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VORBEMERKUNG
Simon Wellington Dzablu-Kumah (den jeder nur als Herrn Kumah kannte) war viele Jahre lang Lektor fr Ewe am Institut fr Afrikanistik der Universitt zu Kln. Das von ihm verfate Lehrwerk "Basic Ewe for foreign students" diente Generationen von Afrikanistik-Studierenden als Grundlage fr das Erlernen der Sprache. Dieses Lehrbuch existierte nie in gedruckter Form, sondern wurde als Graue Literatur wieder und wieder fotokopiert. Es bestand aus zwei Teilen (mit jeweils eigenem Wrterverzeichnis), von denen nach Herrn Kumahs Tod nur noch wenige zerfledderte, mit Anmerkungen versehene Exemplare existierten. Da es sich um ein gut durchdachtes, didaktisch aufgebautes und mit vielen praktischen bungen versehenes Lehrwerk handelt, entstand am Institut der Plan, unter Einsatz moderner Technik eine neue Fassung in einem Band herzustellen, die online zugnglich, als pdf-Dokument ausdruckbar und fr weitere (notwendige) Verbesserungen offen sein soll. Monika Feinen kommt das Verdienst zu, aus den unansehnlichen Kopien eine mit einem zusammengefgten Wrterverzeichnis versehene bearbeitbare WORD-Version hergestellt zu haben. Diese habe ich mit technischer Untersttzung von Monika Feinen redaktionell, typographisch und auch inhaltlich bearbeitet bzw. ergnzt. Die Bearbeitung schliet eine teilweise Vernderung der Beschreibung grammatischer Phnomene ein, die so hoffe ich zumindest das Verstndnis erleichtert. Ergnzt habe ich das Lehrwerk durch ein Inhaltsverzeichnis sowie eine Bibliographie zum Ewe, auf deren Vollstndigkeit ich keinen Anspruch erhebe. Das Ergebnis der berarbeitung ist ein vorlufiges; eine weitere berarbeitung, vorrangig durch einen Muttersprachler, wre wnschenswert. Das Lehrwerk ist zugnglich unter der Web-Adresse www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/afrikanistik/down/publikationen/basic_ewe.pdf. Fehlermeldungen, Ergnzungen, Anregungen etc. bitte ich zu richten an: ulrike.claudi@uni-koeln.de.

Kln, im Oktober 2006

Ulrike Claudi

CONTENTS
LESSON I 1. The Definite article 2. The predication of qualities: Static verbs 3. How to ask questions 4. How to express Negation 7 7 10 11

LESSON II 1. The adverb 2. Another way of asking questions 3. Adverbs in Negations 14 16 18

LESSON III 1. The formation of Plurals 2. Qualifying nouns with adjectives derived from Static verbs 3. Ways of deriving attributive adjectives from Static verbs 4. The Comparison of qualities 5. The Nominalization of adjectives 6. Drill in questions and answers 20 23 25 27 28 30

LESSON IV 1. The Indefinite article 2. Demonstrative adjectives 3. Two ways of 'being': ny and le 4. The Negation of ny and le 32 33 34 38

4 LESSON V 1. The Subject pronouns 2. The Object pronouns 3. Postpositions 4. Drill in questions, answers, and negations 41 44 47 51

LESSON VI 1. The Present/Past Tense (Aorist) 2. Transitive and intransitive verbs 3. The Progressive Aspect 4. Drill in questions, answers, and Negations 53 54 58 61

LESSON VII 1. Pronominal Objects with the Progressive Aspect 2. Expressions with kp 'once' and kp ... o 'never' 64 67

LESSON VIII 1. The Ingressive Aspect 2. Questions and answers in the Ingressive 3. Negation of the Ingressive Aspect 70 73 76

LESSON IX 1. More about adjectives 2. More about the verb n 3. Simple questions with or 80 83 86

5 LESSON X 1. The Absolute form of the Personal pronouns 2. Emphazising nouns 3. Double questions 89 91 93

LESSON XI 1. Attributive Possession: The "Genitive" 2. Possessive pronouns preceding the Possessed 97 101

LESSON XII 1. Possessive pronouns following the Possessed 2. The Nominalization of Possessive pronouns 3. Questions with neni e 'how much/many' 106 110 113

LESSON XIII Predicative Possession: 'to have' 115

LESSON XIV 1. The Imperative 2. Some notes on n 'to give' 123 127

LESSON XV 1. The Habitual Aspect 2. The Relative pronouns 131 135

6 LESSON XVI 1. The Future Tense 2. The unknown or uncertain Subject: The "Passive" 140 145

LESSON XVII 1. The Reflexive pronouns 2. The Reciprocal pronouns 3. The derivation of nouns from verbs 148 151 155

VOCABULARY EE ENGLISH VOCABULARY ENGLISH EE

160 195

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON EE

235

LESSON I
1. The Definite article
There are two forms of the definite article in Ee: l and -. Both forms are placed in the sentence after the noun being determined. The form l stands always as a separate word, but the - form is suffixed to the noun it determines:

at l x l

at x

'the tree' 'the house/building'

Both forms may be used freely with nouns in the Singular. If the stem ends in a, the article is always l:

ga l

*ga

'the metal/money'

2. The predication of qualities: Stative verbs


The predication of qualities in Ee is, in most cases, not performed by adjectives (for these, see Lesson IX) but by verbs expressing a quality or state. Verbs of this kind are called Stative verbs. Like all verbs in Ee, static verbs follow their Subject:

at l k m l didi

at k m didi

'the tree is tall' 'the way is long'

Vocabulary
didi lolo kpui e b f tri x dzo sogbo keke ny xx/xx gble at tsi nke agble ga fsre m x ame se k to be long to be tall, high to be big, large, fat to be short, low (height, length, or time) to be strong, difficult, hard to be soft, easy to be cold, cool to be thick to be hot, to be many ("to receive fire") to be enough to be broad, wide to be good, beautiful to be little, small, few to be narrow to be bad, wrong, spoiled tree, wood, stick firewood farm water

metal, money window person way, road house, building board chalk, white clay banana stone, rock baobab

tfl ak kp adid

9 tr kpl agbale zikpu E O xev ableg door table chair stool No bird Yes book

Exercise I-1: Read 1. At l k. 2. M didi. 3. Agble lolo. 4. Tsi l f. 5. Ga l x dzo. 6. Amea se. 7. Fsrea keke. 8. M l xx. 10. Ak bb. 11. Ame l kpui . 12. X l k. 13. tr keke. 14. Kp l se. 15. Adid tri. 16. Nkea sgb. 17. Tfla keke. 18. X l bb. 19. Kpl l kpui . 9. Xevl ny.

20. Ableg l gble. 21. Zikpu l se.

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Exercise I-2: Translate into Ee 1. The tree is tall. 2. The way is long. 3. The farm is big. 4. The water is cold. 5. The metal is hot. 6. The person is strong. 8. The way is narrow. 9. The bird is beautiful. 10. The banana is soft. 11. The person is short. 12. The house is high. 13. The door is broad. 14. The stone is hard. 15. The baobab is thick. 16. The firewood is enough. 17. The board is broad. 18. The chalk is soft. 19. The table is low. 20. The chair is spoiled. 21. The stool is small. 7. The window is broad.

3. How to ask questions


e.g.: At l ka? M didia? 'Is the tree tall?' 'Is the way long?' A simple way of asking questions in Ee is by ending your sentence with a low tone :

Note that vowels without tone marking bear a low tone.

11 Exercise I-3: Questions and Answers Using the above pattern, change all the sentences in Exercise I-1 into questions, and try to give answers in Ee as follows: E, at l k. 'Yes, the tree is tall.' E, agble lolo.

At l ka? 'Is the tree tall?' Agble loloa?

'Is the farm big?'

'Yes, the farm is big.'

....... and so on. Exercise I-4: Translate into Ee 1. Is the tree tall? 2. Is the way long? 3. Is the farm big? Yes the farm is big. 4. Is the water cold? Yes the water is cold. 5. Is the metal hot? 6. Is the person short? Yes the person is short. 7. Is the window wide? Yes the window is wide. 8. Is the banana soft? Yes the banana is soft. 10. Is the table low? Yes the table is low. 11. Is the person short? Yes the person is short. 12. Is the stone hard? Yes the stone is hard. 13. Is the stool small? Yes the stool is small. 9. Is the baobab thick?

4. How to express Negation


Negation is expressed in Ee by the phrase m- ... o 'not'. sentence. The first part me- is prefixed to the verb, and the particle o comes at the end of the

12 Example: Adid mtri o. Agbale l mny o. Exercise I-5: Read 1. X l mk o. 2. Zea mlolo o. 3. Gas l mse o. 4. Abat mkeke o. 5. Ava mtri o. 6. Ak l mbb o. 7. Kp l mse o. 8. Ame la mekpui o. 9. tr mk o. 10. Nake la mesgb o. 11. Kpl la mekeke o. 12. Glia metri o. 13. Agble l mlolo o. 14. Ableg la megble o. 15. Ktke l mdidi o. 16. evi la mese o. 17. Ava mekeke o. 18. Agb l mny o. 'The baobab is not thick.' 'The book is not good.'

Vocabulary
gas ev av agb bicycle ("metal horse") child plate cloth, material

13 tri ktke abat z gaz gli thick train pot metal pot wall bed

Exercise I-6: Translate into Ee 1. The house is not high. 2. The pot is not big. 3. The bicycle is not strong. 4. The bed is not broad. 5. The cloth is not thick. 6. The banana is not soft. 7. The stone is not hard. 8. The person is not short. 9. The door is not high. 10. The firewood is not enough. 11. The table is not broad. 12. The person is not thick. 13. The farm is not big. 14. The chair is not spoiled. 15. The train is not long. 16. The child is not strong. 17. The cloth is not wide. 19. The wall is not thick. 18. The plate is not good.

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LESSON II
1. The adverb
There are two types of adverbs in Ee the ordinary Adverb one finds in all other languages, and what is known as Picture Adverbs or Onomatopes. In this course, we shall only concern ourselves with the ordinary simple adverbs we need in everyday speech. Like articles and other determinatives follow the noun, adverbs in Ee also follow the verbs they modify, e.g.:

Agble lolo t. M didi akpa.

'The farm is very big.' 'The way is too long.'

Vocabulary
t kp ko keke/ pt z ttt vva ny hae o kr very too extremely, really, indeed now completely, altogether, entirely

rather, fairly, quite truly, really, honestly nicely, well, correctly, rightly not yet exactly, definitely

15 Exercise II-1: Read 1. At l k t. 2. Ma didi kp. 3. Agblea lolo ko. 4. Tsi l f z. 5. Ga l x dzo kr. 6. A mea se vava. 7. Fesrea keke ny. 9. Xevi la ny t. 10. Ak bb keke. 11. A me l kpui k. 12. X l k t. 13. tr keke kp. 14. Kpe la se vava. 15. Adid tri ttt. 16. Nakea sgb kp. 17. Ableg l gble petee. 18. Kpl la kpui ko. 19. X l bb nyui e. 20. Zikpu l se kuraa. 21. Tafloa keke nyui e. Exercise II-2: Translate into Ee 1. The tree is very tall. 2. The way is too long. 3. The farm is really big. The water is now cold. 4. The metal is quite hot. 5. The money is enough. 6. The person is really strong. 7. The window is wide enough. 8. The way is narrow indeed. 10. The banana is nicely soft. 9. The bird is very beautiful. 8. M l xx tutuutu.

16 11. The person is extremely short. 12. The building is very high. 13. The door is too wide. 14. The stone is indeed hard. The baobab is very thick. 15. The firewood is too much. 16. The chair is completely spoiled. 17. The table is extremely low. 18. The chalk is quite soft. 19. The stool is rather small. The bed is nicely soft.

2. Another way of asking questions


Another way of asking questions in Ee is by using the phrase lk le? 'how is ?' E.g.:

lk x la le? 'How is the building?'

'The building is very high.'

X la k t.

Exercise II-3: Answer the following questions in the Affirmative 1. lk at l le? 2. lk m la le? 3. A leke agblea le? 4. lk tsia le? Now frame such questions and answers using the following nouns:

17 5. ga 6. fesre 7. ame 8. xevi 10. ktke 11. tr 12. nake 13. kpl 14. ableg 15. zikpu 16. adido 9. ak

Vocabulary
eye gak and but

Exercise II-4: Translate into Ee 1. How is the tree? Is the tree very tall? Yes the tree is very tall. How is the person and how is the baobab? The person is rather short, and the baobab is extremely thick? Yes the wall is too thick. 2. The water is now cold, but the metal is rather hot. How is the firewood? Is the firewood too much? Yes the firewood is too much. The door is too wide, but the window is narrow. The bird is beautiful but the cloth is too wide. thick. How is the metal? The metal is quite hot. How is the wall? Is the wall too

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3. Adverbs in Negations
The adverbs t, vva, and z cannot be negated. When one has to give the negative form of sentences containing such adverbs, care must be taken to use substitutes nearest to their negative sense. e.g.:

AFFIRMATIVE At l k t. Adid tri vva. Tsi la fa az. Exercise II-5: Read the following 1. At l mk ttt o. 2. Ma mdi di akpa o. 3. Agblea melolo ko o. 4. Amea mse tutt o.

Ati l mk ny o. Tsi la mf ha o.

NEGATIVE Adid mtri tutuutu o.

5. Tsi l mf ha o gak ga l f kr. 6. Fsrea mekeke my o, gak tr k t. 7. Kp l mse ttt o, eye l mbbny o. 8. Nkea msgb kp o. 9. Kpl l mkpui kr o, ye ableg l mgbe pt o.

10. A mea mese ko o.

Exercise II-6: Translate into Ee 1. The tree is not tall, but the way is rather long. 2. The farm is not really big, and the house is not too small. 3. The metal is very hot, and the water is too cold. 4. The firewood is not enough. 5. The chair is not altogether spoiled, but the table is completely destroyed. 6. The window is not wide enough, and the door is not high. 7. The stone is too hard, but the wood is very soft. 8. Is the book really thick? No, the book is small.

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Exercise II-7: Questions and answers Change the sentences in Exercise II-1 into negative questions as shown below giving your answers both in the Affirmative and in the Negative. Example: E, at l k t. O, at l mk tutuutu o. E, m di di akpa. O, ma medi di akpa o.

At l mk t oa? Ma medi di akpa oa?

and so on.

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LESSON III
1. The formation of Plurals
(originally being a Subject pronoun of the Third Person Plural) to the noun, e.g : The plural of the noun is formed in Ee by simply suffixing the morpheme -w

at x tsu

atw xw utsuw

'trees' 'houses' 'men'

Nouns considered as collective usually do not take the Plural -w. The following are same typical examples of such nouns :

ayi az mli bli w tsi dze

'beans' 'nuts' 'rice' 'corn, maize' 'flour' 'water' 'salt' etc.

If collective nouns take the Plural morpheme the pluralized noun may refer to different kinds of the respective substance, e.g. ayi w means 'different kinds of beans'. When quantity is expressed by means of numerals, plurality is understood and the Plural -w is dropped from the noun, e.g:

at eve xevi ewo nynu et

'two trees' 'ten birds' 'three women'

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If, however, the noun is determined by an article, the Plural -w is retained and is suffixed to the article, e.g :

at eveawo xevi ewow nynu etw

'the two trees' 'the ten birds' 'the three women'

Note that the determinative is suffixed to the numeral relating to the noun being determined. only the - form of the Definite article is used in determining Plural nouns.

Vocabulary
abolo nfl sukv koklo azi le koklozi a n dze te bread teacher fowl egg pupil, student yams

egg (of a fowl) to cook to buy to sell to buy (liquids measured out to customers) to wash (cloth) to sing to teach, to show. to fell a tree, to slaughter

dzr dzi ha f n tso nya

22 kk Ksi Aks piece, bit name for a female born on Sunday name for a male born on Sunday

How to count from 1 to 10 in Ee: 2 eve 4 ene 5 at 3 et 1 ek 7 adre 8 enyi 10 ewo 9 asi eke 6 ade

Exercise III-1: Read the following 1. utsuwo tso atw. 2. tsu at tso at w. 4. Nynw a te. 5. Nynu eveaw a mli l. 6. Ame eneaw le zew. 7. Ksi le w, y Akosua dze ami. 8. Ks le te atawo eye Aksua le kklw. 9. Nynuawo nya av adre. 10. Skvw dzi haw.

3. tsu atawo tso at ww.

11. Skvi asi eke dzi ha et. 12. Aks le kokloziw, y Ks dzr azw. 13. Nfl l f ha adrw. 14. Aksua dzra nakewo eye Ksi le gas. Exercise III-2: Translate into Ee 1. Men fell trees. 2. Five men fell ten trees.

23 3. The five men fell the ten trees. 4. Women cook yams. 5. The two women cook the rice. 6. The four persons buy the pots. 7. Ksi buys flour and Aksua buys oil. 8. Ksi buys five yams and Aksua buys fowls. 10. The pupils sing songs. 9. The women wash the cloths. 11. The nine pupils sing three songs. 12. Aksua buys eggs and Ksi sells groundnuts. 13. The teacher teaches seven songs. 14. The man sells firewoods.

2. Qualifying nouns with adjectives derived from Static verbs


As we have seen in Lesson I.2, the predication of qualities is usually done by Static verbs. From these Static verbs (and also from a few Dynamic ones), adjectives can be derived for attributive use. In order to derive adjectives from verbs, the verb is reduplicated (for exceptions, see next chapter). An adjective qualifying a noun is placed just after the noun, e.g.:

at l k

at kk l tsi l f tsi ff l

'the tree is tall' 'the tall tree'

'the water is cold' 'the cold water'

If there are more than one qualifying word, all follow the noun:

x lolo di di l

at kk lolo l

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In translating English sentences into Ee, such series of qualifying words are taken in reverse order starting with the one nearest to the noun :

'Men fell the big tall trees.' utsuwo tso at kk llw. When a noun is qualified by an adjective, the Plural is formed by suffixing -w to the adjective as shown in the following examples :

at kkw nynu lolow

'tall trees' 'fat women'

Where there are more than one qualifying word, the Plural -w is suffixed to the last of them, e.g:

tsuw tso at kk lolow But where quantity is expressed by using a numeral, the plural -w is dropped from the adjective unless the noun is also determined by an article, e.g:

at kk d but

nynu lolo ew at kk adw nynu lolo eww

'six tall trees'

'ten fat women' 'the six tall trees' 'the ten fat women'

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3. Ways of deriving attributive adjectives from Static verbs


Although most attributive adjectives are derived by means of reduplication, there are some exceptions. Study carefully the following table. Note also that the attributive adjectives are pronounced with a lenghtened final vowel.

VERB (1) k se f (2) gble gl tri (3) lolo didi keke xx/xx bb (4) x dzo se kpui (5) ny Note:

ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE

kk sse ff/ff gbegble ggl ti tri lolo di di xx/xx bbe/bb x dz/dzdz keke

'high, tall' 'strong, hard, difficult' 'cold, cool' 'spoiled, bad, wrong' 'crooked, winding' 'thick' 'big, large, fat' 'long' 'broad, wide' 'narrow' 'soft' 'hot'

se

'small, little' 'short, low' 'nice, beautiful'

kpui ny (from ny)

In groups (1) and (2), all the adjectives are derived from one-syllabled Stative verbs by means of reduplication. The tones remain the same except in the case of tri.

26 There is also a special point worthy of attention in group (2). When in their attributive forms, the consonants l and r are dropped in the first syllable. In group (3), all the verbs are two-syllabled words, and these remain the same in their predicative and attributive forms. The difference however is in the tone except for xx/xax. In group (4) note the change in tone of the adjective derived from x dzo. And in (5) note the change of the o in ny into ui. This is the result of the combination of oe in many Ee words. adjectives containing the conconant clusters gbl, gl, or tr are duplicated

Vocabulary
mu no u u t x to fall down (standing object) to drink to eat, to bite to open to receive to break to close

Exercise III-3: Read 1. At kk la mu. 2. At kkw mu. 3. X kk ade mu. 4. X kk adw mu. 5. Xevi nyui l u ablo kak la. 6. Xevi w u ablo kkw kk. 7. Xev ene u ablo kk eve. 8. tsu ssew tso adid ti tri et.

27 9. M di di l xx t. 10. tr kekeaw u. 11. Fesre se eve u. 12. Agble loloaw ny k. 13. Ks le te lolo eny, ye Aks dze ami. 14. Zikpu seaw ny, gak ableg lolo adrw gble pt. Ablegw . Exercise III-4: Translate into Ee 1. The tall tree falls. 2. Tall trees fall. 3. Six high buildings fall. 4. The six high buildings fall. 5. The beautiful bird eats the piece of bread. 6. Birds eat the maize. 7. Four birds eat the soft bananas. 8. The strong men fell three thick baobabs. 9. The small long road is very crooked. 10. The wide doors are opened, but the two narrow windows are closed. 11. The big farms are extremely good. 12. Kdzo buys three small yams, and Adzoa buys oil. 13. The large stools are good, but the small seven chairs are completely broken.

4. The Comparison of qualities


Since qualities in predication are, in Ee, in most cases not expressed by adjectives but by verbs it should be clear that Comparison of qualities cannot be structurally similar to what is known as Comparison of adjectives in other languages. Comparison of qualities, in Ee, is expressed by adding a second verb, w 'to surpass', to the static verb expressing the quality. Consider the following example:

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Atglnyi lolo. Ati gli nyi lolo w to.

'The elephant is big' 'The elephant is bigger than the buffalo.' (lit. "Elephant is big surpasses buffalo.")

This phenomenon of employing more than one verb within one simple sentence is called "Verb Serialization", and the verbs involved are called "Serial verbs". Serial verbs, while unknown in European languages, are a characteristic feature of Ee and other so-called "isolating" languages like, for instance, other Kwa languages, Chinese, Vietnamese, and others. More about Serial verbs is said in Lesson XIV.2. The comparative w can also be used without a following object:

Ati gli nyi tri w. tsu l kp w.

'The elephant is thicker.' 'The man is shorter.'

The Superlative degree is expressed by the addition of the phrase w kta 'all, all of them', to the Comparative : Ati gli nyi lolo w w kata. tsu l kp w kta. 'The elephant is bigger than all of them/ is the biggest.' (lit. "Elephant is big, surpasses them all.") 'The man is shorter than all of them/is the shortest.'

5. The Nominalization of adjectives


The particle t may be used to nominalize an adjective:

lolo ti tri kk

lolot ti tri t kkt

'the big one' 'the thick one' 'the tall/high one'

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Nominalized adjectives can also be employed attributively; they may as well be used in Comparison:

to lolot to lolot wu to lolot w w kka

'the big buffalo' 'the bigger buffalo' 'the biggest of all the buffalos'

Vocabulary
w ati gli nyi to ny le kput lolt kekt Exercise III-5: Read 1. At l k w xa? At l kw. 2. Ga l x dzo w kp evew. 3. Ga l x dzo w w kta. 4. Ksi kkt se t. 5. utsu kkt u bli , ye nynu kpui t u ablo. 6. tr keket mse kr o, set se w. 7. Adz u ablo l w Aks. 8. To tri t, gak atglnyi tri w. 9. Kdz se w Ks, Aks kpl Adz. Kdzo nye seset. 10. Nynuaw dzi ha w tsuaw. to surpass elephant buffalo to be something to be somewhere the short/low one the big one the broad/wide one

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Exercise III-6: Translate into Ee 1. The tree is taller than the building. The tree is taller. 2. The metal is hotter than the two stones. 3. The metal is the hottest. 4. The tall Ksi is very strong. 5. The tall man eats maize, and the short woman eats bread. 6. The wide door is not at all strong, the small one is stronger. 7. Adzoa eats the bread more than Aksua. The elephant is too thick. 9. The tall and big Kdzo is stronger than Ksi, Aksua and Adzoa. Kdzo is the strongest. 10. The women sing better than the ten men. 8. The buffalo is very thick, but the elephant is thicker. The elephant is the thickest.

6. Drill in questions and answers


Vocabulary
yi ts dz gbo de a xoxo v to come to go to come from; from (preposition) to leave, depart to have been to; to arrive home already to return, come back

Kpando, Pek, and Kpali me are important inland Ee towns.

Lome and Kta are important Ee towns along the Atlantic coast of West Africa;

31 Exercise III-7: Read the following questions, and give your answers both in the Affirmative and in the Negative 1. Kdzo dzo? 2. Adz yi Kpndo xx? 3. lk Lome le? 4. Kta mlolo w Lome oa? 5. tsu sse l dz z?

6. Kdz kpl Adz de Kplme xx? 7. Adz u ak bbe adrw pt? 8. Aks gb ts a? 9. Sukuv ad ts Pek, ye aske ts Kpndo, vv? 10. Nynu lolo tw de Kpali mea? Exercise III-8: Translate into Ee 1. Has Kdzo come now? No, Kdzo has not yet come. 2. How is Keta? Is Keta very big? Is Keta bigger than Lome? Keta is big, but Lome is bigger. 3. Has the strong man left for Peki? No the strong man has not yet left. 4. Have the six women been to Kpando? Yes the six women have been to Kpando. 5. Kdzo comes from Kpalime, and Aksua comes from Peki. 6. Has Ksi returned? Yes Ksi has returned already. 7. The buffalo is big, but the elephant is bigger. The elephant is too big.

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LESSON IV
1. The Indefinite article
Indefiniteness is expressed by combining the bound form of the definite article (-) with the independent morpheme (being a shortened form of the numeral 'one'). The determines: element is written as a separate word and must be placed next to the noun it

amea amea at at

'the person' 'a person, a certain person' 'the tree' 'a tree, a certain tree'

In English or German and other European languages, the Indefinite article is very frequently used. For instance, in English, when one points to an object and asks the question What is this? the object is nearly always introduced by the Indefinite article :

What is this? What is this? What is this?

This is a table.

This is a chair.

This is an elephant.

In such cases, the Indefinite article is not used in Ee: Esi a ny x.

Nuka nye esi a? 'What is this?' Nuka nye esi a? Nuka nye esi a?

'This is (a) house.' Esi a ny kpl. Esi a ny ableg.

33 But where the English a or an conveys the idea of 'a certain/some', the Ee Indefinite article - is used:

At mu. Kdzo kp tsua . Adz le azi .

'A certain tree has fallen.' 'Kdzo saw a certain man.' 'Adz bought a certain egg.'

The plural -w of the noun determined is suffixed to the of the Indefinite article:

At w mu. Kdzo kp tsua w. Adz le azi w.

'Some trees have fallen.' 'Kdzo saw some men.' 'Adz bought some eggs.'

2. Demonstrative adjectives
The Demonstrative adjectives are:

SINGULAR si a m kem

PLURAL 'this' 'that' 'that over there' si aw mw kemw 'these' 'those' 'those over there'

The Demonstrative adjective follows the noun to which it relates:

ev si a evi si awo xevi ma xevi mawo to kem to kemw

'this child' 'these children' 'that bird' 'those birds' 'that buffalo (over there)' 'those buffalos (over there)'

34

Where the noun being qualified by the demonstrative adjective is also qualified by other adjectives, the demonstrative adjective is placed after the last qualifying word:

tsuv ny si a tsu sse kk m

'this good boy' 'that tall strong man' 'those strong broad windows'

fsre keke sse maw

3. Two ways of 'being': ny and le


For the English copulative verb 'to be' Ee has two verbs, ny and le. The verb ny means 'to be something':

Ks ny tsuv. Aksua ny nynuv. Agble mw ny agble gaw.

'Ksi is a boy.' 'Aksua is a girl.' 'Those farms are large farms.'

It is important to note that ny is generally transitive in its use, and is followed by an object. To know when to use ny correctly, it is worth remembering that ny answers to the questions 'Who is X?' or 'What is X?' The verb le on the other hand means 'to be present/somewhere/at a place', or 'to be in a certain condition', or 'to happen at a certain time'. It therefore answers the questions 'Where?', 'How?', and 'When?' Study the following examples:

Kdz le Lome. Aksua le af. Ame la le yib. Ga l le tsye.

'Kodzo is in Lome.' 'Aksua is here.' 'The person is black.' 'The metal is pointed.'

35 'Rain falls in the evening.' (lit.: "Rain falls it is in the evening."

