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The Seven Instruction Lineages

Jo Nang Taranatha
Tran lar and Edit b) David Tempi man
TARANATHA'S
BKA'. BABS. BDUN. LOAN
THE SEVEN INSTRUCTION LINEAGES
BY JO.NANG. TARANATHA.
TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY
DAVID TEMPLEMAN.
LIBRARY OF TIBETAN WORKS & ARCHIVES
@ 1983 by Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala.
No part of this publication may be re-produced in any form without
the written permission of the publisher.
Published by the Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala
and printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), Nehru House, New Delhi.
Contents
Publisher's Note v
Preface vii
Translator's Introduction ix
Abstract of contents xi
Translation of bKa. babs. bdun.ldan.gyi. brgyud. pa'i.mam. thar.
ngo.mtshar.rmad.du. byung.ba.rin. po.che'i.lta. bu'i.rgyan. 1
Notes to the translation 102
Bibliography 123
Publisher's Note
The Seven Instruction Lineages which relates the mystic lives of
59 Indian Siddhas is the second work of Jo.nang Taranatha which
the Library of Tibetan Works & Archives is publishing. The first
was The Origin of Tara Tantra published in 1982. Both these works
are translated by David Templeman. We are sure that readers will
find both these important translations useful.
Gyatso Tsering
Director
1983
Preface
Taranatha's bKa'.babs.bdun.ldan was first translated into German
by Albert Griinwedel in 1914. at St. Petersburg as part of the Biblio-
theca Buddhica series.
1
It was a pioneering work and has been
quoted endlessly by Indian and European historians dealing with
this period of Indian history. But, as with all such works, it had its
limits. Errors of translation and mis-reading notwithstanding
(and I make no claim that the present work is error free) it was
largely inaccessible to the growing English-speaking audience for
Tibetan and Indian Buddhist material. Even Bhupendranath Datta's
precis and translation from the German of Grunwedel entitled
Mystic Tales of Liimii Tiiraniithii
2
was barely intelligible, partly due
to mistranslation and partly due to the amount of material omitted,
which made important lineages incomplete. In the light of this I
felt that a new translation was merited. I hope that in some way
this does not detract from Griinwedel's important work, but
augments it, as it deserves.
I have been helped more than I can ever repay by the Ven.
Traleg Rinpoche and Norbu Samphel, very gifted in their respective
fields, and very dear friends,
1
A. Grunwedel Taranatha's Edelsteinmine. Das Buch von de Vermittlern
der Sieben Inspirationen. Bibliotheca Buddhica XVID. St. Petersburg, 1914.
1
B. Datta M.vstic Tales of Lama Taraniitha (Sic I) A religio-sociologlcal
history of Mahayana (Sic/) Buddhism Ramakrishna Vedanta Math, Calcutta,
1944.
Translator's Introduction
In the present work, Taranatha paints a miraculous picture of the
great Siddhas of India-their lives and the lineages which sprang
from their teachings. In all, the lives of some 59 Siddhas are related-
some well known, others more obscure, but all linked by their various
lineages and by the instructions handed down from Siddha to
disciple. Taranatha's account of these remarkable lives is especially
valuable as he had as his gurus, and as the sources of these accounts,
three Indians from the very traditions about which he wrote with
such conviction. Among them was the great Buddhaguptanatha,
1
disciple of Mahasiddha Santigupta, whose biography Taranatha
records so eloquently in this work. Buddhaguptanatha's biography
is recorded elsewhere in Taranatha's collected works. The lineage
accounts were very important to a clear understanding of the
Tanttic upadesas themselves, and although not actually containing
the teachings, these sampradayas, or lineage accounts, were a
guarantee of the purity and fidelity of the teachings passed down
from master to pupil. In several places Taranatha makes quite
sure that his own lineage is irrefutably established so that there is
no doubt he is a participator in the upadesas themselves, not
merely a hander-down of legends. Clearly then the accounts were
orally passed on and, due to the special factors involved in the
tantric oral tradition, we cannot but understand them as being other
than accurate and reliable.
* * *
Details of Taranatha's life and the social and historical back-
ground in which he worked may be seen in this author's translation
of Taranatha's sGrol.ma'i.rgyud.kyi.byung.khung.gsal.bar.byed.pa'i.
lo.rgyus.gser.gyi.phreng.ba. published as The Origin of the Tara
Tantra by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala,
and in the present author's article Tdranatha the Historian, published
in the Tibet Journal, Vol. VI, No. 2, Summer 1981.
* * *
Editions of the text used in the present translation may be seen
in the bibliography of Tibetan works quoted.
1
See Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls Vol2 p 552.
Tiranitha's
bka,. babs. bdon. ldan-gyi. brgyd. pa,i. man. thar. ngo. mtshar.
mad. du. byung. ba. rin. po. che,i. khungs.
Abstract of Contents
Taranatha pays obeisances to his root and lineage gurus, and
pays tribute to the special qualities of his own guru, Buddha-
guptanatha and to his gu1 u Santigupta.
FIRST INSTRUCTION-MAHAMUDRA
- Story of Brahrrzana Riihula (Saraha). Taranatha's comment on
old siddha lineages. Naming as Saraha. Saraha's doha to the
Differentiation between Brah:qtana Rahula and
Sthavira Rahula.
- Story of Ndgarjuna, Saraha's student. Nagarjuna's life secured,
his nourishment of the Sangha, his meeting with the nagas, his
extraction from the naga realms of the Prajiiapararnitii texts,
his refutation of enemies of the Mahayana, his death due to
fruition of previous karma and Taranatha's mention of his
guru's testimony concerning Nagarjuna's cave.
- Story of Savari, known as Saraha the younger, student of
Nagarjuna. Lineage mentioned-Savari, Luyipa, Dengipa, Tillipa,
Naropa, younger Pombhipa, Kusalibhadra. Also a lineage from
Tillipa-Luyipa, Darikapa, Antarapa.
- Story of Luyipa, student of Savari. His meeting with Savari, his
practice on the banks of the river Ganges in Bengal, naming
as Luyipa, his conversion of the king of Odivisa, his doha to the
King, Siddhahood of the King who became Darikapa, and his
minister who became Dengkipa.
- Story of Maitripli/Moitrigupta student of Savari. His eviction
from Vikramalasila at the hands of Atisa, his meeting with the
guru, Taranatha's criticism of Tibetan credulity, his final attain-
ment of the highest Mahamudra state, rnying.ma.pa view of his
disciples. His four major disciples-Sahavajra, known as
Nategana; Sunyatiisamiidhi, known as Deviikaracandra,
Riimapiila; Vajrapii(1i, known as "Indian PaJJi."
- Story of Ramapdla His disciples Kusalabhadra the ymmger,
Asitaghana and Prajiiiimitra.
SECOND INSTRUCTION-GODDESS
- Story of Virupa. His miracle of stopping the sun's motion, his
subjugation of the goddess CaQ<;lika, Tiiranatha's mention that
others say it was who subjugated CaQ<;lika, his attempt
to smash the Mahesvara image at Somaniitha, his conversion
of the king of Jonaghata, his other name of Sridharmapiila.
- Story of Kalavirupa, student of Viriipa. His performance of the
four cardinal sins out of the sixteen which hurt a his
naming as "black" Virupa, his meeting with Siddha iicarya
Jii/andharipa, Vajrayogini's referral of Kalaviriipa to Virupa.
- Story of Vyiidali, student of Virupa. Vyadali the bird-hunter uses
unusual means to attain Siddhi. His disciple Kusalibhadra.
- Story of J)ombhiheruka, student of Virupa. Taranatha's dis-
cussion of his origins from the Tibetan tradition. Origins of
his name, his life as an outcaste, his conversion of the kings
of Tipura and Rii9ha, the death of a loser of faith in the iicarya,
his miracle with the Tirthika stiipas, his disciples :-the four
most prominent-J)ombhiyogini, A/alavajra, Hemalavajra and
Ratavajra. Minor disciples were Nags.khrod.pa ("He of the
dense forests"), Garvaripa, Jayasri, Durjayacandra, Rahulavajra.
Lineage of J)ombhiyoginf, Ratavajra, Km.1iicari. Lineage of
J)ombhiyogini, Caryiipa.
- Story of Durjayacandra, student of :pombhiyogini. Dorjaya-
candra's gaQa-feast.
- Story of Riihulavajra, student of Gunaukara and Jniinasagar.
His great austerities. Lineage-Riihulavajra, Danasrf. Suspect
lineage of-Virupa the younger, K!$1Jiicari, J)ombhiheruka,
Durjayacandra, Kusalibhadra.
THIRD INSTRUCTION-KARMA MUDRA
- Story of King Indrabhati, king of 099iyiina. His desire to meet
the Buddha, his perfection through desire, his link with Srisukha
xii
the sahiijasiddhi dancing girl.
- Story of the Sahiijasiddhi yogini. Born as daughter of king of
Urgyen (Oc;lc;liyana), met Bodhisattva residing as an
ascetic in a forest and reached Sahaja.
- Story of Mahiipadmavajra, student of Sahajayogini. Lineage-
Mahiipadmavajra, Anangavajra, "middle" Padmavajra, "middle"
Indrabhuti, Jiilandhari, KniJiiCari, Kalyiinaniitha, Amitavajra,
Kusalabhadra. Mahapadmavajra meets Sahajayogini, is instruc-
ted in Anuttaratantra, attains rank of maha.vajradhara.
- Story of Anangaviijra After 12 years of meditation is told to
work as swineherd, becomes known as Sri "Pigpen."
- Story of Saroruha, disciple of Anangavajra. Learns from an old
woman through symbols, is given Anangavajra's daughter as his
consort, becomes priest to the king of Oc;lc;liyana, due to his
consort he defiles the king, is burned but survives, king reaches
Siddhi. In Maru Saroruha takes a king's wife as his consort,
converts the king. His disciple was King Indrabhuti the middle one.
FOURTH INSTRUCTION-CLEAR LIGHT
- Story of Asvapada. Causes a plague of phantom horses, causes
king of Urgyen to reach Siddhi.
- Story of Vinapa, disciple of Asvapada.
- Story of Vilasyavajra, disciple of Vinapa. She was beer-seller to
Tirthika king of Urgyen. She and :pombhipa convert the king.
She was empowered by both qombhipa and vinapa. Becomes
known as Y ogini Cinto.
- Story of VajraghaiJtopa, disciple of Vilasyavajra. Ordained at
Nalanda, meets Siddha Datikapa and Vilasyavajra, annoys king
of Urgyen who plots to humiliate him. Vajragha:Q.\iipa humiliates
the king, threatens the town with flood, and converts the
citizens.
- Story of Lvavapa, disciple of Vajragha:Q.\iipa. Defeats c;Iakinis
of the Tirthikas, sleeps for twelve years at king's facetious com-
mand, recovers his blanket (lvava) from malicious mantrikas,
gave empowerment and upadesas to King Indrabhilti, who
thereby gained siddhi. Taranatha's comments on textual support
for the account of Lvavapa and his criticism of Indian and
Tibetan historiography.
- Story of Jalandharipa, disciple of lndrabhuti and Lvavapa.
xiii
Jalandharipa beats guild leaders who insult his yogic meditation.
Smashes ISvara linga in Nepal as it was interfering with Buddhist
Doctrine, defies execution order of king of Camparna, converts
king Bhartahari of Malava. Jalandharipa is known also as
Balipada. Offends king Gobicandra of Bengal, is entombed,
rescued by siddha Krg1acarya also known as Kanhapa. Jiilan-
dharipa becomes guru of J1ianagupta and teaches six other yogins,
one of whom was Vibhutidtisa, the guru of Bu.ston.rin.po.che.
Lineage-Jalandharipa, Buddhajiianapada, Tantipa,
Younger Viriipa, Raja Bhartahari, Gobicandra, etc.
- Story of Kmuicarya, student of Jalandharipa. also
known as Kanhapa. Prophecy about his birth and name.
Taranatha reters interested readers to a more extensive bio-
graphy. Kf$:Q.iicarya's six pupils-Bhadrapada, Mahi/a, Bhadala,
Tshem.bu.pa, Dhamapa, Dhumapa. Discussion on Bhadrapa/
Bhadala identity. Mention of Eyala, yoginis Mikhala, Kanakala,
Pandhepa, minister Kusalantitha, king Lilacandra, Amitavajra,
Lavayi/a, Sridhara, Antarapa, younger Kf$1Jticarya, Bhuvaripa,
Bhuva.blo.ldan, younger Kusalibhadra.
- Story of Bhadraptida also known as Guhyapa, a disciple of
Krgtacarya. Lineage-Bhadraptida, Antarpa, Tillipa. Lineage-
Carytipa, Kusalantitha, Tillipa.
- Story of Tillipa. Expulsion from his monastery, his practice
with the daughter of a sesame pounder, origin of his name,
revelation of his miracles in Bengal, his death. Pupils Lalita-
vajra and Ntiropa.
- Story of No.ropa, disciple of Tillipa. His gaining of faith in
Buddhism, installation as northern gatekeeper of Nalanda and
Vikramasila, his rejection of Tillipa, his acceptance of Tillipa
as his Guru. Naropa's deeds oi penance and his gaining of Siddhi.
Naropa's infraction of Tillipa's injunction not to debate, take
pupils or preach, and his punishment. Pupils of Naropa-
Stintipa, Atisa, Km;tibhayavajra, Pitohanu, Jaytikara, Kasmiri
Akarasiddhi, Manakasri, Dharmamati, Pham.ting,
Taraniitha discusses identity of and Dharmamati
and possible inclusion of Jiitinagarbha. Other of Naropa's pupils
-Sri Param J)ombhipa, Riripa, Kandhapa and Kasoripa.
- Story of Sri Param J:?ombhipa, disciple of Naropa. Tataniitha's
xiv
discussion of :qombhipa as Guru of Atisa Lineage Sri Param
J)ombhipa, younger Kusalibhadra.
- Story of Kusa/ibhadra. Studied under Vajrasanapa, perfected
heterodox doctrines and thereby he subdued Tirthikas. Met
J:?ombhipa, repented his previous follies and attained Siddhi.
Meets Virupa, Vyadapala, etc. Account of his
meeting with
- Story of Asitaghana, disciple of Kusalibhadra. Gained faith in
Buddhism, received upadesas from Prabhavarma,
Vibhuticandra, Devakara, etc. Meets and gets upaddas from
younger Kusalibhadra, Luyipa, Vyadala. Taught Jfianamitra.
Lineage-younger Kusalibhadra, Asitaghana, JiUinamitra.
- Story of Jiianamitra, disciple of Asitaghana. Belonged to the
lineage of Dharmapa Meets with Asitaghana and Nandapala
Defeats Tirthikas in Odisa His early students -Dharmakara,
Yogini "Moon Ray", Yogini Bhajaruru. His late disciple was
Sdntigupta the Mahasiddha, the Guru of Buddhaguptaniitha
who was, in turn, Ttiraniitha's Guru. This important lineage gives
much authority to Taranatha's oral accounts of the Siddhas and
links him directly with the Indian Mahasiddhas.
FIFTH INSTRUCTION-UTPATTIKRAMA
- Story of Buddhasrljfztina. Ordained at Nalanda under acarya
Haribhadra. Taught Gunamitra. Buddhasrijnana studies under
Lilavajra, yogini Guneru, Balipada (a manifestation of Jalan-
dharipa), Palitapada. He searches for Mafijusri and teaches the
upadesas to Pii/itapada. Miracle of the Vajrasana offerings and
the miracle of consecration of Vikramasila. The Nalanda con-
versions and the destruction of Buddhasrijnana's heruka image
by the Sravaka Sendhapas who are protected by Buddha-
srijnana from the King's punishment. His four disciples-
Prasiintamitra, Mahiisukha-padmtikara and
Riihula.
- Story of Dipamkarabhadra, disciple of Buddhasrijnana. Story
of his punishment of the king of Sindhu who persecuted
Buddhists. Taranatha criticises view that were in
Madhyadesa at that time. Defeats Tirthika acarya Sagarananda.
Taught Vaidyapiida.
- Story of Vaidyapada, disciple of Dipatpkarabhadra. Vaidyapada
also studied under Buddhasrijnana. Tiiranatha says that Vaidya-
pada is the same person as the renowned Humkara. Lineage-
XV
Vaidyapada A vadhatipa, Ratnakarasantipa, Mahavajrasanapa,
Kusali. Another lineage-Vaidyapada, Buddhasrisonti, Mahti-
vajriisanapa. Elucidation of who exactly Vajrasanapa, middle
Vajrasanapa and Mahavajrasanapa were. Ratniikarasgupta
(middle Vajrasanapa) also studied under Vaidyapada. Buddha-
jfifinapada (Buddhasrijnana) Taught Mahactirya Pad.ma. 'byung.
gnas, known as the younger Padmavajra. Vaidyapada taught
the Avadhuti yogi of Ktimaru known as Ratnasila who taught
Kayasthavrddha.
- Story of Kayasthavrddha, the "Old Scribe". Scribe to king
Dharmapala. King Mahipala insults him, he studies under
Avadhuti yogi of Kamarii and makes king Mahipala his student.
Dhamgadasa another name for Kayasthavrddha. Khyung.po.
yogi begs Kayasthvrddha for his Hevajra commentary which
was translated into Tibetan by gha.n.dar.ma.blo.gros. Kayas-
thavrddha taught Bhavaskandha, who taught Durhari, who taught
the Earlier Vajriisanapa, who taught the Middle Vajriisanapa.
- Story of Senior Vajriisanapa (Mahavajrasanapa). Taught Middle
Vajrasanapa, also called Ratnakaragupta.
- Story of Ratntikaragupta, disciple of Mahavajrasanapa. Goes
to Sauri in South India and becomes known as Sauripa, "The
man from Sauri". Lineage Ratniikaragupta, Abhayiikara, Subhii-
karagupta, Dasiibala, Vajrasri, Dharmabhadrasri, Buddhakirti,
Ratnakirti, Riitigupta.
SIXTH INSTRUCTION-WORD TRADITION
Lineages-Nogiirjuna, Aryadeva, Rahu/a, Candrakirti,
Prabhakara, Jnanakirti, Siintipa.
- Mafijusrimitra, Briihmin Jfiiinavajra.
- Jniinapada, Priisiintamitra. Prasantamitra's four pupils were
Srisena, Cilupa, Kr$1Jajiita, Vaidyapada. All four taught
Manjusrijiiiina who taught Maha Amoghavajra, who taught
Siddhivira, who taught Atisa, who taught Mitraguhya, who taught
Mahiivajrasanapa. Thereafter in this lineage come Cilupa,
Thagana, Siintipa, Jiiiinasrimitra, AtiSa, Early and Later Vajrii-
sanapa.
- Lalitavajra, Lilavajra, Manjusrijiiiina, Mahii Amoglzavajra,
Caryiipa, . ~ r i d h a r a .
- Story of Sridhara, also known as the "buffalo head acarya".
xvi
Lineage Sridhara, Harikela, Bhirdipa, Maiijusrijiiiina.
- Story of Kukuripa. Origin of his name. Lineage-Kukuripa,
Padmavajra, Tillipa, Naropa, Siintipa.
- Story of Siintipa, disciple of Naropa. Heard Mahayana at
Vikramasila from Mahojetari. Teaches Ratnakirti, Kalasamii-
yavajra, Thagana, etc. Tara's prophecy to Santipa. He hears
some upadesas from Naropa, His meeting with his former stu-
dent Kotalipa. His death.
- Story of middle King lndrabhiUi, also known as Kukuraja. Taught
Padmasambhava.
- Story of Pitopa. His best Students-Avadhr:Uipa, Bodhisri and
Niiropa. Avadhutipa taught Sauripa.
- Story of Abhayiikaragupta disciple of Sri Sauripa. His rejection
of Vajrayogini, his studies under Sri Sauripa, his Bodhisattva-
like abilities, the texts he composed, his commentaries, S!idhanas,
etc. Lineage-Subhiikaragupta, Dasabala, Vikirtideva
- Story of Vikirtideva Breaks his Guru's command, Avalokites-
vara and Hayagriva help him escape his fate. Lineage-
Sakyasribhadra, Buddhasribhadra, Ratnaraksita, Munisribhadra,
KarutJiisribhadra, Siikyaraksita, Sujiitavarman, Vimuktadeva,
Janagupta, Ratigupta, Siintigupta. Santigupta was the Guru
of Buddhaguptantitha who was Taraniitha's Guru. This, as in the
fourth instruction, links Taranatha with the Indian Siddhas and
shows the depth and completeness of his Guru.
SEVENTH INSTRUCTION-VARIOUS UPADESAS
Taranatha's dismissal of baseless stories of being a
pupil of Minapa.
three disciples Tirthaniitha, Kalaniitha, Briihmaniitha.
TaranAtha notes that their teachings are in agreement, this
being confirmed by what his Guru Buddhaguptanatha said.
- Story of Vyiilipa. His search for the quicksilver Siddhi, his attain-
ment of it, Nagarjuna's request for the elixir and its price exacted
by Vyalipa, Arya Tara prevents Vyalipa from converting
mount DhiQkota in Gandhara into gold, Vyadalipa understands
his greed, takes teaching from Carpa\ipa, gives him elixir
upadesas.
- Story of Carpafipa, gained immediate siddhi with the upadesa!>
given by Vyalipa, takes a consort, king of Campa donates two
xvii
cave temples to Carpa\ipa. Teaches Kakkufipa.
- Story of Kakku{ipa, disciple of Carpa\ipa. Lineage-Kakku[ipa,
Luyipa, Minapa.
- Story of Minapa, disciple of Kakku\ipa. His life as a fisherman,
his miraculous hearing of Mahesvara's Tantras while in a fish's
belly. Lineage-Minapa, Halipa, Ma/ipa, Tibolipa. Lineage-
Machendrapa, Caura{lgi,
- Story of Caura{lgi. As a prince he was wrongly tortured by the
king, rescued by Machendrapa, fed by
- Story of Attained siddhi by the upadesas of
Machendra.
- Story of Kar!Jaripa, disciple of Gorak?a. makes king
of Mevara see the nature of grief, king becomes KarQaripa,
offers his eyes to his Guru. He is also known as Veraganiitha.
He taught Nagopa, the "Naked one".
- Story of Nogopa, disciple of KarQaripa. King of Kongkuna
tortures Nagopa unsuccessfully.
- Story of Golennatha, pupil of Nagopa. His 12 year meditation
in an earthenware pot.
- Story of Onkarnatha, pupil of Golenniitha. Expelled from
home, studies under Goleniitha, meets and attains
realization of Tattva.
- Story of Riitigupta, disciple of Onkarniitha. Begged
from Jnanagupta in Rakang, gets empowetment from Dasa-
balapingha, studies with Asitaghana and hears upadesas from
Onkamiitha.
- Story of Mahtisidddvara Stintigupta, Guru of Buddhaguptantitha
who was Guru of Ttiraniitha. Tiiraniitha describes him
as "master of all the instructions". His birth, studies, his offer-
ings before his Guru, his gradual rise to abbacy over his monas-
tery, his outrageous actions while abbot, his gentle expulsion
by the Sangha. His wanderings, his hearing of upadesas from
six prostitutes who were, in reality, Vajra9akinis, his encounter
with Vajrayogini and her injuction for Santigupta to search
for his Guru, Jnanamitra. His long search for his Guru, his
Guru's tests, his Guru's refusal after many years to give him
even one upadesa, his attempts at suicide, his journeys to Nepal
and Kiimari.i in search of his guru again, his work on behalf of
his Guru, his imprisonment and release, his attainment of
Siddhi instantaneously, his consort Menaka, Jfianamitra's
xviii
death, his temptation by a Tajik King, his disciples Jana-
madeva and Gambhiramati; his six special disciples, Vima-
lasahya, Candrdkara, Ratniikara, Sugata, Yogini Umapati
and Yogini Tararrzga, war caused between Patbans and
Moghuls. His disciples-Vedatik$na, Sanghasila, Virabhandu,
Asa'(lghabodhi, Anandamati, Vedlinanda, Dharmaksagho$a,
Parahethgho$a, Sumegha. Santigupta defeats the Tirthika
Mukundavarti, Taraniitha's criticism of various accounts of
Santigupta's life. Taranatha's own link with Santigupta, via
his three Indian Gurus who were all students of Siintigupta.
- Story of Gambhiramati, disciple of Santigupta.
- Story of Yogini Dinakara, disciple of Santigupta. her life as a
princess, impression made on her by a mendicant monk, her
marriage, her feigned madness and expulsion, her studies under
Santigupta, her magical defeat of Jimghama Mahesvara,
a scourge of Buddhists and her punishment ot a lapsed yogin.
Taranatha's final summary ot the Siddha lineages and his
eulogy of Santigupta.
Taranatha tells of his sources for the work, his final benediction
and the Colophon.
xix
Oxp Svasti.
Homage to the Guru.
This is an account of the lineage histories of the Seven
Instructions,
1
which can be likened to a marvellous vein of jewels.
I pay homage to the feet of my Holy Teacher.
2
Having paid my obeisances again and again with a worshipful
mind to the assemblages of root and lineage gurus who point out
clearly to all beings the path of Vajradhara, I will relate their deeds
briefly.
Even the amazing activities of one Siddha cannot be related by
one with a magic tongue even in a hundred aeons-nevertheless
this book has been written, taken from the teachings of my Guru.
Our excellent Teacher Buddhaguptanatha said that by so doing
one would instantly enter into the teachings of the Buddhas of the
three eras, an ocean of melodious speech, and that it is impossible
to point out the limits of the Buddha's holy words in the excellent
Doctrine. However the Lord's (ie. Buddhaguptanatha's) root Guru,
Santi(gupta) said, "I am renowned as one who has the Seven
Instructions," and they were, without exception, fully absorbed by
the Lord himself.
1
Instruction One
As to the first Instruction, it concerns the teachings of the
Mahiimudra.
3
Now, Mahiicarya Brahm.ana Rahula, born in the land of
09i,visa,
4
was by caste a From his youth he became pro-
ficient in the Vedas, the Vedangas, the eighteen sciences
5
and the
eight subsidiary sciences,
6
etc. When he had read some secret texts to
five hundred youths, Vajrayogini appeared before him in
the guise of a barmaid and repeatedly offered the acarya nectar
of the knowledge of the absolute wisdom in the form of a strong
intoxicant. He partook of it without an instant's thought, and even
though he had attained the very highest reaches of Samadhi inside,
he lost his caste. The Brahm.ins wished to dishonour him,
and the acarya, by the power of inner yoga which he was able to
summon up, made the themselves vomit up the beer.
Hurling a huge rock onto the surface of a lake he said, "If I drank
beer, may this stone sink. If you have drunk it and not I, may it
float!" The rock floated on the water. Thus the Briihm.ins were
defeated by his powers.
He went to Madhyadesa
7
and became a monk in the doctrine of
the Buddha, gradually becoming the most learned bhiqu in the
Tripi\aka.
The upadyaya
8
of this acarya was Sthavira Kala, and his upadyaya
was the Noble His upadyaya was Upagupta but the
Guru (Buddhaguptanatha) says it is hard to be certain of these old
teacher lineages. It is said in the Tibetan precept collections that
although he was known as the son, Rahula's true student, it is better
if one does not examine further and just leaves it at that.
Then he became abbot of Nalanda.
9
He practised the Doctrines
and perfotmed them on vast scales-thus the Mahayana Siitra
collection became widespread and this was in the era of this acarya.
Then he thought of practising mental austerities, and, without
wavering from his meditation on the essential characteristiclessness
of mind,
10
he wandered through various lands, finally coming to the
southern country of Marhata.
There he saw a yogini who was of the same sphere of liberation
2
as he, and she had the form of a fletcher's daughter. He straightened
arrows etc. and made weapons as his livelihood and she also pointed
out to him through signs the meaning of things as they are, and there-
by he saw the Dharmata
11
in its reality. Having taken the arrow-
smith's daughter as his mudra (Consort), he wandered in various
lands doing the work of an arrowsmith. As his wisdom increased
he became known as Saraha, or "He who shoots with an arrow".
Formerly he was a Sthavira or elder over all the monks, and now he
had become quite a non-conformist. The King together with in-
numerable beings came to see him and jeered at him but the acarya
in his form of arrow straightener said,
"Oh ho! I am a Brahqtana
and I live with a girl who works with bamboo.
I see neither caste nor no caste.
I have taken the disciplines of the shaven headed monks
and yet I also wander with this wife of mine.
There is no distinction between attachment and non-
attachment.
These impurities are only thoughts. Others don't even
know this.
They are just like poisonous snakes".
Having heard all this and having sung many Doha Vajra songs
12
the King and five thousand of his retinue saw clearly the meaning
of things as they are. His body was transformed into that of a
Vidyadhara
13
and by magic he soared off into the heavens-it is said
that he finally became invisible. Furthermore it happened that as a
result of this there were many hundred thousand persons who
manifested mental concentration and so his renown spread to all
places. Having worked for the welfare of many sentient creatures
it is said that he departed in his bodily form to other Buddha
realms.
In this there is agreement with the Tibetans. In one of the frag-
ments of the Indian book of Siddha lists by Buddhakapala, it
appears that in the intervening period, as there is nothing mentioned
about Rahula's ordination, then the Brahqtana Rahula and Sthavira
Rahula are clearly to be seen as separate people. Even the Trans-
lator of Mi.nyag
14
evidently wants it as such and does not see any
contradictions in it.
3
Rahula's student was acarya Nagarjuna, who was born in the
South at Vidarbha
15
into the Brahiitin caste. At his birth the sooth-
sayers said that if 100 monks, 100 and 100 ordinary folk
were invited to the celebratjons, then in due course he would live
for seven years, seven months and seven days. There was no other
recourse, so they said. His parents therefore did as was suggested.
As the completion of the allotted time drew near he was sent,
together with servants, on tour to another province. Eventually he
arrived at Nalanda and there the abbot Rahula introduced him to
the recitation of the Amitayus mantra to seal his life's strength.
Having become ordained as a monk there was nothing he could
not understand in the Tripitaka texts of Mahayana and Hinayana
and in the subsidiary sciences. Then he practised the sadhanas of
Mahamayuri, Kurukulla, the nine and Mahakala and also
attained the Pill siddhi, the Eye salve siddhi, the Sword siddhi, the
Fleetfoot siddhi, the Elixir siddhi and the Treasure-trove siddhi, as
well as many others. Finally he perfected all the powers to enable
him to destroy life and to revive it again, and Nagas and
.Asuras all became his servants. By perfecting the extraordinary
Elixir siddhi he attained a Vajra body and it is said that he got great
magical powers as well as the power of foreknowledge. Having
perfected Mahakala's Mantra at Dhanyaka\aka,
16
he stayed there
and meditated on Mahakala's Tantra and on the practice of coercing
his presence. Supported in that place by Acala, he perfected the
illusory form of Mahakala with c;lakiQ.iS surrounding his head and he
conjured forth Mahakali, from each of the eight Mahakala Tantras,
from a two-armed form right up to the Tantra dealing with the
eighteen armed form Kurukulla's reflex form, etc. By summoning
forth these forms he was able to win the counsel of the Vidyac;Jii-
kinis. It is said that he summoned forth the 160 various kinds of
Sadhana, perfected, all eight of the common siddhis, such as the
Sword and Mercury siddhis etc., to an absolute degree of perfection.
This is an account of how he prepared nourishment and sus-
tenance for the Sangha. The Abbot Rahulabhadra was staying in a
certain place perfecting the sadhana of Arya Tara and when
Nagarjuna came before him he was giving instruction to 500 monks.
A state of famine had been in existence for twelve years and the areas
around Magadha
17
had become deserted. Seeing in all this the
Karmic actions of sentient creatures, the acarya made an infusion
of gold, eradicated the famine over vast tracts of the country, and
4
changed the gold into grain, thereby making the lives of the Sangha
flourish. When the acarya Rahula had completed the sadhana he
saw that all the lands were again deserted and Nagarjuna asked for
the cause of this. The acarya was unable to give a reason for he
feared that some impediment would arise in the siidhana. After
twelve years the famine had passed and Rahu1a finally said, "Un-
fortunately, although I was able to let a shower offood descend, your
compassion for sentient creatures was quite small. You had slid
backwards on the path of Bodhisattva practice, and now, to atone
for your sins, you must erect one hundred and eight monasteries,
1,000 temples and 10,000 shrines." Now as he (Niigarjuna.) saw that
it would be most difficult for only one monk to do this, he begged for
money from the wealthy y a k ~ a Jambhala.
18
As it was necessary to
employ Niigas
19
as workmen, he also thought that he would have to
make each and every one of them have faith, and by calling out
Kurukullii's mantra, the daughters of the Kings of the Nagas,
T a k ~ a k a by name, and their retinue was summoned forth. At a
gathering to hear the sermon, two women and their attendants ap-
peared and the scent of the best quality sandalwood pervaded the
air for a league around. Furthermore, when they departed the
scent also went with them. This happened again and again. The
ladies then answered whatever questions were put to them saying,
"We are the daughters of the King of the Nagas T a k ~ a k a . To protect
ourselves against the corruptions of men we have anointed our
bodies with the best sandalwood." Well, the aciirya wanted to
erect an image of Tara made of that very sandalwood and had there-
fore to receive a donation of it. He said, "As you must be my work-
mates in building this monastery, as has already been discussed, go
and ask your father and then come back here." The two Niiginis
said, "If the iicarya himself comes to the land of the Nagas it will
be in accord with the command of the King of the Nagas. There is
no other way of accomplishing it." Then, having realised that he
could br-ing back the Prajiiiiparamitii in 100,000 verses
20
and it would
therefore be for the great welfare of Nagas and men, he went briefly
to the realm of the Niigas.
In some accounts it is said that he was a monk who had seen the
faces of the previous Buddhas Kiisyapa and Kanakamuni. Some
say that he had visions of yet other ones, and that they became
quite prominent. At an offertory service of the Nagas, many arhats
who practised the Teaching of the Bhagavan Siikyamuni said to him,
5
"We are arhats and you have come here as a man with the three
poisons," and they asked, "why has no harm befallen you from the
Naga's poison?" The acarya replied, "As for myself, I am one who
has perfected the mantra of Mahiimiiyilri!"
Furthermore, in some accounts it is related that, in accord
with the Laws of the Jina, he said that all phenomena are not truly
existent at a time when the majority of monks on top of the earth
thought the opposite. He asked, "How do you yourself think that
things are? Is it your view that Dharmas are self-arising?" Then he
spoke of the Buddha's prophecy in which it was said that at a later
time the Sravakas who hold such views would indeed become iso-
lated and would be purified by the Madhyamikas. Then he stayed
there for a long time and preached the Dharma to the Nagas. He
brought the Great Prajiiaparamita, DharaQis
21
and Tarkas
22
of
several kinds away. Some say that a few of the additional verses of
the Satasahasrika Prajiiaparamita were not offered to him by the
Nagas in the first place and in the second place they were not offered
because it was not yet an impure time when an enemy of the Dharma
had arisen on three occasions. The latter reason is the more viable
one. This is clearly set out in the three chapters of the Chinese
padas, found in the text of 20,000 verses and extracted from the
Satasahasarika-Prajnaparamita.
Thereafter he arrived back on the earth's surface. He prepared
many sastras belonging to the "collected" classes of texts and he dis-
puted and confounded all enemies of the Ma!layana-for example
the b h i k ~ u Sa.I!lkara
23
, etc. Moreover, when many texts composed
by the Sendhapa Sravakas
24
came to light, and which disagreed
with the Mahayana, he collected all those texts together and hid them
underground. In a later period, in the south at Jatasamghara, which
means "Cutting of the long hair", he subdued theTirthikas.
2
s Having
gathered together five hundred Tirthika disputants and engaged
them in debate, he finally made them seek their refuge in the
Dharma. At that time he founded temples and stupas.Z
6
It is said that
the stu pas erected by this acarya filled all the directions. He made the
Mahayana doctrine shine like the &un. When he wished to change
the Rock of the Bell and many of the mountains at Dhinkota
27
into
gold, Arya Tara said that in the future it would become a source of
disputation and so he changed his mind. However it is said that many
gold veins did arise there and it is said that the very stones changed
to a golden hue. After that, while he was on a road once, he saw
6
many children and he prophesied to one in particular that he would
become King. He (Nagarjuna) went to the land of Uttarakuru,2
8
to other lands and the abode of the Asuras
92
for 12 years. When he
again returned to Jambudvipa,
30
that boy previously referred to had
become a King known as Udayana.
31
The King offered his obei-
sances to the acarya and moreover the King, supported by the
acarya's spiritual advice won the elixir of life and a servant.
He also erected 500 monasteries as residences for the order of
monks. Later he spent about 200 years at Mr. Sriparvata
32
in com-
pany with a circle of practising the Mantra path. There he
received the 32 auspicious signs.
33
It is said that later, because he sent
his head as an offering when he was six months short of his 671st
year he never attained that age. The youngest son of the King
Udayana, known as Su.Sakti, "the Fully Able One", was also known
as Saktiman and he wanted the Kingdom. His mother said to him,
''Now your father and the acarya have been blessed so that their life
spans are the same, and the acirya has the Vajra body and cannot
die. Princes previous to you have not got hold of the reins of power
and have died-those between son and grandson will also die."
He became very downcast and she said further, "However, there
is a way. As the acarya is a Bodhisattva, if you beg him for his
head he will arrange it. At the instant the acarya dies so too will
your father die and the power of the state will become yours." The
prince went to Mt. Sriparvata and begged for the acarya's head, but
it could not be cut off by a weapon. As the acarya saw the Karma
from a previous time in which he had cut the throat of a creature with
a shoot of green grass, he submitted to being beheaded by Ku.Sa
grass. A voice arose saying, "I will depart for SukhavatP
5
from
this place. Later I will re-enter this body." The earth thereabouts
quaked and it is said that a famine arose and lasted for twelve years.
