Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

TEDANKARACOLLEGEFOUNDATIONPRIVATEHIGHSCHOOL

THEINTERNATIONALBACCALAUREATEPROGRAMME

MATHEMATICSEXTENDEDESSAY
MathematicsInMusic

Candidate:SuGvenir
Supervisor:MehmetEminZER
CandidateNumber:001129047
WordCount:3686words

ResearchQuestion:Howmathematicsandmusicarerelatedtoeach
otherinthewayoftraditionalandpatternistperspective?

SuGvenir,001129047

Abstract

Links between music and mathematics is always been an important research topic
ever. Serious attempts have been made to identify these links. Researches showed that
relationships are much more stronger than it has been anticipated. This paper identifies
these relationships between music and various fields of mathematics. In addition to these
traditionalmathematicalinvestigationstothefieldofmusic,anewapproachispresented:
Patternistperspective.Thisnewperspectiveyieldsnewimportantinsightsintomusictheory.
These insights are explained in a detailed way unraveling some interesting patterns in the
chordsandscales.Thepatternsintheunderlyingthechordsareexplainedwiththehelpof
an abstract device named chord wheel which clearly helps to visualize the most essential
relationships in the chord theory. After that, connections of music with some fields in
mathematics, such as fibonacci numbers and set theory, are presented. Finally concluding
thatmusicisanabstractionofmathematics.
WordCount:154words.

SuGvenir,001129047
TABLEOFCONTENTS
ABSTRACT..2
CONTENTSPAGE...3
INTRODUCTION....5
MATHEMATICSINMUSIC.....6
1.SOUNDBASICS....6

1.1PhysicsofSound..6

1.2PropertiesofWaves.......6
()SpeedofWave......6

()Frequency7
()Wavelength.7
(V)Period....8
(V)Amplitude.8
1.3Pitch...8
1.4PitchFrequencies..9
1.5TimbreandFundamentalFrequency....10
2.PATTERNSINMUSICTHEORY..11
2.1.Chords..11
()WhatIsChord11
()TypesofChords12
a)MajorChord...13
b)MinorChord.....13
c)DominantChord..14
d)DiminishedChord..15
e)OtherChordForm..15

SuGvenir,001129047
(iii)HarmonizedScales..15
a)MajorScale.16
b)MinorScale..16
(iv)ChordRelationships17
2.2.Scales.19
(i)ChromaticScale19
(ii)ModalSystem..19
(iii)MajorScale..20
(iv)MinorScale..20
3.CONNECTIONSWITHVARIOUSFIELDSOFMATHEMATICS.20
3.1.ConnectionsWithLogarithms20
(i)SoundIntensity.20
(ii)Desibel..20
(iii)Frequency.21
3.2.ConnectionsWithTrigonometry..21
3.3.ConnectionsWithSetTheory.24
3.4.ConnectionsWithGoldenRatioandFibonacciNumbers25
()WhatIsGoldenRatio?...............................................................25

()FibonacciNumbers.26
CONCLUSION29
REFERENCES.30
APPENDIX..32

SuGvenir,001129047

Introduction

Physicsisthemusicoftheexistencewhereasmathematicsisitsnotes.Thisisthe
traditionalperceptionoftheexistencebuttherearemorethanitmeetstheeye:Patterns.
Indeed,everythinginlifeareperceivedbypatternssoasmathematics.Forexample,onecan
perceivethesequencestartingwith:1,2,3...asconsecutivenumbers(4,5,6)whereas
anothercanperceiveitasFibonaccilikesequence(5,8,13).Howeverwhileconnections
betweenmusicandfieldsofmathematicsliketrigonometry,logarithm,geometry(The
geometryofmusicalchordsDmitriTymoczko,PrincetonUniversity)aredeeplyanalysed
overtheyearsandpatternscanbethoughtthefundamentalpiecesofeverything,musichas
notbeenanalysedindetailsthroughpatterns.Basedonthisresearchoftheliterature,not
onlytraditionalconnectionsbetweenpuremathematicsandmusicbutpatternsunderlying
themusicarepresentedinadetailedwayconcludingwiththatmusicisjustanabstraction
ofpuremathematics.
It is also been known that music is about emotions. It is not quite right to think
emotionsindependentfrommathematicsthough.Theyareindeedmathematics.Inthelight
of the recent developments in computer science, it is now clear that they; love, anger,
hatred, disgust etc... are all mathematical models in human mind. Thus, emotions and
mathematicsarenotoppositeconcepts.Ontheotherhand,itisalsoequallywrongtotryto
performmusicwithpuremathematics.Emotionswhichareanabstractionofmathematics
andeventhoughwedidnotawaretheirmodelinourmindorhowtheyareoperatingwhile
feelings are aroused, one needs to know intuitively to use and combine them correctly
with pure mathematics i.e. theory of chords and scales, for performing good music. In
conclusion,emotionsaremathematicalmodels,oneisdoingmathematicswhileperforming
music and one does not indeed aware of this mathematical process being taken place in
betweenournetworksofneurons.
Basedontheobservationsandfactsstatedabove,itcanbesafetostatethatmusicis
nothingbutanabstractionofmathematicsineveryperspective.Theresearchquestionof
thisextendedessayis;Howmathematicsandmusicarerelatedtoeachotherinthewayof
traditionalandpatternistperspective?
Thispaperexaminesmathematicsbehindthemusicstartingfromthefundamentals
ofsoundcontinuingwiththechordtheorywhichisinvestigatedwiththepatternist
perspective.Finally,itinvestigatesthecoreconnectionwithsomefieldsofpure
mathematicsandwhilesomeapplicationsofcertainfieldsaresurveyedinadetailed
manner,acompleteoverviewofthecomplexpatternsinmusicandconnectionswith
mathematicsisnotintended.

