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grams Moles = formula weight (g / mol)

Where formula weight represents the atomic or molecular weight of the substance.


g g Moles Na2 SO 4 = = f wt 142.04 g / mol g += g = Moles Ag f wt 107.870 g / mol


Calculate the number of grams in one mole of CaSO4 7H2O Solution One mole is the formula weight expressed in grams. The formula weight is

Ca S 11 O 14 H

40.08 32.06 176.00 14.11 262.25 g/mol

milligrams Mi lim oles = formula weight (mg / mmol)

g Na2SO4 = moles X f wt = moles X 142.04 g/mol g Ag = moles X f wt = moles X 107.870 g/mol

We usually work with millimole quantities, so Miligrams = millimoles X formula weight (mg/mmol)
Note that g/mol is the same as mg/mmol, g/L the same as mg/ml, and mol/L the same as mmol/mL.

Calculate the number of moles in 500 mg Na2WO4 (sodium tungstate). Solution

500 mg 293.8 mg/mmol

x 0.001 mol/mmol = 0.00170 mol

How many milligrams are in 0.250 mmol Fe2O3 (ferric oxide)? Solution 0.250 mmol x 159.7 mg/mmol = 39.9 mg

Millimoles = molarity X milliliters (or mmol = M X mL) A solution is prepared by dissolving 1.26 g AgNO3 in a 250 mL volumetric flask and diluting to volume. Calculate the molarity of the silver nitrate solution. How many millimoles AgNO3 were dissolved? Solution
M= 1.26g/169.9g/mol 0.250L = 0.0297mol/L (or 0.0297 mmol/mL)

Then, Millimoles = (0.0297 mmol/mL)(250 mL) = 7.42 mmol

How many grams per milliliter of NaCI are contained In a 0.250 M solution? Solution 0.250 mol/L = 0.250 mmol/mL 0.250 mmol/mL X 58.4 mg/mmol X 0.001 g/mg = 0.0146 g/ml How many grams Na2SO4 should be weighed out to prepare 500 mL of a 0.100 M solution? Solution 500 mL X 0.100 mmol/mL = 50.0 mmol 50.0 mmol X 142 mg/mmol X 0.001 g/mg = 7.10 g

Expressing concentrations of solution

Molarity = moles of solute (mol) volume of solution (L) = mmoles of solute (mmol) volume of solution (mL) Normality (N) = no. of equivalents (eq) volume of solution (L) = no. of equivalents (meq) volume of solution (mL)

No. equivalents (eq) =

mass (g) equivalent mass (g/eq) = normality (eq/L) x vol (L) No. equivalents (meq) = mass (mg) equivalent mass (mg/meq) = normality (meq/mL) x vol (mL) Equivalent mass = Relative Molec Mass (g/mol) No. of reacting units (eq/mol) Reacting units: H+ (acid/base) or e- (redox)

Calculate the normality of a solution prepared by dissolving 2.3543 g K2Cr2O7 in 1 L water, which is used to oxidise FeCl2 in the unbalanced equation. RMM K2Cr2O7 is 294.19 K2Cr2O7 + FeCl2 + HCl CrCl3 + FeCl3 + KCl + H2O N= mass K2Cr2O7 (g) equiv. mass K2Cr2O7 (g/equiv) x mL Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Equiv. mass = RMM K2Cr2O7 = 294.19 (mg/mmol) no. e 6 (meq/mmol) = 49.030 mg/meq = 0.04800 N N= 2354.3 mg 49.030 mg/meq x 1000 mL 10

Calculate the volume of a conc solution required to prepare 1 L 0.100 M HCl solution that was taken from a bottle of conc. HCl. The label on the bottle indicates 37.0% HCl, density of 1.18 g/mL. RMM for HCl is 36.5


37.0 g HCl 100 g conc. solution Mass HCl = 1.18 g conc soln x 37.0 g HCl Vol HCl mL conc soln 100 g conc. = 0.437 g/mL Mass HCl required = 1000 mL x 0.100 mmol x 0.0365 g mL mmol = 3.65 g = 8.36 mL Vol HCl required = 3.65 g 0.437 g/mL

37.0% HCl =

Solid Samples
Express as weight % (% w/w) % = mass solute (g) x 100 mass of sample (g) For trace concentrations, expressed as ppt, ppm, ppb Ppt = mass solute (g) x 103 mass of sample (g) Ppm = mass solute (g) x 106 mass of sample (g) Ppb = mass solute (g) x 109 mass of sample (g)


Mass Units mg 10-3 g g 10-6 g ng 10-9 g Volume Units L mL 10-3 L L 10-6 L


A sample weighing 1.3535 g contains 0.4701 g . Calculate the % Fe in the sample. What is the Fe content in ppt and ppm? % Fe = 0.4701 g x 100 = 34.73% 1.3535 g Ppt Fe = 0.4701 g x 103 = 347. 3 ppt 1.3535 g Ppm Fe = 0.4701 g x 106 = 3.473 105 ppm 1.3535 g

Liquid Samples
Normally expressed as % mass/volume (% w/v) % w/v = mass solute (g) x 102 vol of sample (mL) Ppt = mass solute (g) x 103 vol of sample (mL) Ppm = mass solute (g) x 106 vol of sample (mL) Ppb = mass solute (g) x 109 16 vol of sample (mL)

