Sie sind auf Seite 1von 346

UJ

the pResence of this Book


in

thej.m

kelly Library

has Been rru6e possiBle thRouqh the qeneROSity

of

Stephen

B.

Roman

From the Library of Daniel Binchy

,j0B&&
BOOKBIHOtRS

EUSTACE ST
kOljnv_\*V

IRISH TEXTS SOCIETY


cumctNN Na s^mbeaNN nsaeoicse

VOL. XXXIV
(1932)

1938

Printed at thb

By Ponsonby & Gibbs.

LEBOR GABALA ERENN


THE BOOK OF THE TAKING OF IRELAND

Part

EDITED AND TRANSLATED, WITH NOTES, ETC.


BY
R.

A.

STEWART MACALISTER,

D.Litt.

DUBLIN

PUBLISHED FOR THE IRISH TEXTS SOCIETY


BY THE EDUCATIONAL COMPANY OF IRELAND, LTD.
89

TALBOT STREET
1938

CONTENTS.
Corrigenda
v
vi

Table of Abbreviations
Introduction

ix

SECTION

I:

FROM THE CREATION TO THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

Introduction

CORRIGENDA.
p. xiii, line

23

after

R2

add

traceable in some quotations in R


:

3
.

line p. xv,

20:

add At the
1.

class-marks, A.

top of the first page of E there are two old library and B. 35. Above the 8 there is the invocation
is

Emanuel, faint but decipherable between the two marks there illegible note, dia dui (?)... ib, with a date ending (1)753.
p. xvi, line

an

10

add
its

already in
p. xxiii,

writer's possession

was probably meant to complete an acephalous copy hence the abrupt ending.
:

line 6

after manuscripts

complex

lists

of variants contain

confident that nothing of


p.

I dare not flatter myself that these no errors or omissions, but I feel importance has been overlooked.

add

xxxiv, line 2

for

VA

read \fV.
:

p. 8, line 6,

add
p. 12, line

2 M
21
:

below the table


,

likewise at Madrid,

for eleventh read twelfth. In line is of the eleventh century.


.
. .

8,

after Madrid,

In line 24, after edge, add if it had been inflicted in the original act of pillage it must have been a later misdemeanour, to remove from the leaf matter not germane to its new context.
delete

The

tear

whether would have run

importance.

in the opposite direction


;

p.

163, line 14

for Dula read Dala.


29
(
)
:

p. 223,

footnote
:

after version

add

of the Irenaeus text.

p. 239, line 15

add

This poem

is

printed,

Todd Lectures,

iii,

p. 46.

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS AND CRITICAL


SYMBOLS.
1
.

Notation for Redactions

R\ R\ R
Min or

3
,

/<,

the First, Second, Third Redactions. the version called Mlniugud.

K, the modernised version of Micheal 6 Cleirigh.


2.

Notation for the Extant Manuscripts

A
B
1

Stowe A.2.4. Book of Ballymote.


H. 2.4
in

M
P
:

Book of Lecan, first text. Book of Lecan, second


text.

/3:
/3
2
:

T.C.D.

H.1.15 in T.C.D.

P.10266

in

National

j3

D
F F
L
1

Stowe D.* 3.2. Stowe D.4.3.


no. 2 in T.C.I).
of

Library, Dublin. Rawl.B.512 in Bodleian


Library.

E: E.3.5.
:

Book

Fermoy.

2
:

Stowe D.3.1.
11.2.15 no. 1 in T.C.D.

H
:

V V V

1
:

3
:

3
:

Stowe D.5.1. Stowe D.4.1. Stowe D.1.3.

Book

of Leinster.

R R

is

contained in L, F.

A,D,E,AP,R,V.

R3

is

Min

B, /i p,ft\ H,M. suffixed to the copies of R- in A, R,V. To distinguish the portions of these MSS. containing
?

is

the Min text from those containing the Br text the symbols ^A, ^R, ^V are used for the former. contained in a number of paper MSS., but for

purposes of reference the authoritative autograph 32 in R.I. A.) has been considered sufficient. (23

For the sake of brevity the shelf-marks of the Stowe collection are here stated in Arabic numerals, though Konian numerals are used in the Library.

ABBREVIATIONS AND CRITICAL SYMBOLS,


Where
it is

vii

two

of the

necessary to refer to any combination of or to all three of them, j3 MSS.,


on
fi

the formula
for brevity.

(varied as required)

is

used

1
,

V
3.

1
,

F\ are parts of one dismembered MS. denoted by F. V 3 V 3 are parts of one dismembered MS.
,

collectively

collectively

denoted by V.
Notation for Lost Manuscripts of Critical Importance
*a, *x,
:

*w,

*z.

*y B,
1/ B,

the exemplar from which the exemplar from which

B was
at

copied.

v/B was

copied.

/ B,

MS. in the ancestry of B number of steps back from it.


a

an unspecified

(Analogous symbolism for the ancestry of the other

MSS.) v/BH, the common ancestor of B and H. [But Hv/B means the extant MS. H in combination with
oo

3
,

v/B.] the autograph of

the

Third Redaction, or the

compiler of the

Third Redaction, according to the

con Lex t.
oo L,

the

Manuscript in which the tradition repre-

sented by L was differentiated from the other MSS. of the same Redaction.

v/R

3
,

Manuscript from which all the extant Manuscripts of the Third Redaction are derived 3 (which may or may not be identical with ooR ).
the

(Analogous
Note.

symbolism

MSS. and

the ancestry Versions.)


for

of

other

alone denotes the Bodleian


is

MS.
"

with a

superscript numeral
4.

to be read

Redaction."

Miscellaneous abbreviations
c
:

Correction, corrector (according to context). Gloss, glossator a gloss incorporated in the text.
;

viii

ABBREVIATIONS AND CRITICAL SYMBOLS.


g-:

secondary

or gloss gloss, in the text. incorporated

upon a

gloss,

also

a gloss which remains external to the text, superor in the margin script (sprs), subscript (sbs),

(marg) of the MS.


s
:

Scribe
:

s\

2
,

the

first,

second, scribe of a

MS.
be
read
s

is yc Interpolation, interpolator, " by a corrector of M." interpolated

to

y sprs

"

interpolated, scribe of M".

above the line, by the original (y is used in preference to i as

LG
s.,

The name
:

being a more distinctive letter.) of the text, Lebor Gabala.


"

d.

in the translation, to be read


of."

son

"

of,"

daughter
be

om,
sec.

ins,

in

the

lists

of

variae

lectiones,

to

read

"omit(s)," "insert(s)." man. = secunda manu.


:

R.I.A.

Royal Irish Academy.


:

T.C.D.

II
:

Trinity College, Dublin.

The sections of the book. The paragraphs of the book. The glossarial or other interpolated matter
.
.

in the

text is denoted by the signs \ . secondary 1 these symbols glosses being marked + ... are more fully elucidated, where necessary, in the notes.
|| .

II

The columns on each


the usual
recto

folio of the MS. are denoted in way by the Greek letters a /3 y S, the and verso being numbered thus contin-

uously.

In most cases a \6 are on the recto, 7 on the verso. Except in the case of the MSS. H, f3, j3\ j3 2 the numeration is by folios,
not by pages.

In the translation, glossarial matter is enclosed in the restoration of lost square brackets ]
|

matter in angled brackets

< >

INTRODUCTION.
Lebor GabCila Erenn, a title which we can Lest translate literally, "the Book of the Taking- of Ireland," is a compilation which professes to narrate the history of the The earlier Redactions successive colonists of that country. have come down to us, in whole or in part, in fifteen mss. (counting F, V, as one each, but counting separately the two These have been enumerated versions in the Book of Lecan).

and are more fully described below. purposes, however, the number has to be is a direct (and very poor) copy of reduced to eleven. and gives us nothing that D cannot supply while ft ft 1 /3 2 D, are all derivatives from B, and are thus of no use except to
in the foregoing table,

For

critical

restore one folio,

which

lost at

some time after they were

written.

Although these manuscripts agree, on the whole, in the or alleged facts, which they set forth, the words in which they state them differ profoundly. They fall into
facts,

redactional groups, essentially at variance in the selection and order of presentment of the narratives, and in the The editor has no language in which these are expressed.
alternative but to print them in extenso, independently of one another. 1 A single composite text, with an unmanageably cumbrous sediment of variae lectiones at the bottom of the page, would be perfectly useless for any critical student of
It may this important document and of its complex history. be said that this conclusion has not been reached without

experiment.
1

There are a few places in which this

is

not necessary, but these

are exceptional.

INTRODUCTION.
The work
is

primarily paedagogic, for which purpose it mnemonic sets of verses, intended to be To the modern reader these verses are an un mitigated nuisance, rarely adding anything to what he has already learnt from the prose text; nevertheless it is clear that they are the foundation on which the whole work, in its present form, is based. The corpus of historical verse became the common reservoir of knowledge upon which the prose
interspersed with Learned off by heart.
is

compilers drew and the selections which they made therefrom dictated the selection of facts which they set forth in the
;

several redactions.

For
different

this

reason, the treatment of the verse has to be


:

it has been found most convenient (again after experiment) to separate the verse texts from the prose, and to print them independently. It is probable, indeed, that this is a return to the practice of the original prose redactors; that they did not write out

from that of the prose

the verse compositions in full, but merely jotted down as cues the opening words of each in the margins of their mss.,
in the confidence that their readers
fact, the

would already have these


In

texts securely in their heads, as they themselves had.

gives us no more than such jottings, incorporated, it is true, in the text, but not extending beyond the first quatrain of any poem. It is conceivable that this is not the mere shirking of a lazy scribe, but that it is an

manuscript

This suggestion is corroborated by the diversity of the formulae introducing the poems, even in mss. which otherwise have close verbal As dia chuimniugiid-sain: de quibus hoc carmen: similarity. these and similar expressions are used, [so-and-so] cecinit even in nearly related mss., at random, making it clear that in this matter the scribes had no stereotyped exemplars to keep their copies uniform. We infer, therefore, that in the autographs these formulae of introduction were not present; and that they were inserted only after the scribes had realized that human memory is untrustworthy, and that it was wiser to write out the poems in full. The same conclusion is

actual survival of a traditional custom. 2

Some few

of the poems are written in full in

fiB.

INTRODUCTION.

xi

indicated by the divergent forms of proper names sometimes appearing in the verse texts and in the associated prose. Tims in B, ff 156 ff., we find several times the name

" but in the parallel poem no. "Caicher."


' '

Caithear,

XIV

it

appears as

The Extant Manuscripts.