SuGvenir,001129047

MATHEMATICSINMUSIC
SOUNDBASICS
1.1.PhysicsofSound:
Soundisthevibrationswhichcantravelonlyintheexistenceofamedium.Vibrationstake
placebetweenthemoleculesofthesubstance,andthevibrationsmovethroughthe
mediuminthewavesofsound.Thesoundcanmoveinamediummoreeasilydependingon
twoproperties;thenatureofthesoundandthenatureofthemedium.Forinstance;some
frequenciescanmovemoreeasilythroughcertainmediumsthantheotherfrequencies,and
somefrequenciescantravelforth.Whenthevibrationstravelthroughthemedium,
particles(themoleculesofthemedium)hiteachotherandtheycomebacktotheirprevious
positions.Sincethereforesomepartsofthemediumbecomedenserandtheyarecalled
condensations.Lessdensepartsarecalledrarefactions.

1.2.PropertiesofWaves

()SpeedofWave
Thespeedsoundwavesisstrictlydependentonthemedium.Inairwith21oCthe
speedisapproximately344m/s.Soundwavestravelmuchmoredistancesinsolidor
liquidthaninair.Forinstance,thediffusionofsoundwavesis1.4km/sinwater,
5000km/sinsteel.Hereistheformualforthecalcuationofthespeed:

c=20.05x(273+T)

c:speedofsound,m/sn

T:temperature,oC

Example:

Speedofsoundin21oC:

c=20.05x(273+21)

c=343.86m/s

Speedofsoundin0oC

c=20.05x(273+0)

c=331.23m/sn

SuGvenir,001129047
Speedofsoundin273oCnamely0oKabsolutezero

c=20.05x(273273)

c=0m/sn

*Givingustheinsightthatinamediumwithnomoleculesmoving,thesoundcan
notdiffuse.

()Frequency
Frequencyisthenumberofvibrationsofawaveinasecond.(Reference8)Namelyit
is1/snwhichHertzabbreviatedasHz.Whenthenumberofvibrationsincrease,i.e.
thefrequencyincreases,thesoundgetssharper,whenthenumberofvibrations
decreasethesoundgetslower.
Humanearcanhearbetween20Hz20,000Hz(20kHz);althoughveryfewpeople
canhearveryhighfrequenciessuchas20kHz.Roughly,thejuvenilehumancannot
hearabove17kHzwhereaselderonescannothearabove15kHz.

()Wavelength
Itisthedistanceoverwhichthewavesshaperepeats.(Reference8)Mathematically,
itcanbefoundsimplybydividingthespeedofthewavetothefrequencyofthe
wave.
=c/f

:Wavelength,m

c:speed,m/sn

f:frequency,Hz

Example:

Giventhetemperatureas21oChenceobtainingthespeedas344m/sn,the
wavelengthofawavewith2kHzis17cm.

