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ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY * (1899 -1961)

ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY * (1899 -1961)

ERNEST Hemingway is one of the best known and most influential of modern American writers, chiefly esteemed for his novels and short stories. The son of a doctor who introduced him to the outdoor life, Hemingway was bom in Oak Park, on July 21,1899. He grew ,up in Oak Park and was educated in the local public schools; he is however more frequently associated with northern Michigan, where as a boy he spent his summers and where he later set several of his better-known stories. In high school, where he was active in athletics, he had already begun to write. Following graduation he permanently left home and first became an enthusiastic reporter for the Kansas Gty S tar, where he received valuable training for his career. After being repeatedly rejected by the army because of a boyhood eye injury, Hemingway managed finally to get into World War I as an ariiblanee driver for the Red Cross. He was severely wounded in Italy, near Fossalta di Piave, in July 1918. Subsequently decorated by the Italians and eventually discharged, he returned to Michigan to recuperate. Hemingway soon went back to Europe as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. He settled temporarily in Paris, where he determined, with the encouragement of Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, and others, to become a creative writer. His posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast (1964) is a memoir of the years in Paris. It contains biographical reminiscences and assessments of his literary contemporaries. Several of Hemingway's first stories, issued as his first important collection and called In Our Time (1925), indirectly reflected his own boyhood; they attracted considerable critical attention for the stoical attitudes of mind and the objective, understated technique, which were soon to become famous. His first genuine novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published the next year. A disillusioned, brilliantly composed account of the "lost generation," which the book made famous, the novel deals with the hopeless, aimless wanderings of a group of expatriates in Europe immediately following World War I. Equally successful and just as pessimistic was his next novel, A Farewell to Arms (1929), the story

ERNEST Hemingway, en ok yk ye romanlaryla n yapm, en tannm ve en ok etki uyandrm modem Amerikan yazarlarndan biridir. 21 Temmuz 1899'da Illinois eyaletindeki . Oak Park'ta, kendisine'doa sevgisini alayan bir doktorun olu olarak dnyaya geldi. Geri ocukluu burada geti ve buradaki okullarda eitim grd ama Hemingway denince akla daha ok ocukken yazlarn geirdii ve sonralar tannm yklerinin birounun getii yer olan Michigan gelir. Hemingway atletizm yapt lise yllarnda yazmaya balamt bile. Okulunu bitirdikten sonra evden temelli ayrld ve ilk olarak meslei asndan deerli bir eitim grd Kansas City'de Star gazetesinde byk bir istekle gazeteci olarak almaya balad. ocukluunda gznden yaralanm olduu iin askere alnma istei ordu tarafndan tekrar tekrar geri evrilen Hemingway, sonunda I. Dnya Sava'riaKz Ha amblansofr olarak katlmay baard. 1918 Temmuz'unda talya'da, Fossalta di Piave yaknlarnda ar bir biimde yaraland. talyanlar tarafndan nianla dllendirildikten bir sre sonra terhis edildi ve dinlenmek iin Michigan'a geri dnd. ok gemeden Toronto kenti Star gazetesi d muhabiri olarak tekrar Avrupa'ya gitti. Geici olarak Paris'e yerleti ve burada Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound ve bakalarnn da isteklendirmesiyle yaratc biir yazar olmaya karar verdi. lmnden sonra yaymlanan Paris B ir enliktir (1964) ad altnda toplanan yazlar Paris'te geirdii yllar anlatr. Bu yaptta ada olan yazm adamlar ile ilgili anlar ve onlar hakkndaki deerlendirmeleri vardr. lk nemli yklerini toplad ve In Our Time (1925) adn verdii kitaptaki yklerin birou dolayl bir biimde yazarn kendi ocukluunu yanstyordu; bu yklerde ortaya kan ve sonradan nlenecek olan stoac tutum ve nesnel, eksil tili teknik, eletirmenlerin byk apta ilgisini ekti. Ertesi yl, Hemingway'in gerek anlamda ilk roman olan Gne de Doaryaymland. Kitabn n kazandrd 'yitik neslin' ustallda yazlm karamsar yks olan roman Avrupa'ya g etmi bir grup insann I. Dnya Sava'nn hemen sonrasnda -oradaki umutsuz ve amasz yaamlarn anlatr. Ayn lde baarl, bir o kadar da ktmser olan bir sonraki roman Silahlara Veda (1929), talyan ordusundan ayrl-

of an American lieutenant in the Italian army who is forced to desert it and of his British mistress who dies bearing his child. A powerful and skillfully constructed work, in turn grimly realistic and neoromantic, it ranks with his first novel among the best fiction he has written. Several relatively minor efforts followed these early triumphs. First came two books of nonfiction, Death in the'Afternoon (1932) and Green Hills of Africa (1935). The.,' latter is. an autobiographical and knowledgeable account of big-game hunting, and the former is a book on bullfighting in Spain, which treats this activity more as tragic ritual than as sport; a second work on the same subject, The Dangerous Summer, remains unpublished. In To Have and Have Not (1937), a "depression novel," Hemingway for the first time became absorbed in social problems, and in the possibilities of cooperative or collective action. This new concern led him back to Spain, then in the throes of civil war. The first result of this prolonged visit was his only full-length play, The Fifth Column (1938), the action of which takes place during the siege of Madrid in the war; the second was his longest novel, and first major effort after 1929, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). This work, which deals with three days in the life of an American volunteer in Spain who gives his life to the Loyalist cause, advances the thesis that the loss of liberty anywhere reduces liberty everywhere. It also announced, indirectly but firmly, the end of the renuriation of society which several of the author's previous works had seemed . to express. Following this success, however, Hemingway lapsed into a silence that lasted for a decade, partly because of nonliterary activities in connection with World War n, in which he was deeply if informally involved, principally in France. His next novel, the story of an aging army colonel in Venice entitled Across the River and into the Trees (1950), was poorly received. But the following book, a short novel called The Old Man and the Sea (1952), was almost universally accepted as at least a minor masterpiece and was largely responsible for his winning the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. It is the heroic tale of an old Cuban fisherman who hooks onto a giant marlin, only tolose-his-magraficentcatch-to-.thesharks.Jhe_stary has been interpreted as an eloquent fable of man's life as a struggle against unconquerable natural forcesa struggle in which through dignity a kind of victory is won in defeat. In addition to his achievement as a novelist Hemingway has emerged, with his three collections of shorter fiction, In Our Time, Men without Women (1927), and Winner Take Nothing (1933), as one of the most widely admired and imitated of short story writers.; such tales

maya zorlanan bir Amerikal temenin ve onun ocuunu dourmak zereyken len Ingiliz sevgilisinin yksdr. Gl, ustalkla yazlm, kimi zaman son de- r.ece gereki, kimi zaman neo-romantik olan bu yapt, ilk roman e birlikte, yazm olduu en iyi romanlar arasnda yer almaktadr. Bu ilk baarlar, bunlar kadar nemli olmayan birok baka yapt izledi. lk nce gerek yaama dayal Death in the Afternoon (1932) ve Afrika'nn Yeil Tepeleri (1935) adliki yapt yaymland. Bunlardan kincisi He- mingway'in zyaam yksnden alnm olan ve byk av hayvanlan avcl konusunda nemli bilgiler ieren bir yapt, ilki ise Ispanya'daki boa grelerini bir spordan ok trajik bir ritel olarak iledii bir kitaptr. Ayn konu zerine yazd The Dangerous Summer balkl yapt henz yaymlanmamtr. Bir "bunalm roman" olan Ya Hep Ya Hi'te (1937) Hemingway, ilk kez toplumsal sorunlarla ve toplu eylem olasl ile ilgilenmitir. Bu yeni ilgi onun tekrar o srada i sava aclar ekmekte olan Ispanya'ya geri dnmesine yol at. Bu uzun sreli ziyaretin ilk meyvesi, i sava srasndaki Madrid kuatmasn anlatan ve yazd tek oyun olan The Fifth Column oldu (1938); kincisi ise en uzun roman ve 1929'dan sonraki ilk nemli yapt olan anlar Kimin in alyordu (1940). Ispanya'da Cumhuri- yetilerin davas uruna len Amerikal bir gnllnn yaamnn gnn ileyen bu yapt, zgrln dnyann herhangi bir yerinde yitirilmesi ile her yerde bir para yitirilmi olaca savn ileri srer. Bu yapt, ayn zamanda yazarn daha nceki birok yaptnda kulland toplumu yadsma temasnn da artk sntinun geldiini dolayl ama kesin bir dille anlatmaktadr. Ancak, bu baardan sonra, Hemingway yaklak on yl sreri bir suskunluk dnemine girdi. Bunun nedenlerinden biri He- mingway'in II. Dnya Sava srasnda, zellikle Fransa'da, resmen deilse de iyice karm olduu yaznd sava etkinlikleridir. Venedik'te yaayan yal bir albayn yksn anlatan Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine (1950) balkl bir sonraki roman pek fazla ilgi grmedi. Ancak bunu izleyen ve htiyar Adam ve Deniz (1952) adn tayan ksa roman bir bayapt kabul edilerek dnya apnda beeni kazand ve 1954 ylnda Nobel Yazm dln kazanmasnda byk etkisi oldu. Bu, Kba'l yal bir balknn yakalad dev bir mrlini kpek balklarna kaptrmasnn kahramanca yksdr. Bu yk, insan yaamnn yenilmez doal gler karsnda verilen bir savam olduunu gsteren simgesel bir yk olarak yorumlanmtryenilgide bile insann gururuyla bir eit zafer kazandn anlatan bir savam. . Roman yazar olarak elde ettii baarya ek olarak Hemingway, In Our Time, Kadnsz Erkekler (1927) ve Kazanana dl Yok (1933) balkl kitapta toplad ksa ykleriyle de en beenilen ve en yknlen yk yazarlarndan biri olmutur. "Katiller", "Francis Ma-

as "The Killers," "The short Happy Life of Francis Mac- omber," and 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro" are American classics. In his own life Hemingway long pursued the active life his books describe, and his fame rests in part on these nonliterary adventures. Four times married and the father of three sons, he participated in or was. a witness to most of the major and minor wars of his time. For a Icing period he was well known as a sportsman hunter, prizefighter, and fishing enthusiast and re- cordholder. Colorful, widely traveled, and often badly injured in the course of strenuous physical activity, his life made good material for journalists. In his later life he maintained an estate in Cuba, a place in Key West, Fla., and a home in Ketchum, Ida. It' was in Ketchum that he died on July 2,1961, of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Hemingway's Characters. The most important of Hemingway's characters are several protagonists who have been grouped together and called, collectively, the "Hemingway hero." This figure is originally and germinally a boy named Nick Adams, who is introduced in several short stories which are set often in Michigan; he is subtly exposed there to a world of violence and evil through a series of unsettling adventures, which are epitomized by his being wounded in World War I. This boy matures as a very masculine, though sensitive person, given to outdoor activity and physical pleasure; but as a result of his experiences he appears as well as a wary, even at times extremely nervous figure. His likeness reappears, substantially, as Frederic Henry in A Farewell to Arms, who is again wounded in that war, and as Jake Barnes of The Sun Also Rises, who is tryirig tolive as best he can in a world badly shaken by the same personal and social disaster. As Robert Jordan in For Whom the Bell Tollshe returns to the society and the causes which Adams, Henry, and Barnes had.deserted, and in his last appearance as Richard Cantwell in Across the River and into the Trees he revisits the scene in Italy where his worst physical and emotional scars had their origin. Much less important in the work as a whole but widely recognized is the 'Hemingway heroine," a selfless, compliant, and idealized woman who is mistress to the hero as the British Catherine of A Farewell to Arms, the Spanish Maria of For Whom the Bell Tolls, and the Italian Renata of Across the River and into the Trees. A slightly less consistent but more significant character who looms large in Hemingway's works is a man who exemplifies what i sometimes known as the "Hemingway code." This is a set of principles having to do with honor, courage, and endurance. In a highly compromising world of. tension and pain these principles enable a man to conduct himself well in the losing battle that is life and to show, in well-known phrase, "grace under pressure." This prominent figure, often confused with but distinct from the "hero," appears first iri such stories as "The Undefeated." But most notably he is old Santiago, of The Old Man and the Sea, about whom the chief point is that he behaves
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comber'in Ksa Mutlu Yaam" ve "Kilimanjaro'nun Karlan" Amerikan klasikleri arasndadr. Hemingway kendi yaamnda da kitaplarnda anlatt o hareketli yaam uzun sre srdrmtr ve kavutuu n biraz da bandan geen maceralardan kaynaklanr. Drt kez evlenen ve erkek ocuk babas olan Hemingway, zamannn nemli ve nemsiz hemen hemen tm savalarna ya katlm ya da onlara tank olmutur. Hemirigway zn sre iyi bir sporcu (ava, boksr, balklk merakls ve rekortmen) olarak da tannmtr. Renkli yaam, ok gezmesi ve genellikle g fiziksel etkinlikler srasnda ald ar yaralarla, gazeteciler iin iyi bir malzeme oluturmutur. Yaamnn son yllarnda Kba'da bir malikne, Florida eyaletinde bir arazi ve daho eyaletinin Ketchm kentinde bir ev almtr. 2 Temmuz 1961'de tfekle yaamna son vermitir. Hemingway'in Kiileri: Hemingway'in kiilerinin en nemlileri, 'Hemingway Kahraman' ad altnda toplanan bir grup kiidir. Bu kiilerin kkeni, ounlukla Michigan'da geen birka yksnn kahraman olan Nick Adams adl bir ocuktur. Hemingway bu ocuu I. Dnya Sava'nda yaralanmasn artran bir dizi sarsc macera yolu ile iddet ve ktlk dolu bir dnyayla kar karya getirir. Bu ocuk ok erkeksi ama duygusal, ev d ve fiziksel etkinliklere dkn biri olarak olgunlar, ancak geirdii deneyimler sonucu salangan hatta bazen son derece sinirli biri olarak grlr. Bu kahraman Silahlara Veda'da savata tekrar yaralanan Frederic Henry, Gne de Doar'da ise ayn kiisel ve toplumsal felaketlerle sarslm bir dnyada elinden geldiince yaamaya alan Jake Barnes olarak karmza kar.. Adams, fl/ar Kimin in alyr'da Robert ; Jordan olarak, Henry ve Barnes'n terk ettii topnia ve toplumsal davalara yeniden dner ve son olarak rmaktan teye Aalarn ine'de Richard Cantwell olarak bir kez daha en kt duygusal ve fiziksel yaralarn ald yer olan talya'ya gelir. 'Hemingway'in kadn kahraman' bir btn olarak yaptlarnda ok daha az nemlidir ama byle bir grup oluturulabilecei ounluka kabul edilmektedir. Bencil olmayan, yumuak bal bu ideal kadn Silahlara Veda'da kahramann Ingiliz sevgilisi Catherine, anlar Kimin in alyr'da spanyol Maria ve Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine'de talyan Renata'dr. Bunlardan daha az tutarl olan ama Hemingway'in yaptlarnda ok belirgin bir yer tutan bir baka kii ise bazen 'Hemingway yasas' olarak bilinen eyi simgeler J yen kiidir. 'Hemingway yasas' onur, yreklilik ve dayankllkla ilgili bir dizi ilkeden oluur. Bu ilkeler, ac ve gerginlik dolu, olduka tehlikeli bir dnyada kiinin kaybedecei belli olan bir savata,, yani yaamda, kendini iyi idare etoiesini ve iyi bilineli bir szle anlatmak gerekirse, 'glk karsnda metanet' gstermesini salar. ounlukla kahramanla kartrlan ama ondan ok farkl olan bu nemli "kii ilk olarak 'Malup Edilemeyenler" trndeki yklerde grlr./ Ancak htiyar Adam ve Deniz'de, yakalad byk bal kaybederken

ourselves in the process of being destroyed by life and the world. This theme is consistent with the author's view of the world, which has concentrated principally on a world at war; his characters typically operate under such conditions as are imposed by war. It is a narrow and highly distinctive world. Hemingway's^Ideas. From the start of; his career Hemingway's views of life and the world se.Srned-sigrii- ficantly representative of the attitudes of countless of his contemporaries. In A Farewell to Arms the protagonist stands readily for many Americans as he proceeds from complicity in the war to bitterness to escape; in his evolution America as a whole could read its own recent past in a crucial period from Wilson to Harding. The Sun Also Rises is, likewise, a memorable expression of the feelings of many people, upset in one way or another by the war, and disillusioned by a concomitant loss of faith in some of the values that had long sustained Western civilization. But during the Great Depression Hemingway's protagonist discovers, in To Have and Have Not, the ultimate impossibility of living the purely individualistic, even antisocial, existence he had pursued; he looks, as did the nation, toward cooperative action oh social and political problems. This reborn concern for society led directly to the resumption of man's war against tyranny, which was the subject of For Whom the Bell Tolls, written just at the time when Hemingway's countrymen, long given to denouncing war, were about to enter World War II. And then, just. as in the period following the war the American people began to turn once again from public to private preoccupations, Hemingway's protagonist was once more a man alone, fighting his own battles, in The Old Man and - the Sea. More thoughtful than some of his critics have realized, Hemingway usually preferred to keep his ideas from showing; but in the opinion of some critics his understanding of his era has been surpassed by few contemporaries. The Hemingway Style. Much of Hemingway's literary reputation rests on the prose style which he perfected with great care; it is probably the most influential and widely imitated style of any modern novelist. Formed into a new thing from the deeply assimilated influences of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) and a few of the works of Ste- phen Crane, and helped along by the later examples of Gertrude Stein, Sherwood Anderson and others, he developed in postwar Paris a simple and fresh way of writing English. Essentially a colloquial style, but spare, objective, unemotional, and often ironic, its influence has been felt in all parts of the world where fiction is

yin gurur ve yreklilik olduunu sylemede balca aracdr. Bu tema zellikle savaan dnyay ele alan yazarn dnya gryle de elimez; Hemingway'in kiileri savan beraberinde getirdii koullarda yaarlar. Bu da snrl ve olduka farkl bir dnyadr. Hemingway'in Fikirleri: Yazarla baladndan beri Hemingway'in yaam ve dnya grnn ok saymdaki adann grlerim tmyle temsil ettii grl- mtr. Silahlara Veda romannn kahraman savala olan su ortaklndan syrlp acdan kamaya alrken pek ok Amerikaly simgeler. Bu kiinin geliiminde btn Amerika, bakan Wilson'dan bakan Har- ding'e kadar sren o nemli dnemde kendi yakn gemiini okur. Gne de Doar, ayn ekilde, savala duygular yle ya da byle altst olmu, Bat uygarln ayakta tutan bir takm deerlerin de ayn zamanda kaybolmasyla birlikte karamsarla kaplm pek ok kiinin duygularm anlatan unutulmaz bir yapttr. Ancak, Byk Bunalm dneminde, Yu Hep Ya Hile Hemingway'in kahraman tmyle bireysel hatta toplumd yaamn olanakszln ahlar; ulusunun da yapt gibi toplumsal ve siyasal sorunlarda ibirliine dayanan ^y-j kimi ister. Topluma kar yeniden doan bu ilgi, u% sre sava sulayan vatandalarnn tam II. Dny S- $ va'na katlmak zere olduklar srada yazd anlar Kimin in ahyor'va konusu olan insann zulme kar savann yeniden balamasna yol amtr. Bundan sonra sava izleyen dnemde Amerikan halknn bir kez daha toplumu brakp kendi uralarna dalmas gibi Hemingway'in kahraman da bir kez daha, htiyar Adam ve Deniz'de olduu gibi kendi savan veren, yalnz bir insan olmutur. Baz etetirmenlerm sandndan daha dnceli olan Hemingway genellikle dncelerini gstermekten kanmtr; ancak baz eletirmenlerin grne gre de onun kendi dnemini kavrayn adalarndan pek z baarmtr.. Hemingway slubu: Hemingway'in yazn alanndaki n byk bir zenle kusursuzlatrd dzyaz slubundan kaynaklanr. Bu, belki de, modern romanclarn sluplar arasnda en etkili olan ve en ok ykn- lenidir. Mark Twain'in Huckleberry Finn 'in Maceralar (1884) ile Stephen Cra- ne'in birka yaptmm zmsenmi etkilerine yeni bir biim-vererek ve daha sonra Gertrude' Stein, Sherwood Anderson ve bakalarnn da verdii r- neklerin yardmyla sava sonras Paris'inde yepyeni ye yaln bir ngilizce yazma biimi gelitirdi. Temelde konuma dilinde ama ar, nesnel, duygusallktan uzak ve ounlukla ironik olan b slup dnynn her yerinde yazlan yk ve romanlar zerinde etkili olmu, diyalog yaz bu sanat yeniden canlandrm-

written; his writing of dialogue has helped to revitalize that art. The most obvious effect he has had is to be observed in the realms of subliterary fiction, particularly of the "tough-detective school." But on the whole his effect has been generally applauded as having played a substantial role in ridding serious modern fiction of literary embellishment, superficial artfulness, padding, sentimentality, and, generally, the worst aspects of the romantic heritage. Hemingway's techniques/ attitudes, arid preoccupations have combined to establish him as one of the most important of twentieth-century writers, and his' best work is thought likely to secure for him a permanent reputation in the history of American letters. For more extensive critical appraisals of his life and work, the reader is directed to Philip Young' Ernest Heming- >fli/ (1953), and Carlos Baker's Ernest Hemingway: A

tr. En belirgin etkisi de alt-yazm trlerinde, zellikle de 'tough detective school'da gzlenir. Ancak genellikle gerek anlamda modern roman sslemeden, yzeysellikten, abartma, duygusallk ve genelde romantik akmn tm kt ynlerinden kurtarmada nemli rol oynad iin vlr. Hemingway'in kulland teknikler, sahip olduu tutumlar ve ilgi duyduu konular onu yirminci yzyl yazarlarnn en nemlileri arama sokmaktadr ve en iyi yaptlarnn Amerikan yazn tarihindeki yerini salamlatracak nitelikte olduu kabul edilmektedir. Yaam ve yaptlar hakknda daha geni bilgi edinmek isteyen okurlarn Philip Young'm Ernest Hemingway (1953) ve Carlos Baker'm Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story (1969) adl yaptlarn okumalar nerilir.

AN INTERVIEW WITH ERNEST HEMINGWAY'

ERNEST HEMINGWAY LE BR SYLE'

HEMINGWAY: YOU go to the races? INTERVIEWER: Yes, occasionally. HEMINGWAY: Then you read the Racing Form...

HEMINGWAY : Yarlara gider misiniz? GRMEC: Evet, ara sra. HEMINGWAY: O zaman Racing Form okuyorsunuz...

There you have the true art of fiction.

te gerek roman sanat oradaki.

Conversation in a Madrid cafe, May 1954


Ernest Hemingway writes in the bedroom of his house in the Havana suburb of San Francisco De Paula. He has a special workroom prepared for him in a square tower at the southwest corner of the house, but prefers to work in his bedroom, climbing to the tower room only when "characters" drive him up there. The bedroom is on the ground floor and connects witli the main room of the house. Thedoorbetweenthetwoiskept'ajar- by a heavy volume listing and describihgihe World's Aircraft Engines. The bedroom is large, siinny, the windows facing east and south letting in the day's light on ivhiie zualls and a yellow-tinged tile floor. The room is divided into two alcoves by apairof chest-high bookcases that stand out into the room at right angles from opposite walls. A large and low double bed dominates one section, oversized slippers and loafers neatly arranged at the ; foot, the two bedside tables at the head piled sevenhigh- with books. In the other alcove stands a massiveflat-iopdesk with a chair at either side, its surface an ordered clutter of papers and mementos. Beyond it, at the far end of the room, is an ar- moire with a leopard skin draped across the top. The other zualls are lined with white-painted bookcases from which books overflow to the floor, and are piled cm top among old newspapers, bullfight journals, and stacks of letters bound together by rubber bands. It is on the top of one of these cluttered bookcases the one against the wall by the east window and three feet or so from his bedthat Hemingway has his ivork desk"a square foot of cramped area hemmed in by books on one side and on the other, by a newspaper-covered heap of papers, manuscripts, and pamphlets. There is just enough space left on top of the bookcase for a typewriter, surmounted by a wooden reading board, five or six pencils, and a chunk of copper ore to weight down papers when the wind blows in from the east. A working habit he has had from the beginning, Hemingway stands when he writes. He stands in a

Bir Madrid kahvesinde sohbet, Mays 1954


Ernest Hemingumy Havanain San Francisco de Paula adl banliysndeki evinin yatak odasindayazyor. Evin gneybat kesindeki kare biimindeki kulede kendisi iin hazrlanm zel bir alma odas var, ancak o, yatak odasnda almay yeliyor ve kuledeki odaya yalnzca "kiileri" kendisini zorladnda kyor. Yatak odas evin zemin katnda ve salona bitiik. Bu ikisi arasndaki kap Dnya Uak Motorlar'nn listesini ve tanmlamalarm veren kaln bir kitap ile aralk tutuluyor. Yatak odas, douya ve gneye bakan pencerelerinden beyaz duvarlarna ve sarya alan seramik zeminine gn dolan geni, gneli bir oda. Oda, karlkl duvarlardan dik a yaparak ortaya uzanan gs hizasndabir ift kitaplkla ikiye ayrlm. Blmelerden birini, baucunda zeri kitaplarla dolu bir ift sehpa, ayakucunda dzgnce yerletirilmi bir ift kocaman terlikle ayakkabnn bulunduu alak ve byk bir yatak kaplyor. Dier blmede zeri dzenli bir kt ve uradan buradan hatra diye toplanm eya kalabalyla kapl olan ve her iki yamndabirersandalyebulunankocaman bir alma masas duruyor. On ilerisinde, odann kar duvarnda, zerinde bir leopar posti bulunan byk bir giysi dolab var. Odann dier duvarlarna, raflarndan yerlere taan ve en stte eski gazetelerin, boa grei dergilerinin ve lastik bantlarla balanm mektuplarn arasna st ste ylm kitaplarn doldurduu beyaza boyal kitaplklar epeevre dizilmi. te Hemingway'in "alma masas"bu tka basa dolu kitaplklardan birinin, douya bakan pencerenin yanndaki duvaradayalveyatandanbirm'etrekadaruzaktabul unan kitapln zeri bir yannda kitaplarn, dier yannda zeri gazete dolu bir kt, elyazmas ve kitapk ynnn bulunduu darack bir alan. Kitapln zerinde, tepesinde bir okuma tahtas, be alt kurun kalem ve douya bakan pencereden rzgr estiinde ktlarn umasn engellemek : - iin-kullanlan-iri-birbakr arln bulunduu

clipboard to the left of the typewriter, extracting the paper a sheet at a time from under a metal clip which reads These Must Be Paid." He places the paper slantwise on the reading board, leans against the board with his left arm, steadying the paper with his hand, and fills the paper with handwritingwhich through the years has become larger, moreboyish, with a paucity of punctuation, very few capitals, and often the period marked with n x. The page completed, he clips it face-down on another clipboard which he places off to the right of the typewriter. Hemingway shifts to the typewriter, lifting off the reading board, only when the writing is going fast and well, or when the writing is, for him at least, simple: dialogue, for instance. He keeps track of his daily progress so as not to kid myself on a large chart made out of the side of a cardboard packing case and set up against the wall under the nose of a mounted gazellehead. Thenumberson the chart showing the daily output of words differ from 450,575,462,1250, back to 512, the higher figures on days Hemingway puts in extra work so he won't feel guilty spending the following day fishing on the Gulf Stream. A man of habit, Hemingway does not use the perfectly suitable desk in the other alcove. Though it allows more space for writing, it too has its miscellany: stacks of letters, a stuffed toy lion of the type sold in Broadway nighteries, a small burlap bag full of carnivore teeth, shotgun shells, a shoehorn, wood carvings of lion, rhino, two . zebras, and a wart-hogthese last set in a neat row across the surface of the desk and, of course, books: piled on the desk, beside tables, jamming the shelves in indiscriminate ordernovels, histories, collections of poetry, drama, essays. A look at their titles shows their variety. On the shelf opposite Hemingway's knee as he stands up to his work desk" are Virginia Woolf's The Common Reader, Ben Ames Williams' House Divided, The Partisan Reader, Charles A. Beard's The Republic, Tarles Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, How Young You Look by Peggy Wood, Alden Brooks' Will Shakespeare and the Dyer's Hand, Baldwin's African Hunting, T.S. Eliot's Collected Poems, and two books on General Custer's fall at the battle of the Little Big Horn. " ' The room, however, for all the disorder sensed at first

okuma tahtasn ince daktilo kdn zerine koyup yazmak iin kullanyor. Daktilonun solunda duran kskal yaz levhas zerinde bir deste bo kt bulunduruyor ve zerinde Bunlar de" yazan metal kskacn altndan birer birer ekiyor. Kd eimli olarak okuma tahtasnn zerine yerle ti riyor, sol kolunu tahtann zerine dayayarak, eliyle kd dzeltiyor veyllargetikebyypbirocuunkinebenzemeyebalayan, iinde pek az noktalama iaretiyle birkabyk harf bunan,ve'genellikte nbktayerihex iareti kullanlan bir elyazsyia dolduruyor. Sayfa dolunca, ters olarak daktilonun sanda.duran bir baka kskal yaz levhasnn zerine koyuyor. Hemingway, okuma tahtasn kaldrarak, daktilonun bana, ancakyazma ii iyi ve hzl gittiinde, ya da diyalog gibi en azndan kendisine gre basit bir ey yazdnda, geiyor. Her gn kaydettii ilerlemeyikendimi kandrmamak -iin" bir karton kutudan keserek yapt ve duvarda asl ceylan kafasnn altnda duran byk bir izelgeye iliyor. izelgede gnlk szck retimini gsteren 450, 575, 462, 1250 ve 512 gibi deiik saylar var; byk saylar Hemingway'in ertesi gn Golfstrim de bala kt zaman sululuk duymasn diye fazladan alt gnleri gsteriyor. Alkanlklarn adam olan Hemingway odann dier blmesindeki almaya ok daha elverili olan masay kullanmyor. Geri bu masada yaz yazacak daha geni bir alan var ama ottun zeri de birok eyayla dolu: Deste deste mektup, Broadway 'deki elence yerlerinde satlan cinsten oyuncak bir aslan, ii etobur hayvan dileriyle dolu branda bezinden bir anta, av tfei fiekleri, bir ayakkab ekecei ve masann stne.dzgnce sralanm aa oyma aslan, gergedan, zebra ve Afrika domuzu heykelcikleri ve tabii kitaplar: alma masasnn zerine sralanm, sehpalarn yannda duran, belli bir sraya dizilmeden raflara sktrlm kitaplar romanlar, tarihler, oyunlar, denemeler ve iir kitaplar. Balklarna bir gz atmak bunlarn eitliliini gstermeye yetiyor. alma Masasnn" bana i getiinde Hemingway'in dizinin hizasna gelen rafta Virginia Wolf'un The Common Reader'!, Ben Ames Williams'in House Divided'!, The Partisan Reader'i, Charles A. Be- ard'in The Republic, Tarle'nin Napoleon's Invasion of Russia adl kitaplar, Peggy Wood'un How Young You Look'u, Alden Brooks'un Will Shakespeare and The Dyer'sHand'i, BaifeVin African Hunting'i, T.S. Eliot'un Collected Poems adl kitab ile General Custer'in Little Big Horn arpmasndaki yenilgisini anlatan iki kitap var. Ancak oda, ilk bakta gze arpan karmaaya karn, dik-

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sight, indicates on inspection an owner who is basically neat but cannot bear to throw anything awayespecially if sentimental value is attached. One bookcase top has an odd assortment of mementos: a giraffe made of wood beads, a little cast-iron turtle, tiny models of a locomotive, two jeeps and a Venetian gondola, a toy bear with a key in its back, a monkey carrying apair of cymbals, aminiature guitar, and a little tin model of ,a U.S.,Navy, biplane (ofie wheel missing) resting awry on a-circiii'arstrawplace.mttt thequality of the collection that f the odds-andends which turn up in a shoebox at the back of a small boy's closet. It is evident, though, that these tokens have their value, just as three buffalo horns Hemingway keeps in h is bedroom have a value dependent not on size but because during the acquiring of them things went badly in the bush which ultimately turned out well. "It cheers me up to look at them," he says. Hemingway may admit superstitions of this sort, but he prefers not to talk about them, feeling that whatever value they may have can be talked away. He has much the same attitude about writing. Many times during the making of this interview he stressed that the craft of writing should not be tampered with by an excess of scrutiny"that though there is one part of writing that is solid and you do it no harm by talking about it, the other is fragile, and if you talk about it, the structure cracks and you have nothing.". . As a result, though a wonderful raconteur, a mannfrich humor, and possessed of an amazing fund of knowledge on subjects which interest him, Hemingway finds it difficult to talk about writingnot because he has few ideas on the subject, but rather that he feels so strongly that such ideas should remain unexpressed, that to be asked questions on them "spooks" him {to use one of his favorite expressions)'to ;\thepqint}whemhe;is:alinost'im^ in this interview he preferred to work out on his reading board. The occasional waspish tone of the answers is also part of this strong feeling that writing is a private, lonely occupation with no need for witnesses until the final work is done. This dedication to his art may suggest a personality at odds with the rambunctious, carefree, world-wheelingHem- ingway-at-play of popular conception. The fact is that Hemingway, while obviously enjoying life, brings an equivalent dedication to everything he doesan outlook that is essentially serious, with a horror of the inaccurate, the fraudulent, the deceptive, the half-baked. Nowhere is the dedication he gives his art,more evident than in the yellow-tiled bedroomwhere early in the morning Hemingway gets up to stand in absolute concentration in front of his reading board, moving only to shift weight from one foot to another, perspiring heavily when the work is go-

katli bakldnda, aslnda tertipli olan, ama hibir eyi, zellikle duygusaldeeri olan eyleri, atmaya kyamayan birine ait olduu izlenimini uyandryor. Kitaplklardan birinin zeri eitli hatra eya ile dolu: Tahta boncuklardan ya-- pilmi bir zrafa, demirden bir kaplumbaa, bir lokomotif,- iki cip ve bir Venedik gondolndn oluan minik maketler, srttan kurgulu bir oyuncak ay, elinde bir ift zil tutan bir maymun, minicikbir gitar, yuvarlak bir hasr altlk zerinde arpk bir biimde duran, tenekeden yaiplm Amerikan Be-; nizKuvvetleri'ne ait drt kanatl bir uak maketi (birtekerlei yok) nitelikleri kk bir olan ocuunun dolabnn arkasna saklad bir ayakkab kutusunda bulunabilecek trden krnt dkntden farkl olmayan eyler. Ancak bunlarn herbirinin deerli olduu apak ortada, tpk Hemingway'in yatak odasndaki bufalo boynuzunun deerinin byklklerine deil, elde edilmeleri srasnda ilerin nce kt gidip sonradan dzelmesine bal oluu gibi. "Onlara bakmak beni keyiflendiriyor," diyor Hemingway. Hemingway bu tr krinanlar olduunu aklamyor ama onlar hakknda konuursa deerlerini yok edecei dncesiyle bu konudan sz etniemeyi.yeliyor. Yazarlk konusundaki tutumu da hemen hemen ayn. Bu grme srasnda birokkezyazarlkiininfazlakurcalanmayagelfney eceini, "bir blmnn salam olduunu ve zerinde konuulmasnn ona bir zararnn dokunmayacam, dier blmn ise ok nazik olduunu ve eer hakknda konuulursa yapnn atlayacan ve elde hibir ey kalmayacan" vurgulad. Sonu olarak, ok iyi bir yk anlatcs, mizah anlay zengin ve kendisini ilgilendiren konular hakknda artc bir bilgi kaynana sahip bir insan olan Hemingway'e, yazarlkhakkndakonumakggeliyor konuhakkndapek az fikri olduu iin deil, bu fikirlerin szedklmemesi gerektiini dndvekendimnehuKnudfcofffi onu neredeyse konumay umttura^tiud^eH^sidii'dey imlerden biriyle) "rktt" iin. Bu grmede yantlarnounuvermedennceokumatahtasndayazm ayye- ledi. Yantlarda zaman zaman ortaya kan hrn ton daya- zarlm, zerinde allan yapt son biimini almadan kimsenin tanklna gereksinimi olmayan, zel ve yalnz yaplmas gereken bir i olduu duygusundan kaynaklanyor. Sanatna bu lde bal oluu, ounluun kafasndaki takn, tasasz, dnyay dolaan Hemingway imajyla elien bir kiilii dndrebilir. Gerek u ki, Hemingway yaamn tadn gerekten kartrken yapt her eye ayn derecede ballk gsteriyor. Bu aslnda Hemingway'in yanl, sahte, yanltc veyar olgunlam eyler karsnda duyduu korkuyu yanstan ciddi bir dnya gr. Bu odada Hemingway, sabahlar erkenden

HEMINGWAY: When I am working on a book or a story I write every morning as soon after first light as possible. There is no one to disturb you and it is cool or cold and you come to your work and warm as you write. You read what you have written and, as you always stop when you know what is going to happen next, you go on from there. You write until you come to a place where you still have your juice and know what will happen next and you stop and try to live through until the next day when you hit it again. You have started at six in the morning, say, and may go on until noon or be through before that. When you.stop you are as empty, and at the same time never :empty but filling, as when you have made love to someone you love. Nothing can hurt you, nothing can happen, nothing means anything until the next day when you do it again. It is the wait until the next day that is hard to get through. INTERVIEWER: Can you dismiss from your mind whatever project you're on when you're away from the typewriter? HEMINGWAY: Of course. But it takes discipline to do it and this discipline is acquired. It has to be. INTERVIEWER: DO you do any rewriting as you read up to the place you left off the day before? Or does that come later, when the whole is finished?

lyorsam her sabah gn r maz yazmaya balarm. O zaman insan rahatsz edecek kimse olmaz; hava serin ya da souktur ve almaya balar, yazdka snrsnz. Yazdklarnz okursunuz ve sonfa ne olacam bildiiniz zamanlar ara verdiiniz iin oradan devam edersiniz. Sonra ne olacam bildiiniz ve henz posanz kmamken, hl yazma isteinizin olduu bir noktaya gelene kadar yazarsnz ve orada durup ertesi gn yeniden balayana dek o gn geirnteye alr- : ruz. Diyelim o sabah altda baladnz, lene kadar ya da ok daha nce o gnk'ii bitirebilirsiniz. Yazmaya ara verdiiniz zaman sevdiiniz biriyle sevimisiniz gibi bo ama ayn zamanda bombo deil, dolmakta olduunuzu hissedersiniz. Hibir ey sizi zemez, size hibir ey olamaz, hibir eyin anlam yoktur, tabii ertesi gn ayn eyi yeniden yapana kadar. in zor olan ksm ertesi gn beklemektir. . GROMEC: Daktilodan uzaklatnz zaman zerinde altnz projeyi de zihninizden uzaklatrabiliyor musunuz? HEMINGWAY: Elbette. Ancak bunu yapmak disiplin ister ve bu disiplin sonradan elde edilir. yle olmak zorundadr. GRMEC: Bir gn nce braktnz yere kadar olan ksm okurken dzeltmeler yapar msnz? Yoksa HEMINGWAY: I always rewrite each day up to the point dzeltmeleri sonra, hepsi bittiinde mi yaparsnz? where I stopped. When it is all finished^ naturally you go over it. You get another chance to correct and Her zaman bir nceki gn yazdklarm yeniden yazarm. Hepsi rewrite bittiinde, doal olarak yeniden zerinden geilir. when someone else types it, arid you see it clean in type. Bir baka yeniden yazma ve dzeltme olana, The last chance is in the proofs. You're grateful for these yazdklarnz bir bakas daktiloya ektiinde ve different chances. sayfalar temiz ya-, zilmi olarak grdnzde INTERVIEWER: How .much rewriting do you do? ortaya kar. HEMINGWAY: It depends. I rewrote the ending to FareGRMEC: Yazdklarnz ka kez dzeltirsiniz? well to Arms, the last page of it, thirty-nine times HEMNGWAY: Belli olmaz. Silahlara Veda'nn sonunu, before I was satisfied. son sayfasn, tam istediim gibi olmas iin otuz INTERVIEWER: Was there some technical problem dokuz kez yazdm. there? What was it that had stumped you? GRMEC: Teknik bir sorun mu vard? Size g gelen HEMINGWAY: Getting the. words right. neydi? INTERVIEWER: Is it the rereading that gets the "juice" HEMNGWAY: Doru szckleri bulmak. up? GRMEC: Yazma isteini arttran, yazlanlar HEMINGWAY: Rereading places you at the point where yeniden it has to go on, knowing it is as good as you can okumak m oluyor? get it up to there. HEMNGWAY: O noktaya kadar yapabileceinizin en INTERVIEWER: But are there times when the inspiration iyisini yapm olduunuzu size gsterdii iin, yeniisn't there at all? den okuma eylemi sizi artk oradan devam etmeye HEMINGWAY.- Naturally. But if you stopped when you zorlar. knew what would happen next, you can go on. As GRMEC: Peki, esinin hi olmad bir zaman yok long as you can start, you are all right. The juice mu? will come. INTERVIEWER: Thornton Wilder speaks of mnemonic HEMNGWAY: Tabii var. Ama yazmaya sonra ne olacam bilerek ara vermiseniz oradan devam edebilirsiniz. Balayabildiiniz srece sorun yok demektir. Esin sonradan gelir. GRMEC: Thornton Wilder yazara gnlk al-

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devices that get the writer going on his day's work. He says you once told him you sharpened twenty pencils. HEMINGWAY: I don't think I ever owned twenty pencils at one time. Wearing down seven number two pencils is a good day's work. INTERVIEWER: Where are some of the places you have

found most advantageous to work? The Ambos Mundos hotel must have been one, judging from the number of books you did there. Or do surroundings have little effect on the work? HEMINGWAY: The Ambos Mundos in Havana was a very good place to work in. This Finca is a splendid place, or was. But I have worked well everywhere. I mean I have been able to work as well as I can under varied circumstances. The telephone and visitors are the work destroyers. INTERVIEWER.- IS emotional stability necessary to write well? You told me once that you could only write well when you were in love. Could you expound on that a bit more? HEMINGWAY: What a question. But full marks for trying. You can write any time people will leave you alone and not interrupt you. Or rather you can if you will be ruthless enough about it. But the best writing is certainly when you are in love. If it is all the same to you I would rather not expound on that. INTERVIEWER: How about financial security? Can that be a detriment to good writing? HEMINGWAY: If it came early enough and you loved life as much as.you loved your work it would take much character to resist the temptations. Once writing has become your major vice and greatest pleasure only death can stop it. Financialsecurity then is a great help as it keeps you from worrying. Worry destroys the ability to write. Ill health is bad in the ratio that it produces worry which attacks your subconscious and destroys your reserves. INTERVIEWER: Can you recall an exact moment when ,you decided to become a writer?
HEMINGWAY: NO, I always wanted to be a writer. INTERVIEWER: Philip Young in his book on you sug-

masnda yardmc olan yntemlerden sz ediyor. Sizin bir zamanlar kendisine yirmi kurun kalem atnz sylediinizi anlatyor. HEMINGWAY: Hibir zaman yirmi kaleme birden sahip olduumu sanmyorum. Gnde yedi tane iki numara kurun kalem bitirirseniz iyi alm saylrsnz. GRMEC: alma bakmndan en uygun bulduunuz yerler nerelerdir? Orada yazdnz kitaplarn saysna baklrsa herhalde bunlardan birisi Ambos Mundos oteliydi. Yoksa evrenin yapt zerindeki etkisi az mdr? HEMNGWAY: Havana'daki Ambos Mundos almak iin ok uygun bir yerdi. Bu Finca da harika bir yer, ya da yleydi. Ama ben her yerde iyi almmdr. Yani deiik koullarda verimli almay baardm. Telefon ve konuklar almay engelleyen eylerdir. GRMEC: yi yazabilmek iin duygusal tutarllk gerekli midir? Bir zamanlar bana yalnzca ak olduunuz zaman iyi yazabildiinizi sylemitiniz. Bu noktay biraz daha aabilir misiniz? HEMINGWAY: Amma soru! Ama yine de abanza tam not. nsanlar sizi rahat brakt ve almanz blmedii srece her zaman yazabilirsiniz. Ya da daha dorusu, acmasz olursanz yazabilirsiniz. Ama en iyi yazdnz zaman kesinlikle ak olduunuz zamandr. Eer ok gerekli deilse bu noktay amamay yelerim.
GRMEC: Peki, parasal gvence konusunda ne diyorsunuz? yi yazarla zarar dokunan bir ey olabilir mi bu? HEMNGWAY: Eer iin hemen banda parasal gven-

gests that the traumatic shock of your severe 1918 mortar wound had a great influence on you as a writer. I remember in Madrid you talked briefly about his thesis, finding little in it, and going on to say that you thought the artist's equipment was not an acquired characteristic, but inherited, in the Mendelian sense. HEMINGWAY: Evidently in Madrid that year my mind could not be called very sound. The only thing to rec- .. ommend-it-wouldbe that-I spoke only-brieflyabout-Mr- Young's book and his trauma theory of literature. Perhaps the two concussions and a skull fracture of that year had made me irresponsible in my statements. I do remember telling you that I believed imagination could be the result of inherited racial experience- It sounds all right in good jolly post-concussion talk, but I think that is more or less where it belongs. So until the next liberation trauma, let's leave it there. Do you

ceye kavumusanz ve hayata kendisini iinizi sevdiiniz kadar seviyorsanz batam kmamak iin ok gl bir iradenizin olmas gerekir. Ama yazarlk bir kez kannza girmi ve en byk zevkiniz olmusa o zaman ancak lm size engel olabilir. Bu durumda parasal gvencenin size byk yardm olur, nk parasal kayglar duymanza gerek kalmaz. Kayg yazma yeteneini yok eder. Hastalk da bilinaltnza saldrp oradaki kaynaklarnz yok eden kayglar rettii oranda ktdr. GRMEC: Tam olarak ne zaman yazar olmaya karar verdiinizi anmsyor musunuz?
HEMINGWAY: Hayr, ;her zaman yazar olmay istemitim. GRMEC: Sizinle ilgili kitabnda Philip Young,

1918 ylnda bir havan topu mermisinin sizi ciddi bir biimde yaralamasnn neden olduu travmatikokun yazar olarak zerinizde byk etkisi olduunu ileri sryor. Madrid'de iken onun bu sav zerinde ksaca durup, gerei pek az yansttm ve sanatnn malzemesinin sonradan kazanlm deil-, Mendelci anlamda -doutan-gelmeolduunu-sylediinizi-anmsyGr-um HEMINGWAY: Herhalde o yl Madrid'de aklm pek yerinde deildi. O szler hakknda sylenebilecek en iyi ey Bay Young'n kitab ve yaznda travma sav zerinde ksaca konumu olmamdr. Belki de o yl geirdiim iki beyin sarsnts ve bir kafa atla yznden szlerimden sorumlu hissetmiyordum kendimi. Size d- gcnn nesilden nesile geen rksal deneyimler sonucu olabileceini sylediimi anmsyorum. Bir beyin sarsnts sonrasnda yaplan neeli bir sohbet balam iinde 15

agree? But thanks for leaving out the names of any relatives I might have implicated. The fun of talk is to explore, but much of it and all that is irresponsible should not be written. Once written you have to stand by it. You may have said it to see whether you believed it or not. On the question you raised, the effects of wounds vary greatly. Simple wounds which do not break bone are of little account. They sometimes give confidence. Wounds which do extensive bone and nerve damage are not good for writers, nor anybody else.
INTERVIEWER: What would you consider the best intellectual training for the would-be writer? HEMINGWAY: Let's say that he should go out and

hang himself because he finds that writing well is impossibly difficult. Then he should be cut down without mercy and forced by his own self to write as well as he car for the rest of his life. At least he will have the story-of the hanging to commence with. INTERVIEWER: HOW about people who've gone into the academic Career? Do you think the large numbers of writers who hold teaching positions have compromised their literary careers? HEMINGWAY: It depends on what you call compromise. Is the usage that of a woman who has been compromised? Or is it the compromise of the statesman? Or the compromise made with your grocer or your tailor that you will pay a little more but will pay it later? A writer who can both write and teach should be able to do both. Many competent writers have proved it could be done. I could not do it, I . know, and I admire those who have been able to. I would think though that the academic life could put a period to outside experience which might possibly limit growth of knowledge of the world. Knowledge, however, demands more responsibility of a writer and makes writing more difficult. Trying to write something of permanent value is a full-time job even though only a few hours a day are spent on the actual writing. A writer can be compared to a well. There are as many kinds of wells as there are writers. The important thing is to have good water in the well and it is better to take a regular amount out than to pump the well dry and wait for it to refill. I see I am getting away from the question, but the question was not very interesting.

katlyor musunuz? O zaman dolayl olarak sz etmi olabileceim akrabalarmn adlarm anmadnz iin teekkrler. Sohbetlerin zevkli yan fikirlerin konuurken olumasdr. Ama bence sylenenlerin ounluu ve sorumsuzca sylenenlerin hibiri yazya dklme- melidir. Eer yazlrsa onlar savunmak durumunda kalrsnz. Oysa bir eyi yalnzca ona inanp inanmad- . mz anlamak iin sylemi olabilirsiniz. Sorduunuz soruya gelince, yaralarn etkisi k farkl olabilir. Kemiin krlmad basit yaralar nemsizdir. Bazen gven verirler insana. Byk kemik ve sinir tahribat yapan yaralar ise ne yazarlar ne de bir bakas iin iyidir. GRMEC: Bir yazar aday iin sizce en iyi zihinsel eitim nedir? HEMNGWAY: yi yazmann olanakszlk lsnde g olduunu grd iin gidip kendini asmas gerek diyelim. Sonra da boynundaki ip acmaszca kesilip yere indirilmeli ve kendi kendisini yaamnn geri kalan ksmnda elinden geldiince iyi yazmaya zorlamal. En azndan balang iin elinde aslma yks olacaktr. GRMEC: Akademik kariyere girenlere ne diyorsunuz? Sizce niversitelerde retim yelii yapan ok saydaki yazar sanatnda zveride bulunmu mudur? HEMINGWAY: BU, zveriyle ne demek istediinize bal. zveriyi kendinden zveride bulunan bir kadndan sz ettiimizde kullandmz anlamda m dnyorsunuz? Ya da bir devlet adamnn zveride bulunmas anlamnda m? Yoksa bakkalnzla ya da terzinizle veresiye alveri yapp daha fazla para demeyi kabul ettiinizde vardnz trden bir uzlama anlamnda m? Hem yazarlk hem de hocalk yapan bir yazar iki ii de yapabilme yeteneine sahip olmaldr. Birok yetenekli yazar bunun yaplabileceini kantlamtr. Ben yapamayacam biliyorum ve yapabilenlere hayranlk duyuyorum. Ancak akademik hayata, dnya hakknda sahip olunan bilgiyi snrlayarak d dnyada kazanlacak deneyimlere son verebileceini dnyorum. Ancak bilgi, yazara sorumluluk ykler ve yazma iini daha da gletirir. Kalc deeri olan bir eyler yazmaya almak, yazma eyleminin kendisi gnde yal-;1 nzca birka saat srse bile insann tm gnn alan bir uratr. Yazar bir kuyuya benzetilebilir. Dnyada ne kadar ok yazar varsa bir o kadar da kuyu vardr. nemli olan kuyuda iyi su bulunmasdr ve kuyudan diL^nli miktarlarda su almak suyun tmn kullanp kuyuyu kuruttuktan sonra yeniden dolmasn beklemekten daha iyidir. Sorudan

Would you suggest newspaper work for :he young writer? How helpful was the training you had with the Kansas City Star? HEMINGWAY: On the Star you were forced to learn to write a simple declarative sentence. This is useful to anyone. Newspaper work will not harm a young writer and could help him if he gets out of it in time. This is one af the dustiest cliches there is and I apologize for it. But ,vhen you ask someone old tired questions you are apt tb feeeiv old'fired answers.. INTERVIEWER: YOU once wrote in the Transatlantic Revieio that the only reason for writing journalism was to be well paid. You said:"And when you destroy the valuable things you have by writing about them, you want :o get big money for it." Do you think of writing as a :ype of selfdestruction? HEMINGWAY: I do not remember ever writing that. But it sounds silly and violent enough for me to have said it to avoid having to bite on the nail and make a sensible statement. I certainly do not think of writing as type of self-destruction, though journalism, after a point has been reached, can be a daily self-destruction :or a serious creative writer. , INTERVIEWER: Do you think the intellectual stimulus of the company of other writers is of any value to an author?
INTERVIEWER: HEMNGWAY: Certainly. INTERVIEWER: In the

Paris of the twenties did you have any sense of "group feeling" with other writers and artists? HEMINGWAY: NO . There was no group feeling. We had respect for each other. I respeted a lot of painters, some of my own .age, others Older Gris, Picasso, Braque,Monet, who was still alive thenand a few writers: Joyce, Ezra, the good of Stein.... INTERVIEWER: When you are writing, do you ever find yourself influenced by what you're reading at the time? HEMINGWAY.- Not since Joyce was wri ting Ulysses. His was not a direct influence. But in those days when words we knew were barred to us, and we had to fight for a single word, the influence of his work was what changed everything, and made it possible for us to break away from the restrictions. INTERVIEWER: Could you learn anything about writing fro;fti the writers? You were telling me yesterday that Joyce, for example, couldn't bear to talk about writing. HEMINGWAY: In company with people of your own trade you ordinarily speak of other writers' books. The better the writers the less they will speak about what they have written themselves. Joyce was a very great writer and he would only explain what he was doing to jerks. Other writers that he respected were supposed to be

uzaklatmn farkndaym ama soruyu fazla ilgin bulmadm. GRMEC: Gen yazarlara gazetede almay nerir misiniz? Sizin Kansas City Sfar'daki eitiminiz ne lde yararl oldu? HEMNGWAY: Sfar'da ak seik sade cmleler yazmay renmek zorundaydmz. Bunun herkese yarar vardr. Gazetede almann gen yazara zarar deil, eer oradan zamannda ayrabilirse yarar olur: Basmakalp szlerin en eskilerinden birini kllandlm iiri bla- yn beni. Ama birine eskimi sorular sorarsanz kanlmaz olarak eskimi cevaplar alrsnz. G RMEC: Bir zamanlar Transatlantic Review dergisinde kan bir yaznzda gazete yazlar yazmann tek nedeninin iyi para getirmesi olduunu sylemitiniz. yle diyordunuz: "Sahip olduunuz deerli eyleri onlar hakknda yazarak yok ettiinizde karlnda iyi para almak istersiniz." Yazarl bir tr kendini yok etme olarak m gryorsunuz? HEMNGWAY: Byle bir ey yazdm hi anmsamyorum. Ama ylesine aptalca ve sarsc bir ey ki bu, herhalde akl banda bir ey yazmak iin dnmek zahmetine katlanmaktan kurtulmak iin sylemiimdir. Elbette yazarl bir tr kendini yok etme olarak grmyorum ama bir noktaya gelindikten sonra gazetecilik ciddi ve yaratc bir yazar iin gn be gn kendini yok etme saylabilir. G RMEC: Sizce bir yazar iin baka yazarlarla birlikte olmann salayaca dnsel uyarnn herhangi bir deeri var mdr? HEMNGWAY: Mutlaka. . G RMEC: 1920'lerin Paris'inde dier sanat ve yazarlarla hi ayn gruba ait olduunuz duygusunu yaa-, diniz m? HEMNGWAY: Hayr. Gruba ait olma duygusu yoktu. Birbirimize sayg duyuyorduk. Ben, kimi yatm, kimi benden yal olan birok ressama sayg duyuyordum Gri'e, Picasso'ya, Braque'a, o zamanlar hayatta olan Monet'ye ve birka yazara: Jyce'a, Ezra'ya, Stein'in yazdklarnn bazlarna... G RMEC: Yazarken o sralarda okumakta olduunuz bir
eyden etkilendiiniz olur mu? ' HEMNGWAY: Joyce'un Ulysses'i

yazndan bu yana hayr; Onunki de dorudan bir etki deildi. Ancak o gnlerde bildiimiz szckler bize yasallanmken ve biz tek bir szck iin sava verirken, her eyi deitiren onun yaptnn etkisi oldu ve kstlamalardan kurtulmamz salad! G RMEC: Yazarlardan yazarlk konusunda birey renilebilir mi? rnein, dn bana Joyce'un yazma konusunda konumaya katlanamadn sylvordu- nuz. HEMNGWAY: Sizinle ayn ii yapan kimselerle birlikte olduunuzda normal olarak baka yazarlarn kitaplarn konuursunuz. Bir yazar ne kadar iyiyse kendi.yazdklar hakknda o kadar az konuur. Joyce byk bir yazard ve yapt eyin ne olduunu ancak ahmaklara aklard. Sayg duyduu dier yazarlarn oriun ne yaptn, yazdklarn okuyarak anlayabilecek yetenekleri
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you go in writing the more alone you are. Most of your best and oldest friends die. Others move away. You do not see them except rarely, but you write and have much the same contact with them as though you were together at the cafe in the old days. You exchange comic, sometimes cheerfully obscene and irresponsible letters, and it is almost as good as talking. But you are more alone because that is how you must work and the time to work is shorter all the time and if you waste it you feel you have committed a sin for which there is no forgiveness. INTERVIEWER: What about the influence of some of these peopleyour contemporarieson your work? What was Gertrude Stein's contribution, if any? Or Ezra Pound's? Or Max Perkins'? HEMINGWAY: I'm sorry but I am no good at these postmortems. There are coroners literary and nonliterary provided to deal with such matters. Miss Stein wrote at some length and with considerable inaccuracy about her influence on my work. It was necessary for her to do this after she had learned to write dialogue from a book called The Sun Also Rises. I was very fond of her and thought it was splendid she had learned to write conversation. It was no new thing-to me to learn from everyone I could, living or dead, and I had no idea it would affect Gertrude so violently. She already wrote very well in other ways. Ezra was extremely intelligent on the subjects he really knew. Doesn't this sort of talk bore you? This backyard literary gossip while washing out the dirty clothes of thirty-five years ago is disgusting to me. It would be different if one had tried to tell the whole truth. That would have some value. Here it is simpler and better to thank Gertrude for everything I learned from her about the abstract relationship of words, say how fond I was of her, reaffirm my loyalty to Ezra as a great poet and a loyal friend, and say that I cared so much for Max Perkins that I have never been able to accept that he is dead. He never asked me to change anything I wrote except to remove certain words which were not then publishable.- Blanks were left, and anyone who knew the words would know what they were. For me he was not an editor. He was a wise friend and a wonderful companion. I liked the way he wore his hat and the strange way his lips moved. INTERVIEWER: Who would you say are your literary forebearsthose you have learned the most from? HEMINGWAY: Mark Twain, Flaubert, Stendhal, Bach, Turgenev, Tolstoi, Dostoevski, Chekhov, Andrew Marvell, John Donne, Maupassant, the good Kipling, Thoreau, Captain Marryat, Shakespeare, Mozart,

yazmaya verdiiniz lde yalnzlnz artar. En iyi ve en eski dostlarnz lr. Kalanlar uzaklar. Onlar yalnzca arasra grrsnz ama yazarsnz ve eski gnlerde olduu gibi bir kahvede birlikteymisinizcesine ilikiniz srer. Birbirinize komik, bazen da ak sak ve sorumsuz mektuplar yazarsnz ve bunlar karlkl konumusunuz gibi rahatlatr insan. Ama eskisine oranla daha yalnzsnz dr nk byle almanz gerekir ve alacak zaman giderek daralmaktadr ve siz onu boa harcarsanz balanmas olanaksz bir gnah ilemisiniz duygusuna kaplrsnz. GRMEC: Ya adalarnz olan bu insanlardan bazlarnn sizin yazdklarnz zerindeki etkisi? Eer olmusa, Gertrude Stein'm katks neydi size? Ya daEzra Pound'un veya Max Perkins'in? HEMINGWAY: Balayn ama ben bu otopsi iinde pek iyi deilimdir. Gerek yazn evresinde gerekse yaznd- evrelerde bu gibi konularla ilgilenecek birok kii var. Bayan Stein uzun uzadya ve olduka yanl bir biimde kendisinin benim yaptlarmn zerindeki etkisi konusunda yazd. Tabii bunu yapmadan nce Gne Doar adl bir kitaptan diyalog yazmasm renmesi gerekti. Ben kendisini ok severdim ve diyalog yazmay renmi olmasnn harika bir ey olduunu dndm. Yaayan ya da l herhangi birinden bir eyler renmek benim iin yeni bir ey deildi ama Gertru- de'un bylesine etkilenecei hi aklma gelmemiti. nk dier yanlan zaten gl olan bir yazard. Ezra iyi bildii konularda son derece akll bir insand. Bu tr konumam sizi skmyor mu? Arka bahede otuz be yl ncenin kirli amarlarn ykarken yaplan bu yazn dedikodusu beni irendiriyor. nsan gerein tmn anlatmay denese o zaman farkl olabilir. te onun bir deeri olur. Oysa burada szcklerin arasndaki soyut iliki konusunda kendisinden rendiim her ey iin Gertrude'a gnl borcum olduunu ve onu ne kadar sevdiimi sylemek, byk bir ozan ve gerek bir dost olan Ezra'ya ballm vurgulamak ve Max Per- kins'i, lm olduunu hl kabul edemeyecek kadar ok sevmi olduumu sylemek daha kestirme ve iyi olacak. Perkins yalnzca o zamanlar yaymlanmas olanaksz olan baz szckleri kartmam sylemek dnda benden yazdklarmn tekini bile deitirmemi istemedi. O szcklerin yerleri bo braklyordu ve onlar bilenler zaten ne olduklarn anlyordu. Benim iin o bir yaymc deildi. Akll bir dost ve harir ka bir arkadat. apkasn giyi biimini ve dudaklarnn garip oynayn severdim. GRMEC: Yazn alannda sizi etkileyenler, size en ok ey retenler kimlerdir? HEMINGWAY: Mark Twain, Flaubert, Stendhal, Bach, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoyevski, ehov, Andrew Marvel], John Donne, Maupassant, bazen Kipling, Thoreau, Captain Marryat, Shakespeare, Mozart,

Quevedo, Dante, Vergil, Tintoretto, Hieronymus Bosch, Brueghel, Patinir, Goya, Giotto, Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin, San Juan de la Cruz, Gongora it would take a day to remember everyone. Then it would sound as though I were claiming an erudition I did not possess instead of trying to remember all the people who have been an influence on my life and work. This isn't an old dull question. It is a very good but a solemn question and requires an examination of conscience. I put in painters, or started to, becase I learn as much from painters about how to write as from writers. You ask how this is done? It would take another day of explaining. I should think what one learns from composers and from the study of harmony and counterpoint would be obvious. INTERVIEWER: Did you ever play a musical instrument? HEMINGWAY: I used to play ceilo. My mother kept me out of school a whole year to study music and counterpoint. She thought I had ability, but I was absolutely without talent. We played chamber music someone came in to play the violin; my sister played the viola, and mother the piano. That celloI played it worse than anyone on earth. Of course, that year I was out doing other things too. INTERVIEWER: Do yo reread the authors of your list? Twain, for instance? HEMINGWAY: YOU have to wait two or three years with Twain. You remember too well. I read some Shakespeare every year, Lear always. Cheers you up if you read that. INTERVIEWER: Reading, then, is a constant occupation and pleasure. HEMINGVVAY: I'm always reading booksas many as there are. I ration myself on them so that I'll always be in supply. INTERVIEWER: Do you ever read manuscripts? HEMINGWAY: YOU can get into trouble doing that unless you know the author personally. Some years ago I was sued for plagiarism by a man who claimed that I'd lifted For Whom the Bell Tolls from an unpublished screen scenario he'd written. He'd read this scenario at some Hollywood party. I was there, he said, at least there was a fellow called "Ernie" there listening to the reading, and that was enough for him to sue for a million dollars. At the same time he sued the producers of the motion pictures Northwest Mounted Police and the Cisco Kid, claiming that these, as well, had been stolen from that same unpublished scenario. We went to court and, of course, won the case. The man turned out torbe-fflsolvent: ' INTERVIEWER: Well, could we go back to that list and take one of the paintersHieronymus Bosch, for instance? The nightmare symbolic quality of his work seems so far removed from your own. HEMINGWAY.- I have the nightmares and know about the ones other people have. But you do not have to write them down. Anything you can omit that you know you still have.in the writing and its quality will show. When a writer omits things he does not know, they show like holes in his writing. INTERVIEWER: Does that mean that a close knowledge

Quevedo, Dante,- Vergil, Tintoretto, Hieronymus Bosch, Brueghel, Patinir, Goya, Giotto, Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gaugin, San Juan deLa Cruz, Gongora hepsin ni anmsamak btn bir gn alr. Sonra yaamm ve yaptlarm zerinde etkisi olan herkesin adn anmsamaya almyormuum da bunlarn her biri zerinde derin bilgiye sahipmiim izlenimi doar. Sorduunuz, basmakalp ve skc bir soru deil. ok iyi, ciddi bir so- . : ru ve insann vicdanm yoklamasn gerektiriyor. Ressamlar da kattm, ya da katmaya baladm, nk nasl yazlacan yazarlardan olduu kadar ressamlardan da renirim. imdi bunu nasl yaptm soracaksnz. Onu aklamak da bir gn daha srer. Sanrm insann bestecilerden ve mzikte armoni ile kontrpuan almalarndan neler renebilecei aktr. GRMEC: Bir mzik aleti aldnz m hi? HEMNGWAY: Eskiden viyolonsel alardm. Annem mzik ve kontrpuan alaym diye beni bir yl okuldan almt. Yetenekli olduumu sanyordu ama aslnda hi yeteneim yoktu. Oda mzii alardk annem piyano, kzkardeim viyola, bir bakas da keman alard. O viyolonseli herkesten daha kt alardm. Tabii o yl baka eyler de yapyordum. GRMEC: Listenizdeki yazarlar tekrar tekrar okur musunuz? rnein Twain'i? HEMNGWAY: Kolay kolay unutulmad iin Twain'i iki, yl arayla okumak gerek. Her yl biraz Shakespeare okurum, Lear' ise her zaman. Onu okuyunca keyiflenirsiniz. . ' GRMEC: O halde okumak sizin iin srekli bir i . ve zevk. HEMINGWAY.- Her zaman kitap okurum, ne kadar varsa. Kitapsz kalmayaym diye srekli olarak belirli saylarda kitap alrm kendime. GRMEC: Hi yaymlanmam yapt okur musunuz? HEMNGWAY: Eer yazarn kendisini tanmyorsanz yaymlanmam yapt okuyarak banza i aabilirsiniz. Birka-yl nce anlar Kimin in alyor'u kendi yazd yaymlanmam bir film senaryosundan aldm ileri sren bir adam beni mahkemeye verdi. Bu senaryoyu bir Hollywood partisinde okumu olduunu ve aynpartide benim, ya da en azndan "Ernie" adl bi - rinin, bulunduunu syledi ve bu bir milyon dolarlk bir dava amasna yetti. Ayn zamanda Northwest Mounted Police ve Cisco Kid adl filmlerin de ayn senaryodan alnm olduunu eri srd. Mahkemeye gittik ve tabii ki davay kazandk. Adamn ise iflas etmi biri olduu anlald. GRMEC: u listeye geri dnp ressamlardan birini,rnein'Hierriyris Bsh'u'ete-abilir^miyiz? Onun resimlerinin karabasanlardakini andran simgesellii sizin yaptlarnzdakilere hi benzemiyor. HEMNGWAY: Benim de karabasanlarm var ve baka insanlarn karabasanlar hakknda da ok ey biliyorum. Ama bunlar yazmanz gerekmez. Bildiiniz eyhleri karttnz zaman onlarn yazdklarnzda hl blundun ve kendilerini belli edeceini bilirsiniz. Yazar bilmedii eyleri kartt zamkn yazdklarnda boluklar oluur.

of ttie works of the people on your list helps fill the "well" you were speaking of a while back? Or were they cnsciosly a help in developing the techniques of writing? HEMINGWAY: They were a part of learning to see, to hear, to think, to feel and not feel, and to write. The well is where your "juice" is. Nobody knows what it is made of,.least of all yourself. What you know is if you have it, or you have to wait for it to come back. INTERVIEWER: Would you admit to there being symbolism in your novels? HEMINGWAY: I suppose there are symbols since critics keep finding them. If you do not mind I dislike talking about them and being questioned about them. It is hard enough to write books and stories without being asked to explain them as well. Also it deprives the explainers of work. If five or six or more good explainers can keep going why should I interfere with them? Read anything Iwrite for the pleasure of reading it. Whatever else you find will be the measure of what you .brought to the reading. INTERVIEWER: Continuing with just one 'question on this line: One of the advisory staff editors wonders about a parallel he feels he's found in The Sun Also Rises between the dramatis personae of the bull ring and the characters of the novel itself. He points out that the first sentence of the book tells us Robert Cohn is a boxer; later, during the desencajona- da, the bull is described as using his horns like a boxer, hooking and jabbing. And just as the bull is attracted and pacified by the presence of a steer, Robert Cohn defers to Jake who is emasculated precisely as is a steer. He sees Mike as the picador, baiting Cohn repeatedly. The editor's thesis goes on, but he wondered if it was your conscious intention to inform the novel with the tragic structure of the bullfight ritual. HEMINGWAY: It sounds as though the advisory staff editor was a little bit screwy. Who ever said Jake was "emasculated precisely as is a steer"? Actually he had been wounded in quite a different way and his testicles were intact and not damaged. Thus he was capable of all normal feelings as a man but incapable of consummating them. The, important distinction is that his wound was physical and not psychological and that he was not emasculated. INTERVIEWER: These questions which inquire into craftsmanship really are an annoyance.
HEMINGWAY: A sensible question is neither a delight nor an annoyance. I still believe, though, that it is very bad for a writer to talk about how he writes. He writes to be read by the eye and no explanations or dissertations should be necessary.

bu yaptlarn yazm tekniklerinize katks bilinli mi oldu? HEMINGWAY: Onlar bana grmeyi, iitmeyi, dnmeyi, duymay ya da duymamay ve yazmay renirken yardmc oldular. Kuyu, iinde yazma enerjinizin bulunduu yerdir. Onun neden olutuunu en bata kiinin kendisi olmak zere hi kimse bilemez. Yalnzca varolup olmadn ya da geri gelmesini beklemenin gferekip gerekmediini bilirsiniz. GRMEC: Romanlarnzda simgeler bulunduunu kabul ediyor musunuz? HEMNGWAY: Eletirmenler srekli olarak bulduklarna gre sanrm simgeler var. Balayn ama bunlardan sz etmekten ve bu konuda bana soru sorulmasndan holanmam. Roman ve yk yazmak yazdklarnz aklamanz istenmeden de zaten yeterince zor. Hem de ii aklama yapmak olanlara i kalmaz. Eer iyi aklama yapan bealt ya da daha fazla kimse varsa ben ne diye onlarn ilerine karaym? Yazdm herhangi bir eyi okumaktan tat almak iin okuyun. Orada bulacanz herhangi baka bir ey, okumaya sizin kattnz eylerin ls olacaktr. GRMEC: Bu konuda son bir soru: Bizim yayn danma kurulundakilerden biri, Gne'de Doar'm kiileriyle, bir boa grei arenasndaki oyuncular arasnda bulduunu sand bir koutluun erekten.bulunup buunma- "dh merak ediyor. Romann ilk cmlesinde Robert Cohn'un bir boksr olduunu rendiimize, daha sonra desencajonada srasnda boann boynuzlarm kullan biiminin tpk bir boksrn yumruklarn kullanna benzetildiine dikkati ekiyor. Ve arenada burulmu bir kzn varl boay nasl kendine eker ve yattrrsa, Robert Cohn da, tpk bu kz gibi erkeklii yok edilmi olan Jake'e duyduu sayg ve sevgi nedeniyle yola geliyor. Mike' da srekli olarak Cohn'a eziyet edip yormaya alan bir picador olarak gryor. Bu arkadan sav bylece srp gidiyor. Merak ettii ey, roman boa grei ritellerinin bu trajik yapma bilinli olarak oturtup oturtmadnz. HEMNGWAY: Anlalan, yayn danma kurulu editr biraz kakm. Jake'in erkekliinin "tpk bir kziinki gibi yok edilmi" olduunu da nereden karm? Gerekte Jake ok baka bir biimde yaralanmt ve hayalarna hibir ey olmamt. Bu yzden bir erkein duyabilecei tm normal duygulan duyma yeteneine sahipti ama bu duygular boaltamyordu. Burada yarasnn psikolojik deil bedensel olduunun ve erkekliinin yok edilmediinin ayrdma varmak nemlidir. GRMEC: Yazarlk becerisiyle ilgili bu sorular gerekten can skc. HEMINGWAY: Mantkl bir soru ne gzel ne de can skc olabilir. Ama ben yine de bir yazarn nasl yazdm anlatmasnn ok kt bir ey olduunu dnyorum. O, okunsun diye yazar; aklamalar ve tezler ge-

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You can be sure that there is much more there than will be read at any first reading and having made this it is not the writer's province to explain it or to run guided tours through the more difficult country of his work. INTERVIEWER: In connection with this, I remember you have also warned that it is dangerous for a writer to talk about a work-in-progress, that he can "talk it out" so to speak. Why should this be son? I only ask because there . are so many wri tersTwain, Wilde, Thurber, Steffens come to mindwho would seem to have polished their material by testing it on listeners! HEMINGWAY: I cannot believe Twain ever "tested out" Huckleberry Finn on listeners. If he did they probably had him cut out good things and put in the bad parts. Wilde was by people who knew him to have been a better talker than a writer. Steffens talked better than he wrote. Both his writing and his talking were sometimes hard to believe, and I heard many stories change as he grew older. If Thurber can talk as well as he writes he must be one the greatest and least boring talkers. The man I know who talks best about his own trade and has the pleasantest and most wicked tongue is Juan Belmonte, the matador. INTERVIEWER: Could you say how thought-out effort went into - the evolvement of your distinctive style? . HEMINGWAY: That is a long-term tiring question and if you spent a couple of days answering it you would be so elf-conscious that yoii could not write. I might say . that what amateurs call a style is usually only the unavoidable awkwardnesses in first trying to make something that has not heretofore been made. Almost no new classics resemble other previous classics. At first people can see only the awkwardness. Then they are not so perceptible. When they show so very awkwardly people think these awkwardnesses are the style and many copy them. This is regrettable. INTERVIEWER: You once wrote me that the simple circumstances under which various pieces of fiction were written could be'instructive. Could you apply this to "The Killers"you said that you had written it, "Ten Indians," and "Today Is Friday" in one day and perhaps to your first novel The Sun Also Rises? HEMINGWAY: Let's see. The Sun Also Rises I started in Valencia on my birthday, July twenty-first. Hadley, my wife, and I had gone to Valencia early to get good tickets for the Feria there which started the twenty-fourth of July. Everybody my age had written a novel and I was still having a difficult time writing a paragraph. So -Istariedthe-book-onmy.birthday-,-wrotealLthrough-the Feria, in bed in the morning, went on to Madrid and wrote there. There was no Feria there, so we had a room with a table and I wrote in great luxury on the table and around the corner from the hotel in a beer place in the Pasaje Alvarez where it was cool. It finally got too hot to write and we went to Hendaye. There'

rekli olmamaldr. Yazdklarnda ilk okumada anlalandan ok daha fazlas bulunduuna emin olabilirsiniz. Bunu yaptktan sonra yazdklarn aklamak ya da yaptnn zor yerlerine rehberli turlar dzenlemek yazarn alanna girmez. GRMEC: Buna ilikin olarak sizin, bir yazarn zerinde alt yapt hakknda konumasnn tehlikeli olaca uyarsn yaptnz anmsyorum yaptn, bir tr, ^konuarak-tketecei"'uyarsn. Neden yle' : olsun? Bu soruyu soruyorum nk birok yazar u anda aklma Twain, Wilde, Thurber, Steffens geliyor elindeki malzemeyi sanki nce dinleyiciler zerinde deneyip sonra yetkirdetirmitir. HEMNGWAY: Twain'in Huckleberry Finn'i dinleyicileri zerinde "denemi" olabileceine inanamam. Denemise bile byk bir olaslkla ona iyi yerleri karttrp kt yerleri koydurtmulardr. Kendisini tanyanlarn sylediine gre, Wilde'm konumacl yazarlndan daha iyiymi. Steffens yazdndan daha iyi ko- nuurdu. Hem yazd hem de konutuu zaman bazen inanlmaz olurdu. Yalandka yklerinin birounu deitirdiini duydum. Eer Thlrber yazd kadar iyi konuabiliyorsa dnyann en byk ve ah az ican skc konumaclarndan biri olmal. Tandklarm arasnda yapt i hakknda en iyi konuabilen, kendine kar en aamasz olabilen ve en tatl dilli insan matador Juan Belmonte'dir. GRMEC: Kendinize zg bir slup gelitirmek iin ne kadar bilinli bir aba gerekti, syleyebilir misiniz? HEMINGWAY: BU ok uzun zaman gerektiren yorucu bir : soru. ki gnnz bu soruyu yantlamaya ayrsanz bu defa da gzleriniz vlesine kendi zerinize evrilir M, hibir ey yazamazsnz Amatrlerin uslup diye adlandrdklar eyin genellikle k o gne dek yaplmam bir eyi yapmaya alrken kanlmaz olarak ortaya kan acemilikler .olduunu syleyebilirim. Yeni klasiklerden hemen hibiri kendisinden nce ge- . lenlere benzemez. nceleri insanlar yalnzca acemilikleri grrler. Sonralar ise bu kadar belirgin deildir. Grmezlikten gelinemeyecek kadar belirginse bunlarn slup olduu sanlr ve ou kimse onlar taklit eder. Bu zc bir ey. GRMEC: Bir zamanlar bana yazdnz bir mektupta eitli yk ve romanlarn iinde yazld yaln koullarn retici olabileceini sylemitiniz. Buhun "Katiller" iin bu yky, "On Kzlderiliyi ve "Bugn Cuma"y bir gn iinde yazdnz sylemitiniz ve belki de ilk romannz Gne de Doar iin geerli olduunu syleyebilir misiniz? HEMNGWAY: Durun bakaym. Gne de Doar'a Va- ] erci 'dTffgn ml t2 Temmz 'd a~balam- tim. Karm Hadley ile birlikte 24 Temmuz'da balayacak olan panayra iyi yerden bilet almak iin erkenden Valencia'ya gitmitik. Benim yatm olan herkes bir roman yazmt ama ben hl paragraf yazmakta bile glk ekiyordum. Bylece kitaba doum gnmde baladm, panayr boyunca yazdm;, sabahlan yatakta yazdm, Madrid'e getim ve orada yazdm. Orada panayr yoktu, onun iin, iinde masa olan

weeks from the day I started it. I showed the first draft to Nathan Asch, the novelist, who then had quite a strong accent, and he said, "Hem, what dc you mean saying you wrote a novel? A novel huh. Hem you are riding a fravhel bch." I was not too discouraged by Nathan and rewrote the book, keeping in the travel (that was the part about the fishing trip and Pamplona) at Schruns in the Vorarlberg at the Hotel Taube. .Theistories you mention I wrote in one day in Madrid on May sixteenth when it snowed out the San Isidro bullfights. First I wrote "The Killers," which I'd tried to write before and failed. Then after lunch I got in bed to keep warm and wrote "Today Is Friday." I had so much juice I thought maybe I was going crazy andT had about six other stories to write. So I got dressed and walked to Fornos, the old bullfighters' cafe, and drank coffee and then came back and wrote "Ten Indians. " This made me very sad and I drank some brandy and went to sleep. I'd forgotten to eat and one of the waiters brought me up some bacalao and a small steak and fried potatoes and a bottle of Valdepenas. The woman who ran the Pension was always worried that I did not eat enough and she had sent the waiter. I remember sitting up in bed and eating, and drinking the Valdepenas. The waiter said he would faring up another bottle. He said the Senora wanted to know if I was going to write all night. I said no, I thought I would lay off for a while. Why don't you- try to write just one more, . the waiter asked. I'm only supposed to write one, I said. Nonsense, he said: You couid write six. I'll try tomorrow,! said. Try it tonight, he said. What do you think the old woman sent the food up for? I'm tired, I told him. Nonsense, he said (the word was not nonsense). You tired after three miserable little stories. Translate me one. Leave me alone, I said. How am I going to write it if you don't leave me alone? So I sat up in bed and drank the Valdepenas and thought what a hell of a writer I was if the first story was as good as I'd hoped. INTERVIEWER: How complete in your own mind is the conception of a short story? Does the theme, or the plot, or a character change as you go along? HEMINGWAY: Sometimes you know the story. Sometimes you make it. up as you go along and have no idea how it will come out. Everything changes as it moves. That is what makes the movement which makes the story. Sometimes the movement is so slow it does not seem to be moving. But there is always change and always movement.

ucuz bir otel vard, orada ok iyi altm ve sonra Paris'e gittim ve Notre-Dame-des-Champs soka 13 numaradaki kerestecinin zerindeki dairede, baladm gnden itibaren alt hafta iinde roman ilk biimiyle tamamladm. Kitab bu ilk biimiyle o zamanlar ok belirgin bir aksanla konuan romana Nathan Asch'a gsterdim. "Bir roman yazdm da ne demek? Roman, ha! Sen gezi kitab yazyorsun," dedi. Nathan hevesimi fazla krmamt, kitab, yolculukla ilgili blmleri atmayarak (bunlar Pamplona'y ve bala kldn anlatan blmlerdi), Schruns, Vorarlberg'deki Taube Otelinde yeniden yazdm. Szn ettiiniz ykleri 16 Mays'ta yaan kar nedeniyle San Isidro boa grelerinin yaplamad gn Madrid'de yazdm. lk olarak, daha nce yazmay deneyip baaramadm "Katiller"i yazdm. Arkasndan le yemeinden sonra snmak iin yataa girip "Bugn Cuma"y yazdm. imde yle bir istek vard ki, belki de aklm yitirmekte olduumu sandm ve yazacak alt ayr ykm daha vard. Giyinip boa greilerinin urad eski bir kahve olan Fomos'a gittim, kahve iip geri geldim ve "On Kzlde- rili"yi yazdm. ok zlmtm biraz konyak iip uyudum. Yemek yemeyi unutmutum, garsonlardan biri odama bir para morina bal ile kk bir biftek, kzarm patates ve bir ie Valdepenas getirdi. Pansiyonu ileten kadn ' hep az yemek yiyorum diye r kayglarurd ve garsonu o gndermiti. Yatakta oturup yemek yediimi ve Valdepenas itiimi hatrlyorum. Garson bir ie daha getirebileceini syledi. Senoramn btn gece yazp yazmayacam bilmek istediini syledi. Hayr dedim, biraz ara vermeyi dndm syledim.Ne- den bir tanecik daha yazmay denemiyorsunuz dedi garson. Yalnzca bir tane yazmam gerekiyor dedim. Sama dedi. Alt tane yazabilirsiniz. Yann denerim dedim. Bu gece deneyin dedi. htiyar bu yiyecekleri niye gnderdi sanyorsunuz? Yorgunum dedim ona. Sama dedi (kulland szck "sama" deildi). tane ufack yk yazp yoruldunuz mu? Birini evirir inisiniz benim iin? Rahat brak beni, dedim. Beni rahat brakmazsan nasl yazacam? Yatakta oturdum ve Valdepenas itim ve k yazdm yk umduum kadar iyiyse ne mthi bir yazar olduumu dndm. GRMEC. Bir yk kafanzda olutuunda ne denli tamamdr? Tema, olay rgs ya da kiilerden biri yazarken deiir mi? HEMNGWAY: Kimi zaman yky bilirsiniz. Kimi zaman yazarken oluturursunuz ve sonucun ne olaca konusunda en kk bir fikriniz yoktur. yk ilerledike, her ey deiir. ykdeki hareketi yaratan ite

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INTERVIEWER: IS it the same with the novel, or do you work out the whole plan before you start and adhere to it rigorously? HEMINGWAY: For Whom the Bell Tolls was a problem which I carried on each day. I knew what was going to happen in principle. But I invented what happened each day I wrote. INTERVIEWER: Were The Green Hills of Africa, To

Have and Have Not and Across ike River and Into the trees all started as short stories and developed into novels? If so, are the two forms so similar that the writer can pass from one to the other without completely revamping his approach? HEMINGWAY: NO, that is not true. The Green Hills of Africa is not a novel but was written in an attempt to write an absolutely true book to see whether the shape of a country and the pattern of a month's action could, if truly presented, compete with a work of the imagination. After I had written it I wrote two short stories, "The Snows of Kilimanj aro" and "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." These were stories which I invented from the knowledge and experience acquired on the same long hunting trip one month of which I had tried to write a truthful account of in The Green Hills. To Have and Have Not and Across the River and Into the Trees were both started as short stories.
INTERVIEWER: DO you find it easy to shift from one literary project to another or do you continue through to finish what you start? . HEMINGWAY: The fact that I am interrupting serious

work to answer these questions proves that I am so stupid that I should be penalized severely. I will be. Don't worry.
INTERVIEWER: DO you think of yourself in competition with other writers? HEMINGWAY: Never. I used to try to write better than

certain dead writers of whose value I was certain. For a long time now I have tried simply to write the best I can. Sometimes I have good luck and write better than I can. INTERVIEWER: Do you think a writer's power diminishes as he grows older? In The Green Hills of Africa you mention that American writers at a certain age change into Old Mother Hbbards. HEMINGWAY-4. don't know aboiit that. People who know what they are doing should last as long as their heads last. In that book you mention, if you look it up, you'll see I was sounding off about American literature with a humorless Austrian character who was forcing me totalkwhen Lwanted. to- dosomethingelse.. L wrote an accurate account of the conversation. Not to make deathless pronouncements. A fair per cent of the pronouncements are good enough. INTERVIEWER: We've not discussed character. Are the characters of your work taken without exception from real life? .... .

budur. Bazen hareket yle ardr ki hi ilerlemediini sanrsnz. Ama her zaman deime ve hareket vardr. GRMEC: Roman iin de ayn ey sylenebilir mi? Yoksa romann plann nceden dnr ve bu plana sk skya sadk kalr msnz? HEMNGWAY: anlar Kimin in alyor'vm. srekli olarak karma kan sorunlar vard. lke olarak ne olacan, biliyordum ama olaylar yazdka yarattm. ' GRMEC- Afrika 'nn Yeil Tepeleri, Ya Hep Ya Hi v& Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine ksa yk olarak .balayp romanlara m dntler? Eer yleyse, bu ikisi yazarn yaklamn tmyle yenilemesi gerekmeden birinden dierine gemesini olas klacak denli benzer trler midir? HEMNGWAY: Hayr, bu doru deil. Afrika'nn Yeil Tepeleri roman deil, bir lkenin biiminin ve bir ay iinde geen olaylarn, doru anlatld takdirde, d- gcnn rn olan bir yaptla yarp yanamayacan grmek iin yaplm, kesinlikle geree uygun bir kitap denemesidir. Onu yazdktan sonra iki ksa yk yazdm: "Kilimanj aro'nun Karlar" ve "Francis Macom- ber'in Ksa Mutlu Yaam". Bunlar Yeil Tepeler'de geree uygun bir biimde yalnzca bir aym anlatmaya altm ayn uzun av yolculuunda kazandm bilgi ve deneyimlerden doan yklerdi. Ya Hep Ya Hi ile Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine'nin ikisine de ksa yk olarak balamtm.. GRMEC: Bir kitap projesinden bir dierine gemeyi kolay blur msnz? Yoksa baladnz eyi bitirene kadar onun zerinde mi alrsnz? HEMNGWAY: Elimdeki ciddi ii brakp bu sorulara yant veriyor olmam sert bir biimde cezalandrlmas gereken bir aptal olduumu kantlyor. Cezalandrlacam da. Merak etmeyin. GRMEC: Baka yazarlarla yartnz dnyor musunuz? HEMNGWAY: Asla. Eskiden deerlerinden kuku duymadm baz lm yazarlardan daha iyi yazmaya alrdm. oktandr kendi yazabileceimin en iyisini yazmaya alyorum. Bazen ansm yaver gidiyor ve yazabildiimden daha iyisini yazabiliyorum. GRMEC; Yazarn gcnn yalandka azaldna inanyor musunuz? Afrikann Yeil Tepeleri'nde, belli bir yaa geldiklerinde, Amerikal yazarlarn ihtiyar ninelere dntklerinden sz ediyorsunuz. HEMNGWAY: Bilemiyorum. Ne yaptm bilen insanlar kafalar yerinde olduka yazabilirler gibi geliyor. Eer ap bakarsanz o. szn ettiiniz kitapta, ben baka bir ey yapmak isterken beni konumaya zorlayanve.espridenhianlamayanbir.Avusturyalileyap-. tmz konumada Ainerikan yazm zerine dncelerimi belirttiimi greceksiniz. Konumay olduu gibi aktardm. lmsz bildirimlerde bulunmak iin yazmadm. Ama bildirimlerin byk bir yzdesi fena saylmaz.
GRME d.- yk ve roman kiilerini konumadk. Yaptlarnzdaki kiilerin tm gerek yaamdan m

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INTERVIEWER: Could you say something about the process of turning a real-life character into a fictional one? HEMINGWAY: If I explained how that is sometimes done, it would be a handbook for libel lawyers. INTERVIEWER-. Do you make a distinctionas E. M.

