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EFFECTIVENESS OF PANTAWID PAMILYANG PILIPINO PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IN BARANGAY LAPULAPU

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of Nursing Department Holy Child School of Davao Davao City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree in Nursing

by: Johnoel E. Mendez Mayomi B. Noval Prudel D. Presbitero

Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGS INTRODUCTION In this generation, a lot of poor people believe that life happens to them by fate and they always give excuses and blame on the circumstances and focus on obstacles. Among of the poor people are just dreaming about their dreams and just think about how good it is going to be if they are rich, but they will never do anything about their dreams. And most of them associate with the same people with the same level in the society. Poverty is every body`s problem. In every success received by a part of the society, the other part of course experience poverty. The meaning of it must be thought to the concerned for them to provide and contribute a solution to the uneven part of survival. In the world today, it is a blessing if one does not often bothered by the problem like this. The people who suffer poverty are mostly the unemployed people, the elderly, the

uneducated and the working poor. They may experience lack of income, work, goods and help from the government. Some of them may have jobs but still the earnings is not enough to sustain the needs for the whole family to a certain period of time. Poverty also causes malnutrition in some parts of the country, it also affects the development of the future of our country. They cannot think of ways on how to improve their lives and country when they have to think of where they can get their daily needs. The 4Ps program is currently being implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). It is a conditional cash transfer program known as Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) that had started in 2008 inspired by the

successes of similar programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Families en Accion in Columbia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico (Defensor, 2010). Mexico OPORTUNIDADES, apart from education and health cash grants are accompanied by cash transfers for food and fare with clearly while in Brazil, Bolsa Familia is a part of a larger economic and social protection scheme compose of complementary action and services to poor families. Among the significant complementary activities are employment creation, provision of income-generating activities, and impairment of housing conditions (Briones, 2010). The Pantawid

Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is more than a welfare program; it addresses the structural inequities in society and promotes human capital development of the poor, thus, breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty. The conditions attached to the grants require parents to undergo trainings on responsible parenthood, have their children undergo health checkups and ensure school attendance (Defensor, 2010). In the Philippine governments version of the conditional cash transfer in the provision in cash grants for education and health activities, poor families need to comply with a set of conditionalitys such as ensuring school attendance of children, regular visit to health centers for immunization preventive health checkups and maternal care and the program lasts for 5 years household-beneficiaries (Briones, 20120). These programs are an important relief in measure because many poor Filipinos are desperate to survive these trying times and it seems that 4Ps is like a magic bullet for poverty reduction. It was designed to address issues on maternal mortality and child mortality, and as well as keep children in school for five years but these vulnerable groups like senior citizens,

chronically sick and disabilities people. Some of the beneficiaries are not contented in the cash grants that they received even though it reveals that most of them expressed gratitude that with the cash grants, the health and education status of their families were improving, thus, they need jobs. This program was supported by the local government in the contribution to the Pantawid Pamilya. They said that they will continually work to find ways on how they can improve the program and they will provide tighter mechanisms to get views and recommendations on the program. In addition, Alango and Mondejar (2022) added that they shall continue to be the Gabay, Bantay, Tulay at Kaagapay to ensure integrity, transparency and accountability in the implementation of the program. According to Spohr (2011) that 4Ps is a very good program and it can make that program even better if the government will coordinate more of Civil Society Organizations (CSO). Soliman (2011), cited that this recommendation will be better improve the implementation of the program at the same time to serve as the third eye who will report any anomalies being done in the government and they need help to ensure that the limited resources of the government go to those who are really qualified beneficiaries of the program. In Region 11, particularly in Davao City there are 3,000 household beneficiaries who avail in the 4Ps program. According to Taberna (2012), 4P is a conditional cash transfer program of the government that had started in 2008. The program works quite simple. Very poor

families who had children below 14 years of age are given 500 pesos for health and nutrition expenses while they receive 300 pesos for each child, a maximum of three, for their educational expenses. Most of the beneficiaries receive 1,400 pesos per month, for

