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BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS

RESEARCH METHOD IN ARCHITECTURE 423

SUBMITTED BY: RAMOS, MARK DANIEL DC 4B SUBMITTED TO: ARCH. ROSAL LUZVINCENT DE OCAMPO

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2 PRESENTATION OF DATA

Chapter 3 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Chapter 4 PROGRAMMING

Chapter 5 SYNTHESIS

Chapter 6 TRANSLATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. 3 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS GOAL/OBJECTIVES/STRATEGIES.. 4 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS... 6 PURPOSE/RELEVANCE/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY... 7 ASSUMPTIONS 8 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .. 9 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES10 METHODOLOGY..37 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS and CONCEPTS.. 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 41

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION77 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS78 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 80

CHAPTER 3
INTRODUCTION...........81 IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS.. 81 RESTATEMENT OF PROBLEMS82 RECOMMENDATION..83 DESIGN PROPOSAL.. 83 THE SITE. 84 SITE JUSTIFICATION.... 85 SITE ANALYSIS.. 90 MACRO SITE ANALYSIS92

CHAPTER 2
DATA MANAGEMENT.. 44 TABLES, GRAPHS, SURVEY............ 46 RESEARCH TOPICS 65 CASE STUDY.. 74

MICRO SITE ANALYSIS..93 SWOT ANALYSIS... 96 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS..99 ACTIVITIES, BEHAVIOR AND NEEDS.101

ENVIRONMENT BEHAVIOR STUDIES103 INTERRELATIONSHIP STUDIES.107 VIABILITY STUDIES.109 LEGAL VIALBILITY..109 FINANCIAL VIABILITY111 DESIGN PROPOSAL..111

CHAPTER 6
CONCEPT BOARD... 127 PERSPECTIVES..128 SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN..................................... 129 FLOOR PLANS ..130 ELEVATIONS.. 134 SECTION

CHAPTER 4
INTRODUCTION........................................ 112 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS...... 151 INTERRELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS....................................... 114 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS.. 116 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS.119 RETURN OF INVESTMENT... 123

CHAPTER 5
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY.... 124 DESIGN GOAL..... 124 DESIGN OBJECTIVES............................................. 124 DESIGN CONCEPT... 124 DESIGN PARAMETERS.. 126

CHAPTER 1

A. Introduction

A.) The Problem and its Setting A.1. Background of the study
One major health related problem see on campus more than any other is lack of sleep. College students are well-known for never getting enough sleep. College students live a life that promotes lack of sleep. Students stay up all night cramming for exams and tests, or celebrate their new found freedom by staying up all night partying. Being a college student can be an amazing time in life. In fact, many students are proud of their ability to function well on small amounts of sleep. Students who lack sleep are likely to fall asleep in class. Lack of sleep often results to poor sleep habits/sleep hygiene which is one of the most common problems encountered by students. Students are less alert, less able to concentrate and less likely to retain what they learned. As a result, they get poorer grades on assignments and tests. Those who stay up too late also have trouble waking up on time in the morning. This results in poor attendance, which causes them to miss crucial information that directly affects their grades. Students who fail to get enough sleep are more prone to

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be sad, stressed out, depressed, significant mood swings, erratic behavior, and hallucinations, angry and mentally exhausted. They may have more emotional problems than those who get the appropriate amount of sleep. It weakens the immune system and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. It causes a shorter attention span and lack of focus. This affects the ability of students to pay attention in class. It even affects their driving, which can be very dangerous. According to the National Highway Safety Traffic Administration, over 100,000 accidents are caused by those who are tired. Students under 25 make up a large part of that number. Sleeping is not a waste of time, there are three basic theories; the Restorative which is enables the body and mind to rejuvenate, reenergize, and restore, the brain performs vital housekeeping tasks, such as organizing long-term memory, integrating new information, and repairing and renewing tissue. The Adaptive which is sleep may have evolved as a protective adaptation-finding food in the daytime and hiding at night is easier. And the Energy Conservation which it suggests that the primary function of sleep is to reduce an individuals energy demand and expenditure during part of the day or night, especially at times when it is least efficient to search for food. The typical college student fails to make sleep a top priority. College students need rest to stay healthy and mentally flexible. Sleeping is essential in maintaining normal levels of cognitive skills such as speech, memory, innovative and flexible thinking. In other words, sleep plays a significant role in brain development. The effect of sleeping on the immune system affects ones ability to fight disease and endure sickness. Sleep affects our physical and mental health, and is essential for the normal functioning of all the parts of the body. It is the key to live longer, it keeps the bodies strong and healthy, and it helps the brain to stay sharp and focused, improve the memory, and keep emotions positive and balance.

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Bulacan State University is one of the popular college schools in Bulacan, it is a governmentfunded institution of higher learning established in 1990. It is a located in the City of Malolos, Province of Bulacan, Philippines. The BulSU students population is about 27,000 enrolled students, as of 2008. Behind its big population and popularity the BulSU cant give all students needs for better, higher, effective ways of learnings. It doesnt give the students all of the opportunity to give their best performance and talents because of lack of school facilities or not well maintained facilities or poor facilities.

A.2. Statement of the Problem


Because of the students hectic schedules in class, difficulties in sleeping habits, complaints and depression, fewer sleeping time because of exams and tests, projects, plates and other school works, it results to poor school performance, and other related health issues a typical student encounters, a common problem not just on Philippine college schools/ universities but also around the world. For all the College students wasting their time for nonsense activities, like wasting their money in computer shops just to fill their time waiting for their next subject, and like Americans overall are sleeping less. The college years are notoriously sleep-deprived due to the said examples. On average, college students today are going to bed 1-2 hours later and sleeping 1-1.6 hours less than they did a generation ago. As a result, sleep complaints and depression have increased dramatically among college students. It is needed for the students who are having trouble in sleeping to be reduce in number for them to have a good school performance.

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Sub problems 1. How can it divide the environment of the students who wants to take a nap to the students who wants to study? 2. What are the possible considerations and factors that can be applied in this proposal? 3. What are the possible bad effects and how they can be mitigated?

A.3. Goals and Objectives of the Study Architectural Thesis Goal


To propose a napping area especially for relaxation and resting purposes and sleeping quarters especially for the architecture and engineering students, and study area. It aims to reduce the number of students having a hard time in school works, time managements, and sleeps deprivation and it promotes and contributes to good students performance, and healthy activity which is napping.

Objectives
1. To identify the students need that will contribute to students performance in school, and encourage the importance of sleeping for the students that will broaden the knowledge of the users.

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Strategies
a) Study and identify social process that may occur in the interaction between users and how the environment affects their behavior. b) Determine tangible learning materials and how it can be integrated with the environment. c) Conduct surveys and interviews focusing on behavioral activities done by different type of user. d) Conduct an actual observation and analyze the present condition of the built environment.

2. To design a napping area especially for relaxation and resting purposes and sleeping quarters especially for the architecture and engineering students, and study area for the students that will encourage them to make sleeping one of their top priorities.

Strategies
a) Study different applicable strategies that can help in improving the performance of every student. b) Study applicable design considerations about the good and bad effects on the proposal. c) Listing of factors for the student that fails them to meet their sleeping need. d) Analyze the different design solutions to the proposal to make more beneficial to the users.

3. To ensure the continuity of the operation and maintenance of the facilities.

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Strategies
a) How the maintenance are determined whether its financially viable. b) Collection of data to the different methods in the maintenance of the area to attain good service. c) Analyze the different design materials that can be applied in the operation. d) Study the services and activities that need high priority maintenance in the operation.

A.4. Project Scope and Limitation

Scope
The study will cover a short term activity which is the study area, and napping area, and long term activity which is the sleeping quarters or the dormitory. The research of this thesis proposal mainly focuses on a napping area which is the place for daylight sleeping or inactivity; resting area which is the place to become inactive and have peace of mind and spirit; and relaxation area which is the place to relieve stress and tension. The sleeping quarters or the dormitory are especially for the architecture and engineering students only because theyre the students who lack sleep more than any other courses and its main purpose is for the distant places students who are having trouble in traveling home to school, a place to have a good night sleep, and a place for students so that they wont sleep so far. Educational learning areas and features considering the school laws and guidelines of the place were important to achieve the need to the users.

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This study will also include spatial planning of spaces and facilities, and behavioral analysis where tangible and intangible factors affect the users. The study area includes an outdoor library, Students Park and center, reading area, water features, and landscapes.

Limitations
This study is limited to various constraints and limiting factors. Several considerations will be factors to the limitation of the study and are the following: The management process that involves the specific operation of the napping area is not tackled on this study. The sleeping quarters or the dormitory are limited for architecture and engineering courses only. The study will only focus on student users; it will not deal with school professors, school employees and administrators and other dormitory users.

A.5. Significance of the Study


The output of this study can contribute and benefit the following fields of study, institutions, places and certain individuals whether directly and partially related to the specific parts of the proposal. The BulSU students are one of the target beneficiaries of this proposal in order to have a good quality of education, to make the students performance much higher, not just to have a much high learning level but also to have healthy school students.

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The other owned campuses of BulSU are also beneficiaries in which they can explore and experience the first and the original, the never been built facility in schools before, the first in Bulacan, and all the college students loved to hear it - a napping area.

Various schools with the same nature can use this study as a framework on developing features and facilities while promoting educational, health and environmental importance of the Philippines. It helps both students performance, it reduces stress, depression, improves your memory and it provides physical and psychological and others healthy benefits.

F. Assumptions
School maintainer, janitors and other service providers will be in charge in the operation and facilitate the whole structure. The Bulacan State University Administration is committed to effectively and efficiently implement the whole operations in the proposal. The Bulacan State University Administration will still be in charge in the funds that will be used in the proposal. In sleeping quarters or dormitory its focus is to help the architecture and engineering students from far places.

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B.) Conceptual and Theoretical Framework


A college school/university napping area, is it really possible/ acceptable?

SUB-PROBLEM: Social and Environmental Impacts

SUB-PROBLEM: Bad effects and how they be mitigated

SUB-PROBLEM Considerations and factors that can be applied in proposal

CONSIDERATIONS: Activities of different users Behavioral analysis

OBJECTIVE: To Study and identify social interaction that may occur and how the environment affects their behavior.

OBJECTIVE: To design a sleeping area that will encourage users to make sleeping one of their top priorities.

OBJECTIVE: To ensure the continuity of the operation

Services and activities taking into places Space programming

THEORY: Environmentbehavior activities of the users

THEORY: Applicable designs and its implications

THEORY: Services and supplies that is financially viable

GOAL: TO PROPOSE A
CONCEPT: Return Factors to attain success and problems that must be considered. NAPPING AREA: A PROPOSED PLACE TO REST AND STUDY FOR THE STUDENTS OF BULSU

CONCEPT: Application of design solutions in the sleeping area.

CONCEPT: Application of construction materials that can help in improving the performance of users.

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C.) Review of Related Literature and Study


How Sleep Benefits Brains

Sleep Enhances Brain Connections in Early Development-Study, Animal studies show that sleep dramatically enhances changes in brain connections during a period of early development. Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, examined the effect of sleep on brain plasticity in young cats that had just experienced an environmental challenge. The animals that were allowed to sleep for six hours after the stimulation developed twice the amount of brain change, compared to cats kept awake afterward.

