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# Unit 38

## Steve Bishop City of Bristol College, November 2012 !

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 3 Physical evidence at a traffic collision.................................................................................. 3 Traffic collision formulae and variables ................................................................................ 5 Traffic accident definitions ................................................................................................... 7 Traffic accident statistics ...................................................................................................... 7 THE MAJOR FACTORS THAT CAUSE ACCIDENTS AND INJURY ...................................... 8 Causes of road traffic accidents ........................................................................................... 9 Costs of road traffic accidents.............................................................................................. 9 Tyres .................................................................................................................................. 11 Seat belts ........................................................................................................................... 12 Air Bags, Seat Belts and Crumple Zones .......................................................................... 14 SCIENCE IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS ............................................ 17 Newton's Three Laws of Motion ......................................................................................... 18 Energy, momentum and driving ......................................................................................... 20 Momentum and collisions .................................................................................................. 24 Coefficient of friction .......................................................................................................... 26 Friction practice questions ................................................................................................. 28 Naismiths rule ................................................................................................................... 31 Stopping distance .............................................................................................................. 32 Reaction times ................................................................................................................... 35 Determining speed from tyre marks ................................................................................... 37 Skidding ............................................................................................................................. 39 Calculating the speed of a car at the start of a skid ........................................................... 40 Pedestrian throw ................................................................................................................ 42 Other ways of determining a vehicles velocity .................................................................. 45 Speed Estimate From Crush .............................................................................................. 46 Converting mph into m/s .................................................................................................... 47 How to solve projectile questions ....................................................................................... 49 Summary For Solving Projectile Problems......................................................................... 50 Projectile questions ............................................................................................................ 53 LEGISLATION AND ROAD TRAFFIC INVESTIGATIONS .................................................... 57 Description of law / regulation / event etc. ......................................................................... 59 Road Safety Bill ................................................................................................................. 64 Photographing the scene of a road traffic accident and/or a vehicle ................................. 66 Traffic collision scenario 1.................................................................................................. 67 Collision Scenario 2 ........................................................................................................... 69 Collision Investigation Scenario 3 Motorway Collision ..................................................... 70

## Unit%38% % On completion of this unit a learner should:

1 Know the major factors that cause road traffic accidents and injury 2 Know how science is used in the road traffic accident investigation process 3 Be able to investigate a simulated crash scene 4 Know which legislation applies to road traffic accident investigations.
Assessment and grading criteria Pass P1 describe the major factors that cause road traffic accidents Merit M1 assess the relationship between the major causal factors in road traffic accidents M2 explain the scientific factors associated with road traffic accidents Distinction D1 evaluate the relative importance of the various factors as the cause of road traffic accidents D2 evaluate the relationship between scientific factors in road traffic accident investigations D3 evaluate the evidence collected from a simulated accident investigation

## P3 carry out an investigation on a simulated crash scene using appropriate techniques

M3 explain the collection, analysis and use of evidence from a simulated accident investigation M4 comment on the effectiveness of the legislation that applies to road traffic accidents.

## D4 relate legislation to road traffic accidents.

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Steve%Bishop%

INTRODUCTION
Physical evidence at a traffic collision
Police Officers: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) Site details vehicles vehicle damage marks and debris measurements injuries conditions interviews alcohol & drugs sketch or scale plans static photographs video Other accident investigators: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) site details - usually statements police plans police photographs police / fire service video vehicle data results of research programmes (m) (n) vehicle data major research programmes

Indirect evidence is available from the statements of witnesses when they refer to distances, times, speeds and locations.
Interpretation of the physical evidence

Laws of Physics other scientific laws - chemistry (eg fuels) - biology - anatomy (eg plants) (eg injuries) - trigonometry - calculus - error analysis - statistics computer analysis vehicle characteristics vehicle dynamics driver reaction pedestrian movement

## - physiology(eg aging) - forensic medicine mathematics - algebra - geometry

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Tools
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) experience knowledge colleagues tape measures measuring wheels theodolites drawing apparatus cameras and camcorders wax crayons crime seal tapes alco-meters gas chromatography (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (m) weight and force measuring devices thermometer manometer artificial light casting tools and plaster exhibit bags and labels calculator computers and peripherals specialist software knowledge of Court procedures

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## Traffic collision formulae and variables

v = final velocity (m/s) u = initial velocity (m/s) s = displacement (m) a = acceleration (m/s) t = time (s) = coefficient of friction (no units) g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s) F = force (N) EK = kinetic energy (J) = mv m = mass (kg) p = momentum (kg m/s)

1 1 x+ H 3 2

## a= g [acceleration = coefficient of friction g]

where x = distance in miles H = height in thousand ft Linear motion equations Newtons laws NII: F = ma [Force = mass distance] s = ut + at v = u + 2as v = u + at s = (u + v)t Speed from skid marks Skid to stop formula: u =

&vu# F = m\$ ! % t "
NIII: action = - reaction Friction F= N where N is the normal reaction of the object [Force to overcome friction = coefficient of friction normal reaction] F = mg [Force = coefficient of friction mass g]

2gs

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v min =

F=

mv r

## [Force = mass velocity squared divided by the radius]

Vehicle damage rule of thumb 1 of damage 1.5 mph Energy Energy = Fd where d is the distance moved (m) [Energy = force distance travelled] EK = mv [Kinetic energy = mass velocity squared] Conversion factors m/s to km/h 3.6 mph to m/s 0.44794

Momentum p = mv [momentum = mass velocity] momentum before collision = momentum after collision Ft = mv mu Ft is the impulse, which is the change of momentum

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## Traffic accident definitions

In summary the law classes the following as an accident: If owing to the presence of a motor vehicle (the vehicle does not need to be being driven or even occupied at the time of the accident) on a road or public place any of the following occurs: Personal injury is caused to any other vehicle (not just motor vehicles) or injury is caused to a person other than the driver of that vehicle or damage is caused to any other vehicle (not just motor vehicles) or injury is caused to any horse, cattle, mule, sheep, goat, pig, ass or dog (not cat) or damage is caused to any property belonging to another - including road furnishing.

Which traffic accidents must I report to the police? Every accident where there is injury to a person or if you were unable to exchange your details with the other party (for whatever reason) or where there is an offence or alleged offence. You must report such accidents in person to a police station or rural mobile police station.

## Traffic accident statistics

No OF VEHICLES (MILLIONS) 27.0 27.5 28.3 28.9 29.7 30.5 ROAD ACCIDENTS 240,287 238,923 235,048 233,729 229,014 221,751

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## THE MAJOR FACTORS THAT CAUSE ACCIDENTS AND INJURY

Human factors: behaviour or inexperience, eg driver error, lack of training and experience, speeding or other injudicious action, stress, driver rage; impairment or distraction, eg defective vision or other disability, drugs, alcohol, fatigue, mobile phone use; attitudes to drinking; education; pedestrians; typical injuries sustained Environmental factors: weather conditions; traffic control; safety cameras; signs; congestion; state of, design and use of roadways Vehicle factors: type and condition of vehicle; braking system; steering system; tyres (types and defects); seat belts; air bags; crumple zones; distribution of loads; overloading; maintenance; typical damage sustained

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## Causes of road traffic accidents

In Great Britain, data collected about road traffic accidents in 1999 to 2002 examined the factors involved in each accident. Excessive speed was the most common contributory factor in fatal accidents, playing a part in 28% of all fatal accidents examined in the trial. Careless, thoughtless or reckless behaviour was next, being a contributory factor in 21% of all fatal accidents examined. In accidents resulting in any severity of casualty, inattention was the most common contributory factor, found in 25% of all accidents examined in the trial. Failing to judge another person's path or speed was the next most common contributory factor, playing a part in 23% of all accidents examined. Costs of road traffic accidents The World Health Organisation estimates the global cost of road traffic accidents to be \$518 billion per year. Low-income and middle-income countries lose more money to road accident and injury than they receive in development assistance. High-income countries are estimated to see 2% of their GDP lost to the cost of road accidents. It is estimated that the economic cost of reported and unreported traffic crashes in the USA in the year 2000 was \$230 billion. In Great Britain, the average value of prevention per fatal accident in 2003 is reported as being 1,492,910. For accidents that resulted in serious injury, the average value of prevention per accident is 174,520. Of the 18 billion estimated total cost-benefit value of prevention of road traffic accidents in 2003, 13 billion is attributed to accidents that involved personal injury. The remaining 5 billion is attributed to accidents that led to property or vehicle damage only. Road traffic accidents end hundreds of thousands of lives across the world every year. Very often death and injury is the result of drivers who did not take the road seriously enough. The cost to the economy is huge, and the financial effect of personal injury can ruin families. Something that can't be measured is the emotional cost to family members and friends when a person is killed or injured.

