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# Pantograph Pantographs are used for reducing or enlarging drawings and maps.

They are also used for guiding cutting tools or torches to fabricate complicated shapes.

In the mechanism shown in figure path traced by point A will be magnified by point E to scale, as discussed below. When point A moves to A , E moves to E and OAE also lies on a straight line. From the fig.1.46, ODA = OCE and ODA = OCE.

OD = OA = DA OC OE CE OD = OD OC OC

and OD = OA = DA OC OE CE OA = OA OE OE

OAA = OEE EE // AA EE = OE = OC AA OA OD EE = AA
X

OC OD

## Straight Line Mechanisms

Generation of straight line motion using linkage mechanisms has always been a common requirement in machine design practice. Although exact straight line cannot be generated using simple mechanisms though some simple mechanisms are designed such that they can produce approximate straight lines for short range of motion. These approximate straight line mechanisms has important applications in machine design. These mechanisms were used extensively in classical machines such as steam engines. Perfect straight lines can also be generated using linkage mechanisms but those are relatively complex mechanisms. There are two classes of straight line mechanisms:
a) b)

## Approximate Straight Line Mechanisms. Exact Straight Line Mechanisms.

The straight line mechanisms were mostly developed in industrial revolution days when many machines required straight line paths in their operations, whether it was guiding the piston of engines or for operating valves. Straight line mechanisms were developed by continuous effort in trail and error process with making intelligent variations in linkage mechanisms.

## Straight line motion mechanisms

Straight line motion mechanisms are mechanisms, having a point that moves along a straight line, or nearly along a straight line, without being guided by a plane surface

## Classification of Straight line mechanism

Straight line mechanisms

## Exact Straight Line Mechanisms

The straight line mechanisms were mostly developed in industrial revolution days when many machines required straight line paths in their operations, whether it was guiding the piston of engines or for operating valves. Straight line mechanisms were developed by continuous effort in trail and error process with making intelligent variations in linkage mechanisms.

## Condition for exact straight line motion:

If point B moves on the circumference of a circle with center O and radius OA, then, point C, which is an extension of AB traces a straight line perpendicular to AO, provided product of AB and AC is constant.

= AB X AC AD

## Peaucellier exact straight line motion mechanism

Here, AE is the input link and point E moves along a circular path of radius AE = AB. Also, EC = ED = PC = PD and BC = BD. Point P of the mechanism moves along exact straight line perpendicular to BA extended. To prove B, E and P lie on same straight line: Triangles BCD, ECD and PCD are all isosceles triangles having common base CD and apex points being B, E and P.

Therefore points B, E and P always lie on the perpendicular bisector of CD. Hence these three points always lie on the same straight line. To prove product of BE and BP is constant. In triangles BFC and PFC,

+ FC2

## BC2 - PC2 = FB2 - PF 2 = (FB + PF)X(FB - PF)

= BP X BE

But since BC and PC are constants, product of BP and BE is constant, which is the condition for exact straight line motion. Thus point P always moves along a straight line perpendicular to BA as shown in the figure.

HART mechanism

1. This is an also a straight line mechanism. 2. It has a six link as shown in figure. 3. These are AB, CD, AD, BC, OE and OQ. 4. The dimension are such that AB=CD, AD=BC. OE is fixed link.
5. 6.

The input rotary motion is given to link OQ The point E,Q and P are located in such a way that AE = AQ = CP AB AD CB

Proof

7. If the above considerations are satisfied, then P will move along a straight line perpendicular to EO produced.

Join BD. Consider ABD AE = AQ AB This condition is given. From this we can show that AEQ and ABD are similar and hence EQ is parallel to BD. Consider ABC CP = AQ = AE CB AD AB AD

EQ = AE BD EB

EQ = AE x BD EB

## We can show easily that BPE and BAC are similar EP = BE AC BA

EP = BE x AC BA With O as center and radius OQ draw a circle. It intersect EO produced atQ. Join QQ. Consider EQQ and EPP.it could be easily proved that they are similar. EQ = EQ EP EP

EQ.EP = EQ.EP

EQ.EP=

(BD.AC).(AE.BE)
AB2

EP=

(BD.AC).(AE.BE)
AB2. EQ

But CD2-CF2

## EP= (BC2-CF2)-(CD2-CF2). (AE.BE) AB2. EQ EP= (BC2- CD2). (AE.BE) AB2. EQ

It could be seen that AE, BE ,AB,EQ,BC and CD are constant. EP= constant. That is distance of the foot of the perpendicular from E is a constant. That means the point P will always move along a straight line perpendicular to EO extended.

