"

'the Great Place blooms when you walk on its ground (of the temple) M 163,16.



it renewsthe circuit

whm-%ncircumference WbIV491(13) D.18

its'length is beautiful,its' width is exactand In the templedescription:the templeis praised because

'K Cj = J1

is its circumference 'just right' - correct[de Wit - perimeterCdE 36 Nr.71 p.641IV VI of the templeis 90 cubits'whenhe shinesin it as 1111 7.4 ; also is thecircumference exact MD

4,7 ; the circumference a

'thelengthandbreadth thetemplebuildingamperfectand of 1122.


Ocean Wb IV 493 (12-13) GR

gn is derivedfrom the meaning Xn10enclose Perhaps Egyptians the Of the envisaged world as land'At by lie procession, givesto you surrounded thesea- theprimevalOcean. Edfu : in thegeographical


suffoundingthe tl3w-Nbw'l


Wb IV 493 (14) to 494 (10) recordsthe use of 1(n 'the sea' from the PT and it also occurs in ifn-wr 'the greatcircle namefor the oceanwhich enclosed the continents all such as expressions branches theNile andthe RedSeawhich It DG [Gauthier, V 1381. maypossiblyreferto theeastern of to joined with theNile sources thesouthandcompleted greatcircuit. A text from the RedSeaport the Wadi Gawisismentionsgn-wr , implying the RedSeais Yn , the enclosing on the eastern side' sea of of Egypt [RdE 29,1977 p.159]. It is distinct from the w3d. wr (Mediterranean)and pILr-wr (Euphrates) km-wr (Suezisthmus). and Ll- '="- NE '90' At Edfu the king is given UpperandLower Egypt 1172,6.



nameof thepehuin Memphis Wb IV 494 (8) Gauthier 138 DV

In the Memphisgeographical : water is put into text

is listed as CL nome r-

1330,2 also the pebuof the

V 14,1-3(IV parallelis lost).

gn-n-3bty compass the Two Eyes of Wb IV 493 (7) GR The phrase refersto everythingin heaven earththat the two two eyesof the sun god or Horus and Behdetcan see: Horusgiveseverythingfrom his eye &. Qc7 H 37,17;(presenting field) the
7,15-16 : Tboth gives all

rl Aten seesin heaven and it5r. -0 a% Horus gives everything the 4- %% LL places, Nut covers,,--P, and 2 0

and what Geb lifts on 1278,6-7 ; the kings brings Amun perfume

VIII <1 37d>; the king gives Min cosmetics. what Aten sees;&, V 'or

Philae <2733> Phot.995

%n(n) rhyt Mediterranean coastof Egypt Wb IV 494 (10) OK, Montet173,116 [12thdynasty CG The earliest of example theword is from theBersheh sarcophagus Imen-em-het of 28092- RT 29,1907 p.147C] "You havesailed -Q. -:5, =, the paralleltext A has

r- =L At Edfu the examples -: the stress location : the NorthernNile bringsqbb-water for/of the . Wadj-Wer,it brings to you the Yn-phr of the Hau-Nebu and pb3t inlof 9X4*A! 1466,2;this

'the king comesto HB bringing the Maaty canal ihy b3w-nbw hr sbdT n*with . compares of and -ax 'like a net aroundthe Hau-Nebou in the circle of the Rekhyf IV 369,8; god is sovereign the Hau-Nebuand contentwith in the pehuof the Elephantine nomeIV 172,12 ,

Vercoutternoted that it is often connected the Hau-Nebuand is usedin paralle! with Xn-wr with 48,1949 p.1834]. [BEFAO


hair Wb IV 499 (9) to 501 (3) Pyr. DG 513,1 "Ir


headsof the enemy are cut off and held up by their hair 0- h% At Edfu : the that the sign &L can act as a determinative for which establishes value ifny. nus Mn says: I have received the ibs and decorate Vny 1 404,10.

IV 370,14-15

and so itself could have the. my haie and the hair sign is


plants (metaphoricaluse)

Plantscouldberegarded the 'haieof theearthandsoYnywith thecorrectdeterminative as couldjust as well refer in generalto terrestrialplants.In a text of an offering to the Mnevis bull there is a his efflux andhis tCLT to reference plantsandrrw -flowers 1487,16.


hair of theearth-a plant Wb IV 501(6-11)502(1-6) OK ofLGR

At Edfu the word mostoftenappears a phrase in that which suggests it is a generalword for plants lcltells the king that he makesbloom ratherthan one specificvariety : Harsonithus plantsuponGeb HI 2.7 ; sim. a,j3-iii-, all

herethey are broughtby the southern Nile 1583,64; plantsbloom uponGebVI 226,12;a

blV, Z,, he the whenthe king offersoneof the canals makes Nile brings

*4 for the 1322.10;r teldsin the Districts of Homs contai granaryor storeroom j:;, . 14110 f theseplants I= IV 48,15. Ile word hasa similar useat Denderaand this reinforcesthe view that by the GR period it is a term and at DenderaYny-t3 appearwith other plants such as Orr. t and sbt. t and sm' general [Dittmar, Blurnenp.62 f] . 9ny-t3 is not includedin offeringsof papyrusandmay be connected with high grasses plantsof the marshthickets. or by Wb Drog. 495 notesthat In[-t3 had a bitter tastewhich could only be sweetened honey [from' Eb28 wherethe fruit of the mnwb plant is called61431. It is only usedin threerecipesfor things which are takeninternally [Dawson,JEA 12,1926 p.240ff.) and hasbeensuggested thejuice of as Trigonellafoenum L. Arznei ) [Gardiner AEO I 21n. orjuice of Cyperus esculentus (Germer, graecum tomb and it was not p.199noteshoweverthat a jar of Trigonellaf. g. was found in Tutankhamun's labelledXni-t3so shewould seeit asa general word for 'plantsof the carthl. As Iny-t3 is sucha general term,at differentperiodsit mayhavehaddifferentapplications.



to recitespells, readout

Wb IV 495(8-17)MK 496(2-6) Med. In theMythof Horus, Thothasthedivinescribe I recites DL (spells) protect bark to utterances the in of Horus theconflict VI 128,14. t,


clouds Wb IV 507 (3-9) MK Kni.t Pyr. - 502 (15) to 503 (4) DO 512 clouds :*X

In the Edfu textsthe cloudsareused poetically: in a litany to the sun- whenthe sundisk riseshe I ', OP or (9n') drives away clouds1551,19;in the third hour of the day the king is the one who drivesaway stormsand repels the clouds1112150;the sky is clear (pure) -4- -9" OPP

thereare no clouds/withoutclouds1417,7 ; in the templedescriptionthe two obelisksoutsidethe i % *W, VII 19,8; also the flag mastsbesidethe pylon li, templepiercethe cloudsof Nut --j CL3 VIII 67,14-15- to showhow tall the obelisksand flag of the templepiercethe clouds
poles are. At Edfu the name of one of the 12 heavenly cows is -'CL 7q 1547,16.


lion Wb IV 506 (2) GR

At Edfu Vn' is usedoften in the 'gargoyletexts'and it is usuallyusedin the pun Xn,)(n, enemies 'the lion who drivesawayenemies:
CL V 274,14; a ip


'-0- 0 IV 111,6; ,cr IR

IV 130,5, rf 4,,, W Sj -


1 IV 287,11: a&

IV 285,11-12 The role of the lion wasto keepaway .

to rain out evil anddrive off danger theking andin GR temples watercomes of a holeunderthebreast of a lion and door bolts are madein the form of a lion, so that the temple is protectedby these The sign 4R. -9, may readXnI rather than m3i. images. ar [LA VI 1155-6 ; Sauneron-Stierlin,

At Edfou et Philae,p.54 a 'gargoyle! Denderal. Philaetoo Xn' is the word for the lion-waterspouts at LEj %iN <319> 1 am who drivesaway the foes <353> 1 jq Ilough the word is

in only properlyattested the GR periodthereis an early exampleof one of thesewater spoutsfrom


the sun temple of Niuserre [Von Bissing, Re-Heiligturn I Der Bau p.55 Ab. 49-50] - it is made of basalt and is in the form of a lion lying down but has no inscriptions. , The lion is also a god of the slaughter block (Wb IV 506 3) protective deities here is called mr. f dg3 di. f t3wy bbt 11 -5 MDIV 59b in the Sokar Chamber one of the 1200,6 -,sim .


to driveaway(by force), repel Wb 504 (5) to 505 (12) MK DG 515,5 to repel keepback ,


c f. KH 318 exclude,deprive wwNrc

Followed by r, Wb suggeststhat the verb means 'to scare away'but the uses -f this phrase at Edfu suggestsa meaning 'to drive out into' [JEA 29 , 28 n. 14 I: 65,2; the lion ew Seth Horus Seth -zw the Red Land VI

to the Red Land 111188,14;the lion in Khent-labet J; Nj Seth

the Red Land VI 287,2. The more usual (Wb IV 505,1 LateGR) use is also found: 4; Ns drive the foe from your shrine VI 78,2-3; Isis 4N Aenemy from Naref VI 121,1; VI 123,8 also; the lion -sac -A turns away the Nebed

O footsetps of the rebels from the Eye 1306,17-18; here Nfin does the same-'Ir', 1396,8 -.-r 4r-ffrom the areas of Horus 1365,6 *.BB spelling with a cat determinative

I drive away for you the high Nile IV 214,6 ; c.f. the Untyw from the Eye of Re [Junker, Onuris p. 10]., who

In' 'lion' in a magical pun: I am the 19W-lionkrk In the 'Gargoyle' Texts Vn' accompanies 0V drives away Seth (N') IV 111,6-7; 1 am the In'-lion tj A. in the pun 19n'Yn"drive away clouds '1551,19 .

the opponents (rkyw) IV 287,11. Also

has a restricted use at Edfu ut see also OsMn' The verb then '30

The Vn' sign can be confused with .

1181. granary[Griffith-DaviesPtahhoteop c-3=

enemy. foe WbIV506(6) GR nl is the to the verbW 'to drive away'and usingthe two wordstogetherincreases a complement DL-%NytheFoe(literally 'one who' magicalpotencyof the phiise : the lion (Kn') drivesaway (Ynl) -j


is driven away ', perhaps a specific reference to Seth IV 1114 Tle word can also apply to foes in general : the children of Horus who protect Osiris drive away On') (Beleg.) = Louvre Wb. NrAO <130> GR bsf Fn also occurs on a statue W= o' 1186,9. Ibis word and in a similar

context at Philae <319> beside the picture of a lion ,I am Yn', the lion who drives away (Yn') : n, %and slaughtersrebels with my knife. At Dendera: Hathor/Sakhmet tells the king "I protect your R 170 (gntyw) from cy to, '-the determinative here suggestspossible confusion with Ynw attendants D 111185,3.

food prepared where was workshopor kitchen storehouse , WbIV 507(12)to 508(25)
DG 515,4 h 6' 7

Cr.573b CED 247 ; KH 319 tMW-kypossiblya loan word from Semitic4hnw cL

%n' is distinctfromYnwt- granary. RdE [Egberts, 15,1987p25-31; Traunecker, 38, Enchoria At Edfu: then'-Wbt is the'bakery' 925 -. r": bread made stored 1987 147-162] -3VI 204,8; and was p. where /I=r- VII 151,4-5 or

-c7*r-*3 V 376,9-10in thedescription thetemple says hehasfounded HB / bread that ; of grainand hisworkshop with mw servants theirworkwithoutceasing at Cl IV 15,5-6 at thehead ; of

Clfpsw) (Cleopatra) bearers queen Nile offering the of comes exoticthings with of a procession in bread tyc-3 of thekingIV 45,3. Aqetwhomakes 43,5; a Nile godbrings C31V Moregenerally all goodthingscomefrom theU': 161,8-9 c"-311 VII CP3 30,17-18.

j to Fromthedoorleading thewell in theenclosure at Edfuthepriests couldalsogo to the-.!! wall but the to thetemple outside maintemple within themud workshops referring r3 - presumably for the among priests brickenclosure VI 8,2.Instructions performing in thetemple rites mention wall in thetemple ' in Vj those charge theYn VI 346.12 -,11-,C,C3 and W. of

is In VI for the)(n1 theplace where holdstheofferings thedailyritualin thetemple 349,6. thiscase for translation akitchenis still applicable foodis keptandprepared usein thetemple Berlev's thus of 'workhouse, [Damell, Enchoria Oth. storehouse! theEdfutexts[Obch. p.319f.] or moregenerally to 1 16,1988 129-13 p. %n' In At Dendera hasthesame uses. theOK it waswrittenwith the :=D-1 signwhichis replaced


by the lion at Edfu and may be a result of the confusion of the two signs in hieratic. In the OK it was captured slaveswere put to work c-L aboveIV 15,5-6. a place where


courtiers , followers , attendantsof a king or god Wb IV 511 (1) to 512 (7) MK

At Edfu the word usually refers to the followers of a god. In origin it may be those who are 'around! or who 'enclose! the king or god - thus is a participle from Vni 'to enclose'. In fact it is a feminine form functioning as a collective [El-Sayed BIFAO 79,1979 p. 194 n(n)]. Often these attendants go , m-pJjr 'around' the god, which supports this view - they may even be seenas a bodyguard: of Re around him IV 13,11; when HB appearsin the morning 12,9; the priests in processionsare the

Y. -

are around him VI

of HB 1571.8; Wadjet of Atu'm before his 192.10; an epithet of Os s PIr qq 1

iri is A Tr a,

It T Y. 1104,9; Osiris presentsofferings to his le 126 1 MA 1196,12; Osiris listens to


whop rotectOs iri sI

178,14; the Children of Horus around Osiris are called the night 1186,11; among the gods around Re are the

and they watch over him during of the Lord of All 1555,2

of HB give praise to him V 8,10, when Reappears in heaven the crew is injoy andl! in happiness(ndm-ib) V 155,6. The title is used from the MK, according to the Wb, and it may be that in practice these were the trusted advisors, counsellorsand bodyguardof high officials and the king.


storeroom magazine , Wb IV 507 (1-16) Pyr.


cyw -JSYN&$ C3
I IV 122,12. Ibis implies that'

in agricultural of theking : heis overseer thestoreroom titles of At Effu %nwt appears

0 'M IV 242,8; he is the son of the overseer of the storeroom (M E73

the Icingcontrolsthe suppliesfor the whole land.The gnwt may havebeena placeprimarily for the of storage grain : supplyingthe 1' Nfle provides com andemmerIV 15,5;the southern with

your storeroom with w3hy-grain 1582,9. p-3 &to From the Old Kingdom%nwt was the-nameof storeroomsmainly for grain but also for other


produce[LA V 591-8].Theremaybe a certainamountof confusionin the Late period between this Yn' (q.v.). word and


foodofferings Wb IV 509(10-11) GR

T 4143M11 in the Cynopolite nome brings with it 1 and there is no lack T-O -24o,! 10 CM.. 'P I V 119,11 alSO. CIE113 M=. E 623. In. other temples this offerings also occurs of them there' The town of
KO 11Nr. 892; ' CD 195,10; c2:: A ve MD H 28(36); MDI 31.5 ;a

text wherethe king presents SAK 7, p. 18]

as a daily offering for the Ennead CD IV 195,1[Beinlich,

In the epithet of the king nriwty bbn Ynw 'one who does not receive gifts (bribes)' which is usually found in NUat offering texts and shows the incorruptible nature of the king as the upholder of

Maat [Otto, GuM p.1221: Thoth as vizier.%4^. % at,

offering , overseer of the city and vizier B M', ctrd95 E.Mam27,7; Cc: 195,10; 7A


VIII 123,4;Cm9H 73,16 ; King - Maat

129,9; AAAA VH 91,4 ; U-Q



[see-Junkerop. CiL p. 39n. Ithe 93 C: Urk VIR -CL

Wes3b-L3ty is not paid for his judgements] ; <78i>.

Urk VHI <59i> : Khonsu -


M trurnpet EsnaV p.352 n.h

&. 1 r-l', % : A word

VI 22,4-5is readby Sauneron Vnb 'trumpee howeverthe context as ,

doesnot allow this. Ile word is in a description a god 'the crook and flail are over his heart,the of disk is on his headandYn-b13'circuit of coppeeis underhis feet! - probably referring to the sky 'circuit of coppee(sky) is underhis feet asgod walks in the sky, seeW.


giroat Wb IV 512 (10) to 513 (7) MK DG 515,8 dimat, windpipe CED 258 !NOYW&C

5W47 r-,


i is placed on the throat (Ynbt) [for From the 12th dynasty list of objects on coffts the vulture amulet CGC 2813 no.44 (Lacau, Sarc. Ant. 11p. 140) Lacau, Corps 173] Anbt example . -NE is used

mainly in non-medical, mythological and other texts - it can also be the breast of a nurse (Urk. IV 920,12-13) [Ufebvre, Tableau 241. At Edfu the throat is the place for amulets : Maat Q. VII 27'2,2; 2 1405,17. The P. ML * :C: 199,1'6., a

2,, king gives amulets for the throat of his father as protection and decoration: -,'-, . 17 ; shkr-*inbt

fux*, : 2N- VIH 123,5, '"CL with an amulet 170,1; Maat is ////of -X-'th

Z 1145,18 QFor the Egyptians the Inbt is also the place where liquid went into the body 'throaf : in a beer 1459,14 ;a grape juice offering is

offering, drunkenness floods the breast of the king made to make festive zO:-! "' V 390,4 ;0" QQ

of his majesty 1460,8. The milk of Hathor is for the 'throat' : -rVII 230,4 ; Hathor gives sweet milk to of the king Mam. E

165,13. Yrc I(nbt is the throat or front of others : may your arms be powerful 'c"22it against the throats of your enemies177,16. imy-)Cnbt 'what is in the throat' = heart ?: Khonsu come from Re+ the + SNI-4L Horus rejoices at the building of the temple 1161,17. of a: T 1270,14;

iry-Ynbt 'what belongs to the throae pectoral (ter- iry) : Maat decoratesaccompanying deities with

9. J Z an 24

VIR 122,9-10.

sgt3-lfnbt secretof breast/throat Wb IV 512 (15) GR in inscriptions from the late periodand it indicates The expression that the appears autobiographical personwith this epithethas neverdivulged secretthings and is a discreetperson[de Meulenaere, by Mel.Grapow220 0 and220 n.5 and6] The virtue of discretionis naturallypossessed the king . at Edfu : the king 1570,17 1who sees his hiddenthingsandconceals belly at seeingthe sacred place Re-Harakhty he for God7 IV 121,12. the 'Seeing In ritual the king sayshe sees IV 'CL 55.1-2and

is an excellentwaabpriestandhe is the administrator Hor-Nakhtand of line 4; also --6 Mand master secrets hiddenthings111258,4. and of


The phrase alsoappliedto theking at Dendera 11116;D IV 102,256 -Q is ; Cr :D I CD V 94; T- CD IV 247 [Chassinat Khoiak 111 n.51. ,

Vnbt is used here for the throat is the place whence speechcame.


falconimageof Horus Wb IV 514 (1-4) Pyr. NK oft.Gr

The Vnbty is a crouchingfalcon and is known from the earliesttimes . Actual examples this of in TfA 3] andalsoin sculpture.They would be madeof falcon imageappear relief [Petrie,Palettes an and wood and represented idol. It could also be called 'Jim , particularly the mummiform stone Thereare similar cult figuresof Sobek variety. Urgeschichte Ill. 93L PL2 ; Sethe, At Edfu theVnbty represents imageof BB : the noblewingedbeetleflies to the horizonof the Lord of Fire IV 18,2;as an epithetof BB e Qh-' come to you gmbs -: s3b-Xwt 117,20;thekings says"I have Kherty 21and [LA H 94 n.2 ; JEA 2.

Cl his who surrounds placewith fire VI 180,2-3;HB is cy

5' Chamber Sokarit is called the secretcrypt (9tyt-Xt3t)of A-t. of swift of births 1110,16;the first 6 C1 1176,9;BB is Lord of heaven who shinesand onelives at seeinghim 1310,13;HB is

S4ofmanyformsH 20 (82). by Horusis the sungod surrounded fire andflame. The association theYnbtywith fire is because of


impurity Wb IV 515 (3-9) Dyn.18oft Gr. c f. DG 514,5 to be sick Z k Ynw illnessWb IV 495 (1-7) MK Wb Med 857

Cr.570b; CED 246 ; KH 317 to be sickweak _ujwwrz 9nn is the later writing of 6w'illnese and also Vandier [Faminep.66-67] discusses word znnI a 1] from the root 'to suffee ( Wb 11146 which seemsto be the word found at Edfu. There was R R thoughthe former readszn and the the readingof the sign which looks like confusionover latter Yn , this could occurjust as well in hieroglyphictextsas in hieradctexts.In this way for more conventional signs for In suchas 0became19h and was written 9, . znn Ynn

to 'baS waterperhaps or stagnant brackishwater - for it is the flood of the Nile particularlyrefers


%nn and has no impurity in it: the I-Iigh Nile (Hapy) comes, purified from impurity which removes 9 A" A %% 1475,8 -,the flood is purified fMH ro' without nastiness Oz the Nun Nile makes the Lake of Horus clean from "' 146,12

1324,5; Hapy is brought purified ,

&=qX "' "A fresh water offering H 146,12; the Great Nile is given purified from from and pours out a impurity and -JL- -&' 'JL there is no dirt in it 1471,4 ; Hathor gives a good year, purified from TST'U' Main. 127,1 ; in the Nile texts, each line ends in a 'bad' word to show the Nile contains none of 75FL -,0- -562' by the kkw-waters 1321.5. The word applies this - the Throne of Re is purified from AA AV 154P't driven is to impurities in general : the Great Place is purified and away (9n'. fi) from the

I(nbty falcon image1589.9-10; limbs are purified from (w'b r )n: I=Ie-b'y secretplace of the JL 'M Il 77,14 Wenenet 1174,19; by Hathor provisionsarekept pure from famineand also' , A ''- "I 1556,1 L is givenprotectionagainst(mk r),, g. 7" by Horus 1133,4 Menkebet the room 1- M . , Horussays'I protectyour limbs from '11134,9; the GoodYear is purified from

in a hymn to the yearVI 96,7;a text from thedoorwayof theSokarChamber the beetledrives" -S?away-5L -5EL from the Houseof the god 1203,7. Vnw is then somethingundesirable which has to be driven away and like 13dt it refers to the
stagnantpools and putrid mud at the end of the year just before the flood . where diseaseand impurity came from . It is not certain whether the Egyptians understoodthe biological connection between this

'impurity' and illnessbut that they foundYnn unpleasant something and which could be removedby the flood is clear.


reeds Wb IV 514 (8) Pyr. OK. GR

gnp is attested from the OK [Pyr 2044] it can be a rnp garment with a fringe wom by the vizier , [Sethe, Dram. Texte 211-2 ; JEA 31 p. 115 ; Helck, Verwaltung p.30] or it can be a mat made of [Ddvaud, Kemi 1,1928 p. 1411: or a reed [ArchAbousir 11381n. (ac) ]. At Edfu the Inp-reed is' reeds the product of the pehu of the I Ith LE nome : the pehu

an Wt V 19,15 is brought with its UCl ,,,

1124p.684-5for references]. a-l-V IV 31,1 [cf. Charpentier




Wb IV 514 (1) GR, MontetH p.37 tnp is the C] in the Edfu nome: Cm U. pehu 'Cr r::: ' 1 Acontains plants; IV 173,10-12 Cm ; 0 V 108,4-6which

1359,19; at Dendera,Durn.GI 11162.


altar(or offeringstab) Wb IV 517 (5) FCD 269

In the offering hall at Edfu is a phrase

KEi) the s3b-lwt, to provision the(: L-3 of the Great .ch

%nbtyimage1454,13 andit may be the word from the 18thdynastyfor an offering tableor altar It for alsoreadXtyt . Wb citesonly oneexample which fits thecontextof thepassage. couldhowever (temp.Hathshepsut) Tou divide out the offering portion for theplace theword : Stelaof Sen-mose , r--1 :- CI wherehe is , upon %

T 1' of

Urk.IV 498.


or a kind of bread cake Wb IV 516 (4) to 517 (4) Pyr.

gns gnsbreadis knownfrom earlyofferingtextsandapparently canbe a shape a breadratherthan of [Ebers31 iri m Igns makeasbs-bread . Arch.Abousir H 376 n (m) ]. Ile offering scenes a cake the breadat Edfu almostalwaysshowthe ensbreadin the shapeM of (3rd reg) ; pl.93 (I st reg) ) and onceonly c= (for examplesee- p1AOb

so it would seemto have a distinctive form . In

a one practiceperhaps shouldenvisage triangular,largeloaf The king wearsvariouscrownsto offer the breadandsomeappear morethanonce,theplumesin particularappear usuallyon a plain capor 8. Ile king canalsowearhornssurmounted thmeWhite Crownsor an Atef crown or by hat Double Crown. In the offering the king haspriestly tides suchas wdpw and makesthe decorative by offering alwaysto BB who may be accompanied Hathor . Oncethe offering is madeto Behdet In life, crops god provisions, alonewho is shownasa lion headed (176.8-16). returntheking receives the land,life, health. The aim of the offeringis to feedthe god soins breadmay be accompanied of by otherkinds of bread(VI 258,18-20,6) -,but it is alsoequated with Eye of Horusfor the god takes his Eye, cats it and it pacifies him and drives away his rage TV 222,9-223,12.The symbolism intendedhereis that the Eye of Horus is a guarantee life and breadis needed life so the two for of The offering title alwaystakesthe form OP n can apparentlydissimilarcommodities be equated.


ns 'raisingthe armwith thebread'andthe scenes showthe king lifting up his armsso that his hands uponhis hands. arelevel with his face.Thebreadis on a tray or restsimmediately RUP0 1473,8 Horus W*-'(WD 16; CIL<3 176,8 -,LI ! References : settleson -0 176,12; . 4-=H jul-do*-IV 66,18;Cxr'-, 67,1 and 49 AIV 47,13 and-O. 9.16; a d=D H 179,12; jj"z-IV .7 "L 12DV 53,14 C a VI 258,8and A0 40 259.2;J-'L A VH' 222,9 54,5; and



WbIV 497(9-12)Dyn. l. DG701 /h Cr. 546b; CED235; KH301 ujrz in In thegeographical ,a field is brought flowers it in millions,10,000s -. i texts with and -? hundreds 49J. IV


crocodile Wb IV 520 (6) GR

There is a verb Vn [Peasant B 1,130 = R175 and Lebensm(lde 741 which Vogelsang [ZAS 48 p. 164-167] translated as 'to be dangerousor similar, referring to the nature of the crocodile with which it is determined. Gardiner however translated the Peasantexample to mean % infested Wiih crocodiles'. as the verb referred to a sand bank containing these animals [JEA 9,13 Goedicke, Report p. 1361. The Wb cites gnt, a substantive perhaps derived from this verb, only from GR times but the Re,d Chapel of Hatshepsut has an example [Lacau et Chevrier, Chap.Hat. p. 152 n.(o) and 150 line 101 where Hatshepsut says, ink twn "I am a rapacious crocodile" n. 1, see also

At Edfu nt is used in texts concerning the spearing of water animals such as the hippopotamus , and crocodile the tide of a scene is 'bbbb. 1 ILA=bk-and putting him on the slaughter block

Sing I People of Mesen V 1113,16'. 77hescene shows the king spearing a crocodile pl. 48. In a the harpoon text, 'Slaying theRM48nMthe Islandof Rage of HB'V presenting the II th LE nome calls 1113 cuts off the headsof who 56,6-7. A text about

IV 30,6 The'description .


of the templedescribes sacrificinganimalsand harpoonandcutsup 1560,13

VI 13' HB the harpooner A; takesthe

word alsooccursatDendera: 'Slaying -The

MD wherea crocodileis harpooned III l8k and

'Spearing hippopotamus a scene' HB is calledthe harpooner who cuts off the forelegsof , MD III 73b (andD VIII 100,12). 'Ibough the word could comefrom the verbXni 'be infestedwith crocodiles'it is morelikely to be gnityw 'enemy,with an appropriate determinative creatinga specificword.



Wb IV 518 (12) NK, GR Originally )(nt3yt was a celestialcow, analogous the skygoddessNut. From the 19th dynasty' to to pantheon hada cult at Busiris [Mar.Abydos114 (38)]. Due to this and shebelonged the Abydene the connection with Osirisshereceived headdress Isis andwasultimatelyassimilated of with Isis. Her havebeenseenas deriving from ini 'to suffee,that is 'the mourningwoman. Or it may namemay derive from %n' 'to surround,enclose'(a protective function) [Piankoff Egyptian Religion'2 , , 100-105 Bonnet, RARGp.404-5; HeIck- LA V 580-1- Schentait]. ; gnt3yt At Edfu her enjoyeda specialcult statusas Isis-Shentayet to accompany a goddess and Together Mr-bt. s wascreated theyformedthepair of grievingsisters as who doubled Nephthys. who reassembling revivifying his body [Cauville, and mournedOsiris and took part in his mysteries, BIFAO 81,1981 p.21-40with unpublished textsfrom the roof of Dendera temple].As suchat Edfu Dql't" 188,1-2 in in ; the Pr-'nb-irw 'Houseof Life of forms' of sheappears processions Sokar:
1188,13; 1148,14 11213,7 or asssimilated with Isis 1171,3; -d lt-a

She performs tasks during the mummification - unrolling the bandages .Q 'ga .

1208,3 ; her perfumeinvigoratesOsiris

1222,12. a goddess protectionshestands As of

behindOsiris in rituals suchaspresenting wd3t-amulet1237,11.Heresheis shownas a woman the cow horns on her head.Sheappears amongthegodsof the threechapels Osiris-Sokar& of wearing 4.1123 37-,. 1182 no. (97) or amongthe godsof Egypt "R EF S1 1138,18. 153(63).

Shealso restswith Mr-bt. s in the second chamber the west of

When the king takespart in the offering of a containerof datesto Osiris (which revive him) he is


called Son of Shentayet

IV 135,10. (see 1376,15-16 &L weaver and in 1223,9 she is called oi

The most common epithets of Shentayetare epst. msn-nbt 9pst in Behdet mother of god msn-nht (1185,14 , , 2-2;. IL

The text which best defines her role is significantly to be found in a description of the Ist

Chamber of Sokar : "his two sisters are with him (Osiris) they ordain his protection it is Isis with , Nephthys ; it is ShentayetQ 176,10-11. with Mr-bts who raise up the perfection of their brother "'I -

XnLy w

cnemies , focs Wb IV 520 (3-5) MK

)(nLyw is derived from the older verb fni 'to quarrel'. either with words or in physical righting (Wb IV519,3-10 Pyr.). The substantiveYnlyw meaning 'enemies' is attested from the MK, through the

NK and at Edfu is used in this sense.It is used in scenesof killing foes - such as the staying of the oryx :61 dispatched by Nekhbet 13 10,1; Isis and her sister slay 176,13; U49-1 1204,6 -,they 1174,14; I'd also

C, it: are struck down (ow) by the arm of the king ii 1 'massacred!

by the king when he has received his scimitar 1292,7; bb 'butchered! paralleled with

1165,12. They are seen as animal foes, perhaps hippopotami crocodiles in this text VI 8,9 . When the king smites his opponents , the burnt up on the fire enemies are utterly all

run away at the attack IV 58,5

these IV -

(killing crocodile text) 111137.10;

47,1 ;P

qq ll-

IV 375,12;

RI qQ 2

NI 91,7. Among the OgdoadKkw consumes the,

tnjyw in fire 0- '%

It V 86,5-6.


AcaciatreeAcacianilotica L Wb IV 520 (9) to 521 (15) M Drog. 500-11OK= 3 1 DG516,7 4r--, s Cr-573a; CED 247; KH 319 YONIM 1127p.686-9. Charpender -404r'

The acaciatree was particularly prized for its- wood in Egypt which was used to make ships, also [LA 1113 statues doors.Its resin and leaveswere usedfor medicalpurposes or sarcophagi,


1119-211. 436a-b mentionsHoruscomingfrom the acaciatree and it Pyr. Keimer,Gartenpflanzen to regarded a placewherethegodasa child tookrefuge. as seems havebeen A list of the sacred the tree grovesat Edfu (1329-44)mentions acaciaasa sacred in 25 out of the41 thusit was sacred througfioutthe country [Buhl, examples 2 not stated) and nomes(with 3 destroyed JNES6,1947 p.80-97especiallyp.861for exampleMemphitenome nome 114 0 J%20 1337,12 1332,11;Edfu nome . 299,1; 'Ll 0 1329,14 ; Busirite

%ndis connected 61yw fos :43 A In alliterative puns of with the massacre

(presumably handle) In a it 1292,6-7because wasusedto makepartor all of thehpX-scimitar the . (lookinglike Isis) presents weaponto theking the text called'receivingthe scimitar, the treegoddess is called 5' and she 292,8. In the Myth , nearthe town of 113-dili: )4 andnbs are the divine trees VI 115,9 ; also VI 124,6; and the prow of the barqueof Re is of W-wood and its siernis of IT122,1. the greatacaciain'the Placeof Piercing (pl.29a - east,3 right) 1



to repair, construct
Wb IV 527 (12-17) Dyn. 18 Cr. 583a; CED 251; KH 325 !!IWP to fill up a wallpile upstop up

Edfu : 'the The nuance ir in Wb is that of 'to stopuV 'blocle which doesnot fit the examplelat of kingri! J] the GreatPlaceof thedivine wingedbeetleandhe restsin it till the morning'11126,14 ='23 CL it is more likely to be 'to build' rather than 'repair' [Barns,P.Ramesseurn 9 (14),gr = to p. where block].

Yr i

youth , chila Wb IV 526 (9-23) Pyr. DG 516,8 Yr- son

Ap4p11 _! E. E. In the Edfu texts: the GoodYear says,'the king - he is a child

" Cr.594a; CED 251; KH 324-5 !jH PE

'my sonof the GoodYeae

VI 99,15; the mooringropeis next to its n'yt like a child -g at the sideof its motherVI 80,10.



land in the Hcracleopolisnome Wb IV 527 (11) GR

The earliest geographical list at Edfu list the land as but in the later lists this land is called itf-bnt. %P

1343.7 (and also at Dendera) -


WadiNatrun(town) Wb IV 528(3-4) GR

Town of the Wadi Natrun (Sbt-bm3t) andthe earliestform of this namemay havebeen
%t-pt (PT 27e 580,63,1607) in the OK this area was a producer of natron [Gauthier DG V 143]. , _C== 0 At Edfu Horus body divine king I incense

tells the

will makeyour


of =-

and sacred

water of P3-hLn'VI 244,1; in a text where bsn is scattered, the king uses ffit-tir
1133,2 and c " J3 0 C'=O 111109,4.

C=3 11 from


shiVs rope for mooting Wb IV 528 (6) GR

cf. Dplyt Cr. 5604

r"2-.y6 DG 369 plyofcord tdXan CED7-4-1 KH 311.

Ile only exampleof this word quotedin Wb [Jones, Glossary 189] is in the Myth of Horus : the p. 13 rm 'C26 'r-mooring rope .. =p is next to the mooringpost like a child next to its motherVI 80,10.It

for to therefore be a hapaxbut thereis a word brpt (Wb 111326,7) which is a harnmer bashing seems in in the mooringpostandmaybeconnected someway.


guardian snakes Edfu at 9


A text aboutthe agathodemon snakes Edfu calls themthe at Lords of Provisions IV 98,5 .

%-- III,

Lords of Might and


lakeor canal Gauthier, DG V 123 )f-rhnt


This is the lake of the 23rd nomeof Lower Egypt which is in the north'east, of the Delta and area ,
near the Suez isthmus. At Edfu : G.
CM3 al AAgA


is brought with what is in it purifying the body -

of BB from all evils IV 41,4.5.


brook (a branchof theNile) Wb IV 528 (13) GR c f. DG 520,4 ft twig r 11.9Y5

inscriptions Edfu describe how the peoples foreignlandsarebroughtto HB Threeconsecutive at of

'=: king They are said to live on the water of the Nile and a branch of it r, -3 by the . VI 198,6 or

.c=. =

and the water of JLnmt VI 198,10;or c=p.Y-,



alone VI 199,3.This is probably a

metaphorical of the word which in Coptic meanseithera h-inch of a tree or a verb 'to lay out use 5hC-L (for branches' strengthening canalbanks)Cr.56lb ; CED 242 -! It may particularlyrefer

hereare all in the to the Nile branches the Delta thoughthis may not be correctbecause examples 7AS 3,1865 p.29 singular[Brugsch, examples;OsingNom.1 p.102]. aqueam rivulos quasiin'ramosderivare, with in


type of wood

Wb IV 528(12) GR DG520,4 rion ' loan'wordfrom Semitic, c.f. Hebrew11'rDqf.

Cr.561b; CED241; KH312 in The primary use of Vrb appears the laboratorytexts at Edfu . In a list of wood which is not Z the laboratory! inside aRowed 'U. *

' is described dry.'r6d, Eye of Sethand unfit for making as

R 207,13[ Charpentier 1136p.692-31. or perfumes unguents


to be quick , rush Wb IV 529(1-6) MK

W could be usedto describe anythingwhich movedfast - suchasa horse,Amun as the wind, the At flood (GR) or evenenemies the rushingin attackagainst sanctuary. Edfu in the geographical texts, and the Northerncity is broughtit hasits gardens all its flowers cz) when so hereit I


seemsto describe the growth of plants IV 35,14-15. In the Nlammisi it reflects Amun as a wind god aA he is a sweet windcc3=s3w 202,16. acIA 132,15 ;.' c==' . Lord of the Wind 152,14,5k'93-=


Wb IV 524 (8-11) GR DG 367,6 bri 'bandage' ACr. 588b: CED252; KH326 518,7 Vrt LJOFT"' (awning. veil) 2(%% a garment (Wb III

The Coptic word seemsto derive from a New Kingdom word Drd ZZ

331,2) which is found in Wenamun (2,40 and 42) and is describedas being madeof 'good UE material' [Sauneron,BIFAO 57,1958, p.208-9]. There are examplestoo from Napatan hieroglyphic stelae at ,

1%% 0%%*Pboth L line 9 No.VI 5 Kawa [Stela 1112'0%% Taharqa; IX 19 ip-1r1P; .5 -6 line 69 0' Amun-Neteyerke ; seeMacadam, Kawa I ]. Where indicated the brd -cloth is of mI J-ES fine quality material and could have been a veil like Ofr 1912 p. 971. The GR word Yrt-cloth occurs frequently at Edfu and Dendera and may be the intermediate stage between Drd and Mopr Vrt is used in two particular phrases see Sethe , ZAS 50,


r tftyw wv

/ l(rt -m3'brw. k r bflyw =, c, 3, `6 13,, 6; -,

40%% 111

1 238,3;


(Harsomthus) 1273,13;c==P, b) frt-nt-Hr

C .9 -KPI 98.12


If 1.11



296,10, `o


1245,6 ;

It is also found in cloth offering texts(eitherbnk mnbt or db3 mnht ) and is given in return for, W to the offering by Horus,Harsomthus evenHathor.The underlyingsymbolismof the cloth seems or it heir be that oncethe king hasreceived he is the designated of Horus- thustriumphantagainsthis enemies.One text combines the two uses above - the Female Eye of Horus gives the king 4c=--' he receives and appearances of Horusandasking is justified againstfoes1130,2.

in The irt is importantfor the accession the king and this is stressed the pr-m-'h ritual the of , king 'washes face receives his ,

q 46 q 11

the and ascends greatstairwayof the son of Isis' VI of Horus 1558,3 ; in

241,14-15.As part of the ritual equipment:a priest receivesthe


presenting the mn-vessel ritual type of cloth is

Horus gives



and iryw-cloth 1 126,7 .A slightly different

cloth of the majesty of Re - given by Osiris 1 178,8 but it has the

same effect of justifying the king against his foes. Because of"the high prestige importance of the cloth it conforms with Drd as a high quality cloth making their identification more certain.


nostrils/nose Wb IV 523 (1) to 524 (1) Pyr. Dyn.19dual no t Late+ p3 , DG 484,12 gy - nose !541

Cr. 543b; CED234; KH300'j-k"

Yrt is the nostril but theEgyptians usedthe word synonymously with fnd'nose! [Lefebvre,Tableau 19p.18-19.It is usedin medicaltextsandat Edfu mostoften is found in the dual - Wb takes Id to be readas'grt but it is difficult to tell if Yrt or fnd is intended. srt tendsto be rarerand is used as a variantof fnd in mostcases, fnd. probablyreads

The mostcommonuseof My is with reference the harpooning the hippopotamus herethe to of in the nose(fnd) and splits (fdk) the nostrils EM 0, weaponsticks 64,3 11; c=: 00 ).
Cb .0


CM IV 2l3, I0; 4=3-jrh-VI lf, 111346,10 similarly the harpoonstrikes(sty)rm" and takesbreath and

from the nose of the hippopotamus VI 239,2. The nostril (again paralleled with fnd) also breathes in pleasant smells :a lotus offering - Horus gives with the lotus of summer VI 339,10. In an offering of the uraei and Nekhbet'She f c-C=P
30 ,a

has entered your (of the gods) nostrils

'IV 239,13-14.


by metathesis sY Wb IV 542 (2-16) MK FCD 271 sYr

Gardinershowedthat the sign

[BEFAO30,1930 p.161-183and or reads)fs s& by metathesis Vs or A (111132,8 T'=sgm)]. S as paralleltextsuseirw [MSS its

Sign List V6 followed by Fairman, BEPAO43 1945 p. 12

HoweverFairmanalso suggested *4111 shouldbe readiryw that

meaning'constituents,ingredients'or the like (c L the eye is provided with slips] 111139,1 fill the eyewith IM ingredients and IIII44,4or *6 ...

111237,9.This meaningmay 4. IV 354,5

'I apply in the phrase havebroughtto you myrrh with all its ingredients also




1204,14. Gardiner (op.cit.) considered a suggestionby Kuentz that this read

the meaning 'varieties' 'forms'. The word is entered in Wb under rs 'things' (c.f h t) and sw with irw is not used in the samephrase in place of Y , at Edfu. VI 314,6 ;a pehu

fit Other examples hekenu oil is brought for the body of the king and for I is brought WI sp - forms/constituents of the garden ?V 112,4.


alabaster Wb IV 540 (10) . Harris,Nnerals p.77-78

Egyptian'alabasteeisactuallycalcite (calciumcarbonate) is usedto fill the eye at Edfu and and Philae -010 0 VIII 136,18 T PhilaePhoL524-19;:M; Ic"k 10


be skilled, learned wise , Wb IV 543 (7) to 544 (7) OK

by At Edfu W is a quality possessed the king and by certain gods such as Khons. From the MK the could be affected by metathesisand was thus written M. At Edfu often the sign F5 or F6 - the word

heador forepartof a bubalisis usedalone. is The king : asan excellentadministrator skilled (wise) sonof Henu(Sokar)he is skilled in his work '1146,13; TkI, in thebooksof Re 111129,8; the as 174.3 c f. * VII 83,2.As

an epithetof Khonsu, 'gloriousof mouth(3b-O) and

wise in magic',1561,7-8.

nameof foes?

In the Book of Subduing p't people,a text refers to rto the

w3Yw IL3kw. ibw

Vs3w it couldbe a spelling heremayread pmw-n-b3swt-; VI 235,6.Thefirst named or ib people %3sw, the Bedouin in people(Wb IV 412,10-11 v.). Thereis also a phrase the temple q. of description'thetemple better is : thanPunt,beingdecorated againsA-X evil ? 'IV 11,12 de

Wit foundthis phrase incomprehensible 36 Nr.71 p.94 01 but like thefirst example [CdE may
refer to evil andhostileforcesor impurity - derivingfrom Wt 'night!'darkness!.




Wb IV 545 (2-3) Pyr. BD GR ,

%s3t in the Pyramid texts but sht in the MK is more common and from this time this is almost 16 _5=_ Ikr always the way the word is read.,BD writes Wt and variants occur from then. In the PTs

is not a synonym of grt but it may be often best translated as Tirmament' 'starry-night sky'

(where the dead are born again as stars). It continues with this special application to the star studded sky in the NK and appears at Edfu too - though mostly in connection with the setting of the sun [Horming, 7AS 86,1961 p. 111-1131.It is possible to translate it 'evening' or 'nightfair [FCD 271 -, Gunn, JEA 6,1919 personified'] Re in in the Harpers's Song, Didumun's Song p.24-5 pl. XXVII Ys3t 'nightfall

he has made life in joy Main. 179 ; of the setting sun BB in the west at ,


1379,1; HB

1220,15;the moon illumines the

3bty in -i rP . 111210,11. (snk) and substitutes night


of receive , accept , take possession Wb IV 530 (1) to 533 (18) Pyr.

VDG 500,1 e/)

Irp -. receive

Cr.574b; CED248; KH,321 ( I W TT .! 16ip the receives occurspassimat Edfu , mostoften as the verb of receivingwhena god or goddess his Icing's offering or whenhe receives rewardin return.The mostusualspellingsare ca. 'a The readingYspderivesfrom the word)(spwhich means palm of the hand!. and ja

Many types of offering can be received - from Maat , to food -,to good things ; to the kingship, Ap is a general word of acceptance: weapons 1145,5-6 ; inw-tribute IV 20,6 ; the heart IV 47,3 ; joy 1 417 ; IV 51,13 of night receiving Re in the morning 135,3. man of receiving the mooring post at the flood , Wb IV 534 (6) GR ste- under mnit s-n-)(sp-mnit and also JEA 29 .4 nj (8 n.c).


images WbIV536(1-11)

Ysp is one one of the earliest terms for image, along with twt from Urk 120,9, though the themis not clear,andis likely to be connected. the verb np 'to take'. It can with differencebetween


to the sphinx as an abbreviation of the phrase)(sp-n-itm and referring to the king as the image refer of the sun god [Hornung, Mensch als Bild p. 142 ; Fischer, JARCE 2,1963 p.27] . An example of Xspw alone in Sinuhe [GNS 94 1 seems to suggest here it refers to the two sphinxes outside a' temple. In later texts the word has more generalapplication and can be usedof relief imageson walls . 'Me word occurs in the plural at Edfu : the two Shrine Rows protect 111108,3.

Xsp-'nb living image Wb IV 536 (6-10) Dyn.18 GR. 6p-'nb is literally living imageand it refersto theking as an imageof the sunAt Edfu the phrase god andits writing in the form of a sphinxlying down,holdingtheankhsign in its pawsemphasises ' this [Hornung, Mensch als Bild p.142 ; Zivie, Giza p. 131 n.d sphinx -, de Wit 9 Lion p.459 Gardiner,RT 34,1912 p.66-67].Y-sp-nbcanbe parallelto snn-ljr 'imageof Horus, whenreferring
tj king : AV to the WE Rj specificgod : lum

2E I 81,14-. I'a T



Or the king can be the living imageof a, . ofWes148,11: MxC"f9 ofthe

ibmi< of Horus1429,4 ;

T A X0 heartof Re 1139,11;

of theprincesof the gods1311.1.

It is also an epithet applied to gods: HB-.Vx. fle*IandLord of the Great Seat 1371,16 ; Harsomthus t-'%16 is 1572,1 ; also t%; 3r of his father Atum V 304,6. - the piCtogram

in the Ims-Intyw

offering scenes,where the opening phrase is written MW

represents the actual action 'presenting myrrh' but the object used in the ritual is a bronze sphinx pot. In such offerings the text can refer directly to the censer and it is called a Xsp-'nbwith a myrrh

5w f"20- in its nameof lion It presents 'sphinx', Take for yourself myrrh for your W 199,1 ;I .
bring you t-S'-XC in its fonn of a lion (pbty) tkc '1 132,15. There are two other possible

: 'Take for yourself examples

(ruler of the god's land) 1150,16 and Vords of that MkIr

(ruler of the gods land)' 1498,9.


chorus Wb IV 534(4) GR

In the procession the First Day of the festival of Edfu there is a hymn which includesdifferent of In of aspects the celebrations. the procession personfollows his fellow , the chorussingingand each


musicians makingmusic



?;:! 7

dbnw hr dbu V 30,3 The two words could be .

gspt-dbn 'to makemusic' and this was the more usual combined use from the NK onwards. The appearance two separate of elements Edfu is an archaism,perhapsdeliberatelyusedhere [c f. at Orientalia38 p.56 n.3 ; Alliot, Culte 11510] Wb citesonly oneexample Kitchen,Gaballa, from the . Rosetta stone[N 13-141 .

'gsp-dbnw chorus Wb IV 533 (17) Dyn.18 (Wb IV 537 (12)Ksp. nt dbn) NK t X: Tanz p.52/53] In Ileban Tomb 109 (Urk.IV sp-dhn is a synonymof dbn [seeBrunner-Traut, . W 978) thereare threelots of musicians two groupsof womenand threemenlabelled , they

havetheir hands MDAIK IIp. 46 IA849]. At Edfu the Lj Z-j and up-turned raised[LUddeckens, , I bouquets W andtr-plants V 125,4andP1.126 showsfour menholding (2) of plants present M, I ca- -A . b IQ tr as% themto threesongstresses whenHathorcomesto Behdet.Similarly is andpresenting the labelover threemenwith armsraisedwhile clappingin time ClJ IV 143,8.This particularchorus to sing wouldseem be menwho clapandperhaps asa welcome.


to conceive Wb IV 533(6-7)

This verb appliesto womenor femaleanimals.It is a specialised meaningof Isp 'to receive'where Possiblyto the the femaleYeceives' malesperm(or phallus- seedeterminative) thusconceives. and At the Egyptiansthereis no technicaldifferenceherethusthe verb coversboth processes. Edfu it is hit to A: bulls copulateandcowsZ: 11 conceiveV 85,12; in othertemples, complementary MA Philae Min causes bulls to begetand the )---J cows conceiveand becomepregnant! 240 t. <1972> Phot. ('MebesNo.50 line 5) Men begatand known : Harpees Song- Neferhotep Earlier usesareperhaps women=jJ conceive'[Lichtheim,JNES4,1945 pl." An the Story of the Two Brothers

(D'Orbiney 18,5) when the perseatree is cut down , the queen"receives"a splinter from it and AA In The word usedhereis 2Z'11 becomes the Medical texts (Wb Med.868 V) BI n. 192 pregnant. 'st (empfangen)tm.s. rdj 0 'A '. a recipe for contraception. Various things are done and then '


(a woman) does not receive the phallus (= dann empfangt sic ihren Phallus nicht) but --]P she determinative for Ysp'then she is not made to conceive would be a better rendering. probably a



palmmeasurement Wb IV 535(4-9) OK not DG , but Yp -palm Cr.574b; CED248; KH321 !JOTT

AAA ICEPI- JE26 I do=&

he At Edfu isp occursin a measurement: hasreceived cubitsand3 palmsVI 22,3

every crown as king -3


room, chamber Wb IV 535(10-16) OK

At Edfu1spt over the greatchamber your appearances may be the word in, "Watching of nuz 4qP3t"
OC-3 g-_;*


s 118 (37) [MG p. 409 - the greatappartment your appearances] grapes for of ; are
your sanctuary' (in a pun) IV 124,10-11.