"This is the first direct evidence that sleep modifies the effect of environmental stimuli on the development of new brain connections," said Marcos G. Frank, Ph.D. The finding has broader implications for plasticity in the brains of adult animals and people. "I think it's likely to be true that other areas of the brain, higher areas of the brain, have their critical (developmental) periods later in life," said the study's senior author Michael P. Stryker, Ph.D., "and some of them, in the highest areas, the critical periods never close until senility."1
1

http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/sleep.html

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How Much Sleep Do You Need? (SLEEP CYCLES & STAGES, LACK OF SLEEP, AND GETTING THE HOURS YOU NEED) When youre scrambling to meet the demands of modern life, cutting back on sleep can seem like the only answer. Sleep consists of a series of distinct cycles and stages that restore and refresh your body and mind. Even minimal sleep loss takes a toll on your mood, energy, efficiency, and ability to handle stress. If you want to feel your best, stay healthy, and perform up to your potential, sleep is a necessity, not a luxury. The power of sleep Many of us want to sleep as little as possibleor feel like we have to. The quality of your sleep directly affects the quality of your waking life, including your mental sharpness, productivity, emotional balance, creativity, physical vitality, and even your weight. Understanding sleep Sleep isnt merely a time when your body and brain shut off. While you rest, your brain stays busy, overseeing a wide variety of biological maintenance tasks that keep you running in top condition and prepare you for the day ahead. Without enough hours of restorative sleep, youre like a car in need of an oil change. You wont be able to work, learn, create, and communicate at a level even close to your true potential. Its not just the number of hours in bed that is importantits the quality of those hours of sleep.1
1

http://helpguide.org/life/sleeping.htm

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Sleep Benefits: Power Napping for Increased Productivity, Stress Relief & Health The Benefits of Sleep and the Power Nap While small children typically take naps in the afternoon, our culture generally frowns upon midday sleep; however, even in those who get enough sleep (but particularly in those who dont), many people experience a natural increase in drowsiness in the afternoon, about 8 hours after waking. And research shows that you can make yourself more alert reduce stress and improve cognitive functioning with a nap. Mid-day sleep, or a power nap, means more patience, less stress, better reaction time, increased learning, more efficiency and better health. How Much Sleep Do You Need? The body needs 7-8 hours of sleep per day; 6 hours or less triples your risk of a car accident. (Interestingly, too much sleep--more than 9 hours--can actually be harmful for your health; recent studies show that those who sleep more than 9 hours per day dont live as long as their 8-hour-sleep counterparts!) The Effects of Missed Sleep: Sleep is cumulative; if you lose sleep one day, you feel it the next. If you miss adequate sleep several days in a row, you build up a sleep deficit, which impairs the following:

Reaction time Judgment

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Vision Information processing Short-term memory Performance Motivation Vigilance Patience

The Benefit of a Power Nap: Studies show those 20 minutes of sleep in the afternoon provides more rest than 20 minutes more sleep in the morning (though the last two hours of morning sleep have special benefits of their own). The body seems to be designed for this, as most peoples bodies naturally become more tired in the afternoon, about 8 hours after we wake up. How Long Should I Sleep? When you sleep you pass through different stages of sleep, known together as a sleep cycle. These stages include light sleep, and deep sleep. Many experts advice to keep the nap between 15 and 30 minutes, as sleeping longer gets you into deeper stages of sleep, from which its more difficult to awaken. Also, longer naps can make it more difficult to fall asleep at night, especially if your sleep deficit is relatively small. However, research has

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shown that a 1-hour nap has many more restorative effects than a 30-minute nap, including a much greater improvement in cognitive functioning. The key to taking a longer nap is to get a sense of how long your sleep cycles are, and try to awaken at the end of a sleep cycle. (Its actually more the interruption of the sleep cycle that makes you groggy, rather than the deeper states of sleep.) As there are pros and cons to each length of sleep, you may want to let your schedule decide: if you only have 15 minutes to spare, take them! But if you could work in an hour nap, you may do well to complete a whole sleep cycle, even if it means less sleep at night. If you only have 5 minutes to spare, just close your eyes; even a brief rest has the benefit of reducing stress and helping you relax a little, which can give you more energy to complete the tasks of your day.1
1

http://stress.about.com/od/lowstresslifestyle/a/powernap.htm Prevalence of delayed sleep phase syndrome in university students Prior research has demonstrated a relationship between poor sleep quality with academic and

cognitive difficulties. A specific disorder associated with poor academic is Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS), a circadian rhythm disorder. With this in mind, the purpose of the study was to explore the prevalence and type of sleep difficulties in college students. According to the results, 11.5% of respondents reported symptoms consistent with DSPS, which is approximately twice as great as the general population. Further, the prevalence of sleep complaints was higher than in prior comparable studies. The authors suggest that the college lifestyle may play a strong role in the development of DSPS and include recommendations that may help universities decrease the prevalence of sleep difficulties.

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College years tend to be a time when students experience a significant increase in autonomy and responsibilities (Russell, & Petrie, 1992; Kleeman, & Richardson, 1985). Hence, students often rate their first year of college as one of the most stressful events in their lives (Robertson & Famill, 1989). Additionally, Family support and the structure present in earlier years is replaced with a more disorganized lifestyle that includes numerous reasons to disrupt sleep habits (Pilcher, Ginter,& Sadowsky, 1997). Walters and Pilcher (1997) point out that many college students voluntarily deprive themselves of sleep during the week and try to compensate by sleeping long hours on the weekend. Such unstable sleep patterns exacerbate and in some instances may because symptoms associated with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). This is a circadian rhythm disorder marked by difficulty falling asleep during the week, problems awakening at a planned time, and morning sleepiness that significantly impairs daily functioning (American Psychiatric Society, 1994; Weitzman et al., 1979, and Wietzman et al., 1981). In a study limited to Australian college students, Lack (1986) found that the most common sleep complaints were difficulty falling asleep (18%), early morning awakening (13.2%), general sleep difficulties (12.8%) and difficulty staying asleep (9%). Interestingly, Lack found that 17% of the students reported symptoms severe enough to meet the criteria for Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) -- more than twice the estimated amount of the general population of 6-7% (APA, 1994, Lack, 1986). The students who met the criteria for DSPS had significantly lower grades, greater feelings of drowsiness, and irritability when compared to the rest of the sample.

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Another problem associated with sleep deprivation is that it reduces the amount of REM sleep due to shortened sleep periods. This is important since several studies have found that students' ability to learn is reduced when they get insufficient REM sleep (Smith & Lapp, 1991; DeKoninck, Lorrain, Proulx and Coulombe, 1989; Karni, Tanne, Rubenstein, & Askenasy, 1994 and Smith & Lapp, 1991). Further, when one takes into account that poor sleep quality is strongly associated with reduced quality of life (Pilcher et al., 1997), it is readily apparent that sleep difficulties may have wide ranging implications on students' lives. Considering the impacts that sleep difficulties, especially DSPS, may have upon students it is remarkable that few studies have explored the extent to which this problem exists. The purpose of this study is to explore the sleep habits and patterns of a sample of college students in the United States focusing on evidence of delayed sleep phase syndrome. 1
1

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_35/ai_80744660/

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SECTION 4 - Design to Maximize Student Performance ACOUSTICS AND SCHOOLS "The school was established to promote learning, which is acquired largely by word of mouth and by listening. Therefore, acoustics is one of the most important physical properties that determine how well the school building can serve its primary function. Thus, the exclusion of noise and the reduction of reverberation are indispensable in adapting classrooms to the function of oral instruction." Most learning occurs through correctly and clearly hearing oral presentations, particularly in the first through sixth grades. The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) program acknowledges the importance of acoustics in creating better, more efficient facilities. The United States Access Board is a group that pushed for the adoption of a national standard for acoustic requirements in schools. The result of their efforts and many others is the "Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools", an American National Standard adopted in 2002 . This standard is expected to be adopted by California and parts of it are already in the CHPS program. The goal of good classroom acoustics is to provide favorable speech intelligibility for all students, prevent speech interference, provide acceptable background sound levels from all sources not in the room and furnish sound decay times (reverberation time) that enhance speech, allow easy listening and reduce noisiness. These goals can easily be met with proper planning, but attention to details is required.

The plan and the work fall into 4 phases:


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Phase 1 - The first phase involves site selection, site layout and building layout. Phase 2 - Involves setting design goals for sound separation, background sound levels and reverberation times. Phase 3 - Consists of insuring that the design goals are implemented in the design effort, and then carried out during construction. Phase 4 - Testing or commissioning to insure that the design goals set were achieved or making modifications as necessary to meet the objectives. PHASE 1 - Selecting an appropriate site is the first task. Because of the need to achieve specific interior sound levels, a site with prominent transportation or industrial sound sources increases the difficulty of achieving the design goal and the cost of the building. Numerous studies have shown that all other social-economic parameters being equal, children in schools near significant sound sources score lower on standardized tests. Keeping this in mind is a big first step. PHASE 2 - The second phase of work is equally important for it is here that goals are set for speech privacy, speech interference, background sound levels and reverberation times in each space. Reverberation time is an echo or a measure of the time it takes sound to die out. Sound decay time is synonymous with reverberation time.

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PHASE 3 - Involves insuring that the design criteria are put onto paper correctly and accurately. Only a small fraction of the possible wall and floor ceiling assemblies have been tested for their sound loss capability and some have been tested more than once. Only a trained eye will know when the STC rating quoted for an assembly is not reasonable. The California Catalog of STC and IIC Ratings [iv] is one resource that can be used to learn whether proposed walls meet the design goals, though results are not available for any tests done since about 1980. PHASE 4 - Finally, the acoustical properties must be tested to insure compliance with the design goals. This is to be sure that what was requested and paid for was received. A random selection of rooms of a given type can be tested for background sound levels, sound loss through wall and floor/ceiling assemblies and sound decay times. Done correctly, changes will not be required and the learning environment will be greatly enhanced. 1
1

http://www.excellence.dgs.ca.gov/MaxStPerformance/S4_4-4.htm

College Students and Sleep

Many college students underestimate the need for a good nights sleep. Due to the stresses of classes and jobs, the independence of living away from home, and a very active social scene that can be found on almost every campus, it is very easy to fall into a pattern of poor sleeping habits. Unfortunately, not getting enough sleep is more harmful than students might think.

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Key Issues According to www.sleep-deprivation.com, 47 million American adultsalmost a quarter of the population do not get enough sleep (approximately 8 hours per night). Getting this much sleep is extremely important, as being overtired can cause: Moodiness Higher susceptibility to illness Lack of energy Stress Anger Lack of concentration Difficulty retaining new information

Because of these effects, lack of adequate sleep often causes students grades to drop sometimes dramatically. Staying up late to study and then getting up early in the morning to do it again are counter effective strategies. Often, students are unaware that their sleep deprivation (which is usually self-inflicted) can cause them serious problemsthey may be so used to being consistently sleepy that they dont realize their lack of sleep is unhealthy or abnormal.

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Ways to Get Quality Sleep The experts suggest a few simple tactics to help students increase the quality of their sleep. Get on a schedule. Falling asleep (and staying asleep) can sometimes be difficult, particularly in a residence hall setting. It is helpful to get to bed around the same time each night so your body gets used to a regular sleeping schedule. Dont make your bed a key study space. It comes highly recommended that activities like studying, reading, and any other type of work or stress-related activity NOT be done while in bed. This presents a problem for students who have only their beds and desk chairs in which to sit and complete their schoolwork. Realize that a nightcap wont help the situation. A common misconception among students and nonstudents alike is that alcohol will help you sleep. Though drinking before bed may help some people fall asleep, it does not guarantee a quality night of sleep. Often, it causes the drinker to wake up several times during the night, which can be just as detrimental as only getting a few hours in the first place. Avoid watching the clock! Often, keeping an eye on your alarm clock can stress you out and make it even more difficult to fall asleep. Consider turning your clock around after you set your alarm, or putting it in a bedside drawer where you can hear your alarm in the morning but not see the time at night. Establish a relaxing routine (taking a bath, listening to music) to do about a half hour before bed. Consider using white noise to help you fall asleep (like a fan). Try to make your bed as comfortable as possible.