There are in
all five

redactions of the text


3

Mm, R R
1
,

2
,

being O'Clery's modernised version. Postponing the questions of their contents, origins, and mutual relationships, we may here briefly describe the manuscripts upon which an edition of the text has to be based. Owing to the convenience of denoting a manuscript by a single letter only, I have taken the liberty of adopting symbols for certain well-known codices, different from those in ordinary use. Thus, I call the Book of Leinster L, not LL the Book of Bally mote B, not BB and for the two texts
,

and K, the

last

1 2 of Lecan, instead of Lee and Lee (which would be too clumsy for constant reference), I have adopted the

in the

Book

symbols

A and M.

The

latter

may

be read and explained


as

(at the reader's pleasure) not as

"em," but

"lambda two."

The First Redaction.

Only two mss.


L.
c.

of

survive, namely,

L and

F.
H.2.18),

The
a.d.

Book

of

Leinster

(T.C.D.

Library,

In this codex, which is too well-known to need description, our text occupies folios 1-13. The folios measure about 12-7 X 9 inches 4 and bear four The columns, with about 51-53 lines of writing in each. recto of the first folio must have for long remained unprotected by a binding, in consequence of which the writing is rendered partly illegible by dirt, wear, and other injury.
1150
;

3
:

I use the anglicised

native

form

cannot
is

be

form here, because the genitive case of the accommodated to an English context
:

"5

gibberish. 4 In this and the other mss. these measurements vary slightly folio to folio; the vellum is not cut with mechanical uniformity.

Cleirigh's"

from

xii

INTRODUCTION.

The pest, ;is a whole, is readable enough; though the edges of some of the folios are frayed, and, throughout, many of the words and Letters are thus damaged or lost. A transcript of 1:> pages of the MS., line for line and page for page, the first was made in 1852 by Eugene 'Curry (L.5.20 in T.C.D.
1

Library).

This

is

become
full

illegible since his time; but

often useful in restoring writing that has it cannot be trusted with

confidence, and he has shirked the task of trying to decipher the first page, where his help would have been of the

utmost value.
F. The
factitious

Book

of

Fermoy

connexion of this copy of

LG

The (R.I.A. Library, 23 E. 29). with the Book of Fermoy is

It is written upon twenty-two and partial only. of which the first eight form a gathering, folios of vellum, bound into the front of the Book of Fermoy the remaining fourteen I had the good fortune to identify in one of the Stowe mss. (R.I.A. Library, D.3.1). The folios measure on There are 31 lines of writing in an average 10-5X8 ins. The Fermoy each column, and two columns on each page. and the first two folios of the Stowe fragment, are fragment,
:

written

upon in a coarse, bold hand, using very black ink and a broad-pointed pen on which the writer leans heavily. Dr. Best identifies the handwriting as that of Adam 6 Cianain of Lisgoole, County Fermanagh, whose obit is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at a.d. 1373. On the third folio of the Stowe fragment (fol. 11 of the complete book), in column a, after line 27, the handwriting appears to change abruptly: but careful comparison shows that the same scribe continues to work, using a pen with a
finer

point. line 4, there

On
is

the same folio, however,

column

8,

after

2 s F has a actually a change of scribe, on the whole, a better style of handwriting than rounder, and, 1 V. At first he decorates his capital letters with blobs of s

though not on the later pages he is fond of ending them with crudely drawn animal heads, which s1 F never does. A Her the change of the pen in the hand of s 1 F, the number of lines in the column increases to 39. The whole work ends abruptly at 22 y 10, with the reign of Eochaid Qairches in the "Roll of the Kings." The remainder of
colour,
:

INTRODUCTION.
column
y,

xiii

and the whole of column


:

8,

of this folio were left

blank, suggesting that the copy stopped at this point because an irrelevant anecdote the remainder was lost from a/F

about King David and a beggar has at some later time been

An additional leaf, possibly space. part of the earliest binding of the book, originally blank, is also now covered with scribbling. As in the case of L, the
scribbled into the

empty

recto of the first folio of F is in a very bad condition from wear, tear, and dirt. It was cleaned chemically during the progress of the present work by Professor Ditchburn, of T.C.D., with the satisfactory result that most of the text, which
I
It

had abandoned

as hopelessly illegible,

proved recoverable.

should be noted that the folios in the Stowe ms., as at The first, which follows present bound, are misplaced. immediately after the last folio of the Fermoy fragment, is bound in as the seventh folio of the Stowe book. 6 The text carries on from there to the present end of the volume (eight then continues on the prefixed folios in this order folios)
:

6,

1, 2,

3, 4,

5.

Of the lost mss. of the First Redaction, *Q and *X, which are of considerable critical importance, we shall speak when 3 # occasion arises. was used *Q was the copy used by oo

by one of the glossators of

2
.

The redaction called Mlniugud, which more fully discussed below.

is

a form of

1
,

is

The Second Redaction. The majority of the mss. of V, E, P, R, D, A, and A.

LG

belong to

2
.

These are

Edited by

S.

H.

O 'Grady from two

other MSS.;

see Melusine iv

See also (1888), col. 163. for a different version.


6

K. Meyer in Arch, fwr

Celt.

Lex.

iii

321

to

The bottom margin of this leaf has been clipped off, apparently remove some scribbled matter there is similar scribbling on the bottom margin of the following folio, recto. 1 In references to this MS,, in the present edition, the folios are numbered in their true order, not in the haphazard order in which they
:

are bound.

xiv

INTRODUCTION.

V =

V, a ms. in the Stowe collection (R.I.A. Library), now1 2 divided into three volumes (V D.4.1, and D.5.1, V 1 3 consists of nine folios, with four columns D.1.3).

of writing on each; size of leaves 11 '8 X 8 ins., 51-55 lines At the beginning there is an of writing in each column.
elaborately coloured interlaced

monogram

of the

word

in

and throughout there are well-drawn


whole

initial

letters.

The

is written in a beautiful neat hand, which, however, is The ms. rather cramped, and not perfectly easy to decipher. has undergone extensive re-inking, and it is not always At certain that the restorer has done his work accurately.

there are two faint, worn lines of writing in Gothic lettering apparently a library mark under ultra-violet light they seem to read M.onasterii Insi Putraic, but they are too far gone to yield with assurance even to that 2 has eight, powerful solvent of palasographieal difficulties.
the top of folio la of

1
,

they are on the whole better preserved than w hich has suffered severely from wear. In V 2 the w riting
six folios
T
: r

Fland for Erind hi blank. We must infer that a gathering had been lost from V V, and that the scribe of V was unable to find means of filling the lacuna. 8 The gap extends to the end of the 13th quatrain of the
stops abruptly at 8 8 9 (end of the poem Ugh), after which the rest of the column
is

with the 14th quatrain the text glas in Min resumes abruptly, on the first folio of V 3 and runs on to the end of Erin ardinis na rlgh, which finishes the ms. There are coloured initials in V 1 and V 2 but not in V 3 bat the

poem Gdedel

style of the writing, the size of the folios, and the number of lines in the column, leave no room for doubt that the three

volumes originally formed one book. Fragments of other books, in vellum and in paper, quite irrelevant in contents, are now bound up with the twT o later volumes.
8 The lacuna does not exist in the closely cognate copy a ; the text here runs on intact over rather more than 8 leaves of A which have no equivalent in V. This clearly shows that a is not, as has been at latest. supposed, a transcript of V: it must be derived from f In /iV the Roll of the Kings originally stopped at Sirna Soeglach, and has been continued in a different but contemporary hand knows fi A nothing of this, and breaks off at Sirna another demonstration that the two MSS. are not in "mother-and-daughter" relationship.

INTRODUCTION.

xv

E, a manuscript once bound up in separate folios scattered through a miscellany of scraps class-marked E.3.5 in T.C.D. Library (Gwynn's Catalogue, no. 1433, p. 308) now collected once more into a single volume, and class-marked E.3.5., no. 2. It contains 16 folios, measuring 11-4 X 8-25 ins., with four
:

ornamentation.

columns of 48 lines of writing on each. There is hardly any The handwriting was recognised long ago by 'Curry (Battle of Magh Leana, p. 35, footnote) as that of

Toma
is

Desmond

o Maeil-Chonaire, poet and historian to the earls of at the beginning of the fifteenth century and this
:

confirmed by a scribal note at the bottom of folio 2 y. He wrote carelessly haplographies are frequent, usually corrected in the margin by himself or by a later reader. Many of the lenited letters, which were not dotted by the original scribe, have been dotted by a later meddler. On the other hand, there are many good readings, and the ms. is of considerable A note at the bottom of fo. 9 verso critical importance. claims ownership of the book for Muirges ruadh ua MaoilChonaire (a different person from the scribe of D), "wherever it may be found."
;

P, formerly in the Phillips Collection at Cheltenham, now in the National Library of Ireland, class-marked P. 10266.

has been described by Whitley Stokes, 9 who has, however, not observed that the fragment of LG (which he does not appear to have identified as such) is only by accident a part of the book. It is a single quaternion, 10 X 73 ins., prefixed to a fragment from another ms. with folios of a rather larger size. Only the first two folios contain LG material, and there does not appear ever to have been any more of the text. The writing is minute, running across the whole page in a Polio 1 recto is utterly illegible, single column of 41 lines. the whole page having been reduced with gallic acid and dirt
It

to a

uniform dead brownish black. A large monogram of IN, down the whole height of the page on the left-hand side, and followed (apparently) by PRI, in unusually large The rest of characters, can be traced; but nothing further.
extending
9

Martyrology of Oengus (Henry Bradshaw Soe. edition),

p. ix

If.

XVI

INTRODUCTION.
-\

nl derna fdilte (fl 5A) to is clear, extending from mac mbec rugad (]} 119), where the scribe ceased Some parts of Folio 1 verso (the abruptly from hjs work. first nine lines and the poem No. 1) have been re-inked, not

the texl
risin

quite accurately.
as
it

Though

helps considerably in the


firsl

so fragmentary, the text is useful, decipherment of some obscure

passages in
the

VE, the only other mss. which have preserved


the text of

There is no colophon: but Arabic figures are freely used in the text, and this and other indications suggest a date of about 1480-1520.
folio of
.

R, the only ms. of the older versions not in Dublin, is an fifteenth-century copy contained in the well-known This ms. miscellany, Rawl. B. 512, in the Bodleian Library.
early

has been described, and its contents catalogued, by Whitley Stokes 10 and it is here needless to go over the same ground. The text of LG occupies foil. 76 recto-100 verso. The
;

beginning of the book

is

lost

calculation shows that two

leaves are gone; possibly three, if (as is improbable) the text contained the Nel-Moses pericope (|J 118 ff.) and the long
full. Another leaf has disappeared These defects took place before the addition of pagination to the ms., which ignores them. Two folios aro numbered 76, the second being distinguished as 76 A the first two folios are transposed in the binding. There are two columns upon each page, with 37 lines of 2 writing in each column. At the end of the text of R there comes the copy of Miniugud here called [xR.

poem

written out in
fifl

between

272-288.

-.