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Unit%38% % There are three main categories of factors: human factors, environmental factors and vehicle factors. Before Crash Event Human During Crash Event After crash Event

Vehicle

## Environment (Highway & atmospheric)

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Tyres

Cross-ply is the older of the two types and is manufactured with cords running diagonally across the tyre treads. Radial-ply tyres have the cords running radially around the casing, across the tread and a belt of steel or textile cords under the tread.

You should never mix cross-ply and redial tyres on the one axle or have radial-ply tyres on the front axle and cross-ply on the back axle of a vehicle.
Underinflated tyres generate heat, which weakens the exterior of the tyre. The tread pattern of these tyres wears down rapidly on the outside edge of the pattern. This results in an inferior grip. Overinflated tyres are prone to Impact Damage. The tread on these tyres wears in the centre, thus providing less grip than a properly inflated tyre. The wrong tyre pressure can make your vehicle dangerous, shorten the life of tyres and cause needless fuel consumption

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Seat belts
Non-Stretching Seatbelt

The task of the seatbelt is to stop you with the car so that your stopping distance is probably 4 or 5 times greater than if you had no seatbelt. A crash which stops the car and driver must take away all its kinetic energy, and the work-energy principle then dictates that a longer stopping distance decreases the impact force. For the example car crash scenario the stopping distance is one foot, the force on a 160 lb driver is about 4800 lb or 2.4 tons, and the deceleration about 30 g's. A moderate amount of stretch in the seatbelts will reduce the average impact force. Seatbelt variations

A moderate amount of stretch in a seatbelt harness can extend the stopping distance and reduce the average impact force on the driver compared to a nonstretching harness. If the belt stretched 0.5 ft in the example car crash scenario, it would reduce the deceleration to 20 g's and the average impact force to 3200 lb compared to 30 g's and 4800 lb for a non-stretching seatbelt. Either a stretching or non-stretching seat belt reduces the impact force compared to no seatbelt. Seatbelt variations

## Stretching seat belts

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No Seatbelt! With no seatbelt to stop the driver with the car, the driver flies free until stopped suddenly by impact on the steering column, windshield, etc. The stopping distance is estimated to be about one fifth of that with a seatbelt, causing the average impact force to be about five times as great. The work done to stop the driver is equal to the average impact force on the driver times the distance traveled in stopping. A crash which stops the car and driver must take away all its kinetic energy, and the workenergy principle then dictates that a shorter stopping distance increases the impact force.

With no seatbelt to stop the driver with the car, the driver flies free until stopped suddenly by impact on the steering column, windshield, etc. If the distance to impact is greater than 2 ft, the car will be at rest or even bouncing back when the driver strikes it at 30 miles/hr.

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## Air Bags, Seat Belts and Crumple Zones

Car crashes dont kill people FORCES KILL PEOPLE. People die in car crashes because impact is too often instant, and the force of impact too large. If the time of impact can be prolonged, then the acceleration and the force of impact can be reduced. This is because of Newton's 2nd Law of Motion, (1).

We can use the equation in (1) to get If we increase the time of impact, we can reduce the average force of impact and this will result in injuries that are less severe. There are three main ways to do this: Crumple Zones: These are semi rigid structures a the front and back of the vehicle, which are designed to absorb energy and collapse slowly on impact.

Seat Belts are the secondary line of defence. They are designed to stop passengers becoming projectiles inside the car by restraining them in their seats. If rear passengers were not restrained they might kill passengers in the front seat by impacting them from behind, as well as seriously injuring themselves. If front seat passengers were not restrained they could impact the dashboard/steering wheel/windscreen, which are all rigid and will cause serious injury.

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Steve%Bishop% The final line of defence is air bags. They are designed to inflate if subject to a force above a certain level. They then absorb as much of the kinetic energy of impact as possible when they are hit by a person. Gas is very compressible and very well suited to absorbing the energy of impact.

Adapted from O Level Physics Notes: Air Bags, Seat Belts and Crumple Zones http://www.astarmathsandphysics.com/o_level_physics_notes/o_level_physics_notes_air_b ags_seat_belts_and_crumple_zones.html

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Unit%38% % Human vehicle environment elements (from Arnold Wheat Accident Investigation Thomson Delmar Learning: New York, 2005) Before Crash Event Physical condition Medical limitation Driver inexperience Fatigue During Crash Event Intoxication Distraction Unfamiliarity with area No restraint Angle of impact Approach speed Lane position Load shift After crash Event Personal injuries Impact interior Medical treatment Statements made

Human

Vehicle

## Weather conditions Travel advisories Tyre marks Gouges

HAZMAT Spill Towing and recovery Highway fixture Repair Load Clean-up

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## SCIENCE IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS

Physics of movement and collision: Newtons laws of motion; conservation of momentum; conservation of energy; kinetic energy; principles of velocity; dynamic and static forces; coefficient of friction between road surface and tyres; the effect of impact on vehicles, pedestrians and property Drivers reaction: reaction time; factors affecting it, eg environmental conditions, visibility, alcohol (blood alcohol concentration calculation, Widmark factor), drugs, alertness, hazards; cognitive psychology Investigative techniques: accident reconstruction, eg manual and computer models; documentation; comparative methods; Naismiths rule; vehicle damage; personal injuries; road marks and their measurement; vehicle or human rest position

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## Newton's Three Laws of Motion

First Law
The first law says that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, with the same direction and speed. Motion (or lack of motion) cannot change without an unbalanced force acting. If nothing is happening to you, and nothing does happen, you will never go anywhere. If you're going in a specific direction, unless something happens to you, you will always go in that direction. Forever. You can see good examples of this idea when you see video footage of astronauts. Have you ever noticed that their tools float? They can just place them in space and they stay in one place. There is no interfering force to cause this situation to change. The same is true when they throw objects for the camera. Those objects move in a straight line. If they threw something when doing a spacewalk, that object would continue moving in the same direction and with the same speed unless interfered with; for example, if a planet's gravity pulled on it (Note: This is a really simple way of describing a big idea. You will learn all the real details - and math when you start taking more advanced classes in physics.).

Second Law
The second law says that the acceleration of an object produced by a net (total) applied force is directly related to the magnitude of the force, the same direction as the force, and inversely related to the mass of the object (inverse is a value that is one over another number... the inverse of 2 is 1/2). The second law shows that if you exert the same force on two objects of different mass, you will get different accelerations (changes in motion). The effect (acceleration) on the smaller mass will be greater (more noticeable). The effect of a 10 newton force on a baseball would be much greater than that same force acting on a truck. The difference in effect (acceleration) is entirely due to the difference in their masses.

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Third Law
The third law says that for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (force). Forces are found in pairs. Think about the time you sit in a chair. Your body exerts a force downward and that chair needs to exert an equal force upward or the chair will collapse. It's an issue of symmetry. Acting forces encounter other forces in the opposite direction. There's also the example of shooting a cannonball. When the cannonball is fired through the air (by the explosion), the cannon is pushed backward. The force pushing the ball out was equal to the force pushing the cannon back, but the effect on the cannon is less noticeable because it has a much larger mass. That example is similar to the kick when a gun fires a bullet forward.

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## Energy, momentum and driving

When you are sitting in a moving vehicle you and the vehicle are subject to Newtons Laws of motion. Your vehicles speed and direction and your bodys speed and direction cannot change without external forces. The external force on the vehicle can come from another vehicle which is either moving or stationary, a stationary object, or gravity. The external forces can cause damage to the vehicle and injury to your body. The amount of damage or injury is determined by the magnitude of the force and by the part of the vehicle or the body the force is applied to. Minimizing damage to the vehicle and injury to the occupants often present conflicting requirements. Bumpers are designed to protect the car, airbags are designed to protect people. Neither of these does a perfect job. Both involve trade-offs. To learn more about air-bags visit the Insurance Institute For Highway Safety where we got the air-bag picture.

## The role of momentum

Newtons second law requires that the integral of force with respect to time must equal to the change in momentum. This implies that a given momentum change can be accomplished with a weaker forces if the time of interaction is increased. Give yourself more time to brake and the forces will be more gentle. Newtons third law requires that the forces acting on two interacting (colliding) objects will be equal and opposite. Your textbook shows how Newtons third law implies conservation of total linear momentum. The change in momentum of one colliding vehicle is accompanied by an equal and opposite change of momentum of the other vehicle. This idea is usually the underlying principle used in accident reconstruction.

