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_:

Caau uujo


au+a










umo+ nu. aauaoc+a




ii




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iii
_:

ujgu ujgu ujgu ujgu

oao uo aad C+m_dom. o_gd ao Coauoa,
__+uq+uauoa _+a+a a+ucuoad. uo
_uaaad. uo, Coauo ua+ua+a q_a+ao jj au
C+_goo+auca uCaauo ua+uao+a a+ucuo.
uo +ua aad. _uaaaoga ucauoa oa+u+
oa uaauauoa ua+ua+a a+uc aad uoa,
uoa, oac+guoa Cu+m_ aad. goa, _a,
q++a _uoauo oo_ogcm Ca++__ u+aauoa
_oam_m. o_gda _ uao +a+_+o ua+g_
a+uoj oac+guoa _+ a Cuam_ noCo+a
uau+uja a Ca++uu ugo__ oa+cqa+a dog.
_j ao _aj ++auCm a+j goa. oum uco__
ua, au+aa u+aad. o_gd _aoao u
Ca+au quu__ Couqa a a+_a _ouo. u
Ca+aa+og ucm _ucoc+ao _aj ++auum auca +
ou a+ma uuo. _g noCo+_a u+aa+a+g. nmCo
uua qa aaoo+o+ad au+aua qg
Ca++u u_o+amg uca, u+a+ _aaaa
+gam_m. o_u_ auuqg _ouau +a+_+ uCa++.
_o oa _aauo Cu+_o_a+aa au+aam aad,
a _uoauo ua+macm oo_o_a+aa
Coacuca+m Co+j Caam+a o+m nm_+o _g
auaa+a+g.

Co+j Caam o aa noo+ jaoga _j
oau +a a+uo+a. aa+a uC+ jaoga
Caauuja nmg oauua. a uujaoga Caa+a
au+aua u__Ca o+ uj C+_cm oaau +a
a+uo+a. a+uaa nma_ uujo o+ oaa

jujaouoao m_ umgo_a
+joCo+a gcaammma+a
ojucaoua ojaCojoja, a
jao+ua mu_j_omC.
iv

nma_ u++o ouca uj dou _ao+a. ug_aa
a+mc_mauu u__o+ _mu u_jg oj+ao _uu_oaCoCa
au+aua cqg o u_Coua nmuC _o++aucaa,
_+o _a+a+aucaa uu+aa. u uo+co_a+aCo
Caauca o+a.

CaCo +_a Ca+cu+auo _+aa aag o__
ouu__ _a nu.aauao+a o+ad uaa+m "Caa
uujo au+a" nma_ _aCo mu_ a++ aag _a+a
umo+u uccua u_g j _aCo guo u+a aao__
mojgdog aaa Cu+____ag. _jguo aucaou uqCm.
noCo+ua uqa guaC_m. agdo Caa uujaoo
_jg +_auucc _aCo _g.

_aCocqm uauq. _aCocqm uauq. _aCocqm uauq. _aCocqm uauq.

_ Caamm au+a _auo uaau u+o+a a+u
uaa _j _a, mu qu ao+a umoa _jg
_aoauo ucag.

1.) uouo _ao au+a
2.) _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a
3.) _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad
4.) au+aao _u_om
5.) gou qouu+c _ad

Caauujad _+uoa m_+a a_g m_ qjg
a+u _a__uucc _jgo _+ad o a++u aaa qjg
a+u uamuca ouua uajgdog aaa Cu+__a+_a.
_ao+o+ CamCao _aa+a+m a_j _a goauo _a__
uaqacm ooa CouaC_m. _u_oa Caaa oo+C_
d qo+ nmuo _aaouo.

nm.nu. +a+_++a+a++ nm.nu. +a+_++a+a++ nm.nu. +a+_++a+a++ nm.nu. +a+_++a+a++
ua+. ua+. ua+. ua+.
5.04.2006

v

Foreword
I deem it a proud privilege the writing of a foreword on the
thesis captioned as Saranagathi in Sri Desika Prabhandas written by
Dr. Srimathi Champakalakshmi for acquiring doctorate degree in
Tamil.(Ph.D) I am glad she chose the topic Saranagathi because there
is lot of resource material in Saranagathi in Sri Desika Prabhandhas.
Shri Vedanta Desika is the greatest philosopher, poet and logician in the
world and has authored more than 120 works in Sanakrit, Tamil and
prakrith languages and each work has a connection with Saranagathi in
one form or other. Saranagathi is a means for attaining moksha which is
also called salvation and this means liberation from the bondage of
samasara. Samsara is nothing but imprisonment in the world in which
every jiva (soul) is subject to enjoyment on account of his doing virtuous
deeds during his previous births and he (jiva) is subject to suffering on
account of his committing sins during the previous births. This samsara
is right from satyaloka (abode of the four headed Bramha) upto
patalaloka.
If Saranagathi is done at the lotus feet of the Lord Sriman
Narayana after doing purushakara prapatti at the feet of the Goddess
Mahalakshmi, Lord Sriman Narayana will certainly grant moksha to the
individual. The individual who does Saranagathi crosses this universe
which is called prakrithi mandala and then comes to viraja river. This
river demarcates Sri Vaikunta divyaloka from the universe. The person
who reaches the viraja river sheds his miniature body (sookshma sarira)
which he assumed after leaving the mortal body. Then he crosses the
viraja river out of his own will and then reaches Sri Vaikunta Divyaloka.
There he is received by 500 celestial damsels who garland him, give
him garments to wear, who give him ornaments to decorate his body,
who apply powder on his body and who also apply anjana (blakish
paste) on his eyes. This is called Brahmalankara. From there he is
vi
conducted to Adisesha paryanka (serpent throne) in which the divine
couple are seated. He introduces himself as one who is having Bramha
(Lord Sriman Narayana) as his atma (soul). Then the divine couple
(Goddess Mahalakshmi and Lord Sriman Narayana is also called as
Paravasudeva) greet him and take him to do eternal service to them. So
without doing Saranagathi also called prapatti at the feet of Lord Sriman
Narayana nobody will attain moksha as explained above.
Dr. Srimathi Champakalaksmi has explained this point
remarkably well in her thesis. Sri Desika Prabandam, the beautiful tamil
hymns composed by Sri Vedanta Desika is only an exhaustive
elaboration of Saranagathi which is the topic of the thesis as mentioned
above. For example there is one verse in Amrithasvadhini (31
st
verse)
which gives a gist of Saranagathi. This verse is also in the
Sarasangraha Rahasya written by Sri Vedanta Desika. This verse
commences with the words ninnarulAl gathi yindRi mattRonRillEn. The
author has extensively quorted certain passages from Sri
Rahasyatrayasara one of the masterpieces of Sri Vedanta Desika to
explain her points in Saranagathi as contained in Sri Desika Prabandas.
Adaikalapatthu is one of the very important desika prabandas
exclusively dealing with Saranagathi.
Dr. Srimathi Champakalakshmi quotes a pasuram from
Adaikalapatthu to explain the fact that in Saranagathi there are four
nishtas (nishta means remaining steadfast or having deep deep faith in
a particular procedure of doing Saranagathi ) Acharyanishta, Uktinishta,
Svanishta and Bhagavathanishta. Among the four Acharyanishta
apperars to be the best form of doing Saranagathi as the Acharya
himself does the Saranagathi at the feet of Lord Sriman Narayana on
behalf of the disciple and Sriman Narayana is bound to accept the same
and commit himself to grant moksha to the disciple.
vii
I am happy this thesis is getting printed in the form of a book
and this book will certainly be useful for the lay people to know the
significance of Saranagathi and resort to the same for getting once for
all libearated from the bondage of Samsara.
I have immense pleasure in congratulating Dr. Srimathi
Champakalakshmi for having made such a simple, beautiful and thought
provoking thesis which contains the gist of Desika Prabandam and other
works of Sri Vedanta Desika explaining the doctrine of Saranagathi.
This book incidentally becomes an effective medium to proclaim to the
people the super greatness of Sri Vedanta Desika and the most
effective means of Saranagathi he has postulated to the people for their
permanent emancipation.
I pray to the divine couple of Srirangam and to Sri Vedanta
Desika to shower their choicest blessings on Dr. Srimathi
Champakalakshmi, her beloved life partner Dr.Sri T.N.Aravamudhan
and their children for their all round welfare and prosperity.
I wish the book is purchased by everyone, gone through and
resort to Saranagathi through an Acharya and get permanently
liberated. May everybody in this world live in peace and prosperity.
Ananthanarasimhachar
Srirangam
24.04.2006
Retired Principal and now joint editor
of Sri Kanchi Perarulalan and also
President of Sri Hayagriva Vidhya
Peetam Trust.

.
viii
uuqu uuqu uuqu uuqu
ua _o a+uaa, Cuo+om d +a +mo+
uqc_ _ au +++a a_+Caam uo+a a_ga _ aaa
+++a a_+Caam _aCa++a _aa+ga _a+ucom
u_o+Ca+cuc _Ca+u+o Caa a_+Caam o+uuam+ga
auu o+aa aad a++um+aa _ a+au Cuo+om
C+a+ga a u+uma uoCog aau+a +uc+__
oa_g.

+oc Coa+a oauuj Camua, _u+aa o+m
a+u ajaom gcua nmu uo a u+aauo
noCo++_a a+u Ca+uum oa a _ao oa+uca
_uouo +uc+__ oa_g. _m u_a+aCo 'Caau
uujo au+a' nm_ go oooa_g.

_ Co+j Caam _uouom aoau ooaa.
auo naua+om auc+o+a+a C+m_ao+. _o+ oa
uoCog ajaoo ao uajo__m +_uq, Caau uuja
nmuua_g. _+_uuo _uouom a++qa+m au+a
noo+g uau Cuauua_g nmug u__Ca _jgo njgdog.

_g, _jgom _aa+ _a ao. aauao+a, a umo+
ucc__ o _aCocqm gooqoa. au+a Camua,
_ Caam aa +uad, au+a u__a uoCog oouad,
aooua +m+aa _aj ++aumm auu, uo+a
Caamm a+ugcua _aao_u_ dom u+ga go+a
_g oo_a_g. aau+au u+o__a ao nmga +_o+a.
_uaa _a guou uuc ao. aauao+a_ ua uo+a
a_ga _+o+a++a++aom _aaa, auua+m _aj ++aumm
d ac++a aucau u++aC_+a.


_ou,
_ _ao oa+ucm+ _ _ao oa+ucm+ _ _ao oa+ucm+ _ _ao oa+ucm+ a_ga a_ga a_ga a_ga
_ a+au Cuo+om _om+ _ a+au Cuo+om _om+ _ a+au Cuo+om _om+ _ a+au Cuo+om _om+



ix
m_u m_u m_u m_u

_+o+a+a++ auua+ga naua+m o+ga nmg
umo+ucc _ao+aa 'Caau uujo au+a' nmug
_uo go oqoa uga_g. _oCouoao,
u_o+Ca+cuc _a _ucom _Ca+u+o Caa a_+Caam
uo+aad _au oado++. o+ oqaoo nm
aua+auoa m_uaa aa+uug a+daC_m.

_ a+au Cuo+om _aa+ _ .Co.Dr.N.S. +a+_
++a+a++ o+a_a, _uua+aaa _ao
oa+ucm uooa+m _ .Co.mjaaa+a+a++
o+a_a nm m_ua +_aC_m. _a aa a+oo
uoa+__m a+ aog oo+a _j uaa_a
_j+uoa oo+ umo+ aua aooauu o+a_a
nm m_ ag. _a a+oo nm _auo aauauu
_uua umo+ a.+u+ ajCu+u o+a_a nmga nm
m_ ag.

_aa+oga, go+aa ua uga mqcm
o _ a+ca _ua a_+_ma_a mq uu+ad
umo+ a+.auouum, .u._o+am, a umo+
o.aa ++aum _aCa++_a nm m_ua og
a+daC_m. go+a__ oa o uuc+u_a nm m_
ag.

noo+o__a Cao+a nm _auo go+aa aaa _
oaa _ _ao oa+ucm+_a _ a+au Cuo+om
_om+_a nmga m_ oa acuu+cucCam.


nu. aauaoc+a





x


+a __ac ooaa +a __ac ooaa +a __ac ooaa +a __ac ooaa

.u. - aaa ua
goua. - goua _oaua
u._ . - u _aa+
a._. - acu _aa+
aau.. - aau+a+aua-a+uca
ao. - ao+ua
aaa. - oCoo mmja uao a+j
g_uuqaaa
_.uu+. - _ uau+ uu+oa
uq. - uqaoa+a
. - __d
aad. - aad j+
a+o. - a+o j+
Ca.g_. - Caa+ g__j+
Ca.u. - Caau uuja
+o.u+d. - +oa+uuaa - u+oa+a
+o+. - +o+a oau uuja
u. - uaa
u. - uaad
ua.au - uao au
u._. - uuu+aa+
u_. - u_guug
u. - uu+co
uduo. - uduoaj+
ua. - uau+u+_guuuc
_. - a+_guuuc
a+.u. - a+ua+uq
ooo.au+.g. - ooou+a - au+ uoa
guCu++ aaa
Co+.aaa. - Co+j Caa+ aaa
_oa._. - _oam_ua
p. - Page
pp. - Pages

xi




u+ocaa

_ao uaa

1. mu - 1
2. uouo _ao au+a - 5
3. _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a - 44
4. _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad - 70
5. au+aao _u_om - 111
6. gou qouu+c _ad - 142
7. qu - 167

ummuuuq ummuuuq ummuuuq ummuuuq

1. guug_ ucqao - 171
2. _a+au uauu - 175
3. _ Co+j Caam uuc goad - 177
4. _ Co+j Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m
jkauo a+_aa a+_aa - 179
1
mu mu mu mu
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1. .. . _auouq _auouq _auouq _auouq

_ Co+j Caam _o++ o_od (_a+au
uauu) o+. _o+ aga oca+aga a, oca+
aoj auuuo+o ucaga uo uujad u+qdo++. _o+a
au uujad '_ Caa uuja' nmg uau ugam_m.
_o_gd a+uuuga au+a _am muaua a
'Caau uujo au+a' nm_ uouuo _a
Ca_a+douu__g. a+ go+a uaj _ Caa uuja
gou u+uuaua, __uu+a au+aua nma
oouuga_g nmuu _oo+a u_g _aam_g.

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2. .. . _a C+aa _a C+aa _a C+aa _a C+aa

_oaam u+u+d a+o, oa, a+uc, u,
aaa nmu uo ouaa+a uaa_g. aoaaaa _oouau
u+u+dauo ucam. nma uam a+ aC
naooo muu+coad, a+uuaad, a__oaaad nmu uo
uu uooad uam. _uuooad uaoa, uouoa o+m
um aaaauo a++jg uajgdom.

_uo _u_ga+a acam_ aaa a+aom
uo+aa uaam_m. _o_gd uouo aq '+o+a oau
uuja' nm_ uj+_uuu ucag. _mau uaj
uooad umm _o++ao+o u+cuu_gdom.

_o++ad _ao aaa a+duaauoa goua
ooa ojo+ad _a+a+ad _o+ (_o++o_o+). _o++
o_od __+a+_+ mua u__o+. _o+ uouo
a+duaauo +uauu Co+j qo+a,
oac+guoa nmg o _a_++. _o+ o oj
o+oC _ Co+j Caam _o++. _ Caam
occ+guo__ a o ooaa jgdo++.
2
_uco+ muuu ugoC u_o C+aa nmg oog
do++. _jC+aa =Cc_ au+aCa a_j o nmg
og _a_++.

_ucomca u_ua+a auucjg aam
aaoouo nm_ uu _ua oogga ouua _o+a
uooad uajgdom. uaom u+aum _ua
au aad aaaa uoao _ Caau uuja au+aam
nouaua oa__ u+a uuauau u_gdog.

au+aCa noo+o__ga a_j o nmg Co+j
Caam uouc +_aa_++. au+a _Ca _u_oum
uca o nmg ooggoga _j_am mua
muaua oo_oga _Caau uuja ugaca
__++ao _aom C+aa+_a. uouo Co+jm
o___ _ooouaa+m _Ca a+ua nmug __ga
_+au u_gdog.

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3. .. . mm+aad mm+aad mm+aad mm+aad

_ Co+j Caam u__a _aao+au umoom a+uuuam_m.

1. A.Satyavrata Singh - Vedanta Desika - A Study, Ph.D. Thesis,
hghLucknow University, Lucknow, 1958.
2. T.N.Aravamudhan - Varadaraja Panchasat - A Study M.Phil.
nbnDissertation, University of Madras, Chennai 1981
3. T.N.Aravamudhan - Dayasataka - A Study, M.A. Dissertation,
mnUniversity of Madras, Chennai 1980.

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4. .. . _aaoa _aaoa _aaoa _aaoa - -- - _a oad _a oad _a oad _a oad

_ Co+j Caamm a goaom +_uu+aa _
Caau uujo acCa _a Ca_a+douua_g. da
au+aua oogga u_aCo muaa+a _+auuam_m.
_oouaao _Co+j Caamm u+mug uujad
caa _Caau uuja mua _+a+a
a+douu_gdog. uouo aq, _ Co+j Caam u__a
3
_aad, goad, acuad, _ad Cu+m_uo guuua
_+ao+a uaam_m.

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5. .. . _a _u_ _a _u_ _a _u_ _a _u_

au+a _ua _jgu+ga+o ooau_
_ao+aa (Descriptive) u_ goacm uuc _+a+o
uu+ao+aa (Comparative) _aCo aa_g.

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6. .. . agCa+d agCa+d agCa+d agCa+d

u _oaao qoomm u a_ga aaaa+duaad
_caugo g. _oo _Co+j Caamm uujaoo
uouo aum a+, au+a _am Camua nmuuo
uaa+a uaoC+ _uoCa _ Caamm aaa
a+duaao+a uaam_m nm_ ag _oo+a_a
agCa+o+a a+douucdog.

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7. .. . _aCocqm uauq _aCocqm uauq _aCocqm uauq _aCocqm uauq

_ Caamm au+a _auo uaau u+o+a
a+u uaa _j _a, mu, qu ao+au
umoa _jg _aoauo ucag.
1. uouo _ao au+a
2. _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a
3. _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad
4. au+aao _u_om
5. gou qouu+c _ad

0.7.1. uouo _ao au+a _ nm_ oaoo goa,
_u_ _ad, uouo _, uouo Co+ja, oac+guoa,
goaa, _u_oum uca oad, au+a Camua, uam
_aam _+ajg uau ugam_m.

0.7.2. _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a nm_ _uc+aaoo
_Caamm a+oa, _u_aaaa, g_ua_a, _oo_a, goad
4
uuco, aaoad, _Caau uuja _aam
ooauugam_m.

0.7.3. _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad nm_ m_+a
_aoo _Caam u+c_ u+uuaao au+a uga _ca,
au+aam mua, auq_ _ad, uumm+, uumm+ uuqad
_aam ooauugam_m.

0.7.4. au+aao _u_om nm_ +ma+a _aoo auu oqo+m
_u_om au q_Co++_ ucaoa oo, u__go, o
o_o _aam ooauugam_m.

0.7.5. gou qouu+c _ad nm_ _j+a _aoo qouu+c
_ad, gou qouu+c u_ad, ad, +aa +aa u+oa,
a+uuao _ad _aam ooauugam_m.

oCo++ _aom aua u+co Ca_Ca+d u__a __uqad
oouu_aoo Ca_Ca+uo g _ca ugam_m. uuc
Ca_Ca+dad nu u_ao ucqaocuu_g _aom
+c+aa+a _uuauu_gdom. _uucqao _aa+, go,
uaa nm_ u_ao uajgdog. oCo++ _aom _gaga
+_g +_uu_gdo _a qqad _aCocqm _gao
+_g quao uu_gdom.

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8. .. . ummuuuq ummuuuq ummuuuq ummuuuq

_aCocqm ummuuuu+a
1. guu g_ucqao,
2. _a+au uauu,
3. _ Co+j Caam uuc goad,
4. _ Co+j Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m
auo a+_aa a+_aa caa ucqao _aam
_uuauu_gdom. guu g_ucqao _aa+ ua+
a ouaao uajgdog. _aa+ uacm g_ua+,
uuuaa, +, _u _aam ouc a+auu_gdom.

5
uouo _ao au+a uouo _ao au+a uouo _ao au+a uouo _ao au+a

1.0. oo+ aaaa mam _uaa j_ua
oo_a ua+uauoa u_gdog. uua+uaom ou
qa go oa+uuauo uc+a _u_ a+duaauo
gaa. _ma gouu__ a+duaa+aa oac+guoa
u__a au+a u__a _ooao _+aa_g. Caga goa,
_u__aoo oacc+guom uuaa m au+a
a+duaam Camuauaa oo_a_g.

1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1. .. . goa goa goa goa

goa nmug oca+ a+o. _g ' oa' nm
uaa. _m u+d m mua oog maoq nmu+_a.
auoaoaaa goa u__ +guaao,

'goa nm_ a+og_ uuauu+d nmug ag.
uuau u+oojg uc+_a a+aaoga uuau
u+d oa+ug _u+o a+aauoa goa nmg
ua_++ad.'
1


nmg __uua_g. nmCo gou, uuaam +muaua
_a oaqa _a nmo+a. goa nmug aaauaaom
quuucao _uuuam uua uo nmm nmg
auc_Coa+_a. noo+uu+ca_a oa+a dog ngCo+
gCo uuau u+o+_a. a.+.a+am go +ma
nmug uua _+aa nmg oog +ga_++. _um,

"goa nma a+og_ uua nmug u+o+_a.
nmCo go +ma nmug uuaua _omu
u+dua. uua nmu__ 'dog' +og nmga
dog nmuC ag. a co cuc +a a+a
u+cad a+a nmga douo oo. nmgCa do
uoa+m u+d n+og uc+? uc+am g ng?
m _aoqad a+uo? nmum Cu+m_o_u_ _+aoC
6
go +ma nmuua. go +ma nmug uua
_+aa.
2


nma +__+o uo+a.

_oouaao oa C+__a, a+C+__a _o__m
a+ua, a ng? nmg Cqauc_a a_aao ouoj
agaCo, +caa+o gooaom +gao+a uajm.
_m oo+ aa+a aaa Ca+cu+ad njm.

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2. .. . _ __ _u_ _ad. u_ _ad. u_ _ad. u_ _ad.

_a_ua C+__a, m uucuum oa+ua, m
uua+ua oao__m uoao m_ Cao acd
_uu+a amm u+j+m. accm q_ucc aa
o+m _a_ua u+aaa aau+ a++j auuaaa
_u_ _a_ oa+ua+am. _j+ u++a+,
gooaom oo+ uoua,

"ouau_a_ cucc uoCog ouaaoo go ajum
aau+ a++j dau u++uoa+o uauga_g.
am _ _u_ am+o o uga_g. _j _ua
_uujg aoCuouaa+a_g.
3


nmug C+aag.

_m quuucao go +ma nmug uuaa
nmuuma acj ouu+d u__a ajum +_a+a
uaam_g. aau+o+om uuao uaua u+a_+m.
Cogu+c__ uaua auua uoao umgu
u+caoga =aum a+ua_+m. +m u__ _u_ uom
quuucao _u_ajumauo o+_a_+m.
_ajumaoo q_ucc uoCog u++uoad _u__ uoo+a
guum_m.

7
_oou__ a_ga go _omo Cauo +auo
oaa uoao au +ad aom. __uu+au uo aaaad
au +aoo C+m_ Cauo +c_a uoo+am.

1.2.1 1.2.1 1.2.1 1.2.1. .. . _ __ _ja guu aucg ja guu aucg ja guu aucg ja guu aucg _ __ _u__ad u__ad u__ad u__ad

au +c go +mo _ja guuaucm
go auaa _uaa __uucam. _ja
goad o+om Ccuou uuouu+a uaam_m. _uo
go oa+uuaCo+ goc+ao o+oaom a
oauoa o+_am_m. _ooac_ cucc om uga
muaauoa _ao+om uga uaauoa oo+au
Cu+am_m. _uaa o+oao Cu+_cm uaj go aq
Coa+oojg +c+a_g.

_ja gooaom ua+uad nmg auua
Coauou u__ a.o+aum,

"_ja go+m qad ooacuucquug
uau+ga Coa, uca, _aaa nmuua aau uua
oca+ goaoCoa+_a. _uoaCo _ja
go+mg_ _+ _oaaad. _uoa++o
na+oo _auuccuo nmg +_ qa+ o uuag.
Coad amm+o _auuccuo oo nm_ ao
o_u_ uo+Caa nm_ a+oo+o __uuogu."
4


nmu++. _uua+uaom quuucao Co a+dua q_q
oog aguq nm_ Ca+cu+ad njm. q_q, aguq uoaoga
uoCog oua aao aqao+a (school of thoughts) cuad
njm. _o_u_ amad nmu+. +mad a+ca_u qouucc
CuuuaaCo amaoo cadom. _amad
Coaguq, Co q_q nmg u+_u+ aaau ugam_m.


8
oa+aa, aaua, uoa _aam Co aguq
a+duaua ucam. a+aaa, Ca+aa, a+aa, aa+aua,
uoCaaa, Co+ja _aa _ga Co a+duaacm
+c+qucam. uaoa+ja Co+aaaom o m
a+duaua ga. goa++uo Coq_q, aguq uoauoa,
uoo+aua ouuca+a a+uo+a

go e+q
Co nuq Co e+q
oa+aa
eaua
uoa
Coa u_ad _aaad
e+aaa Ca+aa aa+aue _a+aa uoCeaa
ueoe+ja
Co+ja
guoa oecc+guoa guoa


Co a++quca amad, Coa, ucad,
_aaad _aao__o +_uucc _u_muaaomuq
_u_oum __uucuam_m. uuuaaa, a+o, aom,
a, am, _jm, ua _ad o+mo+ u__u
ua+uaoo +cquauucdom. oo ac_ mua
a uoao uoa aaaad nam_m.

uoa aaagacd uoua auc _aa+
uaoa, uouoa, a+a, aoa+a, a+uuaa, aoa nm_
goua aaaauo muaucam gom++. _uo
u_Ca aom, a+o, a, _am am _aa acou
muaucamo+a a+u uaom. _o_gd uouo _
aauc go, _u_Ca+cu+cqmuq oo_am_g.



9
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3. .. . uo uo uo uo uo _ uo _ uo _ uo _

o+ a++um+aa a+uo _ aco+a
a+ucg uouo _. 'o' nm_ a+ooqa+a 'uouoa'
nm_ a+o njg. ouo uouaa+a uca _ nmug
_m u+d. uuaa+mga ujguccga+m _j_ aa
a+duaauo ucag. _ououom a_uuu aaoa,

'uouoa nmug _mu_a Cuo. a+oacjga g m
Cuoua u+ oam_g. Cuoam ouau_ aaa,
aao nmu uoo_u_ acjg _am_g'
5

nmg __uuam_++.



Co a+ou ua+uaoo a+uuuog Cu+o a a+
_oaaaoga _a+_ a+uou u__a __uqad
a+uuuam_m. +oa+uuaa ouoo aou
__uaao, 'a+Ca+m Caa a+u_ oaa' (+o. u+d.5)
nmg +gam_g. 'a+Ca+m Caa amua_uu_ +o+ ouqau
_uouo' nm_ qad +oa+uuaa (+o. u+d.60) ammm
a_uuu a+gcm uu +ga _uo uo nmg __am_g.

a+_guuuc,

u+aqucu quc_a uoo a+au_
qdou da+q aoom (_.150-151)

nmga uau+u+_guuuc,

a+jo aoau_ aoguqj +_a
u+auuuu udo aa+jC+m (ua. 372-373)

nmga a+o u__u Cu+am_m. ao+ua a+o uo
ao a+ucuaua,

u+u Caaucc u+oaqum qaCa
ag a++umCu+_ __o a+m_ (ao. 104.9-10)
10
nm_ qaoga oaa mga oju, '+om_q+a
oom' nmga (ao 124-1) __uua_g. Caga a+o
ou+cuc uooa C+a aam+ nmuu,

u+qa uuua ouu aua_a
o+a+ Cuaa+_ uga (ao 105.71-72)

nm_ qad oo_am_m.

a+o ou+cucu u_guuo,

_mguo aujg _aco
aua +og a+j+ +_
ua+ajg oga _ama+ g
+oCog mjuo a+ajg ouu
da+ oqau n_+ aoom
uu+u uuoa umgu_ auu
oug u+o++ a+ aog
auu+ a aa_o g+a
oa_ aoom Caoqu uo (u_. 4.1-9)

nmg __uuc a+uo+a.

aa _oaaaoo a+om ua+ad, o+ a_uq
_aam _a+_ +ccuu_gdom. aa a+og_u u__
uoa aad nmuua aaua, uoa _aam aoo+_u
u__m. _ ucauo a_ uouo _ a.u. __+a g__+uqo
aoo+_u u__g.

o+o++ o+ +cau umm _o++ad a+om
uoCog _u+uoauou u+coaoo uagu u+qu u+om+.
_uu+coaom +_uCu '+o+a oau uuja' __a. _o++
u+coauo +_ uua +muaCa a+a. _o+ a+a
goa o+m goauoa nm++.



11
+mua +c+jg _+a+_+, ++o++,
auduo, aa auo+oaa+, Co+j Caam, oc_
ouuduo, uduo oa+aa+, aa ua+d am++,
auo+o a+mad _aa uo _u_aqa++ad C+m_ uouo
_ua goao+ga uuj uao+ga aa aam+.
+c+jg oj _a+a uauuama uouo _am
_uca_+ oo+a_a uog_a a+ua+a uaam_m+.

1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4. .. . uouo uouo uouo uouo Co+ja Co+ja Co+ja Co+ja

u_ uoa aaaauou Cu+mC_ uouoa Coa,
ucad, _aaaom oao m a+duaauo ga_g.
_a+dua qa+aa oa aau uua o+ajg. _j_
aoao, ooao _u_aom oa uaj uoa
aaam qg nmo+a. ammm _maa Ccuo = aaa
ooog. Caga oau u+guaa+m a+jauoa ucag.
6


uouo Co+ja uca_a Co+j
a_a aa uaCoa+_a. _o____u u_+
a+uqj agaoo _jg Cogucc _+a+_+
oacc+guou uouo _am Ca+cu+c+a gom++.

_+a+__ m _oCo+jm mCm+qao+a
ca+, ac+a+a++, +m, a+m+ _aCa++ ajm+.
_o+aom Co+j uad, ooauuj uad, uouo
Co+ju oua aag ooacc goad _aam
_+a+_m _u+a__ oao+a uaam_m.

1.4.1 1.4.1 1.4.1 1.4.1. .. . _ __ _+a+_+ +a+_+ +a+_+ +a+_+

uouo _a+au uauuao maa nm_ oa+g
mg u. uouo__ j+uc+__a uoao +m,
_ooj++, _+a+_+ nma o+ u__a a+o oa+a _g
uaa_g. _o+ad _+a+_+ aaa__a Co+j__a
___a +u ouuag. uuaqgo a.u.1017_o
o _o+ _Cacm o+a+a auuga_++. a+ou
12
ua+acgu u+cCacuaao Co, uc o+aaad
uoo____ _aa+ u+j+ u +go_jg m++. um
ua au, Ca+cq_+ au, auo au _aCa+ca
uouo aju+d gcua, go cua _aao_u_
dom u+j++.

a_ mCm+qa+a aj _ooj+m a+u
uucuqauo a uucuqa_a mua goao+a a+uc++.
au+o+a aaa++, _ooj++ oa _aa,
aaoa, =+oa _aam _u+aa ouuaaga a+
aaaa uaoau_ u nguaaga _aau ua+uaa
u+a++auum oo_uaaga ucao+aa
_+a+_+_u uam jm nmg __uuam_++.
7
_oouaao
m_oaom agauoa _j gcuua guum
u+jg oacc+guou _+a+_+ oa__u uama
ouaao ooaccom++. _o+a j+uc+o uouoa
ag. uo caaoauou qj _+a+_+_ a+a+,
ucao+, naua+m++, _u+aa++ o+m a_uqu ua+aa
a+uuugam_m.

u_a uaa uaommg Cogucu
'uau+d ++aum oCm' nmg gac uam_++.
_+_a goaCoam_ aaaa, aaja _aa
goauoa _+a+_+ om++. _uoCaam_ nug +m_
aaa+am+uauou u+ +c_a aa++. _oo
aaoao+o uouo Co+ja oacc+guoa+a _+a+_
ama nm_ uao uoo+aa u__g.

1.4.2. 1.4.2. 1.4.2. 1.4.2. oac+guoa oac+guoa oac+guoa oac+guoa

guoa nmug '_ucoo+g' nm_ u+ucag,
+og ouu+d _ucmg; mC_ nmu+_a. guo
Ca+cu+cuc oa _aaa oacc+guou oa
_+a+_a _uu+uo a+dam_m+. nma _um
oo_a uoao guo a+dua _+gao+a uaam_g.

13
_aa+ a.u. ncc+a g__+uqm+. uaaa,
uca, uao au oao____ uaao+. _o+ a
a+duauuq uuaa acj ouu+d mgdog. uuaaa;
gCo ua+ma+, g uuaa+mg. a__ oaa, a+ad a+a
uuaa+muo _a+. a+uaa+o uuau Cu+o C+__aouum.
ua+a+Co am a+a_da uaj_a. uca
u_jg a+uuua oo agag uqaom _ucaga uaog
Cu+o ua+a+Co ao+a+aom da _o_a_g. a+ad
a+a C uam C+__a, oaa, a+ad Cog; _u_om Cog
nmug +c+g.

_+a+_+ _aa+_u u_a+oo+. _o+ _aa+
Cu+mC_ uuaa acj ouu+uo q_am_++. _aj
++aum oCm uuaa+mom, nmga doom nma_++.
_m+o _aa+ +gogCu+o oaa, a+ad u+a nmuu
_+a+_+ q_aoouo.

_u_oumu Cu+oCo a+aa uua, o_a uua,
_u_om noo+o____a quuuca+mom om a+ Cu+m_om,
o_ o+m a+a uau+om co Cu+m_m.

"au _u_omg co+a _u_oum ocg_a
a+_am_++. _+a+_+ _u_o_a a_a
do _j a a aauja _+a+_g a+duaaoCo
__uuca aa aaa+mC++ aaa+_a. C aaaa
_ac ouaa _u_omg Cama+a o+ a+da_++.
..... _+a+_+ a+duauuq _a_ua _u_od c_a.
_m+o _u_om _a_uad ca+m."
8


nmg _+a+_m a+ju, a.o+aum u+gam_++.




14
a+jC+aa uo 'oaa' nm_ ugou
oo_a aa+o+aaa a+uuua_g. m_+m uau+Co
uoo__m quuuca+aa oa+aa dog nm_ ao
mmuoa+a ' go+a _a_+a' nm_ u+duc _a
aa+o+aaa uaa_g.

_+a+_m oac+guoo ' ' nmug acuo
___a. ' oa ' nmug ag, a+ad, aca (ua) _aao_u_
co+a a+uc a+m acd nmu u+dua. acd mC_;
o+ j+a+aa+a dCoaa_++; ooagaa_++ nmug
_+a+a a+jmuq _aaa+ o+aam u+o+_a.
9


_oouaao _+a+a+ +ga guoo o_u,
a+au, _o__m o a+ua _u_am_ _mm+mg
qgaouo. _gCo guoa nm_ a+og_ _+a+_+
a+uc ooaa+_a. o_a a+aa uaaa+a aa
_u_o_a oCa _uad. uaaa o_u_ a+uc
oCaaa. _uoaua aoj oacCa _+a+_+ a+ca
uau+d. oaca+a aa uau+om_ Cog mg
_uc+o+a uaaoouo nm_ am quuucao
oac+guoa njg.

guoojg oac+guoa _oo+g
Coguca+ua m umua Ca+cu+Cca+_a. +og _u_om
mg acCa uua nm_ ua uoua acjg _u_om,
o_, a+ad nmum a+a uua nm_ umua uoa+_a.
_ajum _+a+_+_ q_uccg aq oa+a oj uooua
Ca+cu+cqm auuuu+_a. _um _j+ u++a+,

_+a+_+o C+_goauucc oac+guoa nma
uouo aaa go Ca+cu+ ucaoo+ uoCog
ajumaom m_uuj Ca+cu+c+_a. ucad
+ga ua Ca+cu+cq__a, Co aguq a+duaam+
+ga Ca+cu+cq__a _ucao+m u, o, ++aum
uao+m aum nmg +c+jgoa ajumao+o
15
ucaoo +_uucc _u_ocm _uu a+ccuuc
ooauuccg. 'Co+jaom _uaa__ Ca+cu+,
u+a+ _ao +_a acd Ca+cu+, uaoau
+ga acd Ca+cu+, _o++ad +ga +oc aq
Ca+cu+ _aa umua doca oac+guoa
o+mg."
10


nmg oo_a_++. _m+o uouo Co+ja, +maqaom
quuucao u_a+m agauo moaa+a a+ucua
qom+_a.