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Finish eating about two hours before bed. Avoid exercise right before bed a workout in late afternoon is ideal, because it gives your body adequate time to cool down (and a dropping body temperature is what the brain associates with sleep).

The Centers for Disease Control; http:// www.sleepfoundation.org; http://www.sleep-deprivation.com http:// www.cdc.gov/nasd/docs/d000701-d000800/d000705/d000705.html.

How Lack of Sleep Affects Student Performance

Nowadays, college students are facing a problem that can disrupt their normal life style in several ways. Lack of sleep in college student life is not only hampering the health of a college student but it is also affecting his psychological condition in several ways. Eight hours of profound sleep is needed to dissipate tiredness. Sleep acts as a medicine or a good bathe that helps a person to rejuvenate himself. As competition is increasing day by day, college students are forced to join in the rat race. This is the reason why more and more college students are spending sleepless nights. Lack of sleep in college student life can bring some unpleasant consequence in a long run. It has been observed that a large number of college students suffer are suffering from depression. Though no evidence is propounded to prove it, some renowned psychiatrists believe that lack of profound sleep could be one of the potent reasons of depression. This can have an adverse effect on a students academic career.
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Some practitioners advise to take antidepressants for dealing with this problem but in certain complicated case, it fails to generate desire result. Lack of sleep in college student life can lead to many complications if it is not heeded at the initial stage with due regards. The risk of heart attack can be increased as cholesterol level started spiraling up at a rapid speed. Even a college student can suffer from the lethal disease Insomnia. 24 hours Internet connection, extravagant life style etc are some of the common reasons that can lead to this disorder. Late night study is now become a trend in college life style. Sometimes a student is considered idle if he/she does not study during late night. There are other reasons too that are aggravating the current situation. As the cost of pursuing study in College is mounting up every year, some college students are forced to work at day and study at night. Apart from that, if college student spends most of his time outside then he will have to study at night to do well in the crucial examination.
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http://www.an-online-degree-by-distance-learning.com/college_life/how-lack-of-sleep-affects-student

performance.html

Sleep Education In College: A Preliminary Study1

LING-LING TSAI, SHENG-PING LI Department of Psychology, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan

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Summary In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) Sleep Management course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, night time awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more night time awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of Sleep Management only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

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http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pms.99.3.837-848

Lack Of Sleep Can Hurt Students' Performance

College students could be undermining their own education, simply because they're not practicing proper sleep habits, according to University of Cincinnati research. The study, led by Adam Knowlden, a UC doctoral student in UC's Health Promotion and Education Program, also holds recommendations for students to form better sleep habits that will ultimately enhance their learning. The study evaluated the sleep habits of nearly 200 undergraduate college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who were not living with a parent or legal guardian. The study included 130 females and 67 males who were mostly first-and-second-year college students. The majority of them also worked either full or part-time jobs as they were going to college. The study surveyed students' sleeping habits over a 24-hour period against national recommendations for adults to get at least seven-to-eight hours of sleep. Only 24 per cent of the students who were surveyed reported getting adequate sleep 54.8 per cent reported getting less than seven hours of sleep, while 20.8 per cent reported sleeping more than eight hours. Short-term effects of inadequate sleep affect concentration and memory, which is what students need to learn and to pay attention in lectures. "Sleep helps us save energy. It repairs cells in the body. And it's key for memory consolidation," said Knowlden. "During sleep, the brain acts like a hard-drive on a computer. It goes in and cleans up memories and makes connections stronger, and it gets rid of things it doesn''t need," explained Knowlden. "So if a student is sleep-deprived, it affects the whole process," said Knowlden.

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"Students aren''t able to learn, they're not able to remember, it's harder to concentrate and it affects mood. They're working their way through college and they're not maximizing their learning potential," he added. Knowlden said the survey found that time management; financial concerns and stress management were all factors in why students were reporting they were sacrificing sleep. College students could be undermining their own education, simply because they're not practicing proper sleep habits, according to University of Cincinnati research. The study, led by Adam Knowlden, a UC doctoral student in UC's Health Promotion and Education Program, also holds recommendations for students to form better sleep habits that will ultimately enhance their learning. The study evaluated the sleep habits of nearly 200 undergraduate college students between the ages of 18 and 24 who were not living with a parent or legal guardian. The study included 130 females and 67 males who were mostly firstand-second-year college students. The majority of them also worked either full or part-time jobs as they were going to college. The study surveyed students' sleeping habits over a 24-hour period against national recommendations for adults to get at least seven-to-eight hours of sleep. Only 24 per cent of the students who were surveyed reported getting adequate sleep 54.8 per cent reported getting less than seven hours of sleep, while 20.8 per cent reported sleeping more than eight hours. Short-term effects of inadequate sleep affect concentration and memory, which is what students need to learn and to pay attention in lectures. "Sleep helps us save energy. It repairs cells in the body. And it's key for memory consolidation," said Knowlden. "During sleep, the brain acts like a hard-drive on a computer. It goes in and cleans up memories and makes connections stronger, and it gets rid of things it doesn''t need," explained Knowlden. "So if a student is sleep-deprived, it affects the whole process," said Knowlden.
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"Students aren''t able to learn, they're not able to remember, it's harder to concentrate and it affects mood. They're working their way through college and they're not maximizing their learning potential," he added. Knowlden said the survey found that time management; financial concerns and stress management were all factors in why students were reporting they were sacrificing sleep.
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http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-18/parenting/29949232_1_memory-consolidation-

sleep-students

The Impact of Sleepiness Levels on Academic Achievement for College Students

Jessica Flood, Becky Brensinger, Stacie Cheek Huntington University Abstract College students are notorious for their sleep deprivation; however, does this lack of sleep affect their academic performance? The present study hypothesized that the sleepiness of fulltime college students aged 18 to 23 would negatively correlate with their cumulative college GPA. The 47 participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and their grade point averages were obtained from the Registrar. The data were analyzed using Pearson r with a significance level of .05. The r obtained was compared to

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the critical r and no significant difference between the variables was found. Therefore the null hypothesis was retained. Future studies should be based on long-term more objective tests of sleepiness rather than self-report. Introduction There have been a number of studies researching the factors that affect a persons grade point average (GPA). Many of these factors include family life, personality characteristics, employment, and extracurricular activities. Lee and Lee (2007) found that family closeness is a key factor in determining a childs academic performance. Their results indicated that students who rated their family closeness at a higher level displayed an ability to adjust to their schools better, which could enhance academic performance because they were more comfortable in their environment. Although not suggesting that the closeness of the family is a predictor of GPA, the Halawah study (2006) did indicate that children whose parents were involved in their education and encouraged them to do their work had significantly higher GPAs. Noftle and Robins (2007) found that conscientiousness affected a persons GPA. Their results suggested that individuals who increased their level of conscientiousness, such as their level of achievement, effort, and willingness to work hard in their college careers, were more inclined to achieve higher GPAs. Klomegah (2007) emphasized that persons beliefs about themselves and their abilities could determine what they accomplish and how well they accomplish it.

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Cheung and Kwok (1998) indicated that a students participation in extracurricular activities may not help their academic achievement and might actually harm it. This might also include employment during school months. Kulm and Cramer (2006) suggested that students who worked this many hours spent less time preparing for class, which resulted in a lower GPA. Sleep is a very important component of a persons life, and its potential effects should not be overlooked. There are many studies on the influence of sleepiness that illustrated the detrimental results of losing sleep. Murphy, Richard, Masaki, and Segalowitz (2005) studied the effects of wakefulness on test taking. Sleep is especially important for children still in school. El-Sheikh, Buckhalt, Cummings, and Keller (2007) found many disruptions in third graders including marital conflict, emotional security, child adjustment, and sleep habits using a biological test. Texeira, Lowden, Turte, Nagai, Moreno, and Latorre (2006) observed sleepiness in high school students. This study examined the sleepiness levels of evening high school students (both workers and non-workers) in Sao Paulo, Brazil. College students are well known for sleep deprivation; therefore, Buboltz, Brown, and Barlow (2001) researched the sleep quality of this age group. There was a high percentage of sleep problems, which supported past research that college students suffer more from sleep problems than the normal adult population. McClelland and Pilcher (2007) also examined college students self-report on sleepiness. They surveyed 14 undergraduate students and studied their self-assessment of sleepiness during a 28-hour period of sleep deprivation. At the beginning of the night the participants were able to separate sleepiness

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into two dimensions, state and behavioral. However, as the night progressed the participants could not distinguish between the two dimensions. Fredriksen, Rhodes, Reddy, and Way (2004) conducted a longitudinal study of the effects of adolescent sleep loss during middle school. The participants sleep loss had a relationship with more depressive symptoms, lower self-esteem, and lower grades. Wolfson and Carskadon (1998, p. 1) agreed and said, The way adolescents sleep critically influences their ability to think, behave, and feel during daytime hours. Given that sleep influences the ability to think, there have been several studies with the variables of sleep and academic achievement. Trockel, Barnes, and Egget (2000) examined the effects of many healthrelated behaviors and variables on first year college students grade point averages (GPA). The healthrelated variables included exercise, eating and sleeping habits, mood states, perceived stress, time management, social support, spiritual and religious habits, number of hours worked per week, gender, and age. Past research focused on university students academic performance being influenced by sleeprelated variables such as sleep-wake cycles and length of sleep. Kelly, Kelly, and Clanton (2001) hypothesized that undergraduate students who called themselves short-sleepers would have a lower overall grade point average than those calling themselves long-sleepers. Furthermore, the Medeiros, Mendes, Lima, and Araujo (2001) study explained that the university students irregular sleep-wake cycle and deficiency of sleep negatively influenced their academic performance.

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Shin, Kim, Lee, Ahn, and Joo (2003) studied the effects of sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with school performance in senior high school students. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale defined the excessive daytime sleepiness of each participant. Their school performance was calculated by their final exams of first semester depending on their high or low grade and their rank in class. The results showed that the prevalence of EDS increased significantly (p< 0.001) with a decline in school performance (Shin et al., 2003, p. 3). The Campos-Morales, Valencia-Flores, Castao-Meneses, Castaeda-Figueiras, & MartnezGuerrero (2005) study compared basic academic activities, mood states, and sleep habits with levels of sleepiness. The participants were categorized as sleepy or non-sleepy according to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. They also took a Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The participants then were administered short arithmetic and reading comprehension tests for evaluating their academic ability. Their study supports the need for a heightened awareness of the negative impact of sleepiness on academic performance and future job productivity of otherwise healthy college students (Campos-Morales et al., 2005, p. 4). As most past studies suggested, sleepiness was suspected to have a negative relationship with lower academic performance. The present study hypothesized that the sleepiness level of fulltime college students between the ages of 18 and 23 will negatively correlate with their cumulative college GPA. Method Participants

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The participants consisted of 46 students from a private, Christian liberal arts university in the Midwest who were between the ages of 18 and 23. The study excluded any student with less than 12 credit hours (part-time) and outside the age range of 18-23. The resultant sample consisted of 29 females and 17 males. Eighty-nine percent of the participants were Caucasian. Systematic probability sampling allowed all students at this university, who met the above stipulations, an equal opportunity to be involved in this study. They were systematically selected from a list produced by the Registrars office that was arranged by the students identification numbers. Every other student was chosen to be a participant by beginning at a random starting point on the list and selecting every other student. There were 392 students selected to participate in this study, with a response rate of 11.7 percent completing the survey. Measure The first variable of this study was sleepiness and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (Johns, 1993) was used for measuring it (see Appendix A). Johns (1993) reported that the ESS is a simple questionnaire that asks the subject to rate on a scale of zero to three, (p. 32) the chance of dozing off during eight different situations. The ESS score is the sum of eight questions and can range from zero to 24. Item and factor analyses have shown that the ESS is a unitary scale with high internal consistency (Cronbacks alpha = 0.88). The ESS has a high test-retest reliability over a period of five months in normal subjects (r = 0.822, n = 87, p < 0.001) (Johns, 1993, p. 32).