%sptyw divine beings Wb IV 537 (13) GR'divine beings who worship the moon'. At Edfu the king accompaniedby a group of divine beings receives Maat, when IIB appearsin the ,

Someof thesebeingsare designated aT as sky as the sun .

illustrated on P1.47 and the %sptyw gods are shown as

112 (17). Ile sceneis

serpent form gods. In a I receive (9sp) him and ,

boatoffering, whenHB risesin the eastthe 2H presentingthe sktt a

(PI. the the wlrtyw follow him IV 261,6.Ile scene 90) showsthe king presenting boaL 286, againwhenHB rises- the Wb cites two further examples:at Philae<3270>Phot. receivehim ; at Ilebes , groupsof gods hereworship the moon and the fifth group are called , Spendingthe night in the womb of the secretof forms by Urk VIII 56 <e>. All

to indicatethat 9sptyw are not activeby night and the greetingof the rising sun in seem examples the morningfurthersuggests aresolarbeings. they



Nubianmineral- malachite ? Wb IV 539 (1 to 3) Pyr. NK GR

A specifictypeof malachite, probablyfrom SinaiandSudan(Nubia),whoseexactnatureis unknown [Harris, Minerals p. 1321. Edfu it occursin a ? resentingthe sktt At text! : 'Appearin your -boat I- 01' barqueof VIII 21,9 The parallel line to this is 'the sktt-boat of 'mfk3t . (turquoise)' which showsthat the boatswereregarded beingblue or greenin colour andsuggests as a means identifying Xsmt. of


to speak, to specify, to utter Wb IV 548 (1-7) MK, NK, GR old sirr FCD 248

Ar may be connected the older verb 90 'to be wise, clevee (Wb IV 543,7 ff. ) and it is with tempting to see%sras)fs3. 'wisdom of the mouth'. that is 'instruction, utterance, or perhaps r3 90-iry 'wisdom pertainingto' It is chiefly connected with the religious and ethical sphere[Van .

denBoom. Vizierp. 130-1].

As a verb 'to instruce W is particularly used'when gods instruct their 'crews' : this describes-the inscribing of figures on the temple walls and the inscription +) 11132,5. In the same text HB is the Sia -falcon 6 specifies your guardians .C=31who instructs his guardians.

An epithet of lboth is

istyw. fVI179,10an*d'hedecLues,.


I instruct your crew

(king) VI 179,11 *.Iso it is Seshat who to protect you protect his house VI 3323 ; of all the chapelsin the temple

instructs the ,crew of the king to their walls are specified ..- VII

12,1 ; when the sun disk rises from Nun, he lights up interiors (wn-ILnt) and '-_6, itn. f makes %%\ known his disk ? VII 79,3 ; the king is one who nis md3t 72,12. Adverbial : in temple descriptions -'their halls sr-nfrw to proclaim beauties are as prescribed VII 11,9. who reads out books IV

Examples: 'I havebroughtpraisesinto being for you he is exaltedof faceand Lt' the ritual lc=. 1 2'r 1494,5;sim. -4--C=W

1163,12;when H6rus sees (text damaged) 50i, 15 I


worshipping the majesty of Re with '6 9sr-wnnwt make known that which exists


An epithet of Thoth : (Khonsu-Tboth) creator of everything 296,2 ; 2f before the king 1289,4; Khonsu

, =,

1273.10. Isden I ===. , 1273,17.

Isr. ibt

specifyofferings 'Specifyingthe offeringsin the Pronaos all the and the specifies offeringswhich are in it V 3a.

Examples: at the beginning texts of in it" M 86,15; the s3b-lwt ,4r. 4= Ito


specification, utterances Wb IV 548(8-13) MK

Ysr In plansof temples is a noun 'specification! usedparticularly in detaileddescriptionsof the temple[MOET p.8 n.3].
49L 11

of the First Occasion : -


VI 181,11;

-c=o- I *-I

VI 326,1-2 RAS 10,3

m5i I.
-09 VI 326,5 (paralleled in 326.1 by Wb9-sni).

Y Vsr-sni specifications of the plan: " -

Also: Re givesto his son .,


in their hours1113(10) (starsor gods7- WbIV 548,14,- the J c3 of placesleadingto ie VII 18,3. (of Horusor the king)' V 10
his utterance, he is the ibis, Lord in the, -tr A? in

orderingof starsNK-Late);in the templedescription

Utterances: the 14 kas of Re declare, Ve rejoiceat hearing --=182,16 ; the king is one who pacifies all the gods by 14-

of Joy V 155,14 ; the king as Horus is a child . distinguished in his swaddling clothes Two Lands by his 111132,2 ; the Lords of decrees, who do equity by

VIII 108,20; the king is, the bm-gmhs and god comes at hearing his -641utterances 0 s1r-=.

a W-nfr

text IV 56,17;the king is'heart of Ipy

utterance BL, divine seedof, of

Hay IV 264,17(wdb offering). Thoth is Lord Ilss in of utterances the GreatPlace 1561,8, suggesting 9sr are prescribed the i ..r

text magically. In a damaged . Thoth is rituals which arereadout to bring thingsinto existence Greatimageof thePlaceof Re VI 92,16;and theBuildergodssayto %m(Thoth)"Welcome Lord and of Utterances IV 353,14 .



tongue Wb IV 547 (13-14) D.22 GR

Lefebvrelists amongthe words for tonguec:3 variant '-I

(Pyr 127,6)which is rare with a late

attestedby Wb from the 22nd Dyn. onward [Tableau 620 p.20 ]. Ile .

Belegestellen quotes- Kairo WbNr.63 <103>from a Dyn.22-30statue'excellentofficial, born'of his I%N heart,begotten his tongue of '; thentwo references from a Dyn.22 black granitestatue the in 2 n T3-9m' ? and line 3 bmn. f Cz.

Cairo Museum of Khonsu-iwef-ankh - line 2 k3t -Y '-I -C=Pl 41 both timesas 'administration'[RT 16 pA2f and p.561. r bw mnb - which Daressytranslates

At Edfu thereare two examples the samephrase 9sr is usedherein a word play with sr 'to of and 3L '11274,10 and utter': =0 is 1529.15-here Khonsu-Thoth one who 'creates everything

andwhosetongueuttersthatwhich exists.


amw Wb IV 546 (7-17) Pyr.

This occursfrequentlyat Edfu andmostobviouslyin bow andarrow offerings. Wherethereareat leastthreewordsfor bow this is the only word for arrowandit is often written ideographically 4-40 111 135,13in the text WIP, amPP include '. T'heking hereoffers a basketcontaining7-4 (pl.62) Other instances (Ymr) your enemy to the Lord of Sais(Amun-Re)111256; -v--i VII 143,9 'take the bow and arrow which continues ... that it might slay


10. It is connected .

with the4th LE nomewhereEB is calledLord of the arrow is-". 44Lstandard - '-,,

IV 24,8 and a label for the

1556,18. As a purelymartialweapon bow andarroware offeredto HB the

('9sr9sr sbiw) . As 1150,3andin this text it kills theenemies theking 1150,5-6 of

of the arrow (and Lord of the bow) HB fires at the bodies of foes ruler 136,4 (in amn. k eyes sty 6 +-a 1150,7 ; sim. III

*-.a text 111135,14).Metaphorically, HB fires the arrow by a glances of his is also connected with the arrow

m sty n irty. f 111256,3. The nome +-a -4=0.

1 bow 4-0 IV 39,5 . Othergodsarealsoassociated with this dual offering : Khonsutakes and .C=N. IIk .Cmbow 1309,10.In a slayingthe foe text - the arrow cuts out (mds) the heartsof foes V and

41,14-15. However arrows are most frequently associated with Sakhmet.They symbolise her action in


destroying those things which opposethe Eye of Re. They are the directviolent attacks of the raging thus were seen as disease or anything resulting in premature and unpleasant death goddess and .-I [Germond, Sekhmetp. 298 f; 22 n.l] : Sakhmet fires herarrow in the attack on foes=-'AN or at the foes of the falcon C=W VI 156,1; she casts her arrow *--40


at those who plot against 1113,11-12, she fires her V

.I the king 111291,3 ; she does this also in the form of Mehit

there is no escapefrom the arrows of Sakmet and Bastet arrows at fbesl *-%111303,11-12; .C=. If -=,.. fire V1156,2or, 1403,10-11. Other

arrowsof HorusandRe +..

can goddesses


as Sopdet

I 318,1.'ne arrowsare closelyassociated the emissaries messengers of with and

the goddess for a prayer to protect the king from the butchers of Atum and save him from their arrows Y %.C=DHI 301,1

Most dangerousof all are the seven arrows of Sakhmet which are sent at the end of the year. These diseasesand pestilence and each arrow is given a name and a uraeus determinative It is represent . likely then they actually representseven forms or aspectsof Sakhmet which compare with the Seven Hathors :j #-% I +-% first arrow VI 268,5-269,3 to., =,,. 7th arrow VI 269,4. The names of

thesearrows reflect their dangerousnature - Akhet-Weret in the 11ansion Flame (5th) ; She loves of Maat and hateschaos (6th) ; At the headof the sun folk, Lady of the Banks (4th) [see Germond op.CiL p.89 0].


sacrificialox Wb IV 547 (8-9) OK

At Edfu the'srrepresent defeated the enemies theking andgodsandareofferedup as sacrirlcei. of They are a'type of oxenor bull andoften appear with wndw and 1w3wcattle-1-151 arebutchered but beforea lion IV 284,15-16, they canalsobe foundwith othertypesof sacrificialanimal :Z; C=P j; 1a 1565,3;greatnumbers plants,ro-geese of and and are hackedup (0) with antilopes gazelles IV 49,4; wherethe&*we cut up (stp) the birds arenettedandboth arepresented the' to areoffered VI 153,6.They are found in different typesof meatoffering or sacrificial scenes meatis : temple I- )bYX are cut up*in the offered are cut up VII 73,5-6;the slayingof the sm3-bulll-: IWK=p -4=0 Y=-- VU 317.4 V 165,5. Ibese' VII 148,11 sim. VII 316,5; abattoir , HorusBehdetand could be madeasburnt offerings =1 26, offeringsarealmostalwaysmadeto so$


VI 257,11.
The cattle are associatedwith the Delta in geographical texts :a pehu.of the 9th LE nome. comes bearing its YQL which are destined for the chopping block IV 29,5.

Wb attests the word from Old Kingdom (Pyr 1545a) and it is connected with the word Vsr 'to slaughter' (Wb IV 547,2-7). Blackman translatedit as 'sacrificial ox! [JEA 31 61 n.5 see also Sethe. Drarn.Texte p. l. 10,8a]. The origin of the word may be connected with Isr 'arrow', this being a wild bull killed by an arrow [Otto, JNES 9,149 p. 172 after Sethe].

to kill , slay Wb 547(5-7) MK but sr derivesfrom an earlierwordIrsr whichdescribes typeor method ritual slaughter Wb of a doesnot give manyexamples, that suggesting it is a rareandprobablyarchaicword.Tle Edfa texts it it in punsandconnect with Xsr'arrow': thearrow! use bow andarrowtext) 111135,14thearrow_ jY ; Among the epithetsof Horusis 4 it kills your foe (presentation a of

kills the foe 1150,6. of Baal' in sbt-X 111188,15.



Wb IV 549 (1) GR sv- sXrWb quotesthis word only from Edfu : alsothe sanctuary in our sanctuaries! the Throneof the

'6 P- r"3 godsdeclareto the king "Wegive to you ancestor Two Urds (=EdfuyIV 304,15.


deities protective Wb IV 547 (1) GR

in srw deitiesare mentioned two textsat Edfu : Re givesby decree hours1113(10) who bring aboutthe destinies thosewhom he hates of ky

in their are

of kept away by incenseH 75,14.The word may be connected withyzr 'arrow' as the emissaries Fond.p.242 nj]. Textes in effectpersonified Sakhmet arrows[Guthub, who are in to thiSe serpent the Tanispapyrusis Perhaps similar Frag. pl.XIV. 51




X' A text begins .-

n-'l tktk JLrLbwt V 233,11,as a nameof foreigners? '&"' C!



Among the epithets of Khonsu in a presentingthe palette text - he is excellent in plans, in knowledgeable magic,whom his motherraisedas I perhaps corruptionof 90. a Lord of Wise Men ? IV 247.7,


to build , construct Wb IV 549(7) GR

The verb 9s is known only from the GR temples- in particularEdfu and Dendera.At Edfu : the 9 2 L,, to perfectionI 251a, (both as a work of eternityI 250b, Ailt in the Chapelof the Leg) ; the ruler Re jfl built the seatof the Two Lords 1328,6.In a text for templeis to the Proceeding Mesen- Horus givesthe king a rewardof 111163,12. There is a pun at Edfu which may explain this word or at least is providedby the priests as an
etymology for it : on the outside of the Pronaos,the four walls of the temple are described as cx:3

what you havebuilt

A 'H

built by Shu, but it canbe readas'spittleof Shu'IV 331,9.

for D It is alsousedat Dendera, example 11110,4 111174,3 IV 9.3 CD V 59,7. ;D ;D


knife Wb IV 549(8-9) GR

In the Edfu textsall manner enemies hostileenemies fall to the Ot knife especiallythose can of or A I: Isr cattlerclw3 1565,3.Otheranimalsare cut up by the knife : the words which alliteratewith turtle'304 1306,7'; foes" 4-c, by1961 1575,7-8.Ile foreign landsare massacred and

iw3w cattle fall underit(SS butcherD VIR 111,9.

IV 284,16. AtDenderatoo. Ut is a knife in the handsof a

nounof uncertain meaning Cl M .4 In the rnnnt-canalof the 1514, nome it is said to BB 'You are the/* 1 . 5, LE , which comesfrom


the heartof the one who createdhis son to be his protectoeiv 34,2 per.hapsa misspellingof i9t fspittle' - thus 'one who spat out spittle, which came from the heart /// (this text fs about Osiris spittingout the flood) (withoutparallelin V).

turtle Wb IV 557 (1-5) MK


Cr.598b; CED256; KH333


land tortoise

In Ptolemaic texts the turtle was regarded as a Sethian creature - possibly because it was seen to dive down into the dark waters of the Nile, where Re sailed at night and met all the Sethian forces. The turtle then came to symbolise opposition to Re and could be identified with Apopis. At Edfu the

has a number of different names but as the W it is found in a particular offering rite 'slaying of turtle 11us : sm3 C30 4 the turtle' and here the king is represented as spearing one of the creatures.

king is theprotectorof his fatherandfells the foesof his creator1174,14 Ibe resultis the wherethe . of deadturtle. As a rewardHorus and Hathor ensurethat the enemies the king are offering of the king herewearsthe four plumedOnuriscrown ; sm3 destroyed71be utterly . IR V 244,10LM,., %

The block andApopisis massacred. rewardsandstatusof the king are is (1.10) on the chopping but to the first example herethe king offers the shm-hr P3-sgm lancewhich hasthe turtle similar impaledon the end , thus (pl.132).

have the word for turtle spelledonly with the determinative but sm3 Two other examples , 'c c5; C5 ItY then Vords of 4* that here co ' suggests following, the turtle - massacre4f. two other alliterativephrases with iS"read 63 VII 159,3. The patternof the offering is the same- the as

for is a protectorandhereOnurisandMehit give him strength the defeatof foes.Similarly sm3 king VII 311.17and Td //// VII 312,2 - again by alliteration 90 is the best reading m

(e.g. therefollows k3-mn4 m ksm) - the king performsthis beforeHorusand Hathor. is probably etymologically derived from W 'secret,hidden', referring to the turtle The word LA V Schildkrote coL6278-8 disappearing thewaters theriver andbeinghiddenin themud of under Van de Walle, La NouvelleClio 5.1953 p.173-1891.


secret,hidden, mysterious


Wb IV 551 (3) to 553(5) DG 526,8 KH 330 , 11 WT LAi

W is used at Edfa as an adjective to describe the 'hidden' forms of gods the Sia falcon in his DO aztx , Am 43P)lc HB 1373,17; tit. f --la image IV 54,15; tit of Nekhbet 1338,1; of of HB in his barque IV 37,2; a Sokar god is called irw who gives life to the Ennead 1192,13 ; or

the temple - %tyt 04 secret parts of no-one knows it IV 4,8; of black stone IV 5,39 black stone IV 15,1; sbbw W= Od. f sim. wr of secret doors of the ambulatory IV.

5,11. Other things designated 'secree: the templehasrnw. s its secretnames 163.11; the as 3n 9nbt Yps 1 176,9;Osiris sacredof form is in the dw IZ-2 temple is the4tyt t3qr secret , 1173.7 ; the Houseof Sopducontains t> mountain 1335,9.

(possiblyan abbreviation dt3) (Wb IV 553,6NK). TransitiveuSQ'to makesecree of At Edfu : in the 18thLE nome his children V 23.7 ; Horus hides hides ES
shrines and

HB is described an old man as

e-who hideshimself from his forms from the gods1435,12; also 157,19; Horus

irw his forms from the gods and goddesses 71,16-72,1;Re commands hide IV to

their chambersVII 118,12-13; 9 muffuniform gods with Osiris r--Pmake secret make secret

) Y dsr bsw 2' St hide the bodies of the great gods 1173,12; Osiris isim"" 1151,10; the rites while giving praise to you (hymn to HB) 1116,11 Intransitive- I)e secret, hidden': Im c births

HB is a divine serpcnt-w"*A-*hidden in his efflux IV 28,3; HB is X- __


11340; the nameof a Sokargod is Secretforms -I

1519,9; HB is Webeny t

secret of births 1137,18.

Khonsu is the Secret One


form image , Wb IV 554 (13) GR M3

This abbreviated form of 00 is frequent Edfu asif therewasa conscious at effort by the writersof , the texts to bring 110'secree and Xt3 'form' closer togetherto heightenthe air of mystery in the images the gods. of In the laboratory: wine is for the god'sbody knw oil for his image , HB 11193.7-8; sets


0 c-' 5=; in his great fbrm-: \x of the s3b-Xwt IV 13,8; ,. ' %xiforms of children come from the Akhet eye ,

IV 36,1; Khepri is the divine winged beetle%=-- am da xrm-


sacredof form 1108,3 (only Wb



TenthHourof theday c f. Wb IV 552 (2) asan epithetfrom NK


is the hour of embarking the eveningboat to sail to the westof heaven in -

in the godspresent it areMaat,Thoth,Atum , Hou 111226,9-10.

gt3-mswt necropolis underworld = hidden of births , cE Wb IV 552 (2) = hidden of births The phrase 'secret or hidden of (re)births' (manifestations) is found from the New Kingdom onward and is applied to funereary deities like Osiris and Sokar who are 'reborn' in the secrecy of their tombs.The phrasecame to be used to indicate the actual necropolis and thus the underworld itself (see Wb Beleg. - Kairo Wb<616> NK). Zandee, discussing the term as applied to Amon, showed that it referred to the secret, mysterious process of rebirth of the god [Hymnen - P.Leiden 1350 - IV II, says, 'Your body endures in oM p.74]. At Edfu, a text about Osiris

148 1,1 where the determinative leaves no doubt that the

area is indicated [c f. Gutbub- Textes Fond. p.444; Cauville - Osiris p.91 n.3 ; Winter, necropolis Tempelreliefs P.75 n. 11.The Temple of Opet also has an example - in words said to Osiris 'You live in heaven you are strong on earth and your body enduresc--M , in the underworld'Opet 1135

thesethree places representthe universe and stressthe control of Osiris over it [but a parallel text in Phill 1 52,13 has 'your body enduresin this earth'.]


sacred grove Wb IV 553 (9-10) D.20, GR L KH 332 t!P4'rc= Keuschbaum

Gutbubarguedthat this word meanta sacredtree or wood which hidesthe tomb of a god [Hom. havebeenthoughtto havetheir rootsin tombs 143 Treesasgiversof life couldperhaps Sauneron 11.


I-d r --thus take life from them. In a text mentioning the driving of the calves over the tomb and their hidden chambers(YO 63. sn like that which is in Heliopolis the great the grove makes secret divine mound of Behdet) H 51,12. In a text for the presentationof irp wine , plants are put into the 3A in your tomb (hrt) under the grove 186 3-5. ground and the ritualist makes an offering I I" When this line is almost repeated, line 7. has wdb. 1 sn Uk JLr Md Yps so that 10-st is parallel to the ished tree . On the enclosure wall, where offerings are made, the noble divine field is brought and the reed, im3 and 9d trees in MJ. protecting the with Osiris. the great god in Behdet in

the sacredgrove VI 227,10-11 . It is also connected


&. g) -. 4D

V 291,15.

The word is alsofoundat Kom Ombo[KO 1.p.58 Nr.59 line 121 hiding the body of Sobekin the !9J vicinity of the sacredgrove the establishing body. The earliestexample from a smallobeliskin the CairoMuseumof the reign of Ramses (Kairo is IV his Wb Nr323 = CGC 17026, KRI VI 31,3 from Heliois)Atum created beautyinOJA also on a later stela(Kamal ,S telespers.ptol. pL23p.67, text line 14 - Cairo 22071,14)'Adore

I rF"3

[Drioton - Inscr. p.44 Nr.991 and Medamoud


mysterious region
Kurth, Flimmelstatzen p.50 n. 1

A3w is the realm of the dead from where the flood could emerge: [Vander Plas, Crue pA II and W


o.Toronto DC. 1-2

111248,9-10is heavenheld up by Shu.


quarry, mine,hill Wb IV 554 (12) GR

At Edfu : HB is the lion, greatof might ruler of .

r,, 3, Ir

quarries(or wadis?) VU 323,9-10andin

from42 !2r, ?, the Two Landsand quarries I the next line (11) he declares give to you this tribute (presenting wild animalstext).At Dendera theking as the ruler of foreignlandsgivesHathor too,

and what is in them DH 123,17 he opens and &1


"king At Philae: in nec klaceoi fferings,the gives

1015 and their wonders<2825>PhOt.


E2 )' '" andalso am

<1855>515. stones with their precious

At Kom Ombo, KO I no. 156 p. 120 the king is ruler of the Two Lands and the one who opensc, -% coo the quarries. to m-

90 In the absence earlier examples, seems derivefrom 90 I)e secret,hidden'- showingthat to of difficult of access perhaps deliberately because as and places, and wereregarded hidden secret so quarries theycontained. materials of theprecious

to slay , fall dead = ht ? W This word doesnot apparently at occurin Wb, but therearetwo examples Edfu in slayingthe turtle! texts where the Xt3 turtle is slain, the verb 90 alliterateswith it : the W -turde is z= 312.2 ; %3tyw-foreignlands a -4 then the U-mn4 turtle is m-ksm, VII IV by the dagger 79,9.Again by alliterationthe termmustread%t(3). slain and

m 9393t are


hidden watcr Wb IV 555 (13) GR

YPst-vase is, by Wb is from the presentation a nemset The only reference vessel- wherea of given l providedwithE:. -:.::. water1163,6. r-

something which is dispelled Wb IV 556 (1) GR The term is found at Edfu in the phrase dr 90 n itnt : herethe king in offering a water vesselto CM X. Ptah is said to be like Horuswho drivesaway ft, - *a .. -0-, from his sonIV 88,12 Hathorand -13; , ao. 0 CD IV 264,13; EM pc%'nwt. f CD R 69,13 o CD 11182,4-5 from these f. o C. This ideais stressed. 90 is something harmfulwhich hadto be removed. whereHathoras examples is her abomination 1=3 EcL VII 94,2 and similarly , the abomination of the femalesun disk says r, I*ct* '; MD 131 [JunkerZAS 43,1906 p.113;the abomination the king is 0. of ". Horus is 46 9-'ZUrk
3': 2 &C,

Xt3 VIII <85f>. Junker(op.cit.) translated as 'Leid' and indicatedan earlier examplein

%Lin 4!, g&, P.Rhind 14,11 'there is n6! your limbs' - with the meaningof 'impurity' perhaps.The demoticversionof this text useshereWb-bin 'biptrity' instead.


k'L Ilere are two other possible examples : UrLVHI 71,13-14! At'4 5////// 189,28-19

n itnt and Urk. VIH

It is something impure or harmful which is particularly hated by the female sun disk and which has to be driven away. Xt3t may be a corruption of Yntyt the goddesswho mourns for Osiris so that 913' is'mouming'or'sadness! but specifically of the Eye of the sun.


egg, womb, belly Wb IV 555(2-6) Late

Wt only from the late Periodand GR times.It is usedthroughoutPtolemaictemples Wb attests according to the Beleg. so was in commonuse in temple texts at this time. It has a range of, fromegg"womV wherechildrenform, to %elly'whichcanreceivefood,or be the external meanings, belly. To the Egyptiansall of thesewerethe same physicalarea.Wt probablyderivesfrom 90 I)e hidden,secref, asanythingwithin thestomach wombwouldbehidden. or for 22 Lefebvresuggested 9t3t is alsoa synonym throat[LefebvreTableau p221 for a text has,, that 'food offeringsare for the bb and beeris for the ah9 gosiceD IV 84,11.Howeverthis does

not precludea meaning'stomach.Similar usesare found at Edfu : 1hyreceivesmilk of the august for his E! TL stomach 392,2[acc.WbBeleg. V 70a LD goddess also- MD 11 ; MD III 56a; Dend. IV. 57b]. The word is usedto refer to the 'belly' in a moregeneralway in the Myth wherethe harpoonis in the belly MT stuck VI the of the hippopotamus 73,7 and metaphorically, Lord of the bp*t your belly I' VI 160,8-9.

foesto fear him and 'four heartbumsin causes ,

by by As the 'womb!of a goddess the king is reared the nursegoddess andcreated ///// in : , Shatexistedin the beginning sheis her womb VI 256,11;the primevalgoddess , (c VII everything f. MD 11124) 145,11-12. created who As an 'egg' , wherechicks live and in texts wherethe womb of a mother and egg of a bird are IV ; : Mam.Dend,31,6-7 chick in S-9'.. ; MettIOO * KO 1195,654,3 EsnaT'hes. 651 .paralleled In the creation:a text describes creationof the the egg , it wasopened within the lotus and the womb'

from insideit [MOET 83 n2l VI 16,6. ROKhePri appeared presumably -

children (smallchild)


Wb IV 555(15) GR in Theonly reference Wb concerns Khonsuwho comes .! P #a child after he hasbeenan old man as in of referringto the emergence a new moonUrk VIII <29b>.At Edfu the word appears puns: the P c: 10 land in the Dendera nomeis broughtwith it grain IV 177,6-8. Here HB is called A, (line 8) noblechild, belovedof theGoldenOne'; with the paralleltext wherethe word is spelled CM V 111,1-3 .


vulturegoddess El Kab/ diadem of Wb IV 554 (14) to 555 (1) GR

Xt3t is the nurseof divine children and the protector_ of Horus - henceher appearance the as __, Mmi 1,1928 [Blaclanan, Fairman MG pA14 ; as motherof Suchos, vultureelementin the uraeus p.152line 22 in a hymn to SobekRe]. At Edfa It3t is especiallyassociated with El Kab in particular when its' qualities as an incense a 'JL areaarestressed : producing in Nekhen1113,7;an offeringbearer bringsEye of Horusfrom

isclmr-3'ja 1469,15 Nekhenwhosemistress Wt is a direct epithetof Nckhbet: a! -J Horussonof the White One is born of lfnbt falcon IV 323,15; the king is raisedby 1(t3t IV 58,7 IV 308,7 164.11 Jn t4"o 1310,2; mr dndn H 75,5 who raisedthe

E: P H 110,6-7; Nekhbetis!

IV 307,16.Sheprotectsthe king 1152,12 as Nekhbet IV

4p 75,10-11.At the creation, VI 16.6

and krbt are around the new divine. child . 1 144,13; Maat 1459,4;

2"3YO can be associated with other goddesses: Tefnutr. 1: 1 Nekhbet/Sakhmet-m! n, 7]A -iP 1374,4 1951

H 15,11. In the form of a diadem she encircles the head of the king: !FP

381,12. The vulture unites with the White Crown ; H. 14,14, when lb IM is the daughter of HB, 133,15 incense is offered to the uraeus mn-wr isburntforjg'P ,

himjV 16,9; the right eye unites with the left and M 73k rests with St (the serpent) (in embracing a text with Hekhbet and Wadjet) IV 52,13; she can be associatedwith other places 149,7 ; Min gives of Pe on the brow of the king 1399,9

The name could derive from a number of sources : 90 'be secret, hiddelf or 90 'egg woMb` , It dependson which aspectof the goddessneededto be emphasised. mother.



crypt , tomb Wb IV 559 (3-21) OK DG 527,8 f)i, , 2) Z -, I

W of. kt

shrine coffin' DG 527.5 '

Cr395a : CED 255 ; KH 560-1 cellar ?

2SM I ti 7-c-"CO _AI-M

Xtyt is a commonword at Edfu to denote sanctuary a god,especially Sokar[Vcmus,Athribis the of 425 n.6] andit canbe usedto mean'tomW it is sepulchral implication.Originally the Ylyt was in so the nameof thesanctuary Sokarat Memphis it became general termfor thewhole nccropolis of and a in lbesc templecopieswereprotected the bw-btsw rite by or a sanctuary oneof the main temples. for and it was herethat preparations rebirth weremadebeforethe god was finally revivified in the' wt-sr in Heliopolis [Cauville, Osiris pp.9 and 321.At Edfu the epithettry-ib %lyt is appliedto both Osiris and Sokar ;a chamberat Edfu is called Ilyt - this is otherwiseknown as the First Chamberof Sokar(17). The templedescriptionlocatesthe flyt to the right (west)of the

(16) IV 5,4alsoit contains protector MesenChamber the godsandis 7 2/3 cubitsby 6 5/6 VII 13 3 The room openingfrom it is calledthe fr, 8 r-3 linw-n-gLyt (F - IV 5,5 ; VII 13,41"M 'tr

Mythologicallytheexplanation thepositionof thechamber given wherethe is cubitssquare). of

at the Ytyt land , from:

king founds the mound of Osiris at Edfu west of Mesen0!10 C23 x -, 7, ,

forth 1179,15. which Sokarcomes

The 9tyt at Memphis is mentioned in connection with Sokar-Osiris r3a 711"da 1165,4. Gods in (bnt) the Ytyt include : Osiris KhtAbmenfiuo-", r-i 1102,7; Sokar'(m)! g .


(25); Sokar/Osiris


Lord of the chamber 1219,14: Fenedefankh (Sokar) r3 r-3 also 1 131,15;Anubis

C7'3 1123


(protectinghis mother) 1307,3; (caopicgod)MON., A 1169,9 In the title 1ord of tyt' : Sokar

(80); Hapy

1181 (8); Amun-Reis Lord of havcnearth 181,6. of of the corpses the greatgods1173,12; and the i groveuponthe tombs ne 14) . Ilere wasalso a sacred the tomb

E2 40a water,mountainand underworld, The necropolisat Edfd wascalled the ER f '" to be 'opened' sandwasnot upon c.: 211151,12 "like 3

in that at Heliopolis. Godsare worshipped halls and

of their bodies 1562,14.The calvesare'drivenupon the tom

'Zc3 VI 287.5-6.Whenthe gods


are buried their tombs have to be hidden and this gives the Egyptian etymology of Wyt `C' "" CIO to make secret their tombs VII 118,12-13. The rulers Ptolemy V and Cleopatra ikh-d---I,; .,.

in Mesen IV 123.5-6. In the procession priests,described the stairways, priestsgo (9m) to theamimw the of on Isle of Rageand seethe mysteries which are there1558,11;also they go to Mansionof nbty - lifting up the GreatOnein the GreatPlace 1559,17. In a 'Seeinggod' textft3yt occursparallelto hmt-shrinewhenthe majestyof the king pervades W IV 71,6. An epithetof Osiris is, Asr EON 1168,15. The word L-N in Coptic is for a storage Mas'a cellar - indicatingthat the AM was still regarded hiddenunderground. This aspect the word is interesting considerin light of the word to chamber of 9t3t 'egg, as womY.The tombis regarded the wombfor therebirthof the dead. Mariette,BdE 32, Apis dansle Papyrus Jumilhac- Mdlanges [see: J.Vandier, Memphiset le Taureau EFAOCairo, 1961p.111-114; Cauville,Osiris p.182 ; J.C.Goyon,BIFAO 65,128 n.176; RdE 20, in in 92n. 33; IRS Edwards,The Shetayet Rosetau, EgyptologicalStudies Honorof RAYarker, of BrownUniversity, 1988p.27-361 in the in the


mysteries c f. WbIV 553 G 1) to 554 (7) Pyr especially 553 (19) - applied to writing.

Written documents could be referred to from NK times as Xt3w 'secret' [Abu Simbel - LD 111194.2 Yt3w in the House of Books 'secret annals] and th; title of a book in the Temple of Hibis in gnwt. Khargeh Oasis [Davies - Hibis III cols.1-131 is given as %t3w of Amun - the secretsof Amun. This book contained his manifestations - his 10 kas and 10 bas [Taharqa p.70 n.41 and it suggeststhat it of spells written on papyrus rolls. In the GR period the books themselves were called was a series 9t3w 'mysteries' : in the library texts 'I bring to you boxes containing 111351,6-7; Seshatis Lady of mysteries' IV 299,13 . lqrw 'excellent

In the Edfu texts 9t3w is the name for certain types of papyrus book rolls.


(enemyin city) Wb IV 557 (8-9) to shutin enclose ,

Cr. 595b; CED255; KH331 5krrg _! to muzzle ,



At Edfu : the king 'destroys his foes and he.,at3

3sve IV 236,11.71is might well be read b db

but the whole sentenceconsists of alliterating verbs of slaughter and toponyms [cJ. Yoyotte, Mmi, 12,1952 p.92 n.31 and it should therefore readVdb It may however be a'visual'allitcration with the . h understood . v 1914F1iA'-you Also :

cut off the testicles of one who is disloyal to you (alliteration) IV cut up by my knife (Sl)' IV,

'0: 4 280,12-13 - in a wine offering ; Take for yourself a tortoiseca:3 306,6-7 - also alliteration of KI

The verbat Edfu doesnot suit theWb meanings it seems theverb bdb hasbeenreinterpreted that and
as)fdb and is used in alliteration with the readingYdb (compareuse of hdb q.v.).

to clothe Wb IV 558 (3-4) Pyr. BD GR Faulkner suggestedthat the word had come from the sameroot as fL - tortoise 'to cover oneself up like a tortoise! 'to hide' 'to make secree[FECr 1228 n.2].

In the Ptolemaic temples the word is more common at Dendera but it occurs also at Edfu the gods , t in their shrines are clothed with their garmentsand provided with their ornaments 1416.8 -,a its similar noun -.r.K=3* cloth offering gives the verb with ME *6 'ct'%

your gannentclothes/////

V 190,3.


vestment garment , Wb IV 558 (5-14) Pyr. NK. GR

in At Edfu thej garmentusuallyappears cloth offering textsand hereit is the cloth for a particular but the formula is always the same. The god gives the king in return bl m rL n nir ', an god, 36 *6 Ff" 1245,1; 1422,17; 1 in the cloth of a god': Horus appearance a! 423,9 ; $ -A 145,3: variant h' AW fl. k ml Hr ' an appearance clothed in cloth like' 1125,5 If 1433,6 ; or Re 1125,9

Horus': ! -6

-s ;e


tot la 11

428,13.This cloth is given to the king by Horus,Harsomthus Hathor. and A plant offering text givesa clue to the natureof the cloth - the 'bw plant is presented the text and Wo r that the Two Sistersare in/with their 90-cloth mentions 1396.16which suggests


that it is a type of linen cloth.

The procession of priests up the stairways includes cloth being carried : the overseer of priests is

dressedin -5PG -g 1570,1; another priest says 'I hold ,



of I(nbty ' 1558,3 - this is the is

cloth used to dress, or hide . the falcon image in the sanctuary ; in a list of offerings purified from impurity 1566,1.
Gods associated with the cloth include : Hedj-hotep who makes 3 CX: "Y


*6 Horus-Behdet who is great of majesty when he has received his

V 146,11 ; and Khnum

a! -j

i V 190,12. Ibis last text also puns with %t3dEzom

your cloth clothes//// V 190,3 .

The word is frequent at Denderaandit derivesfrom 90 ' to hide,be secret,because garment or a it. cloth, 'hides'what is undemeath



A canal (t'w-ftr)

comesfrom the feet (of Osiris) and

n Uk IV 43,9 - this word is 9d t'py m

Also : !S,. by br igb fields , so 'flows out for your ka! seems acceptable. paralleled

f hapy flows from the cavern11255,15 Van der Plas takesthis as a transitiveform of 9di 'to Lptt. but 'cause appear'[Crue,p.101-21 the phraseis fairly well attested earlier to translates nourish'and 'to [JNES31,1972 p.761andmeaning flow' is clearest.


dragout, extract Wb IV 560 (8) to 562 (19) Pyr. DG 528a takeaway Cr.594 a; CED 254 ; KH 329-330 demand, extort.

At Edfu in the killing of foes Id is used to decribe the action of tearing out the hearts of the enemy king says j! n (Wb IV 561,8) : the the Red Ox , 'His heart is torn out of 43ty 'I tear out hearts////' VII 150,2 ; in a text for the killing upon the ground' 111172,12; Horus

he hastorn out their kidneysin battleVI 127,12.


to bring up , rear = nourish Wb IV 564 (17) to 565 (15) Pyr. to suckle= nourish


The notion behind the word is to feed or nourish someone - ideally this is a mother nourishing or her child, but as at Edfu it can be applied to other situations-.T'he mother par excellence is suckling Isis: 12"t iI Horus in his nest 1240,12 ;a young god is raised as a child-#--( who nourishes he feed gods, goddesses, I have fed your children one who

547,8. Other gods who provide nourishment: Horus Behdet animals and reptiles with their food 1377,7 ; he says to the king

EbJ? W'# and provisioned your calves' 111169,6'; Osiris as the Prince of Millions is

V 193,2 ; Shai 2-11V'. O'nourishesthe entire carth [Quaegebeur Shai nourishes the entire earth , p. 112 who translates'protecf] V 230,8. ": T q 4cj 0,4VOne who nourishes the gods and gives life to The name of a minor deity at Edfu is everyone! 1199,8.


nurse Wb IV 565 (20-22) Late GR

)fdt is the noun derived from the verb Ydi 'to'nourish' as the role of a nursewas to 'nourish' her from thelateperiod[Pleyteed.of Fayumpap. Lanzone XXIV 20 and III The charge. word is attested . 21 '() ICh o nurse of

At Edfu : in scenesof offering bearers,Weryt the cow is brought and she is called *? P Re with milk in her udders (also E.Mam. 189,6 called Vq4"K

) IV 45,14; One of the divine cows is

1524.15 Adt is also an epithet of Hathor : the child of Hathor is nursed by and god's mother Nfam.122,13; as mother of Horus

'. ',!tVat in Khemmis Mam-32,6; she is UU

Mam. 166,1


a drink Wb IV 566 (19-20) NK, Dyn.18

The NK offering lists record a drink


associated wine, but it maybe readlrp-Ww see:, with

I Ydw is given as an offering. At Edfu in an offering procession. Beleg. Luksor<214> <276> ) and

Tnmmt and Dbyn are broughtcontainingtheir requirements --=p and, nameof a typeof a beervessel a liquid IV 45.9 (possiblyc f. Ydh). or


which may be the



to rescue protect , Wb IV 563 (2-9) MK

'j At Edfu: it is saidto HorusTake your eyes,

Erom Seth'VI 55,6. which you haverescued

'to Theverb is not oneof theusualtermsusedto express protect,guard!however.


to read , to recite

Wb IV 563 - 564(10) OK At Edfu d appliesto the ritual booksbeingread- specificallyby the lector priest In the stairway the procession dutiesof this priestareoutlined: 4- ( the ritual book 1568,1; -Ic=, I haveread

S O. I? readingtheir monthly services 'e' themas spells1568,3 ; oc=? Readingthe divine ritual and by thosein the gods houseV 343,15;thereis no stoppingthe UI of serviceV 392,17; prior to the dismemberment the hippopotamus , W o reciting of the monthly J? ft bb 'recitingthis "' fO" X-

book by the lector prieseVI 88,1 ; cf. Apopis is killed in his variousformsand beforehim?VH 113,34 theabomination his ka is destroyed of


field, meadow. parcel of land Wb IV 567 (9-10) field GR - type of land (11) to (14) MK

9d(yt) is a frequent word for a field at Edfu - but it does not seem to occur in the Donation Texts. lie 9dy fields are flooded by canals or by the Nile itself

"qq ,6 $is

VI 261,2-3;


%J 9 01.1, Ydy-wIr 'dry fields'.00 c= c. IV 309; *=4q4 581,14 and especially (flooded by Osiris) H 48,11; VoI% ft-c=- 1484,17; .91.u I
Coe -WC

1115,8; -MEDIC


e. C30

(Hapy floods it) 1533,1;

'champs dess6chdsl the flood makessweetUagq VII 166,8 [Cauville,Osiris p.94 n.3 translates ; qmrallelusestpw landsinsteadV 113,5). this land (?) in your fields IV 180,4-5 As the cultivator par excellencethe king is involved in k3t-Xdy 'Work of the fields' wb3-hr m' Io', 1384,17;ir k3t U" cjh. he is

doing the work of the field IV 224,6-7;as the VI 250,12. off IV 44,15; and all kinds of vegetation

'perceptiveheart' (si3-ib) in one with The My fields grow plants- without %ny-t3 IV 48,15 r4' dryness

'0' Il 105,7. The fields are made'blue! bsbd :U 440 171,11 Ism VI 36.5 While Psb is brought from .

bsbd-grainof the Vdy is broughtto fill granaries or


the sbt-field has


which adequately suits the word used at Vdyt (feminine) refer to

Vernus defines My as 'an individual plot of arable land

Edfu [RdE 29,1977 p. 192 n. 108] and the forms1d (masculine) andfdwt the sametype of land [Edwards,JEA 51 p.26 n.01


trap , net f. Ab trapfor birds Wb IV 557 (7) OK c

The text at Edfu which hasthe word rdyt is clearin meaning in a trp kw-1text - the king comes to Horushavingnettedthe enemyin (Lhis net IV 293,3 If theword wasarchaicthenits real

his he spellingmay havebeenforgottenor the scribemay havemiscopied. text because did not know theword.


dough paste (paint) WbIV567(3Z) Medand569(5-7)=sd. t OK/MK $, j Wl' com 'Mehr Cr.595a; CED 255 KH 331 f. !M wre c

in The examples Wb tracethe useof dt from meaning'dough'in baking (Ti taf.84) and also in, dough medicaltexts(Eb.53,18and 19)asa word for bread A list of breadofferedat Edfu includes (Wb Drog. 509).

theirldy breadof bdy-grain VII 79.9; part of

to text - the king bringsamulets the godsand he says'I haveinscribedfor you a protectiveamulet figures of dough with black ink and coloured ink VI 300,2. Ghattas'

Der Vasenbildee[Schutz 56] but the word could p. the word as mt. wt and translates transliterates figuresmadeof someplasticmaterial eitherclay or evendough. t andrefer to execration readas)(d. , Alliot similarly has niwt m r(y. t) n' sty and notesthis refers to the figurines of foes with inscribedtextswhich werethenbrokento destroy enerny[Culte11 640,41. the p. r A"


sweet wine Wb IV 568 (12-17) FCD 274 Smith,DemoticPapyriIII p.99 with rderences f. ZO)pMAWCr.703 ; CED 293 = inhmn c


There are two types or different usesof Xdh - perhapspomegranatewine: it occurs in love songs and it is used for embalming [examples P.Salt 825,147-8 ; Chassinat, Khoiak 11 791-2 ; Lutz,

Viticulture p. 17-18 ; Keimer, Gartenpflanzen 1 152]. It is usually mentioned with ordinary wine though and rarely appearson its own. P.Harris 17,10-11 stressesthe difference between thickets of shedehand of wine. It does not appearin wine lists from the palace of Amenhotep III, but in temples it is an invigorating libation [P.Anastasi IV 12,11and is found in relatively small quantities compared wine [Charpentier 1164 bis, 704-5]. When cooked the wine evidently has antiseptic qualities with [Beriandi-Grenier, BIFAO 74,1974 pp.3-41. PVT db is a specific offering type : bnk ', O, At Edfu H 97,10 ; Onk O-t and here it

appeasesthe recipients R 183,3. The offering is made firstly to Horus Behdet with Isis who give the lands with their tribute in return ; and secondly to Hathor - who gives everything in Kenmet western Djesdjes - the two wine producing areas in the oases. This connection with the oases is also and Va's I, mentioned in bnk Lj -al take, from Kenmet, and then there is a list of the produce of

VII 117,2. This offering is made to BB, Hathor and Harsomthus who give the Two outlying areas

Lands. In a description the Festivalof Behdet,wine and of drip/flow Iff in the streetsIV 19,2.In a 1'rrV

the as offering text (title destroyed) king is addressed the ruler of Djesdjesand sovereignof wine ' Kenmet- the god says,"I havereceivedOe: 9dh andwine the stresses pacifying effect of In generalseealsoLA 11586; AEO H 235 which you broughtto me" VI 316,7. A furthertext V 132,4-5. LEM 157; Helck, Materialenp.7371.


stand, perch NybIV 569 (2-3) Pyr.

but to 540 ; 800 ; 1036 Wd appears be, not the entire standard the bolster like In Pyr 539; , in front of a stand.Later the word seems have acquireda more general to often seen protuberance significance,cf. Siut 1232 ';" ZSk higher than the gods; Tomb of Lord of the standard, (of his standard Re-Horakhty)on the easternside

(North Wall line 1) Amenemhet , ZAS 47,1910p.88 nl]. [Gardiner,

Thoth and Horus on At Edfu'gdYdis usedin a mdt offering to the ibis and falcon who represent


their standards:the ibis is 'high upon two birds are upon t-T-

with the living bas!) 1270,10;a similar text, 'the

their stands raysof the eyeof Khonsuin his form of a lion , greatof as

t the mighf 1276,10. Plate28b showsthesetwo scenes, king offers mjd. to Khonsuand in front of ; Z him are' ( stands in the Chapel theLeg). of



the hiH .4 _

Direct Writings: Phonetic Change:

BEFAO 43 1945 p. 77 ,


be tall high ,
Wb V1 (2) to 3 (17) Pyr. DG. 531,7 KH227 'b II Z-


Ile adjective verb is used to denote objects which are tall andthus imposing : the plumes on the crown of the king AT IV 31,5 q3 ca-'-also be translated by English . 'Y I Tiong life 'long': Osiris gives the king 0 ht without limit 1572.17; Nfin has a long beard 1404,16 or of Horas AT

1375,14 ; and 1ouX : priests drive away foes by uttering spells with ATW loud voices 111361,11;or 9great', lion headedserpent is called a your people 1509,10. Offerings are piled up high V 3,5. During the inundation the water covers all the land including the gebels and thesecan be referred to , as bw. q3 'high place (s)' : the flood ir. n. f stf mb 100,5-6; ir. f st.f hr. J3ATI high place 111 6AT it hii 'made its place in the IV 365,1-2 ir. f. st.f m k3w'offerings 1321,4; columns in the temple are high -*-'high' or great is her flame in the Two Lands of

581,12; possiblyvoAlg 253,, -2.