Forster doesbetween "flat" and "round" characters? HEMINGWAY: If you describe someone, it is flat; as a photograph is, and from my standpoint a failure. If you make him up from what you know, there should be all the dimensions. INTERVIEWER: Which of your characters do you look back on with particular affection?
HEMINGWAY-. That would make too long a list. INTERVIEWER: Then you enjoy reading over your own

bookswithout feeling there are changes you would like to make? HEMINGWAY: I read them sometimes to cheer me up when it is hard to write and then I remember that it was always difficult and how nearly impossible it was sometimes. INTERVIEWER: How do you name your characters?
HEMINGWAY: The best I can. Interviewer: Do the titles come to you while you're in the process of doing the story? HEMINGWAY: No. I make a list of titles after I've

finished the story or the booksometimes as many as a hundred. Then I start eliminating them, sometimes all of them. INTERVIEWER-. And you do - :: this even with a storywhose title is supplied from the text"Hills Like White Elephants," for example? HEMINGWAY: Yes. The title comes afterwards. I met a girl in Prunier where I'd gone to eat oysters before lunch. I knew she'd had an abortion. I went over and we talked, not about that, but on the way home I thought of the story, skipped lunch, and spent that afternoon writing it.
INTERVIEWER: SO when you're not writing, you remain constantly the observer, looking for something which can be of use. HEMINGWAY: Surely. If a writer stops observing he is

finished. But he does not have to observe consciously nor think how it will be useful. Perhaps that would be true at the beginning. But later everything he sees goes into the great reserve of things he knows or has seen. If it is any use to know it, I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. There is seven-eighths of it underwater for every part that shows. Anyhing you know you can eliminate and it only strengthens your iceberg. It is the part that doesn't show. If a writer omits

GRMEC: Gerek yaamdan alnma bir kiiyi, bir yk ya da roman kiisine dntrme sreci konusunda bir eyler syleyebilir misiniz? HEMINGWAY: BU iin bazen nasl yapldm aklasam, hakaret davalarna bakan avukatlarn iine yarayacak bir el kitab olur. GROMEC: E.M. Forster'm yapt gibi "yalnkat" ile "yuvarlak" kiiler arasnda ayrm yapyor musunuz? ; HEMINGWAY: Eer birini betimlerseniz yalnkat olur, fotoraflarda olduu gibi, ve benim amdan bu bir baarszlktr. Eer ayn kiiyi bildiiniz eylerden yaratrsanz tm boyutlar olur. GRMEC: Geriye drtp baktnzda, kiilerinizden hangilerine zel bir yaknlk duyuyorsunuz? HEMINGWAY: ok uzun bir liste olur. GRMEC: yleyse kendi kitaplarnz yeniden okumak hounuza gidiyor. Yapmak istediiniz deiiklikler olduunu dnr msnz? HEMNGWAY: Onlar, yazmann bana g geldii zamanlar neelenmek iin okurum ve her zaman g olduunu, kimi zaman ise hemen hemen olanaksz olduunu hatrlarm. GROMEC: Kiilerinizi nasl adlandrrsnz? HEMNGWAY: Elimden geldiince iyi. GRMEC: Balklar aklnza yky yazma srecinde mi gelir? HEMNGWAY: Hayr. yky ya da kitab yazmay bitir-.,. dikten sonra bir balk listesi. yaparmbazen yz bulur. Sonra bunlan elemeye bala- : nm, bazen hepsi elenir. GROMEC: "Beyaz Fillere , Benzeyen Tepeler"de olduu gibi yknn bal metnin kendisinden alnm olsa bile byle mi yaparsnz? HEMINGWAY: Evet. Balk sonradan gelir. le yemeinden nce istiridye yemek iin gittiim Prunier'de bir kzla tanmtm. ocuk aldrtm olduunu biliyordum. Yanma gittim ve konutuk, baka eylerden, ama eve giderken yky dndm, yemee bo verdim ve leden sonray yky yazarak geirdim. GRMEC: Demek yazmadnz zamanlar da srekli olarak gzlemcilik yapyor, iinize yarayacak bir . ey aryorsunuz. HEMNGWAY: Elbette. Bir yazar gzlemcilii brakrsa ii bitmi demektir. Ama bilinli'olarak gzleme ya da gzledii eyin ne adan iine yarayacam dnme zorunluluu yoktur. Belki balangta byle yapmas gerekir. Ama sonra, grd her ey o gne kadar elde etmi olduu grg ve bilgi birikimine katlr. Bunu bilmek iinize yarayacaksa, ben her zaman buzda ilkesine gre alrm. Yzeydeki her para sekizde yedisi suyun altnda olan buzun grnen ksmdr. Bildiiniz eyleri eleyebilirsiniz ve bu buzdanz daha da bytr. Bu, grnmeyen paradr. Eer bir yazar her-

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something because he does not know it then there is a hole in the story. The Old Man and the Sea could have been over a thousand pages long and had every character in the village in it and all the processes of how they made their living, were born, educated, bore children, etc. That is done excellently and well by other writers. In writing you are limited by what has already been done satisfactorily. So I have tried to learn to do something else. First I have tried to eliminate everything unnecessary to conveying experience to the reader so that after he or she has read something it will become a part of his or her experience and seem actually to have happened. This is very hard to do and I've worked at it very hard. Anyway, to skip how it is done, I had unbelievable luck this time and could convey the experience completely and have it be one that no one had ever conveyed. The luck was that I had a good man and a good boy and lately writers have forgotten there still are such things. Then the ocean is worth writing about just as man is. So I was lucky there. I've seen the marlin mate and know about that. Sol leave that out. I've seen school (or pod) of more than fifty sperm whales in that same stretch of water and once harpooned one nearly sixty feet in length and lost him. So I left that out. All the stories I know from the fishing village I leave out. But the knowledge is what makes the under-water part of the iceberg. INTERVIEWER: Archibald MacLeish has-spoken of a method of conveying experience to a reader which he said you developed while covering baseball games back in those Kansas City Star days. It was simply that ^experienceiscommunicated by small details,-intimately preserved, which have the effect of indicating the whole by making the reader conscious of what he had been aware of only subconsciously.... HEMINGWAY: The anecdote is apocryphal. I never wrote baseball for. the Star. What Archie was trying to remember was how I was trying to learn in Chicago in around 1920 and was searching for the unnoticed things that made emotions, such as the way an outfielder tossed his glove without looking back to where it fell, the squeak of resin on canvas under a fighter's flat- soled gym shoes, the gray color of Jack Blackburn's skin when he had just come out of stir, and other things I noted as a painter sketches. You saw Blackburn's strange color and the old razor cuts and the way he spun a man before you knew his history. These were the things which moved you before you knew the stoINTERVIEWER: Have you ever described any type of situation of which you had no personal knowledge? HEMINGWAY: That is a strange question. By personal knowledge do you mean carnal knowledge? In.that case the answer is positive. A writer, if he is any good, does not describe. He invents or makes out

hangi bir eyi bilmedii iin elemise o zaman ykde boluklar oluur. Ihti/ar Adam ve Deniz bin sayfadan uzun olabilirdi ve iinde kyn tm insanlar, bu insanlarn yaamlarn nasl kazandklar, nasl doduklar, nasl eitildikleri ve nasl ocuk dourduklar anlatlabilirdi. Bunlar baka yazarlarca iyi ve yetkin bir biimde yaplmtr. Yazarken insan daha nceder zaten en iyi biimde yaplm oiari eylerle snrlanrrutlr. Bu )rzden yeni bir ey yapmay renmeye altm.lk nce, okuyucuya bir deneyimi aktarrken gerekli olmayan her eyi elemeye altm. yle ki, okuyucu bir eyi okuduktan sonra o ey onun kendi yaam deneyiminin bir paras haline gelsin ve gerekten yaanm gibi olsun. Bunu yapmak ok gtr ve ben baarabilmek iin ok altm. Her neyse, bunun nasl yapldn geelim. O kitab yazarken inanlmayacak kadar anslydm ve anlatmak istediim deneyimi hem daha nce hi kimse anlatmamt hem de ben onu eksiksiz olarak aktarabiliyordum. ansm, elimde iyi yrekli bir adamla iyi yrekli bir ocuk omasindan kaynaklanyordu oysa son zamanlarda yazarlar byle eylerin hl varolduunu unutmulardr. Sonra okyanus da insan kadar hakknda yazmaya deer bir konudur. O konuda da anslydm. Marinin iftlemesini grmtm, dolaysyle o konuyu biliyordum. Onun iin o ksm katmadm kitaba. Ayn sularda, iinde elliden fazla baln bulunduu bir kaalot srs grm ve bir zamanlar ilerinden neredeyse yirmi metrelik birini zpknlanu, sonra da gzden kaybetmitim. Bunu da katmadm. Balk kynde duymu Olduum ykleri de katmadm. Ancak tm bunlar hakkmdaki bilgim buzdann su altndaki ksmn oluturdu. GRMEC: Archibald MacLeish sizin'-Kansas City ' Star'da beyzbol malarn anlatrken gelitirdiinizi syledii okuyucuya bir deneyimi aktarma ynteminden sz etti. Bu, deneyimin kskanlkla saklanm kk ayrntlar yoluyla okuyucuya iletilmesi yntemiymi, yle ki bu ayrntlar okuyucunun o ana dek farknda olmadan bildii bir eyi bilin dzeyine kartarak ayrntnn bal olduu btn sezdirme etkisi yaratyorlarm, HEMNGWAY: ok su gtrr bir ey bu anlatlan. Star'da beyzbol malar hakknda hi yaz yazmadm. Archie'nin anmsamaya 'alt ey herhalde 1920'ler- de Chicago'dayken gzden kaan kk eylerin duygu yaratmada nasl etkili olduklarn aratrmandr. rnein bir d saha oyuncusunun arkasna bakmadan elindeki eldiveni frlatp at, bir boksrn ayakkablarnn ringde gcrday, hapisten karken Jack Black- bm'ngri renklrteni ve~bir Tessamurgrebilecei cinsten dier eyler. Daha Blackburn'un kim olduunu renmeden, derisinin garip rengine ve yzndeki jilet yaralarna bakarak nasl bir dv olduunu anlayabilirdiniz. Daha yksn bilmeden sizi duygulandran ite bunun gibi eylerdi. GRMEC: Hi kiisel teak hakknda bilgi sahibi olmadnz bir durumu betimlediniz mi? : 25

Who teaches the homing pigeon to fly as he does; where does a fighting bull get his bravery, or a hunting dog his nose? This is an elaboration or a condensation on that stuff we were talking about in Madrid that time when my head was not to be trusted. INTERVIEWER: How detached must you be from an experience before you can write about it in fictional terms? The African air crashes you were involved in, for instance? HEMINGWAY: It depends on the experience. One part of you sees it with complete detachment from the start. Another part is very involved. I think there is no rule about how soon one should write about it. It would depend on how well adjusted the individual was and on his or her recuperative powers. Certainly it is valuable to a trained writer to crash in an aircraft which burns. He learns several important things very quickly. Whether they will be of use to him is conditioned by survival. Survival, with honor, that outmoded and all- important word, is as difficult as ever and as all-im- portant to a writer. Those who do not last are always more beloved since no one has to see them in their long, dull, unrelenting, no-quarter-given-and-no-quarterreceived, fights that they make to do something as they believe it should be done before they die. Those who die or quit early and easy and with every good reason are preferred because they are understandable and human. Failure and welldisguised cowardice are more human and more beloved. INTERVIEWER: Could I ask you to what extent you think the writer shouldconcem himself with the sodopoliti- cal problems of his times? HEMINGWAY: Everyone hs his own conscience, and there should be no rules about how a conscience should function. All you can be sure about in a political-minded writer is that if his work should last you will have to skip the politics when you read it. Many of the so-called politically enlisted writers, change their politcs frequently. This is very exciting to them and to their political- literary reviews. Sometimes they even have to rewrite their viewpoints .. . and in a hurry. Perhaps it can be respected as a form of the pursuit of happiness. INTERVIEWER: Has the political influence of Ezra Pound on the segregationalist Kasper had any effect on your belief that the poet ought to be released from St. Elizabeth's Hospital?* HEMINGWAY: NO. None at all. I believe Ezra should be released and allowed to write poetry in Italy on an undertaking by him to abstain from any politics. I would be happy to see Kapser jailed as soon as possible. Great poets are not necessarily girl guides nor scoutmasters nor splendid influences on youth. To name a few: Verlaine, Rimbaud, Shelley, Byron,

da ailesinin deneyimlerinden gelebilen ve aklanamayan bir bilgiye sahip olduu grlr. Haberci gvercine yle umay kim retir;.grei boann yreklilii ya da av kpeinin burnunun keskinlii nereden gelir? Bu, Madrid'de kafam pek yerinde deilken konutuumuz srada sylediim eyin biraz daha alm ya da younlatrlm biimi. GRMEC: Bir deneyimi bir, yk ya da romanda kullanabilmek iin ondian ne kadar uzaklam olmanz gerekir? rnein Afrika'daki, sizin de iinde bulunduunuz uak kazalar? HEMNGWAY: BU, deneyimin niteliine baldr. nsann bir yan olaylara batan beri hep tam bir uzaklama ile bakar. Dier yan ise ok i iedir. zerinden ne kadar zaman getikten sonra yazlmas gerektiine ilikin bir kural olduunu sanmyorum. Bireyin ne denli uyum salam olduuna ve tekrar normale dnme gcne baldr. Eitilmi bir yazar iin yanmakta olan bir uakta kaza geirmek kesinlikle deerli bir eydir. nemli birok eyi bir rpda renir. Onlardan yararlanp yararlanmayaca sa kalmann koullaryla belirlenir. Modas gemi ve ok nemli bir szck olan onur ile sa kalmak hep g olmutur ve yazar iin her eyden daha nemlidir. Aramzda uzun sre kalmayanlar her zaman daha ok sevilirler nk hi kimse onlarn lmeden nce bir eyi, nasl yaplmas gerektiini dnyorlarsa yle yapabilmek iin uzun, skc, acmasz, uzlamasz bir sava verdiklerini grmek zorunda deildir. Erkenden ve kolayca lenler her zaman yelenir, nk insan olarak anlalabilirler. Baarszlk ve iyi gizlenmi korkaklk daha insanca ve hoa giden eylerdir. GRMEC: Size bir yazarn, zamannn sosyopolitik sorunlaryla ne dereceye kadar ilgilenmesi gerektiini dndnz sorabilir miyim? HEMNGWAY: Herkesin kendi vicdan vardr ve vicdann nasl ilemesi gerektii konusunda kurallar olmamaldr. Politik grl bir yazar hakknda emin olabileceiniz tek ey, eer yaptlar kalc olacak olursa, onlar okuduunuz zaman politikaya bo vermek zorunda kalacanzdr. Szde politik yazarlarn birou, sk sk politikalarm deitirirler. Bu, onlara ve onlar hakknda politik yaznsal deerlendirmeler yapanlara heyecan verir.. Kimi zaman grlerini yeniden kaleme almak zorunda bile kalrlar... hem de arabuk. Belki buna da bir tr mutluluk aray olarak sayg duyulabilir. GRMEC: Ezara Pound'un rk Kasper zerindeki politik etkisinin, ozann St. Elizabeth Hastanesinden salverilmesi gerektii inancnza bir etkisi oldu mu? * HEMNGWAY: Hayr. Hi olmad. Ezra'nn hastaneden kartlmas ve politikadan elini eteini ekerek talya'da iir yazmasna izin verilmesi gerektiine inanyorum. Kasper'n da en ksa zamanda tutukevine girdiini grmek beni mutlu edecek. Byk ozanlarn le de gen kzlara rehberlik, delikanllara oymak beylii yapma, ya da genlik

2 6

ned to prevent them from being aped in their thinking, their manners or their morals by local Kaspers. I am sure that it will take a footnote to this paragraph in ten years to explain who Kasper was. INTERVIEWER.- Would you say, ever, that there is any didactic intention in your work?
HEMINGWAY: Didactic is a word that has been misused and has spoiled Death in the Afternoon is an in-. structive book. .-" INTERVIEWER: It has been said that a writer only deals

with one or two ideas throughout his work. Would you say your work reflects one or two ideas? HEMINGWAY: Who said that? It sounds much too simple. The man who said it possibly had only one or two ideas. .. INTERVIEWER: Well, perhaps it would be better put this way: Graham Greene said that a ruling passion gives to shelf of novels the unity of a system. You yourself have said, I believe, that great writing comes out of a sense of injustice. Do you consider it important that a novelist be dominated in this wayby some such compelling sense? HEMINGWAY.- Mr. Greene has a facility for making statements that I do not possess. It would be impossible for me to make generalizations about a shelf of novels or a wisp of snipe r a gaggle of geese. I'll try a generalization though". A writer without a sense of justice and of injustice would be better off editing the Year Book of a school for exceptional children than writing novels. Another generalization. You see; they are not so difficult when they are sufficiently obvious. The ^ most essential gif t for a good writer is a built-in, shockproof, shit detector. This is the! writer's radar and all . great writers have had it. INTERVIEWER: Finally, a fundamental question: namely, as a creative writer what do you.think is the function of your art? Why a representation of fact, rather than fact itself? HEMINGWAY: Why be puzzled by that? From things that have happened and from things as they exist and from all things that you know and all those you cannot know, you make something through your invention that is not a representation but a whole new thing truer than anything true and alive, and you make it alive, and if you make it well enough, you give it immortality. That is why you write and for no other reason that you know of. But what about all the reasons that no one knows?

Kasper gibiler tarafndan taklit edilmesini engellemek iin bir yere kapatlmamalar gereldrdi. Eminim n yla kadar bu paragrafn altna Kasper'n kim olduunu aklayan bir not koymak gerekecek. GRMEC: Yaptlarnzda hi didaktik bir ama gttnz syleyebilir misiniz? HEMNGWAY: Didaktik szc ok yanl kullanlm ve anlam bozulmu olan bir szck. Death in the After-. noon eitici bir kitaptr. ; S' > %K~ GRMEC: Bir yazarn yaptlarnda bir ya da iki dnceyi ele aldm syleyenler var. Siz yaptlarnzn bir ya da iki fikri yansttn syleyebilir misiniz? HEMINGWAY: Kim demi onu? ok basite indirgenmi ' oluyor. Byk bir olaslkla bunu syleyen adamn kendi fikirlerinin says bir ya da ikiyi amyordu. GRMEC: Belki de yle sylemek daha iyi olur: Graham Greene her eye egemen olan bir tutkunun bir raf dolusu romana bir sistem btnl getirebileceini sylemiti. Siz kendiniz de, yanlmyorsam, byk yaptlarn hakszlk duygusundan doduunu sylemitiniz. Bir yazarn byle itici gc olan bir duygu tarafndan ynlendirilmesini nemli gryor musunuz? HEMNGWAY: Bay Greene'de deme verme konusunda benim sahip olmadm bir rahatlk var. Benim iin bir raf dolusu roman, bir ulluun tyleri ya da kazlarn sesleri zerine genelleme yapmak olanakszdr. Bir tane yapmay deneyeyim yine de. Adalet ve adaletsizlik duygusu olmayan bir yazar, roman yazmak yerine olaanst ocuklarn gittii bir okulda Okul Yll kart- sa daha iyi olur. Bir baka genelleme. Gryorsunuz,- apak ortada olan eylerden sz ederken genellemeler yapmak pek zor olmuyor. yi bir yazara en gerekli olan ey doutan, sahip olduu ve hibir sarsntnn yok % edemeyecei bir yetenek olan deersiz eyleri ayklama yeteneidir. GRMEC: Son olarak, temel bir soru: Sanat bir yazar olarak sizce sanatnzn ilevi nedir? Niin gerein kendisi deil de benzeri? HEMNGWAY: Bunun yant apak ortada. Olmu olanlardan, varolan eylerden, bildiiniz tm eylerden ve bilemediklerinizden, yaratma gcnzle, bir eyin benzerini deil, gerek ve canl olan herhangi bir . eyden ok daha gerek

George PLIMPTON

eviri: Sevda ALIKAN 27

HEMINGWAY ON THE PAIN AND PLEASURE OF WRITING*


V Interviewer: Can you recall an exact moment when you decided to become a writer? HEMINGWAY: No, I always wanted to be a writer. from George Plimpton, 'An Interview with Ernest Hemingway' The Paris Review 18, Spring 1958

HEMINGWAY VE YAZMANIN ACI VE TATLI , YNLER*


Grmeci: Tam olarak ne zaman yazar olmaya karar verdiinizi anmsyor musunuz? HEMINGWAY: Hayr, her zaman yazar olmay istemitim. George Plimpton, 'Ernest Hemingway ile bir Sylei' The Paris Review 18.1958 Bahar

I- believe that basically you write for- two -people; yourself to try to make it absolutely perfect; or if not that then wonderful. Then you write for who you love whether she can read or write or not and whether she is alive or dead. to Arthur Mizener, 1950 Selected Letters
*

Genel olarak insann iki kii iin yazdna inanrm; kendisi iin, kusursuz yapmak iin ya da kusursuz olmasa bile harika yapmaya almak iin. Bir de sevdiiniz iin yazarsnz; ister okuma yazma bilsin ister bilmesin, ister sa ister lm olsun. Arthur Mizener'a, 1950 Seme Mektuplar
*

Will work again on the novel today. Writing is a hard business Max but nothing makes you feel better. to Maxwell Perkins, 1938 Selected Letters

Bugn roman zerinde yeniden alacam. Yazmak zor i Max, ama baka hibir ey insana kendini bu kadar iyi hissettiremez. Maxwell Perkins'e, 1938 >. . . Seme Mektuplar

Been working every day and going good. Makes a hell of a dull life too. But it is more fun than anything else. Do you remember how old [Ford Madox] Ford was always writing how [Joseph] Conrad suffered so when he Wrote? How it was un metier du chien [a dog's trade] etc. Do you suffer when you write? I don't at all. Suffer like a bastard when don't write, or just before, and feel empty and fucked out afterwards. But never feel as good as while writing. to Malcolm Cowley, 1945 Selected Letters

Her gn alyor ve iyi gidiyorum. Felaket sikici yapyor yaam. Ama baka herhagi bir eyden daha elenceli. ihtiyar [Ford Madox] Ford'un hep [Joseph] Conrad'n yazarken neler ektiini durmadan yazdn anmsyor musun? Nasl berbat bir i gibi Olduunu falan. Yazarken sknt eker misin? Ben hi ekmem. Yazmadm zaman, ya da yazmadan hemen nce it gibi sknt ekerim, yazdktan sonra ise bo ve posam km gibi hissederim. Ama hibir zaman yazarkenki kadar iyi hissetmem. Malcolm Cowley'e, 1945 ' Seme Mektuplar ...yazmak, hibir zaman mmkn olduunca iyi yapamayacan bir eydir. Srekli bir meydan okumadr ve yaptm dier eylerin tmnden daha zordur. Bu yzden yazyorum, iyi yazdm zaman da beni mutlu ediyor. Ivan Kashkin'e, 1935 Seme Mektuplar

...writing is something that you can never do as well as it can be done. It is a perpetual challenge and it is more difficult than anything else that I have ever done so I do it. And it makes me happy when I do it well. to Ivan Kashkin, 1935

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Am here in La Coruna waiting for proof...Which now ought to be here and I hope to God it comes. Need to read some bloody thing I've written in order to convince myself that ever have written anything in order to eventually write something else. Maybe you know the feeling. to Barklie McKee Henry, 1927 Selected Letters

Burada, La Coruna'da tashihleri bekliyorum... imdiye kadar burada olmas gerekirdi, inallah gelir. Baka bir ey yazabilmek, bir eyler yazdma kendimi inandrmak iin, yazdm kahrolas eylerden birini okumam gerekli. Belki bu duyguyu bilirsin. Barklie McKee Henry'e, 1927 Seme Mektuplar

Charlie there is no future in anything. I hope you agree. That is why I like it at a war. Every day and every night there is a strong possibility that you will get killed and not have to write. I have to write to be happy whether I get paid for it or not. But it is a hell of a disease to be born with. I like to do it. Which is even worse. That makes it from a disease info a vice. Then I want to do it better than anybody has ever done it which makes it into an obsession. An obsession is terrible. Hope you haven't gotten any. That's the onlyftfrie I've got left. ' to. Charles Scribner, 1940 Selected Letters

Charlie, hibir eyde gelecek yok. Umarm kathyor- sundur. te bu yzden sava seviyorum. Her gn, her gece lp, yazmak zorunluluunda kalmama olasl olduka yksek. Karlnda para alsam da, almasam da, mutlu olmak iin yazmak zorundaym. Ama byle bir hastalkla domak berbat bir ey. Yazmay seviyorum. Bu daha da kt. Hastalk olmaktan karp kt bir alkanlk halife getiriyor. Sonra, herkesin imdiye kadar yapandan daha iyi yapmak istiyorum ki bu da . ori bir saplantya eviriyor. Saplant berbat bir ey. Umarm senin saplantn yoktur. Bende de bir tek bu kald. . Charles Scribner'a, 1940 Seme Mektuplar
*

You know that fiction, prose rather, is possibly the roughest trade of all in writingYou do not have the reference, the old important reference. You have the sheet of blank paper, the pencil, and the obligation to invent truer than things an be true. You have to take what is : not palpable arid make it completely palpable and also have it seem normal and so that it can become a part of the experience of the person who reads it. to Bernard Berenson, 1954 Selected Letters 'Do you think your writing is worth doing as an end in itself?' 'Oh, yes.' 'You are sure?' 'Very sure.' 'That must be very pleasant.' 'It is,' I said. 'It is the one altogether pleasant thing about it.' Green Hills of Africa

Biliyorsun roman, daha dorusu dzyaz, yazm trlerinin hemen hemen en zoru. O nemli balang noktas yok insanda. Bo kadn, kalemin, ve gerekte olabileceinden daha gerek eyler bulma zorunluluun var. EUe tutulamayan bir eyi alp tmyle elle tutulur yapmak ve bunu olaan gstermek zorundasn ki okuyan kiinin deneyiminin bir paras olabilsin. Bernard Berenson'a, 1954 Seme Mektuplar

"Yazmak yaplmaya deer bir ey, bal bana bir ama mdr size?" "Evet, tabii." "Emin misiniz?" "Elbette eminim." "ok zevkli olmal." "yle," dedim. "Zevkli olan tek yan da bu zaten." Afrika'nn Yeil Tepeleri

There's no rule on how it is to write. Sometimes it comes easily and perfectly. Sometimes it is like drilling rock and then blasting it out with charges. to Charles Poore, 1953 Selected Letters

Nasl yazld konusunda bir kural yoktur. Bazen kolayca ve kusursuz bir ekilde gelir. Bazen de kayay delip patlayclarla paralamak gibidir. Charles Poore'a, 1953 Seme Mektuplar

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He always worked best when Helen was unwell. Just that much discontent and friction. Then there were times when you had to write. Not conscience. Just peristaltic action. Then you felt sometimes like you could never write but after a while you knew sooner or later you would write another good story. It was really more fun than anything. That was really why you did it. He had never realized that before. It wasn't conscieneB.;lt was simply that it was the greatest pleasure. It Had more bite to it than anything else. The Nick Adams Stories
*

En iyi Helen hasta olduu zamanlarda alrd. Yalnzca o kadar honutsuzluk ve srtme. Sonra bir de insann yazmas gerektii zamanlar oluyordu. Vicdann rahatsz etmesi deildi bu. Sadece igdsel davran. Sonra bazen artk hibir zaman yazamayacam hissediyor, ama bir sre sonra, er ya da ge iyi bir yk daha yazacam anlyordu insan. Gerekten de her eyden daha zevkliydi. nsan ite bunun iin yazard. Bunu daha nce hi farketmemiti. Vicdan deildi. Yalnzca en byk zevk lyd*' Yaz-, mak zor olduu iin dier zevklerden daha ekiciydi. Yazmay ok seviyorum. Ama bu i benim iin hi de kolay yaplabilen bir ey olmamtr ve yazabilecein- den daha iyisini yazmak iin altn srece olmasm da bekleyemezsin. L.H.BragueiJr.'a; . 1959 : Seme Mektufyr

I love to write. But it has never gotten any easier to do and you can't expect it to if you keep trying for something better than you can do. to L.H. Brague, Jr, 1959 Selected Letters

HEMINGWAY ON OBSCENITY
Madame, all our words from loose using have lost their edge . .. Death in the Afternoon

HEMINGWAY VE MSTEHCENLK
Bayan, tm szcklerimiz geliigzel kullanmdan yitirdiler etkilerini.... leden Sonra ni' '

For instance I am guilty of using 'swell' in writing. But only in dialogue; not as an adjective to replace the word you should use. Try and write straight English; never using slang except in Dialogue and then only when unavoidable. Because all slang goes sour in a short time. I only use swear words, for example, that have lasted at least a thousand years for fear of getting stuff that will be simply timely and then go sour. to Carol Hemingway, 1929 Selected Letters

rnein, benim hatam yazarken 'swell' szcn kullanmak. Ama yalnzca konumalarda; kullanlmas gereken szcn yerine sfat olarak kullanmyorum. Dzgn ngilizceyle yazmaya al; konumalar dnda hi argo kullanma, orada da zorunlu olduka kullan. nk btn argo szckler ksa srede bayatlar. rnein ben, yeni olup da daha sonra bayatlayacak eyler kullanma korkusuyla, yalnzca en az bin yldr kullanlan kfrleri kullanrm. Carol Hemingway'e, 1929 Seme Mektuplar

I've tried to reduce profanity,[in The Sun Also Rises] but I reduced so much profanity when writing the book that I'm afraid not much could come out. Perhaps we will have to consider it simply as a profane book and hope that the next book will be less profane or perhaps more sacred. to Maxwell Perkins, 1926 Selected Letters

[Gne de Doar'da] Kfrleri azaltmaya altm, ama kitab yazarken yle ok eyi darda braktm ki korkarm geriye ok az ey kald. Belki de bunun deerlere aykr bir kitap olduunu kabullenip bir sonraki kitabn daha az aykr, ya da daha ok kutsal olmasm ummak zorunda kalacaz. Maxwell Perkins'e, 1926 Seme Mektuplar

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Here is the piece. If you can't say fornicate can you say copulate or if not that can you say cohabit? If not that would have to say consummate I suppose. Use your own good taste and judgment. to Arnold Gingrich, 1935 Selected Letters

te yaz burada. Eer zina denemiyorsa, iftlemek; bu da denemiyorsa, birlikte yaamak denebilir mi? yle de denemiyorsa sanrm beraberliin tamamlanmas demek gerekecek. Akl ve mantn kullanarak sen karar ver. Arnold Gingrich'e, 1935 Seme Mektuplar Belli baz szcklerin kullanm konusunda gr birlii iindeyiz sanyorum. Hibir szc, onun yerine kullanlabilecek bir baka szck olup olmadm dnmeden kullanmam . . . yle grnyor ki, tm sorun aramlannn ve kullanmlarnn dna kan szckleri kullanmamaktr. rnein osurmak szc, yaznn tm belden aa deilse kitapta fazlasyla gze arpar ve tmyle abartl, yanl ye arya kalm olur. Yellenmek anlamna gelen ok eski ve klasik bir ngilizce szck olduu kabul edilse bile byle dnlr. Ama kullanamazsn. Yine de zorunlu kalndnda Btnyle kabul edilebilir olaca bir durum dnebiliyorum. Maxwell Perkins'e, 1926 Seme Artk allm yaz dilinin bir paras olmaktan km belli szckleri kullanmamn balca nedeni, bunlarn, hakknda yazdm insanlarn szck daarcnn nemli bir paras olduklarndandr. Bunlar kullanmaktan kanp, yine de okuyucuya vermek istediim o dolu dolu duyguya yakn bir eyler aktarmann hibir yolu yoktu. Arenadaki konumalarn birazm bile yazsam baslamaz olurdu. Duyguyu iki szcn kullanmyla elde etmeye almak zorunda kaldm ve bu szckleri dolaysz deil de tpk 'Natural History of the Dead'i senin de fark etmi olabilecein gibi bir noktaya iaret etmek iin dolayl kullandm gibi kullandm. Benim, yaz dilinden kartlm, ancak konuma dilinde bulunan szckleri kullanmam kk bir ocuun yeni rendii szckleri tebeirle duvara yazmasna benzemez. Bu szckleri iki nedenle kullanrm. Birincisi, yukarda anlattm nedenle. kincisi kesinkes ayn anlama gelen ve sylendiinde ayn etkiyi yaratan baka bir szck olmadnda. Bunlar her zaman dikkatle ve okuyucuyu uluorta artmayacak ekilde kullanrm, ancak bazen hesaplanm ve bana gerekli grnen bir afallatmak iin kullanabilirim. Everett R. Perry'e, 1933 Seme
GRMEC: Yazarken, o sralarda okumakta olduunuz bir eyden etkilendiiniz olur mu? . HEMNGWAY: Joyce'un Ulysses'i yazndan bu yana hayr. Onunki de dorudan bir etki deildi. Ancak o gnlerde bildiimiz szckler bize yasaklanmken ve biz tek bir szck iin sava verirken, her eyi deitiren onun yaptnn etkisi oldu ve kstlamalardan kurtulmamz salad. GEORGE PLIMPTON "Ernest Hemingway'le bir Sylei" The Paris Review 18,1958 Bahar

I imagine we are in accord about the use of certain words and I never use a word without first considering if it is replaceable . . . The whole problem is, it seems, that one should never use words which shock altogether out of their own value or cdnnotation such a word as for instance fart would stand out on a page, unless the whole matter were entirely rabelaisian, in such a manner that it would be entirely exaggerated and false and overdone in emphasis. Granted that it is a very old and classic English word for a breaking of wind. But you cannot use it. Altho I can.think of a case ! where it might be used, under sufficiently jxagic cirt cumstances, as to be entirely acceptable. to Maxwell Perkins, The fundamental reason that I used certain words no longer a part of the usual written language is that they are very much a part of the vocabulary of the people I was writing about and there was no way I could avoid using them and still give anything like a complete feeling of what I was trying to convey to the reader. If I wrote any approximation even of the speech of the bullring it would be unpublishable. I had to try to get the feeling by the use of two or three words, not using them directly, but indirectly as I used the Natural History of the Dead to make a point that you may have noticed . . . My use of words which have been eliminated from writing but which persist in speech has nothing to do with the small boy chalking newly discovered words on fences. I use them for two reasons. 1st as outlined above. 2nd when there is no other word which means exactly the same thing and gives the same effect when spoken. I always use them spareingly and never to give gratuitous shock although sometimes to give calculated and what to me seems necessary shock. to Everett R. Perry,
INTERVIEWER: When you are writing,- do you ever find yourself influenced by what you're reading at the time? HEMINGWAY: Not since Joyce was writing Ulysses. His was not a direct influence. But in those days when words we knew were barred to us, and we had to fight for a single word, the influence of his work was what changed everything, and made it possible for us to break away from the restrictions. from GEORGE PLIMPTON, 'An Interview with Ernest Hemingway' . The Paris Review 18, Spring 1958 32

I imagine you are in more or less of a stew about certain words but tell me what you can and can't do and we will work it out. I'm not the little boy writing them on the wall to be smart. If I can make the effect without the word will always do so but sometimes can't. Also it is good for the language to restore its life that they bleed out of it. That is very important. to Maxwell Perkins, 1933 Selected Letters.

Sanyorum belli szckler konusunda kayglsn, ama bana neyi yapabilip ve neyi yapamayacan syle ki halledelim. Akll grnmek iin bunlar duvara yazan kk ocuk deilim ben. Eer etkiyi szc kullanmadan salayabiliyorsam mutlaka yle yaparm ama bazen yapamyorum. Bu, bakalarnn zarar verdii dili yeniden canlandrmak iin de iyidir. Bu nokta ok nemli. Maxwell Perkins'e, 1933 Seme Mektuplar

Green Hills came out in England April 3 Haven't heard yet. They made a very nice looking book. I took out 7 bloodies, one sonof a bitch and 4 or five shits voluntarily to see what difference it would make, to please them and Owen Wister. See if it will sail as well .or as badly ..with those reefs. A shame I couldn't have remVed a cocksucker as a special gift to Jonathan Cape -Ltd. to Maxwell Perkins, 1936 Selected Letters

Ye Tepeler ngilterede 3 Nisan'da kt. Henz haber alamadm. ok gzel bir kitap oldu. Nasl bir deiiklik olacan grmek, onlar ve Owen Wister'i memnun etmek iin kendi rzamla 7 'lanet olsun', 1 'orospu ocuu' ve 4 ya da 5 'kahretsiri'i kardm. Bakalm bunlarsz kitap, eskisi kadar iyi olacak m? Ne yazk ki Jonathan Cape'Ltd'ye zel bir armaan olarak bir tane 'bok herif'i karamadm. Maxwell Perkins'e, 1936 ' s Seme Mektuplar

About the words you're the one who has gone into that. If you decide to cut out a letter or two to keep inside the law that is your business I send the copy artd you are supposed to know what will go to jail and what will not. F-ck the whole business that looks all right. It's legal isn't it. to Maxwell Perkins, 1932 Selected Letters

Szcklere gelince bu ile sen ilgilisin. Yasalar inememek iin bir iki harf kartmaya karar vermek senin bilecein i. Ben sana metni yollarm. Neyin insan hapse dreceini, neyin drmeyeceini ise sanrm senin bilmen gerek. S., tiret btn bu ileri tamam gibi grnyor. Bam belaya girmez, leil mi? mi7 Maxwell Perkins'e, 1932 Seme Mektuplar

eviri: Doruk SOMUNKIRAN

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TWO LETTERS BY E. HEMINGWAY


To ARTHUR MIZENER, La Finca Vigia, 22 April 1950. Dear Mr. Mizener, Am awfully glad the permission was there in time. Beautiful Nita, my Secretary, did a wonderful job when I was away. It is a wonder I have a friend left. Some old boy will write at Christmas saying Dear Ernie you probably don't remember me but I took over such and such a company when so and so was killed. So Miss Nita thinks company commander eh? I guess Papa wouldn't wish to be bothered with someone who only had a company and only got the company because someone was killed. So she answers the letter as follows, "Dear Sir: Mr. Hemingway is away on a short vacation in the European area and your communication will be called to his attention on his return. No date has been set for his return." And I would have answered the letter the day I received it anywhere and no matter what I was doing. Finishing a book and going over the first draft has never been my idea of a vacation either. Will help any way I can on Scott [Fitzgerald] if you run into anything I know that you need to know. By then I should be pretty well in the clear on this book. Getting galleys now. But want to have them all before I start as I die every time I read or write the book and I do not want to die peacemeal. Poor Scott how he would have loved all this big thing about him now. I remember one time in N.Y. we were walking down Fifth Avenue and he said, "If only I could play foot-ball again with everything I know about it now." I suggested that we walk across Fifth through the traffic since he wanted to be a back-field man (It isn't difficult at all really for anyone who can do it). But lie said I was crazy. Then there was always the war. He was lucky he never was in a war. It was almost like being broken hearted because you had missed the San Francisco earthquake (the fire). None of this is for quotation. Am only trying to give a brother writer something I know, or think I know, about another brother, writer once he is dead. I never say or write anything about him I would not say to his face or write him. I never had any respect for him ever except for his lovely, golden, wasted talent. If he would have had fewer pompous museings

E. HEMINGWAY'IN K MEKTUBU
ARTHUR MIZENER'a, La Finca Vigia, 22 Nisan 1950. Sayn Bay Mizener, .. znin zamannda oraya ulatna son derece sevindim. Nita, benim gzel sekreterim, ben yokken harika iler baarm. evremde hl dostlarmn olmas bir mucize. Eski bir dost Noel'de, "Sevgili Ernest, belki sen beni hatrlamazsn ama bilmem kim vurulduunda bilmem ne blnn kumandasn almtm," diye yazmas ne gzel. Demek Bayan Nita blk komutan sanyor, ha? Sanrm Papa yalnzca bir blk komutan olan ve komutanla da birisi ldrld iin getirilen birisi ile kafa yormak istemez diye dnd. Ve bu nedenle mektubu yle yantlad: "Sayn Bay: Bay Hemingway Avrupada ksa bir tatile kt, ama dndnde mesajnz ona sunulacaktr. Dn tarihi henz belirlenmiemitir." Ben o mektuba, nerede ve ne yapyor olursam olaym elime getii gn karlk verirdim. Bir kitab bitirip ilk tasla gzden geirmek benim de tatil anlayma hibir zaman smamtr. Scott [Fitzgerald] hakknda benim bildiim ve sizin de renmek istediiniz bir ey karsa elimden gelen her trl yardm yaparm. O zamana kadar bu kitabn iini olduka kolaylam olacam. u anda ilk klar yollanyor. Ama balamadan nce hepsini,toparlam, olmam gerek nk kitab her okuyuumda ':v yazmda lyorum, ve para para lmek de istemiyorum. Zavall Scott hakknda kopartlan bu byk amatadan ok holanrd. Hatrlyorum,.bir keresinde New York'ta Beinci Cadde'de yrrken, "Keke ftbolu,. imdiki bilgilerimle yeniden oyrtayabilsem," demiti. Savunma oyuncusu olmak istedii iin Beinci Caddenin ortasnda arabalarn arasnda yrmeyi nerdim. (Becerebilenler iin hi de zor deil bu.) Ama bana lgn olduumu syledi. Sonra hep sava vard. Hi savaa katlmad iin anslyd. Adeta San Francisco depremini (yangn) kardn iin zlmek gibi bir eydi.1 Bunlarn hibirini anlatasn diye yazmyorum. Yalnzca bir karde yazara, bir baka karde yazar hakknda. bildiim ya da bildiimi sandm eyleri, artk ld- ne gre, anlatmaya alyorum. Yzne kari syleyemeyeceim, ya da ona yazamayacam eyleri ne sylerim ne yazarm. Sevilmeye deeri altm gibi, ancak ziyan olmu yetenei dnda hibir eyine sayg duymadm. Daha seyrek iine kapansayd ve daha iyi bir eitim grm olsayd, belki daha iyi olurdu. Ama ne zaman onun kendine eki dzen vermesini, iini

and takeing his work seriously Zelda would get jealous of him and knock him out of it. Also alcohol, that we use as the Giant Killer, and that I could not have lived without many times; or at least would not have cared to live without; was a straight poison to Scott instead of a food. Here's something you should know too; he never slept with another girl except Zelda until Zelda went officially crazy.. She was crazy all the time I knew them but not yet net-able. I remember her at Antibes saying, "Don't you think Aljolson is greater than Jesus?" I said, "No," which was the only answer I knew at the moment. A boy named Bud Schulberg who is extremely nice and sensitive and straight, but without either talent or much perception, is writing some sort of life story of Scott and yours should be a corrective of sorts. He wrote a novelized life of Primo Camera full of strange distortion due to the fear of libel and Camera said to a friend of mine, "I wish so much Mr. Schulberg would have coxx\.e to me because I could have told so much more interesting things." Did I write or tell you how Zelda really ruined Scott? Probably I did. Anyway, in case I didn't, she told him A: That he had never given her sexual satisfaction. B: That it was because his sexual organ was too small (am sending this through the mails so employ these high- flung terms). He told me this at lunch and I told him to come to the lavoratory with me and would give him a reading on it. His sexual organs were perfectly normal. I told him this (the lunch was at Michauds on the rue Jacob). (He wanted to lunch there because Joyce and I used to eat there.) He wouldn't believe me and said that his organ did look small when he looked at it. I explained that that was because he observed it from above and thus he saw it fore-shortened. Nothing would convince him. So you can see he was not designed to take a punch.1 He was romantic, ambitious, and Christ, Jesus, God knows how talented. He was also generous without being kind. He was un-educated and refused to educate himself in any way. He would make great studies about foot ball say and war but it was all bull-shit. He was a charming cheerful companion when he was sober although a little embarrassing from his tendency always to heroworship. His heros were Tommy Hitchcock, Gerald Murphy and me. He probably had others that I don't know about. But in those three he certainly played the field. Above all he was completely undisciplined and he would quit at the drop of a hat and borrow some-ones hat to drop. He was fragile Irish instead of tough Irish. I wish he were here and I could give him this letter to read so he would not ever think I would say things behind his back.

sn salasamz Zelda kskanp onu bu halinden kar- verirdi. Ayrca alkol, kendimizi ldrmek iin kullandmz, ou zaman onsuz yaayamayacam ya da olmasayd yaama aldrmayacam alkol Scott iin dorudan doruya zehirdi, besin olmak yerine. ite sizin de bilmeniz gereken bir ey: Zelda resmen akl hastas olana kadar ondan baka hibir kadnla yatmad. Geri Zelda ben onlar bildim bileli hep hastayd ama henz kapatlacak halde deildi. Hatrlyorum, bir keresinde, Antibes'te, "Al Jolson, sa'dan daha byktr, deil mi?" diye sormutu ve ben de, "Hayr," demitim, o anda aklma gelen tek yantt bu. Bud Schulberg adnda son derece iyi, duyarl ve drst, ancak yetenei ve anlay pek de fazla olmayan biri, Scott'm biyografisini yazyor ve sizin yazacanz, eksiklikleri giderici olmal. Primo Carnera'run yalan yazmakla sulanaca korkusuyla byk lde gerekten saptrlm bir yaam yksn roman halinde yazdnda, Camera bir dostuma, "Keke bana gelseydi, ben ona ok daha ilgin eyler anlatabilirdim," demiti. Size Zelda'nn Scott' nasl mahvettiinden bahsetmi miydim? Belki etmiimdir. Herneyse, etmediysem ona unlar sylerdi; Bir: Ona hibir zaman cinsel tatmin veremediini; ki: Bunun dnsel organnn ok kk olmas yznden olduunu (Bakas okuyabilir diye byle kibarca terimler kullanyorum). Scott bunu bana yemekte anlatt. Ben de benimle tuvalete kadar gelmesini, orada kendisine fikrimi syleyeceimi syledim. Cinsel organ tamamiyle normaldi. Ona bunu syledim (Yemei Jacob Caddesinde Micha- ud'un yerinde yiyorduk). (Oraya gitmek istemiti nk Joyce ve ben orada yerdik.) Bana inanmad, yukardan baktnda organnn gerekten de kk grndn syledi. Ona, yukardan bakt iin daha ksa grdn syledim. Ancak hibir ekilde ikna olmuyordu. Gryorsunuz ya, yumrua dayanld biri deildi.1 Romantik ve hrslyd; tanr ahidimdir ok yetenekliydi. Mfik olmamasna ramen eli akt. Eitimsizdi ve kendini eitmeyi reddediyordu. rnein, futbol ve sava konusunda byk aratrmalar yapard ama hepsi sama sapand bunlarn. Ayk olduu zamanlar can- ayakn, neeli bir dosttu, inam utandran bir kahramanlara tapma eilimine karm. Kahramanlar Tommy Hitchcock, Gerald Murphy ve bendim. Benim bilmediim baka kahramanlar da vard belki. Ama bu nden elinden geldiince yararlanrd. Her eyden te disiplinsizdi. Balad ileri beklenmedik bir anda brakverirdi hatta brakmak iin mazeret bulurdu. Salam deil, zayf bir Mandalyd. Keke burada olsayd da bu mektubu ona da verebilseydim de arkasndan konumadm gsterebilseydim. Kitabnz iin bol anslar Ernest Hemingway Okuduunuz kadaryla kitab beendiyseniz ok mutlu olurum. Proust'inkinden daha iyi olmasn isterim, eer Proust savam ve s .. . meyi ve ak

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To GIANFRANCO IVANCICH, La Finca Vigia, 30 May 1960. Dear Gianfranco, I am so happy whenever we get a letter with news of you and so glad you are writing again. It is raining here today. The first all day rain of the year. There has been a very big current for two months and plenty offish. The Finca is green and fine now and swimming -wonderful not too cold nor too warm. It was a strange winter Northers one after another. They never had such a winter in America before and there was heavy snow down into Georgia and a big snow storm in Chicago in middle of May. Sinsky [Juan Dunabei tia] went back to Spain so it is possible to work more. I wrote you about Mary's arm I think. She shattered the left elbow falling on frozen ground when shooting in November. The bone broke like a grenata [granata = grenade). Bad operations (good but difficult) and then therapy that goes on still. That was why we sent no cards or letters at Christmas (please tell all friends). She came down here in January (end) and the cold winter was bad for it of course. I have worked very hard on it with massage (the machine) and she has done good therapia but it has been awful for her now for six months. It will be OK though even though she does not have faith; only seeing the daily and not the weekly and monthly progress. Valerie [Danby-Smith] came over to help and has been very good and cheerful.I have worked terribly hardwritten over 100,000 words since end of January and every day when finish too tired to write letters. Have the first draft of this about the bulls that comes after Death In The After- noon done now.1 But must have it copied and re-write of course. May have to, probably, come to Europe to get what I need for the end. Life will publish 30 or 40 thousand words of what I contracted to do for them about Luis Miguel [Dominguin] and Antoitio [Ordonez]. I hope you will like it. Since I finished the first draft day before yesterday have worked all yesterday and today on income tax. This year have extension until June 15. You remember what those times are. When you get this will you write me air-mail here what you paid for the Lancia from the funds we leave in Venice (I have paid income tax on all of them) so that I will be able to put in the price paid in order to take depreciation. The bills you can send later just so I have them when they have to be checked. Also any expenses in Italy on Insurance, piezas [rooms] etc. Put them all in Lira and translate them into dollars. I cannot deduct the ' jpncelf Tifiecarnaturally,~btorilyihe'expenses~nKe" damage I believe and yearly depreciation. I have all the bills for the repairs in Madrid and maybe parts are included. Will check but only started this business yes- terday. I had meant to write long ago but the work has been continuous and difficult and all the news sad. 2 Mary's arm will be OK though. As good as my right arm and my backif she is patient. It has been very difficult for her. Am very glad you shot well and had good bob

GIANFRANCO IVANCICH'e, La Finca Vigia, 30 Mays 1960. Sevgili Gianfranco, Sizden her mektup almzda ok seviniyor ve hl yazdnz iin de mutlu oluyorum. Bugn burada yamur yayor. Yln btn gn sren ilk yamuru. ki aydr, aknt ok iddetli ve her yer balk dolu. Finca bu aralar.yemyeil ve ok gzel, yzmek harika, su ne ok souk ne ok scak. Garip bir la oldu bu yl. Kuzey rzgrlar durmadan esti. Amerika'da daha nce byle bir k hi olmamt. Georgia'da youn kar vard, Chicago'da da Mays'm ortasnda kar frtnas kt. Sinsky [Juan Dunabeitia] Ispanya'ya geri dnd, o yzden daha fazla almak mmkn oluyor. Saha Mary'nin koluna ne olduunu yazmtm sanyorum. Kasm'da avlanrken buza dp sol dirseini krd. Kemik, bir "grenata" (el bombas) gibi paralanm. Kt ameliyatlar, (iyi ama zor) ve hl sren bir tedavi. Bu yzden Noel'de kart veya mektup atamadk (ltfen tm arkadalara syle). Buraya Ocak'ta (sonlarnda) geldi ve souk k havas koluna iyi gelmedi tabii. Ben epey masaj (makinayla) yaptm, o da tedavisine dikkat etti ama son alt ay onun iin kt geti. O inanmasa da yaknda iyileecek; haftalk ya da aylk dzelmeyi deil de yalnzca gnlk dzelmeyi gryor gz. Valerie [DanbySmith] yardma geldi, ona ok iyi bakt, ok mutlandr- d bizi. ok fazla altm. Ocak sonundan beri 100.000 szckten fazla yazdm ve her gnn bitiminde mektup yazamayacak kadar yorgun oluyordum. "leden Sonra lm"'den sonra gelen boalarla ilgili ilk tasla bitirdim 1 Ama kopyasm karp yerliden yazmam gerekiyor tabii Son iin gerekeni bulmak amacyla Avrupa'ya gelmem gerekebilir. Life Dergisi ile Luis Miguel (Dominguin) ve Antonio (Ordonez) hakknda yazacam 30-40 bin szc basmalar konusunda anlatk. Umarm beenirsin. lk tasla nceki gn bitirdiim iin dn ve bugn boyuna gelir vergisiyle uratm. Bu yl Haziran'm 15'ine kadar uzatld. Bu gnlerin nasl gnler olduunu bilirsin sen. Bu mektubu aldn zaman Venedik'te braktmz paradan Lancia iin ne kadar dediini yazp uak postasyla gnderir misin? (Oradaki her ey iin gelir vergisi dedim). Bylece ben de amortismandan yararlanmak iin fiyatlarm yazabileyim. Faturalar sonra da gnderebilirsin, kontrol edilmeleri gerekirse elimde bulunsunlar diye. Bir de talya'da sigortaya ve pieza'la- ra (odalara) yaplan harcamalar ve dierlerini de yolla. Hepsini Liret olarak yazp Dolar'a evir. Doal olarak raruri bedelini vergiden demem7ama sarrmTa- sar ve yllk amortisman giderlerim debilirim. Mad- rid'teki tamirlerin faturalar bende var, belki paralar da dahildir. Kontrol edeceim geri ama bu ie daha dn baladm. Daha nce yazacaktm ama i srekli ve zor, btn haberler de zc.2 Ama Mary'nin kolu dzelecek. Benim sa kolum ve srtm kadar iyi olacak, eer sabrl olursa. k zor gnler geirdi. yi atlar yaptna ve kzak yarnn zevkli 37 .

you were here now on this rainy day and we were all going to have lunch. Yesterday (Sunday) afternoon we won a very big cockfight with Pichilo (Finca head gardener] at Cotorro. He has trained wonderfully this year. Ren [Villarreal] is fine and sends his best. Mundo [cat] still alive and with the animals. Lots of good grass on the finca and wonderful mangoes starting. Ojir very best to Cristina and to your family. un abrazo muy fuerte Papa.
1.The Dangerous Summer, excerpted in Life49 (5,12,19September1960), dealgit&tjpje rivalry between the matadors Ordonez and Dominguin. 2.Between me lines of this letter, in the emphasis on sadness, the worri- somep?ra^Cupation with details, and the allusion to his "terribly hard" work oil*the bullfight book, may be detected the imminent onset of EH's mental illness. Mary Hemingway hints that the problems began as early as January 1960. See Mary

sanz da birlikte yemek yesek. Dn (Pazar) leden sonra Pichilo'yla (Finca ba bahvan) Cotorro'da nemli bir horoz dvn kazandk. Pichilo bu yl horozu harika eitti. Rene (Villarreal) da iyi ve selamlarn gnderiyor. Mundo (kedi) hl yayor ve dier hayvanlarla birlikte. Finca'da harika gr imenler ve hint kirazlar yetiiyor. ristina'ya ve ailene en iyi dileklerimizle. iten duygularla kucaklarm Papa.
1.Life'n49. saysnda (5,12,19 Eyll I960) Dangerous Snnner'm yaynlanan blm Ordnez ve Dominguin adh matadorlar arasndaki rekabet hakkndadr. 2.Bu mektubun satr aralarnda, vurgulanan hzn, ayrntlarla kayg verici boyutlarda ilgilenme ve boa grei kitab zerinde yapt almalarn 'korkun derecede zor olduu' yolundaki atflarnda EH'nin ksa bir sre sonra ortaya kacak olan akl hastalnn belirtileri grlmektedir. Mary Hemingway hastaln 1960 Ocanda balam olduuna iaret etmektedir. Bkz. Mary Hemingway How It Y/as (New York, 1976) s. 481.

eviri: Doruk SOMUNKIRAN

3 8

ASIA MINOR*
" . . . I read everything that I could understand [about war] and the morel would see of it the more I could understand.'" ERNEST HEMINGWAY1

KK ASYA *
"... [Sava zerine] anlayabileceim her eyi okudum. Savaa daha sk tank olduka daha iyi anladm onu." ERNEST HEMINGWAY1

HEMINGWAY was back in Paris from the Alsace interview with Clemenceau by September 24, 1922, in time to attend the murderous fight at the new Mont Rouge arena between Siki and Carpentier. John Bone, however, permitted him little time to enjoy a Paris autumn. A day or two after the fight the managing editor cabled Hemingway to go to Constantinople for the Daily Star. A Greek army had been routed by the Turks; Smyrna had been burned. Lloyd George was calling upon the DomMons to support England's deeply involved position. There was, above all, a terrible fear that the situation might at any moment produce another world war. Hemi ngway was understandably delighted. The assignment was wholly different from Bone s last commission, in March, which had postponed his creative work and sent him to Genoa. He was enough of a newspaperman to be deeply curious about the dramatic struggle, raising as it did the age-old menace of Turkey invading Europe. He was literate and imaginative; his mind responded to the obvious memories of other Greek armies and other Eastern expedi- . tions. The massacres and terrorism were eminently newsworthy. His absorption in war, crystallized in 1918 and since stimulated both by reflection and by innumerable conversations with his contemporaries, was reignited by the opportunity to observe a fluid, aggressive campaign. Listening to English friends discuss Mons and the Somme, profitable as it was, and assessing his own limited experience in Italy, were academic compared to the privileged freedom of movementofawarcorrespondentrHepackedhurriedly. Before he left Paris there was a luncheon with Guy Hickok and Frank Mason; he discussed every aspect of

HEMNGWAY, Clemenceau ile Alsas'ta bir grme yaptktan sonra 24 Eyll 1922'de tekrar Paris'e dnm, bylece yeni Mont Rouge ringinde Siki ile Carpentier arasndaki acmasz boks man izleyecek zaman bulmutu. Ancak John Bone, Paris gznn tadm"karmas iini Hemingway'e fazla bir zaman tanmad. Matan bir ya da iki gn sonra sorumlu yaz ileri mdr Hemingway'e bir telgraf ekerek DaiZy Star adna stanbul'a gitmesini istedi. Bir Yunan ordusu Trkler tarafndan bozguna uratlm, zmir yaklmta. oyd George, smrgelere arda bulunarak ngiltere'ye, iyice kart bu durumla ilgili olarak destek salamalarn istiyordu. Btn bunlardan baka, yaanlan, ortamn her an yeni bir dnya savana yol aabileceine ilikin mthi bir korku vard. Elbette Hemingway ok memnun olmutu. Bu seferki i Bone'un geen Mart aynda verdii ve yazarlk almalarna ara vererek Cenevre'ye gitmesine yol aan son grevden tmyle farklyd. Hemingway, Trkiye'nin Avrupa'y igal edecei yolundaki o eski tehdidi yeniden gndeme getiren bu nemli arpmayla yalandan ilgilenecek kadar iyi bir gazeteciydi. Okumu biriydi, dgc de geniti. nceki Yunan ordular ve Dou seferlerine ilikin anlara kar duyarlyd. Toplu ldrmeler ve iddet, fazlasyla haber deeri tayan konulard. Hemingway'in savaa duyduu ve 1918'de belirginleen ilgi, bu tarihten beri gerek sava zerine kafa yormas gerek tandklaryla yapt saysz grmeler sonucu canl kalm, hangi yne dnecei belli olmayan.ve acmasz bir savaa taruk olma frsatyla da yeniden-alevlenmitir-ngiliz-arkadalarnn-Monsve- Somme'la ilgili tartmalarn dinlemesi olduka yararl olmutu ve talya'daki snrl deneyimlerine ilikin deerlendirmesi, bir sava muhabirinin ayrcalkl dolama zgrl ile karlatrldnda kuramsal kalyordu. Alelacele bavulunu toplad. Paris'ten ayrlmadan nce Guy Hickok ve Frank Mason ile bir le yemei yiyerek bu iki gazeteciyle yeni

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the assignment with the two newspapermen. Years later Mason could remember Hemingway's excitement. He also remembered, more ruefully, that he was persuaded by Hemingway to work him onto the International News Service expense account, in return for any material he might send from Constantinople. It was purely an act of reluctant friendship on Mason's part who had long since solved the. problem of the Hearst coverage of developments ini the Near East; his Paris office merely rewrote the English and French dispatches and cabled this version back to New York. Hemingway thus travelled south as the representative of a Hearst syndicate as well as a Hearst-type Canadian paper. He would have to see the war and its politics in vivid, communicable terms. It was, happily, that kind of war, and his own concern, of course, was with the men who fought it and the civilians who endured it. He would serve John Bone far better than a Balkan expert. Bone, on the other hand, although his conception of Hemingway's role was, a feature writer, did not hesitate to endow theryoung reporter with considerable status. "Mr. Hemingway," the Daily Star announced, in preface to his first cable, "who fought with the Italian army in the great war, is well equipped by his knowledge of the Balkans and the Near East to cover this latest assignment given him by The Star."2In terms of the normal complexity of a Balkan crisis, this one was relatively simple. It lent itself, journalistically, to feature treatment. Spot news breaks were rare; the assignment's news qualities were in the horror and violence which both sides had introduced, and in the large, vague clash of East and West, Moslem and Christian. The background of the situation was readily explained by most commentators as an early catastrophe of Versailles giveaways. The cynicisms of diplomatic maneuvering made dismal reading to a generation which was bitterly realizing that it had not fought itself out of the pre1914 entanglements. The governments of England, France, Italy, and Russia were plainly jockeying for position, offering short-term promises and some aid to the particular belligerent of their choice, English prestige and position were therefore endangered when the Greeks were badly mauled on September 7,1922 in Anatolia, in a decisive battle begun ten days earlier. The Greeks fled across the remaining two hundred miles to the Aegean sanctuary. Civilian refuguees began to crowd into Smyrna, which was penetrated by Turkish cavalry on September 9. On September 14 fire broke out in the Christian section of the panicky city. The Greeks had by this time turned the city over to the Allied commanders. Kemal Atatrk rejected all armistice proposals, persisting in his demands for the return of Adrian- ople and

grevinin btn ynlerim grt. Yllar sonra Mason, Hemingway'in cokusunu hl hatrlayabiliyordu. Mason'un, biraz da pimanlkla hatrlad bir baka konu da Hemingway'in, stanbul'dan gnderecei her trl haber karlnda International News Service'in harcama hesabndan yararlanmasn salamas iin kendisini ikna etmi olmasyd. Mason asndan bu, gnlsz bir dostluk gsterisinden baka bir ey deildi nk Mason Yalan Dou'daki gelimeleri Hearst adna gemenin oktan bir yolunu bulmutu. Paris'teki brosu ngilizce ve Franszca haberleri yeniden yazarak bunlar New York'a telgrafla geri gndermekten baka bir ey yapmyordu. Hemingway bylece hem bir Hearst kuruluunun hem de Hearst tr bir Kanada gazetesinin temsilcisi olarak gneye gitti. Sava ve onun siyasi ynlerini, canl ve bakasna aktarmaya uygun bir biimde grmesi gerekiyordu. yi bir rastlant sonucu bu o trden bir savat ve doal olarak Hemingway'in asl ilgilendii, savata arpanlar ve bu savan yol atklarna katlanan sivil halkt. John Bo- ne'un iine, Balkanlar konusundaki bir uzmandan ok daha fazla yarayacakt. Bone, Hemingway'i magazin yazan olarak grmesine ramen bu gen muhabire geni yetki vermekten ekinmedi. Daily Star Hemingway'in ilk telgrafna nsz olarak unlan yazd: "Byk savata talyan ordusu saflarnda arpan Bay Hemingway, Balkanlar ile Yakn Dou zerine geni bilgi birikimi ile bu blgede Star adna muhabirlik yapacak yetkinliktedir."2 Balkanlardaki bir bunalmn olaan karmakl ile karlatrldnda bu sorun daha basitti. Gazetecilik asndan magazin yazs biiminde ele alnmaya da uygundu. Fla haberlere pek sk rastlanmyordu. Bu grevin habercilik nitelikleri, savaan iki tarafn sergiledii dehet ve iddetle ilgiliydi ve geni bir adan bakldnda Bat ile Dou, Mslmanlar ile Hristiyardar arasnda belirsiz bir atmay ieriyordu. Birok yorumcu hemen, bu durumu hazrlayan nedenleri Versay'da verilen dnlerin yol at erken bir felaket olarak deerlendiriyordu. Diplomatik manevralarn gvensizlik zerine kurulu olmas, 1914 ncesi karmaasndan kurtulamadklarm ac bir ekilde anlayan kuak iin i karar ta bir grnt oluturuyordu. ngiltere, Fransa, talya ve Rusya hkmetleri kendilerine daha iyi bir bir konum salamak amacyla aka kurnaz giriimlerde bulunuyorlar, kendi taraflarnda savaacaklarm dndkleri lkelere ksa erimli szler veriyor, yardm yolluyorlard. Dolaysyla on gn nce yaplan ve savan sonucunu belirleyen arpmann sonunda Yunanllarn 7 Eyll 1922 tarihinde Anadolu'da kt bir bozguna uramas ngiltere'nin konumunu ve saygnln tehlikeye sokmutu. Yunanllar 200 mil kap Ege blgesine snmlard. Sivil mlteciler 9 Eyll gn Trk svarilerinin eline geen zmir'de toplanmaya baladlar. Panik iindeki kentin Hristiyanlarn yaad kesiminde 14 Eyll gn yangn kt. Bu tarihte Yunanllar kenti oktan Mttefik komutanlarna devretmilerdi. Kemal Atatrk, Edime ve zmir'in geri verilmesi yolundaki isteinde

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This was the situation as Hemingway picked it up when, according to the Daily Stars dramatic preface, he "succeeded in reaching Constantinople" on September 30. He promptly cabled a summary of the scene within the city.3 His three-paragraph cable, bolstered by a triple bank of headlines and the italicized editorial description of him and his assignment, occupied the two important columns on the left hand side of the Daily Stars front page. Even in the seventy-word cable he aimed for impressionism, creating it both by a string of positive adjectives"Constantinople is noisy, hot, hilly, dirty, and beautiful"and by a sense of tension in such familiar cabelese as "packed with uniforms and rumors" and "Foreigners .. . have booked outgoing trains for weeks ahead." His next dispatch, filed four days later, defined more clearly the approach he wold use in these longer, mailed treatments.4 The story had as its lead the initial stages of the armistice talks at Mudania. Hemingway described the town as "a hot, dusty, badly-battered, secondrate seaport on the Sea of Marmara." He enlivened the sobriety of his basic theme with a mockery of the military which would be well received in recently demobilized Toronto, where the resentment of the English officer caste was almost a municipal characteristic. He also emphasized English and French responsibility for the war; his generation's distaste for diplomatic intrigue was evident throughout his entire coverage of the assignment. "The British wanted control in Asia Minor," he pointed out, "but Kemal did not look like a good buy to them." Hemingway moved on to what interested him much more, the fighting itself and the two armies engaged in it. His summary of the campaign was breathlessly perceptive and positive. "Kemal whipped the Greeks as everyone knows. But when you realize that he was fighting a conscript army whose soldiers the barren country they were fighting to gain hated, who had been mobilized for nine year^ who had no desire as men to conquer Asia Minor, and who were

Kemal Atatrk'n ordusu karsnda btnyle gvenlik iinde saylmazd. Hemingway, Daily Star'n abartl nsznde belirtildii gibi, 30 Eyll gn "stanbul'a varmay baard" zaman durum buydu. Hemingway hemen kentteki ortam zetleyen bir telgraf ekti. Bu paragraflk telgraf, satrlk bir balk ve yaz ilerinin yazar ve grevi hakknda italik harflerle verdii bir tantma yazsyladesteklenerek Daily Star'm n sayfasnn solundaki iki nemli stunda yer ald. Hemingway, 70 kelimelik telgrafta bile hem bir dizi kesin sfat kullanarak- "stanbul grltl, scak, tepeler zerinde, kirli ve gzel bir kent"hem de "Kent niformalar ve sylentilerle dolu" ve "Yabanclar... trenlerde haftalar ncesinden yer ayrtmlar" gibi tamdk telgraf dilinden yararlanarak izlenimci bir anlatm amalamt. Drt gn sonra yollad haberde ise, postayla gnderilen ve daha uzun olan bu yazlarda kullanaca yaklam iyice belirginlemiti/ yk, Mudanya silah brakma grmelerinin ilk evreleriyle balyordu. Hemingway kasabay "scak, tozlu, harap olmu, Marmara Denizinde ikinci snf bir liman" olarak tanmlyordu. Ana konusunun arballna orduyu alaya alarak canllk katt. Hemingway'in orduya kar bu tutumu, yakn bir tarihte askerden arndrlm olan ve ngiliz subay snfna duyulan fkenin neredeyse yerel bir zellik haline geldii Toron- to'da olumlu bir etki yaratacakt. Hemingway, ngiltere ve Fransa'nn savatan sorumlu olduunu da vurgulad. Kuann diplomatik oyunlara kar duyduu tiksinti btn muhabirlik grevi boyunca belirgindi. yle diyordu: "ngilizler Kk Asya'da denetimi ele geirmek istiyorlard ancak Kemal'in kolay yutulur bir lokma olmad ortaya kt." Hemingway, ilgisini ok daha fazla eken bir konuya, savaa ve bu savata arpan iki orduya yneltti. Sava zetledii haber soluk kesici bir kavrayta ve aklktayd. "Herkesin'bildii gibi Kemal Yunanllar kt ekilde bozguna uratt. Ancak Kemal'in, askerliin zorunlu olduu bir orduya ve ele geirmek iin arptklar kra lkeden nefret eden, dokuz yldr silah altnda tutulan, Kk Asya'y istila etmek iin ilerinde en kk bir istek duymayan, stelik dmekten iyice bkm ve maa olarak kullanldklar bir savata leceklerinin bilincine varmaya balayan askerlere kar savat dnlnce, bunun yle anlatld gibi grkemli bir askeri baar olmad anlalr."

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Hemingway completed his broad definition of the several aspects of the scene with a description of Russia's role in the Near East; his aim was to provide a round-up of the backstage realities. The general tone of all his dispatches, in fact, was primarily realistic. He explored vigorously the political, diplomatic, and military aspects of the situation. His idiom, emphasis, and attitude were harsh and uncompromising. He was not the easy sensationalist, finding scare headlines and complacent cynicism in every trivial alteration of the crisis; neither was he content with the wideeyed wonder that was the journalistic stock-intrade of so many American correspondents during the 1920's. He did not rely on actual or imaginary first-name contacts with the great and the notorious. The importance to Hemingway of the freedom and responsibility of his whole foreign assignment for the Starhe had now written more than thirty articles in six monthsand the personal growth that occurred through the European experience, are verified by the adult quality of his war correspondence. He was troubled by the implications of the situation, by the revelations of new diplomatic ineptitude and corruption, and by the threat to world peace. John Bone, an editor of breadth and judgment, described Hemingway's European work as "a special feature in The Star." 5 Hemingway was by no means an experienced reporter. He had detoured or condensed the various journalistic drudgeries that normally preface the assignments he received or created. Because of this, and because too of the kind of training he had received in Kansas City, his reporting was never wholly conventional. The content and treatment of his dispatches, by October, 1922, were generally fresh and mature. They testified to a poise unusual in a young inan of twenty- three. On October 5 he mailed a third storyit was flown to Paris, actually, and traveled by ship from France to Canadawhich indicated both his sobriety of purpose and his thoroughness in familiarizing himself with the background of this fluid situation.6 He focused on Kemal, the most important single figure in the complex of intrigue. Although much of the material was picked up from the shop talk of his colleagues, Hemingway injected into it an imaginative vivification through analogy and characterization. He drew from contemporary politics a parallel which would be a meaningful one for the people of a Dominion city. "[Kemal] is now in something of the position Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins occupied in Ireland just before their deaths." Hemingway extended the Irish analogy. "As yet," he wrote, "his de Valera has not appeared." Hemingway argued that Mesopotamia was the critical acquisition for the Kemalists. "Whichever alliance Turkey drops dears the air very little, because the one big aim of the Kemalists, the one which they -are being criticized

Hemingway, Rusya'nn Yakn Dou'da oynad rolden de sz ederek durumun eitli ynlerini geni bir biimde ortaya koydu. Grnrdeki olaylarn ardnda yatan gerekleri vermeyi amalamt. Btn haberlerinde grlen zellik, bunlarn her eyden nce gereki bir biimde yazlm olmalaryd. inde bulunulan durumun siyasi, diplomatik ve askeri ynlerini ok canl bir biimde anlatyordu. Vurgulamalar, yaklam ve kulland, dil sert ve uzlamazd. Savan gidiindeki her kk deimeden rktc balklar ve kaytsz bir ktmserlik yaratarak kolayca heyecan verici olmak peinde deildi. 1920'li yllarda birok Amerikal muhabirin her eyi aknlkla karlayan tutumu da yetmiyordu ona. nemli ve kt ad yapm kiilerle iliki kurmaya ya da kurmu gibi davranmaya da bel balamad. Hemingway'in deneyimli bir sava muhabiri gibi almas, Star adna ald bu yurt d grevinin zgrlk ve sorumluluunun onun iin tad nemin alt ay iinde otuzdan fazla yaz gndermiti ve Avrupa'da geirdii dnemin sonunda oluan kiisel olgunluun bir gstergesiydi. Yaanlan durumun yol aabilecei sonular, yeni diplomatik beceriksizlik ve kokumuluklar grmesi ve dnya barnn kar karya bulunduu tehlike onu kayglandryordu. Geni grl ve salkh kararlar veren bir yaz ileri mdr olan John Bone, Hemingway'in Avrupa'daki almalarn "The Star iinde zel bir yeri olan almalar" olarak niteliyordu.5 Hemingway, hibir ekilde deneyimli bir muhabir deildi. Ald ya da bulduu grevlerin doal olarak getirdii gazetecilikle ilgili eitli glklerin stne gitmemi ya da bunlar basitletirmiti-. Bu eilimi ve Kansas City'de grm olduu eitim nedeniyle hibir zaman btnyle geleneksel bir muhabir olmad. 1922 Ekim'inde, haberlerin ierii ve ele aln biimleri artk ounlukla canl ve olgundu. Yazdklarnda 23 yandaki gen bir adamdan beklenmeyen bir olgunluk grlyordu. 5 Ekim gn gnderdii nc bir haber uakla Paris'e gnderilmi, oradan da deniz yoluyla Kana- da'ya ulatnlm hem amacnn arballm hem de yaanlan bu deiken durumun gemiini kavrama yetkinliini gsteriyordu.6 Hemingway, karmaann en nemli kiisi Kemal zerinde durdu. Haberlerinde kulland malzemenin ounluunu meslektalarnn konumalarndan derlemesine ramen iine, karlatrmalar yapma ve karakter yaratma yoluyla, dgc rn bir canllk katt. ada siyasetle bir koutluk kurarak, smrge durumundaki bir kentin halk iin anlaml olacak bir benzetme yapt. "(Kemal) Arthur Griffith ve Michael Collins'in lmlerinden hemen nce rlanda'da sahip olduklar konumu andran bir yerde bulunuyor imdi." Hemingway, rlanda'dan setii bu benzetmeyi gelitirerek yle yazd: "Ancak Kemal'in de Valera's henz ortaya kmad." Hemingway, Kemalistlerin ele geirmeyi istedikleri nemli blgenin Mezopotamya olduunu ileri sryordu. "Trkiye hangi ittifakla ilikisini keserse kessin, bu, havay pek fazla yattrmaz nk

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It is oil that Kemal and company want Mesopotamia for, and it is oil that Great Britain wants to keep Mesopotamia for, so the East that is disappointed in Kemal the Saladin because he shows no inclination to plunge into a fanatical holy war, may yet get their war from Kemal the business man.

son paragrafn pervasz bir zet ve tahminle tamamlad:


Kemal ve arkadalarnn Mezopotamya'y istemelerinin nedeni petrol. ngilizlerin Mezopotamya'y istemelerinin nedeni de.petrol. Kemal'de Selahaddin Eyyubi'yi arayan ancak onun fanatik bir kutsal savaa girmeye niyetli olmadn anlaynca d krklna urayan Dou, gene de bekledii sava Kemal'in iadam zellii sonucu grebilir.

Hemingway did not limit himself to the large geopolitical issues. Remembering that his paper was being supplied each day with wire service cables, and exercising his particular gifts, he filed on October 6 a long, full-column study of Constantinople.8 "Old timers always call it Constan," he pointed out, "just as you are a tenderfoot if you call Gibraltar anything but Gib." This careful, ingenuous accuracy was fundamental to his portrait of the city. His theme was the paradox of Constantinople's contradictory qualities; the description was an exercise in authenticity, tempered by the sensitive, romantic point of view which originally allowed him to recognize the paradox. "In the morning," he began, "when you wake and see a mist over the Golden Horn with the minarets rising out of it slim and clean towards the sun and the Muezzin calling the faithful to prayer in a voice that soars and dips like an aria from a Russian opera, you have the magic of the east." His next paragraph smashed this illusion. "There maybe," he conceded, "a happy medium between the east of Pierre Loti's stories and the east of everyday life, but it could only be found by a man who always looked with his eyes half shut, didn't care what he ate, and was immune to the bites of insects." Hemingway strengthened the paradox with a catalogue of the inhabitants whom the city now sheltered. Its population was estimated at a million and a half. "This," he declared, "does not include hundreds of battered Fords, forty thousand Russian refugees in every uniform of the Czar's army in all stages of dilapidation, and about an equal number of Kemalist troops in civilian clothes who have filtered into the city in order to make sure that Constantinople will go to Kemal no matter how the peace negotiations come out." The paragraph's last sentence had an impressive finality. "All these/" Hemingway wrote, "have entered since the last estimate." His precise catalogue of the city, as orderly and comprehensive as a large scale map, included an outline of night life of the dty, where the theaters did not open until ten o'clock. "The night clubs open at two, the more respectable night clubs that is. The disreputable night clubs open at four in the morning." Hemingway mentioned discreetly the Galata settlement, as befitted a correspondent for a family paper that nonetheless grantedthereadability-ofvice.Heexplained-thatthe small cluster of buildings, half way up the hill from the port, had "a district that is more unspeakably horrible than the foulest heyday of the old Barbary Coast. It festers there, trapping the soldiers and sailors of all the allies and of all nations." Hemingway continued this personal, feature treatment ih his next dispatch, despite the fact that

Hemingway kendisini geni jeopolitik konularla snrlamad. Gazetesinin her gn haber ajans telgraflaryla geilen haberlerde desteklendiini bilen ve kendine zg yeteneklerini kullanan Hemingway, 6 Ekim gn stanbul'la ilgili uzun ve tam stunluk bir yaz hazrlad.8 "Eskiler bu kente Konstan derler. Yoksa, tpk Cebelitank'a Cebel'den baka bir ey dediiniz zaman aylaklnzn ortaya k gibi acemi olduunuz anlalr." Bu dikkatli ve hayranlk uyandrc kesinlik, kenti anlatmas asndan gerekiyordu. Yazrm konusu stanbul'un elien niteliklerinin aykrlyd. Kentin betimlenmesi, Hemingway'in bu aykrln ayrdma varmasn salayan duyarl ve romantik bakla dengelenmi bir sahicilik yaratma denemesiydi. Yaz yle balyordu: "Sabah uyanp da Hali'i kaplayan sisi ve bu sisten gnee doru ykselen ince, belirgin minareleri grnce ve bir Rus operasndan bir aryay andrr biimde alalp ykselen sesiyle insanlar namaza aran mezzini duyunca, dounun bys sarar sizi." ikinci paragraf ise bu yanlsamay yok eder: "Pierre Loti'nin yklerinde anlatt dou ile gnlk yaamda karlalan dou arasnda gzel bir iliki olabilir. Ancak bu ilikiyi yalnzca gzleri srekli yar kapal dolaan, yediine aldrmayan, bceklerin srlarna bakl olanlar grebilir." Hemingway, kentin barndrd insanlarn bir dkmn yaparak aykrl glendirdi. Kentin nfusunun bir buuk milyon olduu sanlyordu. Hemingway unlar yazd: "Ypranm durumda olan yzlerce Ford, ar'n ordusundan her rtbede bakmsz krk bin Rus mlteci ye bar grmeleri nasl sonulanrsa sonulansn stanbul'un Kemal'in elinde kalmasn salamak iin kente szm sivil giysili krk bin kadar Kemalist asker bu sayya dahil deil." Paragrafn son cmlesi etkileyici bir sonu tayordu: "Btn bunlar, yaplan son tahminden sonra kente girmi bulunuyorlar." Hemingway'in geni lekli bir harita kadar dzenli ve kapsaml olan bu dkmnde, tiyatrolarn saat ondan nce almad kentin gece yaamnn bir erevesi iziliyordu. "Gece kulpleri sabah 2'de alr, yani nezih olanlar. Kt n yapm olanlar ise sabah 4'te almaya balar." Hemingway Galata blgesinden, trel dknllderin her.- eye-ramen. okunabileceim - kabul etmi bir aile gazetesinin muhabirine yakr bir ekilde, ly amadan sz etti. Tepeden limana uzanan yolun ortasnda yer alan bu kk bina topluluunun "eski Berberistan sahillerinin en parlak gnlerinde yaanan irkeflikleri bile geride brakan, kelimelerle anlatlamaz korkunlukta bir blge" olduunu yazd. "Btn balaklarn ve lkelerin askerlerini, denizcilerini tuzaa dren bir irin yuvasdr Galata." Hemingway, somaki yazm telgraf olarak yazmasna ramen kiisel, magazin yaklamm

not yet dealt with the potential threat to Christians. This was one of the major news values of the situation, prominently exploited in the coverage by the New York press and the wire services. It was of particular interest to a pious, church-going community like Toronto. For the answers, Hemingway dutifully sought out Hamid Bey, "next to Kemal, perhaps," he wrote, "the most powerful man in the Angora government." Hemingway's instinct for characterization, and his gift for the effective interviewing of celebrities this was the primary assignment for which John Bone ultimately brought him back to Canada in the early fall of 1923allowed him to ignore massacres for the first two paragraphs. "Bismarck," he cabled, "said all men in the Balkans who tuck their shirts into their trousers are crooks. The shirts of the peasants, of course, hang outside. At any rate, when I found Hamid Bey ... in his Stamboul office where he directs his Kemalist government in Europe, while drawing a large salary as administrator of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, a French capitalized concernhis shirt was tucked in, for he was dressed in a grey business suit." Hemingway's final dispatch from Constantinople his sixth in little more than a weekwas mailed the following day.10 Mindful of his obligations as a Canadian correspondent, he located a topic of particular interest to an Empire audience. Afghanistan's borders touched almost every sore spot in the area, and its proximity to Mesopotamia was doubly significant because of Ke- mal's designs on the oil-rich English mandate. Hemingway's imagination responded to the proud, martial code of the Afghans, He incorporated the techniques of personal verification, political realism, and careful dialogue and vignettes. Shere Mohamet Khan, whom Hemingway had previously met in Rome, "was tall, dark-haired, hawk-faced, as straight as a lance, with the bird-of-prey eyes and the hooked nose that mark the Afghan .. . like a man out of the renaissance. . . . " He translated the history of Afghanistan through a blend of chronology and personalities, emphasizing always the Afghan hatred of England. He told the story of the former Amir of Afghanistan "all his life he hated the English"who was "a great m a n . . . a hard man, a far-seeing man and an Afghan." The Amir spent his entire life consolidating his tribal domain into a unified nation, and in training his son. "His son," Hemingway explained, "was to carry on his work to make war on the English." The Kiplingesque quality which Gertrude Stein had previously noted in his poetry was more than just the coincidence of the material. The idiom and sentence structure, as well as the essential attitude and treatment, are reminders that Hemingway later recommended the

Hemingway, Hristiyanlar iin sz konusu olabilecek tehlikeden henz sz etmemiti. New York basn ve telgraf ajanslarnn getikleri haberlerde en ok kullanlan ve haber deeri tayan balca konulardan biriydi bu. Kiliseye giden, dindar Toronto halk iin zellikle ilgi ekici bir konuydu. Sorulara karlk bulmak amacyla, "Ankara hkmetinde Kemal'den sonra belki de en gl adam" dedii Hamid Bey'i bulmaya, alt. Kiileri tanmlama ve nllerle etkili gimeler yapma becerisi sayesinde John Bone'tn 1923 giz balarnda Hemingway'i Kanada'ya geri armasnn birinci nedeni de bu tr bir iti Hemingway, ilk iki paragrafta toplu ldrme olaylarna deinmeden geti. Gnderdii bir telgrafta, "Bismarck, gmleklerini pan- talonlanna sokan Balkanlardki btn insanlarn kat olduuna inanyor," diyordu. "Kyllerin gmlekleri doal olarak pantalonlanrun zerinde sarkyor. Her ne ise, Fransz sermayeli Osmanl Hmayun Bankas'nm yneticisi olarak ykl bir maa alrken ayn zamanda Avrupa'daki kendi Kemalist hkmetini ynettii stanbul brosunda buldum Hamid Bey'i. zerinde gri renkli bir takm olduu iin gmlei de panta- lonuna sokuluydu." Hemingway'in stanbul'dan gnderdii son haber bir haftadan biraz fazla sre iinde bu altna haber oluyordu ertesi gn postaya verildi.10 Kanadal bir muhabir olarak tad ykmllkleri unutmayan Hemingway, bir imparatorluk halkmn zellikle ilgisini ekecek bir konuya el att. Afganistan'n snrlar blgedeki hemen her duyarl alanla kesimekteydi ve Kemal'in petrol asndan zengin olan bu ngiliz mandas zerindeki tasarlar nedeniyle Afganistan'n Mezopotamya'ya yaknlnn nemi iki kat daha 'artyordu. Hemingway'in imgelemi Afganllarm gururlu, sava ilkelerine uyuyordu. Hemingway, anlatlanlar ahsen dorulama, siyasi gerekilik, zenli diyalog yaratma ve yazya ksa ykler katma yntemlerini birletirdi. Daha nce Roma'da grt Muhammed Han, "uzun boyu, siyah sa, atmaca baklar, mzrak gibi duruu, Afgarllara zg deirmi burnu, aha kular andran gzleriyle yenidendouun iinden gelen biri gibiydi..." Hemingway, tarihi olaylar ve kiilerden bir karm oluturarak ve Afganllarm ngiltere'ye kar duyduklar nefreti srekli vurgulayarak Afganistan tarihini aktard. "Btn yaam boyunca Ingilizlerden nefret eden, byk bir adain... zorlu, ileri grl bir adam ve tam bir Afganl olan" eski Afgan emirinin yksn anlatt. Emir btn yaamm, kabilelerden oluan lkesini birlemi bir ulus durumuna getirmek ve olunu eitmekle geirmiti. Hemingway yle aklyordu: "Emirin olu Ingilizlere kar yrtlen sava srdrecekti." Hemingway'in yazlarnda grlen Kipling'i andran nitelikler Gertrude Stein daha nce Hemingway'in iirlerinde bu nitelie iaret etmiti yalnzca konunun benzerliiyle aklanamazd. Konuya temel yaklam ve onu ele al biiminin yan sra kulland dil ve cmle yap da Hemingway'in daha sonralar bu ngiliz yazarn ksa yklerine yararl rnekler olarak gen yazarlara

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and he went to see what manner of people these English were. There the English got him. First, they entertained him royally. They showed him many delights and they taught him to drink. I do not say he was not an apt learner. He was no longer a man and an Afghan'.

Ingilizlerin ne tr insanlar olduklarn grmek iin Hindistan'a gitti. Orada ngilizler Emir'i ellerine geirdiler. Onu ilkin grkemli bir ekilde arladlar. Bir yn zevk tanttlar ona, iki imeyi rettiler. renme yeteneinin olmadm syleyemem. Artk bir erkek ve bir Afganl deildi.

Hemingway's six Constantinople stories had touched on almost every element in the explosive, varied situation. He had defined the nature of the Turkish position, with particular emphasis on the all-important French and Russian alliances. He had attempted an analysis of the composition of the Keinalist group, and its prospects for continued unity. He had given a vivid base to the articles through the portrait of the city, and his sketch of Hamid Bey supplied a glimpse of Turkish leadership and a foreshadowing of what a Turkish occupation of Constantinople could imply. The essay on Afghanistan had reminded his readers of the fragility of European peace. He had cabled and mailed John Bone a comprehensive feature treatment of the assignment. Hemingway's reservations about newspaper work have always been sound ones, but during this entire period as a foreign correspondent in 1922 he had on the whole the sort of duties, and gave to them the kind of treatment, which reduced some of the dangers, creatively speaking, of a journalistic apprenticeship. He had, above all, done a minimum of spot news reporting. "When you describe something that has happened that day," he wrote in 1935, "the timeliness makes people see it in their own imaginations. A month later that element of time is gone and your account would be flat and they would not see in their minds nor remember it."12 Hemingway, at least until he covered the Lausanne Conference late in 1922, was able to give to his journalism ingredients which to a degree replaced the false strength of timeliness. "But if you make it up instead of describe it," he contiuned on that same occasion in the 1930's, once again paraphrasing Miss Stem's lessons, "you can make it round and whole and solid and give it life. You create it, for good or bad. It is made; not described." Hemingway had not made up his Constantinople dispatches, but neither had he been imprisoned within the restrictions of topical reporting. He could have remained indefinitely in the city, finding other ramifications of the broad outline he had already written. Constantinople was exciting and turbulent, full of drama and romance and excess, and never more so than in October, 1922. Years later Hemingway wrote a little of it into the introspection of the writer dying in the shadow of Kilimanjaro, as Harry remembers that in Constantinople, after-anightofviolenceandbrawlmg,, he "drove out to Rimmily Hissa along the Bosphorus."'3 The instinct that made Hemingway a good reporter eventually eclipsed the charm of the gay, reckless life, with its echoes of 1918 moods. When he had filed his Afghanistan dispatch he left

Hemingway> stanbul'dan yazd alt haberde patlamaya hazr, deiken durumla ilgili hemen her unsura deinmiti. ok nemli olan Fransz ve Rus antlamalarnn zerinde zellikle durarak Trk tarafnn konumunu anlatmt. Kemalist birliin yapsm ve bu birli- in srdrlme ansm zmlemeye almt. Kenti betimleyerek yazlarna canl bir yap vermi, Hamid Bey'in bir portresini izerek hem Trk ynetimim hem de stanbul'un Trklerin eline gemesinin getifebilecei sonular hakknda bir fikir salamt. Afganistan'la ilgili yazs okuyucularna Avrupa barnn kolayca bozulabileceini anmsatmt. Hemingway, konuyu magazin haber biiminde, kapsaml olarak ele alm ve John Bone'a telgraf ve postayla gndermiti. Hemingway'in bir gazeteci olarak almakla ilgili, yerinde kayglar vard, ancak 1922 ylnda yabana muhabir olarak alt dnem iinde genel olarak stlendii grevler ve bu grevlere yaklam biimi, toy bir gazetecinin karlaabilecei baz sakncalar gidermiti. Her eyden nce, fla habercilie ok az yer vermiti. 1935 ylnda unlar yazd: "O gn olan bir olay anlatrken olayn zamanlamas, okuyucularn bu olay kendi imgelemlerinde canlandrmalarm salar. Bir ay sonra ise bu zaman unsuru nemini yitirmi, haberiniz yavanlamtr. Artk okuyucular o haberi ne kafalarnda canlandracak 12 ne de anmsayacaklardr." Hemingway, en azndan 1922 sonlarnda Lozan Konferansnda muhabirlik yapana kadar, zamanlamann salad yapay gcn yerini bir dereceye kadar tutan v eler katabiliyord gazeteciliine. 1930'lu yllarda, konuyla ilgili olarak bir kez daha Miss Stein'm derslerini kendi szleriyle dile getiriyordu: "Ancak olay anlatmak yerine kendiniz kurarsanz, olay btn, kusursuz, salam bir hale getirir ve ona yaam verebilirsiniz. yi ya da kt, olay yaratrsnz. Olay yaplmtr, be- timlenmemitir." Geri Hemingway Istanbul haberlerini kafasnda kurmamt ancak, konu habercilii snrlan iinde de kalmamt. Yazm olduu geni taslaa yeni ayrntlar ekleyerek kentte uzun sre kalabilirdi. stanbul, 1922 Ekim'inde her zamankinden daha fazla heyecan verici olaylarla, serven ve taknlkla dolu, cokulu ve grltl bir kentti. Hemingway, yllar sonra bu yaantlarn kk bir parasn Kilimanj a- ro'nun eteinde lmekte olan yazar kahramannn iebakmda kulland: Harry, stanbul'da olayl ve kavgal bir geceden soma "Boaz yolundan arabayla Rumeli Hisarna gittiini-anmsar;Hemingway'in baarl bir muhabir olmasn salayan sezgi, 1918'lerin yaama biiminin yanklarm tayan o renkli, ftursuz hayatn ekiciliini sonunda glgede brakt. Hemingway, Afganistan haberini tamamladktan sonra stanbul'dan ayrlarak kendisi iin siyasi ve 4 5

Lag in August and September; he had no intention of missing this later phase. From Italian soldiers and officers in 1918, and from other wounded men in the Milan hospital, Hemingway had heard the stories about Ca- poretto; now, four years later, he was about to see his own variation of the Italian retreat. HEMINGWAY's reaction to the tragic spectacle of military defeat and betrayal was personal and imaginative. He datelined the first of this second set of Near East dispatches from Muradii, a small village near Lake Van, several hundred miles east of Constantinople*, on October 14.14 He was an accurate, informative reporter of this basic element of war, the withdrawal of a large body of men through hostile country. The experience illuminated everything he had read of all war, what he had heard of the American Ciyil War, and what he had sensed and witnessed in Italy. The things he found in Eastern Thrace told him precisely what an army looks like during an evacuation.
In their ill-fitting U.S. uniforms they are trekking across the country, cavalry patrols out ahead, the soldiers marching sullenly but occassionally grinning at us as we pass their strung- out, straggling columns. They have cut all the telegraph wires behind them; you see them dangling from the poles like Maypole ribbons. They have abandoned their thatched huts, their camouflaged gun positions, their machine gun nests, and all the heavily wired, strung out, fortified ridges where they had planned to make a last stand against the Turk. . . . Some soldiers lie on top of the mounds of baggage, while others goad the buffalo along. Ahead and behind the baggage carts are strung out the troops. This is the end of the great Greek military adventure.

mt. Bunu izleyen evreyi karmaya ise hi niyeti yoktu. 1918 ylnda talyan askerlerinden, subaylarndan ve Milano'daki hastanede bulunan yarallardan Capo- retto'ya ilikin ykler iitmiti. te, drt yl sonra, talyanlarmkini andrr bir geri ekilii yazacakt.

