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# Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas

## ASIAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION COLLEGE

Tacloban City Given four sides a, b, c, d, and sum of two opposite angles:

## Prepared by: RTFVerterra

10 sides 11 sides 12 sides 15 sides 16 sides = = = = = decagon undecagon dodecagon quindecagon hexadecagon

A=

## (s a)(s b)(s c)(s d) abcdcos2

s=
a+b+c+d 2 A + C B + D = or = 2 2

The content of this material is one of the intellectual properties of Engr. Romel Tarcelo F. Verterra of Asian Development Foundation College. Reproduction of this copyrighted material without consent of the author is punishable by law. Part of: Plane and Solid Geometry by RTFVerterra October 2003

Sum of interior angles The sum of interior angles of a polygon of n sides is: Sum, = (n 2) 180 Sum of exterior angles The sum of exterior angles is equal to 360. = 360

A circle is circumscribed about a triangle if it passes through the vertices of the triangle.

Given four sides a, b, c, d, and two opposite angles B and D: Divide the area into two triangles

## Circumcenter of the triangle

a b

r c

r=

A = ab sin B + cd sin D

abc 4A T

## AT = area of the triangle

Parallelogram Number of diagonals, D The diagonal of a polygon is the line segment joining two non-adjacent sides. The number of diagonals is given by: n D = (n 3) 2 Regular polygons Circle inscribed in a triangle (Incircle) A circle is inscribed in a triangle if it is tangent to the three sides of the triangle. B Incenter of the triangle

B d1 A

d2

PLANE GEOMETRY
PLANE AREAS Triangle

## D a Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included angle : A = d1 d2 sin

Given two sides a and b and one angle A:

r=

B a h c

A = ab sin A
Rhombus

C d1 d2 a

b
A = bh

A B

90 a A

Polygons whose sides are equal are called equilateral polygons. Polygons with equal interior angles are called equiangular polygons. Polygons that are both equilateral and equiangular are called regular polygons. The area of a regular polygon can be found by considering one segment, which has the form of an isosceles triangle. Circumscribing x circle
x R R r Apothem x x Inscribed circle

AT s s = (a + b + c)

c r r b r

## Circles escribed about a triangle (Excircles)

A circle is escribed about a triangle if it is tangent to one side and to the prolongation of the other two sides. A triangle has three escribed circles. ra ra c a ra

## Given diagonals d1 and d2:

Given two sides a and b and included angle : A = ab sin Given three sides a, b, and c: (Heros Formula) A= s=
s( s a)(s b)(s c )
a+b+c 2

A = d1 d2
Given side a and one angle A:

A = a2 sin A
Trapezoid

a h b b B d1 d2 a A d D C c

The area under this condition can also be solved by finding one angle using cosine law and apply the formula for two sides and included angle. Given three angles A, B, and C and one side a:
a 2 sin B sin C A= 2 sin A

a+b h A= 2

x = side = angle subtended by the side from the center R = radius of circumscribing circle r = radius of inscribed circle, also called the apothem n = number of sides
= 360 / n

b AT AT AT ra = ; rc = ; rb = s b sa sc

## Area, A = R2 sin n = x r n Perimeter, P = n x n2 180 Interior angle = n Exterior angle = 360 / n

Circle

A circle is circumscribed about a quadrilateral if it passes through the vertices of the quadrilateral. r=

b a

r c d

## (ab + cd)(ac + bd)(ad + bc ) 4 A quad ( s a)(s b)(s c )(s d)

The area under this condition can also be solved by finding one side using sine law and apply the formula for two sides and included angle. Rectangle

A + C = 180 B + D = 180

Area =

( s a)( s b)( s c )( s d)

d b

a+b+c+d s= 2

Circumference = 2 r = D 2 Area, A = r2 = D 4
Sector of a circle

s = (a + b + c + d)
Circle incribed in a quadrilateral b A circle is inscribed in a quadrilateral r if it is tangent to the three a sides of the quadrilateral.

Ptolemys theorem

Area, A = ab

## Perimeter, P = 2(a + b) Diagonal, d = a 2 + b 2 Square

For any cyclic quadrilateral, the product of the diagonals equals the sum of the products of the opposite sides d1 d2 = ac + bd
POLYGONS

r 180

r 2 360

d ;
abcd

## Note: 1 radian is the angle such that C = r.

Segment of a circle

r=

s = (a + b + c + d)

## Area, A = a2 Perimeter, P = 4a Diagonal, d = a 2

d a C

a d2 d d1

There are two basic types of polygons, a convex and a concave polygon. A convex polygon is one in which no side, when extended, will pass inside the polygon, otherwise it called concave polygon. The following figure is a convex polygon. 4 4 3
3 2
D

SOLID GEOMETRY
POLYHEDRONS

## Area = Asector + Atriangle Area = r2 r + r2 sin Area = r2 (r + sin )

Parabolic segment

= 360 - r r

2 1 1

6 6

Area =

2 bh 3

## Given diagonals d1 and d2 and included angle :

A = d1 d2 sin

Polygons are classified according to the number of sides. The following are some names of polygons. 3 sides 4 sides 5 sides 6 sides 7 sides 8 sides 9 sides = = = = = = = triangle quadrangle or quadrilateral pentagon hexagon heptagon or septagon octagon nonagon

h b
PRISM

Ellipse

Area = a b Perimeter, P P = 2
a2 + b2 2

b b

A prism is a polyhedron whose bases are equal polygons in parallel planes and whose sides are parallelograms. Prisms are classified according to their bases. Thus, a hexagonal prism is one whose base is a

## Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas

hexagon, and a regular hexagonal prism has a base of a regular hexagon. The axis of a prism is the line joining the centroids of the bases. A right prism is one whose axis is perpendicular to the base. The height h of a prism is the distance between the bases. Like prisms, cylinders are classified according to their bases. Fixed straight line Directrix Azone = 2rh Volume =
h (3r h) 3
2

## Prepared by: RTFVerterra

ELLIPSOID

Z b a c r h Y Volume = b
Prolate spheroid
4 abc 3

a X

h h Ab Volume = Ab h Volume = Ab h
Rectangular parallelepiped Right circular cylinder

## Spherical segment of two bases

Ab As = 2rh
h 2 (3a + 3b 2 + h2 ) Volume = 6

## Volume = Ab h = r2 h c b Lateral area, AL AL = Base perimeter h AL = 2 r h

CONE

r h h r r Volume = r

d2 d1 a

Volume = Ab h = abc Lateral area, AL = 2(ac + bc) Total surface area, AS = 2(ab + bc + ac) Face diagonal, d1 = Space diagonal, d2 =
a2 + c 2

1 2 A zone r = r 2 h 3 3

Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the ellipse about its major (X) axis. Thus from the figure above, c = b, then, 4 Volume = ab 2 3 arcsin e As = 2b2 + 2ab e e= a2 b2 / a

A cone is the surface generated by a straight line, the generator, passing through a fixed point, the vertex, and moving along a fixed curve, the directrix. Similar to pyramids, cones are classified according to their bases. Vertex Ab = base area h = altitude Generator Directrix Ab
1 Ab h 3

## Spherical lune and wedge

Oblate spheroid

a2 + b2 + c 2

Prolate spheroid is formed by revolving the ellipse about its minor (Z) axis. Thus from the figure above, c = a, then, r

Cube (Regular hexahedron) Volume = Ab h = a3 Lateral area, AL = 4a2 Total surface area AS = 6a2 Face diagonal a d1 = a 2 Space diagonal

Volume =

4 2 a b 3 b 2 1 + e ln 1 e e

Lune

Wedge

As = 2a2 +
r 2 90

d2 d1 a a

d2 = a 3
Truncated prism

## A lune 4r 2 = 360 4 3 r Vwedge = 3 360

Alune =

PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION

Vwedge =

r 3 270

h r Volume =
1 2 r h 2

## AR = area of the right section n = number of sides h4 h1 AR

h n

Volume =

Spherical polygons

## Right circular cone r = base radius h = altitude

h r

A spherical polygon is a polygon on the surface of a sphere whose sides are arcs of great circles. n = number of sides; r = radius of sphere E = spherical excess a A d D C c A1 r b B

## h3 h2 L = slant height = r + h 1 1 2 Ab h = r h 3 3 Lateral area, AL = r L

2 2

AL =

3/2 3 4r r 2 + h2 r 2 2 4 3h

Volume = AR
PYRAMIDS

Volume =

PRISMOIDAL RULE

A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and triangular faces that meet at a common point called the vertex. Similar to prisms, pyramids are classified according to their bases. Vertex Ab = area of the base h = altitude, perpendicular distance from the vertex to the base Ab Volume =
1 Ab h 3

Frustum of a cone

Am

A2

A2 h A1

## r 2E 180 E = sum of angles (n 2)180

Area =

L/2

L/2 L L [A 1 + 4A m + A 2 ] 6

Spherical pyramid

h Volume = A 1 + A 2 + A 1A 2 3

A D r r

B C

Volume =

h = altitude

## r = radius of sphere E = spherical excess of the polygon E = sum of angles (n 2)180

r 3E Volume = 540

The prismoidal rule gives precise values of volume for regular solid such as pyramids, cones, frustums of pyramids or cones, spheres, and prismoids.
SIMILAR SOLIDS

Frustum of pyramid

A frustum of a pyramid is the volume included between the base and a cutting plane parallel to the base. A1 = lower base area A2 = upper base area h = altitude

SOLID OF REVOLUTION
h2 + (R r ) 2

Two solids are similar if any two corresponding sides or planes are proportional. All spheres, cubes are similar. Axis of rotation x1 x2 x1 x2

A2 h A1
h A 1 + A 2 + A 1A 2 3

h 2 2 R + r + Rr 3 Lateral area = (R + r) L

cg

x1 R
First proposition of Pappus

x2

SPHERE
4 3 r 3 Surface area, As = 4r2

x1

x2

## For all similar solids:

x As1 = 1 x As 2 2
2

Volume =

Volume =
CYLINDERS

## Spherical segment of one base

The surface area generated by a surface of revolution equals the product of the length of the generating arc and the distance traveled by its centroid. As = L 2 R Second proposition of Pappus The volume area generated by a solid of revolution equals the product of the generating area and the distance traveled by its centroid. Volume = A 2 R

and

V1 V2

x = 1 x 2

A cylinder is the surface generated by a straight line intersecting and moving along a closed plane curve, the directrix, while remaining parallel to a fixed straight line that is not on or parallel to the plane of the directrix.

Where As is the surface, total area, or any corresponding area. The dimension x may be the height, base diameter, diagonal, or any corresponding dimension.

h r r r r