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MU1

MU1

MU1

(a) At the beginning:


only MU1 is firing at a low rate

MU1

MU1

MU1

MU1

MU1

(b) A little later: with temporal recruitment, the


firing rate of MU1 is increased. No other MU recruited yet.

MU3
MU1

MU2

MU1

MU3
MU1

MU2

MU1

MU1

(c) A little later: with spatial recruitment, new motor


units MU2 and MU3 have been brought into action. MU1
continues to fire at the same rate as in (b).

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ECG
Q

80 ms 80 ms 80 ms 100 ms

160 ms

340 ms
just before P: SA node fires
P: atrial depolarization or contraction
PQ: AV node delay; atrial repolarization
just before Q: AV node fires
QRS: ventricular depolarization or contraction (systole)
ST: plateau phase of ventricular myocyte action potential
T: ventricular repolarization

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after T: ventricular relaxation (diastole)

ECG
Q

T:

160 ms

ventricular repolarization; ventricular relaxation (diastole)


continues until the next QRS wave.

QRS: ventricular depolarization or contraction (systole)

atrial repolarization
(atrial relaxation continues until the next P wave)

340 ms

80 ms 80 ms 80 ms 100 ms

PQ:

ECG

atrial depolarization or contraction

160 ms

RR interval

P:

340 ms

80 ms 80 ms 80 ms 100 ms

 



 

 



 







 




 
















  

 


    


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action potential of
ventricular myocyte
action potential of
atrial myocyte
R

ECG
Q

80 ms 80 ms 80 ms 100 ms

340 ms

160 ms

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S1: first
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S2: second
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P2

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600 ms

800 ms

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-600

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-500

-500

-300

-400

-200 -100

200

(b) fs = 200 Hz

100

200

(a) fs = 500 Hz

100

baseband spectrum of
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-200 -100

aliasing error

-300

-400

baseband spectrum of
the original signal

400

500

600

700

400

500

frequency in Hz

300

600

...

700

copy due to sampling,


located at fs = 200 Hz
and its multiples

frequency in Hz

300

...

copy due to sampling,


located at fs = 500 Hz
and its multiples

 






 

 


 














   

  




 



 
 
 
 

 


   

 
  
 
  

   
 
  


 





  




-800

-700

-600
-500

-400 -200
200

400

-200 -100

aliasing error

-300

100

baseband spectrum of
the original signal

200

800

1000

frequency in Hz

600

1200

400

500

frequency in Hz

300

600

700

800

...

1400

copies due to sampling,


located at fs = 300 Hz
and its multiples

(a) fs = 1000 Hz. No aliasing error.

-600

(b) fs = 300 Hz (different scale as compared to part a)

-400

-800

...

copy due to sampling,


located at fs = 1000 Hz
and its multiples

 

...

-1400 -1200 -1000

...

baseband spectrum of
the original signal

v


 


    


 






 




 

 



  




 
 





 

 


 


   
 
  


 

  



 
 



 
 
 
 

 


 
 
  
 



 

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0 + j1 = 500 Hz

Imaginary
part

-1 + j0 =
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1 + j0 = DC
or 2,000 Hz
Real
part

0 - j1 = -500 Hz
or 1,500 Hz
(a) unit circle in the z-plane with fs = 2,000 Hz

0 + j1 = 125 Hz

-1 + j0 =
+250 Hz
or -250 Hz

Imaginary
part

1 + j0 = DC
or 500 Hz
Real
part

0 - j1 = -125 Hz
or 375 Hz
(b) unit circle in the z-plane with fs = 500 Hz

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3
h(n)

6
n

-2

4
x(n)

2
1
n
0

h(-k)
2

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-1

k
-2

3
2
h(1-k)

-2

and so on ... keep shifting h(-k)


until there is no overlap with x(k)
-1

6
k

-2

18
y(n)
10
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scale)

7
0
0

6
n

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1
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700 Hz

600




 


500

300
200

400
300 Hz
200

100 Hz



 




 






(c)

100
(b)

(a)

100

 

-100

-100

-200

-200




 





 



-500

-400 -300

-600




 

 






 

-700

-300

-100








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imaginary part

z-plane

real
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30

Magnitude (dB)

20
10
0
10
20

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

140

Phase (degrees)

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

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&

 

 
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30

Magnitude (dB)

20
10
0
10
20
30

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

Phase (degrees)

200

150

100

50

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40

Magnitude (dB)

30
20
10
0
10
20
30

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

50

100

150

200

250
300
Frequency (Hz)

350

400

450

500

Phase (degrees)

200

150

100

50

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x(n)

y(n)
1/4

y(n)

x(n)

1/4

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z
OR

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z

OR

x(n)

y(n)
1/4

-1
z

-1
z

-1
z

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f
imaginary part

z-plane

x
real
part

pole-zero
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0.3

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0.6
0.5

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0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
6

0
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10

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10

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140

120

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100

80

60

40

20

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5

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sample number n

20

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dotted: y(n) and dashed: output of matched filter

120

100

80

60

40

20

20

40
5

10

15
sample number n

20

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5
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3
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4
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5
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