The prince, knowing that the acarya had perfected the "Elixir of
Life" practice, feared a reunion of head and body, and carried the
head to a place many leagues distant from the place of the be-
heading. From there it was carried off by a The head was put
on a huge boulder which split and at that place the five stone images
of the five gods of the Arya Avalokitesvara tantra came forth by
themselves. The who owned the head erected a temple for
both bead and body. Previously between head and body there had
been a distance of about four leagues and now it is said to be a
little under one eighth of a league. Concerning that, my Guru, who
7
has seen it, says that the walls of that magical temple are joined
together so that they resemble a great boulder, both parts very huge
and without an entrance. It is said that when looking through a
chink in the wall one can hope to see the two parts of the acarya
resembling fragments of a stone image seated upon the throne.
36
That acarya's student was Mahasiddba Savari. While Nii.gii.rjuna
was staying in the East in Bengal, three children of a dancing teacher
offered him musical diversion. He summoned them inside and per-
ceiving that they were fortunate beings, he showed them an image of
the Bodhisattva Ratnamati.
37
One of them said, "I too want to see
it," and being shown a mirror he saw himself held fast in the fires
of hell. Highly alarmed he begged for a means of freeing himself from
his fate. By being consecrated into S ~ v a r a through meditation, his
real nature became quite clear. He also saw the visage of the Bodhi-
sattva Ratnamati who said, "Having perfected the practice of
Yugannadah,
38
go to the Southern mountains and act like a hunter
for the welfare of sentient creatures." Later his two wives called Logi
and Guni turned into the 9ii.kiQis
39
Padmavati and Jnii.navati, his
mahii.mudrii. attendants who were singers of Doha songs. This is
borne out by the Tibetan tradition. He lived together with his two
wives at the Southern mountain of Sriparvata, and they acted as if
they were hunters and trappers. He attained the state of Vajradhara
40
and became renowned as Mahasiddha Savari(pa). Now, as he had
combined th\ hunting of wild beasts with his consecrated practices he
was able to get high realisations by these unsuitable means. This
acarya is known as Saraha the younger. His student was Luyipa.
His student, in turn, was Dengipa whose was Tillipa, whose was
Nii.ropa, whose was the younger I)ox:p.bhi, whose was Kusalibhadra.
This is one version of the lineage. Another, stemming from
Tilopa, the Siddhas Luyipa, Darikapa and Antarapa also form
a lineage.
As for Luyipa, he stayed in the Western regions as scribe to the
King of 099iyana
41
who went under the name ot Kun.du.dge.ba.
Once he met Saraha the younger, or Savaripli and the latter sang
Doha songs and gave him Abhi!?ekha
42
and upadesas.
43
He pondered
on that, and even though he was still the King's scribe he once
went to a charnel ground. On aniving there he placed himself
among the rows of assembled Qiikil}.is. He distributed the sundered
flesh of one who bad been reborn seven times,
44
and he was initiated
into the creative maQQala of Vajravarahi who advised him,
8
"Although you may have rejected the pose of outstretched legs and
the emissaries of sa.IPsiira, you must repeatedly exhort Vajrasattva
the mighty King." He knew that unwavering meditation was neces-
sary and that if he had committed Karmic actions previously, he would
have to bear the disruptions arising from them. Furthermore he
knew that strenuous practice was necessary if he were to gain its fruits.
Although he begged for alms, still the passions of love and bate
arose and be thought, "How will I be able to gain my livelihood?"
So he went East to the land of Bengal. Near the banks of the Ganges
he saw a mound of fish entrails, like a mountain, and eating the fish
guts as food, he meditated there for twelve years. He gained the
highest Siddhi of the Mahiimudra practice. He knew that it was time
to convert the King of Odivisa, his ministers and entourage. As
the King was going to meet another King from the Southern regions,
he (the King of Odivisa) prepared a throne in a grove and filled the
laneways with various objects of worship. When the Brahm.ins who
recited the auspicious texts came before the King, on the throne there
appeared lying down, a bluish man with shaggy locks, looking as if
he had been carried there by the wind. The Brahmins said to him
"You there; get up! !" but there came no reply. Despite the 30
Bralupins who pulled at him he would not budge at all and he merely
laughed at the powerless Bralupins. The acarya said,
"This place is just as big as the Triple World!
If, in these worlds, one is a master in one and a servant in
the other,
still people with good mind can rejoice at the holy deeds
of others.
E.MA.HO !-Sa.IPsara is full of wonders-
what need is there for many words?"
45
When he had said that to the King the latter cried, "Beat him up ! !"
and the acarya laughed aloud at the oncoming soldiers with the
sound, "Ha, Ha, Hi, Hi!" and petrified them all. One of the soldiers
realised that he was a Siddha and so he paid homage to the acarya
and was released from his state of rigidity. He explained the powers
to all the other soldiers and they also were freed. The King approa-
ched in amazement and asked, "Who are you?" and the other
replied, "Who are you, too?" "I am the King." "I too am a King."
"You haven't got the Royal paraphernalia " The acarya replied,
9
"This earth is like a large bed
and it is good to cover it with generosity.
Thereby many people will trust you.
The lamp of the moon sheds its cool light,
The wind is most agreeable.
The broad sky is my canopy,
I embrace my consort who is attached to nothing.
46
Oh! If that's being like a king
Then I am the fearless and relaxed King of Yogins!"
The acarya empowered both the King and his Minister into the
practice of Sax:p.vara, gave them instruction and also gave them the
Abhisamaya
47
teachings. He said to the King, "In the south at
Kumaraksetra is a prostitute- perform servant's duties for her!"
To the Minister, a Brahrpin, he said, "In the east, in the town of
Pakrananagara is a barmaid who has a son-perform servant's
duties for her! Both of you, if you act accordingly, will attain the
highest Siddhi within twelve years." Both of them moreover, aban-
doned Sax:p.sara and acted accordingly. The King became servant to
the prostitute and while washing the feet of the men who came there,
he meditated all the time. Once, at midnight, a man returned there
and saw a blazing light in the servant's grass hut. On looking at it
more closely he saw that it was light from the servant's own body
and he knew that he had attained Siddhi. Both he and the prostitute
prayed for perseverance. The acarya lectured widely in that land on
the Vajrayana. Once while thus sounding the bell of the Teachings
he made a Vajra Feast. While he was together with an entourage of
16,000 women, soaring in the sky, they all attained the highest Siddhi.
The man who was mentioned previously addressed a prayer to the
acarya and a prophecy was made to him. In the eastern section of the
city there was a stone stele and above it was an elephant facing
towards the east. It was prophesied that if every year a measure
of mustard seed were to be rubbed into it, then if it turned to the
west, Siddhi would be gained. He was known as Siddha Darikapa
or Daripa which means "prostitute's servant". The Minister too
was servant to the barmaid and by husking rice he saw the nature
of his own mind directly.
49
Once while he was in meditation and was
fully absorbed in it, the pigeons ate the rice and the barmaid yelled
at him. At a different time he sang Vajra songs, and every-
body realised Siddhi. He preached the Vajrayana widely and an
10
immeasurable number of people were liberated. Because he harnessed
his mind to the rice pounder known as the Dengki, he became
renowned as Dengkipa.
Later, Savaripa's pupil was the great Lord Maitripa or Maitri-
gupta. He was a Tirthika and later, having met
Naropa, he became a Buddhist. He begged for empowerments and
upadesas from Naropa. He took his ordination at Nalanda and
having gone to Ratnakarasanti and other extremely learned Gurus,
he became a great He finally abided at the monastery of
Vikramalasila, known in Tibetan as rNam.gnon.tshul.
49
While he
performed the deeds of a and while his Siddha practices
flourished, he saw the visage of Vajrayogini. When he realised that
he should get acquainted with meditational practice, and while he
was studying all the inner, secret studies, a novice monk saw him
and a woman drinking beer together and disputes arose within the
monastic community over it. The acarya spewed up milk, and as
the novice drew near, he vomited up beer with no explanation for
his actions. Furthermore, once when the proctors and the rest had
heard of this and came for him, the beer turned into milk and the
woman became invisible or, as it is said, changed into a ritual bell.
Later on while the monks were lying in ambush for him the Siddha
was unable to disguise himself with mantras, and so they expelled
him. He spread out a hide by the River Ganges and sat down. At
that time the proctor was said to have been A tis a.
50
In order to
purify those unwholesome deeds the Eminence himself, Atisa, had
to further hear the Dharma and it is said that he had to come to
Tibet
51
and that he also made indestructible votive figures
52
there
as purification. Although Maitrigupta found within himself
limitless powers, he did not correctly perceive things as they
really are and when a prophecy from his tutelary divinity arose,
he went and stayed as Sriparvata to find Savaripa. On the road to the
Southern regions he met Prince Sakara. They went to Sriparvata
together and some local people said, "Formerly Savaripa was a
Siddha here. Now where can one find him?" and they prayed to the
acarya with a single purpose. In six months they met him. The long
hair ofSavari's head was alive and dripping with louse eggs and both
his consorts were supplicating him, and so Maitripa lost faith a
little. The Prince prostrated at his feet. Savaripa said the mantra
"Aya Jara Vala Hu" and dismissed them, turned into a rainbow
body,
53
and in both great faith was born. Again, later on both of
11
them saw the consorts killing swine, deer and peacocks, and seeing
this they became a little lacking in faith. Instantly all they had seen
became invisible. However with the empowerments, upadesas and
subsequent upadesas, wisdom was created enabling him to see
the situation as it actually was. He became Lord over countless
Viras
54
and J:;>akas.
55
He thought, "Now I have gained the eight
Siddhis,
56
the sword siddhi and all the rest." When all the signs of
perfection had arisen, he thought he should make his life last
an aeon and that he would become a Vidyadhara. He obtained all
the ritual necessities. Savari pointed his finger at them, reducing
them to ashes. Maitripa asked, "What would you do with such an
illusion? Explain the profound meaning of this situation!" and,
accordingly, having uttered those words he went back to
Madhyadesa. After that, the Tibetans, when recounting the story
of the debate with Santipa, give the meaning quite incorrectly and
in Aryadesa there are not even any oral accounts of it. The
following is said about Tibet-"Bhota Svana Baktya Samaya
Coteka Siddhi Sadhaka Kya," which means, "What the Tibetans
say is like the sounds of dogs barking, or like the sound of a Siddha
or Sadhaka who has abandoned his vows". One should know how
the common lies of the silly Tibetans have been thus compiled. It
is said that this liclirya, who lived in Madhyadesa, was in Samadhi,
but there were some who did not believe in him. He explained to
them extensively about the main sources on the essence of the
practices. People would say, "These are not the thoughts of the
tantras," and he would substantiate his upadesas with quotations,
mainly from the Hevajra and Guhyasamaja tantras. He was asked
from whom did he obtain these teachings, and the Tibetans claim
he said, "I, the powerful one, invented this teaching. I teach out of
my experiences in a hermitage." He manifested many revitalizations
of the dead in the Sitavana Cemetery 5
7
and whatever he desired was
all brought for him by Mahaklila
58
in the sky from many hundreds
of leagues around whether the things were moveable or fixed.
The daughter of the King of Malabar
59
was brought to him from
out of the heavens and later on she became renowned as the 9akh;ti
Gighlidhara. Usually she stayed in the East at Gusula forest as its
master. The 9iikiQi transformed herself into a wolf, received gTor.ma
offorings,
60
perfected the art of "gazes"
61
and magically transformed
her body into various amazing and innumerable forms.
Because of the two previous times when he had lost his faith in
12
Savaripa, he found no bodily changes. At 70 years of age he died and
in the Bar.do
62
period he attained the highest Mahamudra state.
At the time when the Master Naropa died, he commenced his own
acarya's work for the welfare of beings. Maitrigupta's good reputa-
tion and his convocation of students was not by any means incon-
siderable and was on a par with Naropa's. He was renowned as
equal to the highest of men and of the greatest use to the others.
At that time in Aryadesa
63
there were many followers and
thereafter they diminished. The teachings spread greatly in the
Northern areas of Nepal and Tibet. As regards Maitripa's stu-
dents, the early Tibetan sect, the rNying.ma.pa, says that there
were four major, seven middling and ten minor ones. The exact
number of middling and minor ones is not really ascertainable for
they are not really renowned among the Indians. In general these
were many of the Yogin's students who attained expertise and
powers. The four major students were all famous-they were Saha-
javajra, Sunyatasamadhi, RamapiUa and Vajrapal)i.
64
The first
of those was known as Nategana. He composed the Tattvadasaka-
\ikii. and the Sthiti-samucchaya.
65
The second one was called Devii.-
karacandra. He composed the main treatise for clarifying insightful
wisdom. The fourth was known as "Indian Pii.l)i" and he composed
and collected Vajra texts. Those three did not attain the state of
Vidyii.dhara.
Ramaplila was also known as Nandapala and belonged to that
lineage. That powerful being was one who composed commentaries
on the Teachings. He was also renowned as being equal in his wisdom
to the consort yogini known as Rin.chen.lha.mo. which means
"precious goddess." He was famed as one who had half the rank of
Gangadhari. He was born in the South at Karnataka
66
into the
KSatriya caste. From his youngest days he knew many fields of
learning and studied for twelve years with the Master Maitripa.
When the Master Maitripa had died, Ramapala spent three years in
profound mourning for his Guru at the stfipa known as dPal.yon.
can and he did not utter a word during that time. He abided there
in one-pointed practice of the sadhanas. Then, all the central mean-
ings were made evident to him so he went and lived in the South
practising for the welfare of creatures. When Mahakii.la gave him
the sword siddhi, without leaving his bodily form he went via a
miraculous gateway to the subterranean regions, and it is said that
he has even been seen residing in the abode of thr. A.suras.
67
The
13
acarya Kusalabhadra the younger and Asitaghana heard from him
the Mahamudrii upadesas. Also the extraordinary disciple Praj-
iHimitra also heard the exposition from him. Those who adhered to
Mahacarya Santi(pa's) lineage praised Maitri greatly and Am.anasila
separated and distinguished the highest practices from the lower ones.
14
The first chapter dealing with the
Mahlimudrli Lineages, an account
resembling a vein of precious
stones is finished.
Instruction Two
As to the second Instruction it is about the Goddess Cao.cjikii.
68
Now as to the teachings of the Goddess Cao.cjikii, there was not
a time when they did not exist. It is not certain thatVitupa had not
heard them from other gurus. Nevertheless the iiciirya Virupa quite
evidently went to Vajrayogini for this doctrine. The aciirya had been
a monk and pao.cjita at Nalanda and there he drank beer and lived
with women so the Sangha expelled him from that place. Then, on
the banks of the Ganges he told the ferryman that he needed a ferry-
boat. The ferryman told him that he had to pay for such a trip, but
Virupa could not find any money and, pointing his forefinger at the
River Ganges it reversed its flow uphill and thus he went across it.
Then in Odisa he went to a batmaid to buy some beer. She told him
that he had to pay. He drew a mark on the ground which showed
the edge of the sun's shadow and said that as long as the shadow did
not move away from that point he would not pa} the price of the
beer. Having pointed at the sun with his forefinger, he held it in posi-
tion and drank more beer. Then as he did not want to release it, the
daytime and the nighttime both went haywire. The barmaid knew
that the yogin was showing off his powers, and the King paid the
price of the beer and begged the yogin to release the sun. The yogin
departed three days later at daybreak, so it is said.
Then he became the King of Trilinga's
69
household priest and
the acarya ate the tops of the piled up offerings made by the Tirthikas
and in his turn he did not pay his homages. The King and his en-
tourage started to argue with him and so the iicarya prostrated
himself but the Titthika gods burst into fragments. The principal
god Visvanatha had an effigy (Linga) which had been erected by the
worker's guild in the form of a phallus with four faces, and it is
said that it too broke into four pieces. Then he arrived at :Oakini-
pata,70 the place where the Tirthikas assembled. Whichever com-
moner came there the trident struck them and the flesh-eating
demonesses would offer that person's dead flesh as a feast.
The acarya clapped his palms together and the Trisul
shattered. When the self-manifested stone image of Cao.c;likli began to
quake, he struck its head which slumped down onto the statue's
15
breast. It is said that right up to the present time the head is there
and that the ears still stand erect. He instructed her that thereafter
she should never harm living creatures. The Tibetans say that this
place, known as :Oakinipata, was in the south, but it is most assured-
ly in the East.
71
Furthermore, it has even been said that the subduer
of this goddess was Then, he went to Saurasta and at
Somanatha
72
he found that there was a self-made stone image of
Mahesvara, which could perform all manner of miracles. He pointed
his forefinger at it to shatter it but it didn't, and he examined why
this was so. It is said that there was an image of Avalokitesvara
above it. Some say it was an image of Marici. The acarya
it and showed the real form and made it act in accordance with his
previous order. He said, "In your temple you should make offering
to about 100 monks! Do not receive offering of slain creatures! By
means of offerings which are the first fruits you should sacrifice to
my image." Furthermore, he said, "As the Doctrine of the Buddha
will soon be destroyed,
73
those sacrifices should always come to me.
However, for the period in which the Doctrine is still here, you
should continue to make offerings to the order of monks." It is said
that the acarya received into his hands the gold elixir from the statue
and vanished. For some time he was invisible. Thereafter, every
day he drew off from the hands of the stone image a tincture of gold
essence and by his simply touching bits of iron and copper they
turned into gold. Supported by this means the order of monks
was thus given sustenance.
Once, some time later, a King of Jonaghata begged for 20,000
gold srang thinking, "I will beg for more," but the stone image
clenched its fist. A poor Bralu:p.in persistently/
4
begged for gold and
was given the tincture, being told to return it in seven days. In
three days how can I make all the household goods which come my
way into gold?" he thought. Two of the King's men who came there
began to remove the things. The offered the goods into
the hands of the stone image and it clenched them tight. One of
the King's men waved a cudgel at the hands and found that his own
hand was cut off and he died. The other one said, "Lift that hand!!"
and was struck dumb. The King, who was renowned as being very
sadistic, became mentally unbalanced and died. Even now there is
no order of monks in that place. It is said that in the middle of an
almost inaccessible forest there is a stone image, dark purple in
colour with a lustrous face on open display. In the meantime, in the
16
King Ramapala's
75
time, lived a yogin who was given the name
Siropa. In Madhyade5a he practiced whatever befitted the welfare of
beings. Having poured out the statue's footbath water as a drink
for King Ramapala's elephant, Bhanvadala, it engaged in battle and
defeated about 100 Mleccha K.ings.
76
At a later time, in the eastern land of Gora, a yogin was found
at the head of a Tajik
77
King's bed when he awoke. He was hurled
into a river but time aftel' time he came back. He was incinerated
but he did not burn. He was assailed by various weapons but was
not overcome-indeed the weapons were shattered. He drank six
measures of poison given him, and he was guarded by many men for
one full day. Having seen that the acarya's strength and complexion
became more splendid, they knew he had perfected the Siddhis
and they begged to know who he was. "I am Virupa," he answered.
Also at that place he gave instruction to several fortunate people.
They gave respectful oaths to him and many of them attained the
ordinary levels of Siddhi. He stayed in Bengal for four months living
openly and meeting all, as was befitting.
Later on he disappeared. He got to China in person at about this
time.
78
Viriipa is renowned to have appeared in the world of men on
three occasions and all three of them were in previous times. This
aciirya is also known as Sridharmapala, but the Sthavira
Dharmapala
79
who was abbot of Nalanda is not the same person.
Viriipa's student was Kala Virupa who was born in 099iyana.
Brought up in the caste, it was prophesied by the Brahrpin
seers that he would commit the four cardinal sins. Thus he was
called "Black". Seven years passed in that place and he was then
sent to travel in othet lands so that he might not become one who
performs the four cardinal sins. After a long time had elapsed, his
mother the Brahrpini her husband and parents-in-law having
died, wandered into other countries after she subsequently had lost
her caste. In the East, in the land of Odivisa, she became a be.er
seller. Later on, after a while her son also came to Odivisa and went
to his mother's house. The mother and son did not know each other
and they sinned by co-habiting. On one occasion he wanted water
froin a herder. In his thirst he gulped it down but became quite
intoxicated. In his wrath he flung the pot at the herder but it missed
and hit a cow, which died. In a hiding place he pondered, and at
night he flung the corpse of the cow to the jackals to eat. On a
17
road he hit a wandering Brahmin on the head and the Brahmin died.
Then, assailed by doubts, he questioned himself and realised that
the beer seller was his mother. Furthermore, as to the four cardinal
sins out of the sixteen which hurt a able to expound the
Vedas, and which had been previously prophecied-i.e.
murder, cow murder, co-habitation with one's mother and consump-
tion of alcohol-he knew the meaning of how they had all arisen
and had been performed by him in one night. He went to all pil-
grimage spots both near and far and made enquiries about their
purification but nobody believed him.
He met the acarya Jalandharapa. Being given the instmctions of
Vajravarahi, by means of it is said that he purified all his sins.
Then in the land of Kongkuna,
811
having immersed himself in water
up to his neck he practiced self perfection for six months, but no
clear signs arose. His rosary snapped off and tumbled into the water.
He went to ask questions of the acarya who said, "Practice yet a
little more! Siddhi will come quite swiftly." So accordingly he
practiced as he had done before. After seven days, one dawn, Vajra-
yogini arose in the outward form of a girl and said, "Asta Saikate,
Naba Saijalana, Kamayiputra, Tumhi Kpngkuna Marana", which
means, "Son, where have you come from, spared from the 800
oceans and the 900 rivers? Do you want to die here in Kongkuna ?"
The first two of this are similar. He replied, "Ayi Mata
Vajrayogini, Teri Sarana," which means, "I came for my refuge to
you, 0 mother Vajrayogini!" Then she placed her hands on the
crown of his head and he attained the highest samadhi. Vajrayogini
said, "You have a karmic link with Virupa over many lives. Go to
Mahrata where he lives!" In that place was Virupa, who had donned
the Vajrakapala
81
and had attained the highest Mahamudrii Siddhi.
He went to various cemeteries and in them he performed acts of
asceticism. Even though he had the Vajrakapala he also had a small
blue hat. It is renowned that even today he has not abandoned
his bodily form and that he abides in Urgyen.
82
It is also said that
both senior and junior Virupa were supported and found Siddhi
by means of the practice paths of Yamiintaka and Variihi..
Vyadali met the younger Virilpa and begged him for
Vyadali had previously come from the caste of bird hunters and
once he had seen a parrot take fruit into its beak and fly off into the
skies. When the parrot was asked, "What are you doing?" it replied,
"In this direction lives the Siddha Virapa. I am going to make
18
offering to him." Vyadali pondered, "If even a creature such as this
has a virtuous mind what must we who have become humans do to
perform virtuous deeds?" He took some fruit to bestow and said,
"Offer these to the Siddha." The parrot offered the hunter's fruit
and yet Viriipa did not receive them. He said, "0 Parrot, hereafter
do not come to me as carrier of such sinful things as that!" Then
the parrot carried the fruit back to Vyadali who asked, "Why did
you not offer them?" The parrot accordingly repeated that which
the Siddha had said. Then having become greatly repentant he con-
fessed his sins, and in that very forest he went ever around and
around searching for Virupa. Later on he met the Siddha and was
given empowerments and instructions. Vyadali performed one
pointed meditation and his deeds of bird hunting agitated his mind.
He supplicated the Guru who said, "Although those obstructive,
discursive thoughts are really hard to block out, and although
you can't produce meditation, you should make bird shapes out of
clay, and while cutting their throats, then meditate on samadhi."
Doing exactly that, he meditated and finally, after twelve years he
attained the most perfect Mahamudra Siddhi. Then, in towns, he
manifested the miracle of killing various types of birds and eating
their flesh, and the people grabbed hold of the yogin. When they said
with scorn, "In such and such a way have you injured living crea-
tures," all the birds which he had previously killed were again
revived. Having performed the functions of a bird hunter in such
magic ways for twelve years, while at the same time practising mental
asceticism, he got the name Siddha Vyadali, for Vyadali itself
means "bird hunter."
He gave instruction to Kusalibhadra-this was one lineage of
the goddess C a Q ~ i k a . Also Virupa instructed J?ombiheruka and
although it is well known in Tibet that the latter acarya was a leather
worker, it is also said by my Guru that he was King of the Eastern
land of Tipura.
83
The acarya VirUpa arrived there and the King with
excessive faith begged to become a follower, and so the acarya
gave him empowerment and instruction. When the King perfotmed
meditation on those things, knowledge of the two degrees was
born and multiplied within him. When he then realised that
the time for practice had arrived he secretly performed some
of the deeds. As had been predicted, a mudra arose and she trans-
formed herself into a woman of the lowest caste. She was known as
"Lotus possessor" and so she manifested herself to the world.
19
The King's caste had been defiled, and so the ministers, subjects, etc.,
expelled the acarya from the country. Thereafter while practicing
asceticism and while wandering in the forests and countryside, he
became known as "King" Dombhipa. Moreover, Dombhi means
an outcaste, living outside city limits, killing fish, birds and deer
and eating them. He did not sell their flesh but sang, danced and
sold grass and fruit. It is not certain that he did any one specific
bad deed but he was certainly one who did perform deeds befitting
an outcaste. Although the acarya was not really a I;>ombhi his female
consort was a J)ombini and he became thus tagged with the name
:Oombhi. J)ombhi was known as one who possessed a woman
of the lowest caste. This acarya was particularly powerful and intelli
7
gent. Previously Viriipa had given to him and six years
had elapsed since that time, so it is said. Thereafter he practised in
various lands. After a long while had passed an epidemic and a
famine arose in that former land and various people were suffering.
The astrologers calculated and realised that it was because the
virtuous "King" J?ombhi had been exiled to other lands and once
again they invited him to return. The acarya arrived together with
his consort, riding on a tigress and a milking yak respectively and
holding venomous snakes in their hands. All present knew that the
King was a Siddha and paid homage at his feet. All the evils in the
land were calmed and all the fortunate people in the land begged to
become his followers. He instructed them with several upadesas
and they all attained Siddhi, many of them becoming most perfect
practitioners. Then, in the land known as Racjha, known in ordinaty
language, as Rara,
84
the King there was harming the Buddha's
doctrine. However that King was mortally afraid of tigers and poiso-
nous snakes. In order to subdue him, the acarya came and stayed in
a grove near the palace, and when the King said, "You evil yogin-
do not stay here!" then the acarya manifested his previous miracle.
He wore snakes whose touch was poisonous, as ornaments; he wore
snakes whose look was poisonous, as a whip, and the seven snakes
whose breath is venomous, he wore on his head as a hood. He then
went before the King who, together with all the townspeople, was
terrified out of his wits and he scattered gold and silver flowers
85
before him and begged the acarya to go elsewhere. The acarya
changed into the form of the two-armed Heruka and together with
a tigress it appeared to most people that he departed into the heavens
without even touching the ground. He warned them, "If you do not
20
enter into the Buddha's Doctrine, I will send these poisonous snakes
down upon you!" All the people joined the Buddha's religion.
It is said that the Tirthika continuance in Rara was thus ended
for a while. Then he went to the South at the land of Karnataka
where, in a grove together with many of his attendants he abided in
meditation.
86
At one time in particular, in a cemetery in A\\ahasa,
the King Samucchaya became patron to the assemblage of 500
yogis and yoginis for a six month long gaQa assembly. The Brahrpin
monk Susiddhakara lost faith in the activities of the assemblage
and, without seeking permission from the acarya, he left. Because
he disobeyed the aciirya's orders, he died. It is said that of all the rest
of the 500 there was not one who did not attain one or two Siddhis.
Close by, a Tirthika King erected 108 stupas to the Tirthika doctrine.
Ten thousand long-haired worshippers gathered for the consecration
of the stupas. Several heaps of hearts from slain creatures, piled
three times the height of a standing man were there as sacrifices.
A maidservant of the acarya went to that place and was attacked by
the Tirthikas. When the aciirya had pondered on this, that very night
all the stu pas were turned upside down and all the sacrificial offerings
etc. were strewn in the ten directions. Next morning the Tirthikas
and the King were deeply afraid and they begged forgiveness before
the acarya. They begged that the stupas might be restored to their
former condition and at that the aciiryasaid, "Hereafter all of you
must not kill even so much as one creature for sacrifices to the
gods. If you do engage in killing, all the stupas will be shattered."
To demonstrate the power of the Buddha, all those stupas, save for
one, resumed their usual position. When they all went back again
to see they found that it had all happened accordingly. At a later
time a King of that land offered life sacrifices and 107 stupas shat-
tered into two or three fragments. Having been bound in iron, they
exist to this very day. Although called "Tirthika stilpas", they are
of the type known as "Linga".
87
Having worked for a long time in that place for the welfare of
beings, he departed into the heavens in his bodily form. His dis-
ciples, the most prominent of those who gained Siddhi, were these
four: (1) the yogini of the l;>ombhi caste (2) the acarya Alalavajra
(3) Hemalavajra (known as gSer.'chang.rdo.rje in Tibetan) and (4)
Ratavajrafrom Madhyadesa. There were m01eover, Nags.khrod.pa
86
("He of the Dense Forests"), iicarya Garvaripa, Jayasri, Durjaya-
candra, Riihulavajra
88
and the rest, who, by merely touching the
21
acarya's feet, attained the finer levels of siddhi. Mahasiddha
:qombhipa taught the low-caste yogini who, in turn, taught Rata-
vajra who in his tum taught

became one lineage.
Moreover, the yogini of the J:?ombhi caste instructed Caryapa
and this made a single lineage. The middle one, was the
foremost as regards the Instructions of the goddess CaQc;likii.
It is said that the low-caste yogini bestowed her four "gazes" on
beings for their welfare. She practised the mantras of the four Tantric
activities
90
and many other practices, and they become supremely
powerful in their actions, even down to these days. Receiving many
Vajra songs and working for the welfare of sentient creatures, she
departed .into the heavens.
She was the mudra whom Heruka had predicted to I?ombhipa.
Durjayacandra begged her for a vision of Heruka. He was a parti-
cularly wise paQc;lit and had heard expositions and studied under
many of Dombhi's lineage of students. Later he asked one of the
lineage of the Dombhi yogini for upadesas. In Urgyen he met both
Dombhipa and his consort while he was practising one-pointed
He gave the upadesas. There, he erected a small hut in
a charnel ground, making it of dried up skulls. A yogini acted as
his servant in the practices and a disciple of his fetched and carried
food while practicing. Finally, extraordinary realisation was born
within him and he saw Heruka's vi:>age and attained the ordinary
level of Siddhi. Then on one occasion he made a great Ga9acakra
or Vajra Feast and all the c;liikinis and pisakas
91
were summoned to
gather. In

there was a certain woman who, having pulled


up all the fruit bearing trees in her house garden by the roots carried
them to the Vajra Feast. Her husband realised that she would be
unable to stay there for even one night and stayed hidden in a grove
under the branches of the mango trees. She ripped out the roots of
that tree as well, and carried it to the GaQacakra. Now, the partici-
pants at the feast had eaten the Mahamasi:Pa
93
etc. and he knew that
the yogins were going to perform the secret sexual practices. The
husband was not at all happy with the GaQa. The aciirya said to him,
"To this, our GaQa, has com' a secretive, malicious being from
whom we must be saved." At daybreak she replanted the former
trees which had been uprooted. Next day the wife said to her hus-
band, "There is one command of Durjayacandra which you must
perfect," and having done so, he died. The acarya had mighty
abilities. His consort, Subhoga, asked him for instruction, Danasri
22
asked her and Vajrasanapa the middle one sought instruction from
him. Moreover Kusali also sought instruction from him. These
were the great ones of that Oral tradition. Moreover Caryapa
94
preached to the yogini of Singhala
95
and Durjayacandra sought
instruction from her. Also Rahulavajra begged instruction from him.
As for Riihulavajra, he was a who, from childhood, saw
the visage of his tutelary divinity. He was a monk and a pandita of
Vikramasila. While he was meditating on the secret mantras a certain
Guru commanded him saying, "Renounce everything!" but, be-
cause of the power of his pride he did not even renounce one thing,
thus bteaking the Guru's command. Later, as he was purifying his
sins, even though he practised one-pointedly he was unable to perfect
anything at all. Guru Gunaukara said, "Cut off your tongue and
:your limbs!" and so, cutting off his tongue and his four limbs Avalo-
kitesvara, Vajrayoginl, Mahiikiila and Tara showed forth their very
faces to him and blessed him. Then Guru Jiiiinasagar said, "Immerse
yourself in this river for seven days!" While he was doing that,
many leeches started to suck his blood and he drew near to death.
It is said that by these two penances the sins of disobeying the
Guru's orders were purified. Then while meditating in the Southern
regions he attained the highest Mahamudra Siddhis. It is said that he
stayed in the secret cavern on the black mountain known as "Tree
Mountain". This "Tree Mountain" is not on the border of the M6n
96
country but is in the Southern regions. It is certain that Dana5ri
asked him for instruction as mentioned above. It is said that this is
only the caQc;likii of Hevajra. Although it is said that Ratavajra was
a pandit of Nalanda, this is not mentioned in any extensive
biography. Also certain caryapas intend that Virupa the younger,
J?ombhiheruka, burjayacandra and Kusalibhadra
certainly go to make up the lineage. It is said that the list is not
all that accurate.
The second instruction, which is
an account which deals with the
lineage of the Goddess CaQc;lika,
and which is like a vein of
precious stones is now finished.
23
Instruction Three
Thirdly is the Instruction dealing with Karma Mudra.
There was the great King Indrabhuti
97
who had seen the very
face of the Enlightened One. He was by nature Vajrapiini, the
Lord of Secrets.
98
One is unable to think about the antiquity or
origins of such things. He was master of all the secret mantras of
this particular doctrine. Furthermore as King of Urgyen, he rejoiced
in his wealthy Kingdom. Once King Indrabhi:iti saw arhats who
formed a retinue of the Buddha, flying to and fro to other lands
and as it was seen over a long distance, confused, he asked the
ministers, "What exactly is that flock of red birds?" The ministers
replied, "Your majesty, these are not birds; they are Arhats of the
Great Sage, the Fully Enlightened Victorious one." The King desired
to see the Buddha but when the ministers told him that he would
not come such a distance, the King prayed and at midday inside
his palace he set out vast offerings for the 500 Arhat attendants
of the Buddha and be begged them for various methods of attaining
Enlightenment. The King was told, "Abandon the attributes of desire
and uphold the Three Higher Trainings
99
and the Six Perfections!"
100
The King said, "Give me some method to gain Enlightenment while
I enjoy the five sensual pleasures together with my gathering of
women.
"It is easier for a sensualist
In the forests of Jambudvipa
To be reborn a fox;
But, 0 Gaulama, I never wanted liberation
By abandoning desire."
Then the hosts of Sriivakas became invisible and soared off
and a voice came from the skies saying, "In this being the eight
Pudgalas
101
are no longer in existence and there remains not
even a potential of his being a Sriivaka or Pratyekabuddha. The
most magically potent Bodhisattvas have manifested themselves in
this bodily form." Those voices which had arisen in the heavens
became an immeasurable mal}cjala and the King was given empower-
24
ment, the bodily perfection of Yugannadah and also the Tathagata
.himself gave him all the Tantras. Furthermore he instructed all the
people of Urgyen quite widely and gathered the Tantras together
into book form. Finally, becoming invisible, together with his
convocation of consorts, it is said that he became transformed into a
Sambhogakaya.
102
Practicing in one Buddha Realm and another,
he acted in accordance with the injunctions contained in the Secret
Tantra collection. At that time the King, together with his attendants,
without any exceptions whatever, including all the people of Urgyen,
bhutas, minor creatures, animals, insects-all the above, by means
of the path of Great Bliss attained Siddhi, and attained their rainbow
bodies. In fact a 9akini, who was around at the time and who saw
the King in person, later on became a dancing girl known as Sri-
sukha. Furthermore it is said that she was the Sahajasiddhi
101
(or
in Tibetan: Lhan.cig.skyes.grub) dancing girl.
104
However, as for her
lineage, it is said that it was quite separate from her blessing lineage,
as also were her various different upadesa lineages. The yogini's
story goes as follows-and it accords with the commentary on the
Sahajasiddhi itself. She was the daughter of a King of a certain part
of Urgyen and when she was born, even at that time she was full
grown. One day she was wandering in various forest groves together
withher500attendantmaidens, when,in that very part ofUdayiina
106
the Bodhisattva VajrapiiQ.i was magically residing in the form of an
ascetic known as "Giver of breath of beings". When the court
ladies caught sight of the ascetic with his shaggy locks they were
terrified and, imagining that he was an evil demon, they all ran away.
The dancing girl said, "Don't be afraid! Just seeing this person
has caused an extraordinary and blissful meditation to be born in
my mind, and he is certainly a Great Being." Then all the 500
attendants paid homage to his feet. The ascetic too placed a blessing
on the head of the joyous dancing girl and she recalled the know-
ledge that in another, previous life he had empowered her. Realising
quite clearly her mind was Sahaja, she preached to the members of
her entourage a:nd they all became great yoginis. At that time, it
was due to her, the dancing girl, that each of them attained whatever
stage of the Dasabhumi
107
was fitting for them.
She, the dancing girl, gave instruction to Mahapadmavajra,
108
he
to Anangavajra "the pigpen", he to the middle Padmavajra known
as "Lotus",
109
he to the middle Indrabhuti,
110
he to Jalandhari, he to

111
he to Kalyiinanatha, he toAmitavajra and he to Kusala-
25
bhadra. As for Mahapadmavajra he was born in the West in the
land of Marum into the Brahm. in caste. He was one who was most
learned in the Tripi\aka and in all the sastras. Having gone to the
land of Urgyen studying many secret outer Tantras, he became wise
and learned. By meditating on them, although he gained the Ordi-
nary Siddhi levels of the elixirs etc., he had not understood
things as the} really are. Having gone off to another part of Urgyen,
he engaged in deep thought only on this topic and he was empowered
by an acarya who had clearly seen the visage of Vajrasattva. Having
seen the natural disposition of things, he knew for sure that as for the
wisdom of the Mahamudra empowerment, it symbolised things as
they really are. However when he thought, "Would that I could
see just one which taught this," there arrived and presented
themselves before the acarya that abovementioned joyous dancing
girl and many lakhs of attendant yoginis. The dancer instructed him
in the upadesas of the four mudras
113
and in several of the main
Anuttaratantrall
4
collections, namely the Guhyasamaja and others
and by realising their meanings directly, he immediately attained
the highest Mahamudra Siddhi. Finally in twelve months it is said
that he attained the very rank of Mahavajradh.ra. Furthermore he
set up innumerable beings from the land of Urgyen into the highest
and the ordinary levels of Siddhi by means of his preaching the
upade8as. He also wrote the commentary known as "The Secret
Siddhi" (Guhyasiddhi).