## The role of mass and energy

When a light car and a massive truck collide, momentum conservation requires that the change in Mtruckvtruck = the change in Mcarvcar Note that an object with large mass will experience a smaller change in speed than the object with the small mass. As the occupant of the vehicle it is in your interest that the vehicle does not undergo big changes in speed in a short time. Since you yourself are a moving object subject to Newtons laws, you will need external forces yourself to change your motion. These will come from the seat, the seat belt, airbags or other parts of the vehicle such as the steering column. If the vehicle comes to a stop, or if the speed is substantially decreased, the lost kinetic energy of the vehicle transforms into some other form. This process will involve work, the integral of force with respect to displacement. The bigger the displacement the weaker the force (and damage and injury.) Hard stationary objects dont allow much displacement and 20%

Steve%Bishop% cause more damage and injury than soft, movable or breakaway objects. Next time you are driving or riding in car, look around and see how modern vehicle and highway designs surround you with soft, breakaway barriers whenever possible. Wide medians, breakaway lamp posts, energy absorbing barriers at underpasses, padded dashboards.

Accident reconstruction
Note: What follows is based on a contribution by Prof. David Wagner of Edinboro University. Dr. Wagner is a physics professor who is also a valued accident reconstruction expert.

Unfortunately, every day there are thousands of traffic accidents throughout the United States. While most accidents are minor, a significant number of accidents result in some form of legal action, either civil or criminal. When legal action occurs, the courts get technical help from (1) one of the many traffic institutes around the country, and (2) from engineers and scientists whose specialty lends itself to some aspect of accident reconstruction. Physicists fall into the second category. It should be noted that it is rare for a reconstructionist to have an opportunity to be at a hot accident site. The reconstructionist usually has to rely on evidence gathered by the police or other investigators. At the simplest level, a reconstruction might involve computing the location of a vehicle at various times before a collision. Or the problem might be to determine how far a vehicle travelled during the time when a driver was perceiving and reacting to the incident. Accident reconstructionists are paid up to several hundred dollars per hour for their time. Of more interest are situations involving vehicles skidding, colliding, or yawing (sideslipping while traversing a curve). In these cases, the concepts of energy, momentum, and force are central.

Skidding
When a vehicle begins to skid, the problem becomes one of classic kinetic friction. Given a knowledge of the coefficient of friction between the tires and the road, the slope of the road surface, and the total distance of the skid, it is quite straightforward to estimate the speed of the vehicle. As an example, suppose that a vehicle is found to have skidded 13 m along a flat road, coming to a complete stop. Given that the coefficient of friction of the tire/road surface is known to be between 0.55 and 0.70, what is the range of possible speeds?

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Unit%38% % original kinetic energy = energy lost in sliding 1/2 mv2 = mg S where S = distance of the skid, = coefficient of friction Solving for v gives: v=

2gS 2

Using the values from above yields for = 0.55, v = 11.8 m/s for = 0.70, v = 13.4 m/s

Thus it can be estimated that the driver was travelling between 11.8 and 13.4 m/s at the time the brakes were applied. With this speed known, and given typical driver reaction times, it is possible to paint a fairly complete scenario of the motion of the vehicle just prior to the accident.

Collisions
Collisions pose a more severe challenge. In cases where skid marks completely document vehicle motions prior to and following a collision, the principle of conservation of momentum can be used to analyze the collision phase of an accident. For example, by means discussed above, a determination of the speed and direction of both vehicles immediately following impact (direction, of course, being determined by the line of the skid marks).

With the speed and direction of both vehicles known just after impact, conservation of momentum can be used to determine the speed and direction of both vehicles just prior to impact (again, skid marks specifying pre-impact direction). Finally, skidding analysis applied to the pre-impact skid marks allows a determination of the original speeds of both vehicles.

## Energy and Collisions

During a collision, energy is also conserved. But the use of this principle requires that all the energy transformations occurring during the collision be amenable to analysis. The most difficult contribution to accurately determine is the energy of de post-impact skidding.

It turns out that tests with hundreds of vehicles have shown that there is a linear relationship between the amount of residual crush (crush remaining after the collision) and the energy lost to deformation and crush. 22%

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Energy of crush is a less precise reconstruction tool than is conservation of momentum. This is because, although there is an empirical linear relationship between crush and energy loss, individual vehicles only approximately adhere to this relationship

Yaw marks
When a vehicle is guided through a curve, even at constant speed, that vehicle is accelerating toward the centre of the curve. The force that produces the acceleration is the side thrust between the tires and the road; that is to say, friction. Since the yaw marks have crossways striations that are different from the marks left by a skidding tyre. There is a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of the yaw marks, the coefficient of friction, and the speed of the vehicle leaving the marks. The underlying physical principle is: Maximum sideways force of friction = vehicle mass centripetal acceleration or mg = mv2/r where r = radius of curvature of yaw mark Thus v=

gr

Clearly, once it has been determined that a vehicle left yaw marks as a result of traversing a turn at the limit of friction, the speed of the vehicle can be determined. Adapted from: http://webphysics.iupui.edu/152/152Sp00/GoodFor.html

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## Momentum and collisions

Two types of collisions There are two types of collisions from a physicists perspective elastic and inelastic. If the kinetic energy (EK = mv) is conserved i.e. unchanged by the process taking place then the collision is said to be elastic. If the kinetic energy changes then it is an inelastic collision. Collisions between sub atomic particles are inelastic; however, collisions between cars are different. There is a screeching of brakes, the crunch of metal, the vehicles will have changed shape, the temperature of the road and the air will have increased slightly: the kinetic energy will have been transferred to the surroundings, so the collision will be inelastic. Momentum Two important variables in any collision are the mass (m [kg]) and velocity (v [m/s]). The mass velocity is called momentum (this is denoted by the symbol p [kg m /s]). In every collision the total momentum before is the same as the total momentum after. This is known as the principle of conservation of momentum.

Example Two trucks are moving in the same direction along the track of an adventure park ride. One has a velocity of 8 m/s and a mass of 500 kg and the other with twice the mass has a velocity of 6 m/s. They collide and link together. What is their new velocity? Solution The initial momentum of the first truck The initial momentum of the second truck The total momentum before the collision = m1 v1 = 500 8 = 4000 = m2 v2 = 1000 6 = 6000 = 4000 + 6000 = 10 000

The total momentum after the collision must also be 10 000 After the collision the two trucks stick together, so the combined mass will be m1 + m2 = 500 + 1000 = 1500 The momentum will then be (m1 + m2) vnew = 10 000 1500 vnew = 10 000

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## 10000 = 6.67 m/s 1500

Now try these 1. 2. 3. A vehicle travelling at 40 m/s has a mass of 1250 kg. Calculate its momentum. A car with a momentum of 60000 kg m/s has a mass of 2500 kg. Find its velocity. Two cars are moving in the same direction. One has a velocity of 5 m/s and a mass of 1000 kg and the other with a mass of 15000 kg has a velocity of 10 m/s. They collide and link together. (a) what is the momentum of the two cars before the collision? (b) What is the momentum of the two cars after the collision? (c) What is their new velocity? A car of mass 1250 kg is waiting at a traffic light with its hand brake off. A car of mass 1500 kg travelling at 25 m/s collides with the stationary car. The two cars link together and move forward. (a)What is their velocity after the accident? (b) What is the total kinetic energy before the collision? (c) Is this an elastic or inelastic collision?

4.

## (d) What will be the kinetic energy after the collision?

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Coefficient of friction
If a block is at rest (this is science-speak for not moving) on a surface, then all the forces are in equilibrium. Reaction

Action Weight (= mg) To make the block move we have to apply a force F. The block will not move immediately, the movement will be opposed by friction.

R The coefficient of friction is denoted by the Greek letter mu: . It is a ratio and so has no units. will increase if the mass of the object is increased.

## To stop motion then:

F R
When the object starts to move

F = R
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## Steve%Bishop% There are two types of friction:

Static friction occurs when the two objects are not moving relative to each other (like a desk on the ground). The coefficient of static friction is typically denoted as s. Kinetic friction occurs when the two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together (like a sled on the ground). The coefficient of kinetic friction is typically denoted as k, and is usually less than the coefficient of static friction.

Example
A 7 kg box is being pushed horizontally with a force of 70 N. If the coefficient of friction is 0.30, find the acceleration of the box.