Tsi dza le fi e me.

Vocabulary
si a si aw m mw kem kemw utsuvi nynuv yame tdz di d fi e za u w some this these that that yonder those yonder boy girl aeroplane ship, boat morning mid-day, sun evening night air sea hunter lion forest gun to shoot a gun to be cheap to die to be expensive town, village animal, meat, flesh those a, an, a certain

ya adel l dzat av t da t x asi i k du

36 wu ga ny afi ka af ameka nuka yib tsye t dz me gb ha afm le to kill big, large to be at a place here who there what to be black to be pointed under on in by, the side of also where to be something

Exercise IV-1: Read 1. Dzat ny la sse. 2. Dzata ma ku d si a. 3. Adel wu dzat l. 4. Kdz kp la le af. 5. L l le at l gb. 6. Tsia dza le za me.

7. Nka Ks kp le x l me? Ks kp ga tsye le xa me. 8. Lome ny du gaa le Tg. 10. Adz le av x asi ts Lome. 11. tsu siaw kpl nynu mw u mli le d me. 12. A meka nye esi a? A me si a ny Aksua. Aksua nye nynuv ny . 13. tsuv m ny Ks, ye kem ny Kdz. 14. Adel si a le t ny ts Kpndo. T l i t. 15. Yame eveaw le ya me, ye tdz mw le u l dz. 9. Afi ka Kplme le? Kplme le Tg.

37

Exercise IV-2: Translate into Ee 1. A hunter kills a lion in the forest. The hunter is near the lion. The lion is very big. The hunter kills the lion with a gun. 2. Where is Lome? Lome is in Togo. Lome is a very big town. Kdzo has been to Lome. Kdzo buys a black cloth and a beautiful bicycle from Lome. The cloth is very cheap but the bicycle is very expensive. 3. Ksi sees three boats on the sea and five aeroplanes in the air. Those boats are big, but the aeroplanes over there are very small. 4. These men come from Peki, and those women come from Kpalime. Peki is in Ghana, but Kpalime is in Togo. Kpalime is very far from Peki. Peki is bigger than Kpalime. 5. Who is this? This person is Kdzo. Kdzo is a hunter. Kdzo kills three elephants in that forest. Are the elephants dead? Yes, the three elephants are dead. 6. These girls sing ten songs, and those boys sing two songs. The girls sing better than the boys. The girls have already left for Kpando in Ghana.

Exercise IV-3:

Read the following sentences and then frame adequate questions which you think will bring out the particular sentence as an answer

1. A me si a nye Ksi . 2. A me ma nye Adzoa. 3. Ks ny tsuvi . 5. Ksi le af. 4. Adz ny nynuvi . 6. Adz le Kta. 7. Lome le Tg. 8. E, av l ny t. 10. Atglnyi la ku. 9. O, Kdz mgb ha o.

38 Exercise IV-4: Translate into Ee 1. What is this? This is a chair. How is the chair? The chair is broken. Where is the broken chair? The broken chair is near Kdzo under the big tree. 2. Who is Kdzo? Kdzo is that boy. Is Kdzo tall? No Kdzo is not tall. Kdzo is a short person. The tall boy is Ksi. Ksi is taller than Kdzo. Adzoa is taller than Ksi also. Adzoa is the tallest. 3. What are those? Those are stones. Are those stones small? Yes, those stones are small. Are the stones hard? Yes, the stones are very hard. Are the stones many? Yes the stones are too many. 4. Akosua sings a song. Kdzo also sings a song. The two songs are beautiful, but Akosua sings better than Kdzo.

4. The Negation of ny and le

The Negative of the verb ny is expressed by prefixing the negative m- to ny and ending the sentence with the negative particle o :

Ks mny evi o. Aksu mny sukuvi o.

'Ksi is not a child.' 'Aksua is not a pupil.'

expression 'It is not':

When mny o is used without a noun as subject, it is equivalent to the English

Mny tsu si a o. Mny to adel l wu o.

'It is not this man.' 'It is not a buffalo that the hunter killed.'

Similarly, the negation of the verb le is expressed by prefixing m- to it and ending the sentence with o :

Kdzo mle Kplme o. Aksua mle at t o.

'Kdzo is not in Kpalime.' 'Aksua is not under the tree.'

39

When mle is used without a following Object or other Complement, le becomes li meaning 'to be present':

Adz mli o. tsua lia? but tsua le afm?

'Adzoa is not present.' 'Is the man present?' 'Is the man there?'

Note: The form li is also used in other contexts, meaning 'to exist'. This usage will be treated later in the course.

Exercise IV-5: Read 1. Adz mny ev o. 2. Adz mle Kpando o. 3. Kplme menye du ga o. 4. Kpali me mele Ghna o. 5. Mny Peki Aksua yi o. 6. Aks mle af o. 7. Aks mli o. 8. Av si a mny av nyui o. 10. Adel m mle ati a t o. 9. tsu kk l mny adel o.

11. Mny dzat Kdzo kp le ave l me o. 12. Ako Aks menye sukuv o.

Exercise IV-6: Translate into Ee 1. It is not a tree. 2. Kdzo is under that tree. 3. Adzoa is not a boy. 4. Kpalime is not a town in Ghana. 5. Aksua is not present. The hunter is not here.

40 6. The hunter is not a tall person. 7. It is not a lion that Kdzo has seen in the forest. 8. Is the woman there? No, the fat woman is not under the thick baobab. 10. The water is not enough. 9. The firewoods are very many, but the yams are very few.

41

LESSON V
1. The Subject pronouns
Study the following table carefully:

SINGULAR FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON me- (nye-) e- (ne-) - (wo-)

PLURAL m- (me-) mi- (mie-) w-

Note, that the forms in brackets are used only under certain circumstances:

nye-

When referring to oneself and in a negative sentence, me- is not used. Instead, the form nye- is used. It will be seen later that nyeis also used for the Absolute and Possessive pronouns in the First Person Singular.

memie-

The original Ee word for 'we' is mi-, and for 'you (plural)' mi-. In the pronoun m- or mi and the verb to which it is connected e.g. mmv o mimv o 'we do not come' 'you (pl.) do not come' a negative sentence, the Negation prefix m- is placed between

combination mm- or mime- were shortened into m- and mie-. And as written Ee is almost completely based on the Al dialect, which constitutes the leading costal dialect, m- and mie-

Among the coastal dialect speakers of the Ee language, the

became the second words for 'we' and 'you (pl.)', respectively. The forms m- and mie- are not only used in negative sentences, but

42 also in a positive sense: mv mi eva 'we come' 'you come' mv o miev o 'we do not come' 'you do not come'

still used largely among the northern Ee dialect speakers. You will also see later in this course, that the forms m- and mi- are the only forms used in Imperative Sentences, for Possessive Pronouns, and as Object pronouns. neThis form is used when the Second Person Singular is mentioned a second time within the same sentence, referring to the same person: Ev ye neu ablo l. wo'You come and (you) eat the bread.'

However, the forms m- and mm- as well as mi- and mime- are

Similarly, this form is used when the Third Person Singular is mentioned a second time within the same sentence, referring to the same person: u n ye wono n. 'He/she/it eats and (he/she/it) drinks.'

Note also that the following pronouns are always written with their tone marks even for Ee Speakers: -, n-, m-, me-, w-. The pronoun w- is the same as the Plural suffix w-. Historically, the pronoun became reinterpreted as a Plural suffix belonging to the preceding sentence. As a rule, the Subject pronouns are always connected to the verb: meyi eyi yi 'I go' 'you (sg.) go' 'he/she/it goes' myi mieyi wyi 'we go' 'you (pl.) go' 'they go'

43

Vocabulary n w w d s d l Kmla Abra y to call to do to work to run away to shout name for a male born on Tuesday name for a female born on Tuesday to give; for (preposition)

Exercise V-1: Read 1. Kmla kp dzat. kp dzata ga . 2. Abra dzr koklziaw. dzr koklzi eny. 3. Sukuvw y nfl m. Wy nfl l. 4. Eu nu eye neno nu ha. Eu na? Nka neu? 5. u bli a kk eye wos. 6. Mnya av ti tri eveawo ny. 7. Mena bli koklo si aw wu. 8. To ade le af. Wle adid lolo si a t. 10. Md l d si a le suku. 11. En agbale Abra gake nedzra l n. Kmla. 9. Miew d t gak miex ga se .

12. tsu kpui si a ttt mekp le Lome wodze aha l. Exercise V-2: Translate into Ee 1. Kmla sees a lion. He sees a big lion. It is under the tall tree. Have you seen the 2. Abra sells yams. She sells eight yams. They are big yams. 3. The students call the teacher. The teacher comes and opens the large door. 4. You eat the bread and drink the water also. lion?

44 5. He eats all the maize and runs away. 6. We wash all the thick cloths. Where are they? They are here on the table. Where is 7. Give corn to the fowls now. They are not many. 8. Ksi works for this man but he receives a little money. 10. This is not a long road. It is a short road but it is narrow and crooked. 9. You give a chair to Aksua, and sell the board to the teacher. the table? It is by the small window.

2. The Object pronouns


The table below gives you all the Pronouns of the preceding chapter in their objective forms:

SINGULAR FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON -m (ye) wo -e (ye)

PLURAL m (m) mi (mia) w (yew)

The general rule is that Object pronouns are separated from the verbs which govern them; but where the pronoun is a single phoneme e. g: m and , it is suffixed to the verb which governs it:

Mekp mi. Ekp w. kp wo. Wkp m. but Mekpe. Mi ekpm.

'I see you (pl.).' 'You see them.' 'He sees you (sg.).' 'They see us.'

'I see him/her/it.' 'You see me.'

The combination of the Third Person Object pronoun with a preceding vowel leads to morphophonological change ny s. Note the following points:

45 when suffixed to a verb ending in -a , the combination ae is pronounced and is also spelt with instead of ae : a + e gba + e nya + e gb ny 'cook it' 'break it' 'wash it'

when suffixed to a verb ending in -u or -i, the - is replaced by -i : u + e Wu + e Mi + e Wfi + e ui Wui Mii Wfii 'He/she/it eats it.' 'Kill it!' 'Swallow it!' 'They steal it.'

where the verb ends in -e the double ee so produced is pronounced as [ii] : e gble 'break it' 'spoil it' is pronounced " [i]

[gblii]

but with kpl 'with, and', the spelling is also changed (please note that this change also affects the Object pronoun of the First Person Singular): kpl + kpli 'with him/her/it' 'with me'

kpl + m

kplim

where the verb ends in -o , the Object pronoun - is pronounced [i ]: oe te 'to beat it' 'pound it' is pronounced " [oi] [toi]

46 and with the verb ending in - , the pronoun - is pronounced []: kpe we ye 'see it' 'do it' 'call him' is pronounced " " [kp] [w] [y]

Vocabulary f kp fa av ko n nyi ntsi nyi ntsi o nuu agbeli l n w da kp (ame) to collect, pick to see to cry, weep to laugh cow milk milk (of a cow) to beat, strike food cassava to write something to do, to make snake to meet (a person)

Exercise V-3: Read 1. Mey Kmla. Meye. 2. Nfl l n kpl l. l kpli. 3. Ekpo nyi eneawo. Ekp w. 4. y wo ye nev. 5. Wo m, ye mfa av. 6. Mele ak l ye meui Melee ye meui. 7. Wa agbeli l. W.

47 8. Mkp dzat l le av l me. Mkpe le afm. 10. Nynuaw ko tsu l. Wkoe kp. 11. Aks a te l. . 12. Nynuvw f nkeaw. Wf w. 13. we kplm, mewe kpli, ye newe kpl w. 14. Adz kp ev l le x m gb. kpe le x l gb ttt. Exercise V-4: Translate into Ee 1. An animal is here. It is under this big tree. The hunter sees it and shoots it. He kills it. The hunter is near the animal. Those girls are under the thick baobab. They see the hunter. Have they seen the animal also? Yes, they have seen the animal near the tall hunter. 2. There is an elephant near the tree. The elephant is really big. It is bigger than a buffalo. It is the biggest animal in the forest. 3. Abr cooks cassava. She cooks it and we eat it. We eat it with Kmla. We eat it with him. The cassava is very good. It is a good food. You eat the cassava and (you) drink the milk too. Ksi too eats the cassava with me and (he) drinks the milk with you. 9. Mi eym, ye mev wu da l. Mewui.

3. Postpositions
Unlike prepositions which precede the nouns to which they relate, postpositions follow the nouns. Compare the following sentences:

ENGLISH

The bird is on the tree. It is in the room. Kdzo is near the cow.

EE

Xev l le at l dz. Kdzo le nyi la gb. le x l me.

48 The most common and important postpositions are listed here below for frequent and easy reference :1

me gb g o

in, inside, within near, beside; side (n.) in front of, on, ahead of; front, surface (of liquids) (n.) on; surface (n.)

dz megb xa nu ome, gme, t

on; surface (n.) behind, rear, after; back (n.) by the side of, near to at; entrance, edge (n.) underneath, under

dome between, among, amidst

, t to

on; surface (of wall, tree trunk), side (of objects) (n.) at the edge of; edge (eg. of a bank of a river) (n.)

ttna ta kume

in the middle of on top of, over, above; head (n.) on, at; before; face, surface (of mirror, cloth, water) (n.)

All postpositions were originally nouns; most of them still occur, in other contexts, as nouns. For more details on this, see Heine & Reh 1984:256ff.; see also Lesson XI.

Points to note: Sometimes two prepositions are used in English, where one Postposition is enough in Ee to express the same sense:

'It is in front.'

'It is on the surface of the water.

le g.

le ta dz. or le to.

49 Quite often, Ee postpositions differ semantically from prepositions in English:

'He came out of the wood.' This comes from God

ts ave l me. Esi a ts Mw gb.

Names of towns, countries and continents do not take postpositions:

'Ksi is in Lome.'

'The boy is in America.'

Ksi le Lome.

tsuv l le Amri ka.

The postposition me may be suffixed to names of languages to indicate a particular language area:

le Eeme le Dzamame le Blume le lesime

'in the Ee-speaking area' 'in the German-speaking area' 'in the Twi-speaking area' 'in the English-speaking area'

These nouns as well as the following which are also a combination of noun and postposition do not as a rule require a further postposition:

abta dzi xxnu

'shoulder' ("top of arm") 'courtyard'

'heaven' ("surface above")

However, a lot of nouns suffixed with me 'in', fall outside this rule:

nnme ome dzidzime

'form' 'family' 'generation'

: : :

Mekpe le nnme m me Le dzidzime sia me Wle ome ek me

50 The following nouns also do not take postpositions, i.e. they behave like names of towns or countries:

de xx a suk

'nativeland, homeland' 'outside, outdoors' 'hometown, homeland' 'school'

: Wyi wo de. : le xx. : Woyi ae. : Mle suk. (xxme means 'the world') (afe me means 'house')

Vocabulary fufu Mw t At Ablots Aeno hdzi t to da anygb a West African dish God mountain Mr., Lord, Master Europe Mrs., Lady and (like ye) but always prefixed to the verb it precedes river, sea, lake (any large collection of water) snake surface of water (river, lake, sea) heaven earth

Exercise V-5: Read 1. Kmla va afi . le Abra gb le x si a me. Abra a fufu ye woui kpl Kml le kpl se dz. Kpl l le at ga m t. Kmla u fufu l t, eye wono aha h kp. 2. Adela evea w yi avea me le t kem megb. Wkp to eve le afm le at ga xa. Wda t toaw hwu w.

51 3. Adz kpl Aks le a si a me. Wle a ttna. Wmle xme o. Wle kpl t 4. Mw le dzi, ye amew le anyi gba dz. 5. Adz le Kpando gake Ksi le Amri ka. 6. Nyi l le x l megb, ye tsu l le x g. 7. Glia mny o. 9. At Kata le fsrea nu, gak An Adz Kta le tr megb. 10. A meaw yi to. 11. Miele sukuvw dome. 12. Da ga le kp t. Exercise V-6: Translate into Ee 1. I am under the tree. Ksi is near the table behind the tree. Abr is not near the tree. She is not here. She is absent. What do you see in front of that house? I see three cows there. 2. Are you a boy? No, I am not a boy. Kmla is a boy. He is very tall. He is taller than Ksi and Kdzo. He is the tallest boy in the house. Kmla is a teacher, and Ksi is a student. The teacher calls him and gives him a nice book. The book is here in this room. It is on the table near the thick wall. 8. Da l le adid . le xx.

4. Drill in Questions, Answers and Negations


Vocabulary geee asi gbe many, much, a lot of market today

52 Exercise V-7: Read 1. A meka nye tsu si ? tsu si a ny At Kta. A fi ka At Kata tso? ts Lome. Afi ka Lome le? Lome le Tg. lk Lome le? Lome ny du nya . 2. Nuka neu egbe? Meu fufu d si a. Ameka gb neu fufu la le? Meui le Abra gb. Amea u fufua kpl woa? E, Aksua kpl Ks u fufu l kplm. 3. Adz le a mea? O, Adz mli o. Afk woyi? yi asi* me. Nuka Adzoa le le asi l me? le te, l dze, w kple mli eye wodze ami ha. Ekp Aksa ha le ame mw domea? O, nyemkpe o. Exercise V-8: Translate the following questions into Ee, and supply adequate answers to each of' them 1. Where are you? 2. What has Kmla eaten today? 3. Is Adzoa in Lome? No, 4. Have you been to Keta? No, 5. How is Kpalime? 6. Where is it? 7. Have you worked for that fat woman? Yes, 8. Has she paid you already? Yes, 10. Is this table high? 11. What do you see on the table? 12. Has Kmla closed the broad door? 13. Have you opened that small window? 14. Has the hunter killed the snake? 15. Have you sold the two cows? No, 9. What have you done with the money?

16. Is it not you the teacher called? No,

53

LESSON VI
1. The Present/Past Tense (Aorist)
In Ee, a verb without tense marking may refer to a present as well as to a past event. sentences: This tense is, in most descriptions of Ee, called "Aorist". Consider the following

meyi meva

'I go/went/have gone/had gone' 'I come, came/have come/had come'

In Ee, the question as to whether a verb refers to an event in the present or in the past is determined, not by change in form of the verb, but by the context in which it is used. Sometimes, a word or a phrase may be added to make clear that the action being referred to can only be a past one. Some common examples of such words and phrases are: ets si v yi xx tsa l le blema l gbe ek esv yi let si va yi 'the day that has passed' ("tommorrow/yesterday which came and passed") 'already' 'in the days gone by, olden times' 'in ancient times' 'one day, once upon a time' 'last year' 'last month' 'last week' etc.

kws si va yi

54 Consider the following sentences:

Wyi ets si va yi (or: Wyi ets). Wv xo (or: Wv xx). Mlee let si va yi.

'They have come.' 'We bought it last month.'

'They went yesterday.'

But in the absence of any such words or phrases, the context in which the verb is used should be taken into consideration. The verb remains the same regardless of Person and Number (see Lesson IV.1).

2. Transitive and intransitive verbs


Ee verbs are either transitive or transitive. Transitive verbs, in Ee, always take an Object, intransitive verbs never do. If a transitive verb is used without a specific Object, the Object position has to filled either by the noun n 'thing, matter' or ame 'person' which serve as impersonal pronouns 'something' or 'someone', respectively:

a n u n d ame le n dzr n

'to cook (something)' 'to eat (something)' 'to look for (someone)' 'to buy (something)' 'to sell (something)'

The "dummy pronouns" n/ame are just provisional objects which disappear when a specific object is given. Study these examples : Abra a n. Abra a te.

'Abr cooks (something).' Abr cooks yam.'

55 Mele n. Mele av. 'I buy (something).' 'I buy cloth.'

There exist several combinations of verb and Object that always occur together, i.e. their meaning is a result of the combination of a verb with a particular noun. Study the following examples:

fa av

w d d awu dze ami d al

'to weep' 'to work' 'to dress up' 'to buy oil' 'to sleep'

Verb Object combinations of this kind have to be learnt as inseparable units. Intransitive verbs may be divided into those which take Complements and those which may not tale complements. Study the following examples: INTRANSITIVE VERBS WHICH MAY TAKE COMPLEMENTS Meyi. 'We go/went.' 'We go/went home.' 'He/she/it walks/walked.' 'He/she/it walks/walked a long way.' 'They have/had been there.'

M`yi a. z. z m di di . Wde afm. Wde Lome.

'They have/had been to Lome.'

56

INTRANSITIVE VERBS WHICH MAY NOT TAKE COMPLEMENTS utsu l s. k. Wf le af. Xevi la dzo. g. Mdz. 'The man runs/ran away.' 'He dies/died.' 'They play(ed) here.' 'The bird flies/flew.' 'It has fallen/falls/fell.' 'We have/had left.'

With such verbs, another verb is needed to follow them in order to introduce a complement, e.g.:

tsu l s yi Kta. k le Lome. Wf le Kpando.

'The man runs away to Keta.' ("The man runs away, goes to Keta.") 'He died at Lome.' ("He died, is at Lome.") 'They played at Kpando.' ("They played, is at Kpnd.")

Vocabulary gbe gbe ek fs v g adzn abl ets day tomorrow/yesterday one day, once upon a time shop, store a little to enter goods, wares vehicle (cars, ships, planes) street

57 tsa asisi kk aab to wander about, do sightseeing customer hat repeated (as with eye), used for things happening away. gomela ml ml any le tsi d awu nu e f d kny dinuu tr va tr yi amedzrodzee aha zttna, zte Always prefixed to the verb which follows it (see h-) tinned meat/fish pair of shorts to lay, lie to lie down or in bed to take a bath to dress up restaurant, dining hall to dance to get up (from a lying position), rise from bed early morning breakfast to come back to to go back to to take car/ train/ boat as a passenger hotel, place of lodging any alcoholic drink midnight a conjunction like ye 'and'; when used the Subject is not arm, also measure for yard or meter

atakpui

Exercise VI-1: Read fs sew h le abl geew t. Ablawo keke ye wdi di ut. Kdzo kp ame geew, uw kpl gasw le ablaw dz. z abl ga ek dz v, ye wog fs lolo me. Fs l le x kk t. v fs l me. Adzn geew le fs me. Kdz tsa le fs l me ts af yi afm. Asi si geew h Gbe ek Kdz yi Lome. kp x ny lolo geew le dua me. kp fs gaw kpl

58 Kdz le av ti tri ab et, gomela se ene, kk yi b kpl atkpui eve. si a megb wotr yi amedzrdze au n le afm.

Exercise VI-2: Translate into Ee In the evening, Kdzo took a bath and dressed up nicely. He went and ate that evening in a restaurant near the big shop. He saw Ksi among the people in the restaurant. He called him and (he) ate with him. They drank a lot and (they) danced with two tall girls. Kdzo went to bed at midnight. He slept well. He got up early in the morning. After breakfast, he took a train and returned to Kpalime.

3. The Progressive Aspect


The Progressive Aspect expresses that an action is just happening or going on at the moment of speech or at some other time. The Progressive Aspect in Ee is formed by means of an auxiliary verb plus a suffix on the main verb. In the Present Progressive, the auxiliary verb is le while in the Past Progressive, the auxiliary verb is n. With intransitive verbs, the verb is nominalized through reduplication. Note that nominalization involves a "Floating High tone" which is realized as a High tone on the suffix . The construction is easy to understand if one considers that the suffix is a remnant of the former postposition me 'in'. A sentence like le yiyi 's/he is going' Gehen). For details see Heine & Reh 1984: 103f., 122f., 188ff.

goes back to a construction that literally meant "s/he is in going" (cf. German: sie ist am

AORIST yi v s dzo dz

le yiyi le sis le dzodzo le dzodz le vav

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

59 Care must be taken not to confuse the Personal Pronoun object -m with the Progressive - . Look at the following sentences:

um. le n u.

'He bites me.' 'He is eating (something).'

Note that it is the auxiliary verb that functions as the verb within the Progressive construction. With transitive verbs, the originally nominalized verb becomes reduced to its "normal" form. Nevertheless, the auxiliary verb still functions as the verb within the construction. In the Progressive Aspect, the Object follows the auxiliary verb but precedes the main verb. This position of the Object is due to the original Possessor position of the logical Object ("s/he is in eating of something").

AORIST u n wd le n fa av

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE le n um le d wm le n lem le avi fam

If a connected pronoun is the Subject of the sentence, the Pronoun is prefixed to le: ins

AORIST meyi wdz w d

mele yiyi wle dzodz le d wm

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

As noted above, the Past Progressive is formed with the auxiliary n. Consider the following sentences:

60

mele yiyi men yiyi le d wm n d wm

'I am going' 'I was going' 's/he is working (doing work)' 's/he was working (doing work)'

The Progressive Aspect may also be put into the Future Tense (see Lesson XVI).

Vocabulary se n kpl du to hear to lead/ to accompany to run

Exercise VI-3: Read 1. Kdzo le Lome yi m . 2. le ktk le Lome yi m 3. Ks ha le yiyi.

4. Aks le agb eve le asi me. 5. ev l kp won agb eve le le asi me. 6. Mle Aks kpm wole w lem . 8. Miefa av le x si a megb. 10. Nynuaw le tsi lem , tsuaw le aha no, evw le fef, ye Adzoa le al dm . 11. En du , gak men zz. 12. Wele m, le ha dzi ye wole e m ha. 9. Wse mien av fam le x l megbe. 7. tsuaw n nynuv l kpm won av la nyam .

61 Exercise VI-4: Translate into Ee 1. Abr is going to Kpando. 2. She is going to Kpando. 3. I saw her going to Kpando. (Insert 'she was' after 'her') 4. We bought two hats in that shop. 5. We have bought them in the shop. 6. We are buying the two black hats in the shop. 7. They saw us buying the hats (insert 'we were' after 'us') 8. You were calling Ksi. You called him. 9. The woman is leading the boy to school. 10. She led the boy to school. They saw her (she was) leading the fat boy to school. 11. I saw you going home. 12. Mr. Kpeglo and Mrs. Kpeglo were dancing under the big tree. 13. Mrs. Kpeglo is leaving today. She is going home. 14. She is taking the train from Kpalime to Lome.

4. Drill in questions, answers and Negations


To put a sentence containing the connected form of the Personal pronoun into the Negative, place the Negation marker me- between the pronoun and the verb, writing all together as one word, with the Negative particle o at the end of the sentence. Remember that the pronoun me- 'I' becomes nye- in a Negative expression:

mew d nyemw d o nyemle d wm wmn ha dzi o

'I work' 'I do not work' 'I am not working' 'they were not singing'

For questions and answers in the Progressive, study the following questions and answers:

62

Ele d wm a? Wle dzodza? E, wle dzodz.

O, Nyemle d wm o. 'No, I am not working.' 'Are they leaving?' 'Yes, they are leaving.'

'Are you working?'

Vocabulary nn nnk o d ameha k o sr f something nothing to look for, want crowd no, none to learn to teach

Exercise VI-5: Read 1. A meaw le d wm agble mea? O, wmle d wom le afm o. Mekp wo won a yi m di si a. 2. Ele nn um a? O, nyemle nnk um o. 3. Wle Ks d le ameaw domea? E, evi si awo le Ksi di m t le ameha la dome. 4. Miele ha dzi m a? O, mle ha k dzi m o 5. Adel mw le tw dam a? E, mese adelw le tw dam le av ga la me. Afka wle?

63 6. Sukuvi w le n srm a? O, k mle n srm o. 7. Ekp w wn fefa? O, nyemkp wo o, gak tsu si a n w kpm . 8. Kmla le adidoa tsom a? O, Kmla mle adidoa tsom ha o.

Exercise VI-6: Translate into Ee 1. Are you eating that bread? No, I am not eating that bread. It is too hard. 2. Where is the shop? It is in this broad street. There are a lot of goods in that shop. 3. Are there many customers in the shop? Yes, a lot of customers are buying in the shop. 4. What are the ten pupils doing at school? They are singing. Where is the teacher? The teacher is also singing with them. 5. Are you taking a bath? Yes, I am taking a bath. Has Kodzo finished dressing up? No, he has not yet dressed up. Where is he? I saw him going to the tall woman. What is the tall woman doing? She is cooking fufu for me. 6. Is Abra sleeping? No, she is not sleeping. Is she washing the cloth? No, she is not washing anything. What is she doing? She is singing and dancing at the table.