As for Anangavajra, he was a fortunate being who came from a
low caste and according to the acarya Padmavajra's good teachings
he meditated for twelve years on the Kotampa Mountain. Knowing
that he still had to ask his acarya what to do, even though he had
impressed on his mind the highest Mahamudra Siddhis he therefore
asked him. Back came the reply, "By relying on a certain woman
swineherd and by doing a swineherder's work you will gradually
become one with Vajrasattva." Then in a town in the North of
Urgyen he herded swine for the welfare of sentient and
having empowered the fortunate ones he gave teachings on the
Upadesas of the four mudras, which, in fruition, led to Liberation
for them. He was renowned as Sri Pigpen. His student was a cary a
Saroruha which in Tibetan means "Lotus". He was of the
caste and was a learned pao9ita who knew all the fields of science.
He also know many of the secret Tantras. He also was the King's
priest. While be was preaching Dharma to vast numbers of people
26
he saw an old lady wood-gatherer came to that spot collecting wood
and she was alternately laughing and weeping. Later on, the
acarya went to the home of tho old woman and she said, "The
laughter was because you preached the Dharma in the style of
Vajradbara himself and as for the ctying, that was because you did
not express the very thoughts of Vajradhara." Then Saroruha
asked the old lady, "Well then, please dispel my doubts!" and she
replied, "I can't dispel them myself-ask the Sri Pigpen." Saroruha
asked, "Where may he be found?" and the old lady replied, "In a
miserable village in the North." Then the acarya Saroruha departed
to those areas to search for him. Once the Sri Pigpen was leading a
large herd of pigs out of a Northern town together
with the low born woman who was lugging a great load of wood and
the acarya met up with them. He knew her by her symbolic gestures
and saw the bundle of wood as a symbol which represented the
purification of one's state while not abandoning the wrath m
which he himself had. The lowborn woman be recognised as a
pure symbol of passion and he understood that dismissing
the herd of pigs was a symbol of the fundamental purity of
ignorance.l
16
He begged to be a disciple and she replied, "I am
from a low caste and don't even know how to read. You are
simply trying to humiliate me by asking for the Teachings,"
and angrily struck him. She then entered into the vile and filthy
village pigsty in a fit of wrath. In the dead of night, he put
his head on the doorstep of the pig pen quite single-mindedly.
During the night the pigs fought and ruined the aciirya's
possessions, so he beat them. The noble old woman of low caste
asked him not to and sent him packing saying, "Purifying those
really despicable deeds of yours will be a very difficult affair!!"
He stayed there for many days and one day at dawn the acarya said,
"This man before the door-why is he there?" The noble lady
replied, "He is there, as he himself said, to be led to things as they
really are." The acarya said, "As all paJJ9its' deeds are done out of
pride, they are not really fit receptacles for knowledge of things as
they really are!" Thinking that he could in fact accomplish his
aims, Saroruha repeatedly prayed and was granted Abb4ekha and
also all manner of instruction as well as the follow-up Commentaries
on them. The acarya's daughter was manifested to him in a squalid
form and the acarya gave her to Saroruha saying, "act as his Consort!
Meditate!" Then the acarya performed the services of Priest to the
27
King as he had done previously and, without allowing his mind to
wander he meditated one-pointedly, putting the highest Mahiimudrii
Siddhis under his mental control within twelve years. At first he
performed all the requisite practices in secret as before, but there-
after his deeds became open and clear to the world. All the people
said, "As he is served by a low-caste woman the aciirya is impure; if
the iicarya is impure then the King will become impure. As then .all
the regions of the Country will become sullied, they will be imperfect.
As he is the root of all this impurity, if the iicarya and his outcaste
woman are consigned to the flames then things will become pure
again." Time and time again they begged the King to be allowed to
do this. Once while looking down from the roof of his private
apartments he saw the iiciirya and the outcaste woman leave the
house. The King commenced punishing them and had a huge heap
of wood erected and put the acarya, together with his consort on top
of it. When the wood was heaped up, it was set on fire and the flames
blazed continually for seven days. On the eighth day when it had all
been reduced to a pile of ashes the people cleared them away and in
the midst was a small lake in the centre of which was a vast lotus and
on it were seen the acarya and his consort who had become Heruka
and his consort, both of them gloriously effulgent. Everybody was
amazed, and all the people of Oc;Jc;Jiyana were inaugurated into the
Vajrayiina, and the King together with 500 attendants attained
Siddhi so it is said.
At another time the iiciirya arrived in a certain area of the land
of Maru. There, a certain ,man ,noticed that at noon the sandy
plain was hot and yet the wild animals were dangerously cold in the
. daytime. Realising that a piece of best quality sandalwood must be
there, he took it and offered the huge piece of the trunk to the iiciirya
who saw that it would be good if an image of Heruka were made
and so he started carving and shaping it. He realised that there had
to be present with him a woman of the Lotus caste, possessed of the
32 Virtues, but there was no one around like that except that there
was indeed such a person among the vast number of wives belonging
to the Tirthika King of that country. He summoned her forth each
night by his meditations and set to work carving the sandalwood.
Once the King caught sight of her arms, which were quite cracked,
and said, "As you are quite happy here, why do you have such a
thin body and why are your arms so cracked?" She replied, "0
King, don't you know why? Each night a certain iirya summons me
28
to a mountain cave to make sandalwood paste? At dawn he again
brings me back here." The King asked, "In which direction was
that?" Confused, she said, "As for the direction; l don't know it.''
When the King thought about that he became quite furious and quite
confused himself. He saw the queen going up into the skies with arms
outstretched and palms raised. Where she went no-one knew 'and
much later she arrived home. 'Late at night she took in her hand a
bag of Siildhura (Red Lead) and by moving it to and fro she spread
it on the path, and in the morning the King, spc>tting the Sindhura
trail, came into the acarya's presence: The King being furious came
forth with hisattendantsto punish him and at that, the acarya drew
forth his flaying knife and, having deseribed a circle around the
neck of a clay libation pot, the King and his attendants' faces were
seen to be reversed. Sorely afraid, the King paid homage at the
acarya's feet who said, "Abide by the Teachings of the Enlightened
One!" If you don't enter the doctrine, however, your heads will be
struck off!" So the King abided in the Enlightened One's doctrine.
A Heruka temple was erected and it was famed for its blessings. If
someone with degenerated v o w ~ saw the face of this Heruka image,
he would die vomiting blood. Later on; when the Tajik army started
destroying the temple twelve Tajik cavalry died au at the same
instant. It is said tbat even today that image is.very stern. That
acarya worked for the welfare of innumerable sentient beings and
is is said that he reached the very attainments -of Hevajra himself:
His disciple was King Indrabhuti, the middle one, the one who
burned the acarya in the story related'above; but his story will.not
be told in full. There will be a passing reference to him in the section
on Lva.ba.pa. Moreover, in one of the lineal successions that
same Indrabhuti, showing his face to Padmakara, taught him.
The acarya Kusala begged him for instruction and Kusalabhadra
the younger begged him for them. However, the account of those
lineage holders are made known below ..
The third chapter, the account.of
the lineage of the 100 Karma
mudras, which is like a vein
of gems is now finished.
29.
Instruction Four
As for the fourth Instruction it is the Upadesa of the Clear Light.
The acarya Vajragha:v.ta, while in Urgyen begged the
for the upade8as. Furthermore let us treat the lineage at length. It
was the Mahacirya rTa.mchog who attained the highest Siddhi
levels of the Mahamudra. Contemplating the meditation of the
inconceivable clear light, he built a straw hut close to, in fact
in front of, the city gate of a certain town in Urgyen, and there he
lived. Often the King's subjects despised and reviled him. Once, the
great land of Urgyen, including the mountains and valleys, was
completely filled with horses and they devoured all the fields and
groves. The King's subjects were to lead the horses away, but when
they were almost ready to be taken they could not grab any at all.
Eventually, when several more horses arrived and were seen entering
the acarya's grass hut, the King's men went to inspect, but not even
a single horse was found there. They knew that it had been a magical
illusion and realised too that the acarya had certainly attained
Siddhi. However, the acarya had, with his magical powers, gone
soaring away to the abode of the asuras and the King and his subjects
begged upadesas at the feet of the acarya's pupil, who was known as
Vi9apa, or in Tibetan Pi. wam.
117
Now as to that particular acii.rya, firstly he was of the Royal
lineage. When the acarya rTa.mchog gave him empowerment and
the upade8as, he asked, "If I can give up the activities of Royalty,
I cannot give up the sound of the Lute! What should I do?" The
acarya gave him the upade8a known as "The Teaching which
enables the mind to grasp hold of the sound of the Lute". As a
result it is said that he attained inconceivable Siddhis. His student
was the beer seller known as Vilasyavajra, which in Tibetan is sGeg.
mo.rdo.rje. She was beer seller to the King of Ur.gyen and when she
was sixteen years old :Qombhiheruka came to that place and preached
the Dharma. The King was quite happy with the Tirthikas and as
l_!e could not be converted, the acarya came to the place where the
beer seller was and asked her about it. She replied, "If you threaten
him with snakes he will convert." The acarya manifested his psychic
powers in the form of venomous snakes, poisonous even to touch,
30
and they circled the King's chambers. The King, absolutely terrified
and bereft of any protection, was told by the beer seller, "As these
Tirthika acaryas are unable to protect you, direct a prayer to
:r;>ombhipa!" As the King was earnestly praying to :r;>ombhipa, the
acarya arrived there and the venomous snakes went underground.
The King and his retinue were made to have faith in the Buddha.
It is said that for a long time offerings were made to the acarya.
Seeing that the beer seller had become a fit vessel for teachings, both
:r;>ombhipa and ViQapa empowered her and bestowed on her the
upadesas. When she had become an able yogini, the Noble Lady


taught her the Mahasukha upadesas. The acarya
ViQapa taught her an inconceivable number of upadesas and she
became chief of the yoginis who were blessed with a clear light Vajra
mind. Working for the welfare of innumerable sentient creatures she
became famous as the yogini Cinto. She gave instruction to Vajra-
ghaQtapa.
That particular acarya was of Royal lineage from near Odivisa.
He was ordained at Nalanda and received the name of Srimati-
garbha.119 Later he became extremely learned and after defeating
Tirthikas in debates he became renowned as "The god who is
completely victorious over his enemies". It is said that on one occa-
sion he was installed as abbot of Nalanda. There he met the Siddha
Diirikapa. He requested empowerments and direct contact with
things as they are, and while meditating a prophecy arose in his
mind that by going to Urgyen he would attain Siddhi. Going to
Urgyen, he met the yogini Vilasyavajra there, and she had adopted
the ways of a swineherd. She instructed him in the method of pro-
ducing the Mahamudra in the mode of inconceivable desire. Having
mastered all the Tattvas, while meditating in a forest in the East at
Odivisa, the two most superior degrees of realisation (Karma Mudra)
were aroused in him. The King of that country came to that parti-
cular forest while hunting wild animals. Seeing him there he felt sorry
for the provisionless monk and he begged him to come to the city.
Darikapa said,
"You should not mock a scholar who has seen things as
they are.
If you try and bind such a one with a few possessions,
which are less than tiny grass tips, you will be unable to.
If one stands near a ceaseless flow of beer one becomes
31
tainted black at the edges.
You cannot bind elephants with fine ropes made of lotus
flowers! ! "
Thus, as the acarya spoke, the King thought, "This monk despises
me," and having plotted the monk's degradation he made it known
about town that whoever could cause the forest-dwelling recluse's
downfall would be given a great gift. The beer-seller accepted and she
always brought food to the acarya thereafter. At another time he
took the beer-seller's daughter, who was born with all the requisite
signs of a Padmini, as his mudra and meditated with her. After
twelve years the acarya attained the state of the highest Mahamudra
Siddhi. In order to erase the faithlessness of the city folk he set up a
self-wrought stone image of sPyan.ras.gzigs (Avalokitisvara) for the
sphere of merit of future sentient creatures. In order that the teach-
ings of the secret Tantras might spread widely, on one occasion he
magically created a son and a daughter. When the King heard that
story, he told the beer seller: "Call the acarya to the city!" Many
people gathered at the eastern portal of the city and when the
acarya came there from the forest, many beer pots were strung to-
gether and put on the road. When his consort summoned him forth
by means of a horn sound, the magic boy ran by his right side and
the girl by his left. Then when they arrived at the east gatt. of the city
the people of that land sang songs derogatory to the King, saying,
"The King invited the acarya to come forth but he did not come.
When the beer-seller called him he came. What then, is all this?"
And they clapped their palms together. The aciirya turned the mouth
of the horn toward the ground and seven fissures opened up .with
mighty rivers flowing out of them. The aciirya and his consort were
transformed into Heruka and his consort, the boy and girl were
changed into Vajra and and, with the aciirya clasping them
in his hands, they soared off into the heavens. The people, when
the waters had almost drowned them, beseeched the aciirya who
said to them, "Address your prayers to sPyan.ras.gzigs !" When all
the creatures intoned the mantra "Namo LokeSwaraya" a self-
created stone image of sPyauas.gzigs arose in the midst of tho
waters. The waters swirled around it seven times and ran back
underground. The aciirya preached the Vajrayana widely to many
citizens of that country and there also arose many students who
attained Siddhi.
32
He preached to Lva.va.pa. As for that acacya, he was the son of a
King. This country was a part of Urgyen, so it is said. However,
some say it was Odivisa. When he was older he took holy orders in a
temple and became most learned in the Tripi\aka. Later on he
came eastwards and met the acarya VajraghaQtii who empowered
him into the maQ-;lalas of etc. So, he meditated
on the upadesas as instructed and attained the highest discriminating
wisdom. When be went westwards to Urgyen, the abode of the
-;lakinis, the Tirthika -:Jakinis presented him with a floral rosary.
When he took it, Buddhist -;lakinis came and said to him, "Son,
taking these flowers was not a good thing to do. They are Tirthika
yoginis and you will have to follow those who gave the flowers."
He replied, "Oh well then, you will have to protect me!" Now, in
this place it is said that non-Buddhist and Buddhist -:Jakinis had
made a pact that whoever was touched first by their flowers had to
become their follower. The acacya stayed in that very spot in deep
meditation and at midnight a mighty noise arose. When he looked,
the Tirthika -;lakinis had hurled a great shower of boulders. By
meditating on the Utpattikrama
120
protection wheel, there was no
damage to the meditation site. If this was the power of the Utpatti-
krama he thought, then he would manifest the powers of the
Sa:q1pannakrama,
120
so he remained in the equanimity in the medita-
tion on non-conceptual mind.
121
As a result all the boulders shattered
in the sky. One boulder was left unsupported in the sky. Another
boulder with a smooth surface, like a mirror, had many stone frag-
ments attached to it. It is still there today. Thus the assaults of the
-:Jakin is did not hinder him at all.
Then, when he stopped while on alms collection, if he met the
King from time to time in front of the city gate, then on each occa-
sion the King would ask him questions. The acarya gave no reply
at all. Once the King said, "You foolish, ignorant monk! Why do
you continually wander about? It would be better if you had a long
sleep instead!" Then the acacya felt it proper to revert to a long
session of sleep, and so he slept for twelve years before the King's
gate. If all the people who went there did not salute the acacya
they were frozen into Iigidity-the King and all his retinue saluted
too, while passing on their way. Twelve years passed and he awoke.
The King said, "Why did the acacya sleep?" and the acacya replied,
"The King himself ordered me to!" Then the King became vecy
full of faith and established many of his countrymen into the Vajra-
33
yAna. The particular King is said to have been the middle Indrabhuti.
Then. at a time when the acarya was performing his ritual prac-
tices in chamel grounds, 500 of the chief mantrika ladies from the
land of Urgyen went wandering around them searching for him.
Among those mantrikas was one called Mandrapadi who was known
as Sahaja, and she was blessed with the power of mantras. She was
also a flesh-eating c;lakini most skilled in uttering curses. The mantri-
kas wanted to harm the acarya and when they had sought him out, in
the acarya's empty place they saw nothing but a Lva.va, that is, a
blanket. She said, "Oh look at this monk's magical illusion. He has
transformed his body into a woollen blanket. Cut it up and everyone
must eat a fragment!" The blanket was divided into 500 bits and each
one was gulped down. At that, the acarya who had manifested his
body cursed them and scattered them, and the 500 mantrikas became
500 sheep. Those 500 sheep went before the King and said, "A monk
who resides in the charnel ground did this to us! 0 King, give us a
means of escape!" At that the King summoned the acarya who arose
before him naked, and said, "King, mantrikas of your country have
eaten the one possession of a monk-his Lva.va, his blanket. So,
summon those mantrikas !" They were all summoned and came,
except for three, and the acarya brandished before each of them a
threatening finger gesture. Their heads were transformed and they
vomited up bits of the Lva.va. When they sewed them together a
little bit did not fit. The acarya said, "There are three more bits-
bring them forth!" Among the retinue of the Queen were those three
c;lakinis and they came forward. He made them vomit the Lva.va
bits as the others had done previously. Those bits they vomited
up he placed on his body and he became widely known as Arya
Lva.va.pa. He gave King Indrabhuti the empowerments and by
meditating on their upadesas the King attained Siddhi. Then the
acarya spent twelve years in a rocky cavern pondering on the medita-
tion on non-conceptual mind. By means of the path of Clear Light
he worked for the welfare of beings who chided him, saying, "You
speak on the Dharma as Ignorance!"
122
Now the King Indrabhuti
spent each day sporting with his 500 women and the people reviled
him. Once the King handed one of his ladies a full serve of vegetable
broth. "Offer this to the acarya Lva. va. pa so that it won't get cold!"
As she would be for many days on the path with the vegetables she
asked why the vegetables would not get cold. The King said, "The
acarya has a spell. Say these words with eyes closed: 'If it is true that
34
the iicarya Lva.va.pa practices the ascetic act of not sleeping, then
may I go right now directly to the rocky covern of Kotambha,'"
She acted accordingly and it is said that when she opened her eyes
she had arrived in front of the acarya. The acarya gave upadesa
instructions to several disciples but as he was totally absorbed in it
she could not think of offering it for a long time. Having eaten most
of what was brought he handed over the rest, which was minute and
was only slightly warm, and said, "Do take this to the King
by hand,
123
so it might not lose its warmth." "The road measures
twelve dPag. tshad.
124
in length", said the girl, "why is it that the
vegetables do not get cold?" "If you want to get there quickly, just
say, 'If it is true that King Indrabhuti is a perfect B r a ~ a c a r y a ,
then may I go before him right now!' " She thought, "This acarya
speaks lies. Whoever from the world of sentient creatures would
believe in such words which contradict the manifest truth?" How-
ever, acting as she had been instructed, she found that in a trice she
was whisked along the roads-a sign that this statement was true.
She arrived, carrying the bowl, before the King who was amidst
100,000 beings. She offered him the remains of the vegetables. In
previous accounts it continues thus-she also brought forth ochre
from the rock-cavern in Kotambham mountain, ankle bracelets full
of reddish-yellow waters from the river known as the "Perfect
river", various efficacious medicines from the I-Loi mountain, three
fruits from the Gajakhajura forest, three types of grain from the
Skyu.ru.ra.
125
forest and variegated lotuses from the "Perfect lake"
as signs of the truth of her story. She showed them to the people
who were amazed and knew from the start that the King had Siddhi.
Later on, both the King and the acarya taught upadesas to the
people of Urgyen and very many of the people became Siddhas and
yogins, and it is said that in that land their nurnbets grew near to
1000. This oral account disagrees somewhat from the Sahajasiddhi
Commentary as it occurs in Tibet. Just as there are many
disimilar accounts of certain people gaining liberation in the Sutras,
there is another account in which Indrabhuti's and Lva.va.pa's
126
spheres of activity seem to resemble each other. This is inconsis-
tent. Furthermore, in Tibet itself, in several of the commentaries
on the Sahajasiddhi, it seems that that particular account does not
appear and it does not even rate a mention in some Indian
commentaries. Moreover, there are even suspect Indian sastras
and accounts of different lengths which are refuted by
35
the.Blue'AmialS'etc. -and without substance:
This account of the lineage of the Clear Light, the Fourth,
chapter, which is like a vein of gems is now finished.
The Siddha Jalandharipa recei\'ed from acaryas IndrabhUti
127
and Lva.va.pa the: upadesas on the Clear Light as well as the
Mahasukha
128
As for the country where the acarya Jalandharipa
was born, it was in We-stern land of Sindhu
129
in the town of
Nagarathatha. He was born into the Sudra caste. However, by
means of his. merits he had a lot of wealth. Later, after a while he
became a monk in a temple. He received the upadesas from acarya
Lva.va.pa and once when he was meditating, a noise was heard in
the heavens; It said, "Go to Urgyen and meditate there! You will
accomplish the siddhis you desire." He went to Urgyen and he heard
all the upadesas of the .Tantras from King Indrabhuti, the Lady
and the acarya Kacapada. Once when he was meditat-
ing, on the lOth day of the month he went to a cemetery. There he
encountered the of Sri Heruka quite clearly and, being em-
powered by many-vajra Qiikinis, he attained the realms of the very
highest Mahii.mudra siddhi. Then, while he was in that land for a
long time. he worked fully and variously for the welfare of beings.
Once while he was in a. town called Kotambha, the inhabitants
often rebuked him. For a long while the acarya displayed no anger.
Later, some three or four members of the city's leading caste went
to a road junction. When they saw the acarya there seated in medi-
tlition, one of them said, "This yogin is blind." Another one said,
"This is not a yogin, it is a dumb thing." Yet another said, "It is a
dead corpse." The acarya said, "You lot .........change!" and cursed
them. One became sightless, another dumb and the other died.
At that, everybody became quite terrified and put it about he
had .reached Siddhi. When their relatives came they begged the
acarya, who restored them. Then the acarya stayed in the land of
Jalandhara at the place where fire blazes from between rock and
water.
130
After a long time. had passed, he was crowned with the name of
the country and was known as.the Siddha Jalandharipa. At a place
in Nepal near a st.lf-created stUpa
131
was a miraculous Linga of
ISvara and there he prayed persistently for seven days. He saw with
36
his acute spiritual vision, powers, subtle activities of causing increase
and especially his powerful capabilities which were immediately
perfected after seven days meditation, that the aforementioned
ISvara Linga was going to interfere with the Buddhist Doctrine.
It was in order to.subdue it that he came to that place. Once while
the King had come thrice to make offerings to the Linga, the acarya
too went there in the midst of a crowd of many hundreds of thou-
sands of people. By means of a threatening gesture made at the
Linga with his little finger, its head tumbled to its base and when
he blew at it, it shattered into many fragments. Furthermore, all
the people knew that he had attained Siddhi and they paid homage
at his feet. Then, on one occasion he departed for the land of
Samparna
132
and there an evil King had commenced the destruction
of many viharas. A certain gifted lute player had come before the
King's gate. The King heard that the master lute player wanted
him and was calling out for him, so he summoned him forth. The
Master played many songs and melodies and while the King and
his entourage were enjoying then the player changed into a yogin
and departed. At that, the King said, "These Buddhists fool us with
their magical tricks." The acarya praised the Buddhists and rebuked
Tirthika&, even the King himself. The King said to his attendants,
"Cut off this man's head," but though they attacked him with
various kinds of weapons they could not wound the acarya's body,
even once. Although 500 men started to tie him up they could not
even move his body. The acarya clapped his palms together and the
King's palace split into two pieces. He caused the King's entourage
to become terrified by fixing them with a ritual gaze and petrified
them into rigidity. The King himself paid homage to the acarya's
feet and asked, "What shall I do?" The acarya replied, "To expiate
your former unwholesome Karmic deeds you must erect viharas
twice the number of the previous ones! You must double the number
of monks living in them! Offer provisions to the Sangha as long as
you live! For seven generations of your children make them offer
provisions to the Sangha! Make a copper plate to that effect."
Accordingly, the King did so.
At another time. in the land of Malava the King Legs.sbyar
or Bhartahari
133
, known in present-day colloquial language as
Bharthari, had amassed 1,800,000 horses and 1,000 women and
lived amidst vast wealth. Knowing it was time for the King's conver-
sion, the acarya settled in a place not far from the town. One night,
37
many brigands came there and encircling the acarya they then
went off to plunder the town. They got a lot of wealth and they
did no injury in the various places they got it. They thought that
this was due to the power of that previous yogin and all of them thus
made him offerings. They offered him openly pearl necklaces,
each pearl worth many 100,000 srang,
134
and other things too. Then
they departed. The people told the King who sent investigators
who saw that. the acarya had lots of wealth. They considered the
acarya to be the thief and submitted him to the King. Without
investigating the matter, the King impaled the acarya on a stake.
In the daytime the acarya's body remained thrur.t through with the
impaling stake and at night, getting down from it, he remained
in meditation.
135
And so when seven days had passed the King
went before him. The stake appeared to be piercing him and yet
the acarya broke the stake and went to the river bank to wash.
The King was amazed and having begged for pardon he asked to
become a follower. The acarya said to him, "Abandon your state
and perform Avadhoti.
136
Then I will give you upadesas." The King
completely abandoned his realm and accordingly, later on, followed
the acarya. At a different time the acarya gave him the upadesas
and after meditating for a long time with no hindrances he became
a powerful yogin. Even later, with a retinue of 500 he soared off
into the heavens.
As far the previous emanations-the acarya Jalandharipa
performed most of his deeds as if he was a child and he was re-
nowned as Balipada
137
, or "Child's Foot". Then, at a later time,
when he wanted to convert the people of the Eastern regions, he
adopted the likeness of a street sweeper from a village of Satigrama
in Bengal. Not a long time had passed since Gobicandra
138
, the
young King of that country, had acceded to the throne. As his
body was beautiful he was a sensualist and he looked in mirrors
and was generally dissolute. Once at dawn, when the King's mother
was looking, the acarya had gone over the fence into the King's
orchard and, having gone to the base of the trees there, he intoned,
"Narikela The fruit of the trees came down before the
acarya. When he had drunk their juices he intoned, "Narikela
Uparajahi," and the fruit onct again hung from the tree as it had
been before. When she saw him going about so often the King's
mother knew he had attained Siddhi and she thought, "This person
will convert the King." She went before the King with tears welling
38
in her eyes and the King asked, "Is anything the matter?" She
replied, "Although you have surpassed your father's body strength,
and intellect by more than ten times, it is still taught that phenomena
are impermanent. Even you are not beyond the rule of death!" The
King replied, "Well, are there no means of avoiding death?" His
mother teplied, "Your own street sweeper has such a means." The
King went before the sweeper and "You must give me the
upadesas to avoid death!" The acarya replied, "There is such an
upadesa. If you do not renounce yout state you will not accomplish
it." At that the King replied, "Well now, first of all gi-ve me the
upadesas and later on I will relinquish the State." Both the King
and the acarya went alone to an isolated forest where the acarya
gave the King an empty earthenware vessel and said, "Put your
hand in it!" When the King had put his hand inside the iicarya
said, "What is in there? Tell me quickly, quickly!" When the King
said that there was nothing whatever in it the acarya replied that
in it there was indeed the Path to the Deathless State. Although
the King asked three times, the acarya answered as before each time
and the King did not believe him, thinking he was being fooled.
Then he put the acarya into a deep hole in the ground. It was surroun-
ded by thorny branches and filled with the dung of elephants and
horses, and ii was closed off in secret
139
The acarya had manifested
two bodily displays-in the land of Jalandhara he worked by means
of complete renunciation for the welfare of sentient creatures and
he also manifested himself in Bengal and taught there.
Then after a while when the acarya arrived in the
South at or in Tibetan Chu.shing.gi.zbing or plantain
field, which in the colloquial tongue is called Katsali, his disciples
said to the many yogins who were on the road, "Wake up! Get up!
The Siddha is coming!" The others roused themselves
but the Siddha did not arise. At that the acarya himself
arrived and when be conversed with the latter asked,
after a while, "Who is your Guru?" The acarya replied, "It is
Jalandharipa," and replied, "Well, twelve years have
passed since Jalandharipa was buried in an earthen hole by King
Gobicandra." The yogin together with 1,400 practicers in his
retinue went to the East and set himself down in a fury before the
gate of King Gobicandra. No sound rose from musical instruments.
Horses and elephants ate no grass. Even young children drank
no milk. The King, knowing it was due to the acarya's powers and
39
that he was beaten, went outside and begged that the aciirya together
with his attendants come inside for a banquet. The acarya said,
"As I have with me a retinue of 1,400 you will be unable to fill
them," and the King replied, "If I am able to satisfy my many
100,000 soldiers at all times, then why should I be unable to feed
the acarya and his attendants?" The acarya answered, "Oh well,
first of all fill my two disciples Mahila and Bhadala. If they are
satisfied then later on we too will come." When the King had 500
K.hal
140
weight of rice made, both Mahila and Bhadala came there.
All that food simply disappeared and even though they poured
it into their gourd-bowls, they were not filled. The King was amazed
and having gone before the aciirya he begged for the means of
attaining the Deathless State. At that the acarya gathered up the
requisites, which measured twelve elephant loads, for the creation
of the mal)<;lala, and later gave the King the empowerments. Teaching
him the very teachings and upadesas that the sweeper had done
previously the King realised, "I have heard all this before," and he
related the previous story. Then the acarya said, "Well, is it really
possible that the Siddhi of the Deathless State could come to you
now? That was my Guru, Jalandharipa!" The King was terrified
that he would be cursed by the Siddha and the acarya said he would
find him a means of avoiding it. Three statues of the King were
made out of copper mixed with the eight precious substances. Then
the pupils of K r ~ Q a c a r y a had the earth and all the impurity cleared
away and having carried the King's likenesses to the edge of the
hole, the King was made to prostate himself before the sweeper's
feet. From the Guru's mouth came the words, "Who is this?"
and the King said, "It is I, King Gobicandra." The Guru said,
"Phi Tu Ma Ro-change into dust!" and his image was reduced
to dust. Although the second image was put into a reverential
position the same thing happened as mentioned above-and so too
with the third one. Then the King was even more afraid and it is
said that he and his retinue nearly split open their hearts.
Again the acarya, leading the King forth, begged him to be calm.
The Siddha Jalandharipa said, "My son Kahnipa. How many
pupils have you got?" "I already have 1,400," replied Kahnipa.
Then the Siddha .Talandharipa replied, "Well, I have lots of nephews.
For twelve years I did not eat or drink and now I am hungry and
parched. Come, we two will bathe and then we will eat." That
morning about 70 new pupils prepared the bath and the others
40
left the bathing area. Dharmapa and Dhumapa both remained and
being brought before Jalandharipa they were made to sit in front of
him. He was about to cut flesh from their limbs with a small, curved
knife when they asked, "Where does the Guru want to eat it?"
The Siddha Jalandharipa gave a great laugh and said "Ha ! Ha!
Why do, I, the ascetic, eat human flesh? Vanish like a phantom!'
Then putting both his hands on the heads of Dhama and Dhuma,
they too attained the highest Siddhi. Then the King relied on the
acarya who stayed together with the acarya as his pupil a for a long
time and the impurities in the King's mind were gradually purified.
Finally, after setting up a six month Vajra Feast, the Siddha Jalan-
dharipa taught the King the Vajra songs known as Dohiis. The King,
together with 1,000 attendants abided in a state of great tranquillity
and with all of them practising complete renunciation of SaJ:!lsara
they all became great yogins.
The King Bharthari was the maternal uncle of King Gobicandra.
A short while afterwards, in one of Jalandharipa's caves, the acarya
failed to manifest himself to his students. All at one time many
foolish students came and jammed inside the cave. When they
did this the acarya said the syllable, "Hum" and another cave was
formed above the original one, became invisible and disappeated.
A sound came forth from the heavens, saying, "You will be born in
the world of men six times more." Even today that cave is said to
be great in its blessings. Furthermore, later on in a forest grove
in the South near Rasrnisvara
141
there arose a self-made shrine to
the Ma-mo
142
goddesses, and many <;iakin\s and pisacas convened
three. All the people on the road to that place were slain. Once
when 500 traders and one yogin were travelling to that place, several
woman and came and said, "You won't get anywhere
else tonight. You can cut and use these forest tree and grass and
there are no dangers from wild beasts and snakes." This being so
each man sat himself down on the roots of a tree. While they were
there another two woman came and said, "You stay here but don't
you know what is about to manifest itself itself?" "No, we don't
know," they replied. The women said, and will
bind you. After that, this very night, they will devour you. Think of
a means of escape!" So saying they became invisible and departed.
As the yogin was of the lineage of Jalandharipa. he addressed the
acarya in his prayers and early in the night a wandering monk
arrived there. While he was there the travellers told him the story
41
which had been previously related and all the while he said not a
word. In the second watch of the night the pisacas, c;Hikinis and
R a k ~ a s a s showed themselves and each of them bound one of the
men and took them away. When they placed them in the Ma-mo
abode, and the latter were preparing to eat them, the wandering
monk said the syllable "Pha\'' and the dakinis and pisacas all fain-
ed down. The Ma-mo's shrine too split into three pieces and the
acarya commanded that in future they should not harm living
beings. It appears he was a manifestation of Jalandharipa, and all
500 traders bceame yogis and engaged in meditation, finally attaining
Siddhi, so it is said.
Then the acarya is renowned to have gone to a country in the
South for three years to work for the welfare of sentient beings.
At that time it is said that he gave many oral upadesas.
Furthermore, later on in the Western land of Maru,
143
when the
acarya Jnagupta was preaching Dharma to a vast crowd, a mira-
culous yogin came there. The acarya Jiiiinagupta asked, "Who are
you?" and the reply came, "I am Jiilandharipa!" Jniinagupta men-
tally asked many questions which were swiftly answered. Believing
him, Jiianagupta begged to be his follower. Jalandharipa gave him
a skull cup completely filled with effulgent light. Without concep-
tualising he drank from it and became invisible. As a result of the
Sangha repeatedly begging him, he stayed with them for three months
and taught them the follow up teachings. Then, when he had en-
couraged about 1,000 superior male and female upasakas into Holy
Orders, all at one time they became believers in the Vajrayana
Pitaka. He said to them, "For three years practise secretly, during
which time vou will easily obtain life's necessities. All of you will
attain Siddhi!" Having thus spoken he became invisible.
Then, from the East came six yogins who had heard that the
acarya Jalandharipa was in fact residing there and preaching the
Dharma. When they came to the temple the acarya had gone away
and was not there. They persistently prayed to him. After six months
he showed his visage to them and gave them the teachings and the
follow up instructions. When a week had passed, a sravaka of the
Sendhapa sect
114
came there and the acarya said to the six yogins,
"Do not preach this to anyone who indulges in dialectics, to anyone
who is a fully ordained monk or to whoever is old!" Having said
this it is said that he became invisible. Now, many Sravaka Sendhapa
came to that particular temple and stayed there and when those
42
aforementioned monks went for three years to practise the Tantras
in other places, the sravakas severely castigated them. However,
as they all quickly grasped one of the Siddhis, it is said that their
bad reputation was cleared up. The six yogins attained the deathless
Siddhi. The oldest of them was said to have been Vibhutidasa.
145
He came to Tibet and Bu.ston.rin.po.che received the Dharma
from him. Moreover, it is said that this acarya would appear in the
world of men on four occasions. Of this acarya's pupils who gained
Siddhi the foremost of all these was who was like the
sun and moon, and the second was Buddhajiianapada who came
later on. Again, there was Tantipa, the younger Virupa, the Raja
Bharthari, Gobicandra and all the rest, each of whom was infinitely
famous. During this period, the most perfect disciple of that acarya,
according to the later Kalacakra Tantra, would be known as
and he would hold aloft a khawanga, a bone ornament, a beer
vessel and a small double headed drum.
As for the prophecied account of
146
the early
Tibetans say that he was born in the land of Kama and nowadays,
according to the oral tradition of the Five Indian Yogis, it seems
that he was born in Vidyanagar. Furthermore, as Vidyanagar is
quite close to Karna, the early Tibetan accounts appear to be quite
similar to the Indian oral accounts.
147
In those early accounts it is
said that he was of the caste, and the Indian oral tradition
also says so. The old Tibetan ttadition says he was of the arya
caste and the acarya himself says in a Doha song, "Going
onreaching out is the Brahqlin's son!" Thus it is clear that
he was of the Brahx:pin caste. Although there is an inner
meaning to be applied to the song, this is what the outer
meaning indicates. There was a prophecy made by the
Buddha himself about the land of Uruvisa and my Gur-u has
said that the land of Uruvisa is very close to the land of Bengal.
As to the prophecy concerning the manifestations of the Natha.
which are without contention and are in the Mahakala Tantra,
according to the translation of Rva the Dharma elder,l
48
it says,
"It is clear and evident that it is one and the same place as UruviSa.
The person born there will have great industry and will accord with
the commands of Ramana. (As to his name-)To the first letter of
the first group, (add) the first of the vowels as an ornament. Then
comef> the fourth letter of the seventh group-together they ride
somewhat on the letter 'na'. This is the name of the sole mighty
43
yogin-he who will attain the eight siddhis. His like has not
appeared in Jambudivpa before, nor will it again. His six pupils will
attain the state of fully relinquishing their bodily forms and will
gain the Mahamudra."
149
Thus it was mentioned in great detail
concerning his country of birth, his name, his siddhis and his pupils.
As for an account of this great liclirya it can be seen elsewhere
in another biography.
150
As for the pupils of the aclirya, they were
six in number according to the Buddha's prophecy-Bhadrapada,
Mahila, Bhadala, the novice Tshem. bu.pa, Dhamapa and Dhumapa.
Certain people say that Bhadala and Bhadrapa, or bZang.po.pa,
are one and the same, but elsewhere this has not been decided on.