ASKER yenilgi ve ihanetin trajik grnts karsnda Hemingway'in tepkisi kiisel ve dgcne dayal bir tepkiydi. Yakn Dou haberlerinin bu ikinci dizisinin ilk haberini 14 Ekim gn, stanbul'un yzlerce mil dousunda bulunan Van glnn yaknlarndaki Muradiye adl bir kyden yazd.14 ok sayda askerin bir dman lkesinden geri ekiliini, savam bu temel esini, dikkatli, aydnlatc bir habercilikle yanstt. Bu olaya tank olmas, savalara ilikin okuduklarm, Amerikan Sava zerine iittiklerini, talya'da grp yaadklarm alda kavuturdu. Dou Trakya'da tank olduklar, bir ordunun geri ekilme srasnda neye benzediini gsterdi ona.
zerlerinde ereti Amerikan niformalar, nc svarilerin pei sra, suratlarnda kskn bir anlatmla yryen askerler, dalm, sarkm hatlarndan geerken zaman zaman bize srtyorlar. Geride kalan btn telgraf hatlarn kesmiler. TeEerin, Mays enliklerindeki frdndlerden sarkan kurdeleler gibi direklerden sallandklarn gryorsunuz. Saz kulbelerini, kamufle edilmi top mevzilerini, makinal tfek yuvalarn ve Trklere kar son bir direnie gemeyi tasarladklar, dikenli tellerle iyice donatlm, salamlatrlm btn srtlan terk etmiler... Baz askerler yk beklerinin zerine yaylmlar, dierle- ride arabalar eken mandalar vendire ile drtyorlar. Yk arabalarnn nnde ve gerisinde ilerleyen askerler. Yunanllarn byk askeri serveninin sonu bu.

Hemingway's primary concern, though he was acutely aware of the tactics and strategy of withdrawal, was with the individual Greek soldier. "Even in the evacuation," he wrote, "the Greek soldiers looked like good troops." Hemingway learned a great deal from an English captain, a cavalryman from the Indian Army. Captain Wittal was one of the two officers attached to. the Greeks as an observer during the fighting around Angora in the late summer. Hemingway tried hard to put the idiom and inflection of the English officer's speech into the article's dialogue. " 'In the one show in Anatolia,' Captain Wittal said, 'the Greek infantry were doing an absolutely magnificent attack and their artillery was doing them in.'" Wittal also told Hemingway about Major Johnson, the other English observer, an experienced gunner who was so shocked by the unprofessional spectacle that he " 'cried at what those gunners were doing to their infantry.'" Years later this became another of the fragments of memory in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro"; Harry remembers "where they had

Hemingway, geri ekiliin yntem ve stratejisini olduka iyi biliyordu ancak asl ilgilendii bir birey olarak Yunan askeriydi. yle yazd: "Geri ekilirken bile Yunanllar iyi birer asker grnmndeydiler." Hemingway, Hindistan ordusunda svari olarak grev yapm bir ngiliz yzbasndan olduka ok ey renmiti. Yaz sonunda Ankara yaknlarnda yaplan arpmada Yunanllarn yaranda gzlemci olarak grevlendirilen iki subaydan birisi de Yzba Wittal'di. Hemingway, bu Ingiliz subaynn konumasndaki anlatm biimini, ses tonunu yazdaki diyalogda vermek iin ok uramt. "'Bir seferinde/ demiti Yzba Wittal, 'Yunan piyadeleri ok grkemli bir saldrya gemilerdi ancak kendi topularnn atei sonucu lyorlard.'" Wittal

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tine officers, that did not know a god-damned thing, and the artillery had fired into the troops and the British observer had cried like a child." Hemingway's last sentences in the 1922 dispatch were clear and bitter, testimony to his imaginative involvement in the scene.
All day I have been passing them, dirty; tired, unshaven, windbitten soldiers hiking along the trails across the brown, rolling, barren Thracian country. No bands, no relief organizations, no leave areas, nothing but lice, dirty blankets, and mosquitoes at night. They are the last of the glory that was Greece. This is the end of their second siege of Troy.

mutasnda saldrya getikleri zaman topunun piyadenin stne ate ettiini ve ngiliz gzlemcinin bir ocuk gibi aladm" anmsar. Hemingway'in 1922 ylnda yazd haberdeki son cmlelerin akl ve keskinlii olaylara kendisini ne kadar kaptrdnn kantyd.
Kara, engebeli, kra Trakya toprandaki patikalar boyunca yayan ilerleyen kirli, yorgun, trasz; rzgrda kavrulmu askerlere rastlyorum btn gn boyunca. Ne bandolar, ne yardm rgtlen, ne de izin'blgeleri yar.-Bitten; kirli battaniyelerden ve geceleri sivrisineklerden baka hibir ey yok. Grkemli Yunanistan'dan kalan son askerler. Bu, onlarn ikinci Truva kuatmasnn sonu.

Hemingway learned other things about a retreat, things he didn't mail to Toronto but saved for the long Caporetto passages he wrote in 1929 for A Farewell to Arms. He had other stories, too, from Captain Wittal and from Major Johnson; the latter had become press liaison officer in Constantinople. Once again Heming- .way saved them for Harry's dying monologue. "That was the day he'd first seen dead men wearing white ballet skirts and upturned shoes with pompons on them ... he and the British observer had run ... until his lungs ached arid his mouth was full of the taste of pennies and they stopped behind some rocks and there were the Turks coming as lumpily as ever." In 1922, however, Hemingway filed no further details on the military aspects of the evacuation. He moved north toward the vast civilian exodus from Western Thrace. He stopped briefly in Constantinople, 15 and then on October 20, now many miles north of the city, he cabled from Adrianople a fine story of the refugees who were moving out of Eastern Thrace.16 It was harsh and compressed, a vivid recapitulation of civilian tragedy. In 1922 its horror had not become a global commonplace; Hemingway saw it with a fresh, shocked awareness.
In a never-ending, staggering march the Christian population of Eastern Thrace is jamming the roads towards Macedonia. The main column crossing the Maritza River at Adrianople is twenty ' miles long. Twenty miles of carts drawn by cows, bullocks and muddy-flanked water buffalo, with exhausted, staggering men, women, and children, blankets over their heads, walking blindly in the rain beside their worldly goods.

Hemingway, geri ekilile ilgili baka eyler de rendi ancak bunlar Toronto'ya gndermek yerine 1929'da yazd Silahlara Veda kitabndaki uzun Caporetto blmleri iin saklad. Yzba Wittal ve stanbul'da basn ilikileri subay olan Binba Johnson'dan baka ykler de duymutu. Hemingway, bu ykleri de Harry'nin lrken yapt ikonumada kulland. "O gn ilk kez beyaz etekler ve ucu kvrk ponponlu ayakkablar giyen l askerler grd... ngiliz gzlemciyle birlikte, cierleri sancynaya, azm madeni bir tat kaplayincaya kadar kamt. Bir kaya kmesinin ardnda durdular. Trkler dalgalar halinde ilerliyordu." Hemingway, 1922 ylnda, geri ekilme ileminin askeri ynleriyle ilgili yeni bir haber yazmad. Bat Trakya'dan ayrlan sivilleri izlemek iin kuzeye hareket etti. stanbul'da ksa bir sre kald.15 Daha sonra 20 Ekim gn stanbul'dan millerce uzaktan, Edirne'den, Dou Trakya'dan ayrlmakta olan mltecilerle ilgili iyi yazlm bir haber gnderdi.16 Sivillerin yaad trajedinin sert, youn bir dille verilmi canl bir zetiydi bu. 1922 ylnda, bu savan deheti dnya kamuoyu iin henz sradan bir olay haline gelmemiti. Hemingway, bu sava yepyeni bir gzle dehete kaplm olarak gryordu.
Dou Trakya'nn Hristiyan halk sonu gelmez, ar bir yryle Makedonya'ya giden yollan dolduruyor. Edirne'den Meri rman geen ana hattn uzunluu yirmi mil. neklerin, kzlerin, brleri amura bulanm mandalarn ektii arabalardan ve balarn battaniyelerle rtm, yamurda nlerini grmeden eyalarnn yan sra sendeleyerek yryen bitkin haldeki erkek, kadn ve ocuklardan oluan yirmi millik bir hat.

This spectacle of refugee misery, beyond all the rest of what he saw in Asia Minor, left the most permanent scar on Hemingway. In his creative work he made far more use of what he learned from the military catastrophe; he told Malcom Cowley, in fact, that he "really learned about war" in the Near East.17 The civilian suf- fering, however, gave a new dimension to his determi- nation to be a writer. He has always been generous and quick in his response to grief. His ready, decent anger had already been displayed in his indignation about Italian fascism. His susceptibilities once caused him to explain that "I cannot see a horse down in the street without having it make me feel a necessity for helping the horse, and I have spread sacking, unbuckled harness and dodged shod hoofs many times and will again if they have horses on city

Kk Asya'da tank olduu btn olaylarn tesinde Hemingway'de en kalc yaray brakan, buray terk edenlerin yaad sefalet oldu. Yazarlk almalarnda askeri ykmdan renmi olduklarm bol bol kulland. Malcom Cowley'ye Yakn Dou'da "gerek sava rendiini" syledi.17 Yazar olmak konu-' sundaklkararllmayenibir-boyut-katanise-sivilhal- kn ektii acya tanklk etmesiydi. Hemingway her zaman, ekilen acya kar armda ve yrekten bir tepki gstermitir. Hemen da vurduu iten fkesini talyan faizmine kar taknd sert tutumda ortaya koymutu. Hemingway'in duyarll bir keresinde unlar syletmiti kendisine: "Yolda ne zaman yere ylm bir at grsem, bir eyler yapma gereini duyarm hep. Birok kez bir eyler sermi, koum zm, ifteden kammmdr. Eer yamurlu ve buz gibi havalarda kent yollarna 4 7

such human suffering as he saw in October, 1922, along the road to Adrianople. When he got back to France after finishing his Greco- Turk assignment, he made on the basis of it a decision about his career. "I remember," he said thirty years later, "coming home from the Near East. .. absolutely heartbroken at what was going on and in Paris trying to decide whether I would put my whole life into trying to do something about it or to be a writer." His indignation made' the decision a difficult one; he had been raised, after all, in the decent world of Oak Park, with its middleclass, nineteenth-century heritage of New England humanitarianism. "I decided," he said in 1951, "cold as a snake, to be a writer and to write as truly as I could all my life."19 The terse clarity of the Adrianople cable, which the Daily Star used on the first page of the second section, could not disguise what he was feeling. Once he had established the scene in the first three paragraphs, in exposition as effective as any journalism he had yet written,20 Hemingway quickly ended the cable. His last two paragraphs, for there were only five in all, were an explicit plea for help. "At Adrianople," he cabled, "where the main stream moves through, there is no Near East relief at all. They are doing very good work at Rodosto on the coast, but can only touch the fringe/ He completed his Near East assignment three days later, with a long, two-thousand-word article which John Bone spread out across a whole page. 21 Hemingway was at last out of sight of that grim procession. He wrote the final dispatch as he rode through Bulgaria, and mailed it from Sofia on October 23. He pretended to a retrospective softening of the horror. "In a comfortable train," he declared, "with the horrors of the Thracian evacuation behind me, it was already beginning to seem unreal. That is the boon of our memories." His second paragraph was a more curt and precise app- raissal of his mood, "I have described that evacuation," he said bleakly, "in a cable to The Star from Adrianople. It does no good to go over it again. The evacuation still keeps up." His memories were in reality far from sublimated.
No matter how long it takes this letter to get to Toronto, as you read in The Star you may be sure that the same ghastly, shambling procession of people being driven from their homes is filing in unbroken line along the muddy road to Macedonia. A quarter of a million people take a long time to move.

Hemingway then supplied a detailed account of his movements and experiences during that period from which he had compressed his cable of three days earlier. "Adrianople itself," he wrote, "is not a pleasant place." He described the railway station, "a mud-hole crowded with soldiers, bundles, bedsprings, bedding, sewing machines, babies, broken carts, all in the mud and the drizzling rain." The scene was the more horrible from being lit only with kerosene flares; it was one of those "very simple things," as he explained later, which he

ne'ye giden yol boyunca taruk olduu insanlarn ektii acnn benzerini o zamana kadar ne grm ne de aklna getirmiti. Trk-Yunan savayla ilgili grevini tamamlayp Fransa'ya dnd zaman, yapt bu greve dayanarak meslei konusunda bir karar verdi. Otuz yl soma bunu yle anlatyordu: "Yalan Dou'da olup bitenler nedeniyle krk bir kalple eve dndm ve Paris'te, bu konuda bir eyler yapmak iin kendimi btnyle bu konuya adamak ile yazar olmak arasnda bir karar vermeye altm anmsyorum." Kzgnl kararm zorlatryordu; ne de olsa Oak Park'n orta snfa zg ve on dokuzuncu yzyl New England insanclndan kalma o sekin ortamnda yetimiti. 1951 ylnda yle yazmt: "Hibir duygusallk gstermeden, yazar olmaya ve hayatm boyunca gereklere olabildiince sadk kalarak yazmaya karar verdim."19 Edirne'den gnderdii ve Daily Star'm ikinci blmnn ilk sayfasnda yer alan ksa ve ak seik telgraf bile Hemingway'in duygularm gsteriyordu. Hemingway ilk paragrafta durumu, o gne kadar yazdklar kadar baarl olan bir giri blmnde betimledikten sonra telgraf sona erdiriyordu.20 Son iki paragrafta (telgraf toplam be paragraftan oluuyordu) aka yardm arsnda bulunuyordu. Hemingway; telgrafta unlar yazyordu: "Sivil halkn byk ksmnn getii Edirne'de Yakn Dou yardm ekipleri bulunmuyor. Bu ekipler kydaki Tekirda'da k iyi alyorlar ancak yapabildikleri, iin yalnzca kk bir blm." gn soma Yakn Dou grevini, John Bone'un tam bir sayfaya yayd, iki bin kelimelik uzun bir yazyla tamamlad.21 Hemingway, artk bu korkun mlteci konvoyundan uzaktayd. Son haberim Bulgaristan'dan geerken yazd ve 23 Ekim gn Sofya'da postaya verdi. Yaanan deheti anmsadnda artk pek 0 kadar korkun gelmiyormu gibi davranyordu. "Rahat bir trende yolculuk ederken Trakya'nn boaltlmasnda yaanan dehet verici olaylar geride kald artk ve her ey, daha imdiden gerekd gibi gelmeye balad. Belleimizin bir ltf bu." kinci paragrafta ruh durumunun daha ksa ve kesin bir deerlendirmesini yapt. Hznl bir ekilde unlar yazyordu: "Edirne'den The Star'a gnderdiim telgrafta o boaltma ilemini betimlemitim. Tekrar bu konuya dnmenin bir yarar yok. Boaltma ilemi hl sryor." Aslnda olanlar hi de unutmamt.
Bu mektubu, Toronto'ya ulamas ne kadar srerse srsn, Star'da okurken, evlerinden srlm insanlardan oluan ayn korkun ve ar aksak ilerleyen konvoyun Makedonya'ya giden amurlu yolu kesintisiz bir uzant olarak doldurduundan emin olabilirsiniz. ki yz elli bin insann yer deitirmesi uzun zaman alyor.

Hemingway, gn nce gnderdii ksa, zl telgraf yazd dnem iinde yaptklar ve yaadklaryla ilgili ayrntl bir haber gnderdi. "Edime gzel bir yer deil," diye yazyordu. Tren istasyonunu da yle tanmlad: "Askerler, bohalar, somyalar, yataklar, diki makinalari, bebekler ve bozuk yk arabalaryla tk tk dolu

4 8

sion itself, particularly in a long, single sentence paragraph that reaffirmed the cable. "I walked five miles with the refugees [sic] procession along. the road ... always the slow, rain soaked, shambling, trudging Thracian peasantry plodding along in the rain, leaving their homes behind." Hemingway ended his Near East assignment with vignettes of the tough, callous opportunism of Madame Marie,, the prospering operator of Adriano- pie's only hotel. He carried with him a final impression of indifference toward suffering, as he traveled by train from Sofia north through Serbia and on to Trieste. Paris itself was a splendid contrast to Adrianople; the races at Auteuil were very good that year and he watched them from under a bright, blue November sky. As with Harry in /The Snows of Kilimanjaro," however; there were aspects of Paris which only aggravated his memories. "So when he got back to Paris that time he could not talk about it or stand to have it mentioned. And there in the cafe as he passed was that A- merican poet with a pile of saucers in front of him and a stupid look on his potato face talking about the Dada movement with a Roumanian, who said his name was Tristan Tzara, who always wore a monocle and had a headache."

Los Desastres de la Guerra'da yapmaya alt gibi, kabalk kazandrmaya alt ok basit eylerden" biriydi bu olay.22 Ancak srekli olarak, zellikle telgraftaki haberi yeniden dorulayan tek cmlelik uzun paragrafta, mlteci konvoyuna dnd. "Yol boyunca giden konvoyla birlikte be mil yol aldm... Evlerini geride brakan TrakyalI kyller ar ar, yamurdan iyice slanm bir halde, yorgun argn, ayaklarn sryerek ilerliyorlar." Hemingway, Yakn Dou grevini, Edirne'nin tek otelim altran ve ilerini yoluna koymu olan Madame Marie'nin acmasz, duyarsz frsatlnn ka bir .betimlemesiyle sonulandrd. Sofya'dan trenle kuzeye, Srbistan'a ve oradan Triete'ye giderken, ekilen acya kar gsterilen kaytszlkla ilgili son bir izlenimi de beraberinde gtryordu. Paris kenti ile Edime grkemli bir kartlk oluturuyordu. Hemingway,, o yl ok iyi geen Auteuil yarlarm Kasm aymda parlak, berrak bir havada izledi. Ancak, "Kilimanj ar o 'nun Karlar"mn kahraman Harry'de de olduu gibi, Paris'in yalnzca anlarnn depremesine neden olan baz ynleri vard. "Paris'e dndnde o olay hakknda ne konuabiliyor ne de o olayn sznn edilmesineikatlana- biliyordu. nnden getii cafede, nnde bir yn fincan taba duran, patates suratl, aptal bakl, o Amerikal ozan, adnn Tristan Tzara olduunu syleyen ve srekli ba aryan, monokl takan bir Romenle Dadaizm hakknda konuuyordu."

HE Asia Minor assignment gave Hemingway's

understanding of war a depth impossible on the basis of his Italian experience alone. His education was extended by another lesson in geopolitical realities. The area of his physical background had been enlarged; a Balkan campaign had given him a wider base for the worldliness by which he illuminated so much of his early, work. Few young, men of twenty-three could draw on a Near East iexperience. Hemingway drew on it heavily. Of the sixteen brief inter-chapters in In Our Time, in 1925, three of the most forceful came from the Asia Minor assignment. In 1930, when he was preparing a new edition of the short story collection, he included a prelude which he later entitled, "On the Quai at Smyrna."23 The appalling cruelty toward their animals, by Greeks and Turks, had -analmosttraumatic~effect~on~HemingwayrHeuse dit not only in the 1930 sketch but also in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" andtwicein Death in the Afternoon. On that particular occasion, in fact, as'if aware of the psychotic way in which he was returning to the scene, Hemingway allowed the Old Lady to cde him for his preoccupation. "You wrote about those mules before, she reminds him. "I know it," Hemingway replied, "and I'm sorry. Stop interrupting. I won't write about them again. I promise."24 He was equally absorbed by the technical

KK Asya grevi Hemingway'in sava hakkndaki grlerine, talya'daki yaantsnn tek bana kesinlikle veremeyecei bir derinlik salad. Jeopolitik gerekler zerine ald yeni bir ders eitimini gelitirdi. Corafi evresi genilemi, Balkanlarda olanlar, ilk yaptlarnn ounluunda yansyan toplumsalla daha geni bir taban salamt. 23 yandaki, ok az gen bir Yakn Dou deneyiminden yararlanabilirdi. Hemingway bu deneyimden youn bir ekilde yararland. 1925'te kan In Our Time'daM on alt arablmden en etkileyid olan blm Kk Asya grevi yaantlarna dayandrlmt. Hemingway, 1930 ylnda bu ksa ykler sekisinin yeni basmm hazrlarken, daha sonra "zmir Rhtmnda" balm verdii bir ndeyi ekledi.23 Yunanllarn ve Trklerin hayvanlarna kar gsterdikleri korkun ~aim^szlkHefflingwaytteeriHde"lrkt"biretk iya-" ratmt. Bu olay, 1930'da yazd ksa ykden baka "Kilimanjaro'nun Karlar" ve iki kez de Death in the Aftemoon'da kulland. Death in the Afternoon 'da, sanki o sahneyi hastalkl bir biimde anmsadnn bilincindeymiesine, yal Bayan'n kendisine bu saplantsndan tr kmasna gz yumar. Yal Bayan, "Bu katrlardan daha nce de sz ettin," der. "Biliyorum," der Hemingway, "zgnm. Karmaktan vazgein. O hayvanlar hakknda bir daha yazmayacam. Sz veri- yorum. 49

showed his refugee cable to Lincoln Steffens, Steffens was impressed by the story's exposition. Hemingway protested this response. "I was seeing the scene and said so," Steffens explained subsequently. "No," Hemingway had corrected him, "read the cabelese, only the cabelese. Isn't it a great language?"25 Most of the cabelese he sent from Asia Minor, however, had been for the International News Service rather than the Daily Star. None of his I.N.S. material was by-lined, nOr were there any permanent records to verify his Hearst coverage. The arrangement had been a private one between Hemingway and Frank Mason.26 More than a decade later Hemingway described the kind of material he cabled I.N. S. from Asia Minor. It was the conventional, telegraphic cabelese rather than the curt but nevertheless formed cabelese he had sent to the Daily Star. His output, sent at three dollars a word to, said satirically, Monumental News Service, "would be something on this order: KEML INSWARDS UNBURNED SMYRNA GUILTY GREEKS ... to appear as 'Mus- tapha Kemal in an exclusive interview today with the correspondent of the Monumental News Service denied vehemently that the Turkish forces had any part in . the burning of Smyrna. The dty, Kemal stated, was fired by incendiaries in the troops of the Greek rear guard before the first Turkish patrols entered the dty.'27 Hemingway's tenuous connection with the Hearst organization did not become weaker or even nonexist- ent, as might have been expected, but stronger. He had only a few weeks of rehabilition in Paris in November, 1922. John Bone ordered him to Lausanne to cover the conference assembling there for the diplomatic settlement of the whole Greco-Turk affair. Hemingway's coverage of the Near East assignment, however, was reversed at Lausanne. In Switzerland he did most of his writing for Universal News, the second of Hearst's overseas

gnde mltecilerle ilgili telgrafm Lincoln Steffens'a gsterdi. Steffens yknn giriinden etkilenmiti. Hemingway bu yaklama kar kt. Steffens'm aklamas yleydi: "Anlatlan grnt gzlerimin nn- de canlanyordu, ben de bunu syledim." Hemingway, "Hayr," diye dzeltti Steffens'. "Telgrafn diline bak, yalnzca ona bak. Ne harika bir dil, deil mi?"25 Ancak Kk Asya'dan gnderdii telgraflarn ounu Daily : Sfar'dan ok International News Service iin yazmt. N.S.'ye gnderdii hibir yazya imzasn atmamt. Hearst iin yapt muhabirlii kantlayacak hibir yazl belge de yoktu. Bu balant Hemingway ile Frank Mason ar asmda zel bir anlama sonucu gereklemiti.26 On yl akn bir sre soma Hemingway, Kk Asya'dan I.N.S. iin gnderdii yazlarn niteliini anlatt. Bunlar, Daily Star',a gnderdii ksa ancak dzgn telgraf dilinden farkl geleneksel telgraflard. Alaya bir biimde Monumental News Service (Grkemli Haberler Ajans) adm verdii ajansa, kelimesi dolardan, yle bir telgraf gnderirdi: "KEML ERLERDE YAKMADILAR ZMR' SULU YUNANLILAR." Bu telgraf u biimde yaynlanrd: "Mustafa Kemal, Monumental News Service muhabiriyle bugn yapt zel grmede, zmir'in yaklmasndan Trk askerlerinin sorumlu olduu iddiasn iddetle yalanlad. Kemal, zmir'in, ilkTrkkeif kolunun kente girmesinden nce, Yunan ordusunun art glerindeki kundaklar tarafndan atee verildiini belirtti."27 Hemingway'in Hearst'n irketiyle zayf olan balants beklenildii gibi daha da zayflamad ya da ortadan kalkmad, tam tersine iyice glendi. Hemingway, 1922 Kasm'nda Paris'te yalnzca birka haftalna dinlenebildi. John Bone, TrkYunan sorununa bir diplomatik zm getirmek amaayla Lozan'da toplanan konferansta muhabirlik yapmasn istedi. Ancak Hemingway'in Yakn Dou ile ilgili yapt habercilik Lozan'da bu kez tersine bir ekilde gerekleti. Hemingway, svire'de haberlerin ounu Toronto Star'dan ok Hearst'n denizar haber ajanslarnn kincisi olan Universal News .

eviri: Hseyin DERM

5 0

THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA*

HTYAR ADAM VE DENZ*

E did not remember when he had first started to talk aloud when he was by himself. He had sung when he was by himself in the old days and he had sung at night sometimes when he was alone steering on his watch in the smacks or in the turtle boats. He had probably started to talk aloud, when alone, when the boy had left. But he did not remember. When he and the boy fished together they usually spoke only when it was necessary. They talked at night or when they were storm-bound by bad weather. It was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea and the Old man had always considered it so and respected it. But now he said his thoughts aloud many times since there was no one that they could annoy. 'If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am crazy,' he said aloud. 'But since I am not crazy, I do not care. And the rich have radios to talk to them in their boats and to bring them the baseball.' Now is no time to think of baseball, he thought. Now is the time to think of only one thing. That which I was born for. There might be a big one around that school, he thought. I picked up only a straggler from the alba- core that were! feeding. But they are working far out and fast. Everything that shows on the surface today travels very fast arid t the north-east. Can that be the time of day? Or is it some sign of weather that I do not know? He could not. see the green of the shore now but only the tops of the blue hills that showed white as though ' they were snow-capped and the clouds that looked like high snow mountains above them. The sea was very dark and the light made prisms in the water, The myriad flecks of the plankton were annulled now by the high sun and it was only the great deep prisms in the blue water that the old man saw now with his lines going straight down into the water that was a mile deep. The tuna, the fishermen called all the fish of that

YALNIZ banayken yksek sesle konumaya ilk


' ne zaman baladm hatrlamyordu. Eskiden yalnzken ark sylerdi; geceleri tek direkli balk gemilerinde olurdu. ya da ocuk kaplumbaa ayrldktan teknelerinde soma yalnz dmen nbeti Galiba tutarken bazen ark syledii

kaldnda yksek sesle konumaya balamt. Ama hatrlamyordu. ocukla bala ktklarnda genellikle sadece gerektiinde konuurlard. gerekli ve Geceleri ya da kt hava nedeniyle bala kamadklarnda ihtiyar skaca adam kimse konuurlard. bunu hep Denizde yle olmadka konumamak bir erdem saylrd ve nitelemi yksek uygulamt. Ama imdi dnceleriyle canm sesle

olmadndan,

dnyordu. Yksek sesle, "tekiler yksek sesle konutuumu duysalard beni deli sanrlard," dedi. "Ama deli olmadma gre aldrmyorum. Zenginlerin kendileriyle konuacak, beyzbolu ayaklarna getirecek radyolar var teknelerinde." Beyzbolu dnmenin sras deil imdi, diye dnd. Yalnzca bir eyi dnmenin srasyd imdi. Onun iin doduum eyi. u srde byk bir tane olabilir, diye dnd. Avlanan albakorlardan yalnzca bir. tane srden ayrlm balk yakaladm. Ama brleri uzakta ve hzllar. Su yzndeki balklarn hepsi ok hzl ve kuzeydouya gidiyor. Acaba bunu her gn bu saatte yapyorlar m? Yoksa havann deiecei yolunda bilmediim bir belirti mi?. Artk kynn yeilliini gremiyordu, yalnzca sanki karla kaplanm gibi beyaz grnen mavi tepelerin doruklarm ve onlarn arkasndan yksek karl dalar gibi grnen bulutlar seebiliyordu. Deniz kapkaranlkt ve k suda prizmalar oluturuyordu. Tepedeki gnein etkisiyle binlerce planktonun parlts yok olmutu artk; ihtiyar adam yalnzca mavi sularn derinliklerindeki byk prizmalarla bir mil derinliindeki suya dimdik inen misinalarm grebiliyordu. Ton balklaf yine dibe inmilerdi; balklar bu trn btn balklarna ton derlerdi ve yalmzca satarken ya da yemle takas ederken zel adlarm kullanrlard. Gne kavuruyordu artk ve ihtiyar adam gnei ensesin- de duyuyor, krek ekerken

5 3

it softly between the thumb and forefinger of his right hand. He felt no strain nor weight and he held the fine lightly. Then it came again. This time it was a tentative pull, not solid nor heavy, and he knew exactly what it was. One hundred fathoms down a. marlin was eating the sardines that covered the point and the shank of the hook where the handforged hook projected from the. head of the small tuna. The old man held the line delicately, and softly; with his left hand, unleashed it from the stick. Now he couid let it run through his fingers without the fish feeling any tension. This far out, he must be huge in this month, he thoght. Eat them, fish. Eat them. Please eat them. How fresh they are and you down there six hundred feet in that cold water in the dark. Make another turn in the dark and come back and eat them. He felt the light delicate pulling and then a harder pull when a sairdine's head must have been more difficult to break from the hook. Then there was nothing. 'Come on,' the old man said aloud. 'Make another turn. Just smell them. Aren't they lovely? Eat them good now and then there is the tana. Hard and cold and lovely. Don't be shy, fish. Eat them.' He waited with the line between his thumb and his finger, watching it and the other lines at the same time for the fish might have swum up or down. Then came the same delicate pulling touch again. 'He'll take it,' the old man said aloud. 'God help him to take it.' He did not take it though. He was gone arid the old man felt nothing. 'He can't have gone,' he said. 'Christ knows he can't have gone. He's making a turn. Maybe he has been hooked before and he remembers something of it.' Then he felt the gentle touch on the line and he was happy. 'It was only his turn,' he said. 'He'll take it.' He was happy feeling the gentle pulling and then he felt something hard and unbelievably heavy: It was the weight of the fish and he let the line slip down, down, doWn, unrolling off the first of the two reserve coils. As it went down, slipping lightly through the old man's fingers, he still could feel the great weight, though the pressure of his thumb and finger were almost imperceptible. 'What a fish,' he said. 'He has it sideways in his mouth now and he is moving off with it.' Then he will turn and swallow it, he thought. He did not say that because he knew that if you said a good thing it might not happen. He knew what a huge fish this was and he thought of him moving away in the darkness with the tuna held crosswise in his mouth. At that moment he felt him stop moving but the weight was still there. Then the weight increased and he gave moreline. He tightened the pressure of his thumb and finger for a moment and the weight increased and was going straight down. 5 4

maklar arasnda gevek bir ekilde tuttu. Ne bir gerilme, ne de bir arlk hissediyordu ama yine de misinay gevek tutuyordu. Sonra yine oldu. Bu kez anlk bir ekmeydi, ne sert ne de gl; ne olduunu ok iyi biliyordu. Yz kula aada bir marlin kk ton batnn kafasna taklm, elde yaplm inenin engelini gizleyen sardalyalar yiyordu. ihtiyar adam misinay ok yumuak bir biimde tutuyordu; sol eliyle misinay dikkatle ubuktan zd. Artk parmaklarnn arasndan brakrken balk herhangi bir gerilme hissetmezdi. Bu kadar akta, bu ayda kocaman olmal diye dnd. Ye onlar balk. Ye onlar. N'olur ye onlar. Hepsi de taptaze, sen ise iki yz metre derinlikte souk suda, karanlktasn. Hadi bir dn daha yap karanlkta, geri gel ve ye onlar. Hafif, yumuak ekilmeyi hissetti, arkasuidan daha sert bir ekilme; herhalde sardalyalardan birinin kafasn ineden koparmak g olmutu. Sonra, hibir ey olmad. "Hadi," dedi ihtiyar, adam yksek sesle. "Gel bir daha. Bir kokla onlan. Nefis deiller mi? Ye, bitir onlar; arkasndan da ton bal var. Diri, souk ve nefis. Utanma, balk. Ye onlar." Misina baparmayla iaretparma arasnda bekledi, belki balk brlerine gider diye onu ve dier misinalar ayn anda gzlyordu. Sonra yine o hafif ekilmeyi hissetti. "Yiyecek," dedi ihtiyar adam yksek sesle. "Tanrm, yemesini sala." Ama yemedi, gitmiti, ihtiyar adam da hibir ey hissetmiyordu. "Gitmi olamaz," dedi: "Tanr bilir ya, gitmi olamaz. Dnp gelecek. Belki daha nce de oltaya yakalanmtr ve bir eyler hatrlyordur." Sonra misinada o hafif dokunuu hissetti, sevindi. "Dnerken dokundu," dedi. "Yiyecek." O hafif ekilii hissetmek onu sevindiriyordu, sonra sert ve inanlmaz bir arlk hissetti. Balm arlyd bu, misinann iki yedek rulonun birinden zlerek aaya, derinlere, ok derinlere gitmesine izin verdi. Misina ihtiyar adamn baparmayla iaretparmana hafife deerek aaya giderken bile o byk arl hissedebiliyordu. "Ne balkm," dedi. "ne azna yanlamasna girmi, ite imdi de gidiyor." Sonra dnp yutacak onu, diye dnd. Yksek sesle sylemedi bunu nk yksek sesle iyi bir ey sylerse gereklemeyeceini biliyordu. Onun kocaman bir balk olduunu biliyordu; aznda yanlamasna duran ton bal ile karanlkta uzaklatn dnd. O anda balm durduunu hissetti ama arlk oradayd hl. Sonra arlk artt, o da biraz daha misina brakt. Baparmayla iaretparman bir anlna skverdi, arlk daha artt, dosdoru dibe gidiyordu. "Yedi," dedi. "imdi brakaym da yutsun." Misina parmaklarnn arasnda kayarken, sol eliyle uzanp misinann iki yedek rulosunun ucunu dier misinann iki yedek rulosunun ucuna balad.

three forty-fathom coils of line in reserve now, as well as the coil he was using. 'Eat it a little more,' he said. 'Eat it well.' Eat it so that the point of the hook goes into your heart and kills you, he thought. Come up easy and let me put the harpoon into you. All right. Are you ready? Have you been long enough at table? 'Now!' he said aloud and struck hard with both hands, gained a yard of line and then struck again and again, swinging with each arm alternately on the cord with all the strength of his arms and the pivoted weight of his body. Nothing happened. The fish just moved away slowly and the old man could not raise him an inch. His line was strong and made for heavy fish and he held it against his back until it was so taut that beads of water were jumping from it. Then it began to make a slow hissing sound in the water and he still held it, bracing . himself against the thwart and leaning back against the pull. The boat began to move slowly off towards the north-west. The fish moved steadily and they travelled slowly on the calm water. The other baits were still in the water but there was nothing to be done. 'I wish I had the boy,' the old man said aloud. 'I'mbeing towed by a fish and I'm the towing bitt. I could make the line fast. But then he could break it. I must hold him all I can and give him line when he must have it. Thank God he is travelling and not going down.' What I will do if he decides to go down, I don't know. What I'll do if he sounds and dies I don't know. But I'll do something. There are plenty of things I can do. He held the line against his back and watched its slant in the water and the skiff moving steadily to the north-west. This will kill him, the old man thought. He can't do this for ever. But four hours later the fish was still swimming steadily out to sea, towing the skiff, and the old man was still braced solidly with the line across his back. 'It was noon when I hooked him,' he said. 'And I have never seen him.' He had pushed his straw hat hard down on his head before he hooked the fish and it was cutting his forehead. He was thirsty too and he got down on his knees and, being careful not to jerk on the line, moved as far into the bow as he could get and reached the water bottle with one hand. He opened it and drank a little. Then he rested against the bow. He rested sitting on the unstepped mast and sail and tried not to think but only to endure. Then he looked behind-him-and saw that no land was visible. That makes no difference, he thought. I can always come in on the glow from Havana. There are two more hours before the sun sets and maybe he will come up before that. If he doesn't maybe he will come up with the moon. If he does not do that maybe he will come up with the sunrise. I have no cramps and I feel strong. It is he that has the hook in his mouth. But what a fish to pull like that. He must have his mouth shut tight on

krk kulalk misina rulosu vard. "Biraz daha yut," dedi.: "yice yut." Yut ki inenin ucu yreine girsin ve ldrsn seni, diye dnd. Yukar kolayca gel de zpknlayaym seni. Tamam. Hazr msn? Sofrada yeterince oturdun mu? "imdi!" dedi yksek sesle ve iki eliyle asld, bir metre kadar misina ekti ve soma tekrar tekrar bir bu bir br kpluyla asld; kollanma tm gcyle, vcudu- . nun tm arlndan destek alarak aslyordu. Hibir ey olmad: Balk ar ar gidiyordu, ihtiyar adam onu bx santim bile ekememiti. Misinas salamd, ar balklar iin yaplmt; arkasndan dolatrp ektii misina ylesine gerilmiti ki su damlacklar sramaya balad. Sonra suda hafif bir slk sesi karmaya balad, hl tutuyordu, sandaldaki oturak tahtasndan destek almaya alyor, ekie kar koymak iin geriye yaslanyordu. Sandal yava yava kuzeybatya doru gitmeye balad. Balk durmadan gidiyordu, durgun suda ar ar ilerliyorlard. teki yemler hl sudayd ama yaplacak hibir ey yoktu. "Keke ocuk yanmda olsayd," dedi ihtiyar adam yksek sesle. "Bir balk tarafndan ekiliyorum, ben de ekme halatnn baland direk gibiyim. Misinay bahyabilirim. Ama koparabilir. Tutabildiim kadar tutmalym, ok gerektiinde de biraz misina boalt- malym. Neyse ki dibe dalmyor da ileri gidiyor." Dalmaya karar verirse ne yaparm bilmiyorum. Dibe dalp lrse ne yaparm bilmiyorum. Ama bir eyler yaparm. Yapabileceim bir sr ey var. Arkasndan dolatrarak asld misinann suya girdii yere bakyordu, sandal ise durmadan kuzeybatya . gitmekteydi. Onu ldrecek, diye dnd ihtiyar adam. Sonsuza kadar yapamaz bunu. Ama drt saat soma balk hl ak denize doru yzyor, ihtiyar adam da hl arkasndan dolatrd misinay tutmu dimdik ayakta duruyordu. "Onu avladmda leydi," dedi. "Ama onu hl grmedim." Bal avlamadan nce hasr apkasn kafasna skca geirmiti, artk alnn kesiyordu. Susamt da, misinay sallamamaya zen gstererek diz kt, pruvaya uzanabildiince uzand ve tek eliyle su iesim ald. Ap biraz su iti. Soma pruvaya yaslanarak dinlendi. ndirilmi serenle yelkenin zerinde oturarak dinlendi ve dayanmaktan baka bir ey dnmemeye alt. Sonra arkasna bakt, grnrde hi kara yoktu. Far- ketmez, diye dnd. Havana'nn klarnn parlts karay bulmama yardm eder. Gnein batmasna daha iki~sFvar; belkideozamanakadarsuyzne kar. - kmazsa belki ay doduunda kar. O zaman da kmazsa belki gne doarken kar. Vcuduma kramp girmedi ve kendimi gl hissediyorum. Azmda ine olan kendisi. yle ektiine gre kocaman

eviri: Tekin ATAKAN

5 5

THE KILLERS

KATLLE R

T'- > JL HE door of Henry's lunch-room opened arid two men came in. They sat down at the counter. 'What's yours?' George asked them. 'I don't know,' ne of the men said. 'What do you want to eat, Al?' 'I don't know,' said Al. 'I don't know what to eat.' Outside it was getting dark. The street light came on outside the window. The two inen at the counter read the menu. From the other end of the counter Nick Adams watched them. He had been talidng to George when they came in.. 'I'll have roast pork tenderloin with apple sauce arid mashed potatoes,'the first riian said. 'It isn't ready yet.f 'What the hell do you. put it on the card for?' 'That's the dinner,' George explained. 'You can get that at six o'clock.' George looked at the clock on the wall behind the counter. . 'It's five o'clock.' 'The clock says twenty minutes past five,' the second man said. 'It's twenty minutes fast.' 'Oh, to hell with the clock,' the first man said. 'What have you got to eat?' 'I can give you any kind of sandwiches,' George said. 'You can have ham and eggs, bacon and eggs, liver and bacon, or a steak.' 'Give me chicken croquettes with green peas and cream sauce and mashed potatoes.' 'That's the dinner.' 'Everything we want's the dinner, eh? That's the way you work it.' 'I can give you ham and eggs, bacon and eggs, liver ' 'I'll take ham and eggs,' the man called Al said. He wore a derby hat arid a black overcoat buttoned across the chest. His face was small and white and he had tight lips. He wore a silk muffler and gloves. 'Give me bacon and eggs,' said the other man. He was about the same size as Al. Their faces were different,. but ihey-weredressedJiketw.ins^BoihjM:oxe.overr coats too tight for them. They sat leaning forward, their elbows on the counter. 'Got anything to drink?' Al asked. 'Silver beer, bevo, ginger-ale,' George said. 'I mean you got anything to drinkT 'Just those I said.' 'This is a hot town,'said the other. 'Whafrdo they call it?' 'Summit.' 'Ever hear of it?' Al asked his friend.. 'No,' said the friend. 'What do you do here nights?' Al asked.

HENRY 'nin kafeteryasnn kaps ald ve ie iki adam girdi. Bara oturdular. George, "Ne yiyeceksiniz?" diye sordu onlara. Adamlardan bir tanesi,' "Bilmem," dedi. "Ne yeme istiyorsun Al?" "Bilmiyorum," dedi Al. "Ne yemek istediimi bilmi yorum." Darda hava kararyordu. Pencerenin nndeki so kak lambas yand. BardaH iki adam yemek listesin gz attlar. Nick Adams barm teki ucundan onlar izli yordu. Onlar ieri girdiinde George'la konuuyordu Birinci adam, "Frnda elma soslu domiz bonfile v patates presi istiyorum," dedi. "Daha pimedi." "yleyse ne demeye koydun listeye?" George, " akam yemei," diye aklad. "Saat altd yiyebilirsiniz." George barm arkasndaki duvara asl saate bakt. "Saat be." "Saat bei yirmi geiyor," dedi ikinci adam. "O saat yirmi dakika ileri." "Eeeh, saatm cam cehenneme," dedi birinci adar "Yiyecek neyin var?" - "Her eit sandvi getirebilirim size," dedi George "Jambonlu yumurta, doriuz pastrmal yumurta cierli domuz pastrma, ya da biftek." Kremal soslu ve bezelyeli tavuk kftesi ve patate presi istiyorum." .' "O akam yemei." "Ne istersek akari yemei diyorsun, yle mi? De mek sen byle iletiyorsun buray." ' "Size verebileceklerim jambonlu yumurta, domu pastrmal yumurta, cierli" "Ben jambonlu yumurta istiyorum," dedi ad Al olan Banda melon apka, srtnda da kruvaze bir palto var d. Surat kk ve beyazd, dudaklar bzkt. Boy nunda ipek atk, ellerinde eldiven vard. "Bana domuz pastrmal yumurta ver," dedi tek adam. Al'la yaklak ayn boydayd. Suratlar benzemi yordu ama ikiz karde gibi giyinmilerdi. kisinin giy dii palto da darackt. Dirsekleri barda, ne doru eil mi oturuyorlard. "iecek bir ey var m?" diye sordu Al. "Alkolsz bira, meyve suyu ve gazoz," dedi George . "ecek bir ey var m diye sordum." "Sadece bu saydklarm." "Ne dehetli bir kentmi buras. Ad ne burann?" "Summit." "Hi duymu muydun?" diye sordu Al arkadana. "Hayr,"- dedi arkada."Burada geceleri ne yaparsnz?" diye sordu Al. "Akam yemeini yerler," dedi arkada. "Hepsibu raya gelir ve o mkemmel akam

here and eat the big dinner.' 'That's right,' George said. 'So you think that's right?' A1 asked George. 'Sure.' 'You're a pretty bright boy, aren't you?' 'Sure,' said George. 'Well, you're not,' said the other little man. 'Is he, Al?' 'He's dumb/ said Al. He turned, to Nick. 'What's your name?' 'Adams.' 'Another bright boy,' Al said. 'Ain't he a bright boy, Max?' 'The; town's full of bright boys/ Max said. George put down two platters, one of ham and eggs, the otfier of bacon and eggs, on the counter. He set down two side dishes of Med potatoes and closed the wicket into the kitchen. 'Which is yours?' he asked Al. 'Don't yotj. remember?' 'Ham and eggs/ 'just a bright boy/ Max said. He leaned forward and took the ham and eggs. Both men ate with their gloves on. George watched them eat. 'What are you looking at?' Max looked at George. 'Nothing.' 'The hell you were. You were looking at me.' 'Maybe the boy meant it for a joke Max/ Al said. George laughed. 'You don't have to laugh/ Max said to him. You dont have to laugh at all, see?' 'All right/ said George. 'So he thinks it's all right,' Max tamed to Al. 'He thinks it's all right. That's a good one.' 'Oh, he's a thinker,' Al said. They went on eating. 'What's the bright boy's name down the counter?' Al asked Max. 'Hey, bright boy/ Max said to Nick. 'You go around on the other side of the counter with your boy friend.' 'What's the idea?' Nick asked. 'There isn't any idea.' 'You better go around, bright boy/ Al said. Nick went around behind the counter. 'What's the idea?' George asked. 'None of your damn business/ Al said. 'Who's out in the kitchen?' 'The nigger.' 'What do you mean the nigger?' 'The nigger that cooks.' 'Tell him to come in.' 'What's the idea?' 'Tell him to come in.' 'Where do you think you are?' 'We know damn well where we are,' the man called Max said. 'Do we look silly?' 'You talk silly/ Al said to him. 'What the hell do you argue with this kid for? Listen,' he said to George, 'teE the nigger to come out here.' 'What are you going to do to him?' 'Nothing. Use your head, bright boy. Whatwouldwe do to a nigger?' George opened the slip that opened back into the kitchen. 'Sam/ he called. 'Come in here a
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"Evet," dedi George. "Demek 'evet,' ha?" diye sordu Al, George'a. "Tabii." "Kendini zeki bir ocuk sanyorsun, deil mi?" "Tabii." "Deilsin," dedi teki kk adam. "Sen syle Al, zeki mi?" "Salan teki," dedi Al. Nick'e dnd. "Adn ne senin?" "Adams." "Bir zeki ocuk daha," dedi Al. "Zeki bir ocuk, deil mi Max?" "Bu kent zeki ocuklarla dolu," dedi Max. George birinde jambonlu yumurta, dierinde domuz pastrmal yumurta bulunan iki servis taba koydu masann zerine. ki kk tabak da kzarm patates koydu ve servis penceresini kapatt. "Hangisi senird?" diye sordu Al'a. "Hatrlamyor musun?" "Jambonlu yumurta." "Bu ocuk ok zeki," dedi Max. leri doru eildi ve jambonlu yumurtay ald. ki adam da eldivenlerim karmadan yedi. George onlarn yemek yeyiini seyretti. Max, George'a bakt, Neye bakyorsun?" "Hibir eye. "Bakyordun. Bana bakyordun." Al, "Belki de ufaklk aka olsun diye bakmtr Max," dedi. George gld. "Glmek zorunda deilsin," dedi Max. "Hi de glmek zorunda deilsin, anladn m?" "Tamam," dedi George. "Tamamm." Max, Al'a dnd. "Tamam olduunu dnyormu. te bu iyi." "Ooo, o bir dnr," dedi Al. Yemee devam ettiler. Al, Max'e, "Barm br ucundaki zeki ocuun ad ne?" diye sordu. "Hey, zeki ocuk," dedi Max, Nick'e. "Erkek arkadanla barn te tarafna ge." "N'oluyor?" diye sordu Nick. "Olan bir ey yok." Al, "Gesen iyi olur zeki ocuk," dedi. Nick barn arkasna geti. "N'oluyor?" diye sordu George. "Seni ilgilendirmez," dedi Al. "Kim var mutfakta?" "Zenci." "Ne demek, zenci?" "Yemekleri yapan zend." "Syle de gelsin." "N'oluyor?" "Syle de gelsin." "Nerede olduunuzu sanyorsunuz siz?" "Nerede olduumuzu ok iyi biliyoruz," dedi Max deneni. "Geri zeklya benziyor muyuz?" "Geri zekllar gibi konuuyorsun," dedi Al ona. "Ne demeye bu ufaklkla tartyorsun? Bana bak," dedi George'a, "syle zendye de gelsin buraya." Ne yapacaksnz ona?" "Hibir ey. Kafam kullansana zeki ocuk. Zencilere ne yaparz biz?"

The door of the kitchen opened and the nigger came in. 'What was it?' he asked. The two men at the counter took a look at him. 'All right, nigger. You stand right there/ A1 said. Sam, the nigger, standing in his apron, looked at the two men sitting at the counter. 'Yes, sir/ he said. A1 got down from his stool. 'I'm going back to the kitchen with the nigger and bright boy,' he said. 'Go back to the kitchen, nigger. You go with him, bright boy.' The little man walked f-: ter Nick and Sam, the cook, back into the kitchen. The door shut after them. The man called Max sat at the counter opposite George. He didn't look at George but looked in the mirror that ran along back of the counter. Henry's had been made over from a saloon into a lunch-counter. 'Well, bright boy,' Max said, looking into the mirror, 'why don't you say something?' 'What's it all about?'. 'Hey, Al,' Max called, 'bright boy wants to know what it's all about.' 'Why don't you tel him?' Al's voice came from the kitchen. 'What do you think it's all about?' 'I don't know.' 'What do you think?' Max looked into the mirror all the time he was talking. 'I wouldn't say.' 'Hey, Al, bright boy says he wouldn't say what he thinks it's al about.' 1can hear you, al right/ Al said from the kitchen. He had propped open the slit that dishes passed through into the kitchen with a catsup bottle. 'Listen, bright boy/ he said from the kitchen to George. 'Stand a little further along the bar. You move a little to the left, Max.' He was like a photographer arranging for a group picture. 'Talk to me, bright boy/ Max said. 'What do you think's going -to happen?' George did not say anything. 'I'll tel you/ Max said. 'We're going to kil a Swede. Do you know a big Swede named Ole Andreson?' 'Yes.' 'He comes in here to eat every night, don't he?' 'Sometimes he comes here.' 'He comes here at six o'clock, don't he?' 'If he comes.' 'We know al that, bright boy/ Max said. 'Talk about something else. Ever go to the movies?' 'Once in a while.' 'You ought to go to the movies more. The movies are fine for a bright boy Uke you.' 'What are you going to kil Ole Andreson for?' What did he ever do to you?' 'He never had a chance to do anything to us. He never even seen us.' 'And he's only going to see us once/ Al said from the kitchen. 'What are you going to kil him for, then?' George asked. 'We're killing him for a friend. Just to oblige a friend, bright boy.' 'Shut up,' said Al from the kitchen. 'You talk too

Mutfam kaps ald ve zenci geldi. "Ne var?" diye sordu. Bardaki iki adam ona bakt. "Pekala zenci. Sen tam urada dur," dedi Al. Zenci Sam nnde nlk, barda oturan iki adama bakt. "Peki efendim," dedi. Al taburesinden indi. "Ben zenciyle ve zeki ocukla mutfaa gidiyorum," dedi. "Hadi bakalm zenci, git mutfaa. Sen de onunla git zeki ocuk." Ufak adam Nick'le a Sam'in peinden mutfaa girdi. Kap arkalarndan kapand. Max demlen adam barda George'a de de, barn arkasn boydan boya kaplayan aynaya bakyordu. Henry'nin yeri kafeteryaya dntrlmeden nce meyhaneydi. "Eee, zeki ocuk," dedi Max aynaya bakarak, "niye bir eyler sylemiyorsun?" "Nedir btn bunlar?" "Hey, Al," dedi Max, "zeki ocuk btn bunlarn ne olduunu soruyor." Mutfaktan ATin sesi geldi, "Niye sylemiyorsun?" "Sence nedir btn bunlar?" "Bilmiyorum." "Nedir sence?" Max konuurken hep aynaya bakyordu. "Sylemem." "Hey, Al, zeki ocuk btn bunlarn ne olduunu sylemeyeceini sylyor." "Sizi duyabiyorum/ dedi Al mutfaktan. Tabaklarn mutfaa yoland kapa araya koyduu bir ketap iesiyle ak tutuyordu. "Dinle zeki ocuk," dedi mutfaktan George'a, "biraz yana eki. ,Max, sen de biraz sola kay." Grup resmi ekecek bir fotoraf gibi dzenleme yapyordu. "Syle bana zeki ocuk," dedi Max. "Sence ne olacak?" George bir ey sylemedi. "Ben syleyeyim," dedi Max. "Bir sveHyi ldreceiz. Ole Andreson adnda iri yan bir sve! tanyor musun?" "Evet." "Her gece buraya yemek yemee gelir, de mi?" "Bazen gelir." "Saat altda gelir, de mi?" "Eer gelirse." "Btn bunlar biliyoruz zeki ocuk," dedi Max. "Baka bir ey syle. -Hi sinemaya gider misin?" "Arada srada." "Sinemaya daha sk gitmelisin. Senin gibi zeki ocuklar iin sinema iyidir." "Ole Andreson'u niin ldreceksiniz? Size ne yapt ki?" "Bize bir ey yapma frsat hi olmad. Bizi hi grme- di-bile." ^ "Ve yalnzca bir kez grecek," dedi Al mutfaktan. "yleyse niye ldreceksiniz onu?" diye sordu George. "Bir arkada iin ldreceiz. Sadece bir arkada memnun etmek iin, zeki ocuk." "eneni, kapa," dedi Al mutfaktan. "ok konuu-

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dam much.' 'Well, I got to keep bright boy amused. Don't I, bright boy?' 'You talk too damn much/ Al said. 'The nigger and my bright boy are amused by themselves. I got them tied up like a couple of girl friends in the convent.' 'I suppose you were in a convent.' You never know.' . 'You were in a kosher convent. That's where you were.' George looked up at the clock. 'If anybody comes in you tell them the cook is off, and if they keep after it, you tell them you'll go back and cook yourself. Do you get that, bright boy?' 'All right/ George said. 'What you going to do with us afterwards?' 'That'll depend,' Max said. 'That's one of those things you never know at the time.' George looked up at the clock. It was a quarter past six. The door from the street opened. A street-car mo- torman came in. 'Hello, George/ he said. 'Can I get supper?' 'Sam's gone out/ George said. 'He'll be back in about half an hour.' 'I'd better go up the street,' the motorman said. George looked at the clock. It was twenty minutes past six. 'That was nice, bright boy,' Max said. 'You're a regular little gentleman.' 'He knew I'd blow his head off,' Al said from the kitchen. 'No,' said Max. 'It ain't that. Bright boy is nice. He's a nice boy. I like him.' At six-fifty-five George said: 'He's not coming.' Two other people had been in the lunch-room. Once George had gone out to the kitchen and made a ham- and-egg sandwich 'to go' that a man wanted to take with him. Inside the kitchen he saw Al, his derby hat tilted back, sitting ori a stool beside the wicket with the muzzle of a sawed-off shotgun resting on the ledge. Nick and the cook were back to back in the corner, a towel tied in each of their mouths. George had cooked the sandwich, wrapped it up in oiled paper, put it in a bag, brought it in, and the man had paid.for it and gone out. 'Bright boy can do everything,' Max said. 'He can cook and everything. You'd make some girl a nice wife, bright boy.' 'Yes?' George said. 'Your friend, Ole Andreson, isn't going to come.' 'We'll give him ten minutes,' Max said. Max watched the mirror and the clock. The hands of the clock marked seven o'clock, and then five minutes past seven. 'Come on, Al/ said Max. 'We better go. He's not com- ing.' ' 'Better give him five minutes,' Al said from the kitchen. In the five minutes a man came in, and George explained that the cook was sick.
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'Ama, bu zeki ocuu elendirmem gerekiyor. Deil mi zeki ocuk?" "ok konuuyorsun," dedi Al. "Zenciyle benim zeki ocuk kendi kendilerine eleniyorlar. kisini de baladm, manastrda iki rahibe gibiler." "Demek sen manastra gittin?" "Tabii." . ' "Sen ancak yahudi manastrna gitmisindir. Ancak oraya gitmisindir." George saate bakt. "Birisi ieri girerse ann gittiini syle, eer hl srar ederse gidip kendisinin piirmesini syle. Anladn m zeki ocuk?" "Tamam," dedi George. "Sonra bize ne yapacaksnz?" "Duruma gre deiir," dedi Max. "nceden kestiri- lemeyecek eylerden bu." George saate bakt. Saat alty eyrek geiyordu. Kap ald, ieri bir vatman girdi. "Merhaba George," dedi. "Yemek var m?" "Sam kt," dedi George. "Yarm saate kadar dner." "yleyse baka yere gideyim," dedi vatman. George saata bakt. Alty yirmi geiyordu. "ok iyiydi zeki ocuk," dedi Max. "Tam bir centilmensin." ' Al mutfaktan, "Kafasn uuracam biliyordu," dedi. "Hayr," dedi Max. "Ondan deil. Zeki ocuk iyi. yi bir ocuk o. Sevdim onu." George saat alt ellibete, "Gelmeyecek," dedi. O saate kadar kafeteryaya iki kii daha gelmiti. Birinde George mutfaa gitmi ve adamn birinin paketlenmesini istedii jambonlu yumurtal sandvii hazrlamt. Mutfakta melon apkas arkaya kayklm, servis penceresinin yannda bir tabureye oturmu Al' grd; kucandaki ksa namlulu tfein ucu rafn kenarna dayanmt. Nick ve a kede srt srta duruyorlard, ikisinin de az birer havluyla balanmt. George sandvii hazrlayp yal kda sarm, bir kese kdna koyup ieri gitmiti; adamda sandviin parasm deyip kmt. "Zeki ocuk her ii yapabiliyor," dedi Max. "Yemek ve baka her eyi yapabiliyor. Kzn tekine iyi bir kar olursun zeki ocuk." "Eeee?" dedi George. "Arkadanz Ole Andreson gelmeyecek." "On dakika daha bekleriz," dedi Max. Max aynaya ve saate bakt. Saat yediyi, sonra da yediyi be geeyi gsterdi. "Hadi Al," dedi Max. "Gidelim, gelmeyecek." Al mutfaktan, "be dakika daha bekleyelim," dedi. Be dakika iinde bir adam geldi, George ona ann hasta olduunu syledi.

out.

'Come on, Al/ Max said. 'What about the two bright boys and the nigger?' 'They're all right.' 'You think so?' 'Sure. We're through with it.' 'I don't like it,' said Al. 'It's sloppy. You talk too much.' 'Oh, what the hell/ said Max. 'We got to keep amused, haven't we?' 'You talk too much, all the same/ Al said. He came out from the kitchen. The cut-off barrels of the shotgun made a slight bulge under the waist of his too tight-fitting overcoat. He straightened his coat with his gloved hands. 'So long, bright boy/ he said to George. 'You got a lot of luck.' 'That's the truth/ Max said. 'You ought to play the races, bright boy.' The two of them went out of the door. George watched them, through the window, pass under the arc-light, and cross the street. In their tight overcoats and derby hats they looked like a vaudeville team. George went back through the swinging-door into the kitchen and untied Nick and the cook. - > 'I don't want any more of that/ said Sam, the cook. 'I don't want any more of that/ : Nick stood up. He had never had a towel in his mouth before. .'Say/ he said. 'What the hell?' He was trying to swagger it off. ' 'They were going to kill Ole Andreson,' George said. ; 'They wore going to shoot him when he came in to eat.' 'Ole Andreson?' ?" 'Sure.' The cook felt the comers of his mouth with his thumbs. /They all gone?'he asked. 'Yeah/ said George. 'They're gone now/ 'I don't like it/ said the cook. 'I don't like any of it at all.' 'Listen/ George said to Nick. 'You better go see Ole Andreson.'. 'All right.' 'You better not have anything to do with it at all/ Sam, the cook, said. 'You better stay way out of it. 'Don't go if you don't want to/ George said. 'Mixing up in this ain't going to get you anywhere/ the cook said. 'You stay out of it.' 'I'll go see him/ Nick said to George. 'Where does he live?' ~ The cook turned away. 'Little boys always know what they want to do/ he said. 'He lives up at Hirsch's rooming-house/ George said to Nick. 'Ill go up there.' Outside, the arc-light shone through the bare branches of a tree. Nick walked up the street beside the car-tracks and turned at the next arclight down a side- street. Three houses up the street was Hirsch's rooming-house. Nick walked

"Hadi Al," dedi Max. "ki zeki ocukla zend ne olacak?" "Hibir ey." "yle mi?"
"Tabii. imiz bitti."

"Houma gitmiyor," dedi Al. "Hepsi biliyor. ok gevezesin." "Eeeh, ne olmu yani," dedi Max. "Bizim de elenmemiz gerek, deil mi?" "Yine de ok konuuyorsuri^ed Al. Mutfaktan kt. Tfein namlusu darack paltonun bel ksmnda hafif bir kabarklk yapyordu. Paltosunu eldivenli elleriyle dzeltti. "Hoakal zeki ocuk," dedi George'a. "ok ansl- sn." "Doru," dedi Max. "At yar oynamalsn, zeki ocuk." ki adam kapdan ktlar. George pencereden onlarn sokak lambasnn alfandan geip kar kaldrma yrylerini izledi. Dar paltolar ve melon apkalaryla iki komedyene benziyorlard. George ne-arkaya alan kapdan mutfaa geti, Nik ve ay zd. "Yetti artk," dedi a Sam; "Yetti artk." Nick ayaa kalkt. Daha nce az hi havluyla balanmamt. "nemli bir ey deildi," dedi. Korkmam grnmeye alyordu. :. "le Andreson'u ldreceklerdi," dedi George. "Yemek yemee geldiinde vuracaklard." "Ole Andreson'u mu?" "Evet." A baparmaklaryla aznn kenarna dokundu. "Gittiler mi?" diye sordu. "Evet," dedi George, "gittiler." "Holanmadm bundan," dedi a. "Hi holanmadm." George, "Bana bak," dedi Nick'e. "Gidip Ole Andreson'u grsen iyi olacak." "Peki." "Bu ie karmazsan iyi olur," dedi a Sam. "Bu ie bulamazsan iyi olur." "stemiyorsan gitme," dedi George. "Bu ie karmak sana hi yarar salamayacak," dedi a. "Bulama." "Gidip greceim onu," dedi Nick. "Nerede oturuyor?" A arkasna dnd. "Kk ocuklar ne istediklerini bilir," dedi. George, "Hirsch'in pansiyonunda kalyor," dedi Nick'e. "Oraya gideceim:" Darda, sokak lambasnn parlts Dr aacn paK dallan arasndan grnyordu. Nick tramvay raylarnn yanndan yrd ve ik sokak lambasnn yarandan bir sokaa sapt. Hirsch'in pansiyonu sokan bandan nc evdi. Nick iki basama kp zili ald. Kapy bir kadn at.

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'Is Ole Andreson here?' 'Do you want to see him?' 'Yes, if he's in.' Nick followed the woman up a flight of stairs and back to the end of the corridor. She knocked on the door. 'Who is it?' 'It's somebody to see you, Mr Andreson,' the woman said. 'It's Nick Adams/ 'Come in.' Nick opened the door and went into the room. Ole Andreson was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. He had been a heavyweight prizefighter and he was too long for the bed. He lay with his head on two pillows. He did not look at Nick. 'What was it?' he asked. 'I was up at Henry's/ Nick said, 'and two fellows came in and tied up me and the cook, and they said they were going to MU you.' It sounded silly when he said it. Ole Andreson said nothing. 'They put us out in the kitchen/ Nick went on. 'They were going to shoot you when you came in to supper.' Ole Andreson looked at the wall and did not say anything. 'George thought I'd better come and tell you about it.' 'There isn't anything I can do about it/ Ole Andreson said. Til tell you what they were like.' 'I don't want to know what they were like/ Ole Andreson said. He looked at the wall. 'Thanks for coming, to tell me about it.' 'That's all right.' Nick looked at the big man lying on the bed. 'Don't you want me to go and see the police?' 'No/ Ole Andreson said. 'That wouldn't do any good.' 'Isn't there something I could do?' 'No. There ain't anything to do.' 'Maybe it was just a bluff.' 'No. It ain't just a bluff.' Ole Andreson rolled over towards the wall. 'The only thing is,' he said, talking towards the wall, 'I just can't make up my mind to go out. I been in here all day.' 'Couldn't you get out of town?' 'No/ Ole Andreson said. 'I'm through with all that running around.' He looked at the wall. 'There ain't anything to do now.' 'Couldn't you fix it up some way?' 'No. I got in wrong.' He talked in the same flat voice. 'There ain't anything to do. After a while I'll make up my mind to go out.' 'I better go back and see George,' Nick said. 'So long,' said Ole Andreson. He did not look towards Nick. 'Thanks for coming around.' Nick went out. As he shut the door he saw Ole Andreson with all his clothes on, lying on the bed looking at the wall.
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"Ole Andreson burada mi? "Grmek mi istiyorsunuz?" "Evet, evdeyse." Nick kadnn arkasndan merdivenleri kt, koridorun sonuna kadar yrd. Kadn kapy ald. "Kim o?" Kadn, "Sizi grmek isteyen biri var, bay Andreson," dedi. "Nick Adams." "Girin." Nick kapy at ve odaya girdi. Ole Andreson zerinde elbisesi yataa uzanmt. Eskiden profesyonel ar siklet boksryd ve boyu yataa uzun geliyordu. Bann altnda ifa yastk vard. Nick'e bakmad. "Ne var?" diye sordu. "Henry'nin yerindeydim," dedi Nick. "ki adam geldi, beni ve ay baladlar, seni ldreceklerini sylediler." Bu szler sylerken sama geldi kendisine. Ole Andreson bir ey demedi. "Bizi mutfaa soktular," diye devam etti Nick. "Yemek yemee geldiinde seni vuracaklard." Ole Andreson duvara bakt ve bir ey sylemedi. "George gelip sana anlatmam gerektiini dnd." "Yapabileceim bir ey yok," dedi Ole Andreson. 'Nasl adamlar olduklarn syleyeyim sana." "Nasl adamlar olduklarm bilmek istemiyorum," dedi Ole Andreson. Duvara bakt. "Gelip haber verdiin iin saol." "Bir ey deil." Nick yataa uzanm yatan iri yar adama bakt. "Gidip polise haber vermemi istemiyor musun?" "Hayr," dedi Ole Andreson. "Bir ie yaramaz." "Yapabileceim bir ey yok mu?" "Hayr, yaplacak bir ey yok." "Belld de yalnzca blft." "Hayr, blf deildi." Ole Andreson duvara dnd. "Tek sorun," dedi duvara doru konuarak, "dar kp kmamaya karar veremiyorum. Btn gn buradaydm." "Kentten kaamaz msn?" "Hayr," dedi Ole Andreson. "Bktm artk kamaktan." Duvara bakt. "Yaplacak bir ey yok artk." "yle ya da byle dzeltemez misin?" "Hayr. Yanl i yaptm." Ayn donuk sesle srdrd konumasn. "Yaplacak bir ey yok. Bir sre sonra dar kmaya karar veririm." "Gidip George'u grsem iyi olur," dedi Nick. "Hoakal," dedi Ole Andreson. Nick'e bakmad. "Geldiin iin saol." Nick odadan kt. Kapy kapatrken Ole Andreson'u elbiseleriyle yataa uzanm duvara

downstairs. 'I guess he don't feel well. I said to him: "Mr Andreson, you ought to go out and take a walk on a nice fall day like this," but he didn't feel like it.' 'He doesn't want to go out.' 'I'm sorry he don't feel well,' the woman said. 'He's . an awfully nice man. He was in the ring, you know.' 'I know it.' 'You'd never know it except from the way his face is/ the woman said. They stood talking just inside the street door. 'He's just as gentle.' 'Well, good-night, Mrs Hirsch/ Nick said. 'I'm not Mrs Hirsch,' the woman said. 'She owns the place. I just look after it for her, I'm Mrs Bell.' 'Well, good-night, Mrs Bell/ Nick said. 'Good-night/ the woman said. Nick walked up the dark street to the corner under the arc-light, and then along the car-tracks to Henry's eating-house. George was inside, back of the counter. 'Did you see Ole?' 'Yes,' said Nick. 'He's in his room and he won't go out' The cook opened the door from the kitchen when he heard Nick's voice. 'I don't even listen to it/ he said and shut the door. 'Did you tell him about it?' George asked. 'Sure. I told him, but he knows what it's all about.' 'What's he going to do?' 'Nothing.' 'They'll kill him.' 'I guess they will/' 'He must have got mixed up in something in Chicago.' 'I guess so/ said Nick. 'It's a hell of a thing.' 'It's an awful thing/ Nick said. They did not say anything. George reached down for a towel and wiped the counter. 'I wonder what he did?' Nick said. 'Double-crossed somebody. That's what they kil them for.' 'I'm going to get out of this town/Nick said. 'Yes/ said George. 'That's a good thing to do.' 'I can't stand to think about him waiting in the room and knowing he's going to get it. It's too
Ernest HEMINGWAY

kadn, aaya inince. "Sanrm kendini iyi hissetmiyor. Ona, 'Bay Andreson bu gzel sonbahar gnnde yrye kmalsnz/ dedim ama cam kmak istemiyordu." "Dar kmak istemiyor." "Kendini iyi hissetmemesine zlyorum,"dedi kadn. "O kadar iyi bir insan ki. Belki de biliyorsunuz, ringlerdeymi." -"Biliyorum." "Yzn grmedike anlamaz insan," dedi kadn. Sokak kaprm azmda durmu konuuyorlard. "O kadar ince bir insan ki." "yi geceler bayan Hirsch," dedi Nick. "Ben bayan Hirsch deilim," dedi kadn. "Burarm sahibesi o. Ben yalnzca burada alyorum. Adm bayan Bell." "yi geceler bayan Bell," dedi Nick. "yi geceler," dedi kadn. Nick karanlk sokaktan keye, sokak lajnbasmn altna kadar yrd sonra tramvay raylarn izleyerek Henryin kafeteryasna geldi. George ieride, barn ar- kamdayd. "Ole'yi grdn m?" "Evet," dedi Nick. "Odasnda ve dar kmyor." A, Nick'in sesini duyunca mutfak kapsn at. "Dinlemeyeceim anlatacaklarm," dedi ve kapy kapatt. "Anlattn m ona?" diye sordu George. "Tabii. Anlattm ama o zaten her eyi biliyormu." "Ne yapacak?" "Hibir ey." "ldrecekler onu." "Sanrm." "Chicago'da bir eylere bulam olmal." "Sanrm," dedi Nick. "Berbat bir ey." "Korkun bir ey," dedi Nick. Bir ey sylemediler. George bir havlu ald ve bar sildi. "Acaba ne yapt?" dedi Nick. "Birisim aldatmtr. Bunun iin adam ldrrler." "Bu ehirden gideceim," dedi Nick. "Evet," dedi George, "yi edersin." "Odada ldrleceini bilerek beklediini dnmeye dayanamam. ok, ok korkun." "yleyse," dedi George, "dnme bu konuyu."

eviri: Cevdet Z TRK

HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS

BEYAZ FLLERE BENZEYEN TEPELER

and white. On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun. Close against the side of the station there was the warm shadow of the building and a curtain, made of strings of bamboo beads, hung across the open door into the bar, to keep out flies. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade,outside the building. It was very hot and the express from Barcelona would come in forty minutes. It stopped at this junction for two minutes and went on to Madrid. 'What should we drink?' the girl asked. She had taken off her hat and put it on the table. -It's pretty hot,'the man said. 'Let's drink beer.' 'Dos cervezas/the man said into the curtain. 'Big ones?' a woman asked from the doorway. 'Yes. Two big ones.' The woman brought two glasses of beer and two felt pads. She put the felt pads and the beer glasses on the table and looked at the man and the girl. The girl was looking off at the line of hills. They were white in the sun and the country was brown and dry. 'They look like white elephants,' she said. 'I've never seen one.' The man drank his beer. 'No, you wouldn't have.' 'I might have/ the man said, 'Just because you say I wouldn't have doesn't prove anything.' The girl looked at the bead curtain. 'They've painted something on it/ she said. 'What does it say?' 'Anis del Toro. It's a drink.' 'Could we try it?' The man called 'Listen' through the curtain. The woman came out from the bar. 'Four reales.' 'We want two Anis del Toros.' 'With water?' 'Do you want it with water?' '1 don't know/ the girl said. 'Is it good with water?'
'It's all right.'

'You want them with water?' asked the woman. 'Yes, with water.' 'It tastes like liquorice/ the girl said and put the glass down. 'That's the way with everything.' 'Yes/ said the girl. 'Everything tastes of liquorice. Especially all the things you've waited so long for, like absinthe.' 'Oh, cut it out.' ./ . 'You started it,' the girl said. 'I was being amused. I was having a fine time.' 'Well let's try and have a fine time.' 'All right. I was trying. I said the mountains looked like white elephants. Wasn't that bright?'

JLjBRO vadisinin kar tarafndaki tepeler uzun ve beyazd. Bu tarafnda hi glge, hi aa yoktu ve istasyon gnein altnda uzayp giden iki demiryolunun arasndayd. stasyonun yanma binann lk glgesi dyordu ve barn ak kapma sineklerin ieri girmesini engellemek iin dizi dizi bambu boncuklardan yaplm bir perde aslmt. Amerikal ve yarmdaki kz binann dnda, glgede bir masaya oturdular. Hava ok scakt ve Barcelona'dan kalkan ekspresin gelmesine daha krk dakika vard. Bu istasyonda iki dakika durur ve sonra Madrid'e devam ederdi. "Ne ielim?" diye sordu kz. apkasn karp masann zerine koymutu. . "Olduka scak," dedi adam. "Bira ielim." eri,"Dos cervezas," diye seslendi adam. eriden bir kadn, "Byk m?" diye sordu. "Evet. ki byk." Kadn iki bardak birayla iki kee altlk getirdi. Kee altlklarla biia bardaklarm masann zerine koydu ve adamla kza bakt. Kz tepelere bakyordu; Tepeler gnete bembeyaz, vadi ise kahverengi ve orakt. "Beyaz fillere benziyorlar," dedi kz. "Hi beyaz fil grmedim." Adam birasm iti. "Doru, grm olamazsn." "Belki de grmmdr," dedi adam. "Grm olamayacam sylemem bir ey kantlamaz ki." Kz boncuk perdeye bakt. "zerine bir eyler yaz mlar," dedi. "Ne yazyor?" "Anis del Toro. Bir iki." "Denesek mi?" Adain ieri, "Bakar msnz?" diye seslendi.. Kadn bardan kt. "Drt real." "ki Anis del Toro istiyoruz." "Suyla m?" "Suyla m olsun?" "Bilmiyorum," dedi kz. "Suyla iyi olur mu?" "Fena deildir." "Suyla m olsun?" diye sordu kadn. "Evet, suyla." <Yavan-bir-tad-var,-" dedi kz-vebarda-masaya koydu. "Her ey yle." "Evet," dedi kz. "Her eyin tad yavan. zellikle insann uzun sredir bekledii eylerin." "Aaa, kes artk." "Sen balattn," dedi kz. "Eleniyordum. Hca va kit geiriyordum." "Pekala, hadi hoa vakit geirmeye alalm. "Tamam. Ben alyordum. Dalarn beya; fillere
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'That was bright.' 'I wanted to try this new drink. That's all we do, isn't itlook at. things and try new drinks?' 'I guess so.' ' The girl looked across at the hills. 'They're lovely hills,' she said. 'They don't really look like white elephants. I just meant the colouring of their skin through the trees. 'Should we have another drink?' 'All right.' The warm wind blew the bead curtain against the table. 'The beer's nice and cool/ the man said. 'It's lovely/ the girl said. 'It's really an awfully simple operation, Jig,' the man said. 'It's not really ah operation at all/ The girl looked at the ground the table legs rested on. 'I know you wouldn't mind it, Jig. It's really not anything. It's just to let the air in.' The girl did not say anything. 'I'll go -with you and I'll stay with you all the time. . They just let the air in and then it's all perfectly natural.' 'Then what will we do afterwards?' 'We'll be fine afterwards, Just like we were before.' 'What makes you think so?' 'That's the only thing that bothers us. Its the one thing that's made us unhappy.' The girl looked at the bead curtain, put her hand out and took hold of two of the strings of beads. 'And you think then we'll be all right and be happy.' 'I know we will. You don't have to be afraid. I've known lots of people that have done it.' 'So have 1/ said the girl.- 'And afterward they were all so happy.' 'Well/ the man said, 'if you don't want to you don't have to. I wouldn't have you do it if you didn't want to. But I know it's perfectly simple/ 'And you really jwant to?' 'I think it's the best thing to do. But I don't want .you to do it if you don't really want to.' 'And if I do it you'll be happy and things will be like they were and you'll love me?' 'I love you now. You know I love you.' 'I know. But if I do it, then it will be nice again if I say things are like white elephants, and you'll like it?' 'I'll love it. I love it now but I just can't think about it. You know how I get when I worry.' 'If I do it you won't ever worry?' 'I won't worry about that because it's perfectly simple.' 'Then I'll do it. Because I don't care about me.' 'What do you mean?'

. "Zekiceydi." "Bu yeni ikiyi denemek istedim. Btn yaptmz bu, yle deil mi? Etrafa bakmak ve yeni ikiler denemek." "Sanrm yle." Kz tepelere bakt. "Ne gzel tepeer," dedi. "Beyaz fillere aslnda pek benzemiyorlar. Yalnzca aalarn arasndan grnen derilerinin rengini dnyordum." "Birer iki daha ielim mi?" "Olur." Hk rzgr boncuk perdeyi masaya doru havalandrd. "Bira, iyi ve souk," dedi adam. "Harika," dedi kz. "Gerekten ok basit bir ameliyat, Jig," dedi adam. "Ameliyat bile saylmaz." Kz masann ayaklarnn durduu yere bakt. "Umursamayacam biliyorum Jig. nemli bir ey deil. Yalnzca temizleyecekler." Kz bir ey sylemedi "Seninle geleceim ve hep senin yannda olacam. Yalnzca temizleyecekler ve sonra gerisi kendiliinden olacak." "Sonra ne yapacaz?" "Sonra sorunumuz kalmayacak. Tpk eskiden olduu gibi." "Nereden biliyorsun?" "Bizi huzursuz eden tek ey bu. Bizi mutsuz eden tek ey." Kz boncuk perdeye bakt, elini uzatt ve iki dizi boncuu tuttu. "yleyse her eyin dzeleceine ve mutlu olacamza inanyorsun." "Mutlu olacamz biliyorum. Korkmana gerek yok. Bunu yaptrtan birok kii tanyorum." "Ben de," dedi kz. "Hepsi de ok mutlu bir yaam srdler." "stemiyorsan yaptrtmak zorunda deilsin. stemiyorsan seni zorlamam. Ama biliyorum, ok basit." "Sen gerekten istiyor musun?" "Sanrm yaplacak en iyi ey bu. Ama gerekten istemiyorsan yaptrtmam ist.emem." "Yaptrtrsam mutlu olacak msn, her ey eskisi gibi olacak ve sen beni sevecek misin?" "Seni imdi de seviyorum^ Seni sevdiimi biliyorsun." "Biliyorum. Ama yaptrtrsam her ey eskisi gibi olacak ve baz eyleri beyaz fiEere benzetmem houna gidecek mi?" "Gidecek. imdi de holanyorum ama u anda byle eyleri dnecek durumda deilim. Kayglandmda nasl olduumu bilirsin." "Yaptrtmaya karar verirsem baka hibir ey iin kayg duymayacak msn?" "O beni kayglandrmyor nk ok basit.bir ey," "yleyse yaptrtacam. nk kendimi dndm yok." "Ne demek istiyorsun?" "Kendimi dndm yok." "Ama ben seni dnyorum." "Aaaa, tabii. Ama ben kendimi dnmyorum. Yaptrtacam, sonra da her ey dzelecek."

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'I don't want you to do it if you feel that way.' The girl stood up and walked to the end of the station. Across, on the other side, were fields of grain and trees along the banks of the Ebro. Far away, beyond the river, were mountains. The shadow of a cloud moved across the field of grain and she saw the river through the trees. 'And we could have all this,' she said. 'And we could have every thing and every day we make it more impo- ... sible.' , .. - . , 'What did you say?' 'I said we could have everything.' 'We can have everything.' 'No, we can't.' 'We can have the whole world.' 'No, we can't.' 'We can go everywhere.' 'No, we can't. It isn't ours any more.' 'It's ours.' 'No, it isn't. And once they take it away, you never get it back.' "But they haven't taken it away.' 'We'll wait and see.' 'Come on back in the shade,' he said. 'You mustn't feel that way.' 'I don't feel any way,' the girl said. 'I just know things.' 'I don't want you to do anything that you don't want to do ' 'Nor that isn't good for me,' she said. 'I know. Could we have another beer?' 'All right. But you've got to realize' 'I realize,' the girl said. 'Can't we maybe stop talking?' They sat down at the table and the girl looked across at the hills on the dry side of the . valley and the man looked at her and at the table. 'You've got to realize,' he said, 'that I don't want you to do it if you don't want to. I'm perfectly willing to go through with, it if it means anything to you.' 'Doesn't it mean anything to you? We could get along.' 'Of course it does. But I don't want anybody but you. I don't want anyone else. And I know it's perfectly simple.' 'Yes, you know it's perfectly simple.' 'It's all right for you .to say that, but I do know it.' 'Would you do something for me now?' 'I'd do anything for you.' 'Would you please please please please please please please stop talking?' He did not say anything but looked at the bags against the wall of the station. There were labels on them from all the hotels where they had spent nights. 'But I don't want you to,' he said, 'I don't care anything about it.'
'I'D scream,' the girl said.

"Byle dnyorsan yaptrtmam istemiyorum." Kz kalkt ve istasyonun ucuna kadar yrd. Karda, te tarafta Ebronun kylarnda tarlalar ve aalar vard. Ta uzaklarda, rman tesinde dalar vard. Tarlada bir bulutun glgesi kmldad ve kz aalarn arasndan rma grd. "Btn bunlara sahip olabilirdik," dedi kz. "Her eye sahip olabilirdik ama her geen gn daha zorlatr^ yoruz." "Ne dedin?" "Her eye sahip olabilirdik dedim." "Her eye sahip olabiliriz." "Hayr, olamayz." . "Tm dnya bizim olabilir." "Hayr, olamaz." "Her yere gidebiliriz." "Hayr, gidemeyiz. Artk dnya bizim deil." "Bizim." "Hayr deil. Bir kez elinden aldlar m, bir daha asla ona sahip olamazsn." "Ama almadlar ki." "Greceiz." "Glgeye gel," dedi adam. "Byle hissetmemelisin." "Hibir ey hissetmiyorum," dedi kz. "Sadece biliyorum." "stemediin bir eyi yaptrtman istemiyorum." "Ne de benim iin iyi olmayan eyleri yapmami," dedi kz. "Biliyorum. Bir bira daha iebilir miyiz?" "Peki. Ama anlamalsn ki" "Anlyorum," dedi. kz. "Konumasak olmaz m?" Masaya oturdular. Kz vadinin kurak tarafndaki tepelere, adam da ona ve masaya bakyordu. "Anlamalsn ki," dedi adam, "istemediin bir eyi yaptrtman istemiyorum. Senin iin nemi varsa katlanmaya hazrm." "Senin iin bir nemi var m? dare ederdik." "Tabii ki var. Ama sendenibaka kimseyi'i istemiyorum. Bakasn istemiyorum. Ayrca ok basit bir ey olduunu biliyorum." "Evet, biliyorsun. ok basit." "Byle sylemen doal ama gerekten biliyorum." "Benim iin bir ey yapar msn imdi?" "Senin iin her eyi yaparm." "Yalvarrm, n'olur, n'olur, n'olur, n'olur, n'olur, n'olur, n'olur, konuma artk." Adam bir ey sylemedi. Yalnzca istasyonun duvarna dayal bavullara bakt. Hepsinin stnde geceledikleri otellerin etiketleri vard. "Ama yaptrtmam istemiyorum," dedi. "Hi aldrmyorum." "Avaz avaz baracam," dedi kz. Kadm perdenin arasmdan iki bira bardayla kt ve bardaklar slak kee altlklarn stne koydu. "Tren be dakikaya kadar geliyor," dedi. "Ne dedi?" diye sordu kz.

The woman carrie out through the curtains with two glasses of beer and put them down on the damp felt pads. 'The train comes in five minutes,' she said.
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The girl smiled brightly at the woman, to thank her. 'I'd better take the bags over to the other side of the station,' the man said. She smiled at him. 'All right. Then come back and we'll finish the beer.' He picked up the two heavy bags and carried them around the station to the other tracks. He looked up the tracks but could not see the train. Coming back, he walked through the bar-room, where people waiting for the train were drinking. He drank an Anis at the bar. and looked at the people. They were all waiting rea-^ sonably for the train. He went out through the bead curtain. She was sitting at the table and smiled at him'Do you feel better?' he asked.

Kz kadna glmsedi, teekkr anlamna. Adam, "Bavullar istasyonun kar tarafna geirsem iyi olacak," dedi. Kz ona da glmsedi. "Tamam. Soma gel de biralar bitirelim." Adam iki ar bavulu ald, istasyonu dolanp kair taraftaki raylarn oraya gtrd. Demiryolu boyunca bakt ama treni gremedi. Geri geldi, bara girdi. eride treni bekleyen insanlar iki iiyordu. Barda bir Anis iti ve insanlara bakt. Hepsi de treni uysal uysal bekliyordu. Perdeyi 'aralayp dar kt. Kz masada oturuyordu, ona glmsedi. "Biraz daha iyice misin?" diye sordu. "yiyim," dedi. "Bir eyim yok. yiyim."

eviri: Asl SELEN

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A FAREWELL TO ARMS
CHAPT ER 11

SLAHLARA VEDA
BLM 11

It was dusk when the priest came. They had brought the soup and afterward taken away the bowls and I was lying looking at the rows of beds and out the window at the tree-top that moved a little in the eye - ning breeze. The breeze came in through the window and it was cooler with the evening. The flies were on the ceiling now and on the electric light bulbs that hung on wires. The lights were only turned on when some- one was brought in at night or when something was being done. It made me feel very young to have the dark come after the dusk and then remain. It was like being put to bed after early supper. The orderly came down between the beds and stopped. Someone .was with him. It was the priest. He stood there small, brown- faced, and embarrassed. 'How do you do?' he asked. He put some packages down by the bed, on the floor. 'All right, father.' He sat down in the chair that had been brought for Rinaldi and looked out of the window embarrssedly. I noticed his face looked very tired. , 'I can only stay a minute/ he said. 'It is late.' 'It is not late. How is the mess?' He smiled. 'I am still a great joke.' He sounded tired too 'Thank God they are all well.' T am so glad you are all right/ he said. 'I hope you don't suffer.' He seemed very tired and I was not used to see him tired. 'Not any more.' 'I miss you at the mess.' 'I wish I were there. I always enjoyed our talking.' 'I brought you a few little things/ he said. He picked up the packages. 'This is mosquito netting. This is a bottle of vermouth. You like vermouth? These are English papers.' 'Please open them.' He was pleased and undid them. I held the mosquito netting in my hands. The vermouth he held up for me to see and then put it on the floor beside the bed. I held up one of the sheaf of English papers. I could read the headlines by turning it so the halflight from the window was on it. It was The News of the World. 'The-thers~are~ilstrated/~he' said. 'It will be a great happiness to read them. Where did you get them?' 'I sent for them to Mestre. I will have more.' 'You were very good to come, father. Will you drink a glass of vermouth?'