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The second variable was the participants cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), which were retrieved from the Registrars office after the students signed the consent form. Because the students cumulative GPAs were retrieved from the Registrars office, the students did not have to self-disclose that information from memory, which made the data more reliable. Procedure After systematically selecting participants, they were emailed a request to participate in this study. Participants were told that their peers chose them for a study. There were three specific sessions where the participants were able to complete the survey. Each session was held at 8:00 p.m. in the same room. A follow-up email was sent two days before the last session encouraging participants to attend. Pizza was used as an incentive to obtain a higher response rate. When the participants arrived, they were welcomed and read the instructions. First, they were handed a pen and a consent form and asked to read and sign it. After signing the consent form, they were given the ESS and asked to complete it. They wrote their student identification (ID) number on their survey in order to maintain confidentiality. After the research sessions, GPAs were retrieved from the Registrars office according to ID number. Participants were allowed to withdraw from the study at any time; however, everyone completed the assigned tasks. Results

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After the surveys were completed, one was omitted because of illegible handwriting, leaving 46 respondents. The score on the first variable (sleepiness) was compared with the corresponding cumulative GPA. The correlation coefficient was produced using Pearson r with a significance level set at .05 with 44 degrees of freedom. When the r obtained (r = -0.016) was compared to the critical r (r = 0.290) it revealed no significant difference between the variables. Therefore, the null hypothesis was retained. Figure 1. Relationship between sleepiness and academic achievement

Discussion

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The results did not support the hypothesis that sleepiness and GPAs would negatively correlate. The lack of statistical significance between the two variables suggests that a students GPA is not affected by their sleepiness; therefore, other factors need to be identified that may correlate with low GPA. Based on the present study, researchers, professors, and those interested in students academic achievement could discount sleepiness as a single significant factor. The present study was completed on a Christian liberal arts campus, whereas most prior research has been completed in a secular environment. It could be proposed that most of the students in the study, all of whom had to sign a life-style contract, would not be losing sleep from risky behavior such as drinking, drugs, and promiscuity. (The life-style contract is an agreement for students to live by Christian morals by not participating in these behaviors.) If the students in this study were losing sleep, it could be due to less risky late night behavior. The Christian environment adds a new dimension and makes this study different from past research and this additional variable could contribute to the unexpected results. Another possible reason for lack of significant results was the various days the ESS was administered. Depending on the day, the students mood, sleepiness, and stress level could have been different, which could have affected the answers given. The scale was completed on Tuesday, Thursday, and Sunday. Although there is no evidence of this, one can surmise that on Sunday, the students might have felt a higher level of stress for the upcoming week and a lack of sleep from the weekend. Even with no significance being found in this study, the ESS has had high internal consistency reported as well as high test-retest reliability (Johns, 1993). The honest answers of the students were crucial to the validity of the ESS. Student GPAs were not self-reported and were obtained from the

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Universitys Registrars Office. Therefore, the GPAs had high validity because that variable did not rely on the students memory. Past studies assessed their first variable, sleep, in several different ways. Some research used sleep journals, sleep-wake cycles, and tests on REM sleep. The second variable in these studies included types of academic achievement. Various studies measured this through reading and comprehension tests, which measured short-term academic achievement. Others used cumulative GPAs and final exams to show achievement on a long-term scale. Contrary to the studies that portrayed a significant difference, the present study did not find that increased levels of sleepiness correlated with lower GPAs. Future studies that correlate sleepiness with academic achievement could have more validity by replacing the self-report measure with a more objective test. A students GPA is obtained through years of school and seems to have more stability over time. On the other hand, the students sleepiness levels may vary significantly throughout those years. It could be concluded that sleepiness does not affect academic achievement when sleepiness is considered on a short-term scale especially when self-reported. However, sleepiness could affect a persons academic achievement when considered over time and more objectively rated. If future studies try to correlate sleepiness with academic achievement, it should be through longterm, more objective tests on sleepiness rather than self-report.
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http://www.kon.org/urc/v7/flood.html

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Methodology Of Research

RESEARCH METHOD

OBJECTIVE OF THE TACTICS

TACTICS/ACTIVIT Y METHOD

CORRELATIONA L

Get the existing condition of records and facts about necessities of the people that will help the design parameters.

Case studies of the culture of the people and the social process that may occur in the interaction between users and environment.

CASE STUDIES

Gather information on the functions and requirements needed in applying different

Collection of data from secondary sources about the applicable design approach and its implications to the totality of its function.

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concept and approach.

CASE STUDIES

To acquire knowledge on how to ensure the continuity of the operation and maintenance of the facilities.

Interviews and field visit; .

G. Definition of terms & concepts


Sleeping area- a place for resting, relaxation and sleeping contains bedrooms, bathrooms, changing areas, and closets, usually one person per bedroom, also quietness is important to sleeping area, usually located away from heavy traffic areas BulSU- Bulacan State University Insomnia- which is the inability to sleep or inability to sleep well at night

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Sleep apnea- which is the common and potentially devastating sleep disorder Narcolepsy- which is the chronic sleep that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. Restorative- which is enables the body and mind to rejuvenate, reenergize, and restore. Adaptive- which is sleep may have evolved as a protective adaptation-finding food in the daytime and hiding at night is easier. Energy Conservation- which it suggests that the primary function of sleep is to reduce an individuals energy demand and expenditure during part of the day or night, especially at times when it is least efficient to search for food. Poor sleep habits/sleep hygiene- Poor sleep habits (referred to as hygiene) are among the most common problems encountered in our society. We stay up too late and get up too early. We interrupt our sleep with drugs, chemicals and work, and we over stimulate ourselves with latenight activities such as television. Stroke- s the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood). As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field.

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high blood pressure- High blood pressure (HBP) is a serious condition that can lead to coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease), heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, and other health problems. "Blood pressure" is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage the body in many ways. Alzheimer's disease- Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologys Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. type 2 diabetes- formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease. Acoustics- is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics can be seen in

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almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. White Noise- is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise draws its name from white light in which the power spectral density of the light is distributed over the visible band in such a way that the eye's three color receptors (cones) are approximately equally stimulated. In statistical sense, a time series rt is characterized as having weak white noise if {rt} is a sequence of serially uncorrelated random variables with zero mean and finite variance. Strong white noise also has the quality of being independent and identically distributed, which implies no autocorrelation. In particular, if rt is normally distributed with mean zero and standard deviation , the series is called a Gaussian white noise. GPA- Grade Point Average ESS- Epworth Sleepiness Scale CHPS- Collaborative for High Performance Schools DSPS- Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome

Bibliography
Sleep: The Mysteries, the Problems, and the Solutions; Autore: Carlos H. Schenck; Editore: Avery Publishing Group; Data di Pubblicazione: Marzo 2007

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www.webster.it/book_usa-sleep_mysteries_problems_and_solutions-9781583332702.htm The Cleveland Clinic Guide to Sleep Disorders; Cleveland Clinic Guides; Kaplan Financial Series; Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer; Kaplan Publishing, 2009; ISBN 1427799571, 9781427799579 http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=GwpwJftoAyMC&hl=tl&source=gbs_book_similarbooks Sleep to Save Your Life: The Complete Guide to Living Longer and Healthier Through Restorative Sleep; Gerard T. Lombardo; Collins, 2005; ISBN 0060742534, 9780060742539

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=nbBb1nWd8EYC&hl=tl&source=gbs_book_similarbooks Sleep Medicine; Cambridge Clinical Guides; Harold R. Smith, Cynthia Comella, Birgit Hgl; Harold R. Smith, Cynthia Comella, Birgit Hgl; Cambridge University Press, 2008; ISBN 0521699576, 9780521699570

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=nEsBrMylc8IC&hl=tl&source=gbs_book_similarbooks Sleep: physiology, investigations, and medicine; Michel Billiard, Angela Kent Editor Michel Billiard; Angela Kent; Springer, 2003; ISBN 0306474069, 9780306474064 http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=nEsBrMylc8IC&hl=tl&source=gbs_book_similarbooks http://www.debtfreescholar.com/2009/09/10-reasons-college-students-need-to-sleep/ http://www.onlineclasses.org/2011/01/26/60-clever-sleep-hacks-for-stressed-out-college-students/ http://www.ehow.com/info_12035173_lack-sleep-effect-college-students-life.html http://www.umm.edu/sleep/adult_sleep_dis.htm http://www.talkaboutsleep.com/sleep-disorders/archives/intro.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/articles/whatissleep.shtml http://www.ygoy.com/index.php/many-us-college-students-suffer-from-lack-of-sleep/

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http://www.linfield.edu/health-center/self-care/sleep.html http://www.emedicinehealth.com/sleep_understanding_the_basics/article_em.htm http://innerpirate.ecu.edu/profiles/blogs/stress-and-lack-of-sleep-a-growing-college-healthconcern?xg_source=activity http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/sleep.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep-learning http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-18/parenting/29949232_1_memoryconsolidation-sleep-students http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pms.99.3.837-848 http://www.an-online-degree-by-distance-learning.com/college_life/how-lack-of-sleep-affectsstudent performance.html The Centers for Disease Control; www.sleepfoundation.org; www.sleep-deprivation.com http://www.cdc.gov/nasd/docs/d000701-d000800/d000705/d000705.html. http://www.excellence.dgs.ca.gov/MaxStPerformance/S4_4-4.htm http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_35/ai_80744660/ http://stress.about.com/od/lowstresslifestyle/a/powernap.htm http://helpguide.org/life/sleeping.htm http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/sleep.html http://www.kon.org/urc/v7/flood.html

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CHAPTER 2

Introduction

This chapter presents the data and information that the researchers gathered. It involves the participation of different persons to be able to produce a reliable data. Along with the survey is the interview with the administration officials and professors to come up to a deep knowledge about the research topic. Accessing information through the World Wide Web was conducted to the depth of the study. Data regarding school condition and students habit as other foreign studies related or relevant to research was being studied. Data are gathered from the administration office and official school website to determine statistical figures which are relevant in developing a school napping area.

A. Data management Present Condition


The Bulacan State University is located in McArthur Highway, City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines. It was founded in 1904. The University is mandated to provide higher professional / technical training and to promote research, advanced studies and progressive

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leadership on Engineering, Architecture, Education, Arts and Science, Information Technology, Business Administration, Medicine, Law, Public Administration and other courses. It has been identified by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) as one of the Centers for Excellence and Development in the country, and one of the Training Centers nationwide for teachers who want to be educated in areas beyond their specialization. Satellite Campuses in Bustos Campus (1976) in Bustos, Bulacan, Sarmiento Campus (1998) in City of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan, Meneses Campus (2000) in Matungao, Bulakan, Bulacan and it has an International Office in Hong Kong (2003) in Nathan Road, Yaumatei, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PROC

There are different ways to examine what the circumstances. Interviews and surveys on different type of users, professionals, and the school staffs, were done on this Chapter to further identify, explain, and elaborate the condition of the site with the help of their insights. Actual observation, immersion and photo documentation likewise helped to illustrate and investigate the physical attributes of the facilities, social interaction within the school.