Certain others would wish to put Eyala in between them. It is said
that the yoginis Mikhala, Kanakala and Pandhepa, etc., attained the
highest siddhi at the time when the aclirya was actually alive. The
minister Kusalanatha, the King Llliicandra, Amitavajra and the
prince Lavayila, etc., became inconceivably powerful yogins. Ata
later date they met the Brahqtin called Sridhara and some others,
and found siddhi. The aclirya Bhadrapa taught Antarapa and he
taught the aciirya famous as the younger KWJ.iicarya. This liciirya
taught Bhuvatipa and he taught the Tibetan born Bhuva.blo.ldan.
He taught the younger Kusalibhadra, so the tradition goes. Further-
more taught Bhadrapiida who was known as Guhyapa.
This aciirya could not find the cJakini known as Biihuri, who was
hindering his Guru, even though he searched all the spheres with
his superknowledge. A while later he saw her at Devikota,
151
inside
the trunk of a shimpila tree, where she had transformed herself
into a grain of dust. He grabbed her by the hair and, dragging her
out of the tree trunk, he attacked her with his siddhi sword and
utterly destroyed her. It is said that he taught the iiciirya Tillipa.
In Tibet it is said that the above mentioned, renowned Guhyapa
taught Antarpa
152
who taught Tillipa. Although this period is not
much discussed, in general the dates agree as do the lineages as they
are given. Furthermore Caryapa pxeached to Kusalaniitha. While
he performed some of the outer deeds of a minister he practised
meditation and attained a little clairvoyance. When he was with
the King in his temple, a pot of curds was set down. By his
voyance he saw that a rat had licked it with its tongue. When he
made a gesture of expulsion, the King asked, "What is this?" and
as the aciirya told him directly, the King knew that the aclirya had
attained siddhi, ai:J.d reverenced him as his private chaplain. Shortly
44
thereafter the King too attained the five clairvoyances and as for his
minister, he became a powerful yogin. He also preached to Tillipa.
As for the acarya Tillipa, he was born in the town of Chativavo,
153
into the Briihrpin caste. When he grew up he knew all the Brah.rpini-
cal doctrinal sastras. While he was in various countries supplicating
alms he finally came to a temple and saw that the monks lived
a life of renunciation-he believed, became a monk and learned
the way of the Tripitaka. He was empowered into the
by the two previously mentioned acaryas and having pondered and
meditated on them, after only a short time had passed a unique,
discriminating wisdom was born within him. He also saw the visages
of an infinite number of perfected beings. He asked them questions
and got the subsequent teachings. He saw the visages of Sri Heruka
and the assemblage of 9akinis perpetually and also as a result of
their blessings, his discriminating wisdom increased more and more.
He practised in conjunction with a ksetra yogini, the daughter of a
sesame pounder, and the monks expelled him from his place in the
monastery. He pursued the work of a sesame pounder in the town,
and as he, a converted former Brahrpin Pandita and monk, had
lost all opportunity for wealth and fame, he became known as
"Tillipa the sesame pounder, the husband of the sesame pounding
woman." Then he abided in various spheres performing this function,
and in the land of U rgyen and in other countries he received teachings
from the 9akinis. Then in Urgyen he performed the function of a
sesame pounder until the sesame became like a butter broth and
by means of his Guru's religious advice his body was also pounded
at its psychic points and he realised the co-emergence of discrimi-
nating etc. Because of all his activities all this was manifest-
ed to him and he finally attained the consummate siddhi. He simul-
taneously saw the visages of all the Buddhas of the ten directions.
Wishing to teach his realisation to other people there he gave them
forth in song form to a gathering in the town. Everyone became
full of doubt. On one occassion, in a town in Bengal, many hundreds
of thousands of people came to see the acarya and he, together
with his consort appeared before all of them, in the sky, pounding
sesame. As each man questioned him the acarya, putting his ex-
periences into song form, replied. It is said that most of the people
in the crowd realised the songs' meanings and attained siddhi. He
became renowned as the Siddha Tillipa. Having worked for the
welfare of sentient beings for a long time he departed for the heavenly
45
realms in his bodily form. His two pupils were Lalitavajra and
Naropa. The account dealing with the former one is not mentioned
here. It is clear that he is in the text "The Dharma Assemblage of
Mitra yogi". In the legends concerning Samvara in the tradition of
the junior translators of Mar.do.
154
and Pu.rangs.
155
and in the
accounts of Hevajra by dPyal.ba.,
156
he is spoken of as being a
foremost disciple, a Gautamasisya.
As for Naropa, he was born in Kasmir
157
into the
caste. As, in his youth he became a Tirthika Pa.Q9ita, he practised the
Tirthika tantras and as he rejected practice of the caste
rituals he therefore performed the Avadhuti ritual. Once he went
to the house of a woman who sold beer and found a junior Buddhist
paoQita there. The latter could not withstand the brilliance of Naro
and fled. Naro saw a volume of the Siitras abandoned in the empty
place and becoming filled with devotion to the Dharma, he went to
Madhyadesa where he became a monk in the Buddha's teachings.
When the great had become even greater he was made the
Northern gatekeeper
158
of Nalanda and Vikramasila monasteries.
When, in order to annihilate the Tirthikas, he was giving vast num-
bers of sermons, his own spirit became like that of a cowherd, who,
for extended periods has no abode of his own. Each evening he al-
ways meditated on and many 9akinis showed their
visages to rum. They encouraged him saying, "In the east is Tillipa-
go before him! You will attain siddhi !" Having gone to the eastern
regions he searched everywhere for Tillipa but did not find him.
Once in a certain monastery the monks had gathered together inside
for their food and had the door locked from the inside. At that time
Naropa was in the kitchen and a vile, filthy old man came in and
roasted many live fish in the glowing embers. Naropa was unable to
stop him. Then the monks arose and hurled abuse at the old man
who said, "If you don't like it, you can throw the fish into water!"
It is said that when the roasted fish were put into water they swam
off in all directions. Naropa then knew that the old man was a siddha
and, going after him, he prostrated himself at his feet and begged
him. The old man became wrathful. and struck him, without even
a word to him. When Naropa thought, "Is it Tillipa ?" the man
said "Yes! Yes!" When Naropa thought "Is it not Tillipa ?"
the man said "No! No!" At that he realised that it was the
former which was true, and he knew that it was Tillipa. Again
Tillipa sometimes manifested himself by performing a yogin's
46
deeds and similarly he sometimes magically transformed himself
into a madman. At those manifestations no conceptual thoughts
arose in Naropa. Once while in a town, he teceived a lot of vegetables
from a place where a wedding was taking place and when he took
them to the acarya, the latter craved for more. So, Naropa thought
that it would gladden the Guru and he went again to the previously
mentioned wedding place. Now, in India it is not the accepted cus-
tom to go to a banquet twice in one day, and so Naropa stole the
whole pot of vegetables and carried it off. The people followed him
and although they beat his body with cudgels and stones, he did
not lose his hold on the vessel and brought the vegetables to his
Guru.
Again at another time, near the banks of a narrow stretch of
water in which there were many leeches, known in Tibetan as pad. pa,
the Guru went back and forth between the far and near banks.
Naropa offered himself saying, "By sitting in the middle of the river
I can make myself into a bridge," and he did just that. Putting his
feet on Naropa's head, Tillipa leaped to the other side and said,
"Stay right there! I will return quite quickly." For a long time the
Guru did not appear and when he did return on the path he did
exactly the same as before. The leeches had sucked Naropa's life-
blood and he had arrived at death's door. However he gradually
recovered and later, when he was following his Guru, they met a
princess sitting in a palanquin on the road. Tillipa said, "Capture
the princess!" Naropa transformed himself into a Brahrpin and
uttering auspicious words he put flowers on the girl's head. Then he
grabbed her by force and fled. Her servants beat Naropa until he
was unable to get up and he lay on the ground like a corpse. By
skillful means of the acarya, N aropa recovered and once again they
set out on the road where they met a minister's wife. As Tillipa
wanted her as his wife he told Naropa to do as he had done pre-
viously, even as far as his recovery. Thinking that the Guru desired
a girl, Naropa gave the price for a high caste girl to her parents and
took her off with him, and thought that he would offer her to his
Guru in the morning. That night he stayed with her. In the morning
the Guru crushed Naropa's genitals between two stones. While
Naropa lay very ill for many days and nights, the Guru recited
mantras and Naropa recovered. Naropa offered the girl to the
acarya but she made love-glances to Naropa. The Guru said, "You
don't like me but you like him," and he beat both Naropa and the
47
girl. Those things were all to see the signs of whether Naropa's
faith was firm or not-there was not even the slightest reversion in
it, nor was it diminished and on account of this his sphere of faith
expanded.
Once when the two, master and pupil, were on the pinnacle of a
mansion, the Guru said, "If someone were able to jump down from
here I would be so happy!" Naropa thought, "By means of the
Guru I will be swiftly cured," and he jumped, breaking all his limbs.
Then for many days and nights the Guru did not show up, but at
last, thinking it was not befitting to let him die in such a way, he
came, uttered some mantras and cured him. Thus Naropa served the
Guru for twelve years and although he underwent innumerable
hardships it is said that the Guru never even spoke a single good
word to him.
Once in an empty plain the Guru said, "Now I am going to offer
a maQ9ala so I can give you the upadesa teachings," but Naropa
said, "There are no flowers, nor is there any water here." The Guru
replied, "Does your body not have blood and fingers?" and so
Naropa bled himself and sprinkled the blood about and, cutting
off his fingers, he arrayed them as a bunch of flowers. Then Tillipa
gathered up Naropa's fingers and struck him across the face with
a muddy boot and he became unconscious. Upon waking up he was
able to see quite clearly the reality of things as they are. His fingers
were healed and Naropa was given all the upadesas and all the
follow up teachings. Then Naropa became a mighty yogin and
Tillipa said to him, "Now, don't debate, don't teach any pupils,
don't preach-if you act thus you will swiftly attain the highest
state." Then, when Naropa was abiding at Phullahari,
159
engaged
in non-conceptual meditation, it happened that he was forced into
debate with a Tirthika. Now, a particularly learned Tirthika had
come to debate and nobody came forward who could engage him.
An old woman said to the monks: "The most renowned and best
debater is quite near here." The monks searched for him and found
him. They begged him to engage in debate and he thought that it
would be of benefit to the teachings of the Lord Buddha so he started
to debate on the Buddhist side. However, he was being beaten by a
slight margin and he thought, "How is it that I, mighty in speech,
am beaten?" Recalling his Guru's in junction be prayed to him and
immediately won the debate. Then Tillipa became clearly visible,
looking like a fearful beggar, holding a man's skull dripping blood.
48
N!ropa paid homage to his feet and the Tirthika said, "Although
you are said to be a compassionate Buddhist, yet you pay homage to
this compassionless demon. You certainly are defeated!!" Tillipa
pointed his finger at the Tirthika temple and said, "Subdue!
Subdue!" and flailed at it wildly The temple was ruined. Then
both the dispute and the display ot magical acumen were won for
the Buddhists. The Guru's injunction had been slightly damaged by
Naropa and so he did not attain the highest siddhi in that lifetime.
As soon as he had forsaken his bodily form they say that he became
a Buddha. As for this acarya he stayed for the most part in Phulla-
hari itself. At times he wandered around various lands giving
empowerments, preaching Tantras and upadesas, engaging Tirthikas
in debate and complete!)' destroying them and also performing many
other wise deeds. Principally he worked for the welfare of sentient
creatures, mostly by means of perfecting the twelve great deeds,
160
without an)' hindrance at all. He constantly saw before him the
visages of all the tutelaty gods. Having pondered on and brought
under his mental the ordinary siddhis, he became a
Mah.asiddha.
As for the pupils of this acarya-there were the omniscient ones
of this dark aeon-Santipa and the others, namely the door-keeper
pandita, Jo.bo.je. Atisa, and many other masters of the teachings.
Moreover as to his other extraordinary pupils there were four who
were holders of the Oral Tantric teachings and who were also
learned in the Father Tantras and four who were learned in the
Mother Tantras
161
-that totals eight in all. As for the first four they
were-Kgoabhayavajra, Pi\ohan.u, Jayakara and the Kasmiri
The later four were Manakasri, Dharmamati, the
great Pham.ting
162
and They were very powerful
and able p_eople. Some say that and Dharmamati were
one and the same and they that J.iianagarbha should be among the
first four pupils. As for another group. of four pupils who attained
perfection, they were Sri Param :r;>ombipa, Riripa, Kandhapa and
Kasoripa-all of them attained siddhi. These four groups of pupils
taken three times makes twelve pupils in all. This was known pre-
viously in Tibet and was set out in this very fashion.
As for Sri Param :r;>ombipa, he was at first a herder of the King's
cattle, and he could not even read. When Naropa was staying in a
certain monastery deep faith was born within I:;>ombipa, and from
time to time he brought milk and butter to Naropa. Then acarya
49
Naropa taught him the Cittotpada,
163
and having given him the
empowerments for the Hevajra mal}c;lala he also taught him the
means of meditating on it. Once when I;>ombipa was meditating he
was carried off by floodwaters and a fish gulped him down. Seeing
Heruka's ma]jc;Jala inside the fish's belly he came to no harm and was
vomited up. Then he practised a life of complete relinquishment
at the acarya's feet, and performing one-pointed meditations he
entered the thought realms of the highest siddhis and his under-
standing of all dharmas and of all aspects of the unique Vajrayana
became vast. He taught many pupils and they attained Siddhi.
Having had to compose many commentaries, he learned to write
and he defeated all the Tirthika and Buddhist paQc;litas who re-
proached him, by means of teachings taken from the Dharma.
His fame pervaded all dhections. He was the Guru of Atisa.
164
Although Tibetans say that Jo.bo. (Atisa) did not meet him, yet
Atisa did hear the Mi.gyo.ba.dam.pa.sgrub.pa. which he composed,
hearing it spoken by I;>ombipa. Those sastras are four in number
165

As for those commentaries written by the Jo.bo., they indeed agree
that he did receive those dharmas directly and they are in agreement
with those compiled by learned Indians. I myself have even seen
those commentary volumes in Indian format
166
in the hands of the
acarya Nirva:Q.asri. The younger Kusalibhadra received instruction
from the acarya, the younger I;>ombi.
That particular acarya was born in the western regions of India
in a place pnown as Mevar. From his youth he knew many areas
of learning. He begged a great Tirthika Guru for ordination but he
would not instruct him, and so he thought he must defect all those
Tirthikas.
He took Buddhist ordination from Vajrasanapa
167
and studied,
becoming very leamed in all the Pi\akas. Moreover, he returned
to the land of Kamaru
168
disguised as a B r a ~ n and, together with
six Tirthika and Brah.qlin paoc;Jitas he studied and became learned
in the Tirthika doctrine. He also studied and perfected the magical
practices of Kamaru, many mantras of the Vijegiripa doctrinal
system, many of the cursing mantras of the c;Jakinis and many of
the mantra class belonging to the Shyang.nga.ri sect. Then he went
off to the west where those previously mentioned Tirthika pa:Q.c;litas
were. There was there a King called Karta who was set up as
adjudicator. About two thousand Buddhist yogins and pa:Q.9itas
and eight thousand Tirthikas assembled there and the debate began.
50
As the acarya was of fine intellect and knew the Tirthika system
he defeated each and every one of them. They therefore made a
magic contest and one of the Tirthika yogins manifested the vision
of bringing to earth two stars out of the heavens. It is said that these
were houses shaped like human heads and were black in colour.
Then the acacya saw that it was all only an illusion, and reciting
mantras of destruction both stars were transformed into lumps
of coal. Everybody saw that this too was an illusion. Some Tirthika!.
manifested themselves with blazing bodies and he brought water
down on them and they were drenched. He defeated each of their
magical tricks with his own magic and they were subdued, so it
is said. Finally the four chief Tirthikas were transformed into cats
by the acarya who intoned mantras. By means of the Shyang.nga.ri
mantra all the household goods of the assembled Tirthikas were
changed into stone. Thus the Tirthikas were defeated and in a short
time the Buddhists spread widely in that land. Even today it is said
that there are many Buddhists there. Then the acarya thought,
"All these magical deed& which I have done are not magic and with
those various mantras I have indeed deceived many people, and
have committed many grave offences. All my previous deeds of
hearing and thinking were committed by the power of passion
and aggression," and he pondered about this. He thought, "Now
I will fully renounce all of them!" and he became a caryapa yogin.
169
He met Sri Param I;>ombipa while he was meditating and begged
that he might be given empowerment into the mandalas of
and Hevajra . As a result of his entreaty he got all the necessary
upadesas. He went before all the various Gurus of the above men-
tioned lineage. and as before he delighted all of them. He received
the upadesas and meditated on them for a long time and he met
many of the Mahasiddhas who have been mentioned above, namely
the MaMsiddhas Virupa, Vyadapala, etc. They also
gave him upadesas and he spent twelve years in the eastern regions,
in a forest at Sarabhanga. Having cut off his attachment to food,
and drinking only water and meditating, his experiences became
as wide as the skies. He leaped from precipices like a bird, he could
travel a month's journey in an hour, wild animals paid him ho.mage,
demons became his bondsmen, he saw the faces of many of his
tutelary divinities and he knew the very thoughts of creatures. In
harmony with them he preached the dharma to them. At about
that period he is regarded as being the greatest in India as far as
51
upadesas go and he was famed as a Siddha. Once having
met the iiciirya in the flesh, said to him,
"Perform your actions with conceptualisation! You will become
chief of all the caryiipas who are my disciples. I bless you!" This was
the prophecy that he made. For thirteen years, together with
twenty attendant consorts, the younger :Qombi practised his con-
ceptualised deeds widely in various lands. All the other caryiipa
yogins touched his feet in reverence. Finally he resided for seventy
two years in the monastery at Devikota. It is said that this acarya
lived for one hundred and fifty-seven years. He was one who adopted
the tenets of the later caryapas and set them out in order. His
pupils were many-acarya Asitaghana being just one among them.
Asitaghana was at first a Tirthika yogin, and was born in the
land of Prayaga.
170
He was learned in Sanskrit and dialectics, and
having practiced the sadhana of Mahesvara,
171
he was given the
quicksilver siddhi. He went to the realms of the Asuras many times
and as long as he lived his body did not age at all. He perfected
both fierce and violent rituals by means of many mantras which
belonged to the Matrka and Bhuta
172
demons. Once when he became
somewhat proud of himself he vied with a caryapa yogin and his
quicksilver siddhi vanished. Not even one of his fierce ritual practices
remained and so he gained faith in Buddhists. He begged upadesas
from the Prabhavarma, the Mahacarya Vibhuti-
candra, Devakara and many others too. Having requested the follow-
ing five things he mastered them all. As well as Tantras they were,
treatises on Sa:q1vara, Hevajra, Vajrabhairava, the Four Brab:qla
Viharas and Guhyasamiija. Moreover he met the younger Kusali-
bhadra who gave him all the upadesas of all the Instructions. As
he was meditating in a state of one-pointedness, his mind came
under the malignant influence of the sensual pleasures and for
seven years he meditated in a forest while he was beset with these
difficulties. There he met in person Luyipa, Vyadala and many of
the above mentioned siddhas and he received their upaddas. They
said to him. "Go to the city! There you will find success in your
desires!" In the morning he went to the city and there he saw many
singers and dancers who were performing their songs and dances.
Taking all this as a cause, his mental continuum became completely
liberated and he attained siddhi. Then by magical means he departed
and taught the Dharma widely to sentient creatures. Then in various
countries he demonstrated a few miraculous visions to a few for-
52
tunate people and clarified their essential meanings to the people.
As a result inconceivable
173
numbers had their mental continuums
liberated. For two-hundred years he remained in that self same
bodily form. This iicarya put his ideas into song form and it appears
that he wrote many small sastras on Tantras and taught them
widely. He taught Jfianamitra, and although he certainly formed
a vast lineage of pa;;t<;litas, not much of detail is mentioned concern-
ing them. Acarya Kusali the younger, Asitaghana and Jniinamitra
were, according to this blessing lineage, a paQ<;Iit iineage. If this
paJJ.<;Iit lineage is adhered to, then it appears that this particular
Guru's lineage was some fift'een or twenty in all.
As for the acarya Jiianamrita,
174
he was from the land ofTripura
175
and belonged to the s udra caste. He was ordained in the east at the
temple of Jagaddala.
176
As for his sect, it was the Sammitiya. He
learned their doctrinal speciality which was the Vinaya and he also
learned the Abhidharmapi\aka. He also knew the main Mahayana
doctrine extensively. He also met many learned and well established
iiciiryas in the secret Tantras, and he became particularly expert
in the colections of Yamantaka, S ~ v a r a , Hevajra, Guhyacandra-
bindu, Mahiimudrabindu and Kalacakra. He was of the lineage of
students of Dharmapa. He begged the Mahiimaya and the four
Bralu:pa Vihiiras from a certain caryapa. At a time when he was
meditating on them randomly, he met the siddha Asitaghana who
gave him the complete upadesas for the three Instructions. As
Jiiiinamitra found the experience of the Sampannakriima arising in
himself, he told his Guru who said, "From now, after a period of
twelve years has passed, a perfected and wise aciirya will arise on the
island of Candradvipa.
177
Act using my upade5as as primary cause-
act using his upadesas as secondary cause, and you will attain Mahii-
mudra Siddhi." The acarya also said, "Go to Urgyen!" and with
these words he wended his was upwards into the heavens. In the
meantime, Jiiiinmitra spent twelve years meditating and the highest
experiences were born within him. He thought, "I must practise
now! IfTirthikas see the idle chatter of people it will only be injurious
and impede the Doctrine." Once when Jniinamitra went to Candra-
dvipa the iiciirya Nandapiila emerged from an underground door
there, known as the "Perfect Portal", and came out to meet him.
Jiianamitra begged for the upadesas dealing with the Four Mudras.
As for the other three mudra chapters he thought, "I am great
in these upadesas!" Then on being taught the Mahamudra he
53
saw the Guru in the bodily form of discriminating wisdom and
clearly saw the nature of the mind is meaning of "The co-emergent
bliss." Cutting adrift all doubts he arrived at the profound
understanding of all Dharmas. He departed through Nandapala's
"Perfect Portal" and in one hundred and fifty years he emerged
again in the East where he met Asitaghana who was approaching
two hundred years old when he met this acarya. Then Jfianamitra
adopted the caryii practices and he did not stay any more at the
monastery of those aforementioned monks. Even though he practised
in various caryapa abodes he did not change the outward signs of
his monks ordination. He practised the caryapa rites with concep-
tualisation for three years and he practised non-conceptualisation
in the various lands he travelled in. He practised absolute non-
conceptualisation also, mixing all of these up together, and in six
years he attained the level of the highest Mahamudra siddhi. Once
in Odisa, at the Tirthika temple known as Jagadnatha,
178
there was
a stone image of the god Visnu which was self-made and very
miraculous. The acarya together with four yoginis sat before the
temple door and asked the sacristan to show them the temple. The
sacristan however went and asked the proprietor of the temple, a
Tirthika Guru, who said, "As these Buddhists certainly do not
believe in our gods, and as they appear to be ordinary monks, per-
haps they will encounter the powers of the local guardian divinity.
Let them come in!" When the acarya came into the temple he gazed
for a long time at the pictures and so the sacristan struck him with a
cudgel. At that the acatya blew on an animal horn and all the stone
images lost their limbs and sense organ and all their previous mira-
culous powers waned. Those who had previously been members
of the Sangha again became prosperous, as is befitting. In the
intervening one hundred year period in which three Kings arose,
the Buddha's teachings spread greatly in Odivisa. It is said that
there are vestiges left there even today. The acarya perfected the
four gazes without hindrance and worked them for the welfare of
sentient beings. He saw quite clearly the natural existence of pheno-
mena and he preached widely up to the end of the age of disputation.
It is also said that thousands of people gained experiences as vast
as the heavens. There also were many people who attained many of
of the ordinary level siddhis. It is clear that those who attained the
the highest siddhi were acarya Dharmakara who attained the rain-
bow body state in the copper country,
179
the yogini known as
54
"Moon Ray" and the yogini Bhajaruru. These were the three early
students of this acatya. The later student, the fourth one, was none
other than the Mahasiddha Santigupta.
180
The fourth Instruction comprising four sections and combined
into one chapter, telling of the Clear Light, and which it like a vein
of precious stones, is now finished.
55
Instruction Five
As for Instruction Five it deals with the Utpattikrama and
related activities.
In the centre of the land of K.habi was Taxila.
181
In that place
there was an extremely wise B r a ~ i n acarya who, gaining great
faith in the Buddha's doctrine, was ordained at Nalanda into the
school of the Mahasarpghika
182
and was given the name Buddha-
srijiiana, or in Tibetan Sangs.rgyas.dpal.ye.shes. Other sources
say that this acarya was of the ksatriya caste and was a reader and
scribe. There, he learned both the Mahayana and Hinayana Dharmas
fully and thoroughly with the acarya Haribhadra. Gunamitra begged
him for the teachings and so Buddhasrijii.ana composed commenta-
ries, etc., on the abbreviated Prajiiaparamita as well as on many
sastras. This Gunamitrii enters the Tibetan Prajiiaparamitii tradi-
tion. It is said in the commentary known as "zhal.lung" that he
was not a monk. Then Buddhasrijnana went to the land of Urgyen
in the west. There he begged many secret Tantras, both inner and
outer, from the acarya Liliivajra and the yogini Guneru, and he
attained profound samiidhi. In the north of Urgyen lived a low
caste woman known as Jatijiila. He took her as his perfect consort
and for eight months they practiced the Tantra together. As he had
received the precepts of Jambhala he was able to perfect the Tantra
practice. In the land of Jalandhara he begged the Prajiia Tantras
from the aciirya Byis.pa'i.zhabs, or as he is known in Sanskrit,
Balipiida. This person is renowned as being a manifestation form
of the siddha Jiilandharipa. There, in Jiilandhara, he perfected the
meditation known as "Ever Flowing River" on the Prajii.a Tantras.
Then in the south at Kongkuna,
183
Vasundhara brought forth
from a heavenly tree all the life supports for the aciirya Piilitapada,
known in Tibetan as bSrung.pa'i.zhabs, and his eighteen mira-
culous yogins and yogini's who were his students. Buddhasrijiiana
went to him and begged for the Guhyasamiija initiation and practi-
ced it for nine years. He heard eighteen complete Tantras. However
be had not fully realised things as they really are and so, going before
him, he begged the Guru for it saying "I have not experienced it."
The Guru himself said the very same thing and fixed a volume of
56
collected mudrii texts, in translation, known as the Miilamodi, to
Buddhasriji'iana's neck and the latter went and practiced the sadhana
three times in eighteen months behind Vajrasana in the grove known
as Kuva. He also practised the fierce rituals for six months and as a
result a prophecy arose. It said, "Destroy your doubts about Arya-
mai'ijusri!" However, Manjusri was abiding in China at the Five
Holy Peaks
184
and so Buddhasrijnana thought he would go there.
When he had gone but ten leagues to the north-east, after not
even half a day had passed, he saw in front of a white house an aged
ordinary monk wearing a monk's undervestments, with his robe on
his bead and ploughing the fields together with a low-caste woman.
His faith waned somewhat. Nearby slept an evil-looking white bitch.
As be alighted there before noon, at the alms-giving time of day,
he duly begged for food and the householder gave the bitch a single
fish which had been caught in the irrigation channel. The bitch
vomited it up and it was then brought before the acarya who, having
reservations about it, did not eat it. The old monk said to him,
"Worldling, you have grave doubts! Bring forth some good quality
food then!" and he went off elsewhere. The woman then brought
cooked rice and some good yoghurt, but when he had eaten and was
just about on his way, he was told, "You won't get to a town today.
Go tomorrow morning," so be stayed. He intoned the Tantra of
Guhyasamaja and at whatever place in the text he had doubts the
woman became very upset. Thinking that she knew the minds of
others he begged her saying, "Cut away my doubts!" She replied,
"I know nothing about it. The noble monk himself is most learned
in the Guhyasamaja. In a half day he will anive back here. Then
you should tell him to cut off your doubts." In half a day the house-
holder staggered in, glowing from beer. Buddhasrijnana, knowing
him to be a mantraciirya, m lost his lack of faith and throwing him-
self at his feet, told him of his earlier doubts. The monk said,
"You need empowerment." Buddhasrijnana said, "I got those em-
powerments before." And the old monk replied, "In order to preach
my doctrine you must have my empowerment," and he set down a
maQc;lala iri a certain bouse. In the early hours of the night he called
the iicarya inside. He sat there before the maQI}ala in which quite
clearly were the 19 Maiijuvajra gods including the monk in his
previous form, the woman and the bitch, all magically produced
and all radiant. "Who shall you receive this empowerment from?"
they asked, and Buddhasrijnana realised that they were one in
57
essence and with great faith in the he begged the empower-
ment from it. "Well then, get it!" the iirya old monk said, and the
three of them went off to another small cottage. The be-
came invisible. The iiciirya, saddened, prayed at dawn, "You are
the father o( all sentient creatures etc.," and he was empowered by
that magically manifested and MafijuSri gave him the
teachings. At that, the iiciirya's thoughts became as all-encompassing
as the heavens and he arrived at the profound meaning of all
Dharmas. Firstly, as a result of the meal of fish flesh which the bitch
had vomited up and the practices of the arya monk and also as a
result of his loss of faith in the iirya monk, Buddhasriji'iana was
unable to attain the rainbow body. While in the intermediate (after-
death) state he did attain the highest siddhi. Then, having wished
that his experiences should expand greatly to encompass the two
unique stages of upiiya, he stayed in the place where previously
bodhisattvas had stayed, a place known as "Dharma (Bamboo)
Sprout". This place was eminently suitable for many people to gather
together and, by its nature, lent itself to contemplation, and was a
place where the previous Bodhisattvas had preached. In that place
Jambhala gave gifts and Buddhasrijniina preached Dharma to many
people who were able to receive it and who were suitable receptacles.
Many of the wisest of the four quarters gathered there and
became his pupils. Buddhasrijniina taught the ideas of Manjusri
widely, ideas which by their great renown spread all over the earth.
He also composed the fourteen texts which are harmonious with the
oral teachings. The iiciirya Piilitapada also begged for the upadesas
of the Maiijusri teachings and he attained the highest siddhi.
As for the account of the offerings at Vajrasana ...... once when
the acarya Buddhasrijiiana was near Vajrasana and settled in a grass
hut which he had made, King Dharmapala came to Vajrasana to
make his offerings. All the other Buddhist acaryas came there to
make offerings too. Having seen that this particular acii.rya made no
offerings the King thought that he would punish him, and on going
into the iicarya's hut found that he was not there. Instead he saw the
corporeal form of A.rya Maiijusri. He returned home and asked his
attendants about it but they replied, "He really is in there". When
the King entered again the acarya became visible. The King asked,
"Why is it that you have made no offerings?", and the acarya
replied, "I have made offerings from this very spot!" The King asked,
"How have you made such offerings?" and the acarya entered
58
meditative absorption and it appeared as if the entire body of images
at Vajrasana clearly came before the acarya as if they had been
summoned. The King saw the acarya make vast offerings before
them. Then the King believed and begged for empowerment and,
having no more gifts to offer, he offered himself and his Queen
as servants. In the meantime gold from all his palaces was gathered
until it was as high as his body and those of his attendants and it
was offered as a ransom.
As for the account of the consecration of Vikramasila ...... the
four monasteries of Vikramasila, Otantapuri, Sri Nalanda and
Somapuri were each of them cut off from the other by many days
travel. Vikrama.Sila was newly built and Somapuri was damaged
and was newly restored, so it is said. The other two as well as many
other temples; were restored by the King who begged for their con-
secration. Tht. icarya Buddhasrijanana magically set up four bodily
forms of himself and performed the consecration of all four monas-
teries at the same time. At that time at Vikramasila, when there was a
great consecation f e a ~ t being held, a Tirthika yogini and her servant
came there and some disorderly novices beat them up At this the
servant girl kept on begging her mistress to manifest her power and
so the yogini began to intone her mantras. From beneath the con-
secration maJJ.c;Jala there, a spring appeared. At that the acarya
elevated the maJJ.c;lala, which was made of coloured powders, into the
sky. Then the Tirthika yogini made a mighty rain storm fall and the
acarya covered the maQc;Jala with his hands and no harm befell it.
The consecration was an excelle-nt one. In each year on that same
day Tirthika damage is wreaked but the attacks come to nothing.
As for the account of the Nalanda conversions
186
The
Mahacarya Buddhasrijiiana who was at that place, acted as master of
both Nalanda and Vikramalasila.
167
At that time at Otantapuri
there were resident Sravaka Sendhapas and monks who, by their
delusions, had become waverers and who acted badly. Once while
the acarya was staying at Nalanda these abovementioned monks
frequently said derisively that Buddhajiiana no longer abided with
the confines of the Vinaya,
188
and that it was not proper that, being
such a person, he should still be in charge of the Sangha. They also
abused and vilified the very Tantras themselves. Many of the
Sendhapa and Singhala monks of Vajrasana, finding a silver image
of Heruka, reviled and destroyed it. The King Dharmapala slew
many of the Vajrasana Singhalapas, and when he started to punish
59
some of the other Sendhapas, Buddhasrijnana, with his great com-
passion, protected them well from the King's punishment. In order
to dispel the monks lack of belief in himself, he went underground
by magic and many asuras made offerings to him. He also demon-
strated many miracles, no two being the same. He also wrote many
most excellent treatises on the mantra practices and they were so
perfect that they did not even disagree with the Sravaka
They never lacked faith that he was a magically created emanation
of who performed the Avadhiiti practices. But instead
of transforming into a rainbow-hued vajra body, he only found the
state of Yugannadah when he fled his over-ripe body at nearly
eighty-one years of age because of the little instances where he
had lacked faith. As for his students ...... there were four in number
who attained the state of nirvana in their very bodily forms.
Only one being reached the stage of lineal successor anu.1 m the interim
period there were eighteen students of the Enlightened lineage. The
learned paQ;}its and yogis of the Kusali lineage arose in considera-
ble number. dPal.'bras.rdo.rje said, "Those who have become
pupils of this acarya's vajra brothers, are Dharmakara of Kongkana
and U$Qi$avajra of Mount Sahyam." As for the four most excellent
disciples they were .... Prasantamitra,
Mahasukhapadmakara and Ksatriya Rahula. The direct disciples
of this Mahacarya and their pupils too, received their necessities by
means of Jambhala's magical powers and also directly from Vasundh-
ara. As is mentioned in the Tantras, the maQ.;}ala to bestow prajna
on men and women can be a drawing or made of coloured powders.
One could also produce the actual maQ.;}ala. By the mere power of
truthful words all the coloured powders needed would multiply
themselves.. Some time after that one of King Mahapala's
189
servants, who was a monk in robes and who had the appropriate
monkish qualities, forbade the Tantric practices and thereafter
such magical phenomena did not happen much any more.
DipaJ:!lkarabhadra was born in the western part of India. Un-
hindered, he attained mastery over all areas of knowledge. It is
said that, supported as a monk, he joined theMahasamghika school.
Furthermore, at Sri Nalanda he was worshipped by all the learned
ones there. Having met the Mahacarya Buddhajnana he begged for
all the maQ.;lalas in the yogin and yogini Tantras. He listened to
an infinite number of Tantra collections but it was hard for him to
grasp their upadesas. Having come to a certain southern land, he
60
spent two or three years practising mantra and tantra for the welfare
of sentient creatures. While he was there he greatly enjoyed himself
and his wealth. All his wealth was amassed and offered to Buddhasri-
ji'ilina-sixty dwellings to provide servants for the temple, one
hundred golden srang, three hundred pearl necklaces, etc., as well as
limitless quantities of necessities. Offering these things he promised
himself as servant to the unique aclirya, and for as long as three
years he supplied the ritual offerings, namely meat and beer, bringing
them from the city and laying them at his feet. Aclirya Buddhasri-
jnlina gave him all the upadesas. Having departed for another
area and having meditated, some remarkable experiences were crea-
ted within him, and coming before his liclirya Buddhasrijiiana, he
was empowered by him. Instantly he attained the highest siddhi.
It is said that the knowledge be gained at the feet of the liclirya
Buddhlijnana was higher than his Guru's. This particular liclirya
Diparpkarabhadra, deteated a Tirthika King by means of certain
wrathful actions, and this story still exists. At a tim.e when he lived
in Sindhu, a border area of India, the King of that country conti-
nually persecuted the licarya's students. The King also greatly in-
jured the Buddha's Doctrine. Once the King met the acli.rya on the
road and he flung his short spear at the licarya, but it did not harm
his body. The aclirya pointed his finger in a threatening gesture and
the King and all his possessions were instantly reduced to ashes.
At that, the King's people who rejoiced in the Tirthika belief all
became terrified and as a result of the deeds of this shaven-headed
all-accomplishing monk, the populace did no further harm to the
Buddhist temples. In several accounts we are told that the King was
the Turu$ka King B h ~ a n a , but at that time in Madhyadesa there
were no Turu$kas. It is said that by calling all those of perverted
views, "Tirthikas", the King was consequently referred to under
that general name. Also in the west, in the land of Malawa, the
Tirthika King there had taken Mahlivisnu as his god and he des-
troyed many Buddhist temples. The monks were exiled to Madhya-
de5a. Even the upasakas bore many a sufferings. Once when the
acarya came to that land he stayed in a temple which had been
blessed by the acarya Jiianapada. The King falsely accused the
acli.rya of misconduct and the li.clirya contemplated deeply for a
full day and then sent down on the King and his wives a contagious
sickness. Now, a certain minister who rejoiced in the Tirthika reli-
gion, met the acarya on the road and said, "For having wreaked
61
harm on the King, I will punish you!" The acarya drew forth from
his armpit a picture of a lingam, painted on fine cotton, and said,
while tearing the cotton, "Has that evil person still not died?"