RAHP geldiinde alacakaranlkt. orbay-getirmi ve sbrira da taslan gtrmlerdi; yatm, sra sra yataklara ve pencerenin dnda akam esintisiyle birazck kmldayan aa tepesine bakyordum. Esinti pencereden ieri giriyordu ve akam nedeniyle daha serindi. Artk sinekler tavana ve kablolarn ucundaki elektrik ampullerine konmulard. Iklar sadece gece birisi getirildiinde ya da bir ey yaplrken alyordu. Alacakaranlktan sonra karanln gelip ylece kalmas kendimi ok kkmm gibi hissetmeme neden oldu. Erken yenilen akam yemeinden sonra yatrlmak gibiydi. Emir eri yataklarn arasndan geldi ve durdu. Yarmda biri vard. Rahipti. Ufak tefek, yank tenli ve sklgan, ylece duruyordu. "Naslsnz?" dedi. Yere, yatan yanma birka plaket koydu. "yiyim, peder." Rinaldi iin getirilen sandalyeye oturdu ve utanga utanga pencereden dar bakt. Yznn ok yorgun grndn fark ettim. "Yalnzca bir iki dakika kalabilirim,''dedi. "Geoldu." "Ge deil. Arkadalar nasl?" Glmsedi. "Hl dalga geiyorlar benimle." Sesi de yorgun kyordu. "Tanrya kr, hepsi iyi." "yi olmanza o kadar sevindim ki," dedi. "Umarm acnz yoktur." ok yorgun grnyordu ve ben onu yorgun grmeye alkn deildim. "Artk yok." "Yemekhanede gzlerim sizi aryor." "Orada olabilmeyi isterdim. Konumalarmz bana zevk vermitir hep." "Bi- iki kk ey getirdim," dedi. Paketleri ald. "Bunda sivrisinek iin cibinlik var. Bu bir ie vermut. Vermut sever misiniz? Bunlar da ngiliz gazeteleri." "An ltfen." Memnun olmutu, paketleri at. Cibinlii elime aldm. O da vermutu grmem iin kaldrd ve sonra yere, yatan yanma koydu. ngiliz gazeteleri tomarlarndan birini aldm. Tomar pencereden giren hafif k stne decek biimde evirince balklar okuyabiliyordum. The News of the World gazetesiydi. "Dierleri resimli," dedi. "Onlar okumak byk bir zevk olacak benim iin. Nereden buldunuz?" "Mestre'den getirttim. Daha da gelecek." "Gelmekle byk bir incelik gsterdiniz, peder. Bir

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The orderly brought the glasses and opened the bottle. He broke off the cork and the end had to be shoved down into the bottle. I could see the priest was disappointed but he said, 'That's all right. It's no matter.' 'Here's to your health, father.' 'To your better health.' Afterward he held the glass in his hand and we looked at one another. Sometimes we talked and were . good friends but tonight it was difficult. 'What's the matter, father? You seem very tired.' 'I am tired but I have no right to be.' 'it's the heat.' 'No. This-is only the spring. I feel very low.' 'You have the war disgust.' 'No, But I hate the war.' 'I don't enjoy it, 'I said. He shook his head and looked out of the window. 'You do not mind it. You do not see it. You must forgive me. I know you are wounded.' 'That is an accident.' 'Still even wounded you do not. see it. I can tell. I do not see it myself, but I feel it a little.' 'When I was wounded we were talking about it. Passim was talking.' The priest put down the glass. He was thinking about something else. 'I know them because I am like they are,' he said. 'You are different, though.' 'But really I am like they are.' 'The officers don't see anything.' 'Some of them do. Some are very delicate and feel worse than any of us.' 'They are mostly different.' 'It is not education or money. It is something else. Even if they had education or money men like Passini would not wish to be officers. I would riot be an officer.' 'You rank as an officer. I am an officer.' 'I am not really. You are not even an Italian. You are a foreigner. But you are nearer the officers than you are to the men.' What is the difference?' 'I cannot say it easily. There are people who would make war. In this country there are many like that. There are other people who would riot make war.' 'But the first ones make them do it.' 'Yes.' 'And I help them.' 'You are a foreigner. You are a patriot.' 'And the ones who would not make war? Can they stop it?' 'I do not know.' , He looked out of the window, again. I watched his . face. 'Have they ever been able to stop it?' 'They are not organized to stop things and when they get organized their leaders sell them out.' 'Then it's hopeless?' 'It is never hopeless. But sometimes I cannot hope. I try always to .hope, but sometimes I cannot.' 'Maybe the war will be over.'
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Emir eri bardaklar getirdi ve ieyi at. Aarken mantar paraladndan kmayan ucu ienin iine itmek zorunda kald. Rahibin cannn skldn grebiliyordum ama yine de, "Tamam. nemli deil," dedi. "Salnza peder." "yilemenize." Sonra barda elinde tuttu, birbirimize baktk. Bazen konuur ve iyi anlardk ama bu gece zordu bu. "Neyiniz var peder? ok yorgur grnyorsunuz." "Yorgunum ama hakkm yok buna." "Scaldardr nedeni." "Hayr. lkbahardayz daha. Canm ok sklyor." "Sava yzndendir." "Deil. Ama savatan nefret ediyorum." "Ben de sevmiyorum," dedim. Bam sallad ve pencereden dar bakt. "Siz savaa aldrmyorsunuz. Yaamyorsunuz onu. Kusura bakmayn. Yaral olduunuzu biliyorum." "Kazayd o." "Yaralyken bile yaamyorsunuz onu. Biliyorum. Ben de yaamyorum ama biraz hissediyorum." "Yaralandmda sava konuuyorduk. Passini konuuyordu." Rahip barda yere koydu. Baka bir ey dnyordu. "Onlar bilirim nk ben de onlar gibiyim," dedi. "Ama siz farklsnz." "Gerekten onlar gibiyim." "Subaylar hibir ey yaamazlar." "Bazlar yaar. Bazlar ok duyguludur ve hepimizden daha kt hissederler." "Onlar genellikle farkldr." "Eitim ya da para deil bunun nedeni. Baka bir ey . Eitim ya da paralan olsa bile Passini gibiler subay olmak istemez. ahsen ben subay olmak istemem." "Subay rtbesindesiniz. Ben de subaym." "Gerek bir subay deilim. Siz ise talyan bile deilsiniz. Yabancsnz. Ama erlerden ok subaylara yaknsnz." "Aradaki fark ne?" "Kolay aklanamaz bu. Savamak isteyen insanlar vardr. Bu tr ok insan var bu lkede. Bir de savamak istemeyen insanlar vardr." "Ama birinciler onlan savamaya zorluyor." "Evet." "Ben de onlara yardm ediyorum. "Siz yabancsnz. Yurtseversiniz siz." "Ya savamak istemeyenler? Sava durdurabilirler mi?" "Bilmiyorum." Tekrar pencereden dar bakt. Ben de ona baktm. "Hi sava, durdurmay baarabildiler mi?" "Herhangi bir eyi durdurmak iin rgtlenmemi- lerdir; rgtlendiklerinde de nderleri satar onln." "yleyse umut yok." "Her zaman umut vardr. Ama bazen umutlanamyorum. Hep umut etmeye alrm

His brown face was suddenly very happy. 'You love the Abruzzi?' 'Yes, I love it very much.' 'You ought to go there then.' 'I would be too happy. If could live there and love God and serve Him.' 'And be respected,' I said. 'Yes and be respected; Why not?' 'No reason not. You should be respected.' 'It does not matter But. there in my country it is understood that a man may love God. It is not a dirty joke.' 'I understand.' He looked at me and smiled. 'You understand, but you do not love God.' 'No.' 'You do not love Him at all?' he asked. 'I am afraid of Him in the night sometimes.' 'You should love Him.' 'I don't love much.' 'Yes,' he said. 'You do. What you tell me about in the nights. That is not love. That is only passion and lust. When you love you wish to do things for. You wish to sacrifice for. You wish to serve.' 'I don't love.' 'You will. I know yqu will. Then you will be happy.' 'I'm happy. I've always been happy.' 'It is another thing. You cannot know about it unless you have it/ 'Well/ I said. 'If I ever get it I will tell you.' 'I.stay too long and talk too much/ He was worried that he really did. 'No. Don't go. How about loving women? If I really loved some woman, would it be like that?':^ 'I don't know about that. I never loved any woman.' 'What about your mother?' 'Yes, I must have loved my mother.' 'Did you always love God?' 'Ever since I was a little boy.' 'Well/1 said. I did not know what to say. 'You are a fine boy/ I said. 'I am a boy,' he said. 'But you call me father.'. 'That's politeness.' He smiled. 'I must go, really/ he said. 'You do not want me for anything?'he asked hopefully. 'No. Just to talk.' 'I will take your greetings to the mess.' 'Thank you for the many fine presents.' 'Nothing.' 'Come and see me again.' 'Yes. Good-bye,' he patted my hand. 'So long,' I said in dialect. 'Ciaou/ he repeated. It was dark in the room and the orderly, who had sat by the foot of the bed, got up and went out with him. I liked him very much and I hoped he would get back to the Abruzzi some time. He had a rotten life in the mess and he was fine about it, but I thought how he would be in his own

Esmer yz aydnlamvermiti birden. "Abruzzi'yi seviyor musunuz?" "Evet, hem de ok seviyorum." "yleyse gitmelisiniz oraya." "ok mutlu olurum. Orada yaayabilsem, Tanry sevsem ve ona hizmet edebilsem." "Ve sayg gsterilse." ' "Evet, ve de sayg gsterilse. Neden olmasn?" "Olmamas iin bir neden yok. Sayg gsterilmeli size." "Pek nemli deil bu. Ama lkemde inann Tanry '*' sevebilecei kabul edilir. Pis bir aka deildir." "Arlyorum." Bana bakt ve glmsedi. "Anlyorsunuz ama Tanry sevmiyorsunuz." "Doru." "Hi mi sevmiyorsunuz Tanry?" "Baz geceler ondan korkarm." "Onu sevmelisiniz." "Pek sevmiyorum." "Hayr," dedi/seviyorsunuz. Geceleri bana syledikleriniz. Onlar sevgi deil. Yalnzca ehvet ve ihtiras. Sevince sevdiiniz iin bir eyler yapmak istersiniz. Kendinizden bir eyler vermek istersiniz. Hizmet etmek istersiniz ona." "Sevmiyorum." "Seveceksiniz. Biliyorum seveceksiniz. O zaman da mutlu olacaksnz." "Mutluyum. Her zaman mutlu olmuumdur." "Bu baka. Buna sahip olmadka bilemezsiniz." "Sahip olursam size sylerim." "ok kaldm ve ok konutum." Gerekten zgnd ok kalp konutuu iin. "Hayr. Gitmeyin. Kadnlar sevmeye ne diyorsunuz? Bir kadn gerekten sevmeye ne diyorsunuz? Biir ' kadm gerekten sevsem onun gibi olur mu?" "Bilmiyorum. Hi kadn sevmedim." "Ya anneniz?" . "Onu sevdim herhalde." "Hep Tanry m sevdiniz?" "Kklmden beri." "Eeee," dedim. Diyecek bir ey bulamyordum. "yi bir ocuksunuz," dedim. "Evet ocuum," dedi. "Ama bana peder diyorsunuz." "Saygdan." Glmsedi. "Gerekten gitmeliyim," dedi. "Benden istediiniz bir ey var m?" diye sordu umutla. "Hayr. Yalnzca konumak istiyorum." "Arkadalara selamlarnz ileteceim." "Bu gzel armaanlar iin ok teekkrler." "Bir ey deil." "Yine gelin beni grmeye." "Olur. Hoa kaim." Elimi okad. "Gle gle," dedim talyanca. "Ciaou," diye tekrar etti. Oda karanlkt, yatan ucuna oturmu olan emir eri kalkp onunla gitti. Onu ok seviyordum, bir gn Ab- ruzzi'ye dnmesini diledim. Askerlikteki yaam berbatt ama aldrmyordu, kendi memleketinde nasl olacam dndm. Capracotta'da, kasabann alt tara-, frndan geen rmakta alabalk var demiti. Geceleri flt
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forbidden to play the flute at night. When the young men serenaded only the flute was forbidden. Why, I had asked. Because it was bad for the girls to hear the flute at night. The peasants all called you 'Don' and when you met them they took off their hats. His father hunted every day and stopped to eat at the houses of peasants. They were always honoured. For a foreigner to hunt he must present a certificate that he had never been arrested. There were bears on the Gran Sasso d'ltalia, but it was a long way. Aquila was a fine town. It was . cool in the summer at night and the spring in Abruzzi was the most beautiful in Italy. But what was lovely was the fall to go hunting through the chestnut woods. The birds were all good because they fed on grapes and you never took a lunch because the peasants were always honoured if you would eat with them

almak yasakm orada. Gen erkekler serenat yaparken yalnzca flt almalar yasakm. Niye, diye sormutum. nk kzlarn geceleri flt sesini duymas iyi deilmi. Kyller insana "Don" dermi ve apkalarn kartrlarm karlatklarnda. Babas her gn avlanr ve kyllerin evlerinde yemek yermi. Kyller hep byk bir onur duyarm. Bir yabancnn avlanabilmesi iin hi tutuklanmadn belirten bir belge gstermesi gerekirmi. Gran Sasso d'Itaa'da aylar varm ; ama oras ok uzakm. Aguila iyi bir kentmi. Abruz- zi'de yaz geceleri serin olurmu ve talya'da en gzel bahar orada geermi. Ama en gzeli sonbaharda kestane ormanlarnda ava kmakm. Kularn hepsi ok lezizmi nk zmle beslenirlermi ve kyller evlerinde kendileriyle yemek yenmesinden onur duyduklar iin insan yanma yiyecek almazm hi. Bir sre sonra

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THE GARDEN OF EDEN


THEY were living at le Grau du Roi then and the : hotel was on a canal that ran from the walled city of : Aigues Mortes straight down to the sea. They could see the towers of Aigues Mortes across the low plain of the Camargue and they rode there on their bicycles at some time of nearly every day along the white road that bordered the canal. In the evenings and the mornings when there was a rising tide sea bass would come into it and they would see the mullet jumping wildly to escape from the bass and watch the swelling bulge of the water as the bass attacked. A jetty ran out into the blue and pleasant sea and they fished from the jetty and swam on the beach and each day helped the fishermen haul in the long net that brought the fish up onto the long sloping beach. They drank aperitifs in the cafe On the corner facing the sea and watched the sails of the mackerel fishing boats out in the Gulf of Lions. It was late in the.spring and the mackerel were running and'fishing people of the port were very busy. It was a cheerful and friendly town and the yong couple liked the hotel, which had four rooms upstairs and a restaurant arid two billiard tables downstairs facing the canal and the lighthouse. The room they lived in looked like the painting of Van Gogh's room at Arles except there was a double bed and two big windows and you could look out across the water .; ' and the marsh arid sea meadows to the white town and bright beach of Palavas. They were always hungry but they ate very well. They were hungry for breakfast which they ate at the cafe, ordering brioche and cafe au lait and eggs, and the type of preserve that they chose and the manner in which the eggs were to be cooked was an excitement. They were always so hungry for breakfast that the girl often had a headache until the coffee came. But the coffee took the headache away. She took her coffee without sugar and the yong man was learning to remember that. On this morning there was brioche and red raspberry preserve and the eggs were boiled and there was a pat of butter that melted as they stirred them and salted them lightly and ground pepper over them in the cups. They were big eggs and fresh and the girl's were not cooked quite as long as the young man's. He_remem- bered that easily and he was happy with his which he diced up with the spoon and ate with only the flow of the butter to moisten them and the fresh early morning texture and the bite of the coarsely ground pepper grains and the hot coffee and the

CENNET BAHES
O sralar Le Grau du Roi'da kalyorlard ve otel etraf surlarla evrili Aigues Morte kentinden dosdoru denize inen bir5 kanaln zerindeydi. Aadaki Camargue dzlnn kar yannda Aigues' Mortes'in kulelerini grebiliyorlard ve hemen her giin oraya, canlarnn istedii bir saatte, kanal boyunca uzayp giden beyaz yoldan bisikletle gidiyorlard. Akamlar ve sabah erkenden deniz ykseldiinde kanala levrekler giriyor, onlar da, tekir balklarnn levreklerden kamak iin lgnca rpnlarm gryor, levrekler saldrdka kabaran sular izliyorlard. Mavi ve tatl denize bir dalgakran uzanyordu. Bu dalgakrandan balk avlyor, kumsalda yzyor ve her gn balklarn geni, eimli kumsala uzun bir a ile balk ekmelerine yardm ediyorlard. Kedeki denize bakan kahvede ildlerini yudumluyor, Aslanlar Krfe- zi'nde uskumru avlayan balk teknelerinin yelkenlerini izliyorlard. Baharn son gnleriydi; uskumru akm vard, limandaki balklarn da ileri balarndan aknd. Neeli ve dost canls bir yerdi buras ve gen ift st katnda drt odas, kanala ve deniz fenerine bakan alt katnda ise lokantas ile iki bilardo masas bulunan oteli seviyordu. Kaldklar oda Van Gogh'un Arles'daki odasnn resmine benziyordu; yalnz burada iki kiilik bir yatak ve iki byk pencere vard ve dar bakldnda suyun, batakln ve sular ekildiinde ortaya kan deniz yosunlarnn tesinde beyaz kasaba ve parlak Palavas kumsal grnyordu. ok yemek yiyorlard ama karnlar her zaman at. Kahvedeki kahvaltlara a iniyorlard ve rek, stl kahve, yumurta ve her gn deiik bir reelden oluan kahvaltlarn yapyorlar, o gn yumurtalarn nasl piirileceine karar verirken heyecanlanyorlard. Sabahlar kahvaltdan nce yle ackm oluyorlard ki, ou zaman kahve gelene kadar kzn alktan ba aryordu. Ama kahve ary alyordu. Kz kahveyi ekersiz iiyordu, gen adam da bunu unutmamaya'alyordu. O sabah kahvaltda rek ve aa ilei reeli vard ve yumurtalar halanmt. Hafife tuzlayp, taze ekilmi karabiber ektilderi yumurtalarm kartrrken, zerine koyduklar tereya eriyordu. Yumurtalar byk ve tazeydi. Kznkiler erkeinkiler kadar uzun sre piiril- memiti. Kznyumurtayyle sevdiini-ammsamak kolay olmutu. Kakla kk paralara bldkten sonra zerinde eriyen tereyayla yumuatarak yedii kendi yumurtas, sabahn tazelii, iri taneli karabiber, scak kahve ve hindiba kk kokan

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the dark with the first rising of the breeze and the young man and the girl had wakened and heard them and then curled together under the sheet of the bed and slept again. They had made love when they were half awake with the light bright outside but the room still shadowed and then had lain together and been happy and tired and then made love again. Then they were so hungry that they did not think they would live until breakfast and now they were in the cafe eating and watching the sea and the sails and it was a new day again. "What are you thinking?" the girl asked. "Nothing." "You have to think something." "I was just feeling." "How?" "Happy." "But I get so hungry," she said. "Is it normal do you think? Do you always get so hungry when you make love?" "When you love somebody." "Oh, you know too much about it," she said. "No." "I don't care. I love it and we don't have to worry about anything do we?" "Nothing." "What-do you think we should do?" "I don't know," he said. "What do you?" "I don't care at all. If you'd like to fish I should write a letter or maybe two and then we could swim before lunch." "To be hungry?" "Don't say it. I'm getting hungry already and we haven't finished breakfast." "We can think about: lunch." "And then after lunch?" "We'll take a nap like good children." "That's an absolutely new idea," she said. "Why have we never thought of that?" "I have these flashes of intuition," he said. "I'm the inventive type." "I'm the destructive type," she said. "And I'm going to destroy you. They'll put a plaque up on the wall of the building outside the room. I'm going to wake up in the night and do something to you that you've never even heard of or imagined. I was going to last night but I was too sleepy." "You're too sleepy to be dangerous." "Don't lull yourself into any false security. Oh darling let's have it hurry up and be lunch time." They sat there in their striped fishermen's shifts and the shorts they had bought in the store that sold marine supplies, and they were very tan and their hair was streaked and faded by the sun and the sea. Most people thought they were brother and sister until they said they were married. Some did not believe that they were married and that pleased the girl very much. In those years only a very few people had ever come to the Mediterranean in the summer time and no one came to le Grau du Roi except a few people from Nmes. There was no casino and no
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Gen adam ve kz uyanp sesleri dinlemi, sonra da yeniden pikenin altna kvrlp uyumulard. Darda gn iyice aarm, ierisi ise hl karanlkken yar uyur yar uyank sevimiler, sonra bir sre ylece yatp mutluluklarm ve yorgunluklarn duyumsamlar, sonra yine sevimilerdi. Sonra karnlar yle ackmt ki kahvaltya kadar dayanamayacaklarn sanmlard. imdi ise kahvede oturmu, bir yandan kahvalt yapyor, bir yandan denizi ve yelkenleri izliyorlard ve yepyeni bir gn balamt yine. -\ "Ne dnyorsun?" diye sordu kz. "Hibir ey." "Ama bir ey dnyor olman gerek." "Yalnzca hissediyordum." "Nasl?" "Mutlu." "yle ackyorum ki," dedi kz. "Sence bu normal mi? Seviince insan hep ackr m byle?" "Birini sevdiin zaman." "Ooo, bu konuda ok ey biliyorsun," dedi kz. "Hayr." "Hi nemi yok. Sevimeye baylyorum. Hem imdi hibir eye canmz skmamz gerekmiyor. yle deil mi?" "Evet, yle." "Ne yapalm dersin?" "Bilmiyorum," dedi adam. "Ya sen?" "Hi farketmez. Sen bala kmak istersen ben de bir-iki mektup yazarm. Sonra da yemee kadar biraz yzeriz." "Ackalm diye mi?" "Ackmaktan sz etme. Daha imdiden ackyorum. Kahvalty bile bitirmedik oysa." "Biz de le yemeini dnrz,yleyse." . "Ya le yemeinden sonra?" "Uslu ocuklar gibi yatar uyuruz." "Bak bu yepyeni bir fikir," dedi kz. "Neden daha nce dnmedik?" "Bazen aklma byle parlak fikirler gelir," dedi adam. "Ben yaratc biriyim." "Ben de ykc biriyim," dedi kz. "Ve seni yok edeceim. Odann binann dna gelen duvarna plaket koyacaklar. Gece uyanp sana bu gne dek duymadn, dnemediin bir ey yapacam. Dn gece yapacaktm ama ok uykum vard." "Sen tehlikeli olamayacak kadar uykulusun." "Kendini gerek olmayan bir gvenlik duygusuna kaptrma. Ah, sevgilim, hadi zaman abucak gesin de len oluversin." zerlerinde deniz malzemeleri satan dkkndan aldklar izgili balk tirtleri, ayaklarnda ort, tenleri gneten kapkara olmu, salarnn rengi deniz ve gneten yol yol alm, oturuyorlard. Evli olduklarn syleyene kadar ou kii onlan karde sanyordu. Bazlar evli olduklarna inanmyordu, bu d kzn ok houna gidiyordu. O yllarda yazlar Akdeniz'e pek az insan gelirdi. N- mes'den gelen birka kii dnda le Grau du Roi'ya kimse uramazd. Burada kumarhane ya da baka bir elence yeri yoktu ve en scak aylarda yzmeye gelen birka kii dnda otel her zaman botu. O zamanlar insanlar balk tirtleri giymezlerdi ve gen adam evlendii bu kz

was the first girl he had ever seen wearing one. She had bought the shirts for them and then had washed them in the basin in their room at the hotel to take the stiffness out of them. They were stiff and built for hard wear but the washings softened them and now they were worn and softened enough so that when he looked at the girl now her breasts showed beautifully against the worn cloth. No one wore shorts either around the village and the girl could not wear them when they rode their bicycles. But in the village it did not matter because the people were very friendly and only the local priest disapproved. But the the girl went to mass on Sunday wearing a skirt and a longsleeved cashmere sweater with her hair covered with a scarf and the young man stood in the back of the church with the men. They gave twenty francs which was more than a dollar then and since the priest took up the collection himself their attitude toward the church was known and the wearing of shorts in the village was regarded as an eccentricity by foreigners rather than an attempt against the morality of the ports of.the Camargue. The priest did not speak to them when they wore shorts but he did not denounce them and when they wore trousers in the evening the three of them bowed to each other. "I'll go up and write the letters," the girl said and she got up and smiled at the waiter and went out of the cafe. "Monsieur is going to. fish?" the waiter asked when the young man, whose name was David Bourne, called him over and paid him. "I think so. How is the tide?" "This tide is very good," the waiter said. "I have some bait if you want it." "I can get some along the road." ............... "No. Use this. They're sandworms and there are plenty." "Can you come out?" "I'm on duty now. But maybe I can come out and see how you do. You have your gear?" "It's at the hotel." "Stop by for the worms." At the hotel the young man wanted to go up to the room and see the girl but instead he found the long, jointed bamboo pole and the basket with his fishing. . gear behind the desk where the room keys hung and went back out into the brightness of the road and on down to the cafe and out onto the glare of the jetty. The sun was hot but there was a fresh breeze and the tide was just starting to ebb. He wished that he had brought a casting rod and spoons so that he might cast out across the flowTJf_the~watertrom the^canar over the rocks on the far side but instead he rigged his long pole with its cork and quill float and let a sandworm float gently along at a depth where he thought fish might be feeding. He fished for some time with no luck and watched the mackerel boats tacking back and forth out on the blue sea and the shadows the high clouds made on the water. Then his float went

Tirtleri kz satn alm ve sertlikleri gitsin diye oteldeki odalarnn lavabosunda ykamt. Dayankl olsun diye sert ve kaim bir kumatan yaplan tirtler ykannca yumuamlard ve imdi zerlerinde eski ve yumuak grnyorlard; yle ki adam kza baktnda tirtnn altndan gslerinin gzel kabarkln grebiliyordu. evrede hi kimse ort da giymiyordu. Bu yzden kz bisikletle gezerlerken ortunu giyemiyordu. Oysa k- yn iinde kimse aldrmyordu nk herkes dost cri- lsyd ve yalnzca yrenin rahibi onaylamyordu. Ama Pazar ayinine giderken kz etek ve uzun kollu kamir bir kazak giyiyor, ban bir earpla rtyordu ve gen adam da erkeklerle birlikte kilisenin arkalarnda duruyordu. Kiliseye ba olarak o zamanlar bir dolardan fazla eden yirmi frank veriyorlar, rahip de balar kendisi toplad iin onlarn kiliseye kar tutumlar biliniyor, kyde ortla dolamalar, Camargue limanlarnn ahlkm bozmaya ynelik bir hareketten ok yabanclarn garipliklerinden biri olarak gryordu. Rahip btn btn sulamasa da, zerlerinde ort varken onlarla konumuyordu. Akamlar pantalon giydiklerinde de birbirlerine selam veriyorlard. "Yukar kp mektuplarm yazacam," dedi kz ve kalkt, garsona glmseyip kahveden kt. Garson, ad David Bourne olan gen adam kendisini arp hesab dediinde, "Monsieur bala kacak m?" diye sordu. "Sanrm. Aknt nasl?" "Bugnk ok iyi," dedi garson. "sterseniz bende biraz yem var." "Yolda alrm." "Hayr. Benimkileri kullarm. Solucan bunlar. Hem de bir sr var." ^, "Sen de gelebilir misin?" . "imdi grevdeyim. Ama belki sonra kar ansnzn nasl gittiine bir bakarm. Takmlarnz yannzda m?" "Otelde." "Urayp solucanlar aim." Otele vardnda gen adam yukar kp kz grmek istedi ama onun yerine tezghn gerisinde anahtarlarn asl olduu yerde uzun, eklenebilen bambu kamn ve iinde balklk takm bulunan sepetini grnce tekrar l l yola kp kahvenin yanndan geip parlak dalgakrana gitti. Gne yakyordu ama tatl bir esinti vard ve deniz henz ekilmeye balamt. Keke kakl olta getirseydim diye dnd. O zaman uzaktaki kayalklardan oltasn frlatr, kanaln sularn artabilirdi. Uzun kamnn ucuna mantarla ty takt ve solucanlardan birini balk bulunduunu sand bir dmnlieTrslc^blrkfL : Bir sre hi balk yakalayamadan avland ve mavi denizin aklarnda uskumru teknelerinin bir oraya, bir buraya gidii ile tepedeki bulutlarn suya den glgelerini izledi. Sonra misina gerildi, mantar hzla suyun altna girdi. Adam oltaya asldnda lgncasna rp- ; nan gl bir baln

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was bent to the breaking point of the line and trace by the fish which kept trying to go toward the open sea. The young man walked with him on the jetty to ease the strain but the fish kept pulling so that as he drove a quarter of the rod was forced under water. The waiter had come from the cafe and was very excited. He was talking by the young man's side saying, "Hold him. Hold him. Hold him as softly as you can. He'll have to tire. Don't let him break. Soft with him. Softly. Softly." There was no way the young man could be softer with him except to get into the water with the fish and that did not make sense as the canal was deep. If I could only walk along the bank with him, he thought. But they had come to the very end of the jetty. More than half the pole was under water now. "Just hold him softly," the waiter pleaded. "It's a strong trace." The fish bored deep, ran, zig-zagged and the long bamboo pole bent with his weight and his rapid, driving strengftf. Then he came up thrashing at the surface and then was down again and the young man found that although the fish felt as strong as ever the tragic violence was lessened and now he could be led around the end of the jetty and up the canal. "Softly does it," the waiter said. "Oh softly now. Softly for us all." Twice more the fish forced his way out to the open sea and twice the young man led him back and now he was leading him gently along the jetty toward the cafe. "How is he?" asked the waiter. "He's fine but we've beaten him." "Don't say it," the waiter said. "Don't say it. We must tire him. Tire him. Tire him." "He's got my arm tired," the young man said. . "Do you want me to take him?" the waiter asked hopefully. "My God no." "Just easy, easy, easy. Softly, softly, softly," the waiter said. The young man worked the fish past the terrace of the cafe and into the canal. He was swimming just under the surface but was still strong and the young man wondered if they would take him all the way up the canal through the length of the town. There were many other people now and as they went by the hotel the girl saw them out of the window and shouted, "Oh what a wonderful fish! Wait for me! Wait for me!" She had seen the fish clearly from above and his length and the shine of him in the water and her husband with the bamboo pole bent almost double and the procession of people following. When she got down to the canal bank and, running, caught up with the people, the procession had stopped. The waiter was in the water at the edge of the canal andher husband was guiding the fish slowly against the bank where there was a clump of weeds growing. The fish was on the surface now and the waiter bent down and brought his hands
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aa gitmeye alan balk ektike misina uzun kamtan kopma noktasna gelmiti. Basky biraz olsun azaltmak iin gen adam bal izleyerek dalgakran boyunca yrd. Ama balk yle bir aslyordu ki kamn drtte biri suya batmt. Kahvedeki garson da gelmiti, ok heyecanlyd. Gen adamn yannda yryor, "Tutun onu. Brakmayn. Elinizden geldiince yumuak tutun. Yorulmas gerek. Sakn kamasna izin vermeyin. Yava olun. Yava. Yava," diye konuuyordu. Kam zorlamamann tek yolu gen adamn balkla birlikte suya girmesi oluyordu, ki bu da kanal ok derin olduu iin pek akla yatkn bir ey deildi. Keke onu kydan izleyebilsem diye dnd. Ama dalgakrann ta ucuna kadar gelmilerdi. Artk kamn yardan ou suyun iindeydi. "Siz yalnzca yavaa tutun," dedi garson yalvaran bir sesle. "Olta salam." Balk derine dald, hzland, bir o yana bir bu yana att kendini ve bambu kam onun arlyla ve gl ekiiyle iyice eildi. Sonra sular yararak su yzne kt ve yeniden dald. Geri balk hl tm gcyle aslyordu ama gen adam onun trajik rpnlarnn azaldn ve artk bal dalgakrann kenarndan kanalm yukarsna doru gtrebileceini anlamt. "Yava ekin," dedi garson. "imdi yava. Hepimiz iin yava." ki kez daha balk ak denize doru gitmek istedi ve adam iki kez daha onu geri ekti. imdi de ar ar dalgakran boyunca kahveye doru srklyordu. "Ne durumda?" diye sordu garson. "yi ama onu alt ettik." "Aman susun," dedi garson. "Susun. Onu yormalyz. Yorun onu. Yorun." "O benim kolumu yordu," dedi gen adam. "Benim ekmemi ister misiniz?" diye sordu garson umutla. "Tanrm, hayr." "Yava, yava, yava. Hafife, hafife, hafife," dedi garson. Gen adam, bal kahvenin terasnn nnden geirip kanala soktu. Balk suyun yzeyine ok yakn yzyordu ama gc hl yerindeydi. Gen adam onu kasaba boyunca kanaldan gtrp gtremeyeceklerini dnd. Artk pelerine bir sr baka insan da taklmt. Otelin nnden geerlerken kz pencereden onlar grd ve "Ah, ne harika bir balk! Beni de bekleyin! Beni de bekleyin!" diye bard. Yukardan bal, suyun iindeki bykln ve parlakln, neredeyse ikiye, katlanm olan bambu kam tutan kocasn ve peindeki kalabal ak seik grmt. Aaya, kanaln kenarna inip koarak kalabala yetitiinde onlar durmutu. Garson, kanalm kenarndan suya girmiti, kocas da bal kanalm yosunlarla kapl kysna doru yava yava ekiyordu. Balk artk suyun zerindeydi. Garson eilip, ba parmaklarn solungalarna sokarak bal iki yandan smsk tutup kaldrd ve kanal boyunca yrmeye balad. Balk ok ard. Garson kollarn gs hizasna

Several men were pounding the young man on the' back and putting their arms around him and a woman from the fish market kissed him. Then the girl had her arms around him and kissed him and he said, "Did you see him?" Then they all went over to see him laid out on the side of the road silver as a salmon and dark gunmetal shining on his back. He was a handsome beautifully built fish with great live eyes and he breathed slowly and ; brokenly. "What is he?" "A loup," he said. "That's a sea bass. They call them bar too. They're a wonderful fish. This is the biggest one I've ever seen. The waiter, whose name was Andre, came over and put his arms around David and kissed him and then he kissed the girl. "Madame, it is necessary," he said. "It is truly necessary. No one ever caught such a fish on such tackle." "We better have him weighed," David said. They were at the cafe now. The young man had put the tackle away, after the weighing, and washed up and the fish was on a block of ice that had come in the camion from Nimes to ice the mackerel catch. The fish had weighed a little oyer fifteen pounds. On the ice he was still silver and beautiful but the color on his back had changed to gray. Only his eyes still looked alive. The mackerel fishing boats were coming in now and the women were unloading the shining blue and green and silver mackerel from the boats into baskets and carrying the heavy baskets on their heads to the fish house. It was a very good catch and the town was busy and happy. "What are we going to do with the big fish?" the girl asked. "They're going to take him in and sell him," the young man said. "He's too big to cook here and they say it would be wicked to cut him up. Maybe he'll go right up to Paris. He'll end in some big restaurant. Or somebody very rich will buy him." "He was so beautiful in the water," she said. "And when Andre held him up. I couldn't believe him when I saw him out of the window and you with your mob following you." "We'll get a small one for us to eat. They're really wonderful. A small one ought to be grilled with butter and with herbs. They're like striped bass at home." "I'm excited about the fish," she said. "Don't we have wonderful simple fun?" They were hungry for lunch and the bottle of white wine was coldand they drank it as they ate the celery remoulade and the small radishes and the home pickled mushrooms from the big glass jar. The bass was grilled and the grill marks showed on the silver skin and the butter melted on the hot plate. There was sliced lemon to press on the bass and fresh bread from the bakery and the wine cooled their tongues of the heat of the fried potatoes. It was good light, dry, cheerful, unknown white wine and the restaurant was proud of it. "We're not great conversationalists at meals,

kadn da onu pt. Sonra da kz boynuna sarld ve pt. Adam ona, "Bal grdn m?" diye sordu. Daha sonra hep birlikte yolun kenarna uzatlm, srt bir namlunun ucu gibi parlayan gm renkli bala bakmaya gittiler. Byk canl gzleri olan, son derece biimli, ok gzel bir balkt. Yavaa ve kesik kesik soluyordu. "Ne bal bu?" :, "Lpup," dedi. genadam.."Bir; tr,levrek. Bar dendii de dlur! Harika br balktr:Bu grdklerimin en .by." Ad Andre olan garson gelip David'e sarld ve nce onu, sonra da kz pt. "Madam, bu gerekli," dedi. "Kesinlikle gerekli. Bugne dek kimse byle bir oltayla byle bir balk avlamad." "Bir tarttrsak iyi olur," dedi David. Kahveye dnmlerdi. Gen adam tartma iinden sonra, oltasn kaldrm, elini yzn ykamt. Balk da yakalanan uskumrular saklamak iin Nmes'den kamyonla gelen koca bir kalp buzun zerinde yatyordu. Yedi kilodan biraz fazla gelmiti. Buzun zerinde hl gm rengini koruyordu ama srtndaki renk griye dnmt. Yalnzca gzleri hl canl gibiydi. Artk uskumru tekneleri dnmeye balamt ve kadnlar mavi, yeil, gm rengi uskumrular teknelerden boaltp, sepetlere dolduruyorlar, balarnn zerinde tadklar ar sepetleri de balkhaneye gtryorlard. ok bereketli bir av olmutu. Kasabada herkes megul ve mutluydu: "Bu koca bal ne yapacaz?" diye sordu kz. "Gtrp satacaklar," dedi gen adam. "Burada pii- rilmeyecek kadar byk. Paralamann da yazk olacan sylyorlar. Beld de doruca Paris'e gider. Kendi- m by^ birlokantada bulr. Ya da okzenin biri sa-^ tm alr onu." "Suda ne kadar gzeldi," dedi kz. "Hele Andre tutup kaldrdnda. Camdan bakp onu ve peindeki kalabalkla seni grnce gzlerime inanamadm." "Kklerden bir tane yeriz. Gerekten nefis oluyorlar. Izgara yaparken tereyada eitli otlarla piirilmeli. Bizim oralardaki izgili levree benzer tad." "Balk beni heyecanlandryor," dedi kz. "Ne kadar yaln bir biimde eleniyoruz deil mi?" Yine ackmlard. Beyaz arap soktu. Kereviz remoulade ve kk turplar yerken ve byk bir cam kavanozdan evde kurulmu mantar turusu attrrken araplarn yudumladlar. Levrek zgarada piirilmiti ve gm rengi derisinin zerinde zgara izleri grlyor, scak tabaktaki tereya erimiti. Masada levree skmak iin limon dilimleri ve frndan yeni km taze ekmek varcl._.Souk.arap, kzarm patates yemekten yanan azlarn serinletiyordu. Ad sam duyulmam, hafif, sek ve iyi kalite bir beyaz arapt ve lokanta arabyla vnyordu. "Yemek zaman pek konukan deiliz," dedi kz.

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"I wasn't. No. You don't bore me. I'd be happy looking at you if you never said a word." He poured her another small glass of the wine and filled his own. "I have a big surprise. I didn't tell you, did I?" the girl said. "What sort of surprise?" "Oh it's very simple but it<s very complicated." . "Tell me." . ' "No. You miglit like it and maybe you couldn't stand it." "It sounds too dangerous." "It's dangerous," she said. "But don't ask me. I'm going up to the room if I may." The young man paid for the lunch and drank the wine that was left in the bottle. Then he went upstairs. The girl's clothes were folded on one of the Van Gogh chairs and she was waiting for him in the bed with the sheet over her. Her hair was spread out over the pillow and her eyes were laughing and he lifted the sheet and . she said, "Hello, darling. Did you have a nice lunch?" Afterwards they lay together with his arm under her head and were happy and lazy and he felt her turn her head from side to side and stroke it against his cheek. It felt silky and barely roughened from the sun and the sea. Then with her hair all forward over her face so it touched him as her head moved she started to play with him lightly and exploringly and then with delight and she said, "You do love me, don't you?" He nodded and kissed the top of her head and then turned her head and held it and kissed her lips. "Oh," she said. "Oh." A long time later they were lying each holding the other close and she said, "And you love me just the way am? You're sre." "Yes," he said. "So much yes." "Because I'm going to be changed." "No," he said. "No. Not changed." "I'm going to," she said. "It's for you. It's for me too. I won't pretend it's not. But it will do something to you. I'm sure but I shouldn't say it." "I like surprises but I like everything the way it is just now at this minute." "Then maybe I shouldn't do it," she said. "Oh I'm sad. It was such a wonderful dangerous surprise. I thought about it for days and I didn't decide until this morning." "If it's something you really want." "It is," she said. "And I'm going to do it. You've liked everything we've done so far haven't you? "Yes." "All right." She slipped out of bed and stood straight with her long brown legs and her beautiful body tanned evenly from the far beach where they swam without suits. She ' held her shoulders back and her chin up and she shook her head so her heavy tawny hair slapped around her cheeks and then bowed forward so it all fell forward and covered her face. She pulled the striped shirt over her head and then shook her hair back and then sat in
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bir szck sylemesen bile sana bakmak beni mutlu eder." Kza kk bir bardak arap daha koyup, kendisinin- kini de doldurdu. "Byk bir srprizim var. Sana sylemedim deil mi?" dedi kz. "Nasl bir srpriz?" "ok basit ama ok karmak." "Syle." ............... "Hayr. Houna gidebilir ama belki de hi holanmazsn." "ok tehlikeli bir eye benziyor." . "Evet tehlikeli," dedi kz. "Ama bana bir ey sorma. zninle yukar, odaya gidiyorum." Gen adam hesab deyip iede kalan arab iti. Sonra o da yukar kt. Kzn giysileri katlanm, odadaki Van Gogh sandalyelerinden birinin zerine konmutu. Kendisi de zerine araf ekmi, yatakta onu bekliyordu. Salar yastn zerine dalmt ve gzleri glyordu. Adam araf kaldrd. "Merhaba sevgilim," dedi kz. "Yemek iyi miydi?" Arkasndan, kz adamn koluna yatm olarak yanya- na uzandlar. Mutlu ve yorgundular. Kzn, kafasn iki yana oynatarak yanam okadn hissediyordu. Salar ipek gibiydi. Denize ve gnee karn sertleme- miti. Sonra klz salarm, hareket ettike erkein yzn okayacak biimde ne dkerek gen adam nce yavaa ve yoklayarak sonra zevkle okamaya balad. "Beni seviyorsun deil mi?" dedi. Adam ban sallad ve kzn salarn pt. Sonra bam tutup kendisine doru evirerek kzn dudaklarn pt. . . "Oh," dedi kz. "Oh." Uzunca bir sre sonra birbirlerine smsk sarlm yatarken, "Beni olduum gibi mi seviyorsun? Emin misin?" diye sordu kz. "Evet," dedi adam. "Hem nasl." "nk deieceim." "Hayr," dedi adam. "Hayr. Deimeyeceksin." "Deieceim," dedi kz. "Senin iin. Kendim iin de. yle olmadn sylemeye kalkmayacam. Ama seni etkileyecek. yle olacana eminim ama sylememem gerek." "Srprizleri severim ama her eyin u anda olduu gibi olmasn istiyorum." "O zaman belki de yapmasam daha iyi olur," dedi kz. "zldm. yle gzel, tehlikeli bir srprizdi ki. Gnlerce dnp bu sabah karar vermitim." "Eer gerekten istediin bir eyse." "yle," dedi kz. "Ve yapacam. imdiye kadar yaptmz her ey houna gitti, yle deil mi?" "Evet." "Tamam." Kz yataktan inip ayaa kalkt. Uzun kahverengi bacaklar ve epey tedeki kumsalda mayosuz yzerken her taraf ayn oranda yanm gzel vcuduyla adamn karsnda durdu. Omuzlarm geriye atp enesini kaldrd ve kafasn sallayarak gr kumral salarm iki yana savurdu. Sonra salarnn tm ne gelip yzn rtecek biimde eildi. izgili tirt srtna geirip san arkaya savurdu ve sonra tuvalet masasnn aynasnn

faded blue rope-soled shoes. "I have to ride up to Aigues Mortes," she said. "Good," he said. "I'll come too." "No. I have to go alone. It's about the surprise." She kissed him goodbye and went down and he watched her mount her bicycle and go up the road riding smoothly and easily, her hair blowing in the wind. The afternoon sun was in the window now and the room was too warm. The young man washed and put on his clothes and went down to walk on the beach. He knew he should swim but he was tired and after he had walked along the beach and then along apath through the salt grass that led inland for a way he went back along the beach to the port and climbed up to the cafe. In the cafe he found the paper and ordered himself a fine a Veau because he felt empty and hollow from making love. They had been married three weeks and had come down on the train from Paris to Avignon with their bicycles, a suitcase with their town clothes, and a rucksack and a musette bag. They stayed at a good hotel in Avignon and left the suitcase there and had thought that they would ride to the Pont du Gard. But the mistral was blowing so they rode with the mistral down to Nmes and stayed there at the Imperator arid then had ridden down to Aigues Mortes still with the heavy wind behind them and then on to le Grau du Roi. They had been there ever since. It had been wonderful and they had been truly happy and he had not known that you could love anyone so much that you cared about nothing else and other things seemed inexistent. He had many problems when he married but he had thought of none of them here nor of writing nor of anything but being with this girl whom he loved and was married to and he did not have the sudden deadly darity that had always come after intercourse. That was gone. Now when they, had made love they would eat and drink and make love again. It was a very simple world and he had never been truly happy in any other. He thought that it must be the same with her and certainly she acted in that way but today there had been this thing about the change and the surprise. But maybe it would be a happy change and a good surprise. The brandy and water as he drank it and read the local paper made him look forward to whatever it was. This was the first time since they had come on the wedding trip that he had taken a drink of brandy or whiskey when they were not together. But he was not working and his only rules abot drinking were never to drink before or while he was working. It would be goodlo wor{Tai! TMFftef would come SoTn^'nugh as he well

iniyordu. Aynaya bakarak baru sallad. Sonra panta- lonunu giyip beline kemerini, ayama da solmu mavi espadrillerini geirdi. "Aigues Mortes'e gitmem gerek," dedi. "yi," dedi adam. "Ben de gelirim." "Hayr. Yalnz gitmem gerek. Srprizle ilgili." Kz, hoakal demek iin adam pt ve aa indi. Adam pencereden kzn bisikletine atlayp yolda rahat ve yumuak bir biimde pedal eviriini, salarnn rzgrda uuunu izledi. . Cama leden sonra gnei vuruyordu ve oda ok 'scak olmutu. Gen adam ykanp giyindi ve kumsalda yry yapmak iin aa indi. Yzmesinin daha iyi olacan biliyordu ama yorgundu. Kumsal boydan boya geip, kum bitkilerinin ortasmda alm bir patikadan biraz da ierilere doru yrdkten sonra yeniden deniz kysna dnp kumsal boyunca yryerek limana geldi ve kahveye kt. Kahvede gazeteyi blp kendisine bir fine a l'eau smarlad, nk sevimekten ii boalm, kupkuru kalm gibi hissediyordu kendi- ni. haftadr evliydiler. ki bisiklet, kentte giyilen trden elbiseleriyle dolu bir bavul, bir srt antas ve bir de bzgl antayla Paris'ten trene binip Avignon'a gelmilerdi. Avignon'da iyi bir otelde kalmlar, Pont du Gard'a kadar bisikletle gideceklerini dnerek bavulu orada brakmlard. Ama kuzeyden rzgr esmeye balam, onlar da rzgr arkalarna alp gneye, Ni- mes'e kadar inmiler, imperator Otelinde kalp tekrar gneye, Aigues Mortes'e, sonra da hl esmekte olan sert rzgrla birlikte Le Grau du Roi'ya kadar gelmilerdi. O gndr bu gndr de oradaydlar. Gerekten mutlu olduklar harika bir tatil olmutu. Adam, birini baka hibir eye aldrmayacak ve dier eyler gzne yokmu gibi grnecek kadar svmenin : olas olduunu o zamana kadar bilmiyordu. Evlendiinde birok sorunu vard ama burada, ne onlar ne yazlarn ne de baka bir eyi aklna getirmi, yalnzca sevdii ve evlendii bu kzla birlikte olmay dnmt. Sevimenin hemen ardndan gelen o ani ve lmcl aydnlanmay da artk yaamyordu. O duygu da yok olmutu. Artk sevitiklerinde yemek yiyor, iki iiyor, sonra yeniden seviiyorlard. ok yaln bir dnyayd ve bir baka dnyada hi bylesine mutlu olmamt. Kz iin de yle herhalde diye dnd. Gerek ten de yleymi gibi davranyordu ama bugn bu deime ve srpriz iini kartmt. Belki de gzel bir deiiklik ve tatl bir srpriz olacakt. Konyam yudumlayp yerel gazeteyi okurken srprizi sabrszlkla beklemeye balad. Balayma ktklarndan beri yalnz bana itii ilk ikiydi_bu;Amanaslolsaalmyordu:kikonusunda kendisine koyduu tek kural alrken ya da almaya balamadan nce imeme kuralyd. Yeniden almaya balamak ok iyi olacakt ama kendisinin de ok iyi bildii gibi onun da sras yaknda gelecekti. Bu konuda bencil davranmamay unutmamas ve kendi kendisini bir tr yalnzla mahkm etmenin pimanlk

the work, starting when they were as they were now. It never could start of course without the clarity and he wondered if she knew that and if that was why she drove beyond what they had for something new that nothing could break. But what could it be? They could not be held tighter together than they were now and there was no badness afterwards. There was only happiness and loving each other and then hunger and replenishing and starting over. He found that he had drunk the fine a I'eau and that it was getting late in the afternoon: He ordered another and started to concentrate on the paper. But the paper did not interest him asit should and he was looking out at the sea with late afternoon sun heavy on it when he heard her come into the cafe and say in her throaty voice, "Hello darling." She came quickly to the table and sat down and lifted her chin and looked at him with the laughing eyes arid the golden face with the tiny freckles. Her hair was cropped as short as a boy's. It was cut with no compromises. It was brushed back, heavy as always, but the sides were cut short and the ears that grew close to her head were clear and the tawny line of her hair was cropped close to her head and smooth and sweeping back. She turned her head and lifted her breasts and said, "Kiss me please." He kissed her and looked at her face and at her hair and he kissed her again. "Do you like it? Feel it how smooth. Feel it in back," she said. He felt it in back. "Feel on my cheek and feel in front of my ear. Run your fingers up at the sides." "You see," she said. "That's the surprise. I'm a girl. But now I'm a boy too and I can do anything and anything and anything." "Sit here by me," he said. "What do you want, brother?" "Oh thank you," she said. "I'll take what you're having. You see why it's dangerous, don't you?" "Yes, I see." "But wasn't I good to do it?" "Maybe." "Not maybe. No. I thought about it. I've thought all about it. Why do we have to go by everyone else's rules? We're us." "We were having a good time and I didn't feel any .rules." "Would you please just put your hand over it again." He did and he kissed her. "Oh you're sweet," she said. "And you do like it. I can feel and I can tell. You don't have to love it. Just like it at first." "I like it," he said. "And you have such a beautifully shaped head that it is very beautiful with the lovely bones of your face." "Don't you like it at the sides?" she asked. "It isn't faked or phony. It's a true boy's haircut and not from any beauty shop." "Who cut it?"

mek hi houna gitmiyordu. Elbette o aydnlanma duygusu olmadan almaya balayamazd. Belki de kz byle olduunu biliyordu ve onun iin u anda sahip olduklarnn tesine geip, hibir eyin bozamayaca bir yeniliin peine dmt. Ama ne olabilirdi bu? imdi olduundan daha fazla balanamazlard ki zaten birbirlerine. Hem sonradan kendilerini kt de hissetmiyorlard. Sadece mutluluk, sevime, alk, doyum ve baa dn vard. Fine Yeau' sunu bitirmi ve akamn yaklam olduunu farketti. Bir iki daha smarlayp dikkatini gazeteye vermeye alt. Ancak gazete ona yeteri kadar ilgin grnmedi. Kzn kahveye girip grtlaktan gelen sesiyle, "Merhaba sevgilim," dediini duyduunda, zerine batmakta olan gnein arlnn kt denize bakyordu. Kz abucak masaya gelip oturdu ve enesini kaldrp altn sars, illi yzndeki glen gzleriyle ona bakt. Salar bir olan ocuununki kadar ksa kesilmiti.Hi taviz vermemecesine. Geriye taranm olan salar her zamanki kadar gr grnyordu ama yanlan iyice ksaltlmt. Kafasna yapk olan kulaklar ortaya kmt ve ksack kumral salar, alundan geriye doru yaptrlm gibi duruyordu. Ban evirip gsn dikletirdi ve, "Ltfen p beni," dedi. Adam onu pp yzne ve salarna bakt, sonra tekrar pt. "Beendin mi? Elle bak, ne kadar yumuak. Arkasn da elle," dedi. Arkasna dokundu. "Yanama dokun, kulaklarmn nne. Yanlarda gezdir parmaklarn." "Grdn m?" dedi. "te srpriz buydu. Ben bir kzm. Ama imdi erkek de oldum ve istediim her eyi, her eyi, her eyi yapabilirim." "Yanma otur," dedi adam. "Ne iiyorsun arkada?" "O, saol/' dedi kz. "Senin itiinden olsun. imdi neden tehlikeli olduunu anlyorsun deil mi?" "Evet, arlyorum." "Ama iyi etmemi miyim?" "Belki." "Belki deil. Hayr. Dndm. ok dndm. Neden bakalarnn kurallaryla yaamak zorunda olalm? Biz biziz." "yi vakit geiriyorduk. Kurallara uyduumuzu far- ketmemitim." "Bir kez daha dokunsana ltfen." Dokundu ve kz pt. "Ah ok tatlsn," dedi kz. "Beendin deil mi? Hissediyorum, biliyorum. ok sevmek zorunda deilsin. Balang iin yalnzca beenmen yeter." "Beendim," dedi adam. "Kafann biimi yle gzel ki yznn gzelim kemik yapma ok iyi gitmi." "Yanlarn da beendin mi peki?" diye sordu kz. "Sahte olan hibir yan yok. Gerek bir olan ocuu tra. stelik gzellik salonundan kma da

yours. He was very nice and wasn't at all surprised. He wasn't worried at all; He said exactly like yours? And I said exactly. Doesn't it do anything to you, David?" "Yes," he said. "Stupid people Will think it is strange. But we must be proud. I love to be proud." "So do I," he said. "We'll .start being proud now." They sat there in the cafe and watched the reflection of the setting sun over the water and watched the dusk come to the town and they drank the fine a I 'eau. People came by the cafe without being rude to see the girl because they had been the only foreigners in the village and had been there now nearly three weeks and she was a great beauty and they liked her. Then there had been the big fish today and ordinarily there would have been much talk about that but this other was a big thing in the village too. No decent girls had ever had their hair cut short like that in this part of the country and even in Paris it was rare and strange and could be beautiful or could be very bad. It could mean too much or it could only mean showing the beautiful shape of a head that' could never be shown as well. They ate a steak for dinner, rare, with mashed potatoes and flageolets and a salad and the girl asked if they might drink Tavel. "It is a great wine for people that are in love," she said. She had always looked, he thought, exactly her age which was now twenty-one. He had been very proud of her for that. But tonight she did not look it. The lines of her cheekbones showed clear as he had never seen them before and she smiled' and her face was heartbreaking. | In the room it was dark with only a little light from outside. It was cool now with the breeze and the top sheet was gone from the bed. "Dave, you don't mind if we've gone to the devil, do you?" "No, girl," he said. "Don't call me girl." "Where I'm holding you you are a girl," he said. He held her tight around her breasts and he opened and closed his fingers feeling her and the hard erect freshness between his fingers. "They're just my dowry," she said. "The new is my surprise. Feel. No leave them. They'll be there. Feel my cheeks and the back of my neck. Oh it feels so wonderful and good and clean and new. Please love me David the way I am. Please understand and love me." He had shut his eyes and he could feel the long light weight of her on him and her breasts pressing against him and her lips on hi s. He lay there and felt something and then her hand holding him and searching lower and he helped with his hands and then lay back in the dark and did not think at all and only felt the weight and the strangeness inside and she said, "Now you can't tell who is who can you?" '. "No." "You are changing," she said. "Oh you are. You

diimi syledim. ok nazik bir adamd. Hi armad. Kayglanmad da. Aynsn m diye sordu. Aynsn dedim. Etkilenmedin mi David?" "Evet," dedi adam. "Aptal insanlar garip karlayacaklar. Ama biz gurur duymalyz. Gururlu olmay severim." "Ben de," dedi adam. "Artk gururlu olmaya balarz." Orada oturup batan gnein sudaki yanssn ve kasabaya alacakaranln bastrn izlediler ve fine al'eau itiler. nsanlar -kabalk etmemeye alarak kahveye kz grmeye geliyorlard, nk kydeki tek yabanclar onlard, hemen hemen haftadr oradaydlar ve kz ok gzeldi, onu ok beeniyorlard. Sonra bugn o koca balk olay da olmutu ve baka zaman olsa o konudan baka ey konuulmazd ama bu da kyller iin olduka byk saylabilecek bir olayd. Bu taraflarda ald banda hibir kz sam bylesine ksa kestirmemiti. Hatt Pariste bile az rastlanan ve yadrganan bir eydi bu ve ok gzel ya da ok kt olabilirdi. Birok anlam kartlabilirdi bundan, ya da gzel bir kafann, baka trl grnmeyen gzelliini gstermek iin yaplm olabilirdi. Akam yemeinde az pimi biftekle patates presi, brlce ve salata yediler. Kz Tavel imeyi nerdi. "Tam aklara gre bir arap," dedi. Adam kzn hep tam yan, ki imdi yirmi birdi, gstermi olduunu dnyordu. Byle grnd iin gurur duymutu. Oysa bu akam yan gstermiyordu. Elmack kemikleri daha nce hi grmedii kadar belirginlemiti. Kz glmsedi. Kzn yzne bakmak iini burkuyordu gen adanun. Daridan azck k alan oda karanlkt. Gece, esintiyle serinlemiti .ve'yatan-zerindeki pike yoktu. "Dave, deimemize bozulmuyorsun deil mi?" "Yok, kz," dedi adam. "Kz deme bana." "Elimin altodaki kz olduunu sylyor ama," dedi adam. Kzn gslerinden smsk tutuyordu. Parmaklarn ap kapayarak gslerini okuyor, ularn parmaklarnn arasnda sertletiini hissediyordu. "Onlar benim eyizim," dedi kz. "Srprizim ise yenilik. Dokunsana. Hayr onlara deil. Naslsa duruyorlar onlar. Yanaklarma dokun sen, enseme. Oh, yle harika, yle iyi, temiz ve deiik geliyor ki. Ltfen beni olduum gibi sev David. Ltfen beni anla ve sev." Adam gzlerini kapatmt. zerinde kzn uzun, zayf bedenini, gsne dayanan gslerini ve kendi dudaklaryla birleen dudaklarn hissediyordu. ylece yatarken bir ey hissetti, sonra kzn kendisini tutan ve dahaaalara inenelini. Eliyle ona yardm etti .ve. karanlkta hibir ey dnmeden, yalnzca arl ve iindeki gariplii duyumsayarak yatt. "Artk kimin kim olduu belli deil, deil mi?" dedi kz. "Evet, deil." "Deiiyorsun," dedi kz. "Oh, deiiyorsun.

You're my beautiful lovely Catherine- You were so good to change. Oh thank you, Catherine, so much. Please understand. Please know and understand. I'm going to make love to you forever." At the end they were both dead and empty but it was not over. They lay side by side in the dark with their legs touching and her head was on his arm. The moon Jiad risen and there was a little more light in the room. She ran her hand exploringly down over his belly without looking and said, "You don't think I'm wicked?" "Of course not. But how long have you thought about that?" "Not all the time. But quite a lot. You were so wonderful to let it happen." The young man put his arms around the girl and held her very tight to him and felt her lovely breasts against his chest and kissed her on her dear mouth. He held her close and hard and inside himself he said goodbye and then goodbye and goodbye. "Let's lie very still and quiet and hold each other and not think at all," he said and his heart said goodbye Catherine goodbye my lovely girl goodbye and good luck and goodye.

imekle ne kadar iyi ettin. ok saol Catherine. Ltfen anla. Ltfen bil ve anla. Sonsuza dek sevieceim seninle." Bittiinde ikisi de bombo ve lgnd ama daha sonuna gelmemilerdi. Karanlkta, kz adamn koluna yatm olarak, bacaklar birbirine deerken yan yana uzandlar. Ay ykselmiti ve oda biraz daha aydnlkt. Kz yzne bakmadan elini adamn karnnda gezdiriyordu. "Kt biri olduumu dnmyorsun deil mi?" diye sordu. "Tabii ki haya. Ama ne zamandr dnyordun bunu?" "Her dakika deilse bile epey dndm. zin ver- _ diin iin saol." Gen adam kollarn kzn bedenine dolayp skca sarld. Gsnn zerinde onun gzel gslerinin basksn hissediyordu. Kzn gzelim dudaklarn pt. Ona smsk sarlrken iinden hoakal diyordu, ho- akal, hoakal. "Hi kprdamadan sessizce yatp birbirimize sarlalm ve hibir ey dnmeyelim," derken kza iinden hoakal Catherine diyordu. Hoakal benim tatl sevgilim, hoakal. yi anslar. Hoakal.

8 2

HEMINGWAY AND THE PALE CAST OF THOUGHT*

HEMINGWAY VE DNCENN SOLGUN MASKES*

intellectual" writer has, in one formulation or another, echoed through some decades of criticism and, by dint of much repetition, has emerged as a critical commonplace. It is a characteristic often observed of commonplaces that they are much asserted and little examined. By a tacit gentlemen's agreement they are granted a sort of diplomatic immunity to search and scrutiny, and not the least consequence of this is that they may smuggle into critical discussions meanings which their users neither recognize nor intend. Further, their use often conveys to the unwary a greater sense of unanimity and certainty than may in truth exist. Thus, those who glory in Hemingway's "antiintellectualism" and those who deplore it seem equally to affirm it, to endow it with all the solidity of factV There is, I believe, one very important sense in which Hemingway's work is clearly antiintellectual, and I wish to consider . this in some detail. There are a number of other senses in which this charge is either false or else trivial and irrelevant. I shall dismiss these latter briefly, but with the cautionary note that, for all their flimsiness, they have been the central props in many a discussion of Hemingway's work, and their influence remains out of all proportion to their validity. For those critics who cannot resist the seductions of the biographical approach, Hemingway's private life affords many examples of anti-intellectual behavior. His celebrated quarrel with Max Eastman, his declared contempt for Proust and Mann,-the color and violence- of his recreationseach has added its brush stroke to the portrait of the artist as anti-intellectual, and the hirsute barrel-chest, the grizzled pre-beatnik beard, the scars of old wounds have likewise been pressed into the service of the legend. The superficiality of, this "evidence" and its irrelevance to any reasoned judgment of Hemingway's work are so apparent that all who run may read, and I do not

THE charge that Hemingway is an "anti-

HEMINGWAY'in anti- entellektel bir yazar olduu Su-: lamas deiik biimlerde getirilmi, yllar boyu yaplan eletirilerde srekli yinelendii iin basmakalp bir eletiri olup kmtr. Tm basmakalp savlarn ortak noktas ok sylenmeleri ama az incelenmeleridir. Sze dklmeyen bir centilmenlik anlamasyla bunlara bir tr dokunulmazlk verilmekte, aratnlmamakta, ince- lenmemektedirler; bunun doal bir sonucu olarak da eletirel tartmalara bu szleri syleyenlerin farknda olmadklar, sylemeyi amalamadklar anlamlar "sokmaktadrlar. Dahas, kullanlmalar, dikkatsiz kiilere gerekte var . olandan daha fazla oybirlii ve kesinlik duygusu vermektedir. Bylece Hemingvvay'in "anti- entellekteUiini", onu beenenlerin de kmseyenlerin de ayn lde vurgulamakta ve kesinletirmekte ldklar grlmektedir. Kanmca Hemingway'in yaptlarn aka anti-entellektel olarak grebileceimiz ok nemli bL' a vardr ve ben bunu ayrntl olarak incelemek istiyorum. Birok baka adan bakldnda bu sulama yanl, nemsiz ve geersizdir. Bunlar bir yana brakacam ama btn zayflklarna karn Hemingway'in sanatnn incelenmesinde temel nokta haline geldilderini ve etkilerinin geerliliklerinden ok daha fazla olduunu belirten bir uyarda bulunarak. Biyografik yaklamn ekiciliinden kurtulamayan eletirmenler iin Hemingway'in zel yaamnda birok anti-entellektel davran vardr. Max Eastman ile yapt nl kavga, Proust ve Mann'dan holanmadn ak-aksylemesi, renkli ve iddet eilimli elencelerin hepsi de sanatnn anti-entellektel portresine biim veren fra darbeleridir; iri, kll gs, beatnik akm ncesi kr sakal ve eski yaralarn izleri de efsanenin olumasmda kullanlmlardr. Bu "kantlarn" yzeysellii ve Hemingway'in yaptlar zerinde yaplacak saduyulu bir incelemeye uygun dmedikleri apak ortadadr. Onun iin ayn konuyu yeniden gndeme getirmek istemiyorum. Ancak

8 3

propose to belabor a dead horse. Attempts are still made to saddle the old jade and flog it into the arena of criticism, but the beast's ribs all show, and in such blatant displays as these mere recognition suffices-for refutation. More persuasive, and hence more frequently encountered, are those arguments in which the facts of Hemingway's private life are discreetly manipulated to give coloring and tonality to a discussion purporting to be of the works themselves, usually with copious parallels drawn, or Hinted, between the works arid the biographical data. Not infrequently the question of "primitivism" is adroitly raised, and we are reminded that Hemingway has portrayed, as Edgar Johnson puts it, "simple and ignorant people: prize fighters, matadors, boys, jockeys, whores, bartenders, waiters." But the devoted craftsman whose work was blue-penciled by Pound and Stein was not aesthetically a primitive at all,1 and his characters, often simple, ignorant, and socially marginal types to be sure, can easily be matched in these respects by many of those of Dostoevsky, Dickens, and Zola. Basically correct, the charge that Hemingway is an anti-intellectual (in a sense to be defined shortly) rests not upon his personal life and character, nor upon the characters in his books, but upon a total attitude which shapes and controls those characters, limits their experience and their responses to it, and emerges finally as a more or less consciously held position in which mind and imagination are deprecated and the qualities of animal courage and. endurance ("holding tight") are extolled. In this, Hemingway by no means stands outside the historical currents of his time. Except for the quite recent prominence of the "Ox bridge" analytical school, the philosophies of this century, especially as they have filtered into popular thought and literature, have stressed qualities other than those congenial to a rational humanism. Cases in point are Bergsonian intiiitionism, which deprecates mind as an unfortunate limiting agent; pragmatism, which has its locus in action and the results of action; the once popular crude Wat- soriian behaviorism and its more refined replacement, positivism; phenomenology, with its abdication of all interpretation and evaluation; and existentialism, with its concern for certain emotional states. In Hemingway's writing we can identify the fragments of now one, now another of these systems of thought. Witness the existential despair of "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place," or the extreme, and extremely naive, ethical pragmatism of such an assertion as, "I know only that what is moral is what you feel good

bu kantlar hl eletiri arenasnda kullanma giriiminde bulunanlar var. Oysa bu gibi saknmasz gsterilerde ileri srlen savlarn zayfl grlr grlmez anlalr. Daha inandrc olan ve dolaysyla ok daha fazla karmza kan tartmalar, Hemingway'in zel yaamndaki gereklerin yaptlarn kendileri hakknda olduu sylenen tartmalara renk ve ton vermek iin st kapal bir biimde ileri srlen, genellikle biyografik verilerle yaptlar arasnda kurulan ya da bulunduu ima edilen ok fazla sayda koutluklarn : kurulduu tartmalardr, "tikellik" sorunu ounluk ustalkla gndeme getirilmekte ve Edgar Johnson'm syledii gibi Hemingway'in, "basit ve cahil kiileri, boksrleri, matadorlar, ocuklar, jokeyleri, fahieleri, barmenleri, garsonlar" anlatt bize anmsatlmaktadr. Ama yaptlar Pound ve Stein tarafndan eletirilen usta romana estetik adan hi de ilkel deildi ve genellikle basit, cahil ve toplumun alt tabakasmdan olan kiileri bu adan Dostoyevski'nin, Dickens'm ve Zola'mn kiileriyle kolaylkla e tutulabilir. 1 Hemingway'e yneltilen anti-entellektellik sulamas, (hangi anlamda olduu biraz sonra aklanacaktr) temelde doru olmakla birlikte zel yaam ve kiilii ya da romanlarndaki kiileri zerine deil, bu kiilere biim veren, onlar denetleyen, deneyimlerini ve onlarn bu deneyimlere gsterdikleri tepkileri snrlayan yaklam zerine kurulmutur ve bu yaklam zihnin ve dgcnn onaylanmad, hayvansal yreklilik ve dayanklln ("sk durmak") yceltildii hemen hemen bilinli olarak taknlm bir tavr biiminde ortaya kmaktadr. Hemingway bu bakmdan kesinlikle zamannn tarihsel akmlar dnda deildir. Son zamanlarda nem kazanan Ox-bridge zmselleme okulu dnda, bu yzyln felsefeleri, zellikle yaygm dn ve yazma szdka akla insancla uygun dmeyen nitelikler zerinde durmulardr. Sz konusu felsefeler zihni zavall, kstlayc bir ara olarak niteleyen Bergsoncu sezgicilik; odak noktas eylem ve eylemin sonular olan yararclk; bir zamanlar yaygn olan Watsoncu kaba davranlk ile onun yerini alan ve ondan daha ince olan olguculuk; tm yorum ve deerlendirmeyi reddeden olaybilim; ve belli baz ruh durumlar ile ilgilenen varoluuluktur. Hemingway'in yaptlarnda bazen u bazen bu dnce sisteminden paralar grebiliriz. "Temiz, yi Aydnlatlm Bir Yer"deki varoluu umutsuzlua ve "Bildiim tek ey ahlaki olann sonradan kendinizi rahat hissettiiniz ey, ahlaki olmayann ise sonradan kendinizi rahatsz hissettiiniz ey olduudur" sznn ar, ar derecede iten,

THESE,

though little more than straws in


BUNLAR pek nemli olmamakla birlikte, yine de

the wind, nevertheless suggest a writer who finds congen-

youn duygusal durumlarda hoa giden konular bulan, ahlaka, duygularn kesinlikten uzak, dolambal

ial subject matter in intense emotional states, who approaches ethics by the rather meandering and uncertain path of the feelings, and who, using language to fix' and define an objective reality, does so not because that reality is to be matter for subsequent intellectual investigation, but because, thus fixed arid defined, it will generate an aesthetically valued emotion, for what Hemingway "was working very hard to try to get," he tells us, was "the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion" that he wanted to communicate,' through his stories.3 Now concern for emotion is by no means suspect in itself, nor is it necessarily incompatible with a highly intellectual temper, but in Hemingway's work, emotion plays a role scarcely paralleled in the works of any other contemporary writer. In most fiction, a character's actions either emerge directly from his emotions, which they unambiguously express, or, more interestingly, action is emotion whose expression is modified by external pressures or by the character's recognition of values and goals that must take precedence over his emotions. Oversimplified as this statement is, it will yet serve to make clear the radical contrast between the traditional relationship of action and emotion and that prevailing in Hemingway's fiction, for With Hemingway there is a profound discontinuity between emotion and action. Action is not the outward thrust.of emotion which, however much modified, gives the stamp of integrity to the character's expression of himself in his world. The crucial and distinctive action in Hemingway's fiction is directed inward; it is repressive, not expressive, and it functions primarily as a means for containing and making bearable emotion of peculiarly destructive sort. To accomplish this, the action need not be violent and painful, though often it is. An enormous concentration on the trivial and routinegoing fishing, having a drink will do just as well. What matters is the total absorptive power of the action, its capacity for temporarily annihilating or insulating the attention. This accounts for the remarkably disturbing stillness of the surface of those stories in which "nothing seems to happen." It is the stillness of a powerful spring drawn to the breaking point, so that release or the slightest additional tension must equally result in violence; and the reader, sensing this perilous equilibrium in which all the resources of the protagonist are stretched to their limits, knows that disaster can be staved off for only so long, and that already time has nearly run out. The relation of all this to our, view of Hemingway as an anti-intellectual writer isnot far to seek. The normal triad of thought,. emotion, and action is reduced in Hemingway's work by the deliberate excision of the most typically human and civilized member of the three, and in the fictional world that results, the characters continually require the opiate of action to dull their awareness of emotions that fester inwardemotions, we should

yoluyla yaklaan ve dili nesnel bir gereklii saptayp tanmlamak iin kullanan ama bunu o gereklik sonradan zihinsel bir aratrma konusu olaca iin deil de, saptanp tanmlandnda estetik adan deerli bir duygu uyandraca iin yapan bir yazar olduunu dndrr; nk Hemingway bize ykleriyle anlatmaya alt eyin, "duygular yaratan hareket ve gerek zinciri" olduunu sylemektedir.3 ' Duygulara duyulan ilgi tek bama kesinlikle yanl deildir, he de olduka entellektel bir yaradla uygun dmeyecei sylenebilir ama Hemingway'in yaptlarnda duygu herhangi bir baka ada yazarnyaptlarnda ok az ulalan dzeyde rol oynar. ou romanda, kiinin eylemleri ya dorudan doruya bu eylemlerin gsterdii duygulardan kaynaklanr ya da, daha da ilginci, eylem, d basklarla ya da kiinin deer ve hedeflerinin duygularndan nce gelmesi gerektiini kabullenmesiyle biimlenen duygudur. Olduka basite indirgenmi olmasna karn, bu anlatm Hemingway'in romanlarndaki eylem ve duygu ile geleneksel anlamda eylem ve duygu arasndaM kkl kartl aklamaya yardmc olacaktr nk Hemingway'de eylem ile duygu arasnda ok derin blnmeler vardr. Eylem, ne kadar deiik biimlerde grnrlerse grnsnler, kiinin kendi dnyasnda kendim ifade etme biimine btnlk kazandran duygularn da vurumu deildir . Hemingway'in romanlarnda nemli ve belirgin olan eylem ie yneliktir^ aklayc deil bast- rcdr ve ykc bir duygunun dar kmasn engelleme ve onu katlanabilir duruma getirme arac olarak g-, rey yapar. Bunu salamas iin eylemin iddetli ve ac verici olmasna gerek yoktur ama ounlukla yledir. Bala kmak, iki imek gibi nemsiz ve her giiri yap- lan eyler zerinde, dikkatleri byk lde toplamak da ayn etkiyi yaratr. nemli olan eylemin ilgiyi baka yne ekmesi, dikkati geici olarak yok etmesi ya da bir noktada tutmasdr. Bu da "hibir gelime Olmuyormu gibi grnen" o yklerin grnrdeki durgunluklarnn rahatsz ediciliini aklamaktadr. Bu, kopma noktasna kadar gerilmi gl bir yayn, braklmas halinde ya da en ufak bir ek baskyla iddete dnecek olan durgunluudur ve kahramann gcnn kopma noktasna kadar zorland bu tehlikeli dengeyi duyumsayan okuyucu felaketin ancak o kadarck bir sr e iin geciktirilebileceini ve zamann neredeyse bitmek zere olduunu bilir. Hemingway'in anti-entellektel bir yazar olmasyla bunun arasndaki ilikiyi uzaklarda aramaya gerek yoktur. Dnce, duygu ve eylem ls Hemingway'in yaptlarnda bu nn en insancl ve uygar olanmn bilinli olarak kartlmasyla ikiye indirilir-ye yaratlan dnyada kiiler, iten ie zehirleyen (yalnzca dnceyle alp temizlenebilecek olan) duygularn younluunu kreltmek iin srekli olarak eylemin uyuturuculuunu ararlar. te burada

8 5

much less is it a joyous Lawrencian affirmation of the dark powers of blood and sex as against the dry light of the mind. It is instead an act of calculated retrenchment, involving a deliberate refusal to admit the free play of the higher intellectual facultiesreason, speculative thought, and imaginative visionas legitimate guides for conduct and as potential means for clarifying, ordering, and enriching human experience.4 II

hele Lawrence'in yapt gibi zihnin kuru karsnda kann ve cinselliin karanlk glerinin okuyla onaylanmas hi deildir. Daha ok, davranlara klavuzluk eden insan deneyimine aklk getirme, dzenleme ve zenginletirme arac olabilen akl, kurgusal dnce ve yaratc gr gibi daha yce entellektel yeteneklerin zgrce kullanlmasn bilerek reddeden llm bir sadeliktir.4 II

HEMINGVVAY bu noktaya, baz yazarlarn soTHIS was not a position that Hemingway arrived nunda kabullenie ya da umutsuzlua aama at gradually, as some writers, by stages, work aama vardklar gibi, yava varmamtr. Antitheir way to some final affirmation or despair. His entellektellii yazdklarndan kartlmam, anti-intellectu- alism was brought to his writing, yazlarna kendisi tarafndan sokulmutur ve yllar not discovered through it, and far from getike bu yaklam brakmak ya da abandoning or moderating this attitude as the yumuatmak yerine, Hemingway bu konuda ok years passed, he became both more explicit daha ak ve srarl olmutur. and .more insistent in proclaiming it. As early as 1925, with In Our Time, Hemingway In Our Timela birlikte, Hemingway dnmemenin ne had discovered how important it is not. to think. kadar nemli olduunu kefetmiti. Burada yer The story "Big Two-Hearted River," included in alan "Big Two-Hearted River" yks oktandr this volume, has long been recognized as tam bir Hemingway yks olarak kabul quintessential Hemingway, and like much of his edilmektedir ve en iyi yaptlarnn ou gibi anlam best work it communicates largely through sezdirme yolu ile iletmektedir. Bu nedenle yk, implication. Considerable latitude therefore tam olarak ne hakknda olduu konusundaki gr exists^ for difference of opinions as to precisely ayrlklarnabyk zgrlk salamaktadr. Ancak what it is the story implies. The reader cannot, okuyucu bataklk ve . Nick Adams' orada however, be deaf to the sinister resonance of the bekleyen "trajik balk av" hakkndaki gndermelereferences to the swamp and the "tragic fishing" rin uursuz yanklarna kulak tkayamaz, ne de that awaits Nick Adams there, nor can he ignore "[Nick'in] bataklkta balk avlayaca daha birok the dosing statement that "there were plenty of gn vard" diyen biti cmlesini grmezlikten days coming when [Nick] could fish the swamp." gelebilir. Belli belirsiz varlklaryla yknn dzenli The shadows that lie just beyond the close of the ayrntlarn belirginletiren ve olay ile nesne story are not the only ones that by their (implied) arasndaki snrlar ola-- bildiince incelten presence set in sharp relief the ordered detail of glgeler, yalnzca yknn sona erdii noktann the story and put the finest possible edge on the hemen ardnda yatanlarla snrl deildir. nde de contours of event and thing. There is an glgelik bir alan vardr ve kahraman buradan antecedent area of shadow as well, out of which yknn parlak yazdnm odana kar. Bir the hero moves into the bright midsummer focus buluttan daha byk olmayabilir, hatta belki "bir of this story. It may be no more than a cloud, "no insanm elinden byk olmayabilir," ama oradadr bigger than a man's hand," perhaps, but it is ve ondan kap kurtulmak rahatlatcdr. yknn there, and it is a relief to escape it. "Nick was bamda "Nick mutluydu" denir ve hemen happy," we are told at the beginning of the story, arkasndan gelen tmce bunun nedenini anlatr. and the very next sentence tells us why. "He felt "Her eyi, dnme gereksinimini, yazma he had left everything behind, the need for gereksinimini, dier gereksinimleri geride thinking, the need to write, other needs. It was all brakm olduunu hissediyordu. Hepsi geride back of him." But of course it will not remain back kalmt." Ama doal olarak, orada kalmayacaktr. of him. The end of the story leaves no doubt on yknn sonu bu adan hibir kuku brakmyor. that score, and furthermore "it," the dark cluster Daha da tesi, "hepsi," yani karanlk gereksinim or clot of needs, foremost of which is the need for kmesi, en bata da dnce gereksinimi, bir thinking, threatens at one point to intrude and noktada ortaya kp Nick'in tinsel tatilini cast its shadow upon Nick's moral holiday. glgelemekle tehdit eder. The context of this intrusion is important. It Bu ortaya kn balam nemlidir. Birinci comes at the end of the first day, before the gnn sonunda balk av balamadan nce, fishing begins and before the wilderness has had yabanllk, Nick kendini geride brakmak istedii time fully to isolate Nick from all the things he btn her eyden sowanted to leave behind. Nick has

8 6

pitched camp and had supper, and now he is making coffee, the last thing he will do before turning in for the night. Making coffee calls up memories of someone named Hopkins, and for two full paragraphs a writer justly noted for economy and highly selective detail allows his protagonist to reminisce about Ms relationship with Hopkins. The relationship had been close: "He had once argued about everything with Hopkins," and it had apparently been affectionate as well, for deliberately arid wen sentimentallyNick makes the coffee just as Hopkins always did: "He would not let it steep in the pot at all. Not the first cup. It should be straight Hopkins all the way. Hop deserved that." But Hopkins struck it rich and went away, though promising to come back: "They were all going fishing again next summer. ... He would get a yacht and they would all cruise along the north shore of Lake Superior." But for whatever reasons, never known, the promise was not kept, and "they never saw Hopkins again." By this point in the reminiscing, the coffee was ready:
Nick drank the coffee, the coffee according to Hopkins. The coffee was bitter. Nick laughed. It made a good ending to the story. His mind was starting to work. He knew he could choke it because he was tired enough.5 .

yutlamaya tam olarak zaman bulamadan gelir. Nick kampm kurmu ve akam yemeini yemitir, yatmadan nce son olarak kahve yapmaktadr. Kahve Nick'e Hopkins adl birisini anmsatr ve sz uzatmamakla ve ayrntlar semede ok dikkatli olmakla hakl bir ne sahip olan yazar, tam iki paragraf boyunca kahramannn Hopkins'le olan ilikisini anmsamasna izin verir. Yakn bir iliki olmutur bu: "Bir zamanlar Hopkins ile her konuda tartrd." Ayn zamaruja bt iliki- r nin sevgi zerine kurulmu olduu da aktr rik bilinli ve duygusal bir biimdeNick kahveyi Hop- kins'in her zaman piirdii gibi piirir: "Demlenmeye brakmayacakt. Hele ilk fincanda. Batan sona Hop- kins'in yapt gibi olmal. Hop bunu haketti." Ama Hopkins zengin olmu ve geri dneceine sz vererek gitmitir: "Gelecek yaz yine hepsi bala kacaklard.... Bir yat satn alacakt ve hepsi birlikte Superior glnn kuzey kylarnda dolaacaklard." Ama hangi nedenledir bilinmez, sz yerine getirilmemitir: "Bir daha Hopkins'i grmemilerdi." Anmsamann burasnda kahve pimitir:
Nick kahveyi, Hopkins usul kahveyi, iti. Kahve acyd. Nick gld. ykye gzel bir son olmutu bu. Zihni ahmaya balyordu. Zihnini boabileceini biliyordu nk olduka yorgundu.5 "

It is quite clear that the statement that Nick's mind was starting to work is by no means irrelevant at this point, nor does it cut violeritly across the line of the story Indeed, it is the line of the story, and it flows by both an intellectual and an emotional logic directly out of the events that precede it. Neither Cowley nor Young seems to have noticed this. The former speaks rather vaguely of Nick's trying to escape from "nightmares or v.realities that have become a nightmare,"6 and : the latter Observes that Nick is "desperately protecting his mind against whatever it is that he is escaping."' But there is no need to say "whatever it is," for the text makes it plain enough that Nick is trying to suppress certain fully dramatized bitter memories that end iri bitter laughter. And the bitter cup, the gospel according to Hopkins, is nothing less than the age-old draught of loss, betrayal, and a broken promise. It is the remembrance of these things that stirs heavily within him, like a powerful motor beginning to turn over. These are the wounds that ache as the night closes in, and Nick has come young to his share of them.8 Two further points should be made about this specific passage. One concerns the relationship established there between thought and action; the other concerns the nature of thought itself, and the limitations Hemingway places upon it both here and in the rest of his fiction.'TolaketheseyoiHtsin^rderrNick'smiridstarts working, but he knows he can choke it because he is tired. Even at the beginning of his career, in his first major book, Hemingway opposes the thrust of thought with the counter-thrust of action: carrying a heavy pack for miles uphill on a hot day, pitching camp, stowing your gear, awaysheer, draining physical activitythis is the great

Nick'in zihninin ahmaya baladn bildiren cmlenin bu noktada kesinlikle yersiz olmad olduka ak, yknn genel izgisinin de bu tmceyle kesildii sylenemez. Aslnda yknn genel izgisi zaten bu- dur ve hem duygusal ve hem de zihinsel bir rhantk ile dorudan doruya nceki olaylardan kmtr. Ne Cowley ne de Young bunun farkna varmlardr. Cowley olduka belirsiz bir dille Nick'in "karabasanlardan ya da... karabasana dnm olan gereklerden"6 kamak istediini syler. Young ise Nick'in "kat ey her ne ise ondan zihriini korumak iin umutsuzca abaladn"7 ileri srer. Ancak "her ne ise" demeye gerek yoktur nk metin, Nick'in tm ayrntlaryla anlatlan ve ac bir kahkaha ile sona eren baz ac anlar bastrmaya altn aka gstermektedir. Hopkins'e gre gerek olan fincann iindeki ac ikidir kaybn, ihanetin, tutulmayan szlerin ac ikisi. Gl bir motorun almaya balamas gibi iinde huzursuzluk yaratan ite bu eylerin anmsanmasdr. Gece bastrrken szlamaya balayan ite bu yaralardr ve Nick payna denleri yeni yeni tatmaya balamtr.8 Elimizdeki bu para hakknda iki noktaya daha deinmek gerekir. Biri/dnce ile eylem arasnda kurulan ilikiyi, dieri ise dncenin nitelii ile Hemingway'in-bu-nitelieburadavedieryaptlarmdagetir dii kstlamay ilgilendirmektedir. Bu noktalar srasyla ele alrsak: Nick'in zihni almaya balar ama yorgun olduu iin onu durdurabileceini bilir. Daha yazarlnn banda, ilk nemli yaptnda bile Hemingway dncenin itiine eylemin kar itiiyle kar koyar: Scak bir gnde ar bir ykle tepelerde millerce yrmek, kamp kurmak, malzemeyi toplamak hepsi de insan gsz brakan bedensel hareket
87

the primary theme of action, which remained unchanged, and which was present from the first. It remains only to note that the mental activity which is stifled in this episode is not that of reason and speculative thought. What Nick Adams is struggling against pre-eminently is recollection, the recall of past and hence unalterable experience with its charge of unalterable pain. The words "thought" and "thinking" do not occur here, but if I may anticipate my evidence, the activity Nick tries to chokeis precisely what Hemingway elsewhere labels "thinking." "To think," in Hemingway's lexicon, has two primary meanings. One is to ' remember; the other to worry. Whenever we find one of his characters struggling not to think, the text can.in- variably be glossed with one or the other of these meanings. If this is correct, and I believe that subsequent examples will confirm it, then we could ask for no more damning evidence of the anti-intellectual bias that characterizes Hemingway's fiction. In effect, Hemingway wipes out the distinction between thought and emotion and makes of thought only a subspecies of unpleasant emotion, for both worry and that sort of memory which the Hemingway hero tries to repress are characterized by ineffectual preoccupation with circumstances which cannot be altered and by an accompanying inner distress and pain. Small wonder that the protagonist flees from such "thought" to the bright fields of danger, where he can at least encounter the immediacies of sensation and deed! But nowhere in Hemingway's work does there glimmer even the faintest suggestion that one's life can be ordered by thought, or that it is at all desirable to attempt such an ordering. No generous or comprehensive notion of the place of thought in human affairs emerges from his work. Thought is always the wound, never the physician. Practical thought, the choice and supervision of shrewdly calculated trains of action that lead to a concrete goal, is abundantly present in Hemingway's fiction. What is lacking is any parallel in the realm of speculative thought. Significantly and characteristically, the Hemingway hero lacks the intellectual resources to achieve a distance from his suffering, to contemplate it, and to learn from it something fundamental about himself. He is thus condemned always to relive his experience, without ever mastering either it or its lessons. For Whom the Bell Tolls, involving war, love, Spain, and deathall things close to Hemingway's rogue- male heartmarks in various ways a terminus in its author's career. With the completion of this novel, his significant contribution to American fiction was behind him. His most memorable characters had been created, his typical themes had been discovered and explored, and his style, lean and a bit staccato in the beginning, had, without losing its old virtues, achieved a broader range of effects. There remained ahead of him . only the overvalued and too heavily symbolic tale The Old Man and the Sea, the justly condemned Across the River and into the

bandan beri varolan ana eylem temas zerine eitlemelerden baka bir ey deildir. Bu ykde bastrlan zihinsel etkinliin, akl ve kurgusal dncenin etkinlii olmadn da sylemek gerekir. Her eyden nce Nick Adams'n kar koyduu ey anlardr, gemite kald iin deitirilmesi olanaksz aclarla ykl, deitirilmesi olanaksz deneyimlerin anlar. "Dnce" ve "dnme" szckleri burada gemez ama, kantlarm daha soira yazdklarndan gsterebilirsem, Nick'in durdurmaya alt etkinlik kesinlikle Hemingway'in baka yerlerde "dnme" adn verdii etkinliktir. Hemingway'in szlnde "dnmek" eyleminin iki nemli anlam vardr. Biri anmsamak, dieri kayglanmak. Ne zaman kiilerden birini drmemeye alrken grsek metnin her yan bu anlamlardan biri ya da bryle doludur. Eer bu doruysa ve inanyorum ki biraz sonra verilecek rnekler doruluunu kantlayacaktr, o zaman Heming- way'in yaptlarnda bulunan antientellektel eilime daha gzel bir kant isteyemeyiz. Sonuta, Heming- ; way dnce ve duygu arasndaki tm ayrm yok etmekte ve dnceyi tatsz duygularn sadece bir alt tr yapmaktadr nk hem kaygnn hem de Hemingway kahramannn bastrmaya alt o tr bellein zellikleri, deitirilemeyecek koullarla uramada baarsz olmak ve bu baarszl izleyen znt ve aadr. Kahramann bu tr "dnce"den en azndan heyecan ve eylemin gerektirdikleriyle kar karya kalaca tehlike dolu aydnlk blgelere kamasna amamak gerek. Ancak Hemingway'in yaptlarnn hibirinde kiinin yaamnn dnce ile dzenlenebilecei ya da byle bir dzenlemenin istenilen bir ey olduu yolunda en kk bir inan prlts bile yoktur. Yaptlarnda dncenin insan ilikilerinde yeri konusunda kapsaml bir kavram bulunmaz. Dnce her zaman ac verir, hi deva olmaz. Hemingway'in yaptlarnda klgsal dnce, zekice hesaplanm ve somut bir hedefe ynelik eylemlerin seimi ve denetlenmesi oka bulunur. Olmayan, kurgusal dnce boylamnda herhangi bir koutluktur. Anlaml ve tipik bir biimde Hemingway kahraman, zerinde dnmek ve ondan kendisi hakknda nemli bir eyler renmek iin ektii acdan uzaklamasn salayacak zihinsel kaynaklardan yoksundur. Bylelikle, hibir zaman ne deneyimin kendisinden ne de sonularndan ders almadan, deneyimini tekrar tekrar yaamaya mahkum edilmektedir. Hemingway'in sevdii eyler olan sava, ak, Ispanya'y, ve lm anlatan anlar Kimin in alyor birka ynden onun yazarlk yaamnn sonunu belirlemektedir. Bu romann tamamlanmasyla onun Amerikan romanna nemli katklar geride kalmt. En unutulmaz kahramanlar yaratlm, tipik temalar kefedilmi ve incelenmi ve balangta yaln ve kesik kesik olan slubu, eski zelliklerini kaybetmeden daha geni etkiler yaratabilmiti. nnde, gereinden fazla deer biilen ve ar derecede sembolik olan htiyar Adam ve Deniz ve hakl olarak ktlenen

in its abundance and in its forthrightness of statement. As early as the eighth page of the novel Hemingway begins to hammer at the dangers of thought. Golz, the genera] who sends Robert Jordan on his mission, says to Jordan: "I never think at all. Why should I? I am General Sovietique. I never think. Do not try to trap me into thinking." But it is not only Soviet generals who regard thinking as a trap to be avoided. During the conversation, Jordan finds himself thinWng about the attack which will come, but abruptly he shifts: ! V, -. : He would not think about that. That was not his business. That was Golz's business. He had only one thing to do and that was what he should think about and he must think it out clearly and take everything asit came along, and not worry. To worry was as bad as to be afraid. It simply made things more difficult9

imde srdrlp srdrlmediini saptamak iin bulunmaz bir veridir. Bu sav ok iyi desteklemektedir nk kantlar ok ve dolayszdr. Daha romann sekizinci sayfasnda Hemingway dncenin tehlikeli ynlerini anlatmaya koyulur. Robert Jordan' greve gnderen general Golz, Jordan'a, "Ben hi dnmem. Niye dneyim ki? Ben Sovyet Generaliyim. Hi dnmem. Beni dndrmeye alma," der. Ancak dnmeyi kanlmas gereken bir tuzak olarak grenler yalnz Sovyet generalleri deildir. Konuma srasnda Jordan, balatlacak olan saldry dndn grr ve hemen baka eyler.dnmeye balar:Onu dnmeyecekti. O, kendi ii deildi. O, Golz'un iiydi. Yapmas gereken tek bir i vard ve onu dnmesi gerekliydi. Net bir ekilde dnmeli, her eyi olduu gibi kabulTenmeli ve kayglanmarrtalyd. Kayglanmak korkmak kadar ktyd. leri daha da zorlatrrd.9

This passage is important for two reasons. First, it points up the previously mentioned distinction which Hemingway draws between speculative and practical thought, presented here in the contrast between "thinking about" something and "thinking [something] out." The preposition and the adverb illuminate almost miraculously the attitudes held toward . the two modes of thinking, the one tied to its object, bumbling uselessly round and about without ever getting free of it, the other flashing arrow-like straight from the thought to its goal, out! Out of the maze! Practical thought, the application of mind to the solution of specific problems, is clearly legitimate. What is objected toand this will later become even more obviousis speculative thought, the giving over of the mind to the contemplation of those endless chains of reaction and consequence, both materia] and moral, which attend upon all human actions. Secondly, the passage is important because it subtly links thought to worry. Just as Jordan shouldn't think about these things, so too he shouldn't worry about them. This semi-equation of speculative thought and worry appears throughout the novel, and the cumulative effect is to degrade a serious and uniquely human attribute to the level of mere fretting, to the incessant pawing of a wild animal at the door of its cage. Only a few pages later, Jordan is again cautioning himself against thinking:
He'd certainly been solemn and gloomy with Golz. The job had overwhelmed him a little. . . . Golz was gay and he had wanted him to be gay too before he left, but he hadn't been. All the best ones, when you thought it .over, were gay.. . . There were not many of them left though. No, there were not many of the gay ones left. There were very damned few of them left. And if you keep on thinking like that, my boy, you won't be left either. Turn off the thinking now, old timer, old comrade. You're a bridge-blower now. Not a thinker.111