11251,4 ; walking uponj f rAft,

Various : the Lord of Behdet becomes or creates q3y-wr (a plantJ* and .6-]Mq dsr sw JV U, ', high of uraei ?? VI 298,4. 1157,17; you are like sovereignsA

m 'q. f sw m

is usually intransitive but at Edfu there may be an example of a transitive use ithe The verb q3y king as Shu is described as a column under the sky 4 (c f. Wb VI, 8-14 hoch erhoben).' TO. 2 who raises up the celestial vault M 44,2


high of arm with raisedannAiand , Wb V1 (8) and3 (2)


This martial epithet is applied to gods as they rage against enemies : Soped A -2 Lj VII 272,16 ; Harsiese ATL VH 262,9-10 and here it seemsto imply that the raised arm holds up a weapon


to be brought down to strike foes: HB is caUed,4T,.! j nb DpYH 63,1; Horus Merty 4T ready VH 275,5; Horus son Osiris A IJLJjKVH 316,10. It may be the term describing the traditional 3-,: . of ,.

royal pose in Ij trn Egypt Jj

Ilie king himself bearsthis title on the battle field 4LY, -!J s VIII 144.1 , TJ 1565,16 1559,2 ; in a butchery textd 7j carrying the flail IV 5.2; a

There are other reasons to raise the arm : the gms falcondT processionof standardbearersis told'March IT "jj

Raise the arm in Wetjeset I'l 557,10-11.


high lying landor field Wb V6 (4-9) Pyr. DG532,1 IX)v7qy - high ground koICII

Cr.92b; CED 51 ; KH 58

The original meaningof q3yt was'high lying land'.derivedfrom q31'to be high', which was not' inundation hadto beartificially irrigatedby basinirrigation(thatis not with by and reached theannual improvedso moreland cameinto useand q3yt' As shadufor othermachines). irrigation technology betweenartificially'irrigated landandnaturallywatered land,asall land could no longerdifferentiated to morethanonecropa year.q3yt thusbecame general now be watered produce a word for'field%In theNew Kingdoma newtypeof landcameinto agriculturaluse,the m3wt 'islandswhich werethen the extremes oneat thedesert q3yt 'high lands'- bothrepresenting agricultural edge, contrasted with at use period) onecloseto theNile. This technical of q3yt appears Edfu in thedonationtexts(Persian to and of whereq3yt/m3wt areoftencontrasted theactualareas this landwhich belonged the temple' '-, respectively- the q3yt are clearly commoner. are given. From the totals - 7,548 to 5,660arouras but he Meeksworkedout the positionsof q3yt landat Edfu [Donation.56 (18) andP1.111] [p.1471 that q3yt is high land needing suggests artificial irrigation,in contrastto Schenkel who suggested by Ptolemaic times q3yt was a generalword for field and remainedso into Coptic 1CO16 'fielU 7rupK diro6po; [BewAsserung 60-65].In a dernoticcontract3 qy wastranslated -M as p. corn

bearingmainland'[Griffiths, RylandPapyri III p.147 nA] and in anothercontractthis is contrasted with 30 m3i, so the Edfu contrastof q3yt andm3w reflectstheseagriculturalrealities [Wilbour 11


pp.27-81. In the Donationtextsq3yt is alwayspreceded the article 0 and contrasted by with the m3wt areas 10 VII 243,13;. 1"061 d4q land. Examples spelling: Al &, is on the desertedgewestof of of -this EdfuVII244,14; Aqq 11> VII 250,7or A thesouthwestandsouthof Behdet. In the Edfu texts generallythe term is not usedwith the sametechnicalprecision neverhas the , definitearticleandis a general termfor 'field, oftenusedasa variationin textswherewordsfor'fleld! are occurmanytimes.In particularthese theNile offeringtextswheretheflood is broughtto thefield A Wq : Hapy is broughtto settlesupon A ', IV 332,11-12 0' ; ntf-Nile AlkQq III IV 365,7-8;the wrm flood VII 220,15 q4 I VII 218,4- areas to

A The word is IV 364,8-9; (nameof Nile destroyed) WO! 'XI 206,16-17.

also used in alliteration : kkw (Nile) qrqr r., drkqq"'. k 1321,3-5; the flood qrqr r AUq, '. k 11243,16; hpn (flood) b3h.ti r ATA A 1112,10; and a geni called A ", W 'b IV 364,8-9 khb. i n.k U (flood) r. 4 . q3-pt says

The q3yt contrastswith the m3wt land: the Nile floods A-Ytq4 b- like the m3wt 11254,12; also M 98,6. : q3yt land hasother applications the god makesthe d bloom so that he can pick III

in plantstext, the king is called mnow and Pnw plants 111235,14; a presenting 237,1

haveq3yt land specificallymentioned 5th LE nome areas In the geographical textscertainnomes : , 25,8 land wateredby the pbw includedXqQ1't1'1IV ; in the 13thLE nome,45qq of to m3wt its high land reaches the m3wt-fields IV 32,940. m-h3w The modemArabic equivalent this word maybe l(a? land - which are fields artificially irrigated qi of (by shaduf)[ seealso: Baer, JARCE I, 1962p.40 n.98 andJamesJEA 54,1968 p.53 n.d] s3b.ti

q3yt. q3

primordialmound Wb V6 (6)

The High Hill' wasa namefor the Isle of Fire or the Primordialmound[oerhuvel]at Hermopolis. by Originally it was known as q33 and determined a flight of steps. it was the site of the original cC PT 1652- hereAtum Khepreris raisedup on43&d creation (at Heliopolis)but by the Book,


the Dead(Nav. Totb. 17,5= Urk.V 6,17) Re is on theAT&Cb of

which is in Limnw and the xL of Wenu

Temple mentionsthe Persianperiod text at KhargaOasisin the 11ibis

in thie ' OaseplXXVI L22-231. (Herrnopolis)[Brugsch- Reisenachder Grossen q3yt. q3 appears dlkqq "16-4 Ogdoad Thebantombs- TT 145b(Urk.VHI 30,12)wherethe andTT walk upon A T [Chassinat. Khoiak 1285 n.3 38c (Urk.VHI 117,11) on wherelight is created the Yoyotte-Sauneron, Sources Orientales p.35-6and57 n.100; Boylan,Thoth p.156 Sethe,Amun I 2 p. p.50 96 ; de Buck,Oerhuvel pAOn. - reviewby H.R.Hall, JEA 10p.185-184 Taharqa 74 n.151. in At Edfu theq3yt-q3 is mentioned lotusofferingtextsandhereit is theplacewherethe primordial AqI'A TO VII 162,12-13;,Wd Y 41) 247.12 d lotus containingthe divine child grows074, VI and' qqd T 1M. T1,19) V 84.16.Atthe declare Ve give birth toRe in'V4 endof this textthe Ogdoad V 86,13. The child Harsomthus comesfromAWftl) 111190,15-16.

A -A

The connection and : with Hermopolis Thothis stressed the king is saidto be like IsdenCrboth)in YOVI 278,1-2,thus bmnw and q3yt-q3 are virtually synonymous.As a name for' od! T in lists Hermopolis, q3yt-q3 appears laterRomangeographical at Dend*eradqqd a) MDIV'81 qq lifisee GI Gauthier V 153and 1541. DG andat Philae(Tiberius)Dum. 54,24,. As in the PTs the q3yt-q3 can be associated with Heliopolitan creation myths :a censingand TOW240,6-7. libation text an Ennead godscomes of with Re frornd% i ,


plant Wb V5 (8) Wb Drog. 510 DG 531,6 ki -plant Charpcntier 1170p.708-9

for it appears inj n Wb Drog. cites only onereference this 'unknownplane[Hearst1951 as where AA7*s r mrD.t ialso Germer',Arznei p.369]. This may be the sameplant mentionedin -a

becomes andreedoffering , madeto AmunandMut , at theendit saysIbe Lord of Behdet papyrus

'Y4A V4'w"- 4 lkqq A C=I-. Ir" 3= rI-N rn IqM. he is a Great sacred god, child of foreign lands,

in Khemmisbloomsbeforehim'1157,17.This mustbe the sameplant as appears a hymn to Khnum from Esna [RT 27 p.1911- hereKhnum is n1ri who shows himself in Nun . Daressy

1 lotus divine [RT 27,1905p. 187-189 It could be literally 'the high planf, that is translated as this word for the plant on the primordial mound high hill - thusa metaphorical one which growson the


which is the lotus.

I q3w height or length Wb V4 (1-13) Pyr.
DG 531 bottom kj - long life V..) LL2-

Cr. 130a; CED 66; KH 512


length of time

At Edfu q3w is used mainly in the temple description where dimensions of the building are given with 3wbreadth/widthand q3w meanslength often , rather than height as one might expect. T=8 23 2/3 IV 113cubits IV 5,2; wsbt Oryt-ib -aT Examples : height of klwt-bpV -d 5,12-6,1; temple as a whole Jr 105 cubits IV 12,8 ; but A _f is 90 cubits (different building

LY 37 LT 40 VII 17,11; Great Hall J ?)V3,3 ; the pronaos length A cubits VII +x cubits phase , f8 1/3 cubits VU 13,2. 17,3-4; Mesen Chamber In the temple 'its width is perfect . its length (wsb) is excellent and , its height is just

IV 19,11 Further, where we might say 'height of the sky, breadth of the earth , the Idng is righe . JJ 1 the whole sky - literally'length! IV 16.2? of given TV r-9 V 30,4; di hy r Also praises however are given to the 'height! of heaven Ir-by rd A JJ nt pt VI 103,3. at the height of his voice 1499,12; 1500,4.

Idiomatically : at the giving of incense . Re rejoices Y. A r-incense and libation to Re giving .........


to thefull extentof
to the full extent of my

A compound preposition , at Edfu, the king slays his enemiesstrength Il 74,7.


to vomit, pour out Wb V7 (5-16) MK ctCr. 37a; CED52 IC-k... GSOX (or from b3 . ) ..........

From the NK onward, q3' is consistentlywritten without the 3 and at Edfu the 3 never appears, it closerto the Coptic maldng The word is not usedexclusivelyfor pouringout liquids, but to


pour out more generalofferings and produce. ne two caverns are openedto 'pour oue the Nile: W: 264,4; It' />, H by Imhotep H 270,12-13; -done

(Horus) 1116,13 As a reward for offering a libation Horus pours out Hapy -, . A> for the king to flood the land V( 1743 Other areaswhich 'pour oue offerings : the Two lands . produce H 243,13; mountains dv 1*' (done by Horus) 1112,7;4Ue Water or produce can come from a god as his divine efflux : HB pours out A0 Hathor 146,1 S. 4' water as the

HB efflux of his body 11167,15-16; 4 0, i- bouquetsof flowers as his efflux IV 29,2. qI is also used with q3s which has the same meaning : the srf-flood is brought, plants q3s pour '-'j "P out and what is in them ? pours out IV 336,8.


in, among. within, synonymof m.hnw GR Wb V 10(3) to I1 (1) MK

Junker : 207 p. 154 q3bE) = rn-q3b 'in' GG 178p.134 in the midst Of (lit. in the folds of) , m-q3b-n. In GR textsthe compound preposition appear can without the m.
With following noun HB is Great of terror A 22 in the Ennead 155,15; the king is A C14: in his

boundaries IV 29,14 Hor-Akhty illumines the F" in his Throne City VI 6,6; the king is'. if 5 Great of Terror = Mntyw 1559,2; a priest is master of excellent secrets= E Pr-H' 1 2,

558.6. With following suffix gods...children areamongthem1110,3; rejoice tj %r, 16

czs -

in it

(the city of Behdet) IV 3,8 ; the temple - the Wabet of HB is=

the Ogdoad rejoice

in it IV 6,4; the temple At

Z6 in it IV

CS IV 7,6; the temple the image of Re-Harakhty rests= A C2 4--W

13.7; the sbt-Xnt - millions of flowers are = ca

therein IV 49,1 and grains A6...

4--- 920

are in it,

6 2 IV 49j; the temple specification of those things which are in it&', = king is contentwith what is in it = tR -, *1468,9 .

V 3,2 ; 3bt-field - the

ER Adverbial use: fields are flourishingand n g3w Z= -:

thereis no want therein IV 462.


to double Wb V8 (7) to 9 (12) bth. Dyn. 18 DG 533,10


Cr.98b; CED52; KH98


Examples Edfu occurwhereofferingsaredoubledin number(c f. Wb V 9,5) : the II th LE nome at doublesall it controls (offerings) for the king A0 C= IV 30,5; the (ED
A C= =IF=) M mnw-offering on the 6th day of the month t7 v- C- III#

IV 402.


breast Wb V 11 (2-8) MK Cr. 54a; CED 33 ; KH 331 8 K, ISE

q3bt refers to the whole chest in Egyptian but it has a more specialised use in Coptic where it means the 'female breast' [Lacau, Corps 193-195 'stemumpoitrine'-; Lefebvre, Tableau 24

stemum]. It occurs in medical texts (Sm. 1,20 ; 2526 etc.) , Magical Texts (Zaub. E 4,4 etc) and also at Edfu - when the enemy hippopotamus is chopped up , portions of him are given to towns in Egypt his breast is given to VI 85,4 and,4 goes to the goddess

VI Wenet(of Hermopolis) 89.9.


part of the boat on which the rudder rests Wb V 12 (7) GR and V 62

The meaning of a word as used in Hekanakhtep.30A Text B 1.10 has been variously interpreted as a bolt of ebony (in original publicadon5,' 'meaning unknown! [Jones, Glossary p. 1911and the handle by which the steering oar was moved [Spaull, JEA 49,1963 p. 186]. This may be the same as the Edfu example : the good rudder turns uponr'za, -q. ," (tmw nfr wdbt br qrit) VI 80,1.

Blackman and Fairman translated it as 'goodly oar turns upon its pose [JEA 30 6 n. k). Glanville described the object as' the rest attachedto the side of the steering oar post on Which the loom of the [2AS 68,1932, p.27 n.811. The term may be etymologically related to qrr meaning oar revolveX Iole .


to bind , tie up Wb V 13 (1-7) Pyr. and 17 (11) GR spellingqis

The most usual spelling of q3s at Edfu is usingthe sign


which showsa man holding two.


UsuaUy objects the verb are foesof HorusOrthe king : enemies the of together. piecesof ropetied tied in a ntt-rope 1292,11; the king I& are ties foes andbringshis rope M 127.9; foes k3-wrties"

h3kw-ibw. k 1369,15-16: or bulls tied up for sacrificethe king Orldf the greatbull HI 178,16 the antilopeis ; up AV sbiw m-bnt (D V 218,13.

in his ropeVII 110,15; in a pun Wadjet ,

Thereis alsoa nounq3s I)onds'(Wb V 13(8-16)Pyr.) which is alsofoundat Edfu , the gazelle'is' tied up (ntt) by ; a ropeHI 146,10 bring Sethm *V111188.11. -tk 'H 24 no.166.

The nme of a godor epithetof HorusBehdetis

2 Re 1-2-r


to makebondshurt Wb V 17(12)

sm r 'to cause pain' followed either by m or the genitive (m could be for n- genitive) - probably' means'cause the bonds of N to hurf , that is to tie the ropes of a foe so 6ght that they hurt and thus

p. restrictthe boundfoe [Kurth, Dekoration 113-4]

j grIv

, Stt 'causingthe fettersof Asia'to, n

beforehim) -a uniquescenetide (on a column) III be painful' (for Sopduand slayingthe enemies 247,2.Plate76 col2 showsthe king holdinga boundfoe beforehim by a rope who hashis hands , is tied behindhis back anda harpoon thrustinto his head.Also IIB says,WI the bondsof the arms of the rebellious' causeto hurt

nt IL3kw.ibw) VII 323.8-9;the king as the Great of VII 183,1-2;Behold these 1369,15-16

the might causes bondsof thosewho attackMesento hurt foes I causeto hurt the bondsof the rebellious ...

At Philae , the phraseappears mr q3s m (foe) [PhiM 1117.12 - with painful bonds] - Wb as Philae<77> Phot.13 ; <689> 11813; <2671>989 ; <3087>505 example: .

The action of putting strongor tight bondson the foe is expressed elsewhere smnb-q3s (Wb W, as 13,14); othertextsaboutSopdumentionthebondof an enemy MD IV 15 ; 26-27


image, form - usedin phrases Wb V 15 (5) to 16 (17) MK cf. 9142 SIO CED 331 ; Cr8l9a; KH445 - Prefixof nounsof action

'as one form' i. e. together : in a festival people sing and dance is sw mi q! wl


'togethee 17,9;plantsarepresented theka of BB IV to br qLf 'in its form' all : the king is givenPunt V 16 (14) GR)

4-4- together1443,17 in its whole circumference 1477.2 (Wb

The nounqi 'image'refersto a concrete form or figure of the king or a god. [Hornung,Menschals Bild p.142-3]: in the temple VIP-&all its images exactIV 17,14. are


to vomit , spew out

Wb V 17(4-6) Med. GR plus (10) qjs to spit out Cr.577b; CED226; KH511 XOC12' vomiting

in At Edfuqis is used a similarwayto q(3)1 andit does simply being not referto water poured out, . A-V^ but also to lands or fields 'pouring out' produce:I give you the land (0) r 'd :$. imYw-f -1=0
for you what is inie 1160,10; HB rejoicesat the 3bt-fieldAW, ; rnpwt spitting spitting out A133.3;the srf-flood poursout plants hrs ? out plants 111 is brought and A IV 336,8;the kkw-Nile flood

it pours out for you (HB) the field is bowed down (ksw) under

In text, a flood pours out its produce(words are qnw-plants 1321,4-5; 11243,16-17. a damaged P illegible exceptfor ),d')kq 11195,13. verb is usedin the sameway at Philae 'whenHapy The . Phill 1279,11-12) KOTp.313 poursout its plants(Junker, =

his time the 3ht field A comesat P, % Nr. 423 r-; .

In a wnp-nhs text the verb is used in an execrationritual , name VII 168,2. council spit uponhis (Seth's)

Dr IJ3113t rn. f ' the

Apart from theseusesqjs is usedin medicaltexts [Wb Med. p.880 erbrechen, speien(seeq3')] trouble (Eb.192 a; 195a; Eb.202a). When a whereit means'to vornif as a symptomof stomach (Bln. 194 ; Calsb.V; Kahn 27 x2 ; Bln.193 drug is spatout this is a positive testfor pregnancy q r3, in thesecases The spellings reflecttheinterchange of and asat Edfu.


stone for amulets used Wb V 18(1) GR

lists include At Dendera of materials theamulets areused make to they and the under heading including hearts, set-squares, plumb-lines, a totalof 16amulets scarabs, uraeiandAA eyes,


all of which could be made of this mineral , MD IV 87. A list of semi-preciousand precious stones includeslefe j; V f0 MD IV 36,50 and a similar list on the Famine stela has stonesfrom Nubia including

[Hungersnot 171. *.and makes its pupil Phill 1105,9) q.Y.

At Edfu : BB is the soyereign in Pe and Mesen who fills the Eye with %>'&f liye with bb plants VIII 136,12 (the parallel text at Philae has also bks, bqs.


mineral WbV18(2) GR Haffis, Mneralsp. 133

Harris suggests qis-'nb is a writing of q' and neglects text in MD IV 87 listing amulets that the which are to be madeof certainstone- thereare 16 amuletsundeirjjs-Inb and then a different 10 j under : ". including the sistra two plumes, He eyes, scarabs. notesthereis a problem ,

as qI and discountsthe amuletevidence faulty , so that the meaningof q' 'must remain in with doubf [op.cit. p.2321. At Dendera q' ZJ , is broughtfrom a land calledArtt
, -J O db

and it goeson 'it is usedto oca

(discussing Dendera the enrich the shrineof Hathor and beautify her temple'MD 171,9. Daurnas treasurytexts , OLA 6,692-3) notesthat the q' at Dendera. comesfrom Artt which is written 00 the at Edfu 11279,9,however locationof thelandor theidentityof themineralareunknown. 01 'ayn'-- - ItF, #1 At Edfa in the Trea'sury texts, underthe entry for AC!Oa, the kingbrings to HB .4 qq :' is implying that q was mined11279,8 further occurrence lesscertain- in the perhaps .A 11
C7 b

UA Laboratory: dry myrrh is compared a bird - its wings are like the colour of gold and C=3 to 207,8.

in Harris proposed the mineralq' washa6matite that which is reddish/brown colour and this would fit, not only the treasurymetaphorbut the fact that haematite was usedto make amuletstoo. At %--; : 520 Philae<1673>Phot. the godsfill the eyewith, --j% . in the list of minerals. Uhn 16 and the Hungersnot conWns,, j 1-1 -.


PAx of sycamom Chiuwnfie'r1186, p.716-7


There is only one referenceat Edfu to a vegetablesubstancecalled q' : the land of a nome is brought with its -, charcoal and V. 19,13. This may be connected to the demotic

nhy ql 'a type of sycamore' [Erichsen, Demotische Lesestficke Il , Urkunden des

Leipzig 1939 indexp.154]. PL&maerzeit, ,


shoulder, arm

Wb V 19 (6-14) MK DG 533.2 arin %.Pe- 2548,1q arin z-

Cr.131b; CED67; KH73507

4IC6? kr=7-s ;,, Icc-XL'? -

The technical term for the shoulder is q'O (in medical texts e.g. SmA: 8,17,18) and it has a dual form too. It also has the wider use 'arm' and Coptic derives from this in 'elbow' [Lefebvre, Tableau 301 . F ,j VI

At Edfu when the hippopotamus is dismembered his shoulder goes to Hermopolis 85,3 and c'dr

to Wenet of Thoth (Hermopolis) VI 89,8. There is further allusion to this in a his shoulder is given on the Six Day

I' protection text, it is the protection of Thoth to whom 'd Festival VI 147,1.

in an offering text the king specifies which arm will hold out the offerings IT 21,8. The bearers of the god in his shrine are asked to swIL3 arm .1-4

. -4

the right

An s3w nmt. tn -

'makecarefulyour armsandguardyour footstcps'll 34,17.1

to bend the arm Wb V 18 ff. To 'hold out the arm' is a gesture made by a priest in the htp-di-nsw offering [Chassinat, Khoiak I 294 n.5] or in any ritual act [Fairman-Grdseloff - JEA 33 . 23 n. 1 *, Cauville, Osiris p.34 n.41. p. From the Edfu references this is a gesture found mainly in food offering texts , though there are exceptions : Setting up the brazier text bending the right arm and setting up the brazier

(pl. 16 shows the arm of the king bent over the brazier, the left holds a mace and staff) 158,15. 13 0Opening of the Mouth ceremony ,d IV 242,16-17 . Me text continues , the king bend my arm to you after the rite/work is finisheS J and brings offerings IV 243,5 - pL 92 shows


the king holding staff and macein left handandthe right handis held out straight;Maat offering ,
Shu A,p I -a : 0C- %% lot

bends to him the arms of the Two Lights VIII 83A 'j -! -, -jl

; Making by the king'


6 with every good thing VI 103,1-2; '3bt-offering

X'Ot "' 362 straight right arm) also king 14 (XII p. ,

**A- holding j the sbm -sceptre 158,6 . Plate 16 -I.

shows the king holding the sceptrein his straight right arm, the maceand staff are in his left and he is behind a heaped offering table ; brp-'3bt (Osiris and Isis) holding offerings 192,4. A.j It is used of others : Wadjet (tide missing) people in festivals standsat his post:: jj There are examplesof 4 she holds boxes of cloth 1128,1-2 the king says-! -J 4j -, my arm is bent before your face

Lj -4. they bend their arms as a mark of respect IV 17.7 and everyone *-'Lu bending their arms to their secret images IV 19,6. L) , being omitted, either by error or becauseit was seento be incorporated bend my arm to your house with 100s of offerings I

AjI in the meaning of q'o : the king IJ

AJ-4 189,5 - p1284 (vol. XI) shows the bent right arm gesture.the left hand holds mace and staff ; C--- it king 'I bend the right arm and brp wdn ', here he holds the sbm. sceptre in his bent right arm (pIAOh) H 21,8.


literally - bend the hand Wb V 18 (5) to 19 (3) BD cL krEZbIkJPII' 73 from Ezekiel 23,42 for'6 KH stretch out. applaud'

Though literally bend the hand! this term may be synonymous with q'o-' I)end the arrW with drt , having the extended use 'arm. The phrase usually occurs in food offering scenesin which the king impersonates Shu, son of Re, or the Sem-priest : the kingacit" i for his father Re with the ,

Plate 57 showsthe king holding a staff and macein his left hand ptp-di-nsw offering 11175,13. his right arm is heldout, bent at the elbow with the palm upward.Ilis appears be the bent to while .14 gesture q'4 arm/hand 'S. / W5.bends hand The king as a Sem-priesti^#. to god - and the

king as tm-gm4s indicatesthat a straightright arm is the gesture 247,12.77he IH the determinative
4 11 a-

bendshis too to his fatherin Behdet VII 271,15-16; bm-gmbs in Processions %-- V'4L the "bends



arm in adorationIV 15,2. In an offering*ofmeatportions(bnp-stpw) the king as Shu the arm to the one who createdhim VI 153,6-7and in the sametext e4-

to Horus VI


156,5-6. In the actual scene pl. 149 he holds up a tray of offerings on both hands with both arms ,

bentat theelbowi


lij 174, which are offered' - i. e.

In the Sokar Chamber, the god partakes of the offerings"IET

given by the bent arm 1214,9 [so Junker, Stundenwachenp.101 (130)].


district Wb V 20 (9-11) DG 547,7qt- district /J, 7 2: Cr.131b; CED67, KH73 kA2! in certainplacenames

Originally q'O may havereferredto a portionof bentor curvedland(in placenames the Wilbour in papyrus,where it is translatedas 'tract! - Index Vol.IV p.90) . From the NK howeverq' is an term for land andin the Greekperiodit corresponds vogo; [Vernus,RdE 29 1977 to administrative p.181n.23 ; Kees. ZAS 72 1936p.46-471. At Edfu q'b is usedas a variantterm for a land area: when the w3d-wr flood restsfor the king upon,:: j (andis raisedupon'places)1113,1. the landareas


to go slowly , cool of pace Wb V 23 (15-16) Late, GR

qb-nmtt p. IIIc-

is an epithet from the Late Period and is often followed by bw-dsr [BIFAO 53,1953 see n. I for examples ; Ranke, JAOS 65,1945 p.24 1].

is Thephrase usedasan epithetof officials to emphasise dignified behaviour bearing[ their and Fs. Meulenaere, Grapowp.226-2311. In templesthe epithetqb-nmtt is quite rare but the variant , to m. qb-nmtt , which is appliedto godsor priestsgoing in procession towardsthe sanctuary, is' The latteris an adverbial introduced m andexamples listedby Otto by construction very common. are Schritt', cE Alliot, Culte I 242,244,422'en [GuM p.156'mit kiffilem, beherrschtem marchelente!; Daumas, ASAE 51,1951 p.391 'marcher lentemcne]. qb means 'cool' 'calm' as opposedto


mm'heated' and in the context of walking perhaps means 'slowlywithout

haste' or even

'silently, quietly'- considereda great virtue by the Egyptians for behaviour in temples. At Edfu : the priest in procession to the shrine in the temple 1542,15; the gods of Edfu go TI

in the sacredplace in procession 1576,3; the children of Horus too all go 536,8; the priests are told to become (h pr)=i'Ai . the king as the priest of Horus gods V 40,34. In instructions to priests : mk df3w =O: 0 'aj*) -4c=! 3 C,: a

'do not hasten, not huffy the feet! 1414,10; ' do

in the Great Place who opens the sanctuaries of the ,

and make silent your voice in the "

temple as one who comes and goes in the courtyards V 244,9 [Alliot, Culte 1191 vois ce sont les aliments de celui qui multiplie ses pas autour du lieu saint]. The phrase is also found in similar Otto, OP. and de Meulenacm op.citl. Cit. contexts at Dendera [for examplesSee de Meulenaereconcluded that qb-nmtt is translated'slow walle - in the MK qb and b3b (hurry) are , [from an autobiographical texts, Janssen,Autobiografle I p. 166,2 : cf. Piehl ZAS 3 1. opposites , 1893 p. 88 ink qb 9w m h3h I am calm free from haste] then m-qb. nmt seems to derive from this vW use of the term


earth ? c f. Wb V 25 and also Wb V 164 (12-13) gbb

When bricks for the temple are being made, Horus says that he gives the place of the god,,., 'established upon its foundations, the gate of life upon its lands all [c.f. Montet Ktmi 17,

1964 p.87 la porte de vie sur ses terrains] Il 61.3 The word in Wb is translated as 'earth' and gbb,, . in from D. 18 'fields' spelled AJJ UIS the GR period. This is most likely the same as the Edfu term, occurs elsewhere in the texts : the foundation is firm to the limits of which K (Cj :, provided with the

II 113 1: in a digging the earth for the foundations scene 'reaching the limit of A sand foundation to make excellent the monument in the Great Place'Il 60,4. ,

All the examples seem to be the same word meaning perhaps lowest ground level , when digging 3=, down. However where Meeks has djq4r,!. translated as'fondations'[An. Lex. 77.4382; RdE 29, j, 1977 p. 121he comments 'est en fait une graphie de bq3jt' [An. Lex. 77.1324] . Harris suggeststhat, _ it is paving or foundation blocks of stone [Minerals p.291-



vessel Wb V 25 (2-6) MK DG. 534,2 d-Z1 Lqbt -a vessel 16 kH&l k4\61

Cr.99b-, CED52; KH57fem.

a jar for water or beer and in the Deir el Medina texts was made of bronze or copperqbyw was [Valbelle, Poids p. 18 ; du Buisson, Vases p.29-301. At Edfu in a list of vesselsof beer and wine for IA Festival of Behdet there are included after '24 ds-vesselsof beer, bread %'y-cakes v the 24 big qbw-vessels of beee vl35,8-9. It is feminine like its Coptic descendant.Also in an qbw

Menket, the goddesswho makes beer is brought carrying her .4 "MW C, IIt --*offering procession,

beer IV 197,12-13 At Edfu qby seems to refer to only vessels for beer [Meeks, vessels of . Hom.Saun. I p.247 n.48 and Macadam, Kawa 163 n. 1203.


coot wind Wb V 24 (13-14) GR Ankh. 20,14 1r-r4-1A: Cr. 100a; CED53; KH57 qbbw K&WO)l & cold winds

IT derives from qb 'be cool' (Wb V 22 ff. ) and occurs earliest on the.Marriage Stela of Ramesses qbb IT 249,13 which was translatedby Kuentz as'north wind' [ASAE 25,1925 p.233Q. It is , A 1b* 4?1: from his fluidV12a. in later texts, as noted by Wb, and also atEdfu: god creates used The etymology of the Coptic word is discussedby Osing [GM 27,1978 p.68].


coolwater Wb V 25 (10-11) CT

4-.Ufl The Wb cites referencesfrom the Coffin Texts :

Spell 62 CT I 269b but the term is used

in other texts. The word is translatedas 'calm watersby Condon [Seven Hymns p.8 line 4 and, rarely 171 It is derived from qb 'be cool'. p. . At Edfu : 'the Children of Horus kill all their foes, their weaponsreach (their targets) and pierce the

cool waters


'VI 79,3 Alliot notesthat qbbt is cold water found when digging .


[Culte 11764n.11but Blackman and Fairman translatedthe term here as'deep wate&. ' into the ground for the deeperthe water the colder it is [JFA 30 p.6 and ncl


throat Wb V 25 (12) GR

The Edifice of Taharqahas an earlier exampleof this word [Taharqap.72 n.41 and PL27(23)) all that in the text is srq ktV survives of those who are in the water. Ile terrn is not attested in medical J

papyri. Wb cites two refercnces- MD H 46 (incorrect) and Philae <1522> Phot 1373 -a Maat offering j C1 0&J this your throat tisAi m mk. k. It is also found at Edfu : also a Maat'. Aj 'qb. this your throat it (fem.) has refreshed your body TV 257.15 ; the same text ri



CD IT 146,10-11.

The etymologyis uncertain- it may derivefrom qbb 'coot aie (which passes down the throat) or
from q3btbreasf .


name for Khnum Wb V 27 (8-10) Late - GR

From the OK Khnum was known as Lord of the Water marshes(Urk I 110; 11I, =


and this may have been abbreviated to qbh. 'Cataract Waters' as an epithet of Khnum. In the Coffm Texts a geni is called the son of Re CT IV 367d. Khnum is there united with .

At Edfu : in the description of the First Upper Egyptian nome

his forms of the sacred s3b4wt in the water-marshes'1337,5. If qbO is not a name for Khnum, then it is the name for the Cataract area itself , personified as a local dicty ,cf. Philae <1495> Phot.221 9P Khnum is called of the Cataracts.This epithet can be applied to other gods : Osiris where ffp'&. *xceUent in Egypt Philae <1532> Phot. 1374 ; MD IV 75 probably because of his qb , Philae <3439> PhoL1328; in a pun he is called .

temple at Biggeh : Horus in his form of &if

q3b htpw Qebeh who doubles the offerings E. Nbm. 162.8. I


sky, heaven Wb V 30 (1-6) Pyr.


qb is aboveall the mythicalwaterregionof the sky on the sideof Nut which is opposite earth the Apart from beinga watermarshfor birds qbOcouldalsobe a word for andbeyondthe sun'scourse. 'sky' in general[Mercer,The PyramidTextsIV p.53-41. Edfu : the godsprotectHorus the sun At , , (s9) IT r-i to open for the sky' VI 145,10 this phrase and sr-qbo is a euphemism 'opena shrineor

Schutz 24 trans. ] chapeldooe[Jankiihn, p. Goyon citesa text wherefoesare laid low in the sky 11133,13 [Gardicns 81,7].This p.

however The seems morelikely to beqb 'marsh'here. word occurs Dendera at also.


bird farm pool - waterregion , Wb 29 (5-13) Pyr.

qbw is a namefor the mythicalmarshareato which birds werethoughtto migratein Nut which
opposite the earth and beyond the sun's course,thus a chaotic dark void [Condon, Seven Hymns was der p.28 n.8 ; Edel, Zu Inschriften auf dem Jahreszeitenreliefs Weltkammee aus dem Sonnenhefligtam des Niuserre II p. 106 ff., G6ttingen 1963]. The original home of migratory birds is in this area, from north-east to north-west and covering the northern part of the earth. There is the qbt extending of Horus in the Delta and qbt of Seth at the first cataract, so the south had its migratory birds too. Thus qbtw is a general word for the aquatic bird pools of the world. At Edfu qbhw are primarily the habitat of fowl: Sbt brings a flock of rMoWl which came Eromj &DWVII 81,14-15 1565,10; (presenting flowers text) the hw-birds go down from ; sr-geese

inhabit 39,1.

= VII 124,13;a pehuhasbirdsjust like Qon

the northernmarshes with its birds IV ad%

A 44b for Min This northernmarshis probablyequivalent to givesthe king UpperEgypt asfar as Elephantine the marshof Horus(= LowerEgypt)to thecoast1406,4.HoweverKhnumis Lord of and 115,2 ,c7h Goo 1167,12 title of his sincethe OK andwhich clearly refers the qbOw: %=X-AwI -a to the southern cataract area. In the dual qbOwy is the wholeof Egypt: Horusis Lord of We landsbowing and the two marshes giving praise1406,3. lib. 1213,1 ; and 'you libate before r-,V . 1162,16; Min givesthe Two

2 In the Sokar chamber: sqb ib. i n-imsn m rnsn c-3-Iff Horusin your nameof oaa

in housein the marshes the West 1215,3



waterbirds Wb V 30 (8) MK

qbw is attestedfrom the Coffin Texts :A and the Eloquent PeasantAj


are brought for the deceasedCT I 269e:

[B I. 113 perhapsa special type of bird ] and then into NK"

texts - KRI 11509,15 ; 626,8 for example, and ultimately into GR texts [KO 1336,458 ; 149,5 1 The word also occurs at Edfu: there are Kk in Edfu from a list of commodifies atEdfu IV 3,3' 00 'it (the net) has rished the marshes' VI

in the text over the net catching enemies sht. n. s

2373 - however Alliot [RdE 5 p.80 n.71 translatesthis as 'caught birds'. The term seems to be a collective for "birds of the marsh' deriving'from qbh 'marsh', and the , spellingwith 050 is clearly under the influence of the place name QbD. If qbD is avoid beyoiid!

Nut, as suggestedby Edel (op. cit.), then thesebirds from it come from chaos and mvst be identified

forcesof chaos whichgivesa symbolicreason their appearance Edfu. with the Sethian for at -


libationwater Wb V 27 (15) to 29 (4) DG 535,2 A I; t I

The liquid usedin the libation ritual canpurify or restorelife and invigorateor both. In the temple [LA 1111014-5]., ritual the libation offeringof wateris bothpurificatoryandnourishing As an offering type at Edfu qbbw canbe offeredby itself or in combinationwith snLr 'inc6nse' , . 11 n VII 205a IV 218.4 IV Alone it is offered to Horus : irff'1376,19 169,9 ; di J. ; ff 62,14 ; VII 58,14 brp by dl A 11146,3; 11140,19 Il 143A , accompanied a goddess , ~'%

(Isis) ; VII 165,15(Hathor) ; also sty -11256,14 ... 11262,5 with a numberof godsir If , 1259,11; Drp

VI 253,14,(Harsomthus) di 1490,14;with primeval serpents

1525,6 ; with serpents threegeni 1532,16 In thesecases offering represents flood of the, the the and . Nile and so the godsguarantee king in returnhigh Niles without endand the subsequent fertility the andproduce thefields. of The pouring of water is also a funeraryritual, designed provide water for the deadand to purify to them from dirt and corruption The offering is thus also madeto Osiris , who with his shrine'at .


Biggeh, is also associatedwith the Nile. The pouring of water for him

has the dual purpose of

being the libation for the dead and the coming of the Nile flood perhaps'seenas being the direct, 5 fi Osiris : ir 11247,4 beside 11263,4 ; (usually with Isis) : ir efflux of the god. For 11623 ; di if 11258,8; (Nephthys) 1169,16 ; also 1218,17; (Nephthys and Children of X

Horus - the gods of the canopic chest) ir 1185,19 As Sokar-Osiris: ir 11 1153,14 . ff V 65,8 The offering is also made to the other gods of the Elephantine area: Khnurn Re ir di . 1114,11 ; Khnum 1477,5 ; sty 17 173,7 , Sopdet and Anukis brp'l

317,14 ; IV

277,12. Various gods : Isis ir VII 119,10 ; Herishef ir

V 185,8 Again the rewards to .

the king centre on the coming of the flood from the efflux of Osiris which refreshes brings renewed , life and also purifies and cleanses.The king is usually shown pouring out one or two libation vessels into a basin on a stand (pl. 31a 118) or over a table of offerings (pl. 24b) or he holds the vessel , , without pouring (in brp rites pl. 35b and vol. II fig. on p. 145). In the Offering Hall (9) four libation offerings come in succession: di 'a second to Hathor 1485,13 ; third to Harsomthus 1485,13 rewards and Icingpours vesselinto a basin (pl. 35 b and c). The ritual is also performed as bnp for Horus 174,11 ;H 260,15 : 111169,13 ;H a Horus 1486,6

and fourth to Horus 1484,11 - same

245,13 ; 1116,7 and for Khons and Meret 1263.16 -where the king runs with the libation vessels wearing the White Crown. The rewards he receives are again the flo6d and what the fields grow becauseof it (c f. pl. 17 and 64). Unique rituals are: it O'py bnp qb for Horus IV 354.12 and in qb4w m Nwn Horus and Hathor 11263,9. The libation offering is paired also with the offering of incense [as an ancestor ritual Cauville, Essai P.22 n. 11 : ir M. -for Horus 181,12 -, 1 85,9 ;V 239,7 ;V 289,6 ; di&I V 57,15 ;V for

156,8 but it is principally a funerary offering which is made to the dead ancestor gods of Edfu *.1 , 382A ; 1151-2 111301,8 : 111323 ; IV 83A ; IV 102,17 ;V 160,12 ; IV 239,13 ;V 61,17 ;; VII , 118-119 ; possibly IV 258,12 or ancestor Ptolemies 142,1146 ; IV 304,4 ; IV 148a ; 111130,13;

111181,12;or Osiris IV 98,15. Also for variousgods: Re V 178,10; V 82,9 ; Atum VI 157,6; di X 6. A 1482,9 ; VII 282,4 Khepri ir . VI 309,11; with lusasdi ff 1503,3; Khnum VII

314,16. With a food offeringalso to Horus1501,7.


In general the ritual is for the king to perform his duties as the legitimate heir of his ancestors and his hold on the kingship. Mie texts do not always specify what he will receive maintain but by the'

his performing the ritual he proves himself to be the legitimate heir . He can be given the very act of flood. incenseand also the renewal of life brought about by both the smell of incenseand the addition of water. The king holds a censeror pot with incenseand a libation vessel (pl. 90. pl. 15). The stresson the Nile flood in all the texts suggestthat here qbtw symbolises not only the actual flood given by the gods, but also the king's control of the flood water and his subsequentcontrol of, i crops and land in Egypt. For this reasonthe qbbw rituals are more than simply a purification or flood 'do ut desrite, but it is also a mark of kingship and a sign of the duties of the king.

qbb. wy

Egypt Wb V 29 (10) GR

A late period term meaning 'Egypt! becausethe land was made to live by the Nile which came out , of the two caverns of Qebhu - in the area of the First Cataract.Ibcre are two earlier terms I lr-qbhw and Stb-qbbw which represent the north and south of Egypt respectively, so qb. wy form combining theseideas, meansthe Two lands henceEgypt [Gauthier DG V 1711 . The earliest example is cited by Gauthier on a block from the Saite-PLolcmaictemple at Behbct el' the dual

H, agar[Sais-RT35p. l0ANZZ

1; Wb hasan examplefrom U&II 78,15.

in QbD. is well attested Rolemaictextsasa word for Egyptandat Edfu it occursas a variantfor wy 11 ffff 1 1111.7 for the templeIV 10.10 the Egypt : HB protects ; HB raisesup what is in jj VI IV 18.10 ; Horus.Lord of Mese n drives Seth from Two ladiesdwell in qff Lord of Egypt (the' 68,3. Appropriately, in an ir-qbbw text Osiris is describedasq= a Outpourings)1162,16.It is alsofoundat Dendera,Kom Omboand7bcbcs. .41


waterpourer Wb V 27 (6-7) Late - GR

Otto suggested the qbDw title wasa creationof the Ute Periodand he pointsout that it could that is be usedin puns [GuM p.72] : the king , as he gives lotus flowers to 11arsomthus called qbbw, nt MD III 56g The earliest his ib. f 'libationerwho refreshes heart'(c.f. D 11188,8) sqbD


example in Wb is from Dyn.22 at Karnak (Beleg). The use of the epithet at Edfu was studied by Ibrahim who noted that it was applied to the king in scenesof presenting incense and libation (qbtw) especially mortuary scenes [Kingship p. 1941 rq ancestor gods are presentedwith the gifts and the king is 51,5 ; 11 '17 the libationer of those in Mesen II f'q --may read

IV 148,6 ; (ir snLr qbb) the text is mutilated but the sign

qbtw (or perhaps sty qbb) IV 99,6 . Ibrahim further suggeststhat this title is the Lower Egyptian counterpart tide of Upper Egyptian iwn-mwt. f but he stressesthis is unproven [op.cit. p. 1331.It is also found at Dendera.


sacred snake Wb IV 31 (2) GR

in qbb is the nameof the serpent the 14thUE nome nome1330,7.

1341,8 (Cusae) theLetopolis and


dignity awe respect , , Wb V 31 (6) to 32 (7) D.18 GR oft.

inscriptionof Arternidos: 71be of earliestexample qf3w quotedby Wb is Urk. IV 385,4in the Speos Hatshepsut where the queensays she was createdto put wsr dignity' in this land.. %fyt(q.v.) and so from the 22ndDyn. waswritten with the headand, of qf3w wasusedas synonym forepart of a ram sign 3Z Borghoutsnotes that in some magical texts qf3t standsin clear . A 'the might of his

qf3 parallelismto Ok3w 'magic'[OMRO 51 p.40]. Strickerin fact translates 'magicforce! [OMRO 31,1950 p.611.This is found at Edfu too : the ka 'hasmadeyour magic(h'k3) he hascreateda, 10 VIII 115,8-9 Borghoutsconcludes it shouldbe Aqq* your force' 11199,6 similar A.-z.:, that ; V . in translatedas 'victory' 'superiority'.This howevergoesonly a small way to encapsulating one Englishword the Egyptianideasinvolved(seecomments the meaning 9fyt, for this problem). on of R 3h, is a quality of gods : HB is wr 'qj ' - IV 48,2 ; the king says'I see'4 qf3w 9 oil of Horus'

IV 55,13; the king is `1='P1T49 IV 56,2; of a groupof weavergods,Horus makesgreattheird V'144! Di 9- his 19 1130,1 Also it is given to the king : he puts 'ad. power in his enemiesIV .


AQ. 310 74F71E, of the king in the hearts of people IV 273,18; the king is 234,15-16; Mcntyt makesgreat Great it-1-145% in the Land of the Fenkhu V 42,2. qr3W- is something frightening for foreigners to experienceand for thoseout of the sphereof the king and gods to see. may be due to confusion with f3w or qfn which are words for offerings. I In parallel with Ifyt : four serpentsgive attributes to the king the second gives him Yryt the' . , IM 0A "e- -. 1-1 in people like Re when he shows himself in the morning 1294,4. It' third makesgreat his %-. The writing with (M is thus a very visual aspectof the king's personality perhaps the feelings of awe engendered were thought to be manifestationsof this magical overwhelming force. , It can be difficult if a ram sign alone is written to decide whether or not the word was taken as Yrit or qf3w - both are feminine and very close in meaning. Examples such as E.Marn. 80,8 'make great 'J of the king' cannot be satisfactorily resolved -in Egyptian the meaning of the word is clear

andits precise readingis lessimportam


cake Wb V 32 (16-18) MK DG 536,8 ; Z)lev keNGMe4"

Cr. 113a; CED60; KH66

Also attested GR templeoffering fists :a list of breadofferedby the king includes in =p ,S c:;
VII 214,6 ; brought from the store rooms for the god's offering VI 346,5 : MD III 55c

KO 173,85 ; Philae <2991> PhOt. 861.71iis derives from the verb qfn which is the processof Grillen p.159-1611 alsooccursat Edfu: in a bred makingsoft doughhardandfirm [Verhoevcn, and linmmty edoffering , the goddess cooks themwiLhher own handsVII 79,8..


to build, to construct Wb V 33 (4) GR

The term derivesfrom qfn'to bakc'(Wb V 32), the makingof qfn-cakesmay haveinvolved some Grillen p.160]. modellingof the doughhencethe idea'to fashion','to build' [Verhoeven, .4 At Edfu qfn is usedin textsrefcrring to the building of the temple: (brick mouldingtext) % I all the walls 1161,6-7;Horus saysto the king 'I entcr Wctjcsct Ilorus Z"I%
m--b which you-, -


havebuilt for my ka' 193,9; theking is the excellentgod,. 4'4-,,

who built the two shrinerowsI

H 106,17. sameappliesto its useat Dendera .4cF he hasbuilt it with a The : ?, ; roof D 1119,1 he has
built it of white stone D 111140,4.


ape Wb V 33 (6) BD, GR

.49From the BD this term applies to apes in general%-.4

[Budge -Chapter 42 1.28 (papyrus of . At

Nu in the BNU and to an ape headedgod, at Abydos in the temple of RamessesIl 4-0v__-VjO

Wit the word continues to be used: a Maat presentationtext, there are three apeswho are called the

noble apes(bnt) protectinggod


the sacred apesrefreshingShu in his form 1276,1-2 (an epidietnot in Boylan) 111251.16 in an incense -,
IV V'2, fear of apes'IV 250,1-2.

Tlioth is called tv
offering the king 'gives 4ga*

The noun is probably associatedwith or derived from the verb qfn (Wb V 32,9) which means 'to bend (the arms) ' (Pyr 1213), and the later form of this verb qfdn occurs at Edfu meaning'to bend! , A j 'The Protection of I., m3sty of him who bends the knees in the temple' VI 148,8. Ile

determinative showstheprecise actioninvolved, andapesareoftenshownwith bentknee- thusthe

noun qfdn came to be applied to ape.


to create Wb V 34 (3) to 36 (5) Pyr. DG 537,1 1 -,

between andking - thegod creates the qm3 occursoftenat Edfu, frequentlyto stress relationship god Af t his sonto protecthim the king - his son : Ptolemyis created to be king IV 7,9; HB 34,2; this is best expressed the phrasethe king is tk IV in himself VI 6,1; PtolemyandCleopatra build a templefor created the creationof the one who the onewho created them

1228,4;the king offers the btp-di-nsw to the onewho created one who created him (i.e. the god the who createdthe fatherof the king)j; a1155,5; an epithetof the king strongarmedlike

his the onewho created body' 1268,15. Godscreateother gods Horus > . 1560,9;or not the Ennead A> atJ gtL AA^% --Ptah


createsbut no-onecreatedhim H 37,5. In the formula di/wd pt qm343 'what heavengives and earth creates'= everything: 29,2; "--' 4-'1V.R 1113,13;r-V V 1336,9. what the king beer 1151,12; Horus 11f ... IV'

Creating produce: grain BB , 1161,6 ; cloth A> makes receives beer Jj

13R: IV 29,2; general Xorus receives

made by Hedj-hotcp 1126,6; beer, Isis j>

by Hathor 1462.7; Hathor makes becrJ5 Vvias her handiwork 1114,7. t this whole land V 8,5; light , Horus

Creating parts of the Universe: the earth, HB 520,12.

People and things together : HB makes millions fashions gods 1143,11.