=c/f

=(344m/sn)/(2000Hz)=0.17m=17cm

SuGvenir,001129047

(V)Period
Periodisthedurationbetweenthestartonecycletoanothercycleofthewave.
(Reference8)Mathematicallyitcanbefoundbytakingthereciprocalofthe
frequency.
T=1/f

T:period,sn

f:frequency,Hz

Example:

A50Hzwavecompletesitsoneperiodin1/(50Hz)namely0.02secondsi.e.
periodofa50Hzwaveis0.02sn.

(V)Amplitude

Figure1:Propertiesofthewaves.(Reference13)

1.3.Pitch
Pitchisanauditorysensationinwhichalistenerassignsmusicaltonestorelativepositions
onamusicalscalebasedprimarilyonthefrequencyofvibration.Pitchiscloselyrelatedto
frequency,butthetwoarenotequivalent.Frequencyisanobjective,scientificconcept,
whereaspitchissubjective.Soundwavesthemselvesdonothavepitch,and
theiroscillationscanbemeasuredtoobtainafrequency.Ittakesahumanbraintomapthe
internalqualityofpitch.(Reference12)

SuGvenir,001129047

1.4.PitchFrequencies
Hereisthetableoffrequenciesofpitches,andpitchrangesofvariousinstruments.

Figure2:PianoKeyfrequenciesandRangesofVariousInstruments.(Reference1)

SuGvenir,001129047

1.5.TimbreandFundamentalFrequency
TheAmericanStandardsAssociationdefinition12.9oftimbredescribesitas"thatattribute
ofsensationintermsofwhichalistenercanjudgethattwosoundshavingthe
sameloudnessandpitcharedissimilar",andanotetothisdefinitionaddsthat"timbre
dependsprimarilyuponthespectrumofthestimulus,butitalsodependsuponthe
waveform,thesoundpressure,thefrequencylocationofthespectrum,andthetemporal
characteristicsofthestimulus"(Reference4).
Whatthispropertytellsusthat,twosamepitcheswiththesamevolumearetotally
perceiveddifferentlyfromdifferentinstruments.Imaginethataguitarandapianoare
playedinthesameoctaveandpitchwithsamevolume;sincetheseinstrumentshave
differenttimbres,wecandifferentiatetheinstrumentsbyhearingthenotesproduced.
Thelowestfrequencyproducedbyanyparticularinstrumentisknownasthefundamental
frequency.(Reference8)Theinstrumentproducespartialfrequencieswiththefundamental
frequencynamedaspartials.Thehigherfrequencies(abovefundamentalfrequency)
producedarenamedasupperpartialsorovertones.Timbreisemergedfromtheoverlapping
ofthefundamentalfrequencyandthepartials.Timbreoftenreferredasthecolorofsound.
Integralmultiplesoffundamentalfrequencyarethefrequenciescalledasharmonic.Asfor
anexample,letschooseA4note,440Hzasfundamentalfrequency.FirstharmonicofA4is
itself;secondharmonicis(440x2)880Hz;thirdharmonicis(440x3)1320Hz.Octaveis
referredas2:1frequencyratio.Oneoctaveabovemeansthetwiceofthefrequency,
converselyoneoctavebelowisthehalfofthefrequency.(Seethetablebelow)

FundamentalFrequency

FirstHarmonic
SecondHarmonic
ThirdHarmonic
FourthHarmonic

Unison
Octave+1

Octave+2

Figure3:GenericFundamentalFrequencyTable

ApplyingthetableabovefortheA4note,440Hz:
440Hz(FundamentalFrequency)
880Hz
1320Hz
1760Hz

FirstHarmonic
SecondHarmonic
ThirdHarmonic
FourthHarmonic

Unison
Octave+1

Octave+2

A4
A5

A6

Figure4:FundamentalFrequencyTableforA4note

10

SuGvenir,001129047

PATTERNSINMUSICTHEORY
2.1.CHORDS1
(i)WhatIsChord?
Asoundsetcomposingofminimumthreenotes,whichtherelationshipsbetweenthese
notesarein3rds,calledachord.Thereisastrongrelationshipbetweennotionofchordsand
theconceptpitch.Forexampleinthescalegivenbelow,wecanconstructachordaccording
todefinitionabovebycombiningthreenotesstartingwitharandomnoteandjumpingto
3rds(eitherminorormajor).

Figure5:Naturalscale

Figure6:HarmonizedscaleofC

I;CEG
II;DFA
III;EGB
IV;FAC
V;GBD
VI;ACE
VII;BDF
VIII,OCTAVE;CEG

Hence,wecanconstructachordbasedonanynoteandwewillgivethenameTRIADfor
chordsconsistingofexactlythreenotesthathaveintervalof3rd.Thebasenotewillbe
calledasROOTNOTEi.e.forthechordIitwillbeC,forIIitwillbeD.Thechordsare
constructedaccordingtothisrootnoteagainforthechordI,Ewillbe3rdofbasenoteC,G
willbe3rdofE.

