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Unit-4

Force, Torque and Strain Measurement

Topics
Mass balance measurement Elastic Element for force measurement Torque measurement

Mass balance measurement


Pure mechanical means of measuring force induced by mass Pivot point (O) Angle determined by W = W1 W2 Scale can be read to an accuracy of 1 part in 108 Optical instrumentation used to determine angular displacement in high precision devices

Other Measurement Methods


Due to the nature of the analytical balances construction, it is not suitable for most applications. Easier, cheaper, more accurate measurement methods

required
Elastic element for force measurement

Elastic Element for force measurement

Simple Elastic Element


Elastic elements are employed to furnish an indication of the magnitude of an applied force through a displacement measurement Example: Spring balance F = ky For a simple bar shown in figure below, the force is given by,

AE F y L

AE F y L

Figure: simple elastic element

Cantilever elastic element


The deflection of the cantilever beam shown in figure is related to the loading force by,

3EI L
3

All these elastic elements are suitable for use as a force

transducer provided that accurate means are available for


indicating the displacements.

Figure: Cantilever elastic element

The Proving Ring


Applying a force changes the ring diameter depending on whether tension or compression is applied.

Once the force is applied to the ring, the reed is tapped and
the micrometer is adjusted to damp out the reed vibrations.

The proving ring is used as a calibration standard for large tensile-testing machines.

Torque measurement