1.4.2.1 1.4.2.1 1.4.2.1 1.4.2.1. .. . oa oa oa oac+ c+ c+ c+guom a_uuaoqad guom a_uuaoqad guom a_uuaoqad guom a_uuaoqad

go+ma aaa _ _uq__a do _ucooua
oac+guoa aa a_uqcm uqa_g. uuaa nmuum
_auaao uuuaaCa aqa++; uuaa, ++aum
oCmam_ Co_+o+ _a++, nmg ogga
auoaoaaa

oacc+guoa uuaam uuuu _o_a+m
a_aa+_a. Co+j o Cua Cua u__
+_uucdoo_u_ aca u_ua uaa+u uu+cuc
_a aamoau_ Co__a a+uuuc+ a_uquca+_a.
m u+m uja nma a+dua a, a
u+oa+_a. oacc+guoa aa nmu__ a_j u+d
+ga_g. a__ go a+ad aa aca+mg nmga
m+o a muaucag nmga +go+. _m+o
_+a+_+ aa nmug Cagoucag +og m
+Cauaucag nmg +ga_++."
11

nm oac+guo gcuuu ucqaocuam_g.
oac+guom C+aa _u_ +u mC_. Caga
_u_om o ajum, co _aam _u_om +uq__ nm
uuucg a+douuc Couqam. _uaa _u_ ajum
aomm _u_do +muu Cu+a _u_oum ga u
uo_a.
16

_u_omca _uca_+g u_g uog om +Co
aamg auuco _maa Ccc__a ouca+_a nmg
oogga_g. _maa Ccg_ _cua qao+ad aa
uoad mua ucam _a+. uuaa+m u mC_
muaucag. _uaa aa C+_ao+o
oac+guoa uo+o oau q_ga+dou ugam_g. u+
+c_a agu ujg oo_am_g. _m a+j uoad
m_+_a. uo oa+g.
oec+guoa
goa _a q+a
eg eg =uom u
eu+a
() uu
aa
Ca+aa
+m Ca+aa u Ca+aa
+
egoa
ae
goa
go
maa

Ca_+_ao_gd goa nmug _u_mua, Cam
Camaom uo, ouu+d u__ __uuog. _a nmug
_u_oum _a _auo +cog. q++a nmug _ma
=Cc__a; +og _u_ +cc+o uc+m uam+aa ou
Cu_u_ __uuo+_a. _o__m ooau _m a+uo+a.

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5. .. . go aa go aa go aa go aa

guogcm oac+guoa Cogua uoao
o_ uua; a+ad uua nmg _+a+_+ oogga
a+dua muauuccg. oo _u_om o _ucda
j+a+aa+a, _ma+_d _ma+o+a aa_+m. _amg
u+caom +c+uua uua uouaa +ga _o+o+o
g goa nmuua. go aa nm_ uoao +ccuua

17
1. ag
2. ag
3. =+om

_aa mg u+caom _aoqad uauuam_m.

ag nmug _dog nmga ag _o__g nmga
u+d ucam. =+om _oa+aa uau+d. ao+ma+om
uo, oau u+caom _uad, _u_aaoq _aam u_Ca
=u __uucuugam_m.

1.5.1 1.5.1 1.5.1 1.5.1. .. . ag ag ag ag

+m__ _ca+m _ma+ ag nmga Camm nmga
__auua_g. _g uuauu+o+_a. aa+o++ _um
'mo ao u+oo m_ mg' (+o+. 375) nmu++.
_aaa+a __a _ma+, a_+ma nmuua __a
_uuca+mg. _oo+ma+, _u_om aa_a co+_a.
a+ _u_om+_a. _oco-a+ _uaq, a-a u+oa __a.
ua+o++ a a+ _u_o_ _uuca+a_g nmuu,

__a uamC_m _mma
_ouma+d a_ _Ca++
u__ouo au+ cam
uu mg ucqma a+uCu (+o+. 449)

nm_ qaoo __uuam_++. o+ _u_o_ a a+
_uuca+m+o _oumad auau u__+ nmg
oouugam_++. ag nmuua _ma+om +cco oo_a
ao+ma+ad u+, +, a+ nmuuuo+. u+ nmu++
oaaoo _c+uuc ouo+. + _oao _om guu
Ca+co+o u oog uua+o o Cug uco+. a+
nmuo+ _u_oumu Cu+mC_ oum +_a+o a+uuc+g
_u_o_Ca +u aaa mjm, acm, Caumuoom
oa a ad _o+.

18
1.5.2 1.5.2 1.5.2 1.5.2. .. . ag ag ag ag

ag nmug _o__g; Cama nmga oauuga.
_m uoumu uguom Camm _o+m. ag uoaojg
_mm+ uoa+a a+ga muaucag. Camm Cu+o
Cam__ +muo qgaouo. _g,
1. + agoa
2. aa goa
3. ago maa
nma mg uaoo c_a.

1.5.2.1 1.5.2.1 1.5.2.1 1.5.2.1. .. . + agoa + agoa + agoa + agoa

agoa, _+_aa, +aaa nmumo__o u_o__m _ua
aoo+g agoa acCa u_o + agoa+_a. __o o
_oo+g; uoa+mg; a+ + =+om _aCa++ +m+o
uCouc+g +Ca ooc aa.
12


1.5.2.2 1.5.2.2 1.5.2.2 1.5.2.2. .. . aa goa aa goa aa goa aa goa

aa goa nmug _+_a agoa o+m mg
_uauo uca ouua __a. +mg_
nuca+m+o ou nmga a+ua nmga __auuga.
mg _uad uca+o _ua nmga __uucuuga.
__uad _a_ uoac_ _+a+a uauo
auoaoaaa,

uaaca agoa, _+_aa, +aaa nm mg u+cad
o. g nuu+ga a+ga muaag. a+_a+uCc
_uug. g uaa _+_aa, +aaa _aao____a
agoa a muacm +qu q aa+a ama
u+_ad _aao____a a__+ uaa agoa _+_aa
_aao____a +aaa a muacm +q _a+aa
o+, C_u, uq uo nma _a _a_a
o__m go oqoac_a oa+ua+_a.
13

nmg oo_a.
19

aa gom a+gua mua uaao c_a.
a+guc _ug oaa+_a. ao+ a co ua, aa+a,
_a_ad _o__+o _mg. a+Cajaac_a
+Cmjaac_a _uuca+mg.

1.5.2.3 1.5.2.3 1.5.2.3 1.5.2.3. .. . ago maa ago maa ago maa ago maa

agoa o+m _uad qga u_go _oo+ uo
ago maa __a. _ma aa a+oa nm_ u_,
Cogu+c__ ujg __a goa+_a. _m aa__
acuuc _u_om _uuuuq, oaao _agam_g. __uq,
a, n+ oa a+o muaad _m au c_a.

uauo a+o__ __uq o+m muaad _ouo.
_ aa+m mua mC_ u. _a+oa _u_ouca
uuco o+m +oac_ + aa+a oo_a.

ad _+_a mC_am_ a_ +ma
c_a. g Cam+_a aa+a ao+o ao
caua ag. Camm a_ +mm uo +gao+a
_mua, gmua, ouq, oguq _aam a+douuam_m.
Cammm _+ma jauao+o _aga.

1.5.3 1.5.3 1.5.3 1.5.3. .. . =+om =+om =+om =+om

=+om _+_a ag agac_ a+a _uuom.
o+aoaa, aoaoaa, +o+agoa, aoouuaa o+m aoa+u
_uac_ _uuca+mom; auc _uad nmuua _+oaa,
uoa, oaa, +ma C, a o+muo aom; a+u
oCacuad nmuua aagoa, +mgoa, mjgoa,
_mjgoa, aogoa _aama a+ucom. oam aq
+aam, n+mga uouuom.



20

_um auaa+o++,

g o+ na+oCm+ +a
o+aq uo_a
a+ag amm+ _aa+ __ua
uo _a ua+m. (+o+. 1438)

nmg _u_omm ugou oo_am_++.

_u_oum a+oa, _ca, a+u ouau_uu
_ao+g. am a+a _uua m oa+ C+ad
u__+om. noo+o__ga Caau+uca gou uoaum
ucaom. _u_omm oa aao , Cu+oua ucag;
_ nmum goa+a ao+og; + agoa+a aog;
uqmo+_ d o_a muaag; umo+_a a+uu+a
oo_og. oa _uuao+ga, _ao+ga
oaauu__ga _a.

_u_om Camam uoad _j+_a. uo ugoa,
o_aa, ouoa, j+a+a, ua nmumo+a. o_gd ugoa
nmug uauo aao +cc+cm mj oqoa+a
a+ucuaa Ca+oa+_a.

o_aa nmug oaao aac_a uucuq, a+uq,
uq, d oao_u_ aaauq a+uc oqoao+_a.
_ooqoa +ma+aa ojg auo o_aa
_uquc+aa uajg a+a umm o_a oqoad
+ccuugam_m. _oo_a oqoa ao+aom aaoo
uoCugucag. nmCo uouo aum+ a comau umm
_caoo +aad _o+.

ouoa nmug o+ uoa+_a. _Coa, aa o+a
nm_uc+a _g __auuga. +Ca+, u++am
Cu+m_ma _+am, auum Cu+m_ma u_Ca _ooqoo
c_a.
21

j+a+a nmug noCo+_da a+a _ma+om
ooa+a CaCa _qa+da uoa+_a. ua nmug
qao+ nooqoo ouam_mC+ ooquoCa a o+a
a+doo; Ca+aoaoo mga _jga acjga a+ca a
Ca+oad _oouaao c_om.
u+auaa+o++ a+o+o _u_om uoua,

aaj ooa ooa +Cm
aaj uCu+ a__uCu+ - aajg
noouua ajg _uaa+g _uuC
oouua _a+m _a (+o+. 2125)

nmg __uuc ou_am_++.

ua u+cqa++ aad =+o gom +
aa+_a. a+o Cu+mC_ aad n_a aojg _uod.
_oooa oam +a jua+a aam_m+. _u_oum
uca aad oa+aa, d oo _uua+aa
auuam_+d. uuua uaa+da a+og aaom
oa+aCo auuco Coua. _g __g _+aCaa+a+a++
__uaao,

uuua q_aCu+g oo u+cquau
q+a+a+a a+u uuua aaC oooua
auauca Coua. q+a+a+og uom ooo Camum
_o__u uoum oaqaom+o u+aa+a oauucc
a__+ Camm.
14


nma_++. ouuaua ucu+u +o+aad aaom
auudou,
uadno o+a u_uu+ q_uuo ugoa
_ada_ _a+am_ _+ao Co_ouo ncc+o
ao++ ua+m am Cao+ aCao
aaa aaa ujCo a++ auuCo.
(aad. 31)
nmg oaam_++.
22
_ooa a+g_ g uog ouauuguo+
aad. agoa+ja a+uoag o+ uao+um oa+a
a+da. _oCogu+ a+uCc oac+guoa _uouoa
nmga guoa auouoa nmga Cu+__uuam_m.
15


1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6. .. . _ __ _a a a a

_a nmug _u_oum uca oa+_a. goa nm
aa a+om dugo a+ma nmug _uu_d
ooauuga. u_j_jg gmqg__a o+ommg ouo u_
a a+o d uga oauo _uoaoo ooao+a.

1. u _
2. uu _ oog au+a _

mmCa _uo +ccuu_a mu_a+mg a++jC
_uuo. u ucao_ g u_Co_u uu Cuo. uu
a++jo_ uoao u _m_auaa+g _am_g.

1.6.1 1.6.1 1.6.1 1.6.1. .. . u _ u _ u _ u _

u nug mum aua; _u_omu+o a+uc
Cumq; _u_oum uua+a aqo. uCa _u_omu+o
oum ac ooog.

.+uqcqa++,

uaum Ca_a+uc++ u+ - u+ nmuuuo+. u+
nma u+ nma mC_a+_a. oao C+a+o
a+da uga ao+o a+da uga gmua om.
o+o a+da ug ooo+ _mua og . . . . . . .
qao+ad auau um nmga Cuam nmga
+_a+do+o _um Caga oao+a.
16


nmg uam _a+m uoua u+gam_++.

23
_uu_ nc aauoa mg uoauoa
ucag. _j_ noo+o__ga _u_omm mq_a u+d
nmg muma _u_oum _uca_+g aj_a a+
_a+_a.

1.6.1.1 1.6.1.1 1.6.1.1 1.6.1.1. .. . nc aad nc aad nc aad nc aad

oo+a uqauo ___a uam nc aad u__
Co+j Caam

naaa o+ama oao+o qomcaj
a_j +uua c+ua_+ umo+a
aauca aa+oj a+uu++ aoa+_a
a++ a aaqa+ o+C (Ca.u. 254)

nmg +go++.

_ooaad

1. _aaa (naa) - am uaa+do+ua
2. aaa - aa+a _u_ auuaca co
3. _ama - _amu ua_a
4. u+u+a+aa - qomauo auuo
5. ua+a+a - qomcaa
6. +uu - _u_ oqou amo uo
7. a+ma - _ucoc+g _u_oum ajo
8. aa+ - _u_auoo uoo

nmu u+_u+ aaauuam_m. _ooaad qomauo gaua
aag _u_omu+o a++ guu aaam_m. _gauauo
amga coga q_uaCu+g _u_oum u+o
no+am_g.

_o_u_ Coa++q amaoo m_+m Ca+aa oo+au
Cu+am_g. Ca+aa +ga _ooaauou u__ __uuuaao
a.o+aum,
24

_mg a++ua+a +a aaaqa+ ao aaoauo ao+
ajao+ga jao+ga aag a+cam_m+.
uoaoo Ca+aa. ua c_og, _ gmua
C+aa+u aoma+a ca++juug _aauoa
Ca+aaoo. a + q_uc +m, nmg nm_ um _Co
Co Ca+aa+_a. _a +am u+cu uquuqa+a
cqaCouqa nc oauoCa Ca+a am+
o_m+. dou gauauu Couqm oo
cuo acuu Coua. _g uoo+aa _ua_
m o+j _ja go +mad auc Cuuua.
17


nma_++.

_ooaauo uouoa uaoa uaa+udom.
nma a_a _aoo ooaacm _u_aao
C+ao ooa uaam_m.

_o__m quuucao u_, a+aCa+aa, +mCa+aa,
uCa+aa nm_ uoauo a+da_g. _amga uquuqa+m
oo+uoad. _o__m _gao uu, u+ma, uau
_aam uaam_m. _amu_a uCa+am +gao+aa
+cco+a.

1.6.1.2. u _am mg uoad 1.6.1.2. u _am mg uoad 1.6.1.2. u _am mg uoad 1.6.1.2. u _am mg uoad

u _ Ca+aa nmuuga. Ca+aa+og _u_am_ Cog
oaaoo ama ua+a uaa oa+_a (ua.au 8.8).
u _,

1. a+aCa+aa
2. +mCa+aa
3. uCa+aa

nm uaa. _amg uoaa m_m oo+aa+a a__+mg
aom.
25

1.6.1.2.1 1.6.1.2.1 1.6.1.2.1 1.6.1.2.1. .. . a+ a+ a+ a+aCa+aa aCa+aa aCa+aa aCa+aa

a_jC++ C+aa au qa aaou+ aaCa+aa
nmuua_g. noo+o__ga aaC+aa _u_oum
ucCoa+_a. nmCo _u_+ccgcm qa aaoad
_u_oum uco__a oa+a a+dou ugam_m. _m+o
_u_ +cca+mC_ C+a+a uao Coua. _ma gg
_uuua a+doo+a nm_ Coua uoad Ca+aa nmuuc+.
aa Ca+agcm =uccom m uamu__ a_ga
u_ga+uq+m.

_uaa Ca+aa a+aa Ca+aCaa+_a. aom+aa
aaCa+a m_ uaamg a aaa a+au acCa
ago+m. m+o oa o__ C+ooauou u+cu+ao
aaa+a aao+_go+m. _j aago _uCa Ca+aa nm_
__ag. Caga +m aaa aao nm_ nuua oc
omo+CoCa _aaad aaauuam_m nm_ ajua
C+m_ Coua. oCoa+mj+ aaCa+a a_uuu +guaao,

nj a+aad aua acuo C+a
aggam_mCo+ uoaooo+a acuaad. nj
a+aad aua aa a+muo_ _g
aoam_mCo+ uoaooo+a acuaad oo.
18


nma_++.

u+auaa+o++ _u_ aaoaoo =ua uoaum
aa+a uoao oo_a_++.

+g ao+a+u guaua qj
nga, no+ Ca - um_
ajad a_uma, a+oqCa ua+o+m
ja m_ouo uc (+o+. 2139)


26
no++ ouca+do++ =jg+ a+um
oo+ ouaumjg uoao +o++ (+o+. 2107)

+qga mmqCa +om +d+ga
u+qga mqaC u+om, ga
u+mm+ qjm+m u+mmqCa Co__
nmm+ao nmCm nm_ (+o+. 2169)

uooua _u_u uuqj uoao 'nmm+ao nmCm nm_' nmg
_o a+aa Ca+am u+_ua.

1.6.1.2.2 1.6.1.2.2 1.6.1.2.2 1.6.1.2.2. .. . +mCa+aa +mCa+aa +mCa+aa +mCa+aa

a+aCa+aa _u_om Cao u_g uoa gua
_uqa+_a. +mCa+aa, u__+au u__a _u_oum
ajCoa+_a. o uoaCoCa +mCa+au
uaa+uocqa+g. aaCa+ao a+aa uoaucj
ummC acom u_+ugou uqa; ou+ m_a
uoao _u_om u__a ajumua a+u a+mo
+mCa+aa+_a. _+a+_+ a+ u+ao (2.53) a+ao+o
uc+_a _ma +mgcm +qa a+aCa+aa 'uu_u'
nmuua +mucua uc+_a_g. j +muc,
Ca+aa nm_ uoua C+_go_a nma_++. +mCa+am
ouoo+a _a+uoa no+a_g. mumu Cu+m_ u_
_a+auoa aaa+a auc+o ua+a+cm aa
uoua nagam_+m. _j _a+m _u_om +uCc ug
nm a _u+m. m a+ _ucomm co nm_
a+duacm Cagoa cu_jg uuqa ago+m.

uaoau (ua.au 6.29) +mCa+aa uaouu__
uoao Ca+a u_a+o uuuccom umua aaa+a
a+uu+m, m a+ noo+ a+aoga _uu+aa noo+
a+aa m ao _uu+aa a+uu+m nmg +ca_g.


27
aa+o++ a o+a a+ao _u_om n_a u_jg
a+a_d aojg __a muaua,

ujm uuod ++ga ujgom
ujuca _gom oao+a u+o_
ajao _cj+ga _caa u+d+ga
ajgn_a ujgom _uouc aCm (+o+. 2908)

_uoa uoa uoa _oa, oa, oa
nuoa noa mdCo _aa, _aa, a+_a
uod mo naa+m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nmuc o do+Cm (+o+. 2987)

nm_ u+coaoo __uua_++. _+o++,

+m+o m_u+jg +um m +aad
+m+o a_gomCu+ a+__m+o
o+mg ua+ __o_a (+o+. 2184)

nmg __uuam_++. _+a+a g__j+a,

+ma amj oaa+u
+d+ga uuo+_
o+ma a+uug a+om (+o+. 2856)

nmg __uuc a+uo+a.

1.6.1.2.3 1.6.1.2.3 1.6.1.2.3 1.6.1.2.3. .. . u Ca+aa u Ca+aa u Ca+aa u Ca+aa

a+a Ca+a+a +mCa+a+a ouoa _a
ama u Ca+a__ _uq __a. u Ca+aa nmug
_u_omca a+da _j uam oouu+Cc. u_ uoad
_a uoa u_ guom. oouoa _u_ a+ca_
mum =uga. +mCa+ao __uucu uga a+ma u
Ca+aga u. md aoj_a - j+a+o+m -
aauu+uo m_u+jg a+maCoua. m mua_u
28
uuCa guu _aooog. _g uu, u+ma, uau nmg
m_+a +ccuugom. uaoau, Cog nuuam_ _uca_+ao
nuCu+ga a++ _u_oum a+ma_++aCo+ j
jCa+a_ _u_oum noo uca qa nmg u
a+do Couqa u_uaa uauma __uua_g. (ua.au
8.14). _uca_+ uam muaua auo+mj+,

a++o+ +m ou_a aocgu Cumq
a+uqam_+Cm+ oCa _uca_+ amma
uuog a+aa+a_g. ua+aum om _jg
Cauu+ga nuo+ga, ua+auca mq gaua
_ om u+a+a_+m. umq ua+aum ucoga
o_ no+a_g. _uuq _u_oum _uca_+g amma
aaam_ aag_ u nmg ua+. _ooo ucao+
_ _+a+_+a+a++...............+C+ _+u+ +C+ _+u+ +C+ _+u+ +C+ _+u+ nmga
uaa __ oa+a+ma aaa_++ad.
19


nmg __uucua_++.

_o++aom uao _j _uca_+ amma
a+uuuam_g. _uc+d noo+u u_oaoga _u_oCa
_cuc oau,

u__aCaa gua _oo u_jg
__C_oo nauo a+do+a_ Cu+a+g
.................................................................................
n_u__a qC u_o_a m_mCm+
__+Ca a+Co+a mCa+a _caaCo+a
a_u_a a+aad a+_C_Co++ nau+o+a (+o+. 502)

nma_++.

_uca_+ u agCoua nm_ o+ a Cocua
qom+_a. _uuCa+am c+gao+au uu, u+ma,
uau _aam uaam_m. naua+Cm+ aojCu+g aaa
ujCu+g gaa a+da uo uu. naua+uca
29
ama u+ma. oouoa aguaao ojao uau
nmg _+ oo_o+. _amga u Ca+am+o Ca
_u_auoum a+u uaam_m.

_amg Ca+aaa uquuqa+m oo+uoad. _o__o
=uc _u_oum u+ag oo nmug a_j
_c+uu+c+m+a uaam_g. ao+Ca ua+c ooog.
_o+o _ooc+ C+g q++u uaa+ou uu
ou ugam_g.

1.6.2 1.6.2 1.6.2 1.6.2. .. . au au au au+a _ +a _ +a _ +a _

_u_oumam_ Cog oao o+om =Cc__a _ouo
nm uua+a au _u_omm oqaoo ucaoa q_Co
au+a _ __a. _g uaa+uuua, ua+aa,
ua+c+ma, uu nmg uoo+g __uucu ugam_g.

aua (caran) nmug oqauo ___a. oqad
m_ Cog a _ouo nm_ u+oo au (saran) uco
au+a nm_ ua+ u_g uaa_g. nmCo+m _oCaa+o++
'gaa c+Cao m au oo+o auouo' (+o+. 688)
nmam_++.

uaa+uuua nmug _u_o_aj _a+aaoo
=uc oaao _mu__ a _u_omcCa noo+u
u+guuua uuucg - aa+uug o+o nm_ a+ua u__
__uucu uga_g. _u_om oqaoo auaa a
u+guqauoa uuuc_a muaao m acm nmg
a+uo, ua+aa nmug __a_g.

ua+c+ma _uc+a o nm_ u+d a.
_+_a u Ca+aaCo m_ guua+a uaj o,
aucuuqaCouqa o nm_ __uuo ua+c+ma
nmuuam_g.


30
uu _ nmug a_uq o nm_ u+d a. u-
a_uq, ug-uco. _+_a u+aauo ucaa
aucuuqaa qa+ noao+ac_ _u_om+CoCa ouucc
_a+au uu oo_a_g. 'a_uq o nmug u_ u+aad
+ga u+aumaoo o a _ao+o+ uoa a amu
_ucomca uuucg omm_ Cog aaouo nm om
+uo ucCo uu _ nmuua_g'.

nmCo+m auuua+m uaoauao, ' a++ nmum
nuuq ouam_+C+ o+_ +m uuqCa d qamC_m.
u++! aad a+ua nm ouaCa umu_gam_m+' (ua.au
4.11) nmgu+m. _j_ u__ __uuuaao,

'u nmug muo+m qu Cu+m_g. g _a_a,
acom _uuc__a +c+uu q_uga_g. g
aaa aqma+m u+u. uum+o+m +__m Caouaj
aam+o acqa u+oa Cu+m_g u a++aa. _uaam+o
_a+uaao a acam_ _ma+o+mg auca
u a++aa aaa no+mmg. a+ad au+a
nm_ noa a++au noo+ _ma+aa aucuuqg
noo auca +gam_m.'
20


nm o+oa_ aoaaa oo_a.

u aaa qa+o+ u_ uo+m u+aa+au
uuua a+do+. u mg uoaoo +ccuua mua
Cu+o uua uo ouaauo ucag. _ma am__u
uua aa aomgcm umu__ Coua. a+aCa+aa o+muo
a+u + ama =Cc_Coua. _u_oum +o mC_
_j a+a+ma u+ac_ _ou+aum _ad ga+ om.
a+ oaCo+, acaam u_aCo+ _a+ qu _u__ao
aua =ua+uc+o oum aucC_gog _u_omm
u+guu+aoam_g. nmCo+m auum uaoauao, '
noo+o oaao aauoa g_jg nmum auuco
mu_Ca a+uc+o om u+oauou Cu+a Ca+caa o_Com'
nmam_+m. (ua.au 18.66) .

31
_u_oum ucaoaqa Camm c+ nmuuo+m.
c+ nmug Ca+cao =u+ a+cuom nm_ u+d a.
uuua uaa+uc+m+ao uummm nmuuo+m.

1.6.2.1 1.6.2.1 1.6.2.1 1.6.2.1. .. . au+aua +o++ mua au+aua +o++ mua au+aua +o++ mua au+aua +o++ mua

u_ _aoo aoo+ao uuua +qoa uummm
uo nmug u__ _m a+uo+a.

u _ao +_uucc a+aCa+aa o+mo_u_
aaa _m__a Coua. a+aom cu+d u+
uo a+uqo, u _ac_ a+ m uoaum
nuu ojgo, uau ugoo q_ua +au
u+gg a+do+ _u_uu_g _aa a+uaoo mC_a
oog uoCoa a+uc om uummm nm_ uo_
_a+am_+m. _uoCaam_ nj _aoo+ao _u_oum
auuca Coua nm_ _oo a+uCc++_a uu _
guua+a_g.

1.6.2.2 1.6.2.2 1.6.2.2 1.6.2.2. .. . au+aam uua au+aam uua au+aam uua au+aam uua

au+aam a+uou u_cm uuco oa
__m uo+a.

a+aCa+aa o+m _ac_ Co, a+ _
Cuouua. Caga a+aoo ogdo umg
acuaauoa aaco Coua. au+a uca uumm_
_u_o_a ao+a_a do +c+uu _Co Cu+ga. u_
acuaad muaucamo+a+.

u _ uo++_ uaj u_oucad au+aao
_ouo. Caga u_am a+aCa+aa, +mCa+aa _aam
uaou u__ ummC _ma ama auc_a. gCo u
_ao a+uo Ca+_a. _m+o au+a oo+_mg. a+
aaa Cogu+qm_ umg aaa uuua a+uc+co+a.
g Co_+mu_a oa+a Couoouo. uuam muaao
u+ma uaua ooog.
32
u _ a++u+ao+o gaa +mg. uuCa+
auua uca umo+_a nouaa+mg. u _
a++jom m moumuuam aaou a+a Coua.
umg oumu uamaa uoa Couqa Ca. uu
_u_oum auucj uoaCoCa +aam_u uom ooog.
cuooc _o uj uoaCoCa Ca+caa a+g
a+uq_a. _oam _ua,

uu_ Ca aaa a+o aaa
ua+ aaa a+ aaa
uo aaa _ouo (_oa._. 24)

nmg __uuog _a__ u aaa.

u _ao _u_aqaom mum +c+jg =u
__a acuaauo ao aao Coua. nc guuuaj
cc+aCa+aa _m_auaa+g. au+aao om u_
uacm mum _u_omca uuucg a+uc+o, Cu+ga.
u_ ac_ad Cuoaouo.

u _ao aua aua u__auq m oumuuam
gua. auucjom, uCa+a Cu+mg m oumuuaum
uoa Co_+ u_o na Cuoaouo. aua aua
u_o+g ua+uoCoCa uouu+m.

1.6.2.3 1.6.2.3 1.6.2.3 1.6.2.3. .. . au+a uoad au+a uoad au+a uoad au+a uoad

au+a _g uoad a+ucg. _juoad au+a
ucCo+mm ga+m auuaua oouugom. uo

1. _u_o_ nmga +oa+a __a g
2. _u_o_ ao+ aaoaoo =uc+o
3. + u+aa oog a _oo+ m nouauau uummm u+o
4. ua+mca uaa+m auua
5. _u_omca a+auq Ca+a uo
6. mum _u_om oqaoo uuucg a+doo
33
nmumo+a. _guoao au+a ucj+ga mumjg
uoad au+a_a uqad nm_ uoao o_u_a
au+a nmC_ a+doo+a.

1.6.2.4 1.6.2.4 1.6.2.4 1.6.2.4. .. . au+a ouaad au+a ouaad au+a ouaad au+a ouaad

au+aua uaa+da u_am quuucao
au+a +m_ ouauua.

1. +ouc
2. uc
3. _a+auc
4. u+aouc

+ouc nmug au+a_a _ad oao_u_
m_u+jg m a_acm _u_oum auuco+_a.

Co a+ u+auad _a+aga auuco u__
u_a+a u+aga __a om m o+om
aucC____ a++ guu nmg oog_g ojgo+m.
ma oj _u_oum Couqm+o ooo a nm_
auuaa+mC_ oa+a a+u oum auuco
uca+_a.

a _a+am _u_omca a+uc au+a ucao
+a =uc u_o _a+auca+_a.

u+aouc nmug _u_aqa++m u+ao+
_u_omco a+uc au+a ucao caao+_a.

uc nmuua _j+m_ ouaaa nouaa+muoCa.
nma _uca_+ _u_ ajuma =amca mum
uaa+a jg Co_+mg a+ am cua Coua.

_j+m_ ouaaoo _u_oum auuco oa oCug
u_o+a. oumuuam aa. aua u_o+ uo u_o+a.
34
_uaa uam a a+a aCa uouo auo
au+a ua ooguuam_g. Caga u_ mum
ucaouu a+uc+o Cu+ga+mg. ooucaoCa
oum oaao gmuojg oo_a q++u
oaooog.

1.6.2.5 1.6.2.5 1.6.2.5 1.6.2.5. .. . ucaoa o_a d ucaoa o_a d ucaoa o_a d ucaoa o_a d

_u_om mum ucj++_ +Cm d oa+g,
ucaoa Coua nm_ ouuuua aa uoaCoCa +a
Cu+o o a+da_+m. _ma =Cc__a __g ajum
aaa+g _u__ao doa ua+ om _uu+m+ao
o_ =amd acoouo. mmuo +_ _u_om qaoo
au q_a uoao ouca guu+cuc _u_om
oa_+m.

_+a+auo __uucu uga 'ocum au+a'
au+a go__ uaa u+jga m_+_a. uaam
_+ou_ ogu +_a uoouo. _u_om o+a+m
_+am oqaCo m_ uaa o_a nm_ uua+m
auua a+u mCa au q_j+m. mma agoa
nmuua 'Cog oam_ +o' ocum au+aao qouua_g.

ocu_ gmua C+uaao ucaoa =ju+m
um m+a a+u q_am_+m. ucaoa jg
+uaa oa ocuum a_uq aaa _u_ad
u+_a. _uaa du_gaj a+ua u__Ca uouo
aum+ oum _o++ nm_ uoao uog, 'ouu+o++' nmg
__am_m+.
_ma _+au+m auucm ucaoa oaau aau+,

a+a a+a mC_ a+_a auu Ca++_
aa mua C+a mmmCa_ a_j guCc+;
_a Cj auau qaoq_j C++_u u+m_+
_a+ a+g a+++ nuuo+ a+ aa+
(aau. . 426)
35
_o+m ua am_ u+C aua +ma
=Co acuu+ cmu aaum+; nmu+o uo
a+o+m _mCog nuu acom? aC+m uaj!
Ca+o+ oum Ca amoa_ a+u+
(aau. . 425)

nmg _+au+m +__m+o uam_++. _m+o =+om
auucj++_ d o_a odoo mua qom+_a.

um, _am, au, +aom, aajm, a+aa nm a+j+
uo_ _u_om ucaoa oaau _+a+aua +ca.

aa+u+o u+a+o, aoo+ gaga uoao
mum a+g a+da a_acm Cu++qm+d. '_u_o+
uaa! auu+! uaa!' nmg o_ auuca, od ga+ +a
_u_om ouj+m. om gao u ua_g. aa
ucj++_ cCm guu __a _u_omm _ua
uma_u+og.

_ma u+a+o qa uac o_ d +j
d auo oooqg++,

' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
aa acouo a+ao
gago+m c+j o
_uag ao+_oa oa ua+m
_uuaqCa _aa uo+d

__+aa cau am
oaqmo Ca+ooa Ca+
Co_+m ga_uaj uaCa+
aaCa+ Ca+CoC_++ a+oga
+_+ao Ca+oj+ Ca+oj+
nm___ _o+jg +oo
_+ ag_ coqoag
do ao+ am+Co
36

au_ a+ooa+ aa+aa
uua oa+ Cu+_ga
ao+a a_qCa+m aoao
oua+ am_ua a+uo
aao+am _ma+mm ama+
ouaamC ojg C+m_
aaa ouma+a u_o+_a
a+a_ auu aa+m
(ooo. au+. g. 246-248)

nmg auumm ddoa qouuc ouam_++. Caga
aa+u+o ogm oCa+_a od qj+m.
uaoauao auuua+m,

nmu+o ama uog nmmca u _u nmum
_+o+a. nmum ou_, nmumCa uco+a
m_ g +gaC_m. nmama+m (ua.au 18.65)

nmgu da+ uma_u+og.

_ood u_ _mm++ aca _ucao+, _o+
_ao+ nm_ Cua acocg _ouo. _u_oum +a
nuua+uc a+oua uu_ a+ao+a _u_om
a+ucam_+m. _g __g .+uq cqa++ __uuuaao,

am o+m _jam aad oa _o aa+Co+aa
ouCa+ Ca+jg auuum auqam+. _o+ad
+a+. a+aa u_uo, ga _+au+um
auucjg. a+oam a+qa +aa, ga auumca
ucaoa qag. aC_jm, +auum auucj+m.
ouu+o++ a+ _oom, oa a+_um
auqa+m.
21


nmu uoCog o do a+oa _u_oum auuca
uaa+uo oam_++.

37
uu_ _u _ugoCa aoa+am_g. a _uuq
_u_oum _o Coua. _u_oCm _u _ugoa
ucaom, _u_ouca _+_a _jg uoaoo
a+o+Ca a_uqucag. qao+ nooo _u_oum
a+mam_++aCo+ ooo oja uo a+o+a
__a. _o++ uoa a+o+o =ucu uu aam+.
_oam _ua '_o++ad uo _caoga uu uuu_g
+a+o+Co' nmg __uuam_g. (_oa._. 38).

aomm uu aca muaucamg, aoa
aoCoua. ao a_aam +oo _u_omd aca.
qmmo am_mcgu u+ a+da mq Cu+m_ o+aoaa
ua _oaom+a_a +o+agoa a+jom,
+jom nm_ Cuaoo+ aoaoaa noaom+a_a
aoouuaa a+o+Co u_jg a+uuuam_m.
_ooa+o+o =uc m_ ucaoa Coua
qao+_ _u_om Couqa uo noo+a u+uom.
_ooauuCa au+a uo_a qa_a Camua_a
quuuca+_a. _m+o oac+guoa nma
_uouom noua uu ugam_g. uouom aa
uo_a o___a _au+aam _aoqad ujguua+a
_am_m.

1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7. .. . uam uam uam uam

uu o+m _auo uaa+do+o q_ua uam
q++a __a. _u_oum uco__a u+aauo
uaa+a aa uoao auc_a oCug q++a
nmuua_g. qm nmug _ma+. +a nmug u+d.
_ma+om u+d nm_uaa _a+o _ma+om a+_
oCug mC_ aa u+d. u_ oa u+cad
a+ucamo+a nm_ ao uaog. nmCo ao+ad
CcCouqa u+o+m q++__u uu _ o+m
u+aad guua+am_m. q++a u__ .+uq cqa++
+guaao
38
'q++a nmug. qm, +og _ma+ ucaCouqa
u+d.... _ma+ ucaCouqa u+d uaua Ca+ga
u_u uaouoa ugga __a'
22

nmg __am_++.

ouo uga uo oc+_a. amm o ugo_a+aCo
uucauuccom. ag, ag, =+o muaauo _og, am
acaommg oucaaa. ou o+m uoaoo
_jg ouo ugoC q++m ouq. _m+o ua
q++a _om+o acamg; _u_+uqm+Co u_
ugam_g. auoaoaaa _u __uaao,

_ma+ aca+a aaoa aaam_g. CoCa
u_ua+a _mju a+ua_g. uao uaaam
o+ao+au u_uu uaa+uouu ugam_g. _oo+g
uao+cm _aaa+oC a+aaa. _ma+ a+uuaa
a+Co+aaa _ua uga_g. _j uoa =+ouca
o+o uo_uco acog Cu+oCo _Co+aga
aco+_a.
23


nmg __uuam_g. _uqoaCoCa Cumua u__+a aa+o++

a+_ a+_uuo u_uqa u_jg
qua ucjg doa C_
=_o _mug _odoa a+maCmm (+o+. 3071)

nm_ qao __uua_++.

mum uaa+a _u_omca uuucg
auucjom _oaga _mua ugam_+m. auaucjom
uo_ju uoa ugam_+m. u+go+m u agguo+ad,
__uucc +oo __j+o _a aca nm_ ouau_ad dom.
_m+o uuamuq cuuo_ _acuu+ad nuoa
_ouo. nj+oo a+ uj+ga uo_ja u. _um
aa+o++ a o+aa+ao,
39
aua __aj+d ucj++_ noo+a
aua+m+o uo_ja a+_a u+m (+o+. 3884)

nmg __uu+o uo+a. Caga o+,

_uouu+a _uouu+a aCa a+mCmm
_uoa ama+ad u__ - _uouua
+ajg Ca++ao o_o+m oa+uu+m
+aju noa+_a +m (+o+. 2607)

nmg aua+_a a+oga _u_om guu uaou nuu
oaa_++. uo_ja +a om, _ooao uga uamauo
ucu+u +o+aad,

uo_j Cauua ocm C_c oooo+_u
u+a_mga aaoo o+am oa u+jgauu+o
aa_m_a mm ao__+o+ +a _uauc+a
ua__ aa+ua a+m++ ouo_a uuagCa
(a+o. 46)
nmam_++.