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Bulacan State University Main Campus population as of 1st semester of 2010- 2011

COLLEGIATE (MAIN CAMPUS)

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

ENGINEERING EDUCATION INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE AND FINE ARTS INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECH. NURSING ARTS AND LETTERS HOME ECONOMICS PHYSICAL EDUCATION SCIENCE SOCIAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY TOTAL

4604 2493 2805 849

327

1285 830 1844 207 953 2595

21,702

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1. Interview
An interview method is considered as one of the most effective method of collecting data. It allows greater flexibility in eliciting information since the interviewer and the person interviewed are both present when the questions are asked and answered. The purpose of conducting this interview is to gather primary information and data about the people who will use the proposed project will be a good help in the proposal. Furthermore is to determine the operations and the facilities of the school that can be maintain, modify and remove. It also comes up with the list of strategies and concepts on how to improve the sleeping area which is suggested by people related to the project.

The following are the result of the interviews conducted with different respondents:

2. Survey
Survey is a research tactic that examines and describes a particular scope of data that is obtained from giving questionnaires to a certain number of respondents such as individuals, partners and group of people. The purpose of conducting this survey is to get information on what the users knows, believes or expects, feels or wants, intends to do or has done, and also concerning their thoughts1 about the sleeping area within the school. The users are asked about their opinions:

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RATE BY CHECKING

THE SELECTED SCALE OF IMPORTANCE Scale of Importance

Questions

No

Not very

No Opinion

Yes

Extremely

1. Have you already felt sleepy in class?

11

11

27

2. Are you having trouble waking up on time in the morning, just because you stay up too late at night? 6 9 0 33 2

3.Are you aware in the importance of sleeping within our body? 0 2 1 47 0

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4. Are you having fewer sleeping time just because of exams and tests, projects, plates and other school works? 4 17 0 26 3

5. As a college student, are you having enough sleep and enough rest beyond your busy school days schedule? 3 32 0 14 1

6. Are you satisfied in our schools waiting areas, sheds, and school tambayans that dont provide enough space and shadings? 25 13 2 9 1

7. Do you want to have a much bigger study area in making your school work studies, projects and etc? 2 0 1 46 1

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8. As a college student will you be more progressive in your class performance if you meet your needs in sleeping, resting and relaxing? 0 9 0 41 0

9. Having a sleep, rest and relax in your available and vacant time in school, will it be a waste of time? 16 30 1 3 0

10. As a college student, lack of sleep is our most common health related problem, by having a napping/ resting area in school; will it lessen the numbers of the affected students? 7 8 9 25 1

11. Will napping /resting and relaxation areas can be a big help in all students to have a better, higher, and effective ways of learnings? 5 2 0 42 1

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12. Will it help in Bulacan State University popularity and production of high competent students? 6 7 1 35 1

13. Having a napping area/ resting area, and relaxation area in school, will it have some good effect on students performance? 2 13 1 33 1

The following are the information gathered from the survey:

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54% of the respondents answered yes that they already felt sleepy in class.

70% of the respondents answered yes that theyre having trouble waking up on time in the morning, because they stay up too late at night.
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94% the respondents answered yes that theyre aware in the importance of sleeping within theyre body.

61% respondents answered yes that theyre having fewer sleeping time because of exams and tests, projects, plates and other school works.

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66% respondents answered not very that theyre not having enough sleep and enough rest beyond your busy school days schedule.

52% respondents answered no that theyre not satisfied in our schools waiting areas, sheds, and school tambayans that dont provide enough space and shadings.

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94% s respondents answered yes that they want to have a much bigger study area in making their school work studies, projects and etc.

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75% respondents answered yes that as a college student they will be more progressive in their class performance if they meet their needs in sleeping, resting and relaxing.

41% respondents answered not very that having a nap, rest and relax in theyre available and vacant time in school, will not be a waste of time.

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52% respondents answered yes that by having a napping/ resting area in school; it will lessen the numbers of the affected students.

86% respondents answered yes that napping/resting and relaxation areas will be a big help in all students to have a better, higher, and effective ways of learnings.

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71% respondents answered yes that it will help in Bulacan State University popularity and production of high competent students.

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67% respondents answered yes that by having a napping /resting area and relaxation area in school, it will have some good effect on students performance.

Observation Method
Observation method is used to gather data regarding attitude, behavior, values and cultural patterns of the subjects under investigation. This tactic is conducted by visiting and staying in the school for several days; on weekdays, weekends, and on day with special occasions and events. Its purpose is to acquire information and comparative analysis on students, activities and the condition of school.

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Secondary Data

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These data were gathered from secondary sources that were related to the study and can help to support the ideas and concept applied to the project. The socio-economic profile of Bulcan has relevant information which can further identify the history, culture, demographic data, physical data, and sectoral data relevant to the study of sleeping area in Bulacan State University. It is important to know the profile of Bulacan because the sleeping area is located in the heart of the Malolos city which is one of the tourist attractions of the city.

BRIEF HISTORY

The origin of the name of Bulakan, is derived and related into different Tagalog words such as bulak or cotton, burak or marsh mud and bulaklak or flower. The province was separated from Manila since 1578 after it was placed under the Manilas direct jurisdiction. In 1571, Bulacans coastal region became well populated when the Spaniards arrived in the province. Bulacan has its own pride for its magnificent historical heritage and riches. In the late 19th century, the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia considered Barasoain Church, located in Malolos City and the provinces capital, to be its historic birthplace.

Demographic data

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Population size and growth


Languages and ethnicity As it is part of the Tagalog cultural sphere (Katagalugan), Tagalog is the predominant language of Bulacan. Some inhabitants also speak Kapampangan, which is the language of neighboring Pampanga.

Population According to the 2007 census (as of August 1 of the same year), there are a total of 2,826,926 Bulaqueos (or Bulakenyos) with annual population growth rate of 3.27 from the year 2000 to 2007,making Bulacan the second most populous province in the country. It is also the 4th most densely populated province at 1,076 people per square kilometer. There are 588,693 households in the province with an average size of 4.8 persons. Bulacan had a median age of 23 years in 2007.

Source: National Statistics Office Details may not add up to totals due to rounding Figures are from NSO census and considered correct and exact.

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Physical Data
Geographic Location Bulacan is bounded by Nueva Ecija on the north, Aurora (Dingalan) on the northeast, Quezon (General Nakar) on the east, Rizal (Rodriguez) on the southeast, Metro Manila (Valenzuela City, Malabon City, Navotas City, Caloocan City and Quezon City) on the south, Manila Bay on the southwest, and Pampanga on the west. Several rivers irrigate the province of Bulacan; the largest one is that of Angat. Angat River passes through the towns of Angat, San Rafael, Baliuag, Plaridel (Quingua), and Calumpit. It flow thence into the Pampanga River, goes out again, washes Hagonoy and loses itself in the mangroves. The banks of these rivers are very fertile and are covered with trees.

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Bulacan lies in the southern portion of the fertile plains of Central Luzon. The area is drained by the Angat and Pampanga rivers. The Sierra Madre mountain range forms the highlands of Bulacan in the east. Angat Lake, which was formed by the Angat Dam is located in that area. The highest point in the province at 1,206 meters is Mount Oriod, part of the Sierra Madre. Climate The climate of the province is generally warm. The Sierra Madre Range shields the western portion from the northeast monsoons and trade winds. The eastern portion is characterized by an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. Land Area Bulacan has a total land area of 277,485 hectares which is 15% of the total land area of Central Luzon and 0.92% that of the country. It is composed of 21 municipalities, 3 component cities and 569 barangays. Banking and Finance There are 241 banks doing business in the province. The cooperatives, harnessed to accelerate the countryside development, now total to 1,660 with a total asset of Php 5.35 billion. Power and Water Supply The Manila Electric Company serves the whole province. Around 97.7% of households receive power supply, a vital factor for industries. Out of the 21 municipalities and 3 components cities, 19 are served by vicinity water districts, rural waterworks and sanitation associations.

No case studies, scope and delimitations, and summary and recommendations were made because the study has limited data.
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Research Topic
DESIGN ELEMENTS Plants Differing from hards cape materials that are more permanent landscape elements, plants are dynamic life forms that are in constant flux. They can be categorized as: Trees Shrubs Groundcovers Vines Annuals Perennials Grasses

Wind Control Plants can modify wind speed on the ground for distances up to thirty times their height. Dense

masses of large evergreen trees planted to intercept prevailing winter and summer winds can influence energy efficiency of facilities and increase the livability of outside spaces.

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Temperature Modification Throughout many regions, direct radiation from the sun creates uncomfortable high temperature

during the summer seasons. Locating densely foliated trees and shrubs to the southwest and west of the facilities can reduce heat gain. Noise Abatement Trees, shrubs, groundcovers, and turf buffer noise. That is, plants diffract and break up sound waves, changing their direction and reducing their intensity when sufficiency massed. To be truly effective in controlling noise, plants should be used in concert with masonry walls or similar noise buffering structures

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Surface Erosion Control Wind and water can erode valuable top soil. Plants, especially grasses can present or control

erosion by stabilizing the soil through their root structure. Exposed soil on cut banks and steep slopes should immediately plant with grasses and or native low growing shrubs and spreading groundcovers. Glare Control Trees, shrubs and other vegetation can effectively reduce glare and reflection when placed between the light source and the observer.

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Architectural Just as walls, ceilings, and floors define interior spaces within a building, plants can effectively

define exterior spaces. Enframed and provide background for a building or view Soften corners, angles, bare walls and hard architectural lines Accent entry and serve as focal points Provide a transition between the vertical walls of the building and the horizontal ground plane Provide screening for privacy and area separation Function as a barrier to vehicular or pedestrian traffic

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Visual Effect Plants not only contribute to the aesthetics of a space or area, they also serve a function within the

landscape. Plants can be used to accomplish a desired effect or for a specific purpose. The following are some utilitarian ways plants can be used in the landscape: Streetscape Trees planted along a street can reduce glare, define transportation network hierarchies and soften the man made environments while dramatically increasing overall aesthetic quality. An ideal street possesses the following: 30 to 45 feet in height Forms a canopy Relative free of debris Highly tolerant to pollution, diseases and pest Deeply rooted and drought tolerant Shrubs, groundcovers and vines can accent, screen, define space A well designed mix of plants can add interest along an installations streets while enhancing aesthetics Foundation

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Foundation plantings help anchor a building visually to the ground plane by providing a transition or connection between the vertical and horizontal planes. Foundation planting can range from formal arrangements of shrubs to a blend of trees and shrubs, groundcovers, annuals and perennials that soften the intersection of the building and the ground. Barriers Barriers control or divert vehicular and pedestrian movement. Massing of plant material can be effective in controlling to certain areas.

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Screening Plant material can be used to shield or screen undesirable features such as mechanical equipment, substation, pump station, transformers, dumpsters, service areas, docks and electrical switch gear. Densely foliated evergreen shrubs are most effective as screens.