Solution

70 N

7 kg

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## Friction practice questions

Example
A vehicle has a mass of 1300 kg and the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the ground is 0.4. What is the maximum retarding force that can be used to stop it without causing it to skid? If the actual retarding force at the ground is 0.75 of the maximum, and is constant, determine the work done in bringing the vehicle to rest in a distance of 20 m. [Take g = 10 m/s]

Solution
The weight of the vehicle, is the normal reaction force exerted by the floor W = mg = 1300 10 = 13000 N

F N

F =

N = W

## Work done = Force Distance moved

= 3900 20 = 78 000 J = 78 kJ

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## Now try these

1. A vehicle of mass 900 kg can be moved slowly and steadily along a horizontal surface by a force of 5740 N with the wheels locked. Calculate the coefficient of friction.

2. An engine resting on a metal sled is drawn along a workshop floor with uniform speed. The total downward force exerted by the engine and sled on the floor is 1400N. If the coefficient of friction between the sled and the floor is 0.25, calculate the horizontal force necessary to move the engine.

3. A toolbox with a flat base, which weighs 600 N, is dragged across a concrete floor. A horizontal force of 150 N must be applied to it before it starts to move. After it has started to move a horizontal force of 120 N is sufficient to keep it moving at a steady speed. Calculate the coefficients of static and kinetic friction.

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Unit%38% % Solutions

2. =

3.

s =

F N

and k =

F N

s =

k =

## F 120 = = 0.2 N 600

The coefficient of static friction will always be greater than the coefficient of kinetic friction.

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Naismiths rule
This gives an approximation for walking time on good terrain. It assumes a speed of 3mph (5kph) and makes an allowance of 30 minutes per 1,000ft (or 1 minute per 10 m) of ascent. In this instance data used is from the O.S. Landranger 1:50000 series maps. Small undulations do not show on this map, thus estimates of height gain will tend to be low. On more difficult terrain, particularly if scrambling, progress will be slower, as it will be if carrying a heavier load - e.g. a camping sack. Over longer distances the party will tire and go more slowly, again increasing the time. These times should therefore been seen as on the low side for most parties. Naismith's rule is a rule of thumb for calculating the time needed for a climbing expedition, allowing 1 hour for every 3 miles of distance plus 1 hour for every 2000 feet of height.

1 1 x+ H 3 2

Tranter's Corrections
Time taken to climb 300m in 800m Individual fitness in 2 minutes 15 very fit 20 25 30 40 1 Times taken in hours estimated using Naismith's Rule 3 1.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

## 10 12.5 14.5 17 19.5 22 24 12.5 15 17.5 20 23

1.25 2.25 3.25 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.75 8.75 1.5 2 3 3.5 4.25 5.5 7 8.5 5 6.75 8.5 10.5 12.5 14.5

## 50 unfit 3.25 4.75 6.5 8.5

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Stopping distance
Many drivers drive in a false belief that if the car in front suddenly started braking, they would react and brake and end up stopped the same distance apart. The total stopping distance of a vehicle is made up of 4 components. Human Perception Time Human Reaction Time Vehicle Reaction Time Vehicle Braking Capability

The human perception time; is how long the driver takes to see the hazard, and the brain realise it is a hazard requiring an immediate reaction. This perception time can be as long as to a second.

Once the brain realizes danger, the human reaction time is how long the body takes to move the foot from accelerator to brake pedal. Again this reaction time can vary from - of a second. These first 2 components of stopping distance are human factors and as such can be affected by tiredness, alcohol, fatigue and concentration levels. A perception and reaction time of 3 or 4 seconds is possible. 4 seconds at 100 km/h means the car travels 110 metres before the brakes are applied. Once the brake pedal is applied there is the vehicles reaction time that depends on the brake pedal free-play, hydraulic properties of the brake fluid and working order of the braking system. This is why the tailgating car usually cannot stop, when the brake light came on in the car in front, this driver had already completed the perception, human and vehicle reaction periods. The following driver was perhaps 1 second to late in applying the brakes. At 100km/h the car required 28 metres further to stop. 32%

Steve%Bishop% The last factor than determines the total stopping distance is the cars braking capability which depends on factors such as: the type of braking system brake pad material brake alignment tyre pressures When a car is moving it has tyre tread and grip kinetic energy, mv. When vehicle weight the velocity doubles the suspension system kinetic energy quadruples. the co-efficient of friction of the road surface The braking capability does wind speed not increase when driving slope of road faster, there are no the coefficient of friction between the road and the tyres reserves of friction. As such the braking technique applied by the driver. in any vehicle when your
speed doubles braking distance is four times larger.

From 50 to 100 kph the braking distance of a car will increase from 10 metres to 40 metres. When you double the speed of a car braking distance quadruples.

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Unit%38% % Braking Distance From 90 km/hr and 120 km/hr Honda Integra GS-R Audi A4 BMW Z3 (2.8) Ferrari 550 Maranello Lexus ES300 Lexus LS400 Mazda MX-5 Mazda Protege Mercedes C36 Mercedes SLK230 Kompressor Nissan Maxima Nissan 200SX Saab 9000 Aero Subaru Liberty RX Toyota Camry V6 Toyota Corolla Porsche 911 Carrera 4 42 43.5 36.9 33.6 42 45.3 45.6 47.4 36 36 42 38.7 36.6 40.8 43.5 55.8 37.8 74.4 80.7 64.5 59.7 73.8 78 76.8 86.1 63 62.7 72.9 68.4 66.3 70.8 82.2 95.7 66.9

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Reaction times
This is a very grey area in traffic investigations. The table shows typical stopping distances included in the Highway code: Speed (mph) Thinking Distance (m) Breaking Distance (m) Total Stopping Distance (m) 20 6 6 12 30 9 14 23 40 12 24 36 50 15 38 53 60 18 54 72 70 21 75 80 24 96

96 120

Use the data to estimate the reaction times, the deceleration and the total stopping time. Example At 20 mph 6 m thinking 6 m stopping 20 mph = 20 0.44794 = 8.94 m/s Reaction time = distance = velocity The deceleration is calculated from v = u + 2as v= 0 u = 8.94 s=6m a=? t=? 0%=%8.94%+%2%a"6% % a"="#6.6"m/s"

To%convert%mph%to%m/s% multiply%by%0.44794%

## The time is calculated from v= u+ at 0 = 8.94 + (- 6.6 t) t=

0 8.94 = 1.35 s 6 .6

35%

Unit%38% % Check the following answers Velocity 20 mph 30 mph 40 mph 50 mph 60 mph 70 mph reaction time 8.94 s acceleration - 6.6 m/s - 6.6 m/s - 6.6 m/s - 6.6 m/s - 6.6 m/s - 6.6 m/s stopping time 1.35 s 2.69 s

All cars braked firmly on a dry and level road will decelerate at 6.66 m/s irrespective of the speed of the car.
a= g

## This is equivalent to: 0.68g

g = 9.81 m/s

where 0.68 is the coefficient of friction, , and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

The figures given are only typical because in reality the real stopping distances will be affected by different circumstances. The thinking distance will vary depending on the driver and what state he/she is in, whether they are old, young, tired, careless or effected by alcohol and or drugs. The breaking distance will also depend on: The car brakes The tyres The weather Road surface conditions The mass of the car and its contents The Highway Code assumes a reaction time for an alert driver in ideal conditions as being 0.68 s. This is much quicker than most peoples reaction time. TRRL Laboratory Report 1004, 1981 Age <25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 15%ile 1.54 s 1.45 s 1.33 s 1.67 s 50%ile 1.76 s 1.62 s 1.52 s 1.40 s 1.86 s 1.69 s 85%ile 1.88 s 1.70 s 1.59 s 1.47 s 2.05 s 1.96 s 2.00 s

2.15 s

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## Determining speed from tyre marks

A travelling vehicle will have a certain kinetic energy (= mv). When it stops suddenly this kinetic energy must be transferred into other forms of energy, one of the main forms will be heat, which is a by-product of the skidding process.

A skidding vehicle is decelerated at a rate that is related to the frictional force generated between the skidding tires and the roadway. The friction is dependant on its coefficient of friction. Vehicle mass The kinetic energy of a vehicle is, in part, dependent on the mass of the vehicle; the heavier the vehicle, the more energy it will have at a given speed. It might seem logical, therefore, that a heavier vehicle may require more distance to skid to a stop than a similar, but lighter vehicle. However, the increased friction generated by a heavier vehicle in a skid, directly compensates for the fact that the heavier vehicle initially had more energy. A heavier vehicle may indeed be more difficult to lock-up than a lighter vehicle, but once in a skid, the heavy and light vehicles will require the same distance to stop from the same initial speed. For this reason, vehicle mass is not included in the skid-to-stop velocity formula. The skid-to-stop velocity formula The simple form of the skid-to-stop velocity formula requires known values for the coefficient of friction and the length of the skid marks. The pre-skidding velocity is given by:

u = 2gs
where: u is the initial velocity (m/s); s is the length of the skid mark (m); and is the coefficient of friction. Determining the coefficient of friction Ideally, the coefficient of friction should be determined at the accident scene. When this is done, there is little opportunity for any of the factors affecting the coefficient to change. Unfortunately, tests are seldom performed by Police Officers at the accident site. However, the road surface conditions at the time of the accident are typically reported in the Motor Vehicle Accident Report. One should make every effort to conduct tests under conditions as close as possible to those present at the time of the accident.