_g uo_jum auucjo+_u u_ oa gmuad
u+o+a+ nm_ ao njg. _ooao uaouoa
u_a g__c oa Caaoo uoa+a+a a+douua
uaua +a nuua oCug Couco+a _o++ uom
u+coaoo u+a a+uo+a.

uaua u__ _o++ad uoo+g a u+coaoo
__gdom+. aa+o++ "oucuoao o__jg _do+a
a+oCc" (+o+. 3098) nm_ qao uauu __am_++.

auaa+o++ ua acoo,

"ama aaC+m aucom md
mmC++ _ooam Cu+a - ocmga
+mm_au am_+u ...................... ." (+o+. 2719-20)

40
nmg __uua_++. auaa+o++ a_a acoga aom
oCug uguo aauco+g oo_am_++.

a+++ qoCa _uc ma+
C++ u_aC+m aucou auq_
_+ oa aa aomga
o++g og mguCc................ (+o+. 2675-75)

o+moo_ uu+o u+moao ooa aucuo
Coa+ cu_a o+moa a+, + nmg uoCo+a q
_u_om a+g o__a_+m nmg uouo aaam+ ca+a
aqam_m+.

mum uaa+a uq a+g auucj o_
oCug oo nmug _u_om uua+a_g. oumu uamaom+o
om gmq_+ ouua aua u_o+aCoCa o_u_ ac
aaa_+m. aoum mCm+ ua uo _aauu
a+do+o aaago ua+a+o_Caam_ aoaouo.
ao+aom uuaa+m uu_ _u_om acuuc _a_+m.
ao_ aucC__a o_a uuua o Cu__+o
u_Co_gam_+m. _oo+g o o_a uo a+ coojg
ouoojg go_a_g.

1.7.1 +a+ a++aa o uo_ja Ca+o 1.7.1 +a+ a++aa o uo_ja Ca+o 1.7.1 +a+ a++aa o uo_ja Ca+o 1.7.1 +a+ a++aa o uo_ja Ca+o

goauo m_u+j um aom o++d oCu
ajua_ oja, oumac_ aa __a o+om
a_ a u+au uaa+doCoua aom cuooc
ooCaga+og a+Cajaaa +Cmjaaa
amgcm _uuauua. um guu aucjg aom
uauua.

uaa+q oa+a ooCaga aoum m o+m
o+mo+ad oCo_g ocgo+. um gucauuu Cu+a aag,
ou_ nma ua +uq noo+o _aa auoau
u__ aom +agoa nm_ au _u_om+o ou uga.
uooua ua+ad a oa aucuo gua.
41
_ _uuu oa _a+au au +a. um
oa a+ua+a aa _u_oum au ua+uoa naga.
24


uo_jo naua+um auu+ auc aom,
aoga uoga j _mj odoo aa_a.
uauCo ++aum mj+o++ ag Coacm njo,
_+_a a+, +acm _u_o_a a+aa+ma u+q,
_o++ u++ad u+q oum nj+a uouu++. _um
uouo Co+ja u_u uaa+uoa nma. _gCo ua
q++a __a.

_+aCaa+a++a++ uummm aucjum uca
ua a_uqauo,

oum (_u_om) au oumu Cu+m_ _uauou
u_g om oqaom aC j, ac, ooCam+
oa a Ca+qcm q_jg, aojg noo+ocga
noo+ uouaaoga noo+o uaa+a uuaa u_g
_mj acoo a_u+m. _o_ ajg
Cu+ga aqo _ouo. _om m _cuuq cuuga
uao uaa+ao caaC........ u auco__
ojg am_+ga _o_ a_ga uaouo u__
_uc__muCaouo. _a u_ua a+ucC
_o_ aqo _ouoamug. _uaa
uaouoCa u_u uaa+uoa nmug.
25

nma_++.

q++m uuam uu aao_
auca_g. _oao o+aCu+g u__gga oumuuam aga
_u_om guu _a_+m. oum uaa+a auucjo+_
a oumad qgaouo. u_ u+aaom o _u_oum
ucuaao uaa+m uam acoouo. uu _Ca
_u_oum uco__a a_j o. gCo uaa+au
uamooog nm_ C+ao oac+guoa uuam uaum
+ca.
42

uam nmuua q++a a+o+_a g nma
auucj++_ aad qga_g d o_o nuuag.
aom _uuuam+o _u_auoo a uogu ua
q++u uca_g.

1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 _ __ _ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu

1.8.1 uouo _ao au+a nm_ uouuo uaj _ooao,
go auo uouom uoua nga+cam_g. m
Ca+cu+ad o_, _u_om, _ma+ __ ajumad,
guoojg Cogua uo _aam +ccuucdom.

1.8.2 oac+guoa _u_oum ac +cqa u,
au+a _aom omua, amuaad _auucdom.
au+aam muaad u+guuc ooaa ucdom. au+a
_ uouo gom qua+a uaam_ua C+aag.
_ma _u_ad u__o+ uga uamad q++a nm_
u_ao ooauucdom.

1.8.3 _uaa auaa_ uouo Co+jm uoo+ao
Co+j Caa_u uga u_ u. o+a uououu_g,
gouu++uo, uucuqad _aam __g oaaoo a+uo+a.














43
a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa

1. auoaoaaa - +_ 5, u. 454
2.a.+.a+am C+__ aa _+aaa aago
oo+ga, u. 50-60
3. _j+ u++a+, a _oaao uouoa, u. 169-170
4. a.o+aum, _ja go +ma, u. 3-4
5. Satyavrata Singh.A, Vedanta Desika - A Study, u. 417
6. auoaoaaa - +_ 9, u. 303
7. auuo+a aaa++ (u._. & a._.) u+mo+ ao+, u. 123
8. a.o+aum, _+_a go, u. 336-337
9. o+oa_ aoaaa +_ 9, u. 800-801
10. _j+ u++a+, _+_a go, u. 169
11. auoaoaaa - +_ 9, u. 304
12. .+uq cqa++, _ u. 37
13. auoaoaaa - +_ 9, u. 305
14. _+aCaa+a+a++, mu - _ Caau uuja
15. _m, uo _a+a+ uouoa, u. 2
16. .+uq cqa++, uaaa, u. 89-90
17. a.o+aum, _+_a go, u. 223-224
18. +o+a oCoa+mj+, aaCa+aa, u. 69
19. auo+mj+, uCa+a ooaa, u. 19
20. o+oa_ aoaaa, +_ 8, u. 670
21. .+uq cqa++, _, u. 118-119
22. Caog, u. 5
23. auoaoaaa, +_ 9, u. 306
24. .+uq cqa++, _, u. 137-140
25. _+aCaa+a+a++, mu - _ Caau uuja, u. 65.









44
_ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a

2.0 uouom cuua goauoa doca
oacc+guo Ca+cu+ njg. Co+jm quuucao
nj _Ca+cu+cuc _+a+_+ om++. o+ uao _g
_+a+_ a+ja nmg uauuam_g. _Ca+cu+cucu
uuqa a_aaga _m aa Cu+_auo oa_a aaoga
_+a+_m ac+ad ua +uc+__m+. ac+ uauuao
oj uoa _+a+_m Ca+cu+cuca _uaa uuqam_
uuuaCa a o+om ua Cu_+a a+uqjm+.

_ac+ uauuao __uuc ao+a ao+joC
_bCo+j Caam _o++. _ja go auo
um___+uao+a m _ca u_g auo+ nmg Co+j
Caaumu u__ aaoa __uug _ou
C+aa+_a.
1
Co+j Caamm a+duaad o+
a+oCoCa aao au+a (School of Thoughts)
a+ucm. _uo Caa ama nmga Caa aau+aad
nmga a+uc+cuuam_m. _ou qa+__u uo+
oacc+guouu uuum+. _ouu Cu+__aj
uduoaj+, Caa amuu umu_gCo aa a_uqucag
nmg oogga_g. _jgom quuuc a+a
_+aCaa+a+a++,

"Caam qauu u+qm+om_ __oa qa+g. o+
_+ajg auc u+ja __oa a+ma+_a. Caam
_uauou u+q ou amg _m+o u+uad
u_jgCu+a. og om_ u+aaouo".
2


nmg __uua_++. _uaa uua_a qa_a a
ouaao Co+j Caam o+ua uaa+_u_ oo_Co
_ooaom u+uua nm uaa_g.


45
Co+j Caam o+Co+ uuuj uououa
oacc+guoua _o+a uucuqad o uo+a.
_o+a uucuqad u__a _aua _ooao
a+uqo_a_g.

2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1. .. . o+oao aaad o+oao aaad o+oao aaad o+oao aaad

Co+j Caam o+oao aaauo oo_a
_uu_ao o+ u_j oa, u_C_++, o+a_uq, a+oa,
aoo, aoa du_o, o+u Cu++ qo, d aad,
aaaa+o, ac+ad, u__ ogad _aam ooauuam_m.

2.1.1 2.1.1 2.1.1 2.1.1. .. . u_j oa u_j oa u_j oa u_j oa

a ++ ogoao '+uuc + a+mC_+ucg' nm_
qa oo_a aa u_a+_a. _aaucoo aoo, Cado ooo
uo uCa+a aa+maa ogdom+. _j+cqm
auum aog a+a aa+_a. q+uad 'a+aoo
a+a'' nmg Cu+_gam_m.

aaaaoo go ooaad, _o++j o+ad aa
aj aoo aoa+a a+a ajg. _a+a_u qa
Ca+_a ouaao Co+j Caam _oo C+m_m++.

_aauau uduoaj+,

aa ouaao Cod ojg
_am _o_ guq_uduo.... (uduo. 4)

nmg __uua_g. Co nmug a+aua ___a.
_a+aao 'guqo' nm_ oo _o+ u_juaa+o 'guqo
uduo' nm __auuam_++.




46
2.1.2 2.1.2 2.1.2 2.1.2. .. . u_C_++ u_C_++ u_C_++ u_C_++

ac+au uqdo++ nmam_ _Ca _+a+_+ a+a
a+ao oacc+guo o_umm+a aj++. _o+ a
auaa++ C++aua. _aauauau quca+ca Ca+aa+a
nmu++a aam j aua qjg a+uc++. _auac_
o_+o+a aauCug o+aaoouo. Coacoum gg
o+ oa oa+a Co+j Caam oau u__m+. _m+o
_ju_u u_C_++ 'Coac+m' nmg uaccm+. Caa+
g__j+, 'guqo j+am++ +oqaCa+ uajm' nmga,
'Ca++oo C++aua uajm' nmga Co+j Caamm
u_C_+u __uucu_a. (Caa. g_. 28 & 75).

2.1.3 2.1.3 2.1.3 2.1.3. .. . o+ a_uq o+ a_uq o+ a_uq o+ a_uq

aauCug Couq ja C++auaa
ouuccuaa+o m Ca+ao auam o+a+a Coacom
o+ac_ _juu Cug om+m. au Ca+aoag aa
qm auou q_C dCo++_ u uoa_g. oua
_muaa+a aoao Ca+a_g. _ma auua g,
oacc+guou ua+a+a m uuauau uoCo++_a
uuug nma _ao Co+j Caam o+a
uajgdog.

auo Ca+ao auam o+a+a Co+j
Caam ojgu Co+j Caa+ aaa,

..... Coac auoao
amma auam +_m ojg (Co+. aaa. 99)

nmg __uua_g. Caa+ g__j+, auo _u_oCm
Co+j Caam+au u_j+a __uua_g.




47
_og aa_aa aauaauo auaC _ou
CoaCcamm o+a nmga _+a+_m o+a nmga
umCm++ Cu+__ oam_m+. ++auCm Co a+auo
guua+a a+u _ooao+m a+j+auo auCa__ am
oo _a++am+a C+mgam_+m nmu ua+uad
Cu+am_uqa+o uuaao _o+ uamm o+Ca.
4
nmg
uouou uCa++ad __am_m+.

_ma auo Ca+ao aua+a auo
+m+a Co+j Caam Cu+__uuo__ quuuca+a o+a
aaa+uCc uaa_g.

2.1.4 2.1.4 2.1.4 2.1.4. .. . a+oa a+oa a+oa a+oa

Co+j Caam a+ou _ uauu goad oo+a
gacdom. ago+a+a+a a goo _o+ a+ou
__uuam_++.
5
aoaa 4371_o _o+ u_j++ nm_ aguuq
a.u. 1268 _o qcc+a ad Co+u cao
o++. _o+ g__+u o+jjg aaau uua+__m++.
a.u. 1368 _o + Ca+j++.
6
_o+a g__+ua+o
o+uauaa, +uuca aa+a a+_gu_ mam
u+ga.

+moa +mo+ +mau_ad +ao+
a+am a+_m au_o+ - +ma+ad
ammau Ca+guqo Co+j CaaCm
_ma+ g__+u _a.
(_o++o_o+ oo+g. u. 202)

2.1.5 2.1.5 2.1.5 2.1.5. .. . aoo aoo aoo aoo

Co+j Caam a ag oao ngaoo a_g oj
a+oo c+g+ aa+d _uuamuq a a+a+ ac+au
uqdo+cajg, aj, uuj, go aqauo a_g
C+j++. _um aa+d +__+a _ uau+ uu+oa,

48
ucao+ aamu uq_ _ u+a+auo uu+o
oCa+a_auq udo+m aama nmga... j uu+a
uoum auc+ o+jao+Co _j guq_uduoCa
nmg ucao+ do a+a_a...... C _o_
_a+m oa+a oj aj++auoa udo+m oa+a
oj _ u+a, uao oaauoa ucao+
doa_a u+a+ma a+uacm ua+a.
7


nmg __uucua_g.

uqdo+ca Coa, ooau uuja, aa, oa+aua
oa aqauo u+j++. _o+ uqdo+ca aao aooa
u+jg _ucm aj aaua

a+oo ad ac+au _ou auqdo++j
Cao+ Caoq Ca+jg uujo+ aao+o
+oo jm oca+ _u+d u__au
a+oo guq_ _oCa aaua a+Co (uduo. 17)

nmg uduoaj+ oo_am_g.

2.1.6 2.1.6 2.1.6 2.1.6. .. . _ __ _oo_a oo_a oo_a oo_a

uooua a+aoo C+jg o_u_u u_+_
_gga uouu+caa Co+j Caa_ o+a
u_C_++ aua qoa am+. _u_u u, uuqom _aam
u_j 'aua' nm_ _uouau u_C_++ _uuamuq
auj++. nma _oo+oo ajgoc+ao a+u
u+aoo a ajuua ag oj++.

_u_uuuaCoCa aju aga Co+j Caam
amoo a+au Cuo+om C+m_ a d u_j _uaa
u__a nm_om+m. Caamm +_ucc+og oao _ju
u_jg. _ju_u Cuo+om +aa+aa 'om' nmg
uac aaj++. o+a+a+a a juua +ma
uuaa u_g ooam++.
8


49
2.1.7 2.1.7 2.1.7 2.1.7. .. . aoa d u_o aoa d u_o aoa d u_o aoa d u_o

uqdo++ a aq oao u__ ac aju Co+j
Caa__ uCa++. _oa aaju oajqa
am_ +oo aaqao a+jg a+m++. o_u ua
oq nmg Cu+__uua ac+o++ C+m_ _aao+
ajua, _aao+ uqaua om++.
auaa+o++ aao acuo,

mmoo Caad auq uu
mo+ +mo+ad uauu oj
umauo +oCou u+uo noo+a
uaa+a oa oauam a+uam (+o+. 1619)

nmg ga_++. auoac_a __a =am nm __auuga
_aaouu ua oq oa aj+o a+mg
ouam++. oCouoao _aao+ C+m_ uo am
=j++. ooa uaa uoao noo+ +maa uaou
u__++. _ooa u__C a +ma n ao Co+j
Caam a a+ aaao

oduou ua+ Caa +ao a+oqCa+a
doag uoao _ccma.......... (Ca.u. 95)

nmg uam_ua aag.

Co+j Caam uo og _u_oum ou_a ouuo
o a+u Ca_a+uc++. uuuj+a oao oc _ja,
mmjau u_aoo o a+u Ca_a+uc++.
Ca+oaaaqa, ua+aa, ocagu, Ca+, uj+oma, a+a
oa oc _ja oac_ njom++. Coaca,
uuaqg+, oaa, _cju, oooqg+,
_o++ a, Ca+og+, ++auqa, ouo oa
mm+c oac_a amg oua +oo _o++aa
_a+a+aa amoga a+ aga ojg o+m+.

50
ucao+ uo uuaqgga,
++auqga, oaga u__++. _uc+d uo
oooqgga ua+o++ uo _o++ aaga
u__++.

2.1.8 2.1.8 2.1.8 2.1.8.1 .1 .1 .1 o+u Cu++ qo o+u Cu++ qo o+u Cu++ qo o+u Cu++ qo

_+a+_m oacc+guoo Co+j Caam
_j qoua u__j++. ucao+ na _ u+auu u
oauqcm uam_o+. um ag_ a+ucCo a u_o
C+aa nmam++. _um a++o+mao,

oauo amm _uc+m a+aua
Cao+m _uoam m_ ooam mua
a+o aom mma ag_ auqcCo
+oa qa jCaa+ +ua uomC (Ca.u. 96)

nm __uum oa uo+a.

_uaa =u+cc+o +u+j a+jCa
Cao+jmuaag nm_ gcm Co+j Caam oo_am_++.
_og oguu_gu u_ aaa Ca+cu+aoo uaj omua
amuaauo _+ajgua o aag. _oo++aCa u_
aaamcm o+aoo =uc guu m_g nmo+a. aaa
ua, ucao+a o+u uaum,

ao+ aaa auo auoa+
ua+o aaau ua+ oo+a (. u. 6&7)

nmg +ga. cg =u Co+j Caa_a u+jga
+_gao+a. _o+a o+uCu++ _uaua Caa g__j+,

uoao aoo+ aa au_aou
uaaojg +aa am+o - aaaaa
=+uu(g) _ouoa(_) _uuqCa aam
a+gama a+ca a+ (Ca.g_. 14)

51
nmg __uua_g. _o+ aa o+u Cu++auo
_uau+uu+oa ooau Cu+a_g.
9


2.1.8.1 a+aao oacc+guou oo+g oaCu+g
a+ag_o om ojg o+ccmm. oum omg uouo
a+ju uo +cqm++. g au u+_+ dom+a
a+ag_o aj _oo a u _qg, a aja
au+m. _m+o Co+j Caamm oag oo aucg. cCm
Caam aj guu a_ g_o _q + noo+a gu
oCa ooCa_ag. g_o uujg ammuq Couqm+m.

2.1.8.2 oao oc+cqojg oj a+ao+ om
maCa Cao+mg nmg +_ o+uCu+_u uou ug
om_+m. +amuucc+ Co+j Caa_ uo o++.
Co+j Caam oa__ njo auma
+aa+ua ouam++. um ua aucuo njo
oacc+guou uo +cq a+ao+ua C+_a
aa++. aa +aa+a ama ajc ogad om+.
_oo+u Cu++ agad agua+a uu__m.

2.1.8.3 au aam nm_ _uma uqaao nm_
qoouma Co+j Caam o+ga qouaaga om_++. o+ad
_om q +g ouam+.

2.1.8.4 oa+ua+ nm_ o_a a aa+m _a+a+ Caamm
C+a _o++. o+ Caa_ 'aa+mu qoo+a o Coua'
nmg uuq o++. um agg '_u_uuuCa a uu' nmg
_g 'uo+aa uaaa' nm_ aacauo n
uuocc++. oa+uaa g au oj++.

umm+a+og oa+ua_a u_+
aaao+_a aj o+g qoa+ao _jg. o+
uo+auo Co+j Caa_ n aa uum++.
oo+__ uoua a+a oa+u Co+j
Caam ag aaaom aguquauo n
oacc+guoCa aa nmg o aa++.

52
2.1.8.5 _uaa o+gaCoam_ uouo aum uom+ _ou
o+__ um+. _o+ uouo uu n+g o+c
ag++.

2.1.9.0 2.1.9.0 2.1.9.0 2.1.9.0. .. . c aauaad c aauaad c aauaad c aauaad

Co+j Caam oao a +aa++ o+o
'a+o j uoj+' nmg ogu__++. _m u+d 'auoad
a+oga oooo+' nmu+a. _g auu+_+ ao+ _ouu
Cu+cq_ um+. _uCu+cqad Co+j Caa__
qaCa+uumo+a uajm.
10


2.1.9.1 u+au+cq, 'mum om_a' nm omua qa, Co+j
Caam uao q Ca+auo a_m++. Ca+auo +uc
qa+g u+aqad aaam. qoo u+au+cq ajuu+aq mu_
qo g Ca+auo a_ Caaum uc ojg. oCouoao
Caam ac aja _u++. uCu+g acm C+m_u
u+auum a+ am_g. u+au+cq ucmc oua
amma Couqm+m. omu+o _aa uuo ammgu
u+auu aua om u_ aa++.

2.1.9.2 a+m, m auo oooo+ +Ca+? nm omom+m.
oum oc a_uu+a aug acq om aua cam++.
o+ acqa aug _mga oajqo a+uuua_g.

2.1.9.3 Co+j Caamcgu u+_+ua a+uc ao+ uaaa+
oum guq Caamca u+d Couc aam+. _o+
aauo gg o_u u+mumu u+o+au u__c
aa++. _g _aa+ u+qa 'ama+' g_ uu+m
a_uqucag. u_+am Couqu u+oj Co+j Caam
aam a++mga a+aaoouo. ao_ am_
Cu+ga _oca u+ua a+uc ao+ _cc u+_a++auo
uaa+ga +c+ao Ca+o+o do ooam++.


53
2.1.9.4 a_u Co+j Caamca og uo oC auo
oqc Coua nmg +_m+m. _oa cmucc++. mu_a
_oo _u_om C+m_ auo uaa Couqa oqou +_
om+m. mCa oqCo+uao a oqou +Ca aao
aag a_uua om_++. aao aa oqomuqCa a_ua
Co+j Caamm auoua aag uog ouam+m.

_u_om d +c, Co+j Caam aa
caaoad uo. _uo Caamm ao _u
oouugomo+a uaam_m.

2.1.10 2.1.10 2.1.10 2.1.10. .. . aaaa+oo Caamm u_ aaaa+oo Caamm u_ aaaa+oo Caamm u_ aaaa+oo Caamm u_

uooua aaaaom a+jauoa auu+jg
oacc+guou uo +cqa uua Co+j Caa_
u. g acam_ a aaa__ C+j _uc_gauoa
uouoaoo Cu+a om++.
11


2.1.10.1 oao +o+a oau uuju ga
a_aaum ao+ q_a+g agm+. oo a CoCa
+o+a oau uuja nmg gom++. Ca+aoo ao au
Ca_ aa++.

2.1.10.2 oao Co+j Caam oa a+oo
a+uudoua gaa+ad +am+. o+ad Ca+aoo
qa+a nm_aa Ca+ao uua+o+ad, oo+ auoaum
a_+o+o au_m+. aa auo+om uqaa cucu uo
_au+m auoauou ucqao _c a+c oa+a a+u
am_m+. uo oac_ am_um _gao uuao _u_u
uqaad njo aaauuccm.

_jauo _j Co+j Caam +a ua+cm
aoo am++. uCu+g +amu ucc+ +a na '+
ua+aua' nm_ guoa a _oa_++ _oua
ao+cajg a+a Couqm++. _ma o ua+uo
+c+jg aoou oc a+oqucag; gCo ua+_a
54
ajg nm_ ajumao Co+j Caam j u+guuu q__++.
oaojg '+u ua+aua'ua nga+u,
+amu uccm _juacm aaaaoa am_++. _
+amu uccm guo _+ajg m uuaua
auu+j++. jguou uo_a _g um _o+
uou_ aa++.

2.1.10.3 ga+ uucauu+o auoao njoaj
aa auo+om uqau aua oa Ca+aoo uog
oucCoua nm_ ouq, Co+j Caa_ njg. g
aaaa Ca+u++aum nm_ ammm mmauu
q_a+doaag aaao ao +d uog oucu um
aua oao ou+cq__ q_u+ aa+m. um
_u_om amoo u+ao aa aaoam++. oaa
ojg _u_oum mCu+o ouc aaj++.

Ca+u++aum guu a+uCc ouo a
+cojg a__uuc _j 'Ca+oj+au ua+uo'
aua uuc aag ou+cq__ o Ca+om++.

a aaa ou+cucu Cuo oa Co+j Caam
uouo auuu u+ga+g oj++. nmCo+m, Caa+ g__j+,

um+ umomu+ _(_)_c aaua
a_o a+ac_nm(g) ++ - aau
+aCo Co+j Caam+a oj(g)g
a++aa nmgu+m a+o (Ca.g_. 11)

nm Co+j Caaumu Cu+_ga_g.

2.1.11 2.1.11 2.1.11 2.1.11. .. . ac+ad ac+ad ac+ad ac+ad

Co+j Caamm a+jm uuaua u+jg mu+o
=+uq_gu uo+ a ajuua agm+. o+ad __uuc
ao+ ummo+ _o+.
12



55
1. o+a+a++ (Co+j Caamm _a++)
2. uaj uoj aa+
3. ouua +aa+
4. _aa_+ amo+a+a+a++
5. +u uduo
6. auo amo+a+a+a++
7. uu+a aa+
8. aj+uc nau++
9. auo oo+m
10. ac+auu uduo
11. _a+u+ uduo
12. guqo uuu

Ca___uucuuga ac+ ummoa Caa amu
ao a+u um oo+_a uuaga Co+j Caa_
cmjg _g aaa uuaga aua =u a+ucm+.

Co+j Caaumu qajg oca+aga
aa+aga uo mamauoa o+ +aauoa
uucg a _a+umu Cu+__m+. _o+ad 'Caa+ oad'
nmga Cu+__uuam_m+. _o+aCoam_ _oca o+ga
Cu+cqaga C+__o+aa ac+ao+a a+_m+. o+ad
auaam, uqam Cu+m_o+ad __uucao+ad.

Co+j Caamm _a+a am+a+a++ nmg
Cu+__uuuoa+m _a+ o+a+a++,

_a+m Coac +++a
ao++aa Caa
Co+j+ a++a o+Ca+Ca
aj+a a+ _ (_.uu+. u. 151)

nm_ oca+ maum _a__m++. _mam a oca+
goa_ m c Co+j Caam dqj++. uaa
uoj aa+ _a__a


56
_+a+_ a+ u+a +m uo+a _ua
_a Coac +++aa ojC Co+j Caaa
(Caa.u.mam, u. 1)

nm_ oca+ maum ooauuja o+m ga_ m
c _o+ o+uu oam++. _uoCaam_u uduo
oa+a+a+ _a__a,

a+mg guqo Co acuca+m
u++m_ a+mm ua+d - +mg
+Cm auaa+C+ +uao o+o++_
o+Cm_u Cu+aoa o+ (Caa.u.mam, u. 1)

nm_ maum a auuuo+o au uujac_ m c
doa qj++.

2.1.12 2.1.12 2.1.12 2.1.12. .. . ogad ogad ogad ogad

oao o+uCu++ qjg guoauo om_
a+oo a+a a +aa+a u_Ca
'Co+ja+a++' nmga 'a+o j uoj+' nmga ogad
oa od qjm+. Co+ja+a++ nmuC 'Co+j
Caam' nmg __uucuga_g. C+ nmug o, _ nma
u+d a+ucg. _ooquuucaCoCa _aau u+uo cq
oauuccg. Co+ju ogu_a _aam nm_
u+duc, Co+j Caam nm_ ua+ uajg.
auoaoaaa,

a_ a+j uua og oca+_ noouaaga
+jouo nmga _o++auca au uujauo
oca+ Couu Cu+mg CoCa nmga uo goao+o
uo+cqa uua _oo+aa_ ag. g au
aj _a+m _o_ ua Co+ja+a++ nm_
ou oom+m.... u+go+a, Caam nm_ a+o
_a+am nm_ u+dua+aa _o+ C+m_a u__
_oCa a a+oo+a uajgoccg.
13


57
nmg Co+j Caam u__ og u__ uam_g. Co+j
Caa_ _u_om+o og oauuccm uuaua oC
a u+co m_o 'Co+j _aam nmg _aau mC_+a'
(Ca.u.132) nmg __uu+o oao+a.

Co+j Caam uo goauo a+a, g o+m
u+uuaad uaa aga oca+aga uooua
a+uuuaao uucom++. +amu ucc+ Cu+mC_++
_oo aauaua +jg 'ao++aa aaa' nm_ og jg
ouam+.

_o+ oca+, a a+uuo uaC+jo+. aad
omuacm ajuaa+o, 'uaua+ uau' nmga _o+
u++ccuucc++. _um

'uaua+ uau' nma_ ug a__ ugauou Cu+o
u=uua+a uo+a_ o_oouoa+aa
a+oo uuu=aoo oo+mao+o
oaouuccmg oo_am_g. Co+am
qaCa__ 'uaua+' nmg ua+....
Caam uauuaad a+uuga u_+ a+_a
uauuaauou _ua aaoga a__ oooo+ nmug
ooa _o_ 'uaua+ uau' nm_ ug
C+m_amu+.'
14


nmg uua+a++a uo+a __uuo++.

_oogaom uuaua _o+ _a++ _a__a
uduoaj+aga a+u qa_g. jgoo Co+j Caamm
ogaom __uqa _a_uaa uaa,

oam Coam Co+j Caam nad guqo
aaom am Coac+m oam aucau
aa +om a+ o+a+ oa_
uaom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (uduo. 6)

58
nmga

da _u Caa Cmaad guq_C_Co
oao++aa aaCa . . . . . (uduo. 18)

nmga +ccuucdom.

2.2. goad 2.2. goad 2.2. goad 2.2. goad

uouoo gu_Cu+aa +ma uaou u__um
Co+j Caam Ca+cu+cucu uo+_a _gga uuao
=ucc++. caauaao+ga o+u uo+ao+ga noo+g
oacc+guou go o__ u__+C+ C uoao a
a+_u+ao+ga Ca+cu+cucu uuu +u qj++.
uo uoCugucamo+a a Coua nm_ ao uo
goauo nm++. _o+ aga oca+aga _ua
uuuj auu uo+oga a goauou uucom++. _uo
uouo a+a +gomo+a acCaam_ uouo+_a
oauo +gomo+aa uajgdom. Caga guu+auoa
_a__do++.

_o+ a +ca a+o goao+a oo_om _ao
C+a, acua+a _aam. oajqo Co+j
Caam _ao+ du__++. _u_omm auuuaa
o____ u+aa+a uaj acCo+ auuuaa umjg
u_Ca _jgoad njm. og _u_om _uuamuq uo
u+coad u+qdo++.

u_ aaa+m q_a+duaauou q_jdou 'uauaa',
'ugu' _aam njm. a+a oo ou_uaao
_u_om _uuuuq a+aaaa, o+_ua+u
_aamo_u_a ucaouug, uouo ma, amma+uo
_aamo_u_a om++.

oao ucao+ uo umjg 'n+a au'
nm_ guo _a__m++. ucaom oacc+guou
oo_a ouaao, go +ao+ua, a+a a+ama,
59
a+o++a, au +uuua, _u+aooaa, au u
ooaa _aa uo goauo _a__m++.

_+a+_ a+ju noCo+a ua ouaao
o Coua nm oag qao+ uo+ omo, o+aa+a
_a, aau+a u+, gouuo, _aaa uo,
uau+ma+a, ua+aaaa, uauCa+u+ma o+m uo
goauo _a__m++. C +ooo 'u+ga+aaua' nm_ guo
n oa_ aa+uu++. _ Co+j Caa+ aaa,
_jaaua,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + _oo
_aaoad oCm+a! a+a
_ajCo +j CaaCm (Co+. aaa. 59)

nmg __uua_g. 'u+ga+aaua' _u_om oqauo
a_uuuu+_a. _oqaCo aa+o++a om nm_
ao _jgo uajgdog. _oo+g Co+j Caam _a__a
goad uoo+a.

1. C+ goad -- 28
2. ugoad -- 4
3. +caa -- 1
4. Co+j goad -- 14
5. u goad -- 8
6. c+m goad -- 2
7. _aaa goad -- 32
8. au uujad -- 24

Ca___uucco_gd u goad au +uuua
nm_ gga aaa goaoo ag ao _aa, aauaoa,
qauc _aa goaa au uujaoo ujg, ao,
aa+um, ao, qao _aa goaa au_jgoccm. naa
goad _mga uouo aum+o uamg ouuam_m. _m
_au u+o+aa au uujad u__ a+uo+a.

60
2.2.1 2.2.1 2.2.1 2.2.1. .. . au uujad au uujad au uujad au uujad

Co+j Caam _a__a ga+aa a+a+aa
uaj au uujad _ug +ma+_a. o_gd _jg
au_jc naam u+mug uujad. o__m u_uouq
oa+g:

1. a am
2. a+ aaaa
3. a++o+m
4. uauCa+u+ma
5. uauaa
6. aaoa+maaa
7. ucaouug
8. uaaa
9. uouo ma
10. amma+uo
11. umm +aa
12. aj +_
13. goa +_
14. aa+Co+a +_
15. a++ aaaa
16. aauCa+uo
17. oau a+uo
18. uuj a+a
19. _a+ aaa

_aamo+a. _uu+mug uujacm Co+j Caam
aam o+a+a++ _a__a uduoaj+ ummuuuu+a
uajgdog.

_jgoaoo ao, auuuo+o ucao uaj _aaa
goaom _ucCa uaj au u++aom +_uu+a
uajgdom. Caa uuja u__u u+guuc +_m Co+j
_aaaad u__ uaj goaom +aa+aCo+, Co+j
_aaaad u__a aaaom +aa+aCo+, a+u
61
ua+uu+aCo+ uajo_am_m. _uo a+a +__g _jg
u+coauo ucam. C u+co _ uujaoo _ca u_a
a+uo+a. _ma _g u+coad _Cog uujaoo
uajgdom.

_jgoaoo aaoa+maaa, uaaa,
ucaouug, _uouo ma, amma+uo, umm +aa
_aam a+au Cuo+oum gg uaom. aja,
goaa, aa+Co+aa _aao__m agad '+_' nm_
uoao ma+aa u_ uujmau _ucaucjga
ooauucdom. oajqa Co+m Cuo u+cuu__
aauCa+uo, ujg, ao, aa+um, ao, qao, oau a+uo
_aao_gd aauCa+uoam _ug u+coaa oau a+uo
ao+m naa a__oaaaa au_j+jm.

2.2.1.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.1. .. . aam aam aam aam

aau+a u+ o+m _aaa goad uug _u
__a. o_gd aau+a u+ o um+ _aaa
goaom +caga qoga oojgoaom
u+ouaua a_o+a uag ao u++auou
uucgdo++. _oo+_uaj uug mug u+aom +_uCu
aam __a. _jgo aa Cu+m_ uam ooog nm_
ao _ma uacuucqa+a. _jgoo _a+a
aaua, Cam, Cama, =+om nmumo__m uua mua
ooauucdom.

2.2.1.2 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.2. .. . a+ aaaa a+ aaaa a+ aaaa a+ aaaa

_aaa goaoo uau+muaa+au uaou ugoga,
muaucaga+m go _a auaa a+a. _jgomau
uuu a+ad o. ooa+aom u+uuaua
+a +go+o _u ua+ u__g. _a+a aaua, a+
u+uua, Ca+ao. auo, a+a _aao__m a_uqad
_aao_u_ _jgo oo_a. a+uu+uua j+
62
+ucao uajgdog. a+u u+ad _au+g __a.
_uu+coad _a auaa a+gd uajgdoo__m
+_uu+_a.

2.2.1.3 2.2.1.3 2.2.1.3 2.2.1.3. .. . a++o+m a++o+m a++o+m a++o+m

a am Cu+mg a+ +o+ma _aaa
u+uuaua oo_a ag goaoo uaj au u++aom
+_uu+a uajgdog. a amao _cau_+ _aaa
goaoo oga qoga uaj u++ +_uu+a uuC
u+coauo ucag. aja o+m _aaaaom aa,
a+a++m, ouum au+a, o+aaa+Co+aa _aam
_jgoo ooauucdom. _gu u_ao ucao+ uuaa,
aom+u+m nm_ u++m u+a ooauucdom.

2.2.1.4 2.2.1.4 2.2.1.4 2.2.1.4. .. . uauCa+u+ma uauCa+u+ma uauCa+u+ma uauCa+u+ma

Ca+u+ma nmug uqua ___a. uam oqauo
uca uqac nm_ u_ao uauCa+u+ma nmg
uauua_g. uauu uco__a mug aaauou
uqacao+a a+u _jgo ooau uga_g.

_g auuuo+o ucaouaj uauCa+u+ma nm_
gomau uaj u++aom +_uu+a uajgdog.
_jgom a+ u+ad _ug mg __a. _jgo oca+
mam _uuca a mam mu_a u_gdog.

2.2.1.5 2.2.1.5 2.2.1.5 2.2.1.5. .. . uauaa uauaa uauaa uauaa

uauaa nmum u+d aoa aucma nmu+a.
Co+j Caam oajqo oaCu+g aoa
a+duaad, oacc+guogcm uuc a+ucamo+a+
nm_ ao auuuo+o ucao uauuaa nm_ oo+m
guo nm++. m a+a+a jg_au uaj au u+aom
+_uq C uao (uauaa) uaa_g. _mau uaj
u+coaom nuuua _aug+m_ __a.
63

_g go aa, u_ aaom _u_ad, u+a+u
uua, au+aam uua, mm+aa+ aa aau+a
Camua _aao_u_ oo_a_g.

2.2.1.6 2.2.1.6 2.2.1.6 2.2.1.6. .. . aao a+maaa aao a+maaa aao a+maaa aao a+maaa

a nmug a+aaa; a+aam uuaua
oo_a go a aa+maaa. _g uaaCom a+aa+uoa+a
a+u aa a+a a_uq. Cuo+om+aa o+a ua+d
o+a, cu+_ oao_u_ oo_a_g. a
aa+maao caa au u+aom +_uu+a aao
a+maaa uaa_g. _mau _u+mug u+coad
cadom.

2.2.1.7 2.2.1.7 2.2.1.7 2.2.1.7. .. . ucaouug ucaouug ucaouug ucaouug

a+au Cuo+omm, oqauo auqa Couqu
u+qa ug u+coaom +_uq 'ucaouug' nmg
uauugam_g. ucaoa Coua u+uuaao
uaoC+ ucaoa ucom a_uq, uuam _jg
u_ad, ucaoa ucjC++, u__Cug _aam _uuo
ooauucdom. _u 'a+aaaa' nm_ oca+ gga
ucaou uuaua oo_a. _ga ug u+coauo
a+ucg.