100s of thousands and begets men and

Various : in the name of a minor god 'Divine water from Osiris the flood who creates" A beauty and makes all the live! 1198,15; HB created the egg and begat his chicks IV 26,6-'"' Horus is A >Jcreated by the female falcon 1110,13. Evil is also created those who create evil - they shall not exist V 43,3 foes A! create

all kinds of evil in their hearts1172,8. I In the senseof 'to fashion' : the god receivespart of a door king has a was-sceptrein his left hand made of gold VI 22,4. fashioned of electrum IV 331,10; the-",

fashioned of gold VI 21.6; he has a Khonsu f igure


to move (oneself) Wb V 33 (15) NK

Wb recordsqm3 only in An. 19,5 andGardinercomments it is equivalentto the Coptic 1QM that but this is the only examplefrom Late Egyfian[Lit.TextsNK p.13* andn2l At Edfu Horus is described the protectorI 11, as , in his war-ship 1114,17. Fairmansuggested

that this was 'movedhimself' in his ship - but it still may be an epithet of HB ? rotector and Self Created who is in his warship'.


image, form Wb V 36 (9-15) MK


qm3 is used at Edfu often in puns : the king is A> (or creation ?) IV 279,1 also VI 6 Ij

*-o it

the image of the one who created him

74l*A94O-' image Hor-Akhty (note and 'Horus is the the bird of

signhere)VI 57,9. ,


proven valour JEA 21 p.32 n.2

The phrase may be derived from qm3 'to beat metal': Horus of Behdet was like','*uVI 121,4; HD was 1"W) 4 pty a man of proved valour

sn qm3

also . with the face of a falcon appearing he has created might in could be a synonym for

with a diadem on his head VI 123,4-5. c.f. a passagewhere Horus Set-Aby ?, protecting Osiris in Naref VI 92 and in this case qW-pty 'protect! .


to beat out metal

Wb V 36 (16) to 37 (6) 'to A word like ms which canhavetheparallelnuance fashion! makesomething well as'create'.as or from metal,and at Edfu from gold :a god wearsa to qm3 seems refer specificallyto manufacture plumeon his head


fashioned of gold VI 23,8 ; Horus holds a sceptre

A pw

m nbw VI 21,6; an imageof Khonsu=*m

nbw VI 22,4.


ornament or dressworn by the king at the Heb-Sed WbV38(II) GR

The exact nature of this garment is not clear . The Edfu texts usually mention it in connection with royal ornaments :a crook and flail offering 'Equipping Horus with his ornaments'. In return other king 4,>j F, crook and flail as Horus Lord of the Heb-Sed1480,10-11. The scene Khonsu gives the . in P1.35cshows the king in a White Crown offering Khonsu the crook and flail. Khonsu holds flail (b and Was-sceptre and wears a counterpoise and a long envelopping robe . That qm3ty is an

article of dressis confirmed by a text where idmi-cloth is offered. Here Horus rewards the king with 'appearanceas c7 > like Horus 131,15 The scenePl. 11 shows the king offering a bolt of .

to HB. Wb cites a further example from Karnak, as LD IV 13c, erroneous ly. cloth




Wb V 37 (14-16) 19th Dyn. - GR rwritimus

DG 537,3

Charpentier<1197> p.722-23 Juncus


Cr. 108a; CED57; KH64

The qm3 at Edfu are firstly found in the laboratory texts where, in a recipe for making kyphi ,a PI (f is plant called also said to be called is needed) 11211,7 . Chassinat [Khoiak p.425 and p.2021 gives an example of in the garden of the god. It is 0 Yeedof Kush' (2 deben of this t

generally a well attestedword and is the ancestorof Coptic kAil. Loret-Lefebvre took this one step further and claimed it was the origin of Greek icadgo; [Mmi 13,1954 p.22-23]. So far however

'Reed of Kush' is not attestedelsewhereand in this case qm3 is probably a general word for'reed! rather than a specific variety.
11f qL In the Festival reeds are associated with Mesen : rdit r Msn n -r-TV 349,9-10 (Wb V 37,12). rdit r Msn


image Cf. Wb V 38 (9-10) GR

Certain examples of qm3ty at Edfu are rare becausethere is some element of confusion over the rcadingof 1, It seemsmost likely to read 'wt 'animal' and is used with reference to the sacred Tjk I qm3 s3 3-tp

falcon. Where qm3ty is certain it is used in puns : the Sia falcon is called

msw. f the divine image who createsprotection around his children IV 170,5.1 A guardian of the hours of Osiris is Ai 1222,15 Junker [Stundenwachen p.461 .

transliterates this as qm3 tpy mr pbM (n.4 written as q3 mdw - loud of voice) and translates it as 'die klagende krank von klagen!

is more frequentat Dendera, seeWb - MD I 39d MD 1176d 149 b-c and e.g. D III The word , , I '-Z but D11159,1142. , D 1(1173,4;D VII 74,7 or4Q'nJ 159,6 ='d also spelt



moumers Wb V 38 (12-13) Late, GR

qm3ty is a noun derived from a verb known from the Pyramid Texts qm3 'to mourn' (Wb V 37,7, Pyr. 313b). At Edfu it is used mainly in the Sokar Chamber: Nephthys and Isis are the mourners of the west 1200,16 ; in the Embalming Ritual, they are J, of the Prince Mariette text 12,7 = Sauneron8,7. A noun qm3 'mourning' is also related : the son of the dead god is brought at sound of their mourning 1206,2 ; the deceasedcomes as a ba uniting with the corpse at off the Ita II J1 'Is -%%


the soundof the


MD IV 75 (19) ; as NephthysmournsOsiris sheis 3h of the mourners . lwailing 1166,14., excellentof lamentations


inhabitants of qm3ty whence gum comes Wb V 38 (6-7) GR

The name qm3ty may be a poetic name for Punt [Gauthier, DG V 174] 'gum land! literally, hence thesepeople arepeople of gum-land. They are usually mentioned with the produce of their land in texts concerned with incense offering gms-'ntyw (11141,7) bnk-md (V 273,3-4) rdit-Intyw , r. lb (VII 60.7-8) or more general texts

(IV 56,7) The people come bowing (ks) under their qmy-gum : e> I showing obeisance : sn-O . go


V 83,15and(hr)

VII 60,7-8. Or they carry.their tribute AA 273,34. Or they comewith their gum (11r)

k 010Il 113,8; Onw) ;kV , a%% IVI85,2; N1176,13-14. all Offiwith their h3w 1256,16 They also bring their baskets( :,4>1 Mehit gives all . 'Inc 11193,3; 272,3. They bow down on the terraceor staircase the king: A,> of jrjfo of or they come as servants the king m-ndyw: 0169'01 1572,8 IV 236,14 Philae<282> Phot.1014, which contain all sweetresins.4,> I

IV234,18. IV56,7;: >-j

The word derivesfrom the nameof the Land, which in turn comesfrom the word qmy meaning 'gum'or'resin'.



Seth qm3

here has IE A text describing the destruction of Seth who is given many names '6 an, eMQ1 , ,

km. ti is finished, a word play like the rest of the couplets in the sentence 111188,7. From the donkey determinative qm3 seemsto be a word fordonkey'.

q rn 3w

trrald Wb V 38 (4) GR

Wb cites only one example from Edfu : the boat of Horus 'Its oars beat on its sides like ,

its heraldsannouncing battle'VI 80,6 The detciminativeis a man holding up a


hand,not holdinghis handto his mouth(asin Wb) The only comparable word is a type of soldier . Dcir el Bahri (Wb V 38.3),4>Ph: -*, who seems be an inhabitantof Punt thus mentioned at to I seeqm3tyw [Gauthier, DG V p.174].The Edfu word derivesfrom qm3 a word formourninge or 'shouting'ingeneral herehcralds'inparticular. and


gum , resin
Wb V 39 (3-15) 18th Dyn. DG 537,6 4 (gum) kor-ime Komi 1, Wb Drog. 576

Cr. 110b; CED58; KH64

different varieties qmyt appliesto both treegumsandgum resinsandthemareseveral

When qmyt is mixed with hsbd and w3.d it acts as a paint vehicle in the Egyptian tempera , technique [Harris, Mnerals p. 158-9] As the resin of myrrh, terebinth. acacia and ebony trees it . comes from Nubia or Punt. It is reckoned in oipes in the treasury and when mixed with water in painting and medicine it becomes psd and)pt [LA IT 9211.

At Edfuqmy is chieflytheproduct brought theqm3tywpeople live in Gum-Landperhaps by who ,

a poetic term for Punt [GauthierDG V 1741 VII 211.15 from Punt 04a V 185,2; 1435,12. V 83,15 11141,7; V 179,14-15-, VII 60,7-8 ; it comesdirectly

e- 000 &1 Thegumcouldbecombined minerals: of powder resin. -* with

is mixedwith mn-wr and

in VII deposit thesecond building used making mstnt bricksfor thefoundation of phase temple of


)'g *6 is mixed with nnib 48,7 ; 0 to perhaps makehknw ointmentfor anointing1566,8 - so it is a mixing medium.
is used in puns: the king qm3 )qq qmy 0 for the ka of HB VII 211,13.

The word is used from the 18th Dynasty perhapscoinciding with the NK exploitation of Punt. -


crocodiles 41 which are in the

In a slaying the crocodile text the king takes the harpoon and 'drives away , water' (or: and those which are in the water) IV 212,7 (c f. JEA 29 19 linel

31 line 30). Ibis rq be

but it may be a mis-spelling of Mg gAO-4AIliteration does not help in this text. a real word qmw cL qm3 as a term for Seth (q.v.).


harm injury, evil deed - want, lack [FCD 279 offence] , Wb V 48 (2-13) BD KH 574 6(: N= Osing, P.BM 10808 p254 QXA

wd qn 'one who does harm' : Horus is stronger than his attackers and brings an end to

one *ho doesharm 12862; makingthe crook and flail safefrom flood removeswd from the year1338,3.

v -2-1480,7; the Nile

ir-qn. s a phrase demotingharmof somekind which affectsthe god'seye: savewadjeteyefrom 2f- VI 253,2. 125,15-16; 1139,12; the king brings the Eye of Horus away from <> --mAlso in similar phraseswithout ir : savethe eyefrom 2f --*H 75,1 ; -d1316,6 ; Eye of

0 The Horus ebl 11165,13. word herecouldrefer to theharminflicted on theEye of Horusby Seth , 'savetheeyefrom its injury' or perhaps 'from its lack (of pieces)' (Derchain so that thephrase means it [Rites 53-54 transliterates as 'm st andtranslates as 'onewho swallowedif). The oryx and this desertgamewereseenasa threatto the Eyeof Horusandfittingly in onetext'antilopesandgazelles 2&L-arc Dr stainbecause its injury (to the eye)'V 151,10-11. of alone is also usedof the injury causedby enemies: fccs are brought hbhb,, qn wbd V In beforehim VII 150,5-6. connection with i3dt-rnpt, the GoodYear is free from annualpestilence


thereis no want in it' VI 98,12.

The difficulty otgiving a precisetranslation qn is recognised to recentlyby Van den Boom , who


in the context of the Duties of the Vizier it covers suggests also 'shortage, shortcoming' and inefficiencies on the partof officials [Dutiesp. 131-2= UrkIV 1109,8; alsoc C Zandee, Death pA3, 'damage- fwnine or sin as a defect with moral implication].

qn (b3st) blight
Wb V 48 (1) 'dry or infertile part of a field' Meeks, Donations p.7 n-5 twane ,
A *00

The term is usedin agricultural Rennet WO 'V 380,2-3 to me 'sheis far from "tro: comes contexts fields havegrain at their D a field flourishes %%% withoutany leaves nn. m cdo perishing 111181,13; etime 3h.ti nn
A. A-A



thereis no blight IV 68,7 , god is contentwith plants excellent,

e 'cr "'" a

VII 300,17 inccnse libationtext///In'. k ^4ow^. ... 4mIm-S VII ; and i *..A T-e : this CiL] ow . VII 246.6.Meeks[OP. considers term

-&. A



315,7-8;the field is offered it hasno ,

to be qn 'wane'lack' (disette) evena verb 'to lack"to decay'.It is morelikely to derive from qn or 'harm'andrefer to somekind of blight which affectsplants- theyare3b not qn-b3st for example , and the h3st mayindicatethat theblight wasseen somekind of foreignaffliction. as W


famine Wb V 48 (11-13) GR

The usual meaning of qn-rnpt is 'bad, damage!, from this it becomesTamine'and in the GR period..; it is the word most used for 'want, dearth' [Vandier Famine p.64 ff]. It is usually negative, to ensure, that it cannot be magically potent. The texts emphasise that as a gift to the king, there is no famine in his reign (m h3w. k): -A-6, 'JA VII 79,17; 1170,2 (m rk. f) 1475.17 1 492,15;'O II,

265,4 The Nile is responsible for creating a state of 'no famine' with the flood there is no shortage nor --'-4 11 1* IV 313,5 .

before his ka IV 48,10


1582.5-6; Hapy causesthe earth to grow.

is prt. nfrt (goodPeretseason) purified from : impurity e seasonis purified from i3dt. rnpt so

IV 42,1 ; in a hymn to the year , the I" there is no want in it VI 98,12 A field with no -


in it VII 86,13;also offerings are purified from impurity Z'jjk produce , 'S 'SBlack no famineVII 214,15;jft, of provWons11110,6. ,


Thephrase refer to thingsotherthanagriculturalproduce: HB increases king'schildren, can the 2 I -there is no want amongthemVIII 106,12-13. qn-rnpt is dispelled: rwi by the king f 42 IV 253,15; from the'Two landsV 61,9 ; the Lady of Dendera ty from

cities VIII 64,8. , Ibis termis alsousedat Dendera PhilaeandasVandiernotes. and occursoften in the lateperiodasa wordfor famineor want.


plantof thefield Wb V 47 (17) GR Wb Drog. 520, Germer, Arznei p.369 Charpentier <1203>p.726-7 ,

The only referenceto this plant in Wb is from Edfu in an alliterating text wherethe kkw flood A Vt (? coversthe fields andthe sbt-field is qis.ti br -u covered ) with qnw-plants1321,4-5,repeated A Ve Il 243,17 so at Edfu theplant fits the alliterationof q. Wb Drog. 520 lists q '"^ W (Bt 10) an unknown'plant Germernotesthat the plant is usedto ;

treata bn.wt boil in this text - so theremaybe a real plant with this namefrom earliertimes,but it is impossible sayif theEdfu andearlierplantarerelated. to


be strong brave valiant , , Wb V 41 (5) to 42,1 MK DG 539,2 1'1-2i(-) GNOI'

cf. KH457,438

be firm A



6,1;Nephthys causes

1311,13 to yourarms bestrong

is v*,, than 1570,6 HB is V %, rightingon thebattlefield 111136,5. Heter-her 'd xAx thebrave ; ones -j -j HB Zr- heis braver thebrave VII Adjective than ones 293,9. verb: 'Tr 1270,13; is drty A T, 'a 1531,9; is Khonsu 4.1j BB Adjective Harsomthus : J* Sf-IJ .* d ZTr--jJ 1542,11; king is SkIt* ATr is 115 (18);a priestcarrying standard 3,21 the a a strong ,:-j . in farmer thefield1384,17. ir : HB is Open-faced^...eqn-sdm .Z. VII 88,9; HB , Lordof Egypt n-br in Behdet (62);themightyfalcon'n-Dr 120 Ar VIII 162,4.


A'U ,-J Transitive (Wb V 44 J-2 GR) : HB says to the king , j-j =Dl make your arm strong against your
foes 1174,13; kingZ I-j I make my arm strong IV 11,1. -

like the son of Isis M 4,5; ): the king is given AV (Wb V 46,1-5 NK strength -j &, j in the Two lands 186,11; Horus gives to smite 190,17; Horcmakhty puts nbt wsr . AV !5 to stay foes 1233,12; to slay foes 1190,3: Horus gives tj the foes 161,8; 12sr-irty gives Horus gives the king 171-1 (in a building text) H 61,14; Horus says to the king I V "0 'a i
INA, 12 1 C--

WLst-Hr 1309,12; '" nb

1-s--J 1298,3; the good god Id jS from the son of Isis VIII 62,11; Take 1154,14 ; HB I put 14

H 45,4 in the

IV 58,9; the king receives tlwt-qn 18,12. The king is given thousandsof years

VIII 143,4-5; the king is the Lord of

in his arm' IV

14-a in strength and might IV 329,15 ,

4t$ IV 58,1;

L5 ? nst n R' IV 330,4;a minor god j

doesbraveryand perform strongly without

tiring 1198.2.
In the phrase qn-nbt which was understood from Dyn. 19 as qnbt and paralleled by the Greek Vl'kll k(atTos[Daumas, Moyens p2321 : of the king'he has received the kingship of Re HB gives the king 4X' Z P& VJV 5,3;

(for the reading see ASAE 43, p. 221 no. 143) V 7.3; the

VIII 111,17; HB givesla, all strength and power to the * king VIII 111,13; the gods of Edfu reward Horus with as ruler of the Two Lands VIII 122,18. These examples may read qn only however the arm with the stick being a determinative.

Falcon of gold is Lord of


strongwarrior Wb V 44 (7-16) MK

is particularly I The noun qn is derived from qn, 'strong' - it describes a man in battle and at Edfu 4v A "v , is ^ c aj in battle 1424,8-9; . on applied to the king in the battle against his foes : he S'd foes VII 62,4; =4'jj battlefield V 234,3; = smitesthe enemyVII the who who s'mites

73,11: Horus says 'pr. i VRI 62,6-7.

bnt wsr wsrw Vil 62,9 ; the Sia falcon is

in llwt-q'n

but As an epithetof the king this doesnot alwaysappearin martial scenes, it is a generalteim to


stressthe strength of the king. jlll T'he plural qnw refers to troops or soldiers of the king: the king isw! jA ir,,, braves 1570,6; BB also 'd ujn s--! 9 --c4: braverthanthe

'Is VII 293,9 In the phrase qnw nw khyw - it refers to .

the championsof the soldier force [Goyon, Gardiensp.49,7]. In the NK knj was used to refer to brave men but they were not necessarily grouped together as a special corps of 'shock troops' [Schulman Military Rank p.67,1701 : the royal children are HB Lord of Mesen VI 126,8; '16,75 4e-J of HB VI 79,2; msntywdY -th-ij of

'r--1j1-cAa list in a beings 1113 3.1; '4 71 of protective k-n-)

in a text for the small Ennead IV 266,5.

qn-tp-bwt water spoutsin the form of a lion Wb V 47 (14-15) epithetof lion gargoyle GR f. ANIQ1 = qnb - Cr.7,77b CED 317 ; KH 572 c ;
At Edfu the term refers to the lion-gargoyles' [de Wit, CdE 29 Nr. 57,1954, p.29-30 - le fort qui est sur le toit]. The main set of texts to refer to them is on the outside of the naos M where speeches of the gargoyles are introduced : dd. mdw in as P3 4TA 61 C-3 IV 268,11; the lion is described or

in the Place of Piercing IV 285,10.

el%i, great of terror , ruler of the desert

Elsewhere: when desert animals are offered HB is called d VII 164,12; in slaying Nehes the king is called. ', -7-j

IrnNaround Egypt (both of these are on the

VII 168,5. It is also an epithet of the kin -& -Tr 'Cb R1 exterior of the enclosure wall) 3,! j C) great .g . XD IF 13 protecting his temple from dangers VIH 165,1 . of might 1456.10 ; BB again is fle 5 The word is found at Philae : Philae <1479> Phot.187'du-k-j and Phot. 319, again referring to the water spouts.

The term consists qn, evidentlyan epithetfor a lion (Wb V 47,14),which in this contextis "d of Cr -of the stronglion-taki6 away water from the sky ' Philae <353> and tp-bwt 'upon the roor,

the thus,'StrongLion uponthe templeroof ', which aptly describes water spoutwhosefunctionwas to channel awayharmfulor impurethingsfrom the temple. This term could be relatedto A (Wb V 55 2) PhilaePhot.319 meaning'run around'or it may eerny thoughtwas the origin of XANRZI

form of qn-tp-bwt. It is this word which be an abbreviated

attached the wheelitself andthus or, part of a waterwheel. It is eithertheropeto whichpotswere. -


as a mover of water has the samephysical function as the water SpOUL


end or evil (noun) cE Wb V 48 (14) schadenqn. t and Wb V 49 (1 to 50 (2) subst. but notend'


p sw mW


referring to the attacker of the king ,

'his end

reacheshim in his moment (of attack)'.


to complete finish ,
Wb V 49 (1-14) MK/NK DG 538,5 I)t! Cr. Illa; = qn -cease (di-qn make an end)

CED59; KH65 cease X&, k

At Edfu qn usually applies to work on the temple being complete : the Wr. nbt is perfect in its work in its rites (iht. f) 119,3-6; the temple T-C_ in its work IV 10,13: the temple finished with gold and precious stones IV

finish its door with gold IV 8,7; the temple ,. _-J

15,1;the templeis %'%" a---J


finishedfor eternity1111,16.
q after finishing rowing VI 122,1-2.

With a fbHowing verb: HB came to the barque of Re


embrace Wb V 50 (13) to 51 (7) DG 538,7

Cr.Ilb: CED59; KH65 Koyr-1z,

At Edfu Horus,the noblechild with the faceof the falconis,4 v emotherVI 25,1-2[Lacau,Corps 2701. in the embrace his of


carryingchair, throne Wb V 51 (13-15) MK, NK. GR 52 (1-3) DG 540,1

7,12)and it wasusedby theking is usedas a word for a palanquinfrom the MK (c L Westear qniw Mlibel in civil ceremonies opposedto the sp3 chair used in religious ccrcmonies)(Kopstein, (as


p.24-261.By the GR period it had becomea standardvariant word for throne and is found as such at

Edfu [Hussonp. 169 n.2 ; J-C Goyon Confirmation p.54 (17) and p.85 ; Leclant, EnqOetes . A Z;Y-p. sacerdoces 21-23] . In an offering ceremony: (title missing)the king is upon w his,

throne , appearing as Horus 1375,11. In the scene ( XII p.329) the king is actually standing so it is used metaphorically only. In other casesalso: the king is upon -A- here parallel to Ond (C. t

AID also - MD 154 ; 1137b) E.Mam. 76,3; (in hnk brw-' scene) the king is uponAO~%% as a Strong Man (qn - pun) VII 284,8.


weaver Wb V 50 (5) Lit. MK , CR

Wb cites an exampleof qniw from P.Sallier II V, 6, but Helck [Die Lehre desDw3-ljtjj I p.47 and p.48] takesthis to be makeweak!for in a paralleltext it is sqnn = sgnn 'make

Phot 863 where Ibis leavesthe word only attested Philae<3001> at weale, not a word for weavers. "4 Osiris cloth andointmentandin returnhe is givenA.. the king brings weavers weavingand , clothing his ka. The word also occursat Edfu in cloth offering scenes At the end of thesethe receiving god or . gives to the king goddess great'in the workshopVII 307,6; carrying their work (ILr in numerous your workshop(ni3yt) IV 289,13;U-CeVII 159,1and V 190,12-13. They come

'soV 248,1 and their work is for the king's houseor is VII 319,6.

2 .1r it o The ni3yt is dermedas'the chamber -E. C of tax(tr) for the king's house.

[Meeks,RdE 24,1972 p.117 nA]. The identity of qniw seems certainfrom the Edfu examples


to bind cattle , rope Wb V 53 (1-4) OK DG 540,2 jz4- -= to fetter

continuesin use in the Edfu texts, either as an archaismor perhapsas a word which truly qnb in in ordinary use - as is implied by its appearance dernotic.It is usedin texts whereq survived for magicaleffect to ensure de.featof enemies (meatofferings)Horusgivestheking the : allitcratcsd' A& r,. dU 4:j hftyw 'strength to bind the foes' VI 258,8; the falcon is qn qnw 501Z-j khb qnw .


'the bravest of the brave who binds Seth'(and protects the temple from danger) VIII 106,16; the ,trO companions and qnw,,, n Khb 'braves bind Seth'VIII 147,8 ; in the title of a scene brp 'wt n

A. ja, b3swt u -j
oryx' VII 323,1.

t3w n' ni3w 'consecratedesert game and bind gazelles , antilopes and rn


comer Wb V 53 (5-6) OK

qnbt is used at Edfu in the foundation texts to denote the four comers of the temple : the temple is establishedupon 'Am the Throne of Horus V--its four comers 1126,14-15; to set out TJ the four comers of

6,,.j r,;, O, the temple 1127,7-8 ; putting bricks of gold and precious stones at its comer

four comers of the temple 1132,7 ; possibly too - the temple is established upon by Khnum 123,13.

A -a# q her comers 11139,8.The" The sky could be thought of as resting upon 'comers' : Nut uponj 9, word is synonymous with hssw and is never written with t as is the earlierversion of this word. :-


to batter , beat Wb V 55 (4) to 56 (9) MK DO 542.2 Cr. 824b; CED333: KH46lGN6FJ make music -with voice or'instrument Olt" 2k, '///m -]in w //// VI OR beat a tambourine

AA There is a damaged example in the Myth texts * iw. f uQ& 221.7.


to cat

Wb V 56 (15) BD, Late ? t2Ito it is a variantof '. Wb recordsqnqn from the NK andlate period andnotesthat d , Totb. 110,38andP.Rhind 17,2). eat!(Nav. %

'', The word is known at Edfu - in a consecrating meatportionstext the queensaysto the gods, the , AA "Receivethe forequarters tn Eat of them I" VII 107,14.

is not clear and it is possiblethat it was!, to be a reduplicatedform but the root qn qnqn seems


derived from the spelling of wnm A.6 p229) Chapter 110,1.38

Note the example in the Book of the Dead (Budge, BD . -


noun: fat. smoke verb : be fat Wb V 41 (1-2) noun Wb V 40 (8-14) vb. Med. GR Cr.IIIb; CED59; KH65befat kWWE

At Edfu qnw is mainly usedof the smokeof buirntofferings- it risesup to heaven the noses to of the gods so that they can enjoy and rejoice in the pleasantfragranceof roast meat Referringto .

Vrt 'theirsmoke heaven': +-L '(of gazelles) 3,4; IV reaches to animals p r up -aA , (stpw-portions) 323,3.Or qnw pv.n.f (r) VH A., 'tr,, A,,, 'd17-'(and 0 Vrt/nwt : mrVt of cattle)1464,16-17;,,,. of fat longhomed cattleI' 536,11;tr -rof birdsandcattleIV 11,11; it to of of gazelles here goes theheight VII of meat pieces animals 102,9; of

theskyVII 213.5-6.Also. iw qnw r Vrt smoke birdsgoes thesky1111,11. to of is This smoke smelled (hnm): Zr 1490,8; (snsn) is VII 301,34; thenose

P3 (of b3w-meat) filled with,'ud' 1496,10.Theaimof thisis to make king happywith the *and thegods content thissmoke 148.7-8 thelitanyof Sakhmet herlikesand VII lists are with ; e An 111301,6; king contents the s3b-lfwt with the smell(sty) of 'd oneis of stpw 'I Mesen festive VIII 169,11In festivals kingdeclares make the withi4lio V theenemies 302,10. Yah : in a birdofferingtext,'thealtaris Tat' 1374,13. with ro-geese! '-herethemcatof

Mostof these description thetermqnw is comefrommeatofferingtextsof some references and fromcattle, birds The to gazeHes, andenemiesin factanytypeof meat offering. applicable smoke (b or sign in or -tY- appears regularly thewritingof qnw and-thisusuallyindicates some

kind of efflux , whichimpliesthatqnw canbe Taf in its solidor liquid state well asthegreasy as from the context,but 1 smokegiven off whenfat is burnt.It is often difficult to distinguish has 464,16-17 mrt oil andqnw close the togetherbothreaching skyandit wouldonlydo thisif it , into hadbeen turned smoke.


' rage be angry be furious , ,


Wb V 56 (16) to 57 (12) vb MK noun Gr. DG 565.6 Cr.822b; CED332; KH460 GU314'r'

Verb 'to be angry, to rage'. from the MK (FCD 280) and is used to describe Horus Behdet when he f ights;his foes : he brings an end to his foes and Q:W1 rages to slaughter the enemy V 43,2; he

A arages at foes (here the verb takes the direct object , unless an r has been omitted) 1560,12; zy.,p_ during the battle, Horus has red eyes and intent on slaying enemiessays, I rage ' rages with/on his face 111179,5.A gcni , also against your foes as a baboon' VI 65,5

[JEA 29, p.28 the baboon as first person suffix suggeststhat the genfliere is a baboon). 'anger' attestedonly in GR texts according to Wb V 57 (13-14) and at Efdu : HB protects the body of the king from the JV -9' rage of the gods and saveshim from of the goddesses

1473,16. Wb records this word at Philac. There is also a substantive Qnd Raging One'(Wb V 47,15-16) : in battle, Horus as 'IFI! 1- the,

at ragingOneis strong(qn) 1165,17; Kom Ombotheepithetis appliedto Sobek.




Pavian- LA IV col.915-920
One of the characteristics of the baboon is its ferocious anger and the terrifying way in which it' shows its rage. That qnd 'to rage'. is determined with a baboon sign, even in the New Kingdom (for A zp- S;N. Tuthmosis 1) shows this trait had been noted by the Egyptians.,' Urk. IV 269,9 example a. _j Wb records no word qnd for a baboonand nor does Vandier dAbbadie [RdE 16 1964 p. 151 for terms],' but Edfu provides an example of this apparentgap: a gcni%ys I rage (qnd) against your foes as 23.. 11'A an ape! VI 65,5. In this scene the heads of the gcniipresent have been mutilated so it is .c. impossible to say whether this particular geni%d an ape-head[Pl. 148].,


vagabonds Wb V 59 (8-9) NK V/ DG 572,5 be ti%::: alien to dwell, visit, entrust

Cr.807b; CED326; KH448 6061X6


Ihe Wb hasseveral differentversions whatmay' same of word: qr Wb V 57 (17) Late, asa word for a person A, en '3-n-. qrj Wb V 57 (18) as a title qr. w Wb V 57 (19) in the title

nb-t3wy; qrj Wb V 59 (8-9) vagabond qr'. w- Wb V 59 (12-14) shield bearer. ;

Thewordin question is occurs Edfu in thefestivalof Behdet - wherethedancing described at text and includes ? -,-b i+ Y-A -A 'I 'theymingle and they areas one'IV 17,9.The Wrw here

are possibly 'those who flee' (Wb 1 286,21) and might be joined with others at the edge of togetherforming an extra group of peopleto respectabilitysuchas the qri 'foreigners''strangers', Otto p.390 [G.Posener La rejoice in the festival. In Horusand Seth7.10 the q3riw are slain ; Fs. de Bay] "I ama weakoneof his town poormananda qrj of his city" - here complainte r6chanson ,a is the meaningmendicant, vagabond' not in doubtfrom thecontextof the sentence.


victuals WbV60(11) GR

There is one example of qrf at Edfu : in a OW m gns bread text Horus is the winged beetle, Lord , A Qy falcon lord of goodies of food (k3w), achild whobecomes an old man. the bull, Lordof. It -, (smnhw)' IV 223,9. The determinative may suggest 'wrinkles' (especially as there is a

reference to Horus as an old man in the passage)but the wider context for the word shows its true application and appears probably due to confusion on the sculptors part . This word also A at Dendera - LD IV appearsin Mam.60,1 where the Two Falcon nome comes with itsE! 54a; MDI 63a; MDIV 24a. If '


to bend, twist Wb V 60 (7-8) Med. BD GR 544,1 ey /z-' DG qrf- guile

c f. k pO4, Cr.I l8b ; CED 63 ; KH 69 guile', ambush The qrf is an uncommonword usedin a wide rangeof texts - according'to the Wb examples. at Edfu is also a little unusualfor it is in a presentation cloth : HB dwn mtwt or nwt of occurrence 16 nty 'd probably not 'he straightens sinewswhich are twisted' but in the context out

threads thi'soffering'he straightens which aretwisted'VII 307,2. of



the two Caverns Wb V 58 (2-4) NK

The word qrrt refers to the two 'holes' of the head or the holes in a vessel or a wall (by means of which one can go through). As the sourcecavernsfor the Nile flood. they are notcavesbut the gaps in the earth by meansof which the flood water breaksonto the earth at the inundation [Homung, GM 6 1973 p.57 and compare Gauthier, DG V 17f two gouges in the rock where the Egyptians thought i the Nile had its source]. From the MK the qrrty are at Elephantine [MDAIK 34,1978 p.74-51 and: this notion is commoner in NK funerary texts - especially Me Book of Caverns' but from the GR j period it acquires more instructive spellings using the signs At Philae on the north,

wall of the 'Abaton' is a representationof the Nile source- it shows a pile of boulders surmounted by a vulture and falcon and at the bottom under it is a Hapy figure , kneeling and holding two vessels from which water pours He is surrounded by a huge serpent which explains the sigrif . [Junker, Abaton p.37 Abb. 81. At Edfu the qrrty are the place from which the Nile flows : an incenseand libation text the pour out water for the king IV 99,5 and the Nile flood pours out from I
-1 du

IV 99,12; sim.

11246,16-17. In a text for festivals at Edfu the streets are said to be full of incense ' like Hapy
flooding out from FIV 3,5 In a hymn praising Re the rs. k nfr bull 7 is . ,

A 'M


Lord of the Two caverns- possibly a reference to Osiris VIII 15,13. Wb records (58,4) In this connection it is interesting to'

on a stela in London <588> NK - that Osiris is note a place called

which was consecratedto Osiris at Ileliopolis/Mcmphis [Tomb of

Bakirenefnear Sakkara- Chabas- LD III 280b) . In the geographical texts : the name of the canal in the Ist UE nome is


The word qrrt is written with the angle sign and from the Late Period a word qr. tj refers to a door comer. It may have been that it was believed 'doors' had to be opened to allow the Nile flood to flow out of the caverns - which may explain the presenceof the sign here. It could also be the qrrt a

hole (Wb V 62,1-3) and a door covers a hole in a wall hence the association. 71e reason for there being two sources is so that one source pours water into Egypt and the other pours water into Africa [Van der Plas, Crue p. 172-5].



burnt offering Wb V 61 (11-13) end NK DG 590,2 g1l burnt offering burnt offering CAI A

Cr.81 la. ; CED 328 ; KH 452 c f. Hebrew -),! Y :p-

holocaust i

The earliest references are from Wb at Karnak on a Stela of RamessesIII ir n3 wdn A%:

'-gKRI V 246,10 and also wdn,43 7, "f41ine 4::

12 - the word has apparentlycome in as

a loan word from the Semitic 'holocaust.Ile word was copied in an inscription of Pinodjemat Medinet HAW - s13. nJ M-1, I" A The word actuallydenotes th some ing which is 'cookedand

ready' and is not relatedto the verb qrr which is a technicalterm usedin the making of pottery Grillen p.190-1991. [Verhoeven,
In the Edfu texts qrrt was usedin a particular set of texts - the texts for the festival of Behdet where it refers to burnt offerings made during the festival : w3o ir and offer much bread V 131.7;,cz> ?before this noble god (HB) V 125,6; which refers to a list of animals such as

goats and oxen V 132,4;

many burnt offerings are made to Re by the scribe of the divine

for the god V 359,4 All of these texts are in the court or passage book V 135,6 ; '9:: " 1, cFL . Kill C=W leading to it and should be seen as the product of one author or group of authors who particularly favoured the word qrrt. I. -I

'd-6- N The word also appearsat Dendera in a festival context :- ="-c upon the b3w-altar MD I azzi. Pbefore 62h. At Kom Ombo <z> the j6d KO H 52,596,6 Xurther study would show if these -! festival texts are editions of each other - or if they are separatecompositions [c E Junker, ZAS 48 1910 p.75 qrr in calendartexts and offering scenes].


egg-shell ) Wb V 62 (12) to 63 (4) OK - GR (masc. c f. pot KH454 ; Cr 813b; CED 329 -a loan word from Hebrew'cauldron! = breast, womb Cr. 107.

but akin to Egyptianqrt and K4MIQ.K

The root of qr refersto an objectwith a polished smoothsurface, that qr is a genericterm and so ,


for vasesand can be applied to all kinds of receptacles,from pots of clay [Meeks Hom. Sauneron I , 237 n.22] to vessels for the relies of Osiris [Khoiak I p. 1571see - MD IV 35.9-10 . It is also the receptacle for holding the egg - the shell : in the 14th UE nome, where Khnum is ford, he is the god 112' who builds or manufactures(on the potter's wheel) '>A, of eggs n dd' there is no weakness in

them V 123,5-6. Tle qr then is here a metaphor for the word for vessel (which is made on the potter's wheel) and though Sauneronshowed that at Esna qrD replaced swtt it should be borne in

is [ Maspero part4. p.113-120.1. I mind thatthe strict meaning egg-sheUMdlanges


primeval goddess a serpent as Wb V 63 (5-9) MK Cr.107 CED 57 -.KH 63 1C-k*\hZ(4 womb ,

Sauneron Protosemiticroot wordvqrh/qlh which mensa there is an as yet unattested suggests shining smoothobject.In Semiticthis led to wordswherethe underlyingnuance'smooth shining' led to the wordsfor a cauldronand a bald skull In Egyptianthe term was takento rcfer to an the .
it'could be the word for a4 smooth surface of a shell and thence to mean the whole egg and thence receptacleof a living germinating seed- either the egg or the womb of a woman . (rhere was also the offshoot leading to qrt 'vase). In the Late Period this could be pcrsonijriedas a goddess QrOt who I was shown as a serpentand regardedas the ancestormatrice [Manges Maspero, part 4 p. 113 E I. Ai

Edfu in a text aboutthe first gods , ,



the vulture , (andalsoa word for womb) andZi. ,

. -

around Horus protecting him VI 16,6. Similarly in a lotus presentation text - the first lotus protects the body of the lotus child V'I V 215,3. A v, Jab

into existence on the Isle of Fire and '>d.. co, mes 339,1-3. In a frieze text, Wadjet is called A 1c in

The geographical for the nomeof Unt-13bt mentions the text

of Kerhetand the OPlace

Two Sisters1332,5.This may be connected text with a fragmcntary in an offering sctne which ends )p Am L-3 'd with vu%- ob V 97,14.7bis may be a malecounterpart a mistakewith the feminine or

is at and goddess alsomentioned Dcndera Philae. endings omitted.Theprimevalserpent


to bury , inter Wb V 63 (11) to 64 (4) Pyr.


DG 548,4 qs I M -,K 70 kW (J'CCr. 120a ; CED

16 IrWG

qrs occursinfrequentlyat Edfu and is usuallyusedwith reference Horusburying his father: the to king is like Horusafter burying his father 1186,7 HorusOlc'131f-who

buriedhis fatherin HeliopolisVI 286,13-14.Both of these Driving thecalves'texts. are


Wb V 64 (9) GR

ir-qrs-m-tt is a royal title of Horus [Cauville,RdE 32,1980 p.50 n.30] and the phrasehasbeen variouslytreatedin the past: 7hou Whodidst in due time perform the funeralrite' [Blackmanand
Fairman JEA 35,1949 110 and JEA 36 1950 74 n.75]; 'Hinter-bliebner' [Otto, GuM p.601; ,

'ensev-elisseur' [Chassinat, Khoiak II p.648-9 and Cauville op.cit. ]. The term expressesnot only the duty of a son toward burying his father but all the legal responsibilities which are then his as the legal heir and successorof his father. The title is usually applied to the king in funerary offering scenes the giving of ointment and cloth (for embalming) , he is'!! containers of dates are presentedto Osiris <Z>

his father IV 278, i6; the of IV 29 1,11; gms ntyw 4 Y IV 233,16 ointment and IV

and Lord of Punt IV 94,13; f3i. iht the king"Is Hie <=> 'How beautiful is your face 42: offering, 0>

11213,12 ; bw-btsW text

VH 156,11. Also in a dw3-njr text the king is the son of the Lord of Maat "o successor-

228,12 and in sL3-mrt texts


V 183,12; <4


VII 154,8

The term is a compound noun meaning literally 'One who makes a burial aftee, that is the successor and occurs in GR only. It is also found at Denderae.g. D 1154,9 ; MD IV 66a and heir of the deceased D 11141,2 ;D 11145,13 D 1147,7 and at Philae <3011> Phot.865 .


to spread, to roll over (fields)

Wb V 66 (5) GR c f. CKO PCr.329a; CED 150; KH 182,to roll'

eerny Ostr.IFAO on qrqr maybe relatedto a word sqrqr 'to roll' (of a feverishpatient)as notedby
2208,3 At Edfu qrqr is an intransitive verb which is applied to the waters of the Nile rolling onto . AAA4d4 A'

the land . Two texts have the same-line: kkw.

, j ,b

r q3yt. k 'The keku - flood


fields'. qrqr alliterates here with the other elementsof the sentenceand it may rolls onto your qayet be that the word was invented for this purpose , or extracted from an archaic text 1321.4 and II

243,15-16. similartext at Dendera A this copies word MD 117 (Niltexte 18). A An earlierterm in Pyr.916b to the wind shakingthe branches the trees(Wb of refers

66,3)andmaybea possible origin of thetermat Edfu.


collar wooden WbV66(11) GR/NK

it From textsqV is usedto preventthe movements a prisoner Wb suggests is the woodenpeg at of the neckof a prisoner Fairman[JEA 21 p3l n.771a collar or 'cangueas usedin China . in,

Egypt from NK ; Lefebvre[Romans 128n.16] and Alliot [Culte II p.731 n.51 the forked post to, p. by wereattached theneckor elbowsor forearms especially in Late hieroglyphs which prisoners as Examplesoccur from the NK he is put mAP. with ropesand A Harris500,2,1;their armsare filled

idem 2,5 (also2,12-13); peopleof a captured town arc put m 73! Ik h, -3141 _V44 P.ChesterBeatty I

idem 3.3-4; Sethis takenaway andput Edfu - Horus ties up his adversary 15,11-12; 1203 .

at his neck and his ropeson his armsVI I

From the determinatives the qO is made of wood it is attached to the neck; it does not impede , walking ; it was quickly made by soldiers and could be carried in baskets - thus is small and lightweight.

(Wb V 66,8-10andCr.133)andblocksat Medinet The root of this word is probablyqb 'to subdue! Habupl.78 and Karnak[seealso Keimcr, BIFAO 56,104-7; ASAE 53 p.1I pl.7] showa prisoner with q by suspended a cord aroundhis neckthroughwhich his handsareplaced. This maybe a

RdE 26,1974 p.9-121. The examples tvenby Keimer arein.the form of lions. cl [Derchain, Thereis perhaps earVier FECT 111119 23 = CT VII'239 Spell 1017 an exampleof the root verb -. n. j 614A I havesubdued millions!or 'I havefetteredmillions'. ,


to build Wb V 67 (11) GR


qs occurs at Edfu in a 'building the Great Place of Re ' text at the end of a sentencewith many other I CM "a If for 'to build': the kingd 111 the palace -108,3 possibly also C= verbs of Rage for her before the enemy'I 454,7-8 ; at Dendera D 11141,3'. to build the Isle

He has built the Mansion of Sokar


bone Wb V 68 (2) - 69 (4) Pyr. DG 548,3 !f i-#- qs - bone Cr.119b; CED63; KH69 Kc\c-

is attested a wide rangeof texts,from mdical seculartexts.and is a generalterm forbone in qs to [Lefebvre,Tableau6 p.8 1, Lacau Corps 376-387p.1391. The sign , I (GG T 19-20)is an

objectwith the samesoundas 'bone!in Egyptian- in fact it is a harpoonpoint , probablyoriginally for madeof bone - thusit became homophone 'bone! andthendeterminative. a , At Edfu the word is alwayswritten with the determinatives only -:eitheronewith plural strokes or , 3; 4 three. It usually refers to the bones of a foe or the hippopotamus: HB puts of the in hippopotamus the fire (to destroythemutterly) 1381,6; slayingSeth q tit 9 are in the flames

1 11 his bones burnt 111197,6 in 41-, 1 111188.8; are ; a settingup the braziertext -,Mehyt bums 1 of of the enemies theking 1313,13thenNephthys says 1313,18-19.
In praise of the king Your slaughter is strong in the bones of the enemy' rwd 'dt. k m . qsw hftyw. sn V I 183,18; it Il 43.15 'In killing the hippopotamus the harpoon blade . ,

their bonesareburnt in the flame

sticksinto the bonesof the hippopotamus

1145,5(text is damaged the sense clear). is but

for Sauneronand The Egyptiansalso believedthe bonesto be the reservoiror receptacle semen. both independently Daumas showed[BIFAO 60,1960,19-27 Mammisi pA30 n.1] that this was and the casein examples whereBlackmanandFairman[JEA 29 27 line 3] thoughtthat qs wasa new for 'phallus'. Sauncronprovided numerousexamplesfrom Esnarelating to the procreative word in of Khnum.The ideais first attested a text from the Persian period in the Templeof Hibis powers (III p.32 line 16-17) AA-1 At Edfu : god fertiliseswombswith semen in/from a. A his bones

in IV 298,34 and Khnumestablishes semen a,

bonesto createchicksandmakeeggsV 185,1.


Both of the examplesare in the singular which is different from the majority of Esna examples - but is a parallel (Esna no.200,10) Compare also: (a brick making kxt) Khnum there . . 114 in the body' 111114.7.1 who establisheshis semenin qs also refers to the lones' of a tree , that is the branches: Osiris makes strong He is the one "1 IV 2190



D 1141,1-2 also [Cauville, RdE 32,1980 p.50 n.27].

to eat Wb V 71 (10) 18th Dyn.

for wnm Io ed : 'Offering meat portions text - the king says to god VA// Edfu usesqq as a variant 'you eat of them' VII 1282 *,f3i-iht text V


of his offerings 1380.13 ; offering text

41 eat wild fowl upon the altars 1555,16. you eat of them 1468,18; 14

7lie earliest referenceis from Urk. IV 504 and Paheri 3 and it is derived from the old writing of wnm which was two half loaves of bread (GG X 7) not the hill (GG N 29) which acted as a

determinative of wnm (Pyr 807). After the OK the two signs became confused and while the GR examplesmay actually read wnm scribeswho did not know the sign value would read it qq (see - Wb 1320 ff).


consuming fire wnmyt 'consuming flame'. -At

Like the verb qq 'to eaf this too has an original form from wnrn

Edfu : the bones of the hippopotamus are in the,4' -FL 111188,8- which allitcrates with q and not A W1 qq kwy m4nttyw wn- and more emphatically : kk U qn bnt k3w .4D 'Kek the strong ,

bull before the kas, the consuming fire (or the fire consuming) the foes and advcrsariesV 86.5-6. The alliteration of q here shows that Ptolemaic scribes read 6,4 as qq.


geni - name

11; III,

p. qq is to be understood 'devourer'from qq 'to eae[Goyon . Gardiens 1031 as -%S : kl 9,13; VI 178,7; VI 330A thoughcould also readwnmty

'devourer'but the

(for spellinglacksAk asmight be expected wnm-geni seeOMRO 51,1970 n.449).



to peel Wb V 71 (12) GR

A 10= qq is probably from the sameroot as qqty : dry shenedwood is peeled to make a fire 11 'A. 221,4 and VI 162,11. Like the noun this, has a Coptic derivative Ww Cr. 100b ; CED K , 53 [Peet JEA 11.1925 pA6 n.2 I for possible earlier example. This means 'to peel' of trees and ,

branches[SpiegelbergHW p.381.


bark of a tree Wb V 71 (13) GR DG 55 1.1 fem. Cr. 101a; CED 53; KH 59 rind I(oyKe rind , skin

Wb cites only one example of qqty from the laboratory texts at Edfu Various authors have . commented on the word which was plainly more widely used than is suggestedby the number of A. :a recipe for making V '3t VL- divine material - one of the ingredients is attestations

of of ndm - tree (2 kite) Il 214,14[MontetINES 9 1950p.21 - for translation this recipe]which is I 2 kite VI 165,12. repeated


form, shape Wb V 75 (3) to 77 (11) Pyr. DG554, lqty Cr. 533a; CED338; KH469 GOT

At Edfu qd is used as a variant word for'form': it can refer to the form of a god which is not known BB n r jI Y-IV 237,15 ; HD gives life to millions but n rtt. ti dy2-'17 VI 154,6-7. It ,

is also found in phrases(seebelow). Priests too are ltr' 1346,15

mi qd.f

entire, all Wb V 76 (10-14) Wb V 77 (1-5) GG 100,2

14 U-61-, At Edfu , servantscome carrying f3w.s all their produceIV 45,3; Horus gives the


Icing Punt 9-Iq ill;:


Ta-Neter m irw. f 1429.7; Horus gives the southnorth, east and west

H 73,6.
. 9p.

The phrasecan also have a more literal use : the temple of Edfu there is nothing on earth , like their (sic) form 1562,11; the best ti9ps complete14.1 initsformII194,6.

The preposition m can be replaced by br: Harsomthus gives PuntIO M11--and Ta-Neter m-irw. f (Wb V 77,6 adverbiaidurchaus"ganz und gar) 1235,17. Also mi qd. f w': There is no good -'v Z-1-Li all of them 1468,1. jC 11": lu'll 67.2; c.f. I present (plants)to your ka

w3jd-qd Wbl265(15)andV75(5) 'greenor freshof form' [Cl4e, RdE 6 1951pA2 (k) I w3d-qd is a frequentepithetof the deceased It andcan havetheadditionalcomplementbrrmlornfr bi3t'goodof character,happycharactee. appears Edfu : in the nameof a minor deity 'GloriousOne,Lord of the Akhet field at V7

1199,1.As this refersto a field deity the idea 'Greenof form' among(m) the godsand goddesses' 6t here. The god is actuallyshownmummiform,holding a was-sceptre in seems mostappropriate front of him with , A over his head.

w3t-qd. f one who increaseshis form Wb V 76 (3) GR

f is an epithetof 7both : TA Boylan [p.1831recordsW-qd. the king is the sonof 11 111(p. 65) MD 11 31b =D 1176,4.

JJQ MD III 74b andlif

in At Edfu : Khonsuis protected the templein his form of

VII II Ij I. It seems be to

his similar to whm qd.f 'who repeats form', that is the moon- referringto the waxing moon.

pr-m-qd verb -to rejoice/joy Wb V 77 (9-11) GR This perhaps the implication'go out withfin good/happy has A character/mood. series textson the of outsideof the enclosurewall has this phrasein the openingsentences !09 : 6912,. = %-. r in a

purification with incensetext - your majesty(the god of the temple)comesout happily and makes





your place in your Great Seat VII 51,13-14; (f3i-iht) VII 79,10-11 day VII 107,6; pr hm. k z-Great Place of Re text i=2i'l


god again comes out with his attendants

come forth and rest upon food offerings every 4.k1tkrW(brp-stpw) a, and taste tasty morsels (h.nk 39r) VII 142,10-11; adoring the Horus comes happily praising the king 1134,11; Hathor ctr VII 94,1

appearing in Wqjeset - eats food , receives offerings and Tbere is also a noun form : god is praised for his cityi-n

in joy VIII 111,4-5.