Thechords,notesandscalesinthischapteraregeneratedusingGuitarProsoftware.(Reference6)

11

SuGvenir,001129047
Thetypeoftriadwillbedeterminedbythequalityofthe3rdinterval;majororminor.
Seebelowfodifferenttypesoftriads.(Reference3)

Figure7:Triads(Reference7)

Chordscanbeconstructedwithmorethan3noteswith3rdintervalrelationship;thus
becomingSEVENTH(chordIbelow),NINTH(chordII),ELEVENTH(chordIII)or
THIRTEENTH(chordIV)chord.Notethattheninthchordalsocontainstheseventhnote,the
eleventhcontainsboththeseventhandtheninthandsoforth.

Figure8:chordsbeingconstructedwithmorethan3notes

(ii)TypesofChords
Heretypesofchordwillbeintroducedverybriefly.Thereareanumberoftypesofchords
suchasmajor,minor,dominantandsoforth.(Refertotheappendixforafulllistofchord
namings)
Thepatternsinthechordsarebasedontriadsgivenabove.Thenumbersinthechords
indicatethenewnodeaddedthechordwiththerespecttoitsintervalrelativetorootnote.
ForexamplefortheC6chord,6meansthe6thofrootnotewhichisC,hencegivingustheA
addedinthechord.

12

SuGvenir,001129047
(a) MajorChord
Thistypeofchordisbasedonthemajortriadsandthechordsgiveninfigures9,10
below.(Reference18)

Figure9:MajorchordsofC

Achordcanbealteredbyloweringorraisingthe5thoftheChordbyahalfstep;a
flat5(b5)orasharp5(#5or+5).SomeChordsliketheCMaj7(#5,b5)havetousea
flatforthesharpasthe"G"wouldbetooconfusingwithbothaflatandasharp"G".

Figure10:AlteredMajorchordsofC

(b)MinorChord
Thistypeofchordisbasedonthemajortriadsandthechordsgiveninfigure11,12
below.(Reference2,3)

Figure11:MinorchordsofC

13

SuGvenir,001129047

Thealterationprocesscanbeperformedexactlythesamewayintheconstructionof
Majorchord.

Figure12:AlteredMinorchordsofC

(c)DominantChord
Thistypeofchordisbasedonthemajortriadsandthechordsgiveninfigure13
below.(Reference2,3)

Figure13:DominantchordsofCincludingAlterations

14

SuGvenir,001129047

(d)DiminishedChord
Thistypeofchordisbasedonthemajortriadsandthechordsgiveninfigure14.
(Reference2,3)

Figure14:DiminishedchordsofC

(e)OtherChordForms(Reference18)
A"sus4"Chord(suspended4th)isbasicallyatriadwithanaltered3rdraisedto4th.
Example:"C"TriadconsistsofCEG,butwhenalteredtoa[Csus4]the"E"is
augmenteduptothenextscaledegree(F)andiswrittenasCFG.
AnothertypeofChordusedalotinRockmusicisthe"PowerChord"(alsoknownby
othernames)whichbasicallyusesonlytherootand5thofthetriad.Itcanbe
notatedas[C5]or[Cno3].
OthervariationsonChordscanbewrittenwithan"add"notice.Forexample,
[CMaj(add9)]wouldbea"C"MajorTriadwiththe9th(D)addedontop.Different
thattheMaj9ChordastheMajor7thisdeliberatelyleftout.

(iii)HarmonizedScales
Inanymajorkeytherearesevenbasicchords,knownasthediatonicchords.(Reference3)
Thesechordsareconstructedbyusingeveryothernoteofthemajorscale.Thereisone
chordforeachuniquenoteofthescale.

15

SuGvenir,001129047

ThechordfamiliesofCandCmisgivenbelow.ChordIsrepresentthetonicchordofthe
family.

Figure15:HarmonizedScaleofCandCm

(a)MajorScale
Theromannumeralsgivenindicatesthenatureofthechordsuchthat;
I,IV,VrepresentsMAJORchords;C,F,Grespectively.
ii,iii,virepresentsMINORchords;Dm,Em,Amrespectively.
viiorepresentsDIMINISHEDchord;Bo.