2.2.1.8 2.2.1.8 2.2.1.8 2.2.1.8. .. . uaaa uaaa uaaa uaaa

uau u_ oaum+o _jg u+cauou u__a _
Coua. uu+cad u__ _aa aaa go+a uaam_g.
_u_ _aoq, a+ _aoq, _ucao uaa _mmoad,
oCu___a+m oad, _u_auoa _aa _jg u+uuaao
_jgo uajgdog. u+uua_ _ u+co nm_ ooo
ugu u+coaa g_uua +ga u+co mga nmu um+
u+coad uajgdom.

64
2.2.1.9 2.2.1.9 2.2.1.9 2.2.1.9. .. . _uouo ma _uouo ma _uouo ma _uouo ma

uouo_a m_+c acuaauo oo_o+au
ugu u+coauo uca+a _uouo ma na go
uaa_g. +uo _jg +gao+a oo+ u+__a
a acua _gom ouagg +gam_g. uaaa,
u++ma, _ua, +o+a+aa, Ca+aa o+m _jg aaoad
_uu++aoo ooau u_gdom.

2.2.1.10 2.2.1.10 2.2.1.10 2.2.1.10. .. . amma+uo amma+uo amma+uo amma+uo

_u_om ajaoo 'amma' nm_C++ ao
oo aq. _m aaua+m uaamua _u_om nja
__uuu og. ma _u_om nja a+caua
ou_a uoao _uuuja uao+o _g amma+uo
nmuugam_g. _uuujo aja, goaa, aa+Co+aa
nma _aaaaoo +_uucdo _uauo mmaC
a+uc Cuo+om nja a+ca ooauu_gdog.
_uuuja um+ u+coauo ucag. _uuuja
aa+ao uajgdo mg mamauo ucag.

2.2.1.11 2.2.1.11 2.2.1.11 2.2.1.11. .. . umm +aa umm +aa umm +aa umm +aa

uouo+a_a uca+oaoo mg au a+uq.
a coo _a+uuumu umm _caoo uu+. ma
uaao Caaom o+a +Ca+m =_+au umm
+aauo a+ooCoua. _+aa_a _u_om
oqoa, _a, ua, _ad _aamo_u_ oo_o+o,
_uuuja umm+aa nmuu__g. _uuuja umg
u+coauo ucag. _uuuj__ mCm+qa+a aa+o+m
umm +au u+c uaam_g.





65
2.2.1.12 2.2.1.12 2.2.1.12 2.2.1.12. .. . aj +_ aj +_ aj +_ aj +_

uouo auo aja nmg aauuog 'a Ca+
++au+a' nmu+_a. _m uuaua auaa+o++,

_oaa aooa ja qa++
uga+ _am noo+a
oaa aaa do+aq a
o+ uuo o_a
ooaa a_ga ja u__
+aa _am aaa
oaa a+ouo +mau a+uCcm
++au+ na +aa (+o+. 956)

nmg +gom oa uo+a. _aja u__, ._+aa+a
__uuuaao,

_a+am+aa ++aum acm+aa _ uCag
+m _aja. _m cu+uo, _a+a++ ac_
nga+oo oum uouo ou+c_ aom+a
Coua nm_ u_ _ajg +c_a_g.
15


nma_++. _ajCa aaoua aoaooog.
_aaju nc uoao+a u_g o___ ooaa a
muaao uao+o aj +_ nmuua_g. _mau
uaj u++aom nuuua ug __a.

2.2.1.13 2.2.1.13 2.2.1.13 2.2.1.13. .. . goa +_ goa +_ goa +_ goa +_

ao+ma+ad =Cc_ aad Couqauq _u_om _
+c+auo m_+a aja u+m. _aajm _u+aa
ouaa, u_u_ uouma +ga. _ma _uc+a uaj
a+u+o goaa nmuua_g.

'_aj ++au auo aua uuCa'
'_aC ++au+a a: '
66
nmuuo goaa+_a. _o__o o +c+o 'ua u+cqa+u
mmc =+ouca _u oqauoa u+aa+au
u_gamC_m' nm_ u+a _uc+og +c+o 'ua
u+cqa+a =+oa+m Ca+ao nmga uaa+auu
qCom+a' nm_ u+a aucam_m.
16
goaa u__a
agauo +a ooao+o goa +_ nmuua_g.
_g goam ug aauo oo_a umm u+coauo
ucag.

2.2.1.14 2.2.1.14 2.2.1.14 2.2.1.14. .. . aa+Co+a +_ aa+Co+a +_ aa+Co+a +_ aa+Co+a +_

aa+u+ Cu++aoa+aa _Co +_=m_
auum auua om+m. jgom au aa+Co+aa+a,

a+o +a+j ua_a
a+aqaa aua o_
_a o+ a+o+u+Cuua:
Ca++a a+a a++a: (ua.au. 18.66)

nm_ +Co+au om+m. _m u+d aa oucag.
_umu ugu u++aoo +a +go+o _uua+ u__g.
_m _u++a +Co+am uc u+uo +ga. _au
um+ u++auo ucag.

2.2.1.15 2.2.1.15 2.2.1.15 2.2.1.15. .. . a++ aaaa a++ aaaa a++ aaaa a++ aaaa

_a uao au _u_om+o am_ ouucc
qmgo __a. _jgom uc auaoo+a +a
noCo+a uama+dauq _ooj++ 'a++ aaaa' nm_
guo om++. _m a+ ua+uq nauq _ooj+m
guo oCa _g _a__uu__+o a++ aaaa nmuC
___a ua+a_g. ( _ooj+m gg_ 'a++ aaa
cua' nm_ u mu_a Co+j Caam odo++. )
_jgo _u+ u+coauo ucag. _jgg_ _
mamad ao uajgdom.

67
2.2.1.16 2.2.1.16 2.2.1.16 2.2.1.16. .. . aauCa+uo aauCa+uo aauCa+uo aauCa+uo

ouaa+uuo uajg oua_u ug aad nm
uug u+coauo a+uqo_a _oaa oua aauCa+uo
__a. Co+j Caam oajq__ ojCu+g og
_u_om Cuo aauCa+uouau u+qm++. uug u+coad
_ug u+coad Cu+a naa ugu u+coaCo oagdom.
_uo aoo, ouu+, accuo aogu_ na oua a+uqcm
j+ +ucao uajgdom. _uuujgd am
aaquuq C+, aoo +_gad a+uuuam_m.

2.2.1.17 2.2.1.17 2.2.1.17 2.2.1.17. .. . oau a+uo oau a+uo oau a+uo oau a+uo

uooua _uca mug auauo _uu a+uo
Cu+mg mug ouaa+m a+uuo uaau u+oga oau a+uo
__a. _ga oajqg _u_oum ggu u+cuu__
oau a+uoa+_a. _o _g, q, nc, um+m_, _uc
a+aoo uaj _aa oaa ao oaa
uajgdom.

2.2.1.18 2.2.1.18 2.2.1.18 2.2.1.18. .. . uuj a+a uuj a+a uuj a+a uuj a+a

a Coa nmg uouo+ao+o Cu+__uua uuaucag
+o+a oauuuja __a. _uuujm ag a_do
=u+cc+o,

u+auam _++ Cua+ o++u
u+oo _Caam oc am
gaa_o Caaua u+u +m
_+ucqu u+qaua oj Ca+
uoaao+ au_ooa o+dCo Cojg
auaa+Ca+ mm_o+au aajg u+
aaaa a+uoau+j oa Co+
oa+ au_oa coam C_+Ca
(Ca.u. 40)

68
nmg a+ aaao __uua_++. _j =u+cqm+CoCa
oau uuju uuaauo uuj a+a+a, Caam
_a__do++. _jgoo aua a au_Ca+m nmg _aa+
__uuc a+da_++. _jgo umm _o++ o+a
uuaauo, o oa, +d, u++ nuuua, uujm
u+d _aao_u_ +aa+a naaqa_g. _ mamad
uajgdo _jgo umcu u++auo ucag.

2.2.1. 2.2.1. 2.2.1. 2.2.1.19 19 19 19. .. . _a+ aaa _a+ aaa _a+ aaa _a+ aaa

ua u +c oum Cacm+aoa. ago,
_+_a, +aa _uad oo+ ua uom+CoCa
C+am_m nmug mCm++ a+dua. _um a.aja+a
oa++,
a+j goaoo +_uucdo u aauu uqg
jg a+u aucuuquug+m oCouo. Ca+
_ua _Ca+ _ua a_ uauo uuo+_ co
Ca+ _ua _Ca+ _ua uca+a __a. ama
uuq+m __a.
17

nm_ aaa+o uo+a. ua u_a am amg_a
+c+qu. amCa _u_oum uca guu __a a+ma+_a.
nmCo ua u_aoo + _ Cuo. _oo+ua
q_u u u_u__ ooa +ga go+a _a+ aaa
oo_a_g. uao auao ogu, a u nm_ u_uq
a+uuua_g.
18
m quuucaCoCa _a+ aaa nj+a
Caam __uuam_++. _jgo ooa Couqam, uu
_om nmg ouauu _u+ u++aoo uaa.
___ ao mam mga uajgdog.

2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3. .. . _ __ _ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu

2.3.1 _ Co+j Caamm o+a o+_a nma _ooao
Caamm o+uaao aj aaoauoa o+a
uucuqauoa oo_am_g.

69
2.3.2 _oa_uq, oa_uq, o+ a_uq nmg Caamm u_uq
a+uc+cuua_g. ouca aaoaa o+gu Cu++aa
uouo a+duaao o+ a+uc _j auuaua
oouugom. aaaa+oo uaa+m =u+ccm mg,
uouo _ uaa oauuuja a_jC+aa o
aa++.

2.3.3 Caamm au uujaoo Co+ja, c+ma, g,
uuj a_uq _aam a+uuuam_m. _uo uouo
Co+jm a u+uoaoo+a cq __m
u+gom. nmCo +a _o_gc ao, mam uoo__+o
Cu+__uucdom. _uuujad Caamm a+uquqoua
uaao gcua, auu+d _ua, go, a+ aua
_aao_u_ u+gom.

a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa

1. A. Satya Vrata Singh, Vedanta Desika - A Study, p.1
2. _+a Caa+a++a++, (uduoaj+ - u), _Caauuuja.
u. 455
3. _uau+uu+oa, u. 104
4. _ Ca+u+o Caa a_+Caam, '_au' Caa+ g__j+
5. Ca_Ca+d, A.Satya Vrata Singh, Vedanta Desika - A Study, p.3
6. . u+aoa, a _oaa oo+g, um+ma+a g__+u -
u. 266 & 276
7. _uau+ uu+oa, u. 108
8. Caog, u. 143
9. Caog, u. 121, 125, 129, 130, 137
10. Caog, u. 131, 132, 123, 163
11. Caog, u. 148 - 155
12. Caog, u. 162
13. auoaoaaa 9.521
14. uua+a++auo+a, _+o+a++a uouoa u. 75
15. . _+aa+a, _+oo_ aauaaa+d (_uc+a u+aa) u. 32
16. Caog, u. 44
17. a. aja+a oa++, u agoa u. 113
18. uao au, 17. 8 - 10
70
_ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad

3.0 au+a _am a_uqa _a+dua uouo
goauo uaoam_ _ca _aauo Co+j Caamm u_a
muauu_gdom. _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad
nma _ooao ao+ma+o__ au+a ugoo do
_u_ad u__ _aa+ +gom _au u+uuaao+a
uaam_m.

au+a nmug _o++ao+ga _o++ o_o+
uo+ga oogu Cuauuc ojgdog. a++m C+a
a_jo+Ca ua+cooo a+aa o+m Ca+aad, a++u u+a
aaom _ma =Cc____ guua+a+. o+aom auo
aCa au+a _u_om+o ouu__g. oaja,
goaa, aa+Co+aa _au ojg Cu+am_m. noCo+a
ocqmua+aa uaua uca Coua nm_ C+ao m
da+a+ga a+ga _u_om m oqauo
u+aa+a a+cq _a_+m.

_u_omm dou +jgu+j Caam, g
__g a go uoo_gda oajg Cu+a_++. o+ _ Caau
uujo uouuc _u_om od qjoa aaua
oCa++_ _g 'Cao+a aaC' nmug Cu+o
uuq oa_++. _ Caau uujo au+a goa u+go
uajgdog. _oouaao, _ Caau uuj u+c_
u+uuaao au+a uga _ca, au+aam mua,
aad, uumm+, auq_ uoad, ouaad _aam
ooauuam_m.

3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1. .. . _ Caau uujo au+a ugaca _ Caau uujo au+a ugaca _ Caau uujo au+a ugaca _ Caau uujo au+a ugaca

Co+j Caam ao uucmo+a +ccuuom
_ug +m_ uujad __a. _o_gd ujg, ao, aa+um,
ao, qao nma _jg uujad aucau u_oouo. naa
u+muga _ Caau uuja nmg a_uqcm +ccuuam_m.
_uo +o+a oau uuja nmuC+ gu 'uuja' nmg
71
+ccu ugam_ muaua Caaoaaa++ aauco+g
__uuam_++.

a+oqa++ao+o cq +_au u_g u_a+a
aa Co+j Caa+ o aa auu+c_
uujaa auuuoou uuju u+coaa Caau
uuja nmuuga. _uuuja _o++ad oaa
oauuujC+ Ca+g uuga a+ua uca+o
Caauuuja nma +aa u_gdog. a+o +Cm
da_j mg a_j oqoa+aa Caa oqoo _og
amga o+aga Ca+aoa+u _o+ o+ao+au
u+qaoa+o _g Caau uuja nmg +o+a ooau
uujC+c+ a_uq au_a+a a+ m_g.
1


Caau uujo uaj u+co +uaaum
aa+a ouaao a+uo+a.

1. a am 39
2. a+ aaaa 56
3. a++o+m 37
4. uauCa+u+ma 21
5. uauaa 54
6. aaoa+maaa 29
7. ucaouug 11
8. uaaa 11
9. uouo ma 10
10. amma+uo 11
11. umm +aa 13
12. aj +_ 10
13. goa +_ 12
14. aa+Co+a +_ 11
15. a++ aaaa 21
16. aauCa+uo 10*
17. oau a+uo 10
18. uuj a+a 18
19. _a+ aaa 21
* uug u+coaoo _ug aucau u_oouo.
72
Ca_+_a 405 u+coad _g u+coad _u_ uamg
oam_m. aamam 18-_a u+co+m 'mC_qao' nm_
u+co aao a+maam 4-_a u+co+a uajgdog.
aamam 30-_a u+co+m 'oumd a+__a' nm_ u+co
a_ao a+__acm, C aamam 38-_a u+co+a
uajgdog. aamam 34-_a u+co+m 'Ca+_a
aad' nm_ u+co, goa +am 12-_a u+co+a uaam_g.

a+ aaam 44-_a u+co+m 'aoa+oa'
nm_ u+co aao a+maam 9-_a u+co+a uajgdog.
a+ aaam 'uc+qa+d aaa' nm_ 46-_a u+co
a++o+mam 10-_a u+co+a oo_am_g.

aao a+maam 17-_a u+co+m 'a ao+ou
ua+d' nm_ u+co amma+uoam 10-_a u+co+a
uajgdog. _j _g u+coad Cu+a Caau uujmau
_au u+uuaao+a uaj u+coaom nuuua 399
__a.
_o_gd ucaouug, aj+_, goa +_,
aa+Co+a +_ _aa +mam u+coad au+aam
uuauaa auucCo++_ _u_om dqa muauaa
Ca oo_om. uauCa+u+ma, auucjo_ _u_om
uauuCug o_uo +cam_g.

ua uao uouom a_uuu +ca uoao,
au+aam a_uqa __ u+aa+a uom+a __a _u_om
a u_ am+u+o do _u_aa +ccuugam_m.
_uo ou u_ goad oaja, goaa, aa+Co+aa
u__a ooaaoo au+a ucam uua +cquau
uga_g. _u_ouca auuua +ca uo u+coaa om
u+aa uoa+a __uoCa oajg Cu+a. Caga aad
qa+u uua+a _uga +ccuua. a+ aaaa,
a++o+m _aao__m uo u+coad au+aam +gad
uoo_u_ ca+udom.



73
_o++ad, _a+a+aom auuua nuu g_a
uoaga ao+_ o+ad au+aua oo muauaCa
Co+j Caam +cam_++. mm+aa+ oa oaumCa
+a uuu+a +cam_++. naa u+coaoo auucCo+m
umu__Couqa uouoa++ ao+gad uauugam_m.

u+guc +cqm, Caau uuju u+coad
au+aam noua, _a+am o, u_Ca aao,
au+a aad, ouaad, auucjum au q_jo+ uo,
auucCo++ uuqad, uua, _u_ouca auu, _u_om
u+aa uoa+ao, qa+u uu, ucaoa o_o,
oa go, u__go, oo_o _aa uo +gauo
docaCa 'au+a' na u+uua uajgdog. o
o_o u __a ag nma Ca+cCa+u+aa+a
au+a_ u_go+uCa Co+j Caam ojg +ga
muaa+o, __ au+acm _uug a+uuua_g.

'aa+a+gaumu Cu+Co +a uo+a+a aco+'
2

nmg Co+j Caam, a+aau Cuo+omm ua+o
+ccu u__++ nmug umaag. _oouaao naua+m++
_+a+_m oacc+guou oouuaC+ u
o+m Ca+aaCoam_, 'au+aaa Ca+aa
muaucag' nmg uo u+coaoo oouum++. nmCo+m
auoaoaaa _ou +cq +guaao,

'_o++a au+aamuu muucc C+m
Ca+cCa+u+aa+a ++ua aao+'
3


nmg __uucua_g.

Co+j Caa_ mCm+qa+a au+a
gou ooa uo+ noao+. _o+ mm+a+a+aa
_o++aa __uuo +cqa gou ooaugdo++.
_u_oum auucjom uaaaaum nmuuo+m; oCm
ago uoua uco+m; noo+o+ga aom mum
naua+mca auq_oa Coua. goaa uao auam
74
aa+Co+aa _au+auaCa o_qg +gam_m.
_o++ad uoa auq_uo a u+cgCc qouu
uam_m+. _ _+a+a+ oacc+guou _uuc
ooa j_aCoCa au+auaa __uucdo++. _ a
aa aa+ +o+aad (44_og ucca),

'auao aa+Co+aa+mg uCa+a__ aa+m
au+aua oa_g' nmg naua+m++ a+u+ao
o aagdo++. a__ a+uauoa au+a
aaua a+u 'Ca++ a+aa+m uoj
uuuaa _j aa+Co+aa oa_g' nmug
naua+m++ doa; nmg _aauaaa+o
_uo+a Caam oo+a +_dou a+oa _ao+a.
4


nmg +gomoa mm+aa+ o oauo ojg
uo+ Co+j CaaCm nmuu o_ uo+a.
_uaa uuaua u+jC Caa+ g__j+a

_gm Caoqua aog+ a+u+o
u__+mga _m_u uoacom - +guu++
Coq CaaCm Co ouu+o+a
a+oum uoC am (Ca. g_. 40)

nm_ u+coo a+o qauu q_oo Co+j Caam a+cqa
=u+cuc __am_g.

_o_u_aoo+a C+_uaao ooa+a +ccuu__
au+a u__a agauo u_uua ouauua
jo+ Co+j Caam nmuga, agauo oca+,
auuuo+o goaoo +cqu_a muaaCoCa a au
uujaoga oouu do++ nmug qom+_a.

uouo aaa__ q__a j Co+j Caam
_u_omm muuu ugouCa u_ouuam nmga oomu__
_u_oum auucCo o nmga uouuc a uujaoo
+_do++. o+ au+aaum oogaC+ +a
75
go__ + _oaua+a ajo+ _o++. au+a
goa _o+a uujao+CoCa uou_gdog.
_gou Co+j Caam qouuga+_u_ o+a
uujaom o a+uo+a.

3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2. .. . au+aam mua au+aam mua au+aam mua au+aam mua

u Cu___a oao+au uCa+aa uu
_a +ccuugam_m. _ooucd uCa+a__ a+aa,
+ma o+m uquoad a+uu ugam_m. a+u +m
C+a, a+aaoo oo+ua, a+m +aaoo oo+ua, oumu
uamauo gao oama uCa+aoao _u_oum
ucuo_ a muaao+a uaam_m. _uuCa+a__
aguoa+aCo au+a +ccuuga_g. Caaoaaa++,

'a+aCa uu, au+a, ucaoa, uaguco,
ua+ua, au_qao, uaauc, _oouc, aa, ao
nmg +_uua'
5
nmg __a_++.

_oo+g uoua+aoo +ccuua au+a_ quuuc
_u_omu+o a+da mu+_a. _uaa mum aua
au+aaa uua+a+_u_u u._+. aaam a auco+g
__uuam_++.

_u_om ag a+da mq uu nmo _oomq
uquuqa+a oo+jg _u_omcCa m _au uog
Co_uma u+cu+ uoa+m uauao
a+u agga. _g _gao aum+m _u_om
umg acuaauoa ococ nmumCa qaoca+a
a+d. +m umg uoaommga mum oouCum
nm_ auam _gu u_ao +ga uu _ao
Ca+_a. uu _Ca umga a+j_ nmuC
uouom ag.
6


76
u _aga _u_omu+o mq q_ua nma uao
+ccuua na, aa o+m cc+aauo a _a__a
ummC aoao aa. nmCo, au+auau umu__ __o
a+o ajg nm Co+j Caam a uujaoo
__uucua_++.

3.2.1 3.2.1 3.2.1 3.2.1. .. . au+a au+a au+a au+a - -- - ooaa ooaa ooaa ooaa

au+a nmug _ uouo a+jm uaa
a+_a. gaaaa+m _ooa o+oo =Cc__a ucuo
aCa a+uad njm. ao+ a_ _u_om o
uoj muaua o_+a uaa+ucuaCa
_gmuag_ a+ua. _m+o _ouma +uoa+o+am.
_o__mmg ouc _u_oum CouqaucCo o. u, uu
nm_ _ua _ooam ouaao+_a. u_ aad uo+o
uaa+do _ao+g. uuquucco+ad _u_oumCa aua
aucC_go_a u+aa+a a+dam_m+. _u_oum ucjg
oa o+om _c+auojg om oq a _o+aa
u_u uaa+uou noo ugCo _ou+aa+_a. _gCo
au+a nmuua. _au+aua _+aom,

_a+aa uouua o_u_ a+uu+_ga u+guuua
a+uu+_go+o oa uauma naua+mca ua+uuua
aaog, _gCo C+ua, a+aa, a+aa, au+a, uu
nmg uo a+_ad oa a+oouua_g.
7


nmg oo_a_++. Caaoaaa+a,

_aa+o Codo_ _u_uu+Co Caa __a.
+og _u_uu+om u+cCc __a nm_uq
_u_uu+_ a+uu+uo _oa+a _a +muu
CodoCa u+aa nma a+oa+_a. aa+oCa au+a
nmuua.
8


77
nmg __uum oa ao_a _u_o_a C+am_
_ucooua au+aCa noo uqa_g nmug qom+_a.
nmCo+m Co+j Caaa,

ga _uuc aua o+g aa+o
u+a _ua aumu u__a uaa+d
+um uu oja +cqo quaaoo+a
Ca+o u+ cma+d a+g __mCa
(Ca. u. 74)

nm_ u+coo au+aam muauaa _u_auuuaa
a+ca_++.

_au+aua _a oa+a a+do Coua.
_o+m uoma_ uaa+do +c+g. _um aa+a
u+coo ougam_++.

u+mum _ajg oaad qooa qogaj+o
amm uuu u+mmo Cam oaumga
mum aucjc +md aaa mauoCa+m
u+mmq +aucj C+aq_a _+nma+o aaqCm
(Ca. u. 112)

3.2.2 3.2.2 3.2.2 3.2.2. .. . _a+a _a+a _a+a _a+a+ oao auuco + oao auuco + oao auuco + oao auuco

_u_auouu u_ au+a Cu+ga+mg. ao+ad
u_ua aaa _a__o+a _uaao au+auau
umu_gam_m+. u aao++_a au+a _u_omm
do+o Cqa+au uom o+ga _u_oCm u+aa+a
uom+a __o+ga _j_Ca _a+a+ uo_a auu+a_g.
au+a gom cua aja, goaa, aa+Co+aa
_aa m_da +ccuua. _auu _+o+a+a++ uoa
ooa+a ug aoaa aaam_m+. _ma _a+a+
uCa auaa+m gou Co+j Caam,

78
aa um_m amga
a u oo++ -
o au_am qCa+ aoouum
ao a_o++ ao+ (Ca. u. 7)

nmg __uua_++. _uu+coo ' aa um_m
amg' nmaqam u+d, 'mg aaamau caa
mug u+a' nmug __a. Caau uuju
_uu+cauo,

ajo mg +ad:
1. naua+mca a uouu ua+uuo,
2. aua +a Couqa acuaua ua+uuo,
3. +om uoum ua+uuo nmum.

oao mg +ad:
1. u+aa,
2. uom,
3. (ouaa+aa) oC+a+ua nmuuo.

aa+Co+ao mg +ad:
1. auucuom aaa a+aa,
2. auucjo_ naua+m aaa a+aa,
3. auucjum Camm _aCouqa u_ nmuuo.
9


nmg __uua_g. _goauo _a+a+ m_u+jg
ojg ac_ oam_++. ouca q+ocucu
umu__ a+oa ao Coua. Co+j Caam _au
aa+a u+coo ooggam_++.

mmq ao Caua uo ma+o
u+mmq Ca_am_ quua+ Cauam qom_o++
mmqu u++g ag o+oo+ a+uaamu
ummq u++g cjg uaua qgoCa (Ca. u. 204)



79
3.2.3 3.2.3 3.2.3 3.2.3. .. . au+aam noua au+aam noua au+aam noua au+aam noua

uCa+a__ _ouuad muaa+muo. aaa,
+ma +jg uCa+ao agga. uao uu,
u+ma, uau nm_ mu_a acj ummC _ma =Cc__a
_aga. _o__o =uccum oum+_ad a
a+aCoua. oaum oc _a ou aua aua
aao Coua. _uaa _c+ad au+aao _ouo.
nmCo+m Co+j Caam,

aaam +mam m+o auc
a+aoa a+om a+mo _a
au_a+o uoao _j+d noo+a
qCaum uoa+ ouua nuu
auc a++ua a+m _jg
mamm+ quaa+a o+a Couq
aaCo+ c+a+ga ua+ +m
uaCo Cagom Ca+am C_Cm
(Ca. u. 102)

nm_ u+coo aaa, +ma, u Ca+aa o+j au+aao
=uuo o_qgga_++. _j_ u__ _+a agad
o+a +cquauuam_m. a. o+aum,

ua++auu uquuqa+a+m uaa+oo+a. _m+o
uuua noCa cmqa+aCo Ca_a+doo+a.
_u_omm ooouaaga oga _u auua uog
mum __+a omca uuucCo uua+_a.
10


nmg __uua_++. . +uqcqa++,


u _ua noCo++ga qaqa+g. _aCo
a+jC++, +jC++, a_C_++, aoo+o+ nm_ Cogu+
_m_ noCo++ga Ca_a+do+qa _a+m_um
aucm+ aaooaa u__ CaCo++. gCo uu
_a+_a.
11
nma_++. Co._+. a+om,
80

noCo+a no+a Ca_a+doa ouaao uajuug
au+a _a+_a. u+ao aquuq _j_Ca _ma+,
oa o+oojg ouo ugo__a aj_a+_a.
_o++ad _a+Ca u _ua oogm+ga
o+ad a_a+a ooggog au+a _uaCa.
12


nmg agua_++. . _+aa+aa,

_u_oum uca a++aaom ouaad u
_uaa uu _uaa a_uu+au Cu+a uouo
aaaa. _ooucda uu _am nouauaa
umoa umu_g__a m _aouua nga+oo
m Camuauau qouugo++ad uouo _o++aa
_a+a+aa.
13


nmg __uuam_++. _aguad a+a au+aam Camua
a_ga nouauaa u _am ua a_ga _c+auoa
ojg __uuam_m.

au+a ucuaao u_ aa+Co Cu+ga+mg.
u _ao oo+_mg. a+ commg _a ou
uCa+ao _uca_+g m_+a Coua. _jaacm
+qa au+aua Co_+mga a+g _u_om oquaCa
a Ca_a+do Coua. _u_o_ ouu+m
uaaaauo aa+Co Cu+ga+mg. au+aua u_
aaCo Cu+ga+mg nmuu Co+j Caam,


aqad ucamC_m nm_+a+o uou
uaa_m nmuo+Cu+o aom aauoga
aumga o+a_ oaa+a aaoo_a
uauca o+o+ qauuCa aucjCCm
(Ca. u. 243)

81
nmg __a_++. Caga u_ auq_j aom oa+o
o+ u__g nmuu Co+j Caam _+__+a +gam_++.

a+o qauu Ca+jg aj oquau_
+ umau uau _a gujucCo+a
+d ua a+ aja a+a
o+d u_g o+a uoaam amoCa (Ca. u. 35)

muca u+ua_ a ao+ au+aua Ca_a+ucum
u+uad _u_ouca auua+o amg oam_m.

ao+ a _a+uaa+o 'u+ua aao+' nm_am+o
uCu+g acCa agu_ au+a aaao+a. _g auucj
u__ _jC+ _a+aCo+ u+ua aaouu Cu+aooog. _g
u+aa au+a nmuua_g.
14
_a noouaaga ao_
u+ua Ca+oouo. _j uoao acCa agu_ au+a
aauua_g. _m+o C+a_a+a u_
auucCo Cu+ga nmuga jC+aa _a +cca+a
_uum aa a_uq nmuga uo+a.

noa u_ao _a+am u Cac m oao
u+aa uoa+a __a _u_oum nuu auqao Coua.
_aaaad m_da +ccuuga _j_Ca aaa
nouaa+mg nmum+ga a+oa _j_ua Ca_a+doo+a
nmum+ga Co+j Caam uauao _m a_uuu
+cq +ga_++. uu+co oa+g,

noo++_a no+m q__ +ga
_muua auaa+m _a +ga
a+oo++_a oo+ga ua o+ga
guo+a guug__a +a +ga
aoo++_a a__++a+o ao+ o+ga
auuu qq q o+ga
oo++_a a++_a _gCo m_+a
+u_Ca ucaoa+a _ oC
(Ca. u. 200)
82

Ca_a+a u+co u__aoo mg _ma =Cc__a
uca qa+o+aa au+aao =uc aco+a na
ao _ma ua uao uaauucdog.Caga aaa
o+muo caa u _ao _ma a+++a+a u_a
oao au+a _m_auaa+g. _au+a u _am
nouoao mum uuucuu+a uaa. au+aam __
a_uuu Co+j Caam,

Co om ou+j C++ad ogu
a+_ auaa +mu a aauoa
a+a ooo au+ am m_uo..... (Ca. u. 113)

nmg __uua_++. a +m u__a au+a
Cuo naCu+g noa au+auau umu__ a+oa aao+a
nmug _m cu+o+a uaa_g. a.uoaoam
aauco+g +goga oa+o ag.

acuoCa a o+ o+a a+u acuo uc__a
_ao+a oo+ aaa_Ca_u aoo_u_ uag
a+ucm+. aua, aua, Ca+aa, +ma nm uao+ad
+_mmm u_, a+a_, +m_, uu _
nm uouo+ad o_ga+udom+. noo+o_u_Ca
u_ +m_ nm _uqo ca +go+ga u.
umg _aoga ucao_ oog au+a _
(uu _) nmug o __uouo+a.
15


am+ao+o aaauua au+a nmug uao+mm
auuua _+a+a a+ucg. auu _mC_o au+a
nmug uamoo+ao Cu+_a. _+a+m auuuau ugCo
au+aam o__a+_a. u_ao, _u_ouca
auuuau ugo nomg. no+m _auuu Cu___
au+aCa _a nmug Co+j Caamm ca+m
a+ja+_a.



83
3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3. .. . au+a aad au+a aad au+a aad au+a aad

au+aua aaa uoao uaa+da u_am
uquoad 'au+a_a aad' nmuuam_m. oaaoo
_c_g ojga Camm uaua ucouCa m _ma
=Cc__a+a a+da_+m. naua+mm oa _uauo
u+jg, omq uua+g oCu a+oa aua_a oaaom
agua_a amaoj _a_+m. _ooaao _mmo a
uaua Caa au+aua u+aa+au u_ga_+m. au+auau
u_ga uoao ao ou_auo +uqa u_Ca Camg
au+a ua uga_g. oou_ad oa+g;

1. +oa aaoua
2. u++oa o+ama
3. a++uuuaa
4. aa+ o+o+aa
5. Ca+uo oua
6. _ma C+ua

au+aam aad u__ o+oa_aoaaa,

au+a _g aao+au uauucqa_g. +oa
aaoua (Anukulya Sankalpa) u++oa o+ama (Prati kulia
varjana) aa+ o+o+aa (Maha Visvasa) a++uuuaa (Karpanya)
Ca+uo oua (Gopdrutva Varana) _ma C+ua (Anma
nikshepa). _+_ag _u_om _uuuuq ca ago
_uuca ama Cuo. m+o aa+a jgoa_g.
_uc+a aa _u_o_u uqa+o_u_
gaoo. m_+a aa+o+o+aa _u_om oo
auua uoo+_a. +ma+a aa a++uuuuaa nmug
a+a a++auCa+, +m a++auCa+, u
a++auCa+ umu__+aouug. _g uu
amuu+muaua q_uga_g. _j+og Ca+uo oua
nmug _u_omm uaua n+ u++o. aucaa+a
_a cCaua nmug mum uuuco.
16


84
nmg __uug nuuag. _m, _ooaaom u_uouuu,
Co+j Caam,

_ooua_u uaa+og - +oa aa_ua, u+
+oao+ama a++uuuaa aa+o+o+aa Ca+uo
oua
17


nmg _a auaa a+o +cqua_++.

Caau uujo a++o+maga
ucaouuga au+a_a aauo ___a
u+coad _cau_gdom.

mmo+ aam_ a__+mg _oCom
a+oa uuaa uoa jCm
mm_ _m+m uo ajCm
maCu auma gu _uCcm
ammo+a m_uo am_ +g
o+mo+a o+a oCm mum
_mmo+o _mamCa++ uCa_ _+ao
nja+o ucaoa+d nmum Ca
(Ca. u. 126)

nma u+coo au+a aad +ccuu_gdom.

+oa aaoua+og _u_o_ nuCu+ga
+om+a __a uoa+_a. +om+a _a
ago+og, aaa _mo u_+g _u_om ouu__ a+_+g
__+o+_a. _uc+d a u+coo,

" gCa+a+a ojg+a gao+ go +g
o+am+o u+q amm+o aja
Cu+auua q_o+m. . . . . . . " (+o+. 478)

85
nmg __uug +oa aaou__a+a uaa_g.
_oouaao 'mm_ _m+m uo ajCm' (Ca. u. 126)
nma qao +oa aaoua +ccuua_g.

u++oa o+ama+og _u_o_ n+uu+m
aaoauo ocoa uoa+_a. n+uu+m aaoad nmum,
_u_muaa_u u+j+ga u+a__
nuca+muoa+m aaoad. +oa+a _uu__ a+_+a
__a aaoauo aaa+ao _uuC _m muaa+_a.

u+gCm qma+o ao u+d _muanm _ua
_gCm _aqom adacm _am o+ao cq
gCm _+o a__a uoaua amg a__
ogCm mmucj Cm ouu a+Ca aoCm
(+o+. 1458)

nm_ u+coo auaa+o++ a aguaauo g
auuco _ooam u+_uccg. aaoad aaommg
a __a u++oao+amu, 'a+oa uu aa uo
ajCm' (Ca. u. 126) nma +c+ u+ga_g.

a++uuuaa+og, _u_oum ou u_C++ u+aCa+,
oCa+ _oo+ a noua uoua u+go+_a. _g
_u_oCm m_ a; _u_omm_ Co_guqoaoo m_
aoCaa _ouo nmgu+ __a. _muaua aa+o+m,

m_a+a qaoca _oa nmgnmg o__ . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mg +am _ga ac+ acCo (+o+. 3983)

nm_ u+coo uo+a. _ooau 'mmo+ aam_
a__+m_oCom' (Ca. u. 126) nmaq u+gam_g.

86
aa+ o+o+aa nmug _u_o_ nuCu+ga +ua,
_u_om nuCu+ga uaoc+ao a+o+m nmg uoa _u
auuaa+_a. _j+ u++a+am,

quma mg Ca+aauou Cu+o uu aao+mmg;
_u_omco a+o a+da+g moagdo m
amu a+__ omca uqoga, acom auu
aua a+_a nma ga+m auuaCa uu_
Couqauo.
18


nma +_g aa+o+o+aa naooam Cuoua
nguuu+a uaam_g. _u_om ag auua a+uc+o
a+uuC om acua. _um aa +Co+aga _u_om
+cqdo+m. _jauuaua aa+o+m,

aua __a m+d ucj++_ noo+a
aua _m+o uo_ja a+_a u+m (+o+. 3884)

nm_ u+coo qouuc a+uo+a. _ooau 'maCu
auma gu _uCcm' nmaq u+ga. (Ca. u. 126).