The phrase is also found at Dendera (MD IV 24a; 1170) and Philae <3262> Phot.285 (censing) <1450> Phot. 183 Isis = same as VIII 111,4-5.

plir-m-qd rejoice, joy Wb V 77 (9) GR The samemeaningas the abovephrase pr is replaced pJLr Wb recordsthis word in useat but by . Dendera at Kom Ombo. and At Edfu it is possiblethat pr-m-qd may be an abbreviation phr or a of is a miswritingof

hieratic-: whichcould look similar.The contexts useareslightly differenthowever. a festival In =) of ;-=3 tax .9text: the heartsof the Ennead A -'whenthe templegod restsin the templeIV 20,2. A seriesof texts in the Court appliesthis phraseto Hathor : the presentation md- ointment of TqJ '-c-=--: rejoicesat seeingthe king V 179.14; pacifying Sakhmet Hathormakesfood and. p3, -'1T-Cr -

1whilebrewingbeerV, 163,13; 2. thenabovethis text in the 3rd registeris a sistratextHathorsays. 'I rejoiceat seeingyou (theking)' V 184,8.


to walk , to go Wb V 78 (1-8) NK DG 552 1CWT-0 kL. )t"

Cr. 124a; CED 65 ; KH 71

qdi is attestedfrom the NK and usedat Edfu as a generalverb of movement: Horus risesin the i III- Oilt im. f horizon Pr and goes in it as a great winged beetle 198,8 ; Horus wearing his crown A hr st.f nt sf goeson his courseof yesterday1410,4.



to sleep Wb V 78 (11-14) Pyr.

'to sleep'is usually used in a negative form : the eight guardians abominate 435, ' and hateqdi resting 1167,1.


altar Wb V 81 (13) GR

The origins of qdf are unclear. It can be an altar for k3w offerings (mainly bread) : k3w 114 4? (Ls-ibt) D III (f3i-ibt) E. Mam-162; general offerings - millions of htpw-offerings upon 0, 176,10 ; and at Edfu it is an offering with fire where meat is nxuled, 'meat is put upon (rdit iwf r bt-fire)' 111197,9-10 .



These genii appear quite often at Edfu in the guise of ficrce genii who protect the temple and the king. Among the hbyw and wpwtyw are 1 where the -"0' are at their tasks VI 18.9 ;iZ': 1119,9 the sun god visits the Mesen sanctuary , act as protectors in the troop of the Lord of *

JL'k1jfollow the harpoon VI 329,10; C-1

the White Crown as protectors 1511,10; in an offering text are at their posts (collated from',, 68, I31. Two texts give the names

Do 1. all the genii are his protection VI 175,14-15;

)jr-[Goyon-p. phOLDCV) VI 320,9-10: restore in III 8, I4(i-,

of the fourteen qdftyw, VI 329.13 and 1118,14 and the names show the warlike qualities of these, gods - Dsds, D-ndn , G3mg3mjL 113tt-pp , Nb-nb , Wr-wr , Im nnw Wr jLtIL, JUA, , , DwM 'y . Nfw , Swr-Ij .

Spd Dr. f, llnw. hnw.

Ile word could also be read as istyw 'crew, company' [JEA 29,21 el but the presenceof theY-makes this unlikely unless it is a suffix referring back to a god. It appears at Esna too [Esna no. 14,10] Neith is mistress of Thoueris 1% I' 'where the spelling confirms the reading. Alsoonastatueof

kL fare : charged by the avenging goddesswith punishing wrongdoers [Vandier. Une -

de statuette Thoueris,Revuedu Louvre XII/5 , 1962p.200 (text) andp.199rig 2 (photo)].Sauneron that suggested it derivesfrom the verb qdf (Wb V 91,12)to cuf 'to harvestfrulf WTI whichis an of and of thenasreapers the wrongdoers enemies the old word.Theseknife bearinggenii maybe seen


BIFAO 64 1966p.5-71. p. gods[Goyon,Gardiens 14,12; Sauneron,


resin used to make kyphi Wb V 79 (9-13) FCD 285 l8th Dyn. GR

DG 552,2



d. ;S ed.

One of the earliest occurrencesof this word is in P.Harris 53a 4-9 where



appearsin a

recipe for kyphi [P.Derchain, RdE 28 1976 p.61-651 . This is probably the same substanceat Edfu , where both deben 11203,8 and 20 3 deben and 3 1/3 kite are used to make k3p 11211,6; also '1-* kite Il 221,1. It is also attested from the 18th Dynasty: : 1/2 i%r3

are listed in the Annal. inscription of Tuthmosis III Urk. IV 672,8.

hasbeenidentified as the pine/fir tree - pinus halepensis its resin was usedin embalming and qdt [Goyon Rituelsp.238,242 for references Charpentier<1228>736-71. p. and see rituals ,


kite - weight Wb V 79 (IS) to 80,(3) Dyn.18 DG 552 A Cr.123b; CED 65; KH 71 doubledrachma half a stater KiTC' or

9.1 is a weight of approximately grammes, which is one tenthof a deben[GG 266,p.200.41. qdt in recipesare weighedout accuratelyand qdt. t is usually In the Laboratorythe substances used
written 215,4 for example. occurring passim here. A rarer spelling is : ,

of all precious stones II


the basket U Ca 7 IC: 2j,L -? 2ZI : db:t 4)

Writings - Direct: Phonetic change: Error: BIFAO 43 1945 p.78

suffm pronoun - 2nd personsingular masculine GG 34 , DG 555,1 tv' CED 50

Spellings at Edfu include: 'K--; & b

";7-11 in error (IV 42,11) 'T) -

ka Wb V 86 (10) to 89 (2) Pyr.

Theka, with its manifoldaspects in revealed Egyptological researches, occursfrequentlyat Edfu in a the number differentways. Whether ka is 'creative of strength"personality' a type of spiritualtwin or body,theEgyptians to to which lives on afterthe deathof thephysical seem haveresponded thewide rangeof meaningwhich could be appliedto the ka, by using the word in concretecontextssuchas' food offeringsor in moreethereal des Das contexts suchasthe 14kasof Re [Schweitzer, Wesen Ka , AF 19 1956-.LA III col.275-2821. , At Edfu the ka is usuallythatof theking or the god (exceptin plural k3w 'nbw) and invariablythe"' is written with the LY in it. U occursalmostas an analog y of bm. k for exampleand is word morecorrectlyof their powersand of clearly somekind of embodiment a god or personor perhaps magicforce. Offerings are madeto the ka : LIJ L] IV 49.1; it is (ka of HorusBehdet)V 5.5 ; manyflowers his ka IV 48,10;thingsare madepure for the ka IV 38,11;

is no want for Lf I well providedso that there 13 IV 41,6; 1 UtO purify

Lf (dw3): 1492,10.'Me ka of a god is worshipped 1341.1

V 2,3 Rites are performedfor the ka (ir iht): .

1jA,=*m-bt. f your ka (1113) follows after in relationto the ka showits whereabouts : Prepositions him (king) IV 44,3. for'to die In phrases %ms-k3to follow the ka'a euphemism : in the necropolisIV 47,12.,



for the gods




U& In the cosmogonical texts: <a> creating the ka (snake ?) on the first occasion VI 173,9. The ka of lives in the temple : tO Z- the ka of the Horus falcon is in the window of appearance the god implying that the living falcon at Edfu represntedthe ka of Horus VIII 148,11-12. The ka is closely associatedwith the ba : Re and his ba with The writing one writing. Property of the ka includes : the Two Lands of SokarI 244A. Possessionof the ka : of the king ' iw n. k for the king's ka U 205,8; women rejoice -yours is your ka your ka is yours for ever 1 .... (BB) V 157,12-13; the nomes are under or IM.. M his divine ka V 6.5.

embodies aesthetic appearanceand beliefs about the 'embracing' ka in

1562,7. The king can be accompaniedby his ka in the

in the temple. The ka appearsas a man holding a standardwhich is surmounted performanceof rituals by a rectangular box containing the Horus name of the king. Ptolemy IV, for example, has the name

'King's ka living on the brick in the House of the

Morning'I 61,19; 1433,14 (in a food offering and b offering respectively). UI The kaprotects Iusas gives the . Re protecting the king and III of of Aturn guarding his 2 IJ I'D 1361,8.

body 1503,13. The temple of Edfu was founded for the majesty of the ka of the god 14y. Sokar Chamber texts refer to the kas of various gods : Geb sb n --

and 1208,16 also -

Horus, Dwenty and Thoth . Then to stress the revival of Osiris, the arms and legs of your ka are before you (m-b3b. k) the arms and legs of your ka are with you (m-bt. k) 1208,18. k3w kas (Wb V 90,1 to 91,2 Pyr-) Gods can have plural kas spelling _ the kas of Re , their abomination is lying 1521,6; has the

reference to the gods of Edfu IV 19,8. - with

femaleka theka of a goddess , Wb V 89 (12-13)

Hathor is the Noble One in the templewhich begat(wtt)

her ka 1240,8 in the southern her ka

his Neith nome, BB is called'Onewho sees Right Eye , he raisesup her beautyand his brow IV 25,11. encloses



ka of the earth ka of the earth lives for me, I have built you as my House of

1919tA primeval god: As .

I'VI [afterMOET 39 n.4 ). Appearance 319.4-5


kas of Egypt - the people of Egypt

-i '411)1 V 62,14 - here then it is

At Edfu : the great gods of Edfu temple are the bravest of synonymous with 'beings'. Further examplesoccur at Dendera : the king is 1112,1;D Il 66,12.

and great of kingship D 1166,7 and c.f. D

W(w)-njr(w) divine ka(s) - of god(s)

Plural: he offers to your ka and at the headof ILI


here'all gods'IV 449;your ka is', 11 evidentlymeaning all the divine kasof the templeIV 9,5 th

the divine kas IV 28,8;

Hor-Akhty arethe U1 childrenof Singular: creatingresinfor

divine kasof BehdctV 6,7. VII 211,13.


kas of the living or living kas Wb V 90 (8-9)

The term refers to dead ancestors and usually occurs in the phrase bnt k3w 'nbw which is an of bnt k3w 'nbw nbw and often the adverb dt 'for eveeis added. 7be king is said to abbreviation be Upon the Horus throne before the living kas for evee, so it is a reference to his kingship on earth,

kas. of undertheauspices theancestor Horus is upon the serekh the templeis a work before Other spellings nt dA -. N IV 18,18;or in Wetjeset-flor u is@ == "RN IV 50,7. to IV 329,15; '. fft: 'E\ ' V 7.4 and passim. IV 14,3;

Dynastyonward, but not beforethcnandthc'abbrcviat4 11; ft's' 'EN 1140,6-7;T11tfi 190,7-8;JTto from the GR period only : 13 -",, version m, , Wb records examples this from the Ift of 1205,9 kas 1476,17 . The ideaof the ancestor is muchearlier



the kas of Heliopolitans are healthy (wd3) when my ka is well

e-tti Ifieratic, Pap. Kgl. Museen Berlin 12,4 f [Schweitzer, Wesen des Ka p.58-59].

k3w 14

fourteenkas Wb V 89 (8)'

The number of kas of a god can be specified, in particular Re can have 14 kas which seem to be aspects of his personality at Edfu. They represent all the life and creative forces inherent in Re [Schweitzer, Wesen des Ka p.73 ff ; Gardiner, PSBA 38,1916 Hu and Sia pp.43-54 and 83-93]. The first attested mention of the kas is at Abu Simbel, from the reign of Ramesses11 L. D. 111194,2 12/13ifiliT "O. The earliest list of the 14 kas is in the 21st dynasty papyrus of Nodjemet [P.BM

10541] and these correspond virtually to the kas listed at Edfu. Here they appear as minor temple deities in the train of Re : his 7 bas and Uhn "it 14 kas follow him 1441,10-11; Re and IV 295,6-7 In III .

n his 14 kas IV 295,11. The s3b -Ywt is also said to be followed by m,

320,3 (ff. ) Re is called Lord of Kas and there is a list naming 'each of the 14 kas (also in VIII114-116). They appear as human headedgods with a ka sign on their headsinside which is a further sign to show which attribute of Re they represent. V 182.1 ff. has the individual speechesmade by the 14 kas and they are further called 'great gods, beneficent images in the Place of Re' and Lords of 9fyt in Egypf.


the festival of Khoiak

Wb V 93 (1-3) Dyn.18 The festivalcorresponds our monthof December at this time therewerea numberof important to and festivalsin Egypt, a*g themthat of Horusthe Behdetand especiallyof Osiris. This phraseoccurs from the 12thdynastyonward[LA 1958-960].Originally the monthwas nbb-k3w 'uniting the kas' , ka! is therefore [&rn Yt BIFAO 57,1958 207]. this another way of expressing concept and'ka upon p. in At Edfu the festival is mentioned the text for the-Th%an nome 338,8. 1



Wb V 94 (7) to 96 (8) Pyr. DG 555,12 ff. Cr.92a: CED 51; KH 55 KO

For the Egyptians the bull was the symbol of physical strength and reproductive ability. Both of thesequalities were emphasisedin the adjectivesadded to the U and the gods and king in particular embodied thesecharacteristics. Originally there may have been some connection between the ideas symbolised by the bull and those about the ka as a life force. At Edfu the king is compared to a bull frequently in the tradition of earlier texts. 4WL431 - in The king : is a bull battle IV 221,12-13; Horus greets him asi; %'N*-- bull son of , a bull VII 169,7; "4; k3-nbt 'strong bul], 0 called firm of sandal on the battlefield V 47,11. Also in battle the king'is IV 231.4, but unlike earlier Pharaohsthis epithet does not appear

in the tituhuy of the Ptolemies.

r, -I

At Edfu it is mostoften HorusBehdetwho is likenedto a bull (play on k3= bull) IV 231,2;as a *i, 51,15;Horusis 1400,5;HB is

who makesweak all kas

HB entersthe horizon beforethe Two ShrineRows IV bull secretof form 1416,3; 4:?, great . bull

in Hwt. '3 1119(35); HB isU-,.:- -P and W sty in the 16LhLE nome IV 34.11; the king built -! Mesenfor* (presenting Houseto its Lord text) IV 229,11-12. the

Other godscan be likened to bulls : Re at midday,at the peakof his strengthis *4? IV 57,7 L morninga child ..... in eveningan old man); Nfin - whenhis reproductive poweris emphasised he is rt+ 4;,T the6ED W 1398,6and 7.4U: , P=9 ; he bull of his mother1 404,8.'I'

nome, HB is Aturn . beautifulof form 0 14;kwith the faceof a bull whocarries the
bulls who copulate V 85,12.

Great Ennead IV 39,14. The primordial gods are called *N I , Animal bulls are offered up in offering texts : t)Zi' bryw'sacrificial

1113.1 and they are 1: are cut up

bulls', from a consecration of meat portions 1112,9.

The Red Bull, because its colour,is a symbolfor Sethand it is offeredup as a sacrifice of 178,10to 179,6.The king as the good butcheroffers this bull and as a cutting off its forelegs111 The scene[PI.641showsthe king stabbinga rewardHorus makeshis armsstrongagainstenemies. spearinto a bull uponwhich he restshis feet.



shining bull who is in the prow of the barque of Re VI 150,7-8.

The name of a minor deity at Edfu

Jankhun translatesthis "He is the protection of the Ennead on every night of darkness" however and says in the commentary that the identity of this bull is unknown [Schutz p. 109] He may actually be Re as at midday Re is regardedas a bull IV 57,7. In the first barque of the processionin an aspectof the Myth a deity behind Horus is called' Vi- R Cog who cuts out the hearts of those who attack

Behdet, rips out the heartsof opponents,drinks the blood of those who plot harm against the city and tastesthe kidneys (dpt) of enemiesof the king' VI 71,12. This could be the samegod.


burningbull Wb V 95 (15-16) Late

A namefor the moonas a youngbull. The moonwasseen a bull at leastas early asthe MK , CT as it ox. VII 25h , 35a in the waxingphase wask3-wr and in the waningphaseit wasa castrated The k3-ps 'fiery bull' is attested on only from Dynasty30 (Nectanebo) a fragmentfrom Luxor epithet [Wb Beleg. and Fairman , ZAS 91 p.10 ], In the GR templesit is a word for 'moon'-: is -4;? 13 Khonsu L in the Mansionof the Leg VII 288,34 187,4.

&A 156,6, also '4R,, BB as Khonsu4Rtf+g who makeswombspregnant A* That k3. ps is the full moon is implied whereHB is ag;? HB is the onewho protectslvhft FestivalV1 13,5-6.; be likened to the bull : You are 4 dFL'0 ,

and a great god on the Full Moon

in theeveningV 49,6.The king toocan

Isdenwho nets the Left Eye 111139,5-6 in the, and ) as Iwn VHI 136,2. The

lunar msbtyw beingsthe king is U4, presenceof Thoth and the

the powerexpressed the moonareat their heightduringtheFall Moon hence reproductive of powers [Herbin,BIFAO 82,1982p.277 n.571. above Wb alsorecords word at Dendera at Karnakwhereit is usedusuallyof Khonsu[see: MD IV and this Miroirs p.144n.2]. b; 73 ; 11116 LD IV 79b andUrk VIII <56a><89b>also Husson,


bull with raisedarm

*? of An epithetof Amun-ReKamutef: L'"-Li in the Placeof Appearance Hor-Akhty IV 242,13. .



minor deity VI 68,12 deity with this .A

One of the protective deities of the 4th lance of Horus is

Ut: -:3 in dw3-R' hymn 111212.13 "*N' in connection with the sun god and a name also appears AX0


Among the list of minor deitiesin the is present the mooringof the sunboat111209,13. at 1302,10. Ibis godis illustratedin Pl. CXLVIII but thoughhe hasa human'

Edfu templeis; =

body- his head been has destroyed. wasmostlikely bull headed. He


tortoise , turtle Wb V 96 (9) GR

Van de Wafle [La Tortue, Nouvelle Clio 5,1953 p. 185] suggestedthat mnD was derived from lmnD' 'to butcheeand thus means 'sacrificed bull' (Laureauimmold) but it could also mean 'male of the , mno species'.11is suggeststhat there was a general term mn for the turtle species in general and the male of the species was especially abominated in execration rites in temples. The existenciof 1W'rz, mnh alone is suggestedby Esna no. 176,7 and 162,6-7^t, ^! - of a papyriform column andA#^*^

Ir272 Howeverit is a late text so doesnot prove" wherethe turtle is a phoneticdeterminative. the existence mno prior to theGR periodandmayin fact derivefrom U-mn. of Wb recordsk3-mnh only at Edfu : in a slayingthe tortoisetext whereit appears an alternative as word for 'tortoise! 'I havefelled r8l for you' declares king to Horus1174,6 In a the . 3:E 1115,1; is

text for putting the tortoiseon the choppingblock , the king is onewho cuts up

1 is cut up - also a slaying the tortoisetext V 244.11;(sm3 tortoise)*N et: struck down (bw. ti) VII 159,5; (sm3 tortoise)*NS tp- m ksm VII 312.2.

The word alsooccursat Dendera*K5- IE7 DIV 209.6andPhilae 14 th knife PhiM I p.66. in The tortoiseis hereseenas a Sethian to creature which is amongthe creatures be destroyed order for IIaatto be restored[ in generalVan dc Walle, Nouvelle Clio 5,1953 p.173-189; Sauncron, BIFAO 64,1966 p. 1] .I


bull of Lower Egypt Wb V 96 (10) GR


k3-my is a Sethian form of the hippopotamus. Traditionally the Delta was regarded as a place where hippopotami were common [Griffith, Glimpses of Ancient Egypt, Fs.Fairman p. 1771and a cult of Seth was well established in the eastern Delta . Possibly in the later pharaonic period too hippopotami were more numerous in the Delta than in Upper Egypt so that they were regarded as Lower Egyptian animals [JEA 29 note d. ; Pliny - N. H. XXVIII, 8 - hippopotami aboundedin the ,5 Saite nome]. In Slaying Hippopotamus texts k3-mby occurs as a variant word for the animal : the harpooner stabs U ' 1 I;? 1145,9; the king stabs 42L*0Q IV59,5; ksmJ4qL'Sq4W Iattackthe

hippopotamus (alliteration of k) VIII 26,13. In the Myth of Horus texts again it is a variant term for 4;Ztq IR4 Q is hippopotamus : stabbed in 20 cubits of water VII 61,9; the 5th lance splits open the, ribs of Uq *q 4 ii?, VWL Ik VI 71,8; when 1"1 91 is knifed the royal children rejoice VI 79.7 1 Q94 is killed VI 83.7.

f qq 5 Great strikes at VRL VI 82,6; U Horus the


bulls of Mesen

(theOgdoad) in Hor-MaaIV 140,14. are

k3. nht

strong bull Wb V 95 (6-9)

An epithet of the king and various gods, especially those with martial attributes . It is found in the Horus name of kings from the'time of Tuthmosis I [BEFAO 79,1979 p.276 ff. used consistently but from Amenhotep IV to Takeloth 1111 not in the namesof the Ptolemies . Horus is most often' Strong Bull': *N &--J s3b-9wt tj IV 10,10 4, IV 18,8; IV 54,5 also and as the -J

the face of a falcon IV 13,8 [for Ptolemiac writings, Fs. Hintze p.357-81. with of homs' VI 177,15.

A geniecalled wr-hmhm Great of terror is also called*Zsharp

U try k3w bull masterof the bulls Epithetof Amun-Re IV 242,12.

bull k3. ndmndm procreadng


At Edfu the king is said to be the divine seedof likel*L ffl 11119 1.1 .


6 9: 1 ,i 111279,2and the king is -, tPUe4divine twins of 'South of

The Ogdoad are the great kas and/of

his wall' VI 174,12-13 The epithet celebrates the reproductive powers of the bull and can also . i *W? L IV is made (nhp) by to the building of the temple : the temple apply metaphorically 331,10.



MeeksAn.Lex. 78.4343
The Temple of Armant [Ptolemy Soter 11 Ptolemy VII published in LD IV 61g names Osiris as .
4gn, 0

and Lord of the Theban nome who hides his form in Hcrmonthis [see Bucheurn 1125;

Temple of Armant pl. 90, p. 1771. The term also appearsat Edfu where it is an epithet of the king (in a text for putting enemies onto 1,, 60 4?, a,, V the fire)

bull wiLh sharp horns V 193,11-12.71is offering is made to Osiris , ,

Cauvillehowevertakesthis to mean'appeased [Osiris p.140n3 c.f. Schweitzer ka' appropriately. ka. WesendesKa p.42 n.9 andpA31 it may be that Osiris was rcgardcdas the ultimate appeased , *It D VIN 21,17. Also at Dendera Osiris is -9--1 ,


White bull Wb V 96 (11-12) OK

The epithetrefersto theBuchisbull which wasa white bull with a black head[Bucheum pA2-31. 11 At Edfu the*N-j'4"D tpt-Or is hereidentifiedwith Montu andby tpt-Or is connected with m , Lower Egypt 1172,14.


bull ejaculating Wb V 95 (12-14)

*; t. As a divine epithetof Amon Re

r-w IV 242,12:Iforus Dchdctis dazzlingas


C$, J

begatthe gods1158,4 which compares the names Iforus Bchdct11rvV; tG; *II of with one of who 20 (81) ; 4: P4AT VIII 5,1 : Min 1398,6.



protective of the3rd lanceof Horus god who attacksthosewho attackthe palace, he goreswith his homs

*? LA In the Myth ...

blood is on his horns and dust behind him VI 68.4.11is partner (4th lance) is k3-m3't in pl. , CXLVIII I o. 1d. V the headhas beenremovedfrom the humanbody - most likely it was bull headed.

mast or pole

U is the pole in the ritual s'h' U shnt Trecting the pole. of the sbnt tene. It is first attested on the chapel of SesostrisI at Karnak in two sceneswhich show the progressive ceremony of putting up the central tent pole of the tent of Min ULacau,CdE 28, Nr. 55 1953 p. 13-22 , especially p. 16-7 and Lacau-Chevrier, Chapelle SesostrisI p. 117 ^321 in the Temple of Luxor, Amenhotep III P JUPIA4^"before /414 mast or pole]. The scenealso occurs Min [Gayet, Louxor, p.53 and XXXV , RamessesII , Luxor Pylon KRI -

fig. 1001.Further NK examples may be found at Luxor LL *? L 11350,10;

(same text) [Meeks An. Lex. 79,3198 and 79.2697 1 KRI Il 351,3. ,

The ritual also appears Edfu : s'O'_*?L sont for Min - pl.40i showsthe sont set up 1188,9; at s'p' U1 sont - again beforeMin 1375,9 [restoredthus by Chassinat].

There is also the ceremony: s'0114i? Iwnw (pl.86) for Re-HarakhtyIV 85,10 and s'O'U L Iwnw for Horus BehdetVIII 100,3-where DCLXXII showsthe king erectingtwo columnsby pl. 6 type and the U may refer to the them upright with ropes.The columnsare of the pulling this column -if indeedit really is a column and not in fact a Heliopolitantype of central mastof that booth or sacred tent. Zivie suggested the iwn columnwas decorated with a bull 'fetish' andthe the late texts made the word iwn into k3. iwn by misreading the sign, perhaps writers of Tbe writing occurs deliberately, makingthe word 'bull of Heliopolis', referringto the sungqd,.. and in other texts apart from Edfu [seeC.Zivie , Les rites ddrection de l'obelisqueet du pilier Ioun Hom.Saun.I p.489-4981.


name Wb V 92 (17-23) Dyn. 22 oft. GR

between, nameand the ka for the mummy the From the earliesttexts thereis a closeconnection


'[c: f. ' ka are all pan of the individual which the king has to possess'tosurvive'in the afterlife. *. name and Pyr. 908b]. In the protocol of the NK the ka is the bearer of the king's name and CT 111350 e-g expressesthe wish 'My ka is high, it has repeatedmy name. I do not die'. Ile ka and name exist.. ' 2nd independent of the bod and so the ideas of U and rn come close to one another. From theDynasty (according to Wb) ka is a word for name and in dcmotic U is rcndered by rn [Moller, P.Rhind I iv 2 and 6 vi 121. The Wb examples are on a statue - Kairo Wb NrA9 <56> nis rn-' m V; t m bsw Imn but the idea that U is a name is already implied by the NK royal protocols.

At Edfu U is a frequent synonym for rn 'name (also in demodc U and rn are interchangeable Pestman Textes Biling. p.252 n.206 ; Zandee, Death p. 180 : Blackman, JEA 3,1916 p.242 n.3 ,

The templeis inscribedwith the nameof the king:

IV 16,10or


wrw great namesI -'s

229.4-5;LIJIi the names HB are inscribedin temples 113,17,Vc=I nameof the king is'upon of his monument 190,5 . W inome is called (k3 of .6

The nameof someone somethingis called (k3): the name or

Wetjeset 1111,8; name U1:4 of the templeis calledMes-Nakht 5,12. IV the

It also applies to the namesof gods : the king says'I glorify Unless the senseis clear or the c=( of the Ennead' 11210. '

determinative addeait can be difficult to decide if ka or name is:

meant and the ambiguity is no doubt deliberate suggestingthe ka and name were one entity : the gods 11 II,, of Edfu are called 1, of Egypt VI 311,2. , f


to call , to name Wb V 85 6) to 86 (6) NK oft. GR

Wb records U from the 19th Dynasty onward and thus it predatesthe use of U 'name'. unless this is earlier and has not survived or been recogniscd from the texts. At Edfu the verb is used in

It to constructions give the names epithets placesor pcrsons. is used, usually. impersonally or of 'one calls one says' , r: thePlaceof Eternity rn : the temple Ms-Nht . the temple - Ndm. lnh z::P (is named your city) 1112.2-3. your city TJAq is called - litcrally 'one saysof its name'IV 5.12 ', IV 13.7;Ilorus , strongof arme'E, I-- 4= -4is calledyour

nameVII 262,12 possiblyalso,the falcon

17 0- He is called71c Punisher 1229,1.,J


In the construction :%

Aw Wist rUn

spt. t 'One says Wetjeset about the name of his

nome'- the name of his nome is called Wetejeset1111,8. Infiv in Greek U is translated by EF they are called]. The verb is also found as a parallel to j1d : *A* speaks(dd) to his Enneadlz-: --'He he speaksto the [Daumas, Moyens p.200 k3. tw. sn = dem. mtw=w dd n=w

kas of temple VI 5,6-7. Impersonally: Behdety ........ Wit, CdE 36, Nr. 71,1961 p.591 IV 2,9.

he is called in his Behdet [after de


to plot , plan , devise , conceive in the mind Wb V 83 (6) to 84 (1) OK

Negative sense of Ui-

k3i dw 'to plot evil'

plus r 'Tbey who plot evil against your

majesty... do not exist! I 63,5;, ="T-hV block 1154,17; the gods smite 55,14 ; %L

'r. k they who plot evil against you are on the slaughter those who'plot evil against the House of HB VI

r those who plot evil against .... are fallen on the slaughter block 1142,8.

k3i also has the magical sensethat if something is conceived in the mind and named then it comes into physical existence : it is said of the creator god - that which exists exists , 22 "KA71 r when he

T has thought (of it) VI 92,17; the ennobled god has everythingrst 27-Ly- which he thought of IV 9A r* ; the Ba of Behdet 144,14. To speak ?- HB issues commands to the s3w n. sn his heart VI 10,5. . 214'1 T he has IV 0 conceived of (i. e. created) the inhabitants of Wetjeset VIII

he saysthat which is in

k3is The king (in a Killing Apophis text) is likeq-, *rYhq work for Horus and Hathor VII 113,3. I il ' who destroys the sbty-snake with his


Wb V 91 to 92 (16) MK DG 555,11 d


Cr.586b ; CED 252 ; KH 55 NEbin !M&pl(F- '= gri k3w lack of food = drought, -

famine. From the MK onwardsk3w is foundfrequentlyin offering texts.The usualdeterminative that k3w wereenvisaged mainlypastries bread, but from the contentof the textsit and suggests as It to canincludeotherfoodsandis a general word for provisions. maybe related Ka andthe 14kasof Re providek3w to nourishthe king.
k3w are brought from parficularnomes: 9th LE nomell food offerings and 9psw IV 28,8; among general

IV TV 43,1; Tanen gives Meidlibi 42.11; Horus gives the king 10sof and Ptpw are carried on the arms of a Nile in the offering

U'- 4PS from Nile 1488,18; 13 1000Sof the I

1583,7. procession OcIER? 14542; Horusgives The king is the Lord %=I magicand provisionsto the

t Lf U ! '. Y-king 118,10; king the offerings and his offerings are upon mn tp jdrt.f decrees o s', ' his handsIV 44,9 ; the'CollLld,! areinWp. t3 Il 6,12 and also Hathorcarries 117,2.4 shrineof 1113 The k3w are not part of a specificritual - it is herea'genericterm for food offerings.The word Wesen ka p.68-71). from the MK asa synonym termslike bw anddf3w [Schweitzer, des of appears The idea of the life giving powerof the ka is howeverolder c f. Ll in private namesand the ka to the'

libation basinwhich is the first example the ka beingconnected of with offerings [op.citp. 401The k3w is the real materialmeans satisfaction sustaining life and the powerto providek3w, of and of , in functionappears it wasrecognised in is embodied the king. From the OK this ka nourishment and the offering meal. In theNK this nourishment personified raisedto the status a divinity., and of was


to carry , support Wb V 103 (1-7) GR

The verb derives from the noun k3t 'work' (Wb V 98fQ - the determinative shows a man carrying a basket or lifting a basket on his head - implying that he is engaged in 'work'. The verb is used frequently at Edfu Dendcraand Philae. , In the phrase k3wt gbt Raise up the sky'. an alliterative variation of tw3-pt and synonymous ,

entitled k3wt-gbt : 14 Zi with Ls-Ist for example.Thereare two offering scenes

-C7* 0%


gbt for Shu


*. where the king is shown holding the sky aloft on his two upheld arms [ PIA Oe I 179,6 ;U I


gbt for his father Re , containing the great winged beetle of gold [Pl.771 111277,9.The phraseoccurs as a variation in tw3-pt scenes: the king gbt m gbty raises up the sky on his arms apt

VII 130,5-6; the king ';IAt ce IV 13,2.

gbt n gms IV 376,17. Also - the four posts

The verb is also used of holding up or raising up in offering gifts : Ceb gives the Delta ' people%--, ly 17 'r-' `52'04' carrying their tribute to the king 172,13; the king refers to this mirror e'. which I raise 19Z . up to your ka (Nephthys) 173,17; Horus gives the king Egypt %, -I in a geeseand plant offering the king 13f4offers , carrying gifts 1488,17

plants (mnbW and J1mw) IV 120,12 ; priests

carry the gmbs-falcon in Wetjeset in a procession 1571,6. Like other verbs forto carryk3wt can also mean'to weae (cf. French'porter' and German'tragen). Usually it refers to the king wearing a crown or an element of it : crown the king White Crown 1297,1; 374,2: Uraeus - the king brow J47,15; the king Te, 1 White Crown 1393,8; -* I? the

e- kh White and Red crown toget er I ACM * Wadjet on his head 113,4;. HBc: oez, wrty-uraei on his


k3wt can also be used intransitively meaning I)e laden' and here the,indirect object is precededby m : HB tp. f m 9wty wr his head is laden with the Two Great Plumes IV120,1; Im wears Wadied 36,16 ; 1113 the

king of Lower Egypt, "vXS=

Wadiet 1486,11. m laden with

Foreigners come to the king laden : the bbstyw people are given Z1,x their incense IV 152,11-2.


to fumigate, cleansewith smoking incense Wb V 103 (9-15) Pyr.

At Edfu Up is written almost exclusively with the claw/paw sign,,&6 or the simplified version of this [Montpellier - MG 337 .331,329]. The determinative is a 4* or @to show that it refers to the

actual burning of incense. Brunner derives the word from a Semitic root kp.. flat of the hand which was used as a determinative in the OK and.may explain the animal paw sign in the GR period [ Die bedecken Handflache, Gottingen 1965]. The 3 in the writing was lost lUeroglyphen, ffir )>rduchernx , (c f. verbs such as q3b, b3b, w3d, WD Sethe Verburn I 71 72,374). , .


B urning incensein the temple purified it and everything in it and magically revivified the gods. k3p is used mainly with 'ntyw (K8mi 13,1954 p. 16-17 and 20) in the offering scene title k3p. 'ntyw Tle spelling is consistent and if the phrase is repeated in the text it duplicates the spelling also': Orthographies f+ 13 1 VH 130.14 ; 4zO 13 1476,13 VI 343.15

121,16.It is made differentgods- mainlyHorusbut alsoHathor.Min, Ba-Nebdjed Hat-Mehit and to (1182,2) - Tennet Tunet 121,6). canbecombined (IV It ritualssuchas ? laying the also with oLhcr and 'sistrum' V 369.12 , or 'Bringing the god to his meae VI 305,7-The scenesdo not show one -,, el in his hand ( 1242.7 this offering - mostoften the king holds consistent way of performing P1.26 or dropspieces incense it (e.g. 1405.12PL32b)andoncehe holdsth=Arm'censers into b) of (V 369,12Pl.CXLI). The verb is also usedwith snLr 1182,2. in Within textsthe word appears connection with ritual ceremoniesat the foundationof the temple is IV 13X performed 7.5 ; everyshrine Or4l! c? 61'c] kept burningto 0 is fumigated with myrrh IV 14.11:a brazieris 1502,8; J11 a VII 203.13

fumigatethe GreatPlaceI 110.8.

k3p can indicate'to bum a substance 'fumigate with a direct objectand it canalso be followed or by the preposition n :41 bum for you incense 35.4-.myrrh If J9 -FL which I'havc ww fumigated

burnt for your ka 1271,1. With the prepositionin : Osiris is purificdA a -IT uponthebrazier1209.2. with incense


incense- kyphi Wb V 104 (1-3) Med. GR DG 557,2 4 ^ip

0 xvt

98,12ff. which lists the tcn IngrMientsof k3pt ; The earliestreference the substance RE-bers is to

P.Berlin 30386,6-11containsa recipefor it and P.Ilaff is 1 53 a.4-9 hasa NK recipe(P.Dcrchain, RdE 28,1976, p.61ff. ) At Edfu thereare two recipesfor Up in the Laboratoryand the first of these is also copiedat Philae lp-rd n0 Reci2c A: 11203,7- 204,8 (Philae.unpublished seeIlelck. LA 111902-903) 13

'Recipe for making Up for the god's ritual to protect the temple . makes 100 dcbcn of kyphi'. ,


11iroughoutthe recipe the spelling never varies. 212.10 Another recipe for <z> J 13 Recipa B: 11211,5 in the manufacture ; but the amount of product is the same. are slightly different substances named


enemy,crocodile=Seth Wb V 105(5-6) MK GR

The word is first attestedin P.Prisse9,3 (Maxims of Ptahhotep) where he wams that once the
a comes in hatred arises '2k e --, crocodile here perhapsrepresentsthe idea of jealousy [Faulkner.

Literatureof AncientEgyptp.166n.31]. The text of Hatshepsut Karnakwhereshedeclares'lam at -s:(parallelto Xn1y) shows that perhapsthe word used more than is, otherwise

by texts.In the archaicEdfu textsk3p is usedas a variantfor 'crocodile'in 'Slayingthe suggested texts' . It most often occursin the phrase mdd b3b in k3p 'Striking at the hippopotamus, crocodile r: bringing the crocodile' CC-44 Resenting two plumes'textA 0Q harpoontext Sft/IV 212,12; an nja IV 246,8 ; in an IV 374,13. This phraseis alsou: sed in a, PR 9 111350,3; in a invocationto Horus

X 11,13IV 343,14 f. VII 293.1; stabbing hippopotamus text ; c. if the NL94,3;a text describingthe city of Behdet

M. 160,15; slayingthe hippopotamus -U, 6911 Tq JU-VI 48,3 ; "c"* -s-L -6a do%%

V 133,9 wherethe contexthasbeendestroyed. is the work of a knife bearing

k3p is found at Denderatoo : killing Sethin his forms of 13

MD IV 60b;pieces IVA-are chopped (slayingthecrocodile)MD 11151 n. up of geni Sobek- r3" -Wr- KO I but is usedto describe Sethian At Kom Ombo,however,k3pls not a word C) 17and he is called cc J4by greatcrocodilewho seizes might KO 19,2.

Up may.havebeena commonword in partsof Egypt to denotethe crocodileat one time and it It in the vocabulary theGR temples. mayhavederivedfrom the verb k3p 'to of a renaissance enjoyed just hide', because theway thecrocodilelurks andhides belowthewaterto wait for its prey. of


(for garden vines) Wb V 106(3-9) 19thdyn. A/, l)tj DG557,4 Cr. 817b; CED330; KH456


k3mw derived from an older word k3nw (Wb V 107,6-7) and it was used frequently in the NK to'' refer to vineyards. At Edfu it appearsin a field presentationin the Donation Te'Xts,where'ihere is wine" igr-n 71 its vineyard like the flood of the Nile VII 215,16-17 , .


chapel, shrine Wb V 107 (12) to 108 (12) Pyr. DG 533 (ZAS 56,1920 p. 17 n.3 ; Osing Norn 216 and 769 n.935) c f. Cr. 98b meaning unknown KH 506 1' FIJ statue

k3r 'shrine' may survive into Coptic as kt-i

'statue', implying that the k3r held a cult statue"of

some kind. It was a portable shrine the shrine of the sacredbarque and a naos shrine with pointed . roo4spencer, Temple p. 125]. At Edfu k3r refers to the granite naos of Nectanebo in the Sanctuary text upon this naos says .A that the king madezq Sa noble naos of granite 110 (montant right) and also Hathor is -with 'the secret naos:of black granite the sign . ft may be this. "

Horus in his bd-shrine in

word IV 5,3. A list of buildings of the god to be protected has : Owt. nLr pr st bnqt , , , 4 e- C-3 VI 146,2 ;a procession of priests goes to the of the king in every temple and wr in Egypt 1:542,15 ; Osiris in 1123 (112) should be read d or k3r the

When written ideographically it is not always clear if the sign 7ft bolts in

IV 13,3 - de Wit [CdE 36, No.71 p.81 transliteratesthis as k3r.


to beget, engender n It. f r mssn ' engender themselves , there'is'no f 'begetter o. the bull of Ma'at 'IV'-'

In a text about the Ogdoad

father to bear them' IV 140,13 ; Shu is called U, 111 VN '%-o7t 144,5 ; bulls Is' -1-dw

Isp 'bulls beget and cows conceive' V 85,12


to harm Wb V 109 (9) Med.


is usually attested in medical texts Eb.27,16 -,72,34 Mcd. Wb 898 gives it as a 'blistee .

[aftcr Ebbell, ZM 62 1927 p. 191. , ,


'-'0 lboth acts as a"purifier dr inbw "" '1, 91 At Edfu 11=0 ,

dirt who removes which harmsfrom

his lips IV 52.7. This line could be from an older text 'water comes from Elephantine and removes dirt which dirties the lips' Pap.Berlin 13242, col.4b line II [Schott, Reinigung ].


female genitals Wb V 93 (12) to 94 (4) Pyr.

A term used in medical texts and religious literature [Lefebvre, Tableau pA2-3 48 , Wb Med.

894-5].At Edfu it is the placefrom,, sungod appears he is born in the morning: Horusis born the as he showshimself in LI q. as a child IV 209,14; Re comesfrom of Nut IX


is 33c. More unusually, 3hm incense said to comefrom pl. 206,11.

of the femalefalcon 11

U in this word perhaps power inherentin the the reproductive The presence the root enhances of natureof theka.


work Wb V 98 (2) to 101(8) Pyr.

DG 556,1 1r I to carry i.e. work; At Edfu k3t is spelled U107-114; BIFA043,1945p. 1281;

BIFAO 53, et var. [c.f. de Meulenaere,

'--Jj 1113,16. ', andeven

IV king or gods : it is complete Lf it is a 'work! of the = it most often refersto the temple: 4`4 t Ucompleteinits excellentwork of Re IV 19,13; 10,13;the shrinesof the templeare *",, V 5,3 ; the templeis completein -a -its work as a work work A. -, a work of antiquityIV 8,9. templeis the of eternity1113,15;

king is given the cloudsof Nut and'work' of Geb k3t canrefer to specificwork of a god : the 1108,8-9and VII 25,34 ; Tanendoes(ir) his workArN 111317,13; builder godsdo their work the 63,11;3 1377,14. the suffix being mostappropriate I

IV 48,12 writing is the work of Thoth ,

in the temple after disturbances the south of Egypt is describedas The resumptionof work at ti ir whm. ; doing work again IV 8,6.



compound noun -combat Wb V 113 (11) GR

Literafly the phrase seemsto mean 'one (man) seizes another (man)' and refers to hand to hand fighting. Sauneron thought it must apply particularly to the disorder during battle when each man' tries to capture his opponents[RdE 15 1964 p.53 nA] he is the bull of bulls #S-V 1; Z;* QI At Edfu it can appear in epithets of the king .

in battle (here it is a complete compound) IV 221,11-12;

53,2 - both of theseare hw-' r stpw texts. Horus gives the king strength in lff.,

t; p qq4


VII 168,10-11 he himself is braverthan millions and

in combatIV -

231,5.The wordalso occursin the phrase hrw ky-br-il-ky the day of combat: Horus has trolopi, I =qb 0 ', 111136,5-6; Horusmakesthe king mighty againsthis foe'.--i 4' VI, on iIqW and 633. ? rqand Esna 619,39. is alsoknownat Philae <2995>PhoL8624fq 75? The noun no.

kiyw or kyw

foes or hostiles Wb V 116 (6-7) Late, GR DG 558 (under kPother) jJjf'. Cr.91b -,CED 51; KH 55 KooyC- others

Wb derives a term written k3yw from kyw 'others' but with a more negative nuance - it implies , 'others'who are not Egyptians thus foreign and possibly hostile foes. Faulkner notes kw used with , hostile nuance [FECT 1239 n.3 k3yw is most likely to come from the verb k3l and mean, from Late Egyptian has a more

'plotters' or 'conspirators' [Kawa I p.40 n.85] and

definitely evil sense.The word appearsin P.Br.-Rh. - Apophis 24,23. At Edfu kiyw has a consistent spelling and can be used effectively in alliteration :a furnace, consumes,---Pof the king IV 273,4-5 Keku of the Ogdoad burns up e-% 'and

gnityw V 86,5-6 ; in a harpoon text, Horus smites the encmics'c; -1675h-e q

E'L.. q-. 4 VI 91,6

1 572,1

Yare driven "11 O-b away VI 301.4 -,Hathor makes the king mighty against MC %% 166 J11

in The word appears all the other main GR temples in and to the examples Wb (Ombos159,61,361' 280; Mb IV 80) add- EsnaIII no.216,9and 383 1167,613 Philae<1579> 206; <3242>Phot. Phot. ;


ANNrespectively. A with the detenninatives


seagoingship Wb V 118 (3-6) OK Cr. 823b-; CED333: KH460 61WOyHX

A funerary barge or workship originally, but later the term was used to describe a trireme [Jones, Glossary p. 148]. An unusualtext concerning this word at Edfu describesPtolemy (VIII) as 'Controller of jin the Great Green (Mediterranean)' 111241,15.This determinative does not

occur before the Greek period in Egypt. though the word kbn. t is well known , implying that it had been adaptedwith a suitable determinative to describea particular type of 'new'boat. Kurth translated it as-'Greekwarship' and suggeststhat this text reflects a historical situation 400 years earlier but it , has been updated with the determinative [SAK 8 p. 161]. In a further text (presenting the 'ndt BB is called -barque) , 'great of boats without end! VII 175,15-16 where kbntyw ,

is used simply as a variant word for boat.


uw a sacred Wb V 118(8) GR

kbs is the later form of theksbt tree which is attestedfrom the Pyramid Texts [Buhl, JNES 6_ to p.86-87and Wb V 141,14] and was sacred the god Sobek[Kuentz,BIFAO 28,1929p.158].Its identity is still uncertain[Charpentier 748 1250].It is the sacred of the 14thLE nome tree p. P0 1334,12andof the 3rd UE nome'"J P4 1338,2and5th UE nome1338,14.


to uncover

Wb V 119(4-19) Pyr. At Edfu : the sandupon the tombsof the Childrenof Re shall not be removed--I-^
literally 'shall not be uncovered' - cB -or 90t. sn (see Wb- V 119,14 plus hr - to remove

from, Cauville, Osiris p.55 'enlev6) 1173,14 ; also, in the Myth, as the god walks on the shore, ,


b Nc;


imyw. mw water creatures are not uncovered VI 71,3.


to open Wb V 121 (1) GR

W 'to open' derives from W 'to uncoveeas a secondarymeaning and it is used at Edfu : of Horus!, ' Behdet, 'Your lips are the doors of heaven C% when you open them theearth livee 116

(5). The meaning is clear, but this seemsto be a unique'example


part of a door bolt ? M lbst VII perhaps literally to be

In the temple description after the bknw bolts of the door are listed 19,10 translated as bolts! (verrous) by de Wit and transliterated kf3-'h'w ,

translated 'that which uncovers its doors T [CdE 36 Nr. 72 p.3181. The equivalent passage in IV 13,3-4 contains instead the metaphor of the lion catching its tail. The word may be best read pb-'b'w, though a precise meaning is unclear.




-text the king in In a lotus presentation saysto Horusand flathor, "rake for yourself'rV-0 -WI , Pool of Hermopolis' 338,14.This is eithera god calledk f3 61 alsocalledlotus the lotUs VI the , personifiedas a god , or a punningnamefor the lotus 'the uncovered one - which may refer to the lotus rising out of the mud.Wb recordsa word W (Wb V 120,9)'a part of a plane - perhap's the"
outer sepals which 'open and uncoveethe flower inside , thus it derives from the verb kr3 'uncovee (WB. Drog. 528 - leaf shoots). In this case W seemsto be the flower of the lotus.


to complete

Wb V 128(3) to 130(2) MK DG 563,1 X, ') 2-' 91- initswork At Edfu this most often refersto the work in the templebeing 'complete':46: as a %l work of eternity1111,15,4, in its work V 5.3 in its work VI 91.12-13. 0- 111188,7 the

lt can also refer to the body or mummybeing 'complete'with all its limbs Eye of Horus is filled and is thuscomplete 4 Sb in its place1316,6.


To fulfill regulations the kingZ. complete a shrine .2n


fulfills rules (in the building of the temple) 1161,12; to

sbm IV 7.7; to complete a task or service : Horus accepts the service of

4 the king'' which he has completed VII 156,11.

In phrases km n drw 'no end': theking ruleswithout end 1284,14;offeringscomewithout end :n 1475,10.

n km irw 'noendthereof


1105,12. of offerings 1249,5; moon the 15days -

To complete in 15 time: Khonsu completes days Behdet bothof these referto thelunar cycle1375,17.

(WbV 130,2) andesp. - thisis putat theendof phrases NK GR to r km dt 'to theendof eternity' the stress eternity therule of theking : King of IV 10,10; VI 73,3; king is IV 12,1 ; Rerules "* IV 330,7.

1522.11; protects beloved Re his upontheserekhson j 8., A j! IV 18,8; king is established thesunandmoon like the


beblack- adjective verb Wb V 122to 124(8) Pyr. DG 563,2 Cr.109b CED 58 ; KH 64 Km0 ri, ft Hm-1,

The adjective 'black' can be used of a number of objects : the innermost naos of the temple is made of black granite described in the Edfu texts as inr km r-3 OR r3 IV 5.3 ; IV 5,11: C: 3

4 &% I IV 15,1.7. In the ceremony of the bw-bs one of the calves has to be black in colour: , 101,18; 6 IV 242,2 ;V 86,18 ; VI 286,10 ; VII 156,1 ; Qd*R'IV 241,18 .