When the lingam was shattered into two halves the King's body
also shattered into fragments and he died. By reciting mantras the
acarya froze the minister rigid. Now, the Tirthika aciirya Sagara-
nanda
191
had perfected the mantras belonging to many types of flesh
eating c;takinis. He caused great harm to many Buddhists. Once he
met the iiciirya on a narrow path and DipaJllkarabhadra would
not give way. The Tirthika said, "If you do not die by morning then
our religion is untrue!" Having thus sown his curse he then depar-
ted. When the first watch of the night had passed a great noise arose
in the iicarya's rooms. The acacya set himself up in an equanimitous
state of meditation and all the temples and huts belonging to the
Tirthikas were destroyed. At that, Sagara together with all his
attendants died at the same instant. At that particular time Sagara
was the most renowned of the Tirthika mantrikas.
This acarya gave upadesas to Vaidyapada. As for that particular
acarya he was born into the B r a ~ i n caste in a certain border state.
He was learned in the Tirthika doctrines and he brought them to
perfection. Later on he gained faith in the teachings of the Buddha.
In Madhyadesa, at Nalandii, he studied and perfected, under both
iiciitya Dipaq1karabhadra and even his Guru, Sri Buddhajnana,
teachings ranging from Prajiiiipiiramitii to the inner and outer
Tantras. Getting empowerment, he was consequently given all
the upadesas. When he was being empowered specifically into the
Saxpvara and Heruka maJJ.c;lalas, the flower fell on Krodha
Humka.ra.
192
For a long time he engaged in meditation and finally
both the special stages of meditation were roused in him. He per-
fected this over six months and eventually he realised that he had
attained siddhi. As a siddhi support he had to have a woman of the
caJJ.c;liila caste,
193
of the bluish colour of the utpala lotus, belonging
to the vajra famil}' of c;lakinis and having on her all the marks of a
mudra. He searched in one particular area and found her. On
asking her parents, they said, "You are a Briihq1in aciirya-are you
crazy? We are of the caQc;lala caste. Will no punishment come if
you and we should be bound together in that way." The iiciirya
replied, "I must have her as a support for my siddhi-no punishment
will come if I should take an impure person of an ordinary caste.,"
The parents said, "Well then, we want gold and silver equal in
62
height to her!" Then the acarya instantly drew it out of a subterra-
nean treasury and gave it to them. The acarya and his mudra practi-
ced secretly together for six months in a mountain cavern and at
dawn on the eighth day of the waxing moon a mighty sound of
"HOM" arose in the heavens and they saw there, quite clearly,
Sri Heruka and the complete mat;tc;lala. They had attained the very
highest levels of the Mahiimudrii. He was of service to many sentient
beings mainly through the path of Guhyasamaja. Having composed
many sastras, finally in this very body he flew to the realms of the
Buddha as if he were the King of GaruQas.
194
It is said
that this acarya is the same as the acarya HUmkiira
195
who is renow-
ned among the Nyingmapa sect. If this is so then his birthplace was
in Nepal and it is known that he came to Tibet in the time of King
Sad.na.legs.
196
Acarya Avadhutipa begged him for instruction and
Ratniikarasantipa also asked him for teachings. Mahiivajrasanapa
asked him. Kusali asked him and it is said that this also made up a
lineage. However, as regards the Chief of Instruction Holders,
Vaidyapada, the acarya from Udayana, Buddhasrisanti asked him
and Mahiivajrasanapa asked him. It is said that Vajrasanapa, also
known as Sauripa,
197
asked him. Ratnakaragupta who is also known
as the middle Vajrasanapa also asked'him. Buddhajnanapada taught
the Mahiicarya Padmasambhava and he was known as the younger
or later Padmavajra. This is well known and is detailed in the large
biography which you should consult. These are called the Lesser
and Greater Padma because one came earlier than the other. That
particular iicarya Vaidyapada gave instruction to the Avadhati
yogi of Kamaru who was known as Ratna5Ila. The so-called
Kayasthavriddha
198
or "aged scribe" begged instruction from him.
As for the acarya "Aged Kayastha", he was scribe to the King
Dharmapiila and after be was eighty years old he became;. ordained
at Nalanda. Having studied the sermons, the King Mahipiila, who
lived near Nalanda, saw him on the road. He showed the acarya a
dried up branch and scathingly said, "When you know the Pi\akas
this branch will blossom." The iicarya pondered and realised that
he must practice and so he begged from the Avadhutipa of Kamaru
the initiations into the mal}.Qalas of the Maiijuvajra Guhyasamaja
and he began to meditate on it. In three years he had completely
perfected the Utpattikrama path. When he had constructed a maQ-
Qala he practiced siidhanas on an island in a river. At dawn on the
seventh day, Manjuvajra with a peacock as a steed became clear to
63
him, manifested himself and blessed the aciirya. In an instant he
understood all Dbarmas and and he also attained Siddhi. Going
before the King the old Kayastha said, "If I know the Tripi\aka
you, 0 King, have said that tht: former branch will have to blossom
into flower." The King was absolutely astounded (at the branches
transformation) and took him as his Guru and the acarya erected
many Tantric temples. He chiefly taught the Utpattikrama and the
Sadhanas. It was he who wrote the commentary on the Hevajra
Tantra known as the kha.sbyor.dri.med. The early (rNying.ma.pa)
Khyung.po. yogin
199
begged him for this commentary, gLan.dar.ma.
blo.gros. translated it and, according to the Colophon, the old
Kayastha was the actual author of it. In the translation of Shong. blo.
rtan. it says that Dhamgadasa
200
wrote it. It is generally believed
that this is a synonym for the old scribe. As for the commentary
it is thought that that acarya's lineal disciple wrote it. It is said
that this person was identical to Bhavaskandha. That particular
acarya taught Durhari who taught the earlier Vajrasanapa who
was begged for the teachings by the middle Vajrasanapa.
As for the senior Vajrasanapa, he was born in the land of
Malabar. He was a B r a ~ i n and was very learned in all the areas
of study. Later he joined the order of monks at Nalanda. Being
particularly learned in all the inner and outer Tantras he also be-
came great as regards the upadesas. He was purified with his bodhi
mind and, as he was of great fortune to the people of Magadha,
great welfare arose for those beings. At about the same time as
Atisa he was installed as abbot of Vajrasana. Later on he was also
abbot of Vikramasila. His pupils were the middle Vajrasanapa or
Ratnakaragupta as he is known.
As for Ratnakaragupta (or the middle Vajrasanapa), he was
born in the eastern regions in the land of Gaura.
201
He was from
the B r a ~ i n caste and from his youth he was learned in all the
sUtras and tantras and had even perfected all the mystic practices,
the sevasadhana. Practicing as a Vajracarya he was however only
an upasaka. Many monks surrounded him when he came to
Madhyadesa preaching Dharma and a faithful minister of the King
said to the acarya, "Become a monk! Fully ordained Tripi\aka
monks paying homage to an upasaka will only be injurious to
the doctrine." The upasaka replied, "I can't become a monk. I
have an old mother who I must support." The minister gave him
sixty golden srang for the support of his mother and then the
64
acarya did indeed become a fully ordained monk at Vikrama.Sila.
There he met with both paQ.9itas and yogins who had reached their
upadesa zenith. They pondered on all of acarya Vajrasanapa's
empowerments, his tantras and also his upadesas. Later he was
abbot of Vajrasana for quite a long time. The-n he wanted to go to
the south. Finally the master and his thirty disciples arrived at
Sauri. In a dream the King of Sauri heard these words directly
from the mouth of the Mababodhi image at Vajrasana-"My
doctrine should not be given in the south." These were the words
spoken in the dream. In the morning the acarya together with his
retinue arrived in the south together with volumes of books,
images, etc., and they needed enforced labour to get there. Having
understood the meaning of the dream, the King repeatedly begged
them to stay there and the acarya who was very compassionate
stayed there in Sauri and even got the name "The Man from
Sa uri". The acarya had perfected the utpattikrama and had seen
the visages of many tutelary divinities. He made the upadesas pros-
per and increase in the land of India. He taught the acarya Abhaya-
kara. He in his turn taught Subhakaragupta, he taught Dasabiila,
he taught the yogin Vajrasri, he taught the most renowned and omni-
scient acarya in this age ot disputation, Dharmabhadrasri, he taught
Buddhakirti, he taught Ratnakirti and, he taught Ratigupta. A
more lengthy account of this period between the acaryas is not dealt
with elsewhere.
The sixth chapter, an account of the Utpattikrama lineage, which
may be likened to a vein of precious stones, is now ended.
65
Instruction Six
As for the sixth Instruction, it deals with the Word Tradition.
It is said that those who are of the Word Tradition are also of
the Lineage of Tantra exposition.
Naropa and Maitripa are in the tradition of Tantra exposition.
Nagarjuna taught several Tantras to Aryadeva. Aryadeva taught
R.ahula; he in his tum taught Candrakirti, he taught Prabhakara,
he taught Jnanakirti and he taught Santipa. Furthermore Manjusri-
mitra preached many Tantric sermons to the Brahmin Jiianavajra
and from him arose a lineage. Also a lineage arose from Bodhivajra.
Sri Jiianapada taught Prasantamitra who taught four pupils, namely
Srlsena, Cilupa, and Vaidyapada. Maiijusrijii.ana begged
all of those four mentioned above for instruction. He in turn was
asked for the teachings by Maha Amoghavajra and he in his turn
was asked by Siddhivira. Atisa asked him, and Mitraguhya asked
him for instruction. Mahavajrasana asked him for instruction and
there were many others who followed, namely Cilupa, Thagana,
Santipa, Jiianasrimitra, Atisa and the early and later Vajrasanapa.
They were in themselves a lineage. Furttermore the acarya Lalita-
vajra or Rol.pa'i.rdo.rje. brought many tantric texts from the land
of Urgyen and taught them to the acli.rya Lilavajra. He taught
Manjusrijnana and this li.carya, according to the legend, crushed a
Tajik King and his elephants to dust by means of the yoga of
Vajrabhairava and by adopting the gesture of pounding. He taught
Maha Amoghavajra. Furthermore, Caryli.pa and the acarya Brah-
Sridhara attained the highest Mahiimudra siddhi.
In the south at Vaidharbha, a who preached the
dharma was about to have his head cut off by a Tirthika King.
The acarya Sridhara came before the King and said, "Don't cut off
this man's head!" The King replied, "Well then give your own
head as a ransom!" So the acli.rya cut off his head and offered it.
Then he manifested the vision of getting hold of a buffalo head and
fixed it to himself. He became renowned as the "Buffalo Head
.Acarya." He taught Harikela who changed his consort into a cat.
She became known as Bhirdipa. He gave upadesas to Mafijusrijnana.
Furthermore some Tantras were brought forth by acarya
66
Kukuripa. He was. born in the eastern areas in Bengal and he was a
and fully ordained monk of Nalanda. In a lonely forest grove
he engaged in one-pointed meditation and he attained many of the
more ordinary level siddhis and he firmly established the Utpatti-
krama within himself. One day a puppy bitch appeared at his cave.
For- several days he fed and nourished it. Then the gods invited
the acarya and took him off to the Heaven of the Thirty-three
gods.
202
While he was there he recalled that .former puppy and
said to the gods, "Let us all go to Jambudvipa!" They asked why
and he replied: "The puppy, as it was starving, has died." The gods
replied: "Even though you meditated for a long time, your attach-
ment to the idea of puppy has not diminished!" The acarya realised
that this was true and for a further twelve years he lived in the abode
of the gods. Then when he came back to his own house, it is said that
the puppy had not grown at all and that inside the rock cavern the
puppy had uncovered and revealed a spring. It is said that when
he picked up the puppy in his hands it turned into a woman, deco-
rated with all kinds of ornaments. She was Vajrayogini herself. He
practised the caryas with her as his consort and to mortals she
appeared in a magic form, as a bitch. The acarya was renowned as
Kukuripa. He brought back many tantras from the abode of the
and he gave teaching to Padrnavajra who taught Tillipa who
taught Naropa. He in his tum taught Santipa.
Now the acarya Santipa was born into the Brah:qtin caste in
Madhyade5a. From his youth he studied and became learned in the
Vedas, the Vedangas and the eight associated areas of learning.
Some people say that he was a member of the caste. He was
ordained into the Sarvastavadin
203
sect at Otantapuri. He memo-
rised the complete Sravaka Arriving at Vikramasila he
heard most of the Mahayana Sutras and Sastras from many wise
men such as Maha Jetari. Being a Sthavira he became a great acarya
and he was appointed as abbot of Somapuri. For several years he
acted as Sthavira of that particular temple. Then he cultivated
Ratnakirti and Kalasamayavajra and Thagana and the rest as gurus.
He heard approximately one hundred tantras, and they all remained
in his mind, so it is said. Then he went off to Malabar, where, observ-
ing a holy vow for seven years, he saw the visages of
Tara and Ajitanatha and he drank in the nectar of the holy Dharma.
It is said that as all the doctrines he taught were in complete accord
with those of Asanga an:d that the acarya in fact completed the
67
doctrines of Aryasanga to their fullest limits. At that time in the
acarya's dreams, Arya Tara prophesied that he should go to
Singhala. Also in the dreams of the King of Singhala she predicted
that, "In the land of Jambudvipa is the acarya Ratnakarasanti.
Invite him here! The Mahayana will greatly prosper in your land."
The acarya had gone to Bengal and the King's envoys arrived there
at the same time. He brought with him two hundred Mahayana
SOtras and spent seven years preaching in Singhala. Five hundred
Mahayana monks were ordained and those pat ticular Mahayana
sutras spread far and wide. Previously it is certain that many siddhas
prospered in Singhala but now all the monks there are Sravakas.
Then, on his way to Jambudvipa the ocean waves turned rough and
pirates came on board the vessel. By intoning manttas and hurling
sand at them, the acarya overcame the pirates and the waves. became
calm again. Then he wandered in different lands in South India and
in stages he travelled to Vajrasana. Later he thought he would go
to the Five Sacred Peaks in China to praclise his siidhanas but the
King dreamed that he met the Buddha in person. The acarya arrived
in the morning and the King begged him to stay at Vikrama, where
he was installed as gatekeeper of the eastern gate of Vikramasila.
In some accounts this King is said to have been Mahipala
204
and in
others he is said to have been his uncle King CaQaka. Of the two
views it is quite clear that the latter is the correct one. Both before
and after this he engaged in dispute with about two hundred Tirthika
pav.gitas and was victorious. over them all. His renown spread into
all areas. As he was without peers in his learning, even amongst the
Buddhists, he was paid homage as Guru to the King. He was renow-
ned as "The Omniscient One of this Dark Aeon." It is said that in
fact arhats descended from the land of the gods and listened to the
Dharma from him, and that he spent both day and night practising
and preaching the holy Dharma. At one time the great Naropa
reached siddhi, and he heared a few upadesas from Naropa. At a
time when he was approaching one hundred years old he became
unable to listen or to preach and he renounced all coarse foods.
As he sat in a lonely spot, one of his former pupils, a farmer, had at
that time attained siddhi and by magic had come to that very spot
from the heavens and paid homage to him. The Guru did not
recognise him and the acarya showed both his form and begged to
be allowed to pay him homage. The Guru asked, "Who are you?"
and the student replied, "I am the farmer Ko\alipa." The Guru said,
68
"As I can no longer recall things and am unable to remember any-
thing at all, please give me your upadesas." Kotalipa gave him the
upadesas and he meditated on their meaning. As a result Vajravarahi
manifested herself to him and he attained siddhi. Then, as his body
had become once again strong, he stayed there preaching dharma,
mostly to his pupils. Once at dusk four women came and, lifting up
the four corners of his seat, took him in an instant to the land of
Urgyen. He stayed there for many days among the viras and 9akinis,
made a vast vajra-feast and performed many vajra songs. The chief
of the feast, namely Vajravarahi, explained the meanings of the
sutras and tantras, thus giving him complete inspiration.
205
At that
time both the pupils from Magadha and the hordes of ordinary
mortals were left alone without knowing where he was. "Is he
invisible?" they thought a& they made ready to prepare funeral
rites. Then the acarya appeared along on his throne again without
them knowing where he had come from. He told his pupils an ac-
count of what had happened and, as he preached, there was general
amazement and some did not even believe him. Once a group of
many men came from the land of Urgyen to Vajrasana to make
offerings and to do some trading. The people of Magadha asked
them about the story and the Urgyen people said, "He certainly
went to Dumasthira in Urgyen and stayed there for a long time
preaching the doctrine extensively. We ourselves in fact have heard
the doctrine preached by him." So the dispute was ended. Then he
worked for the most part for the welfare of beings. At an age of
more than one hundred and eight years he passed away from his
bodily existence. When his pupils were starting to cremate his
remains in the "Cool Grove" it is said that when the fire had burned
just a little the body became invisible. This acarya, by his own power,
wrote commentaries on many tantra pi\akas, but when he started to
write the commentary on Cakrasaq1.vara, Vajtaviirahi did not give
him the authority to do so. When he went to the Vajra feast in
Urgyen, there were fifty-three other siddhas gathered there together
and he is said to have had dharma discussions with them.
Also there was the King lndrabhuti, the middle one, who as the
iiciirya Kukuraja
206
used to preach dharma to one thousand dogs
each and every day and at night he acted in accord with all his holy
vows. The aciirya and others asked him for in-
struction, and indeed many lineages of oral elucidations of the
tantras resulted. Those are said to be only available these days
69
on paper. Furthermore, since the accounts of Atisa are quite
renowned I will not set out more on him here. As regards the
Tantra collections of the Kalacakra and the others .... once while
on a mendicant's begging round, the acarya Pitopa had VajrapiiQi
prophecy to him that he would go by magic to Sambhala. He
brought back many tantras and taught them to many pupils at
Ratnagiri.
207
Pitopa finally attained the siddhi of invisibility. He had
six students in all. Three of them perfected the vajra body and
became invisible. The monk Avadhiitipa, Bodhisri and Niiropa
travelled far and wide. Also Avadhiitipa taught Sauripa. Although
Pitopa was there in the time of King Mahebala,
208
those lineages
are according to the Abhiyuktas. Accordingly all the teach-
ings from the lineages of the various gurus were mastered by the
Mahacarya, the Buddha of this Dark Age (the Kaliyuga), namely
Abhayakaragupta.
209
As for the acarya Abhayakaragupta, he was born in south India
in Jarikanta near Odivisa. His father was of the warrior caste and his
mother was a From his youth he was very learned in the
Vedas, the Vedangas, Sanskrit and dialectics. When he was older
he knew all the Tirthika Tantras and their central tenets. When he
was in a grove intoning mantras a beautiful woman appeared directly
in front of him. She said. "I am a caQ<;liila woman. I wish to practise
with you." He retorted, "How could that be fitting? I come from a
higher caste and a bad reputation will attach itself to me. Do not
stay here!" When he thought about the means of her departure,
which was via doors which were fastened from the inside and which
were not damaged in any way at all, he wondered which goddess
or she might be. He asked one of his religious brethren who
was a Buddhist yogin and he said, "As that was Vajrayogini, your
refusal to take siddhi from her was not good. As you are of the
karmic lineage of the Buddha, go to the east and become a Buddhist."
So, he did just that. He studied in the land of Bengal and applied him-
self to all the sutras and tantras. He begged various. acaryas for
empowerment on many occasions. As he had become a monk who
was expert in the Tripi\aka he was appointed as acarya to all the
vinayadharas.
210
Once when he was in a courtyard in the temple a
young maiden came into sight carrying the flesh of a cow, dripping
blood. Motioning towards the acarya she said, "I am a caQ<;liila
woman. As this has been slain specifically for you, you must eat it!"
He replied, "I am a monk of pure caste. How can I eat even half of
70
that leprous cow's meat?" After that she returned to a lower court-
yard, invisible in form. That too was Vajrayogini, and he did nottake
the siddhi she offered to him. Then, although the acarya was a
master of the Tripi\aka, his mind was not satisfied by these teachings,
and hearing all the various teachings from all the most famous
masters of those consummate doctrines, he wandered about in all
the lands. He stayed at Nalanda for a long time. He became widely
learned in the vinayas of the four schools, in most of the p i ~ a k a s of
the sravakas, the slltras of both Mahayana schools, the sastras of
various kinds, the ocean comprising all ordinary knowledge and
dialectics, and he became greatly learned in the special fields such as
the secret tantras. He got the upadesas on them. Then he went to
Sri Sauripa and begged him for all the Tantras which the Guru
himself possessed. The root Guru did this. It is said that the licarya
Sauripa was the ordaining abbot of Abhayakaragupta. Once in that
monastery in Sauri, while he was pondering on the Guru's teachings,
in the dark of the night of the 8th day, there arose a girl, an upasaki
exactly similar to the servant who brought the liclirya Sauri his water.
She arose right there in the liclirya's gloomy cell and she drew forth
many requisites for a Vajra feast from a small vessel saying, "The
acarya sent me. He told me to make a vajra feast with you." The
aclirya said, I have nevt.r made a Vajra feast before," and she said,
"Then do it now!" The acarya had preconceived doubts and did not
do it and she said, "You know three hundred Tantras and having
obtained the quintessential teachings, how is it that you have second
thoughts against Caryli practices?" Carrying off the requisites for the
feast she vanished. Everything went dark and when he went to look
at the three doors of his meditation cell they were indeed still locked
from the inside by his own hand. Doubts were born within him and
he asked his Guru if he had sent that servant girl to him yesterday
in order to set up a feast. The Guru replied, "You had great doubts-
! did not send her. What exactly did you see?", and asked him for
an account of it. The Guru said, "Ah well. Vajrayogini offered you
siddhi and you did not accept it." At that the aciirya became dis-
consolate for seven days, went without food and prayed. On the
!.eventh night an old woman arose in a dream. Knowing her as
Vajraviirahi
211
he made his confessions to her and he prayed to her.
When Vajravarahi had fully revealed herself she said, "In your mani-
fold births you have intoned mantras to me and made me offerings.
Although I have offered you siddhi on three occasions you have not
71
accepted it. You will not attain the highest siddhi in this life. You
must write many sastras, preach dharma to many people and in the
after-death state you will attain perfect siddhi." Then he stayed in
many cemeteries in meditation. One of the wives of King Ramapala
erected the temple of Edapura
212
and made an offering of it to him
and the acarya stayed there abiding in meditation. He stayed there
for a single session of meditation lasting six months. While he w:as
staying at the cemetery known as the "Cool Grove", the corpse
of a boy who was an only child and dearly loved was taken there.
When the boy's relatives were in a state of great anguish the acarya
summoned forth the boy's after-death consciousness and made it
re-enter the boy's body. Thus it was again revived. Having become
renowned as one who possessed a bodhisattva's abilities he was
invited to become abbot of Vajrasana. There he taught dharma to
his pupils who came from the four points of the compass. Knowing
how to divine signs, he unearthed a treasure trove under the hearth
of a poor BrahJ11in and gave it to him as a gift. He protected from
brigands neutralized poisons, averted wars, and worked these per-
fections in accord with the dictates of the Tantras. In a large town
known as Saptanagar
13
he extinguished an outbreak of fire by the
power of speaking the truth. Then he was invited to become abbot of
Nalanda and Vikramalasila. The King also worshipped him as Guru.
In a dream Vajravarahi again exhorted him to compose sastras. He
said, "Sastras of my views won't be of any use at all." Vajravarahi
replied, "When you write I will enter your very body." Then at the
entreaty of his pupils he composed a commentary on the eight thou-
sand verse PrajiUiparamita. All the Buddhas of the ten directions
congratulated him and, while he was composing a commentary on
the three Mala sections of the Sri Cakravajramala, a rain of flowers
fell down. When he was composing the text known as the Upade-
samaiijari,214 throughout it from beginning to end the three gods
SUJ11vara, Hevajra and Kalacakra continually congratulated him
and his fame pervaded all the quarters. Moreover he wrote the
following texts:-
72
The MunialaJ11kara on the Prajiiaparamita,
215
The on the Abhidharma,
The commentary on the Vinaya,
The Vinaya Aloka,
The MadhyamaD.juri on the Madhyamika.
He also wrote commentaries on the Yoga Tantras which had
none.
He wrote commentaries on:-
The four Famous Sadhaaas,
The
Answers to Questions on the Mother Tantras,
The Abhayamargakrama
He wrote in brief format on:-
Commentaries on the Five Stages-the Paiicakrama\ika,
217
Supplement on the Art of Calculation-the Ga:oavatara,
218
Answers to questions on the K.alacakra,
219
Clarifications on the K.alacakra/
19
Miscellaneous .Agamas,
Many detailed Sadhana!>.
He also compiled and composed various other Siidhanas. In a
country in the west when a certain monastery was being built, he
held out his alms bowl to the skies and Jambhala gave him his fill
of food, drink and all necessities. Moreover he liberated one hundred
thousand people who had been imprisoned As a result of all this,
he gained an inconceivable number of disciples, both Indian and
Tibetan savants. Thereafter the later Indian Mahayanists regarded
the works of this iicii.rya as the accepted, standard ones.
He taught Subhakaragupta, known in Tibetan as dGe.ba'i.
'byung.gnas.sbas.pa. and he in his turn taught Da.Sabala. He taught
Vikirtideva.
This acarya, Vikirtideva, was a very learned Bengali Pa:o9it
who came to Nalanda. He was very well versed in the Dharmas and
in all upade5as. When he left his country although his root Guru
had said that he should become ordained, he did not do so mainly
due to the sin of desire. He took a wife and three children: two boys
and a girl were born to them. Once in a dream A valokitesvara said
to him, "You have broken your Guru's command and in three years
you will die to plague and will go to hell." At that he became terrified
and cut himself off from all society. Then he meditated. The prophecy
descended on him from above, and after three years had passed
he was struck by plague and died. The acarya saw in his mind's eye
that when the minions of the Lord of the Dead came to lead him
far off, the five gods of the Arya Avalokitesvara tantra arrived in the
heavens and Hayagriva trounced the executioners of the Lord of the
73
Dead soundly. It is said that Arya Avalokitesvara wept to over-
flowing and said, "Restore his body!" The retinue of the A.rya
brought Vikirtideva back and he again existed in his previous bodily
form. Thereafter he constantly saw the visage of Avalokitesvara,
his powers became great and he had good mental attainments. He
reached siddbi and became renowned. He taught the Kasmiri PaQ<;lit
Sakyasribhadra, Buddhasribhadra and Munisribhadra
asked them for instruction and he in his turn instructed KaruQasri-
bhadra. He taught and he taught Sujatavarma. He
taught the Kimpila pat;tQita Vimuktadeva, known in Tibetan as
rNam.grol.lha. He taught Janagupta who instructed Ratigupta He
taught the Mahasiddha Santigupta who is incomparable in this
world-age, even in the heavenly realms.
Here ends the seventh chapter, an account of the Tantra commen-
tary lineage, which may be likened to a vein of precious gems.
74
Instruction Seven
As for the seventh Instruction, it deals with the various individual
upadesas, the upadesas of the Mahasiddha being such an
instruction.
It is said by the twelve groups of yogins that "Minapa, supported
by Mahesvara, gained the ordinary siddhi levels. begged
him for the upadesas of psychic breath and he meditated on it. The
insight wisdom of the Mahamudra waf> born spontaneously within
him." As there are various such baseless stories extant, some of them
can be omitted here. This has all been mentioned in the accounts
drawn from the life of the Mabasiddha Santigupta and other pat;uJits
and also by my Guru Buddhagupta who has seen many Siddhas in
the flesh, Siddhas who are like a treasury of the complete upadesas
of
The siddhas 1lrthanatha, Kalanatha and Brahf!1anatha were all
immeasurably great in their powers, abilities and prayers, and the
teachings of those three disciples of are all in agreement. My
Guru Buddhaguptanatha says that only their versions are consistent.
In the east of India a known as acarya Vyalipa, spent
twelve years gathering together many requisites for perfecting the
quicksilver elixier siddhi, but he did not even get a sign of success.
His ingredients ran out and he flung the volume on the method of
perfecting the quicksilver elixir into the river Ganges. Then he went
off as a mendicant. After a while he arrived in the country of Odivisa
and he went to bathe in a certain river and found in it that afore-
mentioned volume, quite undamaged. Realising it to be an omen that
he would attain siddhi, he returned to his own country. The quick-
silver circled to the right, a sweet sound arose from it and a shower of
flowers fell down. He asked his relatives, "What can it be?" and there
was nobody who knew. His daughter was a simpleton and said,
"In this house, I have become covered with dust. I will wash it off!"
She followed this by saying, "No one bas any idea what this is all
about!" When the acarya thought about what she had said, he
realised that the dust came from a red fruit, the myrobalan, which
he had not known about before, and that it had made the dust which
coated the young girl. He also realised that it had done this of its
75
own accord so he threw in some of that red coloured fruit. It too
did not work. When the time came to wash it all out, a drop of blood
emerg.d from the potion-he had perfected the quicksilver siddhi!
In six months time he had a surplus of quicksilver for his rituals and
so he ate it. It is said that Vyalipa together with his wife, son and
daughter and his brother's wife, five in all together with his house,
which made six, became vidyadharas in the fields of those parti-
cular substances. As he coveted his siddhi it is said that he stayed on
an island in the southern ocean on a great rocky mountain in the
midst of a bog which extended in the four directions. Concerned
that others might beg for the quicksilver-an elixer for making
gold-he fled to a place where people could not go. As for his
sadhanas, it is said that he practised them while supported by the
Mahakala Tantra. The acarya Nagarjuna came to hear of this.
Now Nagarjuna, supported by a <Jakini tantra, had discovered
that when he had on two boots made of leaves he could travel into
the heavens. One boot he hid and one he wore and, soaring through
the heavens, he came before Vyalipa. The acarya Nagarjuna said that
he must be given the gold-transforming elixir and Vyalipa said,
"Give me just your boot. It is fitting as payment for the gold
transforming elixir!" So he gave him many upadesas which were
related to quicksilver, many myriads of millions of pieces ot infor-
mation related to the elixir and also some of the very gold-trans-
forming elixir he had perfected. Nagarjuna gave Vyalipa one of the
boots and, putting on the hidden boot, he came back via the sky
paths to Jambudvipa. There the upadesas of the elixir spread widely.
Then in the district known as Munindra in the northern regions of
India, in the land of Gandhara, was a mountain known a ~ Dhinkota.
As the acarya wanted to convert that mountain into gold and silver,
A.rya Tara saw that such a thing would cause strife among sentient
creatures in the future and she prevented its conversion. It is said
that it was converted into salt by her pra)'ers. Nowada)'S in Gandhara
that mountain is called Tila. Vyalipa had been very greedy and he
realised that greed was essentially meaningless and so be came to
Jambudvipa. Although he attained the state of Vidyadh.iira in that
bodily form, his inner vision was a little short on clarity and Vyalipa
begged the upadesas on the very highest Mahamudra Siddhis from
acarya C a r p a ~ i p a who had attained those states. Vyalipa then went
off and meditated on those upadesas.
After a short time there was born within him an absolutely
76
unique wisdom about own being and he started to sing songs
which contained the essential meaning. It is said that he worked
mainly for the welfare of sentient creatures. He gave all the upadesas
of the elixir to the acarya Carpa\ipa out of gratitude.
Now that particular Guru, after he had done only a small part
of the quicksilver ritual, gained immediate siddhi. Desiring to be of
use to many sentient creatures, he went to an area of Camparna
where there wete very many nomadic tribes. Now, among those
nomads was one in particular who was very wealthy, with many
thousands of buffalo, oxen, cattle, horses and sheep, A boy had been
born to a wife who the rich nomad had procured for his son. Now
once, in that very land while a great festival was in progress, it hap-
pened that the wife and her small son stayed back. When all the others
had left, the siddha Carpa,ipa arrived thexe to beg and all manner of
food was brought forth for the acarya by that very woman. The
acarya said, "If your faxnil:, does not get angry about it, stay here
and bring me a lot of food in the morning. If they are upset I will
make a fire in that forest grove over there and will stay there. Come,
flee to me!" Her relatives formed a cordon when they saw all the
food vessels leaving the house. All of them started to fight with the
wife ,:_1-1o, holding her child in her arms, fled. She came before the
acarya elixir over mother and son, who both attained
Vidyadhara bodies. The relatives who followed them there were also
thus sprinkled by the acarya with the elixir itself, and it is said that
about three hundred persons were changed into vidyadharas and
that they all met with great benefit as a result. The King of Campa
heard this account and went before the acarya in company with
many people. The King saluted him and the acarya became furious,
hurling food containers to the ground. From under the ground emer-
ged the daughter of the Naga King and she set forth many items
before the King of Campa who knew that the acarya had indeed
reached siddhi and so the King created two temples in rocky caverns.
In one cave lived the acarya as well as the mother and child, making
three in all, and in the other cave lived the three hundred converts.
Even the child was one who could bestow siddhi on many people-
from his eyes came the eye ointment siddhi, from his ears the pill
siddhi, from his mouth the sword siddhi, from his nose the fleetfoot
siddhi, from his penis
220
the gold transforming siddhi, and from his
anus came the life elixir siddhi. Those three, acarya, mother and
child, stayed in one spot and as long as Maitreya has not arrived,
77
they will work for the welfare of beings in that same spot known as
Campa Carpa\i. Even to this day it is said that if one prays to them
one will attain siddhi.
As for his pupil it was the siddha Although it is said
that he taught all the to Mahacarya Luyipa, it is
uncertain whether it really was Luyipa or not. Having received all
the upadesas and the Anu-upadesas from the siddha Carpa\ipa,
Kakku\ipa stayed in cemeteries, practising the caryas. He had
twelve consorts and when they all went into the city he became like
a rooster and became known as Kakku\ipa. Moreover, it is said that
Kakku\ipa was not just one person but two. His pupil was Minapa.
As for Minapa he was a fisherman from Kamaru in eatem India
and he had meditated a little on the psychic winds as performed by
fishermen. Once he set his fishing hooks, a fish dragged him into
its throat and swallowed him. Because of the power of his Karma,
when be meditated on psychic winds the fisherman found that he
had not died. This river, which is known as the Rohita or nowadays
in Tibetan as the gTsang.po.
221
flowed into Kii.maru. There, on a
small rocky hill known as Umagiri, the god Mahesvara was preaching
the upadesas on the yoga of the psychic wind to Uma.
222
The fish
in which he was, swam into that very river. The the
fish's belly heard this teaching, meditated on it and some ex-
cellent realisation. Then some fishermen caught that fish and killed it
and the man emerged from it. Now in that very spot previously a
certain King had died and thirteen years had passed since the man's
son had been bom, and moreover the fisherman had spent twelve
years in the fish's belly. Both father and son went before the acarya
Carpa\ipa, begged him for the upadesas and meditated on them. Both
of them attained siddhi. The father became known as the siddha
Minapa and the son was known as the siddha Machendrapa. Siddha
Minapa's pupil Halipa was a ploughman, Malipa was a gardner,
and Tibolipa was a betel merchant. These three became siddhas.
As for the pupils of Machendra, they were Caurangi and Gorak-
The first of these was a prince. Once when the
King was going to another country, the king's junior consort
became enamoured of the prince who had great physical
beauty. Although she went before him time and time again,
the prince did not accept her passion. In a fury, when
the King returned she ripped her clothes, covered her head
with dust and made the blood flow from her limbs. The King asked
78
her, "What is this crime that has been committed upon you?" She
replied, "This was done by the prince. When he came before me to
seek his own lusts I did not want to receive them and so he did this
to me!" Then the King, without further investigation, cut off the
feet and hands of his innocent son and hurled him into a very deep
pit in front of a tree, on a road where many people would pass over
him. Acarya Machendrapa came there and when he was told the
stoty he said to the Prince, "If I can get sustenance for you, will you
be able to undertake a twelve year meditation?" The Prince promised
that he would do that. Then the acarya Machendrapa, who had as a
pupil a very wealthy cattle herder, said to that pupil, "There will be a
limbless man over there by that tree. Fetch food for him for twelve
years!" The herder did just that. Finally after twelve years had
passed, on one particular night many merchants were travelling on
that road: Caurangipa asked them, "Who are you." and, fearing
that he was the King's tax collector they said, "We are coal
merchants." Caurangipa then said, "Well then, let all your goods
become coal!" When the merchants arrived at the market and had
spread their goods around they found that all their wares had
into coal. They investigated here and there to discover what
evil hitd. hefallen them and having learned that the miracle was
accomplished merely by the power of Caurangi's words, the traders
returned there. They begged his pardon and offered up prayers to
him. Caurangi said, "Well then let things be as they were before!"
and the traders saw that all the things changed, all their wares had
become as they were before and were sound. They realised that this
was due solely to the mercy of the acarya and made offerings of their
profit to him, but the acarya did not want them and returned them
to the merchants. Then he said, "May my limbs be as they were
before!" and just like that it came true. He worked in every way
for the welfare of sentient beings and it is said that he departed into
the heavens. As for the Siddha Gorak$a, he was that cattle herder
who brought the food. He attained a yogic state by means of the
upadesas of Machendra, and having renounced all outer or worldly
deeds, by meditation he attained all the transcendent powers and
siddhis. He thought, "I will transfer my realisation to others." By
teaching the upadesas to many people in all lands, all of them gained
release. He vowed, "I will therefore not go into the heavenly realms
until ten million sentient creatures are released by me!" And so he
gave liberation to innumerable sentient beings. I will not write a
79
more detailed account of this. It is certain that he had twelve major
disciples.
The siddha is linked to this Instruction. He was King
of the land of Mevara and he had a Queen called Pingala. After
a few years had passed, even though Pingala was very dear to him,
to make absolutt:.ly certain of her the King went off to a forest grove
and spread the lie that he had been eaten by a tiger and had died.
The Queen Pingala, died of grief immediately and her body was
consigned to the charnel ground. The King did not return to the city
but instead went to the charnel ground, before the body of the dead
Queen and cried, "Oh! Oh! Pingala !" In this way eight years passed
-even twelve years. The siddha came there and used a
certain skilful means on the King. He let an earthenware vessel
known as a c;Jipi fall from his hands and shatter on the ground.