'Ca+uo oua' nmug _u_oum a+_a+g
Couo __a. __uuq Cu+o _u_omca auqao
mum a+_a+g Couo uaam_g. ao+ Couc+Cu+g
+Cm _u_om oua a+coouo. mum uca++_
om oauu_gauo a_goouo. nmCo, u_uuq
auuacm _u_oum Couq a+douCa _ooaa
+ca_g. _uaa Couuo auaa+o++ u+coo,

u_jg __jg Cuc+ +aumg _a+
a_jc+g a__m_ a+a oaCoua (+o+. 809)

nmaqao+o uo+a. _ooau 'ammo+a m_uoua
nm_ +g o+mo+a o+a oCm mum' (Ca. u.
126) nmaqao+o uo+a.
87

_ma C+ua+og mamg a+uc u+guqauo
auojg, mum a+uuga _u_om u+guCu nm C+jg,
mum _u_omca ucaoa+a uuuco+_a. _u_o_
+oa+auug o omca Couq a+do ouao+m
uoauo acj ummC _ma C+ua a+douuga.
_juoao _u_omm auucm uaua ug__ u
uua+aCo+, _+ uua+aCo+ ao+ auuco+.
_muaua auaa+o+m,

+uc _auu uaCu+ gjm
auCa aua nmg _jCm
Cuc aao o aCa
ua+d a+a acoa cj+a (+o+. 1006)

nm_ u+com o uo+a. _uaa +g '_mmo+o _m
nmCa++ uCa__+ao nm a+o! ucaoa a+d nmum
Ca' (Ca. u. 126) nm_ qaoo +ccuuam_m.

a_auo ajgao+ oumga+j g__ua
aagu u_u+jg oama+oo nmog
aao+ qaooo+ oa_Cam adaa
a+auu +umo ucaoa+a ucjCCm
(Ca. u. 241)

nm_ u+cga au+a_a aauo +coC. _uu+coo
'a_a uo ajg' nmug _u_o_ +oa+a
_a_a _uauo uaa+ucuaua +ca_g. 'ao+
umga jg' nmug, _u_om do__ a+_+m
aa+ aaa+ad, aaoad a+a jg __a u+
+oao+amu +ca.

'qaooo+ oa_Cam' nm_ q CoC_+ u__oo+g
a++uuuaa+a a nouaua +cq__a. 'aa gu
u_u+jg' nm_ q _u_om uua+a a+uu+_go+m nmg
__a aa+ o+o+au +ca_g. 'a+oom og'
88
nmumoa _u_om a+oo+a mg a+aCoua Ca+uo
oua +ccuuga. _ouojg aauoa acjg _ma
C+ua+aa au+a _aga. _au+a, 'auu +um o
ucaoa+a ucjCCm' nmu+o u+uua_g. _ma
C+uu ucaouuga,

aaa oqa oa do_a
uaao+ ua_a ouua qa+a
aaau uouuuauqa aoaao+ ouam_
do+ uoaoao aum+m ajCCm
(Ca. u. 246)

nmg Co+j Caam __uuam_++. _uu+co _ma
C+u__ ooaa+a uaogcm o+a u a_uuuu
qouugo+aa uaa_g. au+aa+aa _ma C+ua
mg +gao+au u_auua_g. uoa+om,

1. _ma aa+uuua
2. u aa+uuua
3. uo aa+uuua

Caau uujo Co+j Caam 'aa aja
a+cqa m_o uouca++' (Ca.u.60) nmg __uua_++.
'mg' nmug, _ma+o+aa +ouuu+jg uuuco;
m_ Cogaaouo nmgu+jg mum+m a+_a aauo
uuuco, q++o aouoa__o _aauoa+a.
_amgCa u_Ca _ma, u, uo aa+uuuao+a
+ccuuam_m.

nmm ugaa+m nmuga _m_
mmg muma a+u+g - mmg
a+o+m a+o_Ca omua+a a+auumo
uoo+m uaoo+m au (Ca. u. 25)

nm_ u+coo ouaa+a +ccuua _ma C+ua
__auuam_g. _oo+ma+uou u__a uuaaum u+jg
g _u_oCa ag; _u_o_ co+a muaamg
89
o+m ajumao+o o a+u mum auqa Couqa
u+o+a a+u q_o+aa _ma aa+uuua o qaoo
+ccuuam_g.

m_ Couqa _ma =Cc____ auq_Co
noao; mum+Cm a+ga+da u+guq, ao+_
_ouo. uu+guuua _u_omca uuuco+aa
uaa+uuua 'mmg a+o+m a+o_Ca omua+a' nm_
qao +ccuuga. Caam uaa+uuuu 'mC_ oooo+a
a_u ua m_oC' (Ca. u. 18) nmaqaga +cc
a+uo+a. _ooa uuucg auqa+o_ oCu_ouo
nmuu aaom =__q __uua_g. (Ca. u. 25)

oCu__um Couq au q_a uoao uaa
uoum o_ga _u_ouca u+guCua+_a. ao+_
muaao aouoCa+, _aCa+ Co Cuoaouo. uom+a
Couqau o_a u+guq a+gucag nmuua ao+_a
uoauoa Caau uujgd Co+j Caam oo_am_++.

ammo+ ouuo+ o+Cm++ _u_a+mga o+maC++
mmo+ Codo umga qm+ mquca++_
nmm oj nm_a a aa+o
mma oj ucaoa a+uca aaC
(Ca. u. 59)

nm_ u+coo oa+a Couqau acCouqag
a+ouca u+guq nmuu oouuga_++. Caga
_u_omm auuao _aa a+doCouqaouo nmuu,

gaa am+ gu_a a+ guuaoCam
_aa ggm +uu aco a__um (Ca. u. 106)

nmg _u_oumu u+a mmuo +__+au qouuga_++.
_aa+ ajm a+++a+a uaj u+dcuu
__uua _cad uoo__ga _am_umu u__ __uua_++.

90
_au+aua _jaucag nmga __aucag
nmga +co+. +oa aaoua, u++oa o+ama,
a++uuuaa, aa+ o+o+aa, Ca+uo oua _aa _jg
aaa _ma C+ua+aa au+a_ aao+a
uajg, o_u_ uca _ma C+ua aa+a uaa_g
nm_ au ucao+ad au+a_ _jg aad nmg
+co+.
19


c+a Ca+ao aa+ nmuua aa+a
agog Cu+o _ma C+ua nm_ au+a q_a uouaa
aa+a a+u __aa ucag au+a nmu+a o+.
20

_ooaad oa Camm aaaCouqam, ooaam,
auua a+doam _aam +ccuuga. Co+j Caamm
_uouo ma, +d+ga Camm uaa+doCouqa
_auo +ca ouaao uajgdog. +oa aa_ua+a
_o_u_u umu_guaao a ao+gad _u_auua+o
_a. ca+m auua C+m_ mmuoua oouu
a+_auq auqa jga.

Caga ao+ +Cm _u_omcg auqa Coua
nmuuCa _ooaad u+gam_m. qagoaoo+g
_u_oum au+a ucm _u_om a+uu+m nm_
cauua Coua. _jauuacm _u_omcg m
Cocuauau qouu au qaCoua. _g __ _cq m
+ua +Cm u__ a+uc uoao aam_ __a
uoa+g. mm+a+a auo _um, m _cqua +Cm
aoa+g Cu+o _u_omd aocg +Cm ouoa nmu+.
Caaaq uuua Ca_a+do aga_aa+og Cuo
nma_g.
21
auuo+a aaa++,

_a C+ua+aa uu_ _uo aad nmug Caa
aau+aa . . . . . Ca+uo oua+a_ uu_ a__
_jga uau+o uou+oad nmug mm+a+a
aau+aa.
22


nmg __uuog _uug nuuag.
91
3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4. .. . uumm+ uumm+ uumm+ uumm+

uCug uco__a oauo Ca_a+dCo++ a+
nmuuam_m+. o+ad u_, au+aa+aa uu_
naucd qCa mu_u u__ _u_oum +o+.
Ca+cao =u+ a+ca _o+auo, 'c+' nmug aq. _auau
uama_a ou+auo uaoc, Ca+cauu u_
oa+do aaoauo aaa _uom u+c _ma
__auuam_g. uCa+auu umu_guo+ u+ nmga
au+auau umu_guo+ uumm+ nmga __auuo+.

Cumum +acm na, aaa o+m aacm
aaCa+aa, +mCa+aa, uCa+aa o+mo__m ou_ad
u+jg o__o =ua u+ u__a a+a+o+.
noCo+a u__ao+ _o+. _o_a auua
m_+_a.

Cog aouCa+, Cog ouaCa+ +c _a+g _aj
++auCm ua nmgu+jg mum ucaoa+a a a+oa
uu_a a+ao+o+. nma uaa ao+ad
na+oga mum ma+m u+d nmg agCo+ _j
mumuacm _Co+ _u_oCm ua nmg u+Co+
+c+g. _uaa muauca++ uu _ao auq_jg
uCug uca _ao+g. u__a a+ao+a
uaa+o+ a+oa uu_a a+ao+ao+a. uu
_ao a+ao+a _a qa+o+ u _aga ca
_ao+g. _muq nooo +jo+aa uuaa+m
=u+cqm+o au+a _ao oCu_ucao+a nmug
ooguua_g.

uumm+ nm_ a+o uu nm_ a+ooqa+au u_jg.
u._+. aaam uu u__,

ucaoa qa (to take refuge with) oog o
__uu_aua (to piously resign) nma u+uca 'u -
u+' nma a+oCo uu _a+a dog . . . uu
92
nm_ a+o _gmuao oaojg aca +qao+
_u_om oCm nmuu u+jg omca u+ga+uo
Ca+o+_a.
23


nmg __uua_++. _uuua+aa au+aao 'ucaoa
q_uo+' nm_ u+oo uumm+ nm_ a+o _ouua_g.

3.4.1 3.4.1 3.4.1 3.4.1. .. . auucam ao+ auucam ao+ auucam ao+ auucam ao+

Co+j Caam uumm+a auuca agm
__a ao+a uouau uau Ca+u+mm o _jg
uoaoo +cam_++. uo oa+g,

1. oCoaa a+do
2. oua+o__ ojgo
3. _uaago
4. oumac_ +o
5. _a oaoo =uo

Ca_auco_gd oCoaa a+do+og oaao
_muad u+a+ nm Cgga a+om _uauo
u+Co o+om uam nmg a+dga __a (Ca. u. 134).
_um a+oa _ma =Cc___a+m a_aaoo =uc+
uoua nuu ama o+o _uc+a uoa+_a. _um
Co+j Caam,

g++ uoo +d m_ua aucm+o
ogg_ u_ Caoda c ouo++aCo
(Ca. u. 136)

nma_++. oaao o+uaao _uaago m_+a uoa+_a.
_o oaaom agua o_qg +_uua_g. _um
Caam, 'Cmucc ocaCu+o am_ aguam' (Ca. u.
137) nmg ouam_++.

oaao agua u+jg Cu+o a+aoumad aua
u_ogmuu q_uoa nm_+o +ma+a uoa+_a.
93
(Ca. u. 140) _j+m_ uoa acjum, _a o+q
__Co _ma+uo ao_a nmC_ au+aao =uo
_j+a uoa+_a. _um,

aa+ uoaooa acca a_a aguca++
a+o u_a Ca+am amga m_a a
a+o qauu ua u+a nam oga
a+o _mauo +Cm nmo nuoC (Ca. u. 142)

nm_ u+co oo_a_g. _ouoj+a uoao Ca+C++u+aa+au
u_ oog au+a _ao ao+ =uo+ nmg
__auua_g. nma au+a __a _uuquoad
u+jga+om =u ooauuccm. au+aaum
__uuuaao 'a a+o qauu u au+_a nm' (Ca. u.
142) nmg +gog au+aao o+ a+uc ua u+uo
a+ca_g.

3.4.2 3.4.2 3.4.2 3.4.2. .. . auucCo++_ a uuqad auucCo++_ a uuqad auucCo++_ a uuqad auucCo++_ a uuqad

auucCo++ (uumm+) auuco__a ao
_uu+auo ga+au u_Coua. uo au+a_
aoum =ugogcm Cu_ucaa guu__a. _uo
u_Ca,

1. _aamaa
2. mma agoa nmuua.

_aamaa+og Cog u+aaoo =uc _ao+g
aC+u+aa+aa _u_oum auq_o+aa a+Ca+u+aa aaa
oaqam_ uoa+_a. _juo a+u+m C+a
_oo+uaa+Co+ _oouau_ao+Co+ u o+m _aoo
=uc _ao+g __a uoa+_a. _muaua aa+o++,

_a +oa uC+a mCu
u_a aaog om. . . . . . . . (+o+. 2591)

94
nmg __a_++. _C muaao Co+j Caaa

u o+ao__o uam_ +c+ao
nuaa mC_+q _uogoa a+aaCu+o
(Ca. u. 237)

nm_ qaoo _aama uoua ngua_++. oo a+
cua uca _ oo+m aa+o++ '+a qga _Ca+a' nmg
mum a+cqa+da muaaCoCa 'Co+j _a+am' nmu
ua+ u__ Caaa aa+da_++. _g o+a mum
nouauau qouuga_g.

mma agoa+og ua ou u_
aoCacaoo =u+ _oo+g a+uo ou u_
aoauo +c+ua __a. _u_oCm m_ _ma =Cc__u
oooom. omm_ Cog no+ga m_ uCug oa
_ao+g. u_ aoad o_a d mua a+a _uu
uomauoCa jg __a nmg ao+ ago+. _ma uua+a
a _u_oCm aam og mum ucaoa+a o
mma agoa __a. _mua auaa+o++ u+coo,

a_ga+ aoa omg _uu+C+
__Com __gm qa++_ qua
a__oo+a Cuaa mnc cga
a_g+m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (+o+. 1740)

nm oouua_g. Co+j Caam _uaa
mmaagou,

aucqam agammg _o+o+a aoo+a
ucaoumu uam+a jgoa uqau
aqao+d ua+ aaa+ a
_cuca o+o+ _uuaqad ucjCCm
(Ca. u. 238)


95
a+acom uamm ao+m aa
Caa+a uuo+a acuo au
u++acCo+m ouua+a mg u+a
a+u+ uoacuo acg am_+m
=+_a aoamm _u_o+ _mua
nja _aam _ajg jC+a
(Ca. u. 121)
nmg oo_am_++.

_aamaa+aa mmaagoa+aa a ao
muaua u+jg uCu__o =u+ a+ca mua uca
a+o+_a _u_om dqo+m. m uoua +_ _u_om
oqaoo uqa+am_ au+aua Coaa o_u_
oo_a_ _a+a++aom uaa ooam_m. Ca_+cqa
uoao __a a+oa uu_ a a+ao+au
uumm+ nmaoC. _muaua Co+j Caam,

jad Co_m_ ago a+g
ajad aa+ga a_go ua+ga
ajau quuo++ umo+_a dqa
ajgo_q _u_aom++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(Ca. u. 239)

nmg __uua_++.

ju+ ja+ nouoao m_ umgo_a
+jo C o+a gca mmma+a
ojuca oua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Ca. u. 56)

nm_ u+coo _o a+ga u_ u+aauaa+ga
_aama muacm _uo o qaoga
mmaagou _uc+aqam =_gaga Co+j Caam
qouuga_++. Caga uomo =u+ _j+o+m uCug
Couq _u_oum Couo _aga. nmCo+m 'Coua
ugauam ocm__jg . . . . _jmq _ucm_ a_C_++
qao+mg _uoam m_m+' (Ca. u. 54) nm __am_++.
96
_uaa quuuc _aCo+ __uad aoa
uummcg uaa Coua. __uauo o+oa_aoaaa,

au+a a++ao um auuacm _u_omca
mum uuuco Coua. a+ Cogu+qoo+ao noo+
_ma+a_a aoa +qa a++aa au+a.
u__ ua aaa+ua, qomcaa, ua, ammo,
_, oa, a+ma, uua oa nc _uad
uajo Coua.
24


nmg oo_a_g. _ _aa+o_ Ca+aja+,

nomca a+j nuuad domCo+ om acuo
uca _doom+a a+oouua_+m . . . . . . . . .
|_| _uad u_j u_ua+m acoca _a_uaa+a
dom. oo+C_ acuo auucjg oumu ___a
u+aoca j oo _uad acoo+o q_uam_m.
_oo oo nuua uuc u+aCo acuo uca,
u++a _doo+ad.
25


nmg __ua_a au+a_a do _uauu
ouga_++. ocqmuu +uaao __uad _Co
a_jg nmuu Co+j Caam,

m_g a mg om_o+ ooo+o
omg qomauo oqum Coua uauaCm (Ca. u. 53)

nmg __uuam_++. a+u +maoo C+a
u__o+ajga u_ a+a oooo+ajga Co+j
Caam nouaa __ua aua au+auaCa oaqa_++.
auucj+u a_uuga +ga_++.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o+
au+ aaa a++qcma_ _+mu_
u+a a+do+++ mq (Ca. u. 208)

nm_ aao a+maam o+gao Co+j Caam
au+a ucj+uu Cu+_ga uuuu u+ga_g.
97
3.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3 3.4.3. .. . uumm+ oua uumm+ oua uumm+ oua uumm+ oua

_u_oum auucuo+, nooua C+aaoo
auucam_+C+ o__mquuucao aauco+g
+ccuuam_m+.

1. u uumm+
2. _+ uumm+

u uumm+ a_ oumqa a+oaou
a+jg, um u_u uaa+uoa+aa uCug uco+.
Caga _ooaaoo gmuaoojg acaauma a _u+.
'auoo+a gmua auoa+g o+a auoau a__Com' (+o+
3425) nmg aa+o++ __uug umgu u+guqauoa
_u_omca uuucg omd oCug a a+ou C+a
a+uu+_a.

_+uumm+ oaao _muaoo u_ga+do+g
cmqa+au uaa+uou uoa nuo+. uao au
+ca '_+m' nm_ uoucaoa oaao uoauo
accgg _u_oum +q __a muaamCm. _oCaa+o++
'mumCa +mCouq d aooa Couc++m' (+o+. 696)
nmuga _muaamC __a.

auuo+a aaa++,

_j uummum um nmga _+m nmga
_ouaa+aa uuugu. + a+a o+auma+Co+
+a+o+ou+ o+mo__+Co+ am qoCo
Ca++a auc+o Cu+ga+mg nmg _uuom um
nmuua_+m. uau+o _uuu a+jg occa
uuouqu Cu+Co umgu uao+um ucoo
oua+Co auucj agauCa Ca++u oaquom
_+m nmuua_+m. _ooo uo+aaa u_j _om
oao aaa auc_aam. u_ o+a+m
(c_a) ao oaaa uoa Couqa
98
u+uua+j u+u a+aua ua a+aua
Cu+_am_+m u+Coom. _+_ _+am
amg_ ao+g _j ao uoa Couqa
a+aga u_uau Cu+aoa_+m.
26


nmg uumm+ ouauaa uumm+_ _u_omm auuuaa
+cam_++. _ooouau uumm+ u__a Co+j Caam a
uujaoo +cqua_++.

qagoao _oo+g u+mmdau __o+_a
aoao+ mu+_a mC_m mda+gu
uaom+o ua_o oqo_a uaa+d
aoaCom nmgu_a a uaCo(Ca. u. 255)

nm_ u+coo qagoao _oo+g u+mmd au__o+ nmug
u uummua 'aoao+ mu+' nmug _+ uummua
+ca.
aoa ao+j Caa+ Caam uuaam+o
go admm gad a+ajm gaoa
Ca+oa ajc +_a a+oa __gmC_+a
Cao_ +au_ Co+aCouo ouuumu uga a+Ca
(Ca. u. 15)

nm_ u+coo '+_a a+oa __g mC_+a' nmug uu
uummm muaaum uaam_g.

oa+ o+o+ a+o g+ o+ u+aa ojmCao
oj j a+m a+jg oo __ mma
ao ao ao nm_ oa Coua ++
qa o+_a o a_a qao+_a aaaCm
(Ca. u. 364)

nm_ u+coo auo+um u_ga mmC ucaoa a+uco
Coua nmug _+ uummm muaua uaam_g.



99
o_a+a ao+aaa a ouuo
ouuo+ad qc __a Camua
_u_a+ oumaa__ qua a+doo
_gao+ mm+d __ c+Ca (Ca. u. 107)

nm_ u+coga '_gao+' na +c+ _+ uumm+
uuacm oujg uCug Coua+_u_Ca __a_g.

3.4.5 3.4.5 3.4.5 3.4.5. .. . auucjouu qao auucjouu qao auucjouu qao auucjouu qao

a +m u_uau umu_go+uoc no+m
au+auau umu_go+uCa Co+j Caam a uujaoo
qaam_++. _g au+aua oogga o+a nuuu
Cu+aum ogga_g.

Co+ja a+om uuaauo oocqa+mg
__uua. a+om oqua m_ ucaoa+a a+uc
uummm uuaa muaa+_a. mum ucjo+
nuuquucco+aa a auo o+oum o+_
o_am_ _u_omm auuCa ___ a+ua+a_g.
noaoa+o a+j uoumu uga uummu Co+j Caam,

uua u_a au_aoo aa am++
ouua aouu +om ojgao uuo++
uua aca ao nm_ oauuo+a
uua um+ j o a+jmC (Ca. u. 72)

nmg _+o+a+a++ +__+a __uua_++. Caga auucj++
a a+uuqauo,

au_u_a u+ooo+a aaamg +o++
amma++ auca++ ou_ u_
_u_ua umooo++ _ad au+o
Ca+__ amau__++ a+do++ mua
au_oo+_a aoa+j+ aCa +o
aua+ uaCam jg ++
u+u_oo a_aqm+ a+ca nad
u+m_+ mm_ao q_g o+C (Ca. u. 91)
100
nmg Cu+_gam_++. au+aao =uc ao+_ ama
oj+o, uouo _Ca, 'u+m_+ m_' nmg
__uua_++. Caga au+aam a_uuu u+j uaCa+u
uouo _am+a +cam_++. _uoa+a
uouomu+ga au+aamu+ga Co+j Caam a+uc
_j =u+cucCa +cam_m.

3.4.6 3.4.6 3.4.6 3.4.6. .. . auu auu auu auucjum aaaCouqauo cjum aaaCouqauo cjum aaaCouqauo cjum aaaCouqauo

uumm+ auucjum aaaCouqag _u_o_
ouu+m +u mC_a+_a. _g aaa nmuua.
auucj uma o+ad _u_aao _uu__ a+ua
_uaa +u aaa aCa nmg Co+j Caam
__uua_++. +a+o+a+a aa _u_oum ou_ga
uuuad aaga oau uuja Caca a
_mqgga+aa _uuauo aaaCo ao+ auucj uma
_uu+a aga_++. _um,

a+o+ oumaumga a+o +aCu+a
o+Cm_ ao+aao++ mq _a
C+o+ a+au_ +u _u
+gajg C+ad u+q a+q
Cao+ uau_am aa Cac
auca+ Cumua uga +a
ao+ Cuqua_ mq u_C_+a
Camao _amC_+a oa m+Co
(Ca. u. 153)
nm_ u+co+o uo+a. _uu+coo 'oam+o' nmug _uaa
+uaCo auucj um ao+_ao+a oauucdom
na ao _ouucdog. Coa, Co+ja, oauuuja,
_a+a+ da+ _o_u_ _u_om uuaauo u
Coua. m+o ao_a n+mga amaoaa C+g nmg
Caam ucaouuo __uuam_++ (Ca. u. 245).
_uaa acuaauo aao__ o+auu+a _u_aqa++ad
__acuCa aca+a a+do Coua. _gCo
uumm_ oj _ca __a. _um,
101

Cm++ aao aad +m ajgu_a
o+m+ ajo+ uoa uuca om_a
a+m++ _aaa auaa a+o aacga
+m+ aa +aa +qa mmoCa (Ca. u. 65)

nm_ u+co+o uo+a. _uu+coo Caam, qa++
__acuu uo aaom a_uqcm uucugu
uuauuga_++. Caga ao+ auucjum uuqga
aaa+g go +muCa a _aCouCa m_
_au+aam uam nmm nmg _+ao +c+g. Co+j
Caam, a+aoo+a _au,

gogm_ uCa m_ __a a+oa
uua q_+ u+ Couqu
ugoo+a _Ca +a u_g o+u
Cuqua a+oqgnm _aCo Ca (Ca. u. 19)

nmg __uuam_++. Caga a++mcua _a++aa
u+guuc oauua a a+aauo ago +c+g.
a+uu_auo _a+am ua+o ojg
_u_+uqum agCo oa. a+_+a a+uauo a_
aaouo +c+g nmga Co+j Caam ooggam_++
(Ca. u. 63).

auucjum uummg amuo, gcm
uamugoo _aCoua. +ma mqa Coua. _u_o__
quaa+a muaua, Cam+ _aouu aaoumu uam+o
a_ao+a+g. oo_o+o uua u_Coua. _uaa
muaauo acjum aa+ aaa+ad C+m_
+u+aua uaoo +c+g. a+ a+ao _uuum
___ _aCoua. _uoa+o_g_a _u_ouca
uCaaCo guu _aooom. _um,


102
uua_u_ a+ua_a u_ua_a ouma+o
uuaa_ o+ua_a oaao aua_a
uuaa a+ua_a ua_a uua_a
ouuauc o+o+ o+aaad a_CoCm (Ca. u. 244)

nm_ u+coo Co+j Caam ouga_++.

_uouo maao, Caam+o __uucuuga uaama,
u+ma, __ua, uo+a+aa, Ca+aa _aa _jga uao
uaaaa nmu uga u+ao uaaaauou uumm+
Ca_a+do Coua nm_ aCoCa uaam_g. _a
auaa a+o Co+j Caam,

_o ao aCm+ o+ a+aaomg
a+oga_ auad m_+ga u_uaaoga
u+_aaoga u+a_auq
27


nmg +go+o ama, a+o, aao na mg u+_aa
_u_+uqo oauuc _aCoua nmug qom+_a.

_oouaao auucjo+ a_ _aCouqa
amuoa o+ aaaCouqa uuaa aaa a+ma u__
Co+j Caam __uuam_++. _uo a+a uouo auo
uummum _a+_uc aaomo+a uaam_m.
auucjCu+g __a _+oa mqa Cug uca ou
_u_a+g _Co _u_oum ouu+_a nm_ aCoCa
_uo o_qguuam_m.

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5. .. . au+aam ouaa au+aam ouaa au+aam ouaa au+aam ouaad dd d

ao+ad a _ma =Cc____ au+aua _+cqa
muaaomuq Ca_a+dam_m+. au+aua oa+a a+uc
uoam quuucao g ouauuuua. ujaa+a+oo

1. +ouc
2. uc
3. _a+a uc
103

nmg ouaa+a +ca. _um 'uoca ca
_a+ac _ o+'
28
nmaqao uo+a. _Caau
uuja u+ao ucuaa _uug,

1. +ouc
2. uc
3. _a+a uc
4. u+ao uc

nmg +m_ ouaao+a +ca. _uo

ouca++ ucj++_a uCa a+uco+_a
oouj omCo ammaa+ oC++_a
aoo+o++ namm _uajo+_a a+oo+a
gooq ado+ goaoum uoCCm (Ca. u. 242)

nm_ u+coo u+uuam_m. _uu+coo 'ouca++
ucj++_a' (Ca. u. 242) nmug +oucam+o
auucj+u __am_g. +ouc nmug naua+mm
oau uuaauo u+jg qa+a+a aao+o u_uucc
goam guuau u+u+jg, _u_oum auucCo
_ma =Cc__a a nmg aom +Cm aaa au+aa+_a.
_u_oCm aamg ca+o ojg aom _u_omca
mum o_a uoa+_a. ouca++ nm_ +c+ oj
+muca++ nma ao _ouuc +ouc ucuou
__am_g. uao+m, ocum o+Cm+u _oouaao
auucj++a a+doo+a. +ouca+a auucuo+a
+m ouo Co+j Caam,

gau_am doa goa+ gua
_a_o+o _+qua _amC_+a . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
++ aum++Ca +a (Ca. u. 351)

nm_ u+coga __uuca+uo+a.
104
'uCa a+uco+_a' (Ca. u. 242) nmug
ucam+o auucj+u __g. uc nmug
+oa aaoua oa au+aam aaoo oj
_ u_+g 'CouCo++_ oa o_a' nm_ auuacm
_o+_a. _um Co+j Caam _a auaa a+ga,

+oa uaou+aaaoo uoaa aoo+++ mum
au Cu+a_g _a_ a+a Cu++o +_a
nma_ o+o+aa uca+a a+u auam _au
_u uu a+ua+m _a+Ca+ucc o+aa+Co
+a++ a+mm u++u a+oo a+o uoaum
aua q_a +m a+aj _a++auou Cu+Co 'nmuca
u+' nmCa ua+a q_ac a+doCoua nmua

nmg ooa a+uo+a. Caga mm+aa+ +cqa goam
muaua _jgu+ao goauu uu_a a+u
o+aaa+a a+u _u_ ajumao juuc aom
aaa au+aa+_a. 'a+do _u_oom Couq__oo+a
a' na auuacm _o ucao aom _uu+m
'uCa a+uco+_a' (Ca. u. 242) nma +c+
goam gocua u+ao oo+aauCa
au+a_a a+u o+aaa+a a+uc+u __am_g.
m_ _ug C+j a+og oujg '_oCa' nm_o_a
aCajum _o ucam+o auucjua_ a+m_+a
a+doo+a.

'oou jg omCo amma a+oC++' (Ca. u.
242) nm_ +c+ _a+a ucam+o auq_jou
__am_g. _a+a uc, m _a+a+ _u_om u+o uo
muum a, +ouca+a oo+a+a+ aa au+aao
+a caao __a. +og mam auqa+ga
_aa +uc+mC_ C_, oqa _jga _u_omu+o
a_a _aam d umjg ojga, o+ +cqa
_uuqCa _o+_a. 'oou jom' nmug _a+aua
'jomCo amma a+oC++' nmug ouauo j
_aam Co a __o+aa a+oa qam_ ac+auaa
__am_m.
105

Co+j Caam a+a oaa na ggd u+qa
u+co+m_o, 'a+Cm! _cm au dooumu uqg
a+u om oa+o cjg aoga_+m. +uq cg_d
uoauuc ca+m+o a+u Cu+auua_+m. Caoamm
+__++ aum _a+ Cu+ga noo+u Cu+aauoa
uoam_m+. uuqCa auudo _a+am mumauca
o aaa_+m't
30
nmg __uuga =u nuuag.
ujaa+a+oo +m +cqa mg ucaoo _a+a ucCa
a_jg nmg __uuam_g.

_ Caau uuja _a+auca uou uo
u+coaoo oajg Cu+_ga.

aua nm_ ao +ama jo+o
au+ +a a+oajg q__a u+aa+m_+o
au_ oga+ a+__a +mu ujaCo++ (Ca. u. 1)

_a ucaoa nm_ua aqa +d auom
+ouu Ca+j+ _auo j auca++ (Ca. u. 46)

cm oj aau Cu+__ a+o_a
aoc amm aoq a ouauga+a
acm oj aoum a+__o oj+a+g
cm _j_ o++d aaa uajmC (Ca. u. 47)

nm_ u+coaoo _a+am auucm ao +cqa u+muauau
Cu+_gam_++. _ma ao +cqa _a+auCa +g
oumCa ouau uaCug uaa+uco+ agaoa+o++
_o++. _o+a 'auu guag+aq' na u++m

aa Coa+ Com cu+d
_au u+qnm +d gm+m
a a+ac Ca+umnm au__c
qa a+oq uauuam mC_ (+o+. 745)

106
nm_ u+co '_a+a_ aa qua +u uam+mg' nmg
__uua_g. _ma _a+a ucao =uc agaoa+o++
aju Co+j Caam,

mu+Ca o_a _am _a
oau_ad aaa+m +Cm a+u
gmu__ agao C+m_ a+ca
+ooCa ooad guo++ acCa
(Ca. u. 41)
nmg u+qaom++.

'ao o++ na+nmm _uajo+_a' (Ca. u. 242)
nma +c+ u+aoucao =ucc+u __am_g.
u+aouca+og, _u_om Cog, qa++ Cog nmg a+g
ga amcm qa++_ +u qa muaao _u_oum
ouc auuco __a. +og _u a+a+a au+a
aaaa qa++ +ouca+a aaa au+aao,
ooqa++_ +uc+mC_ aa am+o
caao+_a. _a auaa a+o Co+j Caam,

'_u+oCa+ao o+a a+aa __a _u+g_
amm' nmga 'omuaa+og m Ca+aoo o+a
uoccuom nmga omua' nmga a+oga_ u+aoua+m -
uao oa o+a+a_a m uaoCoa+o - u_+
uaoCoa+o, mCua+o - umCua+o +
u+ag_u.nCmammo, _uo u+uCoa+o
- uuaCoa+o cqa...
32


nmg __uuo =u nuuag. +o+a oau uujga
_o++ uo+ qa++_ qa++a aua a m_m+.
_muaua +ucquu+qa+o++,

o+o++ _ao+a+ o+mo+ nmu+ao
Co+a goua+uo amma+a nmu+ao
ua amadaaa ma+ a+aCoa
Cu+maa aaCaca oCo qmamC_ (+o+. 912)

107
nmg +co++. aa+o+a,

oam o_ u_a Cu+a+Cm +Cm a+m+ga
qaoCa aaCu+o Cam aa+m qum_ aoqa
aaCa qua uom_++ +d oua _auaCa
uaCm _mua a+mu_ _ggCa+ u+o CaCa
(+o+. 3771)

nm a+om qaum auucj _u_aqa++a_ a
+uucu qouuga_++. _oouaao qa++_ +u
qa a __omoa au+aua ago u+ao uc
nmguauua.

'ao o++' nm_ +c+ _oo+ma+ mg nmg nua
___a aj u+aou __g. 'namm _uajo+_a'
nmug uu+ao+auo a +__+u a+u +uqa
aga u+ao ucamu __am_g. Caau uuja,

uoa__ _ aco aco ucao
ouoa__ mau o_q oaoo _ uao
guo_ _momu+ +au a g+aqa+__
_uo moom u+a uujo+_ nu_Ca
(Ca. u. 6)

nm_ u+coo qa++ a_uuu _u_omm Cao+a a +ca.
uaa u+ao+ aa au+a ucao caa_a
muaua,

Coa _j uao+ oaa ooaa a+
+m o_ ouaug +aom ooqa++_
_ aa qua _uajg a+ au_go
g uo_uo a+oua m_mCa (Ca. u. 62)

nm_ u+coga +cc a+uo+a. +ouca+a _a+aC+
qa+C+ aaa au+a, o_ ajg +uc+mC_
108
aga ao+_ ga+au uauaua ja nmg Co+j
Caam +ca_++. _ muaua o+ _aauaa a+o,

_a+a c_ uaa a+a+Co uo aaCo
ajC_aouo. auoao mga auoaCo +a
ua_ ao _jgauouCu+Co u+aa++
uau+oama uuu oC+ uc+m _cogoa+Co
+a u+Co+a.
33


nmg oo_og =u _uuuuag.

Ca_+cqaouaao +oouaao mu_
uaa+uc+aga uaua u_o+a nmug Co+j Caam
da+a+a. __ +cqa +ood Caau uujgd
uouuc __uucco_u_ C+am+o, _aa+ u +m
oom+o C_ om auq aaam_ +o ucCa
uau+ga uaa a+uo+a.

a+oa aom mma ag_ auqcCo
+oa qaj Caa+ +ua uomC
(Ca. u. 96)

a_a aguc Caa+ am_m auaauu
+_a +oad Cu+_a+ am_m+ a+ooC
(Ca. u. 109)

nma u+coqaoo _a+a+o uaouu__ +mum
m_cm Co+j Caam +ca_++. _a+a+ a+cqa oao
+a auq_uo,

aoa ao+ja Caa+ Caa uuaam+o
go aomm gad a+ajm ga_a
Ca+oa ajc +_a a+oa __g mC_+a
Cao_ +au_ Co+aCouo ouuum CagCa
(Ca. u. 15)
oumd a+__a Coa+ jd o+aa+o
umga _jum _ga uaa nmoucjC+a
(Ca. u. 38)
109

_Co uamg ucaoa uom+ mg auau
u_Co au uja __ u+mqa
_Co _oma+ a+am_ +a+ uuaua
a_Coo nma au_q qa ammoC
(Ca. u. 58)
nm_ u+coaoo qouuga_++.

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6. .. . _ __ _ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu

3.6.1 _ Co+j Caamm au+a _ad nma _ooao
Co+j Caam u+c_u+uuaao au+a ugaca,
au+aam mua, auq_ _ad, uumm+, uumm+ uuqad
_aa +gauo Caa uuju quuuca+a a+u
ooadog.

3.6.2 au+a nma u+uua aja, goaa, aa+Co+aa
_aao_u_ oo_acaoo +ccuuga_g. Caga
ucaouug uaa au+aam _aouu u+go+_a.
uouo go auuu u+guuc oo_a a+aaaa
o+m goaoo +_+a au+a ooauu_gdog.

3.6.3 au+aam noua, u_Ca auuco, _a+a+
oao auuco, u_am _c+ +uug nm_ uoaoo
au+a Caau uujo ooau uga_g. au+a
aad nmuua au+a uoauoa Caau uuja
oo_a_g. _ooaad _j+aa __+aa +ccuuga.
aa+aa _ma C+ua mg uoa+au u_auua_g.

3.6.4 Co+j Caam, uumm+aa auq_Co++, auq_oo
a+uqaCouqa _ma =Cc___a+m gcm
_aamaa, mma agoa nma uuqaa Cuo nma_++.
_uaa uumm+ u+, _++ nmg ouauuuua+g
o+a u+c___uqad a+uuuam_m. au+aam ouaad
+ma+_a. __ a_jg nmuugog _a+a uca+_a.
nma m_u+j Ca+a +Cm aaa +ouca+a Co+j
Caam auq_uo o+a uujad u+gam_m.
110
a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa
1. _+. Caaoaaa++, (mu) - Caau uuja, u. 4
2. _uau+ uu+oa, u. 107
3. auoaoaaa, 9.521
4. _ a aa aa+ +o+aad (44_og ucca), _doom
_a Couqa uuu, au+aa+a, u. 15
5. _+. Caaoaaa++, (mu) - _+_a go, u. 47
6. u._+.aaam, uouo aqa aauu+oaga, u. 12
7. q.nm.nu. +aom, au+a goa +a, u. 19,20
8. _+. Caaoaaa++, (mu) - _+_a go, u. 47
9. _+aCaa+a+a++, _ Caau uuja, u+. 7 u
10. a.o+aum, _ja go+ma, u. 353
11. . +uqcqa++, uouoaooa, u. 138
12. Co._+. a+om 'uuqu' ooa aua+ qaa+uo, u. 8,9
13. ._+aa+a, _+ooo_ aauaaa+d, u+aa 2, u.1
14. _+aCaa+a+a++, _ Caau uuja, u+. 64 u
15. a.uoaoam, au uuu+c oo+g, _uc+a u+aa u.211
16. o+oa_aoaaa, 8. 671
17. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 122
18. _j+ u++a+, a _oaao uouoa, u. 189
19. aua+a+a++ uo+a, au+a, u. 11
20. u._+.aaam, _+_a go u.121
21. Raghavadasan, Visishtadvaitam and Vedanta Desika's SriNyasaDasakam P. 40
22. auuo+a aaa++, ajauua - ujaa+a+oo
u, u. 196
23. u._+.aaam, _+_a go u. 121
24. o+oa_aoaaa 8. 671
25. _ _aa+o_ Ca+aja+, au a_um uamad; uau
auuco+o , u. 45, 46
26. auuo+a aaa++, _+_a go, u. 198, 199
27. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 168
28. ujaa+a+oo, u. 373
29. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 101
30. Ca_Ca+d _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 103
31. ujaa+a+oo, u. 375
32. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 104
33. Caog, u. 103
111
au+aao au+aao au+aao au+aao _ __ _u_om u_om u_om u_om

4.0 oac+guom Ca+cu+cqmuq gou u+d
m_d a+auca goa _u_a+_a. ao+ma+oum
co+a a+u aa _u_om __a uCug a_ga
_auo uom+a oo_a_+m. oCm oa+aa
uam+aa aa_+m. om oqauou u_go++_
_u_am_ mg C+g. _uaa uuaacm _oa+a,
uau+o+a auom _aj ++au+ _o+m.