64

LESSON VII
1. Pronominal Objects with the Progressive Aspect
When a verb in the Progressive Aspect takes a personal pronoun as Object, the pronoun changes its form in the First Person Singular and in the First and Second Person Plural:

1st Person Sg.

Kdzo kpm. Kdzo le kpye.

'Kdzo sees/saw me.' 'Kdzo is seeing me.' 'Aksua beats/beat you (sg.).' 'Aksua is beating you (sg.).' 'I see/saw him/her/it.' 'I am seeing him/her/it.' ''He sees/saw us.' ''He is seeing us.' 'Aksua beats/beat you (pl.).' 'Aksua is beating you (pl.).' 'I see/saw them.'

2nd Person Sg.

Aksua o wo. Aksua le owo.

3rd Person Sg.

Mekp. Mele kpm .

1st Person Pl.

kp m. le m kpm .

2nd Person Pl.

Aksua o mi. Aksua le mia om . Mekp w.

3rd Person Pl.

Mele w kpm .

'I am seeing them.'

Note that, in accordance with the original construction of the Progressive Aspect ("Kdzo is in my seeing"), Possessive pronouns are employed as the logical Object (see Lessons XI.2 and XII.1). Note the following changes: 1st Person Singular: -m becomes -ye in the Progressive. The pronoun ye is suffixed to the main verb, followed by the Progressive suffix .

65 2nd Person Singular: wo remains unchanged, but in the Progressive it is suffixed to the main verb, followed by the Progressive suffix -. 3rd Person Singular: remains unchanged, but in the Progressive, it is prefixed to the main verb. 1st Person Plural: m becomes m in the Progressive. The pronoun m precedes the main verb, 2nd Person Plural: mi becomes mia in the Progressive. The pronoun mia precedes the main verb. 3rd Person Plural: w remains unchanged, but in the Progressive, it precedes the main verb.

Vocabulary d wu am av dwuam, d gb tsi k wu ame dzo bi xl agbale xl nu t n letv du ts to be hungry dog hunger bush to be thirsty fire to burn to take, to carry to read star to count to draw

tsi k, tsi kwuame thirst

to run

66 Exercise VII-1: Read 1. Wle kpyem eye nye ha mele w kpm . 2. Tsi k le wuyem eye d le wuwo. 3. Tsi k kple d le wum . 4. D le m wum kp. 5. D le w wum t, gak nuu k mli o. 6. Adelw le toawo d le ave ga m me kpl avw.

7. A meha la n m kpm mn ha dzi, n e ha . 8. Dzo ga le gb bi m le x si a megb. 9. n kpwom nen aha la nom le at t.

10. evw le yyem ye nynu mw le mia ym . 11. Mele d nyemle kpm o. Wdm wmkpm o. Wle dyem gak wmle kpyem o. 12. Wle atw tso le w tsm le af yi m . 13. le agbale xlem , ye miele n t gak mele n xlem . 14. Mle let kpl letvw kpm le za me. 15. Wle du le suk y. 16. Mele mia kpm , gak mile kpyem o. Miele geg x l me hle dyem le afm. Exercise VII-2: Translate into Ee 1. We are reading. We are reading it. 2. I am hungry and they are thirsty. 3. You are thirsty and hungry. 4. The fire is burning them. 5. The hunter is calling me.

6. They are looking for us in the forest. 7. We were crying and shouting also. 8. The men were felling the trees and were carrying them into the town. 10. He was beating them with a stick. 11. You (pl.) are hungry and thirsty. 12. The dogs are running in front of the hunter. 9. We were running, playing and (we were) singing also.

67 How to count from 11 to 20 in Ee 11 12 13 14 15 wek weve wet wene war 16 17 18 19 20 wui ad wui adr weny waske blaeve (blaave)

From eleven to nineteen, the word w is employed. It is interesting to note that w is a contraction of ewo 'ten'. Therefore wuiek '11' actually means ewo-eka "ten-one", and so on. The Ee people count in tens. The Ee word for 'twenty', blaeve, means 'two bundles (of ten)'. 'To bind or tie together' in Ee is bl and 'bundle' is babla. It is babl eve 'two bundles' which has been contracted into blaeve.

2. Expressions with kp 'once' and kp o 'never'


Consider the following sentences:

Mede Kpando kp.

I have been to Kpando before (or once). I have never been to Kpando.

Nyemde Kpando kp o.

Vocabulary kp v Agu nya s kp o zi once never times (like in zi blaeve 'twenty times') word, matter horse

to be finished

a town in Togo

68 tdzid z gbedx donkey/ass group chapel or cathedral a type of antelope in West Africa the largest of the antelope

Exercise VII-3: Read 1. tsu lolo m mda t kp o. Mny adel o. ny nfl. Mekpe kp le Lome won agbale lem n sukuvi wo. de Kta ha kp zi ek, ye wole s ek kpl tdz eve le afm. S l se t, ye wony s ny . 2. dzr s l, ye wots ga l le x se . X l le Agu le t ga gb: X se si a ny t. Mede a me kp. At n a ttna, ye tdz ml at t. Nfl l mn a me o. yi Kpndo le kwas m me. Sukv wet ha yi kplii. Nfl l de Kpndo kp, gak sukvw mde afm kp o. 3. Abra n a me. a fufu nm meu. Le fe me Abra kplm yi abl keke me. Mg fs ga me. Adzn geee n fs me. Asi si geew n n lem . Mtsa le fs l me v, gak mle nnk o. 4. tsuv l le Kta yi m gbe. Nynu l mnya avl v kp o. Kdz mkp dzat kp le gb me o. Da mum kp o. Sukvw dzi ha le gbedx la me kp. Nyemse nya si a kp o. Adel si a mwu z kp o.

Exercise VII-4: Translate into Ee 1. The boy is not going to Keta today. 2. The woman has finished washing the cloth. 3. Kdzo. has once seen a lion in the bush. 4. I have been once bitten by a snake. 5. The hunter has once killed an elephant. 6. The girls have never sung in that chapel.

69 7. They have never heard of this matter. 8. They were beating me with a big stick, and I was crying. 10. Is this boy going to Peki today? 11. Has Adzoa not yet finished cooking? 12. Has he never been bitten by a snake? 13. What is that? 14. Who are those people? 15. Have you ever seen me? Exercise VII-5: Answer the following questions in a) the affirmative, and b) the negative. 1. Nka wm Abra le? 2. Adz ma mli kp oa? 3. Afka wle yiyim ? 4. Miede Kta kpa? 5. Av l le uwo? 6. Ameka kpm nele? 7. Da mui kp oa? 8. Te la x asi ta? 9. Awu l i kp? 9. The teacher is beating him, he is beating you and he is beating me also.

10. Gli ggl l le mumu?

70

LESSON VIII
1. The Ingressive Aspect
The Ingressive Aspect expresses that an action is going to happen soon; i.e. the action maybe intended or there might be some indication that it will surely happen soon. The action maybe about to happen at the moment of speech or at some other time. The Ingressive Aspect is structurally similar to the Progressive Aspect except that, in the Ingressive, the main verb is followed by g:

PROGRESSIVE Ameaw le vav. 'The people are coming.'

INGRESSIVE Ameawo le vav g. 'The people are about to come/are going to come.'

The element g goes back, historically, to the noun/postposition gb 'side, neighbourhood; at' which is still retained in the Ingressive forms of some Ee dialects. A sentence like le yiyi g 's/he is about to go' thus goes back to a construction that literally meant "s/he is at side of going" or "s/he is at going". While in the Present Ingressive, the auxiliary verb is le, it is n in the Past Ingressive. With intransitive verbs, the verb is nominalized through reduplication plus a "Floating High tone". Study the following examples:

mle yiyi g mn yiyi g Wle dzodzo g Wn dzodzo g X la le mumu g X la n mumu g

'we are about to go' 'we were about to go' 'they are about to leave/depart' 'they were about to leave/depart' 'the house is about to fall' 'the house was about to fall'

71

With transitive verbs, the nominalized main verb becomes reduced to its "normal" form and the Object precedes it in the same way as it does with the Progressive Aspect:

Ele n u g. Ksi le x tu ge. Nynuvi awo n ha dzi g.

'You are about to eat.' 'Ksi is about to build a house.' 'The girls were about to sing.'

When the Ingressive takes a personal pronoun as Object, the forms of the pronouns used are the same as for the Progressive Aspect. Consider the following examples:

1st Person Sg.

Kdzo le kpyem . Kdzo le kp ye g.

'Kdzo is seeing me.' 'Kdzo is about to see me.' 'Aksua is beating you (sg.).' 'Aksua is about to beat you (sg.).' 'The man is seeing him/her/it.' 'The man is about to see him/her/it.' 'Kdzo is seeing us.' 'Kdzo is about to see us.' 'Aksua is beating you (pl.).'

2nd Person Sg.

Aksua le owo. Aksua le o wo g.

3rd Person Sg.

tsu l le kpm . tsu l le kp g.

1st Person Pl.

Kdzo le m kpm . Kdzo le m kp ge. Aksua le mi a om .

2nd Person Pl.

Aksua le mi a o g. utsu la le w kpm . utsu la le w kp ge.

'Aksua is about to beat you (pl.).' 'The man is seeing them.' 'The man is about to see them.'

3rd Person Pl.

72 Note that in the Ingressive, the Object pronouns ye and wo are selfstanding words while in the Progressive, they are inserted between the main verb and its suffix. This difference is due to the fact that the Ingressive g is a word, too, while the Progressive m is a suffix.

Vocabulary n vovovow naa sukux labn ff nala blbo tmel akpa K A k A kua different kinds thing cooked food school building because now, at present cook whole fish (bigger type) fish (smaller type) Wednesday name for a male born on Wednesday name for a female born on Wednesday

Exercise VIII-1: Read 1. Sukv w le ha dzi g le gbedx ga`si a me. A meh gaa le gbedx la me v, eye geee le vav g le d me. Nye ha mele gbedx l me yi g. Aksua

kpl Adz le af v g gbe. Wle vav g kpl sukvw, ye wole ha dzi g kpl w ha. n a g le Aen Kpgl gb, ye wle naaw ts g n sukuvw le sukx maw me.

2. Nynuw le nuu vovovowo lem , labn wle n a ge na sukvw. Wle

3. Ak le agble yi g gbe. D le wum t labn mu nnk d si a o. D le wo ha wum a? O, d mle wuyem o. Meu fufu di si a xx le Abra gb. Nka wm ka le? le mli am . le mli l am n A k. A k le mli l u g ff labn

73 le agble yi g. A k le at ga w tso g le agblea me. Ati awo lolo t gak le w kta tso g gbe. Ak ny utsuv sse .

Exercise VIII-2: Translate into Ee Today is Sunday. The school children are about to go to Peki. They are about to sing five songs there. Many people are going to Peki already. Akua is also about to go to Peki today. She is buying a lot of yams and a lot of fish in the market because she is going to cook for the whole school at Peki. Akua is a very good cook. Eight teachers are also about to go to Peki now. They are accompanying the school children to Peki. I am about to go to Peki too. Peki is a very beautiful town. Have you ever been to Peki? There is a big Chapel in Peki. There is a market too, and there are eight shops. There is a big tree in the middle of the market. Today is market-day at Peki.

2. Questions and answers in the Ingressive


Questions as well as answers can also be framed in the Ingressive Aspect:

Tsi le dzadza ga? E, tsi le dzadza g.

'Is it going to rain?' 'Yes, it is going to rain.'

k n Kpando yi gea? 'Was Akua about to go to Kpando?' E, k n Kpando yi 'Yes, Akua was about to go to Kpando.' g.

Vocabulary d go nyate bb fact, truth other to meet

74 dze s/ ny tsa w domet ek gd d deha yoo li akp d akp d (ame) d gbe n b etr sabala skli nukata kta hi a tsi megbe gaasigbe esae omevi maml to know, to recognise someone formerly, previously rest, remainder, residue palm palmwine every alright, good kind of, type of, sort of to exist (from le) thanks to thank to send (someone) to greet to ask, to request afternoon onion sugar why all to need getting late again, still (an adverb, which is prefixed to the verb) to be late market day by all means one of them

le megbe tsim

Exercise VIII-3: Read A KU D GO A KU A AKU : AKUA : AKU : A kua! Afi ka yi m nele? Mele fs ga ma me yi m . Meyi nnw le ge le afm. Mese be miex amedzr w. Nyate wonya?

75 AKUA : AKU : AKUA : E, ny nyate. Mx amedzr eve gbe d. Mgale bb eve x g fi e si a. Eve ts Agu, ek ts Kplme ye ek ha tso Kpndo. Eve bb gale vav ge tso Keta. W domet ek ko mny. Mi edo goe le Kpali me kp, ye AKU : AKUA : AKU : AKUA : wox m ny t. Mny mamlw o. Miele aha ha dze gea? Mele aha ny w dzr. O, deha meli o. Nyemle deha dzram o. Aha bb omevi esia li, eye asaw ny t. Wi t. Yoo, mesee. Akp! Mele Ks d g woav dze aha w n m. Mle aha dze g gd. Deha ha lia? Afka amedzroawo tso? Miedze s w ts?

Exercise VIII-4: Translate into Ee One day, Aku met Akua in the street. He greeted her and asked her: Where are you going this hot afternoon? AKUA: AKU: AKUA: AKU: AKUA: AKU: AKUA: AKU: AKUA: AKU: AKUA: I am about to buy certain things in that big shop. What exactly are you about to buy? I am about to buy rice, some eggs, onions, sugar and meat. But, today is not a market day. Why are you buying all these things today? Are you going to receive some guests? Yes, we have already received five guests this morning and two others are going come this evening. Do you know all of them previously? Are you going to buy some drinks too? I am selling some good cheap

Yes, we know all of them well. They come from Agu near Kpalime. drinks. too? Thank you. I am getting late. No, I am not selling palmwine today.

We are going to need some drinks by all means. Are you selling palmwine

76

3. Negation of the Ingressive Aspect


Negation of the Ingressive Aspect is expressed by prefixing the Negation marker me- to the auxiliary verb. Like in all Negations, the sentence ends with o:

Ksi le do wo ge.

Ksi mele d w ge o.

'Ksi is about to work.'

'Ksi is not about to work.'

The connected form of the Subject pronoun is prefixed to the negated auxiliary verb:

Wmle vav g o. Nyemle dzodz g o.

'they are not about to come.' 'I am not about to leave.'

But the following examples require careful study:

Mle yiyi g gbe o. Mle yiyi g gbe o. Mle yiyi g gbe o. Mile yiyi g gbe o.

'He is not about to go today.' 'You are not about to go today.' 'We are not about to go today.' 'You are not about to go today.'

In the above examples, the Negation marker m- has fully or partly merged with the personal pronouns , e, m, and mie. The result of this merging is as follows:

2nd Person Singular: 3rd Person Singular: 1st Person Plural: 2nd Person Plural:

e + m + m m + m mie + m

m m m mi

In the First Person Plural, the result of the merging is identical to the pronoun itself; in this case, the difference between an affirmative and a negated sentence lies only in the

77 sentence-final particle o. It should be noted, however, that in many Ee dialects this merging is non-existent. These dialects still use m for 'we' and mi for 'you (pl.)'. One hears in such areas expressions such as :

Mle n u ge. 'Mile tsi no ge.' 'Mmle n u ge o.' 'Mimle ha dzi g o.'

'We are about to eat.' 'You (pl.) are about to drink water.' 'We are not going to eat.' 'You (pl.) are not going to sing.'

The above forms are also accepted as good Ee.

Vocabulary le tsi le tsi lem le tsi le g ss x se Dz Bra akta bu akta gbesgbe bb to have a bath having a bath (Progressive) being about to have a bath (Ingressive) to think to believe

Monday Tuesday mathematics account, calculation (< Portug.) to work out a problem, to calculate other every day

Exercise VIII-5: Read 1. Ks kpl Kdz le du a? O, wmle du o. Wle du g za? O, wmle du g ha o. Wmle du g gbe o.

78 2. A medzr le tsi xoxoa? O, amedzr mle tsi ha o. le tsi lem a? O, mle tsi lern o. le tsi le gea? E, le tsi leg le fi e me. Mle tsi le ge fi fi a o. Nyemx se b le tsi le g gbe al ets o. 3. Nynu asi ekeawo le te kpl mli am n utsuawoa? O wmle nnk am o. Wmle nnk a ge ff o. D mle utsuawo wum oa? D mle w wum o. Wu nu ny d si a, eye wono aha ha t. 4. Nuka wm nufl m le? le n t tfloa dz. Afi ka wole n t tfoa dz le? le n t tflo la dzi le sukx si a me. Nuka tam wole? le adel t. Adel l le adido gaa t. 5. Ekp Abra egbea? E, mekpe di kanya le gbedx la gb. le sukua va gea? O, mle suk v g le ksi si a me o. yi Lome. Sukv bbaw le suk l v g gbesgbe. 6. Nuka wm nele? Nyemle nnk wm o. Nuka wo g tsu si awo va le af? Wv x tu ge nam. Ele n a g n wa? Mele fufu a g n w ye mele aha ha dze ge n w. X la loloa? O, x sea ko tu mele. Ga mli o.

Exercise VIII-6: Translate into Ee I see a man running in the broad street. He is a tall man. He is well dressed and he wears a black hat. The women over there are also looking at the man. Where is he going? Is he going to the big shop? He is now in front of the shop. He enters the shop. Kdzo and I also enter the shop. The man buys a bicycle and a pair of black shorts. He looks at the beautiful bicycle and laughs a little. He is at the door. He is talking to a man. He laughs again. He looks back. He enters a restaurant with the bicycle. I think he is going to eat there. He is indeed eating in this restaurant. He is out of the restaurant and is now going to his house singing and dancing. Once upon a time, two hunters went into a big forest. The forest is near Agu at a huge mountain. They wandered in the forest for four days, but they saw no animals. One afternoon, the hunters cooked a little yam and ate it. There was no meat. They

drank some palm wine also after the meal. In the evening, the hunters saw two lions near a big rock. The lions did not see the hunters. The hunters took the guns and went behind a big tree. The two hunters shot and killed the two lions. They returned home after six days.

79 Have you ever seen a lion in the forest? No, I have never seen a lion in the forest. Have you ever eaten fufu? Yes, I have eaten it once with Mr. Kata. Has Mr. Kata ever been to Are these strong men about to work on the farm? Yes, all these strong men are about to work on the farm today. They worked on that farm last week. The women and the girls are working now on the farm over there. Kpando? No, Mr. Kata has never been to Kpando but he has been to Keta yesterday.

80

LESSON IX
1. More about adjectives
verbs, cf.: In Lesson I.2, we learnt that the predication of qualities in Ee is usually done by static

Agble l ny. X la k. Kpl la kpui .

'The farm is good.' 'The building is high.' 'The table is low.'

There exists, however, also a limited number of adjectives. These adjectives refer to colour, form, or state. In predicative use, adjectives need the auxiliary verb le which, in this contexts, functions as a copula:

COLOUR Ame la le . Av l le yib. Gli l le dzie. FORM/SHAPE

'The person is white.' 'The cloth is black.' 'The wall is reddish.'

Akpl la le tsye. M la le gbadzaa. Kp l le nogoo. Do l le tegblee. STATE

'The spear is pointed.' 'The road is wide.' 'The stone/rock is round.' 'The hole/pit is circular.'

Tsi la le kpt. Yame le kplefuu. Ati ke la le yaa.

'The water is muddy.' 'The weather is misty.' 'The medicine is tasteless.'

81 Adjectives used attributively differ formally from adjectives used predicatively; cf.:

av yib l Av l le yib.

'the black cloth' 'The cloth is black.'

do nogo l Do l le nogoo.

'the round hole' 'The hole is round.'

Attributive adjectives ending on i usually take an additional e in their predicative form. Quite often, vowel lengthening occurs in the predicative form. There are also some adjectives that do not differ in attributive and predicative use.

Vocabulary dzi dzi e red (attr.) red (pred.) shoe hill reddish brown (attr., pred,) order, arrangement to ride a horse

d s afkpa

tgb oo d e d yib yib dwla nogo nogoo

white (attr.) hole, pit

white (pred.) to dig a hole/pit black (attr.) black (pred.) worker round (attr.) round (pred.)

82 t agbledel globo globoo ahhe yev akpl latsa ha v gbadzaa gbadz tegbl tegble zu zr zzre yaa latsaa pond, lake farmer wide and deep (attr.) mirror European spear rough (pred.) pig come to, reach large and flat (pred.) small and flat (pred.) round, circular (attr.) round, circular (pred.) to become to be smooth smooth (pred.) tasteless (pred.) rough, coarse (attr.) wide and deep (pred.)

Exercise IX-1: Read 1. Nynu sia le av dz kpl afkpa. Av l le dze gak afkpa l le yib. Afkpa yib l ny t. 2. S si a t le h. Melee ets le utsu dzi ma gb. 3. A meawo uti le yi e. Wonye yevuwo. Mese be wotso Ablots v le kwasi a si va yi me. Wle a i si a me. 4. Kp l le nogoo. le tgb kem x. Dwlw e do gaa . Do l le at eve si awo dome. Do la lolo t, eye wole tegble hle globoo. 5. Atw t le hle latsaa, gak ahhe la kme le zzre. 6. Mu mli le agba gbadzwo dzi le nu ny ma.

83 7. Agbledel evew v t t. Tsk n w wum t. Gake tsi a menyo o. Lawo le tsi le me ye wozu kpt. Tsi l le kpt vav. Mny kr o.

Exercise IX-2: Translate into Ee 1. The surface of the wall is brownish and rough. 2. The hole is in the middle of the road and is round and deep. 3. The spear is very strong and pointed. The hunter killed a lion with it yesterday. 4. The six farmers are near a huge rock in the forest. The rock is round and black. 5. Pigs bathed in the pond and made the water muddy. broad and the walls are reddish. 7. Adzoa bought ten plates in the market. Two are small and flat, four are large and round, and the others are deep and reddish. 8. A certain man came into the house. He was riding a tall horse and held a long pointed spear on the shoulder. 6. There is a big building in the center of the town. The building is high, long and

2. More about the verb n


In Lesson VI.3, we learnt about the verb n as the Past form of le in forming the Progressive Aspect. When n is used as such, it is also the Past form of le 'to be somwhere':

Mle afm.

Mn afm. Xevi la le at dz. Xevi la n at dz.

'We are there.' 'We were there.' 'The bird is on the tree.' 'The bird was on the tree.'

84 However, n has other meanings, too. Study the meaning of n in the following sentences:

Nynu la n m gb. utsua n Agu. Tsa la da mn xxme o.

'Formerly the snake did not exist in the world.'

'A man lived at Agu.'

'The woman stayed with us.'

In the above examples, it will be noted that n also means 'stayed', 'lived', and 'existed'.

Vocabulary agbledel u n x n (ame) n anyi l ts tre agblemen prk w nvi ke (n) v w vu vv tff gun powder lived, stayed, existed to save (someone) to remain seated to love, agree to stand up peace ("coolness of body") farm product mongoose to live in brotherhood to be afraid fear to come upon something to fight (with blows) farmer

gbgbe nww le nww l xl

eyi

long ago, once upon a time end in the end friend

time, period

ei t (ame) to be tired

85 e t k ktsts z d ta ks kb nsi aub aubt dzidz as dze xl l gbl tsa ku af tedium ear, mountain, to pound leg fruit to go towards suddenly quickly what, that which pawpaw pawpaw tree joy hand to befriend (someone) so, and so to say to look round night falls eye

Exercise IX-3: Read tsua n anyi gbagbe. n du se me, le ave gaa me. L geew n ave l me. Dzat eve h n lawo dome. utsu si a nye agbledela. Mny adel wony o. dze xl laaw kta ale be wo kata n anyi le tff me. Gak da ml o ny si a dz o. Mw nvi kple laa k o, ye mew nvi kple agbledela la h o. Agbledel l mwu laa k kp o, eye laawo ha megble agblemen k n agbledel l kp o. Dzat eveaw h ml e nya nyui si a dz o. l agbledel l n da vm t ye la bbuw h n dzatw vm . Gbe ek, laawo kta va agbledel gb. Wgbl* n b*: Mle dzat evew vm . V x na mi. Agbledel l l, ye woyi ale tkpl u. yi ave l me. Edi dzataawo keke blbo ek. Le fi e me l va ke w . Wn kp yi b nogoa dz le tgba gb. da t w hw w. Laaw o kp dzidz t, ye woda akpe na agbledel l.

86 Gak da gan avea me. Agbledel h n da vm t t. y lw kta eye wogbl n w b : Ff miele tff me. Dzatw mgali o. Mewu wo na mi. Gak tff mli nam o. Mele da vm t. Mikp nye. Miwu da nm. Mle nvi wm kpli m o. Laawo kata l. Gak ese n da vm . Ati gli nyi b b: A meka le da wu g n m? La sea ts tre gbl be : Mele se t gake mele da wu g gbe gd n agbledel. La se si a nye Prk. Prk yi ave l m. d da keke ene mkpe o. Le keke eve bb megbe la, prk v ke da t. Da la lolo t hedi di h. Prk kpl da w vu eyi i di di a . Da se t. Gak le nuwuwu l ei t da t, l prk se la wui vva.

Exercise IX-4: Translate into Ee There lived four friends in a certain village. The four friends were Mr. Ear, Mr. Eye, Mr. Leg and Mr. Hand. One day the four friends went into a forest to look for some fruits. They stayed in the forest for the whole day, but they did not get any fruit. Night was falling so they turned towards home. On the way, Mr. Ear heard something. He shouted and said: Friends! I heard something! Mr. Eye looked round quickly and said: I see the thing. It is a big fruit. It fell from that big tree near the hill. I see a large soft pawpaw under a tall pawpaw tree. Suddenly, Mr. Leg ran quickly to the pawpaw tree and stood by the pawpaw. He said: I am near the big soft pawpaw. Mr. Hand took the pawpaw and they all went home with great joy.

3. Simple Questions with or


Another way of framing questions in Ee is by using the question particles or . The first form is placed at the end of the question. In this case it means 'where'. Study the following examples:

87

Ameawo ? Wo ? At ?

'Where are the people?' 'Where are you?' 'Where is the tree/stick/wood?'

e can also mean 'what' or 'what about' or 'how about' as shown in the following examples: kwo ? Nynua , v za?

'What is your name?' 'What about the woman, has she come now?'

On the other hand, maybe placed at the beginning of a question ending with the Question marker with -a :

Aksua a te la xoxoa? miede Peki etsa?

'Is it true that Aksua has already cooked the yam?' 'Is it a fact that you had been to Peki yesterday?'

Sometimes, instead of ending such questions with -a as shown above, m or mh is used : nele agble m? wo mi mh? 'Is it a fact that you bought that farm?' 'Is it true that they have beaten you?'

Vocabulary k fia l agbale sand to write a letter king, chief

88 Osfo asi tsala o pastor, father trader to eat to ones satisfaction

Exercise IX-5: Read 1. A medzroawo ? Afi ka woyi? Wyi fia gb di si a. wkpl evw h yi a? O, evw myi o. evw e? Wle fef le k me le sukux la megbe. e wona di nuuu wo xoxoa? E, w kta u nu o. 2. miey nufi ala la ma? E, mye vva. miel agbal n Osfoa h? E, ml agbal n Osfo l h ttt. Agbala ? Mtse n xx etr si a. 3. Tdz ? le gb um le af. Kdzo le tdz d m? Nyemny o. Kdzo le tdz l mh? O, mlee o. Asitsala eveawo tse n.

Exercise IX-6: Translate into Ee Did you see the trader? Yes, I saw him. What about the woman and the children? I did not see them. Is it true that the man killed them? I do not know. Is it a fact that he took all the money from the pot? Yes, I saw him taking the money.