they maximize the 3 children limit of the 4P. In the eyes of a man who has access to the internet to read this, the middle-class or higher class of Filipinos, 1,400 per month is quite small, and may provide little, if any help, in the perspective of the not-poor sector of the society. I take no surprise, 1,400 is not even enough to satisfy a Burgis, for they were raised with a silver spoon, or a bronze spoon, or with a spoon for crying out loud. The people that are receiving the 4P grew up, not with those spoons in the mouth like the reader of this, but they grew up without any spoon, hell, they grew up without a stable source of basic human needs, like food, water or shelter. Again, Taberna said that according to the theory though I am not sure if it is in practice that the beneficiaries of 4P are the poorest of the poor and 1,400, is and will be a big help for them, it may not be enough, but as they say, one cant be a chooser if one is a beggar. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK According to Appelbaum (1970), humans by nature are social beings and we learn out of our interactions with fellow human beings and the environment where we belong. It is supposed to be a dynamic interaction between persons, complementing each others needs, more particularly in terms of material needs, like food, clothing, shelter, etc., with specific sectors producing such needs. This is a natural interdependency involving

economics that man lives by to affect the stability and survival. No man is an island indeed. We buy and sell good and services. There is a continuous exchange of activities. According to Social Psychological and Sociological perspective (2011), the social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social

exchange theory posits that all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective

cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of

alternatives.

The theory has roots in

economics, psychology and sociology. This is the very same principle that the Philippines 4Ps are anchored on. It is a based on reciprocity I give but you also give. Social exchange theory, also called the communication theory of social exchange, suggests that human beings make social decisions based on perceived costs and benefits. This hypothesis asserts that people evaluate all social relationships to determine the benefits they will get out of them. This is the comparison level where individuals assess the gains in maintaining such relationship. It also suggests that someone will typically leave a relationship if he or she perceives that the effort, or cost, of it otherwise any perceived advantages. relationship. The 4Ps have been implemented since January 2008. It has become nationwide after going through a piloted program mode between June to December 2007. In 2010 it is estimated that around 300,000 households were targeted under the program, which aims to provide money to extremely poor households in order to allow the family members to meet certain human development goals set by the government. In the In the 4Ps, however, the implements do make or break the

Philippines, studies have found a strong correlation between low schooling and high malnutrition and poverty. In its conception until the re-running of the program, the main objectives of the 4Ps remain the same, they are to increase enrollment/attendance of children at the elementary level and reducing poverty. According to John Rawls (1971), A Theory of Justice, puts it this way that each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a

whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others." Indeed, "equal justice" for all, should be the core principle of any just government. The poor cannot remain mere pawns. They should not be made into that expendable collateral for and in the name of progress. Human well-being, a decent life for each, is a matter of right and this recognition must be translated into real programs for every right demands a corresponding moral duty. This urgency is brought about by the fact that, as suggested by Jeffrey Sachs (2005), "growth may enrich households linked to good market opportunities but it may bypass the poorest of the poor...because they lack the requisite human capital - good nutrition and health, and adequate education." SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SOCIAL CHANGE THEORY

Sociology

Economics

Psychology

Dynamic Interaction

Evolves a natural interdependency

Process of negotiation exchanges between parties

Social exchange theory or communication theory

Person perceived costs and benefits THEORY OF JUSTICE

Person perceived advantages

Equal Justice

Human well-being

Good nutrition

Good health

Adequate Education

Conceptual Framework INDEPENDENT VARIABLE 4Ps Extent of Implementation Information dissemination Selection Criteria of beneficiaries Release of Cash Grants Effectiveness of the 4Ps Implementation DEPENDENT VARIABLE

CONCEPTUAL MODEL Figure 1 is the conceptual framework which shows the variable of the study. As

reflected, the study is a survey in nature in which the researchers determine the effectiveness of 4Ps program. The independent variable is the 4Ps implementation

involves information dissemination, application of the recipient, and release of grants while the dependent variable is the Effectiveness of 4Ps implementation. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research aimed to test the Effectiveness of 4Ps Implementation in Barangay Lapulapu. Specifically, this study will seek answer the following questions: 1. What is the extent of implementation of 4Ps in Barangay Lapulapu? a. Information dissemination b. Criteria of selection of recipients by CSSDO c. Release of grants in terms of cash 2. What are the controversies encountered in the 4Ps implementation? 3. Is the 4Ps implementation effective? 4. Is there any significance on the effectiveness of 4Ps implementation in terms of: a. Information dissemination b. Criteria of selection of recipients by CSSDO c. Release of grants in terms of cash HYPOTHESIS This study used the null hypothesis tested for the significance of the result. Specifically null hypothesis is presented in the following sentence: Ho1: There is no significant difference on the level of effectiveness of 4Ps implementation in Barangay Lapulapu in terms of information dissemination, criteria of selection and release of cash grants..

SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS This research study would be limited and conducted only at Brgy. Lapulapu, Agdao on the second week of September 2012. There are 60 participants who are taken for the study; all of them are beneficiaries of 4Ps in Brgy. Lapu- lapu, Agdao, Davao City specifically whether the mother or the father of the family. The researcher employs a simple random sampling technique in the conduct of the survey where the status of the participants will carefully consider. The study will conduct in the residences of the respondents in Brgy. Lapu- lapu, Agdao, Davao City. Those participants that are included in the study are chosen because they are the one who are able to answer the questions that will provide by the researchers since that they are a member of the 4Ps program and they came from the community that is targeted in the study. They are able to participate in the study due to the fact that they already know about 4Ps program. The researchers also believe that the respondents are honest in answering questions that will be implemented. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Result this will be beneficial to the following: The Department of Social Welfare Department will benefit from this study. This will help them to be aware of their program if it is progressively improving in reduction of poverty. It may serve as a basis if their program is actually one of the solution to poverty reduction and it also it can be the reference for planning more programs for the 4Ps beneficiaries.

The Department of Health, this study may also serve as a basis for them to be able to strengthen the program in which it may increase the health of the Filipinos especially the beneficiaries of the program. The Barangay Officials wherein the beneficiaries or respondents located, it will guide them to support the beneficiaries to become more effective and successful. To the beneficiaries, it will guide them also on how to be a responsible person that will convince them to attend trainings and seminars on responsible parenthood, have their children undergo health checkups and ensure school attendance. To the future researchers can also benefit from this study. This may serve as a guide for them in knowing the effectiveness of the program by DSWD. It also help them to make an interventions to encourage the beneficiaries of the 4Ps program to continue to follow the conditions that was made by the DSWD and it may provide baseline data needed for further study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS To have a better understanding of the terms used in this study, they are defined as follows: 4Ps. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is also called as a Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) as Philippine government version. It provides incentives for poor families to invest in their future by ensuring that mothers and children avail of health care and that children go to school. Health. It is a state of physical, mental and social well-being. The overall condition of an organism at a given time. Soundness, especially of body or mind; freedom from disease or abnormality. Poverty. The condition or quality of being poor, unproductiveness, deficiency in or inadequate supply of something. Poverty line. possible. Poor. Having little money, few possessions and no luxuries. Showing small yield and unproductive. Education. Instruction or training by which people learn to develop and use their mental, moral and physical powers. Nutrition. The process of nourishing or being nourished, especially the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues. The marginal income level at which an adequate living standard is

Economic.

Relating to or concerned with economics financially sound, reasonably

profitable. It is useful in the production of health or promotion of commercial prosperity.

Holy Child College of Davao College of Nursing Jacinto St., Davao City Dear Respondents, The undersigned BSN 4 students of Holy Child College of Davao are presently conducting a research entitled EFFECTIVENESS OF 4Ps IMPLEMENTATION IN BARANGAY LAPULAPU, AGDAO, DAVAO CITY in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research 2 (Thesis Writing). We are respectfully notifying you that youre area has been selected as our respondent. Below are the statements that will guide in your assessments of the variables under study. In this regard, we would like to request your help to answer the following questions as honest and appropriate as you can. Rest assured that whatever information you have shared will be kept confidential. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Researchers: NOVAL, MAYOMI B. BSN IV PRESBITERO, PRUDEL D. BSN IV MENDEZ, JOHNOEL E. BSN IV

The Effectiveness of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Implementation in Barangay Lalpulapu I. Profile. Name (Optional): Address: Age: Gender: F M

EVALUATION CHECKLIST FOR HOUSEHOLD MEMBER IN BRGY. LAPULAPU, AGDAO, DAVAO CITY
Scale 5 4 3 2 1 Range of Mean Values 5 4 to 4.99 3 to 3.99 3 to 2.99 1 to 1.99 Description Strongly Agree Agree Fair Disagree Strongly Disagree Meaning If the respondents agree in all the time. If the respondents agree most of the time. If the respondents agree sometimes. If the respondents opposed to the subject. If the respondents dont agree with for sure.