_o++aa, o_o+aa a+om _oua
oqoauo au+coo __am_m+. nma qao+ oaua
oqoo aa +a+o+ oqCo uoo+_+au Cu+__uua_g.
_ooqou _j+ u++a+,

am _om a+m _u_omm auu nmuu
quuuca+a a+u C+m_a u+aoaqa u+a+
_oaaaa +a+o+ a+duaua oogga_g
|am_m|. +ua nmug aa noo uca+qa
amua nmu+_a.
1


nmg oo_a_++. _ooamuaCa amum _u_oCm+
Ca+_a auuaua da_g. _jauua oaao
gmuaoojg ouc _u_oum oa+aa oCm+
aouou uam+aa a+u ouc guu aaam_g.
_u_oum oa+a a+u aooo au+a _ ugaca
___u+og. _j_, uouo aum a+ a+duaad
m_+a aa_g. _oouaao au+aua _a+a oa
_u_om auu, aad uo, auq_o++_ _u_om aaa
d _aa aaad _ooaoo ooauuam_m.





112
4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1. .. . _ __ _u_om u_om u_om u_om

oac+guou oo_omo+a m auaua
+ga uujao+a Co+j Caam au uujad
aam_m. _uo _u_omm aoa+u _uauo oajg
Cu+_gam_m. _u_omm _aoqauo ___a__om, ooc
a+m, +agomm, u _a u_jom nmu uoo+g
+cam_m. uaa a+ua+a _u_om auo,

aomo a++c+ oooo+ _a
ao _uadu _ad qao+ad
aoo a+ ajg na+ cmoo+a
aauocm a+a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Ca. u. 248)

dou+d umg_a ouo aaad
douaom oaa+a ajga+a u_am_+m
do+g qao+_ oa+_a cCm
odoo o+o+na (Ca. u. 249)

nm Co+j Caam __uuc a+uo+a. Caga Co+j
cu+uo ojoC uuaa+uum u+jga+do
qa. ma _j a+mC_++ad ++aum oCm um nmg
ojg ouam+ nm Co+j Caam __uuam_++.

o+a+ amj a aam au__uoa
a+g amad ca a mmCa
_ nm+oua _u Caa+ a+__m+a
Cu+ga j a+gcm m_ q+uumCa
(Ca. u. 52)

_aj ++aum oo+ao aoa u a+ua+a+g
nmuu Caam mm+a+a++ +__+a gam_++.
mm+a+a+m aa+o++ 'mga Ca' (+o+. 3330) nmga
'mmg a__+ aoa ++d oumaoo+o' (+o+. 3295)
nmga +go _uug nuuag.

113
umgu u+oga uo __a uau+uo nuu
n+mga ajg __a u+, _ma+uo om
oqaoCo Ca+_a.

nmCo+m Co+j Caam,

uoj +a m+aa a_a _u_oa+a
_o+mg nm+oua noo+a ma njua+a
guoa+mg _uoam m_ g+aq a+mcauu
ouoam_ +aq Ca+ana Coa+ aauu+Co
(Ca. u. 49)

nm_ u+coo ua+a __a _u_oum _om_ Cog aao
qga _ma+o__ muaa+a+g nmam_++. nmCo nj
a+ua u+c a++ao _u_o_ quaqa
o_qggam_++.

_uaa +c+Cu _u_om auuuau u_a
auucjg uCug u_a guu aaaooog. oum
umjga u+jga aa Cug a+o+_a o+auug mg.

4.1.1 4.1.1 4.1.1 4.1.1. .. . _ __ _u_auu u_auu u_auu u_auu

oaaoo _cga ao+ Camuaa+ oaa Ca+jc
_u_auu _m_auaa+g. u._+. aaam au+aam
quuucu u__ +guaao,

_u_oum uca omg Co o, m a_a mg;
omg ucuaa+aa auu u_ oCm aoam_+m.
__ _uao+a _uuu Couog nma aC
uuam quuuc u+o+_a.
2


nmg __a_++. q.nm.nu._+aom __uuuaao,


114
_a++a u+u q_uc ocajg +ma u_g . . . . . . . .
au+a aaa, naua+m Ca++aoa oua_+m.
au+a aaa+o+ac_ om Ca++ao+o u+u+a
q_ua +_uoa oa C+ad o_ q_ua.
nmCo a_a u+aa+m au+aua n+u++a_+m.
3


nmg __uuam_++. oCug ucaCouam_ mumuuu
a_oo+aa oouuc auuca Cu+C _u_ouca
cu++uo ao+aom Caoua_g. Caam uo _caoo ao+ad
_a+a+ a+cqa _uuq auqa Coua nmguo
ao_a m a_aua oogCa nmo+a. nmCo+m _a
auaa a+o, Co+j Caam,

+m +a a+cc++ ouguo +a
oooom+om uaoCo aa+uu_a Cu+g+m om
_o +o+u ajuaucam+a u +o+u
ajua o+jg '_om +a ooom. Cu++o
+uuga aaa' nmg C_ +m +ga+do
a+cc+uaua _og +a Couamg Cu+g
+a ouguo om uaoCo aa+uug.
4


nmgua_++. aua _u_omcg ucaouua
_o++aom _u_u+ uoua Caam +a u+jg
ua_++.

_oouaao _a+a+ o+ao+a _u_uu+uuaua
u uoa_++. _u_oum u+am_ Cug
_u_auua+CoCa aca. u+omua gucu uu_
mum _uau __o ao+aom acuu+c+_a. _ao+auo
a+_a u+guq _u_omg _a_g.

aa+ aoumao uqj aua
a+oag nm_+a+o a+oo aag
ua+ ooumao uqj++ +oo
uuogu u+aad uca a
aa+ aooao guuo C+Cc
115
+uoa+ Cumua Cao q__
a+ o+u ua+m aaa
jao+ oao+a ouu++ _C (Ca.u. 125)

nm_ u+coo _u_ nuuu _aam o+ao+a u+
u+aa a+cq ocqmua o_a _u_auo oo_a_++.

_a umga _o+q Ca+ua ucaoa+u
_u_om _mmo+o nad Ca+aa o+mCm
(Ca.u. 325)

nm_ u+coga qa++ amu _uuca+a a+u ao+
_u_om _a u__aa _a+ noCa++_ ucaoa
_o+a _am_ aaua Co+j Caam __uuca+uo+a.

Caga mum uca+++_ am+a __a _u_om
ucaoa qaCouq _uuo+ac_ aa noam+a _am_+m.
aa+o++,

a+a + uouaam nm _ a na ua+m
a+a + uouaam nm _ noa na ua+m

nm_ qaoo qao+_ noam+_a _u_muaua
__uua_++. auaa+o+a 'auoauad a+_u+d
am+o uma+u+' (+o+. 767) nmu+o _u_omm
uaa noao+a+a a+da nouaa qom+_a.

Coa u_ _ gu_aa _a uu+ _u_om
+Cm qa+u _a_+m na ao Co+j Caamm
aa+a u+co uaam_g.

_ooa ju qmm uoaa
u+mmqa+o ojg _o+ Cu+__ m_
+ooa auoaoo+a mum +c
+c+g mma+ _ +m
Ca+oom+a uao u_Cu+o Co
116
Ca+o+a Ca+a+m+ amu+o Ca+g
+oog oga_ nmg a+ca
a++a aauCc+a auau Cc+Ca
(Ca.u. 197)

o+am o+o oaojg _u_om m_Cu+g
oaoj u+uu uam ouam+m. uu+__u uam
aa aam +u aom uoao +m.

_a_uquca _u_om Coa o+m a+ad _a
ao+ am+a oo_a_+m. oCm m qa++ac_ mum
Cc+ ouua Caaa+a o+auo _am_+m nm_
amo _uu+co _o_a_g.

_ma ua+ua+a __a _u_om, _u_ao+o
au+aua +co, +o++_ oa+a _u_om noua,
auu oa _uao+o ao _aam
ooauu_gdom.

4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2. .. . au+a o oo au+a o oo au+a o oo au+a o oo

au+a _ aom aucC____ _u_om+o
ou u_gdog. u oa_ _a+++, _jga o__m
_am auaam+o aucuuqa+++ Ca_a+u aa,
aj+ _a+a au+a _u_om+o ouucdog.
_um Co+j Caam,

ugoo ao+a++um +Cm a+mm
maj +maa+a mum nmga
auaog qc ooa+a m_
auquao ouoa+cuc aam_+Cm (Ca.u. 85)

nm_ u+com+o +m a+mm au oCa naua+m ucaoa
jdam_+m nma_++. Caga qao+ auucj+o o+
ocuo aa u+guuu +Cm Ca_a+do+a a+mm
oguua _aa+,

117
uc+_ u_aCa++ _ao +c+
m_mua guua+a nm_m u+a
_uc+gm uuaoo+a u+guum nm_
quuam++ qaumga qa Co+Ca
(Ca.u. 86)

nm __uuam_++. auucg_ oa+cqa uoua
goaa+aa _ma auucj+u a+_a u+guq mm_
oguua aa+Co+aa+aa _u_om om+m.
_auuua Co+j Caam uo _caoo oajg
ou_a_++.

4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3. .. . au+aao aad au+aao aad au+aao aad au+aao aad

oac+guomuq aad _u_omcajg
a+_a u__ad. _o+auo oa aua+ nmg uouo
oaa a+uc+a. au+a _ao aaa
uau_uca+d. Co+j Caam,

nmgCa++ q am_ _oa oa Cu+o
m_m go_ o_a aaajg qua uo
mgmg n+a mga m_o+mg ucamCm
m_a _uuc do om aaa mC (Ca.u. 296)

nm_ u+coo aad a+uo occao+g d qou
__am_++. _uu+cg_ a auco+g _+aCaa+a+a++
u ngam_++.

aa omg ua+aa ua+uug _aoq. mCa
naua+a u+cqa auCa ua+g mg
oau a+g oam_m+. _ooo_Ca qa++a
ao aog acuaa+_a. . . . . . . . uuoa mg
ngad Ca+j a+oo+a _am_g. . . . . . .
a+__ u+cq nmg u+d u. a+a
naua+um +ga. _a _j _u +aom
118
+a+aa ooa aua_ qa++a gajg
ad u_j uaumu u_g ao+ao+a.
5


au+a _ua __uua goaa aaom
auuam+o ouoam_g. oaaoo ojga m
_juao+aa Cam+a a_ mq _uc u+cq _u_oum
Couc goau om om+m. goaa oa+g,

_aj ++au auo aua uuCa _aj ++au auo aua uuCa _aj ++au auo aua uuCa _aj ++au auo aua uuCa
_aC ++au+a a: _aC ++au+a a: _aC ++au+a a: _aC ++au+a a:

uo mgacj _ +c+auo _uug
aja+a goau _u_om om+m. _m _u_
ouaa u__ uauma +gam_m. _uaa a oua
_u_om oa+a aad u_g juaua '_mmo
u_j+d _Caca u u+m' (Ca.u. 303) nm_ +c+o
uo+a. _a+og oa+_a nmug muauuccg (1.6).
Caga aad ao+ u+_a+uc auuua,

_muo mum ucjc +mucjg
ou Cac uo Cacug a_ga oumooa
_uo amu m+onua _mmq Ca+a
cCm . . . . . . . (Ca.u. 304)

nmga __a_++. _uu+co aaom auuua _g
uoaoo oo_am_g. '_' nm_ oca+u ua _goua
a+ooqa+au u_jg.

_ooquoad,

_aC (sriyate) - ucauuam_+d
_aC (sriyate) - ucam_+d
Cm+ (srinti) - Caca_+d
+oa (srvayati) - Cacaaaa_+d
u+ (srnti) - _am_+d
_u+ (srinati) - u_ouo aaam_+d
119
nm_ u+uo am_m. ucauuo+og _maa
Couo++o 'ucauua_+d' nmu+_a. uco nmug mum
ucjo+ u+c _u_oum +a 'uco' __a.
Cacco+og '_u_aoaoo Ca+ja' nm_ qa+m ua
_uo 'Caca_+d' nmu+_a. Cam+aom ua _uo
_u_o_ Cac_a+g ouuuua aaa_+d nmuC,
'Cacaaaa_+d' nmu+_a. '_a_+d' nmug qaom
oumuoauo aaa muaad nmuu __am_g.
'u_ouo aao' nmug mum ucjo+ad _u_+u
aaauq o+auca _uauou u_oa+_am_ _uu
__am_g.

uduo oa+aa++, 'uCa+o ao+Cu+g Camum
o+Co ga, =+oum a+Co ga'
|6|
nmu++.
Cam_ d qa aa aad omu+o _u_om
auu a+uqc aao+d. _uaa aaoad qa+a
nmuua. +og uom ooo oum au uom Couq
_uCu+m+o oa+a a+douuuom _o+m. _ma
uuua +uaao aauo C+a Couq _o
qa+uuu __a.

=+om acqga oCug ouu__ aom nmuga
aad =+ouca _ao, o o+m +oaoo
u_u_+uaog Cu+oCo oCug ouuga u_u_+d
nmuga mm+a+a au+a. qa+uuao aoaa
aad oa+co+d nmg Caa aq a+da_g.
7


aad oa_a++_ oa+cq d+cq ocqmua
u_ guu _a_+d. od aaCouqa uoaojg, um
ajg d o_uod ood. Cam+aom Cao+m =+o
gom aa+a aa u__ad.

aaom qa+u .+uqcqa++,

_ju qa+goa naua+Cm+ u+cq +qa_a
uoaga uj_a uoaga a+uuuga. auuCa
120
oqoa a+ucuu Cu+m_ =+omua aca
ouca ccmua Cao aoau aauoa+m
u+cqa++ cm _jm+o a+a++m uu+m. _o+
ujjuaa+o _+oum _+au+m au__ _oa+a
aj+m.
8


nmg _ aaaom o+ao+a uuc oo_a_++.
aauCa+uoaga aaom qa+u uuaum Co+j
Caam a auco+g __uuam_++.

muq_ noo+a muq q_a
mqcm mm+ og o
Couu Cac aucuo Cacug
=uqa oumad a+uqc amg
mmq Ca+j aum a
mcm Ca+jg __a jCo . . . . . . (Ca.u. 347)

nmg uoo+g __uuam_++.

au+aao aad uo nmug +ma j
oum aa+ma u_uo_a _a+am auuua
gdog. aaCo =+omcgu u__a auuua
Cam+ad u uo+d. au+aao +a ua+a mg
Cam+ac_uc+m oumauo a dam_+d. Caam _a
auaa a+o __uua Cu+ga,

uao _a: uoamm+Co aa+ q_
oa+o muqua umg auCcm u+mCam
auCcm nmg uag a++ a_ nma_ u+cqCo
uq+m a_u ua u+cqa+cCm _jg nmga
au ua+ga_ _ouma+a u+ua+ja
aua+ja _ouo; _auaCo u+uaa auaa
nmg aaauucdog.
9


nmg aacm _uuj uoaCoCa auuca Coua
nma_++. a+o j+am,

121
u+ja aam uo+aCamama quum
oj a+oa+mm o++uaaCaonaua oac+d...
ju a++no+ _aaoa+m aaCo (a+o. 100)

nm_ u+cga qa+uua+a aad __uoCa __a_g.
_g aad Camm+aa aomm ao__ oa+cq _u_omca
uuouu+d nma Caa amm +c+aa+a
uaam_g.

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4. . . . u+aa uaa u+aa uaa u+aa uaa u+aa uaa

Cam+ad +a aa u+cu ua+mm oqauo
auucjg oua a+uam_++ad. o+ac_
oqaom oa a_uuo j _u_oumCa nuCu+g
oua _o+a_ Cug a uam+am_g. _uaa
_u_om oqauo u+aa+a uaa+a Co+j Caam uo
u+coaoo __a a+uo+a. _um a a+a u+co oa
_ao+a.

oumd a+__a Coa+ jo o+aa+o
umga _jum _gauaa nmoucjC+a
amo _jg ag +aa a+om++
umm a_o, +a mmo daCo (Ca.u. 30)

Caga a+Ca+u+a+aa qa++o aaauua u+aa
m_ aC+u+aa nmuua mCu m_ ooa __a
u+aa+aa _u_om auo 'amma omau' nmg __a_++
(Ca.u. 69). _ma _u_om __auuuo Ca+u+o
Caa+a++a+a a auco+g __uuam_++.

+a aaa uuCa a_ C+a Ca++u
a+uuouo. j uuam+o u ucj uao+m+m
a_ Ca++u a+a_+m. _a a_ Ca++a
auca a+ua +a aaa uuam+o u uca
uao+m+m. m+o naua+m uC+u+aa (u
u+aa) nmg a+oouua_+m. uu u+Ca+u+aa
(u+a u+aa) nmg a+oouuam_g.
10

122

_u_omm aoqaojg a+g nuCu+ga oua,
om +cc+C+ _u_gad uou+q uo_ja oCo
Cam+_a u Cu_+_a. nj oqad Cam+a_u
uam+a C+am_mCo+, uoCa _jooao Cam+ac_
oa+a aam_m. _oqaom ca_uuu
oaua+uoam,

a mu oa o+jm
oaa ca oo+jg ojm
auc m_a aua jm
au cad _ a+ucm
aa a+jg _gnmm m_m
am _jg _uajg am_m
aaca ucjga oa om_m
a+ad jga ajg_g nmum
aad aaaa ad m_m
ago jga auaa ajm
aau +uca oaq_ oam
auomo mC_++ u_ ajm
(Ca.u. 357)

nm_ u+coo uo o+ aacm __uuc Co+j Caam
ou_a_++. _uo u+aa uoa+a aa oqauo
aa+a a+ca _a+am d a+ao+a uaom.

u+aa uoa+a oo_a oqauo ajg au
q_Co++_ d +cc _u_om _+oucam+a oo_am_+m.
CoC_++ u_g Cc+ao mum ucj qa++aoo+a o+a
uu a+g oua u+o+a a, oumag
ouuo+a a aCo+ ou +cqc ouam_+m nmg
Ca+ aoo+a +_ amu aouoa_ Co+j Caam
_ggam_++.



123

_um,

a__+ u__m_ ojucj ++aoo+a
___a _a+ Ca+oom++ - _ga
oumog ouuoC+ m_ouam_++
umuc+a amCa og (Ca.u. 36)

nm_ u+co o uo+a. Caamm _a__ qoa+a
aa+o+m,

uuma+ +auum +aad uoa+oo
auoao ooaa o+cc+__+m ojg_mg
ouoaa om+a ouam_+m oouaCa
nuumo+ g_a+_ aaad nmCa (+o+. 3948)

nm_ u+co uaam_g. _aj ++auum uu aa+o++ a
Ca+ aoj aauaCa Caaa a+u ag ua
__guuga_++.

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5. .. . d aa d aa d aa d aa aad aad aad aad

auucj++aoo+a o+oo_a u+m ma
auq_j+u a+ ao aauo a u+coo Co+j
Caam __am_++. uo oa+g ;

1. a+am au _ag
2. ocu_ ao oaag

4.5.1. a+am au _ag 4.5.1. a+am au _ag 4.5.1. a+am au _ag 4.5.1. a+am au _ag

aad aua+aa _u_om _+am+aa _aao
og omo+aa Ca_a+ucCu+g _jm aam a+a oqoo
ojg auua gmqgm+m. uua uu aaom ag
_+am uaa+ua qoc g au a__ om _j+
Co+auoa mo+auoa mum a+a Couqm+m.
noCo+a aggua Cog qaoca_g aq qoa uuuoCa
124
auucj+m. auucjomm Ca+uaua q__ _u_om,
uaa+ua ou+a+g Cu+a, omg _u_ auuu _c+a
d aa++. _m+o auam+a ucaoa oa
u+auoa a+_a d doa qouua.

Co+j Caam _jauo __uuc _u_omm
_uaa Co ao+_ Couqag. _oodu_ _u_omm
daoad u__ Coua nma_++. _um,

_au comaam _aa o+oauq q_aCo++
a+aa uuc auu Coaa a+_Cm(Ca.u. 110)

o_a m uuua +Cm a+__
mo+aa Co+aa mj j+d
+o+a n_aCu+a o+jg oj
ma+aa +mj a+o a
a+oom na_n_a acmmg nuu
a+uuo auoaummg _cc odoo
qoouam _aa__ __mg ga
nguca++ _uuaqa _uCu+a +Ca
(Ca.u. 114)
nm_ u+coaom oa+aa ooa uam_++.

4.5.2. ocu_ ao oaag 4.5.2. ocu_ ao oaag 4.5.2. ocu_ ao oaag 4.5.2. ocu_ ao oaag

_+ouum a+aaoao+o oumoc aa
om au ocum, _+au+um auucam_+m. uuao_
au, +m nmg uo+ ngug aguuu oouua Cu+g
'mum au oj+u a+_a u+guqa mC' nmgug
ocuum aua+a q_am_+m. _ma q_g d aaCu+g
u a+ a+duaua _+am +__+a aau+,

ucjo+_ o+m _am
dogmg =a+m _am
ucjo+_ o+m _am
_a nm_a _uua nm_a (aau. . 416)
125
ama+ noo+a +Cm
oog oo+_a a+am
mum oaa noo+a
aa nuoa +Cm
nmma ucjC++ aua
qg _mm auu
uma o o_a nm_+o
u_+ a+mga uCc+ (aau. . 419)

. . . . . . . . uaa nm_
Cu+C ua +ma
=Co acuu+ nmug (aau. . 425)

nmg __uua_++. _uaa au+aua ojg uqao+_
d aaa aa auuua _+au+m +__+aCo uucg
Co+j Caaa +cam_++.

a+Co au+a ucam _+__a
maqua a+amC_m nmam _+__a
a+C umo+_a umo +ga
Caonmg da+uum _g+m g
_a+ga nomo+ umo m+ga
_uoa_a++ aagcmnm _uao m+ga
aq doa nma+mg nma
_u++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Ca.u. 111)

nma _uu+coo au_ad, ua, _a+a, _u_om doa
_aa umga +ca aa C+mq auucj+u a+Co
nmg _u_om a+uc a+dua ooauuam_g. Caga a+
uom+a naua+um uq ajo+ uo+ u__a Co+j
Caam a u+coo __am_++.

a+aa_+ amamm+ a+oa ujg
+aam amo+ +aa ++a_a
Cu+aa+ ou_u u+mmdaa uaau
+aauo +aam++ ooquCu+g ucjCCm (Ca.u. 240)
126

nm_ u+coo a+am, ocuCmam_ ou, aujg,
aCajm, am, m, _aCa++_a _u_om aa d
Cuauuam_g. au+a_ mua aa mqaaa
quauo. g +aom auq_jg Camua__+u
a+m_+a a+cqu uuam uuaua _uu+co __ao+a_g.

4.6 auucj++ uga a 4.6 auucj++ uga a 4.6 auucj++ uga a 4.6 auucj++ uga a

auucj++_ _u_om aaa dodouu
u+guucu uo u+coaoo Caam ooado++.

naua+mm qao+ a+o+_a u_ uau.
_u_om o+u+c a _ +ma jg a+a_+m. oum
+_ao uc+ ouua _aam qaoo Ca+am_+m.
_aam _uuq ao+ad au+aua Ca_a+do aaa_+m.
u+aa gqo+aom ooum, oum nm_ uoauo
gam_+m. ooa+a aojg _ma+uou ug
+a+ a++aa+au uaua Ca+a_+m. uauo ao+_a
u_u+uoa C+a_g. _aaauo,

jao+uCumua j Co__
qCa+ua _cCm nmga a+gnaua
juoum uoao a+g
juoa+a Caa+a mCm Ca+g
aja ajm oa a+cq
ouu o+Cm__ qua a+do
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
_oo_ ag_c+a coa mmo
_o_ +qam+o naua o+a
oo_ _aoo+ oa+mama
a+o+mo q__a+ uoa jg
uooa+a dmm+o mm qau
ua+ acm uuug mm++
oo _a _uao_a.... (Ca.u. 105,106)

nm_ u+coaoo ooa ua a+uo+a.
127

__ auu auua oau _o+m uoumu u__+g
o+Co oa. gCo _u_omm ua u+u oa ooog
nm_ ao aa+a u+cuo Co+j Caam oam_++.

u+mum _ajg oaad qooa qogaj+o
amm+ nuugu u+mmo Cam oaumga
mum ucjc +md aaa mauoCa+m
u+mmq +aucj C+aq_ a+ma+o aaqCm
(Ca.u. 112)

_uaa a oCacuu u_ oaqa qao+_ _u_om
aaa auuua,

1. ucaoa oao
2. oa go
3. u__go
4. ooao

nm_ +m_ uoaoo a+uo+a. u+guuc +ccuu__
o+__om oo+ uoa Caau uujo nma
ooaa u_gdog nm uo+a.

4.6.1. ucaoa o_o 4.6.1. ucaoa o_o 4.6.1. ucaoa o_o 4.6.1. ucaoa o_o

_u_om m a ucaoa+au q_Co++_ u+a
auom. oaao _aoo auau uuug a+u
oogga mu+aom oumoac_ a+__+a _uuom. _ma
a+o _caam+a aa muaua aa+o++,

o++ua_uo+ a+ao__ _om_ _o+C+
Cu++ u_uu+ C+a+ uu+ __uuuo
Cu+gu ujgmua Co_ am +oma
Ca+gom aaa Caau nuu o_C_
(+o+. 3614)
nmgua_++.

128
_aauCoCa Co+j Caaa

umo_a oumo_ ooa+a __a
aoo+ _uad uou _m
auma_a ucaoa+ a+ca jg
a+um+a ma+oo ao+am _+Cm (Ca.u. 103)

nm __a_++. Caga _juuau ucm Cu+__, +a
muauau Cu+a _ o_a +a nmg a+u
ua+umu Cu+__ +guo,

mmaoa ao+ ao+o _j
acCm maaj +Cm nuu
mumam ucaoa a+u ao jm
o+_ o+ oam _+Cm (Ca.u. 104)

nm_ u+coo uo+a. _u_om + _caam+a auo
Caaoaaa++,

aouuaj do auuu uac_ auum+a
aua u+ a+uc uC+u+am+a '_C+ oo++' nmg
au+am o u++ ouum+a +a+ ua+ao
uoa+u ooa+ m_+m. a+Co aua
ucam_o+_ uaa o_a oa _u oo_a
ouuCa aua ouua.
11


nmg __uua_++. auucjou a+o acm nma+u
o+_ _ga uaa+a _u_om _a_+m.

_ma ucaoa oaa uoua,

_guam Co_oo+ qao+ad umo+_a
_gam uaa _uo a+ga uoa+ga
_guam nmCoauc o+o+ qauu. . . . .(Ca.u. 247)

nm_ u+coo Co+j Caam __uuam_++. _ma
ucaoa q_o Coua nmg _a+a+ _uuaua_
129
a+ua +guaao Co+j Caam, 'ao+_a _u_o__a a
aauja u. aoua+Co acuaa+a a+ucom _u_om.
aou aoaCo + a+oa+a auuuau u+a_+m' nmg
__uua_++. _m+o ucaoa a uuo mum
ucj++_ aaa ujuaua qom+_a. _um
_aam,

_Couamg ucaoa uom+ mgauau
u_Coau uja__ u+mq (Ca.u. 58)

nm_ u+co o uo+a.

4.6.2. u__g 4.6.2. u__g 4.6.2. u__g 4.6.2. u__go o o o

_u_oum uca Cam+_ uca+a aa+
aaa+ad uaam_m. aa+a nmug +m nm_ muauaa
aaa+a nmug nmucag nm_ muauaa
oouugam_m. __d +ga,

a+mmg nma aaguu+m o+Cm++_
a+j oaa a (. 346)

nm_ u+comau 'a+m'mga mm+ _uau__ u+uo 'nmg'
nmga +_ aa_a ouuo u_uua_g. _uo cuo
Cacgoa nm a+g aom+a a+u aaa aaam_m.
oaaoo =uc m u+amuaua aaa+a auo_a.
__om aua q_u Co+j Caam,

a+mnmg nmu+mg _ouonm aaog oumaoo+o
_mg _ja mmq a++_num _cu
+mum oa cg am_+m mdoCa
+um oaa Comm_ j +uCm (Ca.u. 98)

nmo __aag. Ca___uucc ___u uCaoa+ a
uao,

130
ao+og Caa+ u+_ u__ ga+ao+ga Ca+au
ua_aa+ga uo 'a+m nmg - mua' ojg o__m
au u_u_ oo,. . . . . _m+o _ooouau u__uma
occ++Ca oomug +_uuccg.
|12|


nmg __a_++. __ Caa+ nmug _aaum __am_g.

oac+guoa +ma j uoao aom
'_aam' ua+o _u_oum oa_+m nmg +ga
(Ca.u.156)._u_+c+u+o aom aaa au+a oaaom
a__muaoojg oucu Cumuu +c uo_a. Caga
aaa+ uja, _uo+ oao__o ao+ a+uc u_g
_guCu+a oumao a aa+m m_o ama u__ aaa.
nmCo+m Co+j Caam _o_u_ oog,

aa_ _uaa+C o+Ca quaa+au
u+auo aCa__u qoma+uc uaCma+u
__a _a ooa ucjo+_a (Ca.u. 252)

nmga

ouuoam a+a+o qaoo+ oumaucaCo
aucoa +ooua_a auouu+m nmajg
uoa_ a+gua u+oo am_++_a
auood aa+o o a+Cm (Ca.u. 253)

nmga +ga_++. _m+o +m+o u_ga+u
oo++_a _u_auu u_gau u_uug_a nmug
u_uua_g.

Caga oa o+oo q_ua aguauucc _muu
aaam a+uc aaa+o ao_ aCa Ca. om
_u_o_ qua_uc+o aaaa aaa+o Ca aa
a ocqmua u__j a+ uoua ucam_+m.


131
__d,

u____ auCu u_uug_a (. 349) nmga

u_ga u____+m u__um uu_u_u
u_ga u_g oc__

nmga __uuco oac+guo auo Caau uujgcm
uucag.

4.6.3. oa go 4.6.3. oa go 4.6.3. oa go 4.6.3. oa go

Cam+ad oaaoo gmq_g _c+uuc ojgam_m+.
mq ga oumuuam, _moa oumuuam, aa oumao+o
uc+m uam _aam aua aua u_uuuCa jg __a.

gCoam_u u_o+ua_ oCa+o+. aua u_o+g
_u_aoo aojg, a acm o+ Cam+ad
oaqam_m+. _m+o __ uca+a uaa u+oauo
nuu ojgam_m+. _aCo u_jg __jg +ca o+oo
aa, u+u nma _oumauoa _ uca+a
Co+j Caam agam_++.

mmg oum+_a+a uajg amumu u__
+c+am_g. ummg oouu_oao gaa Couq uaam_g.
auucjo+ o+oo =Cc__a u_ oaqaCu+g
_oouqmmga ououa n+u++am_m+.
13
_ma oa
auca ucaoa q_uo Caamm,

ojmCu+o ooma mj a+a
a+o+ ga+oo oum uq_
_jma+a nuuj a+oa noo+a
_mmau uo_Ca _a+ ouua
oj+ _oua_ _a m+_a
o_goo oam++ oCa a+uc++
ujma+a uoaumga u+g ua_u
uau_am ua_ uag o+C (Ca.u.141)
132
nm_ u+co u+ga. _ma, auucjum _ooumad
u__a aa, oumauo auoa aaa Couqa u+guq qga
auucj+_ _ouo.

uumm+a auq_j++ aaa a+aad _u_oum
+Co. ma +a qa++, au q_m aa a
aaoao+o ouoj oumauo ao+ gaa+ ouua _u_om
d qam_+m. Caga au q_a ma uma qa++
_jC+ _a+C+ aa uuauoa u+gam_+m.
_aaua Co+j Caamm,

maa oumom uo m_
_gdo ojg uo +__o
maaa oo+o _ua u++g
o Ca+j goam +Cm +gu
umaa oumaum m_+g mga
oumuu+gg Cogog oa+m a+_ga
(Ca.u.143)
nm_ u+co o uo+a. _uc+a qa+m oumuuam
amo ucc uam a nma_++. _um,

o+am+o u+q amm+o aja
Cu+a uua q_o+m m_ma
amog a+_a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (+o+. 478)

nm_ u+co o uo+a.

au+a u_Ca aaauuqa g _u_oum
uco__ uca+a m+ a+oa+a aoumu u__ __a
oumauou u+uu+ao _cc Cu+mg Cu+aoa. 'u+o
u+Cuua: Ca++aa+a' (ua.au 18.66) nmg uao auam
aa+Co+ao auuua+m __g =u oa+o
ag.



133
+o+a +a +a+u,

naua+um ja u+ogcm Cu+_ga mua o+aj
aaamum a+o u+oa aagoc Ccc+o omg
_ao o___a naua+Cm uu+ou oga
aoa_++.
14


nma_++. auq_j+u a+uug _u_omm Co. gom_
ao+ aua +Ca a+ga+dauq C+g. oaaoo =Cc__a
CCa+? nm_ aouo ao+ac_ _ouo. aua u_o+ua C
a+ua+a mg ao+aom aououa +uuom _u_om nm_
u+oo,

_a umga _o+q Ca+ua ucao a+u
_om m_ no+_ Com_ +maa+a
agu_ oga+ o++ ouaam a+ucg
_u_aom _mmo+o nad Ca+aa o+mCm
(Ca.u. 325)

nm_ u+co uaa_g. _g 'a+o+a+m' nm +c_a
aa+Co+ao _cau__ 'a++a' nm_ +cm ooaa+a
uaam_g. _+Co+amau _ca uga 'ua_a' nm_
a+o 'uaoo' nmuu __g. aouca aao, aa nmg
no_u_ agam_+Cm+ o_u_ ococ _u_oum
auqaCoua. uCu+g ao+ac_ '+aa+a a+g a+da
u+guq, uu u__a aouo _ouo'. _au +m 'a++a'
nm_ +co ' qoauo' nmg auuua+m om++.
_oouo Co+j Caam,

uamg qoauo nm_++ oj++
u++_ C+j++ oj+++Ca (Ca.u. 276)

nm_ qaoga __uuam_++. _ma aouo C+g
__auq +_a o+am+o mum auucj+m u+oauo
_u_om aada_+m.

134
u_ou uaco jgo+ j++
_u_om qCa+ ++. (. 10)

nm_ __a _u_omq q_o+o u_ogmua ga nmg
__uug C+aag.

4.6.4 4.6.4 4.6.4 4.6.4. .. . o oao o oao o oao o oao

oc+og u_o uoauo gg, _muu_o+u Cumu
+cco =uc _u_ocm aoo oog a+a __o
__a. uu+co,

+_u+ g+Ca+m oam oou
qgo noC+ ogug g_aa (u. 15.15-16)

nm_ qaoo +um auuCa ou Cu_u_ oaooog nmg
___a. Caga,

uoa o+aom _o+aq uj
_Cog auqog _aaa Cu+o
Caa ouoa qja uaa+o
ao ammo+ _o_a u+oa_u
o om _a+ ujm
ou aoj +o++_
a+ g_aa uam_ ucg (u. 13.7-13)

nm_ qaoo, ' a++uuog aa ua Caaa Cu+o _gca
_a+ad oo_o Cu+m_ a_, aaad qja
aaca ou aogca oo_a a+uo
+o++_a a+o_a uo_ja m_ uaa+_a'
nmg __am_g.

auc aucom amgo u_g Cao
au oqo+ a+o _mua +a nago+
quca u+ qua a+ gao ag
uga goum gad a aaaCm+ (+o+. 818)
135
_oa_ga n_aC+m aucog
q__ uog qu o+a
da+ cqaou _ca+do+m
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (+o+. 414)

nm_ u+coaoo u_Ca auaa+o+a ua+o+a
_u_om auucm oCug o_uo __am_m+. _uaa
aum +c+aa+a Caau uuja oCug uga uoua
oo_a_g.

ao+aom auq_oo Ca+caa+aa oCug Cumu
uoa+a_g. oCug Coua ao+ma+om uoua _aaad
uoo+g +gam_m. uoam_ am a+j q o
oau uco+_a nm aCc+uca __uuam_g.
u+go+a uouo ucad a+ad a+ muaaum
u+am_ oCu_g_ mq oog u_Ca a_jm
ooggam_m.
15


_ma mqu_j uu _ao =ucc ao_
ocqmua o_a u+guq _u_oum a++j+a_g. uCu__o
u_g a+uc++_ 'u uu' nm_ ouaao oumuuam
ac o oog _+ uua+a au+a
q_jcm o nm qa++ oaqa ouaao _u_om o
o_a_+m. _um Co+j Caam,

qaooao _oo+g u+mmdau __o+_a
aoao+ mu+_a mC_a+gu
uaom+o ua_o oo_a uaa+d
aoaCom nmgu_a a daCo
(Ca.u. 255)

nm_ u+coaoo oo_a_++. 'qao oao _oo+g . . . __o+'
nmug u uu CouCo+ua 'aoao+ mu+' nmug
_+ uu CouCo+ua __g nmug
muauuccg. (3.4.3)

136
_ma ao+_ oCu_u_ o_uo Co+j Caam
uouuc __am_++. uau Ca+u+mo oCug ucuo
mug uquoao+a Co+j Caam __uuam_++. oCoaa
a+do, oua+o__ ojgo, _uaago, oumac_
+o, _a oaoo =uo auq_o _aa _jg
uqad _+_uuccm. (3.4.1) _go mug ou uajuq
uoad _ma+ _a uo, a+ a++aa, uaua Ca+o,
u_u uaa+uoa u_o nma +m_ uoad
ooauuam_m. uojg uoaa ao+_am. u___uucc
uquoad +m_a _u_om aaoao+a uaom.