Bu almt iki nedenden dolay nemlidir. Birincisi, Hemingway'in kurgusal dnce ile klgsal dnce (burada "bir ey hakknda dnmek" thinking about something ile "bir ey dnmek" thinking something out arasndaki kartlkla gsterilmektedir) arasn- da izdii ve daha nce sz edilmi olan farklla iaret etmektedir. About edat ile out zarf hemen hemen mucizevi bir ekilde iki dnce biimi karsndaki tavr aydnlatmaktadr. Bir tanesi nesnesine bal, ondan kurtulamadan hibir yarar olmadan durmakta, dieri dnceden hedefine bir ok gibi umakta. Labirentten kurtulu! Klgsal dncenin, akl belli sorunlarn zmnde kullanmann, doru olmayan bir yaru yoktur. Kar klan ey bu ileride daha da belirgin olacaktr kurgusal dnce, yani akl o bitmek tkenmek bilmeyen, bireylerin tm eylemlerini ynlendiren, hem maddesel hem tinsel anlamdaki tepki ve sonu zincirine vermektir. kinci olarak alnt, dnce ve kayg arasnda alttan alta bir ba kurmas bakmndan da nemlidir. Jordan bunlar dnmemesi gerektii gibi, kayglanmamaldr da. Kurgusal dnce ile kayg arasnda kurulan bu yar-denk- lem roman boyunca vardr ve genel etkisi ciddi ve tmyle insani bir zellii bir huzursuzluk, vahi bir hayvann kafesini durmakszn penelemesi dzeyine indirmektir. --Birka sayfa srira"Jordan yine kendini dnmeye kar uyarmaktadr:
Gerekten Golz'la birlikteyken hep ciddi ve iine kapank olmutu. Grevin altnda biraz ezilmiti.... Golz neeliydi ve kendisinin de gitmeden nce neeli olmasn istemiti, ama o olmamt. Bir dnrseniz, btn iyiler neeli kiilerdir... Ancak sa- . ylar azalmt. Evet, pek fazla neeli insan kalmamt. ok azal- ' mlard. Bak aslanm, byle dnmeye devam edersen sen de yok olursun. Brak dnmeyi artk eski dostum. Sen kpr uuracaksn havaya. Dnr deilsin.10

Here the absence of thought is marked by a certain enviable gaiety of spirit in Golz, whereas Jordan, who is thinking too much, is gloomy. But not only is one

Burada dncenin bulunmamas Golz'un neeli, imrendirici ruh durumuyla gsterilmektedir, buna kar-

89'

happier if one doesn't think; one is also safer: "If you keep on thinking like that, my boy, you won't be left either." Thought is thus portrayed as inimical to action, or at least to the successful completion of an action. Other characters besides Golz and Jordan illustrate the dangers of thought and its tendency to spoil action. Kashkin, the dynamiter, is an almost classic example of the man made sick by thinking too precisely on the event. He could not help thinking (= worrying) about all the possibilities of failure, the chances of being captured and tortured. Eventually (one is tempted to say, consequently), there is a failure, and to escape what he had thought so much about, he persuades Jordan to kill him. (Kashkin has "a prejudice against killing himself.") It is obviously very bad form, and moreover, his attitude, communicated to the guerrillas, definitely subverts the value of what he did manage to accomplish. In one laconic phrase, Jordan at once sums up and passes judgment on Kashkin's compulsion to think: "it spoiled his work."11 If Kashkin illustrates the danger of thought in the sense of "worry," Pilar, in the following quotation, illustrates the pain attendant upon thought in its other sense, "memory." She has been telling Jordan of the mass murder of the Fascists in her town, and when the last atrocity has been narrated, she says: "Then I went back inside the room and sat there and I did not wish to think for that was the worst day of my life. ... "n It is more than a little like Nick Adams in "The Killers," when he comes face to face with the knowledge that Ole is going to be murdered: "I can't stand to think about him waiting in the room and knowing he's going to get it. It's too damned awful." And George gives the solution which (in 1927) is already standard Hemingway, and will remain so: "Well... you better not think about it." One or two more passages should suffice to illustrate the extent to which an unconcealed antagonism to thought permeates For Whom the Bell Tolls. Jordan, after he has found Maria, broods over the little time they have left together: In
sickness and in health. Till death do us part. In two nights. . . . Much more than likely and now lay off that sort o.f thinking. You can stop that now. That's not good for you. Do nothing that is not good for you.13

m ok fazla dnen Jordan iine kapanktr. Oysa, kii dnmedii srece yalnz mutlu deil ayn zamanda daha da gvencededir. "Bak aslanm, byle dnmeye devam edersen sen de yok olursun." Bylece dncenin eylemi olumsuz olarak etkiledii, en azndan bir eylemin baarlabilmesini engelledii anlatlmaktadr. Golz ve Jordan'n dnda kalan kiiler de dncele- rin tehlikelerini ve eylemi bozmaya yatkn olduunu gsterirler. Dihmiti Kashkin olay hakknda ok ayrntl dnd iin hasta olanlara klasik bir rnektir. Baarszlk ve yakalanp ikence edilme olaslklarn dnmekten (kayglanmaktan) kendini alamaz. Sonunda (bunun sonucu olarak demek geliyor insann iinden) baarszla urar ve bu kadar ok dnd eyden kamak iin Jordan' kendini ldrmeye ikna eder. (Kashkin "intihar etme fikrini sevmemektedir.") ok kt bir eydir bu. Dahas, Kashkin'in gerillalara anlatlan tutumu, kesinlikle baarm olduu eyin deerini de yok etmektedir. Jordan tek bir cmleyle Kashldn'in srarla dnmesi hakknda hem grlerini hem yargsn belirtir: "Yapt ii berbat etti."11 Eer Kashkin kayg ile ayn anlama gelen dncenin tehlikelerini gstermekteyse Pilar, biraz sonra yaplacak alntyla bellek" anlamnda kullanlan dnce ile geen acy gsterir. Jordan'a faistlerin kasabada yaptklar toplu kym anlatmaktadr ve son vaheti de anlattktan sonra, "Sonra odaya girdim ve ylece oturdum, dnmek istemiyordum nk hayatmdaki en kt gnd..." der.12 Bu, "Katiller"de Ole'un ldrleceini duyduunda, "Orada ldrleceini bilerek beklediini dnmeye -dayanamyorum," diyen Nick Adams'a olduka benzemektedir. George da, daha 1927 ylnda Hemingway'e zg olan ve hep yle kalan zm nerir: "yleyse... dnme bu konuyu." Bir ya da iki alnt daha yapmak, anlar Kimin in alyor adl romanda dnceye aka belirtilen dmanln ne lde yaylm olduunu gstermek iin yetecektir. Jordan, Maria'y bulduktan sonra birlikte geirecek ne kadar az zamanlan kaldn dnr:
Hastalkta ve salkta. lm bizi ayrana dek. ki geceye kadar. .. ok byk bir olaslkla, brak bu tr dnceleri. Artk bir son ver. yi bir ey deil. Kendin iin iyi olmayan bir ey yapma.13

Once again thought is rendered suspect; it is "not good for you." Do not do what is not good for you. Therefore, do not think. "My mind is in suspension until we win the'war," Jordan says, and again we encounter the familiar notion of a specific physical action to be performed and the clear-cut implication that thought would interfere with the successful completion of this action. It might be objected that, after all, Jordan is engaged in a war, in which swift and unhampered action is crucial. What is more understandable, then, that he should forego the luxuries of speculation and keep himself, "for the duration," as free from the grit of thought as the well-oiled mechanism of a rifle? It is a familiar argument,
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Bir kez daha dnce yanl kabul edilmektedir; "yi bir ey deil." yi olmayan bir ey yapma. O halde, dnme. Jordan, "Sava kazanana dek aklm durdurdum," der. Bir kez daha, sahneye konulacak belli bir fiziksel eylemin ve dncenin bu eylemin baarl bir biimde tamamlanmasn engelleyecei dncesinin apak anlatmyla kar karyayzdr. Jordan'n savan iinde olduu ve savata eylemin abuk olmasnn ve engelle karlamamasnn ok nemli olduu sylenebilir. yleyse hangisi daha anlalr bir eydir? Dnmeyi bir lks olarak niteleyip tpk bir tfein iyi yalanm mekanizmasnn tozdan arnm

tion, orwhen the issuesinvolveddonot touch himdeep- ly, but who is ready to cast it away on the instant, like a dry shuck, the moment a really "important" matter arises. Distrustful of thought, impatient of its austere commitment to scrutiny, to the painstaking weighing not only of means but of ends, such a person clamors incessantly for action, as though in it, and it alone, salvation lay. War may indeed call ordinary values into question, but it does not leave them so. By inverting our everyday awareness and thrusting death vividly into the foreground, it places in the sharpest possible relief all values, true and false, and thus heightens our perception of those things that are truly good and of lasting worth. For some men, and Hemingway is of their number, thought comes out a poor second, and in its stead the virtues of animal courage and endurance are set up. It is not to these virtues that we should object, but to their exclusiveness, to the insistence that thought i pernicious, and to the implication that the world is so truly narrowed -that these are the only values possible for an honest man to hold; At one point, late in the novel, Jordan's thoughts turn jo his father, who had committed suicide because, Jordan says, he was a coward and could not endure the torture of a nagging wife. Then:
You better not think at all, he told, himself. Soon you will be with Maria and you won't have to think. That's the best way now that everything is worked out. When you have been concentrating so hard on something you can't stop and your brain gets to racing like a flywheel with the weight gone. You better just not think/4

sen ama gerekten "nemli" bir durum ortaya ktnda onu nemsiz bir eymi gibi frlatp atmaya hazr olan anti-entellektelin durumudur. Dnceye gvenmeyen, onun kl krk yarmas ve yalnzca aralar deil amalar da zenle tartmas karsnda sabrszlk duyan byle bir insan, sanki kurtulu yalnzca onday- masma eylem ister durur. Sava sradan deerleri gndeme getirebilir ama onlar ylece brakmaz. Normal bilincimizi deitirerek ve lm capacanl n plana iterek doru ve yanl tm deerkri en ak biimde ortaya koyar ve bylece gerekten iyi ve kalc deeri olan btn o eyleri alglamamz glendirir. Baz insanlar iin, ki Hemingway de onlardan biridir, dnce ikinci planda gelir; onun yerine erdem olarak hayvansal yreklilii ve dayankll koyarlar. Kar kmamz gereken, bu erdemler deil, baka erdemleri kabul etmeyileri, dncenin zararl olduunda stelemeleri ve dnyann drst bir insanda baka deerler bulunmasna olanak tanmayacak kadar daraldn sylemeleridir. Romann sonlarna doru bir yerde Jordan, kendisine gre bir korkak olduu ve bann etini .yiyen bir kadirim ikencelerine dayanamad iin intihar etmi olan babasn dnr:
. En iyisi hi dnmemek, dedi kendi kendine. ok gemeden Maria ile olacaksn ve dnmene gerek kalmayacak. Her eyin byle olmas en iyisi. Bir ey zerinde dnrsen duramazsn ve beynin zerinden arlk kalkm bir volan gibi almaya balar. En iyisi dnme hi.14

It is the final position, to which Hemingway has tended all along in his writing, the absolute and un- qualified rejection of thought: "You better not think at all... . You better just not think. ^"Further, theoccasion for this passagethe hero's refusal (or inability) to consider rationally certain painful areas of his experiencesuggests the fundamental objection to thought in Hemingway's work: thinking forces us to come to grips, in what may prove a death struggle, with a world too vicious and brutal for us to endure. That way madness lies. Do not think; and though things won't go away (we've tried that before), still they can't get through to hurt us. III is perhaps sufficient to demonstrate the extent to which-a vigorous and clearly stated antagonism to thought pervades For Whom the Bell Tolls, the work which, as we have already observed, brings to a close the first and by far the most significant period in Hemingway's career. I wish now to consider briefly how certain other elements in his work relate to this fundamental attitude, and then to criticize the attitude itself and the Hemingway world which it so imperiously governs. What have long been recognized as standard fixtures in the Hemingway worldthe sex, drinking, hunting, bullfighting, and other acts of

Bu, Hemingway'in yazarl boyunca varmak istedii, dncenin kesin ve koulsuz olarak reddedildii son noktadr. "En iyisi hi dnmemek.... En iyisi dnme hi." Dahas, bu blmn yazlmas kahramann yaam deneyimindekiaavericinoktalr aklc bir biimde gzden geirmeyi reddetmesi (ya da geirememesi) Hemingway'in yaptlarnda dnceye kesinlikle kar kldn dndrmektedir: Dnme bizi katlanamayacamz kadar acmasz ve kt bir dnya ile kar karya getirir ve bu karlama bir lm kalm sava olabilir. Bunun

III
SANIRIM bu, daha ncede belirttiimiz gibi Hemingway'in yazarlk yaamndaki ilkrve en nemli dnemi kapatan anlar Kimin in alyor adl romannda dnceye kar aka belirtilmi, canl bir dmanln ne lde bulunduunu gstermeye yeter. Burada ksaca, yaptlarnda dier baz elerin bu temel tutum ile nasl bir ilikisi olduuna bakmak ve sonra da bu tutum ile, Hemingway'in bu tutum tarafndan ynetilen dnyasnn eletirisini yapmak istiyorum. < / 'v Uzun zamandr Hemingway'in dnyasnn demirbalar olarak kabul edilen seks, iki, av, boa grei ve dier iddet hareketlerinin iyiletirici
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THIS

thoughts, for Hemingway, are not "the immortal progenie of glorie excellent" but things that come in the night when you can't sleep, "when your brain gets to racing like a flywheel with the weight gone." They are giants that hurt and cripple, and the best thing to do is not to think but to take a shot of giant-killer. These acts of violence, as often as not directed inward upon the self rather than outward upon others, are thus not extrinsic and isolable elements. They are intimately related to that fear and distrust of thought which is at the core of Hemingway's antiintellectualism. Further, this anti-intellectualism itself is not to be explained as the shameless display of a hairy chest and gorilla-men- tality, but rather as the self-imposed discipline of one living in a community of violence and pain, one to whom thought plus imagination equals fear. It is an attempt to come to terms with reality, to render at least some meaningful activity possible; and, applied as widely as it is in Hemingway's novels and stories, this disciplinqbecomes, in effect, a philosophy. The reader of fiction, unless he asks no more than diversion, must sooner or later disengage himself from the work to which he had provisionally surrendered his own perception of art and life and, having effected this separation, must judge where before he felt. The judgment of Hemingway's fiction has been beset with more than ordinary difficulties, but this test does not exempt us from the obligation to judge. I do not pretend that it is all to do. A large body of first-rate Hemingway criticism already exists, a number of more or less definitive insights have been arrived at, and I doubt strongly whether any posthumously appearing work of Hemingway's will significantly: alter our present understanding and evaluation of his work. Evaluation of the literary artifact may proceed under either or both of two modes: aesthetic, or moral and intellectual, to the extent that these latter may profitably be separated from the former. This article is frankly concerned with the moral and intellectual, and in particular it has been concerned with what I have called anti-intellectualism in Hemingway's fiction. This term is not as precise as I should like, yet it will do as a convenient rubric under which to subsume the gross and persistent reduction of thought to worry or painful memory, the reiterated charge that thought hinders rather than abets action (which is consistently accorded pride of place), and the whole complex of varied distrusts and antagonisms manifested toward thought in all of Hemingway's major works. Though most of these elements have been noted before, it has usually been in passing, and they have never been fully explored or articulated; nor has there been any forthright judgment of Hemingway's work based on the antiintellectualism per se displayed there. The emphasis has invariably been either on the role of action in his work or on the painful experiences and emotions that are presumed to justify the
9 2

ri uyuyamadmzda, "beyin, zerinden arlk kalkm bir volan gibi almaya baladnda" gelen eylerdir. Ac veren ve sakatlayan devlerdir onlar ve yaplacak en iyi ey dnmek deil onlar yok edici bir ilatan bir yudum almaktr. Darya, bakalarna yneltilmekten ok genellikle benlie yneltilen bu iddet hareketleri bu nedenle dtan gelen ve soyutlanabilir eler deildir. Onlar Hemingway'in anti-entellektellii- nin merkezinde yatan dnceye duyulan korku ve g- :: vensizlikle yakndan ilintilidir. Dahas bu ahtientel- lektellik kll bir gs ve goril mant ile deil, iddet ve acnn bulunduu bir toplulukta yaayan ve dnce ile dgcn korku ile eanlaml gren birinin kendi kendini disiplin altna almasyla gsterilir. Bu, gerekle uzlama, en azndan anlaml bir etkinlikte bulunabilme abasdr; ve Hemingway'in romanlarnda ve yklerinde olduu gibi geni bir biimde uygulandnda bu disiplin bir felsefeye dnmektedir. Zaman geirmekten baka eyler isteyen roman okuyucusu sanat ve yaam alglamasn geici bir sre iin ellerine brakt yaptlardan, er ya da ge, kendini kurtarmal ve bu ayrlmay gerekletirdikten sonra daha nce hissettiklerini yarglamaldr. Hemingway'in romanlarm yarglamak sradan zorluklardan daha fazlasyla kuatlmtr ama bu glk bizi yarglama zorunluluumuzdan bak tutmaz. Yaplmas gerekenin yalnzca bu olduunu syleyecek deilim. Zaten birok birinci snf Hemingway eletirisi vardr, bir dizi, aa yukar kesin yargya varlmtr ve lmnden sonra yaynlanacak herhangi bir Hemingway yaptnn onun yaptlarm anlamamz ve deerlendirmemizi nemli lde deitireceinden ok kukuluyum. Yaznsal deeri olan bir yapta deerlendirilmesi ya estetik ya da ahlaki ve entellektel ynden ya da ikisiyle birden yaplabilir ama son ikisinin birincisinden ayrlabilmesi yerinde olur. Bu makale, ahlaki ve entellektel ve zellikle de Hemingway'in yaptlarnda anti-entellektel- lik adn verdiimle ilgilidir. Bu terim istediim kadar ak olmad ama dncenin, her zaman stn tutulan eyleme izin vermekten ok onu engelledii yolunda tekrar tekrar yaplan sulamalar ve Hemingway'in tm nemli yaptlarnda dnceye gsterilen gvensizlik ve dmanl, dncenin kaba ve srarl bir biimde kaygya ya da ac veren aralara indirgenmesini anlatacak uygun bir balk grevi grecektir. Bu elerin ouna daha nce hep laf arasnda deinildii iin hibir zaman ayrntl olarak incelenmemi ya da dile getirilmemilerdir; ne de Hemingway'in herhangi bir yapt ele alnp yalnzca orada belirdii gibi anti-entellektellii dorudan ele alan bir inceleme vardr. Her zaman iin, ya eylemin yaptlar zerindeki rolne, ya da dncenin durmakszn reddedilmesini hakl

in these novels by the author's private geography of despair. The felt need for a tight control has restricted disastrously the area over which that control must be . exercised, and though the Hemingway hero may move with a firm and directed footstep, it is across a bleak and impoverished landscape that he makes his way. The canvas seems deceptively widethe Caribbean, Paris, Spain, Africaand yet there is a remarkable sameness to these landscapes, because they are inhabited and animated by people who suffer from'the same problems boredom, futility, obsession with some never fully explored or explained inner despairand when they react to these problems, they react in a pathetically same way and try to find solutions in acts of violence, in sex, in alcohol. It is a repetitive world and, finally, a drearily predictable one, whose ultimate wisdom attains to no more than "Hold tight; and above all, don't think." A brief comparison with Faulkner is suggestive. In Hemingway's stories or novels, taken individually, the social world (to the extent we are made aware of society at all) is usually homogeneous. The major characters either belong to the same station/or, if not, the difference between them is effectively abrogated by some extraordinary situation such as a war, or else the usual and manifest social pressures simply fail to enter the story in any meaningful way. Faulkner's world is frankly hierarchical. His society has structure, points of definition, lines of demarcation, but the structure is not frozen, and the action in his novels often arises out of the characters' attempts to achieve a, new social definition (the Snopes Clan) or to preserve intact manners and attitudes no longer adequate to the changing times (Col. Sartoris, Gail Hightower, Miss Emily). A compelling sense of history operates in all of Faulkner's major works, giving density and resonance to the actions narrated. Time, as the tragic dimension through which men are obliged to move, is fully accepted, and that acceptance lends a sober dignity to his work. With Hemingway, no sense of history is evident even in those novels where it would be most expected: A Farewell to Arms and.For Whom the Bells Tolls. His characters almost invariably live and act in the specious present. They are drifters, physically and spiritually, and for drifters the time is always now. The past is rejected, because in it lurk things too ugly or painful to contemplate, and the future is likewise rejected, for the projection of action into the future involves precisely that ex- .. ercise of speculative thought which Hemingway's work so consistently denies. Even the style of the.two men helps, to illuminate this basic difference in attitude. Faulkner's rhetoric, for all its verbal panache, contrasted with the tight, pulled-

entellektel, estetik ve hatta toplumsal deneyimler vardr. Sk bir denetim gereksinimi bu denetimin uygulanmas gereken alan ok kt bir biimde kstlamtr ve Hemingway kahraman kararl admlarla yrse bile plak ve fakir bir alanda yrmektedir. Karayipler, Paris, spanya, Afrika'dan oluan tablonun kapsam aldatcdr ama bu yerlerde ok byk bir benzerlik de vardr nk buralar, can sknts, bou- :nalk ve hibir zaman ayrntl olarak incelenmeyen ya da aklanmayan umutsuzluk saplants gibi, ayn sorunlar paylaan insanlarla doludur. Bu kiilerin sorunlara tepkileri amas bir benzerlik gsterir ve zm, iddet hareketlerinde, sekste ve alkolde bulmaya alrlar. Srekli yinelenen bir dnyadr bu ve ne yazk ki olacaklarn tahmin edilebildii burada en yce bilgelik "Sla dur; ve en nemlisi de dnme"den baka bir ey deildir. Faulkner ile ksa bir karlatrma bir fikir verebilir. Tek tek ele alndklarnda, Hemingway'in yk ve romanlarnda toplumsal dnya (toplumsal dnyann bize gsterildii lde) trdetir. Ba kiiler ya ayn toplumsal katmann insanlardr, deillerse de aralarndaki faile sava gibi olaand bir durumla ortadan kaldrlmtr, ya da yabancs olmadmz ve apak grnen toplumsal basklar ykye anlaml bir biimde giremezler. Faulkner'in dnyas ise aka katmanldr. Onun toplumunda yap, tanm noktalar, snf izgileri vardr ama yap donuk deildir ve romanlarndaki eylem ounlukla kiilerin (Snopes Klan gibi) yeni bir toplumsal tanm edinebilme abalarndan ya da artk deien zaman iin uygun olmayan bozul- : mam alkanlk ve tutumlar koruma abasndan doar (Albay Sartoris, Gail Hightower, Bayan Emily). Faulkner'in btn nemli yaptlarnda anlatlan eylemlere younluk veren ve onlar yanklandran vazgeilmez bir tarih bilinci vardr. nsanlarn iinde hareket etmek zorunda olduklar trajik boyut olarak zaman tmyle kabul edilir ve bu kabul edi yaptlarna bir arballk kazandrr. He- mingway'de ise, tarih bilincinin en fazla bulunmas beklenen romanlarda, Silahlara Veda ve anlar Kimin in ' alyor'da bile bu bilin yoktur. Kiilerin hemen tm aldatc bir imdiki, zamanda, yaan. ve hareket ederler. Onlar hem bedensel hem de ruhsal olarak gezgindirler ve gezginler iin zaman hep imdidir. Gemi reddedilir nk gemite dnlemeyecek kadar irkin ve ac verici eyler gizlenmektedir; gelecek de ayn ekilde reddedilir nk eylemi gelecee yanstmak i Hemingway'in yaptlarnn srekli olarak yadsd kurgusal dnceyi gerektirmektedir. ki yazarn sluplar bile temeldeki tutum farklln, gstermeye yardm eder. Kendisinden emin havasna karn Faulkner'in retorii, Hemingway'in gergin, bastrlm cmleleriyle karlatrldnda, dnceleri

93

down sentences of Hemingway, suggests that he is not afraid of letting go, and that, moreover, certain things existvaules, traditions, ideals that are worth pulling out all the stops for. Hemingway is suspicious of rhetoric (not wholly without reason, we must admit); abstract words such as "glory, honor, courage" no longer seem to have meaning, he tells us in a celebrated passage. He prefers to know the names of places arid what the weather was like. But perhaps these words, and others like them, have lost their meanings in the very act of the novelist's definition of his world, in his ruthless stripping of things to the here and now. A world devoid of a sense of history and time, of past actions and future consequences, of speculative thought and imaginative vision, is not a human world at all. It is an animal world, a world of weathers and immediate sensations. It is not surprising, then, in such a world, that language and the values funded in language become suspect and embarrassing. The other signal defect of this antiintellectualism is, as might be expected, its emotional immaturity. The giants that stalk Hemingway's world are experiences never measured and subdued by thought, neyer ordered within a framework of existence more comprehensive than that of a rather sensitive adolescent. The path to wisdom, Katherine Anne Porter reminds us, is downward, and the steep descent is haunted by specters we would rather not face, but must. But Hemingway's heroes refuse to grapple openly with these specters of cruelty, intolerance, pain, betrayal, vilenessall the unsounded nightside of our mysterious and imperfect nature. To borrow a figure of Melville's, they cannot or dare not strike through the pasteboard masks to the reality and the terror behind. Theirs is the fugitive' and cloistered virtue that does not seek its adversary but slinks out of the race, leaving the trial and victory to another. This may seem a strange, even an impertinent criticism of an author whose works are so full of pain and violence, and full, too, of men who with a courageous endurance perform some dangerous action which circumstance has made imperative. But these heroes are in fact moral cripples who have retrenched to the limit and are fighting, on their own ground and their own terms, evils which however bad they may seemare less terrible than those from which they flee. Thus, their action is not the triumphant banishing of specters; it is only a substitute for nightmare. We must pity such men, but we need not take them as models for emulation; and before we accept the Hemingway world and ethic, and praise them as "manly" or "realistic," we should be quite sure that we are

zgr brakmaktan korkmadn ve dahas, urunda her ey yapmaya deecek baz eylerin deerler, gelenekler, lkler varolduunu dndrr. Hemingway retorikten ekinir (nedensiz olmadn kabul etmeliyiz); nl bir parada bize "utku, onur, yreklilik" gibi soyut szcklerin anlamlar artk yok gibidir der. Yer adlarm ve havann nasl olduunu bilmeyi yeler. Ancak, belki de bu szckler ve bunlara benzer dierleri romancnn dnyasn tanmlamas aamasnda, nesneleri imdiye ve buraya acmaszca indirgerken anlamlarm yitirmilerdir. Tarih bilincinden ve zamandan, gemi eylemler ve gelecekteki sonulardan, kurgusal dnce ve dsel grntden yoksun bir dnya hi de insanc bir dnya deildir. Hayvans bir dnyadr, havann ve anlk duyumlarn dnyas. Bu nedenle, byle bir dnyada dil ve dildeki deerlerin kt ve utandrc olmalar artmamaldr. Anti-entellektellikte gze arpan dier eksiklik, tahmin edilebilecei gibi, duygusal adan olgunla- mamlktr. Hemingway'in dnyasnda gezinen devler, hibir zaman dnce ile tartlmayan, bastrlmayan, hibir zaman duyarl bir ergeninkinden daha kapsaml olmayan bir varolu erevesi iinde dzenlenmeyen deneyimlerdir. Katherine Anne Porter'in anmsatt gibi, bilgelie giden yol yoku aadr ve bu dik ini karlamak istemeyeceimiz ama karlamak zorunda olduumuz grntlerle doludur. Ama Hemingway'in kahramanlar acmaszlk, hogrszlk, ac, aldatma ve ktlk gibi, eksik ve gizemli doamzn dile dklmeyen tm karanlk ynlerini gsteren bu grntlerle aka savamay reddederler. Melville'in benzetmelerinden biriyle anlatmaya alrsak, -.. karton maskeler ardndaki gereklie ve dehete, mas- keleri delerek ulaamazlar, ulama yrekliliini gsteremezler. Onlarnki, dman aramayp, snav ve zaferi bir bakasma brakarak yar terkeden soyutlanm ve kaak bir erdemdir. Bu, yaptlar ac ve iddetle ve durumun zorunlu kld tehlikeli bir eylemi yrekli bir dayankllkla gerekletiren insanlarla dolu bir yazar hakknda yazlm garip ve hatta kstah bir eletiri gibi gelebilir. Ancak, bu kahramanlar snra kadar dayanm, ne kadar kt grnrlerse grnsnler, kamakta olduklar ktlklerden daha az rktc olanlarla yabancs olmadklar bir yerde kendi koullaryla savaan, zayf , ahlkl kimselerdir. Bu nedenle yaptklar, korkulan zaferle yok etmek deildir; yalnzca karabasann yerine konulan eylerdir. Bu insanlara acmalyz ancak onlar rnek almamza gerek yoktur; ve Hemingway'in dnyasn ve ahlk anlayn kabul etmeden ve onlar "erkeke" ya da "gereki" olduklar iin vmeden nce, gerek dmanla karlamaktan kaman yrekliliin ve gerek sorunu zmeyen eylemin gerek ey kadar iyi olduunu kabul etmeye hazr olduumuzdan emin olmalyz. Kanl ve grltl bir dnya olmasna karn Hemingway'in dnyas tam anlamyla erkeksi boyutlarda bir dnya deildir.

9 5

T O my surprise Ernest was released from the Mayo Clinic on 22 January, nine days after I had seen him there. He called me in Hollywood to say how delighted he was to be home in Ketch- um and back at work. He had gone hunting the day after his return, he said, and there were eight mallards and two teals now hanging over the woodpile outside the kitchen window. He sounded fine. When I hung up, I felt relieved that he was out of his prison aiid back where he belonged; but when.I recalled our conversation during that walk I felt an overriding uneasiness. A few days later Ernest decided. to accept the longstanding Twentieth Century offer on the Nick Adams stories; his letters during February, and his phone calls, were succinct and businesslike. We phoned each other every week; his only expressed worry was about his weight, which at one seventy was too low, he complained, to permit him to operate with his old steam. I urged him to put on ai few pounds, but he refused to budge one calorie from the strict diet the doctors had given him. Ernest treated this diet like a military order, and I doubt if those doctors ever had a patient who so rigidly conformed to their commands. On 18 February Ernest called me in New York to discuss disposition of his hundred twenty-five thousand dollars of movie money. His primary concern was abot taxes. 'I called my lawyer on the phone, he said, 'to tell him to deposit seventy percent in the tax account and thirty per cent in the chequing account. He thought that was too high a percentage but I don't think he figured me having a book due in the autumn and so forth. Plus how taxes may rise.'

KETCHUM, 1961

18 ubatta kendisine film irketince verilen 125 bin dolarn idaresi

KENDSN orada grdkten dokuz gri sjra,: Emest'in 22 Ocak'ta Mayo Kliniinden ayrlmasna izin verilmesi beni ok artmt. Beni Hollywood'da arad ve Ketchum'daki evinde, tekrar iinin banda olmaktan ok mutlu olduunu syledi. Dndkten bir gn sonra ava ktn ve imdi mtfak penceresinden baktnda dardaki odun ynnn zerinde sallanan tam sekiz,tane yaban, iki tane de amurcu rdei olduunu anlatt. Sesi olduka iyiydi. Telefonu kapattmda onun hapishane gibi yerden kurtulduuna ve ait olduu yere dndne olduka sevindim; ama o yrymz srasnda konutuklarmz hatrlaynca iimi anlatlmaz bir huzursuzluk kaplad. Birka gn sonra Ernet uzun sredir gndemde olan Nick Adams hikyeleri ile ilgili Twentieth Century film irketinin teklifini kabul etti; ubat boyunca yazd mektuplar ve telefon konumalarmz olduka ksayd ve ieriklerinde iten baka pek bir ey yoktu. Her hafta birbirimizi aryorduk ve bu konumalarda yaknd tek konu eskisi gibi youn bir ekilde almasna izin vermeyen dk kilosu idi; 77 ok dk bir kiloydu. Bir - iki kilo almasn syledim, ama doktorlarn kendisine verdii perhizden bir adm dar kmamak niyetindeydi. Doktorlarn, kendisine verilen bu perhizi sanki bir askeri emirmiesine uygulayan Emest gibi baka hastalar olduunu sanmyorum.

KETCHUM, 1961

ile ilgili olarak beni New York'ta arad. En ok da vergi konusu onu endielendiriyordu. Bana, "Avukatm telefonla aradm ve parann yzde yetmiini vergi hesabna, yzde otuzunu da ek hesabna yatrmasn syledim," dedi. "Vergi iin ayrlan paray olr duka yksek buldu ama herhalde sonbaharda bir kitabmn kacan dnmedi. Ayrca vergilerin nasl

9 7

'But taxes are scheduled to be cut, Papa.' I sympathized with the problem of trying to keep Ernest's top- heavy tax account from getting even heavier. 'One thing I do not count on in life is the diminishing tax. So with seventy per cent in the tax account and ten off to the lawyer for agenting I am banking only $20,250, which is a rather slim take for getting hit for ten stories.' Towards the beginning of March the handwriting in Ernest's letters began to change again, and so did the content. The writing became severely cramped, the letters so small and tight it was difficult to read the words. The letters themselves began to be more complaining, with less reference to work. It was about this time that Ernest suggested that instead of sending letters to him directly, I address them to Vernon Lord at the Sun Valley Hospital. I was to use a return address that had a name that began with an O; Vernon would thereby know that the letter was for Ernest. I was to tell Honor to write to him in the same manner. During the last week in March, when I spoke to Ernest on the phone, he sounded listless and, I thought, rather discouraged. 'I wish I could make some plans,' he said, 'but I can't until I finish the Paris book. Have to go day to day on this health business; the weight is awful low, so want to be sure on that end of it before planning further work and movements. Don't want to worry Mary on that nor anything else, nor worry myself. I'm learning to be strong at one sixty-nine but it is too low to fool with. I tell you this so you know the true gen.' His voice sounded very old. The ends of sentences tailed off as if he didn't have the energy to finish them. 'Am following doctors' orders exactly arid pressure is good. But weight reaction's a little spooky.' 'Can't you put on a little? What does Vernon say?' 'Don't mind being spooked if I could find a way to get my mind off it and have a little fun. Guess I'm spoiled. Always had such a damn good time.' By the beginning of April, Ernest had started to be wary of the telephone again, and he did not mention Honor either in his letters or in conversations. It had become difficult to talk to him on the phone. He was getting depressed about his work, although I could never clearly determine whether it was because he did not like what he wrote or because of difficulty he was experiencing in writing. I would mention friends and try to tell him about them, but he really wasn't interested. I tried to discuss the general form of the Nick Adams screenplay I was about to start on, but he wasn't interested in that either. ' On 18 April I went to a cocktail party in New York which Harvey Breit had given to celebrate the publication of George Plimpton's book. It was a good party with good people and at one point

artabileceini de." "Fakat vergilerde bir indirim olacak, Papa." ok ykl olan vergi hesabn daha da arttrmama abasn anlayabiliyordum. "Hayatta gvenmeyeceim tek ey vergilerde bir indirim olabileceidir. Bylece vergi hesabna yatrdm para ve avukata verdiim yzde onluk komisyondan sonra bankaya yalnzca 20.250 dolar yatrm oluyorum ki, film irketinin ald on ykden gelen para iii olduka az bir miktar." Mart aynn balarnda Ernest'in gnderdii mektuplardaki elyazs ve mektuplarn ierii yine deimeye balad. Yazs son derece arpk urpuk, harfler ise ok kk ve birbirlerine son derece yakn olduu iin szckleri okuyabilmek zorlamt. eriklerinde ise, ikyet ok, ile ilgili haber azd. te bu sralarda Emest, mektuplar kendisine direkt olarak gndermem yerine Sun Valley Hastanesi'nde alan Vernon Lord'a yollamam istedi. Mektubun zerine gnderen olarak ilk harfi "O" olan bir ad yazacaktm ve Vernon da bu mektubun Emest'e geldiini anlayacakt. Honor'a da mektuplar ayn biimde yazmasn. sylememi istedi benden. Mart'n son haftasnda telefonla konutuumuzda ses tonu olduka ilgisiz ve gvensiz geldi bana. "Keke bir eyler planlayabilsem," dedi. "Ama Paris ile ilgili kitab bitirene kadar yapamam. Doktorlarn verdii salk programna gn gnne uymam lazm; kilom felaket dk, onun iin bu ii halletmeden nce baka eyler hazrlamak, bir eyler zerinde almak istemiyorum. Mary''yi ne bu ne de baka bir konuda kayglandrmak istemiyorum; kendimi de. Altm dokuz kiloda gl olmaya alyorum ama bu kilo dalga geilmeyecek kadar dk: Bunu sana gerei gresin diye sylyorum." Sesi olduka yal kyordu. Cmlelerin sonunu bir trl getiremiyor, sanki enerjisi onlar bitirmeye yetmiyordu. "Doktorlarn dediklerini harfi harfine uyguluyorum, tansiyonum da fena deil. Ama u kilo konusu rahatsz ediyor beni." "Biraz kilo alamaz msn? Vernon ne diyor?" "Baka eylerle uramay, bu konuyu dnmeme- yi becerirsem ne al. Sanrm ok martlmm ben. Hep yle iyi yaadm ki." Nisan aynn balarnda Emest yine telefon konumalarndan bkmaya balad; ne telefon konumalarmzda ne de mektuplarnda Honor'dan sz ediyordu. Onunla telefonda konumak zorlamt. i moralini bozuyordu ama bunun nedeninin yazd eyleri beenmemesinden mi yoksa yazm srasnda karlat zorluklardan m kaynaklandm aka kestiremiyordum. Arkadalardan sz ediyor, onlarla ilgili haberler vermeye alyordum ama pek ilgilenmiyordu. Balamak zere olduum Nick Adams senaryosunun genel biimi zerinde konumak istedim ama onunla da ilgilenmedi. 18 Nisan'da Harvey Breit'in, George Plimpton'un kitabnn basmn kutlamak iin New York'ta verdii bir kokteyle katldm. yi bir partiydi, tannm insanlar gelmiti; bir ara Harvey, Ernest'i

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unfortunately Harvey found it in his address book. First Harvey spoke to him, then George, and they were merry and funny and George told him how well his book was going. When I came on, Ernest said, 'Hotch, please try to hold off these calls.' His voice was dead, the words coming at me like rocks falling down a well. 'It's got pretty rough. I can't finish the bloody book. I've got it all and I how what I want it to be but I can't get it down.' Harvey and George, looking happy, were watching me, so I curved my mouth up and tried to keep my eyes down on the phone. I said some terrible inanity like, 'Well, it's good that you're that far.' 'Hotch, I can't finish the book. I can't. I've been at this goddamn work-table all day, standing here all day, all I've got to get is this one thing, maybe only a sentence, maybe more, I don't know, and I can't get it. Not any of it. You understand, I can't. I've written Scribner's to scratch the book. It was all set for the autumn but I had to scratch it.' 'Then they'll do it in the spring.' 'No, no they won't. Because I can't finish it. Not this autumn or next spring or ten years from now. I can't. This wonderful damn book and I can't finish it. You understand?' When I hung up, Harvey said, 'He sounds fine, doesn't he?' That was 18 April. At eleven o'clock Sunday morning, 23 April, I received a call from Ketchum. Ernest was in the Sun Valley Hospital under heavy sedation, sodium amytal every three hours, nurses around the clock. ..: When' Mary had come into the living-room that morning, she had found Ernest standing in the vestibule, where the gun rack was;, he was holding a shotgun in his one hand, with the breech open; he had two shells in his other hand. There was a note propped up on top of the gun rack addressed to her. Mary knew that Vernon Lord was due to come by to take Ernest's blood pressure so she just tried to hold Ernest's attention until he got there. She knew he had been terribly depressed about his inability to write, but she had had no inkling that his depression had driven him this far. Ernest was calm and did not make a move to put the shells in the chamber, so Mary did not mention the gun at all but asked for the note. Ernest refused to give it to her but read her a few sentences here and there. There was a reference to his will and how he had provided for Mary and she wasn't to worry. Also, that he had transferred thirtythousanddollarsto her chequing account. Then he got off the letter and on to his latest worry, which concerned filing income taxes for the cleaning woman; talking on and on about how the Feds were sure to get him for the cleaning

ramda olmadn syleyerek onu aramalarn engellemeye altm ama ne yazk ki Harvey kendi adres defterinde Ernest'in numarasn buldu. nce Harvey sonra George, Ernest ile konutular; neeli ve komiktiler ve George ona kitap almalarnn ne kadar iyi gittiini syledi. Telefonu ben aldmda Emest, "Hotch, ne olur bu telefon konumalarn engellemeye al," dedi. Sesi lgnd ve szckler sanki kuyuya atlan ta gibi geliyordu. "ok zorlat; u alla- fim cezas kitabi'bir trl bitiremiyorum. Hepsi kafamda. Nasl olmasn istediimi biliyorum ama bir . trl yazamyorum." Btn konumalar olup biterken Harvey ve George mutlu bir ifade ile beni izliyorlard, bu nedenle yzmde yapmack bir glmseme, gzlerimi telefondan ayrmamaya altm. "Bu kadar ilerlemi olmas iyi," gibilerden ok aptalca bir laf ettim. "Hotch, bitiremiyorum kitab. Bitiremiyorum. Btn gn allahn cezas alma masasnn banda ayaktaydm ve tek istediim sadece tek bir ey, bir tek cmle, belki daha fazla, bilmiyorum ama bir trl olmuyor. Hi. Anladn m? Bitiremiyorum. Scribner's'a kitab yayn listesinden silmelerini syledim. Sonbahara kacakt ama iptal ettirmek zorunda kaldm." "O zaman ilkbaharda yaymlarlar." "Hayr yaymlamayacaklar. nk bitiremiyorum. Ne bu sonbahar ne gelecek ilkbahar ne de on yl sonra. Bitiremiyorum. ok iyi bir kitap ama bitiremiyorum. Anlyor musun?" Telefon kapadmda Harvey, "Sesi olduka iyiydi, deil mi?" dedi. -Bu. konuma Nsan'm 18'nde olmutu. Nisan'n.; 23'ide, Pazar gnu sabah saat n birde ise Ketch- um'dan bir telefon geldi Emest, Sun Valley Hastanesinde ar dozda verilen yattrcnn etkisi ile derin bir uykuya dalmt. He saatte bir sodyum amital yaplyor, srekli hemirelerin kontrolnde tutulu- yormu. Mary, o sabah odasna girdiinde, Ernest'i silahlarn bulunduu dolabm yaranda bulmu; Emest bir elinde doluma hazr bir tfek ile duruyormu, dier elinde ise iki tane fiek varm. Silah dolabnn stnde ise Mary'ye yazd bir not duruyormu. Mary o sabah Vernon Lord'un, Ernest'in tansiyonunu lmeye gele-' ceini bildii iin Vernon gelene kadar Ernest'in dikka- . tini baka eylere ekmek iin abalam. Yazamamaran onun moralini ok bozduunu biliyordu, ama kntnn onu bu duruma drdn hi tahmin etmemiti. -Ernest son derece sakin grnyormu vefiekleri namluya yerletirmek iin hibir hareket yapmaynca Mary tfek ile ilgili bir ey sylememi, ama notu almak istemi. Emest notu vermeyi reddetmi, ama kimi cmleleri okumu. Vasiyetine deiniyor, Mary'ye neler braktn ve kayglanmamasn sylyormu. Ayn zamanda Mary'nin hesabna otuz bin dolar geirdiini de yazyormu. Sonra mektubu okumay brakm ve en son kaygsna, temizleyici kadnn gelir
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Vernon had already put in a call to the Mayo Clinic and I was asked whether I would contact Dr Renown and brief him on the situation. Vernon phoned at four-thirty that afternoon. He reported that the Mayo doctors were insisting that Ernest go to Rochester voluntarily but that Ernest absolutely refused to go. 'I called Dr Renown,' I said, 'and he was to call Mayo and then call you.' 'He has. He made all the Mayo arrangements and discussed procedures, but I don't think he knows about this condition they've imposed, that Ernest go of his own-free will. Hell, he doesn't have any free will! What are they talking about? I have my associate, Dr Ausley, helping me with Ernest, but we're fighting the clock. We don't have proper facilities for this kind of thing and, Hotch, honest to God, if we don't get him to the proper place, and fast, he is going to kill himself for sure. It's only a question of time if he stays here, and every hou&it grows more possible;. He says he can't write any morethat's all he's talked to me about for weeks and weeks. Says there's nothing to live for. Hotch, he won't ever write again. He can't. He's given up. That's the motivation for doing away with himself. At least, on the surface. And that's what I have to accept because I'm not equipped to deal with anything beneath the surface. But that's strong enough motivation as far as I'm concerned, and I can tell you I'm worried sick. We've got him shot full of sodium amytal, but how long can we keep him in that state? I can tell you it's a terrible responsibility for a country doctor. It's not just that he's my friend, but he's Ernest Hemingway. We've got to get him to Mayo.' . ; , : For the rest of that day we phoned back and forth between New York, Ketchum, Hollywood and Rochester, but the Mayo doctors could not be induced to come to Ketchum or vary in any way from their adamant policy that patients must enter the clinic voluntarily. Dr Renown suggested to Vernon Lord several procedures to be tried on Ernest to induce his co-operation. I wanted to go to Ketchum to help out, but Dr Renown thought I should wait and go as a second echelon if Vernon failed. The following day Mary phoned, terribly shaken. There had been a nightmarish incident. Vernon had finally got Ernest to consent to re-entering Mayo, and the charter plane had been summoned from Hailey. Ernest said, however, that before he went there were some things he had to get from the house. Vernon said he would send Mary for them, but Ernest said they were things he had to get himself and he would not go to Mayo without them. So Vemon reluctantly consented, but first he called Don Anderson, who is six foot three and over two hundred pounds, to come along. Vernon took the nurse and Mary also. They drove up to the house, the five of them, and Ernest started towards the door, followed by Don, then the nurse, then Mary and Vemon.
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Vemon tfei almak istediinde. Ernest kar kmadan vermi. Vernon oktan Mayo Kliniim aramt ve benim de Dr. Renown'u arayp ona durum hakknda bilgi vermemi istedi. Ayn gn leden sonra saat drt buukta Vernon arad. Mayo Miniindeki doktorlarn Emest'in Roch- ester'a kendi istei ile gitmesi gerektiini sylediklerini, ama Emest'in gitmeyi kesinlikle reddettiini anlatt. "Doktor Renown'u aradm," dedim. "nce Mayo'yu sonra seni arayacakt." "Arad. Mayo'daki btn ileri halletti ve yaplmas gerekenleri konutu ama Kliniktekilerin Emest'in kendi istei ile oraya gitmesi konusunda srar ettiklerini bildiini sanmyorum. Allah kahretsin, karar verecek halde deil! Neler diyor bu insanlar? Yardmcm Doktor Ausley u anda bana yardm ediyor ama zamana kar yaryoruz. Bu durum iin yeterli olanaa sahip deiliz ve Hotch, sana yemin, .onu doru drst bir yere gtrmezsek ve de hemen gtrmezsek, kendisini ldrecek. Burada kalrsa bir anlk mesele bu. Burada kalrsa her an olabilir ve her geen saat bu olasl daha da arttryor. Artk yazamadm sylyor; haftalardr benimle konutuu tek ey bu.Yaama- s iin hibir neden kalmadm sylyor. Hotch, artk bir daha yazamayacak. Yazamyor. Brakt. Bu yzden intihar etmek istiyor. En azndan grnrdeki neden bu. Ve bunu kabul etmek zorundaym nk daha derinlemesine aratracak olanaa sahip deilim. Ama bu da kanmca intihar etmek istetecek kadar gl bir neden. nan bana ok kayglanyorum. Ona sodyum ami- tal inesi vurduk ama onu byle daha ne kadar tutabiliriz? Bir ky doktoru iin byk bir sorumluluk. Sadece arkadam olduu iin deil ama bu adam Ernest Hemingway. Onu derhal Mayo'ya gtrmeliyiz." Btn gn New York, Ketchum, Hollywood ve Rochester arasnda telefonlatk ama, klinikteki doktorlar ne Ketchum'a gelmeye ne de hastalarnn klinie kendi istekleri ile gelmesi konusundaki kat kurallarndan vazgeirmeyi baarabildik. Dr. Renown, Vernon'a Er- nest'i klinie gitmeye raz etmek iin deneyebilecei eitli yollar nerdi. Ben de Ketchum'a gidip yardm etmek istiyordum ama Dr. Renown beklememi.ve eer Vernon baarl olamazsa ikinci yardm kuvveti olarak gitmemi nerdi. Ertesi gn Mary beni arad, ok zntl olduu belliydi. ok kt bir olay meydana gelmiti. Vernon sonunda Ernest'i Mayo'ya tekrar gitme konusunda raz etmi ve Hailey'den bir kk uak arlmt. Ancak Ernest gitmeden nce evden baz eyalar almas gerektiini sylemi. Vemon eyalar almas iin Mary'yi yollayacan sylemi ama Emest onlar kendisinin Almas gerektiim ve onlarsz Mayo'ya gitmeyeceini sylemi. Bunun zerine Vemon gnlsz kabullenmi ama nce 1.85 boyunda ve yaklak 100 kilo arlndaki Don Anderson'u arm, hemire ve Mary'yi de yanma alm. Bei birden eve gelmiler. Emest arkasnda

Don hurled himself at Ernest and knocked him down. There was a terrible struggle over the gun. Vernon had to help. Luckily, the safety had been on so it did not go off. Ernest was now back at the hospital, more heavily drugged. He was now saying he would not return to Mayo's, but Vernon was keeping the plane at the Sun Valley airstrip in the hope that he could change Ernest's mind. In the meantime,discussions were being held with people at Menninger's. The next morning Mary phoned to say that Ernest had suddenly consented to-go and the plane had just taken off for Rochester. Vernon and Don Anderson had gone with him. Mary was just barely holding herself together. She promised to have Vernon call as soon as he got back. It was after midnight when the call came through. Vernon said that he had given Ernest a , heavy sedation before taking off but that shortly after they had become airborne, Ernest had made a strenuous effort to get the door open and jump out of the plane. It had taken all of Don's and Vernon's combined strength to get him away from the door. Vernon had then given Ernest a large injection of sodium amytal, and soon thereafter he had become drowsy. Shortly afterwards the small plane had begun to develop engine trouble and had had to be landed at Casper, Wyoming. On leaving the plane, Ernest had tried to walk into a moving propeller, but Don had had him by the arm and pushed himself between Ernest and the propeller, although in so doing Ernest had almost inadvertently bumped Don into the whirling prop. It had taken a couple of hours to repair the plane, but Ernest had seemed quiet until they were on their way again; then over South Dakota, having feigned sleep for an hour, he had made a second attempt to jump out of the plane. Mayo doctors were waiting for them when they landed in Rochester, and Ernest, who was now docile and greeted the doctors like old friends, was immediately taken to St Mary's, where he was placed in a special security section and put under constant surveillance. 'You know the date?' I asked. 'The twenty-fifth, isn't it?' 'Yes, almost three months to the day since they discharged him.' Not a very long cure, was it?' The first week in May, I went to see Cooper for the last time. During February and March On his good days, he continued to enjoy life the way he always had. One afternoon he had invited me to his splendid modern house on Baroda Drive to witness in the garden a spectacular demonstration by five karate experts. And

tfee fiek yerletirirken grm: Ernest'in zerine atlam ve yere ykm. Tfei kapmak iin aralarnda byk bir mcadele olmu. Vernon yardm etmek zorunda kalm. ans eseri emniyet mandal kapalym ve bu yzden patlamam. imdi Ernest hastanede kendisine verilen ok daha yksek dozdaki sakinletiricinin etkisi altnda uyuyormu. Ernest artk Mayo'ya gitmeyeceini sylyorsa da Vernon ua Sim Valley pistinde belki Ernest'infiknni deitirebilir umudu ile bekletiyormu. Bu arada Men- ninger'dekilerle grlyormu. Ertesi gn Mary telefon edip Ernest'in gitmeye raz olduunu ve uan da ksa bir sre nce Rochester'a havalandn syledi. Vernon ve Don Anderson da Ernest ile birlikte gitmiler. Mary alamamak iin kendini zor tutuyordu. Vernon'un oraya varr varmaz beni aramasn salayacana sz verdi. Telefon aldmdajjaat gece yarsn geiyordu.Vefnon,uaa binmeden nce Emest'e yksek dozda yattrc verdiini ama uak havalandktan ksa bir sre sonra 'Ernest'in birden uan kapm ap aa atlamak iin byk bir aba harcadm syledi. Onu kapnn nnden ekebilmek iin Don ve Vernon'un tm glerini kullanmalar gerekmi. Arkasndan Vernon Ernest'e byk bir sodyum amitl inesi yapm ve ok gemeden Ernest uyumu. Ksa bir sre sonra uan motorunda bir ama meydana geldii iin Wyoming'de Casper kentine zorunlu ini yapmlar. Uaktan indikten hemen sonra Ernest kendisini . uan dnen pervanesine atmaya alm ama Don Ernest'in kolunu tutuyormu ve kendisini pervane ile Ernest'in arasna atm ama Don neredeyse Ernest'in yznden dnen pervaneye giriyormu. Uan tamiri M saat srm; Ernest tekrar havalanana kadar sakinmi; bir saat kadar uyuma numaras yaptktan sonra, gney Dakota zerinde bir kez daha uaktan atlamaya kalkm. Rochester'a indiklerinde Mayo'daki doktorlar kendilerini bekliyorlarm ve artk daha sakin olan ve doktorlarla sanki eski arkadalarym gibi konuan Ernest derhal St. Mary Hastanesine gtrlp orada zel bir koua yerletirilmi ve srekli kontrol altna alnm. "Tfihi htirlyor msn?"~diyS~s ordum; "Yirmi bei, deil mi?" "Evet, taburcu edildii gnden bu yana hemen hemen ay gemi." "Pek de uzun sreli bir iyileme deildi, deil mi?" Mays ayran ilk haf tasmda Cooper'i son kez grmeye gittim. ubat ve Mart boyunca salnn iyi olduu gnlerde, eskisi gibi yaamn zevkini karmaya devam etti. Bir leden sonra beni Baroda Drive'daki o son derece gzel ve modern evine, be karate uzmannn bahedeki grkemli gsterilerini izlemem iin davet etmie

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there were occasional dinner parties at the Coopers', when old-time friends would carry on as if Cooper were perfectly all right. But by April the pain and ravages of the cancer had finally hiocked him down for keeps, and when I went to see him that afternoon in May he was a wasted figure, lying immobile in his darkened room. His . hair was grey-streaked where the dye had left it. His wife took me into the room, then left us alone. 'Papa phoned a couple of weeks ago.' He paused between words, because it was very painful for him to speak. 'Told me he was sick, too. I bet him that I will beat him out to the bam.' He smiled and closed his eyes nd seemed to doze off. 'Heard on the radio he was back at Mayo's.' The eyes flickered open. 'That right?' . 'Yes.' 'Poor Papa.' His eyes shut again but he seemed to be listening as I told him how the hunting had been the previous season in Ketchum and related little gossips about people he knew there. He was hit by a big pain and his face contorted as he fQUght it off; sweat instantly covered his face. When the pain had passed, Cooper reached his hand over to the bed table and picked up a crucifix, which he put on the pillow beside his head. 'Please give Papa a message. It's important and you mustn't forget because I'll not be talking to him again. Tell him ... that time I wondered if I made the right decision'he moved the crucifix a little closer so that it touched his cheek'tell him it was the best thing I ever did.' 'I'll tell him.'. 'Don't forget.' 'Don't worry, Coops, I'll tell him.' He died ten days later. This time the Mayo doctors had advised Mary not to go to Rochester. They thought it would be better for Ernest if he were cut off from all contact with the outside world. So Mary stayed in Ketchum and kept in touch with the doctors by telephone. Two weeks after Ernest had entered the hospital Mary telephoned me in New York. 'I have a letter from Papa, the first I've received. Long letter, the handwriting pretty good, much more lucid than he's been for a long time. But still harping on our lack of finances and presenting me with a new worry which, do forgive me, I have to share with you. Poor Hotch, Papa writes he has to buy chothes of course I filled his Val-pack with everything he could possibly need and then he says, "Also I should start working and want to be out of here the soonest I can."' 'Do you think the doctors read that letter before he sent it?' 'I don't know, but I wrote back telling him all the local news and all that, and then I said, "Please don't con your friends there into letting you come

ti. Cooper'larda zaman zaman akam yemekleri de veriliyor ve eski arkadalar sanki Cooper ok iyiymi gibi davranyorlard. Fakat Nisan ay ile birlikte, kanser arlan onu yataa mahkum etmiti; kendisini grmeye gittiim o Mays leden sonrasnda karanlk odadaki yatanda kmldamadan yatan tkenmi bir insan grnmndeydi. Boyann gittii yerlerden aklam sa grlyordu. Kars beni odasma gtrd ye sonra ikimizi yalniz brakt. "Papa, birka hafta nce arad." Konuamayacak kadar aa ektiinden her szckten sonra duraksyordu. "Kendisinin de hasta olduunu syledi. Kendisinden daha nce leceime bahse girdim onunla." Glmsedi, gzlerini kapad, uyur gibi oldu. "Radyodan fyla- yo'da olduunu rendim," Gzlerini at. "Doru mu?" "Evet." Zavall Papa. Gzlerini tekrar kapad aina kendisine Ketchum'da av mevsiminin nasl getiini anlatrken ve orada .tand kimi insanlarla ilgili dedikodular aktarrken dinledii belli oluyordu. .Birden byk hir sana girdi ve yz aayla burutu; yz terden srlsklam olmutu. Ars geince yatan zerindeki masaya uzanp orada duran kk ha ald ve bann yanna, yastn stne koydu. "Ltfen Papa'ya bir mesaj gtr. nemli, unutmamalsn nk onunla bir daha konuamayacam. Syle ona . .. O zaman doru karar veiip vermediimi dndm syle." Kk ha yanana deecek kadar yaklatrd. "Ona bunun yaptm en iyi ey olduunu syle." "Sylerim.""Unutma." "Cann skma Coops, sylerim." On gn sonra ld. Bu kez de Mayo'daki doktorlar Mary'ye Rochester'a gitmesinin iyi olmayacan sylemilerdi. Ernest'i d dnya ile olan tm balarndan koparmann onun iin iyi olacan dnyorlard. Bylece Mary Ketchum'da kald, doktorlarla telefon aracl ile haberleiyordu. Emest hastaneye yattktan iki hafta sonra Mary beni New York'ta telefonla arad. "Papa'dan bir mektup aldm, aldm ilk mektup bu. Uzunca bir mektup, elyaz- s olduka dzgn ve uzun zamandr ilk kez olduka anlalr yazm. Ama hl parasal yokluklardan sz ediyorve bana yeni bir kaygsn anlatyor, kusura bakma ama seninle paylamak zorundaym. Zavall Hotch, Papa yeni giysiler almas gerektiini yazyor valizine ihtiyac olabilecek her eyi koymutum ve yle diyor, "Ayn zamanda, almaya balamalym ve mmkn olan en ksa zamanda buradan kmak istiyorum." "Mektubu yollamadan nce doktorlar okudu mu acaba?" "Bilmiyorum, ama ona yazdm mektupta buras ile ilgili tm haberleri verdim ve yle dedim, "Ltfen arkadalarm tedavinin tamamlandndan kesinlikle emin olana dek seni eve. yollamalar iin kandrma nk ne sen ne de ben Ketchum'da

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he'll do just that. And then I worry that that may not have been the proper thing to write him. You know how direct I am. But for all I know, by writing to Papa like that he may turn the persecution convictions against me. So far I've been spared that.' 'I can see that the direct approach may not be the best, but we don't know what approach the doctors are taking.' 'That's it. Well, what I wanted to ask you is if you could talk to Dr Renown about this. I hate taking your ; time, also worrying you. But being totally ignorant of the whole subject, I have nothing to guide me. I also worry that Papa is not being taken deep enough into the causes of all his aberrations. The first time at Mayo's I think the doctors did disabuse Papa of his immediate hallucinations but aren't there deeper things that have to be touched? I don't even know what elec> trie shock is supposed to achieve.' 'Are they giving shock again?' -. 'The last time I spoke to the doctors they said they were going to start a series of them. But I don't even know how many that would be. What alarms me, though, i his talk about returning home. One thing I am sure of is that a repetition of the last three months would destroy me in one way or another. That isn't a threat; it's just a fact. So I just wondered if you could go to see Dr Renown and ask his advice. For me to do it on the phone, he not knowing me, seems an awkward way. of getting at this problem. Maybe we should make a new attempt at transferring Papa to Menninger's. Perhaps you could ask Dr Renown about that, too.' As a result of my subsequent meeting with Dr Renown, I learned something about Ernest's condition. Dr Renown first spoke in a general way about obses- sions and delusions and explained that very little was definitely known about the interrelationships of various symptoms obsession, phobia, depression delusion, depersonalization, anxiety and others and the various shifts of emphasis that may make one more prominent today and another, tomorrow; biit that the classic symptomatic digression is from obsession to delusion. An obsession is an idea that obtrudes itself on the psyche. The person is aware of its lack of logical basis and regards it as alien to his ego or self, but he succumbs to it in order to avoid the anxiety that he experiences if he challenges or ignores it. A delusion, Dr Renown went on to explain, is a false belief that is impervious to logical and factual demonstration of its falsity. In some instances, he pointed out, this fine line is crossed in one way and then in the other; thus there may be obsessional behaviour, in one area and delu- sionaHrranother: Applying this general background to Ernest's specific behaviour, Dr Renown said that the previous October in Madrid, Ernest's anxieties over his excess baggage and keeping his name off the manifest and taking a slow, old aeroplane to avoid

Hotch, aynen byle yapacandan korkuyorum. Ayrca bunun ona yazlmamas gereken bir ey ldn dnyorum. Bilirsin ben hep dobra dobra konuurum. Ama bildiim bir ey varsa o da Ppa'ya bunlar yazmakla iinde benim ona zarar vermek istediim yo- lunda duygular uyandrm olabileceim. imdiye kadar beni bununla sulamamt. "Dobra dobra konumak belki iyi deildir ama doktorlarn Ernest'e nasl yaklatklarm bilmiyoruz." "te sortin bu. Senden Dr. Renown ile bu konuda konumam isteyecektim. Zamanm almay ve seni zmeyi hi istemiyorum. Ama konu hakknda hibir ey bilmediim iin bana yn verecek hibir ey yok. Bunun yan sura Papa'mn sorunlarnn kaynana gtrlmedii kaygs yar iimde. Sanrm Mayo'ya ilk gittiinde doktorlar Papa'y hallsinasyonlarmdan geici olarak kurtardlar ama daha derinlerde, uralmas gereken eyler yok mu? Elektrik okunun ne ie yaradm bile anlamyorum." - "Yine mi ok veriyorlar?", "Doktorlarla son konutuumda bir dizi ok tedavisine balayacaklarm belirttiler. Ama ka tane olacam bile bilmiyorum. Ama beni en ok korkutan ey onun eve dnmekten sz etmesi. Bildiim tek ey, son aym yinelenmesi beni yle ya da byle mahvedecek. Bu bir tehdit deil; sadece gerek. te bunun iin Dr. Renown'u grp, ondan fikir isteyip istemeyeceini renmek istiyorum. Doktor beni taramad iin, bunu benim telefonla yapmam soruna garip bir yaklam biimi gibi grnyor. Belki de Papa'mn Menninger hastanesine, gnderilmesi iin yeni bir giriimde bulunmamz gerekiyor. Dr. Renown'a bunu da sorsan." Dr.Renown ile karlamamda Ernest'in durumu ile ilgili baz eyler renebildim. Doktor Renown ilk nce insanda meydana gelen saplant ve sabuklamalar hakknda genel bir bilgi verdi ve saplant, korku, depresyon, sabuklama, kiilik bozulmas ve kayg gibi eitli semptomlar arasndaki iliki hakknda pek az ey bilindiini ye kiminin bugn kiminin ise bir baka gn daha baskn olabileceini ama klasik semptomatik deiimin saplantdan sabuklamaya doru olduunu anlatt. Saplant kendisini ruha zorla kabul ettirmeye alan bir fikirmi. Kii bunun mantksal bir temelden yoksun olduunu ve bunlarn egosuna ve benliine yabana olduunu bilir ama saplantya kar kar ya da onu gz- ard ederse yaayabilecei kaygdan kamak iin onu kabullenirmi. Doktor Renown, sabuklama, yanll mantksal olarak gsterilemeyen yanl bir inantr, diye devam etti. Baz durumlarda bu ince izginin bir bu bir teki tarafna geildiine, bu nedenle bir blgede saplantsal brnde kuruntusal davran olabildiine iaretetti. Dr. Renown bu temel bilgilerin Ernest'in kimi zel davranna uygulandnda, Ernest'in geen Ekim aynda Madrid'de fazla bavullar ile ilgili korkusunun, ismini listeden karma isteinin ve eski ve yava bir uakla gitmesinin tmnn saplant olduunu syledi. Fakat .telefonunun
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sessions had hardened into delusions and no amount of persuasive logic or evidence could now.have any effect. on Ernest. The obsession had surrounded itself with an impregnable shell, and the fact that that delu- sion-shell was impenetrable necessitated the use of electrical treatment. As for the electrical treatments themselves, Dr Renown said that ECT (Electro Convulsive Treatment) was a concept that was now obsolete. He explained thatin modern treatment the patient receives an injection that puts him to sleep, thereby eliminating the convulsion that was characteristic of the early use of. shock. That once terrifying experience is now no more than an awareness of the injection, then oblivion until the patient wakens a few hours later, when he may or may not have a headache. A patient usually shows some response to three or four treatments, then the series of ten to twelve is completed in order to 'fix' the improvement, although it may be necessary to extend the number to as many as twenty. If improvement is sustained a week or two after the completion of the series, the prognosis is good. If there is indication of relapse, a treatment a week may be given for several weeks, often with very good results. I asked Dr Renown whether the electrical impulses were directed to a particular part of the brain. He said there are fifty organic and fifty psychodynamic theories to explain how electrical treatments are effectual, which is, of course, a comment on our ignorance. We use many treatments in medicine, he said, that we are unable, to explain: digitalis in heart failure; insulin in diabetes. Weknow only that they work. The electrical treatments are applied by placing the electrodes on each temple and the entire brain is affected. No one knows where, memory is stored but it probably is closely related to molecular chemistry of the cells. Iasked him about Ernest's complaints that the shocks the doctors were giving were ruining his memory. He said that the two most prominent side effects of electrical treatments, loss of memory and confusion, both disappear in a short time. It is true, he said, that details of illness and hospitalization may never be recovered to memory this could be a function of the treatment or of the illness, but he felt that such details were not important anyway. But he was very definite that all facts and experiences that predate the illness become as available as ever, once the treatments have ended. Dr Renown speculated that Ernest's fears of impoverishment and of being in jeopardy physically and legally were probably related to his feelings of impoverishment as a writer, with attendant jeopardy of his identity and stature. His psychopathological symptoms, Dr Renown thought, were a defence against recognizing this. They were so dominant that he was not accessible to psychotherapy until they could be neutralized by the electrical treatments.
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kantn Ernest'in zerinde etkili olmas mmkn deilmi. Saplant artk etrafnda kontrol altna alnamaz bir kabuk oluturmu ve sabuklama kabuunun iine girilemez oluu elektrik tedavisini gerektiriyormu. Elektrik ile tedaviye gelince, Doktor Renown artk. ECT'nin (Elektro ok Tedavisi) kullanlmayan bir yntem olduunu syledi. Modem yntemde hastann bir ine ile uyutulduunu ve bylece ok nedeniyle hastann bedeninde oluan iddetli kaslmalarn yok edildiini syledi. O korkun deneyim artk ine yapldn bilmekten baka bir ey deilmi. Sonra hasta birka saat sonra uyanana kadar kendini kaybediyormu, uyandnda kimi zaman baars olabiliyormu. Hasta genellikle ya da drt seanstan sonra tedaviye cevap vermeye balyor, iyilemenin 'kesinlemesi' iin on ya da on iki tane daha yaplyormu ama bazen sayy yirmiye kadar karmak gerekebiliyormu. Tedavinin bitiminden bir ya da iki hafta sonra iyileme koru- nabiliyorsa, sonu iyi kabul ediliyormu. Yeniden depreme belirtileri grlrse birka hafta boyunca haftada bir olmak zere tedaviye devam ediliyor ve genellikle ok iyi sonular alnyormu. Doktor Renown'a elektrik okunun beynin belli bir blmne verilip verilmediini sordum. Bana elektrik tedavilerinin nasl etkili olduunu gsteren elli organik ve elli psikodinamik teori olduunu ve bunun da bu konuda ne kadar cahil olduumuzu gsterdiini syledi. Tpta aklayamadmz birok tedavi uyguladmz syledi: Kalp yetmezliinde yksk otu ve eker hastalnda enslin gibi. Yalnzca ie yaradklarm biliyoruz. Elektrik tedavisi her iki akaa konulan elektrodlar yoluyla yaplr ve beynin tm etkilenir. Hafzann beynin hangi blgesinde depolandm kimse bilmiyor ama hcrelerin molekler yapsyla yalandan ilikisi var. Ernest'in, doktorlarn verdii oktan dolay hafzasn mahvettikleri yolundaki ikyetlerini syledim. Elektrik oku tedavisinin en nemli iki yan etkisinin hafzann kaybolmas ve karmas olduunu ama her ikisinin de ksa zamanda kaybolduunu anlatt. Hastanede hastalkla ve hastaneye yatrlma ile ilgili ayrntlarn hi hatrlanmayabileceklerihi, bunun tedavinin ya da hastaln bir fonksiyonu olabileceini ama byle ayrntlarn zaten pek nemli olmadn syledi. Ancak tedavi sona erdiinde, hastalk ncesi btn gereklerin ve deneyimlerin yeniden hatrland kesindi. Dr. Renown, Ernest'in, gcn kaybettii ve hem fiziksel olarak hem de yasalar nnde tehlikede olduu yolundaki korkularnn bir yazar olarak eski kimlii ve gcn yitirdii dncesinden kaynaklanmakta olabileceini ileri srd. Psikopatolojik semptomlar ise, Dr. Renown'a gre, bunu kabullenmeye kar bir savunma mekanizmas grevi gryordu. Semptomlar o kadar basknd ki, ancak elektrik tedavisi ile etkisizletirildikten sonra kendisine psikoterapi ile ulalabiU- yordu.

During the month of May, Emest received a number of electrical treatments. When they were completed towards the end of the month, Mary was permitted to visit him for three days. She reported that Ernest was even more infuriated with these treatments than the previous ones, registering even bitterer complaints about how his memory was wrecked and how he was ruined as a writer and putting the blame for all this on : the Mayo doctors, who had finally acceded to his demands that they stop giving him the ECT's. At the heart of this conflict between Ernest and his doctors was the fact that he would not admit that he had a condition that needed such drastic treatment. Apparently the doctors had not yet been able to make him face up to the magnitude of his problem. He did not talk to Mary any more about killing himself and, in fact, firmly stated he was all over thinking about suicide, but the delusions remained the same. By now they-had broadened to include hostility against Vernon Lord and against TMary herself. The first night she was there he accused her of having dragged him to Mayo's to get hold of his money; But the following day he was loving and appreciative towards her. His moods oscillated wildly. He had developed a new delusion which had turned him against Ketchum: he could not possibly go back there because they were lying in wait to nab him and throw him into jail for not paying state taxes, and he accused Mary of secretly working with them and manoeuvring him into going back there so they could nail him. . 'How can we persuade him to have the treatment that he feels isn't necessary?' Mary asked. 'How can we make him see the extent of his problem, to admit that he even has ne, so the Mayo doctors can work on it? They don't seem to be able to make him realize why shock is necessary. Maybe we could. And seeing him there, all cooped up, never allowed out without an escort, was terrible. Poor darling. Isn't there some place where he could be outdoors? You know how Papa loves the out of doors. He talked about going abroad, even wiring friends in Spain and France, so maybe he'd go to a clinic in Switzerland or somewhere like that. It's so confusing seeing him there needing help, the help all around him, but not getting through to him. There must be a way.' Ernest's mind seemed to have constructed an intolerable prison from which there was no escape; projecting from the reality that he could never return to his house in Havana, delusion had built three other walls: he could not stay in Rochester for they were ruining his memory; he could not go to hxs aparfmenfin New York for they would nab him for having impaired the morals of a minor who lived in that city; he could not go to Ketchum for they would get him for state taxes. About the same time that Ernest was permitted

Maps boyunca Ernest'e bir dizi elektrik tedavisi uyguland. Aym sonuna doru tedaviler tamamlandnda, Mary'ye Ernest'i gn ziyaret etme izni verildi. Mary, Ernest'in bu tedavilere eskisinden daha ok sinirlendiini, hafzasnn nasl yok edildii ve yazarlnn mahvedildii konusunda ok daha ac ikyetlerde bulunduunu ve btn suun Mayo'daki doktorlarda olduunu sylediini anlatt. Sonunda doktorlar Ernest'in ECT uygulanmasna son verilmesi isteini kabul ettiler. Doktorlar ve Ernest arasndaki b atmann temelinde yatan neden Ernest'in byle ar bir tedaviyi gerektirecek bir durumda olduunu kabul etme- mesiydi. Doktorlarn Ernest'i, hastalnn nemine hl inandramam olduklar akt. Artk Mary'ye kendini ldrmekle ilgili dncelerinden hi bahsetmiyor, hatta intihar etmeyi dnmekten vazgetiini vurguluyordu ama sabuklamalar hl vard. Hatta bunlar daha da artm ve Vemon ile Mary'yi de kapsamt. Oraya gittii ilk gece, Mary'yi parasn ele geirmek iin kendisini Mayo Kliniine zorla kapamakla sulamt. Ancak ertesi gn, Mary'ye kar olduka sevecendi ve tutumunu onaylyordu. inde bulunduu ruh durumu srekli deiiyordu. inde yeni oluan bir kuruntu, onun Ketchum'a kar bir tavr almasna neden olan yeni bir sabuklamas vard: Oraya kesinlikle dnemeyeceini nk vergilerini demediinden orada kendisini hapse atmak iin beklediklerini ve Mary'yi de onlarla gizili bir ibirlii iinde olmakla ve yakalanmasn salamak iin kendisini oraya gtrmeye almakla suluyordu. Mary, "Gerekli grmedii tedaviye nasl raz edebiliriz onu?" diye sordu. "Hastaln boyutlarm, hatta hasta olduunu nasl anlatabiliriz ona ve Mayo'daki doktorlarn hastaln tedavi etmelerini nasl salaya biliriz? Doktorlarn ok tedavisinin neden gerekli olduunu ona anlatamadklar anlalyor. Belki biz baarabiliriz. Onu oraya kapatlm, yarmda birisi olmadan dar kmasna izin verilmediini grmek ok ktyd. Zavall sevgilim. Rahatlkla darda dolaabilecei bir yer yok mu acaba? Papa'nn darda dolamay ne kadar ok sevdiini bilirsin. Yurt dna gitmekten, hatta spanya ve Fransa'daki arkadalarna telgraf ekip svire'de ya da oraya benzer bir yerde bir klinie yatmaktan sz etti bana. Onun orada, evresindeki herkesin yardmna gereksinimi olduunu ama bu yardmn kendisine ulamadn grmek ok kt. Bir yol olmal." Emest kafasnda, katlanlmas ve kamas olanaksz bir hapishane yaratmt; Havana'daki evine bir daha hi dnemeyecei gereinden yola karak iindeki sabuklamala yeni alamaz duvar daha-rmt Rochester'de kalamazd nk hafzasn yok ediyorlard; New York'a gidemezdi nk orada bir kn ahlkn bozduu iin kendisini yakalarlard; Ketchum'a gidemezdi nk orada da eyalet vergileri yznden tutuklarlard. Mary ile grmesine izin verildii sralarda Emest'e benimle, tarihleri daha nceden saptanm ve doktorlar tarafndan dinlenen birka

What he was mostly concerned about in those talks was a sudden and new compulsion to have a motion picture made of Across the River and into the Trees. For ten years he had turned down all picture offers for the. book, the most persistent of which came from Jerry Wald, and on one occasion he had returned a fifty- thousand-dollar option cheque from Columbia Pictures. It's true that he had agreed to let Cooper do it, b u t . that was a gesture of accommodation rather than desire. Now, however, it was a vital matter. He wanted to know who I thought could play the role of fiftyyear- old Colonel Cantwell. He asked about an actor, whose name he couldn't recall, who lived in Switzerland and who had been proposed by Jerry Wald for the part. I identified the actor. He said that was exactly who should not play the colonel. He then tried to think of two other actors who he thought could play the part but could not recall their names either, and he raged out at what they had done to his memory. In these phone talks Ernest was very businesslike and uncharacteristically crisp. I had the distinct impression he had in front of him a list of items to be discussed and he seemed to hurry from one to the next without paying too much attention to my responses, as if the list were an end in itself. Also, the natural slow rhythm of his speech had changed and his voice was a tape being run through the machine too fast. As for Across the River, I simply put him off by saying I would look into it, but I didn't. In the beginning of June, on my way back from Hollywood, I rented a car in Minneapolis and drove the ninety miles to Rochester through lovely spring countryside. The town seemed a little less forbidding decorated with green leaf. The nature of Ernest's hospitalization had been well publicized. Time magazine had wormed its way into the hospital's confidential records and had smeared its pages with the contents of the file on Ernest, including the number of shock treatments he had received. Where the facts were missing, Time filled the gaps with conjecture. When I approached Ernest's room, he was standing at an elevated hospital table with a newspaper spread before him; I stood at the open door, not able, for the moment, to enter; whereas on my previous visit he had appeared attenuated, now the man he once was had disappeared and the man before me was only a marker to show where he had been. He was very happy and, in a peculiar and incomprehensible way, proud that I had come. He called in nurses and other floor personnel, and introduced them to me, each introduction followed by an effusive endorsement of my past, present and future. When the doctors came they readily gave their consent to Ernest's request to go for a drive. In the car I started to tell Ernest about Honor, who had obtained her first job, but he cut me off

Bu konumalarmz srasnda onu en ok ilgilendiren ey birden doan Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine'nin filme alnmas istei idi. On yl boyunca kitabyla ilgili ald btn film nerilerini geri evirmiti, bu konuda en byk srar Jerry Wald'dan gelmi, bir kez de Kolombiya film irketinin kitabn tm h aid arm 50 bin dolara satn alma nerisini reddetmiti. Cooper'n evirmesini kabullendii doruydu ama bu kabulleni istek- V sizdi: imdi ise byle bir alma yapmak onun iin ok nemliydi. Benim elli yandaki albay Cantwell roln kimin oynayabilecei hakkndaki dncelerimi renmek istiyordu. Bana svire'de yaayan ve Jerry Wald tarafndan nerilen, adn hatrlayamad bir aktr sordu. Aktrn adn syledim. Albay oynamamas gereken bir kii varsa onun da o aktr olduunu syledi. Sonra rol oynayabileceklerini dnd iki aktrn adn hatrlamaya alt ama baaramad, bunun zerine hafzasnn mahvedil eliini syleyerek kprd. Bu telefon konumalarnda Ernest'in sesi tam bir ia- damnmki gibi ve hibir zaman olmad kadar kararl geliyordu. Sanki nnde konuacaklarm daha nceden yazd bir liste vard ve benim grlerimi pek nemsemeden listesindeki maddeleri acele acele okuyor duygusu uyanyordu iimde; sanki listeyi okumakla i bitiyor gibi. Ayn zamanda gerekte yava olan konumas deimi ve sesi yksek devirle dnen bir teypten kyormu gibiydi. Irmaktan teye'ye gelince, ilgileneceimi syleyerek onu oyaladm, ama ilgilenmedim. Haziran banda Hollywood'dan dnerken Minnea- polis'te bir araba kiralayp baharla canlanm olan doa ierisinden geerek 90 mil tedeki Rochester'a gittim. Yeil yapraklarla bezenen kent daha az rktc grnyordu. Ernest'in hastaneye kaldrl nedenini herkes duymutu. Time dergisi hastanenin gizli kaytlarna kadar girmi, dergiyi Ernest'in kaytlaryla ok tedavisinin saysna varana kadar doldurmutu. Kimi konular ile ilgili yeterli bilgi elde edemeyince Time, salayamad bilgiden doan boluklar varsaymla doldurmutu. Ernest'in odasma geldiimde, onu hafife yukar kaldrlm hastane masasnn nnde durmu masann zerine alm gazeteyi okurken buldum. Ak kapnn nnde bir an durdum, ieri bir trl giremiyordum. Bir nceki ziyaretimde olduka zayf grnen insan tamamen yok olmutu ve imdi karmda duran kiinin eski haliyle yatandan uzaktan bir ilgisi yoktu. ok mutlu oldu; gelmemden garip ve anlalmaz bir biimde gurur duyuyordu. Hemireleri ve dier kat grevlilerini ararak bana tantt; her tantrmann arkasndan gemiim, geleceim ve imdid durumum hakknda bol miktarda vg geliyordu. Doktorlar gelince, Ernest'in bir sre araba ie dolama isteini hemen kabul ettiler. Arabaya bindiimizde Emest'e Honor'dan, bulduu ilk iten sz etaneye baladm ama hemen beni susturdu. Her eyin eskisi gibi

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tance through woods along a trail that emerged upon a clearing. The view was a three-quarters sweep of all the surroundings; the sky was cloudless and busy with birds cavorting in the green-scented air. Ernest noticed none of it; he immediately took me through a catalogue of his miseries: first, poverty complaints; then accusations against his banker, his lawyer, his doctor, all the fiduciary people in his life; after that, his worries over not having the proper clothes; and then the taxes. There was great deal of repetition. My first inclination was to let him talk himself out, hoping that perhaps that would help release the pressures within him, but as I watched him pace about, his eyes on the ground, his face contorted by the miseries he was recounting, there rose in me a kind of anger, and finally not able to hold back, I stepped into his path, causing him to look up, and said: 'Papa, it's spring!' He looked at me blankly, his eyes fuliginous behind his old glasses. 'We missed Auteuil again.' Reality. Make him come into my world. Restate the reality. 'We missed Auteuil again, Papa.' The eyes stirred. He moved his hands into his pockets. 'And we will miss it andmiss it and miss it,' he said. 'Why?' My words pounced on his. I didn't want to lose the wedge.'Why not next autumn? What's wrong with a good autumn meet? Who says Batadan can't run in autumn leaves?',Mention the good associations. 'There won't be another spring, Hotch.' 'Of course there will. I can guarantee i t . . . ' 'Or another autmn.' His whole body had relaxed. He went over and sat on a busted fragment of stone wall. 1 stood before him with one foot upon ah overturned rock. I felt I should get to it quickly now, and I did, but said it very gently: 'Papa, why do you want to kill yourself?' He hesitated only a moment; then he spoke in his old, deliberate way. 'What do you think happens to a man going on sixty-two when he realizes that he can never write the books and stories he promised himself? Or do any of the other things he promised himself in the good days?' 'But how can you say that? You have Written a beautiful book about Paris, as beautiful as anyone can hope to write. How can you overlook that?' 'The best of that I wrote before. And now I can't finish it.' 'But perhaps it is finished and it is reluctance . . .' 'Hotch, if I can't exist on my own terms, then existence is impossible. Do you understand? That is how "TVFlived, and~tfrafis~how I jnwsflive or not live.' 'But why can't you just put writing aside for now? You have always spent a long time between books. Ten years between To Have and Have Not

tk. Buradan evrenin te ikisini grebiliyorduk, bir tek bulut bile olmayan gkyz cvl cvl kularla dolu idi. Ernest bunlarn hibiri ile ilgilenmedi. Hemen skntl olduu konular birbiri ardna sralamaya balad: nce paraszlktan yaknd; sonra avukatn, doktorunu ve muhasebecisini, hayatndaki en gvenilir insanlar sulad; arkasndan doru drst giysileri olmadndan ve sonra da vergilerden yaknd. Sylediklerini ounlukla yineliyordu. indeki basklardan kurtulmasna yardma olabileceini umarak nceleri istedii kadar konumasna izin vermeyi dndm, ama onu gzleri yerde, yz garip birekil alm dert yanarken grnce iimi fke kaplad. Sonunda kendimi daha fazla tutamadm ve nne getim, bam yukar kaldrdm ve "Papa ilkbahar geldi!" dedim. Eski gzlklerinin arkasndaki, sanki bir sis perdesi ile kaplanm gzleri bombo bakt bana. "Auteuil'e yine gidemedik Papa," dedim. Onu gereklere, kendi dnyama ekmek istiyordum. "Auteuil'e yine gidemedik Papa," diye yineledim. Gzleri hareket etti. Ellerini ceplerine soktu ve "Gidemeyeceiz, gidemeyeceiz ve de gidemeyeceiz," dedi. "Neden?" diye bastrdm. Etkiyi karmak istemiyordum. "Neden gelecek sonbaharda olmasn? Sonbaharda bulumann sakncas ne? Kim demi Bataclan sonbahar yapraklar arasnda koamaz diye?" Gzel anlar artrmaya alyordum. "Bir baka ilkbahar olmayacak, Hotch." "Elbette olacak, bunu sana garanti ederim..." "Ne de bir baka sonbahar." Btn vcudu gevemiti. Birka adm tedeki bir ta duvar ykntsnn stne oturdu. nnde durup ayam ters dnm bir tan stne koydum. Konuya girmem gerektiini dnyordum ve girdim ama ok yumuak bir tonla, "Papa, neden kendini ldrmek istiyorsun?" Yalnzca bir an duralad; sonra yine o eski ve kendin-- den emin hali ile konutu. "Kendi kendine sz verdii kitap ve ykleri yazamadn anlayan altm ikisine yaklam birine ne olur bilir misin? Ya da iyi gnlerinde yapmaya sz verdii eyleri yapamayana?" "Fakat, bunu nasl sylersin? Paris hakknda herkesin yazmak isteyecei kadar gzel bir kitap yazdn. Bunu nasl grmezlikten gelirsin?" "En iyi blmleri eskiden yazdm. Ama bitiremiyorum imdi." "Belki bitti de yalnzca bir isteksizlik..." "Hotch, kendi kurallarma gre yaayamyorsam o zaman yaamaFolaniksz. Anlyor musun/imdiye ' kadar hep yle yaadm ve yle yaamak zorundaym, yoksa lmek daha iyi." "Peki, neden yazma iini imdilik brakmyorsun? Yazdn Mtaplar arasnda uzun sreler oldu hep. anlar Kimin in-alyor ve Ya Hep Ya Hi arasnda on yl ve bir on yl da rmaktan teye' yi yazana kadar geti. Biraz dinlen. Kendini zorlama. Niye yle yapasm d? Hi zorlamadn ki." "Yapamam."
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stories. At the end of it you said you hoped you could live long enough to write three more novels and twen- ty-five more stories. That was your ambition. All right For Whom the Bell Tolls, Across the River and into the Trees and The Old Man and the Sea; not to mention the unpublished ones. And there're more than twenty-five stories, plus the book of Paris sketches. You've fulfilled , .your covenant the one you made with yourselfthe only one that counts. So, for God's sake wliy can't you rest on that?' .'Because look, it doesn't matter that I don't write for a day or a year or ten years as long as the knowledge, that I can write is solid inside me. But a day without that knowledge, or not being sure of it, is eternity.' 'Then why not turn from writing altogether? Why not retire? God knows you have earned it.' 'And do what?' 'Any of the things you love and enjoy. You once talked about getting a new boat big enough to take you around the world, fishing in good waters you've never tried. How about that? Or that plan about the game preserve in Kenya? You've talked about the tiger shoot in India Bhaiya's invitation there's that. And. at one time we talked about your going in with Antonio on the bull ranch. There's so damn many things . . . ' 'Retire? How the hell can a writer retire? DiMaggio put his records in the book, and so did Ted Williams, and then on a particular good day, with good days getting rarer, they hung up their shoes. So did Marciano. That's the way a champ should go out. Like Antonio. A champion cannot retire like anyone else.' 'You've got some books on the shelf . ..' ; ^Sure. I've got six books I declare to win with. I can stand on that. But unlike your baseball player and your prize-fighter and your matador, how does a writer retire? No one accepts that his legs are shot or the whiplash gone from his reflexes. Everywhere he goes, he hears the same goddamn question What are you working on?' 'But who cares about the questions? You never cared about those phoney tape measures. Why don't you let us help you? Mary will go anywhere you want, do anything you like. Don't shut her out. It hurts her so.' 'Mary is wonderful. Always and now. Wonderful. She's been so damn brave and good. She is all that is left to be glad for. I love her. I truly love her.' A rise of tears made it impossible for me to talk any more. Ernest was not looking at me; he was watching a small bird foraging in the scrub. 'You remember I told you once she did not know about other people's hurts. Well, I was wrong. She knows. She knows how I hurt and she suffers while trying to help me I wish to Christ I could spare her that. Listen, Hotch, whatever happens, whatever... she's good and strong, but remember sometimes the strongest of women need help.' I couldn't manage any more. I walked a short
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kadar yaamak istediini sylemitin. Bu senin hedefindi. Pekla, baslmayanlar bir kenara brakrsak anlar Kimin in alyor, Irmaktan teye Aalarn ine ve htiyar Adam ve Deniz'i yazdn. Buna ek olarak yirmi beten fazla hikyen ve Paris ile ilgili kitabn var. Kendine verdiin sz, senin iin nemli olan eyi, gerekletirdin. Tanr akna, neden yetinmiyorsun bunlarla?" "nk . .. Bak imdi, eer ben iimde yazabileceim inancn gl olarak duyuyorsam, bir gn; bir yl ya da on yl yazmamm nemli de. Ama o inan olmadan ya da ondan emin olmadan bir gn bile yaamak sonsuza kadar srecekmi gibi geliyor." "Peki o halde neden yazmay tamamen brakmyorsun? Neden bir kenara ekilmiyorsun? Tanr biliyor, bunu hakettin." "Sonra ne yapaym?" "Yapmak istediin ve sevdiin her eyi. Bir zamanlar btn dnyay dolaabilecein yeni, byk bir kotra satn alp hi avlanmadn gzel sularda avlanmaktan sz etmitin. Ne dersin buna? Veya Kenya'da vahi hayvan park kurma planna? Bhaiya'nn daveti zerine Hindistan'a kaplan avlamaya gitmekten sz ediyordun, o da var. Ve bir zamanlar seninle Antonio ile birlikte boa iftlii kurma plann hakknda konumutuk. O kadar ok ey var ki..." "Bir kenara ekilmek mi? Yahu bir yazar nasl yapabilir bunu? DiMaggio rekorlarm kitaplara geirdi, Ted Williams da, ve sonra iyi gnlerin azalmaya balad bir srada, ayakkablarm duvara astlar. Mardano da yle yapt. ampiyonlar yle yapmal. Antonio gibi. ampiyonlar herhangi biri gibi ayrlamaz." "Senin de yazdn bir sr kitabn var " , . "Tabii. ampiyon olmam slayck alt kitabm var: Buna eminim. Ama bir yazar, beyzbl oyuncusu, boksr ya da matador gibi nasl bir kenara ekilebilir? Kimse onun ayaklarnn sakatlandn ya da reflekslerinin zayfladm kabul etmez. Nereye giderse gitsin hep ayn kahredici soruyu duyacaktrNe yazyorsun?" "Ama kim aldrr sorulara? Sen hibir zaman aldrmadn byle llere. Neden sana yardm etmemize izin vermiyorsun? Mary seninle istediin yere gitmeye, istediin eyi yapmaya hazr. Onu defterden silme. Bu onu ok zyor." "Mary ok iyi bir insan. Hep yleydi, imdi de yle. ok iyi. Hep olaanst yrekli ve iyi bir insan olmutur. Beni mutlu edecek tek o kald. Onu seviyorum. Gerekten seviyorum." Gzlerimde biriken yalar daha fazla konumam engelledi. Emest bana bakmyordu; ilerdeki aalarda yiyecek arayan kk bir kuu izliyordu. "Hatrlyor musun, bir zamanlar sana Mary'rin insanlarn ektii aclar hakknda bir ey bilmediini sylemitim. Yanlmm. Biliyor. Nasl aa ektiimi biliyor ve bana yardm etmeye alrken o da ekiyor. Tanrm, onu bir kurtarabilsem bu dertten. Dinle Hotch, ne olursa olsun, ne olursa... gl ve iyi biri ama bilirsin kimi zaman gl kadnlara bile yardm gerekir." Daha fazla dayanamadm. Biraz uzaklatm.