INSTRUCTION: Please check ( ) appropriate box that corresponds to your answer. 1. Implementation Information Dissemination a. I get information on 4Ps through advertisement in television. (Nakakuha ko ug impormasyon mahitungod sa 4Ps pinaagi sa anunsyo sa telebisyon). b. I get information on4Ps through advertisement in radio. (Nakakuha ko ug impormasyon mahitungod sa 4Ps pinaagi sa anunsyo sa radio). c. I get information on 4Ps through dissemination of information from our barangay officials. (Nakakuha ko ug impormasyon mahitungod sa 4Ps pinaagi sa pagistorya sa impormasyon gikan saamung barangay opisyales). d. I get information on 4Ps from our neighbors. (Nakakuha ko ug impormasyon mahitungod sa 4Ps gikan saamung silingan).

Criteria of Selection a. I know that I live in one of the poorest provinces based on the 2006 Family Income and Expenditure Survey. (Kabalo ko nga nagpuyo ko sa usa sa pinakapobre nga probinsya base sa 2006 Family Income and Expenditure Survey). b. I know that I live in one of the poorest provinces in six regions without a province in the list of the 20 poorest provinces. (Kabalo ko nga nagpuyo ko sa pinakapobre nga probinsya sa unom ka region nga walay probinsya sa listahan sa sa pinakapobre nga probinsya). c. I know that Mindanao is one of the target areas for selecting a beneficiary. (Kabalo ko nga ang Mindanao kay isa sa target nga lugar pra sa pagpili ug mga benepisyaryo). d. I know that through computerized selection of the poorest households based on a ranking system using Proxy Means Test developed for the program. (Kabalo ko pinaagi sa kompyuter ang pagpili sa pinakapobre nga matagbalay base sa hataas ang ranggo nga sistema gamit ang Proxy Means Test nga gibuhat sa programa). e. I know that we are one of the household whose economic condition is equal to or below the provincial poverty threshold. (Kabalo ko nga usa kami sa pinakapobreng pamilya nga pareho o ubos sa provincial poverty threshold ang among kita sa pamilya). f. I know that: (Kabalo ko nga:) a. I have children 0-14 years old (naa koy anak nga nag edad ug 0-14). b. I was a pregnant woman at the time of assessment (buntis ko atong panahon nga pag-interview sa akoa). c. We agree to meet the conditions specified in the program (ni uyon kami sa mga kondisyones sa programa). Release of Cash a. I know that I am the responsible person to receive the cash. (Kabalo ko nga ako ang responsible nga tao na mo dawat sa kwarta). b. I know that I can get the cash through a Land Bank cash card. (Kabalo ko nga makuha nako ang kwarta pinaagi sa Land Bank cash card).

Controversies Encountered a. The 1,400 pesos per month is not enough to satisfy a Burgis for three (3) children which is limited in the 4Ps. (Ang 1,400 nga kwarta dli kaigo para sa b. Beneficiaries grew up without a stable source of basic human needs, like food, water or shelter. c. Beneficiaries of 4Ps are the poorest of the poor. d. It doesnt give any significant long-term benefit. e. It is a mockery of the poor people and a waste of tax. f. It is also a dole out.

g. Long-lasting solution to impoverished condition is to have a stable job or livelihood, free education for their children, and free medicines for indigenous people. Strengths a. Promotes human capital development of the poor b. It breaks the intergenerational cycle of poverty c. It alleviates their immediate need (short term poverty alleviation) d. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger e. Able to achieve the Universal Primary Education f. It promotes gender equality

g. It reduces the child mortality Weaknesses a. The program is only palliative as it did not create jobs or livelihood opportunities for its beneficiaries. b. The families will go through the motion of having checkups at the health center and get certification from the school just to fulfill the requirements of the program.

c. Once the program is stopped, chances are they would again stop visiting the health center and stop sending their children to school. d. Lack of transparency in the process of selection, delisting and deciding on the amount that a family would receive, depending on the performance and attendance of the beneficiaries. e. They dole out makes them feel more indigent who could not complain of the charity they are receiving. f. Regular attendance at the 4Ps meeting is a way of enforcing them to avoid deduction, dropping, and deleted as beneficiaries.