(b)MinorScale
Theromannumeralsgivenindicatesthenatureofthechordsuchthat;
III,VI,VIIrepresentsMAJORchords;Eb,Ab,Bbrespectively.
i,iv,vrepresentsMINORchords;Cm,Fm,Gmrespectively.
iiorepresentsDIMINISHEDchord;Do.

16

SuGvenir,001129047

(iv)ChordRelationships

Figure16:ChordWheel

Inthispart,mathematicalrelationshipsbetweenthechordsandtheirpropertiesare
introduced.
Thechordwheel(figure16)perfectlyrepresentstherelationshipbetweenthechords.
(Reference2)Theinnercirclerepresentsthetonicchord.Themiddlecirclerepresentsthe
minorchords,i.e.ii,iiiandvichords,ofthetonicchords.Theoutercirclerepresentsthe
diminishedchordsofthetonicchords.
HereisthecrucialpatternofthechordwheelfortonickeyF.Theneighbourhoodchordsare
IVandVchordswhicharemajorchordswhereasii,iiiandvichordsareminorchordsandviio
chordsinthefamily.

17

SuGvenir,001129047

Figure17:InterpretationofthechordWheel(Reference2)

Someotherunderlyingpatternsinthechordwheelare:
Theinnerchordcirclegoeswithperfectfifthsclockwise,perfectfourthscounter
clockwisei.e.ClockwiseDb>Ab>Eb(patternoffourths),counterclockwiseEb>
Ab>Db(patternoffifths).
Themiddlechordcirclegoeswithmajortwossucceedingwithperfectfourths
clockwise,minorseventhssucceedingperfectfifthscounterclockwisei.e.Clockwise
Fm>Gm>Cm>Dm>Gm>Am>Dm(patternofmajortwosandperfect
fourths),counterclockwiseDm>Am>Gm>Dm>Cm>Gm>Fm(patternof
perfectfifthsandmajortwos).
Theouterchordcirclegoesperfectfourthsclockwiseandperfectfifthscounter
clockwise.

18

SuGvenir,001129047
Keysignaturepatternsgivenintheinnergraycircleareasfollows:
o StartingwithC,one#isaddedclockwise,oneisaddedcounterclockwise.
Hence,thenextkeythatisfourthofacurrentkeyhasonemore,whereas
fifthofthecurrentkeyhasonemore#.(Observethat#+=naturalsound)
o Onemoreimportantpattern:
Ehas4#s,Ehas3s.
Chasnothing,C#has7#,C has7.
Bhas5#,B has2.
Wheretheyarealladdupto7.

2.2.SCALES
Scaleisasimplysequenceofnotesinsomepredefinedorder.Theorderofthenotes
determinesthetypeofthescale.Thereexistsmanyscalesinmusic,howeverthemost
importantandfundamentaloneswillbeexplainedhere.Theseare;(Reference3)
Chromatic
ModalSystem;Ionian,Dorian,Phyrgian,Lydian,Mixolydian,Aeolian,Locrian
Major
Minor
Pentatonic
Note:Below,WstandsforWholestep,Hstandsforhalfstep

(i)ChromaticScale:
Thisscaleconsistsof12notesfromthekeytothekeyoneoctavehigher/lower.Thesteps
areallH.
(ii)ModalSystem:
IonianScale:WWHWWWH
DorianScale:WHWWWHW
PhyrgianScale:HWWWHWW
LydianScale:WWWHWWH
MixolydianScale:WWHWWHW

19

SuGvenir,001129047
AeolianScale:WHWWHWW
LocrianScale:HWWHWWW
(iii)MajorScale:
ItistheIonianscalemadeupof7notes.Thestepsare:WWHWWWH
(iv)MinorScale:
ItistheAeolianscalemadeupof7notes.Thestepsare:WHWWHWW

CONNECTIONSWITHVARIOUSFIELDSOFMATHEMATICS
3.1.ConnectionsWithLogarithms
Inthescienceofaudio,logarithmsareusedinsoundintensityandfrequency.
(i) SoundIntensity(Reference9)
Theintensityofsoundsdependsonthevibrationfrequencyoftheobject.Intensityis
animportantfeaturewiththepitchandfrequency.Becauseoftheevenconsiderably
highchangesinpressure,powerandvoltagevaluescauserelativelylowchangesin
thesoundintensity,logarithmicscaleisusedinsteadoflinearscaleforthe
measurementsofthesoundandsignals.
(ii)Desibel(dB):Desibelistheunitmeasureusedinthesoundandsignalprocessing.
Itiseasiertodenoteconsiderablyhighandlowvalues.Itisalwaysusedfortoexpress
theratiooftwovalues.Inatechnicalwayofexpressing;dBisusedforexpressingthe
logarithmicratiosbetweentheelectricity,acousticandpowermeasurements.
Herearetheformulas:
dB=10log(P/Pref)
wherePispowerinwatts,Prefisthereferencepowerinwatts.
Letscalculatetheratioof2Wattto1Watt:

dB=10log(2/1)