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## Skid tests with automobile

This method of testing involves an automobile skidding to a stop from a known initial velocity. The resulting skid mark length, and the known initial velocity are plugged into a different version of the skid-to-stop formula. When this method of testing is used, a shot marker mounted on the front bumper is used to help determine the point at which braking began.

## Portable drag boxes

A second method of testing involves the use of a portable device known as a drag box. The drag box is fitted with a portion of a rubber tire on its underside, and is pulled along the surface which is to be tested. A gauge measures the force required to pull the device at a constant speed, and the reading is used directly to determine the value of the coefficient of friction.

On-board computers
A third method involves the use of an on-board acceleration-sensitive computer. Typically, these devices are mounted to the floor or to the windshield of the vehicle

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Skidding
When a vehicle begins to skid, the problem becomes one of classic kinetic friction. If the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road, the slope of the road surface, and the total distance of the skid are known, it is quite straightforward to estimate the speed of the vehicle.

Example
A vehicle skids 13 m along a flat road, coming to a complete stop. Given that the coefficient of friction of the tyre/road surface is known to be between 0.55 and 0.70, what is the range of possible speeds? original kinetic energy = energy lost in sliding 1/2 mv2 = mg S where S = distance of the skid, = coefficient of friction Solving for v gives: v=

2gS

Using the values from above yields for = 0.55, v = 11.8 m/s for = 0.70, v = 13.4 m/s Thus it can be estimated that the driver was travelling between 11.8 and 13.4 m/s at the time the brakes were applied. With this speed known, and given typical driver reaction times, it is possible to paint a fairly complete scenario of the motion of the vehicle just prior to the accident. Remember: x 3.6 m/s mph 0.44794 Now try these 1. A car leaves skid marks of 10 m on a road. The coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road is between 0.6 and 0.7. Find the range of possible speeds. 2. A van of mass 1500 kg leaves skid marks of 12 m on a road where the coefficient of friction is 0.5. The driver claims to have been travelling at 20 km/h before he hit the brakes. Is he telling the truth? % % 39% km/h m/s

Unit%38% %

## Calculating the speed of a car at the start of a skid

Example
A car leaves skid marks of 17 m. Skid test results give a coefficient of friction

= 0.7. Find the speed of the car at the start of the skid. Was the driver exceeding the
speed limit of 30 mph.

Solution
We know: v=0 s = 17 m We are assuming: % that the car does not have ABS brakes the wheels have locked it has skidded to a halt there is no gradient% all measurements are accurate%

= 0.7

Using

u = 2gs

We find

u=

2 9.81 0.7 17

233.478

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## Now try these

For all the assume that = 0.7. Find the speed in mph of the car at the start of a skid when the skid mark is (a) 12 m (b) 14 m (c) 16 m (d) 18 m.

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Unit%38% %

Pedestrian throw
An important question in vehicle-pedestrian collisions is how did the pedestrian move at and through the collision? Ravani classified the different pedestrian impact orientations into five distinctive groups (wrap, forward projection, fender vault, roof vault, somersault).

In the wrap trajectory, the pedestrian is struck in the lower legs by the front of a decelerating vehicle. The striking portion of the vehicle must be lower than the height of the pedestrian. Upon impact the legs buckle and the torso bends over the hood and the chest impacts the top of the hood. The head impacts the hood in a whipping motion. After initial impact, the pedestrian tends to stay on the hood of the car and rides to a stop, sometimes sliding off the hood at stop.

The next impact orientation is the forward projection. In this configuration the pedestrian is struck by a flat-faced vehicle, such as a truck or van, and the force applied is well above the centre of gravity of the pedestrian. This can also occurred when passenger vehicles strike small children. The pedestrian is quickly accelerated to the speed of the striking vehicle and then drops to the roadway surface ahead of the vehicle.

The fender vault involves pedestrians struck near a front corner of the vehicle. First contact is usually made at the legs, with the torso pivoting towards the hood. Due to the position of the pedestrian (near the vehicles edge) he falls off the edge and does
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not impact the hood, striking the roadway. The pedestrians head may or may not impact the vehicle.

The fourth impact orientation is the roof vault, which begins initially like a wrap trajectory but in this case the pedestrians legs do not stay ahead of the vehicle. Due to the impact forces the legs continue to rotate upward, with the pedestrian essentially standing on his head on or near the roofline. The vault manoeuvre is completed when the pedestrian leaves the vehicle, over the roof, and tumbles to the ground.

The last impact orientation is the somersault, which is similar in its initiation to the roof vault. During a somersault the vehicle is typically decelerating at impact and this causes the pedestrian to be thrown ahead of the vehicle. One would expect serious or even fatal head injuries as a result of this impact type. The impact orientations discussed here are applicable primarily to adult pedestrians. They may not always be applicable to small children due to their height.

Impact speeds Finding the velocity of a car in a collision is crucial. There are a number of techniques; these include the following (in order of accuracy) 1. Skid marks 2. Pedestrian-throw distance 3. Vehicle Damage 4. Pedestrian Injury % % 43%

Unit%38% % 5. Witness/driver statements. From pedestrian-throw distance If a car does not break then the pedestrian throw is the next best way of determining the velocity of the car at impact. When a moving vehicle strikes a pedestrian he is accelerated in the direction of the velocity vector of the striking vehicle. The distance that the body is thrown forwards is an indicator of the speed of the vehicle at impact. A simple and better known approach to estimate impact speed of the striking vehicle is to use the sliding distance the pedestrian body skidded to a stop (not throw distance) and apply an energy dissipation equation. This is an easily defended approach but the investigator must determine the first impact point:

v = 30s
where: v =pedestrian speed after impact in mph; s = sliding distance of body and =coefficient of friction for sliding body This method is a safe tactic to use when the pedestrians first impact point along the roadway can be established, as the speed calculated will logically represent only a fraction of the vehicles impact speed, that is, it will be on the low side. Another approach to the speed from throw distance problem was first presented in a 1983 paper by Searle and Searle derived a set of equations that gives upper and lower bounds by considering those values of the projection angle that will maximize and minimize the expression:

v min =

## 2 gs and vmax = 2gs 1+

The pedestrian coefficient of friction is another area of considerable debate within accident reconstruction, and a critical part of any throw distance formula. Searle & Searle reported friction coefficients of 0.66 on asphalt and 0.79 on grass, regardless of whether the surface is wet or dry, and these are the values they used in their equation.

References Searle, J.A., Searle, A. (1983). The trajectories of pedestrians, motorcycles, motorcyclists, etc., following a road accident. Society of Automotive Engineers Paper No.831622.

Adapted from: Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction: Review and Update TARO by Luis Martinez http://www.tarorigin.com/art/Lmartinez/Ped/

Now try these Take = 0.66. For a pedestrian throw distance of (a) 20 m (b) 30 m (c) 35 m find the possible range of vehicle speeds.
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## Other ways of determining a vehicles velocity

Luis Martinez Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction:Review and Update The Traffic Accident Reconstruction Origin http://www.tarorigin.com/art/Lmartinez/Ped/

From Pedestrian Injury The area of correlating pedestrian injury to vehicle impact speed, although researched in the past, is somewhat imprecise. Fatalities have been noted at relatively low speeds, with minor injuries at high speeds. Thus, determining speed from injuries is highly speculative and not as reliable as the other methods described above. Witness and Driver Statements Determining impact speeds from witness and driver statements is notoriously unreliable for many obvious reasons.

## From Vehicle Damage

Vehicle damage is another, albeit less reliable, method for estimating impact speed. The higher the impact speed of the vehicle the further back from the front end of the vehicle the damage will tend to be, and the more severe. This is a general rule and, as all such rules, should be applied judiciously and with massive amounts of common sense. The pedestrian's position at impact, his position in relation to the front of the vehicle, as well as the height of the pedestrian are factors that will influence the location of impacts.