Effectiveness a. Increasing number of students to attend classes. b. Pregnant women are able to avail pre-post natal care and childbirth. c. Children avail the immunizations and vaccines given by the health centers. d. Children age 6-14 years old is able to receive deworming pills given by the health team. e. The Family is able to sustain their basic needs (food, clothing and shelter). f. The Family is able to have a livelihood. 1 Information Dissemination e. I get information on 4Ps through advertisement on television. f. I get information on4Ps through advertisement on theradio.

g. I get information on 4Ps through dissemination of information from our barangay officials. h. I get information on 4Ps from our neighbors. Criteria of Selection g. I know that I live in one of the poorest provinces based on the 2006 Family Income and Expenditure Survey. h. I know that I live in one of the poorest provinces in six regions without a

province in the list of the 20 poorest provinces i. I know that Mindanao is one of the target areas for selecting a beneficiary. I know that through computerized selection of the poorest households based on a ranking system using Proxy Means Test developed for the program.

j.

k. I know that we are one of the household whose economic condition is equal to or below the provincial poverty threshold. l. I know that: d. I have children 0-14 years old e. I was a pregnant woman at the time of assessment f. We agree to meet the conditions specified in the program Release of Cash a. I know that I am the responsible person to receive the cash. b. I know that I can get the cash through a Land Bank cash card.

Holy Child College of Davao College of Nursing Jacinto St., Davao City
August 1, 2012 MS. CHARMIE LOU PENA, RN, MAN Dean, College of Nursing Holy Child College of Davao Jacinto St., Davao City Maam, The undersigned BSN students are presently conducting a research entitled Effectiveness of 4Ps Implementation in Barangay Lapulapu, in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Research 2N. The purpose of this study is to test how effective is the 4Ps implementation in the said barangay. In this regard, we would like to ask permission for us to conduct our study on the selected barangay, the Barangay Lapulapu, Agdao, Davao city. We assure you that all the gathered information will be held confidential. Hoping for your kind approval regarding this request. Thank you and God Bless. Sincerely, MENDEZ, JOHNOEL E. BSN IV Researcher

NOVAL, MAYOMI B. BSN IV Researcher

PRESBITERO, PRUDEL D. BSN IV Researcher Noted By:

MS. ELVILRA GRACE PONCE DE LEON , MAEM Research Adviser

MS. CHARMIE LOU PENA, RN, MAN Dean, College of Nursing

Holy Child College of Davao College of Nursing Jacinto St., Davao City August 1, 2012 HON. JULIETO D. ICOY Barangay Captain Barangay Lapulapu, Agdao Davao City Sir, We the 4th year BSN students of Holy Child College of Davao are presently conducting a research entitled Effectiveness of 4Ps Implementation in Barangay Lapulapu. The purpose of this study is to test how effective is the 4Ps implementation in the said barangay. In this regard, we would like to ask permission from your good office to allow us to conduct a study in your barangay. We assure you that all gathered information will be held confidential. Rest assured that we will going to give you the copy of our study. Hoping for your kind approval regarding this request. Thank you and God Bless. Respectfully yours,

MENDEZ, JOHNOEL E. BSN IV Researcher NOVAL, MAYOMI B. BSN IV Researcher PRESBITERO, PRUDEL D. BSN IV Researcher Noted By: MS. ELVILRA GRACE PONCE DE LEON Research Adviser MS. CHARMIE LOU PENA, RN, MAN Dean, College of Nursing