D,
This
is

class-marked Stowe D.4.3 in the R.I. A. Library. a vellum ms., the pages being 9X7-5 inches, with

two columns of writing upon every page except the recto of fol. 7, and the lower part of the recto of fol. 21, in which the writing runs across the page with about 56 letters in each line. The book seems to have been exposed to fire at some time: the lower and outer edges, and especially the lower

Tripartite Life of St. Patrick (Rolls Series), vol.

i,

p. xivff.

INTRODUCTION.

xvii

outer angles, of most of the folios are badly scorched, and the writing on the parts affected is often difficult to read. The lines of writing are very irregularly disposed so far as
;

have counted them, they range in number from 29 to 41 in the column. Appropriately to this irregularity, the handwriting is poor, sometimes not very legible. Forty-two folios remain two have been lost from the beginning, and the end
I
:

The ms. is of considerable critical value, and has some remarkable readings 11 the scribe's name,
is

also imperfect.

Paidin, appears in scribbles at 17 y bottom, 25 /3 14, and 35 8 bottom. In the last place only has he given his father's name, and this has been partly burnt away. He is a grumbler at the bottom of 8 y, in a note now difficult to decipher, he appears to complain that his ruler is too broad; on 11 y he is troubled because his at 17 y he has mislaid his cailc, that is, prelight is bad

Muirges (or

Muirgius) mac

sumably, the pumice with which he smoothed the surface of his vellum; and on 11 recto the shears of a bookbinder have
silenced a reference derogatory, as we may suppose, to his In the present work the two lost initial leaves parchment. are counted in, in references to this ms. the first extant folio
;

being numbered "3," in accordance with the old pagination. In the ms. a new pagination, starting from the first extant folio, has been substituted in roughly written numerals, the old pagination being sometimes either scratched out or written
over.

The scribe was certainly the Muirges mac Paidin ua Maoil-Chonaire who made the transcript of the Book of Fenagh in the R.I.A. Library in 1517, and who died in 1543. Though the writing in the Fenagh volume is much more careful, comparison of the two books leaves no room for doubt that they come from the same hand. This being so, we may infer that this ms. is the same as "The Book of

"Among- these are a number of interpolations, evidently borrowed from a copy of R 1 and all marked in the margin of the page as Slicht Libuir na Huidri, "An extract from (literally, [following in] The track This records the fact that a copy of LG, in the of) Lebor na Huidri." R Redaction, was included among the (now missing) contents of that MS.
, 1

xviii

INTRODUCTION.

ui Maoil-Chonaire, written by Muirghes mac Paidln Maoil-Chonaire out of Leabhar na Huidhri," which Cleirigh specifies as one of the sources of his own work. The marginal notes referred to in the footnote have misled

Bailc
ui

him

into supposing that the whole book was copied from LU. See further on the ms. A, below.

first text in The Book of Lecan (R.I. A. Library, The impending publication of a facsimile of this important volume makes it unnecessary to describe it here

A,

the

23.P.2).

published catalogue of the Royal Irish Academy's collection of mss. there is a full analysis of its contents. This text is at the beginning of the book, and has lost the first nine folios In they were already gone in 1724. 12 consequence the copy begins abruptly in the section relating to the FirBolg (in the middle of the poem appended to
in
:

the

text, including the copy of Min. 2 appended to R (here called /*A), covered 30 folios, with two columns on each page, containing 41-55 lines of writing, so
ff

292).

The complete

far as they have been tested. It ends in the middle of 30 8, with the following colophon, repeated immediately below by a later hand in a different ink: Finit.

column

o Cuirrtin do sgrib do Gilla Isu mac Firbissigh A. d'ollam o Fiachrach, Anno. Do', M CCCC "It xuiij. endeth. Adam 6 Cuirnin wrote it, for Gilla Isu mac Fir Bisigh, the man of learning of the Ui Fiachrach, A.D. 1418." This is the most exactly dated copy of the text which we
possess. Many of the folios have become semi-transparent by contamination with some greasy substance, and the writing on the one side shows through to the other, making decipherment difficult.

Adam

the only extant paper ms. (excluding some eighteenth century copies, mentioned below) of any of the preCleirigh redactions. It is Stowe A.2.4 in the R.I.A. Library, and
is

'-Bishop Nicolson, Irish Historical Library, The leaves from p. 38. ms. now bound into 2 1?, in the library of T.C.D., are not those missing from the beginning of the codex, as is stated bv an oversight in the catalogue of the T.C.D. Irish Manuscripts, p. 112.
this

INTRODUCTION.

xix

There are apparently belongs to the seventeenth century. I 47 leaves, 7-8X58 ins., some of them much tattered. have collated this copy sufficiently to assure myself that it is a direct transcript of D. It reproduces slavishly the orthographical and other peculiarities of D, except for the not infrequent mistakes of its own copyist. Some of these mistakes can be explained, on reference to D, by obscurities in A is imperfect at both ends, the script of the earlier ms. and has no independent value for the criticism of the text it has just the slight importance that in a few cases it does not reproduce corrections that have been made secunda iiianu in D, suggesting that these may have belonged to a time later than its own transcription. But sA was so incompetent that we cannot be sure even of this he may have overlooked them, or omitted them intentionally. In the present edition of LG, A has been left out of consideration altogether. Assuming that D was one of the sources followed by not, howCleirigh, A was probably prepared for his use as it is not in his handwriting. Some leaves ever, by him,
:
:

of a different text, which though roughly scribbled appear actually to be in O'Clery's writing, are bound up in the same

volume.

A
of

lost

occasion arises.

ms. of this redaction, *Z, will be referred to as 2 It was the copy of R used by a glossator
3
).
)

(g
(

of

oo

R The Manuscript R we shall call *W.


3

of

used by the compiler

The Third Redaction.


is contained in two mss., B and fragment of a third, H, is extant.
3

M; and an

important

this

In B, The Book of Ballymote (R.I.A. Library, 23 P 12). codex LG occupies folios 8-34 on each page there are two columns of writing, with 55-57 lines in each. Folios 9,
:

The latter defect is of long inclusive, are missing. standing; but folio 9 must have been lost after the middle of the eighteenth century, when two transcripts of the text

and 24-30

XX

INTRODUCTION.

were made from this jis. One of these, written in 1728 by Richard Tipper, here called /?, is fairly good, though not the text of the perfect and it is of great value for restoring
;

It is labelled on the binding "Book of Ballyfolio. mote," and class-marked H.2.4 in T.C.D. Library (Gwynn's The other is apparently lost, but two Catalogue, 1295). 1 in a MS. written by Tadhg (3 copies were made from it in or about the year 1745, and dubbed upon its () Xeaehtain, title-page Psaltair na Teumhrach, "The Psalter of Tara," though the binding is more soberly labelled "Miscellanea Bibernica, transcribed by T. O'Naghtan"; also in T.C.D.

missing

and ,8 2 a Catalogue, 1289) pitifully illiterate production, class-marked Stowe D.3.2 in These two mss. share a considerable the R.I. A. Library.
Library
(H.1.15,

Gwynn's

number
descent
12

(V/2 ) they are both so much inferior to /?, that their only use is to corroborate some of its peculiar readings, and to show that In tlu'se were really to be found in the missing leaf of B. few cases can we accept a divergent reading of V/3 12 very
;

of mistakes and peculiar spellings, showing their from a common more or less inaccurate original 13 and interposed between them and the ancestral B

in preference to

[3.

Where we have B

intact, these three

copies are useless, and are here ignored. lost from B before any of them was

Folios 2130 were

does not /? 12 has filled it by attempt to supply the deficiency; but \//3 copying from the still extant jjlV, for collation shows beyond the possibility of doubt that s\/ /3 12 has here and there been misled by peculiarities in /xV (misspellings, a badly set-out
:

made

cor fa clxasdn, imperfectly legible writing, etc.). The version of this missing portion in (3 1 and /3 2 is, therefore, of no value.

allow this to stand, because it is still possible as a statement of the facts but on subjecting my collations to a final revision, when I considered the relationship between these two mss. more closely, and noted a number of places where a peculiar error in f3 2 could be accounted 1 for by careless penmanship in j3\ I became more inclined to regard /3 1 as a direct (though poor) copy of B, and /?= a yet worse copy of /3 The hypothetical V/312 thus disappears altogether, and /J 2 loses all the little value that it might have had.
I
: .

,:

INTRODUCTION.

xxi

the second text in The Book of Lecun, occupying It is a very peculiar text, having some 264-312. 14 interpolations (notably the story of Partholon's faithless wife was Delgnat) not found in any other ancient version. the latter half of the "Roll apparently imperfect: certainly
is

folios

yM

was compelled Kings was missing from it, and s to supply the deficiency by a makeshift adaptation of a version of the saga of the Borama Tribute, differing in some respects from that in the Book of Leinster. The important lacuna in the first section of LG, to be described later, was also a serious imperfection in yM. The problems connected with this copy
of the
' '

must, however, be considered as they arise. was working against time. The copyist of he was called away for a few minutes, a deputy

Even when 2 (s M) took

his place,

and wrote during his absence. The text is, so to by short groups of lines in the very dis2 tinctive handwriting of s M, which alternate with the work 1 of the main scribe (s M), changing sometimes even in the There is never any crowding or overmiddle of a line. 2 were a later scribe, running, as would be the case if s filling in gaps that for any reason had been left by a prespeak, punctuated

decessor.

use of

yM

work.

could not obtain the Presumably the writers of for more time than w as just sufficient for their As in such a case they would not have leisure to
T

hunt for extraneous matter, it seems probable that the interwere all transferred to polations and other peculiarities of It is further possible that they that ms. bodily from yM. were deprived of it before they were able to copy the w hole

this, Kings, and the explanation of the deficiency yM, noticed in the preceding paragraph.

of

the

Roll

of

the

that

rather than

in

is

peculiarity

is a fragment of five folios, 13' 5 X 9- 6 ins., with two columns on each page, and 56 lines of writing in the column. It is bound into a volume of miscellaneous fragments

(H.2.15,
14

no.

1,

in

T.C.D.,

Gwynn's

Catalogue,

1316).