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Wetlands The wetlands ecosystem can be a very biologically- productive area. Wetland thrives in constant or intermittent soil moisture. Ideally these plants contribute to the shelter or sustenance of the native wildlife while adding to the natural beauty of the area. Surface Erosion Control Ideal plants for erosion control are fast growing self rooting native groundcovers with exceptionally shallow and fibrous root systems. Hydro seeding with a combination of quickly established grasses and desirable long term groundcover varieties can effectively control erosion. Even shallow slopes can be eroded when exposed to high volumes of water due to extend runoff from major storms. Designers should address the entire site for erosion potential and mitigate appropriately. Parking Area Plants used in the parking area need to be hardly varieties that can thrive in confined growing area and are able to withstand drought reflected heat and are pollution tolerant. They should be relatively clean and free of potential nuisance such as fruit. Water Features

Decorative fountain, reflecting ponds, and other mechanical water features can add excitement and interest to the site. These features require continual maintenance to ensure proper operation and are high water users. Unless the budget allows and the concept is supported, water features rarely become part of the

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project. Use water features in those areas of the installation with the highest pedestrian exposure. These areas include plazas for large administration facilities, community center malls, or high visibility memorials. Storm drainage requirements may dictate the use of retention ponds to control runoff. Such drainage structures can serve as positive feature of the landscape. Care must be exercised to avoid attracting birds that may hinder or endanger the flying mission.

Introduction
The case studies focuses on the dormitories located at Sampaloc, Manila. These are conducted in order to identify the needs of dormitory occupants and also to be able to understand the present condition of the dormitories.

Scope and delimitation of the case study Scope of the case study
The case study includes the rental rates, facilities, materials used in foreign and local studies. Case studies were done only in student dormitories located in the university belt in manila. These case studies evaluate the existing facilities of the selected dormitories in accordance to materials and function. It focuses on issues and problems regarding cost of living on dormitories and to the identification and needs of its occupants.

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Delimitation Of The Case Study


The case studies will not include behavioral analysis of dormitory occupants and facilities, other dormitories outside the premises of university of manila are not considered for the case studies.

CASE STUDY NO.1 MJR DORMITORY Background MJR Dormitory is located at 804/806 CM. Recto, Corner Quezon Boulevard, Sampaloc, Manila. It is owned by Mrs. Marissa Sarmiento, the space was bought by the owner and converted it to dormitory, it has a total of 28 occupants. The dormitory offers two types of rooms, rooms for 6 occupants 3,500php per head and rooms for 4 occupants cost 3,800php are all air-conditioned 5PM. to 7 AM. only. The dormitory has common dining area and bathrooms. The following are the facilities offered by the dormitory: Air-conditioned rooms for six and four occupants Wi-Fi connection Common Dining and recreational area Common Bathroom

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CASE STUDY NO.2 BRICKLY ONE MALE DORMITORY Background Brickly One Male Dormitory is located at 3rd floor Brickly One Condo 1372 Espana Boulevard Cor. Centro St. Sampaloc, Manila. The space was an old structure and converted into a dormitory. The second floor is intended for office rentals. It has a total 60 male Occupants. The dormitory offers three types of rooms, rooms for 8 occupants cost 25,000 php, 6 occupants cost 29,000 php, rooms for 4 occupants cost

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14,00 php, rooms are all air-conditioned 5 PM to 7 AM only. Electricity and other services are included to the rental rates, except for the additional appliance and gadgets. The dormitory has a lounge and bathrooms .It is near the University of Santo Tomas. The following are the facilities offered by the dormitory: Air-conditioned rooms for eight, six and four occupants Common Dining and Bathroom State of the art interior design Visitors lounge Rentable Offices

CASE STUDY NO.3 ACTIVE DORMITORY Background Active Dormitory is located at 902 Eloisa St.Espana Blvrd. Sampaloc Manila. It is owned by Mrs. Josephine Danganan. The dormitory commonly serves the scholar athletes of the University of Sto.Tomas. It has a total of 317 occupants, two types of rooms cost 3,000php to 3,300php for 6- 10 occupants and non air conditioned room cost 2,600php to 2,700 php for 6- 10 occupants per head. The dormitory has a canteen and common lounge areas.

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The following are the facilities offered by the dormitory: Hot and Cold Purified water Toilet and Bath in each room 24 hours security Individual lockers Laundry services

Summary And Recommendations


SUMMARY Based on the case studies, there are several factors that can be integrated to the study to help improve and develop the strategies of the proposal: To attain flexibility of spaces in planning Japanese concepts in planning must be applied.

Recommendations
The dormitory should offer a lower rate of units. It should have common study areas and working areas for the students. The planning of spaces must be flexible.

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Findings
The following results are based in accordance to the information gathered by the use of survey form, interviews with the actual users of a dormitory and informative applicable data for the said research. Application of private toilet and bath on each room with limited use of water. Deploying recreational area for the tenants to achieve social development with each other. Enough space for visitors lounge. The use of convertible furniture inside the unit to attain flexibility and maximize the use within a small space in accordance to good organization. Application of huge openings to achieve sustainability by means of ventilation and natural lighting. This might help the users to lessen their rental rates from electricity. Additional common study/working areas for better school performance.

Definition Of Terms

Manila Electric Company- The word MERALCO is an acronym for Manila Electric Railroad And Light COmpany, which was the company's original name from 1903 to 1919. MERALCO is the Metro Manila's only electric power distributor and holds the power distribution franchise for some 22 cities and 89 municipalities, including the whole of Metro Manila and Mega Manila region.

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Sierra Madre Range- is a mountain range in The Philippines. It is located along the north-eastern coast of Luzon Island, running north/south. Quezon National Forest Park is situated in the range. Angat River- is the river connecting pampanga river Mount Oriod- an elevation standing high above the surrounding area with small summit area, steep slopes and local relief of 300m or more Angat Dam- is a concrete water reservoir embankment hydroelectric dam that supplies the Manila metropolitan area water. It was a part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system. The reservoir supplies about 90 percent of raw water requirements for Metro Manila through the facilities of the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System and it irrigates about 28,000 hectares of farmlands in the provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga.

Mangroves- are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics mainly between latitudes 25 N and 25 S. NSO- National Statistics Office Barasoain Church- Built in 1630 in Malolos City, Bulacan. Having earned the title as the Cradle of Democracy in the East, the most important religious building in the Philippines, and the site of the First Philippine Republic, the Church is proverbial for its historical importance among Filipinos.

CHED- Commission on Higher Education

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Bibliography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulacan http://www.philippine-travel-guide.com/bulacan-philippines.html http://www.centralluzon.com/content/view/31/55/1/1/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bulacan http://www.bulacan.gov.ph/business/aboutbulacan.php

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CHAPTER 3

Introduction
This part will offer a broad understanding and analysis of the proof that have been presented at the previous chapter of this study. At this chapter the facts will be practice to make a project proposal base on the data and information conveyed from the data which have been prepared and ordered from the difficult to simplest ideas that will be used to classify the need to accomplish the study and the need for the design proposal. In addition, the problem will be restated in this chapter. Recommendation will be used to respond the research problem through structure, concepts, theories and design approach. The recommendation will be used to form a practical design proposal that can answer the restated problem. At this chapter, topics will be connected to one another and will establish links between them that will provide as the basis for the study of development of sleeping area in Bulacan State University.

Identification of needs
Based on the respondent`s wants, demands, visions, potential plans and proposals for development of sleeping area in Bulacan State University respondent groups like administration staffs, professors, and students that requires a useful area in improving the performance of users. Those wants and demands are again enumerated on its broad context. A need to construct an area in improving the users performance in school to have a higher Grade point average. A need to lessen the user`s anxiety, depression, and poor sleep routines. A need to make sleep as one of the college student`s top priority. A need to reduce the risk of user`s health related issues regarding to sleeping.

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A need to determine the tangible learning resources and how can it is incorporated with the surroundings. A need to design an area for sleeping, resting and relaxation activity for the students. A need to evaluate the dissimilar design key to the proposal to create a more valuable to the users. A need to ensure safety of the users in relation to the environment. A need to established direct relationship between spaces and activities taking into consideration. A need to understand guidelines and strategies that can help for the maintenance and operation of sleeping area.

Restatement of the Problem


College students are infamous for their sleep deprivation that can significantly affect their academic performance, students aren't able to gain knowledge of, students are not able to memorize, and it's harder for them to focus, can greatly influence their mood and health, a widespread dilemma not just on Philippine college schools/ universities but also more or less around the world. A lot of the college students take too lightly the need for a good nights sleep. Several of college students are forced to work at day and study at night. Apart from that, if college students make use most of his time outside then he will have to study at night to do well in the crucial examination. The students sleep outline and behavior, mainly on decrease of inadequate sleep and daytime tiredness which are the uppermost standing sleep problems among college students. It is considered necessary for the students who are having difficulty in sleeping to be lessen in number for them to have an excellent school performance.

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Recommendations
After all the study accomplished about the proposal and based on the proof of study and assessment, it had been establish out that there is a need of design approach, based on the data collected, the following approach are suggested: Create a responsive and efficient sleeping area building and environment. The design should be integrated with relaxing features to help and improve the users performance. The use of materials that will be used is perceptible and tangible and architecture should promote the value of sleeping. Sustainable design approach should be applied to the sleeping area. Proper zoning of facilities and spaces, and good circulation pattern should be applied to the design that will conform to the behavioral activities of the users. Sleeping area should have a continuity operational planning; school administrators/maintainers/operators will handle and control the operation prevailing share and returns.

Design Proposal
After all the study accomplished about the proposal and based on the proof of study and assessment of dissimilar information and idea, the study on the development a sleeping area in Bulacan State University with the major considerations of behavioral analysis, service and activities taking into places and space programming. The sleeping area will be planned and designed in such way that will: Provide a safe and public and private privileges place for the said Bulacan State University students, professors and administration staffs.

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Apply construction materials that have soothing features to assist and improve the users performance. Provide a landscape elements and features like water escapes for that soothing ambiance. Provide more number of sleeping/resting areas that will accommodate more students. Provide a full security that will be watch and observed the sleeping areas without interfering the privacy of the users. Application of sustainable design approach through the use of Eco-friendly materials. Additional features of the area should depend on the needs and behavioral activities of the users.

II.
Introduction

The Site

This part contains significant data in accordance to the previous chapters. The information obtained here were composed from books/ web pages statistical yearbook, college profits / sheet and other a variety of books which have a relative with the topic of the proposed project. Site justification is analyzing the nature of the site. Maps are as well presented so that the researchers can cautiously comprehend what the strength is and weaknesses of the site for them to know what are the probable approach to be used in the project. Performing macro and micro site analysis is also needed to know the dissimilar factors to think the concern activities on the site. It is important to know the site well for it will help a lot in forming a useful planning design. The study of the site will focus on the different issues such as geographical factors, convenience, availability of migration routes, communication and transportation, precise lot characteristics, and climate. These factors can very much help to categorize and examine the site possible significance to the development of the project proposal.

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Background
Bulacan State University is one of the admired college schools in Bulacan. It becomes the chief university in the province in conditions of enrollment and populations. It becomes the top institution in the field of engineering, architecture and other science and practical courses. Within this reason the demand for more spaces take place. In selecting the site, the physical attribute of the site should be considered. Physical attribute will play a very important part because this may acquire benefit in design aspect upon designing the sleeping area. The site is extremely important in every development because it is the place where the proposed project would employ. It also assists in shaping architectural intervention to be prepared to make the project well-designed and efficient. Selecting a site requires a set of analysis and study in order to group it with a feasible design. There is lot of design to be taken into concern in order to pick a good site for a particular project. The site is being used as an agricultural land situated along Mc Arthur Hi-way, Bulihan, Malolos City and comprising a total land area of 12,640+ sqm. The VOP area is inside the Bulacan State University property. The project location of the site is essential for the study to come up with appropriate analysis and study to be created. Analysis of the site is to provide advantages on how to get chance of development in enhancing the project location.

