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# STEERING SYSTEM

Steering system:
It is the system which provides directional change in the performance of an automobile. This system converts rotary movement of the steering wheel into angular movement of the front wheels. It multiplies drivers effort by mechanical advantage, enabling him to turn the wheels easily.

## Steering gear mechanism

The steering mechanism is used in automobiles for changing the directions of the wheel axles with reference to the chassis, so as to move the automobile in the desired path. Usually, the two back wheels will have a common axis, which is fixed in direction with reference to the chassis and the steering is done by means of front wheels. In automobiles, the front wheels are placed over the front axles (stub axles), which are pivoted at the points A & B as shown in the figure. When the vehicle takes a turn, the front wheels, along with the stub axles turn about the pivoted points. The back axle and the back wheels remain straight. Always there should be absolute rolling contact between the wheels and the road surface. Any sliding motion will cause wear of tyres. When a vehicle is taking turn, absolute rolling motion of the wheels on the road surface is possible, only if all the wheels describe concentric circles.

Therefore, the two front wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre I which lies on the axis of the back wheel.

## Condition for perfect steering

The condition for perfect steering is that all the four wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre. While negotiating a curve, the inner wheel makes a larger turning angle than the angle subtended by the axis of the outer wheel.

In the figure, a = wheel track, L = wheel base, w = distance between the pivots of front axles.

cot = cot

= EA + w L L

## cot = cot + w L cot cot = w .

This is the fundamental equation for correct steering. If this condition is satisfied, there will be no skidding of the wheels when the vehicle takes a turn.

## Ackermann steering gear mechanism

Ackerman steering mechanism, RSAB is a four bar chain as shown in fig.1.50. Links RA and SB which are equal in length are integral with the stub axles. These links are connected with each other through track rod AB. When the vehicle is in straight ahead position, links RA and SB make equal angles with the center line of the vehicle. The dotted lines indicate the position of the mechanism when the vehicle is turning left.

## Ackermann Steering Gear

The Ackermann steering gear mechanism consists of a cross link KL connected to the short axles AC and BD of the two front wheels through the short arms AK and BL, forming bell crank levers CAK and DBL respectively. 2) When the vehicle is running straight, the cross link KL is parallel to AB, the short arm AK and BL both make angle to the horizontal axis of chassis. 3) In order to satisfy the fundamental equation for correct steering, the links AK and KL are suitably proportioned and angle is suitably selected.
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## For correct steering cot cot = b / l

4) The angles and are shown in the Figure. 5) The value of b / l is between 0.4 and 0.5, generally 0.455. The value of cot cot corresponds to the positions when the steering is correct. 6) In fact there are three values of angle which give correct steering of the vehicle: first while it is turning to right, second while it is turning to left and third while it is running straight.

## Davis Steering Gear:

1) The Davis gear mechanism consists of a cross link KL sliding parallel to another link AB and is connected to the stub axles of the two front wheels by means of two similar bell crank levers ACK and DBK pivoted at A and B respectively. 2) The cross link KL slides in slides in the bearing and carries pins at its end K and L. 3) The slide blocks are pivoted on these pins and move with the turning of bell crank levers as the steering wheel is When the vehicle is running straight, the gear said to in its mid-position. 4) The short arms AK and BL are inclined an angle 90+ to their stub axles AC and BD. 5) The correct steering depends upon a suitab1e selection of cross-arm angle , and is given by tan = b / 2l where b=AB=distance between the pivots of front axles. l=wheel base.
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The range of b / l is 0.4 to 0.5 hence angle lies between 11.3 and 14.10.

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Steering Derive the fundamental equation for correct steering. 6 marks What are the relative merits and demerits of the Ackermann type of steering gear over that of Davis type? 4 marks Explain Davis steering gear with a neat sketch. 4 marks For a Davis steering gear, derive the expression for the angle of inclination of the track arms to longitudinal axis of the vehicle in terms of the distance between the pivots of the front axle and wheelbase. 8 marks In a Davis steering gear the distance between the pivots of the front axle is 90cm and the wheelbase is 220 cm. When the vehicle is moving along a straight path, find the inclination of the track arms to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. 4 marks Sketch Ackermann steering gear and explain its advantages.4 marks For an Ackermann steering gear, derive the expression for the angle of inclination of the track arms to longitudinal axis of the vehicle.7 marks.

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