'Then I'll give you another.' 'Okay.' I stooped down to pick up a bright pebble but Ernest stopped me. 'Nothing from here,' he said. 'There's no such thing as a lucky piece from Rochester, Minnesota.' I had a key ring that one of my daughters had given me, that had a carved wooden figure attached to it, so I removed the figure and.gaye h i m ^ t h a t . . . . . . ..... . . 'If I could get out of here and get back to Ketchum ... why don't you talk to them?' 'I will, Papa, I will.' I felt suddenly elated. 'And you should work hard to think about the things you care' about and like to do, and not about all those negative things. That's the best thing that can happen.' 'Sure. Sure it is. The best things in life and other ballroom bananas. But what the hell? What does a man care about? Staying healthy. Working good. Eating and drinking with his friends. Enjoying himself in bed. I haven't any of them. Do you understand goddamn it? None of them. And while I'm planning my good times and world-wide adventures, who will keep the Feds off my ass and how do the taxes get paid if I don't turn out the stuff that gets them paid? You've been pumping me and getting the gen, but you're like Vernon Lord and all the rest, turning state's evidence, selling out to t h e m . . .' I lashed into him. 'Papa! Papa, damn it! Stop it! Cut it out!' A heavy quiver shook him, that thin old lovely man, and he held his hand against his eyes for a moment before he started to walk slowly back along the path to the car; we didn't say another word all the way back to the hospital. . . I stayed with him for few hours in his room. He was plesant but distant. We talked about books and sports; nothing personal. Late in the day I drove back to Minneapolis. I never saw him again. On the flight back to New York I thought about Mary's suggestion about a place that had access to the out of doors where Ernest could enjoy good air and scenery while receiving treatment. I knew now that he could be reached. On the hilltop he had been momentarily clear and lucid about his troubles. Sitting there in the plane, I could not help but try to reason out, from what he had said, what the. forces had been that had crushed him. He was a man of prowess and he did . not want to live without it: writing prowess, physical prowess, sexual prowess, drinking and eating prowess. Perhaps when these powers diminished, his mind became-programmed-to-setup-distorteddefenees for himself. But if he could only be made to adjust to a life where these prowesses were not so allimpor- tant... I found myself thinking about his dicho: man can be defeated but not destroyed. Maybe it could work that way, even though Ernest favoured its contrary brother, Ernest Walsh's words came back to me: 'It will take time to wear him out. And before that he will be dead.'

"yleyse ben de sana baka bir uur vereyim." "Olur." Yere eilip parlak bir ta almak zereydim ki Ernest beni durdurdu, "Buradan olmaz," dedi. "Rochester, Minnesota'da uurlu br ey olamaz." Kzlarmdan birinin bana verdii bir anahtarlk vard yanmda. Bu anahtarln ucundaki kk aa oyma figr karp kendisine verdim. "Buradan kurtulup Ketchum'a bir gidebilsem... Neden konumuyorsun onlarla?" "Konuacam Papa. Konuacam." Birden moralim dzelmiti. "Sen de yapmak istediin ve sevdiin eyleri dnmeye zorlamalsn kendini, o kt eyleri deil. Yaplacak en iyi ey bu." "Tabii. Tabii. Hayattaki en iyi eyler, ve dier samalklar. N'olmu yani? Bir insan ilgilendiren eyler nedir? Salkl olmak. yi almak. Arkadalarla yiyip imek. Yatakta elenmek. Bunlarn hibiri yok bendeT Allah kahretsin, anlyor musun? Hibiri. Ben gelecek iin, dnyann eitli yerlerinde maceralar yaamak iin planlar yaparken peimdeki federal yetkililerden kim kurtaracak beni,. ayrca vergileri dememi salayan eyler retemezsem kini der onlar? Beni smrp zm alyorsunuz. Sende Vernon ye dierleri gibisin, devlet lehine ahitlik edip satyorsun beni onlara...." "Papa! Papa! Allah kahretsin! Yeter artk! Kes bu sa- mali?" diye bardm ona. Birden o zavall yal adam bir titreme sard ve arabaya giden patikada yrmeden nce bir sre ellerini yzne kapad; hastaneye dnene kadar bir daha konumadk. Bir-iki saat odasnda oturdum onunla. Nazik ama mesafeliydi. Kitaplardan, spordan konutuk; kiisel hibir eyden sz almad. Ge bir saatte Minneapo- lis'e dndm. Onu bir daha grmedim. New York'a dnerken uakta, Mary'nin, Emest'i tedavi grrken dar kp dolaabilecei bir yere yatrma dncesi geldi aklma. Artk Ernest ile iletiim kurulabileceini biliyordum. O tepede, bir anlna bile olsa,' sorunlarnn bilincindeydi. Uakta otururken sylediklerinden kendini ezen glerin neler olduunu bulmaya almaktan kendimi alamadm. ok yetenekli bir kiiydi ve yazma yetenei, fiziksel yetenek, cinsel yetenek^ yeme ve ime yetenei olmakszn yaamak istemiyordu. Belki bu yetenekleri azalnca beyni arpk savunma mekanizmalar oluturmaya programlanmt. Ama bu yeteneklerin pek de nemli olmad bir yaam biimine kendisini bir altrabilse... Ernest'in yaam felsefesini dndm: nsan yenile_bilir,.ama_yokledilemez.Jimest_bununtersin.e_inansa. da, sonu byle olabilirdi. Ernest Walsh'm szleri aklma geldi: "Bitip tkenmesi uzun zaman alacak. Ama daha nce Ernest

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idences, open grounds in a scenic setting, fine staff, long-term intensive care a specialty. Mary flew up to inspect it and consult with the director. She thought that in all aspects the institute would be splendid for Emest and brought back brochures and literature for me to look at, but again she faced the problem that transfer was not possible without Ernest's consent. Since this was a psychiatric institution and there was no way to disguise that fact, his resistance to it was foreordained. She wrote to the Mayo doctors, -asking their assistance in influencing Ernest, but they replied that they would not aid in such a transfer since they did not feel it was to the patient's best interest. On the other hand, the institute was very deferential to Mayo's and insisted on playing a completely passive role. On the evening of 14 June Mary came to dinner at my apartment. She had arranged a conference call with the Mayo doctors, and when it came through she asked me to listen in on an extension. The Mayo doctors said that Ernest was showing marked improvement and would suffer a lack of confidence in treatment if he were transferred. Mary asked what the marked improvements were. She was told that he was swimming every day, that he had promised to give up worrying about clothes, that he was making more mental effort, as evidenced by the fact that he had started to read a book the first book he had read in the six weeks he had been there and he was writing down notes about it. Mary asked the name of the book. She was told it was Out of My League by an author named George Plimpton. (The doctors had obviously not noticed Ernest's endorsement of the book on its dust jacket. Mary let it pass.) The doctors said that another good sign was Ernests heightened interest in getting back to Ketchum and getting to work. Mary asked whether they planned to give any more shock treatments; they answered vaguely and it was my impression that they did not. Mary then said that she was planning to go to Ketchum for the summer and asked whether, on the way, she could visit Emest without upsetting him. To the contrary, the doctors said. It would be highly beneficial for Ernest to see her, and perhaps it might not be a bad idea to let him return to Ketchum for the summer to see whether he really could get to work. Mary became very disturbed at that suggestion, and said that she did not want to take on such a responsibility, that Ernest's letters did not reflect the degree of progress that would make her feel secure in having him back home. She said she did not want to come to the clinic on that basis. The doctors acquiesced, and said they would not promote Ernest's return just yet. I was getting ready to leave for Europe, but Mary and Imanaged one last meeting before I left. She told me that she had consulted Dr Renown after the Mayo phone call and told him how terrified she was that Ernest would be sent back to Ketchum at that time. He had telephoned the Mayo doctors
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galovlar, gzel manzaral ak alanlar, iyi bir personel kadrosu vard ve uzun sreli youn bakm konusunda bu enstit uzmand. Mary enstity incelemek ve mdryle grmek iin uakla oraya gitti. Mary, Emest iin enstitnn her adan ok iyi olacan dnyordu, hatta bana bir sr bror getirdi; ama imdi yine oraya gtrebilmek iin Ernest'in rzas gerekiyordu. Buras bir psikiyatri enstits olduu ve bunu: gizlemenin hibir yolu olmad iin Ernest'in byle bir yere itiraz edecei kesindi. Mary, Mayo'daki doktorlara yazarak Ernest'i bu konuda ikna etmeye almalarn istemi, ama oradaki doktorlar u anda byle bir yer deiiminin hastann yararna olmayacan dndklerinden bu konuda yardm etmeyeceklerini bildirmilerdi. te yandan, enstitdekiler de Mayo Kliniine ok sayg duyduklarndan tmyle pasif kalmakta srarlydlar. 14 Haziran akam Mary bana yemee geldi. Mayo'daki doktorlarla bir tele-konferans ayarlamt ve telefon geldiinde konumay paralelden dinlememi istedi. Mayo'daki doktorlar Ernest'in gzle grlr bir gelime gsterdiini, ama imdi bir baka yere gtrlrse tedaviye olan gveninin sarslacan sylediler. Mary de Emest'teki gzle grlr iyilemenin ne olduunu sordu. Doktorlar, her gn yzdn, giysilerden yaknmayacana sz verdiim ve kitap okumaya balamasndan da grld gibi artk daha fazla zihinsel etkinlikte bulunduunu sylediler. Orada bulunduu alt haftadan beri okuduu ilk kitapm ve Ernest kitap hakknda not tutuyormu. Mary kitabn adn sordu. George Plimpton adl bir yazarn Out of My League adl kitab olduunu sylediler. (Doktorlarn kitabn i kapanda Ernest'in vg yazm grmedikleri aka belliydi. Mai-y stelemedi.) Doktorlar bir baka iyi iaretin de Ernest'in Ketchum'a dnmek ve tekrar ahmaya balamak konusunda artan istei olduunu sylediler. Mary, ok tedavisini srdrp srdrmeyeceklerini sordu; ok ak bir cevap vermediler; srdrmeyecekleri izlenimi uyand iimde. Mary, doktorlara yazn Ketchum'a gitmek istediini, yol zerinde de Ernest'i bozulmasna neden olmadan ziyaret edip edemeyeceini sordu. Tam tersi dedi doktorlar. Ernest'in Mary'yi grmesinin ok yararl olacan ve yaz iin Ernest'in Ketchum'a dnp alp alamayacan grmek asndan iyi olabileceini eklediler. Bu neri Mary'yi ok rahatsz etti ve byle bir sorumluluk yklenmek istemediini, Ernest'in mektuplarnda eve dndnde kendisini gvencede hissedecek kadar iyilemi olduunu gsteren bir belirti bulunmadn syledi. Bu koullarda klinie gitmek istemediini syledi. Doktorlar kabul etti ve imdilik Ernest'in eve dnmesi konusunu bir kenara brakacaklarn sylediler. Avrupaya gitmek iin hazrlanyordum ama yine de Mary ile, yola kmadan nce son bir kez bir araya geldik. Bana Mayo Kliniine telefon ettikten sonra Doktor Renown'u aradn ve Ernest'in

therapy, with a weekly electrical treatment if needed. Because the Mayo doctors had resisted this suggestion, he urged Mary to redouble her efforts to effect the transfer to The Institute of Living; but she had told him that she was fearful of the sensational and notorious publicity this would undoubtedly set off. She said that Dr Renown then pointed out to her that there might be some advantages to inside-page news items about going to the institute, in contrast to front-page headlines about his suicide. That was the situation when I left for Europe. Towards the end of June I received a note from Mary telling me that when she had arrived in Rochester the Mayo doctors had put pressure on her to let Ernest go along to Ketchum. In fact, they had already told Emest that he could go, and he was counting on it. The doctors said that they felt Ernest was on the. threshold of a new phase, and needed to prove to himself what he could do in Ketchum. Mary said she had again brought up the institute, but the doctors very firmly said, that such, a transfer would definitely set Ernest back and couldn't be considered; that, in fact, it would destroy the new. confidence which they had so painstakingly built up. They said that. Ernest was between sixty to seventy per cent of his normal self and that that was plenty good to sustain him. Mary said she tried to protest but that with such little psychiatric knowledge it was futile. So she was resigned fearful but resigned. She had rented a car and George Brown was flying out from New York to drive them through the northern states to Ketchum. On 2 July I flew from Malaga to Madrid, where I stayed overnight to catch the morning jet for Rome. As I was-leaving-thehotel-elevator-to-go-tothe-air-port-the- morning of the third, Bill Davis hurriedly entered the lobby. He had driven all through the night, virtually the length of Spain, to tell me that Ernest had shot himself and to be with me at this moment. I was glad he had. But what Ernest had done did not really hit me .deeply at that time. It took months for that to happen. On the flight to Rome I read the details of what had happened. As Dr Renown had predicted, there were banner headlines on the front pages newspapers everywhere I went. The Associated Press dispatch said that Ernest had been cheerful during the three-day drive through the northern states and appeared to en-

yorsa haftada bir elektrik tedavisi uygulanmas gerektiini sylemi. Mayo'daki doktorlar bu neriye kar ktklar iin Mary'den Emest'in The Institute of Liv- ing'e gnderilmesi abalarn iki katma karmasn istemi; ama Mary ona bunun, sansasyonel ve olumsuz haberlerin yazlmasna neden olabileceinden korktuunu sylemi. O zaman, Doktor Renown'un kendisine Ernest'in enstitye gidiinin i sayfalara haber olmasnn,intiharnn, .n; sayfalara' manet olmasndan:' daha iyi olacan syleiiigini nltti. Avrupa'ya hareket ettiim zaman durum buydu. Ha- ziran'm sonuna doru Mary'den aldm bir mektupta, Rochester'a gittiinde doktorlarn Ernest'i Ketchum'a gtrmesi iin kendisine bask yaptklarm yazyordu. Aslnda, Ernest'e gidebileceini oktan sylemiler ve o da bunu bekliyormu. Doktorlar Ernest'in yeni bir dnemin eiinde olduunu ve Ketchum'da neler yapabileceini kendi kendine kantlama gereini duyduunu sylemiler. Mary kendilerine tekrar enstit konusunu atnda doktorlarn bunun Ernest zerinde olumsuz bir etki yaratacandan dnlemeyeceini kesin bir dille belirttiklerini, hatta o kadar glkle saladklar gveni yok ede- . ceini sylediklerini anlatyordu. Doktorlar u anda Ernest'in yzde altm veya ;. /yetmi eski durumuna dndn ve bunun da yaamas iin yeterli olduunu eklemiler. Mary birok konuda sylenenlere kar kmak istemi ama psikiyatri konusunda bilgisi ok Mstl olduu iin abalar boa km. Sonunda vazgemi; korku dolu olduu halde vazgemi. Bir araba ki- . ralam ve George Brown da arabay kullanmak iin New York'tan uakla yola km. Temmuz'da Malaga'dan Madrid'e utum. Orada bir gece kalp ertesi gn sabah uayla Roma'ya gidecekMmr-3-Temmuz-sabahi'-havaalahnagitmek-iin-otel asansrnden karken Bill Davis telala lobiye girdi. Btn gece araba kullanarak neredeyse Ispanya'y bir batan br baa, Emest'in kendini vurduunu sylemek ve benimle olabilmek iin gemi. yle yapm olmasna sevinmitim. Ama Ernest'in yapt ey o sralar beni ok derinden etkilemedi. Atadan aylar gemesi gerekti. Roma'ya uarken olaym ayrntlarm okudum. Doktor Renown'un da tahmin ettii gibi, nereye gidersem gideyim gazeteler haberi byk balklarla ilk sayfada vermilerdi. Associated Press haberine gre kuzey eyaletlerini getikleri gnlk yolculuk srasnda Erili

joy himself. That on his first night home he had had a pleasant dinner and had even joined Mary's singing one of their favourite songs, 'Tutti Mi Chiamano Bion- da'. Then, according to Mary, early the following morning a shotgun exploded in the house. Mary ran downstairs. Ernest had been cleaning one of the guns, she said, and it had accidentally discharged, killing him. I could not fault Mary for covering up. She was not prepared to accept what had happened and that's what came out when she had to explain. What difference does truth make about a thing like that? Does truth bring back anything? Or assuage the torment? I found myself remembering a question from the interminable interview years before with the German journalist at the Felipe 13. He had asked, 'Herr Hemingway, can you sum up your feelings about death?' And Ernest had answered, 'Yes just another whore.' Isent Mary a long cable, but I did not go to Ketchum for the funeral. I could not say goodbye to Ernest in a public group. Instead I went to Santa Maria Sopra Minerva his church, not mine because I wanted to say good-bye to him in his own place. I found a deserted side altar and sat there for a long while, thinking about all the good times we had had, remembering forwards from the first tentative meeting at the Floridita in Havana. But when it came time to go, all I could think of to say was, Good luck, Papa. I figured he knew how much I loved him, so there was no point in mentioning that. I lit a candle nd put some money in the poor box and spent the rest of the night alone,

nest olduka neeliymi. Eve geldikleri, ilk gece gzel bir yemek yemiler ve hatta en sevdikleri ark olan "Tutti Mi Chiamano Bionda"y syleyen Mary'ye elik etmi. Daha sonra, Mary'nin sylediine gre, ertesi sabah erken saatlerde evde bir tfek patlam, Mary aa komu. Emest tfeklerden birini temizlerken, kazara tfek patlam ve onu ldrmt. Olay rtbas etmeye alt iin Mary'yi sulayama- dm. Olan kabullenmeye hazr deildi ve olay aklamak zorunda kaldnda byle sylemiti. Byle bir durumda doruyu sylemek neyi deitirir? Gerek bir eyi geri-getirebilir mi? Ya da acy dindirebilir mi? .0 bitmez tkenmez syleilerin yapld yllarda bir Alman gazetecinin, Felipe 'de sorduu bir soru aklma geldi. "Bay Hemingway, lm hakkndaki duygularnz aklar msnz?" Emest de bu soruyu "Eveto da baka bir fahie" diye cevaplamt. Mary'ye uzun bir telgraf ektim ama cenaze treni iin Ketchum'a gitmedim. Kalabaln ierisinde veda- laamazdm Ernest'le. Onun yerine Ernest'in gittii Santa Maria Sopra Minerva adl kiliseyeonun bal bulunduu kilise,benimki deilgittim, nk onunla kendi yerinde vedalamak istiyordum. Kilisede bo bir yer buldum ve Havana'da Floridita'da ilk bulumamz- . dan bugne kadar geirdiimiz gzel gnleri dnerek-uzun sre oturdum orada. Ama gitme zaman geldiinde, azmdan kan tek ey, "ansn ak olsun Papa," oldu. Kendisini ne kadar ok sevdiimi bildiini dndm, onun iin bunu sylemeye hi gerek yoktu. Bir mum yakp, kutuya para attm ve daha sonra btn geceyi

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Annabel Lee

Annabel Lee

It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea That a maiden there lived whom you may know. By the name of ANNABEL LEE;' And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. Iwas a child and she was a child, In this kingdom by the sea; But we loved with a love that was more'than love Iand my ANNBEL LEE.. With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven Coveted her and me. And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling My beautiful
ANNABEL LEE

Senelerce, senelerce evveldi; Bir deniz lkesinde Yaayan bir kz vard, bileceksiniz smi Annabel Lee; Hi bir ey dnmezdi sevilmekten Sevmekten baka beni.. O ocuk ben ocuk, memleketimiz O deniz lkesiydi, Sevdal deil karasevdalydk Ben ve Annabel Lee; Gklerde uan melekler bile Kskanrlard bizi. Bir gn ite bu yzdfen gze geldi O deniz lkesinde, d rzgnndan bir bulutun Gzelim Annabel Lee; Gtrdler el stnde Koyup gittiler beni. Mezar ordadrimdi,' O deik lkesinde. Biz daha bahtiyardk meleklerden Onlar kskand, bizi, Evet!bu yzden (ahidigadir herkes Ve o deniz lkesi) Bir gece bulutunun rzgnndan d gitti Annabel Lee. Sevdadan yana, kim olursa olsun, Yaa baa ileri, Geemezlerdi bizi; Ne yedi kat gklerdeki melekler, Ne deniz dibi cinleri, Hibiri ayramaz beni senden Gzelim Annabel Lee: Ay gelir r, hayalili iriir Gzelim Annabel Lee; Bu yldzlar gzlerin gibi parlar Gzelim Annabel Lee: Orda gecelerim, uzanr beklerim Sevgilim, sevgilim,

So that her highborn kinsmen came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea. The angels, not half so happy in heaven, Went envying her and me. Yes!that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out.of the cloid by night, Chilling and killing my ANNABEL LEE. But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we Of many far wiser than we And neither the angels in heaven above, Nor the demons down under the sea, Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful ANNABEL LEE: For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful ANNABEL LEE; And the stars never rise, but ! feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful ANNABEL LEE: And so, all the night tide, I lie down by the side Of my darlingmy darlingmy life and my bride, In her sepulchre there by the sea In her tomb by the sounding sea. .

Porphyria's Lover

Porphyria'mn A

The rain set early in tonight' The sullen wind was soon awake, It tore the elm-tops down for spite, And did its worst to vex the lake: Ilistened with heart fit to break. When glided in Porhpyria; straight She shut the cold out and the storm, And kneeled and made the cheerless grate Blaze up, and all the cottage warm; Which done, she rose, and from her form Withdrew the dripping cloak and shawl, And laid her soiled gloves by, untied Her hat and let the damp hair fall, And, last, she sat down by my side And called me. When no voice replied, She put my arm about her waist, And made her smooth white shoulder, bare, And all her yellow hair displaced, And, stooping, made my cheek lie there, And spread, o'er all, her yellow hair, Murmuring how she loved meshe Too weak, for all her heart's endeavor, To set its struggling passion free From pride, and vainer ties dissever, And give herself to me forever. But passion sometimes would prevail, Nor could tonight's gay feast restrain A sudden thought of one so pale For love of her, and all in vain: So, she was come through wind and rain. Be sure I looked up at her eyes Happy and proud; at last I knew Porphyria worshiped me: surprise Made my heart swell, and still it grew While I debated what to do. That moment she was mine, mine, fair, Perfectly pure and good: I found A thing to do, and all her hair In one long yellow string I wound Three times her little throat around, And strangled her. No pain'felt she; Iam quite sure she felt no pain. As a shut bud that holds a bee, Iwarily oped her lids: again Laughed the blue eyes without a stain. And I untightened next the tress About her neck; her cheek once more Blushed bright beneath my burning kiss: Ipropped her head up as before, Only, this time my shoulder bore Her head, which droops upon it still:

Erken bastrd yamur bu gece, ok gemedi, uyanverdi huysuz rzgr, Karaaalarn tepelerini ykt yere, inadna, Ve altst etmek iin gl, elinden geleni komad ardfa. Dalverecekmi gibi bir yrekle dinliyordum ki Szlp ieri girdi Porphyria, hemen Kapad kapy souun ve frtnann suratna. Ve diz kerek, canlandrp ocaktaki lgn atei Scack stverdi kulbeyi. i bitince, kalkt, ve kard zerinden Sular damlayan mantosunu, atksn; Kirlenmi eldivenlerini koydu bir yana, zd apkasn, nemli salarm dkverdi. Ve, sonunda, oturdu yanbama, Seslendi bana. Ses kmaynca, Kolumu beline dolad Ve przsz bembeyaz omzunu averdi. Datt sar salarn Ve eilip, yanam omzuna yaslad Ve tmyle rtt sar salaryla. Bir yandan da beni nasl sevdiini mrldanyordu; Gc yokmu, rpnp dursa da yrei, Savaan tutkusunu gururan tutsaklndan kurtarma ya, Daha da anlamsz balardan koparmaya, Ve kendini sonsuza dein kollarma brakmaya. Ama kimi zaman tutkuymu ar basan, Bu geceki enlik de engelleyememi Onun akyla solan, aresiz Birinin birden akima dvermesini. Bylece gelmi rzgr ve yamuru yararak. nan olsun kaldrp bam, baktm Mutlu ve gururlu gzlerine; nihayet anladm ki Tapyordu bana Porphyria; aknlkla iti yreim; kabard, kabard Ne yapsam diye dnrken bir yandan. O anda benimdi o; benim, ve gzel, Ve tertemiz ve iyi; buldum Yaplacak eyi; tm sam San, upuzun bir ip yapp kez doladm narin boynuna Ve bodum onu. Hi ac duymad; yi biliyorum, hi duymad ac. inde bir ar saklayan amam bir tomurcukmu gibi, zenle atm gz kapaklarm, yeniden Gld, mavi lekesiz gzleri. Sonra da zdm Boynuna dolank rgy yana bir kez daha Prl pral kzard, perken ateli dudaklarmn altnda. nceki gibi, destek yaptm bana, Ama, bu kez benim omzumdu Onun bam tayan; hl da bkk, durup duruyor orada.

11 6

The smiling rosy little head, So glad it has its utmost will, That all it scorned at once is fled, And I, its love, am gained instead! Porphyria's love: she guessed not how Her darling one wish would be heard. And thus we sit together now, And all night long we have not stirred, And yet God has riot said a word!

Glmseyen gl rnei kk ba ylesine mutlu ki en gl dileine kavutu, Bir zamanlar kk grd her ey yok oldu, Ve yerine beni, akn, kazand diye! Porphyria'nn ak: Bilememiti Sevgili biricik dileini nasl duyurabileceini. Ve ite imdi oturuyoruz birlikte. Ve hi kmldamadk gece boyunca, Tanr ise hibir ey sylemedi daha! ;

11 7

Meeting at Nigh
1 The gray sea and the long black land; And the yellow half-moon large and low; And the startled little waves that leap In fiery ringlets from their sleep, As I gain the cove with pushing prow, And quench its speed i' the slushy sand.
2

Gece Bulumas
1 Gri deniz ve upuzun KSZ Kara, Ve san yarm ay, kocaman, alakta, Ve rkek, ateten halkalarla Uykularndan srayan minik dalgalar; Koya varp itince kaym, Islak, yumuak kumda snyor hz.
2

Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach; Three fields to cross till a farm appears; A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch And blue spurt of a lighted match, And a voice less loud, through its joys and fears, Than the two hearts beating each to each!

Sonra bir millik bir kumsalllk, deniz kokan; Geilen tarla, bir iftlik grnene dein; Pencerede bir tklama; ani, sert gcrts Ve mavi parlay yanan bir kibritin; Ve bir ses, sevinleri ve korkularyla, daha duyulmaz, Karlkl arpan iki yrekten.

11 8

WHAT MAKES PEOPLE UNHAPPY?*

NSANLAR NEDEN MUTSUZ OLURLAR?*

LS are happy so long as they have health and enough to eat. Human beings, one feels, ought to be, but in the modern world they are not, at least in a great majority of cases. If you are unhappy yourself, you will probably be prepared to admit that you are not exceptional in this. If you are happy, ask yourself how many of your friends are so. And when you have reviewed your friends, teach yourself the art of reading faces; make yourself receptive to the moods of those whom you meet in the course of an ordinary day.
A mark in every face I meet', Marks of weakness, marks of woe

SALIKLAJRI yerinde olup, yeterli lde yiyecek'ete buldular m, hayvanlar mutludurlar. nsanlar da yle olmal gibi geliyor, ama amiz dnyasndaki insanlar mutlu deiller; en azndan byk ounluk mutlu deil. Siz kendiniz mutsuzsanz, mutsuzluun yalnzca size zg bir ey olmadm herhalde kabul etmeye hazrsnz. Eer mutluysanz, kendinize arkadalarnzdan kann mutlu olduunu sorun. Arkadalarnz yle bir gzden geirdikten sonra, insanlarn yzlerini okuma sanatn renin; sradan bir gn boyunca karlatnz kiilerin ruhsal durumlarn anlamaya aln. Blake yle diyor:
Her rastladm yzde bir iz var, Gszlk izleri, keder izleri.

says Blake. Though the kinds axe different, you will find that unhappiness meets you everywhere. Let us suppose that you are in New York, the most typicaHy modern of great cities. Stand in a busy street during working hours, or on a main thoroughfare at a weekend, or at a dance of an evening;.empty your mind of your own ego, and let the personalities of the strangers about you take possession of you one after another. You will find that each of these different crowds has its own trouble. In1 the work-hour crowd you will see anxiety, excessive concentration, dyspepsia, lack of interest in anything but the struggle, incapacity for play, unconsciousness of their fellow creatures. On a main road at the weekend you will see meri and women, all comfortably off, and some very rich, engaged in the pursuit of pleasure. This pursuit is conducted by all at a uniform pace, that of the slowest car in the procession; it is impossible to see the road for the cars, or the scenery since looking aside would cause an ~arcident;~alHTeT)ccupants'of all the cars are absorbed in the desire to pass other cars, which they cannot do on account of the crowd; if their minds wander from this preoccupation, as will happen occasionally to those who are not themselves driving, unutter-

Ayn eitten olmasa bile, mutsuzluun her yerde karnza ktn greceksiniz. Diyelim ki, byk kentler arasnda en tipik anlamda aal olan bir kentte, New York'tasnz. alma saatlerinde ilek bir caddede, hafta sonunda bir ana yolda, ya da akam vakti bir dans salonunda durun; dncenizi kendi ben'inizderi sy- : rn ve brakn, evrenizde bulunan yabanclar bir bir sizin yerinize gesinler. Bu farkl kalabalklardan her birinin kendine zg dertleri olduunu greceksiniz. alma saatlerinde toplanan kalabalkta kayg, ar bir dikkat, sindirim bozukluu, rpnp didinme dnda her eye kar bir ilgi noksanl, elence sz konusu oldunda bir yetersizlik ve br insanlarn varlndan habersiz olma hali saptayacaksnz. Hafta sonunda durduunuz ana yoldan ise, hepsi hali vakti yerinde, kimileri ise adamakll zengin, tat alabilecekleri bir eyleri kovalayan erkekler, kadnlar greceksi- niz-Bukovalamaea-herkes-ifin- ayn olan bir hzda, yani kuyruktaki arabalar arasnda en yava seyredenin hzna uygun olarak srmektedir; arabalar yznden yolu, ba yana evirmek bir kazaya neden olabilecei iin de manzaray grmek olanakszdr;

11 9

able boredom seizes upon them and stamps their features with trivial discontent. Once in a way a car-load of coloured people will show genuine enjoyment, but will cause indignation by erratic behaviour, and ultimately get into the hands of the police owing to an accident: enjoyment in holiday time is illegal. Or, again, watch people at a gay evening. All come determined to be happy, with the kind of grim resolve with which one determines not to make a fuss at the dentist's. It is held that drink and petting are the gateways to joy, so people get drunk quickly, and try not to notice how much their partners disgust them. After a sufficient amount of drink, men begin to weep, and to lament how unworthy they are, morally, of the devotion of their mothers. All that alcohol does for them is to liberate the sense of sin, which reason suppresses in sanier moments. The causes f these various kinds of unhappiness lie partly in the social system, partly in individual psychologywhich, of course, is itself to a considerable extent a product of the social system. I have written before about the changes in the social system required to promote happiness. Concerning the abolition of war, of economic exploitation, of education in cruelty and fear, it is not my intention to speak in this volume. To discover a system for the avoidance of war is a vital need of our civilization; but no such system has a chance while men are so unhappy that mutual extermination seems to them less dreadful than continued en- r durance of the Hght of day. To prevent the perpetuation of poverty is necessary if the benefits of machine production are to accrue in any degree to those most in . need of them; but what is the use of making everybody , ^ , rich, if the rich , themselves are miserable? Education in cruelty and fear is bad, but no other kind can be given by those who are themselves the slaves of these passions. These considerations lead us to the problem of the individual: what can a man or woman, here and now, in the midst of our nostalgic society, do to achieve happiness for himself of herself? In discussing this problem, I shall confine my attention to those who are not subject to any extreme cause of outward misery. I shall assume a sufficient income to secure food and shelter, sufficient health to make ordinary bodily activities possible. I shall not consider the great catastrophes, such as loss of all one's children, or public disgrace. There are things to be said about such matters, and they are important things, but they

tm arabalardaki kiilerin hepsi de kendilerini br arabalar geme isteine kaptrmlardr ama kalabalk bunu yapmalarn engellemektedir; eer zihinleri bu baskn dnceden uzaklaabilirse, ki bu durum ender de olsa arabay kendisi kullanmayanlarda sz konusu olabilmektedir, o zamaft bu kiilere anlatlmaz bir sknt basmakta ve bu sknt, yzlerine, sradan bir honutsuzluun damgasn vurmaktadr. Arada bir araba- ya dolumu birzenci grubun gerekten keyiflendikleri olur ri btrnlar ters gelen davranlaryla bakalarn kzdracaklar ve sonuta, bir kaza yaparak polisin eline deceklerdir: Dinlence zaman keyiflenmek yasalara aykr bir itir. nsanlar bir de elendikleri bir akam seyredin. Hepsi de, insann diiye gittiinde yaygara koparmamak iin ald karara benzer suratsz bir kararllkla mutlu olmaya gelmilerdir. kinin ve oynamann mutlulua alan kaplar olduu ileri srlr; onun iin de insanlar hzla sarho olup, birlikte elendikleri kiilerin kendilerini ne denli tiksindirdiini grmezden gelmeye alrlar. Erkekler yeterince itikten sonra alayp szlamaya ve ahlk ynnden, annelerinin kendilerine olan dknlne layk olmadklarna esef etmeye balarlar. Alkoln onlar iin yapt tek ey, akim ayk anlarda bask altnda tuttuu gnah duygusunu serbest brakmaktr. Bu farkl mutsuzluk biimlerinin nedenleri ksmen toplumsal dzenden, ksmen de bireylerin psikolojisinden kaynaklanmaktadr ki, bireysel psikoloji de aslnda nemli lde toplumsal dzenin bir rndr. Mutluluu arttrmak iin toplumsal dzende ne tr deiiklikler yapmak gerektiini daha nce yazmmdr. Bu kitapta savam, ekonomik, smrnn, acmaszlik ve korku eitiminin ortadan kaldrlmasndan sz edecek deilim. Savatai saknmak iin bir sistem bulmak, uygarlmz iin hayat nem tayan bir gereksinimdir; ancak insanlar, birbirlerini karlkl olarak yok etmeyi yaama katlanmay srdrmekten daha az korkulu bir ey sayacak lde mutsuz olduka, byle bir sistemin baar ans yoktur. Eer makinayla retimin yararlar, az ya da ok, buna en ok gereksinim duyan kiilere ulaacaksa, yoksulluun srp gitmesine engel olmak gerekir; ancak zengin olanlarn kendileri mutsuzsa, herkesi zengin etmenin ne yarar var? Acmaszlk ve korku eitimi kt bir eydir, ama kendileri de bu duygularn tutsa olan kiilerin baka trl bir eitim yaptrmalar olas deildir. Bu dnceler bizi bireyin sorununa gtrmektedir: Bir erkek ya da kadn, u du-, rumda, gemi zlemiyle yanan toplumumuz iinde, kiisel mutlulua kavumak iin ne yapabilir? Bu sorunu irdelerken, ilgimi, dardan gelecek bir mutsuzlua yol aacak nedenlerden etkilenmeyecek kiilerle snrlayacam. Bunlarn beslenme ve barnma iin yeterli gelirleri bulunduunu ve sradan bedensel etkinlikleri gereldetirmeye yetecek lde salkl olduklarn varsayacam, insann tm ocuklarm yitirmesi ya da toplumun gznden dmesi gibi byk ykmlar dikkate almayacam. Bu tr konularla ilgili olarak sylenecek eyler vardr ve

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because, having no obvious external cause, it appears inescapable. I believe this unhappiness to be very largely due to mistaken views of the world, mistaken ethics, mistaken habits of life, leading to destruction of that natural zest and appetite for possible things upon which all happiness, whether of men or animals, ultimately depends. These are matters which lie within the power of the individual, and I propose to suggest the changes by, which his happiness, given average good fortune, may be achieved. Perhaps the best introduction to the philosophy which I wish to advocate will be a few words of autobiography. I was not bom happy. As a child, my favourite hymn was: "Weary of earth and laden with my sin." At the age of five, I reflected that, if I should live to be seventy, I had only endured, so far, a fourteenth part of my whole life, and I felt the long-spread-out boredom ahead of me to be almost unendurable. In adolescence, I hated life and was continually on the verge of suicide, from which, however, I was restrained by the desire to know more mathematics. Now, on the contrary, I enjoy life; I might almost say that with every year that passes I enjoy it more. This is due partly to having discovered what were the things that I most de~ sired, and having gradually acquired many of these things. Partly it is due to having successfully dismissed certain objects of desiresuCh as the acquisition of indubitable knowledge about something or otheras essentially unattainable. But very largely it is due to a diminishing preoccupation with myself. Like others who had a Puritan education, I had the habit of meditating on my sins, follies, and shortcomings. I seemed to myselfno , doubt justlya miserable specimen. Gradually I learned to be indifferent to myself and my : deficiencies; I came to centre my attention increasingly upon external objects: the state of the world, various branches of knowledge, individuals for whom I felt affection. External interests, it is true, bring each its own possibility of pain: the world may be plunged in war, knowledge in some direction may be hard to achieve, friends may die. But pains of these kinds do not destroy the essential quality of life, as do those that spring from disgust with self. And every external interest inspires some activity which, so long as the interest remains alive, is a complete preventive of ennui. Interest in oneself, on the contrary, leads to no activity of a progressive kind. It may lead to the keeping of a diary, to getting psycho-analysed, or perhaps to becoming a monk. But the monk will not be happy until the routine of the monastery has made him forget his own soul. The happinessw-hich-heattributes-toreligionhe'could have obtained from becoming a crossing-sweeper, provided he were compelled to remain one. External discipline is the only road to happiness for those unfortunates whose selfabsorption is too profound to be cured in any other way.

gndelik mutsuzlua bir zm yolu nermek. nsana ya da hayvana zg tm mutluluun eninde sonunda gelip dayand olabilir eyler iin duyulan doal heves ve istekleri yok eden bu tr mutsuzluun, byk lde, yanl dnya grlerinden, yanl ahlk kurallarndan ve yanl yaama alkanlklarndan kaynaklandna inanyorum. Bunlar, bireyin gcnn yetebilecei konulardr; ben de, ans az ok kendinden yana olursa, kiinin mutlulua kavumasn salayacak deiiklikleri ortaya koymak istiyorum. ' . Savunmak istediim felsefeye en iyi girii, belki de, kendi yaamma ilikin birka szle yapabilirim. Mutlu olarak domadm. ocukken en sevdiim ilahi, "Dn- yadan bezmi, gnahlarmla yklym," ilahisiydi. Be yamdayken, eer yetmiime dein yaarsam, daha tm yaammn ancak on drtte birini ekmiim diye dnr ve nmde uzanp giden skntnn neredeyse dayanlmaz bir ey olduunu hissederdim. Ergenlik dneminde yaamdan nefret ettim ve hep canma kymann eiinde buldum kendimi; ancak matematii daha ok renme isteim beni engelledi. imdi ise, aksine, yaamdan tat alyorum; hatta diyebilirim ki her geen yl yaamdan daha da ok tat almaktaym. Bunun nedeni, ksmen, en ok arzuladm eylerin neler olduunu kefetmi ve bunlarn ounu yava yava elde etmi olmamdr. Ksmen de, u ya da bu konuda kuku gtrmez bilgi edinmek gibi birtakm isteklerimin, temelde elde edilemez eyler olduklarn kabullenerek bunlardan vazgemeyi baarmdr. Ancak bu, byk lde, kendimle giderek daha az uramamdan oldu. Priten eitimi grm bakalar gibi, gnahlarm, budalalklarm ve eksik ynlerim zerinde durup dnme huyum vard. Kendimi kukusuz yerinde olarak iler tutar yan bulunmayan bir insan gibi gryordum. Yava yava kendime ve kusurlarma kaytsz kalmay rendim; dikkatimi giderek daha ok kendi dmdaki nesneler zerinde odaklatrmay becerdim: Dnyarun durumu, eitli bilgi dallar, kendilerine sevgi duyduum insanlar gibi. Da dnk ilgilerin beraberlerinde kendilerine zg aclar getirecekleri de dorudur: Dnya savaa srklenebilir, belli bir konuda bilgi edinmek zor olabilir, dostlar lebilirler. Ancak bu tr aclar, insann kendi kendisine duyduu tiksintinin verdii aclar gibi, yaamn temel niteliini yok etmez. Ayrca da dnk her ilgi yle bir etkinlii de balatr ki, ilgi canl kald srece, bu etkinlik i skntsna kar tam bir nleyicidir. Kiinin kendine duyduu ilgi ise, bunun aksine, olumlu anlamda hibir etkinlii dourmaz. Kiinin gnlk tutmasna, psikanaliz yaptrmasna, hatta belki de kei olup kmasna yol aabilir. AncakJsei,_manas.tmn_gndelikjuralarjijanaJ kendi benliini unutturana dein, mutlu olmayacaktr. Dine yorduu mutluluk, aslnda, sokak ps olmakla elde edebilecei bir mutluluktur, tabii p olarak kalmak zorunda braklrsa. Dardan gelen disiplin, kendine dnklkleri baka hibir biimde giderilemeyecek kadar derin olan o
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the man who is absorbed in the consciousness of sin. This man is perpetually incurring his own disapproval, which, if he is religious, he interprets as the disapproval of God. He has an image of himself as he thinks he ought to be, which is in continual conflict with his knowledge of himself as he is. If, in his conscious thought, he has long since discarded the maxims that he was taught at his mother's knee, his sense of sin may be buried deep in his unconscious, and only emerge when he is drunk or asleep. Nevertheless, it may suffice to take the savour out of everything. At bottom he still accepts all the prohibitions he was taught in infancy. Swearing is wicked; drinking is wicked; ordinary business shrewdness is wicked; above all, sex is wicked. He does not, of course, abstain from any of these pleasures, but they are all poisoned for him by the feeling that they degrade him. The one pleasure that he desires with his whole soul is that of being approvingly caressed by his mother, which he can remember having experienced in childhood. This pleasure being no longer open to him, he feels that nothing matters; since he must sin, he decides to sin deeply. When he falls in love he looks for maternal tenderness, but cannot accept it, because, owing to the mother-im- age, he feels no respect for any woman with whom he has sexual relations. Then, in his disappointment, he becomes cruel, repents of his cruelty, and starts afresh on the dreary round of imagined sin and real remorse. This is the pyschology of very many apparently hard- boiled reprobates. What drives them astray is devotion to an unattainable object (mother or mother-substitute) together with the inculcation, in early years, of a ridiculous ethical code. Liberation from the tyranny of early beliefs and affections is the first step towards happiness for these victims of maternal "virtue". Narcissism is, in a sense, the converse of an habitual sense of sin; it consists in the habit of admiring oneself and wishing to be admired. Up to a point it is, of course, normal, and not to be deplored; it is only in its excesses that it becomes a grave evil. In many women, especially rich Society women, the capacity for feeling love is completely dried up, and is replaced by a powerful desire that all men should love them. When a woman of this kind is sure that a man loves her, she has no further use for him. The same thing occurs, though less frequently, with men; the classic example is the hero of Liaisons Dangereuses. When vanity is carried to this height, there is no genuine interest in any otherperson, and therefore no real satisfaction to be obtained from love. Other

bal olarak herkes de gnah ileyebilir, hi kimse de. . Benim sylemek istediim, gnah bilinciyle dolu kiidir. Byle bir kimse srekli olarak honutsuzluunu kendisine yneltir ve eer dindar bir kiiyse, bu honutsuzluu Tanr'nn honutsuzluu olarak yorumlar. Kafasnda kendisiyle ilgili olarak olmas gerektiine inand kiinin imgesi vardr ve bu imge kendisi hakknda geree dayal olan bilgisiyle srekli bir atma iindedir. Eer, ana kucanda rendii kurallar, bi- . lin dzeyindeki dncesinden oktan silip atmsa, gnah duygusu bilinaltnn derinliklerine gmlm olabilir ve ancak sarhoken ya da uyurken ortaya kar. Gene de her eyin tadm karmaya yetebilir. Derinden derine, ocukken kendisine retilen yasaklar hl geerli saymaktadr. Svmek ktdr, iki imek ktdr; i yaamnda her zaman grlen kurnazlk ktdr; hepsinden nemlisi de, cinsellik ktdr. Kukusuz bu zevklerin hibirinden elini eteini ekecek deildir ama, kendisini alalttklarn dnd iin hepsi de onun iin zehir samaktadr. Tm yreiyle tatmak istedii tek zevk, ocukluundan anmsad gibi, annesinin onu onaylar biimde sevip okamasdr. Bu zevk artk kendisi iin sz konusu olamadndan, hi bir eyin nemi de kalmamtr; mademki gnah ilemekten baka yapaca bir ey yoktur, gnah iinde boulmaya karar verir. Ak olduunda ana sevecenlii bulmak ister; ancak byle bir eyi de kabullenemez, nk, kafasndaki anne imgesi yznden cinsel iliki- . ye girdii hibir kadna sayg duymamaktadr. Bylece, dknkl iinde, acmasz bir kii olur, sonra bu acmaszlndan pimanlk duyar ve yeniden hayalinde iledii gnahn ve bundan duyduu gerek pimanln oluturduu ksr dng iine girer. Bu, dardan bakldnda hayr gelmez gibi grnen pek ok gnahkrn iine dt ruhsal durumdur. Onlar yanl yola saptran, ulalmaz bir hedefe (anneye ya da anne yerine konan bir bakasna) olan ballklar ve bunun yara sra, zellikle erken yalarda kafalarna sokulan sama sapan ahlk kurallardr. Anneden kaynaklanan "erdem"in bu tr kurbanlar iin mutlulua doru atlacak ilk adm, ocukluk inanlarnn ve sevgilerinin boyunduruundan kurtulmalardr. Narsisizm, bir bakma, srekli bir gnah duygusunun tersidir ve insann kendi kendisine hayranlk duyma ve bakalarnn hayranlm kazanmay isteme alkanlndan ibarettir. Narsisizm bir yere kadar, elbette, normaldir ve knanmamas gerekir; ancak arlk durumunda cidd bir kusura dnr. Pek ok kadnda, zellikle de varlkl sosyete hanmlarnda, sevme gc hepten tkenmi ve yerini tm erkeklerce sevilmek iin duyulan gl bir istek almtr. Bu tr bir kadn bir erkein kendisini sevdiinden emin oldu mu, onu silkip atar. Ayn durum, daha seyrek grlmekle birlikte, erkekler iin de sz konusudur; bunun klasik rneini Liaisons Dangereuses'n kahramannda buluyoruz. Kendini beenmilik bu noktaya geldi mi, baka hibir kiiye iten bir ilgi duymak olas deildir ve bylece sevginin salayabilecei gerek bir doyum da yoktur. Baka tr ilgiler ise daha da berbat bir biimde boa gider. rnein bir narsisist, byk ressamlara duyulan saygdan etkilenerek resim

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nique never becomes interesting, and no subject can be seen except in relation to self. The result is failure and disappointment, with ridicule instead of the expected adulation. The same thing applies to those novelists whose novels always have themselves idealized as heroines. All serious success in work depends upon some genuine interest in the material with which the work is concerned. The tragedy of one successful politician after another is the gradual substitution of narcissism for ~ an interest in the community and the measures for which he stands. The man who is only interested in himself is not admirable, and is not felt to be so. Consequently the man whose sole concern with the world is that it shall admire him is not likely to achieve his object. But even if he does, he will not be completely happy, since human instinct is never completely self- centred, and the narcissist is limiting himself artificially, just as truly as is the man dominated by a sense of sin. The primitive man might be proud of being a good hunter, but he also erijoyed the activity of the chase. Vanity, when it pases beyond a point, kills pleasure in every activity for its own sake, and thus leads inevitably to listlessness and boredom. Often its source is diffidence, and its cure lies in the growth of self-respect. But this is only to be gained by successful activity inspired by objective interests. The megalomaniac differs from the narcissist by the fact that he wishes to be powerful rather than charming, and seeks to be feared rather than loved. To this type belong many lunatics and most of the great men in history. Love of power, like vanity, is a strong element in normal human nature, and as such is to be accepted; it becomes deplorable only when it is excessive or associated with an insufficient sense of reality. Where this occurs it makes a man unhappy or foolish, if not both. The lunatic who thinks he is a crowned head may be, in a sense, happy, but his happiness is not of a kind that any sane person would envy. Alexander the Great was psychologically of the same type as the lunatic, though he possesed the talent to achieve the lunatic's dream. He could not, however, achieve his own dream, which enlarged its scope as his achievement grew. When it became clear that he was the greatest conqueror known to fame, he decided that he was a God. Was he a happy man? His drunkenness, his furious rages, his indifference to women, and his claim to divinity, suggest that he was not. There is no ultimate satisfaction in the cultivation of one element of human nature at the expense of all the others, nor in viewing all the world as raw material for the magnificence of one's own ego. Usually the megalomaniac, whether insane or or nominally sane; is the product of some excessive humiliation. Napoleon suffered at school from inferiority to his schoolfellows, who were rich

ekmez ve hibir konuyu kendisiyle olan ilikisinin dnda gremez. Sonu baarszlk ve dkrkl, beklenen abartl alklar almak yerine, alay konusu olmaktr. Ayn ey tm romanlarna idealize edilmi kahramanlar olarak kendilerini katan romanclar iin de geerlidir. te kazanlan her baar, o iin konusu olan malzemeye iten bir ilgi duymaya baldr. Baarl politikaclarn birbiri ardnca iine dtkleri trajedi, daha ice topluma kar duyduklar ilginin ve savunduklar ' zm yollarnn yerini, yava yava narsisizmin almasdr. Yalnzca kendisine ilgi duyan bir kiinin beenilecek yan yoktur, olmad da herkese sezilir. Sonu olarak dnyayla yalnzca kendisine hayranlk duysun diye ilgilenen bir kimsenin amacna ulamas olas deildir. Amacna ulasa bile tam bir mutlulua kavuamayacaktr, nk insan igdsel olarak hibir zaman tmyle benmerkezci deildir; narsisist kimse, gnah duygusunun buyruuna girmi kii kadar, kendisini yapay bir biimde snrlamaktadr. lkel adam iyi bir avc olmaktan kvan duymutur herhalde, ama av peinde koma etkinliinden de tat almtr. Kendini beenmilik, belli bir noktay anca, srf bir eyler yapm olmaktan duyulan zevki ldrr ve bylece ister istemez bitkinlie ve skntya yol aar. Kendini beenmilik ou kez ekingenlikten kaynaklanmaktadr; aresi ise zsaygsnn artmasdr. Buna da ancak nesnel ilgilerin yaratt etkinliklerde baar kazanmakla ulalabilir. Megolaman kii, ekici olmaktansa gl olmay yelemesi ve sevgiden ok korku uyandrmak istemesiyle narsisistten farkldr. Pek ok akl hastas ve tarihteki byk adamlarn ou bu gruba girer. Gllk sevdas da kendini beenmilik gibi normal insan yara- : dilii iinde gl bir edir ve bu haliyle kabul edilebilecek bir eydir; yalnzca arya katnda ve gereklik duygusunda beliren bir eksilme ile bir arada bulunduunda acildi bir hal alr. Byle olduunda, kii mutsuzluk iine ya da budala durumuna der, tabii ayn anda hem mutsuz olup hem de budala durumuna dmemise. Akl hastas, bama bir ta oturtulduunu dndnde, bir bakma mutludur ama onun mutluluu, akl yerinde bir kiinin imrenecei trden deildir . Akl hastasnn dlerini gerekletirecek yetenee sahip olsa bile, Byk skender, ruhsal adan akl hastas tipiydi. stelik, baarlar arttka snrlar da genileyen kendi dn gerekletiremedi. Gelmi gemi fatihlerin en bynn kendisi olduunu anlaynca, bu kez de bir Tanr olduuna karar verdi. Mutlu muydu Byk skender? Ayyal, lgmca fkesi, kadnlara olan kaytszl ve Tanrlk iddialar mutlu olmad izlenimini vermektedir. nsan yaradlnn tek bir esini br elerin hepsini gz ard etmek pahamsa beslemek, ya da tm dnyaya insann grkemli ben'inin hizmetinde olan bir hammadde gzyle bakmak, gerek doyum salamaz. ster deli, ister szm ona akll olsun, megaloman kii, genellikle, ok ileri bir aalarma duygusunun rndr. Yokluk iinde ve burslu olarak okuyan Napolyon, zengin ve soylu okul arkadalarnn karsnda aalk duygusu ekmiti. Devrim
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Since no man can be omnipotent, a life dominated wholly by love of power can hardly fail, sooner or later, to meet with obstacles that cannot be overcome. The knowledge that this is so can only be prevented from obtruding on consciousness by some form of lunacy, though if a man is sufficiently great he can imprison or execute those who point this out to him. Repressions in the political and in the psycho-analytic senses thus go ..... haild in hand. And wherever psycho-analytic repression in any marked form takes place, there is no genuine happiness. Power kept within its proper bounds may add greatly to happiness, but as the sole end of life it leads to disaster, inwardly if not outwardly. The psychological causes of unhappiness, it is clear, are many and various. But all have something in common. The typical unhappy man is one who, having been deprived in youth of some normal satisfaction, has come to value this one kind of satisfaction more than any other, and has therefore given to his life a onesided direction, together with a quite undue emphasis upon the achievement as opposed to the activities connected with it. There is, however, a further development which is very common in the present day. A man may feel so completely thwarted that he seeks no form of satisfaction, but only distraction and oblivion. He then becomes a devotee of "pleasure". That is to say, he seeks to make life bearable by becoming less alive. Drunkenness, for example, is temporary suicide; the happiness that it brings is merely negative, a momentary cessation of unhappiness. The narcissist and the megalomaniac believe that happiness is possible, though they may adopt mistaken means of achieving it; but the man who seeks intoxication, in whatever , , : _ form, has given up hope except in oblivion. In his case, the first thing to be done is to persuade him that happiness is desirable. Men who are unhappy, like men who sleep badly, are always proud of the fact. Perhaps their pride is like that of the fox who had lost his tail; if so, the way to cure it is to point out to them how they can grow a new tail. Very few men, I believe, will deliberately choose unhappiness if they see a way of being happy. I do not deny that such men exist, but they are not

sine Saint-Helena'mn yolunu amtr. Hi kimse snrsz gce sahip olamayacana gre, yalnzca gllk sevdasnn buyruunda srdrlen bir yaamda, eninde sonunda, alamayacak engellerle karlalacaktr. Bunun byle olduunun bilin dzeyinde bir bilgi olarak belirmesini ancak bir tr delilik engelleyebilir; ama kii yeterince yksek bir konumda bulunuyorsa dikkatim bu noktaya ekenleri hapse atabilir ya da oldurleblr. Bylece siyasal ve psikarialitik anlamda bask bir arada bulunmaktadr. Ve psikanalitik bask u ya da bu yanyla farkedilir bir biimde ne zaman ortaya ksa, gerek mutluluk sz konusu olamaz, G, uygun snrlar iinde tutulduu zaman, mtlulua byk bir katkda bulunabilir ama yaamdaki tek ama hafine gelirse, dtan belli olmasa bile, kiinin iinde ykma yol aar. Mutsuzluun ruhsal nedenlerinin ok sayda ve eitli olduu bellidir. Ancak bu nedenlerin hepsinin ortak bir yanlar vardr. Tipik mutsuz kii, genliinde normal bir doyumdan yoksun kalarak, bu tek doyum biimine brlerinin hepsinden fazla deer verir olmu, bylece de yaamm tek ynl klp, bir yandan da bu doyumla ilgili etkinlikler yerine doyumun elde edilmesine olduka'lsz bir deer yklemi kiidir. Ancak bunun da tesinde bir gelime vardr ve gnmzde pek yaygndr. Bir kimse o denli toptan bir dkrk- l iine debilir ki, herhangi bir doyum yerine yalnzca ilgisini datacak ve ken.dini unutturacak bir eylerin ardna der.' Byle yapmca da "zevk" dkn olur kar. Bir baka deyile, canllndan yitirmekle, yaam ekilebilir klmak peindedir. rnein sarholuk insann geici bir sre iin canna kymasdr; getirdii mutluluk ise, yalnzca olumsuz ynde olup, mut- szluabir an iin ara vermektir. Narsisistler ve'mega- lomanyak kiiler, mutluluu elde etmek iin hatal bir yol tutsalar da, mutluluun olaslna inanrlar; ama ne biimde olursa olsun sarholuun ardna den kimse unutmaktan medet ummak dnda umudunu yitirmitir. Sz konusu bu tr kiiyse, ilk i onu mutluluun istenecek bir ey olduuna inandrmaktr. Mutsuz kiiler, iyi uyuyamayan kiiler gibi, bu durumlarndan kvan duyarlar. Onlarn bu kvanc, belki de, kuyruunu yitiren tilkinin duyduu kvanca benzer; eer byleyse, bunu dzeltme yolu onlara nasl yeni bir kuyruk edinebileceklerini gstermektir. Ben una inanyorum ki, eer mutlu olmann yolunu grebilirlerse, mutsuzluu bile bile seecek pek az kii vardr. Byle insanlarn varln yadsmyorum; ancak bunlarn says nemsemeye deecek kadar ok deildir. Bu yzden de okuyucularmn mutsuz olmaktansa mutlu olmay isteyeceklerini

rnri: Birtane KARAN AKI 12 4

ARMS AND THE MAN*


ACT I

SLAHLAR VE KAHRAMAN*
I. PERDE

NIGHT:- A lady's bedchamber in Bulgaria, in a small town near the Dragoman Pass, late in November in the year 1885. Through an open window with a little balcony a peak of the Balkans, wonderfully white and beautiful in the starlit snow, seems quite close at hand, though it is really miles away. The interior of the room is not like anything to be seen in the west of Europe. It is half rich Bulgarian, half cheap Viennese. Above the head of the bed, which stands against a little wall cutting off the left hand corner of the room, is a painted wooden shrine, blue and gold, with an ivory image of Christ, and a light hanging before it in a pierced metal ball suspended by three chains. The principal seat, placed towards the other side of the room and opposite the window, is aTurkish ottoman. The counterpane and hangings of. the bed, the window curtains, the little carpet, and all the ornamental textile fabrics in the room are oriental and gorgeous; the paper on the walls is occidental and paltry. The washstand, against the wall on the side nearest the ottoman and window, consists of an enamelled iron basin-with a pailbeneath it in a paintedmetal frame,and a single towel orittie fail t tM side. The dressing table, between the bed and the window, is a common pine table, covered with a cloth of many colors, with an expensive toilet mirror on it. The door is on the side nearest the bed; and there is a chest of drawers between. This chest of drawers is also covered by a variegated native cloth; and on it there is a pile of paper backed novels, a box of chocolate creams, and a miniature easel with a large photograph of an extremely handsome officer, whose lofty bearing and magnetic glance can be felt even from the portrait. The room is lighted by a candle on the chest of drawers, and another on the dressing table with a box of matches beside it. The window is hinged doorwise and stands wide open. Outside, a pair of wooden shutters, opening outwards, also stand open. On the balcony a yung lady, intensely conscious of the romantic beauty of the night, and of the fact that her own youth and beauty are part of it, is gazing at the snowy Balkans. She is in her nightgown, well covered by a long mantle of furs, worth, on a moderate estimate, about three times the furniture of her room. Her reverie is interrupted by her mother, Catherine Petkoff, a woman over forty, imperiously energetic, with magnificent black hair and eyes, who might be a very splendid specimen of the wife of a mountain farmer, but is determined to be a Viennese lady, and to that end wears a fashionable tea gown on all occasions.

GECE: Bulgaristan'da --Dragoman Geidi'nin yaknlarndaki kk bir kasabada birhanmefendininyatakodas; 1885 Kasm aynn son gnleri. nnde ufak bir balkon olan ak bir pencereden Balkan dalarnn bir zirvesi grnmekte. Zirve, yldzlarn aydnlatt kar iinde bembeyaz ve ok gzel; kilometrelerce uzakta olmasna ramen yakn gibi gzkmektedir. Odann ii Bat Avrupa 'da grlmeyen bir trden. ZenginBulgar ile ucuz Viyanazev- kinin karm. Odann sol kesini kesen kk duvarn nnde duran yatan ba- ucunun stnde mavi ve altn rengine boyanm aa oyma minyatr bir sanduka var. inde fildiinden oyulmu bir sa figr ve nnde zincirle asl delikli metal kreden k salmaktadr. Odann teki tarafna doru ve pencerenin karsnda bir Osmanl sediri durmakta. Yatak rts, etek ucu, penceredeki perdeler, yerdeki ufak hah ve odadaki btn dekoratif kuma'lar oryantal ve nefis. Duvar kd ise batdan ithal ve solmu. Sedir ve pencere tarafndaki duvarda bir emaye lavabo var. Bunun altnda boyal metal erevesi iinde bir kova durmakta. Duvarda da tek bir havlu asl. iYataklepe-,ierenin,: arasnda duran tuvalet masas amdan ydpltHi normal'bir y masa, stnde rengrenk bir rt vepahal bir ayna var. Kap yataa yakm-duvardan alyor ve yatakla kapnn arasnda ekmecelibir dolap var. Bu dolap da eitli renklerlebe- zenmi yerli bir rtyle rtl. stnde st ste dizilmi cep romanlar, bir ikolata kutusu ve bir ereve iinde ok yakkl bir subayn byk bir fotoraf var. Subayn gururlu edas ve ekici baklar fotoraftan bile hissedilebilmekte. Oday aydnlatan iki mum var: Biri ekmeceli dolabn, dieri de tuvalet masasnn stnde ve yannda bir kibrit kutusu durmakta. Pencere ieri doru alyor ve ardna kadar ak. Evin dnda dar doru alan bir ift tah ta kepenk varveonlarda ak. Balkonda, gecenin romantikliinin ve kendi genliinin ve gzelliinin bu romantikliin bir paras olduunu kuvvetle hisseden bir gen kz durmakta ve karl Balkan dalarna bakmakta. stnde bir gecelik var ve abartsz bir tahmine gre deeri odadaki eyalarn toplam deerinin kat olan uzun bir krke iyice sarnm. Gen kzn derin dncelerini annesi Catherine Petkoff bler. Catherine Petkoff, krkn am, olaanst derecede enerjik, muhteem siyah

CATHERINE [entering hastily, full of good news] Raina! [She pronounces it Rah-eena, with the stress on the ee]. Raina! [Shegoes to the bed, expecting tofindRaina there]. Why, where ? [Raina looks into the room]. Heavens, child! are you out in the night air instead of in your bed? Youll catch your death. Louka told me you were asleep. RAINA [dreamily] I sent her away. I wanted to be alone. The;stars are so beautiful! What is the matter? CATHERINE. Such news! There has been a battle. RAINA [her eyes dilating] Ah! [She comes eagerly to
Catherine].

CATHERINE: (yi haberlerle dolu, aceleyle odaya dalar) Raina! (Bunu Rah-eena olarak, ee'"yi kuvvetle vurgulayarak telaffuz etmektedir.) Raina! (Raina'y orada bulacam umarak yataa gider.) Aaa! Nerede ? (Raina ban odann iine uzatr.) Aman Tanrm! Yatanda olacana gecenin souunda m duruyorsun, ocuum? Hasta olup lrsn. Louka bana uyuduunu sylemiti. RANA: (Ryada gibi) Onu yolladm. Yalnz kalmak istemitim. Yldzlar o kadar gzel ki! Ne var, he oldu? CATHERINE: Yeni haberler var! Bir sava olmu. RANA: (Gzleri alr) Yaa! (Heyecanla Catherine'in
yanma gider).

CATHERINE. A great battle at Slivnitza! A victory! And it was won by Sergius. RAINA [with a cry of delight] Ah! [They embrace rapturously] Oh, mother! [Then, with sudden anxiety] Is father safe? CATHERINE. Of course! he sends me the news. Sergius is the hero of the hour, the idol of the regiment. RAINA. Telime, telime. How was it? [Ecstatically] Oh, mother! mother! mother! [Shepulls her
mother down on the ottoman; and they kiss one another frantically]. CATHERINE [with surging enthusiasm] You cant

CATHERINE: Slivnitza'da byk bir sava! Bir zafer! Sava Sergius kazanm. RANA: (Sevin dolu bir lkla) Aaa! (Birbirlerine sarlrlar) Oh, anne! (Birden endieli) Babam iyi mi? CATHERINE: Tabii! Haberi bana o yollad, Sergius imdi bir kahraman! Alayn tapt insan! RANA: Anlatv hadi anlat. Nasl olmu? (Kendinden geerek) Oh> anne! Anne! Anne! (Annesini sedire
doru eker ve otururlar, birbirlerini delice pmeye balarlar). CATHERINE: (Gittike artan birhevesle) Nekadar

guess how splendid it is. A cavalry charge! think of that! He defied our Russian commanders acted without ordersled a charge on his own responsibility- headed it himselfwas the first man to sweep through their guns. Cant you see it, Raina: our gallant splendid Bulgarians with their swords and eyes flashing, thundering down like an avalanche and scattering the wretched Serbs and their dandified Austrian officers like chaff. And you! you kept Sergius-waiting;a",year before you would be betrothed to him. Oh, if you have a drop of Bulgarian blood in your veins, you will worship him when he comes back. RAINA. What will he care for my poor little worship after the acclamations of a whole army of heroes? But no matter: I am so happy! so proud! [She rises and walks about excitedly]. It proves that all our ideas were real after all. CATHERINE [ indignantly] Our ideas real! What do you mean? RAINA. Our ideas of what Sergius would do. Our patriotism. Our heroic ideals. I sometimes used to doubt whether they were anything but dreams. Oh, what faithless little creatures girls are! When I buckled on Sergius's sword he looked so noble: it was treason to think of disillusion or humiliation or failure. And ' yetand yet[S/ie sits down again suddenly] Promise me youll never tell him. CATHERINE. Dont ask me for promises until I know what I'm promising. RAINA. Well, it came into my head just as he was holding me in his arms and looking into my eyes, that perhaps we only had our heroic ideas because we are so fond of reading Byron and Pushkin, and because we were so delighted with the opera that season at Bucharest. Real life is so
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muhteem bilemezsin. Svari hcumu! Dn bir! Rus komutanlarmza kar kmemirsiz hareket etmikendi sorumluluunda hcum balatm kendisi nclk etmidman mevzilerini ilk geen oymu. Gznn nnde canlandrabiliyor musun Raina? Yrekli, babayiit Bulgarlarmz, gzleri ve kllar parldyor. Bir gibi dmann stne kp o pis Srplarn ve zppe AvusturyalI subaylarn tozunu atyorlar. Ya sen! Sen ise nian iin Sergi- us'u bir yl beklettin. Eer damarlarnda bir damla Bulgar kam varsa geri dndnde ona taparsn. RANA: Kahramainlardan oluan ordunun alklarndan sonra benim ona tapnmamn ne nemi olabilir ki! ama nemli deil: O kadar mutlu ve o kadar gururluyum ki! (Ayaa kalkar ve heyecanla dolamayabalar) Bylece btn fikirlerimizin doru olduu kantland. CATHERINE: (akn ve kzgn) Fikirlerimizin doruluu mu? Ne demek istiyorsun? RANA: Sergius'un yapabilecekleri konusundaki fikirlerimiz. Milliyetiliimiz. Kahramanca ideallerimiz. Bir zamanlar btn bunlarn bir rya olduunu dnrdm. Ah, u kzlar ne kadar inansz yaratklar! Klcn takarken Sergius o kadar soylu duruyordu ki hayl krld, utan veya baarszlk gibi eyler dnmek bir ihanetti. Ama yine de...yine de.... (aniden oturur) Ona sylemeyeceine sz ver. CATHERINE: Ne iin sz vereceimi bilmeden benden sz vermemi bekleme. RANA: Bana sarlm gzlerimin iine bakarken aklma geldi: Belki kahramanca ideallerimiz Byron ve Pukin okumaya bayldmz iin ve Bkre'te geen sezon grdmz o operay ok sevdiimiz iin var. Gerek hayat pek az yle!

had an uneasy fear that he might cut a poor figure there beside all those clever officers from the Tsar's court. CATHERINE. A poor figure! Shame on you! The Serbs have Austrian officers who are just as clever as the Russians; but we have beaten them in every battle for all that. RAINA [laughing and snuggling against her mother] Yes: was only a p/osaic little coward. Oh, to think that it was all true! that Sergius is just as splendid and noble as he looks! that the world ' is really a glorious world for women who can see its glory and men who can act its romance! What happiness! what unspeakable fulfilment!
They are interrupted by the entry of Louka, a handsome . proud girl in a pretty Bulgarian peasant's dress with double apron, so defiant that her servility to Raina is almost insolent. She is afraid of Catherine, buteveriwithhergoesas far as she dares.

tn o akll subaylarn yannda snk ve silik kalacandan korktum. CATHERINE: Snk ve silik mi? Yazklar olsun sana! Srplarn da en az Ruslar kadar akll AvusturyalI subaylar var ama buna ramen onlar her savata yendik. RAINA (Glerek ve annesine sarlarak) Evet. O zaman aptal ve korkaktm. Ah, hepsinin doru olduunu dnmek! Sergius'un grnd kadar soylu ve cesur olduunu! Dnyann gerekten grkemini grebilen kadnlar ve duygusalln yaayabilen erkekler iin muhteem bir yer olduunu! Ne mutluluk! Ne anlatlmaz haz!
eri Louka'nn girmesiyle susarlar. Gzel, gururlu bir kzdr. stnde ift nlkl gzel bir Bulgar kyl elbisesi vardr. yle meydan okuyan bir havas vardr ki davranlar Raina iin neredeyse kstahadr. Catherine'den ekinmektedir ama ona kar bile cesaret edebildii lde ileri gider.

LOUKA. If you please, madam, all the windows are to be closed and the shutters made fast. They say there may be shooting in the streets. [Raina find Catherine rise together, alarmed]. The Serbs are being chased right back through the pass; and they say they may run into the town. Our cavalry will be after them; and our people will be ready for them, you may be sure, now theyre running away. [Shegoesouton thebalcony, and
pulls the outside shutters to; then steps back into the room]. CATHERINE [businesslike, her housekeeping instincts aroused] I must see that everything is

LOUKA: zninizle hanmefendi, btn pencereler kapanacak ve kepenkler srglenecek. Sokaklarda atmalar olabilir diyorlar (Raina ve Catherine endiele- ... nerek birden ayaa kalkarlar). Srplar geitte kovalyorlarm ve kasabaya girebilirlermi. Svailerimiz onlarn peinde olacak; insanlarmz onlara kar hazr bulunacak, endielenmeyin artk kayorlar (Balkona kar ve
kepenkleri kapar, sonra ieri girer). CATHERINE: (Hamarat ve evhanmt igds canlanarak) Aada her yerin emniyete alnp

made safe downstairs. RAINA. I wish our people were not so cruel. What glory is there in killing wretched fugitives? CATHERINE. Cruel! Do you suppose they would hesitate to kill youor worse? RAINA [to Louka] Leave the shutters so that I can just close them if I hear any noise. CATHERINE [authoritatively,'turning on her zoay to the door] Oh no, dear: you must keep them fastened. You w-ould-bc^sure_to.dr-opofLto_sleep-andieave_them open. Make them fast, Louka. LOUKA. Yes, madam. [She fastens them]. RAINA. Dont be anxious about me. The moment I hear a shot, I shall blow out the candles and roll myself up in bed with my ears well covered. CATHERINE. Quite the wisest thing you can do, my love. Goodnight. RAINA. Goodnight. [Her emotion comes back for.a moment]. Wish me joy [They kiss]. This is the happiest night of my lifeif only there are no fugitives. CATHERINE. Go to bed, dear; and dont think of them. [She goes out]. LOUKA [secretly to Raina] If you would like the shutters

alnmadna bakmalym. RAINA: Keke insanlarmz bu kadar zalim olmasalar. Zavall kaaklan ldrmenin an nerede? CATHERINE: Zalimlik mi! Onlarn ilk frsatta seni ldrmeyeceini ya da daha ktsn yapmayacaklarn m sanyorsun? RAINA: (Louka'ya) Kepenkleri yle brak ki grlt duyduumda hemen kapatabileyim. CATHERINE: (Kapya yrrken dner, otoriter bir sesle) Hayr, efendim. Kepenkleri kapal tutman gerek. Yoksa uyursun ve kepenkler ak kalr. Srgle onla- jELLoka.^ LOUKA: Peki, hanmefendi (Srgler). RAINA: Benim iin endielenmeyin. Bir silah sesi duyar duymaz mumlar sndrp, yatama kvrlp, kulaklarm iyice tkayacam. CATHERINE: Yapabilecein en akllca ey bu, canm. Haydi, iyi geceler. RAINA: yi geceler (Bir an iin cokusu geri gelir). Bana coku dile (prler). Bu hayatmn en mutlu gecesibir de u kaaklar olmasa. CATHERINE: Yat, canm; onlar da dnme (dar
kar).

LOUKA: (Raina'ya fsldayarak) Kepenklerin ak kal-

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open, just give them a push like this [she pushes them: they open: she pulls them to again]. One of them ought to be bolted at the bottom; but the bolt's gone. RAINA [with dignity, reprovingher] Thanks, Louka; but we must do what we are told. [ Louka makes a grimace]. Goodnight. LOUKA [carelessly] Goodnight. [Shegoes, out,
swaggering]Raina, left alone, takes off her fur cloak and throws it on the ottoman. Then she goes to the chest of drawers, and adores the portrait there with feelings that are beyond all expression. She does not kiss it or press it to her breast, or shew it any mark of bodily affection; but she takes it in her hands and elevates it, like a priestess. RAINA [looking up at thepicture] Oh, I shall never

masn istiyorsanz onlar yle bir itin (iter; kepenkler alr, kepenleri yeniden eker). Alttan srgl olmalar gerek ama bir tanesinin srgs yok. RAINA: (Gururlu, paylayc bir edayla) Teekkr ederim Louka; ama bize syleneni yapmalyz. (Louka yzn buruturur). yi geceler. LOUKA: (Aldrmazbir tavrla) yi geceler (Kabadayca bir yryle dar kar). . v Ylnz kalan Raina stndeki krk karr ve
sedirin stne atar. ekmeceli dolaba gider ve kelimelerle anlatlamayacak duygularla fotorafa hayran hayran bakar. Onu pmez ya da barna basmaz ama ellerinde tutar ve bir rahibe gibi havaya kaldrr. RAINA: (Fotorafa bakarak) Bundan sonra sana hep

be unworthy of you any more, my soul's hero: never, never, never. [She replaces it reverently.
Then she selects a novel from the little pile of books. She turns over the leaves dreamily; finds her page; turns the book inside out at it; and, with a happy sigh, gets into bed and prepares to read herself to sleep. But before abandoning herself to fiction, she raises her eyes once more, thinking of the blessed reality, and murmurs] My hero! my

layk olacam ruhumun kahraman, her zaman, her zaman, her zaman, (Resmi kutsal bir eymi
gibi yerine koyar ve st ste duran romanlardan bir tanesini seer. Ryadaym gibi sayfalar evirir, kald sayfay bulur, kitab bu sayfadan katlar ve mutlu bir i ekile uyuyana kadar okumak iin yataa girer. Ama kendini romana brakmadan nce gzlerini bir kez daha tavana kaldrr ve gzel gerei dnr.) Kahramanm! Kahramanm! (diye fsldar). Uzaktan gelen bir silah sesi gecenin sessizliini bozar. Raina birden irkilir; dinlemeye balar ve ilk silah sesini ok daha yakndan gelen iki silah sesi takip eder. Raina korkar ve panik iinde yataktan kalkar ve ekmeceli dolabn stndeki mumu fler. Sonra parmaklaryla kulaklarn tkayarak tuvalet masasna koar, oradaki mumu da fler ve karanlkta koarak yatana girer. Duvardaki minyatr sandukann nndeki delikli kreden yaylan ve kepenkle- , , . rin tepesindeki yarklardan szan tk dnda odada hibir .......kyoJctr. Silah sesleri hl yanklanrken kepenkler alr ve biran iin pencerenin oluturduu karl beyaz erevenin iinde bir

hero!
A distant shot breaks the quiet of the night. She starts, listening; and two more shots, much nearer, follow, startling her so that she scrambles out of bed, and hastily blows out the candle on the chest of drawers. Then, putting her fingers in her ears, she runs to the dressing table, blows out the light there, and hurries back to bed in the dark, nothing being visible but the glimmer of the light in the pierced ball before the image, and the starlight seen through the slits at the top of the shutters. The firing breaks out again: there is a : startling fusillade quite close at hand. Whilst it is still" echoing, the shutters disappear, pulled open from without; and for an instant the rectangle of

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THE CRAFT OF FICTION


To grasp the shadowy and fantasmal form of a book, to hold it fast, to turn it over and survey it at leisurethat is the effort of a critic of books, and it is perpetually defeated. Nothing, no power, will keep a book steady and motionless before us, so that we may have time to examine its shape and design. As quickly as we read, it melts and shifts in the memory; even at the moment when the last page is turned, a great part of the book, its finer detail, is already vague and doubtful. A little later, after a few days or months, how much is really left of it? A cluster of impressions, some dear points emerging from a mist of uncertainty, this is all we can hope to possess, generally speaking, in the name of a book. The experience of reading it has left something behind, and these relics we call by the book's name; but how can they be considered to give us the material for judging and appraising the book? Nobody would venture to criticize a building, a statue, a picture, with nothing before him but the memory of a single glimpse caught in passing; yet the critic of literature, on the whole, has to found his opinion upon little more. Sometimes it is possible to return to thebook and renew the impression; to a few books we may come back again and again, till they do in the end become familiar sights. But of the hundreds and hundreds of books that a critic would wish to range in his memory, in order to scrutinize and compare them reflectively, how many can he expect to bring into a state of reasonable stability? Few indeed, at the best; as for the others, he must be content with the shapeless, incoherent visions that respond when the recollection of them is invoked. It is scarcely to be wondered at if criticism is not very precise, not very exact in the use of its terms, when it has to work at such a disadvantage. Since we can never speak of a book with our eye on the object, never handle a book the real book, which is to the volume as the symphony to the scoreour phrases find nothing to check them, immediately and unmistakably, while they are formed. Of a novel, for instance, that Iseem to know well, that I recall as an old acquaintance, I may confidently begin to express an opinion; but when, having expressed it, I would glance at the book once more, to be satisfied that my judgement fits it, I can only turn to the image, such as it is, that remains in a deceiving memory.