4.6.4.1 4.6.4.1 4.6.4.1 4.6.4.1. .. . _ma+ cooc _o _ma+ cooc _o _ma+ cooc _o _ma+ cooc _o

u_amau u+j o+d aao qgam_ oo
_m_a_a. ao+ma+a ao __aou _
u_+ga _u_+uqo uaa+a =uc _ao+ga
au_uucq_a. _u_oum um umu_ omo+o co
oc _ma+ _a a+ou n+ C+aa_a.

a+Ca+u+aaoo u_ a++j+o aom u_u uo
aaad o. uu _ a++j+o aomm aua _ca, a+oa,
a+uaoo a+uca+a _aCoua nm_ acuu+ad
_ouo. _um Co+j Caam,


mmo a+ag _ua o+ag mmaa
nmmg a+ag a++ a+a_ qao+_a
_mmuo Cam oaua ug ooaoC++
mmuo a+a +q o_ ucu_Co (Ca.u. 66)

nmg __uuam_++. au a+oo naua+m aouca
a+Cajaa, +Cmjaauo amgcm +cq aamuu
u+uo+oo Ca+a_+m. um u+uum _ma+oca Ca+a_+m.
oo+ma+ _a_acm _uuauua_g.

137
aom aa _a_ao+mam_g. gam Ca_q_a
ogaqad +am_m. o_u_ aucjC _u_om _a_aom
_auu u_ga+da_+m. _ma aucuaao ao_
Coum Ca. _juoao ao+Cao auua+u mCm+
uudam_+m. um co+aa au_ammg ouc aag
ago+a+aa uaja oa+a _ma+uo ooCa__
a+ a++a__ _c aoam_+m. _agauo
ooa_ Co+j Caam,

u_acc o+om d u_a Ca+aau
u_ac c+o__ _go qja +aam+m
u_ac qo+ auam a+cc umjgco
au_ocq oc ouu gaoua aaCa (Ca.u. 144)

mao =ujg amo +cq
aaa+a aoum Ca+ oo+a
m_ua amo Ca+g _a_ u
uog +jmu+o uo_a +m
mugcm o+aou uc+a dCo
Ca+q ga+ouo_a cau+a mga
omau_am uoo+ao _jg aua
o+Cm_ ouu am_ _+Cm (Ca.u. 144)

nm_ u+coaoo __uuca+uo+a.

4.6.4.2 4.6.4.2 4.6.4.2 4.6.4.2. .. . + + + +a+ a++aa a+ a++aa a+ a++aa a+ a++aa

aom _a oqo+a coocu ujga , aom,
aaa oa aco+ad n+amg oCo_g a nouo
ouao a+uCu+a oo++ad. _ma oua acjo+ad
aua u_o acoo o++. _oo_ +aa +o+a Cu+aa
um acj ao+_ _u_ao+o _om da+
aucg. _m+o u+a aaaad a a+ a++aa
naga a_uq__m+.


138
_um,
ucu_ a uaoo +d +aua _u
_uco a+_g _o_ omu amoum
_ucuc o+mo+ Ca+mu a+u nmg_o+o
_ucauc Cu+aad na n_ua qgoC (Ca.u. 67)

o++ ua qu_ Ca+jc+ +jo+a
ao++ ua qau_ +jum oj+a+u
o+o a+ coa a+ua acj_um
+o++ uo a+o ___m +_aaCo (Ca.u. 146)

nm_ u+coaoo __uuca+uo+a. aa+o++,

n+n+ _uaao+ _uuca o_m+
ao+ oo+ uaju_ a+cqm+
+_o aad uoaco a+
ago g+aq a+om a+Ca (+o+. 3982)

nmg Cug guo_ Ca ua+auo +gga =u
_uug nuuag.

4.6.4.3 uaua _o 4.6.4.3 uaua _o 4.6.4.3 uaua _o 4.6.4.3 uaua _o

uoa+oa+a ooum, oumaoo _c_g oumao+o
Ca u_o gmuo jauq ao+ _jm+. ao+ad
auqa a+uoao, ooumad au u_o gmua +c+
ouaao ajm+. m+o oumaom +_ +c+ ouua
ouaa+_u_ ac_a Cug acqag. _um Co+j Caam,

uuuca ouma+__o uqjg u+a
a+u+C aa+a u+a a+o
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_o+jgoj g+aa oua a+_u_
auca a+Co acj ao+
auauCc++ aaoo+a ac Cc+Ca (Ca.u. 149)
139
nmgua a+uo+a. ougm uaua aouaao
_gaa + _g ouaa+_a. _oo+_u_ ac_a ao+ a
ouma+a ac gCa++a uo_ja Ca+o+ nmug aq.

nmCo+m ouuaua ucu+u +o+aaa,

uujg+a Cu+ou ugu u+oo+
auua ago C_u u_uo+
oua_ uu+o Caom+ mC_ (goua. 723)

nmg _o++auo a_uug +guaao __uuam_++.

4.6.4.4. uaa+uoa 4.6.4.4. uaa+uoa 4.6.4.4. uaa+uoa 4.6.4.4. uaa+uoa

ouaa+_u_ ac_a ao+ aacm _u_om
nja uau o+auo acjg aoam_m+. _uo_ja
oaa+m oaa. _uu+maaa+m oaCo uaj_a
aucua a+auaucua. aoa aucuo aoa
acqoo _Cam ag mg u+cqa++aca _u_om
njo _uu+m. _a+caua au aaCo, aa+o+a,
'u+moa+oC+, qom ga _oC+' (+o+. 3528) nm_++.
_ a aa a Co aauoa ooa
uujauoa u+qu u_ua+m uaau a+uo+a_ ocqm
uaum gaam_m+. uaam oua+o a uuaa+m
u+ ao+ _Cu+g ouaojg oouuc aom
uua u+jg u_u uaaaa aaa Cug u__m+.
_m+o aad Cu+mC_ _u_o_ a+u++.

jg amg _jga+j qoo uau+CCa+
jg mo ua uo ao+Ca+Ca+
jg mo ua+c+ +m _muCaCa+
j mo uanm o+_ j+Ca (+o+. 3999)

nm_ u+coo aa+o++ u_u uaa+uou u+jg
Cu+am_++. _uaa u_u uoa ucj aoum
140
__uuuaao, Co+j Caam, a ouaaom o
oo+_a_++. _uu+co oa+g,

cgaa uaj am Cu+o
aucjg aoao oa Cu+o
aco+a auCa+j aoCa Cu+o
a+c aoj+j aoC_ Cu+o
acoaoa aaoaj a++ Cu+o
omau_Cu+a amm+ua u__++ Cu+o
cmo+ a+au__a a+ua a
a+jua q_u+jg m_ Cm+Ca
(Ca.u. 151)

aucj ao+_ oua +guaao m_m+o
u_gCa+cucu Cu++qu um oooooo _jg _a
uoauo __uuc a+uo+a. _uo, uaam ou
_oojg oucc ao+_u u+_ uaam_m.

uaa+uoa u__ uoao uauo mmCa
_aa_a aad, u+, u+oo+, au+aua oa+a
oa _a+a+ad o+Cm++ _+C+ _uuj aom nmga
ooa+g. _u_+uCc aa_a. _um Caam
_+__+a,

q_ n_ua noo+ a+_a _a_a
+g g+aq +um uu aquaama
+g ao+j _ad _+ad _ua_a
a+g om_ aaja Cu+ag amoCa (Ca.u. 68)

nmg __uuam_++. _oouaao Co+j Caam noa aoa
ucaoa q_jg uaa+uoa u__u uuacm
oo_am_++.





141
4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 _ __ _ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu

4.7.1. 'au+aao _u_om' nma _ooaoo ua uoao
aa _u_om mum uca ao+u+o a aaoad
ooauuam_m. _u_omm ugoa auua au+a
_aoga u+aa uoa+a __ga ooauuccm.
q+a+u uua+a aad mg aou aoga
auam+a aa _u_omm o+__om + aa+_a.

4.7.2. auucj++_ _u_om +am mg mmqau qao
oam_+m. aomm u_g, oumauo aadam_+m.
_ma+oumu ug, a+ a++aa+a ug amg,
u_u uaa+uou uoa aaa_+m.

_ma _u_aaoad, Caau uujo
ooauuc au+aua ooggomo+a uaam_m.

a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa

1. _j+ u++a+, a _oaaaoo uouoa, u. 49
2. u._+. aaam, uouo aqa aauu+oaga, u.124
3. q.nm.nu. +aom, au+a goa +a, u. 16
4. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 128
5. _+aCaa+a+a++, _ Caau uuja u, u+. 298
6. _ oam _ua - 10
7. . +uqcqa++, uouoaooa, u. 365
8. Caog, u. 201,202
9. _a aua au+a (o u_), u. 9
10. o.nm.Ca+u+o Caa+a++auo+a, _uouom, u. 12
11. _+. Caaoaaa++, (mu) - Caau uuja, u. 59
12. uCaoa+, __d u, u. 346
13. Raghavadasan, Visishtadvaitam and Vedanta Desika's Sri Nyasa
Dasakam, P. 44
14. +o+a +a+a+u, au+a, u. 31
15. . +uqcqa++, uouoaooa, u. 8

142
gou qo gou qo gou qo gou qouu+c _ad uu+c _ad uu+c _ad uu+c _ad

5.0 _oaaad a+o, Cu++, _a, u nmu uoouau
u+uuaauo ucam. _uu+uuaad a_uuauu_
_oaa _aauca qoua _m_auaa+g. u+u+_
q_uu u+d qouu+cq__a _oaa a__a uoCog
u_auo _oaau uucuu+o+ uaa+dam_m+. _au_ad
docaa, oa, nma mu_ a++jg uaom.
docau oouu oa uu+d noo o+aau
am_uca aa guu_am_m.

5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1. .. . qouu+c _ad qouu+c _ad qouu+c _ad qouu+c _ad

auo nmug aoa+_a. m o a+uuga
a+doga _ouuga _oga+aa uamad aam_m.
|1|

_+_g _oaa auo_a u+jga. _oaa auoad
aao u+a qouu+c u_aa aauug aou
auoa+_a.

aouu uucuq nmug aom u+ oouu+. a
uucuuo u+oauucc muauau uuo_a Cu+g
uuucuq _oaa a_uca+a_g. o+oao +gauo
a++u am+ad +go__a a_j aom +go__a
Cogu+u. ao+ au+uo um ooo oouu
ooouo. +ga u+om uua, +ga u_am gcua
Cu+m_o_C_+ uaa, aa auoa+a, aoua+a aaua
am_++.

ao+ auooqo+a oouuga u+u+d uquuou
amg CaCoua. ao+ auu qouuguo+; uquuo+
qjga+duo+. jg a+dga qjg a+dga+aa
uoCa 'qouu+' nm_ a+oom u+d ouau_a+_a. nmCo,
aouao u+cqouu+ nmug ao+ uaa+a aou
aqa_d u+uo nuuq oouugam_m+ oog
aouao u+d nuuq oouua_g nmuuu u+gC
uaa_g.

143
aouu uucuum o__a uoCuga m
u+ouaua aca a++jg uaomg. u+uua a_uqcm
+qa qouu+c u_aCo uucuuu uau_ aaa.
agauo nj u_ao nuaa a+ao ooacCoua
nmg aa uoao u+d qouuga a_a C+__a
uga_g. nmCo u+u+_ q_u aom Ca_a+da
auoa+a u_aCo qouu+c _ad nmo+a. nj oo__
ao+ qouu+c _aoo a_am_+C+ joo__u
u+u+d uoCug ucam_g.

auo+ o+ a auoam aooao mua_
agaCu+g o+ aaam_ _au_ad a+a qouu+c
_ao+_a. _oaam a_ag +gaoga aom
auodoa u+uuaua a_uu_a ouaao uooua
gcuauo uaa+a. _uqouu+c _aom ummuao
a+amau ao+ agga _ua caaa_g.
_oouaaCoCa _oaa _ao+m a+uq nm_ q_oqoa
oua, oaa, uqaa, __a _aa auo aa
uaam_m. ao u+d oouu+ du_, _u_a,
__uquu+d, u_ ad _aao__m quuucao
+ccuuga. _aaq aCaa qouu+c _aom
+muaua u+ga. Caga uaom uo+gad _oaa aa
a++oC+ qouu+c _ao+a uaam_m.

5.1.1. gou qouu+c _ad 5.1.1. gou qouu+c _ad 5.1.1. gou qouu+c _ad 5.1.1. gou qouu+c _ad

goa uuau u+d; ujgdog; oao a+uo+_a
muacm a+uo+a+ muauaa doca oo+uuga
__a. ouaa oa _aou_a+m a+uauoa m _aa
aa+m Ccoauoa u+uua +gao+a
a+uqo_og. am a_ uu+o+m _aau _a
a_aao uau+o+m go +gad uaam_m.

oa _aou__ _+ a ng? oa _u a+ma
ajg? au__u um amm uo a+g? o+m
Cadoaom ouoo+au uo aaoad njm nmuga uo
144
uooua gou +gao+au uuam nmuga
muauuccm. (1.1) _uaa go uouu+ad a+a
qomacj aaaao+a (Meta Physics) o+am. u+am_++
o_C o_u_ u+o _agCaam_u u_ ouaao
qouuga u_ad _ao+.

_+gad a+a guu+d muaam. qom acj
_u_uauoua, oa _aauu qo_d acuuc o+a
a+j+ a+o+ga _a _ao+g. _jgu+j +mad uoa
+u+jo+g o_u_ ooacqam_m+. _ajumauo
_o nooo aqma+m+a uaam_C+, uaa aqma
_ajumauo u+goga u.

go ooa__ quuuc _+ao+a uaom
oo aaaa++ ua+uao+_a. ua+uaa qj
qumo+a+; mCm+ ua+uauo a ajum Cco+o
gaa+ajg goauo aa aam+. a.o+aum,

_ja go +mad go _+aaao acam_
oo++aa_ guua+m a+mauo _+aoga
uga =uccm+. _Ca a+mad nm __uucuuom
_uou uga oad, _uoauo _ja go +mad
ua+uad nmu+. . . . . . . . . .|_a| u+_ad, goad _aa
_o__o oo+mga oo+ ua+ua nmuua.
2


nmgua_++. Caga o+,

_jg amad uau+muaa uacaa, ga+ma,
_uo+aaa _aa mu_Ca a_ ua+ua+a
a+dom.
3


nmguuuga nuuag. _amgd uacaa nmug
a+uco oog a+ca ouo nmga ga+ma nmug ago
oog aouo nmga uauuga. _uo+aaa Coa
o+m goao+_a. _o__m quuucao goauo
145
ma+j +mad uoa _a_uau u+cauo
a+mgao+a a+cq o__maoqauo gou qouu+c_a
oao+a a+ucm++. _ooaoCu ua+ma __a. mm+
__uucc mg ua+uacm ua+ma ua+ua+a
__uucuuga.
4


_m+o guu+o+m go +gauo oo_uaao
oua o+m _aom _m_auaa+ua qom+_a.
_oaa oo__ uaa+ouuga ad gou
qouu+cq__a _m_auaa+m. m_ C+am oua o+m
ad a+a _oaao ag oouu+cq__u
uamuomo+a uaoC+, +uo aoa guu aaom. gou
u+uuaao ag oouu+Cc muagam_g.

_oouaao uouo a+ugo+a uaa Caau
uujo Co+j Caam u+d qouu+cq__ uaa+a
_u_ad _ooao u+uuaao+a uaam_m. +o+a
oau uuja uuuoo+a oouuga _oaa _aom
ummuao uaj go +gauoa _+a+_+ u+a
agauoa do+a a gou Cuua+a Caau
uuja oo_a_g.

_jggd ag oouu+cq__a ouaao Co+j
Caam uaa+udo _u_auo

1. ad
2. +aa +aa u+oa
3. a+uuao _ad

nmg ouauuo+a.






146
5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2. . . . ad ad ad ad

ao+ a uucuu+uaam+o uaa+a qouu+c
_aoo a+am auoao ua_a _u_aCo
ad nmo+a. qouu+c u_aoo aom aoo+Ca
a_a+a _am_g.

na ouau_ +oa+uuaa o+a
a+uuua_g. _oouaao _oau goad __uua ad
_oau goo u+uou u__auaam_m. nma uo _oaa
aqac_a u+jga. _m+o u+uua nma oouucdog
nmuu acCa _oaa ad a+doouo. _o_g_u
u+uua qouu+cq__a +o+m uuqaa u. oua
o+m uad ao+a uaaam. _oouad oga
oa+a+a aca uaa+ao ao C+a u_Co___a+aa
ouo aa uam aa uaa+ouuaCu+g uo uo
ugo+a a+doo+a.
5


a++qmaC nmu++, '_oaa uucuuo uucuu+o oa
oaqa aa (Message) oog qau (Theme) o
qumauo umga u_amCo''
06
nma_++. _m+o
agu qouu+cqo aom aoo+aum uo+a.

5.2.1 5.2.1 5.2.1 5.2.1. .. . aaa goaa aa aaa goaa aa aaa goaa aa aaa goaa aa

aoaauu u+g ouao uuuuq aoa
ouaao nj aaagoad a_. aou a+mcC+
_o+_a muaua C+aa+a a+u _uo nam_m.
_o__m mua C+aa a_Cu+uu uoao uuua
aaga _u_uuuaua u+gga aaa a+auou
qom+_ga __a.

_oo+g agad uoaa uamuga ouua
uaaa uuu+oo+ uooua auo a_uumcm
uaa+dam_++. _oaa _muga u uoga _uo
147
Ca a_Cu+u _gom. _oouaao Co+j Caam
uaa+a auo,

1. oua
2. oa+c+ad
3. uqaa
4. __a
5. nuuuaco

nmg ouauuo+a.

_o_gd oua, oaa, uqaa, __a _aauo +c+
a+uo ao+a uajgdom. nuuuaco
a+ouo ao+a uaam_m. _ooua aCo m_,
om+ouc uauq, j+ uauq _aa _oaa _aa
Caauuujd a+uuuam_m. o_u_ og gou
qouu+cq__a ad aca =u _a_u a+douu__m.

+aa +aa u+oa __ac muaao uaa
+m; nma mau a+uuua auu+d aq a
mCa +cquauua_g.

5.2.1.1. oua 5.2.1.1. oua 5.2.1.1. oua 5.2.1.1. oua

_oaa oouu+c u_aoo uga uaa+ouuoga
uad uoo____ quuuca+mga+a oua nm_
uaa_g. ouaam muaua uqaoa+a,

mga uoa u+o+ u+dqu+jg
uqua C+m_ auqog oua (uq. 31)

nma_g. _uaa uquau uuq oao qamg. amm nmg
aja +cam+Cm+ mg Co ouaam C+__a
uaam_g. _muaua .a. +maaujm,

148
a+uuucc u+cauo uucu u++_a _aoq ammca
_a_uaa+a uajgdo aou+_a. ammca nmg
nuua C+m__C_+ mC_ a+a C+m_ _o
Coua. a+ C+m_a mC_ oua C+m_ __a.
7


nmg __uuam_++. uquaa+o u aaam_ _oam
uaum _oa_u+,

_m+o uam nmum auuC+ nmo qom oo+m
qom+ga oa+a+a Cacc++_ _mua uaga
8


nmg __uu++.

aom uoa+a ooa+aoa oua, uquCu+u
_mqggoC+ ag a_cm u+d ouo
uc+aooog. noo uo+a+ go +gauo
ouaam o oo_o u+d qouu+cq__ a_j+m_+_a.
_oouaaCo Co+j Caaa ouaauo uaa+dam_++.

_u_om +aua_ua auaom nmg
uaoaaad uoucu Cu+a. _oCaa+o++,

am+o =m_+a a__qa a_godm
dumjC a_o gCoCu+mg _jCCm
(+o+. 688)

nmg _u_oCm+ +ua oaam_++. _aauo Co+j
Caaa,

do guaa +aCu+o __a mao+o
dog u_am_ am (Ca. u. 21)

nmg +auaua _u_omu+o ouaa+a oo_am_++.
_oCaa+o++ mmuoua muau '+a' nm_ ouaua
uaa+o, Co+j Caam _u_oum muauua ouaao
149
_oouaua uaa+da_++. _ma auuuca +a+a
oaa a+ua aom ao__ goauoaga
'auucjC+u a+uCum' nmg aa+Co+ao +_aga _aa
uo umj+_a.

_u_om oa goad noo u _ao+m.
o_u_ u+ja ouaao _a+a+ad nouauu
_gm+. _muaua 'aa+ uaao caa aco' nm
Co+j Caam u+ga_++. _um,

. . . . . . . . . ouCo uoCa+a uca
aja goo _ aga+ ama+
agua a_+ua gCu+o
aja o+a uuu _uoamg ad
_ag ca qCa+a
uja o+a ga dj gajg (Ca. u. 23)

nm_ u+coqao+o uo+a. aauua acoum aa+ a
douaao caag Cu+o _a+a+ uoa _a uu+
goauo a _agd ca nouaa+m ouaao o__m
a+a+m u+uo om++ nmg _ooua oa Co+j
Caam u+gam_++.

mm+a+a++ +_a go +gauo agg o+c
ouo+ C+oogo uua nmg ga+a nua Caam
ou ao+a oaam_++. _um,

do+ o+a+ mCm omnad aa+u+o
odog _ucao Cu+o oam_ ou+aCo
(Ca. u. 21)

nma qao+o uo+a. uouo au_ duoCu+o g
aa aga ou+ad, _a+a+aocg o+g qj+o
odoucao auucc ouug Cu+o _c_g
C+_C_+o+ nmug Caam _ooqao+o u+ oaqa
u+o+_a.
150

uouo auo ao+a_d aom+a _u_om _am_+m
nmgu_a aq muauu__g (1.5.3). _ma _u_om
auo Co+j Caam,

coaua C+mga aa a+_a+a _u_a
acoaua auc o ouoCa+ u+m_o
(Ca. u. 28)

nmgua_++. uaa+aa acoo aa gad ao+ad.
gao_Cc aoga u+_a _u_om nmg oauu+o a
a u+oa u+uuga_g.

ao+ au+aao _u_oum uua+a auucuo
__ o_+g oa aqcm Caam oaam_++. _um,
'do+ uoaoao aum +m ajCCm' (Ca. u.
246) nmu+o uo+a. aq __aoao mguo Cu+o _ma
aa+uuu+o _u_ocm mgua uoua ao+ uco
_oouaa+o ooauuga.

au+aua Ca_a+do++ a+j _mua+aa
uCu__umCa uam+a a+do Coua. a+_+a oaao
_muauo Couo nmug _o+mg. _um,

u+mum _ajg oaad qooa qogaj+o
amm+ nuugu u+mmo Cam oaumga
mum ucjc +md aaa mauoCa+m
u+mmq +aucj C+aq_a _+nma+o aaqCm
(Ca.u. 112)

nm_ u+co+o uo+a. aaad qoCo+ u+m acj+ga
oau+g qouoCa oaqa. _m+o amm+ad u+mumu uga
oaqo+ nm_ _ooua u+mCu+o __a _u_oum ucCo
ag; m_ a__mua Couq auuco a+g nmuu
u+ga.

151
uCug a au+aa uoao uam+ao
Cu+aoc+qag. au+aua Ca_a+uco+ Cuom a
a__+ u+au Ca_a+uc+o uCu+g au+a noou
uauma oa+g. au+aam _muauau uaa+ugcm
Co+j Caam oaam_++.

uu uCa+aaoo a+jg uaa+uCa.
uaa+uu ogu uma + aq _co _o+mg.
gCu+mg au+aua Ca_a+u uma + u+ao
=uo _o+mg. mauua+a CoC_++ uu
uCa+auu uaa+ua q_a+g Cu+o au+aa
Co_gu+aa +qo uoj+g uaa. _aumCa Caam,

Couc+g au_ CoC_++ +c
Couqo ama Cu+ooda __a (Ca.u. 86)

nm_ ouaa+o +cam_++.

ao+ma+ cod __aou, _a_uaa+a uaj
+ma _m_ __a. _m+o u_uuao uaaaa aaa
_ao+g aa_a. _ao+ma+ au+aua Ca_a+uc+o
uCug oa _u_om oaqam_+m. aa+m au_aojg
ao+ma+uo ooam_+m. ao+ma+ +ma+aa ou_g
aa. ao+ma+om _ooaouu u_aocc o+cm Co+j
Caam oaam_++. o+d u_ao_a Cu+g m oouaa
___ga _m_ _uug Cu+o ao+ma+ coo __aou
uaouaaaa aao g nmgu+gam_++. _um
'u_aocc o+om d u_a Ca+aa+' (Ca.u. 144)
nmaqa+o uo+a.

_ma u+uua m__ + oua __uuC
oo+ao uo ouaad _cau_ga uaam_m. _oouauuu,
_oauad uooao oua, uou+d oua nmga +co+.
_ma oua aoo +_ oaqa a_ oo
Ca+uu+a uaa_g.
152
a+om aa C+__umu 'uuc _uucCa++'
(Ca.u. 228) nm_ u+coo Caam ouaad uoo__+o a
+ga_++. _uu+coo,

_uaao Cuo+m ua u+cqca _a
Coca a++oa+a ua+a_a uo_ + _u mma
_u uucacm +qauuua ua mauo
_uaga oad uaCa+c _uua
_ua+uma+mg _u uu a+umacm +q
_o+oua u+am a+uaCa+a oCa+a aoua
aa _u a+qaca ua+auuua +au+aa
CoaCo+a uaaCo+a u+j _uua
oa+ma+a +_o+a.
9


nmgua_++. _uu+com (Ca.u. 228) uaq oo+m_ga
Cuao+a, uaoo+a, o+a, uoo+a, _o+oo+a, nuuo+a nmg
aa uo _oouaao+ga u+ qa+ aa
nmuu +cam_g. _C Cu+mg a__+ u+co+m '_
uuaj' (Ca.u. 225) nmuga a+om uo oua
_ao+o oua_g.

_a+a+ _u_uuuaauoa au+a
goauoa a ac_ u+gam_++. o_u_ u+jg
cCo mua ua_a. uoCa _ma =Cc____ a+a+m
u+o+a uaom. _aum aa ouaao+o Co+j
Caam ooggam_++. _muaua,

u+_qmo _gaoo qoma noo+a
u+_ao+o ojom_m +o+o oj
auaaa Cu+o acoad qo
aauou_j oaj acCo Cu+o
a_aoo oCmjga aCa Cu+o
+oom uoo +C Cu+o
nad_o uaouo Cao+a nmC_
nuuao o++uad+a _uaam C_+Ca
(Ca.u. 120)
153

nmu+o uo+a. _a+a+ da+auo
_u_oa+uu+m u+dacm uuc +go+o
_aa+ad a+a _u_om a+aCo nmug __uuo
u+uuga.

_aa+auo Cac o__m o cjg auucCo++
uCug ugo+. _ma auco++_a Caam ouaad
uo a +ca_++. _um,

coaa uaj am Cu+o
aucjg aoa ooa Cu+o
aco+a auCa+j aoCa Cu+o
a+c aoj+j aoC_ Cu+o
aco aoa aaoaj a++ Cu+o
omau Cu+a amm+ ua u__++ Cu+o
co o+ a+ au__a a+ua a
a+j ua q_u+jg m_Cm+Ca
(Ca.u. 151)
nm_ u+co+o uo+a. _uu+coo aoa uCug
ucaou ou oa a+uaa oa_au+o+a
uajg uo ouaao+o u+uuga.

qCa + _co ajg oucc u+cauo
ouaao+a a+com oa a+uaua oc _a
muaaCoCa uCug uca _aga nmuu u+ga_++.

Co+j Caam uaa+a oua +c+ad ao
q+u+maa a++jmo+a uao =u nuuag. _uo
uouo auo o+ a+uc =u+cuc u+ _am_m.
u+guuc +ca ouaad a+a uouo a+u cuu
nouacm u+ga ouaao uaam_m. _oaa _aoo
u+d qouu+cq__ a ouaaa a+ cuu
u+ga _oaau u_a_a jguua+a uaam_g.
154
5.2.1.2 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.2. . . . oa +c+ad oa +c+ad oa +c+ad oa +c+ad

ouaam a_Co oaa+_a. uqaoa+a,

ouaa u+a Co_gua og
m_m a+cqm qg oaa+_a (uq. 36)

nmg ___a. ouauau Cu+mg oaa agu
qouu+cq__a aoa+_a. _oouaao Caau uuja
a+udo oa +c+ad ao a+mgauo a+uo+a.

a+ua+a a+a umga a+_a
auu ao (Ca.u. 11)

nm_ +co ao auu+jg oam umgu q_
_aaac_a a+ua+og Cu+o _u_om auu, _ma
aaou+cq__ __ga a+ua+a_g nmg Co+j Caam
__a_++. ao Cu+ga auu nmug 'auuao' nmg oa
um_ oua, u+d nmg Coguc+g a+o +ua+a
uajg. o_ uca+a uajg _ug oumad.
_ooumao+o u_oga+ a+_a+_ oa. _uaa muaa+o
ao qa+ aco nmg oumauo Co+j Caam oaa_++.
_um 'mo _uujg oo_a oumaco' (Ca.u. 319)
nma qa+guo+a. _ooaa ao qa+ aco+aa
au+a auo aaa nma aua_ guu
_a_g.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . da+gu
uaom+o ua_o oqo_a
(Ca.u. 255)

nm_ u+coqaoo auucjo+_u uoumao+aa _
o+aa uao+o aoa nmg oumauo _o+aa uou
uao+aa oauugam_++.

aaam +mam m+o auc
a+aoa a+om a+mo (Ca.u. 102)
155
nm_ qaoo u_am uaua +com oa
au+aam noua o_qguua_g. _mu+c a+aa,
+ma, u caa u_ua a +m a+ nmg
oauugam_++.

uouo auo au+aua _ga _a+a+
+_g_ a+_+mo_u_ auag nmg Co+j Caam
__a_++. _um

uoo+ goa__ uo a+cqu
uogaa a+_u uu am_
aoom aau ag a+__
auuca++ auu a (Ca.u. 199)

nma qao+o uo+a. Ca___ oaad uouo aq,
_u_om uua, au+aam a_uq _aao_u_
oouuua aoao+a uaam_m.

5.2.1.3. uqaa 5.2.1.3. uqaa 5.2.1.3. uqaa 5.2.1.3. uqaa

uqaa nmug oam a_o+a uao+_a. _Ca_
(Image) nm_ _ao a+og_ a+ca +c+uua am
+c+uua Ca a+ca uqaa nm_ a+oCo q__g.
|10|

_uuqaad guu+d muaao uaomo_u_u
uuu+o+a oag a+caa+a a_Cu++ noo ua
ouaao uaom. agaom guuauu+d uqamuaao
uaa Cu+g go gcua noo oo_a.

u+go+a a+mm+o a+_ao+o uaaucCa uqaa
nmo+a. + uca+Ca+ oaCa+, ouaCa+ uqau
o+ao+a. m a_uumua guq oouuuca+m auu
qouuga ouumu u_a uqaa _ao+a. am
u+auaa a_uu+m aou u+auaa uquCu++ uga
ouua uqaa aa.
11
g. ama+a, 'qomuo auo
a+ao a+ca u_uaCa uqaoao uauu+_a'
12
nmuga
_ou C+aag. _oouaao Caam uaa+a
uqa+gauo _m a+uo+a.
156
uaa+m auu aaa+a a __a muaua
Co+j Caam 'auquao' nmg oua_++.
_auquao+aa ouoa+cuc Ca_a+duom+a _u_oCm
_am_+m. mum auucCo++_ goau
u+jg a+da _uo om oa _ uca+a
__a a+ua _a_g. _aa+uamuaua 'auquao
ouoa+c' nm_ uqa+o u+gou,

auaog qc ooa+a m_
auquao ouoa+cuc aam_+Cm (Ca.u. 85)

nm_ qao+o uo+a. go a_uo nouaa+a oo_a
ouaao ao aaad uqaao+a oaau uga. _aaqad
'a+aa' nmga __auuga. _muaao uaj go
+_um Co+j Caam a u+co+m_o ooado++.

u_oa+o oumaa oumao+o u_oaa +c+jg
oo +a. _uu_oauoa u_oauo q_uga oumauoa
auucuo+_ _u_om aadam_+m. auuca+o+_u
u_ogmua +c+jgoa.

oua+o uoa uoam_ aqa+o oua a+_
a+_ C+mgomCu+o oumao+o u_oa u_oa+o oumaa
+c+am_m nmuu 'ouuoam a+a+o' (Ca.u. 253)
nma qao __am_++.

_uuqaad a+a ouaam quuucao uajg
go agauo agu+c aaomo+a uaam_m.

5.2.1.4 5.2.1.4 5.2.1.4 5.2.1.4. .. . __a __a __a __a

__a nmug a_uumam quuucao oo+j +
_oaa a+_a. a+oo aa u+om uua
mua q_+ uma+ _mm+ u+d a+u
oo_a Ca __a __a. ___a +oa+uuaa +ca
du_, _u_a nma _oaa auo g. _m+o
157
_a_uau u+caom ummuaCo uao Coua nm_ a
__acq__ _ouo. oua, oaa Cu+mg uquaa+CoCa
__aa uaa_g. __acu u+o+o __auua u+d
aguu u_ Coua. oouuuca+a u+uuca+cc+g.
__acqm _muaua ugo _a+m,

uq_o+ga c_o+ga a__+mu_ __uu+a
u+ga u+d (object) __a nmuua_g.
13


nmgu+gam_++. _oouaao, Co+j Caam uamuga
a+oo+caad __acu u+uuaao uaam_m.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nom++
aucuudo oj auaad o++ud ammaC
(Ca.u. 133)

nma qaoo 'aucuudo oj aua' nmug Caoj o+a+a
C+am _+a+am oao Co+j Caaa go
a+auo uam_++ nmuu u+ga. _+a+acg
mqa+u aucuudoao (auaaou_) +u qjg,
naua+mca uo go a+auo u+jga+uc
ac+aua+a+m a +uqm a_uu+o aucuudoa+a+m
nmuuo++. _a_uuu 'aucuudo oj aua' na +c+
__uuo u+ga_g.

5.2.1.5 5.2.1.5 5.2.1.5 5.2.1.5. .. . nuu uaco nuu uaco nuu uaco nuu uaco

ouo nuuuaua +cca oo_j muaua
+cca nuu ua+ad uaa+ouuam_m. _uo nuuua
nm_ ooCo oo+ao __ua+au u_+mu_ u+ga
muaaga uaom. u+uuauau qouuga _aoo
_uo __uuo u+ga u+ao uaam_m.

uaoaaaoo _u_omm uuqauo +cca
oaua aa _oou a+_ad uaa+ouuam_m.
am ga+a uaj,
158

aCo mg u__+m aCo mu_ +o
aCo mg __+a _a+ a+a qa
aCo mg u__ uua aucao++ o
aCo mu_ uo+m omaua og a+uu+m
(aau. a+uq. 31)

nma u+co nu a+_aoo q+u +gauo
docaa+a uaa_g. _uu+coo '+' (_jg) nma
a+_ad ua_ao+aa _aCu+__uo __uum. mg nm oa
_jga u_Ca a+_g, +, _a+aa, _a, nmumo_u_ +com.
_um _uu+cocu+j q+u aqaom ummuaCoCa
u _aga.

_oouaaCoCa Co+j Caamm u+coaoga nu
a+_ad +ccu ugam_m. go oouu+cq__ao+a _uo
uamua+_u_ _m a+uo+a.

'ad c mg' (Ca.u. 3) nmaqao mg nm_
a+o goa+a __a ag, ag, _u_om nma
uu+dauo u+_g. Caga _aaau u+dad nmuua
aja, goaa, aa+Co+aa _aa uu+a mg nmg
+_g +ccuuga. _um,

m_o mga oua j+m_a
C+m_ +uoa ga+ (Ca.u. 4)

nma u+coo uo+a. _uu+coo _amg u+caom
a+oouuua uogu u_g +ccuua. aja mg
a+_auo uca+uaa+o mg nma goaa _g
a+_auo uca+uaa+o ou nma aa+Co+aa umm
a+_auo uca+uaa+o j+m_ nma
a+oouuuaua a+u __uucu ugam_m.



159
nca+ + nuaum nuq_
ncqu_ nuu a
nca+ ouad =m_nu _uC+m
ncca nu_u aCa++_
nca+ ao+nu anu u
ncqCa+ a+aanu aooa
nca+ _uanc ncca auonc
_Ca oga ncqmCa (Ca.u. 84)

nm_ u+coo nc nm_ nuuua+ nu ouaa+a
__auuga u+dad a+ouma qouuga. nc oqoa+aa
aooqoa, nc auuca uam, ncuaad, o____a
ncaco+, ncu uaad, ncauoad, uao+mm ncu
uuqad, qam ncu uuqad, _uuqao+aa nc ao+ad,
ncoua a, ncouau u, nc oua Ca+aa, ncoua
aooa, aom ncuuuqad, (ncCc+ nc _oa) gug
+m_ auoad, nuoua +uoad nmuuga _uoa+Ca
aj+o ucaag. _ma _u_omm a+o
ooouaua +cc nc nm_ nuu uam _ am_g.

aja nccgauo ucag. goaa
_+c+m uajg. mg nuuuaa+ga a__+mg
+cuuuaa+ga uacuucdom. 'nca _ua
_a+ naua' (Ca.u. 93) nm_ qao 'nc' ajua,
_u goaua +com. _uo oca+aga 'c++a',
'goaa' nmuuo nuuag.