=10log2

dB=3

20

SuGvenir,001129047
Nowletscalculatetheratioof10Wattto1Watt:

dB=10log(10/1)

=10log10

dB=10

Sothesenumberstellussomeimportantfacts:
o Ifthepowerisdoubled,wegotanincreaseof+3dB,ifthepowerisbeing
halved,wegotadecreaseof3dB.
o Ifthepowerismultipliedby10,wegotanincreaseof+10dB,ifthepoweris
dividedby10,wegotadecreaseof10dB.

(iii) Frequency(Revisited)(Reference9)
Rememberanoctavehigherhas2timesasmuchfrequencyasthereferencepitch.
Thus,ifthetwotoneshavefrequencyratiooffour,thatwouldgiveusa2octave
difference.
DifferenceinOctaves=log2(f1/f2)
wheref1andf2arethefrequenciesofthepitchesbeingcompared.
Letsillustratethswihanexamplebycalculatingtheoctavedifferencebetweenf1=
440Hzandf2=1760Hzi.e.pitchAindifferentoctaves;

DiO=log21760/440

DiO=2,henceA;440Hzis2octaveslowerthantheA;1760Hz.

3.2.ConnectionsWithTrigonometry2
Whensoundisgenerated,thevibrationsintheaircausesforsoundwavestobe
produced.Dependingonthefrequencyandhowloudthemusicisplaying,theamplitudewill
changeovertime(SeePartI:SoundBasics).AstheFrenchheatengineerFourierprovedthat
anywavecanbeinterpretedwithsomecombinationsofsinesandcosines,whichcanbealso
appliedtosoundwavessincetheyareordinarywavesindeed.Hereisthebasicformulaofa
soundgeneratedfromamusicalinstrument:(Reference10)
f(t)=Asin(2wt)+Bcos(2wt)

ThegraphicsinthischapteraregeneratedusingMATLABsoftware.(Reference5)

21

SuGvenir,001129047
wheretrepresentstime,A,Brepresentstheamplitudeandwrepresentsthefrequencyi.e.
pitch.Someexamples:
f(t)=sin(2t)

Figure18

f(t)=2*sin(2t)(theamplitudeistwotimesgreaterthanabove)

Figure19

22

SuGvenir,001129047
f(t)=sin(2t*0.5)(notethatthecycletimei.e.perioddoubles,sincethefrequency
halves,withrespecttothefirstexample)

Figure20

f(t)=cos(2t)

Figure21

23

SuGvenir,001129047
f(t)=sin(2t)+cos(2t)(additionofthefirstexampleandtheprecedingone)

Figure22

Synthesizerplayersusesinusoidalwaves(andsomeothershapesliketriangle,square)to
producenewsoundslikethesoundsinelectronic/technomusicfromthisverybasiclevel!

3.3.ConnectionsWithSetTheory
HereistheVennDiagramOfTheScalesCChromaticandCDorian;

Figure23:Vennschemaofchromaticscale

24

SuGvenir,001129047
FromtheVennschemaabove;
CChromaticScale CDorian
However,ifweviewthenotesleftbehind[CChromaticScale][CDorian]again;it
willbeseenthatthesetmadebythoseelementsformtheEmajorpentatonicscale.Soin
mathematicalterms;
EMajorPent.=(CDorian)
Thispatternsareveryusefulformusiciansfortonemodulationjumpingfromonechord
toanotherthroughouttheversesduringaparticularpiece.

3.4.ConnectionsWithGoldenRatioandFibonacciNumbers
()WhatIsGoldenRatio?
Goldenratiowasdiscoveredbyancientgreeksandbyancientegyptiansalong
timeago.Goldenratioisaspecialnumberwhichexistintheshapeandstructureof
mostofthelivingandnonlivingorganismsinthenature.Itisshownbythesymbol
phi()anditsvalueisequalto1.61803398874989484820...
LetABbealinedividedbythepointC.