89

LESSON X
1. The Absolute forms of the Personal pronouns
The Absolute pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON

SINGULAR nye wo ya

mw mi awo ww

PLURAL

The Absolute Personal pronouns are emphasized by suffixing the Emphasizer - to the above forms as shown in the table below :

Singular

nye wo ya

'it is I/I am the one who ' 'it is you/you are the one who ' 'It is he (/she/it) / he (she/it) is the one who ' 'it is we/we are the ones who '

Plural

mw mi awo ww

'it is you/you are the ones who ' 'it is they/they are the ones who '

Note that the Absolute pronouns are only used if the pronoun is to be emphasized:

SUBJECT

Nyee wu da l. Woe kp w. Eyae om. Nyee wokp Woe mi ekp Eyae woy.

'It was I who killed the snake.'

'It was you (sg.) who saw them.' 'It was he/she/it who beat me.' 'It was me he/she/it saw.' 'It was you (pl.) we saw.' 'It was he/she/it they called.'

OBJECT

90

Vocabulary ke i o w fu (ame) d e m na se x se ko tgbi nudrla zi kpi zi o tsa ku tr aaba mo/ kume gbl (nya) mee ati kpala nkpala to beat a drum, to drum to send (someone to) to allow/permit power, authority only grandfather judge to remain silent (not speaking) to keep silent, stop talking to look round to turn to/towards second (in calculating time) face to say/tell to reply, answer carpenter carver permission to receive power, to be empowered to maltreat someone, to give trouble (to someone) to argue, to compete, to doubt

tr mo , tr kume to face

Exercise X-1: Read

1. Nyee kp mi le t l dz. E, mi awoe mekp le t l dz ets. 2. Eyae ke i kplm le du me. Nyee woke i kpl le Lome. 3. Ww o m. Mw wo le suku Dz. 4. Woe w da n. Vva eyae newe na. Mny nyee new d si a na o. 5. Mw n ha dzi, mi awoe n e , eye woawoe n uaw om.

91 6. A mekawoe d l le asi la me? Mny mw o. A medzro mw d l. Ww dzi ha l h. Kmla mn afm o. Eyae md tgbi gb le agble. 7. A mega Kpeglo do l gbl be : Nyee miele oo l? Nyee miele fu wm alea? Nuka mew? Fi a gb mi ex use si a tsoa? Eyae e m na mia? Alo fu ko miele wye?

Exercise X-2: Translate into Ee The judge asks him if it was he who fell the baobab. He said nothing. The judge asked him again if it was he who did it. He was silent for some seconds. He looked round the room, turned his face towards me, and told the judge that it was me who fell the baobab. The judge turned to me and asked if it was I who did it. I answered that it was not I but I saw those five men felling the tree. The judge turned to the five men and asked them if they felled the baobab. They all replied: Yes, we felled it. The judge asked: Who gave you the permission? They replied: Nobody gave us permission. We bought it last week from this carpenter.

2. Emphasizing nouns
Compare the following English sentences with their Ee equivalents :

ENGLISH It is definitely a tree. It was a boy I saw. It was a house we bought.

EE At. utsuvi mekp. Xe mle.

While in English empasis is eypressed syntactically, by means of adverbs, or by

intonation, in Ee, emphasis on nouns is achieved by suffixing the marker (which is originally the Third Person Singular pronoun). When the noun is determined or Study these examples : qualified, the emphatic suffix - is taken by the determinative or the qualifying word.

92 T kk. X ga nele. 'It is definitely a high mountain.' 'It is a big house you bought.'

Adel eveaw wu to la. 'It was the two hunters who killed the buffalo.'

Vocabulary agblen l n l agble y/krante bali gbe d vv na (ame) fia duk xxo te si ka kp (ame) kp (ame) sra (ame) kp fi asa si kagba dzod tu zu to weed, to write to weed a farm cutlass, machet valley voice to become to frighten to enstool/crown a chief/king, to appoint s.o. to a position a people, village or towns folk, a nation old, former one place gold to help (someone) to visit (someone) palace golden plate kitchen to visit (someone) to build hoe

Exercise X-3: Read 1. Agblen mts l agble l. Mny y mets le o. 2. T dz agble l le. Agble ma tututue mi edzra na yevu asi tsala l. 3. X blave koe le du se la me. Du l mi ekp le bali ga la me. Bali gogloa e mee du l le, eye to ete le du se la xa.

93 4. Wse gbe ts atw dome. Gbe gae wose. Wo h nesea? Gbe l d vv n w. 5. utsu si a zu fia. Duk lae e fia. Fi ae we vva Fi a xoxoa ku le leti si va yi me. Fi a xoxoa te we fi a . Exercise X-4: Translate into Ee It was me who built the house. It is a big house. It was for the king that I built it. It was not three houses that I built. It was only one house that I built. Only twenty workers worked for me. It was they who worked for me. Was it you who visited the king? It was the king you visited this afternoon. It was in the palace that you met the king. Was it the king who gave you the golden plate? It is a real golden plate, and it was he who gave it to you. Abra broke something. It was a pot she broke in the kitchen. It was she and not me who broke the pot. Were you the one who saw her breaking the pot? It was not Kdzo who saw her, it was you who saw her.

3. Double questions
Study the following questions : 1. nele av l l al wtse na woa? 'Did you buy the cloth or was it given to you?' 2. X ma e, kp wts tui loo alo anykp wts tuia? 'That house, was it built with stones or was it built with bricks?' It is obvious that the above questions cannot be answered with just a simple 'yes' or 'no'. Examine the following possible answers to the above questions : 1. Nyemlee o, fi ae tse nam. 2. Mnye kpe alo anyi kpe wots tui o, At wts tui.

94

anyi kpe sama sm

Vocabulary

brick summons court to summons

nudr li f

w n (ame)

to wrong someone to struggle for to find, discover path leading to a farm east south eastern one north west the name of an Ee division in Ghana witness western one to be present

agblem edze dzeh edzet anyi eh eto A lavanyo etot asef neni e n (n) te fedzi gbale fiasemenla x fedzi gbale/ dzra n aaka ts v l ku n hf x agbal e fe dzi

how much receipt storekeeper/shopkeeper to take a receipt to keep/to repair box to examine/watch/observe something before to bring

95 Exercise X-5: Read Kdzo sama Ksi na fia Agkli . Fi a la y wo yi nudr. Kdzo o nu gba. gbl nsi Ksi w e eu la na fia Agkli . megb fi a la na Ksi h o nu. Ame eve siaw n t li m . T h n nudr le kpl gaa dz le fi a la xa. Nya l yi l: Fia: Kdzo: Fia: Kdzo: Fia: Kdzo: Fia: Kdzo: Fia: Kdzo: Kdzo, tu si a nel l al e amea tse na woa? Nyemlee o, mefe. Afka nefe le? Dua mee nefe le l, al gb mee nefe lea? Mny du mee mefe le o. Mefe le agblem dzi . Agblema ka dzi e nef t l le? Xedzet dz l al etot dzi ea? Dzehm dzi loo alo anyi ehm dz nef t ny si a lea? Mny edzem al dzehm alo anyi ehem dzi e mef t l le o. Mefe le etot dzi . Nuka w ge, neyi le agblem ma dzi ? nen agble yi l alo tsa ko i m nen m? Nyemn agble yi o, tsa Ko i m men hf fe. t n ma me loo alo gb mee nekpe lea? T mn ma me o. Mn ma ti ti na o. Mn gb me h o. n at u le ma t.

Exercise X-6: Translate into Ee Alavanyo. The chief went on and asked: Agkli: Ksi: Agkli: Ksi: Agkli: Ksi: Agkli: I bought it from Mr. Katapu. Kmla, the farmer was present. I bought it for twenty five pounds. Did you take a receipt from Mr. Katapu? How much did you buy it? Who was the witness? Who sold the gun to you? Chief Agkli asked Ksi also to speak. Ksi told the court that he bought the gun from

96 Ksi: Agkli: Ksi: Yes, Mr. Katapu gave me a receipt. It is here in this small black box. Where is the receipt?

the receipt well.

Ksi gave the receipt to the chief and the chief told him to sit down. Agkli examined

97

LESSON XI
1. Attributive Possession: The "Genitive"
In expressing the relation between the Possessor and the Possessed, the Possession marker is placed between the Possessor and the Possessed. Consider the following sentences: Aku x mu. Akua fkpa bu. X la gliw tri.

'Akus house has fallen.' 'Akuas shoe is lost.' 'The walls of the house are thick.'

Note that in each of the above examples, the Possessor precedes the marker , and the Possessed comes after it. In the literature on Ee, the term "Genitive" is sometimes found in order to refer to the Possession marker . This is due to the fact that in Indo-European languages the Genitive Case is often used to indicate Possession. Note that Case depends on the verb (cf. German: Sie beschuldigen ihn eines Verbrechens). In Ee, like in most languages of the world, there exists no Genitive Case. With family relationships, the nouns in a Possessive relation are simply juxtaposed, without a linking marker:

Adzoa fofo va. utsua sr dzo. ev dada meli o.

'Adzoas father has come.' 'The mans wife has left.' 'The childs mother is absent.'

The reason for this difference is usually described in terms of "Alienability" versus

"Inalienability". Alienable relations can usually be changed while inalienable ones normally cannot. With inalienable relations there is typically no Possession marker involved. In languages where such a differentiation is found, the category of

98 inalienable nouns typically includes nouns indicating familiy relations as well as body part nouns. Ee differs, however, in this respect; study the following examples:

Adz e ta Adz ta

'Adz's head' 'above Adz'

utsua e kme utsua kme

'the man's face' 'in front of the man'

With body part nouns, the Possession marker cannot be dropped because, without , the body part noun functions as a postposition.

Vocabulary
gb fof/t tasi ti ni sr srnynu/asi srtsu/ats asi wui afwui awutew tsuwuwo nynuwu tsi wu atwu/atdi di evi wu to break father uncle (father side) wife/husband wife husband socks/hose underwear clothes dress childrens wear raincoat trousers glove aunt (mother side) aunt (father side)

99 ndd clothing

utsuwo e awuwo mens clothings nynuwo awuwo ladies dresses agba agbatsla Eegb nus mia nusbta miabta t agba dze (ame) gb kpekpeme kpekpe takuvi xexi /sowi h gagb nutome ufke d ame k nunono gaz agblex carrier the Ee language right hand left hand right shoulder left shoulder to untie a load to lodge someone weight heavy handkerchief umbrella knife metal plate/pan district next morning/day to put on nobody metal pot cottage, farm hut load

a drink/drinkable

Exercise XI-1: Read 1. Asi tsala la gbaw sgb t, gak mkp agbatslawo o. 2. X si a edze gme le gbagb, eyata dwlw v gli l mu g. 3. A meka e awue nye esi a? Mny Kmla awue oa? O, mny Kmla e awue o. A medzro ma e awue. 4. A mekawo gbe ny Eegbe? Eeawo gbe. Mkp Eeawo le A fri ka

100 eto. 5. Adzoa tasi va ekp ge . Adzoa dada meli o. Mese be eyi fof gble me. Agblex sea le fof e agblea me. 6. tsu la vi e nye A kua. A kua dada le ae nyui si a me. A e gliwo tri t. 7. T ga la tame le gbadza, gak set tame le tsye. Mde t ga la dzi e si v yi me, gak amea k mde t se la tame kp o. 8. evi a tasi le Ameri ka, ti a yi ndia ets, eye dad kpl fof k. Eyata wodzo yi ni a gb le Agu. 9. Ekp s kpa? lk s e kume le? S kume le lb. Mekp dzata h kp. Dzat mo le nogoo. Adz sr wu dzat kp. wui kple akpe ssea . Mny t wots wu dzat l o. 10. kp ati kpala ma nus bta kple mi a bta ? Nukawo wots? ts tu mi a bta eye nake di di a le nus bta n.

Exercise XI-2: Translate into Ee Once upon a time, a farmer lodged a tall trader. The farmer lived in a small farm house. The farmer's wife also lived in the farm. The trader brought a lot of heavy loads. Ten strong men carried the heavy loads for the trader. The farmer's wife cooked fufu for them and they ate it. The ten carriers returned home in the afternoon. In the evening, the trader untied the loads. What did he bring? He brought shoes, hats, handkerchiefs, socks, gloves, underwears, mens clothes, ladies dresses shorts, trousers, childrens wears, raincoats, umbrellas, cutlasses, hoes, knives, metal pots and metal plates, and different kinds of foods and drinks. The next day, many farmers came from other farms in that district and bought all the trader's goods. The farmers aunt (father side) also came. A lot of the customers bought only clothings, but some also bought drinks.

101

2. Possessive pronouns preceding the Possessed


The Possessive Pronouns dealt with in this section are those which precede the noun. The Possessive Pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON

SINGULAR ny w

PLURAL m w mia

SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON

Note that with the Third Person Singular, and with all the Plural forms, the Possessive marker is suffixed to the personal pronouns (, m, mia, and w), to form the Possessive pronouns. The First Person Singular and the Second Person Singular take rising tones. These Possessive pronouns precede the noun:

Ny x mu. W agbale bu. b . M ti sgb. Mi ae nyi wo nye esi awo. W xwo menyo o.

'My house has fallen.' 'Your book is lost.' 'His/her arm is broken.' 'Our trees are many.' 'Your cows are these.' 'Their houses are not good.'

The Possession marker is, however, dropped in the following cases: Family relations: m fofo w tasi Body part nouns: mia dad ti dz. W t ko. m kme megbe 'your (pl.) mother' 'their aunt' 'His/her/its uncle left.' 'Their body is clean.' 'our face' 'his/her/its back' 'our father'

102 Verbal nouns: ele w wuwu mi a dd Noun Agents: m kplla mi a tslawo xla w dzrlw Names of tribes and races: The following special nouns: k 'name' : de 'home' : denyi gba 'homeland' : a 'house, home' : k w de mi a denyi gba le me 'his/her/its name' 'their home' 'our homeland' 'in his/her/its house' mia Dzamawo m Eeaw 'its being bought' 'their being killed' 'your (pl.) being sent' 'our leader' 'its receiver' 'their sellers' 'your German people' 'our Ee people' 'your (pl.) carriers'

Vocabulary
Yw Yawa ale Yawo Thursday a male born on Thursday sheep goat rearing of animals pig rich person to be rich you are innocent, you are right ("our matter is right") you are guilty, you are not right ("your matter is not right") citizen ("child of town") one who rears animals a female born on Thursday

gb lanyi la lanyi nyi ha kesi nt kp ga w nya dz wo nya medz o dumev

103 dumevnyenye hho hhod amebala he t n fi a zi gbat si b bu gbe b/bn t du tsi eyata able klv kv n w kv ab lsi ene amesi ame agbenn gax/ m agbe kuviat kosi lo ba ame citizenship ("being child of town") communal work/community work cheat to burn first time as, when to lose reckon, calculate never to have mercy on/pity (someone) that, to say that to obey, to listen to fetch water (from a river/well etc.) therefore freedom female slave male slave laziness to request/order to be lazy direction, side to punish to cheat someone communal, common to all

kp nbln n (ame)

lazy person as/as how life everybody prison mode of life

Exercise XI-3: Read 1. Nye agble lolo w Yawo gble, ye ny x ha lolo w x.

104 2. M agblewoe wole. Agbleaw le bali gaa me le dua anyi eh lo. Mdzr me agbleawo na yev w. Mese be yev maw v ze Yawo kple sra gb. Wny we amedzrw. 3. tsua v gbl na mi be w x fi a keke ets. W x la le dua ttna, ye mi a x h le afma lo. Gak tsua b x bb ke megafi a wu wo x o. Eyata mss b m x mfi a o. 4. Miae alewo kple gbwo va ny gble me gbe. Wu ny bl, te, agbeli kpl agblemenu bubuwo petee. Mny si ae nye zi gbat o. e si v yi h, mi ae nyi w mi esusu be nyemele n ny oa? Gbe! tff medi . Nbln ko mekp na mi kata. 5. Yawo nye lanyi la. Lanyi nyi e nye e d. L gee le b me. gbwo, haw, nyi wo, kple alewo sgb t. kp ga gee t lanyinyi me. Enye kesi nt. Kesi nte vava. xwo le Lome, Kta, Agu, Kpando kpl Kplme. 6. nudrla la gbl na nynuawo bena we nya medz o. Wm t w fia o. Wmdu tsi na dwlawo o, eye womea nu h n we amedzrowo o. Eyata wbu w dumevnyny kpl w ble. Ts gbe m gbe wzu fi a kple du blbo la kosi wo. 7. megb tr tsu atawo h gb, hgbl na wo be nusi wow l mny o. Wmw hhod kple tsu bubuwo le dua me ab lsi fi a oe na tsuwo la ene o. Wny kvtwo. W gbenn meny o. Wba utsu bbuw le dua me. l yele to he ge na wo abe amebalawo kpl kvtwo ene. Wb w ble, eye wzu fi a kple dua klvw. 8. d tsuawo gax me e at, eye nynuawo x e et.

kpl haw v u ny gbeliw kpl ayi wo keke. si mezi kpi le gbat ma ta

Exercise XI-4: Translate into Ee The court was silent. The judge entered the room and everybody stood up. The tall fat judge looked round the room and went to his beautiful chair. He sat down and the people also sat down. Five men and three women stood by a table in front of the judge. It was these five men who did not do communal work with other men in the town, and it was the three

105 women who did not cook for their guests. The judge told the three women and the five men that they were guilty. He said that he was going to punish them because they were cheats and lazy people. They were not good citizens. He sent them to prison and they lost their freedom and their citizenship.

106

LESSON XII
1. Possessive pronouns following the Possessed
Singular (w 'your'), can also be placed after the Possessed. When used in this way, they are suffixed to the preceding noun, and also undergo a change in tone. Compare the tone of the Possessive pronouns in the following sentences: Possessive pronouns in the First Person Singular (ny 'my') and in the Second Person

Ny agble mlolo o. W x mu.

Agblenye mlolo o. Xwo mu.

'My farm is not big.' 'Your house has fallen.'

Note that when these Possessive pronouns are suffixed, they take low tones. With family relations, the Possessive pronouns in the First and Second Person Singular are, as a rule, suffixed

vnye vwo fofonye/tnye fofowo/two dnye/nnye dwo/nwo nvi nye nvi wo tsnye tswo fonye fowo tasi nye tasi wo ni nye

'my child' (never *ny v) 'your child' (never *w v) 'my father' 'your father' 'my mother' 'your mother' 'my brother/sister/cousin' 'my younger brother' 'my elder brother' 'your brother/sister/cousin' 'your younger brother' 'your elder brother' 'my aunt (paternal)' 'your aunt (paternal)' 'my aunt (maternal)'

107 ni wo ti nye nyrenye ti wo tgbi nye tgbi wo mamanye mamawo tganye tgawo srnye srwo asinye asiwo atsnye atswo danye dawo oenye oewo 'your aunt (maternal)' 'my uncle (paternal younger brother of father)' 'my uncle (maternal)' 'your uncle (paternal younger brother of father)' 'my grandfather (both paternal and maternal)' 'your grandfather (both paternal and maternal)' 'my grandmother (both paternal and maternal)' 'your grandmother (both paternal and maternal)' 'my uncle (paternal older brother of father)' 'my spouse' 'your spouse' 'my wife' 'your wife' 'my husband' 'your husband' 'my elder sister' 'your elder sister' 'my younger sister' 'your younger sister' 'your uncle (paternal older brother of father)'

(The above list is given here in full for ease of reference.) In the Third Person Singular the Possessive pronoun takes a different form when applied to family relationship. Instead of prefixing the pronoun - to the Possessed, a high or low toned -a is suffixed:

fof via

'his/her/its father' 'his/her/its child'

Note that the tone of the -a so suffixed is dictated by the tone of the preceding noun.

108

Vocabulary ff/ta dad ku tsi du tsi k ku k d dzo yi (n) dz fofnye na d u duu evme nk agbleded nyr g tsi gal kotoku/golo e dzo agblekotoku dzudz dzudz kp dzidz ti nya vv d agblemenuku kak dad his/her/its father mother his/her/its mother to fetch water from a receptacle neck to fetch water from a river, lake or well sling on the neck to set fire to continue doing something my father let me do something the sun shines sunshine childhood crop, that which is harvested farming to sharpen gourd to grow up a West African food prepared from cassava sack, bag, pocket to fetch fire a farmers sack/bag rest to be happy story, folklore, history work, job to rest

sweet, interesting farm product

a piece of

109 Exercise XII-1: Read FO FO NYE FIA AGBLEDEDE MI VIAWO Gbe ek di kanya fofnye ym hgbl nam be yele nye kpl tsnye Kdz kpl ge yi agble le di nuuu megbe. m o. Fofonye h u di nuuu. si a megb wots agblenu eve kple krante eve nm, eye menyre wo nyui e. ts g h nm. Mets g l yi danye gb, eye woku tsi de eme nam. Fofonye h nyr krante kple agblenu. Tsnye Kdzo metsi tutuutu o. x e enyi ko; gak m fofo na eya ha ts krante sea . Dnye h ts w, gal kpl dze de kotoku. sea me, ye wotse na tsnye Kdzo. Kdzo ts kotoku la ku k. Fofonye ts e gblekotok kpl t ye woe dzo z kka dzi. l mdz yi agble di ma. Md dzo m gblex me. si a megbe mi ewo d tso di ga asi eke vase ga ek. D n m wum t, eyata fofonye na mea n. Mu nua le ga ek kpl ga eve dome. Le nuu la megbe fofonye n mdzudz vi e, labn d n uu kp. Myi mf dww dzi le ga et me. si ga at o la, nye kpl tsnye myi av sea me af nake. Mbl nkeawo hts wo va a. Dnye kp dzidz t b mtr gb. kp dzidz le nakeawo h t. Mle tsi, eye le esi a megbe mu nu. Le fi enuuu la Danye na di nuuu mi mi eu. Fofonye bi a m b m o mah? M n be: E,

megbe fofonye gbl uti nya vi vi a n nye kpl tsnye. Mml anyi fi e ma kaba labn ei te m t. Le ufke la, fofonye gakpl m yi agblea, eye myi m dww dzi .

l m fof f agbledww mi tso mi a evi me ke. Agbleded ny d ny . Ew me, ab te, mli , az kpl agbeli en. d le agble me kpa? Agbledel ny fofowoa? Agblemenk geee le fofonye gble

Exercise XII-2: Translate into Ee The next day, we rose early from bed, and (we) went again to the farm. Our father again carried his gun. On the way we saw a big snake under a big tree. We called our father. Our father saw the big long snake. He shot it and killed it. It was me who set the fire in the farm-hut that morning, and my younger brother,

110 Kdzo, went and fetched water in a small river. We worked the whole morning. We were tired and hungry too. I cooked and we ate. After eating, we rested for one hour. My father slept a little under a baobab tree, but Kdzo and I played in the farm-hut. We continued our work until six oclock. mother gave us food. After taking a bath, we went to bed. I like farming very much. It is a good job. Do you also like farming? Kdzo and I collected firewood for our mother. We returned home at seven oclock. My

2. The Nominalization of Possessive pronouns


The Possessive pronoun is nominalized by the addition of t to the Possessive pronoun in accordance with the following rules: In the First and Second Person Singular the Nominalizer t is prefixed to the Possessive Pronouns:

tnye two

'mine' 'yours (sg.)'

In the Third Person Singular, t is suffixed:

'his/hers/its'

In all the Plural forms, t is placed as a separate word after the Possessive pronouns:

m t w t

mia t

'ours'

'yours (pl.)' 'theirs'

111 The Nominalizer t can be used on its own ('the one') as shown in the following sentences: X si a melolo wu utsu si a t o. 'This house is not bigger than this mans (house). ' W gble menyo abe fi a t ene o. 'Their farm is not as good as the chiefs (farm).'

Vocabulary yy gbat evel etli a kp (n) dz ekema A nago new first second third to look after, to take care of then Yoruba Yorubaland that time today/present day/nowadays to bring forth (someone) the last to travel to travel through male born on Saturday to build a house Friday female born on Friday to found a town/village an ancient Ee settlement male born on Friday to be sure/certain right now female born on Saturday

A nagonyi gba e ma i gbgbe mlet z m z m to Kwami A ma tu x F Af ka n dz tso du O y/A y Kof fiflaa dzi (ame)

112 tsie xxx u fia ab ene kp ame a de Eeduk an ancient Ee settlement long long ago the Ee nation to visit a person to visit a place such as, as to reign

A nex, Agbodraf, Kpdze, and Day are names of important Ee town.

Exercise XII-3: Read 1. Fofonye le x yy et tum . le w tum Lome le tgba dz le Lome e eto lo. Mese be xawo lolo ye wny t. Fofonye gbl nam b x gbat ny yet, evel ny two ye etli a nye tnye. Ny x lolo gak two lolo w, ye mi a fofo t lolo wu wo kata.

2. Tnyee, mny te al twoe o. Mia t mle af o. Mi a t le Kofi gb. Kofi e le w dz kpm n mi. N ele two di m la kema yi Kofi me. Kofi le a me fflaa. Myi agble ha o. Gak yi kb. Mese be fi a ye. Eyata le fi a gb yi ge le ga adr me. 3. M tgbw n A nagonyi gba dzi kp. Wtso du afm, ye woye b O y alo A y. Fofnye gbl nam b du la k ko nye Y. Wy du l b Y elabena yti

geee n dua me. megbe wodzo le O y eye wova egbgbe Tgnygb me. Wtso du afm h. Xe ma Xi e wotso tsi e xoxot. Le O y kple tsi e la, Eew kta n fi a ga ek t. Tasi nye gbl nam b Eew , fia mlt ke ny Agkli . yae n fi a um hafi Eeduk la kaka gbgbe Eenygb dz.

Exercise XII-4: Translate into Ee in Togo. My grandfather told me that all the Ees were under one King at tsie. The last Ee King was Agkli. At that time all the Ees lived in Eeland. Oy and tsie are ancient Ee towns. Oy is in present day Yorubaland and tsie is

113 But now, the Ees are in three countries. Some are in Ghana, some in Togo and some are in Benin. Have you ever visited any Ee towns? Your younger brother Kwami Agbodraf, Kpalime, Agu, Day, Kpando, Ho, Peki and Keta. My fathers house is in Kpalime, but his farm is near Kpedze. Kpalime is in Togo, and Kpedze is in Ghana. My mother comes from Agbodraf and my father comes from Ho. travelled in Eeland last year. He visited many Ee towns such as Lome, Anex,

3. Questions with neni e? 'how much/many?'


So far, you have learnt to use the following question words and phrases:

ameka? nuka? afi ka? aleke ... le? l, alo

'who?' 'what?' 'where?' 'how is .?' 'have you ?'

Another important question word is neni e meaning 'how much' or 'how many'.

Vocabulary aho te neni e latsola storm on land/sea place/times butcher how much, how many

Exercise XII-5: Read the following questions and supply answers to each 1. A me neni e le x si a me?

114 2. Neni e A ma le s sse l? 3. Zi neni e adela la da t to la haf wok? 4. Et te eve le nni e? 5. X nni e mu le aho l me? 6. Nni e At Kwami Dzeb dze dha z ga m? 7. A mekae le av nyui si a? 9. nele gas si a dzram m?

8. Afi ka asitsala la yi? Nyi nni e wodzra na latsola la? 10. e nni e Kmla le suk si a me n g? 11. Nka nufi ala la le ele le fs l me? 12. Ks le agblea l, al fof tse na? 13. Tgbui nye le mia gba? 14. Kpl neni e agbledela la le? Nni e ek x? 15. e nni e nex? Exercise XII-6: Translate the following answers into Ee, and supply the likely questions which you think could produce each answer 1. I took it from this room. 2. I am twenty years old. 3. Ten women were in the room. 4. Those girls come from Dahomey, and these boys come from Togo. 5. Yes, Lome is a big town. 6. We saw his books in the class-room. 7. I ate fufu. I ate it by Abr. 8. It is here on my table. 9. No, he did not buy it. It was his aunt who gave it to him.

10. It was Ama who called the hunter. 11. No, I have never been to Kpando.

12. It is mine. It is not yours and it is not his. 13. She is not selling palm-wine. 14. I saw this dog once in your grandfathers house. 15. It was exactly here that we killed the snake.

115

LESSON XIII
Predicative Possession: 'to have'
The Ee expression for 'to have' is le as which means 'to be in hand'. Study the following sentences:

X le asnye. S le aswo. Ga le s. X le m s. S le mi a si . Ga le w s.