Throughout this edition the old foliation of the Book of Lecan, in the upper right-hand corner of the recto of each folio, is used for reference, instead of the more recent pagination in square brackets in
the bottom margin.

xxii

INTRODUCTION.
folios

Pour of these

belong to the

first

section of

LG, and

The fifth has a version contain matter nowhere else extant. of tlir end of the Nemed section, cognate with that in K, and differing profoundly from every other text of this part of the book. With this the copy of LG appears to have

ended, the remainder of the folio being occupied with other matter. At the end of this folio there is a colophon which would seem to date the MS. to some time before 1252 (see

Gwynn's Catalogue, p. 91), but the interpretation of the note is uncertain, and the date seems, if anything, too early for the Jan image and especially the orthography of the ms. It is the pages, not the folios, in this miscellany which are numbered 15 The first portion of LG occupies (as under, in pencil).
The column of page 67. About one-third of the upper portion of folio 103-104 has been torn away and lost.
pp. 97-104, but the folios are not in their right order should run thus, 103-104, 97-98, 101-102, 99-100.

they

Nemed fragment

is

in the first

In preparing for publication the three prose texts, I have chosen L, V, and B as the standard copies of R1 R 2 and R 3
,
,

and the book is printed as it appears in those mss., except where some other fills a lacuna, or corrects an
respectively;

obvious error.
tions

Numerals, as well as the ordinary abbrevia;

and contractions, are expanded silently and the marking of long vowels, which is quite haphazard in the mss., is reduced to some sort of order (with horizontal strokes). In the tables of variants, and in places where a passage depends on one ms. only, the marking of prolongation (with accent-like 16 strokes), is reproduced as in the original except on the
:

There

is

an

older,

now

obsolete, pagination in ink,

which we

may

ignore.

In a few cases marks of prolongation, inserted before I decided to give without such interference passages depending on a single lis., have evaded deletion and appear on the printed page. I have allowed them to stand, to avoid needless proof-correction: but these apart, the absence of such marks will be a useful indication to the reader that the text before him survives in one ms. In English contexts, only. meticulous accentuation has not been considered necessary.

18

INTRODUCTION.
letter
i,

xxiii

where the accent-like mark is usually nothing more than a distinguishing mark, like the dot in ordinary print.
This is here left out. I also omit the punctum delens placed over "eclipsed" letters. By repeated collations an effort has been made to attain to the ideal of recording every variant, however trifling, presented by the manuscripts. The three mss. specified have been chosen, less because they are the best copies of their respective redactions than because they In fact, F probably is nearer to are the most complete. 2 1 than L and the late mss. of R DER, often give co R
;
,

is admittedly more readings preferable to those in V. complete than B, but it has too many eccentric readings and interpolations to justify its being selected as the standard

for

3
.

The verse texts cannot be classified into "redactions," and they have to be treated in a different way. Of these I
have endeavoured to construct a text, giving the reader as full an apparatus criticus of variant readings as possible, to
enable

him

to test, and, it

may

be, to

improve upon

it.

have not, however, attempted to standardize the orthography, which would involve an interference with the testimony of

The text does not the mss. that I felt would be too drastic. need to be treated like a Greek classical composition, where it is of the first importance to recover the exact words of the
literary master

who wrote

it.

The

ideal

which

have

set

before myself is the humbler one, of making it possible for a scholar to whom the mss. are inaccessible to reconstruct the text of any one of them, except, in the matter of abbreviations

To have attempted to and marks of vowel prolongation. all of these would have more than doubled the reproduce bulk of the lists of variae lectiones, with no very apparent This is not to say that they are unimportant advantage. on the contrary, I have gleaned some valuable hints on the affiliation of mss. from a comparison of such extraneous matters as the ornamentation of initial capital letters, and
:

the abbreviations or other peculiarities of the caligraphy (or cacography) of individual words. In this connexion it may be said here that it is especially interesting to compare the initial letters scattered throughout

V with those

in D.

In

V they

are neatly

drawn and

coloured,

XX IV

INTRODUCTION.

o
55

o
fa

w w w

<

INTRODUCTION.

xxv

though in design they show only too clearly that the art to which they belong was already moribund or dead in D they are badly drawn, in an ink outline only. But it is obvious that they are the same designs. As D cannot possibly be a copy of V, it is clear that the two mss. derive their ornamentation, This fact, which like their text, from a common original.
:

gives

us

new

criterion

for

determining the

affinity

of

be illustrated by the specimens here repromanuscripts, 163 from tracings made with the kind consent of the duced.,

may

Council of the R.I.A.

O'Clery's Redaction.
has already been published as far as the Boll of the Kings, and need not here be repeated. It is of little critical value, having been much manipulated editorially, but there is enough to show that its compiler had access to mss. no He has a long version of the Partholonlonger extant. almost throughout Delgnat story, differing from that in and his Nemed text, though it has affinities with the unique

text in

H, displays a

like

independence.

The

chief import-

rich glossarial matter. The last degeneration of the text is found in two nineteenth century mss. in the British Museum (Egerton, 101, 105), which

ance of this version

is its

give us O'Clery's version with some of the difficulties cut out and easy bits of Keating 's History substituted.

The Contents of the Book.


The book
in
its

present

form,

in

all

the

principal
sections,

redactions, falls into ten separate as under

and independent

I.

From

the Creation to the Dispersal of the Nations.

The Ancestors of the Gaedil. III-VII. The successive invasions of Cessair, Partholon, Nemed, the Fir Bolg, and the Tuatha De Danann. VIII. The invasion of the sons of Mil, i.e. of the Gaedil. IX. The Roll of the Kings before Christianity. X. The Roll of the Kings after Christianity.
II.

""'The small 5, to the. left, and the upper O, O. VI are from V; the lower O. O, 1? and the large ft are from the corresponding paragraphs in D. (Notice the broken lines and loose ends in the first of

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.
in
detail

and

notwithstanding the profound differences between the different redactions, they agree in the main lines
of their contents.

Prof. A. C. Clark, in a

work
17

to

whose teaching
it

I gladly

as a principle acknowledge my indebtedness, like a traveller who goes from one inn to that "a text is at each halt." By this another, losing an article of luggage that the text sheds passages piecemeal as it is he

has laid

down

means, so that when delivered copied from manuscript to manuscript to its reader at the end of a succession of transcriptions, it shorter often considerably so than when it left the is author's hand, to run the gauntlet of scribal carelessness,
;

sleepiness,

Other things being incompetence, and laziness. a longer text is, therefore, to be preferred, by the equal, That this principle is sound critical editor, to a shorter text. when applied to classical literature no one who has made a
careful study of Prof. Clark's work can doubt but it breaks down when applied to Irish texts. In Ireland, the philomath, to air his stock of erudite inanity, early made his baleful
:

eager

appearance. To adapt the formula of Prof. Clark's analogy, an Irish text is like a traveller who, as he passes from inn to inn, stuffs his portmanteau with the china dogs, the waxen fruits, the crochet-work antimacassars, and all the other
futilities
is

with which his successive lodgings are adorned.

It

quite possible that when LG was drawn up by its first compiler, it was not longer than what would fill three or four
It has grown to its present dimensions by an extraordinary accretion of glosses, interpolations, and other amplifications. Certainly the old canon of New Testament criticism, brevior lectio praeferenda verbosiori, is here

sheets of notepaper.

applicable It does not require


!

is

in reality

documents. been interpolated; sections II and VIII run on continuously, and were no doubt at one time in immediate connexion. If

any great insight to see that the book a combination of two originally independent The block of material, sections III to VII, has

we

cut the interpolated sections out,

we

find ourselves left

these letters, showing that the artist, though a fair draughtsman, did not understand the principles which reg-ulated designs such as this.)
1

17

The Descent of Manuscripts (Oxford, 1918),

at p. 23.

INTRODUCTION.

XXVll

with a History of the Gaedil, based upon the history of the Children of Israel as it is set forth in the Old Testament, or (perhaps more probably) in some consecutive history paraphrased therefrom. The parallelism, which can be displayed in tabular form as below, is too close to be accidental.

Old Testament.

Lebor Gabala.

is

The biblical history from the Creation to the Sons of Noah borrowed by the Irish historians after which
:

Shem
is

is

selected
.

and
.
.

his

genealogy

followed out

is selected and Japhet genealogy is followed out


.

his
.

until

we reach Terah and


upon
whose
. . .

his son

until

we reach Nel and


.

his

son
the

Abram,

family

the

historian specializes

Gaedel, upon whose historian specializes

family
.
.

down to the two wives and the numerous sons of Jacob.

down to the two wives and the numerous sons of Mil.

A
a

servitude in

friendly

invitation
. .
.

Egypt begins with from an

An oppression in Egypt begins with a friendly invitation from an


Egyptian king
.

Egyptian king

and

the

children

of

Israel

are

and

the

children

of

Nel

are

delivered

by

the adopted son of an

delivered

by

the son-indaw of the

Egyptian princess.

This deliverer Egyptian king. meets and almost joins forces with
18 his prototype Moses.

They wander for a long time, beset by enemies


. . .

They wander for a long by enemies


.
. .

time, beset

and sojourn at a mountain (Sinai) where they receive the doom that not they but their children shall reach the Promised Land; so they wander
. . .

and sojourn at a mountain (Riphi) where they receive the doom that
not they but their children shall reach the Promised Land; so they

wander
till

till

their leader sees the

Promised

their leader sees the

Promised
a

Land from
afar
off.

the top of a mountain

Land from
afar
off.

the

top

of

tower

18

Some portions
:

of this incident are probably due to later inter-

polation

it is

in essence, however, at least as old as Nennius.

xxviii

INTRODUCTION.
Old Testament

con.

Lebor Gabala con.


con-

Ee dies: but his successor ducts the people to a subjugation former inhabitants of of the amid circumstances of
Canaan,
marvel and mystery
.

but his successors conduct the people to a subjugation former inhabitants of the of amid circumstances of Ireland,
lie

dies:

marvel and mystery

and

to a successful colonization of

and

to a successful colonization of

the country.

the country.

The
brief

history then concludes with a successive record of the

The history then concludes with a


record of the successive kings (beginning with a partition of the country), allotting in most cases not more than a single parabrief

kings (beginning with a partition of the country), allotting in most cases not more than a single para-

graph to individual kings.

graph to individual kings.

infer that the book originally described only a single "taking"that of the Celtic Irish, to whom the author himself belonged,
is

We

and
:

in

whom

he was chiefly interested.

This

why

title

GabCda, in the singular number, still remains in the of the book it is not the "Book of Takings of Ireland,"

but

of The Taking." The intruded matter ( III-VII) may have had some

"The Book

historical basis, but much of it partakes rather of the nature of a Theogonia see the introductions prefixed to each of the
:

where their relation to mythology and history is discussed. We shall see later that this group of sections is itself capable of further analysis into separate component
sections,

elements.

and (even

These different histories appear to have been in existence, if their combination had already been effected) to have been still available in their separate form, when Nennius wrote his Historia Britonum, about the end of the eighth 19 He must have been able to refer to a literary century. source of information about the Pre-Milesian invasions but for the history of the Milesians themselves he apparently had
:

Britain,

ed. Petrie in Materials for the History of Great Faral in La legende arthurienne (Paris, 1929), vol. iii, pp. 11, 12. For convenience I assume the historical existence of "Nennius": after all, someone must have written the book which bears his name. Also for convenience I call him by the old-established form of his name, rather than by the less familiar "Nemnius. "
p.
5'6
:

"Historia Nennii,
ed.