Black hair may have been a sign of life and ferity : Osiris is described as 'one long of beard and &zwith black locks' 1149,9. M... 4=6 The 20th LE nome contains (?) IV 38,6-7. black waters - they pass from there into white waters


pupil of theeye Wb V 124(13) GR,

Eye of Horus- 'its black (pupil) andwhite are firmly in their places: 0 tk III With reference the to




VII 266,7.

km is only attested in the GR period [Lefebvre Tableau 17 p. 171but occurs frequcntly in texts* 1, the eye. At Dendera-D 11183,14;D IV 37,5 ; DIV 159,12and Philae - <422> Phot.58 concerning <886> Photo 1420 ; <938> Photo 1439.

km. wr

the Great Black KZ: X 13389; V 109,11-13 : IV 175,12-14 and also

This is the pehu in the Ilieban norne 4 '22' in the Koptos nome

according to 1338.16 but not the other geographical texts, wh6Se

authors foresaw the possible confusion in having the samename for pchus in different nomes and sochangedit. -I -


Egyptians Wb V 128 (1) GR

Derived from the name for Egypt Kmt from a late stage of the language Horus puts fear in the hearts of 1127,13 ; fear is in 44-- 4% and people of foreign

lands are full of dread 1432,15. 'ne word is used as the antonym of b3styw so that together they encompassall people.


primeval serpent Goyon Gardiens p. 117 n. I ,

forth from Nun as j3 6 Iq& n drty the serpent of the falcon V 321,1. The Ir-T3 snake comes


:', j


in knm m grg - speakfalsehood Wb V 132(6) D.22 GR

by The phraseknm m grg is discussed FairmanJMDAIK 16,1958 p.88 n.f] :a list of the people'.
includes 'Z:b-99who may not enter the temple %. he who speaks falshood in your house' V grg

Ad 334,2.The parallel textsto this substitute for kni - 111360,15 Ombos11245 Nr.878 - so the and is not in doubt. This seems be the sameverb as knm (Wb V 132.6. For kni see- Wb to meaning V 131,1-12Y either the and T and q haveel idcd with m for anothertext "" havebeenconfused or

":: '0T *Tgrg has 'I-Iis ka prevails over Aftv^


him who speaks falsehood' VIII 14,13-15 Also :n wn .

bsft there is none who speaks therein, who is exempt from punishment' III 361,11 - 362,1 ; The Lord of Nfaat prevails over Urk VII 84,7. Alternatively if m grg

kni then had to be followed by m then this may have been incorporated by confusion into a new verb knm which then took a direct object - so that the phrase is written kni m grg or knm grg. Examples of knm : Vienna Sarcophagus[Wreszinski Wien 158,7 knm] = Cairo sarcophagustext , (Kairo 4220820 D.22-23 Piehl Ins.Ilier. III pl.LXII) has ^Z , for knm., twisted (of speech?) Cernderives the term

There may also be a reduplicated form of knm which in Coptic is OviXllibe be implicated'[Cr. 811a; CED 328; KH 452 and DG 590 IV)A-' , 1.

from knm 'wrap up a garment' (Wb V 132.5) which may be the forerunner of knm 'speak' in a bad sense.


name of an ape , Wb V 133 (10) GR

In a lunar text the ape A-,


seesthe moon at the snsn k3w 1255,6.


darkness Wb -V 133 (14-15) GR IN. 9. = ICNZC-- porch, shrine BD

DG 541,3

Cr. 113a; CED60; KH510

From the CT [CT- IV 29e and V 3711 to Dendera Temple this word is only found in religious texts and then only rarely [Hornung , 7AS 86 p. 113-1141.There are grounds for taking kno to be a verb 'becomedarkas for example in Urk. VI 123 [also Meeks, An.Lex. 77A559 and 79.3240 a verb which is unrecordedin WBI. The substantive from the CT V 371 is found too in Th 172,12 and then in the Edfu texts : when A ir rw-Khnurn rises, rain goes away and -is driven off (hsr) 1551,19; Hor-Akhty drives away (D - _ 4cr 'V VIII 90,12; where Nekhbet and Wadjet lighten the darkness in the night(snk). (no (rwi) spelling given) E.Piehl Ins. 1197. Maspero suggestedthat this word was a writing of grh [RT 37-.1915 178] but in the CT, knh


appearsparallel to grb and the two areclearly different terms. Ile Coptic term refers to a place which is dark or at least shadyand this may be more connectedwith the rare word kn 'palace (q.v.).


palace Wb V 133 (13 ) D22 DG 541,3 Cr. 113a; CED 60. kwbE

Wb cites one 22nd dynasty example but only gives the reference number of the piece in the Cairo -'* 1a= Museum on which this word occurs - Kairo,42213,10.!. at Edfu : the king appearsin palace to go to the temple , '3A
al, C3

palace , fem. Ile word also occurs 1159,8-9 when he leavei the


rib hence knot 'palace'. Barguet however reads this as knmt

[Barguet, Homm. F.Daumasp.511,a shady dark place which may derive from knmdarkness! (Wb V 132,9-11). knht however also has a noun knh 'darkness'so the origin of knht as a dark place where the king rests is certain [P.Gallo, in Aspects of Demotic Lexicography pp.38-391.

knn possibly = qni Calamus aromaticus ?I"


is used in a recipe for kyphi 11211,6-7and this may correspond to a Pap.Harris P11 the Edfu 53 a 4-9 which has-d In recipe , text an alternative narne is given as W. 10 . Otand 2 debenare required for the recipe.


c f. Wb V 134(11) andqnqn Wb V 55 (4) to 56 (9)

jni-,,. keae- , knkn occursat leastoncein a canalofferingtext - the canalis broughtOW z--tM'
jb, W--V-


somethingbeatenwith a dry stick ?V 116.8.c.f. qnqn 'to bcae.


lumps of incense

Wb V 136(5) In the laboratorytexts, dry myrrh is said to be difficult line IA4


'93 11206,15 : and in a

TV-`11206,1.Harris suggests this reduplicated that word may be a"

loan word andcompares with an earlierword in the Poemon the King'sChariot[Mineralsp.301. it



soldiers,guards c f. Wb V 137 (1) Pyr.

In Pyr 1497b ril

of Re are bein s who live in the sky are ancestor gods but they may not 19

be the sameas the khyw mentioned at Edfu. The-khyw at Edfu are found in two particular places : in a text on the pronaos dealing with the 4=6 protection of the god in the temple . Here Seshatinscribes the namesof ra 1111nAn the khyw nnn

and 60 gods (that is the 60 protective guardian gods - see Goyon , Gardiens p.24 n. I. ) 11132,7. also %-* qq P Horus is sovereign of ra who knows his crew who protect him 11132,9.In the register U 'A above this ,,! Ij -tr q=* i r2qUb i the bravest of the troops and first of the soldiers join Horus on the

battlefield and in the protection of the Two Shrine Rows 11133,1.khyw are protective minor deities or 'soldiers' in the train of the temple god who assisthim in the defeat of hostile forces. The other text also emphasisesthe war-like aspectof thesegods :*--4r2q&arry weaponsof war and rra qJ bow to their lord (Horus) VI 18,1, again are associatedwith the 60 guardian gods VI 14,8. khyw is not apparently an earlier military word [not in Schulman] and is translated by Goyon as 'combattants f6roces' [op.cit. p. 1181khyw then refers to the ferocity of the fighters. It is most likely . derived from kh3 synonym of khb 'to attacle in battle [Massart, P.Leiden 1343 and 345 p.54 n.81 ,a

and is 'those who attacle.


to utter (a cry) , roar

Wb V 137(12) NK - GR from NK magicaltexts for example Leid. 1345 Rs. Wb recordsa wide usefor this term,attested P. . G 2,5-6and343 , 4,10-11 It seems be a derivedor adapted of the verb khb 'to assault, to attacle. use . Whenfollowedby a word for'voice! orcry' it means'toutteea cry - in a battleattack.At Edfu : Isis
is mistress of --7, c7 b

raX,,,=( t% %. ra



of the harpoon[JEA 30 p. 19 n.40] VI 81,4 ; Hathorsays

lion who roars [de Wit, Lion p.32 - qui rugis fdrocement] III

to the king'Welcome

ra v-,, b

197,9 ; Lion great of strength r'iZi EER who roars [de Wit op.cit. p.240 rigissant fortement] IV 285,12-13. khb could also be used with brw : Urk. VI l9, ra pI8 Urk VIII <21d> Montu as a bull 'ru '14,1 and <38c> I? Sj =(! r-gs Psdt , c.f. -



be violent Wb V 137 (2-15) NK

khb is the later version of a verb kh3 (Wb V 136.10-15 MK) and the original meaning seemsto be 'strong"wild'or the like and it may indicate the frenzy of rage be it of a storm war cry or a lion's 1 , .a roar. It is possible that the b comes from a phrase kh3-b'l rage of Baal and it was abbreviated to form one word khb. khb appearsoften at Edfu and has a variety of uses: khb ksm sw [JEA 29 33 n.21 one who assaults him who attacks himl : the king raOcJ IV , IUr GiUl 66,6. Variations on this include: C-03 ksm '01 a bull genii -I have attacked (gored ?) W= Ila he who comes to attack your palace VI 68,4 c.f. him who comes to you raging' VI 178,15 = ra 446 ii r. k in khb I gore or my horns gore [c C JEA 29,33 n.21 where b and rn are

confused -cf. wrm and wYb - VI 68,8 1.178,8and 178,131. J in A lion is describedas : strong of arm and rnl'bJa, the House of Fighting' IV 266,14. As an adjective : the sky is VI 13,2 With b in (t) "ball' as direct object : ra 01 majesty IV 305,8 [after Borghouts , JEA 59 p. 1281. Also : Qapet -a serpent says r'Y! J _ n. k JLn Or q3yt I have turned back/drivcn the ]In-canal have kicked the ball while protecting your, ro 3.4 VI 135,7; c.f. ri t VI 57.2 and

upon the the high land (the god is describing how a canal is turned onto different areasof land in the

[Drioton,BIE 34 p.304 fl. paralleltexts)11260,1

The underlying sense of the term is that it is an act of violence either in war or by the natural , elements [thus JEA 30 p. 19n.40 - primarily khb 'assault' (with direct object) and then 'be violent, $, act with violence'and FCD 287 harm someone,be violent, roar].


impetuous,hastyVEA 30,19 line 221 Wb V 137(13-14) NK

7? At Edfu : 14pxsomthus, of Might oj ao Great ,0 Mt king is IV 273,12;the king is

Meg and is IV 371,7;the king slaughters behindhim who attackshim V 48,2-3;the III

VI 302,18;in instructionsto priests- 'Do not be

361,10- also at Ombos11245 878 in a similar text. .


khb-irt In a sqr-hm text the king says to Hathor 'I bring you the eye of , 'Uj which has been

crushed before you' VI 313,11. Borghouts translatesthis as Wim whose eye is violent' or 'he whose eye is kicked away' VEA 59 1973 p. 130 and n.21 (c f. khb. bm in IV 305,8). The phrase is also "' found where 'the king m

down and kicks the eye away'V

.1 72,11 [JEA 59 1973


attacks the eye (not likely ) or 'bends p. 120].

This is more likely to be an Apopian name and may best be taken as 'One who attacks the Eye' or 'one who is violent against the Eye!.


Seth - the Rager Furious One , Wb,Y 137 (16-18) GR

This word for Seth is mainly applied to him in 'slaying gazelle' texts so it may be Seth in gazelle tr 4po W is 7 VII 110,15 ;A ru-1 II 75a ;AM form : slaying a gazelle,--,, Qj tied up JT CDV67,13;. 4r'J, I=D ra tj, > Urk VIII <61d>. In the gazelle nome, the Wadjet eye was received from Wb Zettel

6b 1341,16 At Dendera a god declares 'I have chopped up'r"-: j_"7o . 9Mtl himself (Roman) Debod 113. <4486>; -bows


raging lion 4R1*- khb dnwy 'the Roarer who roars loudly' 111197,9

Hathor welcomes the king who is (c f. de Wit, Lion pA591.


old age, becomeold Wb V 138 (10-14) Dyn. 19 - FCD 287

At Edfu koko is associatedwith the sun god who becomes an old man in the evening : HB as the disk is in the horizon after-1: 6 winged Atum is called +t becoming old in Behdet 11187,11-. At Dendera 12. ,

secret of forms 1157,2-3 . a- a- JC, &-

Noun 'old age!: Horuspromisesthe king T*r


'Your old ageis as long as you wish! I + A rj, after old ageI

269,11; he giveshim a greatkingshipasruler andthe king is madeyoung


482.4*,theking asAtum is nursed a child after as




to bow down

Wb V 139(7-18) Pyr.
At Edfu ks is used of people bowing in adoration or obeisancein the phrase m. ksw : foreigners QIr=DP bowing (sn-t3 text) IV 56,5 3A come ; all the nomes of the land JA at the mightbi the

king 1358,10-,the gods adore Hathor=* v-4--9 bowing at her might 1127.4; Ncphthys'gives the great princes qr-% 1167,7

Peopleor landscanbe given boweddown underthe weightof their tribute or produce:a field is brought If only IV underits produce 43,14. is or a similardeterminative written . it could also be readbr or sim. and judging

from bendingfrom the waist to lying prostrate from thedeterminativebowingto theking ranged on , theground.


to attack, assault Wb V 141(5-9) MK oft. GR

'to ksm is well attested Edfu with the meaning attack'andit is often usedin sentences at wherek or' P1 q alliterate: the king attacks`1=15 one who attackshim IV 66,6;///S-b'9PZ=
r_: 1e'm-q3b`,

111ZE attacking the one who comes to attack him VI 14,9; a guardian genii c"

1 10- 11 '0'-1`6 =* 1 392; the king rages at (khb-3t)-z%" the qb w 11133,13; king 'Strongof Arm! Illj J'*; tthe 'Z* " 1144,14 one who at=ks him V 48,2-3. Min
Foes of whom alliteratiois attack ? 1115,1 ; similar used include : U-mno ///mnh (hippopotamus)' (tortoise) I slay k3. mnh =, AZSP-IV 306,7-8 at his the Seth ,II.

V11 312,2; k3. mno 26+Vill

Lower Egyptian Bull k3-mby q=- "4

26,13. Without alliteration:

ir ID c--


in his city

VI 50,10.

Strength (qn) is given to combat enemics: 1=bj'Or k3yw 1574,14 -, -"'NTj

VI 237,13; 'the sblw

king is like the god k3is

the assaults sbly-snakeas his work (01) VII 113,34 ; who ///// :
1: 1 ''

PA0 king receivesbraveryand goeson to protectthe Eye of I torusand '1=1' the VIII 62,17.


The word is used in rites where harmful creaturesare slain or the strength of the king is proved by his attacking enemies and . apart from being used often in tortoise destruction texts , it also is used in texts for the slaying of Apopis. When ksm has a building as object it has been argued that it general has the particular meaning 'to profane a building' - in a religious sense [Fairman, Blackman JEA , 29,9 n.c] : the guardian of the fourth lance promises that h6 will gore (he is a bull) him who comes

= -o-

VI 68,4;theking!sx to attack yourpalace

* to -Sehim attacks whocom es -. -

attackyour templeVI 332,15-16'. The earliestuseof the wordis from the MK: Meirl p.271 ? 'turn away, turn aside![soBlackman] 1) Brugsch(DHD 150 'wriggleround!- in a wrestlingscene; Siut 1116; Urk.VI 129,20; Urk. IV = 1075,3


assailant, attacker Wb V 141 (10) MK, GR

't '-- wa 0 a. his 11 From the same stem as the verb ksm. (above) : the king chops up the bones of r.IV 273,11; the tortoise is killed = assailant C-1 4L

being his attacker 1115,1; describing the



Z--%. -



%=-;b --w-



IV 230,10;beeroffering Haroerisdeclares that ,

his (the king's attacker) does-hot exist 1152,2 (coUatedby Cauville, Osiris p.75 n.2

Iwho does not have an enemy' c f. Otto who tried to relate it more closely to the type of offering Haroeris is giving beer Yroh ohne dass er trotzig ist' GuM p.33 - ksm 7rotz'] . An example of this I Dendera has a more certain spelling are turned away from the temple DH word at 182,12.


god a guardian Wb V 141(13) GR

In the SokarChamber"c--l


over Osiris 1198,11. watches


name for the tortoise Wb V 140 (12) GR

One example is 6ted in Wb : Philae <1 589> Phot.203 [Junker , Phild 166,5

Abb. 34'slaying the


tortoise scene]

'the kst falls down'. Itis : 111

phrase is repeated almost exactly t J-d A 10', IP ,


Edfu in a slaying the hippopotamus text (pl. UCLIX) k3-mDy and IA 9


kst VIII 26,12-13. Both texts have the name of Ptolemy XII on could read to explain the discrepancy in meaning. Both --

them so may be nearly contemporary , but it is difficult

to Sethian creatures and must derive from ks 'to bow down! being 'One who is bowed down. refer


to force (food down the throat of a bird)

Wb V 142,6 GR Wb V 156(5-6)

WM to stuff down, pour out.


The only reference in Wb is to VI 88,7-9 where it is said of a O-fowl 12306

'force grain in its mouth= g3l(where it does not mean 'force but 'pour out' grain into the throat , of the bird . to force feed it' and is to be read g.


to run ovcr

The 'rty canalis broughtr


V-1- 'd. k land 1582.12(ste-Yr). runs on your

"', I,


tinkle of sistra.
,= R--*

In a playing the sistra text : the heart of Hathor is happy

N: , with their tinkling VIII'45,12. -z-a


This fits the senseof the text very well - but its derivation is less clear and it may be onomatopoeic.


bush Wb V 109(5) GR = k3k3 ? Charpentier 1263p.756-7 Faulkner[JEA 23 p.15n.18,251 , (P.]3r. 18,25)is doubtless sameas Rh. the U"MIOt which Keimer[Kemi2, -..,

' 102] identifies with the castoroil plant (gk. kikl) Dawsondisputes this [Aegyptus 10,p.661. p. , Horus to kk seemsto be a generalword forbush' 'brush'[GAS p.861-At Edfu : Isis cncourages -xV --" "LZ 'Z I$$ throw his harpoon. "Seeyou are upont5i NM I'. a moundwithout its bushes that is

Horushasa clear shotat SethVI 66,11; Horusis a flame which lives upona moundof brushwood
14=6 13t-kkw OJ cDfr has Osirian connotations being the name of the tomb of Osiris at Naref ,

herein [Gauthier. DG134 and 112; Goyon,RdE20 1968p.91 n. 19] so it may appearintcntionally


,--'* Myth of Horus VI 74,10-11. Also at Dendera - MD IV 36,48-49't--* tV the

Nhs Y. .

Wb Drog. 526-527 accept that k3k3/kk could be a general word for 'bush' but in the medical texts r &4 U -. suggest it must refer to a particular plant (Spellings in the medical texts are usually which reinforces this point).


darkness Wb V 142 to 144 (6) Pyr. DG 568,11 /C2-)01 'A 14 Cr. 101b; CED54; KH59 s k41crE. A4KI

kkw is the darknessof night without any illumination [LA 11153-4 ; Hornung Studiurn Generale , 18,1965 p.73-831 and it occurs often at Edfu : the king is given his kingship over the whole of Egypt and north to the limits of kkw-darkness 123AI'P &A.& IV 16,3; W1 1260,17;

1 Il 28,18. The king tramples the foreign lands to the end of 4M q=bT, negative

'K" 1370.7 Darkness is .

is in the eyes of Apopis (as opposed to light in the eyes of the sun god) III IV

341,7; when Aturn enters the earth everything is hidden or non-existent and becomes

7,10; (hrs) with the light beams of 32,10. It is driven away by Horus Behdet (brs)'1W'-*? 1qqFPV his eyes *, Vo V 342,5 he is the Lord darkness 5)D ; of %*L TW" Il 6,14, who makes the earth

light when it was

VII 1133-8 This is from a slaying Apopis text where the coming .

of light representsthe final Victory qver Apopis . ]Vnskty is also associatedwith darkness- for she is called Lady of Darkness twice at Edfu Great Wadjet VI 268,8. Eyes light up the darkness- what is hidden in 1233,14 . Great Wadjet 1548,16 and,=

The darkness beyond the horizon, before the creation and outside the created world is called kkw. sm3w 'united, that is, intense darkness' which occurs in- parallel with 'primeval watee Nun as primeval darkness' (M 145,8-9. There is also a verb kk 'to be dark! (Wb V 144,7-12): the underworld is hidden none knows its , . 28, it being dark and remote from the rebellious 178,13-14. teachings I'DID V 143 16-144,15) and this occurs at Edfu : rwi , V



the flood water Wb V 144 (15) GR

kk the dark water represents positive side of darknessfor it is a fertile regenerativeclement which the can renew and rejuvenatethe creation [Homung in LA 111531the divine personification of this is Kek and Kcket. Two Nile texts at Edfu use kk in alliteration : he brings to you "ZO 7r* and also qrqr r q3yt. k 11243,16





gbgb to throw down, strach out the foe

Wb V 165(3) Pyr. Dyn.18 GR

**-= cwll has cut --j--it %V10-

The verb occurs at Edfu in a harpoon presentationtext: theharpoon his branches (perhapsa metaphor forcut off his arms) IV 230.9-10.


other(feminineof ky) Wb V 114(5-7) DG 569.2 ,

GG 48,1and98 asanadjective itswhichprecedes noun. Also at Edfu :a list of thingsforbiddenin the workshop continucs things11207,12. Howeverlike a true adjectiveit can alsoqualify the nounwith which it agrees 10411.-3 your 1:, otherstationin Hor-Maa118 (38). i anotherthree

W...... kt

one ..... the other Wb V 113 (3)

+A6L 7m'o Ncphthys At Edfu : the two pylonshavebeencreated a is Isis 7 is raisingup BchdctV 3.1.+ .


(of another generation people) Wb V 115(13-14) MK GR ,

The phraseis first attestedat Siut Tomb 4 line 24


qc: b WAm 4% 4*



v" .o3b

da 436

8 .

5 &. *





other ex=ple cited by Wb is MD III 30c : the ancestors to thcmd>. say



lmsn m-bt ib


'another generation, succeedinggeneration' may fit this quite well An Edfu example is not clear the . `fo I!?. m bnrt Dn' w3dw perhaps translate columns of the temple - hnw, mnhw plants,. here 'another type' V 3,6.


gold Wb V 145(6-13) D.20 DG 569,4 oft GR

Harris gives the earliestexamplefrom the Harris papyruswhich seems haveborrowedthe term to from the Hebrew'ketem'[JEA 12 , 215 n. 2 13 9a -n baboonmadeof 13 1 The

18,121 [P.Mag.Haris 8,4 ; Amenemope havebeenborrowed differentiate and to purergold word may are all theseexamples written, Ut. In the Ptolemaicperiod this writing becomes and the q

had becomea generalterm for gold [11aterials,37-38] but is often translated 'fine gold' as p. word [Husson, Mirroirs p. 150n.11. U ktm occursin the commonepithet: the GreatWingedBeetleof Gold
0 OD

IV 2,11; I 'C' 15

1 "0' "5; V 8,5-, C-' 7'

1 537,7; 7-3-'-="-

Uis made of ;-0-'a'

1283,5. In a libation text it is specified that the nemset vessel is common throughout Ptolemaic texts 11260,17.



to tremble , shake Wb V 146 (1-9) Amama FCD 287 to quiver

At Edfu ktkt is always used in a negative phrase - to minimise the danger of a bad influence. In the texts, the two columns are made firm, there is no shaking raising of columns 85,11; I-" A&-A S?-5L9- VIII IV

100,4. The building gods tell the king they will make his work stable

holds up the sky is firm It'a" without shaking VI 174,6. Horus as a child who . 01

'70'21-11115,13-14. 93, Lessconcrete : canbe unshakeableall the wordsof Horus objects 'g%. TOIII 87,9. from the mouthof Horusare-Jcommands VIII 93,7-8;all the


a pot stand 1 *6 V1<7 "t'.

Writings - Direct: Change Phonetic :


tdb: t 'a ID



Faimian BIFAO 43,1945 p.78 ,


be freefrom, be deprived noun: want, deficiency of Wb V 152(1-7) Pyr and Wb V 152(8-13) MK

The original meaning the verbg3y is 'to be narrov/"beconstricted' [Wb V 151,6-14] the verb and of
g3 'to be in need, wane derives frOM it. ne substantive g3w, g3yt is 'want or poverty' (in Pri

XIIIJ g3wt is contrasted with iht 'riches) and Vandicrarguedthat it could meanY=ine! [Famine V p.691. is Y.uh usedto showsomething disagreeable Licking : the sky 'Z ' flood comesthereis no impurity in it Zl,',, whenthe , flood waterscome n t3 ZS N= clouds 1573,18;,,

1471.4; when, and it is free from bitterness . 14

-s& z-- thereis no land free from its effusionsIV 24.10.

is lack : dryness removedfrom fields U Ur]O "want 1582,6. 0

and thereis no want in themIV 46,2; when

the table God comes waterdrivesawaywlA

thereis no lack on it VI 153,12-13; w3d. wr flood. the

In the formula di Ow r fnd n g3w.f : Horus gives air to the noseof one who lacks it (or 'is constricted)VIII 19.4[Otto, GuM p.51 Der die Luft gibt in die NascdesBccngtcn').

g3 (Yt)

chapel, shrine Wb V 150(1-4) NK DG 570,4 3 c f. KH 56 1Cw statue, naos

in At Edfu g3yt appears two placesin the templedescription: the CentralHall - in it it the godsIV 6,1. de Wit [CdE 36 Nr.71 p.681transliterates g3ywt (or dw) and translates as of In 'portable stones'. a text for the gods- astheyaredecorated silver,gold andprecious chapels of with


the festival of Belidet=, the wingeddisk is uponn3 If 111 VI 13,1. Two LandsVI 129,11; also CC4

1tI of all the godsand goddesses the of

Wb records the word from the Late period, but it is most likely to be the same word as the earlier g3wt 'casket, shrine' in which relics or incense are carried (q. v. Wb V 153,9-12 NK) , and it can be made of wood or precious metals. It is also used to refer to the coffins in which the Apis bulls were buried [Chassinat, Khoiak I, W. M4 buried in 1966 p. 188 n. 6 ; referring also to RT 22 p. 166 no. 89 - the Apis is

! 2; 3- Yr. 52 Ptolemy Euergetes H Year 52 Psammeticus I Zlt' 'MQ 19 and Miron p. 36 n. 3] suggests

There is also the word k3r 'chapel' (Wb V 107,12- 108,12). Kuhlmann 'chapel of gods! may derive from confusion with Uthat g3yt 1712 - which actually reads nst. However usually 2.

in Urk. IV 1285,6 ; 1681 ; are clearly defined by the

nst and g3yt

determinative. It is more likely to be the-same as g3wt 'casket, portable shrine' for sacred objects , which in turn may derived from k3wVto carryq. v.


vessel Wb V 160(1-4) Cr.802 6 6,1

Thereis a clearexampleof the word at Edfu : in the stairwayprocession the priestscarry ttl of Jims incense and a0--. into a pot incense vesselof gold 1558,17. The plate [38d] showsthe priest putting

implying that the derivesthe term from g3 'be narrow'perhaps du Buisson

hasa narrowneck[Vases 721. p. vessel

g3i- m33

styrax (10-11) Late, GR Wb 11-11 Charpentier p.312-3 487

The Edfu citedby Wb example is 11207,5 in arecipe Z1r

-'oh'called black wood' is said

to be sweet smelling and comes from the Eye of Re. Other Ptolemaic texts record the plant (g3i)m33, possibly all copied from Edfu: Philae <3045 Phot 72 MD IV 36 line 48 a list of plants includes U too MD IV 39 line 140, two kite of


q '2 -, " j %% I

I fromSakkara in a recipe However stela Nectanebo of a records, arerequired .

S, 4:-?. (with typesof resin or gum) (Quibcll.,,

amongsta list of offerings ,

Excavationsat Saqqara1907-8.Cairo, 1909p.89-93 line 8 of the stela] where it is used in the at mummificationof the Apis bull. IdentificationwiLh'styrax' is suggested Edfu : r AO n nnib , rRA ;i? br. twr. f 'to know the secret formula of nnib V (styrax) which is called


11207,2. Goyon suggests that the term is a compound with the prefix g31 used for

liturgical reasonsadded onto a word m 33 for 'styrax' 11-C.Goyon. A propos de dc Morgan Kom , Ombos 11no.633 in Mdlanges Adolphe Guthub p.77-861. Ilere is a plant m33 recorded earlier but g3-m33 may be unconnectedwith it [Charpcntier 489 and Gcrmer, Arznei p.203 P.Rarn V VIII no.56 t., possibly dom palm ; also Barns.'

P.Ramesseump.32 n.56 erroneous writing of m3m3l but which is still known at Dcndcra : 'may your heart be rejuvenated with Ilbstt Vare Intyw , inmt ItIr D 11190.5 -.substancesgiven to the snake goddess MD 172c.

bsbd and V.


gift , offering Wb V 153 (3-7) LiLMK oft GR

In gift giving g3wt ,

represents 'tax' along with b3kw and Inw (especially in the NK). lie

origin of the word may be gyt (Wb V 157.9) where, in the Coptos Decree of Ncfcrirkare among the

items listedhere are

every year.

114 '" (Urk.1 289.8)perhaps 'tW of nt lirt rnpt (Urk.1286.11)and a

In the Edfu texts g3wt is used very often in describing the produce of the qm3ty land - so that the hr rmn CX:S two words alliterate : qm3tyw $at

'6; tft: sn 147,17: 13j

1272.3: 1477.2 : 1132,5.,

A particulartypeof this gift is g3wt nfr broughtby the queenwhich is described Inw tribute of as every land 11190.7; the wonders everyland Vt* IV 21,8. or of 101
of marsh and field - presumably plants VI 56.13

t:S4 g3wt can refer to various commodities : in a list of plants Z tabl and

contain the strength of the king 1358,7 . This may be one plant

specifically or g3wt -plant gifts in general and as such the word occurs throughout the GR temples.



lotus petals plant leaves , Wb V 154(7) Med. Wb'Drog. 531 578,1 -DG gb3. t

Cr.804b; CED 325 ; KH 446 Gw 6C In the medicaltexts g3bt is the word usedfor 'plant leaves'which were usedin recipesand the The tree manufacture remedies. word is alsousedof the leaves the Usd uponwhich the nameof of of 78,1978 365 n.1]. the king waswritten [notEruif asBonh8me BEPAO p. in At Edfa g3bt appears textsof the lotus offeringswhereit refersto the leavesof the lotus : they are madeof real lapis lazuli jo m hsbd mY V 149,15-16 VII 78,8-9; Nlarn. E herethe 5 strokes

in 33,16. The word is written phonetically MD I 55b [ASAE 43, p.259] IZ11r. 11,

do not refer to the number of leavesof the plant but simply write gb (which is how 'five! is RdE 15,1963n.22 p.55-61. [Sauneron, pronounced)


to repel, drive back cf. gnf Wb V 174 (9-11) MK

The only reference cited in Wb is from Edfu :a geni with flame in his mouth and red eyes Y--repels the one who attacks the throne of the king' VI 75,8. This could be connected with a verb IAJ g3f 'to bake' (Wb V 155,4-5). The determinative here is however and an example in Sallier 1

7,7 may be read as 'knead, pummel'. The would suit the context of the sentencerather better, because the geni does not just drive away the foe but he eats their flesh and drinks their blood. Alternatively, g3f could be a mispelling of gnf which dates from the MK and in Dyn. 18 could be written Urk. IV 1139 The n could have been lost and the aleph written in the word instead to . 2

give Edfu g3f.


type of dry 'ntyw Wb V 182(2) GR

g3r-nw is the most frequentof termswith the prefix g3r- which is usedin the Laboratorytexts at. Edfu : the gods are welcomedand have 34-incense, togetherwith 9, Fer,, from the GoSs


ZS fla Land H 190.16; substances the laboratory listed . including-jac ... in are from the God'sLand 1119 1.11;in a similar list thereis

3wYand g3r-dbn

Outside 11194,6;11205,15.

from is incense put onto the fire -a list of substances Punt includesM7tC: IV thesetexts- where in 151,16 thereis a possible example and 0: VII 317,7

from theGod'slandandPuntit is alsofoundat Dcndcrain similar typesof lists MD As an incense ZY -et: 11121 CD V 72,4 <=P,... v, [seeGoyon,in MilangesAdolpheGuthubp.791.

g(3)r-t(3) = grt

type ofincense Lab. text rcL

Wb V 190 (13) Late and Wb V 182 (2) GR Charpcnder<1313> p.776-7 In the Embalming Ritual 7.11

n mns maybe the same substance from'a text', rn. f bdw pw H

it is a fourth type of dried myrrh IT v2h,-. 4 at Edfu in a recipe for kyphi . A7]hL4'T*--hO 11 q 205,16 which seemsto have been written

(530dcbcn used) inanearlier

version P.Harris I 33b,10 (incense). Goyon suggestedthe term was oned a group of tcrms with the prefix g3(r) used for liturgical reasons in temple texts [A propos de de Morgan, Kom Ombos II no.633 in Mdlanges Adolphe Gutbub p.79-80 also g3l. m33 and g3r. nw).

g3r. dbn

type of incense Coyon, MIlanges Adolphe Gutbub p.78-9.

Occurs in simitar texts to other words with the prefix g3r.


11190.16-17 %get-T.


:0 11205,14; T4 Eff, Ad

7161VtO IV 151.16and it is ' IV 94.8-9 ; El

probably somethingsimilar to g3r. nw, g3r-O and g3l-m33.


beamazed at Wb V 157(4-6) Dyn.18 verb. noun g3g3wi Wb V 157(7) D. 18, Late

In the phrase:M-ggwt 'in amaz=cnt. astounded' earliestin Urk.IV 19,4(Amosis which is attested Stela, Karnak)eyes 2-3 god at this king ; Goshen one seeks 4W [Naville


, -- C a. Goshen, temp. Nectanebo 11.At Edfu it is said of the king 'Your father z-(X "li at seeing you' 1 91,7. The speRingand use of the term remains consistent .


foes? Wb V 157(1) GR

IkF=, j,, Wb cites one reference: in an alliteriting text - Qebsenef g3 n grgr TaYr. ZY16. % for thebutcher's 186,17; but alsoNekhbetgivesthe king the court along with other foreignpeopleH 75,6.The term maybe no morethana writing of Kew 'peoplefrom Kush'.


pull tight , be choked (after FCD 288) Wb V 159 (11) to 160 (4) Pyr. cf. KH70,514 64(6)yON, 60OYt4C-slave, servant and also DELC p.349a.

be from the samestem as g3w be narrow. tight'. The determinative is a human head and gw3 may indicate some kind of constriction of the neck - hence 'choke'as a translation. At Edfu : the gw3 may 7%, 7fl M VX king as a lion ZX chokes the enemy for his mother (pacifying Sakhmet text) IV O-Ji 236,6 ; Horus IV

311,15; in a text for the subjugation of foes, the Inbtyw are = 1Z Ta', t7=hehas'strangled? . ' foes on theeastof Wenet V18,10.


to grasp,to hold your right

Only onereference crook and flail are-offered the king saysto Khons :a , handholdsit (flail) 1480,8.The verb derivesfrom the noung(3)bty 'arms'.



Wb V 165(3) Pyr, Dyn.18 GR Cr. 806a; CED 326; KH447 treadto pieces G96W6= cf. but a stem*gb with appropriate to be a reduplicated meaningis not attested. verb, gbgb seems , The verb is usedin alliterationto makethe overthrowof foesmoreeffective: Sopdugivesthe king


U LT strength (qn) to C, a

'k3wy. k VII 272,13; a poorly preserved line has


UZI, gmo//// VII 292,12. It is used in parallel with similar verbs such as bbbb : (slaying Apopis) C, (I then hbbb ..... IV 237,2-3 . In a protection text - Seth and his followers are J; t, 4 jir are fallen to for Tanen VI 146,7-8. When the harpoon is presentedenemies overthrown his harpoon shaft IV 230,9-10 ; where a pehu is brought ////Cdrtdr ". j produce IV 23,3. ILr f3w fallen down under, "


to illumine An.Lex. 79.3285

J ZY At Re Harakhty gives light and chasesaway darknesshr 13

the land of the Great Tbrone IV"

86,7 - where 'illumine' fits the context The presenceof nst-wr has suggested that the term may . read nbnb = bnbn [Zivie, Hom. Saun. 1490 n.21.7be parallel text has instead the verb 'b3 (VIII, RN J Zcrr is 101,2) which implies that U. a misunderstandingfrom the original VJ I r gbt celestial vault, heaven Wb V 162 (10-14) DG536,2 0)(3qp vault. roof ktirTe 'Y

Cr. 114a; CED61; KH510

gbt is possibly a later version of a word known from the MK Up (Wb V 104,4-5 and 6 NK) which was a roof made of wood or stone and at Beni Hasan [I pl. 34] it is the name of the 'hide' the bird catcher waits behind to net the birds. In SS 43-44 the sailor sleeps in a hut with f..C=)4tP wood. In the story of Sinhue C3 of

-. is a piece of cloth covering a jar [ Sin. B 186, Blackman

in JEA 22 p. 381, and it can also be a linen bandage [Ed. Smith 22,6]. The root k3p refers to a covering of some kind. At Edfu gbt has various orthographies which show that the g and k sound value was considered to be very close, if not interchangeable- at least in writing. In Coptic kH TrC- is a vaulted place, cellar that the sky was regarded as a canopy or vault of the earth. In the Coffin canopy - which suggests r 24 Ebl Texts the phrase "Z20 Cv34'43 'covering of the sky' CT 11207c refers to the vault of heaven


and from this came the shortenedform k3pt . gbt is simply a later writing of this term. The' word is often used in'alliteration in the phrase k3w gbt 'raise up the sky' and two offering e"' 1179,6 and k3w scenes have this as their title : k3w C23 111277,9 - in both casesthe

the of recipientof the offering is Onuriswho givesgifts in returnwhich emphasise strength theking is comparedto Shu. In tw3-pt scenes the phraseis usedas an alternative: k3w - who , for the gm4s falcon IV 376,17.In an extended line of alliteration the , PIDM JLr gbty and is q3-1 JLr 5,13r,111243,14. This latter spelling is king as Shu - k3w r-: VII 130,5-6;k3w A,. (sq3) `0 - the feminineendingshowingthat the found in anotherfrise text, whereHoruselevates 3, V-110 11121,8. sky is a femalegoddess In otherexamples --x :, is purified from all evil I 55laO; on the pylon, the basof Ddw fly in

'7% n Z7J7. 1110,3; Horus gives the king what the sky Zrn VIII 111,12;HB shinesin, -ZS Q tr ,a 'a
Z,. '2 3 voyages in heaven (hrt) and strides across surrounds 1474,10; 1113 1128,9.

Some of the more extreme orthographies include : the Sia falcon comes from p. 100 1.18] VIII 132,12 ; the falcon' is in D) making high VIII 152,13-14.

V- [BEFAO 43 .

as the winged disk V 6,9 ; Shu is a column , /////describing the sun god

11144,2 a damaged text has pp' n. s

The word'also occurs at Dendera, Karnak , Esna, Philae and is generally at this period a variant for for 'heaven, sky'. [Sauneron , BIFAO 60,1960, p.9-10 - who discussesa word gpA on other words the Djedhor the Saviour statue11,191-


, arms Wb V 163 (4-12) MK DG 577,3 Cr. 805a; CED325; KH446 9 01 6801'

The original form of g3b, as usedin the medicaltexts, indicatedthe humerus and with its muscles it had'a dual form g3bwy. From the 19th dynastya feminine form g3bt appeared in the late and dual [Lefebvre,Tableau50]. Period(Urk.II 13,8)this too became `4 At Edfu the word is alwaysdual and is usedin punswhereg/k alliterates: k3w gbt hr e--4 (read .


gbty) VII 130,5-6. gbt is most often found however in the epithet qn-gbty 'strong of arms' : in a raising up the sky Onuris is qn"J7%. --A 111277,15;in killing enemy texts it is an epithet of the king qnT-,, ft text -j Zar TaIV ' 307,4; qn V 42,2; C'qj-1'. V 143,5; Horus qn consecrating meat portions 11

6,1; HB is qn

holding the harpoon 202,2-,he is a bull qnV VU

U, m 4


lion gargoyles the roof are also : qn C7,,, on --4hV286,3;

the special nature of their 'arms' IV 287,8.

ZC; jQQj"! the qn F-9 r' claw sign indicatin

Strong Arms are also responsiblefor the defeat and slaughterof the foe

,a IH 283,1-2


to overflow. inundate Wb V 166(1-2) GR GOTH to hurry, go fastKH462 cf.

gp is the laterform of 3gb (Wb 122,10-14) nounmeaning'flooXwhich wasusedfrom PTs and -a also gaverise to a word Igp , meaning'rain faIr. In theGR periodtwo forms of the verb exisL 3gb, directly from the archaicword (Wb 122,15)meaning'toflood'and a form written as gb, which may,,, havebeenreadas3bg. Wb lists the two asseparate words. ZZ At Edfu, examples occurin theNile offeringtexts: theNorthernNile 13JtU- he floods your shedy j a fields 1581,14;the southern Nile El"W he floods P-LLncanal 1582,1. The proximity of the two examples may explainthe similarity in writing. At Dendera pehu :a 53b; the flood 59,60,2. '(3 Nile the two LandsMD I 66a;the southern land 11l6b and also at Kom Ombo ZY0 the m3wt landsMD I hapy floods KO I


indigestion(heartbum) Wb V 166(3) Med.

Wb Med.discusses underigp 'be flooded'whichwasa metaphorical for gp phrase a badconditionof the heart: Bl. 154"he tasteshis heartWR T like a man who ate food of the sycamore' Eb. and

885t his heartis'as2- like a man coveringhis heart- it is like a man C3 ....


^--A Z3El At Edfa the word occurs in relation to food :a presenting bread text - in offering this food, 0,11-sp-

11athor driving away a thereis no indigestion 111177,16; text describes a as VI 283,13.


The term originally derived from igp 'flood flooded hearf which was usedto express eatingtoo , of muchandmaybe the idiomaticEgyptianequivalent 'heartburif =heart flooX.


to find Wb V 166(6) to 169(8) OK DG 579,2



Cr.820a; CED 332 ; KH 458 GiWC At Edfa gm,is invariablywritten with the gm-bird-12? It canrefer to finding people: your father . 191,6 ; the temple- as a work of antiquity 14,10.A templeof Osiris is called IV 9,6; ]Vr. m33 complete to perfection IV -C L--3 1361,1.


, to see, perceive Wb V 170(8) to 171(11) MK Cr. 818bCED331; KH457 GWMI_ for. to look for, search I flsee As the divine

is usedas a variant word for 'to see'at Edfu :a m33-nir text, gm

his chicksbeforehis shrine' IV 54,16. In praiseof 1HB followersareexhorted rejoice at seeing which I have made(=the ternple)'VI 5,8 ; the oases 24,8.

thewonder jam, the son of Isis VI

It is also usedof seeingone! imagein a mirror : Nephthysreceivestwo mirrors and s 236 no.238). her own imagein them174,8 (the last sign WIP is b- seeASAE 43, P. sees A text describingthe sgmOspearusesgmb in a pun : on top of the spearis the beautifulfaceof the ITI " Sia falcon br ID looking out (rareuseof rwt. ) VI 15,5.


eye Wb V 171(12) GR


'eye' is derived from the verb gm 'to s& and the noun occurs at Edfu : ptr--: fx> gmbt in nfrw. k 'your eye seesby your beauty (giving honey text)' 1406.11 .


barb of harpoon

7le term occurs at twice at Edfu in harpoon presentation texts: where the value g/k alliterates gbgb ZI .gksmw. k nb 'his harpoon barbs cut up all your attackers! IV 230,9-10 ,a //////// VII 292,12. The word maybe

damaged text maybe restored in the same way gbgb JTJ

connected with the term p3-sgm4 used of the cult spear of Horus, but there is an earlier term qmb (Wb V 40,2)'branches! or leavee of a am dating from the NK [Lieb. Tur. 2,1-2 *,Bv Durch. 29 , Vatic. 128a,14 spelled A , 'tfill 3W C2:


lock of hair. braid

Wb V 171(15-17) CT
Faulkner suggestedthat gmDt derived from a word gmD.t (Wb V 171,14 MK) which means the wick of a lamp. The twisted flax of the wick resemblesthe small curls or locks of hair on a wig and so the word gm4t was applied to them [FECr 1182 n.251. At Edfu the meaning is clear md ointment is put on n inys the braids of her hair I &II,

(wig 7) H 190,2 ; in a text describing the preparationsfor a feast ibr n Wn oil for The term is also found at Dendera. tresses111298.11.


sacredfalcon image Wb V 172 (1-4) Pyr. oft. GR

The earliest reference to the gm. sw in the PT uses it as a name for the sun-god (P yr. 1048d)., The etymology of the word is unknown but it may be connected with gmh 'to see, pcrttive which , is one of the most noticeable attributes of a bird of prey - its ability to 'sceprcy from a great distance and swoop down on it so accurately. At Edfu the gmbs is a cult image of Iforus . depicted as a falcon its legs folded underneathit [Cauville, Essai pA5 n. I and Alliot Culte I p.314 and 324-5] : IIB' with is 1122 (19); wi th addi 6onal epi thc :11- rp s 19 6,18; Zds r


10I 110,17; TV-

'pr 1 381,9. $Cvz high of arm holding the MI IV

The Sia falcon (the living falcon at Edfu) is called 1-I 425. 5,2 ;S ia in his secret form is the %Upper Egypt, protects the gmhs : '27

before the gods IV 54,16. Nekhbet, as tutelary deity of 1147,4; -V- C--with her wings 1297,5.

IV The falcon image in the 20th LE nome is also called gms : the temple of Pr-spdt c7ontains Tr 1335.9 and Sopdet in his nome is A writing %T wr IV 38.4. is Pyr 10-48d most likely not to be read gms.

1 VI 187,5-6 c.f5jkin

gmbs is also used at Dendera, Philae, Karnak.

om-gm4s title of a priest at Edfu Wb V 172 (5-6) GR

in 'the servantof the falcon' is the title of the priest of the live hawk venerated Edfu Om -gm4sw temple [JEA 29, p.17 n.e]. An annualfestival was held in its honour.The priest in questioncould
impersonate Shu :

QIT 0-



103,1. Ibrahim 6oncluded that it was a priestly tide for the king

from GR times- it doesnot appear earlier; the Om-gmts hasthe samefunctionsas the bm-Ur and of the king hasthe title in the early satges the daily ritual (for examplem33-nir dw3-n1r) ; it may alsobe a Lower Egyptiantitle in origin [Kingshipp.182-3]. King as Om-gmbs: BehdetU 285,10; IV 77,5; IV 208,3(seeinggod) VII of s3b-*gwt 87,14. of BB VI 76,6 of

King as Om-gmbs who bendsthe-am (q'4. drt/') 2;S:!, IV 15,2; 2 ; Sh-11160,3. 111364,11; ir-ibt performingthe rite: bm-gmVs-n-1Vr-nbw : VII 193,3;2;: J; = 21: j:: 'VI153,2;

21 T, :

%. "Zwho beends -' the arm VI 103,3

VI 262,14. 1571,9; IV 53,8

II 34,15-16 5-"- IV 376,2. .

IV 388,4;2 ITI\k\

(bendingthe arm ) VII 271,15-16 King as Shu and m-gmts :9 Q;S! 25,14 (provisioningtext) VI 155,7;Shuin his forms 152,1-2; . This priest suppliesaltars for his father : 2,S01-


VII 208,13-14.In the procession throughthe ' VI 102,6.

to temple the priest proceeds the hall of the Pr-drty (Houseof the Falcon)


The procession priestson the stairways includes who is designated as one of carriesthis ensign


The priestis responsible supplying for and provisions food , thushe is identifiedwith Shu.The role to of the m-gmbsw belongsto theking in theearly part of the templeritual and he appears be the priest responsible with the preliminary worship (seefor examplethe ritual gestureof qlb-1) and but tendingof the cult image. In this casegmsw refersnot only be the cult imagein the sanctuary living falconkeptat thetemple. alsothesacred


bird - Golden Oriel (Oriblus galbula L. ) Wb V 174 (2-4) OK

In Egyptian texts the gnw is first mentionedin the tomb of Ti [see Montet, Scnesdo la vie p.262-31. The bird is illustratedat Beni Hasan[Newberry,Beni Hasantomb XV pl.IV and PLVI ; Tomb XVII - pI.XVI ; Gaillard, Mmi 2,1929 p.19-40].The colouring of the birds varies from brownish/yellowto greenandred whereas reality the Oriel is goldenand black in colour and is a in winter visitor to Egypt, which nestsin trees.