Approved By: HON. JULIETO D. ICOY Punong Barangay

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher presents readings taken from journals, books including those material attained from the internet. PANTAWID PAMILYANG PILIPINO PROGRAM According to Brul (2009) that Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a poverty reduction and social development strategy of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to extremely poor households to improve their health, nutrition and education particularly of children aged 0-14. The program is currently being implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Additionally, Aquino's Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program as a stratagem to alleviate poverty is not freedom from but a shackle that locks up the Filipino people to abject poverty ( de Guia, 2011). 4Ps. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is also called as Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) as Philippine government version. This program helps the penniless

people and most of them are living in squatter area and family who cant provide their basic needs. Cited by Department of Social Welfare and development (2010), Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is a poverty reduction strategy that provides grants to extremely poor households to improve their health, nutrition and education particularly of children aged 0-14. The program objectives is to alleviate the needs (short term poverty alleviation) of the poor people through cash grants and to provide discontinuity poverty cycle through human investment capital.

According to Felizardo (2009), the 4Ps program is not a dole out. Its not meant to make the poor become lazy and rely on the government nor the NGOs to alleviate their sad poverty state. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, just like the other Conditional Cash Transfer programs of other countries prioritize human dignity through availability of equal opportunities. It aims to provide monetary aid to poor beneficiaries with the hope that these investments in human capital would lessen the great financial divide among the haves and the have nots. The program was meant not a kind of doleout because the chosen beneficiaries are following the conditions through abiding the agreement of the said program. In this, the family received cash to provide the needs of the children especially the children will attend in school regularly, have visited the health center for regular checkups and also the mother received a cash for their medical checkups especially treatments during pregnancy. MIMAROPA (2011), Pantawid Pamilya is a conditional cash transfer program that provides incentives for poor families to invest in their future by ensuring that mothers and children avail of health care and that children go to school. As such, it is a human development program that invests in the health and education of children. On the other hand, providing immediate relief from cash flow problems will alleviate through providing cash. The benefits that can get by the beneficiaries of this program are health and nutrition grant in which a household receives P500 per month that is intended for their needs in health and nutrition; and for education the household receives P300 per month per children that is intended for 10 months only per year, and those amount that

was receive by every household will depends on the compliance of the conditions that was agreed. According to Maboloc (2012), it can be argued by the PINOY government that making the CCT program work should help guarantee the most basic entitlement of people under any democratic system respect for their humanity. The CCT can be construed as a matter of right, i.e., the right "not to be hungry", to borrow from Amartya Sen. It can be said that numbers or the many economic assumptions may be very ambiguous at this point. The right thing to do, in this regard, is to introduce people, especially the very poor or the poorest of the poor, to fundamental opportunities that will ultimately untie them from the fetters of poverty. The program is good, but he have some serious doubts about it. The problem lies in the fact that the Pantawid Pamilya Program does not address the root cause of poverty - our unjust and inequitable economic system. At the outset, critics will say that it is more prudent to use this budget to fund the construction of schools, hospitals, roads and many others. Basically, the argument

against it is built upon the standard idea in development theory that income is not equal to "well-being achievement". Simply put, the idea is that the CCT is a "butas na balde", metaphorically suggesting that the CCT can be money down the drain, for it teaches people dependency. In short, it does not really empower them. But does the CCT uphold the dignity of the poor? It does not. It only provides a temporary relief to their miserable life.

According to the Center for Womens resources (2012), the program is a dole out plan and simple. The families go through the motion of having check up at the health center and get certification from the school just to fulfill the requirements of the program, not so much because they believe that having check up or getting education should be a regular family activity. Once the program is stopped, chances are they would again stop visiting the health center and stop sending their children to school in order to help in providing income to the impoverished family, said by Cham Perez the CWR senior researcher and sociologist. This observation has been validated by a physician in one of the health centers involved in the CCT program. Requesting anonymity, the doctor reveals that mothers have still a low level of appreciation in going to the health centers because the centers lack medicines and other amenities needed by the indigent families. It is frustrating to prescribe a medicine when you know that the patient could not afford to buy it, the doctor shares. She adds that instead of dole out, the poor can benefit more when there is an increased government budget for free medicines. Poverty. Is a state of being poor physically and financially. A condition in which an individual or group of people that cant provide their daily needs especially the basic needs such as; food, shelter and clothing. Being poor is a difficult situation that facing by an individual to survive in everyday life. According to World Bank (2009), poverty is an income level below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the poverty line. Poverty. According to Eilmot (2009), defined that poverty is already existed from the past generation and until now it is still remains as a worldwide problem. In society all