ROMAN YAZMA SANATI'


BR kitab elle tutulamayan ve maddesel varlk- tan yoksun biimiyle tutmak, evirip evirmek ve enine boyuna .incelemek ite kitap eletirmeninin srekli olarak yenilgiye yazgl abas. Hibir ey, hibir g, biimini ve yapsn istediimiz gibi inceleyelim diye bir kitab nmzde sabit ve hareketsiz olarak tutamaz. Okur okumaz belleimizde erir ve deiir; daha son sayfay evirmeden kitabn byk bir blm, ince ayrntlar bulanklam, kolayca anmsanamaz hale gelmitir bile. Bir sre sonra, zerinden birka gn ya da birka ay geince gerekten ne kadar, kalr aklda? Birka izlenim, bir sisin bularuMmdan grnen bir iki net noktagenelde kitap adna bundan fazlasma sahip olmay umamayz. Onu okumu olmak bizde birtakm eyler brakmtr ve biz bunlara kitabn adn veririz. Ama bunlar nasl olur da kitab yarglayp deerlendirmemize yarayacak malzemeyi salar bize? Hi kimse yalnzca geerken grm olduu bir yapy, bir yontuyu ya da bir resmi, karsna almadan, aklnda kald kadaryla eletirmeye kalkmaz; oysa genelde yazm eletirmeninin elinde, zerine grn dayandrmak iin bundan daha fazlas bulunmaz] Bazen kitaba geri dnp izlenimleri tazelemek olasdr; birka kitaba sk sk geri dnp bakabiliriz, yle ki sonunda artk ok bildik gelmeye balarlar. Ama bir eletirmen, ince eleyip sk dokuyarak birbiriyle karlatrmak iin akimda

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cannot look up from my writing and sharpen my impression with a straight, unhampered view of the author's work; to glance at a book, though the phrase is so often in our mouths, is in fact an impossibility. The form of a noveland how often a critic uses that expression toois something that none of us, perhaps, has ever really contemplated. It is revealed little by little, page by page, and it i withdrawn as fast as it is revealed; as a whole, complete and perfect, it could only exist in a more tenacious memory than most of us have to rely on. Our critical faculty may be admirable; we may be thoroughly capable of judging a book justly, if only we could watch it at ease. But fine taste and keen perception are of no use to us if we cannot retain the image of the book; and the image escapes and evades us like a cloud. We are so well accustomed to this disability that I may seem to make too much of it. In theory, certainly, the book is never present in the critic's mind, never there in all its completeness; but enough of if, in a commonly good memory, remains to be discussed and criticizedthe book as we remember it, the book that survives, is sufficient for practical purposes. Such we assume to be the case, and our criticism is very little troubled by the thought that it is only directed at certain fragments of the book which the author wrote, the rest of it having ceased to exist for us. There is plenty to say of a book, even in this condition; for the hours of our actual exposure to it were full and eventful, and after living for a time with people like Clarissa Harlowe or Anna Karenina or Emma Bovary we have had a lasting experience, though the novels in which they figured may fall away into dimness and uncertainty. These women, with some of the scenes and episodes of their history, remain with us as vividly as though we had known them in life; and we still keep a general impression of their setting and their fortunes, a background more or less undefined, but associated with the thought of them. It all makes a very real and solid possession of a kind, and we readily accept it as the book itself. One does not need to remember the smaller detail of the story to perceive the truth and force of the characters; and if a great deal is forgotten, the most striking aspects of the case will linger in the mind as we look back. Dramatic episodes, fine pieces of description, above all the presence of many interesting and remarkable people while there is so much that instantly springs to light when the book is mentioned, it seems perverse to say that the book is not before us as we write of it. The real heart and substance of the book, it might even be urged, stands out the more clearly for the obscurity into which the less essential parts of it subside. And true it is that for criticism of the author's genius, of the power and quality of his imagination, the impressions we are able to save from oblivion are material in plenty. Of Richardson and Tolstoy and Flaubert we can say at once that their command of life, their grasp of character, their
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yazdklarmdan bam kaldrp da yazarm yaptna, herhangi bir engelle karlamadan, dorudan bir gz atp izlenimimi keskinletiremem; bu sz dilimizden drmememize karm bir kitaba gz atmak gerekte olanakszdr. Bir romann biimi, (eletirmenler bu sz de ok kullanrlar) zerinde belki de hibirimizin uzun uzadya dnmedii bir eydir. Biim kendisini azar azar, sayfa sayfa belli ede.ye J)^;:.eMi'']^da;'cU'; geri ekiliverir; bir btn olarak ancak oumuzun bel: baladndan ok daha inat bir bellekte varolabilir. Beeniyle karlanan bir eletirme yetimiz olabilir; bir kitab ok doru bir biimde yarglama yeteneine sahip olabiliriz, ama ancak onu rahat rahat izleyebiliyorsak. Oysa kitabn btnn aklmzda tutamyorsak ve bu imge tpk bir bulut gibi elimizden kayorsa, ince bir zevk ve keskin bir alglama yetenei hi iimize yaramaz. Bu yetersizlie ylesine alknz ki konuyu gereinden fazla bytyormu gibi grnebilirim. Kuramsal olarak kitabm kendisi asla eletirmenin kafasnda bulunmaz, hibir zaman bir btn olarak orada deildir, ama iyi bir bellekte zerinde tartma ve eletiri yaplacak kadar vardr anmsadmz kadaryla, aklmzda kald kadaryla kitap pratik amalar iin yeterlidir. Byle olduunu varsayarz ve eletiri yaparken dncemizin kitabm yalnzca belli paralarna yneldiini, geri kalanlarn ise bizim iin artk varolmadn dnp de canmz skmayz. Bu durumda bile bir kitap hakknda sylenecek ok ey vardr; nk onu okurken dolu dolu ve olayl saatler geirmiizdir ve iinde bulunduklar romanlar kararda gmlm olsalar bile Clarissa Harlowe, Anna Karenina ya da Emma Bovary gibi roman kiileriyle bir sre birlikte yaamak zerimizde kalc bir etki brakmtr. Yaam yklerinden baz sahne ve olaylarla birlikte bu kadnlar, sanki onlar gerek yaamda tanmz gibi capacanl dururlar belleimizde. inde bulunduklar ortam ve balarna gelenler hakknda da genel bir izlenim, tam olarak tanmlanmayan ama onlar dndmzde aklmza geliveren belli bir artalan vardr. Bunlarn tm olduka gerek ve somut bir nesne oluturur ve biz de onu kitabm kendisi sayarz. Roman kiilerinin gerekliini ve gcn alglayabilmek iin yknn nemsiz ayrntlarn anmsamak gerekmez. Byk bir ounluu unutulsa bile geriye dnp baktmzda yknn en arpc yanlan aklda kalr. Dramatik olaylar, gzel betimlemeler ve hepsinin tesinde birok ilgin ve g- zalc kiinin varl kitabm ad anldnda akla bu kadar ok ey geliveriyorsa, onun hakknda yazarken kitap nmzde deil demek ii saptrmak gibi grnebilir. Hatta bir kitabm znn ve yreinin, nemsiz yerleri unutulduka daha belirginletii bile ileri srlebilir. Aklmzda kalan izlenimlerin bir yazarm dehasm, dgcnn niteliini ve derecesini eletirmek iin olduka fazla malzeme oluturduu dorudur. Richardson, Tolstoy ve Flaubert'in yaam kavraylarnn, kiilik zmlemelerinin, insan duygular ve davranlar konusundaki bilgilerinin geni bir alan kapsadm, derinlii ve gc

intercourse behind us we have learnt to know them, and it matters little that at any particular moment our vision of their work is bound to be imperfect. The forgotten detail has all contributed to our sense of the genius which built up and elaborated the structure, and that sense abides. Clarissa and Anna and Emma are positive facts, and so are their authors; the criticism of fiction is securely founded upon its object, if by fiction we mean something more, something other, -than the novel itselfif we mean its life-like effects, and the imaginative gifts which they imply in the novelist. These we can examine as long and as closely as we choose, for they persist and grow more definite as we cultivate the remembrance of them. And to these, accordingly, we find our criticism always tending; we discuss the writer, we discuss the people in his book, we. discuss the kind of life he renders and his success in the rendering. But meanwhile the book, the thing he made, lies imprisoned in the volume, and our glimpse of it was too fleeting, it seems, to leave us with a lasting knowledge of its form. We soon reach the end of so much as we have to say on that subject. Perhaps we should have more to say of it if we read the book differently in the first place. I scarcely think we could any of us claim that in reading a novel we deliberately watch the book itself, rather than the scenes and figures it suggests, or that we seek to construct an image of the book, page by page, while its form is gradually exposed to us. We are much more inclined to forget, if we can, that the book is an object of art, and to treat it as a piece of the life around us; we fashion for ourselves, we objectify, the elements in it that happen to strike us most keenly, such as an effective scene or a brilliant character. These things take shape in the mind of the reader; they are re-created and set up where the mind's eye can rest on them. They become works of art, no doubt, in their way, but they are not the book which the author offers us. TTiat is a larger and more complex form, one that it is much more difficult to think of as a rounded thing. A novel, as we say, opens a new world to the imagination; and it is pleasant to discover that sometimes, in a few novels, it is a world which "creates an illusion"so pleasant that we are content to be lost in it. When that happens there is no chance of our finding, perceiving, recreating, the form of the book. So far from losing ourselves in.the world of the novel, we must hold it away from us, see it all in detachment, and use the whole of it to make the image we seek, the book itself. It is difficult to treat a large and stirring piece of fiction in this way. The landscape opens out and surrounds us, and we proceed to create what is in effect a novel within the novel which the author wrote. When, for example, I try to consider closely the remnant that exists in my memory.of a book read and admired years agoof such a book as Clarissa HarloweI well understand that in reading

lunmakla onlar tanmay rermiizdir. Eer builiki srasnda herhangi bir an yaptlarm tm ayrntsyla anmsayamyorsak bu pek nemli deildir. Unutulmu olan ayrntnn da o yapy kurmu ve gelitirmi olan dehay sezinlememize katks olmutur ve kalc olan da bu sezgidir. Clarissa, Anna ve Emma somut gereklerdir, yazarlar da yle; kurmaca anlat eletirisi, eletirdii eyin zerine salam bir biimde otur tulmu demektir eer kurmaca anlat ile romandan baka, romandan daha fazla bir eyi, romanm yaratt geree benzer etkileri ve bu etkilerle romancda varolduu sezdirilen yaratc yetenekleri kastediyorsak. Bunlar istediimiz kadar ve istediimiz yaknlktan inceleyebiliriz, nk bunlar kalcdr ve arumandika belir- ginleirler. Eletirimizin de bu yne yatkn olduunu grrz; yazar, kitabndaki kiiler, ele ald yaam tr ve bu yaam trn anlatmadaki baars zerinde konuuruz. Oysa bu srada kitap, yani yazarn yaratt ey, bir cilde hapsedilmi olarak durmaktadr ve ondan aklmzda biimi hakknda kalc bir bilgiye sahip olmamza olanak vermeyecek kadar az ey kalmtr. Bu konuda syleyeceklerimiz hemen tkeniverir. Eer Idtab bir baka biimde okumu olsak belki de syleyecek ok daha fazla eyimiz olurdu. Sanrm hibirimiz, bir roman okurken gzmzn nnde canlanan kiiler ve sahnelerden ok, kitabn kendisini grdmz, ya da, biimi yava yava ortaya ktka sayfa sayfa, o biimi kafamzda kurmaya altmz ileri sremeyiz. Tersine, elimizden gelirse, kitabn sanatsal bir nesne olduunu ve onu da evremizdeki yaamn bir paras olarak grmemiz, gerektiini unutmaya yatkmzdr; etkili bir sahne ya da parlak bir roman kiisi gibi, kitaptarfen k houmuza giden elere biim verir, onlar nesnelletiririz. Bu gibi eyler okurun zihninde biimlenir; orada yemden yaratlr ve istendii zaman dnp baklmak zere saklanr. Kukusuz bir bakma onlar da sanat yaptlardr ama yazarn bize sunduu kitap deildirler. Onun, bunlardan ok daha geni ve karmak ve toplu olarak grlmesi ok daha zor olan bir biimi vardr. Bir roman, dg- cnn nnde yepyeni bir dnya aar ve bazen, pek az romanda, bu dnyann "yanlsama yaratan" bir dnya olduunu grmek ho bir duygudur yle hotur ki, o dnyada yolumuzu yitirmek yeter bize. te byle kaplp gittiimizde romanm biimini bulma, alglama ye yeniden yaratma ansmz hi yoktur. Oysa, kendimizi romann dnyasnda yitirmek yle dursun, onu kendimizden uzakta tutmamz, orada olanlara belli bir uzaklktan bakmamz ve okuduklarmzn tmn, aradmz somut biimi, yani kitabn kendisini oluturmak iin kullanmamz gerekir. Durmadan devinen byk bir roman byle grebilmek gtr. nmzde alan dnya bizi drt yandan sarverir ve sonuta yazarn yazm olduu romanm iinde bir baka roman yaratmak olan bir ie koyuluruz. rnein, Clarissa Harlowe gibi yllar nce okuyup ok beenmi olduum bir kitaptan aklmda kalm lanlari gzden geirmeye
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much of her story has faded away, is still visibly present, it is because nothing is simpler than to create for oneself the idea of a human being, a figure and a character, from a series of glimpses and anecdotes. Creation of this kind we practise every day; we are continually piecing together our fragmentary evidence about the people around us and moulding' their images in thought. It is the way in which we make our world; partially, imperfectly, very much at haphazard, but still perpetually, everybody deals with his experience like an artist. And his talent, such as it may be, for rounding and detaching his experience of a man or a woman, so that the thing stands clear in his thought and takes the light on every sidethis can never lie idle, it is exercised every hour of the day. As soon as he begins to hear of Clarissa, therefore, on the first page of Richardson's book, the shaping, objectifying mind of the reader is at work on familiar material. It is so easy to construct the idea of the exquisite creature, that she seems to step from the pages of her own accord; I, as I read, am aware of nothing but that a new acquaintance is gradually becoming better and better known to me. No conscious effort is needed to make a recognizable woman of her, though in fact I am fitting a multitude of small details together, as I proceed to give her the body and mind that she presently possesses. And so, too, with the lesser people in the book, and with their surroundings; so, too, with the incidents that pass; a succession of moments are visualized, are wrought into form by the reader, though perhaps very few of them are so well made that they will last in memory. If they soon disappear, the fault may be the writer's or the reader's, Richardson's if he failed to describe them adequately, mine if my manner of reading has not been sufficiently creative. In any case the page that has been well read has the best chance of survival; it was soundly fashioned, to start with, out of the material given me.by the writer, and at least it will resist the treachery of a poor memory more resolutely than a paige that I did not thoroughly recreate. But still, as I say, the aspects of a book that for the most part we detach and solidify are simply those which cost us no deliberate pains. We bring to the reading of a book certain imaginative f acuities which are in use all the day long, faculties that enable us to complete, in our minds, the people and the scene which the novelist describes to give them dimensions, to see round them, to make them "real." And these faculties, no doubt, when they are combined with a trained taste, a sense of quality, seem to represent all that is needed for the criticism of fiction. The novel (and in these pages I speak only of the modem novel, the picture of life that we are in a position to understand without the knowledge of a student or a scholar)the modem novel asks for no other equipment in its readers than this common gift, used as .instinctively as the power of breathing, by which we turn the flat impressions of our senses into solid shapes: this gift, and nothing else except
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byk blm unutulduu halde o hl tm canllyla duruyorsa bu, bir dizi grnt ve olaydan hem grn hem de kiilik olarak bir insan yaratmann ok kolay bir ey"olmasndandr.Bu tr yaratma iini her gn yaparz; srekli olarak evremizdeki insanlar hakan- dad blk prk bilgilerimizi birletiriyor, dncemizde onlara bir biim, Bir grnm veriyoruz. Bu bizim dnyamz kurma biimimizdir; para para, geliigzel, ama yine de dump dinlenmeden, herkes deneyimlerini bir sanat gibi iler. Kadn olsun erkek olsun bir inam, hakkmdaki her eyi bir araya toplayp, o kii dncesinde net olarak ve her ynden k alacak biimde belirecek kadar uzaklatrma yetenei, asla dinlenecek zaman bulamaz, gnn her saatinde i bandadr. Bu nedenle, Richardson'm romannn ilk sayfasnda Clarissa anlatlmaya balar balamaz okurun biim veren ve nesnelletiren zihni, alk olduu bir malzemeyi ilemeye balamtr bile. Bu harikulde yarat dncede biimlendirmek ylesine kolaydr ki, kendi bana sayfalardan dan admn atyormu gibi grnr. Roman okurken yalnz ve yalnz gittike daha iyi tanmakta olduum bu yeni dostun farknda olurum. Ondan tannabilir bir kadn yaratmak iin bilinli bir aba gerekmez, ama aslnda ona ksa srede sahip olduu bedeni ve akl verirken birok kk ayrnty bir araya getirmekteyimdir. Bu, romandaki daha nemsiz kier ve onlarn evreleri iin de byledir, romanda geen olaylar iin de; okur, birbirini izleyen anlan gznn nne getirmi, ilerinde pek az kalc olacak kadar iyi olsa da, bunlara bir biim vermitir. Eer ksa bir sre sonra siliniyorlarsa kusur ya yazarda ya da okurdadr; eer betiMemeleriyeterince iyi deilse Richardson'm, yeterince yaratc bir biimde okuyamarrusam benim suumdur. Yine de dikkatli okunmu bir sayfann aklda kalma olasl her zaman daha byktr; bir kere, yazarn verdii malzemeden yola klarak doru olarak biimlendirilmitir ve tmyle batan yaratmadm bir sayfaya oranla, zayf bir bellein ihanetine en azndan ok daha kararl bir biimde kar koyacaktr. Ama yine de, sylediim gibi, bir romann belirli bir uzaklktan bakp somutlatrdmz ksmlar zel bir zahmete katlanmamz gerektirmeyecek olanlardr. Bir roman okurken, gn boyu kullandmz baz dgc yetilerimizden, yani yazarn betimledii kiileri ve sahneleri zihnimizde tamamlamamz, onlara boyut kazandrmamz, onlar her ynden grebilmemizi, "gerek" yapmamz salayan yetilerden yararlanrz. Kukusuz bunlar eitilmi bir zevk ve iyiyi ktden ayrde- debilme yetisiyle birletiinde, roman eletirisi iin gereken her ey var demektir. Roman (bu sayfalarda bir rencinin ya da aratrmacnn bilgisine sahip olmadan anlayabilecek durumda olduumuz, yaam yanslayan aa! romandan sz ediyorum), modem roman, okurundan soluk almak kadar igdsel bir biimde kullanlan ve yalnkat izlenimlerimizi elle tutulur biimlere dntren bu sradan yetiden baka bir ey

life, and life is well known to us; let us first of all "realize" it,.and then, using our taste, let us judge whether it is true, vivid, convincinglike life, in fact. The theory does indeed go a little further, we know. A novel is a picture, a portrait, and we do not forget that there is more in a portrait than the "likeness." Form, design, composition, are to be sought in a novel, as in any. other work of art; a novel is the better for possessing them. That we must own, if fiction is an art at all; and ah art it must be, since a literal transcript of life is plainly impossible. The laws of art, therefore, apply to this object of our scrutiny, this novel, and it is the better, other things being equal, for obeying them. And yet, is it so very much the better? Is it not somehow true that fiction, among the arts, is a peculiar case, unusually exempt from the rules that bind the rest? Does the fact that a novel is well designed, well proportioned, really make a very great difference in its power to please? and let us answer honestly, for if it does not, then it is pedantry to force these rules upon a novel. In other arts it may be otherwise, and no doubt a lop-sided statue or an ill-composed painting is a plain offence to the eye, however skilfully it may copy life. The same thing is true of a novel, perhaps, if the fault is very bad, very marked; yet it would be hard to say that even so it is necessarily fatal, or that a novel cannot triumphantly live down the worst aberrations of this kind. We know of novels which everybody admits to be badly constructed, but which are so full of life that it does not appear to matter. May we not conclude that form, design, composition, have a rather different bearing upon the art of fiction than any they may have elsewhere? And, moreover, these expressions, applied to the viewless art of literature, must fit it loosely and insecurely at bestdoes it not seem so? They are words usurped from other arts, words that suppose a visible and measurable object, painted or carved. For criticizing the craft of fiction we have no other language than that which has been devised for the material arts; and though we may feel that to talk of the colours and values and perspective of a novel is natural and legiti-. mate, yet these are only metaphors, after all, that cannot be closely pressed. A book starts a train of ideas in ' the head of the reader, ideas which are massed and arranged on some kind of system; but it is only by the help of fanciful analogies that we can treat the mass as a definite object. Such phrases may give hints and suggestions concerning the method of the novelist; the whole affair is too nebulous for more. Even if a critic's memory were infallible, as it can never be, still it would be impossible for him to give a really scientific account of the structure of the simplest book, since in the last resort he

yanssdr ve yaam bizim ok iyi bildiimiz bir konudur; yleyse her eyden nce okuduumuz roman "gerekletirelim" ve soma zevkimizi kullanarak bunun gerek yaamda olduu gibi doru, canl ve inandrc olup olmadna bakalm. Aslnda kuram burada bitmiyor. Roman yaamn yanss, portresidir ama bir portrede "benzerlik"ten daha fazla bir eyler olduunu unutmuyoruz. Dier herhangi bir sanat yaptnda olduu gibi romanda da biim, tasarm, dzenleme arnmhdjtf; bir roman bunlara sahip olduu oranda iyidir. Eer roman bir sanatsa - ki yle olmas gerekir, nk yaam olduu gibi yazya dkmek olanakszdr bu noktay bylece kabul etmemiz gerekir. O halde, sanatsal kurallar inceleme konusu olan bu nesne, yani roman iin de geerlidir ve br koullar da yerine getirmi olduunu varsayarsak, bir roman bu kurallara uyarsa daha iyi yazlm olur. Ama bu ok mu fark eder? Sanatlar iinde romann, dier sanat dallarm balayan kurallardan bak olan zel bir yeri olduu doru deil midir? Bir romann iyi tasarlanm ve orantl olmas hoa gitmesi asndan ok mu nemlidir? Drst olalm, nk eer deilse bu kurallar romana uygulamak okbilmilik olur. Baka sanatlarda byle olmayabilir, kukusuz dengesi bozuk bir yontu ya da iyi dzenlenmemi bir resim, yaam ne denli baaryla yanslarsa yanslasn, gz rahatsz eder. Eer kusur ok kt ya da ok belirginse ayn ey roman iin de sylenebilir; yine de, byle olsa bile, bunun lmcl bir kusur olduunu ya da romann bu trden en kt kusurlar bile baaryla unutturamayacam sylemek zordur. Kurgusunun kt olduu herkes tarafndan bilinen ama ok canl olduklar iin bunun nemli bir kusur saylmad romanlar biliyoruz. O halde, biim, tasarm ve dzenlemenin roman sanat zerindeki etkisinin, bunlarn herhangi baka bir yerdeki etkisinden ok farkl olduu sonucunu kartamaz myz? Soma bu deyimler grsel bir sanat olmayan roman sanatna uygulandnda tam oturmamaldr yle deil mi? Baka sanatlardan alnm, izilmi ya da oyulmu, gzle grlebilen ve llebilen nesneler iin kullanlan szcklerdir bunlar. Romancnn sanatm eletirirken elimizde somut sanat dallar iin gelitirilmi olan bu dilden bakas yoktur; geri bir romann renklerinden, deerlerinden, perspektifinden sz etmeyi ok doal karlyor, bunda bir salonca grmyoruz ama aslnda bunlar birer eretilemedir ve ok fazla zorlanamazlar. Bir roman, okurun zihninde bir dizi dnce uyandrr, st ste ylan ve bir sisteme gre dzenlenen dnceler; ama bu dnce ynm somut bir nesne olTk^grmemlz^ricalrdgciTizn r^ n benzerlikler yardmyla olasdr. Bu tr szckler yazarn yntemi ile ilgili ipular ve fikir verebilir; daha fazlasn yapamazlar, nk eldeki malzeme yeterince net deildir. Eletirmenin bellei amaz bir bellek olsa bile, ki asla olamaz, yine de en basit kitabn yaps hakknda bile gerek anlamda bilimsel bir, aklama yapmas olanakszdr, nk sylediklerini kantlamak iin szn ettii
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criticism has its difficulties, it would appear. The literary critic, with nothing to point to but the mere volume in his hand, must recognize that his wish to be precise, to be definite, to be clear and exact in his statements, is hopelessly vain. It is all undeniable, no doubt; from every side we make out that the criticism of a booknot the people in the book, not the character of the author, but the bookis impossible.' We cannot remember the book, arid everi if we could, we should still be unable to describe it in literal and unequivocal terms. It cannot be done; and the only thing to be said is that perhaps it can be approached, perhaps the book can be seen, a little more closely in one way than in another. It is a modest claim, and rriy own attempt to assert it will be still more modest. A few familiar novels, possibly a dozen, by still fewer writersit will be enough if I can view this small handful with some particularity. And I shall consider them, too, with no idea of criticizing all their aspects, or even more than one. How they are made is the only question I shall ask; and though indeed that is a question which incidentally raises a good many othersquestions of the. intention of the novelist, his choice of a subject, the manner of his imagination, and so forththese I shall follow no further than I can help. And as for the few novels that I shall speak of, they will be such as appear to illustrate most plainly the various elements of the craft; one need not range widely to find them, nor does it matter if the selection, from any other point of view, should seem arbitrary. Many great names may be passed over, for it is not always the greatest whose method of work gives the convenient example; on the other hand the best, example is always to be found among the great, arid it is essential to keep to their company. But something may first be said of the reading of a novel. The beginning of criticism is to read aright, in other words to get into touch with the book as nearly as may be. It is a forlorn enterprisethat is admitted; but there are degrees of unsuccess.

tirinin glkleri olduunu dnebilirler. nnde elindeki ciltten baka iaret edebilecei hibir ey olmayan yazn eletirmeni sylediklerinin tam, kesin, ak ve doru olmas isteinin hibir umuda yer vermeyecek kadar bouna olduunu anlamaldr. Kukusuz yadsnamaz bir gerek bu; ne ynden bakarsak bakalm bir kitab kitaptaki kiileri ya da yazarn kiiliini deil, kitab eletirmenin olanaksz olduunu grrz. Kitab aklmzda tutamayz, tutsak bile onu ifte anlaml olmayan, harfi harfine uygun den szlerle tanmlayamayz. Bu yaplamaz; belki yalnzca yaklalabilecei sylenebilir, belki kitap bir adan bakldnda baka trl bakldndan daha yalandan grlebilir. Bu ok alakgnll bir sav, benim bu sav ileri srme abam ie daha da alakgnll olacak. Az sayda, bir dzine kadar, iyi bilinen roman ve daha da az sayda yazar bu kadar az eyi ayrntsyla grebilirsem yeterli olur. Onlar da birok, hatta birden fazla ynden eletirme dncesiyle ele alacak deilim. Soracam Tik soru nasl yazldklar sorusu olacak; geri bu, yazarn amac, konu seimi, dgcnn ileyi biimi ve benzeri gibi birok baka soruyu da akla getirecek bir soru ama ben elimden geldiince onlarn ardna dmemeye alacam. Ele alacam az saydaki romana gelince, onlar da roman sanatnn eitli elerini en ak biimde sergileyenler olacak; bunlar bulmak iin ok geni bir alan taramaya gerek yok. Bir baka adan bakldnda yaptmn keyfi bir seim gibi grnmesinin de nemi yok. Birok byk.isim atlanabilir, nk kulland yntem asndan en uygun rnei oluturan yazar her zaman byk bir yazar olmayabilir ama te yandan, en iyi rnek her zaman en byk yazarlarda bulunur ve onlardan pek ayrlmamak gerekir. Ancak ilk nce roman okuma kokusunda unu syleyelim: Eletirinin balangc doru okumak, baka bir deyile, kitapla olabildiince yakn bir ilikide olmaktr. Bu umutsuz bir aba kabul ediyoruz; ama baarszln da dereceleri vardr.

A book has a certain form, we all agree; what the form of a particular book may be, whether good or bad, and whether it mattersthese are points of debate; but that abook hasa form, this is not disputed. We hear the phrase on all sides, an unending agrument is waged over it. One critic condemns a novel as "shapeless," meaning that its shape is objectionable; another retorts that if the novel has other fine qualities, its shape is unimportant; and the two will continue their controversy till an onlooker, pardonably bewildered, may, begin to suppose that "form" in fiction is something to be put in or left put of a novel according to the taste,of the author. But though the discussion is indeed confusingly worded at times, it is clear that there is agreement on this

BR kitap bir tr biime sahiptir; buna hepimiz katlyoruz; belli bir kitabm biimi nasldr, iyi midir, kt mdr, ya da bir nem tar m? Bunlar ise tartma konusu olan noktalardr; ama bir kitabn bir biime sahip olduu tarlmaz. Bu sz her yerde duyuyoruz; konu zerinde bitip tkenmeyen bir tartma srdrlmektedir. Eletirmenin biri kalkp bir roman "biimden yoksun" diye damgalyor; demek istedii, romann biiminin kar klabilir nitelikte oluudur; bir dieri ise, romann baka iyi nitelikleri varsa biiminin nemli olmadm syleyerek onu yantlyor; bu ikisi tartmalarm srdreceklerdir ta ki onlar izlemekte olan bir ki- i, anlalabilir bir aknla derek kurmaca anlatdaki "biim"in, yazarn zevkine gre romann iine de katlabilir, dnda da tutulabilir olduunu dnmeye balayncaya dein. Ancak tartma kimi zaman gerekten akl kartrc bir biimde dile getiriliyor olsa bile, en azmdan u

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to which a shape is ascribable, good or bad. I have spoken of the difficulty that prevents us from ever seeing or describing the shape with perfect certainty; but evidently we are convinced that it is there, clothing the book. Not as a single form, however, but as a moving stream of impressions, paid out of the volume in a slender thread as we turn the pagesthat is how the book reaches us; or in another image it is a procession that passes before us as we sit to watch. It is hard to tKink of this lapse and flow, this sequence of figures and scenes, which must be taken in a settled order, one after another, as existing in the condition of an immobile form, like a pile of sculpture. Though we readily talk of the book as a material work of art, our words seem to be crossed by a sense that it is rather a process, a passage of experience, than a thing of size and shape. I find this contradiction dividing all my thought about books; they are objects, yes, completed and detached, but I recall them also as tracts of time, during which Clarissa and Anna moved and lived and endured in my view. Criticism is hampered by the ambiguity; the two books, the two aspects of the same book, blur each other; a critic seems to shift from this one. to that, from the thing carved in the stuff of thought to the passing movement of life. And on the whole it is the latter aspect of the two which asserts itself; the first, the novel with its formal outline, appears for a moment, and then the life contained in it breaks out and obscures it. But the procession which passes across our line of sight in the reading must be marshalled and concentrated somewhere; we receive the story of Anna bit by bit, all the numerous fragments that together, make Tolstoy's book; and finally the tale is complete, and the book stands before us, or should stand, as a welded mass. We have been given the material, and the book should now be there. Our treacherous memory will have failed to preserve it all, but that disability we have admitted and discounted; at any rate an imposing object ought to remain, Tolstoy's great imaginative sculpture, sufficiently representing his intention. And again and again, at this point, I make the same discovery; I have been watching the story, that is to say, forgetful of the fact that there was more for me to do than to watch receptively and passively, forgetful of the novel that I should have been fashioning out of the march of experience as it passed. I have been treating it as life; and that is all very well, and is the right manrier as far as it goes, but my treatment of life is capricious and eclectic, and this life, this story of Anna, has suffered accordinglyTThave taken muclront'Tifitandrarried^awaymany recollections; I have omitted to think of it as matter to be wrought into a single form. What wonder if I search my mind in vain, a little later, for the book

u aktr bir kitap, iyi ya da kt, kendisine bir biim yorulabilir bir eydir. Biimi grebilmemizi ya da tam bir kesinlikle betimlememizi engelleyen glkten sz ettim; ancak uras belli ki biimin varlna, kitab sarp sarmaladna inanyoruz. Ancak tek bir biim olarak deil, sayfalarn evirdike kitaptan dar doru alan ince bir ip halinde hi durmadan akan bir izlenimler seli olarak. Bir, kitap ite byle ular bizere; ya da bir baka imge kullanrsak, bu, biz oturup izlerken nmzden geen bir tren alaydr. Bu gelgiti, kii ve sahnelerin, belirli bir sra iinde, birbiri ardnca ele alnmalarn gerektiren bu arka arkaya dizililerini, bir yontu yn gibi, duraan bir biim halinde dnmek zordur. Kitaptan elle tutulur bir sanat yapt olarak sz etmeye hazrzdr ama, bunu yaparken kitabn, bykl ve biimi olan bir eyden ok, bir sre, bir deneyimler akm olduu yolundaki bir duygu da ie karr. Bu aykrln kitaplarla ilgili tm dncelerimi bldn gryorum; kitaplar nesnedirler, tamam; btnlkleri vardr ve baka eylerden ayrlmlardr. Ancak onlar, Clarissa ve Anna'ran gzlerimin nnde hareket ettikleri, yaadklar ve varlklarm srdrdkleri birer zaman dilimi olarak da anmsyorum. Bu belirsizlik eletiriyi kstekler; iki kitap, ayn kitabn iki yn birbirlerini bulandrirlar; eletirmen sanki bunlarn birinden brne, dnceye kazk olan eyden, yaamn srp giden devinimine geip durmaktadr. Ve genelde, baskm kan bu iki ynn kincisidir; ilki, yani romanm biimsel yaps, bir an iin belirir, sonra da romann iinde sakl olan yaam dar frlayarak onu glgede brakr. Ancak okurken gr alanmzdan geen tren alay, bir yere doru ynlendirilip, orada younlatrlmal- dr, Anna'nn yksn azar azar, bir araya geldikle-1 rinde Tolstoy'un kitabm oluturan ok saydaki blmlerden kararak alglarz; ve sonunda yk, tamamlanmtr; ite kitap, kaynam bir byk para olarak karmzda durmaktadr, ya da byle olmas gerekir. Malzeme elimize verilmitir ve kitabn artk ortaya km olmas gerekir. Gvenilmez belleimiz her eyi iinde saklamay baaramayacaktr ama belleimizin bu yetersizliini kabullenip, gz ard etmiizdir; ne olursa olsun, geride heybetli bir ey kalmaldr, bu da Tolstoy'un, amacn yeterince gsteren, dgcyle ' yaratt yontusudur, ite bu noktada tekrar tekrar ayn eyi kefediyorum; yky izlemiim; yani, alglayc ve edilgen bir biimde izlemekten te yaplmas gereken eyler olduunu unutarak, nmde geit yapan deneyimlere bakp benim biimlendirmi olmam gereken roman unutarak, izlemiim. Roman yaamn ken- disiymi-gibi-ele-almm;-bu-yaptm-iyi-ho^birnok^- taya dein de tutulmas gerekli olan yoldur ama benim yaam ele alm keyfimcedir, dermeci niteliktedir ve bu yaam, Anna'nn bu yks, bundan tr zarar grmtr. ykden pek ok ey aldm, pek ok ey de an olarak kald bende; ki tab, tek bir biime sokulmak zere yorulacak malzeme olarak dnmeyi ise boladm. Tevekkeli deil, ksa bir sre sonra Tolstoy'un yazd kitab
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know how to imagine a landscape or a conversation when he describes it, but to gather up all these sights and sounds into a compact fabric, round which the mind can wander freely, as freely as it strays and contemplates and loses its way, perhaps, in Tolstoy's wonderful worldthis is a task which does not achieve itself without design and deliberation on the part of the reader. It is an effort, first of all, to keep the world of. Anna (I cling to this illustration)at a distance; and yet it must be kept at a distance if it is to be impressed with the form of art; no artist (and the skilful reader is an artist) can afford to be swayed arid beset by his material, he must stand above it. And then it is a further effort, prolonged, neding practice and knowledge, to recreate the novel in its right form, the best form that the material, selected and disposed by the author, is capable of accepting. The reader of a novelby which I. mean the critical readeris himself a novelist; he is the maker of a book which may or may not please his taste when it is finished, but of a book for which he must take his own share of the responsibility. The author does his part, but he cannot transfer his book like a bubble into the brain of the critic; he cannot make sure that the critic will possess his work. The reader must therefore become, for his part, a novelist, never permitting himself to suppose that the creation of the book is solely the affair of the author. The difference between them is immense, of course, and so much so that a critic is always inclined to extend and intensify it. The opposition that . he conceives between the creative and the critical task is a very real one; but in modestly belittling his own side of the business he is apt to forget an.essential portion of it. The writer of the novel works in a manner that would be utterly impossible to the critic, no doubt, and with a liberty and with a range that would disconcert him entirely. But in one quarter their work coincides; both of them make the novel. Is it necessary to define the difference? That is soon done if we picture Tolstoy and his critic side by side, surveying the free and formless expanse of the world of life. The critic has nothing to say; he waits, looking to Tolstoy for guidance. Arid Tolstoy, with the help of some secret of his own, which is his genius, does not hesitate for an instant. His hand is plunged into the scene, he lifts out of it great fragments, right and left, ragged masses of life torn from their setting; he selects. And upon these trophies he sets to work with the full force of his imagination; he detects their significance, he disengages and throws aside whatever is accidental and meaningless; he re-makes them in conditions that . are never known in life, conditions

okuma"dr ki pek azmzda igdsel olarak bulunur. Bizim iin betimlediinde, bir manzaray ya da karlkl konumay nasl dleyeceimizi biliriz; ama tm bu grnmleri ve sesleri; dncenin, evresinde zgrce gezinecei, yolun dna kacak, durup izleyecek ve belki de, Tolstoy'un harikulade dnyasnda yolunu aracak lde zgrce gezinecei, sk rl bir doku olarak bir araya getirmek ite bu, okuyucu dzenle- rie yapmazsa ve kafa yormazsa kendi kendine baarya ulaacak bir i deildir. Her eyden nce Anna'nm dnyasn (bu ifadeye bal kalyorum) uzakta tutmak bir aba gerektirir, ama bir sanatsal biim niteliini alacaksa, uzakta tutulmaldr; hibir sanat (usta bir okuyucu da sanatdr) malzemesinin kendisini ynetmesine ve kuatmasna izin vermeyi gze alamaz; o, malzemesinin zerinde olmaldr. Bundan soma, roman yeni biimiyle, yazarn setii ve dzenledii malzemenin kalbna girebilecei en iyi biim iinde, yeniden yaratmak, uzun sren, altrma ve bilgi gerektiren bir baka abadr. Bir roman okuyan kiinin bunu derken eletirici gzle okuyan kiiyi sylemek istiyorum kendisi de bir romancdr; bu tr okuyucu, bittiinde zevkini okayan ya da okamayan ama sorumluluunun kendi payna den blmn stlenmesi gereken bir kitabn yaratcsdr. Yazar kendi payna deni yapar ama kitabm sanki sabun kpym de fleyip bir baka yere gnderiyormuasma, eletirmenin kalfasnn iine gnderemez; kitabnn eletirmenin mal haline gelmesini salayamaz. O halde okuyucunun payna den, bir romana durumuna girmek ve bir kitabn yaratlmasnn yalnzca yazarn ii olduu yolunda bir dnceye hibir zaman kaplmamaya zen gstermektir;kisi arasndaki fark, elbette, ok byktr; yle ki eletirmen her zaman bu fark daha bytp, daha ok derinletirme eilimindedir. Yaratma ve eletirme etkinlii arasnda grd kartlk ok da temel bir kartlktr; ancak iin kendine den paym alakgnlllkle kltrken, esasl bir blmn de unutma eilimine girer. Romann yazar, hi kuku yok ki> eletirmen iin tmyle olanaksz olan bir biimde ve eletirmeni hepten rahatsz edecek bir zgrlk ve yaylm alan iinde almaktadr. Ancak bir yerde yaptklar i birbirine uyar; her ikisi de roman yaratmaktadrlar. Aralarndaki fark tanmlamaya gerek var m? Tolstoy ile eletirmenini yan yana durmu, yaamn zgr ve biimden yoksun, yaylp giden dnyasma bakarken dlersek, bunu hemen yapm oluruz. Eletirmenin diyecek bir eyi yoktur; Tolstoy'a dnm, rehberlik etmesini isteyerek beklemektedir. Tolstoy ise, kendisine bir gizin, yani dehasnn yardmyla, bir an bile duraksamaz. Elini nlerindeki sahnenin iine daldrr, buradan byk blmler, sadan soldan, iinde bulunduklar ortamdan koparlm, kenarlar dzgn olmayan yaam paralar karr; seim yapar. Ve dgcne tam yol hz vererek bu ganimetler zerinde almaya koyulur; onlarn anlamlarm bulup kartr, rasgele ve anlamsz olan ne varsa, ayrp

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more like the old, as one may say, than the old

ever had the chance of beingupon all this life that is now so much more intensely living than before, Tolstoy directs the skill of his art; he distributes it in a single, embracing design; he orders and disposes. And thus the critic receives his guidance, and his work begins. No selection, no arrangement is required of him; the new world that is laid before him is the world of art, life liberated from the tangle of cross-purposes, saved from arbitrary distortion. Instead of a continuous, endless scene, in which the eye is caught in a thousand directions at once, with nothing to hold it to a fixed centre, the landscape that opens before the critic is whole and single; it has passed through an imagination, it has shed its irrelevancy and is compact with its own meaning. Such is the world in the bookin Tolstoy's book I do not say; but it is the world in the bookas it may be, in the book where imagination and execution are perfectly harmonized. And in any case the critic accepts this ordered, enhanced display as it stands, better or worse, and uses it all for the creation of the book. There can be no picking and choosing now; that was the business of the novelist, and it has been accomplished according to his light; the critic creates out of life that is already subject to art. But his work is not the less plastic for that. The impressions that succeed one another, as the pages of the book are turned, are to be built into a structure, and the critic is missing his opportunity unless he can proceed in a workmanlike manner. It is not to be supposed that an artist who carv.es or paints is so filled with emotion by the meaning of his workthe story in itthat he forgets the abstract beauty of form and colour; and though there is more room for such sensibility in an art which is the shaping of thought and feeling, in the art of literature, still the man of letters is a craftsman, and the critic cannot be less. He must know how to handle the stuff which is continually forming in his mind while he reads; he must be able to recognize its fine variations and to take them all into account. Nobody can work in material of which the properties are unfamiliar, and a reader who fries to get possession of a book with nothing but his appreciation of the life and the ideas and the story in it is like a man who builds a wall without knowing the capacities of wood and clay and stone. Many different substances, as distinct to the practised eye as stone and wood, go to the making of a novel, and it is necessary to see them for what they are. So only is it possible to use them aright, and to find, when the volume is closed, that a complete, coherent, appraisable book remains irTtfie mind.

ayn zamanda ondan ylesine farkl olan, belki de, eskisinin kendine benzemek iin hibir zaman frsat bulamad lde eskisine benzediini syleyebileceimizimdi, ncesine oranla ok daha youn biimde canl olan tm bu yaam zerine, Tolstoy sanatnn ustaln yneltir; tek ve kucaklayc bir dzenleme iinde datr; sraya koyar, ayklar. Eletirmen kendisine gsterilen yolu bylece anlam olur ve artk onun ii balar. Eletirmenden ne bir seme,', ne bir dzenleme yapmas beklenmektedir; nne serilmi olan yeni dnya, sanatn dnyas, farkl amalarn dmnden kurtarlm, keyf arptmalardan arndrlm yaamdr. Gzn, kendisini zerinde tutacak deimez bir merkez bulamadan ayn anda bin bir yne takld kesintisiz, sonsuz bir sahne yerine, eletirmenin nnde alan grnm eksiksiz ve tektir; bir dgcnn szgecinden gemi, gereksiz olan yaran ardnda brakm, kendi anlamyla younlamtr; Kitabn iindeki ite byle bir dnyadr Tolstoy'un kitab iindeki demiyorum; olabilir biimiyle kitabn iindeki, dgcnn ve uygulamann kusursuz bir uyum saladldar kitabn iindeki, dnyadr bu. Ve ne olursa olsun, eletirmen bu dzene konmu, zenginletirilmi grn, daha iyi de, daha kt de olsa, olduu gibi kabullenir ve tmn birden kitabm yaratlmas iin kullanr. Artk ne ayrt etme, ne seme olabilir; bunlar romancnn ii olmutur ve onun anlayna gre yerine getirilmitir; eletirmen zaten sanata baml hale gelmi olan yaamdan yola karak yaratma iini yapar. Ancak bu byle oluyor diye onun yapt i deiime daha az yatkn deildir. Kitabm sayfalar evrildike ard arda gelen izlenimlerle bir yap oluturmak gerekir ve iinde ustaca ilerlemiyorsa, eletirmen eline geen frsat karyor demektir. Bir yontucunun ya da resim yapan bir sanatnn yaptnn ardam yani iindeki yk yznden soyut biim ve renk gzelliini unutacak lde heyecanla dolduu dnlmemelidir; dnce ile duyguya biim vermek demek olan bir sanat sz konusu olduunda bu tr duyarla daha ok yer vardr ama, yazn sanatnda, yazm adam gene de bir zanaatdr, eletirmen de ondan aa kalamaz. Eletirmen okuduu srada kafasnda srekli olarak biimlenen malzemeyle nasl uraacan bilmelidir; onun ince ayrmlarm saptamay ve bunlarn hepsini dikkate almay becermelidir. Hi kimse zelliklerine yabanc olduu bir malzemeyle alamaz; iindeki yaam, grleri ve yky deerlendirmesinin dnda baka hibir ey bilmeden bir kitab kendi mal yapmaya alan okuyucu, tahtann, kilin ve tam gcn bil-, meden duvar rmeye alan bir kiiye benzer. Semesini bilen gze ta ve tahta kadarbirbirinden farkl grnen ok deiik malzeme, bir romann yaratlmasnda pay sahibidirler; ve bunlar gerek nitelikleriyle grmek gerekir. Ancak byle, olduunda bunlar doru olarak kullanmak, kapam kapadmzda, tamamlanm, tutarl ve deerlendirilebilir nitelikte bir kitabm aklmzda kaldm grmek mmknolabilir. . Peki bu birbirlerinden farkl esaslar nelerdir ire
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mixtures are infinite. They are not recondite; we know them well and use them freely, but to use them is easier than to perceive their demands and their qualities. These we gradually discern by using them consciously and questioninglyby reading, I mean, and reading critically, the books in which they appear. Let us very carefully follow the methods of the novelists whose effects areincontestable, noticing exactly the manner in which the scenes and figures in their books are presented. The scenes and figures, as I have said, we shape, we detach, without the smallest difficulty; and if we pause over them for long enough to see by what arts and devices, on the author's part, we have been enabled to shape them so strikinglyto see precisely how this episode has been given relief, that character made intelligible and vivid we at once begin to stumble on many discoveries about the making of a novel. Our criticism has been oddly incurious in the matter, considering what the dominion of the novel has been for a hundred and fifty years. The refinements of the art of fiction have been accepted without question, or at most have been classified roughly and summarilyas is proved by the singular poverty of our critical vocabulary, as soon as we pass beyond the simplest and plainest effects. The expressions and the phrases at our disposal bear no defined, delimited meanings; they have not been rounded and hardened by passing constantly from one critic's hand to another's. What is to be understood by a "dramatic" narrative, a "pictorial" narrative, a "scenic" or a ?generalized" story? We must use such words, as soon as we begin to examine the structure of a novel; and yet they are words which have no technical acceptation in regard to a novel, and one cannot be sure how they will be taken. The want of a received nomenclature is a real hindrance, and I have often wished that the modern novel had been invented a hundred years sooner, so that it might have fallen into the hands of the critical schoolmen of the seventeenth century. As the production of an age of romance, or of the eve of such an age, it missed the advantage of the dry light of academic judgement, and I think it still has reason to regret the loss. The critic has, at any rate; his language, even now, is unsettled and unformed. And we still suffer from a kind of shyness in the presence of a novel. From shyness of the author or of his sentiments or of his imagined world, no indeed; but we are haunted by a sense that a novel is a piece of life, and that to take it to pieces would be to destroy it. We begin to analyse it, and we seem to be like Beckmesser, writing down the mistakes of the spring-time upon his slate. It is an

gerekte ok fazla sayda da deildirler. Belirsizlikleri yoktur; onlar iyi tanr, zgrce kullanrz; ancak kullanmak, onlarn gereklerini ve niteliklerini alglamaktan daha kolaydr. Bunlar ise bilinli ve sorgulayarak kullanm yoluyla yava yava ayrt ederizokuma yoluyla, demek istiyorum; bunlarn iinde getikleri kitaplar eletirici gzle okuma yoluyla. Romanclarn etkileri yadsnamaz yntemlerini,kitaplarndaki ahnelerin ve kiilerin sunulhiirrlerini iyice ayrt ederek, dikkatle izleyelim. Sahneleri ve kiileri, daha nce sylediim gibi, en ufak bir glkle karlamadan, biimlendirir, ayrabiliriz; ve eer yazar tarafndan kullanlm hangi sanatlar ve dzenler sayesinde bunlar bylesine arpclkla biimlendirdiimizi yani bu blme nasl yaam verildiini, u kiinin nasl anlalabilir ve canl klndn tam anlamyla grmemizi anlamaya yetecek kadar uzun sre bunlarn zerinde durup dnrsek, bir romann yaratlmasna ilikin pek ok bulgu hemen nmze dikilmeye balar. Romann yz elli yllk egemenliinin ne olduuna bakarsak, bu konudaki eletirilerimizin anlalmaz bir biimde kaytsz kald grlr. Roman sanatnn incelikleri sorgus.uz kabul edilmi ya da en ok, kabaca ve zetle snflandrlmtr en basit, en yaln etkilerin tesine geer gemez eletiri konusundaki szck daarmzn iinde bulunduu inanlmaz yoksulluk bunu kantlar. Elimizin altndaki ifadeler ve deyimlerin ayrt edilmi, snrlar belirlenmi anlamlan yoktur; bunlar srekli olarak bir eletirmenin elinden bir brnnM- ne geerek przlerinden arndrlp glendirilmi deillerdir. "Dramatik" bir anlatmdan, "resimsi" bir anlatmdan, "evre betimlemeleri ar basan" ya da "genelletirilmi" bir ykden anlalacak olan nedir? Bir romann yapsn incelemeye balar balamaz b szckleri kullanmamz gerekir; ancak bunlar, bir romana ilikin olarak teknik adan anlam tamayan szlerdir ve insan bunlarn hangi anlamda anlalacaklarndan emin olamaz. Kabul edilmi terimlerin bulunmay gerek bir engel oluturmaktadr; keke acl roman yz yl daha erken tretilseydi de on yedinci yzyln eletirici bilginlerinin eline dseydi dediim ok ol- . mutur. Roman, bir romans ama, ya da byle bir an hemen ncesine zg bir rn olduundan, akademik deerlendirmenin gsterisiz ndan yararlanma frsatn karmtr; ve sanyorum ki bu kayptan znt duyulmas iin nedenler hl vardr. Hi olmazsa, bu, eletirmen iin byledir; eletirmenin kulland dil, bugn iin bile oturmamtr, biimlenme- mitir. Ve hl bir roman karsnda bir tr ekingenlik duyuyoruz. Yazardan, onun duygularndan, ya da dledii dnyadan kaynaklanan bir ekingenlik deildir bu; ama romann bir yaam paras olduu ve didiklemenin onu yok etmek anlamna gelecei yolundaki duygu yakamz brakmaz. Roman zmlemeye balar, ve tatahtasna baharn yanllklarn- not eden Beckmesser'e dneriz. Bu, aka dile getirilmemi, doruluu belki de bu denli uzun szcklerle kabullenilmemi, belirsiz bir

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terms, might appear to be enough, without adding another; the book is safe from rude violation. And it is not a piece of life, it is a piece of art like another; and the fact that it is an ideal shape/ with no existence in space, only to be spoken of in figures and metaphors, makes it all the more important that in our thought it should be protected by no romantic scruple. Or perhaps it is not really the book that we are shy of, but a still more fugitive phantomour-pleasure in it. It spoils the fun of a novel to know how it is madeis this a reflection that lurks at the back of our minds? Sometimes, I think. But the pleasure of illusion is small beside the pleasure of creation, and the greater is open to every reader, volume in hand. How a novelist finds his subject, in a human being or in a situation or in a turn of thought, this indeed is beyond us; we might look long at the very world that Tolstoy saw, we should never detect the unwritten book he found there; and he can seldom (he and the rest of them) give any account of the process of discovery. The power that recognizes the fruitful idea and seizes it is a thing apart. For this reason we judge the novelist's eye for a subject to be his.cardinal gift, and we have nothing to say, whether by way of exhortation or of warning, till his subject is announced. But from that moment he is accessible, his privilege is shared; and the delight of treating the subject is acute and perennial. From point to point we follow the writer, always looking back to the subject itself in order to understand the logic of the course he pursues. We find that we are creating.a design, large or small, simple or intricate, as the chapter finished is fitted into its place; or again there is a flaw and a break in the development, the author takes a turn that appears to contradict or to disregard the subject, and the critical question, strictly so called, begins. Is this proceeding of the author the right one, the best for the subject? Is it possible to conceive and to name better? The hours of the author's labour are lived again by the reader, the pleasure of creation is renewed. So it goes, till the book is ended and we look back at the whole design. It may be absolutely satisfying to the eye, the expression of the subject, complete and compact. But with the book in this condition of a defined shape, firm of outline, its form shows for what it is indeednot an attribute, one of many and possibly not the most important, but the book itself, as the form of a statue is the statue itself. If the form is to the eye imperfect, it means that the subject is somehow and somewhere imperfectly expressed, it means that the story has suffered. Where then, and how? Is it because the treatment has not started from the

zerine binmeden yeterli grnecektir; kitap kaba saldrya kar gvence altndadr. Ve bir yaam paras deil, baka rnekler gibi bir sanat yaptdr; kitabn uzam iinde varlktan yoksun, zerinde ancak sz sanatlar ve eretilemeler kullanarak konuulan ideal bir biim olma&, onun, zihnimizde, romantik bir zen sonucu korunma altna alnmamas gereini daha da nemli klmaktadr. Belki de kitap yznden deil, daha da uup gidici bir ey kitaptan aldmz tat-^y?; znden ekingenlik duyuyoruz. Bir romanm nasil olutuunu bilmek verdii keyfi bozar. Zihnimizin gerilerinde yatan bir dnce midir bu? Kimi zaman yle olduunu sanyorum. Ama yaratmann tad yanmda yanlsamann verdii tat ufak kalr; tatlarn by, elinde kitap bulunan her okuyucu iin eriilebilir bir eydir. Bir romanc konusunu bir insanda m, bir durumda m, ya da oluuveren bir dncede mi bulur, bu nokta gerekten bizi aar. Tolstoy'un grd dnyann aynna uzun uzun bakabiliriz ama onun orada bulduu yazlmam kitab hibir zaman seemeyiz; ve Tolstoy (o ve brleri) bulma srecine ilikin herhangi bir adamay pek ender olarak yapabilir. Verimli olabilecek bir dnceyi tanyp ona sarlan g ise ayr bir eydir. Bu nedenle bir romancnn konu bulma gcn onun en nemli yetenei olarak deerlendiririz; konusunu bize duyuruncaya dein de, onu yreklendirmek ya da uyarmak zere syleyecek hibir eyimiz yoktur. Ancak duyurunun yapld andan balayarak romancya yaklalabilir, ayrcal onunla paylalabilir; konuyla uramann keyfi ise youn ve sreklidir. Bir noktadan brne yazarla birlikte ilerler, onun izledii yolun mantn anlamak iin hep geriye dnp konunun kendisine bakarz. Bitirilen blm yerine oturtulunca, byk ya da kk, basit ya da dolak bir at oluturmakta olduumuzu grrz; ya da romann geliiminde bir kusur ve bir kesinti ortaya kar; yazar, konuya ters den ya da konuyu gz ard eden bir sapma gstermitir; zaman eletirici soru, tam anlamyla eletirici olan soru, ortaya kar. Yazarn bu ilemi, konu iin doru olan, en iyisi olan bir ilem inidir? Daha ipsini dnp, sylemek olas mdr? Yazarn emek vererek geirdii saatleri okuyucu yeniden yaamakta, yaratmann verdii tat tazelenmektedir. Bu bylece, kitap bitip de geri dnp yapnn tmne bakncaya dein, srp gider. Konunun eksiksiz, youn bir biimde ifade bulmu olmas gzler iin kesinlikle doyum salayabilir. Ancak kitap ayrt edilmi, izgileri salam bir biim durumunda olduundan, bii- mi, onun gerekten ne olduunu ortaya koyarbiim, bir nitelik, ok saydabulunan niteliklerden biri ve her- halde bunlarn en nemli olan deil, kitabn kendisidir; tpk bir yontunun biiminin yontunun kendisi olduu gibi. Eer biim gze kusurlu grnyorsa, bu, konu yle ya da byle bir yerlerde kusurlu olarak dile getirilmi, yk zarar grm demektir. Peki nerede ve : nasl? Bunun nedeni, konunun en can alc yerinden balanarak ele alnmam olmasndan m, gerek geliim izgisinden sapmasndan m, yoksa konunun kendisinin zayf
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"DETECTIVE STORIES AFFIRM THE SANCTITY OF LIFE"


DETECTIVE stories are probably one of the easiest genres of novels to write badly and one of the most difficult to write well. I thought writing one would be a wonderful apprenticeship for someone setting out to be regarded as a serious novelist. Then I realized you could remain within this genre and still say something true about human beings and society. I started writing in my mid-to-late 30's, and I was 42 when my first book was published. It was quite a late starttoo late. By the time you're my age66you realize that if you only write a volume every four years, there aren't the years left to write the books you want. I'm not the kind of writer who does her best work in a country cottage. I need to be in the mainstream of life, meeting new people, gaining new experiences. I get my ideas usually from visiting a place. I come away with the feeling that I want to set a book there, whether on a lonely stretch of coast, in a sinister old house or, in the case of my new novel, in a Victorian church in Oxford that I uprooted and set down in London. Sometimes the idea for the murder comes simultaneously with the place; sometimes I only get an idea for a character. It takes as long to plot and plan the book as it does to write itabout 18 months each. I lay out the day of the murder with the names of the characters and account for every 10 minutes of their time that day. I know exactly where everybody is and what they're doing. I am absolutely clear on the sequence of events. I also lay out the entire time frame that the novel encompasses. Because I know exactly what's happening when, I don't necessarily have to write the story from the beginning to the end. I can write it out of chronological order and piece it together. As I write, characters and events change in subtle ways from my original conception. With any luck, I think about more-devious clues or complications of plot. It's never entirely as I thought it was going to be. In my new book, for example, one of the victims is an ex-minister of state. We are told that he left his house at 10 in the morning and went to a real-estate agent. Nobody knows where he went after that In fact, I didnt know myself until about two thirds of the way through. Then I woke up one morning and knew precisely where he'd gone and what had happened to him. Putting a book together is an odd sensation. It's: as if you're getting in touch

"POLSYE ROMAN HAYATIN KUTSALLIINI VURGULAR"

Poisiye roman, kt yazmas ok kolay, gzel yazmas ise ok zor olan roman trlerinden biridir. Bir zamanlar, polisiye roman yazmann ileride ciddi bir yazar olmak isteyen biri iin harika bir altrma olacan dnrdm. Sonra bu trde yazp yine de insanlar ve toplum hakknda doru eyler sylenebileceini fark ettim. Yazmaya 3637 yalarnda baladm ve ilk kitabm ben 42 yamdayken kt. Olduka ge bir balangt ok ge. Benim yama66geldiiniz zaman, her drt ylda bir sadece bir roman yaznca, yazmak istediiniz btn romanlar yazmaya mrnzn yetmeyeceini anlarsnz. En iyi romanlarn ehir dnda bir ky evinde yazan yazarlardan deilim. Hayatn iinde olmam, yeni insanlar tanmam, yeni deneyimler edinmem gerek. Bana en ok ilham vferen ey bir yeri ziyaret etmektir. O yerden ayrldm zaman orada yer alan bir roman yazmak isterim. ster ssz bir kumsal, ister kasvetli ve eski bir ev, ister Oxford'da grp yeni romanmda Londra'nn ortasna yerletirdiim eski bir kilise. Bazen yeri grr grmez aklma oraya uygun bir cinayet gelir; bazense sadece bir kii. Bir kitabn olay rgsn ve plann kurmam onu yazmam kadar uzun sryoryaklak 18'er ay. Cina- yet gnn saptarm ve romandaki karakterlerin o gn geirdikleri her 10 dakikann muhasebesini yaparm. Kimin ne zaman, nerede olduunu ve ne yaptn kesinlikle bilirim. Olaylarn sras tmyle kafamdadr. Dier taraftan da, romann kapsad zamann bir planm yaparm. Neyin ne zaman olduunu kesinlikle bildiim iin yky batan sona yazmam gerekmiyor. Kronolojik sray bir yana brakp roman para para yazabiliyorum. Roman yazdka, kiiler ve olaylar ilk tasarladm ekillerden hafife sapar. Eer ansm varsa, bu sapma daha akllca kantlar ve olay rgsnn biraz daha karmaklamas ynnde olur. Sonu hibir zaman ilk dndm ekilde olmaz. rnein, son romanmda kurbanlardan biri eski bir devlet bakam. Romanda bize sabah saat 10'da evinden kp bir emlkya gittii syleniyor. Ondan sonra nereye gittii ni kimse bilmiyor. Hatta romann te ikisi bitene kadar ben bile bilmiyordum. Fakat bir sabah uyandmda onun nereye gittiini ve bana ne geldiini kesinlikle biliyordum. Roman yazmak garip bir duygu. Sanki kiileri

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with the characters rather than creating them, as if the story exists already in its entirety and it's a process of revelation rather than creation. A "reassuring" genre In times of depression and anxiety, when you may be blown up by a terrorist bomb at the next airport, detective stories are reassuring. They provide a firm moral code and affirm the sanctity of life. Mysteries say that even the victim, who usually is pretty unpleasant, has a right to live his life to the last natural moment. What's more, they offer a solution. And it isn't by supernatural means or good luck; it's by human intelligence, courage and endurance. Back home in England some of the old works of the 1930s are being dusted off and reissued. It's almost, as if people have a nostalgic longing for the more settled world that you got to know with dear Agatha Christie's Miss Marple. Those works, too, represent an affirmation of reason and order. In truth, the classical detective story continues to flourish even though every decade you have critics saying it is dead. As far back as 1880 a writer in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, reviewing the Sherlock Holmes stories, said that considering the difficulty of "hitting on any fancies that are reasonably fresh, surely this sensational business will shortly come to a close." Well, there's still the difficulty of hitting on fancies that are reasonably fresh, but the sensational business has gone on pretty well without stop - ping. "Hard-boiled" vs. "snobbish" styles American and British detective novels don't differ as much as they used to. Back in the '30s and '40s the stories of Da.shijdlHarnihett and Raymond Chandler had a hard-boiled quality and contained a lot of violence. They reflected the American era of Prohibition and gangsterism; the private-eye detectives were fighting as much against the police as the villain. They were like knights in shining armor battling what they saw as the corruption of society. British stories were much cozier and more accepting of official law and order. Sometimes the policemen were buff oons but never really villains. It was a far more class-conscious, snobbish genre. I recall an essay in which Chandler said he found the British detective story practically unreadable because it had nothing to do with real life. He felt that murder should be taken away from the country vicarage and given to those who were good at it. An immense number of quite clever people were writing in that period, but they were primarily interested in the story as a puzzle. You had the most extraordinary, ingenious methods of death, the more ingenious the better: People killed with ice, which then melted; people shot through keyholes. Now the methods of murder are much more realistic and the emphasis is probably more on character than on ingenuity of plot. As a

yorsunuz; sanki roman bir btn halinde zaten var ve bir yaratma olayndan ok tanrsal bir bildiridir. "Gven Verici" bir tr Her an bir terrist bombasyla havaya uabileceiniz bunalm ve depresyon zamanlarnda polisiye roman gven vericidir. nsanlara salam bir ahlk anlay verir ve hayatn kutsalln vurgular. ounlukla pek ho bir insan olmayan cinayet kurbannn bile hayatn doal sonuca kadar yaamaya hakk olduunu savunur. Dahas bu romanlar bir zm getirir. Bu zme doast yollarla ya da ans eseri deil, insan zeks, cesaret ve azimle varlr. ngilterede 1930'larda baslan baz romanlarn tozlar alnyor ve yeniden basma giriyor. Sanki insanlar Agatha Christie'nin Mrs. Marple' ile tandklar daha yerleik bir dnyaya zlem duyuyorlar. O romanlar da akl ve dzeni vurgulamaktadr. in gerei, her on ylda bir polisiye romann ldn syleyen eletirmenlere ramen, klasik polisiye roman tr gelimektedir. Ta 1880 ylnda Sherlock Holmes hikyelerini inceleyen bir eletirmen,Blackwood's Edingburgh Magazine'de yle yazmt: "Yeni ve taze fikirlerin bulunmasnn zorluu gz nne alnnca, bu sansasyonun ksa bir sre iinde sona erecei ortaya kyor." Yeni ve taze fikirler bulmak zorluu hl var ama sansasyon devam ediyor. "Vurdulu-krdl" stil "zppe" stile kar Amerikan ve ngiliz polisiye romanlar artk eskiden olduklar kadar farkllk gstermiyor. '30'larda ve '40'larda kan Dashiel Hammett ve Raymond Chand- ler'in romanlarnn "vurdulukrdl" ve iddet dolu bir zellii vard. Amerika'nn "Yasaklar" ve gangsterli devrini yanstyorlard;. Bu devirde ze! dedektifler sulularla olduu kadar polislerle de savayorlard. Bu zel dedektifler, toplumun kokumuluu olarak grdkleri eylere kar savaan parlak zrhl valyeler gibiydi. ngiliz romanlar ise ok daha scakt ve dzeni ve yasalar Amerikan romararndakinden daha fazla kabul ediyorlard. Bazen bu romanlarda polisler soytar gibi gsteriliyorlard ama hibir zaman gerekten kt deillerdi. ngiliz polisiye roman, snf farkllklarnn bilincinde olan, zppe bir trd. Hatrlyorum, Chandler bir makalesinde, ngiliz polisiye romanlarnn okunmasnn olanaksz olduunu nk gerek yaamla hibir balantlar bulunmadm sylemiti. Ona gre cinayet ky papazlarnn elinden alnmal ve bu ii daha iyi yapanlara verilmeliydi. O devirde polisiye roman yazan akll yazar oktu ama hepsi romanlarn bulmaca ynyle ilgileniyorlard. Olaanst, dahiyane cinayet yntemleri buluyorlard; ne kadar dahiyane olursa o kadar iyi kabul ediliyorlard: nsanlarn kalbine buz paralan saplanyor sonra buz eriyordu ya da insanlara anahtar deliklerinden ate ediliyordu. Ama imdi cinayet yntemleri ok daha gereki ve

eviren: Giray ZMEN

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ALPHABETIC LEXICOGRAPHY: THE UNENDABLE DICTIONARY

ALFABETK SZLK HAZIRLAMA: BTMEYEN SZLK

Right up to the end of the einghteenth century it was normal and quite unexceptional for language scholars to believe that all the world's languages des- cended from the Hebrew spoken by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. This was, however, only one part of a larger Bibliocentric view of life that was steadily being weakened and supplanted by various newer and largely secular alternatives. Although not everyone was aware of it, even the term 'Christendom' no longer properly applied to the Western World of Europe and North America. Religion was still a significant element in the collective experience, but with Darwin and Marx ' not far off in the future it is already possible to see the West at the time of the French Revolution as moving in- to a post-Christian style of life. The circumstances that dealt the death-blow to the Hebrew-in-Eden view of language origins arose in part at least through European contacts with the ancient civilization of Iridia, where investigators like the British orientalist Sir William Jones discovered that the classical Hindu language Sanskrit was a cousin of Greek, Latin, German and English, and not at all like Hebrew and Arabic. The interest that developed in this new 'comparative philology' was pan-Euro- pean, but was particularly intense in the Germanic countries, where it was also linked with the rise of Romantic nationalism. It was attractive, therefore, not only to sober scholars but also to poets, composers and political fantasists who would much later dream strange dreams about the Aryan Master Race. Foremost among the scholars was Jakob Grimm (1785-1863) who was interested not only in philology and lexicography but also in mythology and folklore, and preserved, with the help of his brother Wilhelm (1786-1859), much of the oral tradition of the common German.people by retelling such. now internationally known tales as Snow-white and the Seven Dwarves. Their monumental work, however, was lexicographic: the Deutsches Worterbuch. This project was intended -somehow to be both a work of proper scholarly reference and an everyman's guide to spoken and written German. Of it, Ludwig Denecke says: 'In the dictionary, all German words found in the literature of the

ON sekizinci yzyln sonlarna kadar, dil aratrmaclarnn dnyadaki tm dillerin Adem ile Havva'nn Cennet'te konutuklar brariceden doduuna inanmalar ok olaand. Ancak bu, kendisinden daha yeni ve byk lde laik olan seenekler tarafndan gittike zayflatlan ve yeri alnmakla tehdit edilen ncil merkezli dnya grnn yalnzca bir parasyd. Herkes farknda olmasa bile, 'Hristiyanlk dnyas' sz artk Bat Avrupay ve Kuzey Amerikay doru olarak tanmlamyordu. Din hl ortak deneyimlerin nemli bir gesiydi, ancak yakn bir gelecekte ortaya kacak Darwin ye Marx da dnlrse, Fransz devrimi srasnda Batnn Hristiyanlksonras yaam biimine doru ilerlediini grmek olasdr. Cennet'te konuulan Ibranicenin dillerin kkeni olduu grne ldrc darbeyi indiren koullar, ksmen ngiliz doubilimd Sir William Jones gibi klsik Hindu dili Sanskritenin, branice ve Arapann deil de Yunanca, Latince', Almanca ve ngilizcenin akrabas olduunu bulan aratrmaclar yoluyla, Avrupanin eski Hint uygarln tanmas ile ortaya kmtr. Bu yeni 'karlatrmal' filolojiye duyulan ilgi tm Avrupay sarmt ancak nem kazanmakta olan Romantik ulusalc? lkla arasnda bir ba kurulan Alman lkelerinde zellikle fazlayd. B nedenle, yalnzca akl banda bilim adamlar iin deil ayn zamanda ozanlar, besteciler ve, ok sonralar, stn Aryan Irkn oluturmak gibi garip dler grecek olan hayalperest politikaclar iin de ekiciydi. Yalnzca filoloji ve szlk hazrlamaya deil, mitoloji ve halkbilime de ilgi duyan ve kardei Wilhelm'in (1786-1859) yardmyla Pamuk Prenses ve Yedi Cceler gibi bugn artk herkes tarafndan bilinen masallar yeniden anlatarak Alman halknn szl geleneinin ounu koruyan Jakob Grimm (1785-1863) bilim adamlar arasnda en nde gelenlerdendi. Ancak en nemli yaptlar szlk hazrlama konusundayd: Deutsches Worterbuch. Bu tasarnn hem bilimsel bir danma kitab hem de halk iin yazl ve szl Almanca klavuzu olmas amalanmt. Ludwig Denecke bu tasar hakknda yle der: 'Szlkte, "Luther'den Goethe'ye" yzyln yaznnda bulunan tm Almanca szckler, gster-

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three centuries "from Luther to Goethe" were given with their historical variants, their etymology, and their semantic development; their usage in specialized and everyday language was illustrated by quoting idioms and proverbs. Begun simply as a source of income in 1838 ... the work required generations of successors to bring the gigantic task to an end in our day'. In fact, the work came to an end around 1960142 years ,. after it was begun. Jakob saw the work proceed to the letter F, but Wilhelm died before it had even progressed to D. The Brothers Grimm had hardly appreciated what they had set out to do a common failing in lexicography at large, and particularly common in those enterprises that have sought to embrace the entirety of national languages. There was a marked difference now, however, in the philological approach to recording a language and the approach that had animated the Academie Franaise or even Johnson and Webster. The desire to 'fix' the language had gone from the minds of the compilers (if not always from the minds of their readers), while at the same time a new enthusiasm for both historical accuracy and dialectal comprehensiveness had come in. Compilers were not so much concerned with delimiting the High Mode as with exhibiting the abundant riches of 'vernaculars' that no longer felt in the least vernacular. The long dominance of Latin had gne. However, this did not mean that the classical languages had lost-their significance or interest. Quite the reverse, in fact, for it was in the pioneering work of a German classicist that the basic principles of the new philological approach to lexicography were laid down:, In 1812, Franz Passow published an essay which set forth his canons for historically respectable lexicography. This was the Zweck, Anlage, uni Erganzung griechischer Worterbiicher ('The Aim, Construction and Completion of Greek Dictionaries'). He completed his own Lexicon according to these principles in 1819. His principal requirement was simple but radical: that the entries and definitions should be supported by citations from the available texts, and that these citations should be organized chronologically from the earliest to the most recent, thus objectively demonstrating change. Passow's influence was considerable, both on later classical lexicons and on the great dictionary projects that were about to burst, along with the project of the Grimms, upon Europe at large. Not only did the new philological approach encourage new and ambitious undertakings; it also had a profound and sometimes dramatic effect on existing dictionaries. As we have already seen, Noah Webster's American Dictionary came out in 1828, just when the new movement was beginning to show what it could do. We have also noted that Webster criticized Johnson for the appalling inaccuracies in his etymological entries. Now, as Allen Walker Read has observed, 'it was Noah Webster's misfortune to be superseded in his philology in the very decade that his masterpiece came out. He had spent many years in compiling a
14 4

dikleri deiiklikler, kkenleri ve anlamsal gelimeleri ile verilmektedir; zel ve gnlk dildeki kullanmlar deyim ve ataszleriyle gsterilmekteydi. Sadece bir gelir kayna olmas iin 1838 de balatlan bu byk tasary gnmzde sonulandrmak iin birok kii alt.' Yapt 1960'larda, balandktan 142 yl sonra tamamland. Jakob yaptn F harfine kadar geldiini grd, ancak Wilhelm daha D'ye gelmeden lmt. Grimin Kardeler neye kalktklarm pek ayrmsayamamlardgenelde szlk hazrlamada sk karlalan bir durumdur ve zellikle de ulusal dilleri her eyleriyle iermeyi amalayan giriimlerde grlr bu durum. Ancak artk, Fransz Akademisini ya da Johnson ve Webster'i harekete geiren yaklam ile bir dilin yazlmasndaki filolojik yaklam arasnda ok belirgin bir ayrm vard. Dili 'duraanlatrma' istei (her zaman okurlarnn akllarndan olmasa bile) derleyicilerin akllarndan km, onun yerini tarihsel doruluk ye leheleri de kapsama istei almt. Derleyiciler La- tincenin snrlarm izmekle, artk 'az' olmaktan kesinlikle km azlarn zenginliklerini gstermekle ilgilendikleri kadar ilgilenmiyorlard. Latincenin o uzun egemenlii sona ermiti. Ancak bu, klasik dillerin nem ve ilginliklerini kaybettii anlamna gelmiyordu. Aslnda tam tersi oldu nk szlk hazrlamaya yeni filolojik yaklamn temel ilkeleri bir Alman klasikisinin nc yapt ile saptand. 1812 ylnda yaynlad bir denemede Franz Passow, tarihsel saygnl olan szlk hazrlama ile ilgili ilkelerini saptad. Bu yapt
Zweck, Anlage, und Erganzung griechischer Worterbiicher (Yunanca Szlklerin Amac, Yaps ve Tamamlanmas) idi. Kendi Lexicon 'unu bu ilkeler

nda 1819'.da tamamlad. En bata istedii ey basit ama ok kkl bir deiiklikti: -Madde balar ve anlamlar eldeki metinlerden yaplan alntlarla desteklenmeli ve bu alntlar deiimi nesnel olarak gsterebilmeleri iin en eski tarihlisinden en yenisine kadar tarih srasna konulmalyd. Hem daha sonra kan klasik szlklerde hem de Grimm'lerin tasarsnn yan sra tm Avrupada ksa bir sre sonra patlayacak olan byk szlk tasarlar zerinde Pas- sow'un etkisi byk oldu. Bu yeni filolojik yaklam yalnzca yeni ve iddial giri-. imleri zendirmedi, ayn zamanda daha nceden yazlm olan szlkler zerinde de byk etkisi oldu. Daha nce de grdmz gibi, Noah Webster'in American Dictionary'si 1828'de, tam bu yeni akm neler yapabileceini gstermeye balarken, kt. Yine, Webster'in Johnson'u madde balarnn etimolojisinde yapt korkun yanllar iin eletirdiini grmtk. Artk Allen Walker

ingly powerful awareness of Indo-European and other language groups made the Websterian etymologies, and everything else like them, suddenly completely, and hopelessly out of date. The idea of the value of an orderly range of citations in illustrating the meaning of a word animated the work of an English lexicographer of the same period, who is now largely forgotten, but whose influence has lived on indirectly. This was Charles Richardson, who set out to organize his citations in such a way as to avoid the need for any kind of definition at all. He first used this procedure in a dictionary that appeared part by part in the grand but ill-fated Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, and when that enterprise failed, brought the work out in the mid-1830s as the New
Dictionary of the English Language.

Allen Walker Read, as a historian of lexicography, is not impressed by Richardson's work, considering it 'largely a monument to misguided industry that met with the neglect it deserved'. James Murray, however, discussing dictionaries in 1900, considered Richardson's approach sound in principle and interesting in. practice : ' Quotations will tell the full meaning of a word, if one has enough of them; but it takes a great many to be enough, and it takes a reader a long time to read and weigh all the quotations, and to deduce from them the meanings which might be put before him in a line or two.' Murray's opinion is significant here, as we shall see, because of Murray's own involvement in an enormous project that began in the midnineteenth century and has never really stopped. However, before passing on to that project, we should note that Richardson's bold and demanding exercise has a special value in the history of lexicology and semantics. He was pointing to a primary reality of which definition is only a secondary and often very unsatisfactory reflection: words gain their meanings in terms of the contexts in which they occur (whether immediately linguistic or situational and sociocultural). Words do not acquire meanings through definitions; definitions are little more than distillations from all the possible contexts in which a 'word' has occured or might occur. In appreciating this and trying to avoid definition TCirhardsnn was mnre than a Cen~tury ahead ot his time. In 1842 the Philological Society was set up in London in order to investigate the structure, affinities and history of the English language, and shortly afterwards appointed a small 'unregistered words committee', a kind of temporary orphanage for the waifs and strays of the language that had not yet been assigned a home in any of the major dictionaries of the time. This committee had three members Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, and Richard Chenevix Trench who in the course of their work came to the conclusion that the

dil aileleri hakknda kazanlan bu yeni ve gl bilin Webster'in etimolojilerini ve onlarla birlikte dier her eyi, birden btnyle ad brakt. Bir szcn anlamn gsterebilmek iin verilen sral alntlarn nemli olduunun dnlmesi ayn dnemde, gnmzde hemen hemen unutulmu olan bir ngiliz szlk hazrlaycsnn almalarn canlandrd.,Bu dnce onun etkisiyle dolayl olarak yaamn srdrmektedir.; Bu kii, alntlarn-herhangi bir aklamaya gerek kalmayacak bir biimde dzenlemeyi amalayan Charles Richardson'd. Bu yntemi ilk kez, byk ama kt yazgl Encyclopaedia Metropolitana'da fasikller halinde kan bir szlkte uygulad ve bu giriim baarszlkla sonulannca 1830'lann ortasnda yaptn New Dictionary of the English Language adyla kard. Bir szlk hazrlama tarihisi olarak Allen Walker Read, Richardson'un yaptn beenmemekte, onu "yanl ynlendirilmi ve hak ettii ilgisizlii grm bir aba ant" diye nitelemektedir. Ancak, 1900 ylnda szlkleri' incelerken James Murray, Richardson'n yaklamn ilkede doru ve uygulamada ilgin olarak niteledi: "Alntlar, eer elde yeterince varsa, bir szcn tm anlamlarn vermelidir; ancak yeterli olmas iin ok fazla sayda olmas gerekmektedir ve okuyucunun btn alntlar okuyup deerlendirmesi ve bunlardan bir ya da iki satrla verilecek anlamlar kartmas ok zaman almaktadr." Daha sonra greceimiz gibi, Murray'm bu gr nemlidir nk Murray on dokuzuncu yzyln ortalarnda balayan ve gnmze kadar sren ok byk bir tasarya katlmtr. Ancak bu tasa- ;.- ry anlatmaya gemeden nce Richardsoh'm yreMi ve aba gerektiren uygulamasnn szlkbilim ve anlam- bilim tarihinde zel bir nemi olduunu vurgulamamz gerekmektedir. O, tanmlamann ikincil ve ounlukla da ok yetersiz bir ey olduu gereine iaret ediyordu: Szckler balamlarna (ister dilbilimsel, ister durumsal ve isterse de sosyokltrel olsun) gre anlam kazanrlar. Szckler tanm yoluyla anlam kazanmazlar; tanmlar bir szcn getii ya da geebilecei tm balamlarn damtlmasndan baka bir ey deildir. Bunu kabul edip, tanmdan kanmaya alrken Richardson zamarundan bir yzyl ilerideydi 1842'de, Londra'da, ngilizce'nin yaps, dier dillerle benzerlikleri ve tarihesini aratrmak zere Filoloji Dernei kuruldu ve bu dernek ksa bir sre sonra kayt edilmemi szckleri saptamas iin kk bir kurul kurdu. Buras zamann hibir byk szlnde yer verilmemi, dildeki kimsesiz ocuklar iin bir tr geici kszler yurduydu. Bu kurulun yesi vard: Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall ve Richard Chenevix Trench. Bu kiiler almalar srasnda

14 5

current dictionaries left out a great deal and suffered from a variety of other shortcomings. In 1857, therefore, Trench read two papers to the Society 'On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries' and quite unaware of what would result from his observations drew his fellow members' attention to seven specific points which, in the committee's view, dictionaries failed to handle well: ' obsolete words derivational families accurate and properly dated citations all the important senses of words . the proper distinguishing of 'synonyms' sufficient coverage of the available literary sources elimination of redundant material. For Trench a dictionary was an inventory of a language andnot a tool for selecting only the 'good' words of that language (however judged); a lexicographer is properly a historian and not a moralist or critic. Trench maintained the literary and textual orientation of lexicography, but dismissed its legislative function: the door, as he saw it, should thenceforward be kept open for all the high and low, misshapen or handsome, useful or useless words in a language, and this quite simply because they had been or were being used somewhere by someone for some purpose. There should be a master list into which all such words could go, where they would be examined, classified and pronounced upon precisely as the botanist Linnaeus labelled his specimens. If there was to be an authority it would be that of comprehensiveness, of objective citation and definition, and not. the arbitrary socioaesthetic inclinations of the compiler, or the social group to which the compiler belonged. As a result of Trench's observations, the Philological Society decided that simply listing what Johnson and his successors had overlooked was not enough. In 1858 they passed resolutions calling for a new dictionary on proper historical principles (and in a format that both Passow and the Grimms would have approved): Every word which could be found in English from the year AD 1000 onward would be exhibited with its history, variant forms and spellings, and all uses and meanings, past and present, these last displayed by means of a representative selection of quotations from the whole range of English literature and records. Thousands of texts would have to be read in order to obtain these quotations, and a typically optimistic Victorian call for volunteers was issued in this' regard. The response was gratifying: hundreds of readers not just from England itself but from all over the world hastened to send in material. The project did not, however, grow in quite the way that the Society planned. Indeed, it is quite likely that if its members had foreseen the efforts,

o gnk szlklerin birok eyi kapsamadklar ve eitli eksiklikleri bulunduu grne vardlar. Bu nedenle 1857 ylnda Trench, Dernee, 'ngilizce Szlklerimizin Baz Kusurlar Hakknda' balkl iki bildiri sundu ve gzlemlerinin ne gibi sonular douracandan habersiz, ye arkadalarnn dikkatlerini, kurula gre, szlklerin iyi ele alamadklar yedi noktaya ekti: kullanlmayan szckler trevaileler doru ve uygun tarihlendirilmi alntlar szcklerin btn nemli anlamlan 'eanlamllar'm doru saptanmas eldeki yaznsal kaynaklan yeterince kapsamak gereksiz materyalin elenmesi. Trench'e gre, bir szlk o dildeki 'iyi' szckleri semek iin bir ara deil dilin bir dkmyd; bir szlk hazrlayc, ahlak ya da eletirmen deil apak bir tarihiydi. Trench szlk hazrlamada yazm ve metin kullanmn deitirmedi ama ilke koyma grevini reddetti: Bundan byle kapnn dildeki iyi ve kt, gzel ve irkin, yararl ve yararsz btn szcklere ak tutulmasn istiyordu nk bu szckler bir yerde, birileri tarafndan ve bir ama iin kullanlmlard ya da kullanlyorlard. Bu tr btn szcklerin girecei bir ana liste olmal, tpla bitkibilimci Linnaeus'un rneklerini snflad gibi burada bu szckler incelenmeli, snf - lanmah ve grlmeliydi. Eer bir yetke olacaksa bu, derleyicinin ssyoestetik eilimleri ya da ait olduu toplum tabakas deil, kapsamllk, nesnel alnt yapma ve tanm verme olmalyd. Trenh'in gzlemleri sonucu Filoloji Dernei, yalnz-: ; ca Johnson ve onu izleyenlerin gz ard ettikleri noktalarn bir dkmn yapmann yeterli olmadna karar verdi. 1858'de uygun tarihsel ilkelere (hem de Passow ve Grimm Kardelerin kendi dnemlerinde yazlm olsayd onaylayacaklar biimde) bal kalarak hazrlanm yeni bir szle gereksinim olduunu bildirdiler: ngilizcede .S. 1000 ylndan bu yana kullanlan szckler, tariheleri, deiik biim ve yazmlar ve bu szcklerin btn ngiliz yaznndan ve kaytlardan yaplan seme alntlarla, eski yeni tm kullanmlar ve anlamlar bulunacakt bu szlkte. Bu alntlarn yaplabilmesi iin binlerce metnin okunmas gerekiyordu ve tipik Victoria iyimserliiyle bu konuda gnll arand akland. Tepki memnuniyet vericiydi: Yalnzca ngiltere'den deil dnyann her yanndan yzlerce okuyucu materyal yollamaya balad. Ancak tasar tam Dernein planlad gibi gelimiyordu. Gerekten de, eer yeler almay tamamlayabilmek iin gereken abay, harcamay ve o uzun zaman tahmin etmi olsalard

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expense and enormous stretch of time that would be needed for the work they would not have started at all. In the event, however, six men preeminently carried out the work from its closeto-amorphous start to its orderly 'conclusion' 70 years later. These men were: Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, James Murray, Henry Bradley, William Craigie, and Charles Onions (four Englishmen and two Scots). : Herbert Coleridge, the first editor, and Trench's colleague oh the originating committee, supervised the work of two new ground-clearing committees from 1858 to his untimely death in 1861 at the age of 31. One committee dealt with the necessary historical and literary sources, while the other was concerned with etymology as understood in terms of the new comparative method. Coleridge also looked after the in-pouring of quotations from around the world, which was greatly facilitated by the recent development of an efficient international postal system. On Coleridge's death, the editorship passed to Trench's third colleague, Frederick Furnivall, who realized that a satisfactory excerpting from the early texts could. only be achieved if those texts were made both more accessible and more readable. Here the ancient scribal culture and modern print cultures were at odds, for the sMUs had been lost by the reading public at large through which hand-copied manuscripts could be easily read and the manuscripts were neither readily available nor in a , condition where they could be trusted out f the care of the libraries where they were held. The dictionary project consequently necessitated a whole new textual project that was educationally valuable in its own right. In 186.4 Furnivall f ounded the Early English Text Society and in 1865 the Chaucer Society, organizations which duly provided accurate and readable printed texts not just for the purposes of the dictionary but for all interested scholars and students everywhere. All this and other work remained, however, frustratingly preparatory. On the day when Furnivall handed the work over to his successor, one-and-three-quarter tons of submitted material had accumulated in his home mainly in the form-ofslips^providmg-quotationsin-additdonto-the harvest of special full-length texts. This was the scholarly humus out of which a dictionary might grow, but not one line of such a dictionary had been written by 1879, all of 21 years after the first resolutions had been passed. It was not therefore even the work itself that seemed endless the preparation for the work seemed simply to go on and on. At this point, to replace Furnivall and to lend impetus to the project, the Society made two moves which changed everything: firstly, they engaged the services of the schoolmaster James Murray as the new editor, and then, together with Murray, entered into an agree-

hi balamazlard bu ie. Ancak bu yaptn hemen hemen sfrdan balanp 70 yl sonra 'tamamlanm' duruma getirilmesi iini byk lde alt kii gerekletirmitir. Bu kiiler: Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, James Murray, Henry Bradley, William Craigie ve Charles Onions'dur (drt ngiliz ve iki sko). lk editr ve Trench'in ii balatan kuruldaki meslekta Herbert Coleridge, balangtaki ar ii yapan iki yeni kurulun almalarn 1858 ylndan 1861'de 31 yanda beklenmedik lmne kadar, denetledi. Bir kurul gerekli tarihsel ve yaznsal kaynaklarla ilgilenirken teki kurul yeni karlatrmal yntemin belirttii biimde etimoloji ile ilgileniyordu. Coleridge ayn zamanda dnyann her yanndan gelen alntlarla ilgileniyordu. Son gelimelerle ok verimli almaya balayan uluslararas posta sistemi bu ii ok kolaylatrmt; Coleridge'in lm zerine, editrlk Trench'in nc meslekta olan ve eski metinlerden doyurucu alntlar yapmann ancak o metinlere ulamann daha kolaylatrdmasyla ve daha okunabilir duruma getirilmeleriyle baarlabileceini kavrayan Frederick Furni- vall'a geti. Eski metinlere ulamak ve daha okunabilir duruma getirilmeleri konusunda, el yazmas okuma kltr ile modem bask tekniiyle baslan kitaplar okuma kltr atmaktayd . nk okuyucular el yazmalarn rahatlkla okumalarm salayan beceriyi kaybetmilerdi. Ayn zamanda el yazmalarna ulap okumak ok zor olduu ibi'onlar ktphane dna kartmak da olanakszd. Bu nedenle szlk tasarsl eitim asndan nemli yepyeni bir metin tasars gerektiriyordu. 1864'de Furnivall, Eski ngilizce Metin ; Derneini ve 1865'de Chaucer Derneini kurdu. Bu dernekler yalnzca szlk iin deil ayn zamanda o konuyla ilgilenen tm bilim adamlar ve renciler iin de matbaada baslm, doru ve okunabilir metinler hazrladlar. . Ancak btn bu ve dier iler hazrlk aamasndan teye gidemiyordu. Furnivall ii kendinden sonra gelen meslektana devrettiinde evinde gnlller tarafndan gnderilmi iki tona yakn materyal birikmiti. Bu materyalin ou zerine alnt yazlm kk kt paracklar,birblmde tam.metinler halindeydi.Ite bu bilimsel birikimden bir szlk kabilecekti ama 1879'da, szlk yazma kararrm stnden 21 yl gemi olduu halde, szln tek bir satr bile yazlmamt henz. Bu nedenle bitmez grnen szln kendisi deildi, szlk iin yaplan hazrlk almalar uzadka uzuyordu. Bu noktada Demek, Furnivall' deitirmek ve tasa r ya hz kazandrmak iin iki giriimde bulundu ve her ey deiti: ncelikle bir retmen olan James Mur- ray' yeni editr olarak atad ve Murray ile birlikte

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ment with the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, Oxford University, that the Press would publish the Society's New English Dictionary on Historical Principles and in the. meantime finance its development. The work would be some 6,400 pages long, arranged in four volumes, and would be completed in 1889, a 10-year period that seemed more than generous. Murray was to be the part-time compiler, and to this end he built a special (and appropriately named) 'scriptorium' at his home to house his treasury of source material. He enlisted further volunteers from around the world, and began the actual compilation straight away. Five years later, however, working with meticulous care, he had completed only 352 pages and had moved from A to ANT. The experience of the Brothers Grimm was more than repeating itself. The Delegates of the Press, in the words of a present- day editor for Oxford, Eugene Ehrlich, 'felt deep concern over the slow progress and made their concern known to Murray'. It was clear that the project could either lie abandoned, or thoroughly reshaped and enlarged. It is to the credit of the Delegates that the second course was adopted. Additional editorial staff were appointed and the whole undertaking moved to Oxford, where the schoolmaster could serve, for the rest of his long life, as a full-time lexicographer. In this development we see the next stage in the slow transformation of the whole project from the plan of a committee appointed by a more or less national 'academic' organization into the thoroughly univers- ity-orientated work of an editorial team all of this mediated by a printing and publishing house belonging to an ancient university. All four of the possible factors governing lexicography were in play by 1885: inspired individuals, an academy-type organization, a university, and a press with inevitable commercial connections. This coming together of such factors in such a powerful combination inevitably led to a new national and international institution and a landmark in the containerization of knowledge about any language although the actors in this epic process could not at any pointin its development have seen just where they were going. In 1887 Henry Bradley was appointed as a second editor with his own staff, the end of B was reached in the same year, and everybody involved became content to let the wrestling with the English language take its course. In 1897 William Craigie joined the group arid worked for four years directly under Murray before becoming a full editor with responsibility for the letter Q. In 1914, Charles Onions better known as C.T. Onions was promoted from assistant to full editor. His article on super- and its derivatives rivals Bradley's 23-

Oxford niversitesi Clarendon Yaynevinin temsilcileriyle bir anlamaya vard. Anlamaya gre Yaynevi, dernein New English Dictionary on Historical Principles adn tayan szlnn gelimesine parasal katkda bulunacak ve yaynlayacakt. Yapt yaklak 6.400 sayfa uzunluunda ve drt dit halinde olacak ve olduka uzun grnen 10 yllk bir dnem sonunda, 1889'da tamamlanacakt. Murray da zamannn bir blmn szln derlenmesine ayracakt. Bu amala Murray, kaynak malzeme haznesini korumak iin evinde, zel bir 'scriptorium' (koyduu bu ad ok uygundu) yaptrd. Dnyann dier lkelerinden baka gnlller buldu ve hemen gerek derleme iine balad. Ancak, aradan be yl gemesine karn, ok dikkatli bir alma ile, yalnzca 352 sayfa tamamlayarak A'dan ANT'a gelebilmiti. Grimm Kardelerin deneyimi yineleniyordu. Yaynevinin temsilcileri, Oxford'un bugnk editr Eugene Erlich'in szleriyle, 'yava ilerlemeden ok kayg duyuyorlard ve bu kayglarm Murray'a bildirdiler. ' T asarnn ya terk edilecei ya da btnyle yeni bir biim verilip geniletilecei akt. Ikind yolun benimsenmesi temsilciler iin iyi puandr. Daha baka editrler de atand ve btn almalar Oxford'a nakledildi. Murray burada, uzun yaam boyunca, bir szlk hazrlayc olarak tam gn alabilecekti. Bu gelimelerde tasarnn tmnn yava yava deitiini ve ulusal karakterli 'akademik' bir kurulu tarafndan atanm olan bir kurulun tasars olmaktan kp, dorudan doruya niversiteye bal bir yayn ekibinin almas haline geldiini grmekteyiz. Hepsi de eski bir niversiteye bal basm ve yaynevi araclyla gerekletirilmitir.. Artk 1885'te szlk hazrlama zerinde etkili olan drt etmenin tm de iin iindeydi: Yetenekli bireyler, akademi biiminde bir rgt, bir niversite ve ticari ilikileri olan bir yaynevi. Bu destans almann aktrleri szln gelimesinin hibir aamasnda nereye varacaklarm kesti- remedikleri halde, bu etmenlerin bylesine gl bir bileim oluturacak biimde bir araya gelmesi, kanlmaz olarak yeni bir ulusal ve uluslararas kurumun ortaya kmasna neden oldu ve herhangi bir dile ait bilgilerin saklanmasnda nemli bir balang noktas oluturdu. 1887 ylnda Henry Bradley, kendi ekibiyle ikind editr olarak atand. Ayn ylda B harfinin sonuna gelindi ve artk ilgili herkes ngiliz diliyle yaplan b boumay kendi haline brakmaya raz grnyordu. 1897'de gruba William Craigie katld ve drt yl boyunca Mur- ray'in emrinde editr yardmcs olarak altktan sonra Q harfinin tm sorumluluunu alarak editrle atand. 1914 ylnda Charles Onions da (C.T. Onions olarak daha iyi tannr) yardmclktan editrle getirildi. Super-neki ve trevleri zerine yazd madde

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page masterpiece on set, as two of the longest, entries in the whole enormous opus. James Murray died in harness in 1915, having just finished the section TRINK to TURNDOWN and only two years short of his 80th year. He also died well short of his friends' hope that he would 'live to see Zymotic', for the project did not get to the end of Z until the 1920s, when the entire work was published in 10 thick volumes in 1928. The Oxford English Dictionary, as it would henceforth be known, remains the natural home of superlatives and statistics: 70 years from idea to final volumes, 5 million quotations sent in by some 2,000 readers, almost 2 million of those quotations eventually used, 40 editorial days and 23 pages on the word set alone, and all in all 414,825 words defined in 15,487 pages. Surely such an enterprise could merit the title 'authoritative'? Certainly, as Ehrlich notes, 'around the world each new installment was eagerly awaited by scholars and word lovers. The parts already issued (before the final form in 1928) were becoming the final authority on the English language in law courts, government bureaus, scholarly debates, newspaper offices, and publishing houses'. This idea of finality and authority was important not just to the worldwide public that followed the work's progress but to the compiler-in-chief himself. Victorian optimism prevailed, and Murray permitted himself to observe in 1900:
Be the speed (of compilation) what it m a y , . . . there is the consideration that the work thus done is done once for all; the structure now reared will have to be added to, continued and extended with time, but it will remain, it is believed, the great body of fact on which all future work will be built. It is never possible to forecast the needs and notions of those who will come after us; but with our present knowledge it is not easy to conceive what new feature can now be added to English lexicography.. At any rate, it can be maintained that in the Oxford Dictionary, permeated as it is through andlhrouh witfftfiesaenfific mefKSffofthe cerR tury, Lexicography has for the present reached its supreme development.

Bradley'in set zerine yazd 23 sayfalk bayapt ile boy lecek kadar iyidir. Her ikisi de bu dev eserin en uzun maddeleridir. James Murray, TRINK'den TURNDOWN'a kadar olan blm henz bitirmiti ki 78 i. yaihda, hl almaktayken ld. Ayni zamanda arkadalarnn 'Zymotic szcne gelindiini grecek kadar yaamas' dilei de gereklemedi; nk Z harfinin sonuna ancak 1920'lerde, 1928 ylnda yaptn tm on kaln cilt halinde basldnda ulalabildi. O gnden sonra Oxford English Dictionary adyla tannacak olan szlk stn-r lk derecesi bildiren sfatlarla ve istatistiksel saylarla tanmlanagelmitir: Fikir aamasndan ori cildin yazlmasna kadar 70 yl gemitir, 2000 kadar okuyucu 5 milyon alnt yollam ve bunlarn 2 milyonu kullanlmtr, yalnzca set szc iin 40 alma gn harcanmtr. Bu szce ilikin aklamalar 23 sayfa tutmaktadr ve szlk tam tamna 414.825 szcn tanmn 15.487 sayfada yermektedir. Byle" bir giriime 'yetkin' denilebilir mi? Tabii, Ehrlich'in dedii gibi "her yeni fasikl dnyann her yarandaki bilim adamlar ve szckseverler tarafndan heyecanla bekleniyordu. 1928'de son cilt yaynlanmadan nce yaynlanan blmler mahkemelerde, hkmet dairelerinde, bilimsel tartmalarda, gazete brolarnda ve yaynevlerinde ngiliz dili zeirine kesin otorite olarak kabul ediliyordu." Yaptn kesin otorite olmas dncesi yalnzca yaptn ilerlemesini izleyen dnyann her yarandaki insanlar iin deil, ayn zamanda ba derleyicinin kendisi iin de nemliydi. Victoria iyimserlii egemendi ve 1900 ylnda Murray yle diyordu:
Derlemenin hz ne olursa olsun.... byle yaplan iin ilk ve son kez yaplm olaca inanc vardr; imdi kurulan yapya eklemeler yapmak, onu srdrmek ve zamanla gelitirmek gerekmektedir, ancak gelecekte yazlacak btn yaptlarm-temeli-olarak-kalacana-inanlmaktadr Bizden sonra geleceklerin gereksinimlerini ve grlerini nceden bilebilmek hibir zaman olas deildir; ancak imdiki bilgilerimizle ngiliz szlk hazrlamaclma ne gibi yeni bir zellik katlabileceini syleyebilmek kolay deildir. Yine de, yzyln bilimsel yntemleriyle tekrar tekrar szlen Oxford szlyle, szlk hazrlama imdilik en yksek geliim noktasna erimitir.