At Edfuthefield goddess is associated different Sbt types birdsandsheis called'Mother of with of 1 163,12. a Nile text theking brings floodsnhp n.k In a ' R\Wto raiseup '=' n.,

for you the oriels of the Light god - the golden colour of the birds invites association with the sun II Zsue-73-'iL' 251,5. A scene at Kom Ombo [Ombos 150,52] has . rising out of the southern marsh and the sceneshows the king in a boat in the marshesout of which rises a flock of different (unidentified)



weak one Wb V 175 (18) GR

From the OK verb gnn 'to be weale at Edfu the ancestor spirits sw3jj , the weak one 111158,6.

make well


weakof arm


Wb V 175(12) OR
-.0- zru ILIIn a text giving the king might over his enemies they become man , weak of arm I -a Zl*jh7-, -'tMam. 123,16 ; also at Kom Ombo* -h I- zurzP 17 82,13; the foes of the king are as -: ,

KO 196,119


annals Wb V 173 (6-15) D. 18

gnwty is connected with gnw "branches'[Admon. 4,141 which suggests that originally a piece of notched wood was used as a reckoning staff, to record the years of a king's reign. The word gnwt first appearsfrom the 18th dynasty when the kings were anxious to show that their deedswere original and had not happened in the annals of the ancestors (Urk IV 86,4). Annals can be lists of royal names (Abydos list), lists of religious or notable events (Palermo Stone) or even events of a military campaign (Tuthmosis III annalsatKarnak) [LA 1278-280 ]. ' ' with his own fingers VI IV 10,4 VI 295,12-13; 83,1-2 Thoth . -,'-jVIII 120,12-13

At Edfu the annals of the king are inscribed (splir) by Thoth 335,4-5. The annals may include millions of Sed festivals for the king IV 16,5; (by Seshat)1291,8 or millions of years ,

% VVIII 123,12 ',-, or millions of eternities upon the throne of Re establishes (sm n) annals and Seshat VI 180,7-8 . VI 94,1 as do the four sons of Horus

The annals record the past events of the king's reign , which are also for 'future' events such as sed festivals In effect both are the same because- the events have been predestined so when they are . written down it is as if they have occurred already. In certain texts gnwt is almost parallel with rnpwt : Thoth seizes ZI -Ir the earth Z. eII and grabs years VI 277,10-11. The annals are written before those upon

J'.,NVI 295,8 The fact that gnwt are for kings and are a symbol of kingship is . It 'j'j'N VIII 123,13. The king shown where SeshatNnor inscribes the annals for the son of Isis JA %'j, is lord of the Two halves who inscribes -tVIII 124,8 The annals of the king - his festivals . 14 by Re, from his mouth and by his Ennead - so it implies the and years are written down kings years were predestinedby Re himself VIII 148,4-5.This element of predestination has led some


scholars to translate gnwt as 'destiny' [r,.f. Cauville, Osiris p. 164 destins], though the extent to which this is the Egyptian idea is unclear. The gods of the first Ennead are the ones who first inscribed (sphr) from the cosmogonical texts VI 174,13-14.

Special annals are also mentioned : Thoth says he has written the years of kingship of Re, and inscribed The sign the annals of Aturn 126,17-18. is a plant or branch and when it is written upon --q may indicate a ground level,,,, -

field (or even a tree trunk). The determinatives"',. papyrusroll and were under the care of Thoth.

'1% indicate that the annals were written on a


craftsmen , sculptors FCD 290 in Wb 11145

The sign i3wty

can read qs 'bone' and harpoon bone blade ; it appears in msnty 'harpoonee and

In Gardinees list it is a harpoon head of bone (T 19). It is primarily qs but 'for reason . T, _j gnwty 'sculptor' 155 and

unknown phon. or phon. det. gn in gnwt 'annals' and possibly

reading not fully established' [GG p.514] . In the onomasticon of Amenemopc (AEO IA

p.661 the word gnwty is between the words for 'carpenteeand'shipbuildce -so it would seem to be some kind of wood worker [LA I coL804] - perhapsthey were originally bone workers and as annal , inscriptions were done on ivory labels or perhaps wood branches this would explain how the sign came to representthe annals themselvesand how the word could be associatedwith carpentersor the like. At Edfu the word appearsin contexts which make it clear that here gnwty applies to stone sculptors,, the pylon is inscribed to perfection with the work of VIII 112.3 ; in the temple, 44"r-j 'I "I IV 13,6.,

description the choicest utterancesare inscribed excellently as the work of ,


fat Wb V 176(8) NK, GR

the of and gnn occursat Edfu in the text describing dismembennent Seth- his bones fat aredisposed ofandhisU'A'q. 'that they may know the tasteof his flesh', is given to the Young harpooners j',j


VI 85,9.Fairmanand Blackmantranslate term as 'sueeand note that the fat aroundthe kidneys the [JEA 30 p.12n.f] suggesting that sheep raw waseaten by the fellahinwhile cuttingup a slaughtered , to this wasanalogous the useof gnn here.Wb notesonly that it is part of a slaughtered animal- fat between intestines. the IT -tr Iq from Amarna:.Z, e. A similar word occurson threeostraca, IQ"' COA Ul pl.93 nos.234,235 hereas'suef alsoby Fairman[COA H1Text p.174andalsoFCD 290]. Wb cites and236, translated PetrieNrA3 (pl.13) unpub. otherNew Kingdom texts : Ostr. BeattyI Love Poem- 17,10 NK ISTO"m', Chester to, the The word probablyderivesfrom theverb gnn I)e sofe, which describes conditionof the fat. 200d Nile Stela- LD 111


to plate , weld , solder ' Wb V 176(10) GR


ZY 0A technicalword in P.Westcar7,13 refersto woodencarryingpolesbeing'plated m.. 17


beenborrowedfor a particularmetaphorical in GR texts. It is often this may 6Qve use gold! - and found in the phrasegnJ1 ibw, literally , 'weld , plate on hearts'- wherelove or praisesareput into m hearts:your songs/praises people's onto'theheartsof gods1448,1-2;love of him (king)

in their heartsand fearof him implantedin their heartsIV 78,9 ; the hernsut called welded U,.6 in hearts 11199,9 Vernusin Hom.Saun.1467 n.2 'to plate of the king -A-J givespraises A]. de An.Lex.-79.3293 recouvrier , attacher with gold; U976d This useis also found at Dendera:love of youU*'= in heartsMD III 72c and her praises W in the heartsof godsCD 11200,13.Also at Karnak : majestyin the heartsof rbyt nmm.f in their bodiesUrk VIII <81h>.

wing(s) Wb V 176(12) GR
is used at Edfu usually either with dual determinatives or plural indicators : the great winged gnjj disk protects the gods with c= his wings VII 214,16 - 215,1; the great of magic goddessesare q3W

Zj c3sa the sungod and protecthim 0, qEa with their wings IV 319,4-5; Horus is askedto stretch with


Urr GP out his wings *.. ,, % to cover the shrinesof the kas in the temple H 12,1-2.,

The origin is unknown- but it could be connected with gnILoverlay(in gold) wherethe ideaof 'to overlay'was seenas a protectivemeasure which could alsobe doneby wings -hence gnjj 'wing' is thatwhich overlays protects. and


star Wb V 177 (1-3) MK

The earliest occurrenceof this variant of sb3 'star' is on a sarcophagusfrom Assiut [CGC 28118 , RT 27 p.225] Here the term is found twice . is clear. Also in a text of Sirenput from Assuan . tk3 7 it is feminine and its meaning



Urk.VII 3,16 and 15 of heaven

At Kom Ombo 1 13 in a text where flowers are presentedto Geb and Nut the king gives . , -likeRe the renewallike the moonand life like rejuvenation the stars.This text is also found at Edfu di. i n.k rnpi mi R' m3w mi 1'0 'nh Mi rnpwt -plantsto HorusVII 83,9.
Lyltr= A further text describesthe temple heaven is upon her 4 supports :, . 4,4 stars of the sky 7 IV,,

a presentation of

14,9 De Wit [CdE 36 no.71,1961 p.931 implies (n.2) that gnh means 'that one who flies' similar . Wb V 176 (11) where a hymn to Amun (Kairo, 6,5) has 3pdw U. *1 to birds who fly (in)

heaven.This suggeststhat the word gnh for 'stae derives from this term There is a later reference at . -72; &'q4: 1 Esna IV Nr. 450,3 wnn Nb-Ilyt.


vessel Wb V 177 (11) NK

In the temples of Karnak and Luxor this vessel is used above all for offerings of milk. The form is the vessel which determines irtt 'milk'and this could be the gngnt or mr vessel [Lacau-Chevrier,, q c:,, ZS 7r Chap.Hat. 354 case 181.At Edfu the name of the vessel occurs in an offering list : &, *U W, %

is in the breasts your mother, Nut 1493 (20'). The phraseis paralleledoften in earlier in of which ritual offering texts,for exampleat Luxor - <327> D. 184 Karnak- Templeof Khons

zr 115,6 21 q<zt>-a"" and the Turin Ritual of Amenhotep <1001>D.



to choose, distinguish to EsnaV p. 116n.hh

ZyU it-f m p rd IV 267,1 Compare gng is a verb of force :a geni, strongof arm c= 3, -J U CM Tn r nb nb Esna no. 330,4 and "-j n R' r-mn wl nir with this: . j gng n --: ,,
Esnano. 604,9 which can be translated'to distinguish, to choose, to designate' [EsnaVp. 116n. hh].


possessionsestate , Wb V 181(9) GR

Qi7t The Wb gives examples grb from Karnak: 2nd pylon Armin givesthe king of of the earth , U Urk VIR <141f>andin a field presentation says 'Your fields to the G. he to the width of heaven , c>r of the earth'<8c>. The word occursfrequentlyat Edfu and in similar contextsto the Tliebes 'I 10=to Onk-sht text, the king reckonsup the Onbw fields for you W4,45a%' of the examples: also a ZT earth , for the divine offeringsof the lords of the godsV 145,13;a geni bringsto the king c=,. WX VI 179,1-2. The grb of the earth can be contrastedwith Xn-n-pt 'circumferenceof the sky (onk-sbt) Horus gives heaven supports on and ZY 115.3 of earthupon its foundations

grb is'also paralleledwithm'ks : god makesthe mks with the circumference the sky and'6e ZY of
of earth upon its foundations 11'121.6; in the Pr-Ur-13btt nome Amun Re is Lord of-

and lord of the mks and imyt-pr VI 43,3. There are further connections with the imyt-pr Horus gives the king of this land and the imyt-pr of the land on its foundations VII

327,8-9; where the imyt-pr is among the offerings made by'the king - in return the gods give ,j of the earth on its foundations VIII 124,17. This close connection with legal documents such as il the imyt-pr and with the mks, the determinative of a book roll or book roll string, the association with nbw fields suggest that the grb might, at least inorigin, register. Kurth by translating I give to you <U be some kind of official land

r-3w. f 'Herrschaff of all the land 111196,9, i"I-A

is not quite correct - while possessionof a grb register may imply that the king owns and rules the

land in it, strictly speakingthe translationshould be 'land lise or the like [Himmel StUtzen 44 p. n.1



night Wb V 183 (13) to 185 (9) Pyr. DG 585,6

Cr.829b; CED336: KH466 CwpZ

grb is the oldest word fornighe andalso used to refer to the darknessof the underworld [Hornung, ZAS 87 1962 p. 116-1171 and it is in use at Edfu - though with some diffuse orthographies , ,


enemies driven away in are 480,12(the sign

1167,2; when the moonrises w-4 "

night is like day.Il,.

is grb, MontpellierH 129,seeVI 122,14); protectionis given for I. " ' night in its hours V,

the night , for ever VI 145,10-11; nomeof WetjesetHor hasno 120,8.


comseeds Cr. 831b; CED337; KH433 Gpqo)C-', ZpOY


Sauneron showed that from the Egyptian verb grg 'to prepare a field by sowing' had come a substantive meaning 'something prepared' and in particularensemencer la terre! [Mdlanges Mariettes, Paris, 1962 p.244-5 15 ; also Esna V p. 179 n.o]. In die Hymn to Khnum, Esna III no.367,19 iw p3 3Dt 4' <L5 k3wt. f the field is covered with plants by his Zrm work - where plants',

There may be an earlier example at Edfu in a text for the Theban nome, the land is ploughed with,,.,,. grain of the field V 109,9. Osing suggestsgrg is the ancestor of the Coptic word [Nom. II

p.656 n.6881.


transitive- to establish found , equip , Wb V 186 (4) to 187(23) Pyr. DG 586A 1., 13"--3., --

CED 336; KH 467 XuJPX Cr.831 a; With direct object 'to found' : cities, HB nomesVI 161,13;the Tyo and establishes cities



for theka of HB V"157,12-13; the construction the temple, thebuilder in of

its godssetout its comersand =<a - founded roof IV 14,6. With m 'to equip, provide(with)': earthwith seedMtM VIII89,9; 2, VIII 137,15-16 granary

1492,13: earthwith children 'a*1110,2: equipwith servants workers -'L or with Omw IV 15,5; earth isprovidedwith its inhabitants

with peopleto be servantsof your palace1161.7.A city is VIII 111,15;the templeis providedwith a divine image V 1376,12.

8,6 ; earthis providedwith the image"' -Equip with weapons:HB -. 1

in 4th LE norneIV 24,14.


intransitive - be furnished be ready prepared . , Wb V 188 (1-8)

grg 'be ready' is a secondary meaning of grg (above). It is used imaginatively in the temple description : the bolts of the shrine 13,3 ; also the butchers cLr are prepared for its time like a lion twitching its tail IV wnwt. sn are prepared at their posts VI 14,9. ,

(,Ij. In In the phrase grg-br 'ready of face! (Wb 7) or 'ready to fight '? (31', the Myth at the battle , the harpoonersare ready against them and after Horus spent one day prepared against the

zS L against them - then he makes a move VI 115,5 ; similarly , the harpooners Zm.

foe VI 116,3. Alliot suggestedthat grg-Dr was two verbs with the similar meaning 'ready' (prdpar6 bt eux. , prat A leur faire face - or = Wb V- 147.2-3 , Alliot Culte H 714 nA ,cE Admon. 2,2-3 and Medinet Habu 46,21). grg-r 'preparedof face' compareswith similar expressionssuch as spd-br of is from Deir Rifeh pl. 19 line 50JE. -L '2' which the oldest example is an epithet parallel with

w3d-tbt 'firm footed', Lord of weapons - so that it has martial connotations even in this early use.


to hunt , to trap Wb V 185(13) to 186(1) OK DG 586,2 ?= 2" --a,

Cr.830 a; CED 336 ; KH 467 6 WF6


'to Literally grg means seta net or trap' or 'to catchwith a net' and it is found in the OK describing


this activity [Ti taf. II I].


At Edfu grg is used in the Rite of Hunting with net' text on the inside of the enclosure wall where it occurs in phrases such as st-grg place of netting : the king as the fisherman brings birds A : "S' from -iC=2., the places of netting VI 56,12-13. Opposite this text on the eastern wall (Ist

register)is anothernet text which ends: to know-A, %=-, &deveryplaceof huntingVI 237,5.Also _L (R). ZY /// his city of hunting VI 56,11-12 ? This western text : the king brings many birds to ==.
ends IVI c, 57,5 which Alliot took to be spt-grg. His note [RdE 5 '82 n.3] deals with

" in VI 237,5 and he compares the phrase here with do 1 * W S. from Esna.[see p.79 11 the text also aa a (rite of) putting (the net)] In fact they are different. The Esna examples are from the . -""- ZYZI SeptimiusSeverus

time of ZXC= ItI. .C=N.

EsnaVI no.531,1ci 0 -

andpossiblyalso no.531 line 2aQ

The type of net shown at Edfu and Esna is the clap net which is pulled together by strong ropes. The I '0q_; P VI 56,7. When the net is edges of this kind of net need to be staked out, as in the sign 5) Thxed'the word grg is used - which from the sign GG U 17 pick excavating a pool C: - implies -a that perhapsa stake had to be literally, dug in. In the protection ritual the rite is alluded to again : at the netting of foes .k. - --- S, he has captured them in their (own) traps VI 146,5 [after JankuM, Schutz p.301.


lie falsehood , Wb V 189 (2) to 190 (4) OK demotic cited by CED Cr. 806b; CED326; r6 V, > KH449 GGX$, G14A

with the lossof the final g.

4 ..

is is the antithesisof Nbat but is uncommon Edfu wherethe emphasis on the hatredof the at grg gods and king for lies and falsehood: wnp. nhs text : the king sayshe destroys 77,15-16; putting meat on a fire - the king ragesagainstbdnw and2 text - the godsabominate king (Maat text) 1252,14. < -5e- : . e. 1508,3 ; Mehit removes V 146,8; in a Maat from the path of the



Seth- theLiar cL Wb V 190(5) MK, NK liar

The nounliar' occursfrom the MK andthe liar par excellence shouldbe Seth. At Edfu he is given this namein a sm3-Stb text wherethe king destroys(mds) 9 f- ZS -Y 1252,14.


gazelle Wb V 191(1-8) OK DG 591,8 gbs.t 4P411 Cr.839b; CED 340; KH 472 QOc-, 64ZC-6

is At Edfu thegazelle a Sethian to and slaughtered dismembered be offered creature whichis captured, burnt offering, symbolising destruction the foesof the king, HorusandEgypt. the of on an altar asa Five species gazelleareknownfrom Egypt the mostimportantbeing the Dorcasgazelleand it is of in reliefs from the OK onward,as ananimalof the desert.It wasalsoassociated Anulds with shown in the 3rd UE nomeandIsis at Koptosandas a desertanimalit wasidentifiedasa follower of Seth disruptiveforces[RARG p.201 -,Kees,Tieropferp.78,83-51.At Edfu gbs is usually and symbolof in list of similar animalswhosemeatportionsare consecrated the ow-'-r-stpw offering: one of a IV 351,1; I 113,5;-a*"7 4 1452,4; -b t --&Y 4? - VII 142,8, brp-'wt n b3st is I

VII 319,9or similar texts nk-3k'rw VII 164,4, w3h-'h VIII


169,6 putting meaton the fire ,

... VII 61,14.In a hymn of praisefor Re m3. hd and -G1

the altars111298,7 thereis the hopefor no end to 01ULIP 1537,11;a list of ; AL are upon 41'1 1496,6. for the altar includes Z& -0' portionsof meat in Generally the gazelleappears a Sethianguise,but in the geographical text for the Ist Upper P ED 1337,7. This is Egyptiannome(Elephantine) forbiddenfruit are cranesand ZY] the gazelles Anukis with gazelles[Montet Kami 11 1950p.94 , L. A. of probablyon accountof the association , 11426-7(n.10for Anukis)] .

half Wb V 196(1-7) OK


DG592,1 'Ct ', Cr.832 a; CED 337 ; KH 468 6 OC. YOC Writtenas r--- I atEdfu [do Wit, CdE 37 Nr.73.1962 p.2851. It canapply to numbers:in dates

Shemu, olk gs plus 10 of the month= 15 + 10 = 25 th day of the monthIV 18,14;foundingof, = the templein Yr.28 of PtolemyVIII ShemuVII 7,6. In measurements staircase 10 cubitsby :a of hall 37 7+I= 1/2 =8 1/2 cubits IV 6,4; hypostyle 15 half + 1/10of the month= 15 +3= 18th day of

Q f= by 25 5/6 = 37 + 1/2 + 1/3 = 37 5/6 by 25 5/6 IV 6,5; an annexeis

n 1/2 cubits an antechamber the lab. is its =-, 13 1/2by 4 cubitsIV 6,6. of 1 , f n 31 deben In weights: in the laboratory, --,,; cFand 10 1/2oipe 11212,6. r7,, rz Substances be physicallyhalved: can H potioncanbe treated separately 192,3. Half of other things :a text for the settingof the sun Horus is one who opensthe ball of dung in . his body m 'q m pr half going in , half going out VIII 92,6. literally 'comein half so that eachhalf of a


to anoint Wb V 201 (12) to 202(13) MK DG 592,5 0Med. Wb 923 ff.

gs was used to denote the anointing of anything with oil , unguent or water. It was even a term used ", in tanning [Caminos, Tale of Woe p.57 n.2]. It is used at Edfu with protective implications: amonga series of anointings, the king says to the god I anoint your limbs with water of your,., A~ I anoint your head

mouth - he then goes on to perform the rest of the god's toilet VI 145,9 (king to Isis and Nephthys ) where both are statues1383,6.

ointment, unguent c f. Wb V 202 (14-16)Med, Late Wb Med. 925

In medicaltextsgs is a generalterm for ointment Ile word is found at Edfu in a protectiveritual . ointmentof the Houseof Life protectsthe body VI 143,15.A parallel to this occursin


P.Cairo 58027,4,1 [JEA 24,1938 special type of ointment. A

p. 178] p3-'-P-'u '3 M3 m Pr-'nb where gs seems to be a

Semitic word, meaning 'touch, stroke, feel'

may-derive from the same root ultimately

[seeAlbright, AJSL 34 1918 p.251 Q. ,


side Wb V 191(11) to 194(10) Pyr. DG591,9 Cr. 329a; CED 150; KH 182in compound prepositions (rz)cX04

is the gs 'side!is the sameword asgs half - because sideof something half of it. At Edfa gs is usedin phrases specifya location(eithereastor west not usuallynorth or south to because theseare the two sidesof theNile Valley - thereis no north or southside) : the disk risesin the =I the sky 1573,18;the 4 shrines the templeare on -=" the eastsideof St eastsideof of I the eastside IV 52,3. its

1138,10;waterfor purificationcomesfrom Heliopolison ci-nbwy

It canrefer to the sideof something in the building of the temple- its 4 comersare on 4, "t: -te four sidesIV " 143. a n-gs at the sideof - perhaps mistakefor r-gs : the Agathodemon goodRenenet and are at his side(HB) VII 30,3.


beside compound preposition Wb V 194(11) to 195(24) Pyr. Cr.329a; CED 150; c f. KH 392 and 192 ecketj

GG p.134


falcon in his shrine'=, =beside the two lights IV 13,19;room in the temple nst-Tvwith suffix : -, f '0 lf' 2a I(- besideit on its southwest IV 5,89HB the Ennead 0-1441,10;HB Hathorrests =a 415,6 ; HB,-!the placesof the uraeiare 1358,2 . 1

The r canbe el ided : Re calls to his crew'settlez-7 besideme I' VI 181,1. In a construction with wn : courtiersof Osiris-&2&ho arebesidehim 1191,6.

1948 ,

place with noun: sacred

besidethe wingeddisk of gold Il 9,5; provisions-, = the sacred besideHorus1306,9..

'42" V 344,9; theking as sonof Hathorgoesfrom the horizonZ_-i place

" deadPtolemyV Epiphanes wsh-nmt 4--: Wnn. nfr IV 123,2; IV 279,7. An epithetof the : Z__ the after verbs: snsn to form the uraeus king unitesthe vulture 'before': Horusreckonsup the crimesof the foe beforethe council1275,17;the Ennead 1263,11. besidethecobra111172,18.

beforehim IV 30,9; the king is justified


Wb V 193(6-7) Pyr. Cr.329a; CED150 ZIC-x6t4 GG p.135'beside' rarerthanr-gs

At Edfu Or-gs occursless than r-gs : HB - the uraeus is genii


besidehim 1491,2; the wddyw,,

besidethe beams the sun112,17. of

gs. w'rt

'Side of Waree Gauthier, DG 1187

Wrt is a place in the 13th nome of LE (Heliopolitan) - probably near the apex of the Delta where the Canopic and Pelusiac: branches of the Nile separate. At Edfu gs-w'rt is found in a libation and incense offering made for Atum - Lord of Heliopolis. He is called mnbh

m hwnw VII 282,14. Mysliewiec [Atum II p. 120] reads this as Lord in (m) Waret. - but it is more certain that it is gs-w'rt a place near Waret, with gs referring to an area or district, and the phrase means'areaof Waret'.


temple Wb V 199(1-18) Late, GR

in At Edfu the term appears two distinct writings - in a plural form found in Wb which appears form gsp throughout templeandalsoin someplacesin a moreabbreviated the . Originally the terapas a singularform gs-pr, which is found in OK titles and it seemsto have,, referredto an administrative of somekind. pr may havereferredto a domainof a cult shrineand unit beenvariously with that domain.It has, gs perhapsto the side or boundaryof the land associated


translatedas 'Wirtschaftsanlagen'[Helck, Merikare 50 , (pl. )] ; administration [Arch. Abousir 11426 frag.73b] ; work centre [Fischer, JEA 65,1979 p.42 also ZAS 93,1966 p. 66-8 after Gardiner in

Davies, Rekhmire p.93 places of industry) and the title imy-r gs-pr was usually held by someone the title imy-r k3t (nbt) or with nbt nt'nZwt) [Strudwick, Administration OK p.223,233,2341.

In MK literary contexts gs-prw means temple [c f. SS 141 snir n gs-prw] and from the Late Period it refers to temples consistently. Perhapsoriginally i gs-pr was a temple property and in'the plural it was used of the temple as a whole - incorporating all its property . In decrees from the Ptolemaic period gs-prw is translated into Greek asttpa [Kanopus 17 27] and the imy-r gs-prW

&pXtepel); [Canopus 2,36 Ra is called ; setta'N. 6]. It may not be connected to the term gs.wy pr, which referred specifically to the two sides (east and west) of the Delta [Gauthier, DG V p.221 gs-wy [Weni 1.151the two sides c,31 p.21 =2 sides of the Delt]. BAR I 311 - unclear meaning *,Griffith P.Kahun I ,

A" At Edfu gs-prw refersin a general of way to temples cult centres Egypt: CID and


is lord is in'it V 8,6; when the hippopotamus dismembered portions of it are given to the their , different IIT in Egypt IV 214,5.Thetemplesare inscribedwith the namesof Horus
IV 44, i 1: 1121,9 and he lights them with his beams : C3 C EA EM 119,9; - C' '" %1 930

C 125,8 images


in the form of a falcon of gold I 578.7.'The temples are filled with divine 1329,5; 1'144,15 qD129,3 -1552,15. The falcon settles in IV 67.10 1475,16 and

the winged beetle is in ri

the god floods the temples with offerings ". -J

'makes well the idbwy he makes them festive with his beauty -1*353,4. ; sim. and -Horus

C C ennobles

with his beautyXV 14,7.Also Horus is in the temples: L



F? I 158a.
These temples can be specified as temples of gods : falcon image VIII MLT13 '. of Egypt are established with the TIVIII147,11-12 ; 4: it

145,6-7; the gods at Edfu are exhorted to fight for

f n hmn r spt. f 11s. IV 325,9. nirw is a singular example too : Horus gives = C3 There the Two Lands 1146,3. of 43 The writing with to ihe limit containing what you command

occurs only from the GR period , the feather having come to' read gs


[BIFAO 43 p. 101 line 16] where a feather =a wing phonetic value gs. The writing of the word with towns. The B3w R' n LU IIJ

the side of a bird, hence = gs , thus it has the the town sign perhaps implies true temple

the Book of the temples [cf. Urk. II 14,10 where these books are, -

with other temple equipment] VII 22,6 seems to have been a list of the names of the mentioned mythical shrines and sacredplaces in Egypt. Each name then has an explanation of its mythological significance . In this casethe gs-prw are the shrinesand sanctuariesof Edfu [MOET p.61 The abbreviatedform gsp appearsin three particular inscriptions at Edfu (a) West and east corniche text of the First Hypostyle Hall (2) : 111198-206.The texts declare there was not the like of the temple in the nomes or Mesen 202,14-15; 204,6-7; 5 fps n wn mit. f in the nomes III_ ., 4 P 13 CC373 n wn twt. f in Mesen 111203,6-7; wr L17: n BOdt n wni mitt. f In, -? n Msn n snn. f 111205,14-1. There is no end to the provisioning of the
The temple of Edfu is called . C'3 wr great temple of the Lord of the_., P10

C3 C-3


P 13 temple C73111201,6-7

Two Shrine Rows 111206,15-16;

this great sacred temple in the land , the Lord of ", -4 %,N(3-3 is called its lord 111204,15-16 and temples 111200.3 . This, great temple of the Lord of

Je latter spellingis the only variantin the wholesek xts. The textsdateto PtolemyVII/Cleopa H or tra
HI and are in speeches uttered by Nekhbet and Wadjet. (b) north corniche text, west section on the outside of the naos - similar in content to the First 4"8,'r=3 Hypostyle Hall texts c--3 wr without its like IV 167.2; Great of the Lord of IV 167,10; cc3='a IV 170,6; P a c= of the lord of gods IV 168,16; c--: great temple,,., _,

The scribeor sculptorhereis not certainof theword so alwayswrites IV Re Lord of heaven 168,9. of
0 for C73 and occasionally has cb for 0 The cartouches are again Ptolemy VII and, ',,

Cleopatra, and these are spcechcs of Nekhbet and Wadjet.

The east section of this comiche text has one exarnple


rps without its like in the nornes

( -',

of the godsIV 325,16.

(c) westandeastcornichein the court I (no cartouches)speeches NekhbetandWadjet. Thereis a of , Pc-3-see 13 different emphasis the templegod makeswhole the images of the GreatPlace of : =. slightly
Iff, ,

V 325,13;the templeis called an

the Lord of the Two ShrineRows , the a con is,,-. this templeof "i


Pcr=])'of the Lord of the Two cavemsV 324,12-13;the Houseof ////is called'-11-1 V 318,16-17; D C-3 Lord of L= I, am caRed
Other examples
--. *-it-

V 324,9
I -U-

C3 I c--_-] ,I




d C3 trill

. the 'shrines' ? of their outer doors/sanctuaries

preservingtheir templesfrom harm?V 10,13-14 f. c. of nameVII 22,5 ; the Houses the godsr= an VI 137,11-12.

m3ht. sn inscribed with his

and temples, set out like the shrineof Khemmis


' rypeofbread Wb V 199(19) GR

from GR temples It occursat Edfu in the list of produceto appear the festival at gs-pb3 is attested . the of Behdet: amongst breadis -- ,,,
=I (M

followed by beerwine androastmeatsIV 18,15.A food

(sim. D 11112Ij 1 IV 76,16. Other

including fj' CM offering text has a list of bread

temple texts give more information : 2nd Pylon - expressesthe wish fbr'-- 0 C:) 'without limit Urk VIII <139d> and at Philae'ccil r'-A7i, ti m Xn-itn <3308> Phot.301. At Kom Ombo the goddess p1jr.

Unmty brings= IC=) . andeverythingwhich comesfrom her storehouseKO 161,64.

00 "


upper part WbV200(1-11) Med.

As a noun gs-bri refers to the upper part of a body, a building or even, as in Wb wound, obelisk ,a or mountain. However at Edfu it Occursin the phrase m-gs-ri as part of a compound preposition 'above' 'ovee. It can be followed by the direct or indirect genitive, marking the thing or meaning personaffected. With direct genitive - noun : the good image appearsin the sky 'the whole earth VI 348,9. In

the struggle between the sbty serpent and HB to gain mastery over one another, they try to get into best position to attack, that is, above the other : the sbty comes RL the above VI 18,3,

Z: I but HD flies = p-v above the enemy to win the conflict V! 18,4 . This repeated where the falcon flies in heaven= over the enemy VII 121,13.Also Horus rejoices Z__ above Mesen VI

349,2;the godsof heaven at their posts=, are


abovehis horizonVII 21,4.


direct genitive with suffix : in the struggle between Horus and Seth as a serpent, he goes to ground., and Horus is called : 'Come here Horus as the lance above him (that is overabove the snake'.

hole) so as not to allow him to come out at all VI 121,11; the snake is in the mound , Horus is Y--q above him VI 121,13-14.The the underworld : their bas=i-A. gives clouds ntyr-r4 is placed under the for neatnessof writing. Of those in

are above them, traversing heaven 1382,11. Possibly : Nut,.,,

which are above 1151,17 7 -above all the gods 1229,3;

indirect grenitiven plus noun : the winged beetle is in the temple

T rl 116,15;BB flies in the horizon BB flies to the horizon F" -above the godsandgoddesses 0 rl:3 V nirw nbw aboveall the godsVIII 152,12;the noble imageof HB'=r-' aboveall the 11149,6 gods,protectinghis sonsin the temples Sauneron [EsnaV p.327 (i) ] described gs-br asan embarrassing expression Esnano.196,3and5 VI 121,13; 1382,11-12;DV 33,9 ; PJurn. XXI, 13 ;D Il 65,2-3because meaningwas unclea the it from the examples andhe suggested waspossiblyto be understood a refugeof a god -a chapel.: as or cachette
Noun : Re Harakhty is Re hr rwi Qi wLs b'w. f m WLst-H rremoving his upper,,

VI part (or lifting his upper part) and raising up his appearances 296,7 .

gs-hnt v

southem rcgion

F-- d In the building texts : work was interrupted in the temple by bdnw-bnnw - ignorant rebels,=,. *. in the southern region IV 8,2 the creation the reed comes ti/vil 6,7 [de Wit CdE 36 Nr. 71,1961 p.74 and p.2881. At

from the southern region VI 14,14 [but Alliot-Barucq, BIFAO

64,1966 p.163(a) notesit is m-shnt - la partiesupdricurcl. v


half ruined A,
do -+P-I--

In the placename




VII 249,2 wheresYnis the verb 'to destroy' , Meeks, ,

here'le lieu A moiti6 ruin6' [Donations, 65-6 n.55 . alsoGauthier,DG V 89]. tranlates p.


synonymof Maat


WbV201(9-10) GR Literally gs-db is 'sideof a bricle implying thatbecause sideof a brick is smoothand straightthe , it is a fitting exampleof Maat. At Effu : in the instructionsof Seshat good and evil people'He on who knows from isft [restoredafter Fairman,MDAIK 16 1958 p.88 n.g] V 334,2. In a C3 in established your time IV 258,6 ; same the land in truth 144,8 parallel to this is but which is damaged may be this word

Nlaatofferinj text Horus givesthe king text , Horus gives the king Maat - CD R 77,5-6=I -'SP, a Maat text -

Co 3d V pl. LXI) 11113 ; the king is Lord of Maat who stridesin the land =t -U 1,15 (Pronaos (Maat text) NIam.173,17. A crown of justification text saysof Horus 'you have seizedthe Two c,' :S* 'VII 309,14. landsin Also at Philae [PhiM I Abb. 23 line 15] Horus replies to the king in a Maat offering 'I have , ZF 1rn t which you broughtbeforeme [n.4 gs and11b. = gs-dp.t a phrasefor Maat]. received =clty 1=3 the land in the time of your majestyCD 11122,8. in At Dendera Maat text - Isis creates :a



to protect and Wb V 201 (4-5) GR respectively.

Wb V 200 (14) to 201 (3) GR

Wb records gs-dp from the GR texts only but it is attested earlier in the Coffin Texts . Faulkner [FECT 11307 n.8] derives the meaning of the term 'protection' from the notionof a ship's side as a bulwark against danger : CT IV 88k = C? = AD. (of Osiris) ; CT IV 94b 4D -)EE ; CT VI 75e

CT VII 236 a title of a spell Spell for living by magic as r= C],. Aa protection (dual) in and the two houses.
Kees records on a Cairo sarcophagus 28028 and 29 [from Gurna -'12th dynasty Daressy , RT 14, '

1892 p. 35 ; Lacau, Sarc. Ant. NE I p. 75f. and a parallel in Peet, Cemeteries of Abydos II pl. 36 from '3" 13/17th dynasty] '5- El W. your protection comes to you , your son Sopdu. This is part of a the 1Z.; b AM

MX hymn found on the sarcophagusof Seseneb-nef[Gauthier and Jequier, Fouilles de Licht pl. XXIII P-2ff-I At Edfu the' protection of Horus is his mother Isis 1114,10; Zo %, 1145,9 Wor



is the protection

of her son 1307,5. Wb cites the term as a noun meaning ,, 13 &*&.


(Wb V 201,7) TheEnnead protectoress' alsoact asprotection or protector .

%44 IV 5,5 , z:, 2K IV 49,2. The Two Ladies also %. b. V 6,9 .

IV 11,14;

As a noun'protection' ' gs-dp canbe the objectof the verb ir : minor deitiesare commanded ir. tn n imsn 'May you makeprotectionfor them (gods of the temple)VIII 147,11. =I I protectyour majestyin gs-dpt as a verb 'to protect', Hathortells the king,. 11 -hak I a C1 I the flood water VIII 35,6 ;a geni of the first lance says protect your majestywith my protectionVI 65,4-5.


to put on the side be partialibiased , Wb V 192 (20-22) MK

The phrase in late texts is always made negative meaning 'without bias' [Otto, GuM p. 138-91. , The phrase is used in the Eloquent Peasant to describe the corrupt official Bauer 98; 269 here positively and in Urk. IV 1118,6 it describesthe tilt of a pair of scales- B. 149 ; 313 The analogy is . of an official comparedto an exact balance , filting neither to one side or the other. At Edfu the negatedphrase is used always in Nbat offering texts and it usually applies to the king n rdit br gs (n negates the infinitive - one who is not partial) : the king as overseer of the city V 187,14; 129,9;
A-J -A-A


VII 91.3;

1VII 195,10 . It can also be

taken as a noun : bwt. f pw -c? Dm. f 127 VII 271,12.

the abomination of the king is partiality VIII 3,14 ; bwt,

'*A'b'*L16 With iwty : the king as city overseer', #-a-who is not partial VII 291.2. Otto would correct

this to nn but theremay be a further example wherethe king as overseer in (Chassinat 1). n. unreadable hasbeencovered cement part


V 59,1. Hereth

in Otto). Ile phrase at appears similar uses Dendera,PhilaeandKom Ombo(see-


partiality , be partial Wb V 205 (7-12) MK

The original meaningof the verb is 'to tilt''to lean to one side' [Peasant 92 to the measuring B. rod.


Do not tilt V06


6 I and B. 96 a list of bad things includes iwsw ZYA

c.f. 162

312] (also applies to a tree leaning with its branches - P.Tur. PuR 20a, 3). When followed by the , preposition r it has the nuance 'be biased toward someone' [Prisse 13,4 , Petersb.Weish. 44] and by the GR period gs3 has the specialisedmeaning 'be biased!in judgement. It is a characteristic despised by the king and often occurs in association with &-ib rYC"WIII balance) : bwt Om.f 1101, as an epithet of the king (this is part of a -1Vll 322,15 IV 34,8 111266,4.

r- 4 111143,9; bwt. f 122,12; bwt. f 4

all are Maat presentation texts. Thoth too is one who abominates partiality rYj0rJVHI 83,10-11. The king as the son of Thoth is the gm-ib who hates Z11 J1

The determinative shows the meaning clearly and its use shows that it is a technical weighing term, used here metaphorically and also at Karnak - Urk. VIH 10,1lb, Medamoud 104 ; Dendera - MD 11l8a. ; Kom Ombo 117 (10) [Otto, GuM p. 156-71. -


in to run on , hasten Wb V 204 (19) to 205 (6) D.18

gsi is related to gst 'course.-pace' in the same wayas the pair nmt/nmi. It is attested first in the phrase wn gst pbr [RB 114,7, FCD 291]. At Edfu gsi can have a direct object ;. usually U land earth :.., A you run in this land to the , P "2Ar VI 271,1-2; Horus says of the king course of the sun II 152; 'also you run on the earth 175,1. Followed by r it can have the implication 'attack': a troop of the king "-hurries 198,5, but Isis tells Horus


to his enemies I

tkn tw im. 1 hurry to me come to me VI 85,1. ,

66In the phrase wn-gs Wb V 204,19-22 (similar to qb-nmt) :a priest carrying a standard is-.

z= to your sanctuary1538,14; Horus is - -a.-A

A ,=. and fast of foot 144,10. In earlier usesit -%%

ba. to the sungod - RT I p.18 D. 18 ; or a jackal - LD 111130 applies At Philae<1180>Phot 879 Satisis swift of bow.


minordeides ., Wb V 206 (7) GR


The gods are recordedby Wb only at Karnak (Urk VHI 55d). At the worship of the moon there are 24 gods in groups . The fourth group raise their voices to the bull of the Ennead, they are r__ a who drag . In <56e> there is a similar situation 'Spending the night in the belly of secret of forms by, '. Ile reading of the word is doubtful however, for it could read ksptyw -who are minor:

lunar deitiesattested A elsewhere. similar text appears Edfu , where j, at

small human figures with animal tails on their kilts 112 (16) and
r-& 4

to I

as represented

'or dsr dniwt also

they are smaHerhuman bodied figures, but their headshave beendamaged 113 (19) (pIA7). ,


I mineml
Wb V 206 (9-11) Med, GR ,. II 'j .

The identity of the substance has ben much discussedLHarris suggestsed it may be a similar manganesecompound to msdmt and htm which are black eye paint [Harris, Minerals p. 1834 and 234] while in medical texts it has been identified as the resin of the plant Asafoetida [Wb Drog. p. 540-11. Recently it has ben shown that it is a mineral and may be etymologically related to gsfn 'Zorille! (skunk) for the odour of the substanceis as unpleasant as that of the animal. From the%, ,

sources given in Egyptian texts gsfn is most likely to be copper or iron sulphate [AufrUe, BIFAO a 84,1984 pp. 4-181.7belaboratorytextsmentionthe substance `-' iii -'ftTV 't

Il 210,4.


to order , arrange, regulate WbV207(1-7) D. 18 GR

gsgs 'to regulate' (FCD 292) occurs from the NK where it is used of the sun god regulating time In other texts it refers to the overseer of corn who regulates the grain measure rX 6eA

1151,which is a mythologicalpun because [Amenemope Tboth restoresthe wd3t eye [C-f Grumach,Amenemopep. nA91, it canalsorefer to the moonafter its half andfull moonmonthly' 18 festival (Mett. Rs. left 1). On the whole gsgs is an action associated with Thoth particularly in to respect his makingwholetheWadjeteye. At Edfu all of theseusesof the verb occur: in a field text in the donationtextsas the sonof Thoth,,


the king



VII the eye with its requirements 247,10-11;the paletteis gsty n zM'R


III 251,13. Meeks pointsout the4ull implicationsof this - gsgs'to fill up full' . either the eyeor [Donations 54 n.61; Egypt is theEye of Horushence (as bushelmeasure in Amenemope) p. the wd3t the writing for Egypt so there is a complexpun wherethe Eye = Egypt =a bushel

VI 200,5.Thoth also arranges suppliesthe land : Thoth _*_ - k--J this land IV or com measure 246,11;Thoth in Hermopolis the land IV 299,7; divine palette the whole land 1333,17; a paletteoffering , it ; :'j

`: ; F7 -111190.Ina stretchingthe cord text, Thoth as a IV39l, 2;:, j13xr this land VI 169,1.gsgsmay in origin be a scribal activity for recording u)"-j

for or produce taxationin theland. supplies is connected the mooneye : the left eye (moon)is suppliedwith iti requirements rri with gsgs 1417,14-15 In an offering of the eye to Mn , as a moongod .'your eye'is'yours a," . Y ZI ffibis 74 the left eyeis its parts'VII 311,12-13[c f. Taharqa n.29 andpl.43 with put in orderby Thoth]. md ointmentis also its requirements which arelisted as sweetoliban , Eye of supplied with

Re, Eye of HorusandEye of OsirisV 272,14-15. POPP Xs9s-WblV549,6=MDIII73c; The word also occursat Dendera a verb and -A entry. spellingof gsgsso shouldnot be a separate



Wb V 207 (10) GR

Wb cites the example : where Horus Merty rips out hearts , devours hearts and d3 limbs ? of Seth 1575,12. The word may be a writing of gsty 'testicles', however (q.v.). consumes


ksks to dance Wb V 141 to 142 (4) DG'593,5 Cr. 832b; CED338; KH468 Goc-Gec-


In the NK the word was written ksks - see Mut. Rit. Berlin 12,5 ; An. V 8,7 ; Amonshymn Leid. T, 21x but is written gsgs in for example and MD 111 20 XX "--)' 2,8 ; Gardiner Onom. demotic and Coptic. The term may originate in the verb ks 'to bow' being a reduplicated form from iL It has also been suggestedthat the term is of Nubian origin for it appearsfrom the late New Kingdom describe the leaping of the Napatan king or dance of Nubians. gsgs seems to be a leaping and can dance or hopping dance [stela from Abydos in Simpson, The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos pl. 70, Louvre C 17] and is the only word for dancing in Egyptian which survives in dernotic and Coptic [Green, Dancing p.30-311. Spellings at Edfu reflect the pronunciation gsgs : in the festival of Behdet the Dnkstyw women, V 35 1,10 and also at Karnak the nome of Thebes when in festival rejoices and ,

Opet 186,6. dances


palette of a scribe Wb V 207 (11-17) OK DG 593, L Cr. 931 L KH 468 measureof length 60r-T CED33,2.

The earliest representationsof the palette and its associateditems are the wooden reliefs of Hesy-Re I the Great Royal scribe . The panel of Hesy-Re at his offering table has the text"e-" and gst

then is the earliest mention of the palette [Lange and Hirmer , Agypten , Manchen , 1967 Tf. 18-191. It was used throughout the Egyptian language but by the GR period its association with Tboth , the scribes and writing , meant that it was regarded as a piece of symbolic cult apparatus [in god of Weber, Buchwesen pp.27-58 ; LA IV 656-6581.gsty occurs in the ritual of Raising up the general ,

PI ffv to the Lord of the Houseof Books 1180,7-14. It could also be to Thoth' : Pnk palette offeredto Khonsu(asa moongod he andThoth wereassimilated) fj by they could be accompanied Seshat : with reedfor writing pens Ell palettewas offered and the water vessel VII 126,14-127,13 . 1377.12to 378,11and,,

IV 89,18 to 91,12 or Ilathor 1377,12. The A 1167,14to 68,3; IT, 163,7-14;the pen

T 1143 111190,2-12and most often the ps-vessel alone


In return for the offering Thoth or Khonsu and Seshat give the king millions of years, unlimited time, the lifetime of Re, the years of Horus or Akhty or Atum, the kingship of Re and millions of 'heb-seds.The emphasisis that the gift is something ternporal to ensure the eternal continuance of the kingship. Their gifts also show that the palette was regarded as an instrument of writing - thus a creative and recording device. Khonsu establishesthe d&rees of the king and writes out his annals

IV 246,10 to 247,9; Thoth gives the throneof WetjesetHor and the mn-bit couch in


IV 298,15 to 299,15. With the palette and pens the I? is regulated (gsgs) -nd line 13 93 IV 389,10-391.2, perhaps also 111251,11-17 CO regulate

Thoth can also give the south and north as possessions the king . In all of the scenesthe king of eye. the developed atef crown or hmhmty crown also worn by Thoth, stressinghis affinity with the wears depending upon the-offering, he holds up the palette and reeds (pl. 16 = XI 235 ; plllc god and, ME= = XI

327 hasthe arrangement

; or cmi and

in differenthands P1.63 and L respectively r.

82 1. andr. - so it wasnot importantwhich way roundtheywereheld). pl. help to showthe symbolic imporatnceof this offering , for The wordrsynonymous with gsty also Tye 'andears'-you recordwhatyou seeandhear,by means thepalette. Ibis ritual is also of example 964 found at Philae<2106>Phot. ; <2380>448 [Phill H p. 34-5 , 176-71.


course, run Wb V 203 (8) to 204 (7) Pyr.

1ord of Running' is first attestedon the poetical stela of Tuthmosis III', where he is nb-gst =a to a jackal `--" --A compared
-<7 " is,

"At the who traverses two landsUrk. IV 617,14. Edfu it is Horus



destroying his enemies IV 231,3.

'go out in procession', used archaically at EdfuAn -Pyr.' 1167 iLS gst.f he takes his iL.gst At implying a pre-established speed directness., Edfu ,a priestin the and route,to ensure course,gst, says, procession staircase *... I take My course'. 1564.9-10 Horus,Akhty ,,
F Z__

.the course beforethegodsof thetemple,like Aten in heaven1576,3. takes


run fast


Wb V 204 (8-16) GR At is literally 'makefast thecourse! and is predominantly GR templeexpression. Edfu it, a sin-gst

describes king on his 'offering run' brp qbbw offering the 1178,4; 4 A ZA- q=; 116.7-8 il-Opt run . he and %I

04. 1490,15; "%

49,16 In battle Horus'. . A 1142,7; the nameof a protectivedeity of Sokar isLordofLegsi is =, aA after S! !71 his attacker1 199,4.In bringing gifts, foreign people--j: hurry with their gifts 1140.4 A &A , foreigncountries
the Idng P

to theplaceof Horuswith their goods1103,6.In processions ,t


^ft- Ac=-to the Great Place 1537,7. In a place, a protective deity is speedy and r. k 1556,16. Of the 1581,7.

A in k1wt-13 1198,12. As a command to priests in processions 4: 14 -A ,. Nile in flood : the Nile is brought in the Nile procession


stridewidely Wb V 204 (17) GR

The phraseis complementary sin-gst : bnp-qbbw text the king is described to as&AkAA'I,
74,11 The phrase is also found in the Buch v. Durchwandeln line 10 -gc' r---- 0 in the Hall of . , A Osiris, the parallel text has "%=, - -N. -1 in the MI of the Place of Re. Translated by Wresinski,,, -A6, as 'das Wandeln andehnen' [ZAS 45,1908 p. 118-9] and Wien 16.


to stretchthestride Wb V 204 (18) GR

r. ==t

from Wb is for Khons The only reference


A ---

whencastinghis spear1309,10.


testicles Wb V 208 (1) GR

In the Myth of Horus,gsty is usedto refer to the testicles the hippopotamus Seth of =


73,4. Fairmanand Blackmancommentthat in the illustration of the text , Horus is shownthrusting the 7th harpooninto this part of the animal [XIII pl.DIV Blackmanand Fairman'it hasspikedhis JEA 29, p.14 n.c]. Also stones', 4'M Ift VI 75,1; the harpoonhasskewered hippopotamus,,, the


P.Qq III from his belly to Q. 9

his testicles VI 75,2.


To confirm the meaning, in the offering of the menat necklace which is equated with the tcsticles of Seth [for his mutilation Gwyn-Griffiths, Osiris p.34-4], the term gsty is used for'testicles' : Hathor , says npd. i U W-,, In pfy wh-sp. f 'I have cut off the testicles of that failed one and I lift them up on my arms'IV 255,15-16 ; another Menat text - the king proceedsforward carrying -Q to

Z= Hathor) 111185,3 Similarly at Dendera has the..... Dendera (i. e. they are presented to menat text ,a . 'D) 111 presented to the ka of Hatfior MD III 10.