Grieving over it he cried, "Oh! Oh! :Qipi!" and he remained there
in that spot. The King said to him, "0, crazy yogin, why grieve over
a broken pot? You can surely go out and make another!" The
acarya replied, "Well then you yourself are crazy! Just as my broken
pot has left only traces, so too is Pingala who has now become ashes
and who can't be seen anywhere. You actually grieve for her stUJ.W
Then the King knew him to be the acarya siddha asked
to be his disciple. "You must renounce your kingdom!" said
and the King did so and followed him. Once the acarya
acted as if he would enjoy some meat and beer and when the dis-
ciple Karl}aripa went to town to buy some a certain woman showed
him six lumps of pork and six jars of beer. She said, "As to the price,
if you give me your right eye then nothing else will be necessary."
In order to be able to give the offering to the aciirya, he plucked
out his eye without hesitation and gave it to her. Then he
offered the meat and beer before the iiciirya who said, "Where has
your right eye gone?" Kan.J,aripa replied, "In order to make these
offerings to the acarya, I sold it." The aciirya said, "If
that which you have done is really true then give me your left eye
also." Kafl}aripa plucked out his left eye and offered it to the acarya.
The acarya was gladdened and blessed him and in three years' time
both eyes grew as they had been before. After that in three years' time
he became a Mahasiddha. This person is also known as
As for his disciple he was Nagopa or, in Tibetan, gCer.bu.pa. which
means "the Naked One".
Many present day )'ogis wish to say that the Kings Karl}aripa
80
and Bhanari are one and the same, but it is said by my Guru that
they are quite mistaken. As for the siddha Nagopa, he was called
that because he did not wear one thread on his body. When he was in
the South he once came into the retinue of the Queen of the King of
Kongkuna and began preaching upadesas. The King was furious
and cut off the five limbs of the aciirya, flinging them into the four
directions. Even though they had been severed they rearranged them-
selves on the iiciirya. This happened seven times and finally the
iiciirya hurled forth a curse-the King's limbs were spontaneously
severed and he died. Mter entreaties by all present the King revived
and in that way the iiciirya manifested his power. Then he went to
the mountain called Bhindapa, and even today he is said to live there
without having departed from his body.
As for his pupil Golenniitha, or rDza.mi'i.mgon.po, he was of
the lineage of the younger VirUpa. As at first he was agitated by the
great multitudes, he became quite disgusted and seating himself in
a large earthenware pot; he vowed he would not get out if he did not
attain siddhi. With one-pointed meditation he attained siddhi in
twelve years. He then preached all manner of upadesas to the lucky
ones who came to hear him. He went off before the Guru Niigopa
and li.,.is said that he became invisible.
His pupil was Onkamatha, a of Miidhyadesa whose
father died while he was still young. Onkamiitha was brought up
in his elder brother's household. Golennatha gave him a yogini
siidhana. Besides that siidhana he did not study any other areas of
knowledge in eighteen years and both his elder brother and the
mistress of the house scolded him saying, "You fool, what are you
fit for?" and they expelled him. Dispirited he went off to another
land, supporting himself by begging and continually practising the
sadhanas of Vajrayogini. Later after sixteen years had passed and
when excellent meditation had been born within him, he went to
Himgalaci in the west, the abode of Uma Devi. There, above a stone
image of the goddess he meditated for six months in one unbroken
session, on the clear light of sleep. The goddess in great fear said to
him: "Yogi, riddhide hikinidhi," or in Tibetan, "rNal.'byor.pas.
rdzu. 'phrul.dang.gter.gyis.ci.byed." This means, "Yogi what will
you do with your powers and treasures?" He replied: "If you were
to give me the Jfiiinasiddhi I would most certainly accept it," but the
goddess said, "I have not got siddhi to give you. Go and beg for it
from !" and so he went off to find the siddha. In the land of
81
Godavati,
223
innumerable yogins had gathered together in rows.
One of the lowest yogis, who had a particularly ugly face with
blood and pus dripping from his limbs, entered and Onkamatha
knew it was the acarya and prostrated before him. He prayed to
him and the acarya offered him some blessed vegetable soup and he
drank whatever was offered to him. He discovered that he had mas-
tery over a whole sphere of knowledge. Seeing" directly the suchness
of things as they were he became a siddha and preached the Dharma.
He gave upadesas to the Mahapao9ita Ratigupta.
Ratigupta was born in the southern regions of India. As for his
caste, he was the son of a merchant. As he grew older he was ordained
into the community of Buddhists and it is said that his order was
that of the Sarvastivadins. He was very quickwitted, grasping the
Vinaya in one hundred thousand injunctions and the Prajiiaparamita
in one hundred thousand verses. He was very learned in areas of
knowledge including other spiritual disciplines. He desired to find the
Tantric Vajrayana Dharma and went to many places: to the east,
to the islands in the ocean, and also to the west. He begged the
Mahacarya Ratnakirti to erect thirteen mav9alas and to bestow on
him their abhlsekhas. Moreover he also went to the Mahacarya
Jfianagupta in the land known as Rakang,
224
and begged ):1:-.n for
a b h i ~ e k h a into the sixty mao9alas. He also begged mau:y empower-
ments and upadesas from the Nepalese Pav9ita known as Dasabala-
pingha. He begged mainly from these three acaryas who were Tantra
teachers. Once in the east of India, there was a scruffy yogin who
looked like a long haired Tirthika. This yogin had gone to a certain
festival. He held discussions with him and thought that he knew the
minds of others. He asked him "Who are you?" and directly came the
reply, "I am the siddha Asitaghana." It is said that Ratigupta relied
on him for a month and heard many upadesas. He also heard an
endless number of upadesas from the siddha Onkarnatha. Then he
lived in about thirty temples as elder, mainly in the land of Rulurati
and in other countries in the South. He achieved firmness in
Utpattikrama and he knew the tantras of about fifty collections.
Here ends the eighth chapter which deals with the lineages of the
individual upadesas and which may be likened to a vein of precious
gems.
As for the Mahasiddesvara Santigupta, he was the master of all
the instructions.
This particular acarya was born in the south in the town of Jala-
82
which in Tibetan is known as Chu'i.dkyil.'khor. He was
of the warrior caste. From his youth he studied many areas of learn-
ing in considerable depth: Sanskrit, dialectics and the related subjects.
His father was a mantra-reciter who had seen the visage of Aryii.
Tara, and the son listened to his father and learned the
and sadhanas for Tara. When he was twenty two years old he went
to a place near the sea in the land of Kongkuna. The place was known
as "Golden Banner of Victory" or Suvar:t;tadvaja.
225
At that time it
was a noble well-proportioned place. Its monastic Colleges flouri-
shed. There were about fifty fully ordained monks there and at most,
,.about one thousand upasakas. He was ordained there by the abbot
Ratigupta. Firstly Santigupta studied the Sravaka Pi\akas and then
all the fundamental doctrines of the Madhyamika and the Yogii.-
cara.226 He preached from memory many sermons on the eight
thousand verse Prajfiaparamita and also the four famous Y ogii.cara
Sotras. Then he wished to honour his abbot and to give him some
gifts. He instantly went to Singhaladvipa and there he perfected,
in part, the Tantra of Mahii.kala. He gained immeasurable gifts and
services due to his preaching prowess. He came before the Guru
holding the seven precious things
227
and offered them to him, erecting
a great mound of them. He begged from him the empowerments
and the upadesas and the Guru bestowed on him all the ordinary
abJ14ekhas and teachings on the fifty tantras. However, as for the
extraordinary empowerments and upadesas, he did not attain them.
Then for many years he performed a servant's work as sweeper for
his Guru and offered to the Guru all his possessions save for three
monk's robes. As for his food he went for alms around the town.
Accordingly, after six years had passed the Guru finally offered him
the extraordinary superior empowerments, various blessings and all
the upadesas. While he was meditating on all these things some
excellent sensations were created within him. It was at that very time
that the abbot passed from his bodily existence, and the acarya was
made master of all those viharas. He was elder of the monks for nine
years. He spent the night wholly absorbed in meditation. In the day,
while performing the requisite deeds of a monk, he realised that they
were not at all conducive to the spread of wisdom. Although he
continually asked the monks to give him exemption, they would
not, even though he begged them for it. So he drank beer, sang
songs in various tongues in the narrow city lanes and he performed
various dances from door to door. The monks said to him: "As
83
the abbot is learned in so many aspects of the dharma we will not
punish you. You may go elsewhere, wherever you will be happy!"
He thought, "Well, now I have attained my goals!" and so he wan-
dered into various countries. In the land of Cibala, in a grass hut
near a city, he practiced his sadhanas for three years. Then h{. went
to the west to the land of Urgyen. There too he spent three years.
Once on a river bank, six prostitutes were washing themselves and
after a while they went quite furtively behind a wall. "What can they
be saying?" pondered the acarya. On listening he heard them
exchanging stories which had been drawn from the six Nirvritya
upadesas. He saw that and many other most amazing things. Later
those Vajrac;Iiikinis befriended him. As a result his wisdom increased
ever higher. Not having thought much about things as they really
are, his mind was pining after an acarya who could point it out to
him, and so he arrived at the door of a certain liquor merchant.
She completely transformed herself into Vajrayogini and said to
him: "In a country in the east lives an acarya known as Jnanamitra.
He will give you the desired siddhis." Then the acarya went by
stages to the east and arrived there finally. He went to all the towns-
people and to all the places, both in and out of the town, asking for
Jiianamitra but nobody would answer him. Even when he arrived
among a group of Cary a pas and asked them, they would not tell him;
While he was there an old yogin said to him, "He is our Caryapa
A.carya, great in power and abilities. Many years have passed since he
left us, going off alone." Then he searched for him again and again.
Once while near a town in a forest there was a man lying in the shade
of a stiipa, a man who was a mendicant in appearance and who was
clothed in a less than respectable fashion. Santigupta asked the
reclining man, "Have you seen Jiianamitra ?", and the other man
replied, "I know him, and I too am going before him. He is definitely
to the east of here in the city of Tipura. "
228
Santigupta asked the
other man to show him and the latter replied, "If you can carry all
these possessions of mine which are here in the forest, I will show
you." He picked up the heavy load and came along with the mendi-
cant going ahead. While on the way Santigupta was seized by
brigands. As they were dividing up the load, it turned into a boulder.
The robbers seethed with anger and they beat him mightily again
and again. When he fell to the ground like a corpse, that foreign
acarya appeared again and by washing him with water and by inton-
ing mantras he caused Santigupta to revive immediately and he was
84
able to follow on once more. When he arrived at Tipura he begged
the foreign acarya to point out the Guru to him. He was led to the
banks of a small lake and there shone forth the reflection of the
Guru, and said to Santigupta, "This is Jiianamitra!" After the
Guru had revealed his identity, immediately an excellent meditation
was born within Santigupta. He begged him, saying "Let me be
your follower," and Jiianamitra replied, "You are impudent! ! You
wish to be my disciple and yet you come before me without bringing
riches or honour!" The Guru got very angry and beat Santigupta
many times. Santigupta went to a rich householder and asked him,
"If I become your servant, how much will I get paid?" The house-
holder replied, "Each day I will give you one golden dinar." Santi-
gupta worked as their servant for one year. It is said that the life of
an Indian peasant is very wretched............... When alms donors
came there to give him things he would offer up all their gifts to the
acarya and he followed the Guru. Once when he was in a forest
following the Guru they saw a female buffalo with a nose rope. The
Guru said, "Go and lead it!" and went on ahead. Santigupta went
on leading the animal until its master came in hot pursuit, grabbed
Sa::-tigupta and beat him up. He fell to the ground like a corpse.
The Guru art:ivt;d on the scene, and by performing a certain ritual
method he fully revived him. At another tiine Santigupta made a
grass hut and, being entrusted with the Guru's ritual items, he put
them in the hut. When both master and student returned home
from the town they saw that the grass hut was blazing and crackl-
ing away. Jiianamitra appeared downcaste at the destruction of his
things and so Santigupta begged him saying, "Can I go and
get them?" The Guru replied that he could and without any hesita-
tion Silntigupta went into the midst of the inferno to rescue the
Guru's things. His feet and hands were completely burned to the
bone. His whole body became a water blister. He thought: "Even
though I am dying, it is for the sake of my Guru's things," and not
even for an instant did regret arise in him. The things were unimpor-
tant and were said to have been a water pot, a coconut bowl, a
wooden ma:Qc;lala and a skull bowl. While Santigupta was certain
that he would die, the Guru gave him mantras and medicines and
after a short time he recovered without any hindrance. Then Santi-
gupta thought: "It is not good that the Guru should use up his
medicines in order to cure my unworthy body. Now, I have perfor-
med many penances for the acarya's welfare and for my own good
85
and it is quite unbecoming that I have taken from him his mantras
and medicines. I do not wish to use the acarya as my servant." This
he vowed solemnly.
At another time the acarya wanted to go to the land of Rakang
and when he was seated in the boat a huge fish arose in the middle
of the river. Fearing that it would harm the acarya, Santigupta
hurled a short spear at it. The creature bit his feet and dragged him
back into the middle of the river. He merely recalled the Guru and
the creature released him from its mouth and swam off into the
river. Although he suffered greatly from his wounds he would not
waver in his Guru's service. After seven days had passed, one
dawn, without knowing how, he found that all his bodily pains had
ceased.
The acarya was staying in the east in the land of Rakang in a
certain rocky cavern. Santigupta had been instructed to go and seek
some trade goods and to do a lot of business in various towns.
Now, in that particular country there were many river valleys and he
often had to cross them by swimming. A creature known as the
Sisarate, belonging to the crocodile family and known as "Water
Demon" in Tibetan, grabbed hold of him three times. The aci\rya
gained his own abilities and mentally recalled his Guru. The creature
always let go of him. A:nother time a creature called the Kimkara,
which eats fish and water snakes, etc., stung him and it is said that the
wounds were innumerable. He did not accept even one of the Guru's
mantras or medicines for them, getting beneficial properties from
others. The acarya spent three years in that country with a retinue
of five supreme yogis and with twelve consorts, practising the Vajra
feast many times. As for Siintigupta he had to do many trading
journeys and he suffered greatly the ravages of other water creatures.
During the three years he spent thus purifying his body, which had
become very weak, his mind had not a trace of sadness or tiredness
in it. It is said that all of his retinue at that time most assuredly
reached siddhi later on. Then both master and student went to Bengal
by ship. From their first meeting the Guru had not given Siintigupta
so much as one word of the upadesas and the latter begged the Guru
to bestow them on him. The Guru said:
86
"A man who says, 'Make me your disciple,'
When he has made no offerings,
Who straight away contends
He is his acarya's equal or his better,
Would terrify even Sri Mahavajrasattva!"
So saying he grew wrathful, manifested an unhappy face and fled.
Although the acarya ran after the Guru he could not catch him.
Although he sought him for seven days in all the regions of that land,
he did not find him. Then although he was alone and bereft he asked
people in all the various towns and kept searching fruitlessly for
another two months. In a town called Ghoratamda he spent seven
days praying to the Guru but it too was fruitless. He thought:
"As I am unlucky in this life, I will kill myself!" Although he leaped
from the top of a huge boulder, he did not harm even his limbs-
in fact no injury at all befell him. While he was hanging about
morosely, a consort who he recognised came to that very place.
"What is this excellent student doing?" she thought, and Santi-
gupta, realising that the acarya's consort is a Guru in her own right
touched her feet with the crown of his head. "I am luckless. My
Guru has fled and I think of death," he said. She replied, "You are
certainly going to be a true follower of the acarya." A little bit of
cheer arose in him and he asked her where the acarya was staying.
She r e p i : i ~ , "The Guru came to my abode, stayed there for a few
days and has just now departed for Nepal." Then the woman became
invisible. When Santigupta was on the road some men who had seen
him jump off the top of the boulder asked him many questions as to
why he had done so but he gave them no answer. He said, "I have
not yet found my Guru and I am suffering. If I delay in all this I
will become angry!" He departed for Nepal, enquiring in towns and
houses on the way, but nobody who could tell him anything came
forth. The sacristan of the Mahakala temple of Yambu
229
said:
"He came here some days ago, talked some gibberish and then left
for Kamaru." Santigupta immediately went off in the direction of
Kamaru. Although he was terrified by brigands, tigers, buffalo
and rhinos, all of which he met on the forest trails, he merely recalled
his Guru and no harm came to him. He arrived in the town of
Garudaghata in Kamaru in which place the acarya was staying, and
there he met him. With great joy he threw himself to the ground and
performed many thousands of prostrations before him. The Guru
said to him: "If you want the upadesas then go to the place where
my Guru, Asitaghana ascended into the heavens at the peak of the
rock known as Heramba. There you must erect a brick stuj;>a five
87
times as tall as a man." Then Santigupta went off to that land,
possessing only one piece of clothing. He gave this as payment for
a measure of bricks and he alone did the foundation digging and the
laying of the bricks. Then a faithful householder assisted him for a
while. When he had erected the stupa on the Heramba peak he came
before the Guru who said to him that to entrust some of the work
to the householder was improper and so he did not give him the
upadesas for a whole year. After that, when they were staying in the
town of Katakabhanarasi in Odisa the Guru said: "I will point out
a house to you. In this house is a lot of gold which I want you to
steal and offer to me." Now that particular house belonged to a
particularly greedy blacksmith who became quite angry whenever
he saw a monk, either Buddhist or non-Buddhist. When Santigupta
first went to the house the doorkeeper beat him with many blows. As
the acarya had a strong constitution, he held back the doorman with
one hand and simply went inside. The blacksmith was working on
some iron and became quite furious. He hurled the red hot chunk
of iron at Santigupta whose clothes were not even signed-nor was
his body harmed in any way at all. Then, many poison-fanged dogs
were set on him and although they bit him no harm befell him.
When the blacksmith saw that Siintigupta's spirit had not--wavered,
he gained a little faith and said, "Stay here and I will fetch food."
He brought in some vile food and Siintigupta joyfully devoured it.
The blacksmith was a little nonplussed and said, "If you are satisfied
with it then come from tomorrow on." Santigupta kept on returning
again and again and as he asked various questions the iicarya came
to know all about the house, its contents and their location. Once
when the household was inattentive be was able to steal the one
thousand ill-gotten srang which the greedy blacksmith had found
himself unable to give away to anyone. Santigupta offered them
to the Guru who said: "Child, that is good! This wealth accumulated
solely due to avarice must be given away to others. Give it to the
monks of the land of Rakang." The acarya went off to donate it
just as he had been told. Later on, when things had died down a
little, he went back to that aforementioned town. The blacksmith
grabbed Siintigupta and handed him over to the King of the country
who was called Mukundadeva. The blacksmith told the whole story
to the King, and as chance would have it, there were many people
gathered there at the time. The King asked the acarya about it and the
acarya replied: "I have indeed stolen that ill-gotten wealth and have
88
fled with it. I gave it to others and this in itself has brought about
an increase in merits." At that all the people laughed and said:
"Oh, this is a mighty thief! Just look at his shamelessness! Having
stolen he now figures it to be a good thing!" The King said: "For
now, fling him into prison. Later on it will be decided by thorough
investigation just what his punishment should be." The King and the
people dispersed. Now, in the meantime the acarya J.iianamitra
pondered on this situation. Various birds gathered on the prison
roof and all around it, dogs and jackals circled around the prison
day and night howling all the while. Doubts arose among all the
people when all this happened daily at the palace also, and the astro-
longers said that it was due to the powers of the yogin who had been
flung into prison. Then after several days had passed, Jiianarnitra
arrived at the prison gate, threw sand at all of the guards and all of
them were petrified into rigidity. The door bolts opened of their
own accord and Santigupta, together with more than five thousand
other prisoners, was freed. Santigupta had spent half a month in
prison and as he had recalled nothing else except the Guru's delight
at his taking the gold, no unhappiness or gloom touched him.
Then he followed Jiianamitra to a town in th(; land of Trilinga.
230
When ~ h e y got there the Guru taught him many upadesas. Then two
years passed anct-tlle Guru said: "Now you must have the empower-
ments. In that house over there on the other bank of the river is the
consort who has the secret knowledge and the mantras. Go and bring
her here!" When Santigupta asked whether he should go in the morn-
ing he was told: "Go and bring her here this very night!" He went,
swimming across the great river, and when the sun was about to set
he arrived at the house. As for the house it was the place where the
elephant of a certain warrior king lived. It is said that the name
of the town was Laiijakara. Santigupta said: "I am a traveller.
Rent me a room in the house just for a short while." They bade him
enter, which he did. The acarya investigated all the places in the
house both upstairs and downstairs. According to the prophecy of
his Guru, the girl was the houseowner's daughter and she was
extremely well protected. He pondered on the methods he could
employ to gain her. Then at dusk when the people had stopped their
wanderings, the acarya bound the girl with mantras and she did not
speak a single word, even for an instant. By means of his great
strength he hoisted her onto his shoulders and, having forced the
gates open, they fled. When the pair were outside the town, the towns-
89
people pursued them but they could not catch them. That very night,
having swum the river, they arrived back and midnight they went
before the Guru. The Guru said, "Your timing is good," and at dawn
he gave Siintigupta his empowerments and for seven days gave him
blessings and all the extraordinary oral upadesas. Their residence
was on a boulder and it is said that previously it was the cave where
the acarya Nagarjuna stayed. The people of the elephant house
thought that the pair had been carried off by the river and so they
did not come to that place. Then, when the Guru was performing a
fire ceremony, the acarya acted as his karmavajra (vajra assistant) and
made a few errors. The Guru became furious and hurled a lot of coal
ashes at Siintigupta who realised that by means of that cause he mani-
fested the state of the inconceivable wisdom, a wisdom as boundless
and centreless as space, an all-pervasive widsom-he had reached
the profoundest of dharma. He became a Mahayogesvara. The
woman also became a yogini of the Caryapa school. She was re-
nowned as the yogini Menaka. Her realisation was as vast as the
sky. She perfected the four ritual gazes and even attained the common
siddhi of not sinking in water. The Guru Jnanamitra said, "Santigupta,
I have finished showing you all the upadesas. My great goal is
accomplished. Go now to Saurastha.
231
First of all perform tta non-
conceptual deeds. Then perform the secret acts. Then you will be
encouraged by someone to perform the deeds which are with con-
ceptualisation-perform them at that time. In this life you will attain
the rank of Mahiivajradhara." Siintigupta said, "Although I have
thus arrived at the profundity of all the dharmas by the very kind-
ness of the Guru in this lifetime, I beg instead to be allowed to
follow the Guru himself because it will be easier to attain the highest
siddhi which I have not yet gained." The Guru said, "For your
sake alone I stayed so long in this land of men. Anyway, you
should disseminate my insights to all those fortunate beings."
Then he became invisible. The Guru's mind was wisdom itself, and
all Siintigupta's doubts had been certainly resolved. When the
Guru's bodily form became invisible, Santigupta's mind became
downcast and he composed religious songs of spontaneity. It is
said that he relied on acarya Jiianamitra for about ten years. By
means of the sad songs he had composed he taught their profound
meanings and gradually he came to Saurastha in the west of India.
Not far away, in the town known as Jonagha\a, he desisted from
all speech. It happened that even when he was asleep or woken up
90
be would seat himself exclusively in meditative absorption. Once
while the Tajik Mongols
232
burnt his hands and feet the acarya
remained seated there devoid of any feelings like a stone or wooden
image being burnt. Although a Hindu cavalryman who had faith in
the acarya scattered a full measure of silver and gold "flowers", or
coins, on his body, he remained there without any feeling just as
he had done before. My own Guru said that it was not that he was
forever without feelings: he had seen Sunyata. Even though some
say that two years thus passed, others say that it was one and a half
years. You should believe those who subtract the six months. It is
said (by my Guru) that it is difficult to practice in this day and age.
and that Santigupta tried three times repeatedly. This was the most
non-conceptual of practices. After he finished, he wandered in town
and forest giving a few of his secret practices. For a while he acted like
an Avadhuti, but to the world for 6 months his actions were those
of a mad penitent. Now and then he taught the Dharma to people
and the highest wisdom arose in many of them. Many of the towns-
people knew that the acarya possessed wisdom and they offered him
all manner of gifts. The King of that country, who was of the Tajik
lineage, had previously attacked the Buddhists. Then many monks
wF::'"' in that land and after that, the King gained faith in their noble
demeanou. ~ ~ G - made many offerings to the Buddhists. Because the
acarya performed the mantra path of practice the King did not be-
lieve in him, and came before him and said, "Hey! You liar! Tell
the truth! Can you really confound the monks?" The acii.rya replied,
"We make use of our desires and leisure and similarly we can't change
our minds!" The King said, "You will have to prove that!" and
escorted the acarya inside the fortress, putting him in a very isolated
top-most chamber. He had no clothes for his body, no place to
hide his things and attendants stayed with him both day and night.
Although he took no food or drink for seven days his body remained
as it had been previously. At that the King gathered one thousand
beautiful women from various parts of the country-other people
say it was only five hundred-and said to the acarya: "If you are an
adherent of the mantra practices then can you practise on all these
women in just one day?" Having said this be committed them all
to the acarya. This encouragement of Santigupta toward the prac-
tices of conceptualisation, he realised was indeed the very prophecy
of the Guru. He practised together with them, using the practices
of the learned ascetic. In order to manifest his power, he trans-
91
formed their bodies into corpses with no vestige of moisture left,
and he himself became glorious and effulgent like the sun shining.
On the second day he departed from the top-most root ot the fortress,
travelling in the sky for a distance of on':: eighth of a league where he
set himself down in a grove. The whole country in all its areas be-
came the most perfect field for Dharma and many celestial messengers
gathered in a special assembly there. For six months he gave them
the unique practices of conceptualisation.
Once when he was staying at the mountain known as Ghirnari,
the highest Mahiimudra siddhis came under his powers. It was dawn
and a great noisy earthquake arose. There was an all pervading
perfume, a shower of flowers fell down and a sound of music spread
from the heavens. This was quite clear to all beings. Instantly
he saw visages of the Buddhas of the ten directions. Various
tutelary divinities and all the siddhas became clear and they
recited benedictions. For seven days asuras of the three abodes,
viras and 9akinis made him inconceivable offerings without break.
He stayed on that mountain for a further six months abiding in
signless meditation. Then later on while he was staying in the south
at a mountain known as Khagendra, the King of Bhamda, who was
called Ramacanda, came there while hunting wild animaJs . Tn
a corner of the mountain he spotted a beast known !:;$ ~ b . l ! harina
or lion. While he pursued its spoor, the harina changed itself into a
tiger. After he had briefly inspected it, it changed itself into red fire
and settled down in a grass hut. The King went off to see it and saw
the monk's body, gloriously glowing, and he asked him: "Who are
you?" Twice the acarya said nothing. On being asked a third time
he said, "What are you saying, evil King? I am a yogin!" By means of
ritual gaze and light emissions he overcame the King, who, reaching
an excess of faith, paid homage at the yogin's feet. While the acarya
was describing some factual stories the King's attendants also came
forward and paid homage at his feet. He gladdened them too with
his dharma stories. He showed the essential meaning of reality to a
certain Braht:pin youth who performed many songs and dances and
also became invisible so it is said. The Braht:pin's name was Janama-
deva and it is said that he was the first siddha disciple or this acarya.
There was a paJ}.9ita novice known as PaJ}.9ita Gambhiramati who
came before the acarya and, having a great deal of faith, he pro-
mised himself to the acarya. He performed all the requisite services
and stayed there. The acarya saw that he was a fit receptable
92
and gave him all the empowerments and upadesas. By meditating
for a long time he attained, without obstruction, the siddhi of
fl.eetfoot. By these transcendental powers, this acarya was able to be
present to serve the Guru's wherever he went. Then the acarya
came to the land of Maru and with his ritual gaze he petrified
into rigidity the Tirthikas, the T ~ k a s and the Mleccha Tajiks.
233
He also subdued the people and the nobles of that land by giving
them the "subduing" gaze. When he had preached the dharma to
many beings, a lot of them had unique wisdom which arose in them
and the number of Buddhists in this land increased many times,
and generally speaking the Sangha paid homage at his feet. There
were six of his pupils who were given the extraordinary upadesas.
They were the pa1J.9ita Vimalasahya, Candrakara, Ratnakara,
who were monk pao9itas, and the upasaka paJJ9ita Sugata, the
yogini Umapati and the yogini Tara'qlga. The first three of these
gained realization of the unique level of the utpattikrama and that
of the sampannakrama. They had perfected the techniques of cursing
and the power of truthful wotds. These three saw the visage of
Vajrayogini quite clearly. The upasaka Sugata perrected the four
Tantric activities and seeing into the future, without any hindrance.
When the acarya together with those four (Vimalasahya, Candrakara,
Ratnakara and Sugata) came to see the eastern areas, the Eastern
Mleccha Pa\hii.ns
234
were causing great suffering to the lands there-
abouts and they saw that all the temples, both Buddhist and non-
Buddhist, had been destroyed. At the mountain known as Devagiri,
quite near the ocean, there were many temples dedicated to the
Buddha and they were burned to ashes at that time. Indeed the temple
of KhasarpaQi was set alight but it did not bum. When the acarya
and his Vajra brothers came there the King said to them: "Previously
in my country there were no shaven-headed, red-robed people like
this. It is not good that they have come here now," and he flung the
four acaryas into a dungeon. When the executioner was planning
on killing them, they hurled mustard seed at him and at the prison
guards, and while these people were acting crazily without any
memory at all, the acaryas fled and went elsewhere. They made a
vow to the Mah.iibodhi and a prophecy told them that it was time to
perfect their ferocious activities. Then Jarikandhara met the four
acaryas face to face and together they revolved the wheel of Yaman-
taka,235 and within six months the Pa\hans and the Moghuls were
fighting among themselves and all those of the T u r u ~ k a race in the
93
east were beaten in battle. The Hindu King Manasingh
236
was
taken and held captive.
Umapati perfected the siddhi of the rainbow body. The yogini
Tara111ga perfected the four ritual gazes with no problems. The
followers of the acarya, both yogins and yoginis, numbered about
twenty. Then while he was staying in the south at Karnata, the
acarya came to the palace of the King of that land. He came to
convert him, as the King was a Tirthika. Inside the palace was a
most horrific linga which had been set up previously by Arjuna
himself. The acarya climbed up on top of it and danced there, leaving
footprints on it. The King set six mad elephants onto him and the
acarya subdued them with his hands until they were unable to move.
There was a magic stone image of the goddess to which
he made a threatening finger gesture and it became like a mass of
butter when the sun has struck it, and melted. Even today that
image is said by my Guru to have grown larger. At that the King
knew he was a siddha and so he paid homage to him. The renown
of the acarya who had found siddhi spread into all areas. The monks
of Maharata and Kongkuna invited him and he went to all their
temples giving empowerments, upadesas, alms, sermons on the
tantras, etc., and he clearly explained the Vajrayana teachings. Many
people gained fine levels of siddhi-some thirty pandits, and beside
this four other groups, which made sixty in all, as well as
eleven men from the city, making a not inconsiderable number.
Moreover, many were able to attain the highest levels of meditation.
Having attained the highest siddhi level, they became invisible.
Then the King of Bhamdvam invited the acarya into his presence
and made him offerings for a long time. Monks and from
SuvarQ.advipa Dhanasridvipa
237
, Pegu, Rakang, Pukang and other
far off places, even Jambudvipa, gathered together and the King
made offerings of gifts to them for three years. There were about
three thousand people who were ordained and many upasakas as
well as many upasikas requested the sadhanas together with many
hundred thousand yogins from the four directions. Some begged
for upadesas, and some begged for empowerments and blessings.
Some of them paid homage at his feet and encircled him and set up
a karmic bond. and Sanghasila from the
southern land of Kalinka,
238
the Mahacaryas Virabhandu and
Asanghabodhi of Malyara
239
, the acaryas A.nandamati and Veda-
nanda from the land of Paiicadharavali, the great and learned
94
men and from Pukang
240
and
Sumegha and the others from Vajrasana, begged all the profound
tantra collection f1om the Mahacarya himself, from the yogini:
Dinakara, the Mahacarya Gamhiramati and others who were the
acarya's spiritual sons. Due to the great kindness of the acarya the
Indian monks and all the Buddhists were instructed in the Vajra
Path. In the land of Barley,
241
the land of Gold
242
and the land of
Copper,
243
as the monks there were Sendhapa Sravakas, the acarya's
words did not pervade at all. When the Guru was staying near to
the "Man from the East", known as NirvaJ;tasri, the Mahacarya
was staying in the great market town of Trilinga. While many
hundred thousand people were prostrating themselves before him,
many monks from the land of Barley who were going on a visit
to the Mahabodhi, started to say evil things about the Secret
Mantras. It is also said that they would not prostrate themselves
before the acarya.
Then in the land of Trilinga, the King known as Bikata, in order
to perform an exorcism ceremony for his illness decreed that many
men, five thousand buffalo, many hundred thousand birds, goats and
sheep were to be slain and given as food offerings. Many Tirthikas
and numbering a hundred thousand were gathered together
there to perf01m the ritual. When all the living creatures had been
bound the acarya came alone from out of nowhere and arrived at
the building where they were about to be sacrificed. He gave a
ritual gaze to all the and Tirthikas and they were petrified
into rigidity. The King came forth amazed The acarya said, "If you
slay so many animals as this, you will swiftly die and, having done
so, you will be reborn in hell. Let the creatures go free!" When they
were released, immediately the acarya put his hands on the King's
head and freed him from all debility. Those people who had gathered
there for the sacrifice also attained the states of yogis and many
beings reached a unique, discriminating wisdom.
A certain King of the land of Cafica, while travelling
on a road close to where the acarya was staying, said many wicked
things about him. A pupil of the acarya heard them and cursed
them saying, "Become dumb!" and the King and his retinue became
speechless. Being horribly afraid, they begged the acarya who, in
order to manifest the power of the Buddhists, said, "Let each of you,
except one, become able to speak again!" and so it happened that
they could indeed speak again.
95
Also when he came to VaraJ}.asi in Madhyadesa, there was
there a certain Tirthika paQQita known as Madasudana Sarasvati
who wished to be renowned as one who possessed discriminating
wisdom. He sat on a high throne in the midst of his retinue, and by
merely pointing his finger at him the acarya made him tumble
down from it.
In the land of Mathura
244
there there was a certain man who had
been somewhat of a Buddhist yogin previously and who later
practised as a Tirthika yogin. He was called Mukundavarti and
having practised the he was renowne9 as being a
siddha who could bring many beings under this power. By the
means of a ritual gaze the acarya finished him off. In the town of
Mathura, or in Tibetan, bCom.brlag, when the acarya and his
disciples, three in all, got there they met Mukundavarti and his
retinue who had also come there. Innumerable townspeople also
congregated there, saying: "We would like to see the proof of the
magical powers of these two!" Mukunda, who had perfected the
mantras which cause people to see illusions, even made faithful the
former great Tajik King Hamehubaca and his son Akbar.
245
At that
time due to the power of Santigupta's meditations he unable
to perform even one phantom illusion. With just one of his ritual
gazes he caused Mukunda to go mad, cry out "Ha!Ha!" and to
run all over the place. He was in the grip of this for seven days and
as his pupils begged the acarya to release him from this power
he did so.
The King of Bhamdvam had died some time before that and
his son, called Balabhadra, erected and offered to the acarya a great
temple near the mouth of a cave where his father had previously
met the acarya when he stayed there from time to time. He also
offered five hundred houses for those who were to be servants in the
temple. Once, five thousand yogis and yoginis who had attained
exalted position gathered together there and he offered them the
makings for a vajra feast to last three months and they made a truly
vast one. At this time there were many indead who, as disciples,
were freed from their rnindstreams. By means of his prayers the
King lord over one hundred thousand people initially, and later
on became lord over four and a half million. It is said by the
Southern Guru that this was the fifth and final meeting.
Then he stayed for the most part in that very spot. Having
brought immeasurable numbers of beings to fruition and liberation,
96
he met no one further for about seven years except for his most
perfected and oldest students. His fully ripened body dissolved into
a rainbow body and his Jiianakaya pervaded the ten areas of the
heavens.
His like did not occur again in India or Tibet. ln Tibet
those who have wise minds or who have realised the final
view are quite good indeed. Those who have meditated well on the
Utpattikarama and the Sampannakrama, whose minds have gra-
dually shone forth, who have seen various of the tutelary divinities
and protectors of the doctrine, whose various magical abilities have
shone forth, and who have gained the karma-ga1,1as little by little,
are clearly graced with the title of Siddha. There are also those
foolish ones who, abandoning all modesty and propriety, and using
all manner of deceit with delight, say that there are those who
merely by the great power of almsgiving and its fruit of riches grasp
the signs of Siddhahood and are therefore to be known as such.
In India it is said to be clear that those who have gained knowledge
of the levels of the perfect path directly ftam the tantras themselves,
or whose bodies have also become rainbow bodies etc., have attained
one of the signs of being an ordinary level Vidyadhara, and they
are to be regarded as Siddhas. As for the othets although what they
did was good, they are to be known as sadhakas, not siddhas.
As for the Mahasiddha Santigupta, he could perfect the four
services
246
using his ritual gazes. He put into practice whatever he
taught, every word he said. In the midst of some of the pure
gathering some wondrous and illusory signs continuously arose.
He summoned forth in the flesh, so to speak, whole vajra feasts,
embryonic matter, liquids, beer, blood, wild forest fruits, etc. He
became the sole lord on the earth and his name was Srisattvanatha,
or in Tibetan dPhal.sems.can.gyi.mgon.po., as he was called by
mortals. There were my three Indian Gurus who all heard the dharma
from that Guru and it is certain that the Guru tram the South,
NirvaJJasri, became his best disciple. The three Gurus themselves
heard vast numbers of teachings at feet of the Guru and both the
acarya Gambhiramati and the Mahadeva yogini Dinakara were
given by empowerments, blessings and instructions. It is certain
that the doubt-destroying clarifications were given to the ten chief
disciples. I will now relate in abbreviated form the accounts of the
two chief disciples.
Firstly-in the land of Gujarat
247
a boy known as Ghagha
97
from the warrior caste had a very lively intelligence and became
extremely learned in the discipline areas of Sanskrit and dialectics.