'I have a house.' (lit.: "House is in my hand.") 'You (sg.) have a horse.' 'He/She has money.' 'We have a house.' 'You (pl.) have a horse.' 'They have money.'

Note that in the Third Person Singular, and in all the plural forms, where the Possessive pronouns -, m, mi a and w precede as, the initial letter a in as is dropped leaving only s. Study the form and position of as in the following sentences: Z le Ama si.

'Ama has a pot.' 'The man has a farm.' 'The king has ten cows.' 'My grandfather has money.' 'The pocupine has a cave.'

Agble le utsu la si . Nyi ewo le fi a si . Ga le tgbi nye si .

Kpeto le kotoko si .

Note that in all cases where as is prceded by the Possessor, it loses its initial letter a. The past form of le as is n as. Consider the following sentences:

Ga n asnye. Av n Kwami si .

'I had money.' 'Kwami had a dog.'

116 X men mi a si o. 'We had no house.'

Vocabulary f gba tsitst evt tso (ame) nu nutsotso o nu dzi dz te mdidi o agbatsu tsai nyatete A mut laela he (n) v ny dme dmenyt dze agbagb ggbe tr gb k d m (ame) dww nyi kp kf (ame) d se (ame) te se asabu tdz akpl first the elder the younger report to speak/talk to increase/to multiply not long after truck/lorry touring car honestly/truly/truthfully Volta lake fisherman to bring (something) as a result to be kind kind person future/front of to try/endeavour to report (someone) a lot/in large numbers

to return/come back village/hamlet cattle ranch work/job/business

to prepare and set (someone) on a journey

canoe cast-net a boat/ship

the place is/was difficult

to encourage (someone)

to praise (someone)

117 dze dz n (ame) l agbagbdzedze vv nnn dzilw Exercise XIII-1: Read NU KA LE ASWO? utsua n du me gbe gbe. Ga geee n s. A mea w gbl be eyae nye kesi nt gat n nuto ma me. Agble ewo n s, eye e lawo h sgb. Nyi w n es f. tu x gawo e dua me, eye wonye dmenyt gaa . V eve n s. Wny tsuvw. Tsitst x e bleve v at, ye evt x e bleve v eve. Tsitst ke nye Kof Gameli ye evte nye Yawo Agudze. Gbe ek w fofo y wo hegbl n w bn: Ff mietsi. Miegany evw o. yata miyi xx me adze agbagb n mi a ggbe. n ga evw ye wodo m w.kple nya si awo bena: Le e at megbe la, megale mi ay ge va gbnye n mian Akosombo, Krachi, Tamale vevi enyenye to be successful endeavour/achievement importance names of towns and places in Ghana parents gift important and so, so

nutsotso tso mia gbagbdzedzew t. l evw dz. Le e at megbe tutuutu di kny , eye wse esa nutsotso ts dww t. Kofi Gamelie o nu gba. gbl na fof b: Fofnye, si medzo la, meyi an Lome. Mets ny ga l le tmela hedzra le kw kpl du sew me. Mew d sesie t. Gameli kpl Agudze tr gb va wo fofo gb. Wo fof kp dzidz t. y wo gbe eka

te mdidi o, ga la dzi dz zi geee. l mele n geew. Ff x at le asnye le Lome. Ny law h sgb. Nyi wo, alewo, kpl gbwo le asnye f. Ny nyi kp le agbats enyi , ye tsai ve le asnye. Agbats le ame geee s le Lome.

A nex eye nye alewo kpl gbwo le Agu. S eve le asnye, ye gas h le asnye. Mele Fof kfu, ye wodo see hd akp n b w d nyatete. z Yawo Agudze h n nutsotso ts dwww t. Nsi wgbl l ny si:

118 Gba la meyi an Peki e ek. Te se t. D mn du me o. Tsi medza le e m me o, l dwuam gaa v. Eyata medzo le afm yi H. H h mny nm ttt o. Mele agblemenw dzr le afm ye mekp ga v . Le leti ade megbe ko medzo le H hyi Kpndo. Ab lsi neny ene l, Kpndoe ny Eedu gat le A muta la

Metswo le amewo kple agba vovoovow tsm tso Akosombo le Kpndo Krachi kple Tamale yi. Ga geee le asnye fi f, ye nye h mele tsai eve. W fofo da akpe n, ye wokafu eya h le gbagbdzedze ta. Egao nu na w le dww e vevi enyenye t. Gameli kpl Agudze he nunana geee v n w fof kpl w dada, eye won anyi kple wo dzi lw le dzidz ga kple tff me.

geee v nm. Ff x le asnye le H, Kpndo kple Keta. Tdz se eve h le asnye.

t. Tmela geee le A muta la me fi fi a. l mele akplu lolo eve n laee. Med laelawo de uaw me, ye mele asabu h n w. D la dze dz nm t. he ga

Exercise XIII-2: Translate into Ee Gameli went and stayed in Lome. He had a lorry. He bought fish at Lome and sold it in the villages near Lome. He sold a lot of fish in the villages. This brought him much money. Now he is a rich man. He has cows and sheep. His cattle ranch is very big. He also has a car and two big trucks. He has a younger brother. His younger brothers name is Aguedze. Aguedze is in Kpando. He has eight canoes on the Volta lake. He has fishermen too. He bought a big boat last month. He has houses in Kpando and Keta. Aguedze is also a rich man. Their parents are at Agu. Do you know them? They are kind and rich. They have a big house at Ho, and two big farms at Dayi. Have you ever been to Dayi? I was there last week. Dayi is a small town in the north of Eeland. In cases where the relation between Possessor and Possessed is of an inalienable nature (cf. Lesson XI), a different construction is used to express predicative Possession. In nouns and with nouns expressing family relationships: these cases, the verb li 'to exist' is employed. This construction is used with body part

119

Ta li nam. Af eve li n m. T li n.

'I have a head.' 'We have two legs.' 'He has a father.'

postposition me 'in'. But where one wishes to express that he is in charge of, or responsible for something, the postposition me is placed after le as. The expression le as me then means not 'to have' but 'to be in ones hands':

It is important to note that, when expressing Possession, le as is not followed by the

Nya l le asnye me. Mi ele Mawu si me. Ele wo si me.

'The matter is in my hands.' 'We are in the hands of God.' 'He/she/it is in their hands.'

How to count from 21 to 29 etc.

For 'twenty-one' the Ees say bleve v ek. The expression v means 'over', blaeve v ek therefore means 'twenty over by one'. Study the following:

21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60

bleve v ek bleve v eve blaeve v et blaeve v ene blaeve v at blet blene blat blaade

26 27 28 29

bleve v ade bleve v adre blaeve v en blaeve v asi eke

70 80 90

blaadre blaenyi blaasi eke

100 alafa ek

(the original Ee word for 100 is ga, alafa is borrowed from the Arabic word alf )

120 200 alafa eve 300 alafa et 400 alafa ene 1000 akp ek 2000 akp eve etc. etc.

Vocabulary nu nuoo z nsese kp (ame) dz dzikpkp dzikpkp du ta bu ta me nkpkp dww gb gbgb ee ti tamebubu zz mouth speaking (v.n.) to walk walking (v.n.) hearing (v.n.) care caring for (v.n.) running head to think thinking (v.n.) seeing/sight nose breath/breathing smell smelling (v.n.) crown nest living thing the world to smell to breathe; to return work/job/business look after/care for someone

xxme fi akuk ngbgb at

e (nu) se eesese

121 ku death

Exercise XIII-3: Read EVW HA Miese evw e ha nyi si a kpa? Ta li na mi na tamebubu. k li na mi na nukpkp. T li na mi na nusese. Nu li na m n nuoo kpl nuu. ti li na mi na gbgb kpl eesese. As li na mi na dww. Af li na mi na zz kpl du. Fofo kpl dad li na m dzkpkp. Gak Mw li na amew kta kple xexeme bli bo la. Agbe li n ame, ye. Ku li na nugbagbw kta.

Exercise XIII-4: Translate into Ee 1. God makes us well. He gives us many good things. He makes you well and makes me well also. I have one head, one mouth and one nose. Not only these! I have two eyes, two ears, two arms and two legs. And I have a father and a mother too. 2. The King has a palace and a crown. The butcher has thirty cows and a lot of sheep. The farmer has yams, cassava, maize and rice. The bird has a nest and twenty eggs. The teacher has a school and many pupils. You have houses and a lot of money. But what have I? I have nothing! 3. Translate the following questions into Ee, and supply adequate answers in Ee. Give your answers in complete sentences: 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Have you seen Kofi this morning? What is your name? What is his fathers name? Has Komla a farm in Lome?

122 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. Is the matter in the King's hands? Did you buy this gun or did your grandfather give it to you? What have they eaten today? Is it his? Whose books are here? Are you a farmer?

123

LESSON XIV
1. The Imperative
In commands to one person, the verb alone is used as the Imperative: V! Yi! Dz! Dzi ha! e! Tr va! Kofi , v af! Ama, e! 'Come!' 'Go!' 'Depart!' 'Sing!' 'Dance!' 'Return!' 'Kofi, come here!' 'Ama, dance!'

But in commands to two or more persons, the pronoun mi 'you (pl.)' is always necessary in addressing the command:

Mi va! Miyi! Midzi ha! Mi e!

'(You, pl.) Come!' '(You, pl.) Go!' '(You, pl.) Sing!' '(You, pl.) Dance!'

In Negated Imperatives, the person or persons being commanded must be addressed personally, using the required pronoun in the Singular or in the Plural, respectively. In Negated Imperatives, the Negation prefix m- merges with Subject pronoun e(when addressing one person) or mi- (when addressing more than one person). The

result of this merging is me- (with a Low tone) in the first case, and mi- in the second. These elements are followed by the adverbial prefix ga- 'again', followed by the verb. The sentence-final Negation particle o completes the Negated Imperative.

124 Compare the following Imperatives in the positive and negative forms, both in the Singular and Plural:

Xle! u ! Mixle! Miu !

Read it! 'Open the door!' '(You, pl.) Read it!' '(You, pl.) Open the 'door!

Megaxle o!

Megau o! 'Do not open the Migaxle o! Migau ! door!' '(You, pl.) Dont read it!' '(You, pl.) Dont open the door!'

'Do not read it!'

In both Singular and Plural, the person or persons being commanded may also be addressed by name:

Aksua, megav o! Kofi , megadzi ha o! Ama, Aksua, migayi o! evw, migaf o!

'Aksua, do not come!' 'Kofi, do not sing!' 'Ama, Aksua, do not go!' 'Children, do no play!'

Vocabulary e gbe do g dzudz nlti fef sr nu nl to command, to order to go out to stop doing something pen, pencil writing/what is written

playground to learn to pray learning to come to an end, to finish doing something

d gbe w nu

nssr

125 ke nu (me) akta dzee tsy ak anyi ali dwkpl ati keke/ati keooe mi n kp (n) g zi et gbe eka te mdidi o vs o dzilw atkewla/ddal aka d (n) kp dme tume/dzime ts atkedzra gats atke k/k afa hy to open the mouth chest to lie face down desk to gaze, to look at (something) steadily to swallow something three times a day/daily soon after/not long after up to/until/till to pack/put together parents doctor lamp to test/examine/try something stomach back (of body) pharmacy medicine spoon seed (also applied to tablets and capsules) to rise up/stand up/get up; to come from pill waist to lie face up

half

to recover from illness, to become well

Exercise XIV-1: Read Nfl l g sukux la me, ye woe gbe n sukuvi awo gbl bena: Mi tsi tre! Min anyi ! Migao nu o! Mi ts mi a gbalw kpl mi a nlti wo! Mil nya sawo! si evw l n ab gaoo afa megbe la, nfl l ts tre gbl bn: Midzudz nl z! Mi tu mi a agbalw! Mido go v!

126 Sukvw do g yi w fef le sukx la g. Nfl l u fesreawo kata kple trw h. megbe eya h do g yi evw gb. Le gaoo afa megbe la, nfl l kb! evw du ts nfl l gb yi sukux la me. Wyi wo nssr dzi vase ga ene me. Nufi ala la gatsi tre, ye wgae gbe n evi awo gbl bena: Mio mi a gbalw! Mi tsi tre md gbe ! Le esi a megbe evw yi ame le w dzi lw gb, A le suku w nu gbe m gbe.

d l gbl bn: Midzudz fef z! Mi du v gbnye le af! Mi tr yi sukux me

Exercise XIV-2: Translate into Ee I was sick last week, and so I went to see my doctor. This is how the doctor examined me. Doctor: Sit down on this chair! I sat on a high chair by the doctor. Doctor: Open your mouth! I opened my mouth, and the doctor looked into my mouth with a small lamp. Doctor: Open your eyes! I opened my eyes also, and the doctor looked steadily into my eyes. Doctor: Breathe heavily! I breathed heavily and the doctor examined my chest and my back. The doctor went into another room. Doctor: Come here! I went into the room. The doctor stood by a table in the room. Doctor: Lie on this table! I lay on the table. The room was cold, but the doctor went and opened a big window. Doctor: Face up! I lay on my back, and the doctor examined my stomach. Doctor: Lie on your stomach!

127 He examined my waist also. Doctor: Now, get up! I stood up. The doctor went back to his desk. He sat on his chair and I also sat on the high chair. He looked at me again steadily but said nothing. He took a piece of paper and (he) wrote something on it. He stood up and said to me: Go and buy this medicine from a pharmacy! Take two spoonfulls a day! Here are some tablets too. Take two tablets daily! I thanked him and returned home. The medicine helped me very much. I became well after three days.

2. Some notes on n 'to give'


The verb n standing by itself means 'to give': Ena agbale Kofi. Na bli kokloawo! Now study the following sentences:

'He gave Kofi a book.' 'Give corn to the fowls!'

Na mdz.

Min mu n z.

'Let us go.' 'Let us eat the food now.'

Note that in Ee, the person being invited or to whom a suggestion is made is always a low tone as it carries the tone of the Second Person Pronoun (Sing.) wo. The verb n has other meanings. It may mean 'to allow' as in utsu la na woku tsi le gble me. 'The man allowed them to fetch water in his farm.' or 'to make one do something' as in:

addressed both in the Singular as well as in the Plural. The verb n in Na mdz, takes

128 Fi a la na won ga dzdz l dz. 'The king made them sit on the hot metal.'

means 'to give'. Ts n literarily implies 'to take and give'. Ts gas la na Ama! Wtse n m.

When the verb ts 'to take' is followed by n 'to give', the combination ts n also

'Give the bicycle to Ama!' 'They gave it to us.'

Sometimes, ts n is more elaborately expressed by placing another verb denoting direction between ts and n :

Ts te la yi i na nynu la! Ts agba l v nam.

'Take the yam to the woman!' 'Bring the load to me.'

In the above examples the verbs yii and v are of special interest:

yi

va

'to go'

'to come'

but but

yii

vae 'come with it'

'go with it'

(Remember that the combination vae produces in v.) Note that, in these cases, the verbs are not linked by a conjunction 'and'. Furthermore, the verbs do not denote two or more independent actions but rather two ore more parts of one single action or event. This phenomenon is called "Verb Serialization", and the verbs occurring in a series are called "Serial verbs". If n is the verb in such a series, there are cases depending on the meaning of the preceding verb(s) where the meaning 'give' does not make sense. One example may suffice: d w n Kof. 'S/he works for Kofi.'

In such cases, n works as a preposition meaning 'for, to the benefit of' and is thus often called a "Benefactive" preposition.

129

Vocabulary mkeke dek gbe dama azi gbh dzra kpl n palm-nut rich green grass to get ready / to prepare bath pen for sheep (sheep-pen) calabash evening comes that day to tie bundle to lay egg bush pig / swine to sweep holiday

tsi le alekp tr fi e gbe m gbe bl babl

Exercise XIV-3: Read Mew d le fofonye gble me kwasi eve hf ny mkeke w enu. Mew d vovoovow le agble me. Ets si v yi h mede agble. Nsiw mew le agble me ets l ny siawo: Mef d ga adre. Gba la mena bli fofonye koklw. Koklo alafa eny le fofonye s le agble me. Esi a megbe mets ze gaa le agblex l me aku tsi na haaw. Tsi sea e koe n w tsi le. Mena nuuu haawo ha. Wu agbeli kpl dekw. Fofonye va agblea le ga ewo me. kp dzidz t ts ny ww t. Le ga weve megb l, fofonye na meyi dny gb le ame ax nuu v. Mu nua le ga ek me. si mu nua v la, fofonye kpl aleawo do go. Av at le fofonye s. Fofonye e gbe n avuaw, eye avuawo na aleawo du v hf u w dnuuu. A leaw u gb damawo l agblem la to.

130 Fi e . Fofonye n meyi koklw gb a koklziw. Kokloaw azi geee gbe m gbe. Za n dod. Fofonye ym gbl nam b: Dzra ! Mle ae yi ge! F ake vi a ts yi i n dwo! Ts koklozi bleve ha d kotoku si a me! Mew nsi wo kta fofonye gbl nam la, eye mi etr va a.

Exercise XIV-4: Translate into Ee My aunt (paternal) gave us food, and we ate it. She gave us a little pot of palm-wine and said: Take this little palm-wine to your father! We took it and left. Our father was working on his farm that day. We gave the palm-wine to our father in the farm. Our father also gave us one bundle of firewood and five yams, and said: Take the bundle of firewood to your aunt (paternal) and the yams to your mother. We returned home. We gave the firewood to our aunt (paternal) and the yams to our mother. We were thirsty. Ama did not see us. She was in her room. Our mother called her. Ama came out from the room. Our mother said: Ama, give them water! They are thirsty! Ama gave us water and we drank it. We were hungry, too. So our mother called Ama again and said to her: Cook something for them! They are very hungry. Ama cooked yam-fufu and brought it to us in our room. We ate all the fufu, and we were satisfied. Ama did not eat the fufu with us. She said she had already eaten. In the afternoon, we went back to the farm. Our father was still working on the farm. At four oclock, our father took his gun and said to us: Let us go into that forest behind the hill. We went into the forest and stood behind a huge tree. Soon after, our father saw four bush pigs. He shot at them and killed one. We brought the animal to our mother.

131

LESSON XV
1. The Habitual Aspect
The Habitual Aspect expresses an action which alway, often, or usually occurs or is performed habitually. In Ee, it is also commonly used in proverbs. etc., or the auxiliary verb to use to is employed to express a habitual meaning, Ee has a grammatical way of forming the Habitual Aspect. The habitual Aspect in Ee is formed by suffixing -a or -na to the verb. The suffixes -a and -na nearly always take the tone of the verb to which they are suffixed. When the verb is followed by an object, the Habitual is formed by suffixing -a to the verb. Compare the following pairs of sentences: Unlike English, where the Present Tense, the adverbs usually, habitually, professionally

Mle tsi ets. Mielea tsi gbesiagbe. Wu nu le fi a gb. Wua n le fi a gb.

'We had a bath yesterday.' 'We usually take a bath every day.' 'They ate at the chief's.' 'They usually eat at the chief's.'

Where the verb carries no object, the suffix -na is used in forming the Habitual. Study the following examples: Ame kun.

'Man dies.' (i.e. that is the nature of human beings)

Wyina gatrn gbe ma gbe ke. 'They usually go and return that same day.'

132 If the Habitual marker is preceded by a Third Person Singular Object pronoun (-), the suffix -a is replaced by na, and the combination a + e becomes . Study the following examples:

Mtsa agbeli aa fufu. Mtsn an.

'We use cassava in cooking fufu.' 'We use it in cooking it.'

Vocabulary tr trsi did b gbe (ame) n d gbe kpui didie kp ame oo nu dze (ame) dzi gbgb keke keke legba fetish fetish priest/priestess fetish hut wish to question someone if to make a promise nearby place distant place to invite/meet someone according to order to fall on someone, to be under the spell of day (see gbe) spirit; breath

trx

kekea de me lgba u k / k e k aha sbla ola

to set a day/date idol

the day comes, the time is up to model or mould an idol

amekpekpe

invitee/invited person to pour liquid or flour to pour libation drummer servant/worshiper blood

133 sb dze klo k Mawuga kpeeut hmenla vavl t (ame) dzi tx enuenu ku aha n da gb/da d/w atke dze d l do dll x adz okui kp ta anygb takpex ea ew i dn kwasia sia/kwasia k lme to serve/to worship to kneel body but (from gak) helper/assistant every week one who comes through someone special often to serve one a drink to heal/cure, to give treatment in illness to fall sick/ill to be sick patient patient (usually victim of a long sickness) to pay a fee himself ground/earth The Great God member of a congregation/club etc. same (as in gbe ma gbe ke 'that same day')

ts (n) de as n (ame) to pledge

to meet

mganye ametsi tsi

meeting hall it is no longer/no more elder, old person sometimes/at times

134 Exercise XV-1: Read

LSI AMEWO ZUA TROSIWO Gba l, gbgb v dzea amea dzi . Gbgb l wn wo e, al faa av, al dzia wb gbe gbgb l t ame la dzi . N gbgb l l o nu la, gbla didw n fi a kpl ametsi tsi w. N wse nyawo v megbe la, wd gbe nan eye wo keke wa didw kta nan oo si w wob l nu. N kekea de la, wya trsi bubuwo tsoa kpuiw kpl didiw vn. Wtua x n tr yey l gbe ma gbe ke, eye womea lgba nan. Lgba la na nnme si tr la di la me. Le si a megbe amekpekpeawo kata va na anyi. Wkua aha n /trosi tsi tsi t eye wod gbe n tr yy l le trx la nu le lgba la gb tutuutu. d gbe n l: , Mawuga w ha ny si! Tgbi w kta misee! ha. Xea w i meoa nu al gaua n g h o. Fi a kpl metsi tsi wo v kp ta eye

A nyi gba dzi trwo kata h misee! Tr yyea h nsee! yia dz l na aha l km hgbla nusi wo tr yy l b l. Emegb wtsoa ale al gb kpl koklowo naa tr la. Wtsa u l kna e legba la dzi , eye wotsa la la aa n n vavlw. Wtsa nusi woa la sea yia trx la me, atsn n tr la. z vavlw ua n henoa nu ha.

N wu nu v la, olaw oa n tr yey l. Wdzia trha txwo h nn. Enuenu l tr yy l dzea ame la dzi , eye wotsn h e. Trsi bbuw h trw vn, eye woawo ha tsi a tre e. Ts gbe m gbe ame la zua trsi. Takpx mle tr si o. Hamenlaw h mle s o. Le nyate me trsi la koe nye esubl.

Exercise XV-2: Translate into Ee The fetish priest is the only worshiper of the fetish. Many fetish priests do not only dance, they also heal.

135 When a person is sick and goes to a fetish priest he also becomes a worshiper of the fetish for only a short time. The patient usually kneels before the fetish and pledges himself to it. From that moment the patient becomes a worshiper of that fetish. The fetish priest usually gives medicines to the patient every week. If the patient recovers he pays a fee to the fetish. The fee is usually money and drinks and sheep or fowls. The fetish priest prays to his fetish for his patient. He usually prays with palm wine like this: First he fetches a little palm-wine in a calabash. Then he pours a little on the ground for the Great God. After this he goes into the fetish hut and prays to the fetish in front of the idol. The fetish priests helper serves the rest of the palm-wine to all invitees. From that day the patient is no longer a worshiper of the fetish.

2. Relative pronouns
The relative pronouns are si in the Singular and si wo in the Plural. The end of the relytive clause is marked the the "Sentence Article" l. The relative pronoun si is low toned and follows its antecedent as a separate word. Study the following sentences:

tsu si le s la nam la va. Nynu si nekp la nye Kofi sr. At si mu la wu gb eve. X si mle la lolo t. Wy utsu si wny ny l v.

'The man who bought the horse for me has come.' Kofis wife.' 'The tree which fell killed two goats.' 'The house (which) we bought is very 'They called the man whom they knew well.' large.' 'The woman (which) you saw is

When the antecedent is in the Plural, the Plural marker w is suffixed to the Relative pronoun. Study the following sentences:

136

Kofi dzra x si w wole l. Ati si w mi etso la gale gb me.

'Kofi sold the houses which he bought.' 'The trees which we fell are still in the bush.'

The Relative pronoun can also be nominalized by prefixing - to it: Esi mekp la melolo o.

Wts esi mele la nam. Esi wo gale agblea l mny o.

'The one (which) I saw is not big.' 'They gave me the one (which) I bought.' 'The ones which are still in the farm are not good.'

The relative si combined with the nouns ame 'person' and n 'thing, matter':

amsi nsi

'(the person) who' '(the thing) which'

It is important to note that amsi is used for persons only, and that nsi is used for things only:

Amsi wu gba l s. Nyemkp amsi wui o. Nusi new la menyo o. W nsi fofowo gbl n wo.

'The person who killed the goat has run away.' it.' 'What (that which) you did was not good.' 'Do what (that which) your father tells/told you.' 'I have not seen the person who killed

137 When amsi or si is followed by the possessive , the combination amsi means 'the person whose', or 'whose':

Amesi ga b l fa av.

Kofi tso at si gba yr la. 'Kofi felled the tree whose leaves withered.' Note that the Relative pronoun s or the combination amsi may also refer to the Indirect Object of a sentence:

'The person whose money was lost wept.'

ev si metse n l dz.

'The child to whom I gave it has left.'

Vocabulary fa av vv agba yr n ek ameyi b trt k bo to weep bitterly leaf to wither one thing/the same thing black man fetish owner if/when he recovers but rather juju name to refuse healing, curing his real name clinic, hospital, dispensary

n lame se

gbdada k t ati kew gbdadzo dzo dzot Eenygb vuwdz gb dzok

juju for healing juju-man, one who possesses juju/magic Eeland juju, magic

juju for fighting

138 esi a ta le dlele ta tegbee asrafo x k ekkpui etugbu kp dzdzedze dzdzedzekpkp d dzi , n tgb be lldz amewudzo gbgb v x da , x because of this/due to this always, forever soldier to become famous/popular young man/lad to have success success to trust in something though, although, even though juju for love juju for killing bad/evil spirit young woman/lass to receive and keep/to keep because of/due to sickness

Exercise XV-3: Read DZO KPL TR Dzo kpl tr mny n ek o. Gake yevu geew ssn bn dzo kpl tr le ek. Le si a ta yevua w gblna be ameyi bw sba Dzo kpl Tr. Esi a menye nyate o. Mya amesi si Dzo le l b Dzot, eye mi eya amesi s Tr le la be Trsi. Dzot kple Trsi geew le Eenygb dz. Enye nyate b trsi w sba wo trw, gak

dzotwo mesuba wo dzow o. Tr eka koe na trsi si . Dzo geee na dzot ek s. Dzot mesuba e dzo k o. Dzotwo bua w dzow ab use txa s ny sbl n wo la en.

Dzot ea gbe n dzo si wo le s l ab e asrafo ene. Dzo si dzot kp be megale d wm na ye ny l, tsn gb. Dzota w tsa wo dzo daa gb le dnw t. N dzot da d n dn wohy l, dzot ma xa k, eye dn bbw yia gb axa atke. To gbedada me dzota ew zua kesi ntwo.

139 Trsi koe nye amesi suba e tr tegbee. Gake ne amea le d lem eye wyi trsi a gb la, trsi la wn wzua tr la subla le eyi mawo me ko. N dn l lame se l x dz n tr l. Ts gbe m gbe la, dn l meganye tr ma subla o. kpt en. Tr nye gbgb v si va na ame gb. Gak dzote yi axa dzo dana okui gb abe

Exercise XV-4: Translate into Ee The young man who came to our father is a juju-man. His juju name is Ozigidi. His real name is Kmla Gakpe. He is from Kpalime, and he is thirty years old. Mr. Gakpe is very popular in our own. A farmer whose wife was sick, called the juju-man to his house. The juju-man gave the f'armers wife some of his medicines. The patient drank all the medicines. The farmer who believed in the power of juju, was happy that Ozigidi came to the town that day. On the next day, Ozigidi left the town. The farmers wife was not happy about the medicines. She called her husband and said: My husband, take me to a hospital. There is a good one at Kpando. I do not believe in the power of juju. But the f'armer refused. After three days, the woman recovered. The medicine which the juju-man gave her worked well. Mr. Gakpe was very happy about his success. Though the patient recovered, she never believed in the power of juju. Ozigidi had different kinds of juju, such as juju for fighting, juju for love, juju for healing and juju for killing people.