In a wine presentation text, it is saidof Horus- you havecut off on your terrainIV 280,12.

of the onewho trespassed

The term may derive from the earlier term for testicles

q. lirwy with the


"M [seeLefebvre,Tableau461 thoughgsty mayalsobe a dual form 'two halves'. written as


watering place, drinking trough

Wb V 208 (9) GR VDG 594#1 7,1(Cr.833a; CED338; KH469 &cj-r

is well known from demotic and Coptic, but the only hieroglyphic examples are in the Donation gt , texts at Edfu n0 the watering place astern of Sai VII 240,2 ;0 n n3 sIj

tbt 'the pool of the fish' VII 242,5 [Meeks, Donations p.90 n. 128]. The use here suggests

it is much more a secular word - perhaps from the administrative sphere - which appears here only becausesuch a text was inscribed upon the temple walls.


loaf of bread sk

'n g4

Writings - Direct: Phonetic Change: Error : BIFAO 43 1943 p.78 ,


suffix pronoun - 2nd sing. fem. g: h but also ; 84b 102b VI 152,8 2 85 105 b . . 86 b 108

Junker GrD p.37 and spellings at Edfu : usually

Numbers from ASAE 43,1943 pp.213-216: 83 b 87 b 109 b 96 b 99 101 b

Fairman suggestedthesefigures could representt becausethey were an acceptedreplacementfor the feminine determinative. In this way they came to have the value t and could be used to write the 2nd. sing. fem. determinative (op.cit. p.290).

head Wb V 209 (4) to 211 (4) Pyr. DO 600,2 Ljr

Many differenttypesof breadarementioned Edfu but 0 is thegeneralterm used In an offering at , . Akt text, the goddess (V'Oj? ) makes(b3k)dR IV 45,2 andcim"' IV 45,3. A food offering text oil
for thousands of '23'(=it expressesthe wish , VII 289,11 and the king here is said to be 'skilled of

40"30 hands who makes (ir)o M. Offering bearersbring a god Weben whomo GOD makes bread forReI

has 468,2.A list of differentbreads the GreatGoddess (Wosret)broughtto 4"w her bread VI 128,13. a64 Ttis readingthenis clearbut whereonlywis written therecouldbe differentmeanings thoughthe , , of contextshouldhelp to clarify matters the companions the go ds flood Behdetwith 11,10or Giving a Greatoblationof V IV 331,12. IV

Breadas a commodityessential life is offeredto the godsin the daily rite :V--J aim 111177,13 to 178,3. Hathorherereceives offering thoughsheis the the king as the sonof Npr carriesO'"M where 0. a Also and Sopdetthe bringer of the Nile PI.64 showsthe king presenting equated with -


rns Here the

to the Place of Re, in return Sokar-OsMs gives the king kingship in the land V 290,34. -king holds up 0 (pl. 134). where the king floods the islands (in the Nile) with beer IV 253,8,Vr-JdS;and beer, where 2 and

Bread is offered with beer : hnq c= 4

drives away famine and is Lord of 1000sof om

is for the throat of Harsomthus and beer is for his belly VH 288,7 'In return the king receives . all the produceof heavenand 6M. From its writings and thesetexts remained the usual term for bread in general. ,0

LMs of bread
t3-imy-I in a list of bread, where puns are made on their names VI 28,14. t3-imy-t3 (Wb V 209,8-10) is known from the PT and was perhaps used as a funerary offering for 4,0 "-the deceasedc f. Giza VI Part Il 326: (110 tn. ti bread of the earth is numerous VI 28,14. + i -. W'Ai is brought

t3-w3d'green bread"fresh bread' - possibly made from germinatedgrains which could be kneadedand to make beer, rather like malt [from the OK - Giza VI , Part 11 434-5 and 474 ; Wild - BIFAO used DO T41111 64,1966 p. 104 ; LA 114311: iB ti w31d. green bread is fresh/green in its body VI 28,14.
The bread text in VI 28 ff. also lists the following varieties : amo .., j is complete VI'

-b 28,14 . 00 dw - - is mixed and cooked in its forms of all divine offerings VI 29.1-2 (Wb V2 10 WD 'o 0 J: 81 10-11 t. t. wy in offering list titles) -, cow no-one knows their number-; CUD and , Ir'r bread is complete/readyfor your good place. t3-wr (Wb V 209 11-12) is a type of bread given to the deceasedin offering lists. In the Medinet -lists it has the form I'jC'I [Helck, Materialen III p.6771 and it also occurs in the above list (the Habu

'3'W kingcomes IRTwithall theproduce heaven earth)qF R to and of

3.4 breadat the Edfu festival includes 28 14 ;a list of someof the. ,

hr w3tk uponyourroad? VI
IV 18,16

This word canrefer to all breadof betterquality obtained O-Dd (Wb V 210,1-9)MKwhite bread!. , from refined flour. It wasespecially to presented the gods, but is alsofound in is not found in private lists but it was given to the workersof Deir el Medina for offerings [LA II col.431. At Edfu the breadappears most often in the rite sqr-O-d'consecrating the white bread'(Wb IV


3207,9-10) the earliestreference this rite is from theMK - LouvreC- Pieffet Inscr.115 . The to and At0 VIH IA 172,16 1477.14; sqr *,sqr offering is most often madeto Thoth : sqr 0 at "/,A Il 175,4and Horus sqr Dt 108,8; also to Hathor sqr VII 70,2. The god

in involved may not be significantbecause the chapelof Hatshepsut Karnak for example the at , of offering is madeto - Amun 312, 335andOsiris 351andAmun-NIin515. The shape the loaf is usually A (so for exampleXI p.241) The king receivesan assortment gifts in return of .

protectionof his body ; lifetime of Re andlong kingship; the field with its produceor altarsloaded with produce. 'to for sqr usuallymeans strike' implying perhaps specificmanufacturing consecration a or process the bread c f. the bw-'. r stpw rite. 01A Thereis alsoan "ample of 4nq

which is madeto Horus, thoughthe king is designated as

Lord of Hieroglyphs e. Thoth) 111802. (i.


bread WbV210(10-11) Med.

t3-t3wy occurs in offering lists from the medical texts onwards It is a particular type of bread a
btp-di-nsw of bread offerings , has thousands of things before you - including '=0C=D a it io', '%% V

"" 'a3 C= , p280,10;food offering texts in a list of breadsis o which the king brings to Horus and , ,,,,, ,

HathorIV 312,15.



is In a killing the tortoisetext at Edfu oneof the variantwordsfor the creature written as , "I his the king declares, havestabbed body" IV 306,10.This may be the sameas a word and from Philaealso in a tortoiseslayingtext: 'e" el 1, is driven away (rwi) PhilA I p.66 no.16., -

(op. cit. n.5) that this may be connected Junkercomments with Or 'enemy'(Wb V 233) or evenjr 'to mocle(Wb V 388).


tonoise "bread bme and ,

t-Dqt is a generalterm for provisions- from at leastthe 5th Dynasty[Arch. Abusir 1288-99)andit


continues to be so in GR texts (c f. D VIII 37,12). It was applied to the tortoise as a pun , for example in a sm3 t-Dqt text - which reads'Killing the tortoise' or could conceivably read Tresenting breadand beee. The slaying of the Sethian dangeroustortoise then was symbolic of the king offering , to the gods the basic requirementsof life - breid and beer.

At Edfu it is usedas a variantword for tortoisein suchscenes 0 TV4 m dbdb is choppedup :, I IV 306,8-9 crn3 c=4 also1114,13; beforeHorus which takesplacerespectively jr in

HorusandHathor, OnurisandMehit VII 159,4.The word is also found at Philae

the fire MIA I p.67 no.1; at Dendera o3l g'd; m dbdb D VI 136,14; and at Kom Ombo , the 2 'W_ Greatgod (Sobek)his form of ua D-; &IV& s he spitsout Hapy KO 159,13 ; alsoKO 1491 and

KO 11695,3.Here the tortoiseis shownin a more favourablelight whereit is connected with the the-Nile and has positive aspectsas a water creature[A. Gutbub, La Tortue, Animal sourceof A Undfique, Hommages S.Sauneron 391-435; Van de WalleTortua; NouvelleClio V Cosmique p. 'a Z '31 p.185].Similarly at Edfu : in a libation text, q7. 258,17-18. spitsout the flood watersonto the fields 11

Wb V 212 (6( to 216 (7) Pyr. DG 598,2 Cr. 396a -,CED 179 ; KH 219 TIO 0 occurs frequently at Edfu with the following spellings M,

[ASAE 43 1943 .

272] Fairman could offer no "planation why the sign read 0 and suggestedit was some Icind of p. . The earliest example from Wb is -an inscription of Pinodjem I at Medinet Habu s3 Imn pr pun. tr grgpVf rn-hiit. LD III p.25 e-g and Text 111164 Drioton was also unsure about the origin .

beetle has [ASAE 40 p.328 ff. 'pour raison inconnue t3'1. An explanation may be that the s-Lqrab the earth , for it lives in burrows and comes out in the morning a;hence could it close affinities with have been thought of as a symbol, not only of the sun but also of the earth . As the beetle pushesthe dung ball - the ball is the sun , then the beetle may have been regarded as the earth , compare the,sun 'sitting' on the land in the morning at dawn. Thus the beetle could be read*as M Edfu are not new to Egyptian. word at 'Me uses of the


. The sign".

may be 0 as in Wb V 212 (6) Beleg. - see BEFAO 43,1945 p. 107 (MontpeHier, G ,

2 603). In p343 : /// of Festivalland Rulersof ,


4"'bl sovereigns the two Lands and , and of

banks VII 58,1.0 by itself could be a synonym for Tgype [Blackman. JEA 22 1936 p37 (9)] and it is written with the definite article from the NK [Gauthier, DG VI p. 11


Egypt Wb V 217 (1) to 219 (11) Pyr. DG 59 bottom 2. I% (ff $ O'IV` 18,7 00 pass,im. IV. -,:

Again occurs passim. at Edfu with variant writings 26,3 and even perhaps IV 329,16.

The Two Lands are the subject of a ritual offering at Edfu bnk t3wy which is usually made by.., , the king to Horus Behdet : 286,10-287,2 bnk 159,2-9 Y 1152,12-53,1 nk V

VII 326,13-327.9 The god can be accompaniedby Hathor .

and join the two halves in peace 111262,17-263,9;II 48VIII 25,3-26,7 ; certainly Onk ag

VII 95,16-96,11 ; perhaps also bnk

VIII 32,14-34,2 and the offering is made once to to Horus,

Harsomthus hnk

IV 154,8-155.5 and once to a group of gods - hnkyy

Khnum, Horus, Serqet, Ho rus, Neith, Menbit 1141,16-142,18. In all casesthe offering stressesthat the king is ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt united together, foreign lands are subject to him and that all people rejoice under his rule. The king usually wears the Double Crown to emphasise tthat he ritual shows his claim to the kingship of Egypt and he can offer the heraldic plants of each land: P If / pl. 40b. , the two crowns pl. XVI ,It pl. 88 ; and he holds the consecration staves over a group of plants, again to symbolise the whole country pl. DCLX.


east, left side Wb V 230 (16) to 231 (3) OK

In nautical terminology19s? ' is the larboardor left side of the ship [FCD 293 ; FECT 111204 index as apposed imy-wry 'right side' ; Jones,Glossaryp.261-21.If the Egyptiansthoughtof to themselves morenaturallygoing south(for whateverreason)thenon the left side are the mountains and the rangesof the easterndesert.This accountsfor the word being written with a mountain


determinativeGauthiertranslates termasthe foreigncountries the east(or eastern this mountains) on . [DG VI p.51. I

is At Edfu t3-wr is a word for 'left side': in the templedescription, the sanctuary to the left of the nO401V 5,7; all four chambers the left side!; Z WO are exact IV 5,8 Houseof the Leg,.-. of Similarly in the descriptionof a hall , imagesof the godsare on its right and on 177,8.
P4 X

its left I

t3-wr can be a substantive -.Horus Behdet is Master of

and Lord of imy-wrt 111169,10.

in In the phrase: msw br O-wr . The O-wr was the nameof a phyle of priestsdocumented the Childrenon the left side!is found, Mis phrase ', Abusir texts [Arch.Abusir II p.566 f; Wb V 231,11 in mirror offering texts: the king lifts up the mirror to the facesof thesechildrenon

X14261Mn 40,Q7). Husson like as notesthat easterners the eastI 74A andalso raiseup beauties in the landof therising sunshouldbeassociated thebrillianceof thedawnandthemirror with people the sun [Miroirs p.64 n.6]. Further the msw r O-wr may be the portersof the solar represents disk. At Edfu as Horusis the solardeity here, thereare alsomsw ]Vr r O-wr 'Childrenof Horuson , ,
the east! : in the Sokar chamber msw Hr hr e-oI Sri II
-5? 4 = .0

1182 (42) and the hypostyle hall has msw-]Ur hr Imy-wrt.

123 (103) - next to them in both places are the complementary

Theseparticular priests may have been responsiblefor particular duties concernedwith the carrying of the solar barque. The word n is 0a gate/door (Wb V 230,15) and the phrase O-wr can then be taken as 'Great

from which the sun emerged in the morning. The Unty of the temple with its columns is said gate' V to be sacred like -irlc ;:c-3 -the Great Cate, that is the east, being an open sun-court VI 10,8.

t3. mriw

Egyptians people , Wb V 224 (5-7) Dyn. 19

Egypt from the I th Dynasty[LD 11149f. Wadi Hammamat Gauthier,DG VI designated t3. mry -, C= '" .P live thereare the t3-mryw whoru cD praisethe Icing1153,16.It canalso 161and the peoplewho *& havea wider applicationof beingpeoplein general: the king is givenOLITI, from the four comers the land Il 58,16. of



Lower Egypt Wb V 224 (10-14) Pyr.

The term is attested from the OK with the meaning Land of the mow plane, a plant symbolic of this area of Egypt in particular [Gauthier, DG VI 171.The word appears frequently at Edfu with" different spellin gs :! F* 4 6 IV 20,8; 1112,4; 45FPf -T IV 21,4 1147,16. V 7,1

13 7F It can also be written with the definite article p3 : 71.


LandofAtum-Dendem Wb V 222 (1) GR Gauthier, DG VI 23'

There was a close religious relationship between DenderaIwnt and Heliopolis Iwn whose god was, , Atum. In this way Atum came to be associatedwith Dendera: CT IV p. 10c - Sp.272 has which may be an early example, but from the Ramessideperiod Aturn is Lord of Southern Dendera! [Mysliewec, Atum Il p. 113]. At Dendera t3-n-Itm is a common word for the town and it is also' found at Edfu: Hathor is the Eye of Re in IT /Q kN VIII 4,10 [Aturn 11p. 138].


Land of god Wb V 225 (1-21) MK, oft. OR

, $. Ti
was used to"'

From the I Ith Dynasty [Kuentz

BEFAO 17,178 ff, 1920 Wadi Hammamat] t3-nir

describe the regions beyond Egypt - the Arabian desert and especially Punt. From the 18th Dynasty it could also refer to Lebanon and Sinai [Redford, JAOS 99,1979 p. 280 n. 1I and Spalinger, SAK 7, ',1979 p. 292 n.481. Lands designated in this way are therefore either neighbouring areas with distinctive or other areas which are mysterious or exotic in nature [Saleh, BIFAO 81 Supp. and rich resources 1981 p. 107-1171. In the Edfu texts U -nlr is used archaically as it refers to the land near Punt which incense and resin The land brings its produce produces . V 364.5 OW VII 325,5.

Hathor is the Lady of the God'sLand: 37,5; alsoLady of Myrrh mistress of ,


Vil 106,13and hertditary princess

I land


V 316,2 The king too rules the 00 . I= VII 131,6and hernakeshis 78,6 or is sovereignthere.1 m-m VII 106,6; Horus rules it

Ig'a da



VI 252,2.

it can also be written in the plural : Hathoris the greatfemalekite (dryt) in the lands "' V 159,12-13;, .. V 275,1.3tfw incense comesfrom there. oaa ; VI 308,11-12

sim. VII 211.3and the king givespraiseto his motherin.4

oaV 370.1-2.

In generalt3-njr is an incense producing regioneithercloseto or as productiveasPunt with which [LA it is usuallyassociated 11815-6].


smimay Wb V 226 (24) Pyr. D.21 GR DG649,3-trt

Cr.431b; CED195; KH244 -% T'WP-rP 11 T4SrC-P
to heaven


appears from as early as the Pyramid Texts, where the king steps on

[Pyr. 365 ; 1749 b

Literally it seems to mean 'land/earth of the feet' and seems to refer

to the whole stairway rather than individual Steps. Gardiner comments on its use in Amenemope 434 'ground for the feef [AEO 11211*1 - and Coptic suggests that the compound had a accent - later interpreted as a half reduplication so that ultimately it became MfMP. regressive At Edfu the word is used to refer to the staircases which lead up to the temple roof and which were "--O"-used by priestly processions. The west stairway-. '. 83 steps 1513,11 -nj r--3 of the temple goes to the roof . with expression,

c3 of this sanctuary - is another name for it 1513,16. Ile

7 Talace of the stairway' appearsagain: -0' C4773 of the one who shines with gold 1515,4. All of theseexamplesare in the Room of the Western stairway. The easternstaircasealso has two texts on the north and south side of the door way: south side has

but bnd 'staircase'. disk of thedivinewinged 1549,9, thenorthtextuses

descriptionof the templeusest3-rd : 19 The leadsnorth in it (HypostyleHall) andbnd is sidesVII 16,6 on its westand eastern

CFP has 4 the eastin it IV 6A . The paralleldescription on

f. in The word is alsousedat Dendera the same stairwaytexts-c. alsord. contexts,




Wb V 227 (4-14) Pyr. DG Literally I Landof thegin' plant',usedfrom theoldesttextsonward[Gauthier, VI p.341. Spellingsat Edfu :gI With the definite article p3: -w A# VI 7.1 at 1147,16

Edfu is, t3-mhw , possiblybecause t3-gm'w may be moreprominentat Edfu than its counterpart in the heartof UpperEgypt and is naturallymorebiasedtowardsit. In texts wherethe two appear togethert3-Ym' is written first .


Wb V 228 (6-14) Pyr.

Literally 'sacredground, in the senseof land which is apart from the Nile Valley Gauthier translates . 'la terre haute' in the areasabove the level of the flood, on higher desert ground, were the cemeteries,,,,, where the deadwere buried [Gauthier, DG VI 40].The term occurs at Edfu - often in connection with., i. Osiris: Osiris in Edfu is the great god in-?!!'kJ0n0I 173,7-8 ;a driving the calves text mentions that Osiris is the great sovereign in the sacredland 1102,8 and further 65? is removed

(dsr. ti) [hidden after JEA 35,1949 p. 1071from all foes (tw3yt) 1101,18. Other gods however can, be associatedwith this burial ground - the gods of Behdet : their bodies are removed (dsr) in i to

Osiris is cafled Lord of A be 1382,11;oneof four Anubis godsaccompanying their cemeteries , :: I 'Max 1188,10;the Chamber Sokarcontains aUthe godsof the of dca' 1225,3 aia it

I :?, I,

heat fire ,

verb: be hot

noun: Wb V 229 (18) to 230 (14) Med. Wb V 229 (1-16) OK but transitivefrom GR verb: NM heatof incense it is burnt on the altar fire : oliban andincense strongis their heatp'] as IV 129.2-3sim.; in a burningincense - the king declares'Youreceive, text

a"AG c-4 1 536,13;

andsmell fragrance"1176,12. As a weaponto deter foes it is usedby the lion gargoyles: the lion m w3w3t fiery , -. , 'aTeUriery feet on the roadsIV 274A. This compares lips on the roadsIV 117,4andO with of of the Book of the Dead, where F rR. 'q &4-53-". is a judge of the dead (Wb V 229,15) [Nav.


7p e Lord burning IV 287,8 [de Wit Toth.125,281 The lions removea' attackerOJ: translates. n of . 'who repulses thosewho comein fury]. Godsusethis fire in a similar way -.Horus as a wind all -11 extinguishes 4fire Clj, in his path IV 51,10;a standard a procession called'Anubis who emits in is

againstthe foe in thePlaceof Stabbing'V42,9. cools rageH 16,3;

As a synonym for 'angerrage': Thoth drives away anger and sqb C7 Tanenet coolsPX6Lby burningincense 1312,4-5. a '6 *

As hot air : in a hymn to Horushe creates

hot andcold air VI 2,1-2.

Verb : to bum (not be hot) : the t3w sacrifices 04* e-,areburnt (consecrating meatportionstext) AC VI 257.12 In Coptic Cf. -rAy in-4pT-At'oveW.KH251(notCrumorCED).


I skrificial animal * Wb V 231 (4) GR

Wb recordst3w only from the texts at Edfu Keessuggested it referredto the male gazelle that . in (gts) perhapsassuming'that'Ois a corruptionof LN 'male! [Tieropfer p.751.The word appears puns with 0 'heat'and it may actuallyderive from this root , with'the meaning'somethingburnt'. Zandeetranslates word froImVI 258,3as "gazelles"'-but comments further [Bi.'Or. 20 1963 the no
p.253] . ,r

in The word appears scenes the sacrificeof desertanimals 'brp-'wt-n-. 3swt concerned with yardof Horus,their meatportionsmakefestivethe altarsVII ni3w areofferedto the slaughter and 14al' are brought to Horus VII 164,8-9.A list of offering animals'in the temple 11.: how the butchergod Sheshemu IV 3,4 ; 'a'stairway describes includesV description text seizes
"3%cFand ni3w 1555,8'-9 ; and similarly the ni3w and 565,3 ; further 25Vlcp In w--r-stpwalliterative texts burnt VI 257,12 are in his hand 1565,5. are chopped up by SheshemuI

Or% 323,1;

butchered :P CP texts the t3w are and put upon the altar-IV 221,8. In & TOfeihe Crk dr. ti animals -are driven away V 52,13 ;P animals are alsoq 28,940.7he slaughter was probably donewith a knife', P. Thcw VI 258,3 the fire D IV 11,1-2, and probably elsewhere.

the king raises his arm to chop (det. Ogin The word was also used at Dendera:,,


The 0 is somekind of gazelle,from the determinative which lives in the desertareasand its , dismemberment burningweresymbolicof the destruction the enemies the Icing of of and sacrifice, be They werecloselyassociated ni3w and may, [Junker,ZAS 48,1910 p.71 and72 especially]. with muchearlierthanasyet attested.

t3/t3i. t

door in temple Wb V 230 (15) D. 19 and 231 (10) NK, GR

The word 0 is found at Abydos to mean the door to the temple and it is determined with which represents entranceor doorway surmountedby a frieze of protective serpents.RAar.Abydos I an pl. 19a <67a>] and Sed temple <19>,O There is also a word in P.Harris 45,7 VIA V 0 <20> both occurring with sb3 and sbbt. is probably the same word found at Edfu

kqq ANl-lEs .

in the Place of Piercing 118 (36) ; in a text for the erection of a tent for Re-Harakhty , c,;, hr 3 the king Dr twt s1h' mnw completes doors and erects statues IV 86,1. The 0 is not a simple doorway but was probably more like an entrance portico, hence the determinative. Spencer argues that it comes from the stem 0 to weave, and t3yt was a kind of curtain or screenof woven reeds which was hung across doorways and was not used before the 19th dyansty [Temple p2il]. ..

The Abydos examples suggest that they could be made of gold or. wood,,, I,

overlaid with gold. The determinative is a screenwall with a uraei frieze, usually found in Windowslof,

Apearance in GR temples [Jdquier, Architect= III p125at Edful and .


grain winnowed

' t3y occursat Edfu in a 'Driving the calves'text : of the 'h. snakes the king says"I havecut off , their heads,I have severedtheir tails , making the unthreshed corn (hty) into grain III

168,14 Fairmancommentsthat it is 'grain after its separation from the straw i.e. winnowedor . , refined' [JEA 36,1950 63 n.8]. p.



Wb V 344 (1) t3ty. s3b-13ty Wb V 343 (8) to 344 (9) see

LA VI Wesirscol. 1227-1235 , form of the full title t3ty or 13ty is the abbreviated


The vizier was the man afthe head of the Egyptian administration. He may have been the man who judgement at the gatewayshencethe element t3 'gate! in the Ititle [Derchain-Urtel, Thot p.95 ff. ] gave The actual post was no longer in existence in the Ptolemaic period but in the GR temples the title tviziee was associatedwith the performance of Maat and the judicial functions he had held. It was therefore often an epithet of Thoth but in the shortenedform t3yty-s3b. ' It was applied more widely to other gods from the NK onwards [Otto, GuM p.221 , but at Edfa . Thoth is the prominent holder of V JM 1DJ-, El IrL VIII 123,3; VI 199,8 ; the title: who decides Isft from m3't IV 92,6; in a )-, 52 Im-, Thoth 111143,14;where a headbandis presentedto text giving 11aat the king is the son of Thoth the king is called , 10 13r, V 287,10. bhn sw

The title is given to the king in Maat texts and is usually followed by the phrase My (who does not accept bribes) : t-JM nfrVIIl95, ?JMiqrVH9l, lI-, 4.

As the female counterpart of the king the queen can be given the title too : Cleopatra (wife of Ptbi emy V) is and daughter of Thoth 1517,5. At Dendera too the main goddesses, Isis and 5 Isis ', IS daughter of Thoth D 11221,11 - and the Edfu title

Hathor are given the same title :

be a suggestionof the queenas Isis (as the king was Horus). may Together with imy-r n1wt the two titles celebrate the establishment and maintenance of Maat , , rather than any actual office.


foes enemies , Wb V 233 (4-7) Late, GR

5.10 L7 S%, t3rw is first attestedin the Wisdom of Amenemope


and 12,16,where,

from the way it is written it may be t3-r3 thus etymologically 'Hot-mouthedl., As the determinative is a snake it may refer to poisonous snakeswhose bites would produce 'fiery' venom [c f. Grumach, Amenemope,p.39]. In the Book of the Dead among evil beings isO'' Spell 164,9 [Allen P.1601and -2 one' ,0 -Wt: 'the hot mouthed

in the underworld line 16, again mentioned with

hostile beings. They have the enemy determinative only and it is possible the snake in other Amenemope could be written after confusion with r3-snakp. Hot/angry of mouth may refer to the foe he chargesin attack. as At Edfu t3rw is used in alliteration, especially in db3-t3rw rn D_b3'punish the enemies who are in


1&Z Edfu'.*,O2=-&z., IV 330,6; DW tW3 drty dUPT111

rl,, qq tLl 378,17 52,12; Horus db3P ; possibly

in it IV 2,2; D-b3

I jjb3'CO=-qqaL
here given an',-

a. ..

IV 159,17.

in offering scenes : killing the crocodile, the king chops up (dbdb)&4"U-

determinative to suit the context IV 212,6; bread and beer offering (as last), *]&"-'. p '%z appropriate the4* indicating the origin of the word IV 254,1; in the general killing of enemies, Horus drives j VII 263,6 and Horus slays (mds), 942M who are in shrines and towns IV 15,8 ; Ow.,,, -F"YI_ smite the foes and the serpentIV 27,6. The word is also found atPhilae, used,,, C '<319> and at Esna di hVA r bbt-nir Esna

66 away j-_t: sbiw, OW

in a similar way : the lion rages against IH no 265,28.

At Kom Ombo however, the word is applied to the crocodile in a more positive way: the crocodile is, to as P, referred S:--KO 187,25 and possibly *% '. 82,7. Gutbub [Hom. Saun. 1394] *, ,

translates the term as la gueule brfilante' referring to the crocodile [see also Goyon, Gardiens p.87, n.3].


to kill Wb V 234 (6) GR

Only one example is attested, in the Myth , moment V VI 81J. It seemsclear.

An sw 'Kill him in his destined


Wb V 234 (8) GR

One reference only : My knife strikes

=vyour foes! 1186,15 (collated from 4

Cauville, Osiris p.219 Doc. 15). 7be bird sign suggeststhis could be some form of duck which was regardedas Sethian in nature and one of the forms of his cohorts.

boundary Wb V 234 (15) to 236 (14) Pyr. ZDG. 656,6 province, nome Ii IA Cr. 45lb ; CED 201 ; KH 255 border limit nome , .



In generalt39 is an administrative division,a diict or provinceandthe Coptic descendant can Ttq In a diocese. the Donationtexts,at Edfu , it corresponds exactlyto Greekvog6; (ancientsp3t -mean [Meeks,Donationsp.57 n.24 ; Kees,ZAS 72,1936 pA6f] for only usedin religious geography) 5- h CD- to A(= 4: ME w 11hy 243,8 ; 13 ir 3 VII W D_b the nomeof Edfu VII 239,8 13 example c3Q Pr-]Vwt.]Vr VII 249,9 . Also as an agriculturalareaof land division : the Seth nomeis brought 2, to "I " its =3 it, 3bt-fields IV 182,10-11; northernNile runs over the C= tit I the and of 1HB with "" 10 in the km-wr nomethe king doublesCIDX 'It 581,15; king cfe' for BB IV 29,14; Hor Akhty gives the

to the extentof the sun disk 1500,10.In a late text on the pylon , heretoo 09 has his nomeVIII 146,5.

to the implication'nome!: the falconleadseveryone

Otherwise09 is the actualboundarymarker, that is , the limits of a field or domainof a ruler in this case,the king or a god. In this context09 is very often the objectof the verb swsb 'to widen , for/of HB the extend': the king extends boundaries t. 21- isi of BehdetVIII 17.13;

,to 441

1179 -10;

IV 9,10; VIII 9,4.


Il 7.7-8 ; for the s3b.Xwt CM 1 1 VII 271,16-17; $,


boundaries':Shu tL' In the phrase wp-t3Y'openthe

to the limit of his rays , The

114,13. The geogra*cal texts mention presentingflowers on the days of wp

L 10, to the can also imply the most distant boundaryof a nome : the s3b-9wt reaches. . word 1 I , VIII 8,18 of the raysof the sundisk VIII 17,8-9;sim. extent . The signof the featherstickingin the groundmayhavebeena simplemethodof markinga boundary likely,is a phoneticspellingwith in (references MontpellierH 95) or more. Y. readas t3andthefeather

ti .

stativeending- 3rd sing.fern.

JunkerGrD p.109143, at Edfu with the spelling


Enclitic particleti plus sw - dependant pronoun

GG 119,4from the 12thDynastybut Wb V 238 and316-7recordsti-sw asa later development of the particletr . At Edfu : ti-sw is usedwith a following noun and it is treatedas a particle r

Wlst. ]Vr r btd. f 'His majestyis indeedin WetjesetHor on his throne!VI 93.9. A parallel version




e- he (HB) is king in Wetieset Hor on his throne VI 262,16.

make a noise (at the rising of the sun) Wb V 241 (6-9) to cry out plus dative - to rejoice at , c f. 63 Wb V 241,10 D. 19 Late 'to sing' ,

Wb cites P.Kahun VI 25 (Med.) as the first example of 63 . Wb Drog. 937 suggeststhat ,

is toothache and--%qlk'

'to havetoothache!. may indeedhavecaused Ilis to someone cry

in pain, which may be at the root of the word, certainly it helps to explain the determinative. By out the time of Medinet Habu VI 420B which is the sameas a text in the Taharqa temple at Karnak [see Taharqa pl3l appears and p.39 n.22] - the souls of the east 'sing out' shout out! praises of Re when he 'sing praisesfoe- Li3 a noisy type of music perhaps in: ", With the dative

imitation of the noise of apesPs sun rises [Assman, Der K6nig als Sonnenpriesterp.29 n.4 and 91. the At Edfu : at the appearanceof Hathor sing praise for her 155,6; the royal daughters of 'we sing at your form when you IIp. 124 line 11 I rejoice at your, bc2563>

the south say at the appearanceof Horus (as solar deity)

shine for us like Re when he shines in the horizon' VI 83,5 [Daumas - CAME . a- '! i acclamons]. The word also occurs in the Mammisi : Hathor says q'J6, -'nous .9lk 17 155,8 form (Harsomthus) 117,4 ; Sim. welcoming HBq Philae IC ; at Phot. 976 and Dendera c9 D 111121,1.


to sit Wb V 242 (12-18) Late, GR

The form of this word is Z=) P.Br.Rh. 4,11 : nn twt r. k JEA 22 p.135 and 1241 but [BIFAO 29, p.62 and63 n.1I

[Anthes Fels. Hatnub 1913p.41] and in later texts suchas , , L -1; " 'it is not fitting to thee to dwell alone' (Faulkner"", r tp smsw.f he sits at the head of his followers P.Louvre 3292INV. ].

In most cases Edfu the word is a synonymfor other words meaning'to sie : the king at upon the mn-bitV II 31,4-5; the king VI the throne VIII 148,11,. upon m' in

'-Wetjeset-Hor 1111,16 theking-'! ;

throneof Horus1284,12;HB

'a4. kin94 'I in Wetjeset Hor 1304,11the -, m

the upon

r upon the thronein the GreatPlace1204.15*,Behdet


Fp r'nst 1119,14; king gives Wetjesetto Horus -k --,b May you sit //// 1162,16. , Iq Pa 10JJ11" With bkr : Horus r 137,13;Horus m-bnt VIII 122,19;the king rn-bnt b 1177,7. The verb is also usedof bird godssitting on their shrines VIII 146,34 and Horusas a

falcon sits upon his imageVHI 139,11-12. Metaphoricallywhen Maat is presented sits in the she shrine= throat q 111143,5 they sit upon your headas the DoubleCrown V

fis also appliesto crownsupon the head: 101,8;the doublecrown

the uponyou (king) - here. determinative agrees with the feminine

The subjectVII 125,16-17. wordalsooccursat Dendera Philae. and


? cinnamon Wb V 243 (5-14) MK DG658,5

ti-9ps was a fragrant substance obtainedfrom Punt and usedin the preparationof kyphi Helck translatesit 'Aloe' [LA 1902-3] . It could be the nameof a tree and when it is written with the
-C determinative is , it is the resin of this tree. The origin of the word is not clear and perhaps the -

earliest appearanceis in the Shipwrecked Sailor line 163 . Golenischeff [Glossary p221 , Conte du Naufragd] describes it as a fragrant substance[see Charpentier, 1339 p.790-1 Wb Drog. 549-551 , cinnamon ? (after Lbret, RT 16,1894,145-innanwnum &&Vhora Nees]. The word is common at Edfu and ti9ps can be presentedin an offering ritual. Among products in an IIA 0 offering procession from Punt and the God!s Land are : for its fragrance 1566,3 and A6

complete in/with its ingredients - which suggeststhat it is a compound substance1566,6-7. There are a, Awl specific types : best ti-Xps 'there is nothing like if VI 3i4,5 ;)VIA tpy ndmnlim and

A 1EP'of lotus 1389,1. Wps was used for the hair VI 314,5 ; becauseof its fragrance it could be Ad giVen for the ka of Hathor//, VII 211,10; and at the festival for the temple everyone is anointed ,

'A witb),

IV 19,6. ti4ps-was producedon the premises the templein the'laboratory' of

in 1451,11and thereare recipesfor a certaintype.It appears ms-'ntyw offering texts and the two of examples recipesare in the contextof a nk-tirps offering which the king makesto Hathorand W, I W '15* VI 166,12.The king receivesthe rewardof '11228 4 andnk Harsomthusnk


the landswhence substance comes both textsare followedby recipesfor making and the Go VI 166,18. ,
--) best fi4ps of nnib' 11229,1 and


Germer [Arznei p.343ff. ] suggestedthat the identity of ti9ps is unknown but it is a am product from the south of which in medicine, both the root and wood are used.The Edfu texts do not clarify it at all but the recipe for ti-1ps is puzzling as it implies it is a substancewhich could be made from other products, in thesecasesit comesfrom nnib , rather than being a naturally occurring substance.


image symbol sign , ,

Wb V 239 (1) to 240 (11) OK Cr. 396b; CED180; KH220,224 Thr-,
T11 spot

The earliest example quoted by Wb of this word suggeststhe underlying nuance of this word At . Beni Hasan 126 line 163-4 (Tomb No. 3 of Khnumhotep) tit is used to designate

'writing signs. From the l8th Dynasty to the Roman period the king could be called tit-n-RI where the king was understoodto be the earthly symbol or sign for the sun god - rather like a sign which is used to write a whole word, but at the same time it is a representation or image of what it refers to [Hornung, Mensch als Bild p. 1431. At Edfu tit occurs frequently and its use covers the range from tit 'writing symbols' to tit 'pictorial representations'. 93' - 1 who invented signs 1 164.3 The king as Lord of with reference to Thoth tHieroglyphs is ir one who makes signs 1167,15 ; in decorating the throat , with a strip of byssus cloth bearing signs VI 145,2. 4,6. A particular form N'% of gods and godessesin the of a lion IV 18.11; in a Maat offering

HB is F-IIII Image : of a god,

temple IV 17,15; Horus turns his foes back in his form 'She is your image ?e to Amun-Re the sun barque in the

which came from you' VI 317,15-16; Horus is in the prow of '" 110 of Osiris [Cauville, image of millions II.,

of a harpooner VI 8,8; guardians protect the king as the son of Isis is -,

Osiris p. 53 'reprdsentadonl 1167,18 80,8.

With a qualifying adjecdve-:,dsr the throne of the falcon with with N IV 10,13; Harsomthus is J

his sacredform IV 5,2; HB unites 1-b 4M who

Re-Hor-Akhty 1242,15; son of Isis of


drives away foes 1276.2; the king

upon the Great Seat of his father 1368,11; the king is

VA !. 4of Horus Lord of the laboratory 1143,9 and njrwt dsrw sacredimagesof godesses in .
in the templeIV 8,1.
ka" 4 90 Horus in his boat IV 37,1; in the Latopolitan nome HB is , IV I sanctifying his way 1129,17. standardin a procession is 1338,1; the 2nd

In the phrase tit-nbd which refers to offering animals as symbols of Seth : to quench his thirst with * Ir'[Junker Seth] 1555,17; o-k ZAS 48,1910 p.75 symbol of Seth 1rL7. nbd = portions of VC Z'F" Sethian image VII 82,2 foe and your enemiesare for your altars 1565,14-15; birds of that the king captures ro-geeseof TvI hVII 125,3; possibly on the chopping block (referring tit-nbd pw

1* 85to sacrificial gazellei] VII 213,2-3 ; drink their (gazelles and cattle) blood

k they are bad images (or symbols) of your foes IV 285,3 [c f. Blackman and Fairman in MG bftyw. 422and n. 111]. Various: 13 1(-"), p3 In tit. f beautiful of form IV 46,15.


diadem crown . .0

ti. t - Isis belL In an offering of plumesthe king unites with, cL Vryt-tp IV 246,3.


and joins with the


- typeof grain and

A field is offered and it is broughtwith smn Cgrain'and-alsoa Wordfor image) completein it IV 337,8. pr-3bt


to trample on', crush Wb V 244 (1-7) MK

Cr. 439a *.CED 98 KH 248 , t TAUE[Qsing tt JEA 64,188 disputes

The reduplicated form of the verb ti (Wb V 237,10-12) used in old texts to mean 'to stamp on "to destroy', but also with the spelling derived in turn from and possibly a pestle used to

hence the verb ti [Mmi 19 1969 p.28 n. 1]. grind substancesto powder, At Edfu titi is used especially,in the phrase - titi bftyw'm nstyw trampling the enemy as images

1980 .

A IV 344.4 HB-A-9 45,11; 4m )--JV1136,7.

VII 179,3-4; Horus as Wenty-q'q

V11310,8; 40-41 -A,


is a martial action used of warlike gods and can be effective in alliteration titi

"AqP Ans : -9-q.

(hippopotamus) V 343,7. The exact type of action involved here can be seen in battle scenes where the king in his chariot is seen driving over the prostrate bodies of his enemies [c f Battle of Kadesh at Luxor for convenience in Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant, Warminster 1982 p. 57 fig. 191 In general , . ,

A foesIV 375,11;WentyUs q his foes VI 142,1;HoruS .0 the Lord of Mesen"%%'%1, 286,13.

That it is a trampling action is shown by the determinative -A trampled under the sandalsof the king or god :IqA.

foes VI

and in phrases where the foe are 44 -A you trample

lir sandalsV 143,17 ;

111136,3; themuponthe earthwith (m) your sandals

you havetrampledthemwith (m) your attentive

VI sandals 333,7.In priestly processions the priestsare told to be ip-ib and : finnly) 1560,4. andsurefooted(treading

bw-titi a place in the cosmogonical texts : strong one inJ r--3b-. c--3 VI 313,16; Horus walks in , n-

01) rjj

VI 330,6;

" 4-A to,

VI 17,13;2--j u!!j

el 'CL. VI 18,2;'Drl Z "

VI 329,4and

j G-1 d% =,

"C-73 line 9; 10

j , 'this oav III 9,9; c 3. 11133,15.The 'Place of Trampling or Place for Crushing 'was a

domain createdat the command of the Earth Wker and here the battle was fought by the ancestorgods who settled here and built a temple. Edfu then was the bw-titi the place of the final battle and ,

where the mythical temple was founded for the sun god [MOET 348 , 34 , 36 , 311 ; also Reymond in ZAS 87,1961 p.46 n.7 ; ZAS 92,1966 p. 116 n.3] All the foes were held - hereeady to be . [Goyon, Gardiens p. 12 n.6 and 16 n. 10]. The determinatives for the place: C1 trampled C1 V1329,4and G1 V1330,6;

VI 329,9 suggest that the scribe of the text was consciously trying to show

the primitive character of the early temple here, by drawing a primitive structure. This writing occurs too often to be a simple mistake.


passive element Wb V 245 (8)

JunkerGrD p. 102 129,writings



depenck pronoun 2ndsing.masc. Pt e, objectafter the imperativeor direcr object.

intherieldIV37,11; lift

GG 43 (2) p.45, JunkerGrD p.39-40 52

Spellings at Edfu : Cm

for example: she reaches you e- -

9 you to Wetjeset IV 53,12; the Enneadbrings = you to the throne of Re IV 54.2.

GG 124

pronominal compound
ternY-Groll I , LEG 2.6 p.32 - pronominal preformatives of the first present, used as ,

the subject of adverbial predicates and equivalent verb forms, either stative or with br/m plus infinitive. At Edfu : the lion gargoyle says ern dm-'g3y 'I am sharp of claws! IV 286,4.


to raise, lift , carry Wb V 248 (12) to 250 (11) Pyr.,

The main use for the verb at Edfu is in the title of the tw3-pt lifting up heaven' scene [for the writings of significance and history of this ritual seeKurth, 11immelStiltzen . and also under pt]. 71be tw3 in these scenesvary but the determinative always indicates the action involved very precisely: fj(act of lifting and carrying on the head) VIII 89,14; IV 251,8; with the arms-raised supporting the sky probably tw3-pt IV 253,10; raising the arms up to lift JLT 111237,16 andT


IV 348,18 (x 7) and see also the king his armsTO-LTraise , .

heaven by his

is might IV 234,14-15.A minor god in the SokarChamber called

Nwt Lifter who lifts up the sky 1,199,8 (Wb V 250,14-15). Other objects are raised : Offerings bw. nfr upon the arms in processions V 250,11; the H

KO image) 1559,17, the rmnw L'Porakhty the priestly'bearers'og"1.3-carry Lady of Heaven (Hathor 34,15; Isis and Nephthys f2%1 Behdety who shines in the horizon. V 3,1; Khonsu as the air4%1 Nut and .3'.r JJ Nut 1261,16 ; 262,6; IF #kTholds Edfu up the falcon IV 2,2; the great place

raiseswhat is in Egypt IV 10,10. 110 in puns: the,tw3w columns -

hold up the hall (wsht) IV 6,4. V


To carry weapons : near Montu there is none him knowing VII 65,1.

VIMI !. '42%' e"b'&,,

who carries any weapon without

In the same way as other verbs meaning 'to carry'. tw3 can mean 'to we&: the White Crown it on my head139,38; the king 'pOwears the White Crown as Lord of Fagt 149,4. .*-I wear There may also be an intransitive version of the verb at Fu I)e raised' : in a Ni Iepc roc ssion the -df g7 Wadj-Wer Nile is brought ', f*L tr bwy. k lh'. n. f hr 3ht. f he has been raised upon your

lands he stands uponyour fields 1113,1. ,

tw3-sw. r-nlrw

raise himself to the gods

Wb V 249 (12) GR

Literafly 'onewho raises himselfto the gods! the orhe is raisedup morethanthe'gods' epithetrefers but in at Edfu to the solarbird god HorusBehdet It is usedindiscriminately offering scenes is often qiy.*- CMV 9% J". IV 371,10; 343,17; -" by rqj,, accompanied martial titles. Spellings: fx A -=e'" 'el V 152,1; "h'EIPZ 1,11, 255,3 VII VI 309,6-7; fL -1 -




Wb V 250 (19) GR Cr.443b; KH251TOyk doorpost, lintel

The lack of an earliernounfrom tw3 is perhaps to the vagaries text preservation but due of . in P.AnastasiIII = LEM 30,12 are the colum'nsof a porch in front of a
monumental door [Spencer, Temple p.2501 . tw3 is the substantive'deriv6d from the verb tw'3 'to raise up' . attested by Wb at Dendera (MD I 7b), but the Edfu examples are contemporary , if not

earlier . In the description the temple of descriptionof the hall has//jQ

columnshold up the roof of the'wsht hall IV 6,4; a

32 columnsin it V 3.6; the 'great ambulatory(myt) hasil,

like heavenupon its 4 supportsVI 6,2 In a different type of text but situated in the First , HYPostyle Hall the king is called who raises(tw3) heaven111262,3. ,


Wb V 250 (12) GR andWb V 250 (13)


Literally 'that which holdsup the body', foundin the earliestinscribedEdfu texts : &Q411 the

M' 11.0

supportsof your body which cannot grow weary (likened here to Isis and Nephthys -two

father)117 (18) [seeMG pA22 n.1151 and the king'f"kfI supportingtheir offers the Houseor o. for shrineof the leg to Khonsu,who is responsible it 1272,8 . There is also an offering madeto Khonsu,accompanied lunar beings- the king saysto him,"rake the moon for your majesty the by . first month*'IA6j' 10 Mesen
e-, -v


1255,2. The text confinues,'I receive-////he puts himself in your secret

kOm. br sbqt.k establishingyour majestyupon your leg.


enemy Wb V 248 (9-11) NK-GR andWb V 248 (3) GR enemy

7be original form of tw3w may be W (Wb V 248,1-3)'be poor' (and c f. FCD 295 man of lov station), which gaverise to a verb too in the MK., lw3 (Wb V 248,5-7)'to beg someone, pleadwith GR W them'. In the- periodthereis a substantive which hasbadconnotations eitheras an abstact , 'badones,enemies. idea'badness'or meaning At Edfu it -is the nuanceof 'enemies' which is most prominent. Wadjet tramples(titi) of the king VI 295,8-9;in a lotus text the mothercow protectsthe king against land is madesacred (d$r) from 339,3;in a calf driving text, the sacred from kl JEA 36,1950 and n.46)I 102,1.The flood is brought, preserved demonessl583J. as personified a disease in Also perhaps the Sokarchamber the lector priest hasclearedout is word as 'enemies' foundat Kom Ombo his foes KO Il 86,636,4. 1215,12.The
CIR tMel.


all evil things(after impurity, here

KO 1180,629left 3 and fear of snakes quells


'heaveif 'that which is'mised'- templeroof metaphorically , , Wb V 250 (21) GR

In the templeprocession the roof : to

I 'A,


your roof is purified from evil (perhaps

tw3t. k twr. ti r dw) I 557ji I. Kurth also indicatesan example in a W3-pt scene alliteration he claims is a further word for heavennot found in Wb - however heaven/roofare often which 'CIr-I 61.Here-Horus in interchangeable Egyptianconcepts[Statzenp.44 n. saysto the king 'I seefIL 40


tw3. n. k m-hr. k the sky which you have raised up before me' 111196,11. Also : Wadjet declares that the king is establishedupon his serekh in forever IV 52,14. P-rTc Tas the king

twy A scene of purifying with pieces of natron text mentions some minor deities perhaps connected ' ,

with the Wadi Natmn or Fayumarea, includinglk I-A

C4 449-, 'A AA'

,r Or bnp bq3w.k'

(making your magic pervade ?) they turn away your attacker, you stand without bending or being

weary'IV 61.1.


to cleanse to purify , Wb V 253 (5) to 254 (16) MK oft. GR

The origin of twr is in a word in the PT s, twr (Wb V 252,10-13) repulse drive away', so that 'to , in the ritual twr describes act of driving away/removing evil, dirt to make things pure. 7be the earliestexamples this word showthat it wasintransitiveI)e pure,be purified' :a Louvre StelaC of 30 [Sethe, Lesestacke 65,15] SobekIry declares am pure I p. HatnubGr. 23 line 2 DjehutyNakht is firm of foot and is still found : the king is b andclean, worshippingMn' At Edfu this latter kind of idea

jclean of handswhen unrolling bolts of cloth 1420,15.7be" is pure1566,11,the sun4510

constructionwith stative is often used: nLri-cloth 0=0 is pure 1551,20.

More common in the Late Period and GR temples is the transitive form of the verb, 'to purify, clean. ,

To cleanbuildings "0


Sr his shrineIV 490; Nunclt-

4" -, the temple1323.9. In the phrase. ja


-3- 16W XI twr st.R' n.f 'purifytheplace Refor him' (mainlyfromcosmogonical ) j='L'texts '; of
VI 169,8 "a=.

FL7: ', Vl 18,6

r Y. VI 143.10[CL // VI 14,5; 10, Cj

Goyon, Gardiens 10n.31. p. To cleanpaths:-. e< 4 -*. 4 -'* IV 51,12; IV path of the sovereign 51,4; his pathsare. path sot-, -"

VI 245,5-6. To clean the body/Iimbs from (r) dirt d= r Sth VIII 8,10 1' i4; a' =: At r tkn I 556, dt r i3dt 1471,13

of Re r Sth VIII 76,7 . pli ace


In alliteration : t3-&srt. k-zL things'l 101,18-102,1.

r tw3yw nb 'your sacred land is purified from all evil

From the determinative the cleansing was ach ieved by using water to wash away dirt and impurities. Also in texts about flood or primeval water, for example Nun from the two caverns Mn: L

is limbs 1586,9 againthe emphasis on waterdoing the purifying ; or first the king with the purifies , AA4^% 75',' '-I (which holdswater)thenHorus'-, cleanthe body from evil 1431,10and 11. vessel nemset A