_ma nuuua+auo, _u_ goauoa
_u_ auuuaa ooa Caam uaa+udo++. Caga
nuuuaa+CoCa aja, goaa, aa+Co+aa _aam
__uuca ugam_m. a+oouuuaa+ga,
nuuuaa+ga __ua+a _ooua _aaaad +ccu
ugam_m.



160
5.3. 5.3. 5.3. 5.3. +aa +aa +aa +aa - -- - +aa u+oa +aa u+oa +aa u+oa +aa u+oa

oaaoo a+uuua _ uoaoo a_uug
a+oouuog _co+ uuq+_ _ucao+m a+gu+Coa+_a
_ou+o__ mua jg aau u+ad njm. u _aaa
aCu+g _a+gu+ +aa - +aa u+oa+au uu+aa
ucjg.

aaa+o auuu u+coad, uoom - uoo
_aCa+ucCa uooam uouau uga ojg +gam_m.
uooum +a ama uoomm o_ a+o Cu+m_
auu aqad _u_a+dua_a q_qucao+am.
_j_ao =ua om mum a+oa+a a+u,
_u_oum a+om+a agog +aa - +aa u+om
quuuca+m Ca+cu+c+_a.

_o++aa aua +aaa+aa _u_oum a_a
+aa+aa a a+ouaau u+qa uo u+coaa o+a uu
qouu+c_ aoao+am. Caga uouo auo _u_oum
+aam+a muoo _a+_ucc mg. _aj ++auCm
uau+d nmuu o_qgga uouo auo 'om+oCm
ua+ma+; oum ucCo ao+ac_ auu' nmuu
oouu +aa - +aa u+oa guu _am_g.

_aauo Caaa a u+coaoo aua
uucmuaa+a a+u, u+co uo qumjg '+aa - +aa
u+oa' na aag_ ooua Ca+gdo++. _oouaao _o+
u+qa u+coad mg __a. _amgd _u+coad
C++__+aa u+co aoo+a +__+aa uaam_m.
_amg u+coaa oajqa ao+aaumu u__u
u+cuuccm.
a+o++ a+om au_ a+a ajuao ojg
_o++ _aomg _mm aco _am_
oo++ uaaa+ aooq Couqa aooamCao
u+o++ ma+a _aaq ja _auCa
(Ca.u. 349)
161
nm_ C++_gu u+coo 'uoom+m a+om q+
oaqa uoo oomua auca+uaa+o gmqga_+d.
gmuum amam u+a auuad a_oam_m' nm_
auu+c aa +ccuua_g. _ooau u+uua
oaj ouuua, auuca Coua nm_ ao+ ouua
_aa aaauo ooa guu _am_m.

_+_a auu u+o+m ajuao oja+j
a++a+u cuoauc a+_ qmaao auuma+
Co+_a a_a o+o+ _aoda ooa+_a
u++am _o+ag +ama+o nmg uagoCa
(Ca.u. 352)

nma C++_gu u+cga a+om auu a_uuu
ngu_a. _g auucuo+ a+o+_a auu u+a
ao+aaum auc uooam au+ ua
uoao C+j oog aauu+auo oo_a muaao
uaa_g. _uu+coo 'a+_qmaao' nmug u uoao
moaajg _u_uoam a+o+ uoao =ucc
qa+u __a_g.

Co+j Caam aoo+a +__+a uaj,

o_qcm m_ ajuao oooum +aj+mg
_q a+a a+jua Caccd Couq_au
u_uo a+jaa a+duq a+cqa uuqucaa
o_q oa+q Ca++oo a+aao u__mCa
(Ca.u. 355)

nm_ u+coo aad Cu+o +a oajqa
ao+aaum oaqam_+d nmg +ga_++. 'a+o+o
uoo_ C+j a+o C+a_ a+Co ajg. uoo
aaju oau _am_+d' nmg aoo __am_+d.
_uu+coo a o+uo oaqa ao+ uooa+aa ao+a
uoua au oauCu++ aooa+aa +ccuucdom+.
_ma +aa - +aa u+oa+a +ca auu
_+aCaa+a+a++,
162
_Caa_ ao+aam agdo ooo+ a+o
_Cm uu muaua jg. _mua +a+a q_c
a+dom_ +Cm uoaa+a oo+_a. qC+am
mq +jCoaam_u uja+a ac_a
oaoga uumuaa+_amC_+! _ma _Caam
uoaaom muaua ucj++.
14


nmg __uug nuuag. _j+aa - +aa u+om+o
_u_omm u+m uja ao+ad _u_oum auucCo
ag nmuga ma auucuo+a mum u_a
a+gu+o+a +ccuucdom.

aa _oaaaoo uooam u+uo, uoo +__+a
oouugoa C+, aoo, uoom +__+a oouuga
u+coaCo a_a+_a. u a++j auu+o+m +aa - +aa
u+oo u_+ +__a uoo +__+a uaa u+coaCo
uau+muaa+_a. uooa+a mum aa qa++a
mum auaua uoo +_gu u+coad oo_a. _m+o
Caau uujo C+, aoo _aCa++a +__+a uaj
u+coaCo a+uuuam_m.

_+_gad qa+m uuuuu u_oaqa u_m+om,
uuua ua u+muaaCoCa +ccuugam_m nmo+a.
Caga aa+o++ _oCaa+o++ Cu+mC_++ +aa - +aa
u+oo aua +aaa+a au u+qm+. o+ aua
oa+uCc Co+j Caam, aua C+a+a aooa+a
u+qm++ nmga ao+a.

aco u__a aa ___uucc ouauoao (5.2.1.1)
ooauu__g. _aac_u+uua, auaa+o++ acoo
'aaoa acCogo+' nmgu aauo uajgdog. acCo_
uooumu u__ a++ nmug auucjg a o+oumu
u__ ao+_ uquaa+auuccg.




163
5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4. . . . a+uuao _ad a+uuao _ad a+uuao _ad a+uuao _ad

u+u+_aj ouaao uaa+ouua a+am
uauq oqoa __a. _g uuca+aCo+, aao+aCo+
uaao+a. uuc+g aouua+ a+oCoCa +cau
u_a _C+uua+ ouaaCoCa auq__g. __m
u+u+_ _j u+, u+omauo a_a+a uaa+ucm+.

u+coo uaa+ouua u+uuaCa__ ouaao oaa
a_juaa Coua nm aa qoo+ uo+ uoCog
u+Cu+a__ q_uu u+, u+omauo uag a+ucm+.

_oouaao Co+j Caam oauu+, oauu+oma
ao+a quma u+aom aqauo uaa+u do++.
u+oua u+oua u+oua u+oua
ouu+ : __d ouu+ - 2; Cua ouu+ - 15
_aauu+ : uoauqoa - 4; Cua - 1
aouu+ : a+aa aouu+ - 23.

u+omoua u+omoua u+omoua u+omoua
ouu+ ouu_ (aj+uc)-1
ga+ _aaaj
oa-2
na+ _aaaj
oa-2
nua+ _aaaj
oa-1
umma+ _aaaj
oa-1
umga+ _aaaj
oa-1
um+m_a+
_aaaj oa-3

um+ga+ _aaaj
oa-3
_aauu+

ga+ _aaoa-12


na+ _aaoa-2


nua+aa oa-133






um+ga+ _aa oa-1

_uua+ _aa oa-2

aouu+

accuoaogu_-185

aooa-11

164

Caau uujgd C u+ oog u+omad caa
uujaa uoouau u+, u+oma ooa uujaa
a+uuuam_m. _oouaao C u+ oog u+oma caa
uujad oa+g.

ga+ _aaoa aj +_
_aauu+oma
nua+ _aaoa
amma+uo
uuja+a
_a+aaa
a+aa aouu+
ucaouug
uaaa
aooa _uouo ma
aouu+oma

accuo aogu_
umm+aa
goa +_
aa+Co+a +_
a++ aaaa

_uuujad a+a u_ go +gad oo+g qCa
u+uuaua aca gooo+a uaam_m. a+m_+a
aj+_ aja+aa 'a Ca+ ++au+a' nmum
gouu+uo; _ma, u, uo _ma C+uu uuuu
acCa u+o+a ucag.

_uoam_ quma uujad a+a uo u+auo,
u+omauo a+ucuaam_m. _uaa uujad a+a
goa, _a, q++a nma mg u+uoa
oo_omo+aa uo aaom go a_oum _+ao+aa
uaam_m. oouu+uua +__ q_uu u+ouaad
a+douucdom. aauCa+uoao uoauqo _aaa,
Cua ouu+, accuo aogu_ _aama oaua+uoao
uoouaa+m oaa accuo aogu_a
uaa+ouucdom. _uoaua m _oaa ouaam.

_ma uooua a+uuum uaa+udo Co+j
Caam 'aogu_', 'oa' nma a+oo+caauo
aCouca+aa a+uua_++. oaua+uoao _+_auq
oaa accuo aogu_a acCa uaam_m.
165
_jgom u+co+m_o 'oa aogu_Caa' (Ca.u. 365)
nm_ qaum 'ou +ma ao+jg _o u+ja' nm_
u+duc uaam_++.

5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5. .. . _ __ _ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu ao qqu

5.5.1 uucuum quuucu u+uo ooac aom a+da
a_aaCoCa u+d qouu+ _o_a_g. u+d
qouu+cq__ uaa+a auo ua__a
aagu+_a uaa+a aq _oaaaoo a+uuua_g.
go auo guu+uou uuu+d a+u ooaa
uuCa a_ a uuu+a uaa_g. a_j acm
guu+uo oo_a uucuq _oaa muaauma Cau
u_goa_g. am u _oaaad _uaamCo.
_aauCoCa Co+j Caam uouo goauo
oo_o__ uaa+a u_ad auu_gdom.

5.5.2 oua, oa+c+ad, uqaa, __a, nuu uaco
o+m ad Caau uujgd uaa+ouucdom.
nuuuaco a+ouo a+aa u_ +c+a+uo
ao+aa uaam_m. _u_omm ugoa, auu _ua,
C+__a, au+aam uua, a o+ _aam
ouaao+ga oaao+ga uqaao+ga u+uuam_m.
aa ouaad aum oog +ga u_ao
uaam_m. __a uouo _a+a auu __a
guua+a_g. nuu uaa aq gou u+uuaua
___a __ua+a uaam_m. gou __aa _u_om
uuaua +cca _uo Caau uujgd
uaa+ouucdom.

5.5.3 +aa - +aa u+oa nm_ auu+uua a++j u_
_u_oum au ucuo auu+d auo u+ga.
Caam aoo, C+ +__+a uaj u+coaoo a+gu+cm
_u_auo Couam_++.

166
5.5.4 a+uuao _ad nm_ u_ Caau uujm u+, u+om
oqoauo _aa aagdog. Caau uujo
aogu_a, oa a_a+au uamg ojgdom. aogu_,
oa nm_ a+oo+caauo _u+d uauumo+a
uaa+udo++. u+guuc C+am u+c_u+uuaa+a uaj
go +g m_um aca oo_uaao Couaao+m u+
oqoauo Caam uaa+udo++. ma uaa+g ooa
u+uua +ga_u u+coaa uoo+a oo
uaauucdom.

_aaqad a+a Caam oouuga go +gauo,
o__m gcuauo noo ua ouua aaam_m.

a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa a+m_u ooaa

1. mm+ aa+ +a, auo (a+.u.), u. 10
2. a.o+aum, _ja go+ma, u. 3
3. Caog, u. 135
4. Caog, u. 260
5. a.Co. +uuauam, aaum _oaa ad, u. 211
6. Ca_Ca+d, a._.au_auo, qgaou uua ad, u. 35
7. .a. +maaujm, _oaaauo, u. 147
8. _oa_u+, +o. u+d. oa _ao ooaa
9. _+aCaa+a+a++, _ Caau uuja u, u. 228
10. +u. ou+uqam, _ja+o aou ad, u. 12
11. Lewis. C. Day, The Poetic Image, p. 18, p.23
12. g. ama+a, _um aouaoo aaCa+cu+, u. 77
13. ugo_a+m, qgaouao __a, u. 19
14. _ _+aCaa+a+a++, _ Caau uuja u, u. 349







167
qu qu qu qu

0. 'Caau uujo au+a' nm_uaj _oo+aCo
_jaoao+a uajg au+a na u+uua Caau
uujo nma uajgdog nmuu quuucu
u+uuaa+a a+udog. _ouojg _aoaoga
auc_auu__ _a qqad __ +_g uucdom.

0.1 goauo oac+guoa Co q_q a+duaua
ucag. guoa +ga aqaoo Coguucu uau+d
oCm; omCm _aj ++aum nmg ojgua_g. go
aa, _a, q++a nmg oac+guo aaaao
uaa_g. _o__o _a+aa _u_oum uca oao+au u,
au+a nmum uaam_m.

uaga au+aCa aa a_jga nouaa+mga
__a. _j_ uouom qua+a uaa_g. _
au+aua oo+ auo Co+j Caa_u ua u_u.

0.2 Co+j Caam uouo auo aau u_gdoo+a auo
o+a o+oao aaad a+a uouo auo o+ a+uc
=u+cuc u+ __a. au uujaom +_uu+aa
Caau uuja u+mug goauo ucag. _+_uq
_u_oum ucoo au+a_ do uuauaa
nouauaa ojgua_g.

0.3 Co+j Caam __uua go +gad au+aCa
a_jg a+uuua_g. ucaouug, aj +_, goa
+_, aa+Co+a +_ _aao__m quuucu u+o+a
au+a uaa_g. uouo _am a_uq_ a+ua+a
au+aCa uao+a Co+j Caam agam_++. uo
uujad au+au u+uuaua a+ucmo+aa
auucjom a+doCouqa ao+_u_ +gomo+aa
uaam_m.

168
u _ao do _c+auou uouuc ngug
au+aam noua Co+j Caam+o u+u ugam_g.
_ au+aa u_ Ca_a+douuc Coua. _o+m
uamaa+a Ca_a+douuco+a+g nmuum Co+j Caam
oogga_++.

_a+a+ oao auucCo ag nmgu_a Co+j
Caam _aj ++auCm _a+am+a aam_+m nmga
__uua_++. Caga _u_ auuua _+a+a a+uCc
au+a uaa_g nm_ auua o+a uujaoo
a+uqa_g.

au+a aad __+aa _j+aa +ccuuga.
aa+aa _ma C+ua aa+a a ag.
_ooaauo Co+j Caam +oa aaoua, u+oa
o+ama, a++uuuaa, Ca+uooua nm u_uuga_++.

_ma C+ua, _ma aa+uuua, u aa+uuua, uo
aa+uuua nm_ m_+a __auuga_g. aju
u+uuaa+a _amg u+cad +ccuua. __uuq Cu+o
(a+ac a+aa+a) Caa auo ao+ a_a au+aao Cuo
nma_g.

uumm+ nooo +jo+aa au+a oCu_u_
ouug. _m+o u_ oo+_mg nmu uouuc __uua
Co+j Caam _aamaa mmaagoa uumm+_
_m_auaa+m nma_++. _uo au+aam quuucu uuuu
u+gomo+a uaam_m. Caga uouo auuu Cuua _uo
a+ua+a uaam_m. _u uumm+ u+, _++ nmga
__auuguo Caau uujga a+uo+a. uumm+
uouo aum a+aua a ojg ooa+g
_aCoua nmuua a a+aauo aagoCoua
nmuua Co+j Caam ooggam_++.




169
au+aam ouaad +mad _a+a ucCa
a_j+a +ccuuga_g. nma Co+j Caam +a
auucj+a +ca u+coauo _aj+o +oucao o+
auucuo uo+a.

0.4 au+a na _ _u_om+o ouu__g. _u_om
auucj+u a+uu+a +cqa uauo n+dom
oa ao+_ au+aao auuaua Co+j Caam
q_uga_++. Caga oa+aa, uam+aa _u_om _am_
uuqa o+o nguauucdog. goaa o au+aam
uaum ao+ gaa aa _u_ auuuau uouuc Co+j
Caam Cu+_do++.

au+aao qa+u uua+a aad _u+a
Caa aq a+da_g. au+a_ aou ag agga
_u_ auua+a aad oo_o u+uucdog.

au+aao _u_om aa ucao aauo
nguuum oa Co+j Caam au+aao _ma =Cc__a
auo g aaa_++. _o+ ao+ auucjg uumm+a
__a a+og ucaoa jg u__gg, oumauou uummm
uoCa__o+g og ocuCug uca o aaa_++.
+a+ a++aa+a oCug uguo +cacaoo _o++
u+coaom +au u qa_g.

0.5 Ca_a+a gouu+uuaua ua+mu ua+ua na
oua auga u_ aoga Co+j Caam
ouga_++. ouaad o+m ad a go
uuaauo noo u+gam_m. _uo _u_ua uo, a -
a u+oa, au+aam mua _aao_u_ u+gam_m.
+aa-+aa u+oa nma _oaa auga _u_oum uca
oaqa ao+ uuuu u+do++.




170
a+uuao _aoo Co+j Caamm _a_qoua
oouua_g. uoouaa+m u+omauo uaa+udo o+ +a
ooa oaqa go+_m _aou_Ca_u ooCa+ C
u+oqoCo+ u+auo uaam_++. Caga aogu_, oa
nma a+oo+caauo aCoucu u+oga uaa+udo++.
_ooua ad a+a uouo aq, m go aua,
au+aam Camua, m noua _aao_u_ a_Cu++ noo
ua ouua aaam_m.

0.6 Ca_+cqa qqaom ummuao _oo+aCocqo
a+uuauucc agCa+d u+jgoCa+_a. uouo aum
a+, au+aam Camua _aao__o Co+j Caam
a+uc auuaa guu+Ca Caau uuja+aa u_
uuja+aa C+__a u__m nmg agaoo__ o+a
aaauu_g aa_g.

0.7 uouoa++ aqauo dom u+ga ouaao, aaa
a+auou qa C+ao _ao__a u_ go +gauo
_ao__a _oo+aCo qoa+a uaao+a.















171
guug_ucqao guug_ucqao guug_ucqao guug_ucqao
mua go mua go mua go mua go

1. _+aCaa+a+a++ (u._.), _ Caau uuja, ocqo
dfduoo+ aaum, amum, 1995

guuua goad guuua goad guuua goad guuua goad - -- - a a a a

1. uua+a++a uo+a, _+o+a++a uouoa aCua
++ca, amum, 1950
2. j+a++a++ (u._.) _uau+ uu+oa, _o+u _ua
++ca, oooCau, amum, 1913
3.

ugo_a+m, qgaouao __a, aoa+ ooa,
aoaua, 1990
4. u+aoa. ., a _oaa oo+g - um+ma+a
g__+u, a+j oa+oaa, a__auoa, a+_a, 1969
5. aa aa+ +o+aad (a._.), _doom _a Couqa
uuu, au+aa+a (+_uqgo), _ adoa
uo+a uaa+a ua, amum, 1995
6. mm+ aa+ +a, auo (a+.u), amum qu, amum.
1988
7. _j+ u++a+, a _oaaaoo uouoa, au
qa+oaa, amum. 1992
8. _+aa+a.., uuj a+a, oaa uuuaa, _+aqa,
Caoa. 1989
9. -------------------, _+o oo_ aauaaa+d, oaa
uuuaa, _+aqa, Caoa. 1989
10. -----------------, uouo o+, oaa uuuaa, _+aqa,
Caoa. 1990
11. _+aa+a.q.q., _o++ _a+a++ u+m ooaa,
(uuu+o+, _u _ouo)
12. _oa_u+ (u._.), +oa+uuau u+oa+a,
uu+auou uoauoaaa, uu+auoa+. 1961
13. a+am. a. +. C+__ aa _+aaa a ago
oo+ga, a+ ngu+d +gu_, aa +
ooa, amum. 1978
172
14. aja+a oa++. a., u agoa, u+ uoaa,
amum. 1958
15. aau+, aau+a+aua - u+oa+uca (_u+aa), uu+auou
uoauoaaa, uu+auoa+. 1957
16. ------, aau+a+aua - a+uca (_u+aa), uu+auou
uoauoaaa, uu+auoa+. 1957
17. aua+a+a++ uo+a, au+a, u=aCu+m quc,
amum. 1997
18. auuo+a aaa++. nu., (u._.) u+mo+ ao+,
u+a _+oaa _uouo au+, a. 1978
19. -------------------, (u._.) ajauua - a+a+oo,
u=+ama ooa, a. 1980
20. -------------------, _oam _u oa+a+ad,(_u
u+aad) qg+ _+a, a.(_u _ouo)
21. Caaoaaa++._+.,(u._.) Caau uuja, q.u++a+
aaa++ ooa, +_+_ uu, CoCa+cuc. 1952
22. Ca+u+o Caaa++auo+a. o.nm., _uouom, uu+uo
aacqa++, _cju. 1996
23. Ca+oj+a oa++. a+.., _o++ad o_o+ oo+g,
aa ooa, amum. 1975
24. Ca+oj+_=g. _., _+a+_+, _ uuuaa, amum. 1992
25. acCa+u+a+, aaa ua, aaoo+a +aa+ _+uCm_
++ca, amum. 1904
26. a+a+ua+, .Co. (u._.), uguu+c oa
am++ama+ ua, au uoauoaaa, a+_+.
1986
27. a+a+ua+, .Co. (u._), u_guug oa uua
ua, .Co.a+a+ua+ go uoaa amum. 1994
28. auo+mj+, +mCa+a ooaa, _+aau Cu+oma,
uu+agu_, a. 1984
29. -----------------, uCa+a ooaa, _+aau Cu+oma,
uu+agu_, a. 1982
30. -----------------, uao au, _+aau Cu+oma,
uu+agu_, a. 1989
31. ama+a.g. , _um aouaoo aa Ca+cu+,
oa a++aa goua, amum. 1994
32. +uuauam. a.Co., aaum _oaa ad, aaaauau
173
uuuaa, a+u_q. 1989
33. +uq cqa++.., _, u+uoaa, amum. 1982
34. ------------------, + uaaa, u+uoaa, amum. 1994
35. ------------------, uouoaooa, au uoauoaaa,
a+_+. 1995
36. +maaujm..a., _oaaauo, aa ooa, amum.
1975
37. uqa+aa+, uqaoa+a, aa ooa, amum. 1963
38. am++ama+, (u._.), ao+ua, au
uoauoaaa, a+_+. 1984
39. ------------------, +oa+uuaa - u+oa+a, uu+auou
uoauoaaa, uu+auoa+. 1986
40. aaam.u._+. , uouo aqa aauu+oaga, o
uuuaa, agu. 1987
41. _m, uo _a+a+ad uouoa, uu+ u+a, amum. 1982
42. +a+am. u.o. (u._.), goua _oaua, au
uoauoaaa, a+_+. 1991
43. uCaoa+ (u._.), __d, aaa, amum. 1956
44. uCaoa+, uu+co, au+ ++ca, amum. 1956
45. au_auo. a._. , qgaou - uua ad, aad
uoaa, amum. 1986
46. ammuua++ aj+uc, Caa+ g__j+, oaa
uuuaa, _+aqa, Caoa. 1990
47. a+om. Co._+. (u._), ooa aua+ qaa+uo, u+uo
ooaccaa, a+_+. 1993
48. +aom.q.nm.nu., au+a goa - +a, __ao
oa+uca, amum. 1993
49. +a +a+u, +o+a, au+a, a+ uu, Ca+_+. 1993
50. +_+_, uaoo_, o+m uuuaa, amum. 1978
51. o+aum.a, _ja go+ma, umauu+ u+u,
amum. 1960
52. oooqg+o++, ooou+a - au+uoa,
Ca.+_Ca+u+oa+a++ uuq, uc++ u+a, amum. 1985
53. +o+a oCoa+mj+, aaCa+aa (a+.u.), _+aau
aca, aao+u_+, amum. 1981
54. ou+uqam.+u., _ja+o aou ad, amgu
uuuaa, amum. 1985
174
55. Coaca+acqa++. a., _ Co+j Caa+ aaa, a+o
_ am_a, qguo. 1966
56. Co+j Caam, _a auaa u+a (_ u_ad)
ua+aa+: o._+.+auo+a aaa++, a+_+. 1959
57. uoaoam.a., au uuu+c oo+g, _uc+a u+aa,
uu+auou uoauoaaa, uu+auoa+. 1989
58. _acaam (u._.)., +o+a oau uuja, _o++ad
_a uaaa, amum. 1993
59. _+a+_+a+a++, uaoa+ u+aa, _+a+_ aj
a+o+, a+aqa. 1966
60. __aa+o_ Ca+aja+, au a_um uamad; uau
auuco+o (a+.u.), a+ uu, Ca+_+. 1955
61. __aa+o_ Ca+aja+ (u._), _a uao a+, a+ uu,
Ca+_+. 1999

guuua goad guuua goad guuua goad guuua goad - -- - _aoa _aoa _aoa _aoa

1. Aravamudhan.T.N., Varadaraja Panchasat - A Study, Sri Hayagreeva
sdsVidhya Peetam, Chennai. 1990

2. Lewis. C. Day, The Poetic Image, Jonathan Cape, London. 1961

3. Raghavadasan, Visishtadvaitam and Vedanta Desika's Sri Nyasa
sddDasakam, Sri Vedanta DesikaResearch Centre, Chennai. 1998

4. Satyavrata Singh.A., Vedanta Desika - A Study, The Chowkamba
sdfSanskrit Series, Varanasi. 1958.

aoaaad aoaaad aoaaad aoaaad

1. auo aoaaa, +_ - 5, a oo+aaaa, amum. 1958
2. auo aoaaa, +_ - 9, a oo+aaaa, amum. 1963
3. o+oa_ aoaaa, +_ - 8, au uoauoaaa, a+_+. 1991 (aguuq)
4. o+oa_ aoaaa, +_ - 9, au uoauoaaa, a+_+. 1988




175
_:
_aC aaj a_+Caa+a a
_ Co+j Caam uuc goad
_ Caam oa oau=ad
uC+ jad uC+ jad uC+ jad uC+ jad
1. _aouC+a
2. a+o+uC+a
3. uaoa+Cu+u+a
4. Ca+u+ooaa
5. _ug
6. _ug
7. Ca++ug
8. ja+uaaa
9. a+aaa
10. uuoa
11. Co+aaua+a
12. o+_ua+a
13. aC+a+uC+a
14. cq_+caa
15. a+a+ua+caa
16. ua++ug
17. au+auua
18. aaa
19. C_oaug
20. ja+uoaa
21._oaaa
22. C+ca+ug
23. u=+a+caa
24. acucaa
25. acua+a
26. a+_uu
27. uo+auaaa
28. ja+aoaa

+ca ja +ca ja +ca ja +ca ja
1. uaou u+Ca+aa
a+oa jad a+oa jad a+oa jad a+oa jad
1. u+o
2. a+o+uaa
3. _auujCaa
_uajad _uajad _uajad _uajad
1. uau+au+
2. ouo
3. _uauo
4. oa+ua
5. _uaa+ua
6. oujCaa
7. _uaujCaa
8. _uaujCaooua
9. o+oo
10. o+oo uu+a u_a
11. _ua+oo _aa
12. oa+oaa
13. uau+u+a
14. _uaaa+au
15. _ououoa
16. u+aaa
17. ua+u_a
18. u+u_a
19. o+_Cu+aa
20. agao_aa *
21. uauCu+u+a
22. uauaa
23. _uaa_+aaa
24. _a_uaau+a
25. u+u+a
30. oC+u_+a
31. aauaoa *
32. qauc *
176
Co+j jad Co+j jad Co+j jad Co+j jad
1. aa+auu+gua
2. Cu+oaa+auu
3. agu
4. auu+oo
5. goua
6. ja+au+
7. ja+au+_a
8. go+ao+ua
9. C+uu+
10. uau+
11. _u+a+u+
12. o+aauca
13. aCc+u
+u+a+oo
14. acCc+uu+a

oa+a jad oa+a jad oa+a jad oa+a jad
1. ag+Co+au+aa
2. uC+u+aa
3. aaau+aa
4. a++ua_u
5. +u+aajua
6. =a+o+uCa+uu+aa
7. au +uuua *
8. u+o++u

gc+m jad gc+m jad gc+m jad gc+m jad
1. uao++o
2. a_C+uouc+o

au uujad au uujad au uujad au uujad
1. aam
2. a+aaaa
3. a++o+m
4. uauCa+u+ma
5. uauaa
6. aaoa+maaa
7. ucaouug
8. uaaa
9. _uouoma
10. amma+uo
11. umm+aa
12. aj+_
13. goa+_
14. aa+Co+a+_
15. a++aaaa
16. aauCa+uo
17. oaua+uo
18. ujg *
19. ao *
20. aa+um *
21. ao *
22. qao *
23. uuja+a
24. _a+aaa

* - _Cu+g aucauu_oouo





177
_a+au uauu _a+au uauu _a+au uauu _a+au uauu






ua+d ua+d ua+d ua+d
uau+cq
ooCu_ (Cuum
oa)
ecCa+um
(_aa+o+)
_+mad
auoa+o _au
(+aa)
aaa+uc+
(quc a++)
_ooj+
(a+__ad)
aumgu_om
oau
ua+uoa
(_ooj+o+)
o+aa+ uju;
uC+ad
Ca+q_
_au
(Ca+q_u)
_ua+a
ua
au
(u+_e+u)
(a_+_u)
ue uaua+a
a+uoa+uc+m
o+aa+
oa+a+ma
auo _auad
_ueo_u
_a +a+aua
+u_ a u_ uCea
=e+uc+u
(a+oCe+uo
+u) u=j+_+e+a,
auu+m
_+a+_ _+a+_ _+a+_ _+a+_
_u+aa+,
ucao,
naua+m

178
_+a+_ _+a+_ _+a+_ _+a+_
_u+aa
aua goad uaooaa
uau+ga
_gCo
ua+au
_uauua+aa
__a
_uauu+m
udo+m
ac+aue+m
_uauu+m
udo+m
__+auuq
ua+
uu+_
aucuudoa+e+m
nao+o+m nao+o+m _Ca+a+g_
_Ca+a+g_ _c+gaa+d
_c+gaa+d
_ __ _ Co+ Co+ Co+ Co+j jj j
Cea Cea Cea Ceam mm m
ac+au
uqdo
ac+au
uqdo
ac+au
uqdo
_ Co+j Ceam
_am++e+a
u_aj uoj
uo+a
uo+ uaaa
uum
u_aj
uoj uo+a
aqa+ea
aa+d
ac+au_am+
uaCo+ja uao oaa aca
_ u+aa aca
_ _ou
ecCa+u uo+a
_ ua+o
acaa
_ Ca+uo
aca _aa
auo+o
a+_ad
_ o+ma+auo
acaa
a+_ad
ea+o

179
_ Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m _ Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m _ Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m _ Caam uaa+a Co+ja +c+u+m
auoa+_aa a+_aa auoa+_aa a+_aa auoa+_aa a+_aa auoa+_aa a+_aa

ao+a - cu+d
aoa - uuaa, oaa
a - m
ag - ag, u+oa
ag - uaa
q - a+ua, _aua, u+gua,
oq
qua - uaa+aa
qu - oa+, oca+
ucaoa - a+aCouqa u+d
uco - aa+uuo, oo,
uuco, quaa+_o,
a+o
m - ju, +o+a, a+jom
g - __a
u - +o+a
ja - nouo, , o
ja - oa+aa
j - q, a+uoCa
ja+ - auc+o+
ja - nouoa__
aCaa - +oCaa
am - uam
ama - uaa+a
ama - u+aa, uCoaauua
u+d
u - u+ga+uq, u+aa
- a+uua, _Cacm
- _aa, aom
am - am
uo - _a uo
oo_ - a+ aa, a+
o_
o_ - o
oao - _ a+uo
oa - Ca, ___a
o - m, +ua
oo - cao
mmo+ - ua_aa+
mam - amam
jm - _Cacm
moa - nuCu+ga
ma - mjC+ga
ao - ao
_aucom - _jm
_aa - aa
_aaa - au ua+ua

_ama - uCa+am + aa
_+ - ___a
_ua - ua
_a - mq, _oo
_ - a+ua
_am - Ca+u+om
_ugo - Co+j a+a
_oouq - a+oa, +ma
_o - u+u o+
_ - aco, aaa
_g - u+aa,
_go - uuuo, +o, uo
_uao - o
_qaa - _jaa
_uo - _uaa
_oa - am_ _a
_oum - quaa, u+oa
_o - o
_oaua - uca+oa
_oaa - nu
_o_ - _ocaaa
_o_ - +oq, noua
_o - oo, __o,
=uo
_uo+auo - +j uo
_u_ - _duom, +aam, =+om
_u_+o - auauco
_u_om - +o+a, nmua+m
_mu+ua - _mj +cca
=o - uuco
aa - _u
a+ - aa
cau - +mau
coa - aa
u+ - um
Co - a+aCo
o - nga+doo
a - oag
jgo - oaa_o, nuqo
u+ - a+ua
au+ - Co+, a ad
Ca+aa - a+ma
aa - u+aq
a - a++q
- Cama, ug
u - uCaa, nao
180
mm - a+
- uoaa, aa, a_ua
m - aa, a+aaa
nc_uo - nc _u u+oa+
nca++ - nc ouca
aom
nuau - nc auuca uam
n+a+ - (_ u+aa++)
_+a+_+
naa - u Ca+am + aa
numgu_o+ - _ooj++
qa+j - m_Co gucaom
C uoua
_ga+ - a+ua Cacuo+
o+d - +o ucaa
aoum - a+qa aaa
au - a
au quao - auu+a_a
au au+ - au++
aa+ - o+ad
a - u+aa, uom, o, ua+a
ago - u__a+doo
aa - _jaa
aqa - a
aua - _jaa, +g
a - a
aaa - acua, aaCa+aa
aa+uo - auu oua
ao - _jaa
aoum - u+ua
aod - aoqc+aom +cca
a+o - u, _ua
aua - aaa
_co - aa
_a - _ua
_+aa - _
__ - uca+oa, aoma, u+aa,
_o_
uaoa - oaum, auca
uaa+g - ugua+a
uaoo+o - Caau+cuco
aaa - oaa
aaa - u_g
aCaa - acuu+
aua - +a+a
ac_ - oa
ag - quuaa
ago - u+goaa+aa
aj_ - Coa++aa
aaa - uam + aa
aa+ - u Ca+aa
au - u+aa, u+a
a+am - cquuom
a+ma - u+aa
aa - am
ag - Cama
ajo_q - a
a__mua - _u+aa
am _ - aau aa
+aCoaa - _u+aa
++ - Co+
+o - a+aC
+o - aqo
a+ - a ad
o - ouoo
aoo - _ua aao
Caum - +ma
Cag - uu, u+aa
Ca+a+ - uo+
goo - +uoo
ja - Caum, u+aa
am_ - uaa+q o
aau_ - ooauuuja
uouoo - uo ou_o
oa - _
+uu - u Ca+am +
aa
+a - uuoa
+ooa - oa_aca
a_ - Ca++
- Ca++
oa - uaua
gao - +ma
g_ - uaa
guo - aaa
guogo - ua+ma+o
go_ - aauja
g_o - ogua
gu_ - u+aa, o
gm - g+ua
d - oCoaa
+g - aauja, +c+a
+o - +
coa - ___a
uoo - Ca+o
+auu - Cacaama
+aa - uaua, CoCo+aa, a+um
aa+ja - Co+ja
aaa - u Ca+am + aa
uo - uc, +aua, +au+oa,
gcc+ma, u+aa, uaaaa,
g, +ma, a++aa, uo
_o, _ua, ua+a, uoua

181
u_aCa++ - _u +mucao+
_ - u+aa, o
C+a - _a q
uaua - CocCa
uao+ - u+ao+ad
uqoo - =uc aao
uqo - auauco
uu - o+a
uuoa - a_
ua - +ma
uo - u+aa
u - _+a, oa, _ca
uja - aa u+aa
ujma - uuo
uao - acqo
uago - uaaa aao,
+go, =uo, gujo,
uoo
ugoa - Caaucc mua
ua - u+guq, acua
uo+a+ - uo+a+
um - a+jom
u - am, ua+aa
ua+ - ao+
uoa - aaa+a
u_g - _ua, ua, u+aa,
uaa+doo, a
u+a - au
u+ - uaa
uaqa - aa
qao - u+aa
q+ua - +
q+um - + qm
qcm - aom
qom - _jaa, ocaad
qd - u_uo
q_a - Cog, ao, oo, u_aa
_om - uam
Cumua - Ca++a
Cug - uom, q++a
u+aa - +ma
u+mo_q - Caauo
aaa - a+aa
a - ajm, +ma, q
aaaa - +ma
aao - +ma, u, aaaa
ad - +ma
a_ _ - u+u a++aa
au_ - Coa, _aaaa
au_q - au_aj, Co+ja
au_ao+ - Co+jad
amo - ca+o, uo ugo
a - aja
a+oa - ua oa, au+a
a+a+aa - guoaa
a+ua - o ua
a+m - a_+m nma goa
a+ma - ua+ma, o
qo+aaa - amma+aa
- oCug uauCug
o - a+ua
o+aaa - uaaaaa
oog - uuoa
aa - oa, aaa, aa
Caaa - _auua u+d
Cao - Ca+o, __auco
ua - ___a, aua
uaao - +ma
a+ - aja
o_uq - uauq
oama - Coa
oo - aua uco,
aa_uo, q__o, u_go
o - u+aa, a++aa
ouq - u+ua
o+aaa - , uCaa
o+a - +aaa, a_uq
o+_ - o+a++aa
o+mo+ - Co+, a ad
oco - aa
oauq,oam - _aaa, oocaua
oo_ - _g_ o
ouo - ma+ua
o - ac+caa
ooaa - __+a
omuagom - acm
oumo - u+ua++aa
o - Ca+caa
od_o - ++o, ocaauco
o_q - auo
o_ - o+aum
o_uo - +ua
Coaa - goaa
Co - a+aCo
uoaa - Cooa+a