of the cases about poverty is that everybody was equally poor. In addition, Spagnolis (2009), poverty is usually called as a poverty line it means that the family or individual has an income below to its a minimum level for them to provide their basic needs. It is usually varies across time and societies for them to be satisfy in their basic needs. Therefore, it varies to the time and place which is applicable to their norms and values. But this kind of situation is more likely the same everywhere. Poverty as same time it is hunger and lack of basic needs especially shelter. Also, it is evidence that people experiencing poverty is that they are not able to see a doctor if some members of the family was being sick. The children are not able to enter the school so they dont know how to read neither to write. Poverty is not a state of being a jobless. Most of them are losing a child to illness due to the fact that they dont have clean water. In terms to the society, they dont have power and lack of presentation and freedom. Harack (2012) emphasizes that people who belong in extreme poverty are the people who are barely meet their minimal needs for their survival. Also, they are often to feed themselves minimally while in moderate poverty are in less in danger wherein they are able to access their basic necessities in life but they are lack in wealth, and they are not able to educate their children. Poverty Alleviation. Rahman (2012) cited that poverty eradication is the first condition for the development. He emphasized that in the book of Adam Smith Wealth of Nations noted that no society can surely be flourishing and happy of which by far the greater part of the numbers are poor and miserable. Through this, the government made an strategy to combat poverty reduction both in short and long terms. To address the

poverty reduction strategy framework the National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction was revised to give an special importance on critical areas and essential infrastructure for pro-poor growth and social protection for the vulnerable section of the society and human resource management. Due to macroeconomic stability the domestic savings rate was increased to 19.93% from 18.77% in the year of 2002-2004. Based from the survey report of Household Income and Expenditure in the year 2010, the population living below the poverty line was decreased to 31.5% (20120) from 40.4% in the year 2005. In that period, the poverty gap was reduced while the income inequality ratio decreased moderately. Mangabas (2009), statistically 53 percent of Filipino households call themselves as mahirap (poor) as evidenced by the Survey Finding and in the last 26 years there is no progress to fight against poverty as indicated. The result of the survey is that the measurement of poverty is rapid and frequent due to increase SRP but fluctuations of poverty is cannot be explained clearly by the economic growth. Filipino who are poor needs increase of wages and stable consumer price and not the economic growth since they cant benefit. In addition to Bolivar (2009), the truth about poverty is hunger. As a survey conducted last Nov. 27 to 20, 2010 was found out that there are 3.4 million families are saying that they experience hunger and because of that problem the Malacanang said that they are expecting to reduce the poverty as long as the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program is implemented. Also they categorized hunger base on the experience of every household included: moderate hunger are those who experience hunger just once or a few times and severe hunger t refers to those who experience

hunger as often or always. So, Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) is already implemented and to complete the list of CCT beneficiaries to be able for it to validate is that Secretary Corazon Soliman had traveled throughout the country. The DSWD is the group wherein they are capable to manage the budget and to handle CCT beneficiaries to ease the poverty and hunger situation. Calica (2011). Philippine Star (2011), cited that poverty is arising because of the Philippine economy due to the poorest performers in Asia as influenced by the rent seekers or vested interests for the past 50 years. But then, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth has not been effective in reducing the incidence rate of poverty. the actual incidence of poverty in the Philippines had actually risen since 2003 as thought that the economy is grown well. To make it more inclusive the Stratbase pursue reforms in the governments that would highly guarantee in the civil and political liberties in terms of influencing to those vested interests, the grafters, rent seekers, peddlers and business suits. Other reason for this is the corruption that was cited by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in doing business in our country because it is to be said that corruption is due to the inefficient government bureaucracy. Health. Health is social. Inequalities in health remind us that action is much needed beyond medical interventions. WHO defined health as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, (cited by Guinto, 2012). He emphasized the word social that it is often times the missing component in the equation. Based on Social determinants of health, health products is a toxic combination of poor social policies and programs, unfair economic arrangements and bad politics are the