During the author's attendance at the Institute of Police Technology and Management's Pedestrian Accidents and Human Factors course on September 1993, information was provided on the correlation of head strike location and vehicle impact speeds. Prospective users of this information are cautioned that in in-line collisions (pedestrian facing directly at or directly away from vehicle) bodies tend to "sit" on the vehicle's hood and slide towards the windshield. No referential or empirical information was provided during the course to validate this approach. The author's research and review of two SAE papers, where both dummies and cadavers were used in a laboratory setting to replicate real-world pedestrian accidents, would seem to validate the correlation to a very limited degree. In order to fully validate this approach expanded testing would be required. http://www.tarorigin.com/aangles/Barrier/ % % 45%

Unit%38% %

## Speed Estimate From Crush

This problem involves a 1984 Mustang that struck a stopped city bus in the rear. There are no pre collision skid marks. The rear of the bus was vertical and appears to be nearly undamaged. Judging from the debris and gougemark on the roadway, the bus did not move appreciably after the collision. The crush damage to the front of the crash vehicle is found to average 36" A search of the NHTSA Crash Tests Database reveals a 1983 Ford Mustang that was tested in a stationary barrier collision. The results of that 30 M/H test resulted in an average of 20" of crush to the front to the vehicle 60" wide 3240 lb vehicle.

In the test case we had 20" of crush at 30 mph- this gives approximately 1.5" per mile of crush. At 36" we can as a rule of thumb estimate a speed of 36 1.5 = 54 mph. Full solution: http://www.tarorigin.com/aangles/Barrier/jmitchell.html

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## Converting mph into m/s

Task Find the conversion factor for converting mph into m/s.

Useful data

## 1 hour = 60 min 1 min = 60 s 5 miles 8

Hint

mile/h

miles/min

miles/s

km/s

km/s

m/s

Now try these Convert the following into m/s 1. 30 mph 2. 40 mph 3. 60 mph 4. 70 mph % % Convert these into mph 1. 2 m/s 2. 5m/s 3. 14 m/s 47%

Unit%38% %

Projectile motion
An object that is thrown forwards is called a projectile. Its path is known as a trajectory. From the moment it is released the only force on it is gravity (acting vertically downwards). Gravity gives a body a constant acceleration of 9.8 ms-2. If we neglect air resistance there is no horizontal force acting on it. From Newton's first law if there is no force on an object it will move with a constant velocity. Thus the projectile will move with a constant speed in the horizontal direction.

horiz = constant

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## How to solve projectile questions

Step 0 Don't panic but draw a diagram

Step 1 Resolve any initial velocity into the vertical and horizontal components

v vert = v sin

v horiz = v

cos

## Step 2 Treat the vertical and horizontal components as separate.

Step 3 Write down what you know and what you want to find out.

## Step 4 Decide which component of velocity you need to use first.

The vertical component is used to determine the time of flight and any vertical distances The horizontal component is used to determine the range (how far it will travel)

## Step 5 Write down the equations of motion:

v = u + at s = ut + at v = u + 2as s = (u + v)t Select the quantity you need to calculate and eliminate the equation(s) which do(es) not contain it. Out of the remaining equations choose one which makes use of the information given.

Step 6 Substitute the values into the equation and work out the answer.

Step 7 Check that your answer makes sense and that the units are correct. % % 49%

Unit%38% %

## Summary For Solving Projectile Problems

Resolve the initial velocity into horizontal and vertical components.

## For the horizontal direction

the horizontal component of velocity can be assumed to remain constant for the whole flight horizontal acceleration = 0 final velocity = initial velocity horizontal displacement = horizontal component of velocity x time of flight

For the vertical direction the acceleration is constant, and equal to g constant acceleration equations apply at the highest point, the velocity is zero when the projectile has returned to the level of the launch point, the vertical distance is zero

Example A stone is projected horizontally with a velocity of 3.0 m/s from the top of a vertical cliff 200 m high. Calculate (a) how long it takes to reach the ground (b) its distance from the foot of the cliff (c) its vertical and horizontal components of velocity when it hits the ground (neglect air resistance).

## Step 1 Initial horizontal component = 3.0 m/s Initial vertical component = 0

Vert Horiz

Step 3 (a) s (vert) = 200 m; u(horiz) = 3 m/s; u(vert) = 0; a = g = 10 m/s need to find t

% s%=%200m% u%=%0%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%u%=%3%m/s%

a=g=10m/s%

t=?

50%

## Steve%Bishop% Need to use s = ut + at

Step 6 200 = 0 x t + x 10 x t t=

40 40 = 6.3 s

Step 7 units are seconds (b) Step 3 s (vert)= 200 m; u(horiz) = 3 m/s; u(vert) = 0; a = g = 10 m/s ; find s (horiz) t=6.3 s; need to
Vert Horiz

## Step 4 Need horizontal component to find range.

s%=%200m%%%%%%%%%%s%=%?% u%=%0%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%u%=%3%m/s%

a=g=10m/s%

## Step 7 units are metres

(c) Step 3 s (vert)= 200 m; s (horiz) = 19 m; u(horiz) = 3 m/s; u(vert) = 0; a = g = 10 m/s ; t=6.3 s; need to find v (vert)
Vert Horiz

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Unit%38% %

## Now try these

1. Repeat the example above but for the stone having an initial velocity of 4.0 m/s and a cliff which is 100 m high.

2. A shell is fired from a gun with a velocity of 600 m/s at an angle of 40 from the ground which is horizontal. Calculate (a) the time of flight (b) the range and (c) the maximum height reached.

3. A projectile is fired with a velocity of 320 m/s at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. Find (a) the time taken to reach its greatest height (b) its horizontal range.

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Projectile questions
1. A particle P is projected with velocity 40 ms-1 at an angle of elevation of 32. Find the time of flight and its range on a horizontal plane.

2. On a horizontal plane the range of a projectile is 160m and the time of flight is 4s. Find the initial velocity and the greatest height attained by the projectile above the plane.

3. The horizontal and vertical initial components of the velocity of a projectile are 30 ms-1 and 40ms-1 respectively. Given that the horizontal range is 960m, find:

## b) the greatest height attained during flight.

4. A vase is thrown horizontally out of a window, which is 14m above the ground.

## a) Find the time it takes to reach the ground.

b) Given that it was thrown with a speed of 12ms-1, calculate the horizontal distance it travels before reaching the ground

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Unit%38% % 5. A golf ball is struck so that it is given an initial velocity of 50 ms-1 at an angle of 60o to the horizontal. Assuming the golf course is a flat horizontal plane, calculate

a) the time for which the ball is in the air before it first strikes the ground

b) the distance from the golfer that the ball will first land.

6. A cricket ball is struck at ground level by the batsman. The ball is in the air for 6 seconds, and lands 120 m away on the level field.

a) Find the angle of the balls initial velocity to the horizontal, giving your answer to the nearest degree.

## b) Find the speed at which the ball was struck.

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Steve%Bishop% Solutions 1.
40%ms % 32% A%
H1

B%

1 2

1 2

gt2

## 2 40 sin 32 = 4.33 seconds. 9.8

Range horizontally = (40 cos 32) (time of flight) = 147 m (nearest metre)

1 2

gt2

2 v sin =4 g

So v sin = 19.6

v cos = 40

and

tan =

v=

Unit%38% %

## b) Greatest height: -2gh = 0 - 402 h=

1600 = 81.6 m 2g

4. a) Using s = ut +

1 2

-14 = -4.9t2

## b) Horizontally no acceleration s = ut Distance = 12 1.69 = 20.3 m

5. a) Using s = ut +

1 2

at2 vertically

s = 0, u = 50 sin60 a = -g 0 = 50t sin 60o 4.9t2 0 = t(50sin 60o 4.9t) t = 8.84 seconds

## b) No acceleration s = ut u = 50cos 60, t = 8.84 s = 50cos 60o 8.84 = 221m

56%

Steve%Bishop% 6. a) Let speed = U; angle = a In air for 6 seconds vertical displacement 0 after this time.

Using s = ut +
s = 0; a = -g; t = 6

1 2

at2 u = U sina

## 0 = Usina 6 4.9 36 U sin = 29.4 Horizontal range 120 m

using s = ut +

1 2

at2 horizontally

s = 120; a = 0; u = Ucosa, t = 6 120 = 6Ucosa So: Usina = 29.4 Ucosa = 20 tana = 1.47 a= 56o

b) U sina = 29.4

29.4 sin
= 35.6 ms-1

A1

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Unit%38% %

## LEGISLATION AND ROAD TRAFFIC INVESTIGATIONS

Road traffic acts: construction and use, eg the Road Safety Act 1967 (the Barbara Castle Act); laws of contract; criminal law; documentation (ages to drive, carry passengers and loads); local by laws; tachograph instruments; laws on speeding; legal limits for alcohol in body fluids; drug laws, eg Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984 Criminal justice system referral: reports; expert witness; giving evidence under oath; county magistrate and higher courts

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## Description of law / regulation / event etc.