AC=x
CB=y

Figure24:LineABdividedbypointCwithGoldenRatio.(Reference13)

Iftheratioofthelengthofthelongestpart(Y)tothesmallestpart(X)isequal
totheratioofthelengthoftheline(x+y)tothelengthofthelongestpart(Y),then
thevalueoftheratiowillbeequaltoTHEGOLDENRATIOwhichisequalto
1.61803398874989484820...Reference(17)
Y/X=(X+Y)/Y=1.61803398874989484820

25

SuGvenir,001129047

()FibonacciNumbers:
Fibonacci discovered the famous Fibonacci Numbers when he was trying to
solvetherabbitproblem.Fibonaccinumbersare;

1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144

Ifthesenumbersareanalyzed,itcanbeseenthatstartingfromthethird
termoftheserial,allnumbersaretequaltothesumprevioustwonumbersbefore
themselves.

2=1+1
3=1+2
5=2+3

Therelationsipbetweenthegoldenratioandthefibonaccinumbersisthat
whenwedividethenumbersoftheserialtoeachother,theresultgetsclosertothe
goldenratiowhichis1.61803398874989484820

1/1=1
2/1=2
3/1=1.5
5/3=1.667

89/55=1.618

26

SuGvenir,001129047
TheGoldenratiocanbeseenintheshapeoftheinstruments.

InViolin;

Figure25:Goldenratioontheshapeofviolin.(Reference14)

InTrumpet;

Figure26:Goldenratioontheshapeoftrumpet.(Reference15)

*Theinstrumentssuchaspiano,frenchhornhasgoldenratiointheirshapestoo.

27

SuGvenir,001129047
Ifthepianokeysareanalyzed,itwillbeseenthattheintervalsbetweenthe
keysareequaltotheFibonaccinumbers.

Inoneoctave,13keysexist.(Blackandwhitekeysarecountedtogether.)8of
them are white keys and 5 of them are black keys. There are 2 black keys exist
betweenthreewhitekeysand3blackkeysexistbetweenfourwhitekeys.(Reference
16)

Figure27:Fibonaccinumbersintheintervalsofthepianokey.()

Asitcanbeseenfromfigure27,thenumberare2,3,5,8,13whichbelongto
Fibonaccinumbers.

Most of the famous composers such as; Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig Van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frederic Chopin, Bela
Bartoketc.usedgoldenratiointheircompositions.

28

SuGvenir,001129047

Conclusion

Asbeingsurveyed,thispaperclearlyinvestigatedtheconnectionsbetweenthemusic
and mathematics. It started with the basics of sound investigated important concepts like
pitch, frequencies etc for stating the music in the physical world have also important
underlyingmathematicsandpreparinganimportantbackgroundfortherestofthepaper.
Inthesecondpartthechordtheoryisinvestigatedinpatternistperspective.Thisnew
perspective clearly broadens the way of looking the mathematics underlying the music,
offeringveryusefultheoreticalandpracticalknowledge.Moreover,thefindingsinthispart
ofthepapercanbedefinitelyappliedwhileperformingmusic.Ifthesepatternscanbelearnt
clearly,onecaneasilylearnchordtheorywithoutmemorizingtoomanyruleswhichleadsto
producebetterandmorecreativeimprovisationlines.
Inthefinalpartofthepaperrelationshipsbetweenmusicandsomevariousfieldsof
mathematicsarepresented.Howevertheserelationshipshardlyhaveapplicationsduringa
musicalperformanceunlikethefindingsintheprecedingpart.Logarithmsandtrigonometry
areusedinsoundengineeringwhereasfibonaccinumbersareusedinmusicalcompositions.
Nevertheless, applications of set theory in musical theory presented here could be very
usefulduringaperformance.
Tosumup,musiccanbetaughtasanabstractionconstitutingfromvariousfieldsof
mathematics. Many connections and patterns are presented in this paper, although some
connections not presented in here like geometry, algebra, number theory and even logic,
shouldbestudiedinamuchmoredetailedmanner.Finally,moreresearchshouldbemade
fornewconnectionsandpatternssinceitisclearthatmanymorepatternsandconnections
arewaitingtobediscovered.

29

SuGvenir,001129047

REFERENCES
1)"USINGEQUALISATION."SoundOnSound.Web.23Sept.2011.
<http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/aug01/articles/usingeq.asp>.
2)Fleser,Jim.TheChordWheel:TheUltimateToolforAllMusicians.HalLeonardCorporation,2000.