140

LESSON XVI
1. The Future Tense
The Future Tense expresses that an action which will (certainly or most probably) take place in the future. In Ee, the Future Tense is formed by prefixing - to the verb:

AORIST u n yi dzi ha

FUTURE 'eat/ate' 'sing/sang' 'go/went' u nu dzi ha yi 'will/shall eat' 'will/shall sing' 'will/shall go'

With the connected form of the Personal pronoun as Subject, the future prefix undergoes tonal changes. Study carefully the tones taken by the Future - with the following pronouns as Subject:

meemmiwNote:

+ + + + + +

mava ava v mi ava mav

'I shall come' 'you will come' 'he/she/it will come' 'we shall come' 'you will come'

woava 'they will come'

First Person Singular: me + ma. Second Person Singular: e + a. Third Person Singular: + .

141 First Person Plural (note that it is the m- form that is used with the Future Tense): m + mi a. Second Person Plural (note that it is the mi- form that is used with the Future Tense): mi + ma. Third Person Plural: w + wa.

The Future Tense is also used in Conditional sentences: Study the following sentences:

Ne manye wo la, malee. Ne au wo kata la a o. Ne makpe la mawui.

'If I were you I would buy it.' 'If you ate all you would be satisfied.' 'If I saw it I would kill it.'

For the expression of the Negative Future, study the following sentences:

AFFIRMATIVE FUTURE utsu la adzo. Kofi au fufu. 'The man will leave.' 'Kofi will eat fufu.'

NEGATIVE FUTURE utsu la madzo o. Kofi mau fufu o. 'The man will not leave.' 'Kofi will not eat fufu.'

When the Negative Future takes a Personal pronoun as Subject, changes similar to those listed above occur:

nyemayi o madz o mv o myi o / mmyi o miadz o / mimadzo o womav o

'I shall not go' 'you (sg.) will not leave' 'he/she/it will not come' 'we shall not go' 'you (pl.) will not leave' 'they will not come'

142 In order to express the Progressive Aspect in the Future Tense, the auxiliary verb n is put into the Future:

Mian u hf my. Mn yiyi. Wn ha dzi hf nfl l nv.

'You (pl.) will be eating it before I come.' 'I shall be taking the lead.' 'They will be singing before the teacher comes.'

In the Anex or G dialect of the Ee language, l is used in place of the future to indicate future. Compare the following:

STANDARD EE Wyi ets. Mw d n. A x ga l.

G (ANEX) Wlyi ets. lx ga l. 'They will go tomorrow.' 'He/she/it will receive the money.' Mlw d n. 'We shall work for him.'

Vocabulary vitsuvi ko algbnui ke nu da gb le (ame ) f fu x e son to smile to open ones mouth/to utter to cure/heal someone to be pregnant to fall sick, to become ill, to be infected with disease to speak up/louder, to raise ones voice s/he is having a headache ("head is biting him/her") to live long all, without exception old (in years)/age

dze agbagb le (ame) to try about someone vdzi x dll k gbe dz s ta le um / v n agbe did baby

143 le m dome kokooko Tg duga dze mo dze (ame) gb see kp (n) d sukudede lame gble lme s bbe tt ny ta ts le eme na (ame) vv mava eme kp o gak dme le um /v aau n (ame) dzi vi he among us by all means drag net to draw a net the capital of Togo to start on a journey a little while to put up with or lodge someone to wish/yern for strongly to gaze blankly at (something) attendance at school to be indisposed/sick to be/become healthy/well easily, softly one's best/within ones power to be excellent to care about/for someone, to be interested important will never happen/come to pass spectacles s/he is having stomachache ("stomach is biting him/her") to advise (someone) to bring forth

di vevi e

yayr asabu da asabu kp m n mzz uta/ unu enumake tsi

yr (ame)

to bless (someone ) blessing cast net to throw/cast a net journey, travel to arrive at to swim

to look forward to, to expect

beach, shore, sea coast at once, immediately

144 yi kpl (ame) e l to come with someone to fish

Exercise XVI-1: Read VNYE, NU KA NAVA ZU ? Fofoa y via tsuvi si x e weve d knya , ye wobi be: Vnye, ne etsi , d kae nadi be yeava w? tsuvi la bu ta me se, hko algbnui eye wokp fof d ab aabaof at ene. ke nu hegbl na fof bn: Fofonye, n metsi hw ny sukudede nu la, madi vevi e b mzu ddal. Fofoa gabi be: Nkatae nedi be yeazu ddal m? ev l n gbl bena: Medi be mazu ddal b mat da gb le dnw ti le mi a nto si a me. Matsa le duw kpl k me, eye mayi af s a me. Makp evi wo kple ametsi tsi wo, eye mad w kp. Mana ati ke evi si wo le d l. N ev lame gble t l, ma aau na edzi lawo be woatse ayi dnkdz, afsi nye kpl ddal bbuw mdze agbagb le e vs sime lame ase. Makp nynu si wo f fu la h t b wt dzi v bbe. Maw ny tt n vdziwo h

b wmgax dll vovovo si wo vdziwo xna gd le m duw kpl kw me. Ne mate w esi a la, evw kpl vdziwo magaku abe tsa ene o. Fof t se nya si wo kata via gbl. kp dzidz t le ev l sus t. Gak n vv ek li si fof mse o. Eyata wgbl na ev l bn: Vnye, nusi wo kata negbl la ny ta! Gak mgbl nsi nw na mi ametsi tsi si wo an d l o. Al mets ek le eme na mi ametsi tsi wo oa? Enumake utsuvi la k gbe dz gbl na fofoa bena: Fof, nyemw ny nuoo nu ha o. A metsi tsi wo le vev n t. Ne nyemada gb le ametsi tsi wo o , kema wo kp o. Mada d na ametsi tsi wo h. utsu tsi tsi wo kple nynu tsi tsi wo si a lanye ny dnw. Mana ati ke wo ne ta al dme le w v. Mana ati kenono kpl atkeooe wo. Ne amea tsi, mgale n kpm nyui e o l, mana woale gak. Ma aau n ametsi tsi wo tso wo nuu kple nunono t. Maw nsi mate la be ametsi tsi wo lame ase be woan agbe did le mi a dome.

fofonye ? e mazi kp n kpwom ne w lame gble mh? Gbe! Esi a mav eme

145 si ev l gbl nu si awo kata v l, fof gbl n be: Vnye, w susw ny t. Medi Maw yayr n wo be wo susu nyui si awo nava eme na wo loo! ev l n b: Yoo, fofonye, mesee. Akp n wo.

Exercise XVI-2: Translate into Ee Tomorrow we shall go to Lome. Lome is the capital of Togo. We have never been to Lome, so we are looking forward to seeing the city of Lome for the first time. We shall start our journey from Kpando at eight oclock in the morning. Kpando is only a three hours journey from Lome. We shall travel by train, and we hope to arrive in Lome at eleven oclock. We shall put up in a big hotel near the Lome market. We shall go round the Lome market and visit some shops too. My father told me that drinks are very cheap in Lome. We shall buy some drinks, some childrens' wears, some ladies dresses, some mens clothes and some fish. On the next day, we shall visit the Lome hospital. We know a doctor in this hospital, and we shall take some gifts to him. We shall visit the Lome beach also. We shall play in the beautiful sand but we shall not swim. We shall watch fishermen drawing their nets. Can you fish? No, I have never fished, but my elder brother can. He fishes in rivers with a cast net. There are a lot of coconut trees on the Lome beach. We shall go for a walk under the coconut trees and lie on the beautiful sand. Will you come with us?

2. The unknown or uncertain Subject: The "Passive"


There is no Passive construction in Ee. If a Subject is unknown, uncertain, or uninteresting, the pronoun of the Third Person Plural is used, meaning in this case 'someone' or 'anybody'. The appropriate translation into English is, then, a Passive construction:

146

Wwu dzat l. Wtu xa.

'They killed the lion.' / 'The lion was killed.' 'They built the house.' / 'The house was built.'

Whether a sentence means 'they killed the lion' or 'the lion was killed' has to be inferred from the context. Study the following sentences: Mkp x gaa le dua ttna. Wgbl na mi b wtui le e 1300 lia me. 'We saw a huge building in the center of the town. We were told it was built in the year 1300.' Here, the pronoun wo- is clearly not referring to a specific Subject, meaning thus 'someone' or 'some persons'. Therefore the English translation must take the Passive form. tsu eveaw dz le Agu yi Aglama. Wtu x afm, ye wde agble h. 'The two men left Agu for Aglama. They built there and (they) made a farm also.' In this case, wo- clearly refers to tsu eveaw and should therefore be translated as 'they'.

Vocabulary e (ame) xx esi ai u ke gb x le fi afi t amekk to out-door (someone) every time, always day breaks to break/pull down a house/building bridge thief, one who steals dead body, the dead, dead person

Exercise XVI-3: Read and translate into English 1. Le Eeawo dome n wdzi vi l, we n xx le keke enyi a gbe. 2. W nsi wogbl na wo esi ai .

147 3. Esi mi etr ts Peki va a l, mkp be wotso at lolo eve siw le me agblea me. 4. Wgb fs hf u ke. 5. Wmx fe na dwl k leti si a me ha o. 6. Wle asi tsala ma dznw xxa? 7. Wd fiafi tawo gax me e ewo. 9. Adel l kp amekukua le ave me. Wtso ta le nu. 10. Wdzi nynuvi si a le Lunda, Angola duga me. Exercise XVI-4: Translate into Ee 1. The long bridge was built in 1956. 2. I was born here. 3. The debt has been paid by the two teachers. 4. The cow was sold. 5. The cow was bought by his father. 6. This house was built with stones and wood. 7. The door was closed. 8. Three goats and a sheep were slaughtered for the fetish. 9. We were not given food or water for ten days. 10. Were they called? 8. Wwu da l hf nynuawo ge x la me.

148

LESSON XVII
1. The Reflexive pronouns
The Reflexive pronoun is formed in Ee with okui 'self', added to the Possessive pronoun. The Reflexive Pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SECOND PERSON SINGULAR THIRD PERSON SINGULAR FIRST PERSON PLURAL SECOND PERSON PLURAL THIRD PERSON PLURAL

oknye okwo okui m okui o mia okui wo w okui wo

'myself' 'yourself' 'him-/her-/itself' 'ourselves' 'yourselves' 'themselves'

Note that with the Plural forms the Possessive pronoun precedes okui and is separated from it. In the First and Second Persons Singular, the Possessive pronoun is suffixed to okui while in the Third Person Singular it is prefixed to it. The Reflexive pronouns can be emphasized by adding the Absolute form of the Personal pronoun modified by t 'very' to either kui (okui w in the Plural forms) or for extra emphasis to the Reflexive pronouns shown above. Study the following examples:

nye t okui

nye t oknye wo t okui wo t okwo

'I myself'

'I myself (more emphasized)' 'you yourself' 'you yourself (more emphasized)'

149 ya t okui ya t eokui 'he himself/she herself/it itself' 'he himself/she herself/it itself (more emphasized)' M t okui wo M t mi a okui wo Mi a t okui wo 'we ourselves' 'we ourselves (more emphasized)' 'you yourselves'

Mi a t mi a okui wo Ww t okui wo Ww t wo okui wo

'you yourselves (more emphasized)' 'they themselves' 'they themselves (more emphasized)'

Vocabulary dzu (ame) o (ame) nenemake s p k (n) dzi us fuww ameokui ts (ame) vev vevsese l nvi s l amekui wuwu tsr ati kpo/atboli kt/ auti mamayvi m (n) mli se vev to abuse (someone) to beat/strike (someone) in like manner/in the same way just as, just equal to (the same as nus) to rise up against (someone), to revolt against (someone) pain to feel pain pain (v.n.) to catch, hold killing oneself/suicide to eliminate, destroy log orange grandchild to share/divide (something) to roll (over) to hold hands of brotherhood, to co-operate worrying oneself to remember (something)

150 w (n) vv (ame) he t n (ame) e at s xl nu (ame) nxlamenya to do (something) to (someone), to harm (someone) five good/long years word of advice to advise (someone) to punish (someone)

Exercise XVII-1: Read MAMA NYE XL NU MI EFE MAMA Y VIWO Ets mamanye y nye kple nvi nyew yi m. Mn anyi at si le aea ti ti na l t. gbl na m b mny yey mi be mi ava u n o, k bo e yebe yeaxl nu mi . o nu na m gbl bena: N medzu mi la, okui nyee medzu. N mena d wu mi l nye t okui e mena d wu. N meo mi a dometa l, nye t kui e meo. labna vnyew mi enye. Nye t ue mi enye. Mi ae vevesese nye ny vevsese, ye mi a dzidz nye ny dzidz. Nenemake, n miew fum la mi a t kui w miew fu. N mi egble knye la, mi a t mi a kui w ke mi egble. s p abe alesi fofoa al dad nn viaw gblem . Mny evw gblem wole o, k bo eya t kui gblem wole. Eyata ne fofoa le viaw gblem la eya t ekui ko gblem wole. Nenemake ne miele mi a new om , al miele mi a new dzum la mi a t mi a kui w miele oo hle dzudzu h. Eyata mi le nvi si . Mi kp nye n nye h mkp mi a . Mi kpe mi a new . N mi ekp nu la, mi na mi a newo. Mi ku A mega enya nya siawo dz bn: us kla mia, eye Mi a h kl us. Amsi wa fu eya t two la mele nu nyam o. Fuww ame ku ny ameokui wuwu ko. N duka ts okui l, ww t w okui wo wtsrna.

Le m mama nxlamenya nyui si awo sese megbe la, metsi tre hd akp n, labn nyee nye tsitsi t le nvi nyeawo dome.

151 Exercise XVII-2: Translate into Ee 1. Do not stand on that log. It can roll over, and you will hurt yourself. 2. They built that house for themselves, and we also built this one for ourselves. 3. They did not help me. It was they themselves they helped. 4. If you do not eat, you are only punishing yourself. 5. I did it for myself. 6. He did this difficult work for himself for five good years. 7. My children, you have to do this for yourselves. 8. At the court, she spoke for herself. 9. The teacher asked the pupils to share the twenty oranges among themselves. 10. I drew myself, with chalk on the board.

2. The Reciprocal Pronouns


Reciprocal pronouns express that an action is performed with respect to one another. Reciprocal pronouns, therefore, can only be used with transitive verbs, and they exist only in the Plural. The Reciprocal Pronouns in Ee are formed by adding newo 'each other' to the Possessive pronoun:

FIRST PERSON PLURAL SECOND PERSON PLURAL THIRD PERSON PLURAL Example: utsuw wu w newo.

m newo mi a newo w newo

'(we) each other' '(you) each other' '(they) each other'

'The men killed each other.'

152

Vocabulary dze s (ame) d sese w kpl eve twowo tete sukudei gawu kla dzidzi wo dze nuenu ti ti nasuku ts e ma i kokogble wo ame eveaw si m m Wo z Hede nyuie! mta d na wo wd/wf w av ts (n) ke ame e ewo nye si fukpei wo sukht de suku fsmenla sukudede l gbe hot noon/sun the two of them, both yours, your people, relatives (and) then school days/times moreover to part/separate times of joy to converse from time to time middle school since that time cocoa farm all the two persons to part (on the road) you are welcome Farewell/Goodbye/Safe journey! (good) day to you they are well/fine to burst into tears since ten years school-mate to forgive/excuse someone for (something) to exchange greetings on the road to know/recognise (someone)

kpl as k/n (ame) to embrace (someone)

times of suffering

b (nya) / gbl (nya) to narrate

to attend school attendance at school, schooling shopkeeper

153 de agble eyi i a de fa dzidzvi to farm it is time, the time is up to shed tears of joy

Exercise XVII-3: Read SU KU HA TI EVEAWO utsu eve w do go w newo le mta d sesea . eka nye ame kk eye eveli a ny ame kpui . Wd gbe n w newo ale: Kpui t: d na wo loo, A mega. Kkt: d. Tstwo ? Kpui t: Wd. Kkt: W mdzi two h? Kpui t: Wd. Kkt: Srwo kple evw e? Kpui t: Wd ny. Kkt: Woez loo! Kpui t: Yoo. Kpui t: Wo h w mdzi tw . Kkt: Wd. Kpui t: Srwo fa? Kkt: E, f. Kpui t: Vi wowo ? Kkt: Wd. Kpui t: Wo h woe z. Kkt: Yoo.

154 Le gbe ll v megbe la, tsu eveawo gat n w newo kpm duu. Gak eke megake nu o. w na wo domet esa ab wdze s nv ene. Le aabaoo w megbe la, utsu kpui t bi a Kkt bena: A mega, md go kp le af a? ttt md go le o. Wo gakp wo new d. Tete kpui t do l gbl b: ! Me ku edzi az. Mny woe nye Kwami Agudze oa? Kkt gbl be: E, nye ttt! Gake eya me ku kpui t k dzio. Mt ku naneke dzi o. Kpui t gayi edzi bi be: M ku dzi nye kp oa? Kwami Agudze ga n be: O, nyemt k w k al m god dz o. O, nyemt ku wo k l al m god dz ha o. Gak w kme f b mekp wo kp god le ny evme l al le ny ekkpui me. A le Kpui t yi edzi gbl n be: knyee nye Yawo Apasu. Nye kple woe n suk le Kplme. Mets Nyagbo Gagbe le Kpndo nutome. Tete Kwami Agudze h d l gbl bena: , Yawo Apasu! Tse kem. Me ku dzwo z. Mkla e blaeve v at nye esi. Gaw l nyemegale n kpm nyui e o. tsu eveaw kpl as k na wo newo, ye wow av. Wfa dzidzv labn wny xl nyui wo le w sukudei . si a megbe sukuhati eveawo ma m. eye wd hede ny n w newo. tsu kkt u ta gbl bena: w na nye h nenema, gak nyeme k afsi

Exercise XVII-4: Translate into Ee The two men talked about their school days. They reminded each other of their happy times and their times of suffering in Kpalime. They conversed about their teachers and about their other school-mates. They laughed when one of them talked about how the strong boys used to fight one another at night until the teachers would come to punish them. They embraced each other from time to time. Each of them narrated what he had been doing since he left Kpalime. Yawo Apasu said that after finishing the Middle School at Kpalime, he went to Lome. He helped his

155 uncle (paternal) who was a storekeeper. But his uncle died fifteen years ago. So he became the shopkeeper since then. He said also that he was married and had three children two boys and a girl. Kwami Aguedze too spoke. He said after the Middle school, he could not continue schooling as he thought. His father died in the very year he left Kpalime. His aunt (paternal) helped him. She gave him some money. He went to Akebu district and bought a piece of land there. He made a cocoa farm on the land. He said he too was married and had two children all boys. Mr. Apasu and Mr. Aguedze embraced each other again. But the time was up for them to part. They said goodbye to each other and left.

3. The derivation of nouns from verbs


Three types of nouns can be derived from Ee Verbs. These are: a. Verbal nouns b. Noun Agents (usually called "nomen agentis") c. Nouns denoting a place a. Verbal nouns: In order to form the Verbal noun, the verb is reduplicated:

yi v dz

yiyi vav dzodz

'(the) going' '(the) coming' '(the) leaving'

With transitive verbs, the object is placed first, followed by the nominalized (i.e. reduplicated) verb, e.g.:

u n le tsi

nuu tsi lele

'(the) eating' '(the) bathing'

156 o ame de agble ameoo agbleded '(the) beating' '(the) farming'

b. Noun Agent ("nomen agentis") With intransitive Verbs, -l is suffixed to the Verbal noun, e.g.:

yiyi vav dzodz

yiyil vavl dzodzl

'someone who goes' 'someone who comes' 'someone who leaves'

With transitive verbs, the Object is placed first, followed by the simple form of the verb with -l suffixed to it, e.g.:

u n le tsi o ame de agble

nula tsi lela ameola agbledel

'eater' 'bath-taker' 'someone who beats people; rowdy' 'farmer'

c. Nouns denoting a place Nouns in this group denote the place where something is done, or where something happens. These nouns are derived by means of the Possession marker which is originally a noun meaning 'place (of)'. With intransitive Verbs, - is suffixed to the Verbal noun, e.g.:

yiyi vav dzodz

yiyi vav dzodz

'place of going' 'place of coming' 'place of leaving'

157 Sometimes the Possession marker is suffixed to intransitive verbs in their simple form, i.e. without reduplicating it; e.g.:

k dzo dz

k / kuk dzo / dzodzo dz / dzodz

With transitive verbs, the Object is placed first, followed by the simple form of the verb with - suffixed to it, e.g.:

u n le tsi o ame de agble

nu tsi le ameo agblede

'dining place, restaurant' 'bathing-place' 'place of beating' 'place of/for farming'

Exercise XVII-5: Complete the following table VERB le n ta n sr n tu x d dzo s f tr xle agbale VERBAL NOUN NOUN AGENT PLACE NOUN

158

Vocabulary gble / i le esi a ta ladzrala i tsa te (n) ladzra as a result, because of this meat/fish seller/butcher to be near, in the vicinity of meat/fish shop fish shop a big piece of meat to stop to burst/explode/bark greedy person greediness to be greedy to carve something swimming pool swimmer swimming to hide to jump suddenly theft to go/pass through/pound pity/sadness to take a walk/go on a journey/do sightseeing to leave behind

tmeladzr lak t w uklela

ukekle kle u kpa n tsi tsi l tsi dzo kp ks nbln nff geme nkpa laee e v fi t be

teaching entrance fishing profitable to follow someone carvers workshop

dze ame yome

159 Exercise XVII-5: Read AV UKLELA LA Avu n agbledel s. Cbe ek agbledel l i tsa yi du me. gble avu l gblek me. gble keke ad nuu n avu l, labn n n agbledel l b woan dua me keke ade s hf gb. Gak avu l u la kple nuu si wo kata agbledela la gble n n keke adea la le keke et me ko. l d v wui t le keke enea gbe. Dwuame l nu se t le keke ata gbe. Gak agbledel l mgb ha o. Nnk h mn a me si avu l u gbe m gbe o. Le si a ta wof kaba le keke adea di kanya hyi asi a si te agblea l me. yi ladzralaa ladzra, ye wbe at gaa xa hn ladzrala la kpm . si wokp be ladzrala la n nu om kple tsua l, du kb, ts lak gaa hs. Ladzrala la du dze eyome, gak avu l dz le gb.

Avua ta agblek. Le mta la eva lea dz. Tsi si globoa t lea te. Avu l t le la dzi vi e. Ks, kp kui le tsi l me hss b avu bbu kpm yele. kp lak gaa le avu si wokp la nu, eye wodi be yeax eya h gd. l wke nu hewo sesi e. Enumake lak l g le enu t la me, ye tsi si la tse dzoe. Av uklela l b l si wfi la h. tr va agblek l kpl nblan gaa . Mfi fi kp o, gak dwuam we wozu fi fi la. si agbledel l gb v se nsi v l w la ehe t n. Ts e ma i avu l mgafi amea k la kp o.

Exercise XVII-6: Translate into Ee 1. Teaching is a difficult job, but farming is more difficult. 2. This is the entry to the playground. But entry is not allowed. 3. The carver is carving in his workshop. 4. We entered the kitchen and saw the cook cooking. 5. He took us to a large swimming pool where we saw many swimmers swimming. Is 6. Fishing is a profitable work. Fishermen are rich people. My father has many fish shops in the town. swimming their job?

160

VOCABULARY EE ENGLISH

161

(Figures in brackets indicate Lessons in which the particular word is used for the first time.)

A.
abat ab ene ab lsi ene ableg Ablots abl able abolo ab abta Abra ade adel adid adre adz adzn aabao aka aub aubt afa af afkpa afwui af af afi ka Af afm (10) (10) (9) (6) (12) (11) (1) (6) (3) (6) (5) (5) (3) (4) (1) (3) (3) (11) (1) as, just as chair Europe freedom bread arm (also as measure for yard or metre) shoulder name for a female born on Tuesday six hunter baobab, a type of tree found in the savanah lands of Africa seven fee for services, duty on goods second (of a minute), twinkle of an eye pawpaw half pawpaw tree foot, leg box goods, wares street as how, just as bed

(14) (9)

(9) (11) (3) (4) (4) (4)

shoe, sandal home, home town, homeland where name for a female born on Friday there here socks, hose

(12)

162 An At agb agba agbagbadzedze agbal agbalexexle agbalexle agbalexlela agbatsla agbats agbe agbeli agbenn agble agbleded agblede agbledel agblekotoku agblemen agblemenuku agblem agblen agblex Agkli Agu aha aho aka Akbu ahuhe (5) (5) (1) (13) (1) (17) (17) (17) (11) (13) (11) (5) (11) (1) (12) (17) (9) (12) (9) (12) (10) (11) (12) (10) (7) (6) (12) (14) (17) (9) (10) (11) Mrs., Lady plate endeavour, achievement book, paper, letter library, place where one can read reader, one who reads porter, carrier, one who carries loads lorry/truck/vehicle which carries goods life cassava ones mode or life, the way one lives farm farming a place where one can farm farmer a farmers bag/sack farm product (especially that which is harvested) hoe a path leading to the farm crop, farm product reader, reading (v.n.) load Mr., Gentleman, Lord, Master, Sir

Agbodraf

name of a town in Togoland the name of the last known Ee King (whose cruel name of an Ee town in Togo storm at sea or on land lamp the name of a small non-Ee speaking tribe in Northern Togoland; also the name of their main town mirror any alcoholic drink rule led to the migration of the Ee people from tsie

a farm hut/house

163 akl Akosom bo ak aknta Aks akta akpa kp akp akp akpl Akua alafa Alavanyo ale l lk alekp/alekpo ali Ama ame amebala amedzr amedzrdze ameo ameoo ameola ameh ameka amekpekpe amekuku amsi ameokui wuwu (9) (1) (8) (3) (14) (8) (13) (8) (13) (8) (13) (10) (11) (13) (2) (14) (14) (12) (1) (11) (6) (2) (13) spear banana name for a female born on Sunday (See also Ksi) chest (of the body) too fish (the smaller types) thousand thanks canoe name for a female born on Wednesday hundred name of an Ee Division (Duk) in Ghana sheep so, and so how sheep pen waist name for a female born on Saturday person a cheat, one who cheats stranger hotel, motel, a place of lodging suicide, killing of oneself flogged the scene of being beaten, where one is beaten or beating (of a person) one who beats someone (a beater) crowd an invitee who, whom dead body, a dead person who mathematics, calculation; to reckon name of the Volta Dam site in Ghana

(17) (17)

(17) (17) (4) (15) (15) (16) (6)

164 amesi amesi ame ametsi tsi amewudzo ameyi b Amu Amuta (15) (11) (15) (15) (15) (13) (12) (12) (10) (5) (10) (15) (8) (17) (13) (5) (11) (13) (3) (6) (9) (8) (12) whose everybody, every person, every one a juju which take peoples lives, i.e. kills black man, a black person, the black race the Volta Lake Ee name for Yoruba Yorubaland a section of the Ee-speaking people north earth, land, country brick leaf name for a male born on Wednesday orange (see also kt ) cast net market wife hand nine customer trader glove soldier market day Ee name for the river Volta in Ghana an elder, an old person

Anago Anagonyi gba Anex anyi ehe anygb anyi kpe agba Aku auti asabu asi asi as aske asigbe asisi asi tsala asi wui asrafo

(11) (15) (6) (3) (14) (14) (15) (14) (1) (11)

atadidi/atawu atakpui ati ati gli nyi ati ke ati kedzrae ati keooe/ ati kekoe ati kew

shorts (a pair of) elephant medicine, drug pharmacy, drugstore pills, tablet, capsule hospital, dispensary, clinic tree

a pair of trousers

165 ati kewla ati kpala ati kpo/ati boli at at atsu av av av awutewui axle ayi azi azi z (14) (10) (17) (13) (11) (4) (1) (7) (11) (9) (3) (3) (3) (2) (3) doctor carpenter log nest husband, male cloth, material, stuff underwear, e.g. singlet mongoose, see also prk bean, beans egg groundnuts, nuts now forest dog five