1978
New edition of Highway Code published. Mandatory fitting of rear fog lamps to most vehicles manufactured after 1/10/1979. 60mph National speed limit and 70mph motorway speed limit made permanent.

1980 BL launch the Metro. RoSPA Advanced Drivers Association set up. Second Dartford Tunnel opened in May at a cost of 45, having taken eight years to build. Parliamentary Advisory Committee on Transport Safety (PACTS) set up. It's function is to promote transport safety amongst MPs and ultimately effect legislative changes. It's membership comprises MPs, and representatives from a wide range of transport and road safety organizations. 1981 Minimum age for driving an invalid car reduced to 16yrs. Humber Bridge opened. CB radio legalized in Great Britain. 1982 The two part motorcycle test introduced. Points system replaces the totting up of driving licence endorsements; collection of 12 or more points in three years results in disqualification. 1983 There are now more than 20 million vehicles on British roads. The casualty toll has fallen to 309,000 Drivers and front seat passengers in cars and light vans must wear seat belts. Learner motorcyclists restricted to machines of no more than 125cc. First road hump regulations made. MOT test for taxis and vehicles with more than eight passenger seats reduced to vehicles over one year old. Wheel clamping introduced in Central London. 1984 Lorries and trailers to be fitted with spray reducing devices. 1985 Sinclair C5 launched. Car phones arrive. 1986 European Year of Road Safety. Fixed penalty fines for minor motoring offences introduced. M25 completed! ... (Or so they thought at the time!) Unleaded petrol goes on sale. Work commences on Channel Tunnel.
% % 59%

Unit%38% %

1987 As from 1 April all cars must have rear seat belts fitted at point of manufacture in UK. Zig-Zag markings extended to Pelican Crossings. 1988 All coaches first used from 1974 to have 70mph speed limiters fitted by April 1992. (see updated regulations 1994) All new cars manufactured after 1 April are required to run on unleaded petrol. 1989 Children travelling in cars must wear seat belts/approved restraints where fitted. A tougher accompanied motorcycle 'L' test is introduced. 1990 Driving Standards Agency created by the Department of Transport. New regulations require that those accompanying learner drivers must have held a full driving licence for at least three years and are 21 years old or over. 'Compulsory Basic Training' for motorcyclists introduced. Learner motorcycle riders prohibited from carrying pillion passengers. Children's Traffic Club formed. 1991 All rear seat passengers must wear seat belts where fitted. 20mph zones introduced to reduce accidents in busy urban areas. White chevrons painted on the M1 motorway to help drivers to keep their distance. Dartford (Queen Elizabeth) Bridge is opened in October. It took three years to build an cost 86M. Petrol prices soar as a result of the Gulf War. MOT test to include petrol emissions, anti-lock braking and rear seat belts. Channel Tunnel links England with France. 1992 Speed enforcement cameras introduced at permanent sites. All new goods vehicles over 7.5 tonnes to be fitted with 60mph limiters. Minimum tyre tread depth of 1.6mm is introduced. Catalytic converters fitted to all new petrol engined cars. Toyota comes to Britain, producing cars in Derbyshire. 1993
Updated edition of Highway Code published. Greater use of 'red light' and 'speed' cameras planned. First trials of Puffin Crossing. MOT test extended to cover many smaller items including rear fog lamps, registration plates and mirrors.

1994 There are now 25.2 million vehicles on British roads. Casualties totaled 315,000 including 3650 fatalities, 444 of them being motorcyclists and 1124 pedestrians. Bus and coach speeds limited to 65mph and HGVs to 56mph. Channel Tunnel opens. MOT test now includes diesel emissions. 1996 Fitting of seat belts and restraints in minibuses and coaches used to transport children made compulsory. Introduction of The Driving Theory Test. Drivers must now pass this written test of knowledge before they are able to take the practical test of driving competence.

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1998

The Newbury bypass opens. Security during the building of this road cost a staggering 30m. DETR report that in 1997 3,599 people were killed, 42,967 were seriously injured and 327,544 were slightly injured on Great Britain's roads.

1999 Completely revised and updated edition of the Highway Code published. White Paper issued by HM Government "A New Deal for Transport - Better for Everyone". DETR report that in 1998 3,421 people were killed, 40,834 were seriously injured and 280,957 were slightly injured on Great Britain's roads. From 1 June the vehicle excise licence for on a car or van with an engine capacity of 1100cc or less has been reduced to 100 per year (from 155). The new bus lane on the M4 motorway between Heathrow Airport and London was officially opened on 7 June by John Prescott, the Deputy Prime Minister. The 4 miles of tarmac and speed enforcement cameras cost 1.9m. From 1 July all driving licences issued will be of the photo card type. This applies to licences whether they are first time issues or renewals. 2000 DETR publish it's strategy for reducing road accident casualties over the next ten years in it's report "Tomorrow's Roads - Safer for Everyone". BMW sells the Rover Car Company to a Management Consortium. Ford announces that it is to cease car production at it's Dagenham plant after 68 years. 21 June. The National Cycle Network is officially opened. September. Truck drivers and farmers stage protests at oil refineries throughout the UK. Petrol stations run out of fuel bringing the Country to a standstill. General Motors announce that they intend to close the Vauxhall car plant in Luton with the loss of 2000 jobs. DETR, in conjunction with The Home Office and The Lord Chancellor's Office publish their consultation paper - "Road Traffic Penalties".
2001 March - Ultra Low Sulphur Fuel goes on sale. September - Number plate system completely revised. Consisting of two numbers denoting the region and area. e.g. YT. Then the month and year of registration. e.g. 51 (5 being September and 1 being 2001). Then three random letters. So the full number could be YT 51 XYZ. March - Car production at Vauxhall's Luton plant finished on the 21 March. The final car, a silver V6 Vectra rolled out at 10.23am. The end came after 97 years of car production at Luton.

2002

After 91 years the AA road-side phone boxes are to be scrapped. This is due mainly to the widespread use of mobile phones. However twenty-one early wooden 'sentry' boxes are to remain without the 'phone because they are listed buildings.
2003 Congestion charging is introduced in Central London on 17 March. Most vehicles entering the designated area will be charged 5 or will face an 80 fine. The congestion charge applies from 7.00am to 6.30pm, Monday to Friday, excluding public Holidays. The charge does not apply at weekends. For full details see the official website - www.cclondon.com

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Unit%38% % With effect from 1 December it will be an offence to hold a mobile phone in your hand whilst driving. Full details may be found on the 'Car Drivers' page.

Britain's first Toll Motorway was partly opened on 9 December and fully open on 14th. The 27 mile stretch of road linking junctions 4 and 11 of the M6 Motorway in the West Midlands cost 900million to build. At peak times drivers of cars will initially pay a toll of 2, vans will be charged at 5 and HGV's will pay10. Rates will be reduced at night.
2004 Drivers holding a mobile phone whilst driving could have three penalty points endorsed on their licence when a Bill to be put before parliament in twelve to eighteen months becomes law. The fixed penalty fine could rise to 60 at the same time.

Talks are taking place which may lead to the sale of MG Rover, Britain's leading volume car producer being sold to the Chinese for 1 billion. If it goes ahead, the deal will save most of the 6,100 workforce along with thousands of jobs at companies supplying components. The cost of taking a driving test will be increased from 8 December. Fees for the practical part of the test will rise to 42 for cars, 51 for motorcycles and 80 for lorries and buses.
2005 Norwich Union introduces Pay as You Drive insurance for young drivers.