3)Palmer,WillardA.,MortonManus,andAmandaVickLethco.TheCompleteBookofScales,Chords,
ArpeggiosandCadences:IncludesAlltheMajor,Minor(Natural,Harmonic,Melodic)&Chromatic
ScalesPlusAdditionalInstructionsonMusicFundamentals,.AlfredPubCo,1994.

4)[AmericanStandardsAssociation(1960).AmericanStandardAcousticalTerminology.NewYork:
AmericanStandardsAssociation.]

5)TheMathWorks,Matlabthelanguageoftechnicalcomputing.N.p.,201.Web.18Dec2011.
<http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/>.

6)"GuitarPro6TablatureSoftwareforGuitar,Bass,andOtherFrettedInstruments."Web.12Oct
2011.<http://www.guitarpro.com/en/index.php>.

7)Cole,Richard."Violin."VirginiaTechMultimediaMusicDictionary.VirginiaTechDepartmentof
Music,2007.Web.14Oct.2011.<http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/>.

8)Everest,F.Alton,andKenPohlmann.MasterHandbookofAcoustics.5th.McGrawHill/TAB
Electronics,2009.

9)Ballou,Glen.HandbookforSoundEngineers.4th.FocalPress,2008.

10)Wattenberg,Frank."TheSoundofTrigonometry."MontanaStateUniversity.N.p.,1997.Web.18
Dec2011.<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/before
calculus/trigonometry/soundtrg/body.htm>.

11)"TheSoundry:ThePhysicsofSound."ThinkQuest.OracleFoundation.Web.25July2011.
<http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/Physics2.html>.
12)Plack,ChristopherJ.:AndrewJ.Oxenham,RichardR.Fay,eds.(2005).Pitch:NeuralCodingand
Perception.Springer.
13)MicrosoftPaint(Figure1andFigure24)
14)"SophlyLaughing(Sophy"softly"Laughing).":TheGoldenRatioofLaughter.Web.5Jan.2012.
<http://sophlylaughing.blogspot.com/2011/07/goldenratiooflaughter.html>.
15)"Trumpet.",HandHammeredPocketSlidePiccoloBassRotary,Cornet,Flugelhorn,BugleHorn.
Web.5Jan.2012.<http://www.trumpets.cc/>.
16)"MusicandtheFibonacciSeries."Music,FibonacciNumbersandRelationshipstoPhi,theGolden
Ratio.Web.18Feb.2012.<http://www.goldennumber.net/music.htm>.

30

SuGvenir,001129047
17)"GoldenRatio."MathIsFun.Web.21December2011.
<http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/goldenratio.html>.
18)"MusicTheory:Chords."AtLearnMusicFree.Web.15Oct.2011.
<http://www.learnmusicfree.com/lesson/fundamentals/chords.html>.
Note:Infigures15and16,theadditionsweremadebyMicrosoftPaint.

31

SuGvenir,001129047

APPENDIX
ChordNamings:
Tablex
NameOfTheChords
Major
Minor
7th
minor7th
Major7th
suspended4th
seventhsuspended4th
Diminished
Augmented
augmented7th
dominant7thwithflat(ted)5th
6th
minor6th
5th
9th
minor9th
Major9th
augmented9th
augmented11th
11th
13th
added9th
added4th
minoradded9th
minoradded4th
minor7thadded4th
suspended2nd
minor,Major7th
minor11th
6th9th
dominant7thwithflat(ted)9th
7thwithsharpened9th
suspended2nd,suspended4th
minor7thwithflat(ted)5th
minor7thwithsharpened5th
minor,Major9th
minorsixthninth
minor13th
Major9thwithsharpened11th
Major13th
Major13thwithsharpened11th
Major7thwithflat(ted)5th
Major7thwithsharpened5th
seventhsuspended2nd
7thadded4th
minorsuspended4th
minor7thsuspended4th

ChordsAbbreviations
m
7
m7
maj7
sus4
7sus4

+ or#
7+5
75
6
m6
5
9
m9
maj9
9+5
95
11
13
add9
add4
madd9
madd4
m7add4
sus2
m(maj7)
m11
69
79
7+9
sus2,sus4
m75
m7+5
m(maj9)
m69
m13
maj9+11
maj13
maj13+11
maj75
maj7+5
7sus2
7add4
msus4
m7sus4

32

SuGvenir,001129047

33