INTRODUCTION.
to

xxix

depend on the oral information conveyed to him by persons described as peritissimi Scottorum (and condemned by some of his glossators with the words, nulla certa historic oriyinis His abstract of the Pre-Milesian Scottorum continetur).
invasions
is

point about

analysed at a later stage of our work; the only it which we need notice here is the single word
20

"Damhoctor"

which

Nennius wrongly supposes

to be

personal name, denoting the leader of one of the invading troops whose progeny was supposed to be still in Ireland at
the time
the Irish for

when Nennius wrote. But evidently it is nothing but this misunderstood a company of eight persons
' '

' '

word

a valuable testimony that for this part of the history Nennius had a written text in the Irish language at his elbow.
is

The Relation between the Redactions.

The relationship existing between

(a)

the Manuscripts and


21

and (b) the Redactions has been discussed by Thurneysen Van Hamel. 22 I may say that I refrained from making a
close

study of these most important contributions to the

till I had formed my own conclusions, so as to arrive an independent opinion. The very simple stemma of the mss. drawn up by Van Hamel (op. cit., p. 115) is hardly an adequate representation of their inter-relationship. The facts, which are more complex, must be allowed to develop themselves as we

subject
at

for the moment it is sufficient to advise readers Van Hamel's most valuable study, that the Miniugud appendix of V (which Van Hamel calls "S") is not lost: and that A (which Van Hamel calls "Lee I") is not a daughter MS. of his S, but, if we may further develop the Two of the genealogical terminology, a sort of "niece." many proofs of this have been given already. Likewise, F cannot be considered a direct copy of L; in many places it

proceed
of

20 We need not trouble ourselves with the variant reading Clamhoctor adopted in Petrie's edition. 21 Zur irischen Handschrif ten und Litteraturdenkmalern, zweite Serie": Abhcmidl. der k. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, neue Folge, xiv, no. 3, 1913. - "On Lebor Gabala." Z.C.P. x (1915), p. 97.
' '

xxx
preserves

[INTRODUCTION.

an older and purer text. Moreover, V (Van Eamel's S) is nut an original text, but a faulty copy; in some places even the late MSS., E and P, give preferable
readings.

As to the Redactions, both Thurneysen and Van Hainel 3 1 2 Min, and K, recognise the five different versions, as they are here called. Thurneysen calls them A, B, C, B III, and respectively (B II being the synchronistic

R R R
, ,

matter appended to s\ mbolism A, Ba, C,

).

Van
is

Bb, U.

Hainel uses a similar Their distribution of the

.mss.

among' the redactions


corrects,

Thurneysen counts

F among

the same as mine, except that the mss. of C (=R 3 ). This

Van Hamel

and Thurneysen would probably himself


:

ado] it the correction after another examination of the text. But he is not without justification for 3 is based upon a

here called *Q, and F is in many respects more closely akin to *Q than to L, the ms. adopted by us as typical of R 1
lost

ms. of

much
all of

follows Thurneysen 's notation to avoid confusion; but he objects to it on account of the secondary place which it assigns to the B-group (R 2 ). This redaction is, in
his opinion,
text,

Van Hamel

of primary importance for the history of the bringing us nearer to the original form than any other. "B" he considers to be fuller than "A"; and, although he admits that neither is a copy of the other, he regards "A"

as

a mere

abstract

of

the

common
first

original,

omitting,

as

irrelevant, details
text,

which from the

were included in the

(p. xxvi), in dealing with an Irish text, the fuller it is of extraneous detail, the more likely it is to be remote from the original version. As for .Min, appended to the three R 2 mss. V, A, R, it is 1 obviously cognate with "A" (R ) but it is equally obvious
;

and which "B" preserves. But on the principle laid down above

that

it

is

neither a copy nor

independent version.
the
IV

an abstract of "A," but an Apparently it represents a stage of

tradition slightly earlier than that contained in the

extant mss. of

What, then, understand it, it We start with


is

but it certainly belongs to that group. the relation between these versions? As I is as follows:
;

Liber Occupationis Ilibcrniae, a sort of

INTRODUCTION.

xxxi

quasi-historical romance, with no backing either of history or tradition an artificial composition, professing to narrate the origin of the Gaeclil onward from the Creation of the World
;

(or the Flood),


'

Ih

'

<

ir

promised land,

their journeyings, and their settlement in Ireland. This production was a slavish
'
'

we might almost say a parody, of the Biblical story of The germ which suggested the idea to was undoubtedly the passage in Orosius (I. 2. 81), the writer wrongly understood as meaning that Ireland was first seen from Brigantia in Spain, where (ibid., 71) .there was a very
copy,
the Children of Israel.

This suggested a reminiscence of Moses, and overlooking the Land of Promise from Mount Pisgah the author set himself to work out the parallel, forward and backward. Incidentally Orosius gave trouble to Irish topographers, ancient and modern, by speaking of an Irish
lofty watch-tower.
:

river Scena, setting them on a hunt for a non-existent Inber As sc conventionally represents the sound of sh Scene. (compare the Vulgate Judges, xii, 6, where the Hebrew word

shibboleth

is rendered scibboleth), we must pronounce this word as Shena, and it is then easily recognised as Orosius' version of Sinann (genitive Sinna) or "Shannon." Further, we

must assume that


Latin. 23

this quasi-Israelite history

was written

in

Next we must postulate a separate


of

text,

compounded out

separate sagas (or rather a number of varieties of one saga), but with a much better claim to enshrine genuine traditional (though not necessarily hisa

number

of

torical)

material.

pendent Nennius

entity in the

had antiquity, which preserved it, or some of it, in its independent form. It was a brief treatise on the pre-Gaedilic inhabitants of Ireland and as it contained the expression ddnih ochtair, "a troop of eight persons," which Nennius mistook for a proper name, it must have been written in Irish. It does not
:

This document still existed as an indetime of Nennius or, to be more exact, access to a manuscript, possibly of some

23 clear proof of translation from Latin is presented by some of the place-names, which have been transferred unintelligently into their Irish context in the accusative case. Thus in If 15'8, to cite but one of

many

examples, sech Albaniam

sech Ghothiam must have a Latin

original behind them.

xxx ii

INTRODUCTION.
to

appear

have contained the stories of Cessair and the other

antediluvian colonists. Liber Occupationis soon began to be taken seriously: and the small tract just mentioned should it was inevitable thai

become combined with it, in order to make its historical This changed its character, turning it record more complete. into a history of Ireland, rather than a history of the people then dominant in the country. Nevertheless its title remained The interunchanged: it was still Liber Occupationis.
polation spoilt the logical form of the history for its readers, having at last after many vicissitudes reached Ireland, were
:

now

obliged to

jump suddenly back

to the beginning, both

and in space, in order to follow out the second strand which had thus been interwoven with the narrative. But the earlier invasions were still of subordinate interest, and for a time were most likely differentiated by their language from If we could be sure the main current of the Latin story. that the opening paragraphs of Min have not been drastically compressed, the scanty notice there found of the earlier invasions would very closely resemble the form of this part of the book when it had reached this stage of the development. At about the same time, the Cessair narrative (an old flood-myth mixed up with some Dindsenchas material) was committed to writing, but whether in Latin or in Irish is not very clear presently it found a place in front of the interin time
:

See further the Introduction to that section. text thereafter divided into two streams. Two schools of history, retaining its framework, each of them working independently of, and often at variance with, the other, added new material as they found it. The next stage was inaugurated by translation from Latin
polation.

The history of the

into Irish.

The

first

translation to be

made w as undoubtedly
T

from the text underlying Min. The translator headed his very naturally, "An explanation of Liber Occupationis." By now the historical nature of the book was a fully accepted tradition: it was regarded as a true record of the past of Ireland and of her people: and in view of its importance ii was considered, desirable to make it accessible to students whose Latin was unequal to a study of the original
work,
text.

The associated poems,

at

this

stage

not yet incor-

INTRODUCTION.
porated with the written
the
first.

xxxiii

text,

were of course in Irish from

generation or two later, the text, with the additional material which had accumulated in the interval,
the

"A"

was translated again (R 1 ) "B" text (R 2 ).

as

was
all

also,

now

for the

first

time,

This reconstruction explains


(1) (2)

the

phenomena completely

The parallel "Israel" and "Ireland" story. The short Nennius text, based on an original
earlier

in Irish,

enumerating the
colony.
(3)

invasions,

but

ignoring

the

Milesian

large

The mention of a single invasion in the title, though a number of invasions are enumerated in the text. (4) The general similarity of Min and R though the verbal
1

differences forbid us to regard either as a copy of the other. (5) The word mlniugud, "explanation" in the title of Min.

and R 2, though the (6) The similarity of framework in R two texts are so profoundly different that they can never have had a common Irish original.
1

It may be further suggested that the Latin preface to Min, where a parallel is drawn between Ireland and Adam's Paradise, and where there are obvious reminiscences of Orosius, is actually the preface of the original Liber Occwpationis, at least in the form to which it had evolved at the time when the translation of Min was made. It was a preface, not an intrinsic part of the text: and subsequent translators passed it over altogether. The next phase began when some owner of an R 2 text, no 2 longer extant, got hold of a copy of Min. Though R contains 1 matter not in Min or R the contrary is also true and R 2 is especially unsatisfactory (from the point of view of a
, :

who wants to know everything) in the section I do not agree that taining the Roll of the Kings. section, in its earliest form, is an addition to the original I believe that a germ of this record formed an essential
historian
of the text

conthis
text.

part
rest.

from the

first,

and that

it

developed with the

The postulated scholar sought to remedy the defects of his version by appending an abbreviated version of Min to his
he merely writing ut supra dixi or the like this is enough to show that Min, as we have it, is not independent

copy of

Where Min contained matter already

in
:

R
d

left it out,

XXXIV
of the text to which

INTRODUCTION.
it is

appended.
call
its

addition was
thai either
this

made we may
I)

The MS. \/A AR. There

to
is

which this no evidence

E or

was within

family, or ever possessed

supplementary appendix.
3

is the pastepot - and - scissors work of a man who Vexed anticipated the systematizing labour of O Cleirigh. r at the discrepancies between the tw o traditions, and having

II

a considerable library at his disposal, he took a text of R 1 (*Q) and wrote it out with many interpolations, partly derived from R 2 (*W), partly from other sources. As we

was imperfect; it had lost the page, as well as the Partholon and Nemed sections.
shall see, his MS. of
1

first

K is also an artificial re-handling of the text.


introduction
is,

of

set

purpose,

swept

away,

The biblical and the

successive invasions are arranged in a

more

logical order.

based on R 2 (D), though it shows some affinities with M; but the compiler certainly used a different 3 copy of R no longer extant, and he took arbitrary liberties with the text. There are many genealogical and other interThis redaction
is
,

polations from sources outside the tradition.