Drivers holding a mobile phone whilst driving will now be fined 60 and have three penalty points endorsed on their licence. There are plans to ban the use of bull bars on four wheel drive cars. The Government gave its backing to a move which would make such metal bars illegal within three years. A single roadside breath test will be enough to prosecute a driver who is over the limit. Police officers will no longer have to take a second reading at a police station. The carrying or use of sophisticated speed camera detectors or jammers will become illegal. Simple satellite positioning devices, which tell drivers where cameras are located, will still be allowed. Motorists suspected of being under the influence of drugs will face compulsory road side drug tests. If they fail the tests or perform badly they will be taken to a police station and asked to take blood tests which will determine if they have taken drugs. New regulations which came into force on 1 January mean that all new heavy vehicles used at home and abroad weighing more than three and a half tons (3,500kg) must be fitted with limiters to keep their speed below 56mph. They will also be banned from the fast lane of motorways. Vehicles driven solely within the UK have been given three years to have them fitted. Heavy commercial vehicles up to three years old must also

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have them fitted. There are plans to force drivers over 70 to undergo medical tests to prove that they are fit to continue driving. Currently they have to fill in a form every three years to declare any medical conditions and state that they are fit to drive.
2006 Road Safety Act passed. The act made provision for a wide range of road safety matters including: drink driving, speeding, driver training and driver and vehicle licensing

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House of Commons

These notes refer to the Road Safety Bill as introduced in the House of Commons on 30 November 2004 [Bill 10]

Driver training

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## Photographing the scene of a road traffic accident and/or a vehicle

The photographing of a scene of a road traffic accident should be completed as soon as possible after the accident has occurred, but after casualties have been removed and it is safe for the CSI to enter the scene of the incident. The incident may turn into a criminal investigation into offences such as 'causing death through reckless driving' or 'manslaughter' and as such should be treated as a crime scene. Initially photographs are taken from a distance (at times over 100 metres away), looking along the road and locating all of the vehicles involved; this will be repeated for all the roads and junctions looking towards the vehicles. If the accident occurred at night then it will usually be necessary for the CSI to return in daylight to complete these long shots. The camera should be fitted with a standard lens, as this will minimize distortion of the image, and it should be placed on a tripod, looking along the middle of the road. Under no circumstances should the CSI attempt to replicate what the driver saw as s/he approached the accident as it would be impossible to know where the driver's head was within a vehicle, which way the driver was looking, where the vehicle was on the road etc. The photographs taken by the CSI are to record the scene accurately in order to inform and not influence both the coroner and any subsequent investigation. Next, photographs will be taken showing the position of the vehicles, as they were when the CSI arrived. If the vehicles have been moved to facilitate the rescue of casualties no attempt should be made to replicate the accident. Any skid marks and related debris are photographed; it may be necessary for a police collision accident investigator to mark the start and finish of the skid marks to facilitate their complete photography. Then individual vehicles must be photographically recorded. As with rooms, the vehicle must be quartered by taking a photograph, if possible, from each of the four corners. Close up photographs of damage, such as smashed windscreens and collapsed wheels, will also be required. The CSI will concentrate on recording damage caused either during the accident or leading to the accident and not damage caused by the emergency services, such as the removal of door pillars to reach casualties. It may also be necessary to photograph the interior of the vehicles, including the engine compartment and boot; extra light may have to be introduced to allow accurate and complete recording of the interior, which would best be achieved by using a flashgun. If close up photographs are required of items within the vehicle or the engine compartment, possibly engine numbers and items inside the boot, then a flashgun will have to be used. Aerial photographs are an excellent way of providing an overview of the accident. Most police forces now have available an aerial support unit who will gladly record the scene.

From Ian Pepper Crime Scene Investigation Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 2004, p. 66%

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## Traffic collision scenario 1

A car has impacted with a pedestrian in a thirty mile per hour speed limit area.

The driver maintains that he was travelling below the speed limit and the pedestrian ran out so quickly that he could not avoid the collision.

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## Figure 3. Photograph of full-locked wheel tyre marks.

The longest skid mark is 18.3 m. The pedestrian was thrown 28.6 m.

## Figure 4. Shoe scuff mark - locates point of impact 68%

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Collision Scenario 2

A Black two-door Ford Escort was driven by a 17-year-old male driver (Jason Grayson) when it went out of control and collided with a street lamp on the B2651. The driver was breath-tested and the result was positive. He was arrested at the scene. The front-seat passenger (male) sustained head and neck injuries and was taken to hospital. The rear seat passengers (both female) sustained cuts to the face and neck injuries. They were taken to hospital. In statements, the front-seat passenger stated that during the drive the CD player had been on and they vehicle occupants had been listening to music. The driver stated he was driving within the speed limit (30mph), however, skid marks on the tarmac suggest the vehicle was driving in excess of 45 mph at the time of initial braking. The driver said he swerved to avoid a vehicle coming towards him around the bend, just before the collision. The front-seat passenger did not refer to another vehicle coming towards them in his initial statement but said he thought one may have come towards them a little wide when questioned further. He could not describe the vehicle. Both rear-seat passengers stated that they were arguing with their boyfriends in the front of the car over where they should go that evening and did not see another vehicle coming towards them. On inspection by mechanics at the Collision Investigation Unit, the vehicle was found to have deficient rear shock absorbers, the near-side rear tyre had a tyre tread of less than 1mm and the steering rack had a loose coupling on the off-side. Weather conditions at the time of the collision were bright and sunny. The B2651 is a straight stretch of single carriage-way road for approximately half a mile, narrowing towards a left-hand bend immediately prior to the collision site.

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## Collision Investigation Scenario 3 Motorway Collision

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Steve%Bishop% a stroke prior to the crash or whether his cognitive impairment is due entirely to the physical injuries. Mr Jones remains in the Neuro-surgical unit. Forensic examination by the Avon and Somerset Collision Investigation Unit revealed that the Vauxhall Corsa had around 75% impaired front braking, due to very worn brakes and low brake fluid levels in the hydraulic system. The rear off-side tyre was worn to a level of less that 1.1 millimetre across the central 2/3rds of the tyre and was over inflated by 28%. The rear near-side tyre was worn to a level of less that 0.8 millimetres across the central 2/3rds of the tyre and was under inflated by 60%. Both rear shock-absorbers were worn and estimated to be less than 30% efficient. The front passenger seat seat-belt was poorly maintained, stained and frayed. On extension it would not fully extend and the tightening spring inside the fixing housing was loose. No mechanical defaults were found in any other vehicles involved in the incident. The on-board recording equipment showed the Truck, (H98768 [Belgian Registered]) was travelling at 58 mph when impact occurred. The driver of the BMW (WT584HBC) admitted in his statement that he was using the Autocruise function on his controls, which was set to 80mph. However, witnesses from other drivers and estimates taken from CCTV cameras within one mile of the initial impact suggest that the actual speed being travelled at was of the order of 95 mph. The driver of the White Transit van (DR879VFT) estimated his speed to be approximately 72mph. This was confirmed by the statements of other drivers and CCTV footage. When Police initially attended the collision scene, it was recorded that all vehicles involved were showing dipped headlamps. The windscreen wipers on the Vauxhall Corsa were switched to the continuous setting. The gear lever of the Corsa was positioned in 5th gear but the engine was stalled. The driver of the BMW suffered whiplash injuries, slight facial abrasions (airbag) and reported being stressed and shocked. The truck driver was uninjured. The driver of the Transit van was shaken-up and suffered minor whiplash injuries. Shortly before the first impact there had been a heavy downpour of rain. The road surface was wet with some deeper residual run-off water in places on lane 2 and lane 3. Rain had discontinued before impact but spray was still being cast-up by vehicles. The sky was dull and overcast. It was still dark.

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Notification of Incident What immediate police response is required? Number & type of response. Record & disseminate information.

Figure 2

PRE-SCENE

## Survey, assess, disseminate.

Narrow/widen scene as necessary Identify & Secure the Scene Preserve life. Preserve scene. Secure evidence (ID Witnesses). Identify victim. Identify suspect. Make record. Prevent escape/destruction of evidence. Notify SIO for policy decisions and others as necessary. Communicate actions. Appoint scene manager, exhibits and disclosure officers as necessary. Appoint family liaison officer.

## Notify major incident procedures as necessary.

If hit & run or suspicious circumstances, instigate major enquiry (refer to Murder Investigation Manual).

SCENE
Full Scene Investigation. What expert response is required? (CIU, SOCO, CID, Photos, FSS, TRL, Coroner, exhibits, vehicle examiner, Pathologist) Identify precipitating & contributory factors (witness statements, house to house enquires CCTV etc). Hold scene conference as necessary. Gather evidence. Subsequent examinations. Post mortem, vehicle exam, tachographs, computers.

Media

## Inform other agencies. as necessary

Post Scene Considerations Case conference. SIO policy file, early CPS advice. Critical incident de-brief as necessary. Assess available information in collaboration with other relevant specialist advisors (CIU, SOCO, CID, photos, FSS, exhibits, vehicle examiner & pathologist).

## Information volunteered from outside the investigation.

POST SCENE

What does the investigation now know? What else does the investigation need to know? Identify what further information is required and where it can be found. (DVLA, PNC, CCTV etc). Interview suspects (PACE, PEACE) and witnesses. Complete ongoing enquiries.

## Is the investigation Human Rights compatible?

YES

If no further information required or, if no viable lines of enquiry left is there sufficient evidence to proceed to charge, summons, caution, etc?

NO

## Hearing. (Magistrates, Crown, Coroners courts).

Feedback re: Investigation, inform 3 parties, update manual. Retain papers/data with consideration to possible civil litigation & appeals.

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