Approximate straight line motion mechanism: A few four bar mechanisms with certain modifications provide approximate straight line motions.

Various approximate straight line mechanism 1. Wattss mechanism. 2. Modified Scott-Russell mechanism. 3. Grasshopper mechanism. 4. Tchebicheffs mechanism. 5. Robertss mechanism.

Watt mechanism

1. Watt mechanism
Figure shows WATT mechanism

1. It is a modified crossed four bar chain mechanism and was used by WATT.
2.

0BA01 is a crossed four bar chain in which 0 and 01 are fixed. In the mean position of the mechanism, the link 0B and 01A are parallel and the coupling rod AB is perpendicular to 01A and OB.

3.

4. The tracing point P traces out an approximate straight line over the certain position of its movement if PB PA = 01A 0B

PROOF
1. A little consideration will show that in the initial mean position of the mechanism, the instantaneous center of the link BA lies at infinity. 2. Therefore the motion of the point P is along the vertical line BA.
3.

Let 0BA01 be the new position of the mechanism after the link OB and O1A are displaced through the angle and respectively.

a.

Arc BB = Arc AA

or

OB X = O1 X

## From equation (1) and (2) 0B = 01A AP = BP AP BP or 01A = PB OB PA

Thus the point P divides the link AB into two parts whose length are inversely proportional to the length of the adjacent link.

## 2.Modified Scott-Russell Mechanism

1)It is evident from the figure that this mechanism is made up of isosceles triangles; AB, AC and AO2 are of equal lengths. 2)This mechanism is similar to the Scott Russel mechanism but in this case AB is not equal to AC and

the point B and C are constrained to move in horizontal and vertical direction. 3)A little consideration will show that it forms an elliptical trammel, so that any point A on BC traces an ellipse with semi- major AC and semi major axis AB. 4) If the point A moves in a circle, then for a point C to move along an approximate straight line, the length OA must be equal to AB2/AC. 5)This is limited to only for small displacement of B.

## 3. Grass hopper mechanism

1. This mechanism is a modification of modified Scott Ruseel mechanism with difference that the point does not slide along a straight line, but moves in a circular arc with center O. 2. It is a four bar mechanism and all pair are turning pairs as shown in figure. 3. In this mechanism, the center O and O1 are fixed. 4. The link OA oscillates about O through and angle AOA1 which causes the point P to moves along a circular arc with O as a center and O1P as radius. 5. For small angular displacement of OP on each side of the horizontal ,the point Q on the extension of the link PA traces out an approximately a straight path QQ .

## 5. Tchebicheffs (Chebychev) mechanism

1)It is a four bar mechanism in which the crossed link OA and O1B are of equal length.
2)

The point P which is the midpoint of AB traces out an approximately straight line parallel to 001 . The proportions of the link are usually such that the point P is exactly above O or O1 in the extreme position of the mechanism. i.e when the BA lies B01. It may be noted that the point P will lies on a straight line parallel to 001 in the two extreme positions and in the mid position, if the length of the link are in proportions AB : 001 : OA = 1 : 2 : 2.5

3)

4)

## Robert's Straight Line Mechanism

1. It is also a four bar chain mechanism, which in mean position has the form of a trapezium. 2. The link OA and O1B are of equal length and OO1 is fixed. 3. A bar PQ is rigidly attached to the link AB at its middle point P. 4. A little consideration will show that if the mechanism is displaced as shown by the dotted lines in figure, the point Q will trace out an approximately straight line.

Roberts mechanism

1. This is a four bar mechanism, where, PCD is a single integral link. 2. Also, dimensions AC, BD, CP and PD are all equal. 3. Point P of the mechanism moves very nearly along line AB.

## Intermittent motion mechanisms

An intermittent-motion mechanism is a linkage which converts continuous motion into intermittent motion. These mechanisms are commonly used for indexing in machine tools.

## Geneva wheel mechanism

1)

2)

3)

In the mechanism shown in figure, link A is driver and it contains a pin which engages with the slots in the driven link B. The slots are positioned in such a manner, that the pin enters and leaves them tangentially avoiding impact loading during transmission of motion. In the mechanism shown, the driven member makes one-fourth of a revolution for each revolution of the driver.

4)

The locking plate, which is mounted on the driver, prevents the driven member from rotating except during the indexing period