It is my pleasant duty to express my acknowledgements to the Librarians and other officials of the Libraries in which the mss. are preserved, for unfailing help and courtesy to Professors Bergin and Eoin Mac Neill, Dr. R. I. Best, the Rev. Paul Grosjean, s.j v Dr. Myles Dillon, and Miss M. Joynt, for permitting me to consult them on various
:

and other questions that arose during the progress of the work; to Professor R. W. Ditchburn, Trinity College, Dublin, for his unfailing interest and patience in the troublelinguistic

some task of photographing illegible passages to the lamented Provost M. R. James of Eton College, and to the Venerable Archdeacon Seymour, for valuable help in some of the questions on Apocrypha which arose in the criticism of the Biblical prolegomena in Part I and to the Very Rev. Canon
;

Boylan, litt.d., for his great kindness in putting at my service a copy of the Genesis volume of that magnificent

monument

of scholarship and of typography, edition of the Vulgate text of the Bible.

the Vatican

SECTION
From the Creation

I.

to the Dispersal of the Nations.

Introduction.

In accordance with the

artificial

scheme of Liber Occu-

pationis, the history of the world from the Creation to the Tower of Babel is first recapitulated. The original form of the text was probably something like this
:

God made heaven and earth. He gave the Heaven to Lucifer, of earth to Adam. Lucifer sinned and was cast into Hell. He was envious of Adam, for he was assured that Adam would take his place in Heaven. Whereupon he came and tempted Eve to sin, and Adam was driven out of Paradise. The children of Adam sinned thereafter, in that Cain slew Abel. Seth, the third son of Adam, is the ancestor of all the men of the world, for the Flood drowned the whole seed of Adam except Noah and his three sons, Shem, Ham, Japhet.
the beginning
bailiffry

"In

of

settled in Asia, Ham in Africa, Japhet in Europe. Gaedil are descended from Japhet."

Shem

We

As we read the text in its present form, and compare the divergent versions, we realise that everything not contained in this bald summary must be a glossarial accretion. This summary was drawn up before the Vulgate text of the Old Testament had become familiar in Ireland certainly not later than the eighth century. The Biblical quotations are from an earlier text, as is shown in detail below, in the notes appended to each paragraph. The abbreviator of Min
:

left

to us

out the Biblical portion of that version, so that it is lost but it is still possible to recover something of the history
:

of

its

evolution.
ff

intrusion was
of Creation),
it is

fl

safely presume that an early the form of a bare list of the works (in 5 entered later; ff 6 was at first shorter than

We may

now

and the genealogical matter


i.

]\

7-10 developed

l.g.

vol.

SECTION

I.

gradually from very small beginnings. The document upon which two of the interpolations in fl 9 are based was early in existence, but they did not enter the text till a late stage of its formation. 1 I recognise two imBesides LF, the extant mss. of R
,

which have had an influence on the These are *Q, *X. Both of these of the text, development were good copies *X, I am inclined to think, on the whole the better of the two. *Q began with a highly ornate initial a large part of the front page and the IN, which occupied lettering of the remainder of the page, if not of the folio, was of extra large size. Some reminiscences of this arrangement, which may be ultimately derived from *Q, appear in has got large VP. LB also have the large initial IN, and but as will appear presently, these letters in its first column
portant mss.,

now
:

lost,

M
,

latter are not survivals of the *Q tradition. *Q existed in 3 a mutilated form down to the time of oo R and it formed the chief foundation of his work. It is The history of the mutilation is very interesting.

evident that

2 a/R had

lost its first folio.

One

of the owners

of that ms., to repair the deficiency, tore out and appropriated the first folio of *Q this made possible the paheographical
:

influence

suggested

in

the

preceding

paragraph.

By

chance, this produced continuous sense with the beginning R 2 though the sense is absurd. Only of the second folio of
1 2 explain the fact that R and R are practically identical for the first few paragraphs, and then, with startling suddenness, fly apart rather than diverge, and never again have a paragraph in common. Even the verseextracts are often set in different contexts. It also explains the further significant fact that at the point where the texts

in this

way can we

2 part company, a statement is made in R inconsistent with everything that follows, to the effect that the Flood was a This statement has punishment for the murder of Abel. been accidentally produced by the combination of the first
,

half of a sentence at the bottom of the first folio of *Q with the second half of a sentence at the top of the second folio of \/R 2
.

The continuous use of *Q by


after this mutilation, proving that

oo

begins immediately

*Q was actually the copy

INTRODUCTION.
which he used.

3
3

shall see presently that oo R in his the damage to *Q by tearing out the openingturn, repaired folios of a translation of the Book of Genesis, and substituting When this act of pillage was it for the missing matter.
,

We

performed, or subsequently, one of the Genesis folios was and this accident has made it possible, as is torn across
:

shown in the proper place, to arrive at some approximation to an idea of the size of the folios of *Q, and the amount of literary matter that would go upon each. Now, the first of these folios must have contained the matter at the beginning, common to the two redactions R 1 R 2 (in the present form of and it is insufficient to fill one of the ordinary the latter) We infer, therefore, that much space must have folios of *Q. been expended upon a large initial, and in letters of an extra large size upon the opening page. The importation of "Iofer Niger" into fl 4, derived from
:

hint.

the Latin Life of St. Juliana, gives us another chronological If the Old Latin Biblical excerpts suggest an eighth-

century date at latest for the compilation, the name of the demon suggests a ninth-century date for the beginning of glossation, the date of the Juliana text being about 800 a.d. As Iofer Niger exists in L (corrupted), *Q (first folio, transferred to R 2 ) and *X, a ms. which underlies some glossarial matter in R 2 he must have been found in yLF *X *Q. This manuscript, therefore, contained the full text as we have it, except for such interpolations as were afterwards incorporated. (Though it will afterwards appear that *Q probably lacked the Partholon and Nemed sections.) F knows nothing of Iofer Niger; he must, therefore, have been still glossarial in and passed over by s F.
,

yF

The history of the gloss in ff 1, of the Iofer Niger interpolation in fl 4, and of the interpolation |f 5, as summarized in the notes on these passages, is all self-consistent. It
shows that three stems branched
off from yLF *X *Q, becoming respectively the parents of L, *X, and F *Q, The

F* Q

tradition
is

is

slightly the oldest of the three, but the

*X

nearly as old, and in some cases preserves better readings; it is a pity that we have so little of this ms. F is a curious text, a mixture of L and *Q but though very closely cognate with *Q, it has too much in common with L
tradition
;

SECTION

I.

to be divorced

from it altogether. Though actually a later ms. than L, it preserves an older stage of the tradition, and has not travelled so far from it as L has done. After the extant portion of the original form of R 2 begins,
:

the two redactions have nothing in common. shown by a summary in parallel columns

This can be

R
TT

1
.

R
Taken over

1.

2.
3.

Genesis I 1. List of "Works of Creation. revolt Lucifer and Adam


:

4. 5.
6.

of Angels. Envy of Lucifer.

into leaf of *Q.

with the

first

The

Fall.

Sentence on Adam. Cain and Abel.

7.

Genealogy of Shem Flood mentioned.


Dispersal of Nations. Genealogy of Noah.

the

II

11.

The Flood.
of the Flood.

12. Details of the Flood.


13. Effects 14.

8. 9.

10.

Genealogy of Magog.

15.

The Raven and the Dove. Noah comes out of the Ark.
Dispersal of Nations.

16.
17.

Genealogy of Gaedel Glas.


Chronology.

18. 19.

Nel goes to Egypt. A poem on the foregoing


history.

must surely be evident that the brief mention of the R 1 is original, while the long and laboured paraphrase of the Biblical story in R 2 is imported. The details of the genealogies are taken from different and mutually contraWithout doubt, the lost beginning of R 2 dictory sources. differed in a like degree from the first six paragraphs of R 1 which were substituted for it we can have no direct knowledge of what it may have contained, but we may be
It

Flood in

on

absolutely certain that it emphasized the divine command the Sethites to abstain from intermarriage with the Cainites, and that this command, and the disobedience of it

2 by the Sethites, came after the R narrative of the death of Abel, and was the original antecedent to the Flood narrative not improbably as we have it in fl 53, which may come, either from Sex Aetates Mundi, or from R 2 through *Z.

INTRODUCTION.
The redaction
work.
ceding redactions.
sources.

It is essentially

an independent a composite, based on the two preThe foundation of it is R1 but it is


is

not, like

and

swelled with large interpolations from

R
3

and from other

The manuscript of R 1 used by co *Q, after it had suffered the loss of


text of

its first leaf.

was unquestionably For the

3 appears in R begins, as we have said above, To supply the immediately after the lacuna thus caused. 3 deficiency, oo R tore the opening leaves out of an Irish trans1 lation of the Book of Genesis, thereby killing the translation, of which no other copy survives, and which would have been of enormous linguistic value. This, with its extensive interThe relation between polated glosses, occupies Iffl 20-85.

as

it

the remainder of

3
,

I,

and the previous redactions


:

forth in the following table


igraph.

is

set

Source.

Poem no. V. R\ An appended


from
Scholastica.

interpolation

Comestor 's

Historia

R R

1
.

If

7. 8-

1
.

TT

Interpolation

from

Sex

Aetates Mundi. Apparently a different but parallel


text.

Sex Aetates Mundi.

W.

2
.

f8. f 15.
IT

R\
Sex

9.

Aetates
etc.

interpolations

Mundi, with many from Isidore,

Comestor.

Some other source, not identified. R H9 (end). R H 10 much interpolated.


1 1
. .

The paragraphs marked with an

asterisk,

if

read con-

tinuously (omitting interpolations) will give the text of this 1 part of R as it appeared in *Q.
*If not of the whole Old Testament, or even the whole Bible.

SECTION

I.

The Biblical Excerpt.


its relation to the text ask first if it was prepared ad hoc as a whole, we naturally 3 him from some transby the compiler of R or borrowed by To this question there can be lation previously in existence. Much of the matter in the but one reasonable answer.
,

Reviewing the Biblical excerpt, and

Biblical chapters was altogether irrelevant to the purpose 3 a short abstract, such as is given by R\ would have of oo served him as well, or better. The translator expended much trouble over his work the evidence that he collated the Greek

to do Septuagint with the Vulgate text cannot be set aside; this merely as a preface to a historical tract relating to Ireland would involve a heavy expenditure of time, trouble,

and valuable parchment.


the easily

Collation of texts in the Middle

read printed page, and without Ages, without indexes and other apparatus, would have been alphabetical Certainly a much more formidable task than it is to-day. 3 the scribes who have transmitted R appear to have found much of this preliminary matter wearisome and out of place,
of the frequent repetitions of for example, I 25, and the list of creatures the original (as, Another point is the difference in preserved in the Ark). that we feel between the Biblical excerpt and literary style as
is

shown by the reduction

its

present

context.