The claim is put with care and some caution, but it is not a modest daim, any more than Roget's claim for his Thesauruswas modest. There is a dear suggestion that, if the Oxford English Dictionary was not the ultimate dictionary of English, then it was as near as we would be likely to get to the ultimate and its lexicographic methodology was the acme of its kind. Oh a larger scale it is reminiscent of Webster's fate with regard to his etymologies, for the twentieth century has demonstrated quite condusively that much indeed can be added to

Sav dikkat ve zenle ileri srlmtr ama Roget'in Thesaurus'\ iin ileri srd savdan daha alakgnll bir sav deildir. Oxford English Dictionary eer ngilizcenin en kusursuz szl deilse, kullanlan szlk yazm metodolojisi, trnn en iyisidir ve yazlm ve

14 9

lexicography at large as well as to English lexicography. It is always risky to foreclose on the future. In addition, as they laboured, the compilers of Murray's Dictionary were moving through time alongside the language. Thus, when they reached S in 1910, they were 26 years away from the compilation of A, a period long enough to justify a major revision of any less epic wordbook. Furthermore, in Switzerland, Ferdinand de ausre was already questioning some of the fundamental assumptions of 'the scientific method of the century' as regards the nature of language. Arid finally, what no one could have imagined, men like Charles Babbage, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison and Herman Hollerith were already embarked upon technological innovations that will utterly transform the future of all works of reference everywhere, and are currently transforming the shape of the OED itself. Murray could also hardly have imagined the explosion of lexis in the English language that would occur from around World War II onward. The dictionary may have been officially completed and bound in 1928, but in a serious sense it was not completed at all. Rather, a truce was established with the language. Already in 1919, William Craigie had proposed further schemes to the Philological Society, relating to special 'period' dictionaries to enlarge upon Old English, Middle English, and so forth. In addition, it was evident that regionalization was worth pursuing for American, Scottish and other possible kinds of English. Various universities have become involved in such spin-off projects and are still engaged upori them in the 1980s. Craigie and Onions in the meantime brought out the first Supplement to the OED in 1933, and the making of further supplements is now an institutionalized process in Oxford, until recently in the care of the New Zealand scholar Robert Burchfield, who became editor in 1957. The /irsf volume of the Second Supplement appeared in 1972, the fourth in the mid-1980s. What like- hood, however, of a supplement to the Supplements, the ultimate in a kind of lexicographic masochism (unless a whole new technological approach is developed)? In diagrammatic terms the unendable aspect of the OED looks something like figure 1.

yazlacak olan szlkler iinde kusursuzlua en ok yaklam olandr dncesi vardr bu szlerde. Daha geni olarak dnldnde bu sav Webster'in etimolojileri ile ilgili olarak bana gelenleri anmsatmaktadr nk yirmind yzyl ngiliz szlk hazrlamac- lna olduu kadar genelde szlk hazrlamaclna da gerekten ok ey eklenebileceim aka gstermitir. Gelecee haciz koymak her zaman ok risklidir. Bu arada Murray'm Szln derleyenler szlkte ilerledike zaman da geiyordu. 1910 ylnda S harfine geldiklerinde A harfinin derlenmesinin zerinden, daha ksa bir szln esasl olarak gzden geirilmesini hakl gsterecek uzunlukta bir sre, 26 yl gemiti. Dahas, Isvirede Ferdinand de aussure, dilin yaps ile ilgili "yzyln bilimsel yntemi" hakkndaki temel grleri eletiriyordu. Son olarak, Charles Babbage, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison ve Herman Hollerith gibi kiiler dnyann her yarandaki bavuru yaptlarnn geleceim hi kimsenin dnemeyecei bir biimde, tmyle deitirecek veMurray aym zamanda yaklak kinci Dnya OED'nin imdiki biimini de deitirmekte olan Savandan bu ngilizcedeki szck teknolojik yeniliklere yana girimilerdi. patlamasn pek dleyemezdi. Szlk 1928 ylnda resmen tamamlanm ve ciltlenmi olabilir ama bir bakma hi de tamamlanmamt. Yalnzca dille atekes ilan edilmiti. Daha 1919'da William Craigie, Filoloji Demeine Eski ngilizce ve Orta ngilizceyi daha iyi tantabilmek iin zel 'dnem' szlkleri yazma tasarsn nermiti. Bunun yan sra Amerikan ngilizcesi, sko ngilizcesi ve daha baka ngilizce trleri iin blgesellemeye gitmenin abaya deer olduu akt. Baz niversiteler bu tr yan tasarlara girimilerdir ve 1980'lerde hl bu tasarlar zerinde almaktadrlar. Bu arada 1933 ylnda, Craigie ve Onions O E D 'nin ilk Etini kardlar. Daha baka ekler hazrlama artk Oxford'da kurumsallam bir giriim haline gelmitir ve yakn zamanlara kadar, 1957'de editrle gelen, Yeni ZelandalI bilim adam Robert Burchfield'in denetiminde srdrlmtr, ikinci EV in birinci dldi 1972'de, drdnc's 1980'lerin ortasnda kt. Szlk hazrlamada mazoizm trnn en st noktas, (yepyeni bir teknolojik yaklam gelitirilmedike) Ekler'e ek olasl var

15 0

It is all very sobering and thought-provoking especially when we recall that English, though dominant as a world language today, is still only one among thousands of languages, most of which have not had anything like the lexicographic attention lavished on English. The very nature of the world makes the QED imperfect, and already a historical document m its own right but what an impressive piece of imperfection it is! The superlatives that have been lavished upon it are in the main well deserved (and my own debt to it in the preparation of this book is not small). Ehrlich says that it 'was considered by many to be the greatest scholarly achievement of all time and it still is'. This may be excessive praise, but it remains and shall remain one of the wonders of

Gnmzde dnyada en ok konuulan dillerden biri olmasma karn ngilizcenin, birouna ngilizceye gsterilen szlk hazrlama ilgisinin hi gsterilmedii binlerce dilden yalnzca biri olduunu anmsamak ok ciddi ve dndrcdr. Dnyamz daha imdiden tarihi bir belge olan OED'yi kusursuz bir belge olmaktan alkoymaktadr ama ne kadar etkileyici bir kusur bu. Esizliini anlatan stnlk sfatlarnn ounu haketmitir (bu kita-. b hazrlarken ben de byk lde yararlandm ondan). Ehrlich "yapta tarih boyunca ve hl da en byk bilimsel baar olarak kabul edildiini" sylemektedir. Bu ar bir vg olabilir ama szlk, bavuru dnyasnn

DIPLOMATIC LANGUAGE

DPLOMASI DL

The expression "diplomatic language as implying cautious under-statementAdvantages and disadvantages of "diplomatic language'Latin as the original common language of diploma^. ; cyGradually superseded by FrenchDecline after the war in the use of the French languageIts suitability as a diplomatic medium Diplomatic phraSes which are becoming obsolete Glossary of some current diplomatic expressions

ll ifade anlamnda "diplomasi dili" deyimi"Diplomasi dilenin avantajlaryla. dezavantajlarDiplomasinin en eski ortak dili;...LtinceydiYava yava bunun yerini Franszca ald Fransz dilinin savatan sonra daha az kullanr hale geliiDiplomatik bir ara olarak Fransz dilinin uygunluuArtk kullanlmaz hale gelmeye balayan diplomatik szlerBugn geerli olan baz diplomatik deyimleri ieren szck daarc

THE expression "diplomatic language" is used to denote three different things. In its first sense it signifies the actual language (whether it be Latin, French, or English) which is employed by diplomatists in their converse or correspondence with each other. In its second sense it means those technical phrases which, in the course of centuries, have become part of ordinary diplomatic vocabulary. And in its third, and most common, sense it is used to describe that guarded under- statement which enables diplomatists and ministers to say sharp things to each other without becoming provocative or impolite. Ipropose in this chapter to begin by discussing the last of these three meanings, then to examine shortly the actual language employed by diplomatists, and at the end to provide a glossary of the more current technical terms used in diplomatic intercourse. "Diplomacy," if I may repeat Sir Ernest Satow's definition, "is the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between the governments of independent states." The need of intelligence is self- evident, but the equally vital need of tact is often disregarded. It is this latter need which has led diplomatists to adopt a paper currency of conventionalized phrases in place of the hard coins of ordinary human converse. These phrases, affable though they may appear, possess a known currency value. Thus, if a statesman or a diplomatist informs another government that his own government "cannot remain indifferent to" some international controversy, he is clearly understood to imply that the controversy is one in which his government will certainly intervene. If in his communication or speech he uses some such phrases as "His Majesty's Government view with concern" or "view with grave concern," then it is evident to all that the matter is one in which the British Government

DPLOMASI dili" deyimi ayr eyi anlatmakta kullanlr. Birinci anlamnda, diplomatlarn birbirleriyle konuma ve yazmalarnda kullandldar (ister Ltince, ister Franszca ya da ngilizce olsun) dilin kendisidir, ikinci anlamnda, yzyllar boyu kullanla kullanla sradan diplomatik szck daarcnn bir blm haline gelmi bulunan teknik deyimleri ifade eder. nc ve en genel anlamnda ise, diplomatlarla elilerin sert szleri birbirlerine kkrtc olmakszn ya da terbiyesizlie kamakszn syleyebilmelerine ola-nak salayan ll ifadeyi tanmlamada kullanlr. Bu blmde, bu anlamlardan ncsn tartmakla balayp, daha sonra diplomatlarn kullandklar dili ksaca incelemek ve sonunda, diplomatik temaslar srasnda ok kullanlan teknik terimlerin szln vermek istiyorum. Sir Ernest Satow'un tanmn tekrarlayacak olursam, "Diplomasi, zek ve inceliin, bamsz devletlerin hkmetleri arasnda kurulan resm ilikilere uyarlanmasdr." Zeknn gerekli olduu apak bir gerektir, ama onun kadar yaamsal bir gereksinme olan incelik ounlukla gz ard edilir. Diplomatlar gnlk dobra dobra konumann yerine geleneksellemi lml ifadeler kullanmaya ynelten ite bu ikinci gereksinmedir. Ho ve yumuak olsalar bile bu ifadelerin kantlanm bir geerlilii vardr.

ing to a foreign government. If these warnings pass unheeded he can raise his voice while still remaining courteous and conciliatory. If he says, "In such an event His Majesty's Government would feel bound carefully to reconsider their position," he is implying that friendship is about to turn into hostility. If he says "His Majesty's Government feel obliged to formulate express reservations regarding . . . " he is, in fact, saying "His Majesty's Government will not allow . . . " The expression "in that event, my Government will be obliged to consider their own interests," or "to claim a free hand," indicates that a rupture of relations is being considered. If he warns a foreign government that certain action on their part will be regarded "as an unfriendly act," that government interpret his words as implying a threat of war. If he says that "he must decline to be responsible for the consequences," it means that he is about to provoke an incident which will lead to war. And if he demands, even in terms of exquisite politeness, a reply before "six o'clock on the evening of the 25th/then his communication is rightly regarded as an ultimatum. The advantage of this conventional form of communication is that it maintains an atmoshere of calm, while enabling statesmen to convey serious warnings to each other which will not be misunderstood. The disadvantage is that the public and sometimes even the statesmen themselves, are not acquainted with the actual value, in diplomatic currency, of the expressions used. On the one hand an ignorant or incautious use of one of these phrases may give to a given situation a gravity which it does not possess. On the other hand, when a really serious crisis arises, the public is apt to assume from the mildness of the language used thajt the crisis cannot be as grave as "the alarmists" had given them to suppose. In extreme cases, moreover, the habit of diplomatic ambiguity, or of diplomatic understatement, leads to actual misunderstanding. I remember before the war reading a despatch from some Consul-General in which he informed the Foreign Office that one of the Vice-Consuls under his charge "does not, I much regret to report, take that care of his health which his medical advisers would recommend." The poor man was, in fact, in the last stages of delirium tremens. Such exaggeration of the practice is not common, and in all important international controversies these paper-currency phrases are most carefully scrutinized before they are used. It may be said that the advantages of phrasing communications between governments, or important pronouncements on foreign affairs, in "diplomatic

man yine, terbiye ve yattmalk erevesi dna kmadan sesini ykseltebilir. Eer, "Bu durumda, Majestelerinin Hkmeti konumunu yeniden ve dikkatle gzden geirmek zorunda kalacaktr," derse, dostluun dmanla dnmekte olduunu st kapal bir biimde anlatyor demektir. Eer, "Majestelerinin Hkmeti ile ilgili olarak ak kaytlarm dile getirmek zorunluluunu duymaktadr," derse, gerekte, "Majestelerinin Hkmeti;.... 'a izin vermeyecektir" demektedir. Bu durumda, "Hkmetim kendi karlarm dnmek zorunda kalacaktr," ya da "diledii gibi hareket etmek zorunda kalacaktr," gibi bir ifade, ilikilerin kesilmesinin dnldn gsterir. Eer bir Hkmeti, u ya da bu davranlarnn "dosta olmayan bir hareket" saylaca konusunda uyarrsa, uyary alan Hkmet bu. szleri bir sava tehdidi olarak yorumlar. Eer, "sonulardan doacak sorumluluun kendisine ait olmayacam" sylerse, savaa yol aacak bir olay karmaya hazrlanyor demektir. Ve eer, son derece terbiyeli bir ifade ile de olsa, "25'i akam saat altdan nce" bir yant isterse, bu istek kesinlikle ltimatom kabul edilir. Geleneksellemi olan bu iletiim biiminin avantaj, devlet adamlarnn birbirlerine, bir yandan yanl anlalmasna olanak bulunmayan ciddi uyanlarda bulunurlarken, bir yandan da gerginlikten uzak havay koruyabilmelerini salamasdr. Zayf noktas ise, kullanlan ifadenin diplomasi iin gerek deerini halkn Ve hatt bazen devlet adamlarnn kendilerinin bile iyice bilmemeleridir. Bir yandan, bu ifadelerden herhangi birinin yanl ya da dikkatsiz kullanlmas, belirli bir duruma, o durumun aslnda sahip olmad bir ciddiyet kazandrabilir. te yandan, gerekten de ciddi bir kriz ba gsterdii zamaf, halk kullanlan dilin yumuaklndan, o krizin "farfaraclar" tarafndan gsterilmek istendii kadar ciddi olamayaca sonucunu karabilir. Ayrca, an durumlarda, diplomatik dilin belirsizliine ya da lllne bavurmak, gerek bir yanl anlamaya yol aabilir. Savatan nce bir Bakonsolosun yollad raporu okumutum. Bakonsolos raporunda Dilerine, emrindeki Konsolos Yardmclarndan birinin, "zlerek sylemekle birlikte, salna, hekimlerin nerdikleri biimde gereken ilgiyi gstermediini" bildiriyordu. Aslnda zavall adamcaz delirium tremens'in son evresinde bulunuyordu. Bu gibi abartmalarla sk sk karlalmaz ve btn nemli uluslararas anlamazlklarda bu lml ifadeler ince eleyip sk dokunarak kullanlr. Hkmetler arasndaki haberlemelerde ya da dileriyle ilgili nemli bildirilerde "diplomasi dili"ne bavurulmasnn salad avantajlar, denilebilir ki, sistemin btn dezavantajlarndan ok daha ar

II

UNTIL the eighteenth century the common language, or lingua franca of diplomacy was Latin. Not only did diplomatists write to each other in Latin but they even conversed in that medium. Such treaties as those
15 4

ON sekizinci yzyla kadar diplomasinin ortak dili ya da lingua franca's Ltinceydi.Diplomatlar sadece yazmalarnda Ltince kullanmalda kalmyorlar, ayn zamanda konumalarnda da bu araca bavuru-

of Westphalia (1648), the Anglo-Danish Treaty of 1670, and the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1674 were all drafted and signed in Latin and this was in fact the general practice. During the course of the eighteenth century the French made repeated efforts to secure the adoption of their own language as the language of diplomacy. These efforts were stubbornly resisted by the ... other. Powers. Thus, although the Treaty of Aix-la- hapelleof 1748 was signed in French, a special article was inserted to the effect that this was not to create a precedent. A similar reservation was, at the insistence of the other signatory Powers, inserted into the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the Treaty of Versailles of 1783, and even in the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna. In spite of these reservations, the French language had, by the middle of the eighteenth century, firmly established itself as, in all but name, the offical language of diplomacy. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and the Congress of Paris in 1856 the proceedings were conducted in French throughout. It was in fact not until the Paris Conference of 1918-19 that English was given equality of rights with French. "The Present Treaty" thus runs the ratification clause of the Treaty of Versailles"of which the French and English texts are both authentic. . . . " It was that clause which finally disposed of the claim of French to be the official language of negotiation. This was perhaps inevitable. It was evident that the supremacy of the French language gave to French diplomatists an advantage over their colleagues. In the days of the old diplomacy, when the diplomatists of all . countries were obliged to be almost bilingual, this ad- :: vantage was not so preponderant. But with the advent of democratic diplomacy, and the frequent handling of negotiations by the elected representatives of the people, it became a practical impossibility to converse in French. Sir Edward Grey, for instance, could scarcely speak French, although he claimed to understand it. President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George were no linguists, and the practice thus arose that the representative of each country could, if he desired, speak in his own language, his words being thereafter translated by an interpreter. This practice has not proved so inconvenient as many suppose. A trained interpreter can translate a statement or a speech with great lucidity and speed; Professor Mantoux, who interpreted during the Paris Conference, brought to his task a touch of genius. The delay entailed is not.inconvenient to a negotiator who, having gathered the gist <j>t the previous remarks, is able, during the period of translation, to ruinmate on His own reply' It was not only in conferences and congresses that French held its supremacy. Ordinary diplomatic intercourse was, until the Treaty of Versailles, conducted almost exclusively in that language. The Far East, where English was the common tongue, was an exception to this rule. In Europe the whole process of notes, memoranda, and official or social conversation, was conducted

yorlardi. Westphalia Antlamas (1648), 1670 ngilte- re-Danimarka Antlamas ve 1674 ngiltereHollanda Antlamas gibi antlamalar hep Ltince yazlm ve imzalanmlardr; genel uygulama buydu. On sekizinci yzyl boyunca, Franszlar, diplomasi dili olarak kendi dillerinin benimsenmesi iin arka arkaya birok giriimlerde bulundular. br Devletler bu giriimlere inatla kar koydular. Bu yzden, Aix-la-Chapelle Antlamas (1748) her ne kadar Franszca imzalanmsa da, bunun rnek oluturmayacana ilikin bir madde eklenmitir antlamaya. Antlamalara imza koyan br Devletlerin diretmesi zerine buna benzer bir kstlama, 1763 Paris Antlamas'na, 1783 Versailles Antlamasna ve hatta, Viyana Kongresinin Niha Kararna da konmutur. Btn bu kstlamalara ramen on sekizinci yzyln ortalarnda, Franszca, resmen deilse de uygulamada kendim diplomasi dili olarak kabul ettirmi bulunuyordu. 1815 Viyana Kongresinde de 1856 Paris Kongresinde de btn grmeler Franszca yaplmtr. ngilizceye Franszcayla eit hak ancak 1918-19 Paris Kongresinde tannmtr. Versailles Antlamasnn onay blmnde yle der: "Franszca ve ngilizce metinlerinin ikisi de zgn olan bu Antlama...." Franszcann resm diplomasi dili olduu savma bu blm son vermitir. Belki de bu kanlmazd. Franszcann egemenliinin Fransz diplomatlarna meslektalar karsnda bir stnlk salad apak bir gerekti. Dnyadaki btn lkelerin diplomatlarnn iki dili ana dilleri gibi bildikleri eski diplomasi zamannda bu stnlk o kadar fazla deildi. Ama demokratik diplomasinin yaygnlamas ve grmelerin genellikle halkn seilmi temsilcileri tarafndan yrtlmeye balanmasyla, Fri- szcay diplomasi dili olarak kullanabilme olana ortadan kalkt. rnein, Sir Edward Grey Franszcay anladm ileri srerdi ama tek kelime Franszca konuamazd. Bakan Wilson ve Mr. Lloyd George da dil bilmezlerdi; bu yzden, her lke temsilcisinin, konumalar sonradan bir evirmen tarafndan evrilmek zere, isterse kendi dilinde konuabilecei kabul edildi. Bu, hi de biroklarnn sand gibi elverisiz bir yntem deildir. Eitilmi bir evirmen bir bildiri ya da konumay ok iyi ve hzl evirebilir; Paris Konferans srasnda evirmenlik yapan Profesr Mantoux, bu konuda adeta bir deha rnei vermitir. eviri.srasnda doan gecikmenin de delegeye bir zaran yoktur, nk daha nceki szlerin zn kavrayan delege, eviri sreci iinde, kendi verecei yant daha iyi toparlayabilir. Franszcann egemenlii sadece konferanslarda ve kongrelerde kendini gstermekle kalmyordu. Versailles Antlamasna kadar sradan diplomatik konumalar da hemen hemen sadece bu dilde yaplrd. ngilizcenin ortak dil olduu Uzak Dou bu kuraln dnda kalyordu. Avrupada btn notalar ve anlamalar Franszca hazrlanmakta, resm ya da zel konumalar Franszca yaplmaktayd. arlk

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lomatic intercourse. It is in some ways to be regretted that the old practice is disappearing. It is of obvious convenience that there should exist some common language in which Lithuanians can converse with Portuguese, or Greeks with Danes. The absence of such a generally accepted medium of communication leads to difficulties. The Embassy, of a Great Power in London recently issued invitations for an official reception in its own nordic tongue. The representative of a Middle Eastern potentate replied to this invitation in Arabic. It was only with difficulty that the Ambassador could discover whether his guest had accepted or refused. Nor can it be questioned that the French language possesses qualities which entitle it to claim precedence over others for all purposes of diplomatic intercourse. It is impossible to use French correctly without being obliged to place one's ideas in the proper order, to develop them in a logical sequence, and to use words of almost geometrical accuracy. Imprecision is one of the major virtues of diplomacy, it may be regretted that we are discarding as our medium f negotiation one of the most precise languages ever invented by the mind of man. I now pass to a definition of some of the more technical phrases employed in current diplomatic usage. One may observe incidentally that many of the expressions which were of common usage in the nineteenth century are now obsolete. No Secretary of State would to-day refer to his colleagues in the Cabinet as "His Majesty's Servants." The phrase "The European System" is to-day devoid of meaning, while even the "Concert of Europe" scarcely survived the European War. Diplomatists no longer describe the German or the Soviet Governments as "The Northern Courts." The Russian Ambassador is no longer referred to by the Kremlin as "our Ambassador at the Court of St. James'." It would cause bewilderment if a minister were to refer, as Wellington referred, to a massacre as "the transactions complained of." And the confusion which occurs over the use of the title "Excellency" would have much distressed a diplomatist of the prewar vintage. A welcome change is the decline in the practice (so dear to the foreign correspondents of English newspapers) of calling the several Foreign Offices by pet names. We still, occasionally, speak of the French Foreign Office as "The Quai d'Orsay," and of its German counterpart as "The Wilhelm-strasse." Yet "The Haus am Ballplatz" is no more, and the expression "The Sublime Porte" (which even in its halcyon days was a mistranslation of the words "Bab-i Ali" or "Gate of Sublimity") will shortly be recognizable only by students of diplomatic history. Inow pass to my glossary. My main authority for the definitions given is Sir Ernest Satow's classic work, A Guide to Diplomatic Practice, a revised edition of which was published in 1932/ after
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Eski uygulamann yava yava kaybolmaya balam oluu baz alardan zmilecek bir eydir. Letonyal- lann Portekizlilerle, ya da Yunanllarn DanimarkalIlarla anlaabilmelerini salayacak ortak bir dil olmasnn yararlan aktr; bu M kukusuz son derece elverili bir ey olurdu. Herkes tarafndan kabul edilmi byle bir iletiim aracnn bulunmay glklere yol amaktadr. Geenlerde, Byk Devletlerden birinin Londra Bykelilii bir resm kabul iin ketdi nordik dilinde yazlm arlklar datmt. Bir Ortadou kralnn temsilcisi de bu arla Arapa yamt verdi. arl yollayan Bykeli, arlnn any kabul ' edip etmediim bin bir glkle anlayabildi. Ne deFranszcamn diplomatik grmelerde dier btn dillerden daha stn olduu savma hak verdirecek niteliklere sahip bulunduu tartlabilir. Fransz- cay doru konuabilmek iin insan fikirlerim bir dzene sokmak, onlar mantksal bir sraya koymak ve hemen hemen matematiksel kesinlikte szckler kullanmak zorundadr. Eer kesinlik diplomasinin bellibal erdemlerinden biri ise, o zaman, insan kafasnn imdiye kadar yaratt dillerin en kesinlerinden birini grme arac olarak kullanmaktan vazgeiimiz zlnecek bir eydir.

MD de, bugnk diplomaside kullanlan te. rimer iinde daha ok teknik nitelik tayan bazlarnn tanmna geiyorum. Bu arada, on dokuzuncu yzylda genellikle kullanlan birok deyimin de bugn kullanlmaz olduunu syleyebiliriz. Bugn artk hibir Dileri Bakam, kabine arkadalarndan, "Majestelerinin Kullar" diye sz etmez. Bugn artk "Avrupa Sistemi" sz hibir anlam tamamaktadr, te yandan "Avrupa Birlii" sz ise Birinci Dnya Sava sonuna kadar bile yaamamtr. Diplomatlar artk Alman ya da Sovyet Hkmetlerini "Kuzey Saraylar" diye anmyorlar. Londradaki Bykelisinden Kremlin artk, "St. James Sarayndaki Bykelimiz" diye sz etmiyor. Bir bykeli, bir toplu ldrmeden, Wellington'un yapt gibi "ikyet edilen iler" diye sz etseydi, herkesi dehete drrd. "Ekselans" sanmn kullanlnda! ortaya kan karklk ise, sava ncesi diplomatlarm herhalde ok rahatsz ederdi. Sevinilecek bir deiiklik ise, baka lkelerin Dileri Bakanlklarndan sz ederken (Ingiliz gazetelerinin yurtd muhabirlerinin o kadar bayldklar) takma ad kullanma alkanlnn brakhdr. Hl Fransz Dileri Bakanlndan arasra "The Quai d'Orsay" ve Alman Dileri Bakanlndan da "The Wilhelmstrasse" diye sz ederiz. Ama "The Haus am Ballplatz" sz artk kalkmtr; "The Sublime Porte" (ki grkemli dnemlerinde bile "Bab- Ali" ya da "Ycelik Kaps"nm yanl bir eviriiydi) deyiminin ne anlama geldiini yakn bir gelecekte ancak diplomasi tarihini inceleyenler anlayabileceklerdir imdi szlme geiyorum. Verilen tanmlarda

brought up to date by Mr. H. Ritchie.


ACCESSION. It is a frequent practice to insert an "accession clause" into an international treaty under which Powers who were not represented at the negotiations and who did not sign the original treaty can "accede" to it later. A good instance is Article 22 of the International Opium Convention of January 23,1912, which provides that Powers who have not been represented at this Conference shall be admitted to sign the present 'Convention.' , ' , ACCORD. Matters of general international concern which are . not of sufficient importance to justify a formal treaty or convention are frequently arranged by means of an "accord" or "agreement." The subjects dealt with by such agreements are copyright, public health, pharmacopoeial formulas, and so on. ACTE FINAL. It often occurs that at the conclusion of some conference or congress it is found convenient to draw up some formal summary or statement of its proceedings. Such statements enumerate the treaties signed as a result of the conference, and often contain certain expressions of opinion, or agreed comments, on the subjects discussed. Such a summary is sometimes called "Acte," "Protocol," or "Proces Verbal Final." But the expression "Acte Final" is more correct: AD REFERENDUM. A negotiator often finds it convenient to accept some proposition .on thepart of those with whom he is negotiating without committing his own government. He therefore accepts it "ad referendum," meaning thereby "subject to the approval of my government." AGftEMENT OR AGREATION. When one government wishes to accredit an ambassador or a minister to another government, it is necessary that the individual selected should be approved by the government of the country to which he is being sent. It is customary, in order to avoid personal embarrassments, to sound a foreign government privately before making a formal application for an agrement. A famous instance of an agirmenf having been withhMd; was when, the Emperor Nicholas of Russia refused to accept Sir Stratford Canning as British Ambassador in St. Petersburg. ASYLUM. It is generally accepted practice that a political refugee who takes asylum in a foreign country should not be deported back to his own country from which he has escaped. A more , difficult question arises when a political refugee . takes asylum, not in a foreign country, but in a foreign embassy or legation in his own capital. In some Oriental countries, notably in Persia, this system is much abused and whole tribes of politicians and their families take refuge or "bast" in a Legation compound in order to escape the vengeance of their master. Prolonged negotiations are often necessary before such refugees can be induced to depart. ATTACHE There are three types of attach#. The first are naval, military, air or commercial attaches who are generally senior officers and who are attachedto a mission for specialized services. The second are diplomatic attaches who represent the lowest grade of diplomatic secretaries. Of recent years this grade has in many countries been abolished andthe-Bame-of-attaeheehanged-to-Third-SeeretaryrThe-third- type is that of the Honorary Attach#, who is an unpaid volunteer, who is not a permanent member of the service, but who is generally a young man of private means and excellent connections who spends a space of time in an embassy or legation between finishing his university career and settling down to the serious business of life. BAG, THE. An ambassador or minister communicates with his government either by cypher telegram, by telephone, orlri: the form of written reports and despatches. The latter are placed in mail bags which are carried by special couriers or "King's Messengers." Occasionally the Foreign

bu yaptn yeniden gzden geirilmi basks, Mr. H. Ritchie tarafndan dikkatle gncelletirildikten sonra, 1932'de yaplmtr.
ACCESSION (MUVAFAKAT). Uluslararas bir antlamaya muvafakat bendi" koymak, sk sk uygulanan bir eydir; buna gre, grmelerde temsil edilmeyen ve asl antlamaya imza koymayan Devletler, o antlamaya daha sonra da muvafakat" edebilirler. Bunun gzel rneklerinden biri de, , .... 23 Ocak 1912 Uluslararas Afyon Anlamasnn 22. Maddesidir; bu maddede yle der: "Bu Konferansta temsil edilmeyen Devletlerin bu Anlamay imzalamalar kabul edilecektir." ACCORD (UYUMA). Resm bir antlamaya ya da anlamay gerektirecek nemde olmayan uluslararas konular genellikle bir "uyuma" ya da "anlama" ile zmlenir. Bu gibi anlamalar iine giren konular, telif haklar, kamu sal, ecza formlleri v.b.dir. ACTE FINAL (BALAYICI TUTANAK). ou kez herhangi bir konferans ya da kongrenin sonunda, tutanaklarn resm bir . zetini yapmakta yarar grlr. Bu gibi zetlere, konferans sonucu imzalanan antlamalardan srasyla sz edilir ve yine bu zetler ounlukla, konferans srasnda ifade olunmu baz grleri, tartlan konularla ilgili olarak zerinde gr birliine varlm yorumlan ierir. Byle zetlerde bazen "Acte", "Protokol," ya da "Proces Verbal Final" denir. Ama "Acte Final" deyimi en dorusudur. AD REFERENDUM (ONAYLANMAK KOULUYLA). Bir delege bazen grmeye oturduu tarafn bir nerisini kendi hkmetini stlenme altna sokmakszm kabul etmeyi uygun grr. Dolaysyla da neriyi "ad referendum" yani, hkmetinin onaylamas kouluyla kabul eder. AGRSMENT YA DA AGREATION. (AGREMAN) Bir hkmet baka bir hkmete bir bykeli ya da ortaeli akredite etmek (itimatnameyle memur etmek) istedii zaman, seilen kiinin, gnderildii hkmet tarafndan uygun grlmesi ge; rekir, /Kiisel ynden: zc durumlarla karlamamak . iin, resmen agrment istenilmeden nce yabanc hkmete zel olarak haber vermek alkanlk haline gelmitir. Agreman vermeme rneklerinin en nllerinden biri, Rus mparatoru Nikola'nn, Sir Stratford Canning'i St. Peters- burg'a ngiliz Bykelisi olarak kabul etmeyiidir. ASYLUM (LTCA). Yabana bir.lkeye sman siyasi bir mltecinin kendi lkesine geri verilmemesi genellikle kabul edilegelen bir uygulamadr. Siyasi mlteci yabana bir lkeye deil de, kendi lkesinin bakentindeki bir yabanc lke bykeliliine snd zaman zlmesi daha zor bir sorun doar. Baz Dou lkelerinde, zellikle, de ran'da, bu sistem ok lakalamtr ve bazen politikaclar .ve aileleri gruplar halinde, kkmdarlarmm gazabndan kamak iin bir elilie snrlar. Bu mltecilerin elilikten ayrlmaya raz edilebilmeleri iin bazen uzun grmelere girmek gerekir. ATTACHE (ATAE). tip atae vardr. Birinci tipe, genellikle, uzmanlk hizmeti grmek zere bir misyona bal bulunan ve yksek dereceli memur olan deniz, kara, hava ya da ticaret ataeleri girer. kinci tipe, diplomatik ktipliin en d- pik derecesini temsil eden diplomatik ataeler girer. Son yllarda bu derece birok lkelerde kaldrlm ve atae ad yerine nc ktip ad kullanlmaya balanmtr. nc tip ise, dilerinin srekli ve cretli bir yesi olmayp, genellikle kendi geimini kendi salayan, ok iyi ilikiler kurmu bulunan ve ciddi bir iadam olmak zere hayata atlmadan nce, niversite renimini bitirir bitirmez zamam- .. ;; nn bir blmn bir bykelilikte gnll olarak geir- " mek isteyen gen bir adamdr; buna Onursal Atae denir. BAG (KURYE ANTASI). Bir bykeli ya da ortaeli kendi hkmetiyle ya ifreli telgraf, ya telefon ya da yazl raporlar ve resm mektuplar yoluyla haberleir. Yazl raporlar ve resm mektuplar bir posta antas iine konur; bu antay zel kuryeler ya da "Kraln Habercileri" tar. ngiliz Dileri Bakanlna ait antalarn zaman zaman ngiliz gemileri-

157

vessels and the whole courier service has of late been much reduced. The King's Messengers or couriers are provided with special passports and their bags are inviolable. In the old days members of missions abroad were allowed to send and receive "by favour of the bag" not only their private correspondence but a large number of commodities. This privilege has now been much restricted in so far as the British diplomatic service is concerned. The day on which "the bag" arrives or leaves is always one of great activity in missions abroad. It is called 'bag-day." The Fiench lise a similar ; expression"la valise." BELLIGERENT RIGHTS. This expression is one which concerns international law rather than diplomatic practice. Under in. ternational law a government which is engaged in war possesses certain recognized rights and duties. The most important of these rights is that which enables them to declare a blockade of the coasts and ports of their enemy. Insurgents and revolutionaries do not possess these rights until they are recognized as "belligerents.' The general practice has beento grant belligerent rights to insurgents the moment it is clear that the situation has passed from the stage of a rebellion into the stage of a civil war. But there is no absolute rule governing such procedure. BILATERAL. See under Treaties. CAPITULATIONS. The Powers were able in the course of centuries to impose treaties on certain non-Christian countries, under which their own nationals residing in the country should enjoy special privileges and immunities. Among these privileges was exemption from taxation and from trial by native courts. These treaties were called "Capitulations" and the whole infinitely complicated system was called 'The Capitulatory System." The Powers who enjoyed the benefits of such treaties were called the "Capitulatory Powers" as distinct from those smaller Powers who were outside the system. After the war, Turkey and Persia abolished the capitulations with the consent of the Powers. CASUS BELLI, A casus belli is an act committed by one country ' against another country of such a nature as to justify war. . Tims the invasion of Egypt by a foreign Power would be regarded by Great Britain as a casus belli. CASUS FCEDERIS. A casus foederis is different from the above. It means some action or event which brings into operation a particular treaty of alliance and justifies one party to that treaty in calling upon another party to come to his assistance. A German invasion of Czechoslovakia would have constituted a casus foederis in that the Czech Government could then have called upon the French and Russian Governments to fulfil their treaty obligations. CHANCELLERIES, A confusion is often made between the word "Chancellery" and the word "Chancery." A chancellery was originally the secretariat of a chancellor. It is now employed only to designate those ministers and officials who control, or advise upon, foreign policy. The phrase "The Chancelleries of Europe" is in practice indistinguishable from the phrase 'The Foreign Offices of the Powers." The word "Chancery" designates the actual office of a head of a diplomatic mission, namely his first, second and third secretaries, plus the attendant clerks. It is also used to designate the premises in which they exercise their functions. A . "Chancery Servant corresponds to the "Office Messenger" in a government department. CHARG D'AFFAIRES. When an ambassador or minister goes n leave he entrusts the conduct of his mission to the next senior officer of the staff, either the counsellor or the first secretary. This official becomes, for the time being, head of the mission, conducts negotiations with the foreign government, and reports to his own government.On occasions when it is desired to manifest displeasure with a foreign government the charge d'affaires is maintained for a long period and no successor to the departed ambassador or minister is appointed. No agrement is required in the case of a charge d'affaires.

nin kaptanlarna teslim edildii de olur; yakn zamanlarda kurye yoluyla haberleme ok azaltlmtr. Kraln Habercileri ya da kuryeler zel pasaportla yolculuk ederler ve antalar alamaz. Eskiden yurt dndaki misyonlarn yeleri, "kurye antas sayesinde" sadece zel yazmalarda bulunmakla kalmayp, birbirlerine bir sr eya da yollarlard. ngiliz Dilerinde bu ayrcalk artk son derece snrlandrlm bulunmaktadr. "Kurye antasnn geldii ya da gittii gri, yurt dndaki misyonlarda daima byk bir canllk , gze arpar. O giine, "anta Gn" denir. Franszlar da buna benzer bir deyim kullanrlar: "la valise." BELLIGERENT RIGHTS (SAVA HAKLAR). BU deyim, diplomasiden ok, uluslararas hukuku ilgilendiren bir deyimdir. Uluslararas hukuka gre savaa girmi bir hkmetin resmen tannm baz haklan ve grevleri vardr. Bunlarn en nemlisi, dmanlarnn limanlarn ve kylarn abluka altna ^malarm mmkn klandr. htilaldler ve isyanclar "sava" olarak tannmadan bu haklara sahip olamazlar. Genellikle uygulanan ynteme gre, durumun bir ayaklanma halinden i sava haline getii belli olur olmaz isyanclara "sava haklar" tannr. Bununla birlikte byle bir uygulamann kesin bir kural yoktur. BLATERAL (KL ANTLAMALAR), bk. TREATES (ANTLAMALAR) CAPTULATONS (KAPTLASYONLAR). Yzyllar boyunca Byk Devletler, Hristiyan olmayan baz lkelere, o lkede oturan kendi yurttalarnn birtakm ayrcalk ve baklktan yararlanmas iin baz antlamalar kabul ettirmilerdir. Bu ayrcalklarn en nemlilerinden biri, vergi bakl, br de o lkenin mahkemeleri tarafndan yarglanmaya kar baklktr. Bu antlamalara "Kapitlasyonlar" ve bu karmak sistemin tmne "Kapitler Sistem" denirdi. Bu antlamalardan yararlanan Devletlere de, onlar sistemin dnda kalan daha ufak Devletlerden ayrmak zere, "Kapitler Devletler" ad verilirdi. Birinci Dnya Savandan sonra, Trkiye ile ran, Byk Devletlerin onayyla kapitlasyonlan kaldrd. CASUS BELL (SAVA NEDEN). fass belli", bir lkenin baka bir lkeye kar giritiC sava hakl gsterecek nitelikteki eylemdir. Buna gre, Msr'n yabanc bir Devlet tarafndan igal edilmesini Byk Britanya "casus belli" sayar. CASUS FCEDERIS (ANTLAMA HOKMLERIN HAREKETE GEREN OLAY). 'Casus fcederis", "casus belli'den farkldr. 'Casus foederis," bir ittifak antlamasn harekete geiren ve antlamada imzas bulunan taraflardan birinin br taraf yardma armasn hakl gsteren bir davran ya da eylem demektir. Almanlarn ekoslavakya'y igali, ekosla- vak Hkmetinin bu durumda Fransz ve Rus Hkmetlerini, antlamada yer alan ykmllklerini yerine getirmeye armasn olas klacandan, bir "casus fcederis' saylrd. CHANCELLERIES (KANILARYA). Genellikle "Chancellery" ve "Chancery" terimleri kartrlr. Eskiden kanlarya elilik baktiplii anlamnda kullanlmaktayd. Artk, d politikay saptayan ve denetleyen eli ve grevlileri tanmlamakta kullanlmaktadr. 'Avrupa Kanlaryalar" terimini "Dileri Bakanlklar teriminden ayrmak mmkn deildir. "Chancery" terimi ise, bir diplomatik misyon bakannn makam, birinci, ikinci ve nc ktip ve grevliler anlamna gelmektedir. Ayn zamanda grevlerini yaptklar mekn tanmlamada da kullanlmaktadr. "Chancery Ser- vant"n (kavas) devlet dairelerindeki karl "Office Messenger' (memur)dr. CHARG D'AFFAIRES (GDER). Bir bykeli ya da ortaeli izine kt zaman, misyonunun ynetimini, kadroda ken- ; dinden sonra gelen en yksek memura yani, ya mstearna ya da birinci ktibe brakr. Bu memur, o sre iin misyonun ba olur, yabana hkmetlerle grmelere girer, kendi hkmetine raporlar verir. Yabana bir hkmete kar honutsuzluk belli edilmek istendii zaman, o hkmet nezdindeki igder uzun sre ibanda tutulur ve ayrlm bulunan bykeli ya da ortaelinin yerine yenisi atanmaz. gderin greve balamas iin agrement gerekmez.

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COMPROMIS D'ARBITRAGE. When two countries agree to submit a dispute to arbitration it may be found convenient to draw up a compact defining the course of procedure to be followed. This compact is called a "Compromis d'Arbitrage," or more usually a "Compromis.' CONCORDAT. When the Pope signs a treaty with the head of a State it is called a "concordat." These treaties begin with the words In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trin- ity." One of the most striking of recent concordats is that be- tween the Pope and the King of Italy for the settlement of the "Roman Question," which was signed at the Lateran on February 11,1929, CONFERENCE AND CONGRESS.There is no accepted difference between these two words. It is sometimes contended that a congress is a more important version of a conference, or that the word "congress' is used when territory is redistributed after a general war, or when practically all the Great Powers are represented. History does not show that such distinctions have been made in practice, for whereas there was the Congress of Vienna, the discussion held in Paris after the war of 1914-18 wasstyleda"conference."Itmightbe argued with greater justification that the word "conference" is more applicable to meetings at which only the victors in a war, or the directly interested parties, are represented, and that when both the conquered countries and neutral countries are admitted the word "congress" is more correct. Even . this distinction would be questioned by purists. CONVENTION, A convention is a less important form of treaty, .namely one which is concluded, not between heads of States, but between governments. CORPS DIPLOMATIQUE. The diplomatic body in any capital is composed of the diplomatic staffs of the several missions, including the attaches. Consuls and student interpreters are not generally regarded as forming part of the body. The senior ambassador or minister becomes the "dean" or "doyen" of the diplomatic body, and represents them in any disputes affecting their corporate rights and interests. COUNSELLOR. ,The senior secretary at ah embassy (and in exceptional cases at a legation) has the title of "Counsellor" ("conseiller," "Botschaftsrat"). At important embassies, such as those in Paris and Washington, the Counsellor is given the rank of Minister. It is he who, in the absence of the head of a mission, acts as "Charge d'Affaires." CREDENTIALS. An ambassador or minister is, on being appointed to a post, provided with Credentials, or Letters of Credence, signed by his sovereign or the head of his State. Until he has formally "presented his letters" he is not officially recognized. DEMARCHE. The closest English equivalent for the expression "faire une demarche" is make representations," but it should be remembered that the word in French covers all manner of representations from proposals to threats. DTENTE. The word "detente" is not, as some people suppose, the opposite of "entente." It simply means "a relaxation of tension!" DIPLOMATIC ILLNESS. It is frequently convenient for a statesman or a negotiator to absent himself from some ceremony or meeting. In order not to cause undue offence, he pleads illness. In cases where this malady is a feigned pretext it is called "diplomatic." DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGE. Members of diplomatic missions are accorded certain privileges and immunities in the countries where they reside officially. These privileges are given, not merely to the head of the mission, but to his staff, their : wives and families, and his servants. They include such immunities as inviolability of person and domicile, exemption from local taxation and from local criminal and civil jurisdiction. A member of the diplomatic body cannot be summoned, sued or forced to give witness in a court of law. He may be asked to "waive his diplomatic privilege," but he is not obliged to comply with such a request. In extreme cases (which, for diplomatists are a mild race,

COMPROMIS D'ARBITRAGE. ki lke aralarndaki bir anlamazl hakem heyetine gtrmeyi kararlatrdklar zaman, davada izlenecek yntemi tanmlayan bir szleme dzenlemek uygun grlebilir. Bu szlemeye "compromis d'arbitrage" ya da "compromis" denir. CONCORDAT. Papa ile bir Devlet bakan arasnda imzalanan antlamaya verilen addr. Bu antlamalar "En Kutsal ve Blnmez leme Adyla" diye balar. Yalan zamanlarn nemli antlamalarndan biri Papa e talyan Kral arasnda "Roma Sorununu" zmlemek iin ubat 1929'da Late- ran'da imzalanan antlamadr. CONFERENCE AND CONGRESS (KONFERANS VE KONGRE). Bu iki szck arasnda pek byk bir fark yoktur. Bazen kongrenin konferanstan daha nemli olduu ya da "kongre" szcnn bir byk savatan sonra toprak blm iin.ya da btn Byk Devletlerin temsil edildii toplantlar iin kullanld ileri srlr. Tarih boyunca uygulamada byle bir ayrma gidildii pek grlmemektedir nk Viyana Kongresi derken, 1914-18 savandan sonra Paris'te yaplan grmelere "konferans" ad verilmitir. Savatan zaferle kan ya da dorudan ilgili tm lkelerin temsil edildikleri toplantya konferans" ve yenik ve tarafsz lkelerin de katlmalarna izin verilen toplantlara "kongre" denmesi daha dorudur. Titiz kiiler bu ayrma bile kar karlar. CONVENTION. Antlamann daha az nemli bir biimi, yani, Devlet Bakanlar arasnda deil de, Hkmet Bakanlar arasnda imzalanan bir antlamadr. CORPS DPLOMATQUE (KRDPLOMATC). Herhangi bir bakentteki diplomatik heyetler topluluu, ataeler de iinde ' olmakzere, yabana eli ve elilik grevlilerinden oluur. Konsoloslar ve stajyer evirmenler genellikle bu gruba gir mez. En kdemli bykeli ya da ortaeli, diplomatik heyetin "diayeri"i olur ve ortak haklarm y da ortak karlarn etkileyen anlamazlklarda onlar temsil eder. COUNSELLOR (MSTEAR). Bir bykelilikteki (olaanst durumlarda bir elilikteki) baktibe "counsellor" ("cnseil- ler," "Botschaftsrat") sam verilir. Paris ve Washington Bykelilikleri gibi neirOi bykeliliklerde msteara, ortaeli rtbesi verilir. Misyon bann yokluunda bu kii "igderlik" eder. CREDENTIALS (TMATNAME). Bir yere atanan bykeli ya da ortaeliye, kral ya da Devlet bakan tarafndan imzalanm timatname verilir. Bykeli "itimatnamesini sunmadan" resmen tannmaz. DEMARCHE (IKI). Demarche yapmak, "kta bulunmak" demektir, ama urasnida unutmamak gerekir ki, Fransz dilinde bu szck, neriden, gzda vermeye kadar her trl k" ierir. DETENTE (YUMUAMA). "Detente" szc, pek oklarnn sand gibi "entente" szcnn kart anlamls deildir. Bu szck sadece, "gerginliin azalmas" demektir. DPLOMATK HASTALIK. Bir devlet adam ya da delegenin herhangi bir trene ya da toplantya katlmamas uygun olabilir. Bir krgnlk yaratlmamas iin, hastalk zr ileri srer. Hastaln gerek olmamas durumunda, o hastala "diplomatik" denilir. --DPLMATK-DOKUNULMAZHKv-Diplomatik-heyet-yelerine, resmen oturduklar lkede baz ayrcalklar ve dokunulmazlklar tannr. Bu ayrcalklar sadece heyetin bana deil, heyetin btn kadrosuna, karlarna, ailelerine ve hizmetilerine verilir! Bunlarn iine, kii dokunulmazl, mesken dokunulmazl, yerel vergilerden, ceza! ve hukuki yarglamadan baklk girer. Bir diplomatik heyet yesi mahkemeye anlamaz, hakknda dava alamaz ve mahkemede tanklk etmek zorunda braklamaz, kendisinden, "diplomatik dokunulmazlndan vazgemesi" istenebilir, ama o, bu istee uymak zorunda deildir. Ar durumlarda (diplomatlar yumuak insanlar olduu iin ar durumlar

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rare) the government of the country in which a diplomatist has committed a criminal offence can demand his recall and can even arrest him once he has been divested of his official status. Diplomatic privilege is sometimes extended to persons (such as members of the League Secretariat) who are not technically diplomatists. EN CLAIR, A telegram is sent either in secret code or in ordinary language. If the latter, it is called a telegram "en clair." Such r ^ messages are sent when it is intended that the local govern-- ment should read the ihessage Without undue trouble. ENTENTE. This expression arose from the phrase "entente cordiale" or "cordial understanding." It implies, as does the new word "axis," a similarity of views and interests between certain countries and an identity of policy upon certain issues. It thus stands half-way between an "alliance" and "good relations." During the war and subsequently the term was used concretely to describe those Powers who were united by this from of understanding, e.g. "Triple Entente," "Balkan Entente," etc. EXCELLENCY. In Great Britain this foolish title is accorded only to Ambassadors, Viceroys and Govemors-General. In foreign countries it is extended to Cabinet Ministers and to all those, of a certain age and standing, whom it is desired to please. EXTERRITORIALITY. This word is loosely used to define the diplomatic privileges and immunities referred to above. See also under Capitulations. EXTRADITION. Under the Extradition Treaties in force between almost every country in the world a criminal who escapes to a foreign country is "extradited" to the country in which the crime was committed! Political offences do not come within the scope of extradition treaties and political fugitives, once they make good their escape, are granted 'asylum." EXTRAORDINARY. In the old days there existed a distinction between "ordinary," or resident ambassadors, and 'extraordinary" ambassadors despatched on special missions. This led to invidious distinctions, and all ambassadr ors are n6w "extraordinary." FlN DE NON RECEVOIR. An expression which is used to describe the diplomatic practice of rejecting an official complaint without examining into its merits. When a diplomatist says that his representations were met by a "fin de non recevoir" he is saying much the same as "they absolutely refused to take up the case." FULL POWERS, A negotiator, before he signs an international treaty, is provided with 'full powers" signed and sealed by his sovereign. If he is only signing a convention his "full powers' are signed by the Secretary of State. In Great Britain a royal "full power" assures "all and singular to whom these Presents shall come" that "reposing especial Trust, and Confidence in the Wisdom, Loyalty, Diligence and Circumspection of Our Trusty and well-beloved Sir X. Y... . etc. etc. have named, made, constituted and appointed him Our undoubted Commissioner, Procurator and Plenipotentiary in respect of Great Britain and Northern Ireland." GENERAL ACT. A General Act is either a summary of the conclusions of a conference or detailed regulations deriving from certain principles embodied in a treaty. GOOD OFFICES. In the event of a controversy or war arising between two countries it often happens that a third country uses its 'goocl offices' for the purpose, either of easing the controversy or facilitating peace negotiations. Good offices differ from mediation in degree only. A government which places its-'good offices' at; the disposal of two conflicting parties is doing little more than acting as a channel of communication: mediation is a far more formal method, and implies that the mediator will actually conduct negotiations himself. GUARANTEE, TREATIES OF. Certain treaties contain clauses under which the signatories guarantee their execution and maintenance. Thus under the Treaty of London of 1839 we

pek az grlr) diplomata su iledii lkede hkmet, diplomata geri arlmasn isteyebilir ve hatta, diplomatn resm sfat kalkar kalkmaz onu tutuklayabilir. Bazen (Milletler Cemiyeti Sekreterliinin yeleri gibi) teknik anlamda diplomat olmayan kimselere de diplomatik dokunulmazlk hakk tannr. EN CLAIR. Telgraf, ya ifreli olarak ya da ak dille gnderilir. Ak dille gnderilen telgrafa, 'en clair' denir. Yerel hkmetin gnderilen mesaj fazla zahmete girmeden okuyabilmesi istendii zaman; telgraflar "en clair* gnderilir. ENTENTE (TLAF, ANTANT). Bu deyim; 'entente cordiale" ya da 'iten anlama" sznden gelmektedir. Yeni treyen "mihver" szc gibi bu da, belirli lkeler arasnda gr ve kar birlii ve baz konular zerinde siyaset benzerlii anlamm tar. Bu nedenle "ittifak" ve 'iyi ilikiler" arasnda bir anlam vardr. Sava srasnda ve savatan sonra bu szck, dorudan doruya, bu gibi bir anlamayla bir araya gelen Devletleri tanmlamada kullanlmtr. rnein, 'l tilf", "Balkan Antant' gibi.. EKSELNS. ngiltere'de bu sama san sadece Bykelilere ve Genel Valilere verilir. Yabana lkelerde ise Bakanlara ve honut edilmek istenen yal, sekin kiilere de verilmektedir. EXTERRITORIALITY. Bu szck yukarda diplomatik dokunulmazlk ad altnda toplanan ayrcalklar tanmlamada kullanlmaktadr. Bk. KAPTLASYONLAR. EXTRADTON (SULULARN GER VERLMES). Dnyann hemen hemen btn lkeleri arasnda geerli olan Sulularn Geri Verilmesi Antlamalar altnda, yabana bir lkeye kaan sulular, suu iledikleri lkeye 'geri verilirler." Siyasi sulular bu antlama hkmleri dnda kalr ve siyasi kaaklara 'snma hakk" tannr. EXTRAORDNARY (OLAANST). Eskiden 'alelde' ya da daimi eli ile zel misyonlarla grevlendirilmi 'olaanst" . bykeliler arasnda fark vard. Bu, kskanmalara yol aan bir ayrm yaratt iin bugn btn bykelilere 'olaanst'san verilmektedir. FlN DE NON RECEVOR. Bu dejHne, resm bir ikyetin, hakli olup olmadna baklmakszn geri evrilmesi biimindeki diplomatik uygulama anlatlr. Bur diplomat, klarnn 'fin de non recevoir'la karlandm sylerse, "konuyu ele almay kesinlikle reddettiler' demek istiyordur. FULL POWERS (TAM YETK). Bir temsilciye uluslararas bir antlama imzalamadan nce hkmet bakan tarafndan imzalanp mhrlenen "tam yetki" belgesi verilir. Eer sadece bir anlama imzalyorsa 'tam yetki belgesi Dileri Bakam tarafndan imzalanr. ngiltere'de Kraliyet 'tam yetki belgesi yledir: 'Bu belgenin sunulduu kii ya da kiilere, sevgili ve gvenilir Sir X.Y'nin Bilgeliine, Sadakatine, alkanlna ve htiyatllna....vb. zel gven ve inan duyarak kendisini Byk Britanya ve Kuzey rlanda Komiseri, Vekili ve Tam Yetkili Temsilci atam bulunduumuzu bildiririz." GENERAL ACT (TUTANAK). Bu, ya bir konferansn sonulanun zetidir, ya da bir antlamadaki baz ilkelerden doan ayrntl mevzuattr. GOOD OFFCES (Y NYET). ki lke arasnda bir anlamazlk ya da sava kmas durumunda, ounlukla nc bir lke ya anlamazl gidermek ya da bar grmelerini kolaylatrmak amaayla 'iyi niyetini' kullanr. yi niyet, arabuluculuktan sadece derece bakmndan ayrlr. "yi niyetini" atan iki tarafa sunan bir lkenin yapt ey, bir iletiim kanal olmaktan baka bir ey deildir: Arabuluculuk ok daha biimsel bir yntem olup, arabulucunun grmeleri kendisinin'ynetecei anlamn tar. : GARANT ANTLAMALARI. Baz antlamalara, imza koyan Devletlerin, bu antlamalarn yrtlme ve korunmasn garanti ettiklerini belirten maddeler eklenir. Aym biimde biz de 1839 Londra Antlamas ile Belika'nn btnln

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guaranteed the integrity of Belgium and it was in execution of this pledge that we made war in 1914. A great difference exists between a 'collective guarantee" and a 'joint and several guarantee." In the former case (as in the case of our guarantee under the 1867 Treaty of Luxemburg integrity) a signatory is only obliged to take action if all the other signatories do the same. Conversely, a 'joint and several" guarantee (as, it was contended, had been given to Belgium in 1839) obliges every signatorytotake action even if the^ other signatories evade or violate their obligations. . LAISSER PASSER. Officials when travelling on business are accorded by the embassy of the country which they intend to visit a letter of recommendation to the customs authorities. This ensures that their luggage will not be examined at the frontier. British missions abroad are discouraged from granting laisser passers to any but actual officials when travelling on official business. Other countries are more generous in granting these facilities. MfiMOKE. Apart from the formal Notes (see later) addressed by the head of a mission to a foreign government, there are varying types of memoranda which differ from Notes in that they begin with no formal introduction and need not be signed. Several names are given to such documents "pro- mmoria," "deduction" or 'expose de motifs." Another form is the "aide-memoire," which is a short memorandum handed by an ambassador to a Foreign Secretary at the end of an interview in which a short written summary is given of the oral representations which he has been instructed to m ake . MlSE EN DEMEURE. When government "A" faces government "B" with a curt "take it or leave it" demand, or insists upon a definition of intentions, it is called a m.e.d. MODUS VIVENDI. A name given to a temporary agreement which it is intended to replace later on by a more formal and precise convention. NOTES.. The ordinary diplomatic Note is a formal communication from the head of a mission to a government which may be written either in the first or the third person. Variations of the ordinary Note are: (a) Collective Note. This is a Note addressed to a government by the representatives of several States in regard to a matter on which they have been instructed to make 'joint representations." A "Collective Note is seldom signed by all participating ambassadors on the same sheet, but each ambassador sends in his ownNote the text being identical. On very solemn occassions these Notes are presented simultaneously by the ambassadors concerned; (b) Identic Note. An "Identic Note is similar to a Collective Note but less overwhelmingly impressive. The text, as distinct from the substance, need not be identical and the Identic Note neednot be presented simultaneously, (c) Note Verbale. This is a type of communication which is less formal than a signed Note and more formal than a memorandum. It is unsigned, but it is customary that it should contain at the end some conventional expression of courtesy. It is, in fact, merely the addition of this polite tag which differentiates it from the memoire. PERSONA GRATA When_an_ambassador-or-other-envoybecomes intolerably obnoxious to the government to which he is accredited, it is said that he has ceased to be a 'persona grata." This amounts to a request for his recall. Thus Bul- . wer, who had ventured to give advice to the Spanish Government regarding their internal politics, was asked by So- tomayor "to anticipate as much as possible the leave of absence he was contemplating." Bulwer replied that he had no such 'leave of absence in his mind. He was theriJftarided- his passports and told to go. Palmerston thereupon broke off diplomatic relations with Spain and dismissed the Spanish Minister in London. PLACEMENT. Although the old wrangles about precedence have diminished in intensity, diplomatists are still much exercised by the order in which they sit at a dinner-party.

garanti etmi ve bu szn yerine getirilmesi iin 1914'de savaa girmitik. 'Toplu garanti' ile "ortak ve ok tarafl garanti" arasnda byk bir fark vardr. Toplu garanti" verilmesi halinde (Lksemburg'un btnl ile ilgili 1867 Lk- semburg Antlamas altnda bizim verdiimiz garanti gibi) imza koyan bir Devlet, ancak btn teki imza sahibi Devletler de harekete getii takdirde harekete gemekle ykml olur. Buna karlk "ortak ve ok tarafl garanti": (1839'da Belika'ya byle bir garanti verildii ileri srld gibi) imza sahibi her Devleti, teki imza sahipleri ykmllklerini aksatsalar, ya da yerine getirmekten kansalar bile, kendi bana harekete gemeye zorlar. LASSER PASSER (DPLOMATK BAGAJ MUAFYET). Grevli olarak yolculuk eden memurlara, ziyaret edecekleri lkelerin bykelilikleri tarafndan, gmrk yetkililerine gsterilmek zere bir tavsiye mektubu verilir. Bu tavsiye mektubu, o memurlarn bagajlarnn snrda almamasn salar. Yurtdndaki ngiliz Bykeliliklerinden resm yolculuk yapan resm memurlardan bakasma bu tavsiye mektuplarnn verilmemesi istenmitir. Baka lkeler bu kolaylklar gstermede daha cmerttirler. MMOIRE (MUHTIRA). Bir misyon bakamrun yabana br hkmete verdii resm Notalardan baka, resm bir balanglarnn bulunmay ve imza tamalar zorunluluu olmayyla Notalardan ayrlan eitli muhtralar vardr. Bu gibi belgelere deiik adlar verilir: "pro-mmoria", "deduction", "expose de motifs". Bunun bir baka biimi de, bir bykelinin, ald ynerge gereince bir yabanc Dileri Bakanna verdii szl nergelerin ksa bir yazd zetini ieren ve grme sonunda Bykeli tarafndan Dileri Bakanna sunulan ksa bir memorandumdur ki, buna da "aide- memoire" denir. MlSE EN DEMEURE. "A" Hkmeti, "B" Hkmetini sert bir "kararm ver" istei karsnda brakr y da niye tlerini aklamas konusunda srar ederse, buna "mise en demeure" denir. MODUS VIVENDI (GECI ANLAMA), ileride daharesm ve da- ha kesin bir szlemeyle deitirilecek olan geici anlamalara verilen addr. NOTES (Notalar). Diplomatik Nota, bir misyonun bakam tarafndan bir hkmete, birinci ya da nc kii adlyla yazlan resm bir bildiridir. Notalarn deiik biimleri unlardr: (a) KollektifNota. eitli Devlet temsilcilerinin, zerinde ortak bir kta bulunmalar" iin ynerge aldklar bir sorunla ilgili olarak bir hkmete verdikleri Nota'dr. 'Kol- Iektif,Nota"da b Nota'ya katlan btn bykeliler ayn belgeye imza atmazlar, hepsi ayr ayr kendilerine ait, ama metni ayn olan Nota yollarlar. ok nadir hallerde ilgili bykeliler Notalarm ayn anda verirler, (b) zde Nota. "zde Nota" Kollektif Notaya benzer, ama onun kadar etkileyici deildir. Notalarn z ayndr ama metin ayfu olmayabilir ve bu Notalarn aym anda verilmesi gerekmez. (c) Szl Nota. Bu, imzal Nota'dan daha az ama bir muhtradan daha ok resmiyet tayan bir nergedir. Bu nota imzalanmamakla birlikte, sonunda allagelmi bir nezaket cmlesi tamas gereklidir. Aslnda, onu 'memoiredan ayran da, sonundaki-bu-nazik-ifadedir: PERSONA GRATA (STENEN AHS). Bir bykeli ya da eli ak- redite edildii hkmetin gznde katlamlamaz hale geldii zaman, artk o kii "persona grata' olmaktan km demektir. Bu ise,.sze geen kiinin geri arlmasnn istendii anlamndadr. Bulwer, spanyol Hkmeti'ne onlann iileriyle ilgili konularda nerilerde bulunmaya kalknca, Sotomayor kendisinden, "almay dnd izni bir an ne almasn" istedi. Bulwer, "izin" almay dnmediini syleyince, pasaportu eline verilerek lkeyi terk etmesi istendi. Bunun zerine Palmerston spanya.ile diplomatik ilikileri kesti ve Londra'daki spanyol Elisi'ni ngiltere'den kartt. PLACEMENT. ncelikle ilgili ekimeler her ne kadar bugn eskisi kadar iddetle yer almyorsa da, diplomatlar hl, yemek sofrasna hangi sraya gre oturtulacaklar

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The science of seating diplomatic guests in such a manner as to avoid enraging them is called the science of "placement." PRENDRE ACTE is a diplomatic way of saying "I shall take note of this and bring it up against you in the future." PROCfiS VERBAL.The "minutes" of a conference. If signed by the participants, such minutes acquire binding force. PROTOCOL. Originally a protocol was a mere record of agreement and as such far less formal than a treaty or convention.: Yet many very important international compacts have taken this form, notably the agreement signed in 1920 at Geneva establishing the Permanent Court of International Justice. PROTOCOLE. There is no exact English translation of the word "protocole." It combines our "correct form of procedure" and ^ceremonial." thus the Chef du Protocole abroad corresponds on one side to our Lord Chamberlain and on the other to the head of the Treaty Department of the Foreign Office. The adjective "protocolaire" is used for a stickler for conventional forms. RAISON D'ETAT. The diplomatic and political theory under which the interests of the State take precedence over all private .morality. RAPPORTEUR. When a committee or sub-committee has been appointed by a conference.to consider some specific matter, they choose one of their number to be their spokesman with the main conference and to present their report. He is called a "rapporteur." .RECOGNITION, DE FACTO. When an insurgent is sufficiently successful to establish his administration over an important area of a country he is usually recognized by foreign Powers as the "de facto" or actual, as distinct from the "de jure," or legitimate, ruler of that area. Similarly in war a State occupying and administering large areas of enemy country is regarded as the "de facto" authority in those areas. SAFE-CONDUCT is permission for an individual to pass without let or hindrance through the territory of his country's enemies. Thus Count Bernstorff in 1917 was iven a safecon- duct by the Allies to enable him to return to Germany from the United States. SANCTIONS. Penalties inflicted for a breach of a law or of the . covenant. STATUS QUO.: The expression "status quo" is used to denote the situation as it existed at a particular moment. In former diplomatic language, when referring to territories possessed by a Sovereign at any given date the phrase was uti possidetis." Status quo ante bellum/ oistatus quo ante" merely means the situation as it was before the war. TREATIES.. Treaties are either "bilateral," or concluded between two countries only, or "multilateral," or concluded between several countries. Treaties of "mutual guarantee" are those international compacts which, as the Treaties of Locarno, aim at guaranteeing each signatory against attack from another. ULTIMATUM. The word "ultimatum" is sometimes regarded as meaning "declaration of war." This is incorrect. It is often merely "the last word" before a negotiation is broken off. It generally takes the form of a written intimation that unless a satisfactory reply is received by a certain hour on a certain . date certain consequences will follow. These consequences are not necessarily war. Thus Palmerston, in the unfortunate affair of Don Pacifico, presented an ultimatum to Greece in which he informed them that if they did not accept his terms within, twenty-four hours he would seize Greek ships and blockade the coasts of Greece. UNDER FLYING SEAL. It often happens that an ambassador in sending a report home to his government thinks that it .would be useful if the information therein contained were communicated to a colleague in some other capital. He thus sends the despatch "under flying seal," which only means that the second ambassador reads.it on its way through. Thus a despatch from the British Ambassador in

olduka titizlenirler. Diplomat konuklar sofraya, fkelenmelerine neden olmayacak biimde oturtma bilimine, "Placement" denir.PRENDRE ACTE. BU, "Bunu bir kenara kaydediyorum, ileride sizden bunu hesabm soracam" demenin diplomatasdr. PROCES VERBAL (TUTANAK). Bir konferansn "tutanaklar". Konferansa kalarlar tarafndan imzalanrlarsa bu tutanaklar balayclk kazanr. PROTOKOL. Aslnda protokol, bir antlama ya da konvansiyon dan ok daha az resm nitelik tayan bir anlama tutana idi. Bununla birlikte pek ok nemli uluslararas szleme bu biimi almtr; bunlarn iinde en nemlisi, Uluslararas Adalet Divannn kurulmasnda imzalanan 1920 Cenevre anlamasdr. PROTOCOLE. ngilizcede tam karl bulunmayan bu szck, "usul" ve "erkan" anlamna gelir. Yabana lkelerdeki Protokol efi, bir yandan Ingilizlerin "Lord Chamberlain"ini (Ba Mabeyinci) br yandan da Dileri Bakanlnn Antlamalar Dairesi'ni karlar.'Protocolaire sfat ise usul ve erkana uymada ok titiz davrananlar iin kullanlr. RASON D'ETAT (HKMET MEVCUDYET). Devletin karlarna btn zel manevi deerlerin stnde yer verert siyasal ve diplomatik kuram. RAPPORTEUR (RAPORTR). Bir konferansta zel bir konuyu gzden geirecek bir komite ya da alt-komite atand za- . man, komite yeleri ilerinden birini, esas konferansta kendilerini temsil etmesi ve raporlarn sunmas iin szc seerler. Bu kiiye "raportr" denir. RECOGNITION DE FACTO (DE FACTO TANMA). Bir isyanc, ynetimini lkenin nemli bir blmnde yerletirmeyi baard zaman, yabana Devletler tarafndan "de facto" ya da fiili olarak tannr; bu, o blgenin "de jure" ya da "meru" yneticisi olma kavramndan deiiktir. Ayn biimde, sava srasnda geni dman topraklarn igal eden ve ynetimi altna alan bir Devlet de, o blgede "de facto" yetke saylr. SAFE-CONDUCT (YOL BELGES). Dman topraklarnda durdu- . . rulmadan, engelle karlamadan yolculuk etmesi iin kiiye verilen izin belgesidir. 1917'de Kont Bemstorff'un Amerika'dan Almanya'ya dnebilmesi iin Mttefikler kendisine bir "Yol Belgesi"-vermilerdir. SANCTIONS (YAPTIRIMLAR). Bir yasann ya da andn bozulmas zerine verilen cezalar. STATUS Quo (STATKO). Statko deyimi belirli bir anda varolan durumu anlatmak iin kullanlr. Eski diplomasi dilinde bir hkmdarn herhangi belli bir tarihte sahip olduu topraklardan sz edilirken, uti possidetis sz kullanlrd. Status quo ante bellunf ya da status quo ante" sadece savatan nceki durumu anlatr. TREATIES (ANTLAMALAR). Antlamalar ya "bilateral" yani "ikili" olur ve iki lke arasnda imzalanr, ya da "multilateral" yani "ok tarafl" olur ve birok lke arasnda imzalanr. "Karlkl garanti" antlamalar imza koyan taraflarn birbirlerine saldrmamalarn garantiye almak amacn tayan antlamalardr. ULTIMATUM (LTMATOM). ltimatom szcnn bazen "sava iln" anlamna geldii sanlr. Bu yanltr. Bu, ounlukla, grmeler kesilmeden nce sylenen "son szdr." Genellikle, belirli bir tarihte ve belirli bir saatte doyurucu bir yant alnmamas durumunda belirli sonularn doaca yolunda, yazh bir k biimindedir. Doacak sonular mutlaka sava olmayabilir. Palmerston, Don Pasifico olaynda, Yunanistana koullarm yirmi drt saat iinde kabul etmezlerse Yunan gemilerine el koyup, Yunanistan kylarn ablukaya alacaklar ltimatomunu verdi. UNDER FLYING SEAL. Kendi lkesine rapor gnderen bir bykelinin, raporunda yer alan bilgilerin bir baka lkedeki meslekta tarafndan okunmasnda yarar grd zaman bavurduu yola verilen addr. O zaman Bykeli raporunu "flying seal" ile yollar ki, bu, raporun yolda, ikinci bykeli tarafndan da okunaca anlamm tar. Bylece, St.

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burg would, if marked "under flying seal to Berlin,"'be opened and read on its way through to the Foreign Office by the British Ambassador in the latter capital. UNFRIENDLY ACT. When a State wishes to warn other States . that certain actions on their part might lead to war, it is usual to state that such action would "be regarded as an unfriendly act." UNILATERAL DECLARATION. Occasionally Powers seek to establish their rights or policy by a declaration of principle which is communicated to other Powers for their information and guidance. The Monroe Doctrine was in effect such a declaration. A more recent example was Lord Curzon's circular Note to the Powers, of March 15, 1922, in which he warned them that Great Britain "would not admit" the special relations existing between herself and Egypt to be questioned or discussed by any other Power and would regard any attempt at intervention in Egypt as "an unfriendly act." VENUE. This expression is not employed by experienced diplomatists, but is much used by journalists. It signifies the place where a conference or meeting is held. It is considered by professional diplomatists rather vulgar to use this debased word. VOEUX. It sometimes happens that conference wishes to add to its treaty certain "recommendations" for future good conduct. These are called "wishes" or "voeux." Thus the Hague, Peace Conference of 1899 emitted six "voeux." These have no binding force upon the signatories.

Petersburg'daki ngiliz Bykelisinin "flaying seal ile Berlin'e" notuyla yollad rapor, ngiliz Dileri Bakanlna ulamadan nce, Berlin'e urar ve o bakentteki ngiliz Bykelisi tarafndan okunur. UNFRIENDLY ACT (DOSTA OLMAYAN DAVRAN). Bir Devlet baka bir Devleti, baz davranlarnn savaa yol aabilecei konusunda uyarmak istedii zaman, o davranlarn "dosta olmayan bir davran" saylaca biiminde bir ifadeyle anlatr bunu. UNLATERAL DECLARATON (TEK YANL BLDR): Zaman zaman Byk Devletler haklarn veya siyasetlerini; bir ilke bildirgesiyle ; baka Devletlere kabul ettirmek isterler ve bu bildirgeyi bilgi edinip izleyecekleri yolu saptamalar iin br devletlere iletirler. Monroe Doktrini de aslnda byle bir bildirgedir. Bunun daha yakn zamanlara ait bir rnei de Lord Curzon'un 1922 yl 15 Mart'nda Byk Devletlere yollad Notadr. Bu Notada Lord Curzon, br Devletleri, ngiltere ile Msr arasndaki zel ilikilerin herhangi bir Devlet tarafndan tartlmasn ngiltere'nin kabul etmeyecei" ve byle bir davrann ngiltere tarafndan "dosta olmayan davran" olarak karlanaca konusunda uyarmt. VENUE (OLAY YER). Bu szc deneyimli diplomatlar kullanmazlarsa da, gazeteciler ok kullanrlar. Deyim, bir konferans ya da toplantnn yaplaca yer anlamna gelir. Bu anlam kaymasna uram olan szc kullanmak profesyonel diplomatlarca kabalk sayl:. VOEUX (DLEKLER). Bazen bir konferans, antlamasna gelecekte olumlu tutumda bulunulmas iin baz neriler eklemek ister. Bunlara "voeux" ya da "dilekler" denir. 1899 Lahey Bar Konferas'na alt "dilek" eklenmiti. Bunlarn, imza koyan Devletler zerinde balayc hkm yoktur.

THE OTTOMAN SYSTEM*


The Ottoman Government
ALLTHOUGH many changes had taken place by the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman state as a whole retained much of the structure that it : had attained at its height in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. At this time the empire was governed by a system that contrasted strongly with contemporary European regimes. The Ottoman state had been built up on the concept of Holy War; the aim was the extension and defense of Islam. The world was regarded as divided into two spheres, the domain of the faithful, the darlislm, and the domain of war, the darlMfb. The duty of the ruler was to extend the rule of slam over as wide a territory as possible. Despite the emphasis on religious war the object was not the destruction of the darlharb or its peoples, but their conquest and domination in a manner of advantage to Islam. If a city or a region submitted without resistance, the population could, if it wished, retain its religion and a large measure of local autonomy; if it resisted, it could be enslaved or massacred, and its property was taken as booty. Conversions to Islam were welcomed, but they were seldom forced. Conquered people of another religion were allowed a definite place under the direction of their own ecclesiastical authorities. There was, however, no question of equality. Non-Muslims paid extra taxes, they were subject to a large number of special restrictions, and they were treated as definitely inferior in status; The fiist great division in the state was thus along religious Enes. A second separated the people by their social position and function within the community. Here in first place stood the members of the governing class, the askeri, the "military/ which included those who held high administrative positions, were in the armed forces, or were members of the ulema, the religious, educational, and legal authority of the empire. High officials in the Christian society, like the patriarchs of the Orthodox church, also belonged here. Below them were the reaya, the subject or "protected flock," the great majority of the population. People in this group, which was both Muslim and non-Muslim, paid the taxes and were subject to restrictions on their mode of life and dress. Ottoman society was organized into a tight pattern of estates. Movement between the levels was difficult. At the top of the pyramid of state power stood the sultan, an absolute divine-right ruler. Since in theory God gave authority only to him, he was considered

OSMANLI SSTEM1
Osmanl Ynetimi

18. yzyln balarna gelinceye dein pek ok deiiklik olrkusa da, genelde, Osmanl devleti Muhteem Sleyman'ntahtta olduu en parlak dneminde kavutuu yapm Byk oliide kofftutu. Bu dnemde imparatorluk Avrupa'daki da rneklerle byk kartlk gsteren bir rejimle ynetiliyordu. Osmanl Devleti Kutsal Sava kavram zerine kurulmutu; amac, slamiyeti yaymak ve savunmakt. Dnya iki blgeye ayrlm gibi dnlyordu, inananlarn blgesi olan darlislam ve savalacak blge, darlharb. Hkmdarn grevi slam egemenliini mmkn olduunca geni bir alana yaymakt. Dinsel savalara byk nem verilmesine karn, ama, darlharbin ya da bu blge halklarnn ortadan kaldrlmalar deil, buralarn slamiyete yarar salayacak bir biimde fethedilmesi ve egemenlik altna alnmas idi. Bir kent ya da blge, kar koymadan kendiliinden teslim olduunda, halk isterse asl dinine bal kalabiliyor ve yerel zerkliini byk lde srdre- biliyordu; kar koyduunda ise tutsak edilebilir ya da topluca ldrlebiiirdi; halkm mlk ise ganimet diye almyordu. slamiyete geiler sevinle karlanyordu atfa bu konuda zorlama yapld enderdi. Yenilgiye uratlm bir baka dinden halklarn kendi kilise yetkililerinin ynetiminde belirli bir yere sahip olmalarna izin veriliyordu. Ancak eitlik sz konusu deildi. Gayri Mslimler fazladan vergidyorlar, ok sayda kstlamalara band tutuluyorlar ve kesinlikle daha aa bir stat iinde ele alnyorlard. Bylece devlet iindeki ilk byk ayrm, dinsel bir izgi tamaktayd. Bir kincisi ise, insanlar, toplumsal konumlan ve toplum iindeki ilevlerine gre birbirinden ayryordu. Bu ayrmda, ba, ynetici snf iindeki kiiler, yani askeriye ekiyor ve bunlarn arama, st dzeyde ynetici konumunda bulunanlar, silahl kuvvetler iinde yer alanlar ya da imparatorluk iinde din, eitim ve hukuk konularnda yetki sahibi ulemadan kimseler giriyordu. Hristiyan topluluun Ortodoks Kilisesinin patrikleri gibi st dzey grevlileri de bu snfa girmekteydi. Bunlarn altnda ise, reaya, yani uyruklar ya da "koruma altndaki sr" denilen byk halk ounluu yer alyordu. Hem Mslmanlar, hem gayri Mslimleri ieren bu gruptaki kimseler, vergi dyorlar, yaama biimlerinde ve giyim kuamlarnda snrlamalara baml tutuluyorlard. Osmanl top- lumunda sk rlm bir katmanlar dzeni vard; katmanlar arasnda yer deitirmek de zordu. Devlet gcn oluturan piramitin tepesinde

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sole source of power and could demand absolute obedience from hi subjects; he held complete control over their lives and possessions. He was the owner of the state lands, and he could dispose of them as he chose. Of course, in practice his power had real limitations. Obviously, he had to rule through subordinates, who could control his access to information and his relations with the inass of the people Moreover, he could not violate religious law r custom;Muslim public opinion, expressed through the ulema, could strongly influence the actions of the sultan. The faith also dictated the duties of a ruler; he had been given his people by. God in trust. He was responsible for their care and protection; he was to lead them in the proper direction and to realize the great objectives of Islam. One of the principal duties of the sultan was the maintenance of religious and civil law. Since social justice and balance were theoretical foundations of the Ottoman system, laws and their enforcement were' of prime importance. Two principal bodies of law were in effect. First in importance was the sheriat, the religious law of Islam, based on ecclesiastical texts. The Koran, the basic source, was believed to record the word of God. The faithful were convinced that it contained all that an individual needed to know for his own life and his government. The. sheriat could apply only to Muslims. To supplement this religious law, which could not cover all of the details of the evolving political life of the state, the sultan could formulate laws, kanuns, on his own authority. In practice, these were drawn up by his assistants and then approved by him. They were then issued to the form of an imperial decree, a firman. Each . sultan upon his accession had to reconfirm the actions of his predecessor. Holding absolute power from God, the sultan ruled through a governing class, to whom he delegated authority. At the height of Ottoman strength the administration of the country and the principal sections of the army were staffed by members recruited through the kul, or slave system. Obviously an absolute ruler had to surround himself with men on whom he could rely with absolute assurance. The allegiance of the soldiers was of particular importance. Previously, Islamic rulers had regularly used slaves foradministrative positions, and this system was adopted and extended by the Ottoman sultans. Slaves could be obtained by many means. The ruler was entitled to a fifth of the prisoners of war, who were enslaved. Slaves could also be purchased. The most notable means used, however, was the devshirme meaning"to r collect;" which-was inaugurated sometime around the end of the fourteenth century. It remained in effect until the end of the seventeenth century, but some recruitments were apparently made as late as the eighteenth century. Although

tek g kayna saylyor ve uyruklarndan mutlak bir boyun eme isteminde bulunabiliyordu; onlarn yaamlar ve mallar zerindeki denetimi tamd. Padiah devletin topraklarnn sahibiydi ve onlar diledii gibi elden karabilirdi. Tabi uygulamada padiahn gc gerekten kstlanyordu. Belli ki padiah, ikeyi, buyruu altnda alan ve bilgi kaynaklarn ve halk ynlaryla olan ilikisini denetleyebilecek kiiler aracily- ' la ynetmek zorundayd. Ayrca dinsel yasalar ya da adetleri ineyemezdi; ulema yoluyla sesini duyuran Mslman kamuoyu padiahn eylemleri zerinde gl bir etkiye sahipti. Dinsel inanlarn da hkmdarn grevleri zerinde zorlayc etkileri vard; halk ona Tanrnn emanetiydi. Hkmdar halknn bakmn salamak ve onlar korumakla ykmlyd: Halk, doru yola ynlendirip slamn yce amalarm gerekletirecekti. Padiahn balca grevlerinden biri, din ve yurttalk yasalarnn korinmasyd. Toplumsal adalet ve denge Osmanl sisteminin kuramsal temellerini oluturduundan, yasalar ve bunlarn uygulanmas eni nemli konuydu. Geerli olan balca iki grup yasa vard. . nem asndan nde gelen, temeli dinsel metinlere dayal eriat yani slamm dinsel yasalar idi. Ana kaynak olan Kuran'da Tanrnn szlerinin yazl olduuna inanlyordu. nananlar, Kuran'm bir bireyin kendi yaam ve ynetimi iin gerekli olan her trl bilgiyi ierdiinden emindiler. eriat yalnzca Mslmanlr iin geerliydi. Devletin gelien siyasal yaamnn tm ayrntlarn kapsamas mmkn olmayan bu dinsel yasay tamamlamak zere, padiah kendi yetkisine daya-narak yasalar oluturabilirdi. Uygulamada bu tr yasalar yardmclar kaleme alyor, padiah da onaylyordu. Sonra da bunlar birer hkmdar buyruu, yani fer- mar biiminde duyuruluyordu. Her padiah tahta knda kendinden nceki hkmdarn eylemlerini onaylamak durumundayd. Tanrdan mutlak g alan padiah, lkeye, yetki verdii yneticiler snf araclyla hkmediyordu: Osmanhlarn glerinin dorukta olduu dnemlerde lke ynetiminde ve ordunun ana blmlerinde altrlacak kiiler kul ya da kle sistemi yoluyla toplanmt. Mutlak gce sahip bir hkmdarn evresini eksiksiz bir gvenle yaslanabilecei kimselerle doldurmak zorunda olduu aktr. Askerlerin padiaha Olan ballklar zel bir nem tayordu. Eskiden Mslman ft-. kmdarlar yneticilik konumlarm doldurmak iin hep klelerden yararlanmlard. Bu sistem Osmanl padiahlarnca benimsendi ve yaygnlatrld. Kleler eitli yollardan salaniyordu. FIEmdar kle yaplan sava tutsaklarnn bete birini alma hakkna sahipti. Kleleri satn almak da olasyd. Ama en dikkate deer yntem, "toplamak" anlamna gelen ve 14. yzyln sonlarnda balatlan devirme yntemiydi. Bu yntem 17. yzyln sonuna dein yrrlkte kald. Ancak 18. yzylda bile kimi kiilerin bu yolla saland anlalyor. Bu sre iinde koullar farkllk gstermitir ama, Osmanl yetkililer, genellikle, 3-7 yl aralarla seim yapmak zere

and appearance were taken and then sent in groups to Constantinople. There they were examined and separated. The most promising were kept in the capital, where they were given an extensive education that was designed to train them to be the future administrators of the state and the trusted members of the sultan's household. The others were sent to live with Turkish farmers in Anatolia, where they learned the language and receied religious instruction. Both groups, of course, were converted to Islam. Most of the second section became members of the janissary corps, the most effective fighting force anywhere in this period. This body of dedicated converts was responsible for the great victories of the Ottoman armies up to the seventeenth century. The figures given concerning the number of boys recruited through the devshirme system vary sharply. The number runs from 200,000 to many times that number for the entire period when the practice was in force. Judgments differ widely about the justice of the system. Reports, exist of attempts of families to buy their children both out of the collections and into them. The Muslims of Bosnia in particular requested that they be included in the devshirme. In contrast, nationalist Balkan writers often stress the cruelty of taking children by force from their families and converting them to a religion that, by Christian judgment, would lead only to eternal damnation. It must be remembered that the religious issue was of central importance in this time. Nevertheless, although the separation was undoubtedly painful for families, and did perhaps deprive the Balkan communities of their best talent, the children gained the possibility of acquiring the most advanced education available and the opportunity to rise to the top of the Ottoman state system. It should also be emphasized that the status of slave was not necessarily demeaning. To be a slave of the sultan was an honor that conferred high social position and material benefit. The Ottoman system of government was thus headed by an absolute monarch. His first deputy was the grand vezir, and he was also assisted by an Imperial Council, or Divan. This body dealt with all questions of state, but its legal functions were probably the most important. Its members included the grand vezir and the highest officials of the state and of the ulema. Below this body a vast bureaucracy, centralized in Constantinople, ran the empire and collected the taxes that were the source of so much resentment. Since Holy War was considered a main function of the empire, the military forces were of major importance. The two most effective units were the janissaries, the infantry recruited through the devshirme, and the s if ah is, the cavalry based on the countryside. The janissaries, as we have seen, were part of the slave system and were directly under the sultan. Forbidden to marry, they were supposed to be ready to go to war at any time. When the country was at peace, they had police

saylan ocuklar alnp, gruplar halinde stanbul'a gnderilirlerdi. Burada snanr, birbirlerinden ayrlrlard. En ok umut verenler bakentte tutularak devletin ilerideki yneticileri ve padiahn yakn evresinin gvenilir yeleri olarak hazrlanmak zere kapsand bir biimde eitilirlerdi. brleri ise Anadolu'daki Trk iftilerinin yanma gnderilir ve burada dili renip dinsel eitim grrlerdi. Tabii ki, her iki grup da Mslman yapdrdi: ikinci gruptakilerin ou, nereye bakarsak' bakalm, dnemin en etkili sava gcn oluturan yenieri birliklerine katlyorlard. Kendilerini padiaha adam bu dnmeler topluluu, Osmanl ordularnn 17. yzyla dein kazandklar byk zaferlerin yaratclarydlar. Devirme sistemi yoluyla toplanan erkek ocuklarnn saysyla ilgili kaytlar arpc farkllklar gstermektedir. Uygulamann yapdd srenin tm iin verilen sap, 200.000'den bu rakamn kat kat stndeki toplamlara ulamaktadr. Bu sistemin adaletine ilikin yarglar da ok deiiktir. ocuklarn devirmeler arama sokmak ya da onlar bu sistemden kurtarmak iin ailelerin yaptklar giriimleri aktaran kaytlar vardr. zellikle Bosnal Mslmanlar devirmeler arama girmeyi istemilerdi. Bunun aksine, milliyeti Balkanl yazarlar sk sk ocuklar ailelerinden zorla almann ve Hristiyanln gznde onlar ancak sonsuz bir lanet- fcmeye sriMeyecek bir dine dndrmenin acmaszlndan sz etmilerdir. Bu dnemde din konusunun ok nemli olduu unutulmamaldr. ocuklardan ayrlmak ailelere kukusuz a a veriyor, bu ayrlk Balkan tplumlarn belki de en byk yeteneklerinden yoksun brakyordu ama, gene de ocuklar koullarn elverdii en ileri dzeyde bir renim grme olanan ve Osmard devlet sisteminin st basamaklarna kabilme frsatn elde ediyorlard. uras da vurgulanmaldr ki, kle stats ille de kltc bir ey deildi. Padiahn klesi olmak, kiiye yksek bir toplumsal konum ve maddi yarar salayan bir onurdu. Bylece Osmard ynetim sisteminin bamda mutlak gce sahip bir hkmdar bulunuyordu. Hkmdarn ba yardmcs sadrazamd; ayrca Divan denilen bir mparatorluk Konseyi de kendisine yardma oluyordu. Bu kurul tm devlet sorunlaryla ilgileniyordu ama yasal konulardaki ilevi, herhalde, en nemlisiydi. yeleri arasnda sadrazam ve en st dzeydeki devlet yetkilileri ile ulemadan kiiler vard. Bu kurulun emrinde olan ve merkezleri stanbul'da bulunan ok geni bir brokrat kesimi mparatorluun ilerini gryor ve lkede pek ok kiinin fkesini eken vergileri topluyordu. Kutsal Sava yrtmek imparatorluun balca ilevlerinden saydd iin, askeri glere ok byk nem veriliyordu. En etkili iki birlik, yenieriler, yani devirme yoluyla toplanan piyadeler ve krsal kesimde slenmi olan svari birlikleri, yani sipahilerdi. Daha nce grdmz gibi, yenieriler kle sisteminin bir paras olup dorudan sultana balydlar. Evlenmeleri yasaklanm olan yenierilerin her an savaa gitmeye hazr olduklar var saylrd. lke bar halindeyken polis grevi yapyorlard. Ayrca bir topu ve svari birlii de

The original great Ottoman victories, however, were largely the accomplishment of the sipahis, who also provided important services in local government. The early Ottoman rulers were faced with the problem of paying their forces. Since the sultan was considered the holder of all of the land, this question was solved by assigning to the members of the cavalry troops the usufruct of a grant of land, called a ziamet for a large estate, or a tifnarioi the more normal size, from which they could collect certain definite payments. These funds were designed to support the holder, his family, and his retainers, and also to equip him for battle. The sipahi had to belong to the military class. Although son could not inherit land directly from his father, as a member of the governing class he could apply for and be granted a timar if he qualified. Slaves of the sultan were ajso eligible to apply. Similar grants of land were sometimes given to pay wages and provide pensions for officials, or awarded to favorites of the sultan or influential men. A timar was usually held by a Muslim, but sometimes in the early period also by a Christian. When the Ottoman army first occupied a territory, a careful register was made of the population and the resources of the area so that taxes could be properly assessed. At the height of the timar system, the sipahi was entitled only to collect certain specified taxes, usually in kind, and some labor dues. Because these payments were regulated, the peasant was usually better off than he had been under the lords of the previous feudal regimes. Under the policy known as istimalet, meaning "to make use of," the Ottoman conquerors attempted to win the peasants' support against their for- mer masters. Most Balkan peasants cultivated the land of a timar, where they held hereditary rights. Their sons could continue to work the land, but this right could not be sold or transferred without permission. The sipahi usually lived in the village where his lands were located or in a nearby provincial town. He thus was tied to his area, where he had important official duties. He was responsible for the maintenance of order in his district and for the protection of his tenants. He was also the tax collector. Since his support came from his landholding, he was himself principally dependent on the production of his fields, a fact that limited his effectiveness as a fighter. He naturally wished to be home by fall when the crops were . gathered in. The normal campaigning season was thus from March to September or October. The sipahi Was also entitled to a proportion of the booty obtained by victorious warfare. However, in the period covered by this~narrative7~theOttomantroops7Teprived~f~

bir nem kazand. Bununla birlikte, OsmanlIlarn ilk byk zaferleri, ounlukla, yerel ynetimlerde de nemli hizmetler veren sipahilerin baarsyd. lk Osmanl hkmdarlar iin askerlere para demek sorun oluyordu. Padiah tni lke topraklarnn sahibi sayldndan, bu sorunun zm iin, svari blklerinden olanlara yararlanma hakkn kullanmak zere toprak veriliyor, bu ki- . iler de, geni alanlar'sz konus- olduunda zeamet, dh laain by^ktekilere ise tmar denilen bu topraklardan nceden belirlenmi miktarlarda birtakm kazanlar salayabiliyorlard. Bu paralarn verilme amac, hak sahibi kiiyi, ailesini ve buyruundakileri geindirmek ve onu sava iin donanml klmakt. Sipahiler asker snfndan olmak zorundaydlar. Geri bir oula miras yoluyla babasndan dorudan toprak kalmyordu ama ynetici snfn bir yesi olarak eer hak kazanmsa, bavurmas halinde, kendisine de tmar ihsan edilebilirdi. Padiahn kleleri de bavurma hakkna sahiptiler. Benzer toprak balar kiini zaman cret yerine ve memurlara emekli maa olarak veriliyor veya padiahn gzdesi olan kimselere ya da etkili kiilere ihsan ediliyordu. Tmar genellikle Mslmanlara zgyd ama balangta Hristiyahlara da verildii olmutu. Osmanl ordusunun bir lkeye ilk giriinde, vergilerin doru hesaplanabilmesi iin blgenin nfusu ve kaynaklar dikkatli bir biimde kayda geiriliyordu. Tmar sisteminin eri iyi iledii dnemde sipahiler yalnzca/genelde eit olarak belirlenmi vergileri ve birtakm emek alacaklarn toplama hkkina sahiptiler. Bu demeler bir dzene sokulmu olduundan, kylnn durumudaha ncekiderebeylikdzenisrrasmdalord-. lann buyruunda srdrdkleri yaamdan daha iyiydi. "Yararlanmak" anlamna gelen istimalt politikasyla Osmanl fatihler nceki efendilerine kar kyllerin desteini salamak istediler. ou Balkan kylleri tmar arazisinde iftilik yapabiliyor ve bu topraklar zerinde miras hakkna sahip olabiliyorlard. Oullan topra ilemeyi srdrebilirdi ama bu hak izinsiz olarak satlamaz ya da devredilemezdi. Sipahiler genellikle topraklarnn bulunduu kyde ya da yakndaki bir ilde yaarlard. Bylece resm grevlerinin bulunduu blgeye balydlar. Kendi alanlar iinde dirlik dzenliin srdrlmesi ve buralarda yaayanlarn korunmas onlarn sorumluluundayd. Sipahi ayn zamanda vergi tahsildar idi. Geimlerini sahibi olduklar topraklardan saladklarmdan sipahiler, temelde, tarlalarndan alacaklar rne bamlydlar; bu da onlarn sava olarak etkilerini snrlyordu. Sipahi~doal tlaralc rnn toplandrrgznevinde - olmay istiyordu. Bylece olaan sefer dnemi Mart ayndan Eyll ya da Ekime kadard. Sipahiler zaferle sonulanan savalarda elde edilen ganimetlerin bir blm zerinde de hak sahibiydiler. Ancak bu yknn kapsad dnemde, Osmanl askerleri karln grecekleri ya da gz kamatrc baarlardan yoksun kaldklarndan, ganimetyuylpefcbir ey kazanamyor- lard. Yeni ya da zengin blgelerde

In addition to the officials and the military, the ruling class included the members of the ulema. Law, ed