B.

ba ame babl bali be bn bi b bl blaade blaadre blaasi eke blaat blaene blaenyi blaet blaeve

(11) (14) (17) (7) (11) (8) (10)

to cheat someone bundle valley to hide to burn that, to say that to ask, to request, to demand to question someone to tie seventy ninety forty thirty twenty (in some areas blave) eighty fifty sixty

b gbe

(15) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (13) (7) (14)

166 blema bl bli bo Bl Blume b nya bb bbe Bra bu b bu aknta bu ta me bb (5) (1) (8) (16) (11) (11) (8) (13) (8) (17) (6) (2) (8) ancient times, olden days corn, maize Ee name for Twi (a language spoken in Ghana) Twi-speaking area to be soft soft, easily Tuesday to lose to work out a mathematical problem, to render account to think other, another to reckon, to calculate to narrate, to tell whole, the lot

D.
da d akp da asabu da d da gb da t d dad dad dadanye/danye dadwo/dwo Day de de d de agble da gb le ame

(5) (8) (16) (15) (16) (4) (12) (11) (12) (12) (3) (5) (8) (17) (12) (12) (15)

snake to thank to heal, to cure to treat, to cure to cure someone to cast a net

elder sister mother

to shoot, fire a gun

your mother (compare with nwo) ti have been to, to arrive native land, homeland to farm palm name of a tributary of the river Volta (Ghana)

my mother (compare with nnye)

his/her/its mother

167 de suku deha dek denygb det d d vv didi di di did d do ame kp d awu d dzi ame u d dzo d gbe do gbe na ame d li do g d go d m ame d gbe d s do us ame d vv na ame dome d d d al d ame d e d wu (ame) ddal dd (17) (8) (14) (8) (16) (1) (3) (15) (9) (14) (6) (15) (17) (14) (8) (5) (14) (13) (15) (11) (13) (8) (6) (11) to attend school, to go to school palm-nut homeland, nativeland palm-tree to wish for strongly, to yearn for long to be long wish hole, a pit to examine/test someone to dress up, put on clothes to trust (in) someone to set a fire, to kindle a fire to pray to greet someone to shout to go out to set one on an errand/a journey to promise to encourage someone to meet to want/wish to, to look for palm-wine

(10) (5) (7)

to frighten someone between, among, amidst work, job to send someone to send to doctor, a healer sending (v.n.) to be hungry ("hunger kills someone") to sleep hunger

to ride a horse

(12) (8) (10) (14) (11) (7) (6)

168 dll dll dme dmenyto dn dwkpl dwla dww dwuam du du tsi du duk dumev dumevnyny Dzama Dzamame Dzamawo dzat dze dze (15) (14) (13) (15) (9) (14) (13) (7) (4) (11) (13) (10) (11) (11) (5) (11) (3) (4) (5) (15) patient, sick person stomach kind person, one who is kind-hearted desk/table/bench on which one works work, job, working (v. n.) hunger town, village to fetch water from a well, or from a river in a large receptacle, e.g. a pot running a nation, a people, the inhabitants of a city, town or village citizen citizenship German the Germans salt lion German-speaking area worker sick person, patient to have stomachache ("stomach is biting person") sickness, disease

dme le ame um /v (16)

dze agbagb dze agbagb le ame dze ame dzi dze ame gb dze d dze dz n (ame) dze klo dze m dze e

(3)

(13)

to buy (used for buying of liquids) to attempt, to try to try about or for someone

(16)

(13) (11) (15) (15) (16) (14) (13) (17)

to fall on someone, to appeal to to put up with someone, to lodge someone

dze ame yome

to fall sick/ill to kneel to lie face up, to lie on ones back to set off on a journey to succeed

to follow someone

169 dze s ame dze xl (ame) dz dzi dzi ame dzi dz dzi ha dzi v dzi dzedzekpkp dzidzime dzidz dzidzi dzi dzeh dzi dzikpkp dzilw dzime dzo dzo dzo dz dzo kp Dz dzod dzodl dzodz dzodzl dzok dzot dzr dzra o dzra nu o dzrl (8) (4) (9) (13) (16) (6) (9) (17) (9) (10) (5) (13) (13) (14) (7) (6) (3) (17) (15) (3) (15) (12) (9) to know/recognise someone on; surface; to take side red, reddish (attr.) to increase, to multiply to deliver a child success generation joy, mirth days of joy red, reddish (pred.) south heaven, space care, the care of, under ones responsibility parents upper part of the back of the body opposite the chest fire juju to fly to leave, depart to jump Monday to sing to bring forth someone to befriend (someone)

(8)

(10) (17) (17) (15) (15) (14) (10) (11) (3) (17)

kitchen, fireplace one who sets or kindles a fire one who leaves/departs juju name juju owner, juju man, one who has juju to get ready, to get prepared seller (see also ndzrl) to keep something in safe custody, to repair to sell departure, leaving (v.n.)

170 dzu ame dzudz dzudz (17) (12) (12) to abuse/insult someone rest to rest

-a

a n asef e ame e xx e d e dzo e l e m na e v ei t (ame) eiteame ek ekakpui k o esi a ev etugbu evme evit evi wu i o i tsa ii aau n ame e tmela e gbe n ame

(6)

(3)

and

to cook something

(16) (9) (12) (13)

(10)

to out-door someone to dig a hole/pit to fetch fire to fish to allow, permit to fish to yield profit, to be profitable to be tired one youth, lad, young man no, none a lass, a young woman, a girl child childhood every, each tedium, tediousness, tiredness to command/order

witness

(16) (10) (16) (17) (9) (3) (15) (6) (15) (1) (12) (8) (9)

(16) (4) (17) (15) (16) (16) (9) (11)

childrens wear/dress to be cheap to go for a walk, to go on a trek/journey, to go distant/far off place to advise someone to arrive at sightseeing to eat to ones satisfaction

the younger one

171 ame fia dze n n ame o nya keke k n dz o ta t o ome azi u u fia e u n ufa us/nuusi (17) (10) (17) (10) (15) (17) (9) (6) (9) (5) (16) (14) (9) (12) (6) (3) (11) (11) to crown someone as king, to enstool one as chief to converse to reply/answer to set a date/day to remember something to go towards, head towards to travel by a vehicle as a passenger order, arrangement underneath, under drag net (for fishing) to lay egg gun-powder to reign to dance to eat/bite something pill, capsule ,tablet right, righthand to listen, to obey to request/order something from someone

E.
E gbe gbgbe ekema ene enuenu enumake enyi lesime si si a ta ete mdidi o labn

(1)

(5)

Yes

today

(12) (8)

(12) (3) (15) (16) (3)

then four

nowadays because

often, from time to time eight English-speaking area as, when not long after, soon due to this, because of this immediately, at once

(5) (15) (13) (11)

172 et (3) (12) (3) (12) (11) (5) (12) (15) (3) (11) (2) (11) (6) three yesterday, tomorrow the Ee people the Ee nation the Ee language, Ee Ee-speaking area ten therefore and second, the second (in counting) Eeland, the land of the Ee people two third, the third

etli a ets eve Eeawo Eeduk Eegb evel Eeme Eenygb ew eyata eye

F.
f fa av fa avi vv fa dzidzv ff /ff fe f fedzi gbale fef fef fefela fesre fi (n.) fi fi fia fi a f n fi afi fi afi t

(1) (3) (17) (3) (10) (10) (14) (17) (1) (17) (9) (11) (16) (16) (3) (17) (17) (6) (15)

to be cold/cool to weep, to cry to shed tears of joy cold, cool (Adj. from f ) debt to play receipt game, play to weep/cry bitterly

player, one who plays window to steal, to pilfer king, chief, emperor to burn thief thief (a professional or habitual) to teach something theft

play-ground

173 fi akuku fi asa fs fi asemenla F fi e ff (13) (6) (12) (14) (17) (17) (12) (11) (5) (6) (16) (5) (17) (13) (17) (8) (4) (10) (10) crown shop, store storekeeper, shopkeeper Friday evening falls, it is evening a thief, one who steals right now, just now elder brother father (see also t) to collect e.g. fruits, to discover/find to get up from a lying position to be pregnant a West African dish prepared from yam, cassava, plantain or cocoyam fukpei wo f fuww ame okui hard times, times of suffering a lot, in large quantities worrying oneself now, soon, at present, presently evening palace

fi e fi fi la fflaa fo fofo f f f fu fufu

.
e e at s e ewo nye esi latsa latsaa le n -o o ame o o nu o oe

(6) (11) (9) (9) (5) (14) (13) (10) (12) (5) (1) (17)

year since ten years rough, coarse (attr.) rough, coarse (pred.) surface to pack, put together, be together to drum, to beat a drum younger sister to speak/talk to beat or strike someone to buy something (other than liquids) for five good years, five long years

174 ome omevi u du u tsi uta/unu (5) (4) (16) (16) (6) (8) family, stomach sea to run shore, coast, beach to swim kind of, type of

G.
ga gaga

(1) (8) (4) (11) (2) (12) (16) (1) (14) (11) (11) (8) (9) (9) (12) (10) (15) (7) (14) (14) (15) (6) (6) (13) (11) (17)

metal, money again, still big, large, huge but a West African food prepared by granulating cassava spectacles, eye glasses bicycle spoon prison, goal, jail to break first, the first, firstly flat (large surface) first voice, day to refuse green grass that day healing/curing (v.n.) one day, once upon a time bush day (see gbe) once upon a time, long, long ago metal pot more over metal plate, pan

gagb gak gal gakui gas gats gawu la gax gaz gb gba

gbaegbe gbadzaa gbadz gbt gbe gbe gb gb gbe dama gbe ek gbe m gbe gbdada

flat (small surface)

175 gbedadzo gbdala gbe gbedx gbegble gbeha gbesgbe gble gbl gb gb gb gb gbgb g g geee geeme gegme gli globoo gl g gd golo gomela ggl gme gbgbv (15) (11) (7) (14) (1) (8) (11) (10) (13) (3) (4) (11) (13) (15) (6) (6) (5) (17) (9) (3) (12) (8) (6) (3) (5) (12) (1) (17) (3) (15) healing/curing juju, a juju used for healing or curing never chapel, cathedral swine, wild pig to spoil every day to leave behind to say/narrate/tell to breathe to return/come back near, by the side of; side goat breath, spirit, ghost evil/bad spirit to fall from a height to enter many, much, a lot of entrance entry, entering (v.n.) wall large and very deep to be crooked gourd by all means, usually tinned meat or fish sack, bag, pocket spoiled/bad (adj. from gble) healer, one who cures

gble / gble i

crooked (adj. from gl ) under, underneath; to be under someone

.
e ma i

(1) (12)

chalk, white clay that time

176 ea w i edze esi ai eto etr eyi i eyi i a de let leti vi (13) (16) (8) (17) (9) (9) (9) (10) (10) sometimes, at times every time, each time, always afternoon it is time, the time is up white (pred.) moon, month star white (attr.) time, period west east

(6) (7)

H.
ha h ha o hf hho hhod hamenla hy h hhe (n) v he he t n ame hede nyuie h hi a

(11) (4) (2) (10) (11) (15) (14) (5) (9) (13) (16) (11) (11) (8) (17) (11)

pig also, too not yet before communal work, community work member, membership to recover/get well and light brown, reddish brown to result, to bring about (something) to punish someone knife to need; necessary goodbye, farewell, safe journey communal, common to all

to drag a net

K.

ka (n) dz kb

(12) (9)

to be sure, to be certain quickly

177 kf ame kaka kak ks kata k k k k bo ke n ke i ke nu keke keke kem kemw keke kesi nt Keta ktke kla kluvi ko ko algbnui ko n koklo (13) (12) (17) (8) (15) (9) (15) (15) (10) (14) (1) (3) (4) (4) (2) (11) (3) (1) (17) (10) (5) (3) (11) (16) (12) to praise/congratulate someone to scatter/spread over suddenly but (short form of gak) sand same but rather to come upon, find by accident to doubt, to compete, to argue over something open the mouth, to utter/say something to be broad, wide broad, wide that yonder those yonder completely, entirely, altogether rich/wealthy person name of an Ee coastal town in Ghana train to separate, to part company only male slave all, whole a bit, a piece

(9)

to laugh egg (of a hen) cocoa farm/plantation by all means, at all costs female slave pocket, sack, bag to be neat, to be clean/without sin pocupine really, indeed, extremely fowl

to smile

koklozi kokogble kokooko k kosi kotok kotoku k

(3) (17)

(16) (11) (13) (12) (11) (2)

178 k k k aha k / k k gbe dz k Kfi kk Ks kpa n Kplme Kpando kp kp kp o kp ame kp ame dzi kp dzidz kp dzi dzedze kp ga kp m na kp nu duu kp n dz kp nu ga kpt kp kp kp ame kp e ame kpe ta kpt Kpedze kp nublanui na ame Kmla (12) (1) (15) (16) (12) (5) (3) (13) (15) neck to be tall/high to pour libation (an African custom) to speak out/up, to raise ones voice, to speak louder name for a male born on Friday name for a male born on Tuesday name for a male born on Sunday to carve name of an Ee town in Togo name of an Ee town in Ghana to see/look before/once never, never before to visit someone to look after/ care for someone to be happy to succeed to be rich to expect, to look forward to to gaze at, to look steadily in bewilderment to look after/take care of something high, tall (adj. from k) village, cottage, hamlet to pour into/out

(3) (17) (3) (3) (5) (7) (7) (10) (13) (12) (15) (11) (16) (16) (14) (9) (12)

to look/gaze questionably muddy (e.g. water) stone, rock to meet to help (someone) to meet helper, assistant

(11)

to have mercy/pity on someone

(1) (15) (10) (15) (15) (12) (5)

to invite someone, to meet someone (also incidently)

name of an Ee town in Ghana

179 kpekpe kpekpeme kpeto kpl as k kpl kplefuu kpl kpl (11) (11) (13) (3) (9) (6) (1) (14) (17) heavy weight cave and/with to lead/accompany table to sweep something misty, foggy, greyish to embrace

kpl n kpll kpui kpui Krachi krante k ku aha n ame ku k ku tsi k/ k Kua kuku kr kt ktsts kv kvt Kwami kwasia sia kwasia Kwasia sia Kwasia kwasia/ksia Kwasi /Ksi

(11) (1) (15) (13) (10) (4) (15) (12) (12) (14) (6) (9) (11) (12) (17) (11) (2) (8)

leader to be short/low; short/low nearby place name of a town in Ghana cutlass, matchet to die; death to serve someone a drink to sling on the neck (e.g. bag) to fetch water from a receptacle, e.g. pot seed; tablet, pill hat rather, quite, fairly fruit orange (see also auti) Wednesday

laziness

(15) (6) (6)

name for a male born on Saturday every week, each week week Sunday every Sunday, each Sunday

lazy person

L.
l

(4)

animal, meat, flesh

180 laee laela ladzra ladzrl lak (17) (17) (17) (16) (16) (11) (11) (12) (17) (16) (13) (15) (15) (17) (10) (6) (15) (8) (1) (3) (3) (15) (17) (13) fishing meat/fish shop, butchers shop large piece of meat, lump of meat to be indisposed/sick/ill one who rears animals as a profession, live-stock keeper animal husbandry, rearing of animals, live-stock keeping butcher, one who kills animals for food to catch/hold bridge to be in someones hands to be in order, according to order to be ill, to be sick to hold hands of brotherhood, to co-operate to take a bath idol to exist, being present to watch/observe to recover, to get healthy after illness or sickness within the body meat/fish dealer/seller fisherman

lme lame gble lame se lanyi la

lanyinyi latsola l le le as me le oo nu l d l nvi si le ku n le tsi legba li lolo lolo l Lome l ame l gbe l lldzo

big/large/fat to agree

to be big/large/fat

(9) (17) (11) (15) (9)

capital of Togo (the largest Ee town) to love/like someone direction of, towards, area of, vicinity of juju used for inducing love to exchange greetings

M.
m

(4)

that

181 m m m n mam mamayvi maml mw Mw me Mawuga m o me legba meganye megbe mi n mia mi abta ml ml anyi mlt mli mo m m mee mkeke mli mta mzz mu (17) (12) (17) (8) (5) (15) (5) (1) (15) (15) (5) (14) (11) (11) (6) (6) (12) (17) (10) (1) (11) (10) (14) (3) (17) (16) (3) (4) (17) to part company grandmother grandchild last/rest/residue God The Great God in, inside not to model/mould an idol it is no longer, it is no more behind, rear, after; back (n.) to swallow (something) left left shoulder to lie, to lay to lie down, lie in bed the last to roll (over) face (see also kume) prison, fortress, castle holiday rice journey/travel/trek to fall (standing objects not in motion) on the road/ way permission, permit way, road, path those to share/divide

N.
n nake nn

(5) (1) (6)

to give; for (prep.) something firewood

182 nnk n nenemake neni e no n nogo nogoo ntsi n n n (nu) te n agbe did n anyi ni nnme nvi nvi nye nvi wo nu n n ek nublanui nala ndd nu (6) (17) (10) (3) (9) (5) (6) (10) (16) (9) (11) (5) (12) (12) (12) (13) (8) (10) (17) (8) (11) (9) (11) (15) nothing in the same way, in like manner how many, how much to drink round (solid objects; attr.) milk round (solid objects; pred.) mother (see also dad) if, when

Past form of le 'to be (somewhere)'; lived, stayed to be present at, to witness something to live long to be seated; existed; lived; was aunt (maternal) form, shape, condition, character relative (brother, sister, cousin) my relative/sister/brother/cousin your relative/ sister/brother/cousin mouth, entrance, edge one thing, one and the same thing pity, sadness clothing cook, one who cooks thing, matter

nuu nele nff nfl nlela nuoo ngbgb nka nukata

(17) (6)

food, eating (v.n.) dining hall, restaurant teaching teacher speaking/talk (v.n.) a living thing what why buyer, customer, one who buys buying (v.n.)

(3) (17) (13) (13) (4) (8)

(17)

(17)

183 nukpa nukpala nkpkp nk nnn nlti nl nusese nssr nsr nsrla nt ntl ntt nutome nutsotso nuwuwu nxlame (17) (10) (12) (14) (14) (13) (17) (17) (17) (17) (17) (17) (11) (13) (9) (17) (17) (7) (8) (8) (5) (13) (13) (5) (16) (1) (3) (4) (11) (13) (3) (13) (13) carvers/sculptor's workshop carver crop, seed, product of the farm pen, pencil writing (v.n.) learning, study (v.n.) school, a place where one studies/learns student, pupil, disciple, one who studies or learns studio of an artist painter, artist, one who draws and paints painting, drawing; reptile region, district, area report, complaint advice (see also nxxl) word of advice word, matter to wash something truth, fact to know something, to be wise advice (see also nxlame) end hearing (v.n.) gift seeing, sight

nxlamenya nxxl nya nya n ny n nyatee nyi

nyatete nyi kp nyintsi ny dme ny ta ny nynu nynuvi nynuwu

honestly, truly, truthfully cow cattle ranch to be kind/generous excellent, very good, splendid woman dress, womens wear girl to be good, beautiful, nice cow-milk

184 nyr nyre ny ny (12) (3) (2) (12) to sharpen (e.g. knife) uncle (maternal) good/beautiful/nice well, nicely, rightly, correctly, beautifully

d di kny di nuuu d d na wo d sese duu g ggbe keke kekea de k k t ku kme

(4) (6) (4) (17) (17) (12) (3) (4) (5) (13) (15) (15) (11) (15) (5) (9) (9) (6)

morning breakfast noon, midday, sun Good day to you sunshine to break broken front, surface (of liquids) front, foreward, future day (see also gbe) the day comes, the time is up name real name face, surface (e.g. mirror, cloth), before to write a book/letter to weed/clear a farm nose name of an ancient Ee settlement, also name of a day breaks, it is day surface e.g. of wall, tree trunk, body next day greed, greediness greedy person town in Togo to write something eye hot noon, hot sun early morning

l agbale l agble l n ti tsi e u ke / t ufke ukekle uklela

(5) (13) (12) (16) (5) (11) (17) (17)

(10)

185 use tt tff uti nya t tsu tsuv utsuwu (10) (9) (12) (3) (11) (4) (2) (16) power, might, authority peace history, story man mens wear/clothes boy very ones best, what is within ones power or ability

O.
O Osfo O y

(9) (12)

(1)

No

Pastor, Priest, Father (as in the Roman Catholic

Church) the name of an ancient Ee settlement the sight is believed to be near the town of Oyo in Western Nigeria

P.
Peki pt prk (3) (2) (9) name of an Ee town in Ghana completely, entirely, altogether (see also kek ) mongoose (see also axle )

S.

sabala sama sm se se n se vev see sese s

(8)

(10) (1) (10)

summons to recover/get well; to be strong/hard to feel pain to hear something to summon

onion

(16) (3) (5)

(17)

(6)

a little while to run away

strong, hard (adj. from se )

186 si a s si aw si ka si kagba/si katsi gba skli sis sis/s sisl s s p se sgb sra (ame) kp sr sr nu srnynu srutsu sb sbla suku sukudede sukudei sukudela sukuhati sukuv sus ss sukux sowui (4) (16) (10) (10) (17) (17) (7) (17) (1) (1) (10) (11) (14) (11) (11) (15) (15) (16) (17) (17) (8) (8) (8) (3) (17) (8) (4) this all, without exception gold sugar escape, the act of running away one who runs away, a runaway umbrella horse same as, just as, just equal to to be little/small/few; little/small/few many, enough to pay (someone) a visit spouse, wife/husband to learn wife (see also asi) husband (see also atsu) servant, worshiper schooling, attendance at school pupil, student, one who attends school schoolmate pupil, student school building to think thought school days school to serve/worship sight of escape, a place where one can escape golden plate these

(11)

T.
ta t

(9)

(13)

lake, pond, lagoon

head, top of; above, over

187 ta le ame um t n taflo takpex takuvi Tamale tamebubu tasi te t tdz te tegbee tegbl tegble tete ttna ti ti nasuku ti tri to to t t (ame) dz t tgb be tgb be h tgb t t t (v.) ti tdz to Tg e duga (16) (1) (11) (13) (13) (3) (7) (10) (15) (9) (9) (17) (5) (17) (3) (3) (5) (5) (15) (15) (9) (16) (5) (11) (11) (5) (4) (17) (11) (15) (7) to have a headache board (for writing on in schools etc.) meeting hall handkerchief thinking, thought aunt (paternal) yam under, below, underneath donkey, ass place, times (as in 2 times 2) always, forever round (attr.) round (pred.) then, and then middle, centre middle school thick (adj. from tri) edge, bank of a river or lake mountain, ear; to pound, to go over/through/accross through someone, per someone though, although hill even though, although to pass by buf'falo name of a town in the north of Ghana to draw something

(4)

father (see also fofo) uncle (paternal; younger brother of father) surface (of water) ship, boat to stop, halt, stand still

river, sea, lake, any large collection of water

Capital of Togo

188 tgbi (10) (8) (12) (17) (17) (15) (6) (15) (10) (13) (10) (10) (6) (6) (15) (15) (15) (1) (8) (9) (13) (6) (14) (17) (17) grandfather fish seller/ fish dealer river turning, change point of return special fetish to turn to/towards to return, come back to face, to look towards to face, to look towards to turn and come (back) to to turn and go (back) to fetish priest/priestess fetish owner fetish hut/house calabash thick to wander about, to go sightseeing to look round touring car younger brother water to grow to be late, to remain behind to stand up swimming swimmer to be thirsty swimming pool, place where one can swim former days, days gone by, in the past yours, your people/relatives to turn, to change fish

tmela tsi si ttr

tmeladzrala

ttr/tr twowo tx tr tr tr tr gb tr mo tr kume tr va tr yi trsi trt tr tri tsa tsa tsa ku ts tsi tsi tsi megbe ts tre tsi tsi tsi l tsi k wu ame tsai

trx

(12) (8) (9) (17) (7) (17) (17)

(1)

(12)

189 tsi k/ tsikwuame tsi le tsitst tsi wu tso ts tso ame nu ts e ame tso du ts ts n ts e le eme na ame ts nu ke ame ts nu v ts yi i tsla tsr tsy ak anyi tsye t tu t agba tu x tume ts e ma i (7) (13) (11) (3) (13) (12) (7) (14) (16) (17) (10) (14) (11) (17) (14) (4) (4) (3) (11) (17) (17) (3) (14) thirst the older/elder one rain coat to fell (a tree); to slaughter to report someone to found a town or village from that time, since then to take, to carry to pledge (something), to entrust into someones care to give to to care about/ care for/ to show interest in someone to forgive/excuse someone to bring something to go with something, to take to carrier, one who carries to eliminate/destroy to lie on the stomach to be pointed gun to close (e.g. a door) to build a house back of the body exactly, definitely, surely to untie a load to rise/revolt against someone to rise/stand up; to come from bath/bathroom

ts (n) d as n ame (15)

(12) (14) (2)

ttt

V.
v v vs vav vev

(9) (14) (17) (17)

(3)

to come to, to reach, to arrive at coming/arrival of pain up to, until, till

to come

190 vv vevesese vv vevnyny v vi dzi v vnye vv vwo vovoovo, vovoovow v v v vv vu vuwdz viutsuvi (13) (12) (16) (12) (16) (12) (12) (8) (7) (17) (9) (9) (15) (6) (13) (17) sour, bitter important child, ones daughter or son baby little, small, few son my child sweet, interesting your child different kinds, sorts of, types of to be finished to be afraid sin; wrong fear a fight with blows juju used for fighting (fighting juju) importance feeling of pain

nu

nudr nudrla tr e (n) se e li u u ola esese

trial, court case (10) (1) (10) judge door court, court room

(13) (13) (15) (3) (6) (15) (10)

(13)

smell, scent smelling (v.n.) to struggle blood drum drummer vehicle (as lorry, car, ship or plane) to open

to smell (something), to scent

191

W.
w w av wo domet ek w okui wo w kata w kpl eve wd woe z w w w ati ke na ame w aa w d w fu ame w kv w nvi w n (ame) w (n) vv (ame) w vu wu w wu nu wade wadre wask wat wek wene wui enyi wet weve wuwu

(17) (17) (3) (17) (8)

(17)

to burst, to explode, to bark (e.g. dog) to burst into tears they are well, they are fine (a form of greeting) both, both of them you are welcome to do/make to treat/cure someone to fight a war to work to maltreat someone to be lazy to live in brotherhood/harmony to offend (someone) to do (something) to (someone), to harm (someone) to fight with blows to kill to surpass sixteen to end/finish doing something seventeen nineteen fifteen eleven fourteen eighteen twelve killing (v.n.) thirteen flour they are well/fine (a form of greeting) all, all of them one of them

(17) (17) (5) (3) (15) (5) (10) (11) (9) (10) (17) (4) (14) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (11) (7) (7) (3) (9)

192

X.
xa xx/xx x adz x fe xevi xx xxme xexi xl n ame xl agbale xl n xx xx xoxooxo x x (n dz) se x x agbal e fe dzi x asi x da / x x dll x dzo x dz x e

(5) (1) (15) (1) (10) (5) (15) (17) (7) (7) (11)

to be narrow; narrow to pay a debt, to pay for services bird outside, outdoors to pay a fee

by the side of, near to

to advise someone to read a book/letter to count something old, former already long ago, long long ago house, building to believe (something) to take a receipt (on a debt) to keep, to take and keep to fall sick/ill, to be infested, to become ill/ sick to be hot hot (adj. from x dzo) expensive, dear to receive

umbrella

the world

(11) (3) (12) (1) (8) (3) (10) (4) (15) (1) (3) (16)

x fedzi gbale x n ame x k xla xl xk xse xtue x use

(10) (16) (15) (10) (9) (8) (17) (11) (9)

to take a receipt

age; to be old (in years) to be famous/popular to empower (someone) friend belief building site famous, popular (attr.) saviour, receiver to save someone

193 xtula xxnu (17) (5) builder court yard

Y.
ya yaa

yame yame Yawa Yawo Yawoa yayr yevu yy yi y yi kpl ame yi n dz yi b yib yiyi yoo y yr ame yr

(9) (4) (11) (11) (16) (9) (12) (3) (10) (16) (9) (4) (17) (8) (5) (16) (12) (11)

(4)

tasteless (not sweet, not bitter) atmosphere, weather aeroplane name for a female born on Thursday name for a male born on Thursday Thursday blessing European, white person new, fresh to go cutlass, matchet (see also krante) to come with someone black (attr.) departure to call alright, O.K. black (pred.) to continue (doing something)

air, gas (in aeriform)

(15)

to wither

to bless someone

Z.
za z d zte/ztitina z z (9) (4) (6) night falls, night has fallen pot midnight night

(1) (7)

the largest type of antelope found in the savanah lands of West Africa

194 zi ooe zi et gbe ek zi gbat zi kp zikpu z z m z m to zz zr zzre zu (10) (14) (11) (10) (13) (12) (12) (9) (9) (9) (13) (1) to keep silent three times a day, thrice daily first time, the first time stool, seat to travel, to go on a journey to travel through, to pass through walking (v.n.) to be smooth smooth (pred.) to become to walk to refuse to speak

195

VOCABULARY ENGLISH EE

196

A.

a, a certain a lot of above abuse someone (to) accompany (to) accross advice advise someone (to) aeroplane after afternoon again age agree (to) air all of them all allow somthing (to) already alright also afraid (to be) achievement

- geee dzu ame t kpl ta

agbagbadzedze

aau, nxxl, nxlame yame v megbe

aau n ame, xl nu ame

etr gax e l w kata kata, s e m na yoo, ny h tgb be h xx ya

although altogether always amidst/among among ancient times and animal husbandry animal another

keke, pt dome le ... dome blema, tsa

tegbee, esi ai , eawo kata i

eye, a-, h-, kpl lanyi nyi bb l

197 answer (to) appeal to someone for help (to) area of area argue over something (to) arm arrangement arrival artist as how as ask (to) ass assistant at all costs at once at present at times atmosphere attempt (to) attend school (to) aunt (maternal) aunt (paternal) authority attendance at school arrive at (to) o nya l nutome ab vav, o v ntl, aauwl ab lsi ene ab ene, si b tdz kpt kokooko, gd, gd gd gd enumake ff ea w i yame dze agbagb sukudede ni use tasi de suku o ke i tso n dze ame dzi

B.

baby back of the body bad spirit bad bag banana

vi dzi tume, megb gbgbv kotoku, golo ak

gble (v.), gbegble (adj.)