The translator has certain peculiar

mannerisms, to which attention is drawn in the critical notes, and which give him an individuality. On the other hand, it would be so easy to tear from another MS. the pages required, that we are obliged to accuse 3 co R of having committed this crime, to save himself the
trouble of otherwise replacing the missing first page of the exemplar before him. Some examination of the nature of the text w hich formed the basis of the translator's work now becomes necessary.
T

For purposes of reference we shall denote the Latin ms. which lay before the translator by the symbol A. (New Testament critics have appropriated this symbol to the ninthcentury Greco-Latin Codex Sangallensis but as we shall here have no occasion to refer to that ms., there will be no con;

A was certainly a copy of the inconvenience.) from the translation it is possible to restore some Vulgate of its readings with sufficient assurance to determine its
sequent
;

INTRODUCTION.
affinities.

Standard

chief passages in which A deviated from the Text, as constructed in the Vatican Variorum

The

edition, are

enumerated below, with a list of the mss. (not including early printed texts and editions) agreeing with it: (, H v AM ** BDF2 SM 2. erant: G G A XncD2 BA<I> * I
T

2.

I
I

4.
4.

AH B G^TM^aszgvp^m atenebris: GCAHn CD 2 BT3> BA2ZGVP P


Domini:
Dens:

tf F2M

I 12.
I
14.
1

I
I
I

6.

18.

H facientem: A riCDQS CD 2 OM $ vp AM P* BDF2 O SJM et: CXn omit ut praeesset 2 M atenebris: A H II CI) V P 2
:

<I>

C4> RAZG I 21. motabilem: C 2 AL 2H nD*2 BTM<J> BA z G sn'0 2 AM


20. reptilia
:

I 26.

omit que
sexto:

px^BDFMQSJM CXncr>2 TOM 0* F *

II
II

2. 2.

2 T2 * F *

Deus:
sunt:

II

4.

II 11.

A L2H X 2 <D V * BUF Fison: CA H X2 T0M B

III
III

8.
9.

omit Dei:
ins.

X
:

Adam
:

CX a m
C*A H 2 TOM * F2 fi J

III 11. ins. Deus

III 20.

IV IV IV VI
VII V1IL
V~III

1.

15.

Eua: CA L XnD2 TOM BT^RAZGVPoAM2p^DMfiSJM Euam: CA LII Xn D 2 TOM BT4> BA z GVF AM * DM O SJ A B 2 OM B<S> RAZGVP P 2 OS2M Cain in signum
:

17. iws.filium
8.

nomine:

X2 T0M
M ** M

Deo: 5MTM4>R
ins. xl

A( - VP
:

17.
7.

17.

XI XI XI XI

20.
22.

26.
26.

A h X2t2P* m S2M ins. non: AHX 2 nC2D220M2 BA 2$Z2V2Pp#^MOSJM H s ins. -que: (jCA X2 T0M fi TO ** BDFM OS Saruch: X2 s M Nachor A LH Xn c 2T 2 M<i> BAZ2GVP P* BDFM O J 2 2 BAZGVP P* BDPM fi SJM Nachor: A L n D2 2 T M # Aram: AK* m O m
noctibus
: :

In the above and the following tables, an asterisk denotes a reading abolished by a corrector these must be reckoned,
For details about the manuscripts indicated by the symbols, reference must be made to the Vatican edition; it may be said, howthe small letters individual ever, that the large letters denote families,

MSS.

SECTION

I.

for they presumably belonged to the original tradition of the Readings denoted family to which the ms. belonged.
2 are corrections prima maim and secunda maim. by 0), ( Though they are noted here, they are not taken into account
)

in classifying the

mss. for our present purpose. Some of the influence. Disabove readings may possibly be due to regarding, however, this possibility for the moment, we now arrange the Vulgate mss. in the order of their frequency in

LXX

the foregoing table, as follows

2 15+

1*

INTRODUCTION.
This

may be a rough-and-ready method of reckoning, but We us a definite and apparently satisfactory result. gives leave the O group out of account; it consists of three may
it

of French origin, now at Paris, and of the 13-14 later, therefore, than any probable date for A. century The * group is Italian, entirely 12th century again rather The late to have served as the model for the Irish text. and A groups are both Spanish and we infer that A %

mss.

was also a ms. of Spanish origin. But the translator did not adhere slavishly to the Latin He had access to, and could use, a copy of text before him. the Septuagint; and the influence of this is shown by the
following readings
I
I
:

11.

Insert 6 6*6%
do.
do.

22.

I 26.

I 29. Tot? TreTeii'ots in plural

II II

rrj CKTrj

8.

ku( rjKOvaav

II 10, 13. Similarities indicated in the notes. Ill 15. Kal e\6pav III 22. 6 6*6%

IV IV
VII VII VII VII VIII

8. 9.

8l*\6u)fJL*f *l%

TO TTfBlOV

6 6*6%

V The
1.
.3.

ages of the Patriarchs in this chapter.

irp6%

Nw
insertion of the clean and unclean birds.

6.

The Nwe

6 KaTa/<Auo

/i.os

16.
1.

Klf$Z>TOV

Kal ... 6 6*6%

Some
pressive in VII 3
:

of these, taken by themselves, are not very imbut their evidence is cumulative, and the reading
is

conclusive.

for

they

could

have

The figures in chapter V are less so, come from Isidore (Etym. V. 39)
:

but the unequivocal cases of reference to the Septuagint strengthen the probability of the use of this authority, even where an alternative source is possible.

10

SECTION

I.

It i$ at least a coincidence that this combination of a knowledge of Greek, with some Spanish connexion, meets us In the cemetery which again, in the North of Ireland. contains the few remaining relics of the Monastery of St. Mura at Fahan, Co. Donegal, there is a large slab, bearing On beautifully-designed interlacing crosses on each face. one side there is a pair of human figures, standing with the cross-stem between them, and bearing upon their vesture an Irish inscription which does not here concern us. On the there is an inscription in Greek uncials edge

AOHA KAI TIME


"

(sic)

IIATPI KAI YIO KAI IINEYMATI AITO

Glory and Honour to Father and to Son and to Holy Spirit."


is

" "Gloria Patri, in a Spanish form, though in the Greek language. The formula "Glory and Honour," without the second versicle (sicut erat, etc.), was sanctioned by the Council of Toledo, and adopted in the Mozarabic liturgy. Thus we find someone who was at least a superficial Greek scholar, cutting, on an Irish tombstone, a Spanish liturgical formula, in letters resembling those of a Greek uncial ms. and someone else translating
This
the
first

versicle

of the

into Irish a Biblical text

from a Spanish copy, and able

to

check his work with a copy of the Septuagint. We have no authority to go further, or to suppose that the translation was actually executed in Fahan. This is not impossible, though the translation could hardly be as old as the slab. But in any case the number of uncial mss. of the Septuagint available in Ireland can never have been very large.

circumstance that the matter of misplaced in our text, being inserted between the verses VIII 19 and 20. There is no logical reason for this the cause must have been mechanical, and due to the misplacement of a loose folio. It follows that the matter w hich now comes after these verses was contained in a folio which ran from VIII 20 to XI 9. As we do not possess the translation in its original form there are both omissions and interpolations a count of words would lead us to wrong conclusions about the size of the folios, or the extent of the matter upon each. But a
Genesis

It is for us a fortunate

XI

10-32

is

INTRODUCTION.

11

count of the corresponding words in the Vulgate text will enable us to estimate this with tolerable accuracy. If I have

counted aright,
A. B.
C.

Genesis VIII

20-IX 27
31
9

in the Vulgate text contains 503 words.

IX 28-X

32-XI

382 170

B is missing from the translation as we have it, but it must have been there originally. Its omission would leave C, the Tower of Babel story, as a small detached narrative, too
short for a folio of any reasonable that the LG copyists, who pared
the
size.

It is

easy to believe
the
task
of

away

the redundancies of
at

Flood

story,

would have "jibbed"

transcribing the tiresome list of incomprehensible names in the "Table of Nations" (Genesis X), which has nothing to do with the Taking of Ireland, and would use up much costly

parchment.
If the transtogether amount to 1,055 words. was written upon one folio of vellum, with two columns on each page, there would be the equivalent of about 26-1 words in each column or what would fill about 35 out of the 55-60 lines in a column of the Book of
lation of this passage
:

ABC

Ballymote. I have not counted words back to the beginning of Genesis. But taking a printed edition, not complicated with interspersed references, and omitting the chapter headings, I find
that
Genesis I 1-VIII 19 covers 70| inches of type. Genesis VIII 20-XI 9 22

The number of words in this printed copy is not evenly one column in Chapter III, in which the verses are long, contains 252 words, and another, in Chapter V, of There exactly the same spacial length, contains 232 words.
distributed
:

is thus a sufficient margin of possible adjustment to permit us to say that the material preceding VIII 19 could have been written on three folios similar to that which we have

postulated for VIII

20-XI

9.

We

infer

from

this that the

matter appropriated by oo R 3 covered a complete gathering of four folios, or two diplomas (pairs of conjugate folios), and

12

SECTION

I.

the detached first folio of the next gathering. When a man carries off such a gathering and one extra folio, nothing is more natural for him to do than to slip the loose leaf into the gathering, to prevent it from being lost and if its proper place is just after the last folio of the gathering, he will slip And this is exactly what he has it in just before that folio.
:

done, to the confusion of his copyists. Numbering the five folios of this Biblical MS.
in the order in
f
,

1, 2, 3, 5, 4,

which they ultimately became incorporated in R we see that 4 must have ended with the words 3 Hae sunt generationes Sem (XI 10), which, however, were dropped by the copyists, as they had no meaning in their new context. 5 a began Sem erat centum annorum (ff 69) and ran on to
ueneruntque usque Haran et habitauerunt ibi (XI 31). This a little longer than the allowance of 264 words to the column but the matter of these verses contains many numerals and stereotyped repetitions, which could be much abbreviated and in any case column (3 must have begun with
is
; :

(XI

32),

Et

facti sunt dies Thare.

For we must now

notice

the further fact, that the lower part of folio 5 was torn away (whether in the original act of theft or by some later accident

cannot be ascertained, and


tear ran

is

of trifling importance).

This

from the bottom inner edge to the top outer edge. away from the first column (5 a) parts of all the verses after XI 26, and it left nothing intact in the second column except this one verse, XI 32. The copyists could not, or at least made no attempt to, extract any sense from the remaining fragments of the mutilated lines; and thus it comes about that the misplaced extract from Chapter XI, in fl 77, jumps from v. 26 to v. 32, and then stops abruptly. The verso of the folio must have contained, in the first column, a few lines of the story of Abraham hiding his relationship to Sarah in Egypt, and in the vsecond column the end of the story of Lot in Sodom and the beginning of the Battle of the Four Kings with the Five. These fragments were so utterly disconnected with the matter in hand, and with each other, that the copyists left them out.

upwards

obliquely, It carried

Meaning, of course, the Irish translation of similarly for the other quotations in this paragraph.

these

words

and

INTRODUCTION.
This
reconstruction
is

13
of

of

the

original

form

the

Biblical
it

translation

more than a mere

curiosity;

for as

was

possible to attach the Biblical folios to *Q, we may infer that the sizes of the two manuscripts were much about the same.