He was ordained in the temple of Abhu and was garlanded with the
name of Gambhiramati. He knew the Tripi\aka in full, but as he
had not attained the correct age for full ordination he became a
novice. At nineteen years of age he went before the acarya. For
three years the acarya did not give him empowerments or upadesas.
Gambhiramati relied on the Guru in accord with the dictates of the
Tantras. Then the Guru, empowering him, gave him the teachings.
After two years he firmly attained the Utpattikrama levels and
various of the Sampannakrama wisdoms were also born :firmly
within him. In order to win for the acarya all the wealth and honour
which was his due, he quickly perfected the siddhi of fieetfoot. Rely-
ing fully upon his Guru with wisdom he attained all the acarya's
empowerments, the tantras and the upadesas. Firstly he saw the
visages of Avalokitesvara, and Hayagrjva, then those of Maiijusri
and Yamantaka, then those of Hevajra and Kurukulla. He got
Mahakala as his perpetual servant and the six lokadevi& performed
all his commands. All his sleep was suffused with the clear light.
Although he was master over vast superknowledge yet he still
performed the functions of a servant in all the rituals for his Guru.
As for the yogini Dinakara, she was from a southern town
known as Shambhadatta where there was a prince of the Pisila
family who was called 'Phrog.byed.'od. He had a sister younger
than him and she was very sharp witted and delighted in virtue.
When she was nine years old, a monk, radiant and beautiful, came
before her door begging for alms. She said, "It is suffering indeed
that a good man such as this has to beg!" The monk replied, "As for
me, if I don't really suffer a lot, you certainly will have to, you who
wander about in sarpsara. The miseries of sarpsiira are manifold."
Then she begged him for a means of liberation and a method for
settling her mind and he taught her the unique essentials of the
Bodhisattvacarya which she learned well. When she was ten years
old, she was sent away as the bride of a feudal ptince of the warrior
ca&te from the land of Caivala. When she was thirteen years old
she decided to renounce sarpsara and so she said to her husband
and parents-in-law every so often, "Would it really matter that
I spent my life sitting in forests in meditation'? Please allow me to
do this!" In order to thwart her she was installed as mistress of
the house but in this capacity she gave liberally to all the beggars
98
who came there. Her family and relatives scolded her and yet she
was praised by the beggars and all the other people. Then she
feigned madness and performing various crazy deeds she was sent
off with a lady's maid into an isolated, lonely place. Deceiving
everybody with even greater acts of madness than before, she finally
left her husband. When she was born, she had on her hands and
feet the signs of half lotuses and wheels, and it was prophesied that
if she dwelt in forests she would become a Mahatma. It is said that
this prophecy came upon her. She heard that Mahacharya Santigupta
was living in the town of Maharata near Caivala and as soon as
she heard his name, meditation was roused in her mind. Directly
on seeing him a unique meditation was born within her. At that
time it is said that she was about twenty years old. Although she
was a woman, her mind was extremely sharp and, using it, she
leamed fully and thoroughly the text known as the Candravyakarat;ta.
She knew the sciences of elucidation, medicine and various dia-
lectics fully. Due to her previous vasanas
248
she could retain in her
mind all the metrical texts of the Prajnaparamitii in seven hundred
verses, three hundred verses and also the compendium version,
merely by reading them once. When asked about the life of a nun
and of an upasika, she knew their purpose fully. Then in the presence
of Mahaciirya Santi she firstly asked for instruction in the Bodhi-
sattva Cittotpada, etc., and, being aware of her good qualities,
Santigupta gave her in due order all the empowerments and
upadesas. She spent seven years before the Guru hearing and ponder-
ing on the Vajrayana, and she came to know the full meaning of
all the Tantras.
Then for five years she performed the Guru's services and
one-pointed meditation and a unique wisdom was roused within
her. Her insights became vast like the sky. By the power of wind yoga
even one hundred elephants could not vie with her for strength and
she could travel in the skies for about a league. She also perfected
the system of ritual gazes and also the truth power of speech. The
Guru said: "Now, perform the practice of bringing the mind under
subjugation! Meditate on suchness and manifest it forth to sentient
beings. When you are twenty two you will be on an equal level with
me." Thus he prophesied, so it is said. She practised for six months
and impressed on her mind the eight ordinary siddhis, etc., and she
taught the upadesas to all who came before her. Together with five
hundred yoginis and yogins who had exceptional knowledge, together
99
with their retinue, they practised in various countries for the welfare
of beings. It is said by my Guru that she repeatedly returned to her
Guru in order to make offerings to him and to offer her realizations
for checking. Once, by the power of transcendence, she left
K.hagendra and came to Ranganatha. As there were two places there,
one Buddhist and one non Buddhist, she used to frequently wander
about the non Buddhist sites, so it appeared. A certain Jimghama
Mahesvara who was renowned for his mental realizations of
Bhairava, his ritual gazes and his perfection of the clenched fist
siddhi, had in the meantime hindered the Buddhist yogins there-
abouts. His name was Bhimgadeva, and when he exerted his gazes
on the yogini it did not harm.her at all. When the yogini put her
gazes on him, he fell to the ground and could not breathe. He was
left there for a long time and the Tirthikas thereabouts came to her
continually and prayed to her. He was eventually revived by means
of her gaze and he came to have faith in the Buddha's teachings.
He begged to become a follower and he was sent off to go before the
acarya.
Also in Odivisa she came across a yogin named Ghamalavarma
who had broken his vows. Previously he had attained some small
abilities but he was a liar who claimed to be a siddha. She performed
her ritual gazes on him and his body bloated and outflows of blood
poured from it and from his skull. Thus she destroyed a vow breaker.
Whenever she wanted to see Sri Heruka, the ten fierce gods and
Vajrayogini in her thirty-seven levels, she was able to. However, as
regards the highest siddhi, it is said that she did not attain it.
So Siintigupta taught his two best disciples most excellently and
my own three Gurus were taught by them. I myself have, through
my Guru's kindness, heard the basic upadesas of the Vajrayana path.
Generally speaking in India at first there were about one hundred
thousand vidyadharas on the Secret Manila path. Then came Sri
Saraha. Between that time and the era of King Dharmapala there
was an endless, ever-flowing stream of siddhas and many of them
were contemporaries. Then, up to the death of Abhayakara, the flow
of siddhas was not completely cut off but thereafter, in some places,
there were only one or two siddhas. Later on when no other siddhas
had arisen for a long time, even though JD.anamitra and Onkarniitha
had come on the scene, not much of benefit to the Buddha'' s Doctrine
arose. Eighty years after the death of Onkara, the Mahasiddha
Santigupta IOund siddhi and, due to the times, the concensus among
100
Buddhists was that in his usefulness to others, in things great and
small, without any exceptions, he was similar to Jo.Bo, Mahii
Naropa, but that Santigupta attained a higher rank of attainment
than Niiropa.
Here ends the ninth chapter in which all the instructions are
fused into one account which may be likened to a vein of gems.
As for the seven Instructions, they are in fact the sole direct blessing
lineage, and six of them contain the real lineage meaning. One can
know this from the writings of the various Guru lineages and their
detailed upade5as. Even though there are an infinite number of
biographies from which to choose and write, I have not found it
possible to do so, nor have I heard being spoken of, even briefly,
by my Guru several biographies of the lineage Gurus. Those renow-
ned accounts ot those people which can be heard in India nowa-
days, I have narrated and joined with the Tibetan accounts of those
early iiciiryas where they arc reliable. However the great proponents
of Buddhism who came to India, and the various biographies of their
lineage members are spoken of elsewhere.
By thus speaking of the biographies of the Gurus, may whatever
little metit I have thereby attained, be given to all beings without
exception, and thus, may they all become Buddhas. May I, in all
my births, be born as a lineage-holding servant and may I grasp the
secrets of the Guru's spirits. '
Then seven marvellous Instructions, which are the very path of
Vajradhara, is garlanded in all directions with the vast offerings made
by beings. By means of the propounders of these precious upadesas
may my spirit be liberated and may the triple-world be freed from
all want.
The account known as the seven Instructions, the accounts of
the lineages, marvellous like a vein of precious gems, was written
by the so-called Taraniitha when he was nearly twenty-six years old
at a time when he was the junior servant to his Holy Gurus. It was
written at rNam.rgyal.rab.brtan near the monastery of dPal.stag.
lung.thang.
249
The scribe was bLo.ldan.kun.dga'. rnam.rgyal.
Finally a few corrections were made.
MAY JOY COME! ! !
(This has been thoroughly checked.)
101
Notes
1. Tib. bka'.babs Griinwedel translates this as "Inspiration" which I feel is
better translated as "Instruction" or "Divine Instruction".
2. Tii.ranatha's Guru was Tib. Sangs.rgyas.sbas.pa'i.mgon.po. Skt. Buddha-
guptanatha's, a siddha who received his teachings from Tib. Zhi.ba.sbas.pa
Skt. Santigupta. Buddhaguptanatha travelled widely all over the Buddhist
world and even went in search of Skt. Potalaka, the abode of Tib. sPyan.ras.
gzigs. Skt. Avalokitesvara. Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls Vo1.2, p552.
3. Tib. phyag.rgya.chen.mo. Skt Mahamudrii
Name of a system of meditation in which the practicer brings to a stasis
point the tendency to treat phenomena as dualities, revealing as a result of
the practice, Tib. stong.pa.nyid. Skt. Sunyata as Ultimate reality, void of
everything including Tib. stong.pa.nyid. The indivisible unity is known as
Tib. zung.'jug. Skt. Yugannadah.
4. Oqivisa. This place, which is the same place as the modern Orissa, appears
in Taranatha's works spelled variously as Odivisa, Odisa, Odivisa, etc.
5. See Dass, A Tibetan-English Dictionary, P 1178, under the heading Tib.
rig. pa'i.gnas. bcu. brgyad.
6. Tib. brtag.brgyad.
7. Madhyadea. An area of ancient central India extending in a swathe
approximately from present-day Jaipur to Allahabad.
8. Tib. mkhan.po. Skt. Upadyaya. Generally translated as "Abbot" or
"Professor", which in this case does not fit well, although the title "Sthavira"
suggests strongly a monastic background and the dignity of age.
9. Nalanda. A Buddhist university in ancient Magadha, approximately 170
miles East of Varaoasi. Nalandii was founded about 425 A.D. by Kumara-
gupta the first, a Saivite King of the Gupta Dynasty who was converted to
Buddhism somewhere between 415 A.D. and 449 A.D. Sankalia, The
Nalanda University pp 48-59.
10. Tib. thugs.mtshan.ma.med.pa'i.ting.nge.'dzin.
11. Tib. chos.nyid. Skt. Dharmata. "The suchness of things as they are.'' see
Guenther, The Royal Song of Saraha p. 31, f/n.
12. Tib. do.ha. Skt. Doha. A term used to refer to a collection of mystic songs
sung by siddhas in which they express their inner realizations. Saraha sang
three Doh as: the King Doha, the Queen Doha and the People Doha. The
King Doha and several commentaries on it have been translated and given a
philosophic commentary by Guenther, (see bibliography).
13. Tih. rig.'dzin. Skt. Vidyadhara. Literally "Knowledge-holder". One who
by Tantric practice has fully mastered all techniques of mantra, meditation
practice, etc. Most often used to refer to celestial knowledge-bestowers.
14. Mi.nyag.lo.tsa.ba. The translator of Mi.nyag lived from the early-mid
11th. century to the early 12th. century A.D. His family came from the
Mi.nyag area of Khams, near present-day as his name
suggests.
102
15. Vidarbha. This is Berar, a state in the Deccan area of India.
16. Dhinyakataka is the site South India where Sikyamuni Buddha is said
to have preached the Kalacakra Tantra. According to the 'Brug.pa'i.chos
'byung. (full title Chos. 'byung. bstan.pa'i.pad.ma.rgyas.pa'i.nyin.byed.)
of Kun.mkhyen.Padma.dkar.po, (1527-1592 A.D.) edited by Prof. Dr.
Lokesh Chandra as Tibetan Chronicles of Padma-dkar-po, Satapitaka Series,
Vol. 75, "As for the means by which it (i.e. the Kalacakra) spread in
Shambhala, the King Suchandra heard the Tantra preached at the great
stiipa of the Jina at Sri Dhanyakataka and returned there (to Shambhala)
in that year ... " (F. 103 A, lines 1-2).
17. Magadha. The area known as present-day Bihar state.
18. see Tucci, op.cit. Vol. 2, pp 572-573.
see also Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Oracles and Demons of Tibet pp 68-81.
19. Tib. klu. Skt. Naga. A class of being, half human and half snake, whose
abode is subterranean and who control rain, river flow, soil productivity.
The Niga also bring certain infections as retribution for impurity introduced
into their realms. In the Tibetan classification of sentient creatures they are
counted as being in the animal realm. see Rock, The Na-Khi Naga Cult and
Ceremonies. Vols. 1 and 2.
Bloss, The Buddha and the Naga: A Study in Buddhist Folk Religiosity.
in History of Religions Vol. 13, pp 36-53.
20. On this class of literature see Conze, The Prajfiiipiiramita Literature.
21. Tib. gzungs. Skt. Dhiiral)i. A class of magically potent spell which may,
if uttered with correct preparations, overcome certain impediments. Their
efficacy ranges from subjugation of inclement astral forces to mastery over
enemies and evil-doers. see Bannerjee, Narayana Pariprccha. The Gm:zapati
Hrdaya (Tib. 'Phags.pa.tshogs.kyi.bdag.po'i.gzungs.) mentions
benefits accruing to whoever recites the text daily-joy, wealth, ease, free-
dom from the misery of poverty, comeliness, ability to accomplish all manner
of works, and ease in this life and the next. By certain recitation one may be
freed from the malign influence of Tib. sha.za. Skt. Pisaca and also Tib.
mkha.'gro.ma. Skt. l;>akini, etc.
22. Tib. rtog.ge. Skt. Tarka. Refers to works on logic and dialectics. see the
dictionary of 'Jam.mgon.'ju.mi.pham.rgya.mtsho. The work is entitled
sKad.gnyis.shan-.sbyar.rab.gsal nor.bu'i.me.long (F. 97B, line 4)
23. For the Saf!lkara and his refutation of the Mahayana Chatto-
padhyaya, Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India, p 108.
24. See note 144.
25. Tib. mu.stegs.fmu.stegs.can. Skt. Tirthika. Understood by Buddhists as
heretics. According to Edgerton, Buddhist Hydrid Sanskrit Dictionary,
p 254, the term is used as a perjorative. See also the dictionary of 'Jam.
mgon.'ju.mi.pham.rgya.mtsho. Op.cit. F 978, line 4.
26. Tib. mchod.rten. Skt. Stiipa. A physical representation of the c.osrnic order,
incorporating the basic structural shapes of square, circle, triangle and
sun/moon finials. Stiipas are often used as repositaries for holy objects of
no further use, as reliquaries and as objects for circumambulation and merit
accrual.
27. Later in this text we are given more information on this legend by Tara-
103
natha, who says that Dhiiikota is a mountain in Munindra district in the
land of Gandhara. Could this possibly be the Mt. Dantaloka referred
to by Hiuen Tsang as being. "to the North East of Po-Ju-sha city" the
capital of the country of Gandhara? This mountain also had the ability to
assume various hues. Hiuen Tsang refers to this mountain as adopting the
colour of the blood shed by tht> children of the Buddha when, as Prince
Sud ana, he gave them to a Brahqlin. Beal. Buddhist Records of the Western
World, Vol. 1, pp. 112-113.
28. Tib. byang.sgra.mi.snyan. Skt. Uttarakura. A land generally regarded as
pre-eminent for the extraordinary longevity of its inhabitants. Tibetans
regard it as a mystic land which has its reality in the meditative creation
of the offering maQqala of the whole universe:. On earth it was located to the
North of the land of the Kurus who were centered 200 miles north of Delhi.
This puts Uttarakuru perhaps even on the borders of Kashmir. The great
King of Kashmir Lalitaditya Muktapiqa is said to have conquer<:d Uttara-
kuru about 740 A.D. Pandit Kalhana's (4th. Taranga, verse
175).
29. Tib. mi.ma.yin. Skt. A.sura. see note 67.
30. Tib. 'dzam.bu.gling. Skt. Jambudvipa. The ancient name for India.
31. Tib. bde.spyod. Skt. Udayana. I follow Schiefner in his Taranatha's
Geschichte Des Buddhismus In Indien, p 2, f/n 2, although more correctly,
the Sanskrit equivalent appears to be "Udayi." Chattopadhyaya, Op.cit.
p9,f/n 22.
32. A mountain in South India on the River K!$Qii. Law, Historical Geography
of Ancient India, p189. See also Watters, On Yuan Chwang's Travels In
India, Vol. 2, p208.
33. Tib. mtshan.bzang.po.so.gnyis. Skt. The thirty
two auspicious marks found on the body of the Buddha. See Conzt.
Abhisamayiilankiira, pp. 98-99. Nagarjuna, The Precious Garland and The
Song of the FourMindfulnesses(trans. Hopkins and Lati Rinpoche),
pp 43-46.
34. Compare this with Obermiller, Bu.ston's History of Buddhism in India
and Tibet, p. 127.
35. Tib. bde.ba.can. Skt. Sukhavati. The Western Land of Bliss where
Amitabha resides. In Tibet ceremonies are performed which minutely
recreate this paradise in gesture, word and meditation with a view to
allowing the supplicant c:ntry to it.
36. Taranatha's Guru, Buddhaguptanatha, whoso: biography Taranatha wrote,
was a Siddha who roamed the world in search of holy pilgrimage spots and
Taranatha relies heavily on such eye-witness accounts. Tucci notes that
Buddhaguptanatha, "had gone to look for Potalaka (the abode of Avalo-
kitesvara-D.T.) overseas, very probably in some island between India
and the African coast." Tucci follows this with Buddhaguptanatha's
description of Potalaka as recorded by Taranatha. Tucci, Op.cit. Vol. 2,
p. 552ff.
37. Tib. Blo.gros.rin.chen. Skt. Ratnamati. In his History of Buddhism in India,
the Dam.pa'i.chos.rin.po.che. 'phags.pa'i.yul.du.ji.ltar. dar.ba'i.tshul.gsal.bar.
ston.pa.dgos.'dod.kun.'byung. (hereafter referred to as dGos 'dod.kun.
104
'byung.), Sarnath edition, p. 139, Taranatha transliterates Ratnamati's
name rather than translating it.
38. Tib. zung. 'jug. Skt. Yuganaddha. The unity of opposites. Guenther in
translating Advayavajra's Yuganaddhaprakasa says, "The Void and its
Manifestation are by nature coupled (Yuganaddhata)." Guenther,
Yuganaddha-The Tantric View of Life, p. 135. He goes on to say (p. 207-
208) that the path "finds its culmination in the unity of our utter opmness
(stong.nyid) and compassion (snying.rje), because the less we think of what
surrounds us and with what we deal as objects and things and the more
we become aware of their stimulating openness which is as nothing (stong.
pa), the less we are inclined to violate, subjugate and destroy and the more
we tend to infuse our dealings with the world with tenderness (snying.rje)
which comes naturally.
''The goal is not a static absorption into a lifeless and spiritual absolute
but an ever-present unity of rest and action."
39. Tib. mkha'. 'gro.ma. Skt. :Oakini. A class of spiritually realized celestial
beings who may assist in performing Tantric practic:. ])akinis may also
be understood in Tantric literature as "Divine Consort", "Bestower of
Mystic Power" or "Personification of the Tantric Mystery".
40. Tib. rDo.rje.'chang. Skt. Vajradhara. The divine personification of the
unity of Wisdom and Means, two core concepts in Tantric practice. Attain-
ment of the rank of Vajradhara also implies attainment of his spiritual
abilities.
41. Tib. U.rgyan. Skt. O<J<Jiyana/Udayana. An area renowned as fertile,
tantric soil, corresponding to the modern Swat valley in Pakistan. see Tucci
Travels of Tibetan Pilgrims in the Swat Valley. However for a recent and very
well argued interpretation of its location at Kanci in South India see Lokesh
Chandra's paper titled O(#iyana: a new interpretation, in Aris and Aung
San Suu Kyi, Tibetan Studies in Honour of High Richardson.
42. Tib. dbang.bskur.ba. Skt. Abhi-;ekha. This is loosely translated as
"initiation". It entails submeanings of purification, preparation of the ground
(the aspirant), and as Snellgrove notes the "bestowal of power", which is
the literal meaning of the Tibetan term. see Snellgrove, The Hevajra Tantra,
Vol. 1, pp. 131-133; Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 54-70.
43. Tib. gdams.ngag. Skt. Upadea. Textual explanations given by the Guru
to the aspirant after the dbang.bskur. (see note 42). They are often orally
presented.
44. Tib. skye.ba.bdun.pa. Skt. Saptavarta. Literally "one born seven times"
as a Brahf!lal)a-i.e. one who has reached a high spiritual and physica
state. "Should anyone partake of the flesh of a 'seven born' briihf11al)a, he
would attain miraculous powers/siddhi." Roerich The Blue Annals, p. 858.
45. This is an example of a doha. Its profound meaning may be partly inferred
by the general reader but it becomes a spiritually moving verse to an initiate.
46. This is an allusion to the Sunyata principle manifested by Liiyipa.
47. Tib. mngon.rtogs. Skt. Abhisamaya. This refers to the teachings of the
eight Abhisamayas, (Tib. mngon.rtogs.brgyad. Skt. Padarthiih),
subsections of the Prajiiaparamita text the Paiicavirp.satisahasrika-prajiia-
paramita. The eight sub-sections are, to use Conze's reconstruction, "from
105
the revised version of the Paiicavirpsatisahasrika, and in a few cases from
Haribhadra's commentary." Conze, Abhisamayalankara, p. 3.
(1) The knowledge of all modes.
(2) The knowledge of the paths.
(3) All knowledge.
(4) The full understanding of all modes.
(5) The full understanding at its summit.
(6) Gradual re-union.
(7) The single-Instantaneous re-union.
(8) The Dharma body.
48. A crucial idea in the Vajrayiina is that of the work of the aspirant. Via
the Guru's prescience, the work performed becomes a teacher.
49. Tib. rNam. gnon. tshul. Skt. VikramaSila. (Note Tiiranatha's spelling.) A
monastic university in North-East India, the exact site of which has not yet
been clearly located. Chattopadhyaya, Ama and Tibet, pp. 102-112.
50. AtiSa (982-1054 A.D.) held the post of chief doctrinal instructor at
VikramaSila during which time it was he who expelled the Siddha mNga'.
bdag.Maitri.pa. (Advayavajra) for non-observance of the monastic rules.
Hadano, A Historical Study in the Problems Concerning the Diffusion of
Tantric Buddhism in India-Advayavajra alias M!la!J-bdag Maitri-pa.
51. Atisa left for Tibet in 1040 A.D. For the problems of dating this beyond
doubt see Chattopadhyaya Ati!a and Tibet, pp. 307-311.
52. Tib. tsa.tsa. Clay figures often impressed with the shape of a divinity
or a stupa, often also found with benedictions. Sometimes they are modelled
in three dimensional form. They are made at the worshippers request and
are deposited by him at a monastery, in a stiipa or at a holy spot as an act
of piety.
Tucci, The Ancient Civilization of Transhimalaya, pp. 116-118 and photos
89-108.
Tucci mChod-rten e Tsha-tsha nel Tibet indiana ed occidentale. (lndo-Tibetica
Vol. I)
53. Tib. 'ja'.lus. In the higher realms of practice the mundane body is transfor-
med into a body of light, a Nirmiil)akaya form.
54. Tib. dpa'.bo. Skt. Vira. A class of minor gods formed from the radiant
aspects of the meditator's physical form. Tucci, The Religions of Tibet,
p. 266, note 42. Also dpa' .bo. are a class of mediums who transmit the
injunctions of various protective divinities.
55. A male <}akioi. (see not 39)
56. Tib. dngos. grub. Skt. Siddhi. The perfection of practice leads not only
towards Enlightenment but to the power to work certain "transformations".
The Siddha, one who has Siddhi, attains mastery over normal states of
existence and can work, what to the outsider appears to be miracles. To the
Siddha such "miracles" are part of normal reality itself.
57. Tib. bSil.ba.tshal. Skt. Sitavana. A charnel ground to the North-west of
Nalanda. Chag.lo.tsa.ba. visited Sitavana in 1234 A.D. He graphically
describes the place thus: "The great cemetery Sitavana is situated in a tree-
106
less clearing inside a large forest to the North-West of Nalanda. In this
forest there were numerous venemous snakes with spotted bodies and black
heads, of the size of a man's thigh. The tops of thickets (in the forest) used
to shake and emit a cracking noise when the snakes moved about." Roerich,
Biography of Dharmasvamin (Chag-Lo-tsa-ba Chos-rje-dpal) a Tibetan
Monk Pilgrim, p. 85.
see also Law, Op. cit. p. 260.
58. Tib. Nag.po.chen.po. Skt. Mahakala. A Tantric protective divinity who can
assume 72 or 75 forms (Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Op. cit. p. 38). See also refe-
rences in Grtinwedel, Mythologie du Buddhisme au Tibet et en Mongolie,
especially illustration on p. 59 of gYung.ston.rdo.rje.dpal. who conjured
Mahiikala's appearance. A description of this illustration appears on p. 68
of Grunwedel's work. A colour illustration of the same incident is to be
found in Hackin, Asiatic Mythology, after p. 192.
59. Tib. Ma.la.ba. Skt. Malava. Taranatha in his dGos.'dod.kun.'byung
(Sarnath ed'n) refers to Malava as being in the Western region of the present-
day Madhya Pradesh. On p. 25 of the above-mentioned work he says,
" 'Phags.pa.Nag.po.la.bstan.pa.gtad.de.ma.la.wa'i. yul.gyi.khyad.par.'phags.
gyi.yul.du.mya.ngan.las.'das.so." "(Dhitika), entrusting A.rya with
the Teachings, passed into Nirval)a in. the land of Ujjain in the land of
Malava."
see also Watters, Op. cit. p. 242ff.
60. Tib. gtor.ma. Skt. Bali A sacrificial or offering cake usually made of par-
ched barley flour, butter and dyestuffs. For some of the variety of gtor.
ma see Beyer, The Cult of Tara.
61. Tib. lta.stangs. Skt. For reference to the practice of the Four Gazes
in the tradition of Hevajra practice, see Snellgrove Op.cit. Vol. 1, pp.
84-86.
62. Tib. bar.do. Skt. Antarabhava. The period between death and rebirth of
consciousness. For literature concerning rituals and liturgy of the bar.do.
period see, Rinbochay and Hopkins Death, Intermediate State and Rebirth
in Tibetan Buddhism.
Tucci, ll Libro Tibetano Dei Morti.
Lauf, Secret Doctrines of the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Fremantle and
Trungpa, The Tibetan Book of the Dead-The Great Liberation Through
Hearing in the Bardo. Evans-Wentz, The Tibetan Books of the Dead. For a
study of the art of the bar.do. period see Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls,
Vol. 2, pp. 548-551.
63. Tib. 'phags.yul. Skt. A.ryadeSa. This refers to India, the "sublime land",
which is, in effect a translation of the Tibetan phrase.
64. see Roerich, Blue Annals, p. 866.
65. Tib. de.kho.na.nyid.bcu.pa'i.'grel. Skt. Tattvadasakatika. Written by
Sahajavajra and found in the Peking Edition of the bstan.'gyur,rgyud.xlvi,
40, F176A, line-2- F195A, line 3.
Tib. gnas.pa.bsdus.pa. Skt. Stithi-samucchaya. Written by Sahajavajra and
found in the Peking Edition of the bstan.'gyur, rgyud xlvi, 12, F99A, line
5-F107A, line 8.
66. Skt. Karnataka. This refers to the area of South India where Kanarese is
107
spoken, i.e. the modern state of Karnataka.
67. Tib. mi.ma.yin. Skt. A.sura. Inhabitants of one of the six realms of rebirth
and suffering. A.suras are marked by lust for and possession of power and
also by their headstrong nature. see Jams. Pal, et. al. Nagdjara's Letter
to King Gautamiputra, p. 53.
68. Tib. gtum.rrto. Skt. Candikii. In Hinduism, Candiki is considered to be
one of the Divine of the Universe. see The Sakti Cult and
Tarii, p. 89 and Apte, The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p. 434,
under the heading "Matr." In the Hevajra Tantra (Trans. Snellgrove),
Caoc:Jika appears as one of the 32 "veins" which bear bodhicitta. In the
Samvarodaya Tantra (selected chapters translated by Tsuda) Chap. xiii,
Verse 38, Cai:J.c:Jika is seen as one of the "Armour Spell" divinities along with
Yamini, Mohani. Saf!lcalini and Saf!ltrasini. In Vajrayana, the practice of
gtum.mo. leads, via rigorous meditation, to the body being pervaded by
an intense heat which drives off or consumes the hindering agents.
69. According to the etymology of the word "Telugu", it is partly derived from
the word "Trilinga", the country containing three Lingas at Srisailam
in the East, Draksharama in the district of Godavari (Law, Op. cit. p. 150)
and at Kalesvara. Majumdar, The History and Culture of the Indian People,
(hereafter referred to as H.C.I.P.), Vol 5, p. 373.
70. Although Taranatha certainly writes :Oiikinipata, perhaps this refers to
the Southern area known as Dakshinpatha. Law, Op. cit. p. 14. See also
Bajpai, The Geographical Encyclopaedia of Ancient and Medieval India,
Vol. 1, p. 100 for mention of Dakshiniipatha. In possibly the same area is
:Oakini. one of the twelve celebrated sites of pilgrimage for the great
Jyotirlingas, at the temple of Bhimasankara, North-West of Poona.
71. See note 70.
72. For a description of Somanatha temple in Saurashtra and its destruction
by Mahmud of Gha7ni in 1025 A.D. see Majumdar, Op. cit. Vol. 5, pp.
19-21.
73. Does this refer to the Buddha's own predictions concerning the duration
of his doctrine or to the forth-coming Ghaznavid invasion?
74. Tib. sa. the.gtsugs.nas. I have chosen to translate this word by "persistently".
75. King Ramapala of Bengal acceded to the throne 1077 A.D. and died 1120
A.D.
76. Tib. kla.klo. Skt. Mleccha. A term used in reference to the Muslims. Also
used to express the idea of a person or group without law or any restraining
influences.
77. Tib. stag.gzigs. Refers especially to the Iranian Empire, held in special
reverence by certain groups, including the Sakyas. Often used in reference to
the Muslim world in general.
78. Virupa is the earthly transmitter of the teachings in a direct line from
Tib. rDo.rje.'chang, Skt. Vajradhara, and Tib. bDag.med.ma, Skt. Nairatma.
He spent some time at the Five Holy Peaks in Western China, Tib. ri.bo.
rtse.lnga. These peaks are the earthly seat of Maiijusri and a very popular
pilgrimage spot for Tibetans, Mongols and Chinese. It is also believed to be
the site where astrology originated. In the bShad.mdzod.yid.bzhin.nor.bu.
written by Don.dam.smra.ba'i.senge. published by Prof. L. Chandra as
108
A Fifteellffz Century Tibetan Compendium of Knowledge, Satapitaka Series,
Vol. 78, the author, in an answer to the question, "Firstly, where did astro-
logy originate?" answers, "rtsis.byung.rgya.nag.yul.nas.byungj rtsis.bshad.
'phags.pa.'jam.dpal.bshad/ bshad.gnas.ri.bo.rtse.Inga.yin/ " which I trans-
late as, "Astrology originated in China and was expounded by Mafijusri
at the Five Holy Peaks." (F 220B, line 6-F221A, line 1)
79. Died approximately 600 A.D. Watters, Op. cit. Vol. 2, p. 169.
80. If this is the same place as Kongkuna, then see references in Majumdar,
Op.cit. Vol. 5. See also reference in note 183 hereunder.
81. Tib. rdo.rje.thod.pa. Skt. Vajrakapala. A skull cup, either real or made of
precious metals and used iu Tantric practice for the ritual drinking of the
nectar of gnosis. It appears to non-initiates frequently as a simple skull
cup.
82. This whole sentence is missing in the translation of this work by Griinwedel.
83. Could this be the same as the present-day Tripura, a State of India to the
east of Bangladesh?
84. Raqha. "The province of Raqha seems to have comprised tl1e modern
districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankura and major portions of
Midnapore.'' Law Op.cit. p. 254. Also according to Law (Loc. sit.) the people
were rude and "hostile to the ascetics. The dogs were set upon them
by the Rliqha people .... The mischief makers whom the lonely ascetics had
to reckon with were the cowherds (gopalaka) who made practical jokes on
them.''
85. Pre5umably this refers to coins, perhaps containing a floral motif.
86. Griinwedel has "with his disciples looking at him" and has evidently
omitted "seated in meditation".
87. The common representation of Siva as a phallus. see Singh, Himalayan
Art, p. 132.
Rawson, The Art of Tantra, illustrations 172 and 173.
88. Grunwedel appears to misread two of these names. He reads: Nag.po.
spyod.pa. for Nags.khrod.pa. and he also reads: sGra.gcan.'dzin.bzang.po.
for sGra.gcan.'dzin.rdo.rje.
89. Tib. Nag.po.spyod.pa. Skt. This Siddha is identical with Kan-
hapa. Five Historical Works of Taraniitlza, (ed. Tseten Dorje), Text 2,
which ir the two part biography of called in Tibetan
sLop.djJon.chen.po.spyod.'chang.dbang.po'i.rnam.thar.ngo.mtshar.snyan. pa'i.
sgra.dbyangs. See especially F133A; line 3, for oblique references to
his names, and F133B, line 4, for the various names he is referred to by.
90. The activities of appeasing, increasing, prospering, mastering and destroy-
ing. Lessing and Wayman, mKhas.grub.rje's Fundamentals of the Buddhist
Tantras, p. 137. See note 246.
91. Tib. phra.men.ma. Skt. Pisaka. A flesh-eating demon belonging to the
class.
92. Presumably the city of the same name in Pakistan.
93. Tib. sha.chen. Skt. Mahamarpsa. One of the five types of "Great Flesh,"
(Tib. sba.chen.lnga.) which the Tantric yogini or yogini is supposed to eat
ritually. However as in many texts, the sha.chen.lnga. and other things
Taranatha discusses in this work are put in a hidden language and must
109
under no circumstances be seen to be literal.
see, Elder, Problem of Language in Buddhist Tantra in History of
Religion, Vol. 15, pp. 231-250.
Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 128-135.
Bharati, The Tantric Tradition, pp. 164-184.
Majumdar, The CarytJpadas, pp. 93-102.
94. Tib. sPyod.pa.pa. Skt. Caryapa.
95. Refers to Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
96. Tib. mon. "Mon is the region marked Mon Yul on Bell's map, which lies
due south of the Yar Lung Valley and south-east of Lho-brag, and centers
around the Tsona Dzong of the maps." Wylie, The Geography of Tibet
According to the 'Dzam-gling-rgyas-bshad, p. 103. This work is a translation
of the 'Dzam.gling.chen.po'i.rgyas.bshad.snod.bcud.kun.gsal.me.long.zhes.
bya.ba. by Bla.ma.bTsan.po./sMin.grol.No.mon.han. The area on the
Indian side of the border due South of Mon.yul is the Kameng Frontier
Division of Arunachal Pradesh.
97. Indrabhiiti was a King of Tib. U.rgyan, Skt. oq.q.iyana, (see note 41),
and he lived in the second half of the 8th. cent. A.D. He was a renowned
Tantric adept as was his sister who commented on Tantric
texts widely. On the problem of ascribing exact dates to lndrabhiiti see
Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls, Vol. 1, p. 232. For a brief biography of King
Indrabhiiti see Robinson, Buddha's Lions: The Lives of the 84 Siddhas,
pp. 150-152. This work is a translation of Abhayadatta's Grub.thob.brgyad.
bcu.rtsa.bzhi'i.rnam.thar. On the problem of multiple Indrabhiitis see
Snellgrove, Op.cit. pp. 11-14.
98. Tib. gSang.ba'i.bdag.po. Skt. Guhyapatti. "The Master of Secrets".
Vajrapiil}.i adopts this form when dealing with certain texts of which he
becomes the protector. In Taranatha's text dealing with the origins of the
Tara Tantra, the sGrol.ma'i.rgyud.kyi.byung.khung.gsal.bar.byed.pa'i.lo.
rgyus.gser.gyi.phreng.ba, p. 13-14, Vajraparyi is said to have "secreted (the
Tantras) in the abodes of Vaisravana and the Vidyadharas, so that there-
after all the Tantras would not disappear from the world of humans. To
further ensure this VajrapaQ.i transformed himself into King Indrabhiiti,
and having written all the Tantras up into book form, hid them in the so-
called 'Dharma Treasury', so it is said."
99. Tib. bslab.pa.gsurn. Skt.
The Three Trainings are:
1. Training in Morality,
2. Training in Meditation,
3. Training in Wisdom.
100. Tib. pha.rol.tu.phyin.pa.drug.
Skt. Sad Paramita.
1. Tib. sbyin.pa.
2. Tib. tshul.khrims.
3. Tib. bzod.pa.
4. Tib. brtson.'grus.
110
Skt. Dana.
Skt. Sila.
Skt.
Skt. Virya.
Generosity.
Morality.
Forebearance.
Energy.
S. Tib. bsam.gtan.
Skt. Dhyana. Meditation/
Concentration.
6. Tib. shes.rab. Skt. Prajiia. Penetrating
Wisdom.
101. Tib. gang.zag.brgyad. Skt. Astapudgala. The Eight aspects of the Individual.
102. Tib. longs.spyod.rdzogs.pa'i.sku. Skt. Sambhogakaya. "The Body of
Enjoyment". It is interesting to compare the insights of Dasgupta, An
Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, pp. 10-13, with those of Guenther, The
Royal Song of Saraha, p. 76, where he says, "Ultimate noeticness or, more
precisely, noetic being (chos-sku, Dharmakiiya) is of the three existential
norms and of primary importance. It functions and expresses itself through
the more 'concrete' and sensuous norms of communication with its rich-
ness of possible meanings (longs-sku, sambhogakaya) and of existing in a
world of various phenomena as the outward form of pure reality (sprul-sku,
nirmiil)akiiya)."