198 bank (of a river or lake) baobab bark (to) bath, bathroom bath (to), take a bath (to) bathing beach beans beat (to) beat a drum (to) beat someone (to) beautiful beautifully because because of this become (to) become ill/sick (to) bed before behind belief believe something (to) below between us between bicycle big bit bitter black blackman, black person bless someone (to) blessing bird to w tsi le tsi lele uta/unu ayi o o o ame ny (v.), ny, ny (adj.) ny labn esi a ta zu x dll abat hf, kme xse t x n dz se megbe le tsi adid

dome gas

le m dome

kak vv yib (attr.), yib (pred.) yr ame yayr ameyi b

xevi

lolo (v.), lolo (adj.), ga (adj.)

199 blood board boat book both, both of them box boy bread break (to) breakfast breath breathe (to) brick bridge bring something to bring about (something) (to) bring forth (to) broad broken buffalo build a house (to) builder building building site bundle burn (to) u tdzi u agbal w kpl eve aka abolo tsuv gb, di nuuu gbgb gb anyi kpe le ts nu v he (n) v dzi ame, dzi v keke (v.), keke (adj.) , tu x xtula x xtue bi, bi dzo, fa w av gak, k k bo latsola le gb to taflo

babl w

burst (to) burst into tears (to) bush but but rather butcher butchers shop buy (to)

ladzra

200 buyer, customer, one who buys by all means by the side of nlela gb, xa kokooko, gd, gd gd

C.

calabash

calculate (to) calculation call (to) canoe capsule car care about/for someone care for someone (to) carpenter carrier carry (to) carve (to) carver carvers workshop cassava cast a net (to) cast-net castle

tr bu aknta y akpl ati kekoe, amake, ufa, ati keooe ts e le eme na ame kp ame dzi ati kpala agbatsla, ntsla, tsla ts kpa n nukpala agbeli asabu m l da asabu nukpa

catch (to) cathedral cattle ranch cave centre certain (to be) chair chalk change change (to)

nyi kp ttna ka n dz ableg ttr tr kpeto

gbedx ga

201 chapel character cheap cheat cheat someone (to) chest (of the body) chief child childhood childrens wear circular citizen citizenship clean (to be) clear a farm (to) clinic close cloth clothes, mens wear clothing coarse coast, beach cocoa farm, cocoa plantation cold collect something (to) come (to) come back (to) come from (to) come to (to) come upon (to) come with someone (to) command (to) common to all gbedx nnme i ba ame akta fia ev, v evme evi wu, evw ndd tegbl (used for hollow things, e.g. a pit; attr.), tegble (pred.) dumev dumevnyny k, dza l agble ati kew t (as in t ) av ndd uta/unu kokogble f n gb, tr gb ts ke n yi kpl ame e gbe hho v latsa (attr.), latsaa (pred.) utsuwu amebala

f (v.), ff, ff (adj.) v

202 communal/community work compare with (to) compete (to) complaint completely condition congratulate someone (to) continue something (to) converse (to) cook cook (to) cool co-operate (to) corn correctly cottage country court, court room court case court yard cow cow-milk crooked crop crowd crown crown (to) cry (to) cry bitterly (to) cultivate (to) cure someone (to) curing (v.n.) curing juju hhod l ame ke i keke, pt kf ame dze a n f (v.), ff, ff (adj.) l nvi s, w d o bl ny k nudr nu, kodzo nyi nyintsi gl (v.), ggl (adj.) agblemenk, agblemen, nk ameh fi akuku fa av de agble ame gbedadzo gbdada, ddad, ati keww w ati ke na ame, da d n ame, da gb le fa avi vv xxnu anygb yi n dz nnme vevesese nutsotso

nala

ame fia, fia

203 customer cutlass nlela, asi si krante, y

D.

dance (to) day breaks, it is day day days gone by days of joy dead dead body, dead person dear (to be) death debt definitely deliver a child (to) demand (to) depart (to) departure desk destroy completely (to) die (to) different kind dig a hole/pit (to) dining hall disciple discover (to) disease dispensary distant place district divide (to) do (to) direction of

e keke, gbe tsa, keke si wo va yi, gbe gbe dzidzkekewo kk amekuku x asi k fe ttt dzi v b, b b dzodz, yiyi dwkpl tsr k dz u ke

vovoovo

nu l f dll ii nutome m n w ati kew nsrla

e d

204 doctor dog donkey door doubt (to) down drag/draw a net (to) drag-net draw something (to) dress up (to) dress, womens wear drink drink (to) drink (alcoholic) drug druggists shop drum (to) drum drummer due to this (to be) duty (on goods) ati kewla, ddal, gbedala av tr any he t n ke i ame, ke i ts n tdz

d awu, ta av awu, nynuwu nnono no aha ati ke, ama ati kedzrae o ola adz, t le esi a ta, esi a ta

E.

each each time each week ear early morning earth easily east eat something (to) eat to ones satisfaction edge

esi a esi ai t anygb edze u n o to, nu bbe di kny kwasi s kwasi , ksi s ksi

205 edible thing egg (of a hen) egg eight eighteen eighty elder elder brother elder one elephant eleven eliminate (to) embrace (to) emperor empower someone (to) encourage someone (to) end end (something) (to) endeavour endeavour (to) English English-speaking area enough enstool someone (to) enter (to) entirely entrance entrust (to) escape Europe European even though entering (v.n.), entry elder sister nuu koklozi enyi blaenyi fo ametsi tsi tsitst wui enyi azi

d ati gli nyi wek tsr kpl as k fia n use ame d use ame w (n) nu agbagbadzedze dze agbagb lesi sgb g lesime

nuwuwu

ame fia, fia gegme

m nu, geeme sis Ablots yevu tgb b h ts de asi na

keke, pt

206 evening evening falls, it is evening every every day every time, each time, always every week, each week everybody, everyone, every person evil spirit Ewe, Ewe language Ewe nation Ewe people, Ewes Ewe-speaking area Eweland exactly examine (to) excellent exchange greetings (to) excuse (to) exist (to) expect (to) expensive explode (to) extremely eye eye glasses fi e

gbesgbe esi ai amesi ame gbgbv kwasi s kwasi , ksi s ksi

esi a

fi e

Ee, Eegbe Eeduk Eeaw Eeme Eenygb ttt do ame kp, d n kp ny ta l gbe ts nu ke li (Present), n anyi (Past) x asi (v.) w k kp m na

gakui ku

F.

face face (to) fact fairly fall sick/ill (to) fall (to) family

kume, mo nyatee kr dze d, x dll g , mu, dze any ome tr mo , tr kume

207 famous far off place farewell farm farm (to) farm hut/house farm path farm product farmer farmer's bag/sack farming fat father fear fee (for services) feel pain (to) feeling of pain fell a tree (to) female slave fetch a fire (to) fetch water (for someone to drink) (to) fetch water (from a well or river) (to) fetish fetish hut/house fetish owner few fetish priest/priestess fifteen fifty fight (with blows) fight (with blows) (to) fight a war (to) find (to) find accidentally (to) xk (attr.) hede nyui e agble agblex agblemenk agblekotok agbleded lolo, d ami (v.) fofo, t vv adz se vev vevesese tso at kosi e dzo ku tsi du tsi tr agblem agbledel de agble ii

trx trt trsi

se (v., adj.), v wat blaat vu w aa f ke n w vu

208 finish doing something finished (to be) fire fireplace firewood first time first firstly fish fish (to) fish seller/dealer fish shop fisherman fishing five fix a date/day (to) flat (large surface) flat (small surface) flesh flour fly (to) foggy food foot for follow someone (to) wu nu v dzo nake dzod zi gbat gba, gbt

e tmela, e l tmeladzrala tmeladzra

gba, gbala tmela, akpa (the smaller types)

at

laela, tmelaela laee, tmelaee keke gbadzaa gbadz l w dzo dze ame yome kplefuu, litii

af n

nuu

forest forever forgive (to) form former former days fortress forty

av ts nu ke nnme xx tsa tegbee

blaene

209 forward found a town/village (to) four fourteen fowl freedom fresh Friday friend frighten someone (to) from that time from time to time front fruit future g, ggbe ene wene able F d vv na ame ts e ma i enuenu g, ggbe ktsts g, ggbe, eyi i si gbna/ le vav g xl yy koklo tso du

G.

game gaze at something (to) gaze at something questionably (to) generation generous (to be) Gentleman German

fef

kp nu duu kp nu ga

dzidzime At ny dme

Germans (the) German-speaking area get prepared (to) get ready (to) get up from a lying position (to) get well (to) ghost gift girl

Dzama

Dzamame get healthy after illness or sickness (to) lame se dzra o, n klalo hy, ga, se gbgb nynuvi , etugbu nnn f dzra o

Dzamawo/ Dzwamatwo

210 give (to) give to (to) gloves (a pair of) go (to) go back to (to) go on a journey (to) go out (to) go over/through/accross (to) go sightseeing (to) go through (to) go to school (to) go towards (to) go with something (to) goal, jail goat God gold gold plate golden plate good Good day goodbye goods gourd Good day to you n asi wui yi tr yi yi, mzz, z m do g t tsa, i tsa t de suku o ta ts yi i gax gb Mw si ka si kagba ny (v.), ny, ny (adj.) d (greeting) hede nyui e adznw g d na wo (greeting) si katsi gba ts n

go for a walk/on a trek/sightseeing (to) i tsa

grandchild grandfather grandmother Great God greed, greediness greedy person green grass greet (to)

tgbi yvi / mamayvi tgbi

Mawuga ukekle uklela gbe dama d gbe n (ame)

mama

211 greyish ground groundnuts, nuts grow (to) gun gun-powder kplefuu az t u tsi anyi gba

H.

half halt hamlet handkerchief happy (to be) hard times hard harm (to) hat have mercy on someone (to) have (to) have/take a bath (to) head towards (to) head heal (to) healer healing, curing healing juju hear (to) hearing heaven, space heavy hedgehog help someone (to) helper here

afa t takuvi fukpei wo, eyi i sesewo se (v.), sese (adj.) w nvv ame kk le ... as o ta ta da d, w ati ke, da gb la ame gbdada, ati keww, ddad se nusese kpekpe kotoko kpt af kp e ame dzi gbedadzo, ddadz, ati kewdzo le tsi kp nublanui na ame kp dzidz k

ddal, ati kewla, gbedala

212 hide (to) high, tall hill history hoe hold (to) hold hands of brotherhood (to) hole holiday home homeland homeland, home town honestly horse hose hospital hot hotel house, building how how many, how much huge hundred hunger hunter hungry hurt (to) husband husband be k (v.), kk (adj.) tgb agblen l n as d l nvi si mkeke af denygb af, de nyatete s afwui ati kewm, dda, dnkdzi x dzo (v.), x dz (adj.) amedzrdze, dze x lk neni e ga alafa d, dwuam uti nya, dukuti nya

d wu ame adel sr

w nvv (ame) srutsu, ats

I.
if

idol ill (to be)

legba n l d

213 immediately importance important in large quantities/numbers in like manner in order (to be) in someones hands (to be) in the past in, inside increase (to) indeed indisposed (to be) infested with desease (to be) inside/within the body instead insult someone (to) interesting invite someone (to) invitee in the same way enumake vevnyny f le o me, le oo nu le ame si me tsa la nenemake vv

nenemake me

dzi dz k, t lame gble x dll lme kbo, le esi a te dzu ame vv (e.g. uti nya vi vi - interesting story) kp ame amekpekpe

J.

jail job journey joy judge juju juju for fighting juju for healing/ curing juju for inducing love juju for killing others juju name juju owner/ juju-man

d mzz nudrla dzo gbedadzo amewudzo dzok dzot lldzo vuwdz dzidz

gax

214 jump (to) just as just equal to just now dzo kp ab lsi ene, s p fflaa s p

K.

keep in safe custody (to) keep silent (to) kill (to) killing illing of oneself kind (to be) kind of kind person kindle a fire (to) king kitchen kneel (to) knife know (to) know someone (to)

dzra n wu wuwu ameokui wuwu ny dme omevi dmenyto d dzo fia dzod h dze s ame, ny ame ny n dze klo zi ooe

L.
lad Lady lagoon lake lamp land large ekakpui An t

t (t) anygb ga, lolo (v.) globoo lak aka

large and deep large piece of meat lass

etugbu

215 last last (the) late (to be) laugh (to) lay (to) lay egg (to) laziness lazy (to be) lazy person lead (to) leader leaf learn (to) learning leave (to) leave behind (to) left shoulder left leg letter library lie (to) lie face up, lie on the back (to) lie on the stomach (to) life light lion listen (to) little little while live (to) live in brotherhood or in harmony live long maml, suse mlet, suset ko n azi kv kvt kpl kpll agba sr nu dz w kv ml, tsml tsi megbe

nssr

gble , gble i mi abta mia af agbal, lta agbalexle ml dze e tsy ak anyi

agbe h

like someone (to)

dzat se (v., adj.), v, v see li (Present), n (Past) n agbe did w nvi t

l ame

216 live-stock keeper live-stock keeping living/ones life living thing load lodge someone (to) log long ago, long long ago long look (to) look after (someone) (to) look after something (to) look at something thoughtfully (to) look for, wish to (to) look forward to (to) look round (to) look towards (to) Lord lorry lose (to) lot love low love someone (to) lanyi la lanyi nyi ngbgb agba ati kpo, ati boli didi (v.), di di (adj.) kp kp (ame) dz kp n dz kp nu duu d kp m na tsa ku tr mo , tr kume At agbats, , lri bli bo, wo kata, f ll l ame b xxx, gbaegbe, gbeaegbe dze (ame) gb agbenn

kpui (v., adj.)

M.

maize make (to) male male slave maltreat someone (to) man many, enough market

bl atsu kl, klv tsu s gb asi w fu ame w

217 market day matchet mathematics matter meat meat dealer/seller meat shop, butchers medicine meet (to) meet someone (on the way) (to) meeting meeting hall member membership mens wear, mens clothings metal metal plate metal pot midday middle middle school midnight might milk asigbe aknta nya, n ladzrala ladzra ati ke, ama kp ame takpekp takpex hamenla, hamet, hbbmenla, hbbmet hamenn, hbbmenn, hametnyenye utsuwuwo, utsuwo e awuwo, utsuw nddw ga gagb gaz d ttna ti ti nasuku d go, kpe ta l krante, y

ztitina, zte use ahuhe kplefuu Dz prk, axle let ga me legba dzidz ntsi

mirror mirth misty model an idol (to) Monday money mongoose month

218 moon morning mother mould an idol (to) mountain mouth Mrs. much muddy multiply (to) let dad/ n t nu An kpt (attr.), kpt (pred.) dzi dz geee me legba d

N.

name narrate (to) narrow nation native land nativeland near nearby place neat necessary neck nest need (to) never (before) new next day nice nicely night night falls, night has fallen night is falling nine

k gbl, b nya xx, xx duk de, a dnygb gb, xa k, dza hi a k hi a kpui

at

gbe, kp ... o ufke ny za z d aske z le dod ny (v.), ny (attr. adj.), ny (pred. adj.) yy

219 nineteen ninety no none noon north nose not not long after, soon not yet nothing now nowadays nuts wask blaasi eke O k o d ti m o ete mdidi o, teti ko ha o nnk o z, ff gbgbe azi anyi ehe

O.

O.K. obey (to) observe (to) offend someone (to) often old old (to be ... years old) old person on on the road/way once upon a time one one and the same thing one day, once upon a time one of them onion olden days

yoo, eny le ku n dzik n ame enuenu xx, tsi tsi x e t da vo e ame , w nv me , d

ametsi tsi dz mta ek

blema, tsa

gbgbe n ek, nsi s wo domet ek sabala gbe ek

220 only open (to) orange order order (to) other outdoor someone (to) outside, outdoors over ko auti , kt o bb e ame xx ta xx e gbe n (ame), n (ame) u

P.

pack (to) pain painter (artist) painting palace palm palm nut palm tree palm wine pan paper parents part company with (to) pass by (to) pastor path patient pawpaw pawpaw tree pay a debt (to) pay a fee (to) pay someone a visit (to) pass through (to)

o vev ntl ntt fi asa d det gagb agbal, ppa dzilw kla tso, kla ts, m m, m m tso t z m to, t Osfo, Mawununla m aub aubt x adz sra ame kp, kp ame x fe dll, dl, dn deha dek

221 peace pen, pencil people/inhabitants of a town/village period permission, permit permit (to) person pharmacy piece pig pilfer (to) pill pit pity place plane plate play play (to) player play-ground pledge something (to) pocket pocupine tff duk eyi i e m na ati kedzrae kk fi fi ufa, ati keke, ati keooe, amak d nublanui te yame agb fef f fefela fef kotoku, golo kotok ttr, tr s, sis tsye x k agbatsla z t k / k xk (attr.) t, tgba ts nu de awoba, ts nu de asi na ha ame mee nlti

point of return point/place of escape pointed (to be) pond popular (to be) popular porter pot pound (to) pour into/out (to)

222 pour libation (to) power praise (to) pray (to) pregnant (to be) present (to be) present at (to be) presently priest prison, goal, jail product of the farm profitable promise punish someone (to) pupil pupil, one who attends school pupil, one who studies or learns put on clothes (to) put together (to) put up with someone (to) k aha , ts aha d gbe use kf (ame) f f li ff n nu te Osfo, Mawununla m, gax e v gbedodo he t n (ame) sukuv sukudela nsrla d awu, ta av o dze (ame) gb d gbe

nk

Q.

question (to) quickly quite

bia, bia gbe (ame) kr kb

R.
rain coat rather raise ones voice (to) reach (to) read a book/letter (to) reader (book) k gbe dz kr xle agbale agbalexexle v tsiwu

223 reader (person) really rear receipt receive (to) receive power/authority (to) receiver reckon (to) recognise someone (to) recover (to) red, reddish reddish brown refuse (to) refuse to speak (to) region reign relative (brother, sister, cousin) remain behind (to) remember (to) render account (to) repair (to) reply (to) report report someone (to) reptile request request (to) request someone (to) residue, rest rest rest (to) restaurant result (to) return (to) agbalexlela megb x n k fedzi gbale x use

bu, aknta

nxla dze s, ny hy, ga, se, lame se h (v., adj.) gb zi kp nutome u fia nvi tsi megbe k n dz bu aknta, n aknta dzra n o nya nutsotso ntt biab n n (ame), b ts, ame s b maml, suse dzudz nu he n v, mets n gb, tr dzudz tso ame nu

dzi (attr.), dzi (pred.)

224 revolt against someone (to) rice rich (to be) rich person ride a horse (to) right now right, righthand rightly rise up (to) rise/revolt against someone (to) river road rock roll (over) (to) rough round (hollow objects) round (solid objects) run (to) run away (to) run-away ts e ame mli kesi nt d s us, nus ts, ts tre ts e ame , dze agls e ame t, tsi si m kp mli, mli n latsa (attr.), latsaa (pred.) tegbl (attr.), tegbl (pred.) nogo (attr.), nogoo (pred.) du s sisl nyuie fflaa kp ga

S.

sack sadness salt same sand sandal save someone (to) saviour say (to) say something (to) scatter over (to) scent

dze k afkpa, tsts xl, el ke n gbl kaka , ka xle e x n ame k

nublanui

kotoku, golo

225 scent (to) school school building school days school mate schooling sculptor sea seat seated (to be) second (of a minute) see (to) seed sell something (to) send someone (to) separate (to) servant serve serve a drink (to) set a date/day (to) set a fire (to) set off on a journey (to) seven set/send one on a journey/errand (to) seventeen seventy shape share (to) sharpen (to) shed tears of joy (to) sheep sheep pen ship shoe se e, e nu se nsr, suku sukux sukuhati nkpala u zikpu n anyi aabao kp nk, k, k dzr n d ame kla, kla , m, m sbla sb ku aha n ame d dzo d m ame adre wui adre dze m keke sukudede sukudei

blaadre m n nyr

nnme

fa dzidzv ale tdzi u afkpa alekp

226 shoot (to) shop shopkeeper shore short shorts (a pair of) shoulder shout (to) show interest in someone (to) sick (to be) sick person sickness, disease sight sin since then sing (to) six sixteen sixty slaughter (to) sleep (to) sling on the neck (to) slipper smell small, few smell (to) smelling smooth snake so socks soft soldier smile (to) da t fi asemenla uta, unu kpui (v., adj.) abta ts e le eme na ame lame gble, l d l, dze d dll, dn, dl dll nkpkp v, nuv ts e ma i dzi ha ade wade blaade d al aemefkpa ku k, ts ku k tso d li atakpui fs

se (v., adj.), v, v ee n se eesese zr (v.), zzre (pred. adj.) l afwui asrafo bb (v.), bbe (adj.) da ko algbnui

227 some something sometimes son soon sour south space speak out/up, speak louder (to) speak (to) spear special spectacles spirit splendid spoil (to) spoiled spoon spouse spread over (to) stand still (to) stand up (to) star stay (to) steal still w, , ew nn viutsuvi ff, ete mdidi o, teti ko vv dzi dzi ehe k gbe dz ea w i

o nu akpl tx gakui gbgb ny ta gble gats sr t , t te leti vi fi fi ts tre, ts n (only in Past) gakaka

gbegble

stomach stone stool stop (to) store storekeeper storm story

dme, ome kp zikpu fs t

fi asemenla aho uti nya, nyatoto

228 stranger street strike (to) strong struggle (to) student studio (of an artist) succeed (to) success sugar suicide summon (to) summons sun Sunday sunshine sure (to be) surely surface surpass (to) swallow something (to) sweep something (to) sweet swim (to) swimmer swimming pool swimming swine suddenly amedzr abl o se, sese sukuv, nsrl, sukudela nt dzi dzedzekpkp ks skl ameokui wuwu sm sama d, e Kwasi , Ksi duu ka n dz ttt g, kme, , t, -o w kpl n vv u tsi mi n kp dzi dzedze, dze dz n ame

li

tsi tsi gbeha

tsi l

T.

table table (on which one works) tablet

dwkpl ufa, amake, ati kekoe, ati keooe

kpl

229 take (to) take to (to) take a bath (to) take a receipt (on a debt) (to) take a receipt take a walk (to) take care of something taking a bath talk tall tasteless teach (someone) (to) teacher teaching tediousness, tedium tell (to) ten test (to) thank (to) thanks that (demonstrative) that (conjunction) that yonder the theft then there therefore these thick thief thing think (to) talk (to) ts ts yi na x agbal e fe dzi x fedzi gbale i tsa le tsi lem o nu k, kk yaa f n (ame) nfl nff eiteame b, b nya, gbl ew d kp akp m bn l, - fi kem d akp kp nu dzi nuoo le tsi

eyata si aw fi afi , fi afi t, fi fi la bu ta me, ss n tri (v.), ti tri (adj.)

afm

ekema, tete

230 thinking, thought thirst thirsty (to be) thirteen thirty this those those yonder though thought thousand three through someone Thursday tie (to) till time times of joy/enyoyment times of suffering tinned meat or fish tired (to be) tiredness today together too tamebubu tsi k wu ame blaet si a mw kemw tgb be wet tsikwuame

sus, tamebubu akp et to ame dzi Yawoa bl vs eyi i dzidzi wo fukpei wo gomela ei t (ame) eiteame gbe o

tomorrow top touring car towards town trader train travel travel (to)

ets, ets si gbna kp ta, dz l asi tsala mzz z m ktke du tsai

231 travel by a vehicle as a passenger (to) travel through (to) treat a sickness (to) tree trek trial trousers (a pair of) truck truly trust in someone (to) truth truthfully try (to) try about something (to) try for someone (to) Tuesday turn (to) turn to/towards (to) twelve twenty twinkle of an eye (in a second) two type of z m to, t ame mzz at nuddr, nu atadi di , atawu w ati ke na ame, da d n ame, da gbe le

agbats

nyatete d dzi e ame , x ame dzi se nyatee nyatete dze agbagb, te n kp dze agbagb le n dze agbagba na ame Bra tr tr weve bleve aabao ek eve omevi

U.

umbrella uncle (maternal) uncle (paternal) under, underneath underwear untie (to) untie a load (to)

nyre ti (younger brother of father) tga (elder brother of father) t, gme, ome t t agba awutewui

xexi , sowui , (ex)

232 until up to upper usually utter something (to) vs ta gdo l ke nu vs

V.

valley vehicle vehicle which carries goods very vicinity of village visit someone (to) voice Volta Lake Volta River

agbats t lo k, duv, du s kp ame gbe Amuta

bali

Amu tss, Amu

W. waist walk (to) wall wander about (to) want to (to) wares wash (to) water way wealthy person Wednesday week weed a farm (to) ali gli tsa adznw nya n tsi l k n d z

watch (to)

m kesi nt Kua l agble

kwasia, ksia

233 weep (to) weep bitterly (to) weight west western one what when where which white white man/person who (interrogative pronoun) who (relative pronoun) whole why wide wife wild pig window wise (to be) wish wish (to) with wish for strongly wither (to) without exception without sin witness woman womens dress/wear word word of advice work work (to) fa av kpekpeme eto nuka afi ka si, n nsi, si, ka (attr.), (pred.), fu yevu ameka amsi, si kata, bli bo nukata keke (v.), keke (adj.) asi, srnynu, sr gbeha fesre did d d vv ny n etot fa avi vv

kpl yr k s

nynu nynuwo ndd/ wu nya d w d nxlamenya

asef

234 worker world worry oneself (to) worship worshiper write something (to) wrong dwla xxme sb sbla l n v, nvi , nugbegble w fu ameokui

Y.

yam year yes yesterday yield profit (to) Yorubaland young man young woman/girl younger brother younger one younger sister youth, lad, a young man yearn for (to)

te d vv e ets (si va yi) e v Anagonyi gba, Yorubanygb ekakpui etugbu ts oe ekakpui , etugbu evt e

235

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(The numbers in square brackets refer to the catalogue number of the Cologne Institute.)

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