% volume/volume (% v/v)
% v/v = volume of solute (mL) x 102 vol of sample (mL) Ppt = volume of solute (mL) x 103 vol of sample (mL) Ppm = volume of solute (mL) x 106 vol of sample (mL) Ppb = volume of solute (mL) x 109 vol of sample (mL)

Common Units For Expressing Trace Concentrations

Parts per million (1ppm = 10-4%) Parts per billion (1ppb = 10-7% = 10-3ppm) Milligram percent mg% Ppb


mg/kg g/g g/kg ng/g

mg/L g/mL g//L ng/mL

L/L nL/mL nL/L pL/mLa

mg/100g mg/100mL

pL = picoliter = 10-12 L



We often must prepare dilute solutions from more concentrated stock solutions. The millimoles taken for dilution will be the same as the millimoles in the diluted solution , i.e., Mstock X mLstock = MDiluted X mLDiluted

You wish to prepare a calibration curve for the spectrophotometric determination of permanganate.You have a stock 0.100 M solution of KMnO4 and a series of 100 mL volumetric flasks. What volumes of the stock solution wll you have to pipet into flasks to prepare standards of 1.00, 2.00, 5.00, and 10.00 X 10-3 M KMnO4 solutions? Solutions A 100 mL solution of 1.00 X 10-3 M KMnO4 will contain 100 mL X 1.00 X 10-3 mmol/mL = 0.100 mmol KMnO4 We must pipet this amount from the stock solution 0.100 mmol / mL X mL = 0.100 mmol = 1.00 mL stock solution For other solutions, will need 2.00, 5.00 and 10.0 mL of stock solution.

A 2.6 g sample of plant tissue was analyzed and found to contain 3.6 g zinc. What is the concentration of zinc in the Plant in ppm ? In ppb? Solution

3.6 g = 1.4 g / g 1.4 ppm 2.6 g 3.6 X10 3 ng = 1.4 X10 3 ng / g 1400 ppb 2.6g


(a) Calculate the molar concentrations of 1.00 ppm solution each of Li+ and Pb2+ Solution (a) Li concentration = 1.00 ppm = 1.00 mg/L Pb concentration = 1.00 ppm = 1.00 mg/L

1.00 mg Li / L X10 3 g / mg = 1.44 X10 4 mol / L Li Li = 6.94 g Li / mol 1.00 mg Pb / L X10 3 g / mg = 4.83X10 6 mol / L Pb Pb = 207 g Pb / mol


What weight of Pb(NO3)2 will have to be dissolved in 1 liter of water to prepare a 100 ppm Pb2+ solution? (b) 100 ppm Pb2+ = 100 mg/L = 0.100 g/L

0.100 g Pb = 4.83 X 10 4mol Pb 207g / mol

Therefore, we need 4.83 X 10-4 mol Pb (NO3)2 4.83 X 10-4 mol X 283.3g Pb (NO3)2/mol = 0.137 g Pb (NO3)2

KAT 141nm2



A selective reaction or test is one that can occur with other substances but exhibits a degree of preference for the substance of interest. A specific reaction or test is one that occurs only with the substance of interest. Unfortunately, few reactions are specific but many exhibit selectivity. Selectivity may be achieved by a number of strategies. Some examples are: Sample preparation (e.g., extractions, precipitation) Instrumentations (selective detectors) Target analyte derivatization (e.g. derivatize specific functional groups with detecting reagents) Chromatography, which provides powerful separation



Max. Working Temperature (C) 200

Sensitivity to thermal Shock 1500C change OK

Chemical Inertness Attacked somewhat by alkali solutions on heating Attacked by alkali solutions


Borosilicate glass

Trademarks : Pyrex, Kimax,

Soft glass


Boron free. Trademark : Corning

Alkaliresistant glass Fused quartz 1050

More sensitive Than Borosilicate Excellent Resistant to most acids, halogens Quartz crucibles used for fusions


Max. Working Temperature (C) 1000

Sensitivity to thermal Shock Excellent

Chemical Inertness More resistant to alkalis than borosilicate


High silica glass

Similar to fused quartz Trademark : Vycor (Corning)

Porcelain Platinum

1100 (glazed) 1400 (unglazed) ca.1500


Excellent Resistant to most acids, molten salts. Attacks by aqua regia, fused nitrates, cyanides, chlorides at > 10000C. Alloys with gold, silver, and other metals Usually alloyed with iridium or rhodium to increase hardness. Platinum crucibles for fusions and treatment with HF.



Max. Working Temperature (C)

Sensitivity to thermal Shock

Chemical Inertness


Nickel and iron

Fused samples contaminated with the metal

Ni and Fe crucibles used for peroxide fusions

Stainless steel

400 500


Not attacked by alkalis and acids expect conc. HCI, dil H2SO4 and boiling conc. HNO3 Not attacked by alkali solutions or HF. Attacked by many organic solvents (acetone, ethanol OK) Flexible plastic





Max. Working Temperature (C) 70

Sensitivity to thermal Shock

Chemical Inertness



Not Somewhat attacked by brittle HF. Attacked by many organic solvents Inert to most chemicals Useful for storage of solutions and reagents for trace metal analysis




Some Common Drying Agents

Agent CaCI2 (anhydrous) CaSO4 CaO MgCIO4 (anhydrous) Silica gel AI2O3 P2O5

Capacity High Moderate Moderate High Low Low Low

Deliquescenta Yes No No Yes No No Yes

Trade Name

Drierite (W.A. Hammond Drierite Co). Anhydrone (J.T. Baker Chemical Co.);

Becomes liquid by absorbing moisture