103. Tib. lhan.cig.skyes.(grub). Skt. Sahaja(siddhi). The t::rm lhan.cig.skyes.
is used in reference to non-discrimination between phenomena which to
the worlding appears as individual entities. The text Sahajasiddhi (rgyud.
xlvii, 1) was written by King Indrabhiiti.
104. Dasgupta, Op.cit. pp. 101-102.
lOS. This commentary is the Sahajasiddhi Paddhati, (rgyud.xlvii, 2) by L a k ~ m i n
kara, the sister of King Indrabhiiti.
106. see note 41.
107. Tib. sa.bcu. Skt. Dasabhiimi. The ten stages of a Bodhisattva's career.
Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature, chap.vi
especially pp. 283-291.
108. Mahapadmavajra, according to Snellgrove Op.cit. Vol I p. 14, may be
"identified with Padmasambhava, adopted son of Indrabhiiti, who goes to
Tibet in the second half of the 8th. century".
109. Tib. mTsho.skyes. Skt. Saroruha.
110. The middle IndrabhUti corresponds with Indrabhiiti 2 on Snellgrove's
list, Op.cit. Vol. 1, p. 13.
111. See note 89.
112. According to Apte, Op.cit. p. 426, Maru is a "desert, sandy desert, a wilder-
ness", perhaps linking Taranatha's information in this work with an accont
from his text dealing with the origins of the Tara Tantra, the sGrol.ma'i.
rgyud.kyi.byung.kung.gsal.bar.byed.pa'i.lo.rgyus.gser.gyi.phreng.ba, p. 21.
There Taranatha says that a Gujarati trader on his way to Maru had to travel
through "the territory of a bandit gang which was situated in the midst of
a veritable wilderness". We could reasonably guess that Maru was the
region around the present-day Marusthali desert area of Rajasthan.
113. Tib. phyag.rgya.bzhi'i.man.ngag. Skt. Caturmudraupadea. This text is
found in rgyud.xivii, 37. It was composed by Advayavajra. See index entries
under "mudra" and "seal" in Lessing and Wayman, Op.cit, especially pp.
229-249.
114. On Anuttara Yoga Tantra see Lessing and Wayman, Op.cit. pp. 251-269.
115. and 116. This fundamental ideas of Tantric practice, the non-abandonment
of negativity, has been elegantly explained by Trungpa, The Myth of Freedom,
Ill
pp. 73-80.
117. Grunwedel misreads this sentence and refers to Vinapa as Vinapada.
(Tib. Pi.wam.zhabs.)
118. Possibly the same Laksminkarii referred to in Note 97.
119. Tib. Skt. Srimatigarbha.
120. Tib. bskyed.rim. Skt. Utpattikrama. Tib. rdzogs.rim. Skt.
The first process (Tib. bskyed.rim.) is one of evocation or emanation,
wherein the practicer creates a "reality". Then by means of the second
process this "reality" is is seen and experienced as being void and insub-
stantial. The Hevajra Tantra (Snellgrove Op.cit.), p. 91 (Part 2, chap. 1,
sloka 29) says, "The yogin conceives of the diversity of existence as the
process of Emanation, and realizing the dream-like nature of this diversity,
he renders it undiversifi-::d by means of its diversity."
121. Tib. mtshan.ma.med.pa'i.ting.nge.'dzin. Skt. Animittasamadhi.
122. See notes 115 and 116.
123. The word (Tib.)"thengs" can have the meaning (Tib.) phyag. tu., according
to the dictionary, Bod.u.ru.su.ming.mdzod. by Semichov, Parfinovich and
Dandaron, p. 236.
124. Tib. dpag.tshad. Skt. Yojana. One of these linear measurements is equi-
valent to a distance of about 9 miles. Soothill and Hodous, A Dictionary
of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 197. A pte, Op.cit. p. 460.
125. Tib. skyu.ru.ra. Skt. Amrika. The Tamarisk, a bitter medicinal and culinary
fruit.
126. See note 97 for the problem of multiple Indrabhiitis. In the commentary
on the Sahajasiddhi, Zhon.nu.dpal. notes the words, "she taught it to
King Indrabhiiti or La.ba.pa." Zhon.nu.dpal. the11 says (Roerich, Blue
Annals, p. 363), "Some who had expressed the view that King Indrabhiiti
and La.ba.pa. had been different personalities would be unable to explain
the passage in the commentary in the Sahajasiddhi."
127. lndrabhiHi, the Guru of Jiilandharipa, is of course the same perso11 Tara-
natha refers to elsewhere as "Indrabhiiti, the midclle one".
128. Tib. bde.ba.chen.po. Skt. Mahasukha. see references in Snellgrove, Op.cit.
129. Sindhu is probably the area known as Sind on present-day maps. The
ancient Chinese referred to India as Sindhu, which is another name for the
River Indus. see Law, Op.cit. p. 8, and
Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, p. xvi.
130. "Jalandhara included the State of Chamba on the North, Mandi and
Sukhet on the East and Satadru on the South-East." Law, Historical Geo-
graphy of Ancie11t India, p. 86. See also the same page for reference to
Jawalamukhi, site of the temple of the same name. The temple is renowned
for its natural gas jets which flame from a boulder below which are, "little
reservoirs of water which has oozed from the rock". Vigne, Travels in
Kashmir, Ladak and Jskardoo, qouted in Charak, History and Culture
of the Himalayan States, Vol. I, pp. Bl-133.
For the Devi cult at Jawalamukhi and in Kangra State, sec Charak, Op. cit.
Vol. 3, p 117.
131. Possibly a reference to Svayambhu in Kathmandu. Svayambhu is usually
called Tib. 'phags.pa.shing.kun. by Tibetans.
112
132. Camparua was in fact not a country as Tarauatha)efers to it here and in
his History of Buddhism (the chos. 'byung), but was the capital of the land
of Anga in Eastern India. Camparna "is situated at a short distance from
modern Bhagalpur". Law, ibid. pp. 204-209.
Compare various editions of the chos. 'byung. for spelling variations:
Camparna, Scheifner, Tarantithae Doctrinae Buddhicae in India Propagatione,
p. 20.
Camparna, Tseten Dorje, Five Historical Works of Ttiranatha, F. 13, A.
Cambiirna, Mongolian Lama Guru Deva editon, p. 25.
133. See Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, pp. 207-208 and pp. 391-392.
134. A Tibetan silver coin weighing some 5 grammes.
135. Buddhism has many stories where miraculous events are performed by
those impaled on stakes (Tib. gsal.shing.). See especially Roerich, Ibid,
pp. 6-7, on the founding of the Sakya race by the monk Gautama who,
while impaled on a stake without any progency, managed to create two
sons by the recollection of his previous sexual experiences.
136. Tib. dbu.ma. Skt. Avadhuti. The rites referred to are purifications to make
the mind ready for the advent of the psychic forces which, when aroused
by the yogin, pass up the central channel to the mind and fully awaken it.
On the nature of these channels, it is important to understand that they are
not in any way part of the "real" human body. Rather they refer to specific
mental processes and their fruition. Reference to "channels", etc., in the
human body is simply used as a means of explaining the movement of the
forces as they are aroused in the yogic process.
137. Dasgupta, Ibid, pp 391-392.
138. Majumdar, History of Ancient Bengal, pp. 197-198, and f/n 292. See also
Dasgupta Ibid, pp. 394-397.
139. Dasgupta Ibid, states that Jalandharipa was buried at the ins.tigation of
King Gopicandra's Queen and his minister, and that he was buried under
the stable floor. (p. 392-393.)
140. Tib. khal. A weight of approximately 30 lbs.
141. Possibly this is the same place as Rame5varam, an island in the Bay of
Bengal. Law, Op.cit. p. 185.
142. Tib. ma.mo. Skt. Mat:ka. "A class of Ancient Tibetan goddesses are the
ma.mo, who show a close similarity to the Miitrka of India. dPal.ldan.lha.
mo, the most prominent protectress of religion is.their mistress ... most of the
ma.mo. are depicted as ugly and ferocious female figures of a black colour,
half-naked, with emaciated breasts and clotted hair. Their typical weapons
are the sack full of diseases (nad.kyi.rkyal.pa), the magic notched stick
(khram.shing), a black snare (zhags.pa.nag.po), and a magic ball of thread
(gru.gu)." Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Op.cit. pp. 269-270.
143. Maru, an ancient Kingdom in what is nowadays known as the Marusthali
area of Rajasthan. See note 112.
144. Saindhava/Sendhapa. Sriivaka Scndhapas (Saindhavas). As late as the
time of the visit of Dharmasvamin, Chag.lo. tsa.ba.chos.rje.dpal, to the Holy
places of India (1234-1236), Vajrasana was under the control of the Srii-
vakas of Ceylon, who alone had the right to admit people to the site.
Roerich, Biography of Dharmasvamin, pp. 73-74. In fact the Dharmasvamin
113
was denied acctss to the site until he hid a copy of the Prajiia-
paramitii he was carrying and had listened to a diatribe against A.rya Niigar-
juna. Who were these "Sravakas", and from where did they come?
Tariinatha consistently refers to them as "Singhala Sravakas" or "Sravaka
Sendhapas (Saindhavas) of Singhala". (sGol.ma'i. rgyud.kyi.byung.khung.
gsal.bar.byed.pa'i.lo.rgyus.gser.gyi.phreng.ba, p. 39, line 14. See also the
dGos.'dod.kun.'byung, p. 204 line 18-19.) Their activities some 400 years
before the arrival of Dharmasvamin are n:corded vividly by Taranatha in
text sGrol.ma'i rgyud.kyi.byung.khung ......... p. 39. "In the time of King
Dharmapiila there was a stone statue of Tara situated beside the spring from
which the Northern and Eastern monks of Bodhgaya fetched their water.
At that time the Sravaka Sendhapas of Singhala burned many Tantric
scriptures of the Mantrayana and, finding a large silver image of Heruka,
they destroyed that too. They also did a great deal of damage to the man gala
of Buddhasrijnana." Nalinaksha Dutt in Vol. 4 of Majumdar, H.C.I.P.
suggests that these Saindhavas came from Ceylon and Sindhu (Sindh).
There were certainly Hinayanists in Sindh in the 7-8th. centuries A.D.
(Elliot and Dowson, The History of India as Told by its Own Historians,
Vol. 1, p. 136) but there is also evidence in the Chach Ncima that Tantrikas
were also there. During Muhammad ibn-Kasim's invasion of Sindh in the
early 8th. cent. A.D. there was a samani (srlimanera) named Buddh-Raku
(Buddha who by his "enchantments and magical powers prolonged
the resistance of the city for one year" (Op.cit. p. 147). This monk was "so
skilled in magic and enchantments that he had made a (sic.) world obedient
and submissive to him" (Op.cit. p. 148). Such practices seem hardly the
norm for a Hinayanist. Chach, the mighty conqueror, was unable to slay
this monk because, as he says, (Op.cit. p. 150) "I saw something which was
no magic or charm, for when I looked at him, something came before my
vision and as I went before him, I beheld a dreadful and horrible phantom
standing at his head. Its eyes blazed like fire, and were full of anger, and
its lips were long and thick and its teeth resembled pikes. He had a spear in
his hand, which shone like diamonds and it appeared as if he were going to
strike someone with it." It would appear that Chach had been in some
confrontation with Buddha Rak$ita's tutolary divinity or one of the Dharma-
palas coerced by the monk. Whether the Sravakas who held Vajrasana in
Dharmasvamin's time were in fact all Ceylonese, or whether they were
in part Sindhis is unknown. Some other questions also arise. If Hinayanists
and Tantrikas were both present in 8th. Cent. Sindh, surely the former
would have learned the risks involved in reviling and attacking the latter
whose magical practices terrified even Chach. How did such a group main-
tain executive control over the holiest Buddhist site for so long (at least 400
years) in the midst of a land where the Buddhists remaining were overwhel-
mingly Mahayanist in character? To attempt answers is beyond the scope
of a note but the questions deserve some further research.
145. Vibhutidasa, possibly for Vibhutipada or Vibhuticandra, was a teachtr of
Bu.ston.rin.po.che. Ruegg, The Life of Bu.ston.rin.po.che, p. 89.
146. See note 89.
147. In Taranatha's work on the life of KHoacarya (see note 89) his birthplace
114
is said to be in Eastern India, in the Kingdom of Gaura in an area called
OruvHa, near Bengal. The quotation from one of his dohas some lines below
in this translation is also used in his more extensive biography, so there'
is no doubt that Tiranitha refers to the same person. Some lines below in
this translation, in accord with the prophecy of birth made
by the Buddha, it is said that he will be born in Uruvisa, (see Note 89.
The Biography of F. 133B, line 6 says "Oruvisa"). which accor-
ding to Taranatha's Guru Buddhaguptanatha is very close to Bengal. This
accords with the view of another eminent Tibetan savant, Rva.chos.rab.
(see next note).
148. Rva.chos.rab, or as he is otherwise known, Rva.lo.tsa.ba.rdo.rje.grags.
was a great practicer of the Yamintaka cycle. Roerich, Blue Annals, pp.
374-379.
149. See Tiranatha's Biography of Kuf.lilcarya referred to in note 89, F. 135B,
lines 3-6.
150. See note 89.
151. Possibly the Devikota referred to in Majumdar, History of Ancient Bengal,
p. 320. "The ruins of the city are found about eighteen miles south of Dinaj-
pur town in the village of Bangarh."
152. Tashi Dzong (Tib. bKra. shis.rdzong.) edition F60B, line 6 reads Antarpa.
'Tibetan Nyingma (Tib. rNying.ma.) Monastery edition F211A, line 5 reads
Antarga.
153. Chattopadhyaya in her translation of Taranatha's rGya.gar.chos.'byung.
entitled Tarantitha's History of Buddhism in India, suggests (p. 255) that
perhaps Chatighavo is the "modern Chittagong".
154. Perhaps the Junior Translator of Mar.do. is the same person as rMa.lo.
tsa.ba, born 1044 A.D. See Roerich, Blue Annals, p. 220.ff.
155. Taranatha spells the name as Pu.rangs. Its more usual spellings are: sPu.
rangs; sPu.rang; Pu.hrangs. These refer to the area of Western Tibet directly
to the South of Mt. Kallas (Tib. Gangs.ri.ti.se.) and Lake Manasarovar,
(Tib. Ma.pham.gyu.mtsho.). For references to the Junior translator of
Pu.rangs. see Roerich, Blue Annals.
156. This is possibly the same person as dPyal.lo.tsa.ba.
157. Compare this with two other Biographies ofNaropa. The mKhas.grub.kun.
gyi.gtsug.rgyan.pan.chen.Nti.ro.pa'i.rnam.thar.ngo.mtshar.rmad.byung, trans-
lated by Guenther as The Life and Teaching of Naropa, says on page 7 that
he was a prince born in "the midst of some hundred thousand towns, in the
city (Tib.) 'dzam.bu. in Srinagara, a district of Bengal".
The short Biography in Robinson Op.cit. says on p. 93 that Niiropa was
"from a family of wine sellers, but he himself gave up this family profession.
In Saliputra, in eastern India, he earned his living by gathering wood." It
is of interest to note that Sum.pa.mkhan.po. agrees with Taranitha as to
Naropa's birthplace and caste.
158. The gatekeeping tradition in Indian monastic universities is of importance.
These great centres, the most prominent being Nalanda, Vikram!ISila,
Odantapuri and J agaddala were primarily centres of learning, although other
activities were certainly pursued there. Entry was restricted to those who
could "debate their way in", Such debates were possibly entered into with
115
gatekeepers, all of whom appear to have been great scholars. During Atisa's
(982-1054 A.D.) incumbency as dge.bskos. or provost at Vikrami!Sila, he
was enjoined to expel Maitrigupta/Advayavajra for an infraction of the
monastic rules. The expulsion was accomplished by sending the offender
"over the wall", presumably a deep humiliation considering the arduous
method of entry via debate with a gatekeeper. See Sankalia, Op.cit.
Dutt, Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India.
Chattopadhyaya, Atiia and Tibet., (esp. chapters 12-15)
159. Phullahari. A hillock near the ancient monastic university of Odantapur
dGe.'dun.chos.'phel's reference to Phullahari, quoted in Chattopadhyaya,
Ibid, pp. 119-120, may be found in extenso in the reprint of that great scho-
lar's guide to the pilgrimage spots in India on pp. 13 and 14. It is entitled the
rGya.gar.gyi.gnas.chen.kluig.la.bgrod.pa'i.lam.yig. by A.mdo.dGe.'dun.
chos. phel. For a description of Niropa's hermitage as it was in 1234-1236
A.D. see Roerich, Biography of Dlzarmasvamin, p. 85.
160. Tib. mdzad.pa.bcu.gnyis. This refers to the twelve deeds of the Buddha into
which major headings his life may be summarized. But as Tucci notes,
" ... Siikyamuni's life appeared so eventful that it could not be reduced to
these twelve essential moments", and Tibetan tradition knows of more
extensive lists of events, for example Taranatha's summary in one hundred
and twenty five episodes, the bCom.ldan.'das.tlmb.pa'i.dbang.po'i.mdzad.
pa.mdo.tsam.brjod.pa.mthong.bas.don.ldan.rab.tu.dga'.ba.dang.bcas.pas.dad.
pa'i.nyin.byed.phyogs.brgyar.'char.ba. and the summary in one hundred
episodes, "with the well-defined aim of furnishing a guide to artists", the
sTon.pa.sha.kya. dbang.po'i.mdzad.pa.brgya.pa'i.bris.yig.rje.btsun.kzm.dga'.
snying.gis.mdzad.pa. Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls, Vol. 2, pp. 354-357.
As for Naropa's twelve deeds of self-denial see Guenther, The Life and
Teaching of Ntiropa, pp. 42-86. See also Poppe, The Twelve Deeds of
Buddha. a Mongolian Veasio11 of the Lalitavistara.
161. The division of Tib. rnal.'byor.bla.med.kyi.rgyud. Skt. Anuttarayoga-
tantra into two groups, Mother and Father, depends on several factors-
nature of the mal)qala, the instructions which accompany the Tantra, etc.
The reader should consult Lessing and Wayman, Op.cit. pp. 251-267.
162. Pham.mthing. (Tiranitha spells the name Pam.thing.) was Naropa's pupil
for nine years. He had three brothers. Roerich, Blue An11als, p. 380 says
four brothers, but the Tibetan says "four brothers in all", Blue Annals,
Tibetan text, ed. Chandra, Vol. ja, F.13B, line 6. One of the brothers,
Dharmamati, spent twelve years as pupil.
163. Tib. sems.bskyed. Skt. Cittotpada.
164. Sum.pa.mkhan.po. (1704-1776 A.D.), a later historian, does not consider
I;>ombhipa to have been a Guru of Atia. see Chattopadhyaya, Op.cit.
p. 378. 'Gos.lo.tsa.ba. the author of the Blue Annals also disagrees with
Taranatha. see Chattopadhyaya, Op.cit. p. 68.
165. I have only been able to find three such texts in Chattopadhyaya, Cata-
logue of Kanjur and Tanjur, Vol. 1. Indian Titles in Tanjur.
116
(1) Ekavira-Siidhana-Niima. rgyud. xit' 11. F41B, line 1-F42A, line 8.
(2) DaJa-Tattva. rgyud. xxi, 11. F41B, line 6-F46B, line 3.
(3) Catuh-Tattva. rgyud.lxxiv, 39. F206B, llne 7-F210A, line 6. This was
actually translated by Tiiranatha under guidance from a commentary by
Ati5a. Chattopadhyaya, Atifa and Tibet, p. 494.
166. I have translated Tib. rgya.dpe. as "in Indian format".
167. Tib. rDo.rje.gdan. Skt. Vajrasana. The site of the Enlightenment of the
Buddha under the Bodhi tree there. It is situated about five miles south of
the town of Gaya in Bihar State and is still a major site for Buddhist
pilgrims. Presumably Vajrasanapa comes from this area.
168. Kamariipa. Tiiranatha seldom uses any other name for this place which
is more or less identical with the present-day Assam. I am not aware of any
indigenous Tibetan name for Kamariipa. It has been renowned, at least
since the 5-6th. Centuries A.D. as one of the Tantrie p i ~ h a s , (practice places)
par excellence.
169. The Caryiipas were siddhas who sang Caryli or Doha songs in which were
expressed their inwardly profound yet externally simple religious practices
and realizations. See Majumdar, The Ciiryiipadas.
170. The land of Prayaga is the area around the modern town of Allahabad,
which lies at the confluence of the Ganges and Jamna rivers. For Hiuen
Tsang's description of the land from 635 to 643 A.D., see Beal, Op.cit. Vo1-
1, pp. 230-234.
171. An epithet for the Lord of all Creatures, known otherwise in Sanskrit as
Pasupati.
172. Tib. 'byung.po. Skt. Bhiita.
173. Grunwedel, in error, translates Tib. bsam.gyis.mi.khyab. as "not many".
174. Is this the same person as Jfianasrimitra, whose biography may be found
in Chattopadhyaya, Taraniitha's History of Buddhism in India, pp. 302-303.
175. The present-day Indian state of Tripura in the far east of India.
176. "Jagaddala was founded by King Ramapiila in the eleventh century, in
the new capital of the Palas, Ramavati, on the banks of the river Ganges
and Karatoya in the country of Varendra i.e. Northern Bengal. Its actual
site however has not yet been located." Sankalia, Op.cit. pp. 217-218.
177. Candradvipa. In his rGya.gar.clzos.'byung, Taranatha records the follow-
ing story about Candragomi. Chattopadhyaya, Op. cit. p. 201.
"He next married Princess Tara and received a province from the King.
He once heard a female attendant addressing her as Tara and thought
that it was not proper to live (the conjugal life) with anybody bearing the
same name as as that of the tutelary divinity. So the acarya was about to
leave for some other place.
The King came to know of this and said, 'If he does not live with my
daughter, put him in a box and throw him in the Ganga.' This was done
as ordered by the King. The acii.rya prayed to bhanarika aryii Tara and
was drifted to an island at the confluence of the Ganga and the sea.
According to some, this island was miraculously created by the i\.rya and
it was called Candradvipa because Candragomi lived there. It is said that
the island still exists and is large enough to have seven thousand villages.''
178. This is possibly the temple of Jagannatha at Puri, founded by King
Anantavarman (1076-1147 A.D.).
179. Tib. Zangs. gling. Skt. Tamradvipa. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Dictionary, p. 251, says that it is an early name for Ceylon, "later replaced
117
by Si111haladvipa".
180. Santigupta was the Guru of Buddhaguptanatha who in turn was Guru to
Taranatha. For the extensive biography of Santigupta see the supplement
to the seventh Instruction of this work.
181. Tib. rDo.'jog. Skt. Taxila. Taxila at the time of Hiuen Tsang's visit in
630 A.D. was almost deserted. The monastery for which it was renowned,
was in ruins and the place appears to have been subject to massive and
unpredictable subterranean forces. Taxila is situated in the Kingdom of
Kapisa which extends from present-day Bamiyan in the west, to Taxila,
its eastern limit. For Hiuen Tsang's description see Beal, Op.cit. Vol. 1,
pp. 54-68 and pp. 136-143.
182. Tib. phal.chen.sde.pa. Skt. Mahasamghika. One of the old sects of Indian
Buddhism. The other three sects were the Miilasarvastivadins (Tib. gzhi.
thams.cad.yod.par.smra.ba'i.sde.pa.), the Sammatiya (Tib. mang.pos.
bkur.ba'i.sde.pa.) and the Sthavira (Tib. gnas.brtan.pa'i.sde.pa.). See also
notes 203. Tibetan Vinaya (monastic discipline) is based on the Miilasar-
vastivadin Vinaya. Hinayanists base their Vinaya on that of the Sthavira.
183. This is probably the ancient Konkadesa around the area of present-day
Coimbatore. See note 80.
184. See note 78.
185. Eva Dhargyay notes that the house-keeping A.rya "was not Maiijusri
himself but 'Jam.dpal.bses.gnyen. who was an incarnation (Tib. sprupa.)
of Maiijusri." Dhargyay, The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet, p. 21 .
See also Roerich, The Blue Annals, p. 369.
186. The account of the Sendhapa's/Saindhava's attack on the silver Heruka
imag.! is recorded by Taranatha. See reference in note 144. In that work the
goddess Tara is said to have extended her mercy to one of the miscreants
who had faith in her.
187. Spelling is often Vikramasila or VikramalaSila.
188. Tib. 'dul.ba. Skt. Vinaya. The basic rules of conduct applying to fully
ordained monks and comprising one of the three sections making up the
Tripitaka, or Three Collections of the Doctrine. The three sections are
Siitra (Discourses), Vinaya (Rules) and Abhidharma (Metaphysics).
18.9. If "sometime after" can be considered a great length of time, then this
possibly refers to either Mahipala I (approximate year of accession 988
A.D.-died 1038 A.D.) or Mahipala II (approximate year of accession
1072 A.D.-died 1075 A.D.). Majumdar, History of Ancient Bengal,
p. 162. The spelling of the name in both editions of Taranatha's text I have
consulted read Mahlipalli, a name which does not appear in any work I
have looked at dealing with the Pala dynasty. Buddhasrijnana was a con-
temporary of King Dharmapala, 770 A.D.-810 A.D.
190. I am unable to identify this King. It is interesting that Taranatha starts
by locating the story in "Sindhu, a border area of India", but says that,
"at that time in Madhyadesa there were no Turuskas". Of the two state-
ments, the latter seems to be used to date the events. I think that the episode
happened in Sindh where at the time in question the Muslim conquest of
Muhammad ibn-Kasim had already passed. Turkish officers thereafter were
employed to keep the area pacified and were given great powers but I
118
doubt that they were set up as "Kings".
191. Gri.inwedel has this as "Sagaracandra".
192. On the selection of the tutelary divinity of the maiJQ.ala by the aspirant
casting a flower, see Snellgrove, Buddhist Himalaya, pp. 79-80. Hiimkara
("He whose sound is is a manifestation of the wrathful divinity
Heruka.
193. The CaiJQ.alas belonged to an extremely low caste which was forbidden to
live within the precincts of a city. Their duties according to Basham, The
Wonder that was India, p. 145, execution and corpse carrying;
the latter duty reminds one of the Tibetan ro.rgyab.pa, the corpse disposal
agents who were also considered as outcastes.
194. Tib. khyung. Skt. Garuq.a. A mythic bird whose role in Tibetan Buddhism
appears to be as a vehicle for the defenders of the faith (Tib. chos.skyong.
Skt. Dharmapala), and as a decorative motif on aureoles around images.
The "fusion of the Indian Garuq.a with the mythical khyung bird of the
pre-Buddhist Tibetan pantheon", may be studied in Nebesky-Wojkowitz,
Op.cit. pp. 256-258. Illustrations of such ancient khyung birds may be
seen in Tucci, The Ancient Civilization of Transhimalaya, plate 11.
195. Tib. Hum.mdzad. Skt. Hiimkara. On this siddha see Dhargyay, Op.cit.
pp. 40-42.
196. Dates for King Sad.na.legs, or as he is otherwise known, King Khri.lde.
srong.btsan (or King Khri.lde.btsan) are 797-817 A.D. On dating in this
difficult period see: Tucci, Tombs of the Tibetan Kings, pp. 14-24; Aoki,
Study on Early Tibetan Chronicles, esp. Table A and pp. 48-60.
197. It is possible that Sauri, a term that Taranatha also uses in his rGya.gar.
chos. 'byung, refers to Saurashtra, the modern area of Kathiawar, although
a few lines later the information appears to contradict this. Sauripa then
would seem to be a man from Sauri.
198. Kayastavrddha was also known as Tankadasa. (see note 200).
199. For a biography of Khyung.po.rnal.'byor, see Roerich, Blue Annals,
pp. 728ff.
200. Dhamgadaa-Tankadasa, (see note 198). The text referred to is the
Suviuddhasal"!lputa, rgyud. xviii, F1-F272A, line 5. It was written by
Kayasthavrddha or as he is also known, Tailkadasa.
201. Gaura-Gauq.a. The ancient ruins are "ten miles south-west of the modern
of Maida". Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India, pp. 217-218.
202. Tib. sum.cu.rtsa.gsum. Skt. Trayastrimsadevii.
203. Tib. thams.cad.yod.par.smra.ba. Skt. Sarvastivada. An early sect of
Buddhist realists. The name suggests as much: "Those who say that every-
thing exists." see note 182.
204. For approximate dates of accession of Mahipala I and Mahipala II see
note 189. The Mahipala referred to here is most likely Mahipiila I. Tara-
natha has many problems with the chronology of the Piila dynasty and
although the accounts are of great historical interest, the succession lists
are to be mistrusted. The reader should consult pp. 94-108 of Majumdar,
History of Ancient Bengal.
205. Tib. dbugs.dbyung. Skt. A.sviisa. One of the doctrines contained in the
Tantra of Heruka. Of note is that Vajravarahi, here chief of the GaiJacakra
119
feast, gives the inspiration, and her reflex form is Heruka, whose doctrine
it is. On the relationship between inspiration and breath see Edgerton,
Op.cit. p. 110.
206. See note 97. This appears to be the same Indrabhiiti being referred to but
the statement is not borne out by other works of Tibetan historians, e.g.
Blue Annals, etc.
207. Ratnagiri, (Tib. Rin.chen.ri.bo.) is in South India and is described as,
"A hill four miles N.E. of Gopalpur ... it contains the ruins of a big st[ipa".
Law, Ibid, p. 185.
208. This refers to Mahipala I. See note 189.
209. Tib. 'jigs.med.'byung.gnas.sbas.pa. Skt. Abhayakaragupta. Lived late 11th.
to early 12th. centuries A.D.
210. Tib. 'dul.ba.'dzin.pa. Skt. Vinayadhara. One who is a master of the
monastic rules. In this context it probably refers to fully ordained monks.
211. Both Vajrayogini and Vajravarahi are consorts of Heruka and so the
transposition of names is less unusual than at first might appear.
212. I have been unable to locate this temple.
213. Could this be the Saptagrama referred to by Law, Historical Geography of
Ancient India, p. 258, of which he notes the ruins are at Adisaptagrama, 27
miles from Calcutta, and that the town was "part of Radha situated
on the Ganges"?
214. Of the works quoted by Taranatha, only about half have been found in
the works available to me. The work mentioned is the Upadeia-Mafijari-
Nc.nw-Sarva-Tantra-Utpanna-Upapanna-Samanya-Bhii$ya. rgyud. 1xxxiv,
12, F 188B, line 5-F 210 A, line 3.
215. lvfwzimata Alamkara. mdo. xxix, 10, F71B, line 3-F398, line 3. Chatto-
padhyaya noteS that this was "composed in the thirtieth year of the reign
of King Ramapala". Chattopadhyaya, Catalogue of the Kanjur and Tanjur,
Vol. 1, p. 339. This then refers to the year 1107 A.D.
216. Buddha-Kapala-Mahatantra-Raja-Tika-Abhaya-Paddhati. rgyud, xxiv, 6,
F186B, line 5-F251B, line 4.
217. Patica-Krama-Mata-Tika Candraprabha. rgyud., xxxiv, 5, F225B, line 1-
F282A, line 5.
218. Gar:za-Cakra-Vidhi. rgyud. xlviii, 149, F302A, line 6-F304B, line 5.
219. Kalacakra-Avatara. rgyud. iv, 29, F306A, line 3-F315, B, line 1.
Kalacakra-Uddana. rgyud. iv, 26, F297A, line 7-F299A line 3.
220. In this case the word used for "penis" is Tib. rdo.rje. Skt. Vajra.
221. Tib. gTsang.po. Skt. Brahmaputra. The major river of Southern Tibet
which runs from West to East through Tibet's most fertile area, turning
south at Gyala and then passing through Assam, becoming known as the
Brahmaputra.
222. Uma, or Parvati the "daughter of the mountain", is the wife of the Hindu
god Siva, who is also known as The dialogues between Uma
and Siva on Tantra are highly regarded by Hindu Tantrikas and form
some of the basic Tantric texts for Hindus.
223. The land of Godavri is the area around the river Godavri in the Deccan
of India.
224. In his rGya.gar.chos. 'byung. Taranatha describes Eastern India thus:
120
"Eastern India consists of three parts. Of these, Bharpgala and OcJivi5a
belong to Aparantaka and are hence called the eastern Aparnataka. In
the north-east Kamarii(pa), Tripurii, Hasama are called Girivarta, i.e.
surrounded by mountains. Proceeding further east from this region, (one
reaches) Nam-ga-ta on the slopes of the northern mountains. Bordering
on the sea are Pukhan, Balaku etc., the country of Rakha1i and Hamsiivati,
Mar-ko etc., the country of Muiian(s). Further Cak-ma, Kam-bo-ja etc.
All of these are collectively called Ko-ki." Chattopadhyaya, Tiirantitha's
History of Buddhism in India. p. 330.
225. See note 183. Suvaroadvaja possibly refers to a monastery or temple, being
referred to as "a noble, well proportioned place".
226. The Yogiiciira school (Tib. rna!. 'byor.spyod.pa) was pioneered by Asanga
(Tib. Thogs.med.). On the texts developed and used by this school, see
rGyan.drug.mchog.gnyis. p. 31.
227. The Seven Precious Things (Tib. rin.po.che.sna.bdun. Skt. Saptaratna)
are usually represented as those indispensable for a world ruler, namely:
I. The Wheel of Dharma, 2. The Wish-granting Jewel, 3. The Perfect
Queen, 4. The Perfect Minister, 5. The Perfect Elephant, 6. The Perfect
Horse, 7. The Perfect General. Symbolising these seven precious things
arc Seven Jewels, often depicted in scroll paintings at the feet of the central,
worshipful being. The Seven Jewels are: 1. Royal Insignia, 2. Rings,
symbolising the Wish-granting Jewel, 3. Precious Coral, symbolising the
Queen, 4. Insignia of the Minister, symbolising the Minister, 5. Tusks,
symbolising the Elephant, 6. Unicorn's Horn, symbolising the Royal
Steed, 7. Swords, symbolising the General. See, Govind rgyal.srid.rin.
chen.sna.bdun. in Bulletin of Tibetology, Vol. vi, No. 3, Nov. 1969.
228. This could refer either to Tripura. (see note 83), or to the area of Tippera
centered around the town of Chindpur in Bangladesh, just to the West
of Tripurii State.
229. Tib. Yam.bu. Newari. Kathmandu. There are many temples dedicated to
Mahiikala in Kathmandu and any positive identification is difllcult. An
excellent contender might be the relatively recent temple housing an
ancient image near the Tundi Khel. Bernier, Tlze Temples of Nepal. An
Illtroductory Survey, pp. 158-161, and plates 24 and 25. Wylie, A Tibetan
Religious Geography of Nepal, p. 15, f.n.
230. Trilinga is mentioned by Tiranatha in the rGya.gar.clzos. 'byung (Trans
Chattopadhyaya, p. 333). "In Kalinga, which is included in Trilitiga, there
lived a famous paQcJita called Narasiirya." This clearly places Trililiga
on the Eastern Ghats of India.
231. See note 197.
232. See note 77.
233. See notes 76 and 77.
234. The Muslim invaders from India's North-West regions.
235. rgyud. xliii, 102, F 382 A, line 6-F387, B, line 2. Written
by Viriipa and translated by Danasila.
236. There are several Miin Singhs in this period who could be referred to
here. I can find none who were captured-only one who in 1466 stoutly
121
defied Hussain Shah and purchased his freedom. 1466 appears a little early
to fit in with Santigupta's possible dates anyway.
237. Taranatha notes Dhanasridvipa in his rGya.gar.chos.'byung. (Trans.
Chattopadhyaya, p. 332). "In the smaller countries (lit. islands) like
Singaladvipa, Yavadvipa, Tarnradvipa, Suvarl)advipa, Dhanasridvipa
and Pa.Yi.Gu, the Law was spread is an early period and remains widely
prevalent till now ... In Dhanasri and Pa.yi.gu the Mahayiinis are only
a few in number."
238. Law, Op.cit. refers the reader to Epigraphica Indica, pp. 8,17,35,123, etc.,
for references to Kalinka. It is possibly an area on the East coast of India
named Kalinka, near Orissa.
239. An area of South India.
240. See note 224.
241. Tib. nas. gling. Skt. Yavadvipa "Land of Barley". See note 237.
242. Tib. gser. gling. Skt. Suvaroadvipa. "Land of Gold." See note 237.
243. Tib. zangs.gling. Skt. Tamradvipa. "Land of Copper." See notes 179 and
237.
244. A Kingdom centered about 75 miles South of the city of Delhi. For a
description of Mathura by Hiuen Tsang, see Beal, Op.cit. Vol. 1, pp. 179-
183. Law, Op.cit. pp. 106-110.
245. Although it is not true to say that Akbar (1556-1605) was altogether moti-
vated by deep religious feelings in founding his eclectic religious movement,
the Din-i-Ilahi, he did display a consistent interest in discoursing with
people of other religions at his special hall in Fatehpur Sikri. Possibly the
greatest hope Akbar had in his new movement was to unify India's reli-
gious diversity, a diversity which clearly had political ramifications, espe-
cially because Akbar was regarded by many Indians as an "imposed"
leader.
246. Tib. 'phrin.Ias.rnam.bzhi. The Four Kinds of Religious Worship. (See
Dass, A Tibetan-English Dictionary, p. 854). l. Mild Worship, 2. Abundant
Service, 3. Service to Obtain Power, 4. Terrific Meditation for Coercing a
Deity. See note 90.
247. The same area as the modern Indian State of Gujarat in Western India.
248. Tib. bag.chags. Skt. Vasana. The actions of the past besides producing a
Karmic result also produce a tendency or latent predisposition (Tib. bag.
chags.) to similar actions in the future , which arise when the situation
is conducive to them.
249. dPal.stag.lung.thang. was a monastery famed for its talking statue and
some hairs of 'Brom.ston which, "continue to grow". Ferrari, mK'yen.
brtse's Guide to the Holy Places of Central Tibet, pp. 38-39. It is situated
about 70 km. North of Lhasa.
122
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