unacceptable gaps in health. Social determinants of health refers to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. Guinto (2012) emphasizing the cause of having a poverty country is based on the governance of the country in which the country has a characterized by factors detrimental to overall population health: lack of policy coherence and political will; weak accountability and implementation; corruption; lack of motivation and skills among government workers; and limited participation of citizens and civil society groups in decision-making, especially in health governance. Nutrition Education Advocacy. It promotes the importance of proper nutrition and good education as ways for kids to improve their lives and come closer to attaining their dreams. Gov. Vilma Santos, 2011). The program rendered by the Department of Social Welfare and Development is only the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program beneficiaries wherein the beneficiaries are living in one of the poorest provinces, poorest household based on a ranking system, the economic condition is equal to or below the provincial poverty threshold, household that has children 0-14 years old or having a pregnant women and agree to the conditions rendered by the DSWD can benefit. The mother or the father of the family is the responsible person to receive the cash and they get the cash through Land Bank Cash Card.

Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research design, research participants, research instrument, data gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of the data. RESEARCH METHOD In this study, descriptive method or survey research method will be used. This type of research will utilize since it attempts to describe and explain the conditions of the present by using many subjects and questionnaires to fully describe the phenomenon. It also focuses on identifying the effectiveness of the implementation of the program. This research method study generally is to take raw data and summarize it in a useable form. Also, to gather data that will support in this study the researchers must apply questionnaires, interviews and observations (Casdevall and Fang 2008). RESEARCH LOCALE The researcher employs a purposive sampling technique in the conduct of the survey where the status of the participants will carefully consider. The study will

conduct in the residences of the respondents in Brgy. Lapu- lapu, Agdao, Davao City during 1st semester of school year 2012-2013. Those participants that are included in the study are chosen because they are the one who are able to answer the questions that will provide by the researchers since that they are a member of the 4Ps program and they came from the community that is targeted in the study. They are able to participate in the study due to the fact that they already know about 4Ps program. The researchers also believe that the respondents are honest in answering questions that will be implemented.

RESPONDENTS The respondents of the study were limited to sixty (60) beneficiaries of the 4Ps program in Barangay Lapulapu,Agdao,Davao City. A purposive sampling was used because only those available were chosen to meet the purpose of this study. Data Gathering Instrument The researchers will utilize a survey questionnaire it is a means of gathering information about a particular population by sampling some of its members, usually through a system of standardized questions (Fairfax County, 2011). determine the effectiveness of 4Ps implementation in Barangay Lapulapu. After a set of instructions and reminders, the researchers will set down the questions for the survey proper. The research instrument is aim to test the effectiveness of 4Ps implementation in Barangay Lapulapu. The survey questionnaires will prepare by the researchers according to the level of understanding of the respondents. Revision of the questionnaire was done to improve the choice of words and sentence construction, check the validity and reliability of the questions, eliminate unnecessary questions to lessen the error in collecting data. The survey questionnaire and interview guide will construct that is based on the readings from books and reliable websites. The first draft was admitted to the adviser for corrections. To ensure its reliability and validity, the experts were also approached. The questionnaire takes about on the effectiveness of 4Ps implementation among the beneficiaries of Brgy. Lapu- lapu, Agdao, Davao City. This used to

Validation of the Instrument To have the questionnaire validated, the researcher will get three (3) knowledgeable persons preferably the beneficiaries. Research Procedure Permission that will conduct in the study will obtain from the barangay officials of Barangay Lapulapu through a communication that is signed by all the researchers and will note by the research adviser and the dean. Once permission to conduct the study will be granted, the questionnaire will be administered by and before the researchers administer the questionnaires the questions will verify the details regarding to the study and it will also retrieve after the respondents finish answering. After, the data that will be collected it will be tallied and statistically treated. And bring out the results if it is already finalized by the researchers. STATISTICAL TREATMENT The completed checklist was assembled and systematically treated to answer the problem of the research. For valid and reliable interpretation of the data, the following statistical tools are used.