Site Selection Criteria and Site Justification


There are criteria that require to be measured to recognize exact concern dealing with the suitability of the proposal to the site. Each of the criterions sets a constraint that the site should include and how it will go well with the development of sleeping area in Bulacan State University. In addition, this will establish and classify the qualities and features that will make the site ideal. The site of Bulacan State University is suitable and comprises the requirements of an ideal site based on the criteria listed below.
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THE SITE

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The location is one of the vital factors to be measured in order to create the study potential and satisfactory to the users. In the case, it inform about the existing condition of the site, its latent and possible problem that the study may come upon. This will assist to establish what sort of approach and system in planning and designing is appropriate. Selecting the site requires a lot of examination and study in order to arrive with a viable proposal. Nevertheless in this project there are no site selection made because the site is positioned and belongings of the Bulacan State University, which is the recipient of the project it is essential that the project is to be established in Bulacan State University because the major users of the proposed facility is the students. Hence it is necessary for it to be sited as relaxation feature within the campus.

SPECIFIC LOT CHARACTERISTICS


The lot should have these following requirements in order to know the specific information about the site and its characteristics and the following: It is situated in the back part of the old BSU site, and it has a large area. The site topography is comparatively plane as a result complex structural problems can be lessen. Utilities are accessible in the spot, including water supply, electricity and telecommunications. The site comprises a total land area of 14,640+ sqm. The VOP area inside Bulacan State University property. Natural drainage of the site Landscaping and other features Soil analysis Leveling, grading and filling requirement

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Site Analysis
Vegetation

Trees and shrubs

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Sun and wind analysis The site is directly exposed to the sun and wind which is the good feature of the condition of natural light and ventilation. March- January Prevailing wind Prevailing Surface Wind October- November Prevailing Surface Wind

July-September Prevailing Surface Wind

May-june , Prevailing Surface Wind

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Macro site analysis

One of the most vital factors of site study is to analyze the tactical location of the site and its closeness to different zones, such as institutional, residential, industrial and commercial areas. Each zone has positive and negative proposition that can affect the holistic development of the site. The municipality of Bulakan lies in the southwestern part of the province of Bulacan and is surrounded by a number of municipalities. It is bounded on the North by the Municipality of Guiguinto, on the South by the Manila Bay, on the East by the Municipality of Bocaue, on the West by the City of Malolos, on the Northeast by the Municipality of Balagtas and on the Southeast by the Municipality of Obando. It is about thirty five kilometers away from the City of Manila. Approximately, 72.90 square kilometers or 2.7284% of the total land area of the entire Province. It ranks tenth (10th) in terms of land area among other municipalities in the province. Bulacan is surrounded by the province of Pampanga, Nueva ecija, Manila Bay, and Metro Manila. Climate The site is openly exposed to the sun and wind which is good feature for the condition of natural light and ventilation.
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Soil The soil feature of the location in Bulihan is Quingua series usually consist of unsorted, unconsolidated sort of clay and sand. It is farming land which means that the outlook development should have well-built foundation for the building construction.

Water supply and quality The site has adequate potable water allocation in the course of local distributor ad it can be from the natural ground of the site. Transportation The site is easy to get to all sorts of means of transport through the diversion road next to the side of the site. Air Pollution The site has good landscape elements, these will provide safety and comfort to the users in their health. There is also a parking space that serves as a buffer that prevents air pollution to come directly in the site. Energy The site has adequate supply of electricity from the local electrical provider.

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Community and neighborhood Travel The site is close to the institutional and commercial organization that makes travel probable. Traffic laws The site has one key road that offers easy way in and transportation. Public services Public services should be considered and should be near the site like police station, fire station, hospital and etc. As such these public services will be rendered immediately in case of emergency the site is close to at the government services center such as kapitolyo.

Utilities Electricity, water supply, communication and other accessible services are in the site. Property Site and shape The site has an enough area jointly with the other existing structures which creates the land area more appropriate in constructing an assent space for the relaxation facility.

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Soil Pile foundation or strong foundation is required for the development because the capability and intensity of the soil is not steady.

Micro site analysis


The fundamentals within the site and its building are essential for the development of the proposal. Some issues such as solar and wind path, landscape and vegetation, and built environment are engaged account to examine and classify the probable answer and appropriate design schemes. The site is an urban area with existing man made structure and natural environment. The site spot is essential because it is the position where the proposed project would rise and for having the appropriate examination and study to be prepared. Profound study of the sites advantages and weakness provides chance to improve the project site. Traffic and transit The site has one key road that offers easy way in and transportation which is the diversion road that makes the site easier to get to all form of vehicles. Climate Solar radiation Plants and trees can sift the suns strong radiation also helps in cooling the area below them. Air temperature Yearly temperature differs from 20.4 degrees centigrade to 34.9 degrees centigrade while the lowest registered temperature is 20.4 degrees centigrade approach during month of January.
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SWOT Analysis
CRITERIA STRENGTH WEAKNESS OPPORTUNITIES THREATS -Flooding caused by intense rains cannot be stopped and for which the school administration has no control -Inadequate facility for the needs of the users

PHYSICAL FACTORS

-The obtainable -The type of soil in -The existing landscape features the site is not landscape gives a helps in minimizing stable. beautiful view and negative effect to relaxing ambiance the users -congestion of the population in the -The accessibility of -The site has a area transport and sufficient area telecommunication jointly with the -the entrance of the infrastructure has other existing site builds traffic enabled the structures which and anxiety unrestrained creates the land mobility of area more suitable information, people, in constructing an goods, services, assent space for the resources and relaxation facility. opportunities in and from the city

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Strategies

StrengthOpportunities Strategies -The existing landscape features can be use as relaxing to the users

WeaknessOpportunities Strategies -Study the traffic flow to expand a design that will minimize traffic

Strength-treats Strategies -Integration of existing landscaping to the design of the proposal and removing structures which are not used.

WeaknessTreats Strategies -Short-term, Medium to longterm solutions and cost-efficient flood-mitigating measures can be commence through appropriate waste segregation and disposal, expansion of existing sewerage and drainage systems and the construction of appropriate floodmitigating structures

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS

-The school administration can influence its desire to achieve its educational vision of becoming the key to have a high performing students -the accessibility of good road networks in the city has fortified the position of the city StrengthOpportunities Strategies -Awareness should be on how to extend and encourage a services-led school administration where the city can develop its inherent competitive economic

-fast urban migration-The mobility of the population -students have different behaviors and needs to perform well in school

-exploitation of economic opportunities will lead to the improvement of the quality of life in the city -produce more high performing students in university

-increasing tendency of population -Security of land

Strategies

WeaknessOpportunities Strategies -The widespread land use plan and the associated zoning ordinance will be very important in justifying the detrimental effects of this development

Strength-treats Strategies -Objective and systematic threat mitigating contingency plans are the best insurance against future uncertainties

WeaknessTreats Strategies -Infuse / prioritize the school administration condition of goods and services for the accessibility to the concentrated for the area/ overcrowded.

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advantage

weakness.

-Improve accessibility to all users but maintaining the security

C. Behavioral Analysis Activity Flow Diagrams


The activity flow diagram shows probable activities that the user may take within the provided spaces. These are option taken according to circumstances and wants of the user for a certain phase of time or under definite influences. Enter the site and building Nap/ sleep

Study

Rest

Nap/ sleep

Chat with friends and wait for the next class

Eat lunch, and snacks

Rest

Study

Leave the premises

BulSU students

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Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks Resume work End of duty Logout Leave the premises

Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Administrative staffs Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks Resume work End of duty

Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Logout Leave the premises

Building Librarians

Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks Resume work End of duty Logout

Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Building Maintainers and Security

Leave the premises

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Activities, behavior and needs


Basing from the flow of activities, the needs of the users are determined to understand the behavior of the different users of the structure. USERS STUDENTS Come to school, wait for the class. Class starts and begins to study. Eating, socializing and the said different activities when vacant periods. Proceed to the next subject. Leave the school. Adequate spaces for studying. Natural ventilation for study area, waiting area and resting area. Effective learning spaces. Areas for resting and napping. ACTIVITIES BEHAVIORS NEEDS

BulSU Students

Study, doing school works, eating, rest, relax, nap, socializing and sleep

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Other Users Will log in their time of arrival. Starts their work. Take a lunch and break. Rest and chat with other administrative staffs. Starts their work. Log out and leave premises. A comfortable working environment.

Librarian

works, eating, rest, relax, nap, socializing and sleep

Building Maintainers and Security

works, eating, rest, relax, nap, socializing and sleep

Will log in their time of arrival. Starts their work. Take a lunch and break. Rest and chat with other administrative staffs. Starts their work. Log out and leave premises.

A comfortable working environment.

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Environment- Behavior Studies


ACCEPTED SOCIAL RULE

LOCATION

RECURRING BEHAVIOR

CRITICAL FEATURES

TIME LOCUS

Batibot tree beside the Flores hall. Students seats at the shaded part of the Batibot tree.

It serves as a sitting and waiting area for students.

Not enough shading, and limited sitting area with enough shadings.

Usually happens at 11:45 am.to12 noon.

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A classroom in Flores hall

It is a place designed for lecture, study and other school works. Students were taking a nap and rest in a vacant classroom.

Due to lack of areas for rest and nap to spend the vacant hours of the students, students often stay in classrooms.

Usually happens at 01:00 pm. to 02:00 pm.

BulSU Canteen

It is a place designed for eating purposes.

This place was not intended for studying, due to noise and not comfortable areas to study, students often spent their time here to study.

Usually happens at 11:00 am.to12 noon.

Students were studying in dining area of the canteen.

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Students center near Registrar Office

It serves as a sitting and waiting area for students. Engineering students were making theyre a laboratory and other school works.

Not enough space to do school works, and lack of sitting chairs which results to overcrowding.

Usually happens at 11:00 am. onwards.

Students area near the Federizo hall

It serves as a sitting and waiting area for students.

Not enough shading to do school works, which results to too much heat within the area.

Usually happens at 11:00 am. to 01:00 pm.

Students were making their school works in not well shaded sitting area.

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Students area near the Federizo hall

It serves as a sitting and waiting area for students. The students were having a rest, while sitting, waiting and chatting and doing their school works.

Not enough space which results to overcrowding, not enough chairs, benches and not well shaded areas.

Usually happens at 11:00 am. to 01:00 pm.

Hallway at Law building

This area serves as a passage way for the students.

Lack of area to do school works, and lack of sitting chairs.

Usually happens at 11:00 am.to12 noon.

Students were making their school works, while waiting for their next subject.

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Game fever computer shop

The students spending their time in gamings in computer shops/cafes just to fill their vacant time.

It serves as an area for doing assignments, projects and other school works with the help of internet.

Lack of area to spend the students vacant time to help their performance in school.

Usually happens at 10:00 am. onwards.

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Interrelationship Analysis
ENTRY

PARKING

STUDENTS AREA
PARKING

SLEEPING AREA
ENTRY

DORMITORY
PARKING

STUDENTS AREA

PARKING

STUDENTS AREA

STUDENTS AREA
STUDENTS AREA

ENTRY

ENTRY

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D. Viability Studies
A. Technical Viability and Environmental Impact Assessment The need of a location for the Napping Area, the project scheme would describe the wants for the government owned lots to contain the design scheme.

A. Legal Viability
Dormitory Facilities Dining hall Dining areas in dormitories are commonly shared by occupants, in this area dormitory occupants eat together during meal time and sometimes the area become multi tasking because some activities such as recreation and school activities are performed. It serves as a meeting place for the occupants, which help developed social relationship between them. The ideal design for dining halls must be spacious to accommodate all the users activities and furniture necessary for the area. Design requirements The size allocation for the area must be based on the number of the users to be served and the proper circulation space necessary for the area. There should be comfortable spacing between adjacent to minimize obstruction while eating Comfortable front and back positioning of the dinner should be provided. The following minimum clearance from the edge of the table space should be provided 81.28 cm for chairs plus the access 96.54 cm for chairs plus access and passage 106.68 cm for serving from behind the chair 60.96 cm for the passage only 121.92 cm from the table to the cabinets.

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Bedrooms Bedrooms are the most important unit in a dormitory. Dormitory bedrooms are commonly shared by two or more occupants, in this case privacy is difficult to achieve and small spaces are usually allocated for bedrooms. According to a study a single dormitory room must accommodate a bed, a dress, a wardrobe, a bookcase, a soft chair and clearance space required by the entry door plus the additional used space required around each element so that it can be used appropriately.

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B.

Financial Viability With the joint effort of the Bulacan State University Administration and other private investors

the project proposal would have a greater probability. Cost of investments from the non-government organizations and government financial assistance will be an option for the funding of the said project.
C.

Design Proposal

After performing and gathering the necessary information that will suit the want of the proposal to be answered, the researcher have brought up the following scheme for the understanding of the plan: Napping area Sleeping area Study area Eating area Dormitory Resting area Students center

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CHAPTER 4

Introduction

This chapter is about programming and methodical collection and broad understanding and analysis of the facts and information about the problems to be solved that been obtainable at the previous chapter of these research vital factors to generate a well designed facility which will suit to the desires and activities of the users. Generally, this comprises a written description summarizing the needs of the project and can include extensive analysis that identifies the issue to be solved. The range of services and facilities is significant to determine the specific measure of spaces according to their occupancy and function through space programming. The spatial preparation will establish the activities of the people and how they will act in that particular space. Interrelationship study will also be incorporated through arrangement of range of schematic drawings of possible design outline. Space programming is one of the programming which is included in this chapter. This is an exercise to conceptualize the idea of space relationships into element of measure as well as flow and circulation. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis will also be incorporated.

Analyzing the behavioral setting and activities done by all the students in BulSU will be of great advantage to the proponents in order to find out the proper programming and planning of spaces to be provided. It would also contribute to the planning stage in a way that the activities and behavior of the users will be assessed and evaluated whether they will be comfortable or not to the environment, thus helping the proponents analyze and determine what factors must be taken into account and given the full emphasis.

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A. Behavioral Analysis
Enter the site and building Nap/ sleep

Study

Rest

Nap/ sleep

Chat with friends and wait for the next class

Eat lunch, and snacks

Rest

Study

Leave the premises

BulSU students Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks Resume work End of duty Logout Leave the premises

Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Administrative staffs

Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks


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Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Resume work

End of duty

Logout

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Building Librarians

Leave the premises

Enter the building Eat lunch, and snacks Resume work End of duty Logout Leave the premises

Logs their arrival

Work

Break

Building Maintainers and Security

B. Interrelationship Analysis
Dormitory
LIVING AREA (RESTING AREA) Info desk Lounging area Circulation desk Book shelves Reading area Quite area T&B ENTRY

Administration

Library

BEDROOM
KITCHEN/DINING

Offices Info desk T&B

TOILET & BATH

ENTRY ENTRY

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Napping area
Info desk Sleeping cubicle Administration Info desk T&B ENTRY

Sleeping area
Info desk Sleeping cubicle Administration Info desk T&B ENTRY

The site

ENTRY

PARKING

STUDENTS AREA
PARKING

SLEEPING AREA
ENTRY

DORMITORY
PARKING

STUDENTS AREA

PARKING

STUDENTS AREA

STUDENTS AREA
STUDENTS AREA

ENTRY

ENTRY

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C. Qualitative Analysis
FUNCTION GOALS To provide a napping area for the students who are having difficulty in sleeping to be lessen in number for them to have an excellent school performance. FACTS Most of the users are BulSU students and school staffs. CONCEPTS Use of open plan concept. NEEDS More spaces for studying and resting. PROBLEMS Lack of open spaces for studying and resting.

PEOPLE

ACTIVITIES

Resting and studying are the main activities taking over. To recognize the boundaries of the users considering the variables such as age, status, and gender.

For them to have a good school performance.

The use of environment as the basis of design.

More spaces for studying and resting and relaxation.

Lack of open spaces for studying and resting

RELATIONSHI P

Territoriality and defensible space.

Use of open plan concept.

Improvemen t of cooling, lighting and ventilation of building.

FORM

GOALS

FACTS

CONCEPTS

NEEDS

PROBLEMS

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SITE

To develop the existing natural resources and elements such as landscape design. Neighbor:To adapt the building without damaging natural resources. Directions:Determin e the significance of each entry to equally maximize the access in between buildings.

ELEMENTS

The site is located in City of Malolos, Bulacan.Nea r the BulSU site.

Organizing the physical appearance in such a site will adapt the natural element. Climate:Trees , plants and vegetation can conserve energy and also the proper orientation. Safety: Good location of entrance and exits will measure the security within the site. CONCEPTS

Proper site development Site must be plan. compatible to the existing land-use.

QUALITY

City of Malolos has two pronounced seasons, dry during the months from November to April and wet from May to October.

ECONOMY

GOALS

FACTS

NEEDS

PROBLEMS

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INITIAL BUDGET

To maximize the development of structure with the help of BulSU administration and other private investors

OPERATING COST

LIFE-CYCLE COST

To balance the initial design and construction cost with the lighting and repairing and operating and maintaining the facilities.

Climate Responsive approach reduces the overall energy consumption that lessens the cost.

The use of innovative materials can help to decrease the cost of construction and principle of climate responsive approach will help too.

The condition of spaces must be stable to avoid changing quality of materials.

Due to financial crisis the budget will be limited regarding on construction and maintenance.

Proper investment and guarantee of materials to the manufacturer. CONCEPTS Flexibility for the future development of the project NEEDS The development has to follow the certain phase to PROBLEMS Future needs of the users as activities may change in the future

TIME

GOALS To be flexible in all areas and adapt changes in its surrounding environment.

FACTS Increase numbers of inhabitants wanting to live in a

PAST

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PRESENT FUTURE

decent community.

achieve the sufficient needs.

depending on the physical, social, spiritual, emotional and environmenta l desires.

d. Quantitative Analysis Main Building


Facilities Total Area sqm. Construction Cost Sqm. Total Construction Cost Maintenance cost/1yr Operational cost/1yr.

Offices Library Sleeping area Napping area Food stalls Laundry administration

90 1720 1720 1720 150 100 400

10,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 10,000 10,000 10,000

1,350,000 3,440,000 3,440,000 3,440,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 4,000,000


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8,000 3,000 8,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 5,000

10,000 5,000 10,000 10,000 18,000 2,000 0

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CR. Security area. Maintenance area Student center lobby Lounging area Mech/ elec total

100 100 300 350 150 70 80 10,050

10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 116,000

1,200,000 1,000,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 1,500,000 700,000 800,000 28,520,000

3,000 3,000 8,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 3,000 56,000

0 24,000 12,000 0 0 0 24,000 110,000

Dormitory
Facilities Total Area sqm. Construction Cost Sqm. Total Construction Cost Maintenance cost/1yr Operational cost/1yr.

All units in 1st Floor All units For 2nd and 3rd Floor Total

147

15,000

2,205,000

8,000

5000

808

15,000

12,120,000

8,000

5000

955

30,000

14,325,000

16,000

10,000

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Land Cost per sqm. = 4,000 pesos Land Development Cost = 2,500 pesos Land Development Cost = PHP 35,395,950 Total land Cost = 4,000.00 x 14, 158.38 sq. m. = PHP 56,633,520.00 Building Cost = PHP 42,845,000.00 Total Project Cost = PHP 134,874,470.00 TOTAL PROJECT AREA: 1.4 hectares or 14, 158.38 sq. m Gross Floor Area = 25, 485.08 sqm Buildable area = 8,495.1 sqm Open Space = 5,663.35 sqm Paved = 4,447.51 sqm Unpaved = 1,415.84 sqm Building Foot Print = 5,460 sqm x 3 floors = 16,380 sqm NUMBER OF FLOORS: 3 FLOORS BUILDING FOOTPRINT: 75.00 x 87.00 sq.m NUMBER OF UNITS OFBUILDING: Dormitory: Ground -3rd Floors Ground floor units: 7 x 5 sqm - unit 1
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7 x6 sqm - unit 2 6 x 5 sqm - unit 3 8 x 5 sqm - unit 4

Second to third floor units: 11 x 7 sqm - unit 12 8 x 6 sqm - unit 11 8 x8 sqm - unit 10 4 x 7 sqm - unit 9 7 x7 sqm - unit 8 6 x 6 sqm - unit 7 6 x5 sqm - unit 6 8 x 9 sqm - unit 5 Sleeping area: 3RD Floor 180 beds Boys- 80 beds -Girls- 100 beds Napping area: 2nd Floor 217 beds Boys- 93 beds - Girls- 124 beds Library: Ground Floor 40 x 68 sqm

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Return of investment (ROI)


Cash in and cash out Estimated annual cash in from rental fees : Total = PHP. 2,880,000.00 + PHP 4,687,200.00 Dormitory = 160 persons x 1500.00 PHP/30 days x 12 months = PHP. + PHP 3,240,000 = PHP 10,807,200.00/year 6307200 2,880,000.00 Napping Area = 217 beds/person x 2 hours of nap/ 8 hours/day x 15.00 PHP x 12 months = PHP 4,687,200.00 Sleeping area = 180 beds/person x 1500.00 PHP x 12 months = PHP 3,240,000 Estimated annual cash out from electricity, water, telephone, maintenance and Total = PHP 1,260,000.00 + 1,260,000.00 + salary of the staffs : 1,260,000.00 +720,000.00 Dormitory = PHP 3,500.00/day x 30 days x 12 months = PHP PHP 4,500,000.00/year 1,260,000.00 Napping Area = PHP 3,500.00/day x 30 days x 12 months = PHP 1,260,000.00 Sleeping area = PHP 3,500.00/day x 30 days x 12 months = PHP 1,260,000.00 Other spaces = PHP 2,000.00/day x 30 days x 12 months = PHP 720,000.00 Annual profit = 6,307,200 ROI = 21 years

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CHAPTER 5

A. Design Philosophy
The building must be designed in harmony within the nature. Nature acts a huge component in forming architectural forms and this statement would be the governing philosophy of the project.

B. Design Goals & Objectives


To design an area to improve the students performance in school. To lessen the students anxiety, poor sleep routines, and risk of health related issues regarding to sleeping. To make time and sleep as one of the students top priority.

C. Design Concepts
Machiya: a traditional wooden townhouses found throughout japan Often containing a one or more courtyard gardens Addresses climate concerns by using fusuma and shoji.

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D. Design Parameters
Function and efficiency create an effective educational atmosphere where students can participate and enhance activities.

E. Design Considerations
Areas with related function should be linked together to create a good circulation and flow of events. Security and safety of the users.

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CHAPTER 6

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