And
*Q
is

every scrap of information that we can discover about of importance, for the history of R 3
.

The Chasm in B, M.
already stated, its folio 9, beginning after hoslaicit (Gen. Ill 7, ]\ 32), and extending to U 138 in II. This mutilation took place after 8 and 1 2 V/? /? were copied; and a count of words shows that the matter with which they fill this gap would exactly cover a leaf of B. Therefore one folio has been lost, and no more, at this place; a conclusion which accords with the old
the

has

lost, as

words ocus ro

pagination.

The fragment
would have
because
it

H
it

almost exactly

fills

the gap.

If the top
it

of the first leaf of this fragment


filled

had not been torn away,

with suspicious exactness. Suspicious, were suggests the deduction that the leaves of

actually torn, from the MS. to which they belonged, by an owner of B, anxious to make his own property complete.

They certainly present the appearance of having been pulled out violently. 4 But the matter in is considerably longer than what would fill a folio of B, and it contains an extensive passage ignored by the derivatives of B. We infer that there was a lacuna in yB, due to the loss of leaves in an ancestral ms.,

of

which

s B was unconscious. When we look up M at this


;

place

we

find a similar lacuna.

some matter common to and IT but unknown to B. Unlike s B, s was aware of the defect in his exemplar, and he left a half column blank in the hope,
It is less extensive

there

is

and important text were few, that Irish book-collectors were not any more conscientious than the rest of the fraternity. The total disappearance of the copy in Lebor na Huidri (ante, p. xxi) was. probably the result of someone having been left for a few moments, alone with that precious codex.
It is likely that copies of this lengthy

and

were

much

in

demand

and

14

SECTION
fulfilled,

I.

more perfect copy from matter. which to supply the missing We may represent the relative lengths of the missing portion in tabular form thus: let a represent the quantity
never to be
of finding a

of matter surviving in M, between the beginning of the lacuna Then we have in B and the beginning of the lacuna in M.
i. ii.

iii.

A A A

length of a, absent in B, present in M, present in H. length of 5a, absent in B, absent in M, present in H. length of 2a, absent in B, present in M, present in H.

The third of these sections is the poem Athair catch, and a few lines intervening between it and the resumption of B. The explanation is perfectly simple. B, M, H all derive from mss. copied independently from an ancestor, yBMH. There can, therefore, be no common ancestor of any two of this is an assured fact of these mss. excluding the third 3 fundamental importance in the criticism of the mss. of R The first of the ancestral mss. to be copied was oo H, the Between the transcribing of second oo M, the third oo B. the first and last of these a gathering of four diplomas disEach folio of yBMH appeared from yBMH piecemeal. contained matter equal in quantity to a. Here is a diagram
: .

of the gathering

r~

The whole gathering was intact when oo H was copied. Then the diplomas 4-5, 3-6, as well as folio 2 disappeared after which oo M was copied. it Folio 7 was now loose contained the beginning of Athair cdich, which must have begun at the top of folio 7 recto and ended near the end of
; :

folio 8 verso.

the folios of

yBMH

There are 57 quatrains in this poem, so that must have been quite small each page
:

INTRODUCTION.

15

could not have held more than 15 quatrains. Folio 7, as well as the last diploma 1-8, disappeared before oo B was copied. The impression which a study of the language of the translation leaves is that the latter is not much earlier than R 3 with which it is incorporated. Like the O'Clerys and the Four Masters, the translator affects an archaistic style, which he presumably thought was more consistent with the dignity of the text on which he was working. His language, when he is natural, is Middle Irish his archaisms are
, ;

Wardour-street revivals rather than survivals.He uses a deponent form for the verb whenever he remembers to do so. He invents forms like bar?iimdaigther, fl 24, which he has forgotten in fl 25, where we find "dentar bar n-imdugad." It 3 is more than probable that the MS. which oo R mutilated was
actually the autograph of the translation, and that this was, as we have said, killed by the transaction.
It is clear that the glossators had no idea that they were dealing with a Scriptural text. One of them had to reassure himself that the reference to the Holy Spirit in fl 20 is not
2 profane: and another (fl 30 y ) quotes "Holy Scripture" to corroborate the passage from Holy Scripture upon which he

is

working

16

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO

SECTION

I.

First Redaction.

(L
1.

1 a 1

1 a 1) ()

In principio fecit Deus celum ^oringne Dia nem i talmain ar tfis, X 4 3 X' na forcend ||' fair- seom fein
||.

et
i

ni

terram, .i. 2 fil tossach

2.

Doringne chetns in maiss


X

nem-chruthaig,
5
||.

Doringne 8 firmament \ isin Luan Doringni talmain i muire 10 X1 9 X sin Mairt Doringni grein i esca i renna Nime 12 sin Cetain t i "Doringni enlaithe $ ind aeoir 14 16 t 15 sin Dardain tonnaitecha $ in mara Doringni anmanna $ in talman 17 archena, i Adam do 18 follomnacht foraib, J 19 isind Aine Ro chnmsain larum Dia $ 20 issin tSathnrn 21 do foirbthingud dnla nua t
6
7
||. ||. ||.
|| ||

soillsi aingel,

isin

cetna

Domnnch

||.

||

||.

||

||

ni 6

18

Iollomnacht

22

itir

||.

3.
3

Dobert
co

|
4

^arsain
noi

2
||

archinnchecht

ngradaib angel 5 archinnchecht talman do Adam J


Lncifiur,

Nime do Nime. Dobert do 6 Ena cona i


8

conid bni ( ?) toesech trln sluaig angel. Rothimmarc ( ?) in Ri e co trian in sliiaig angel leis i nlfrinn; i asbert Dia
||.

claind

Imromadar

larom

||

Lucifinr (sic)

1.

All variants
3 1

from

F
4

unless otherwise stated.


fein
2

'

dorindi

fuil

tosach
2.

siuni

added
om.
:

sec.
:

man L
above very faint traces of a
-nach
5

dorigne cetus

n-ecruthaig

gloss
.i.

ne?nfaics(ide) firmamaind isan

F
'

dorigne

neam

dorigne

following sentences in L 10 12 " randa om. and ins. cL isin dorigne grian esga 13 " tondaitheacha Cedain F om. and ins. cL dorigne enlaithi 15 16 isa Dardain F: om. and ins. cL "at first written dorigne chena, and the ar monogram squeezed in "before it sec. man.
-\

word is abbreviated to D in the 8 9 talam muir isan F; sin Mairt


this
-]

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

17

First Reduction

1.

In principio

fecit

Deus caelum

et

terram,

i.e.,

God made Heaven and Earth

at the first,

[and

He

Himself hath no beginning nor ending].


2. He made first the formless mass, and the light of angels, [on the first Sunday]. He made Firmament [on the Monday]. He made earth and seas [on the

Tuesday]. He made sun and moon and the stars of Heaven [on the Wednesday]. He made birds [of the He air] and reptiles [of the sea on the Thursday]. made beasts [of the earth] in general, and Adam to rule over them, [on the Friday]. Thereafter God rested [on the Saturday] from the accomplishment of a new Creation, [but by no means from its governance]
3.
.

[Thereafter] He gave the bailiffry of Heaven to Lucifer, with the nine orders of the Angels of Heaven.
the bailiffry of Earth to Adam [and to Eve, with her progeny]. [Thereafter] Lucifer sinned, so that he was leader of a third of the host of angels. The King confined him with a third of the host of
18
21

He gave

follam- (bis)
22

19

o oipriugad In the text in


3.
s
1

ins. sec.

20 dia Hainediden, et ro isan tSatharnn man. in small capital letters in L marg.

*Q

om F
2

iarsin
> '

aircinchacht
8

Luidsifir

nai
:

aircindacht
in

Eaba

lilce

imroimadar for nim cona sluag angel

obscure in both
.i.

L and F
9

looks

leis

na demna

cor hindarbad

and

om. co trian sluaig angel

(a)

For the
I.

text of

*Q

see

Second and Third Redactions.

L.G. VOL.

18
fri

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


muintir Nime
:

Dlumsach

inti

Lucifer

10
||,

uenite

"ut confundamus consilium

eius.

formtig Hra Lucifer fri Adam, ar derb lais isse no bertha, linad Nime tar a eisi, do. Conid aire sin 4 3 2 co ro i ndeilb in athrach, doluid t Iofer Niger 5 im "thumailt 7 ind for J Adam i aslacht imarbus Eua,
4.

Ro

||

||

8 Conid aire sin ro don chrund ergartha. 10 hi talmain coitchind. "innarbbad Adam a Pardus

ubuill

a Dolluid in Comdiu cucca iarsain, i atbert fri Adam Do thalmain 4 donTerra es et in Herram ibis t -iG 5 In sudor e uultus tui ringned i hi talmain raga 8 8 comedes 7 panem tuum | .i. Ni fuigbe sasam cen saethar 9 Cum 10 dolore et gemitu frisin mnai .i. Asbert dana 13 12 bid co ngalar et filias tuas X 1 ^paries filios tuos tuisema do maccn ||. dolulaing (?)

5.
2

.i.

||.

||.

L
Ro immarbaigestar eland Adaim f larom sinser mac (n)Adaim, Cain miscadach, ro marb a
6.
||

F
Iarsin
tra

do
for

feallsad
uail
i

.i.

clann

Adaim

.i.

dimus i imarbus i fingal, .i. Cain mac Adaim in sinser,


ro
.i.

derbrathair Aibel
lasin

tria

marb-sidi a derbratair

formud(?)] i cnaim ( ?)

tria

saint,

Abel tria saint

formad,

ehamaill,

co fid

mar adberat
tinnscnadar domain.
(

eolaig
?)

....
in

camaill. $ Con aire sin dorad Dia dilinn

cnama

fingail

tarsin n-uili

doman.

illegible in

F: apparently
2 b

et dixit

Deus

is

inserted before uenite


3

et
4.
1

'iarsin
10

Iarngir

om. Iofer Niger


6

F
ubaill

a neilb nathrach
8

coreaslaig

for
isin

Eba

thorn-

intl

con de sin

"hinarbad

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


angels in his company, in Hell.
:

19

And God said unto is this Lucifer], uenite the Folk of Heaven [Haughty ut confundamus consilium eius.
4. Thereafter Lucifer had envy against Adam, for he was assured that this would be given him (Adam), the filling of Heaven in his (Lucifer's) room. Wherefore he [Iofer Niger] came in the form of the serpent, and persuaded [Adam and] Eve to sin, in the matter of eating of the apple from the forbidden tree. Wherefore Adam was expelled from Paradise into

common
5.

earth.

Thereafter the Lord came to them, and

He

said unto

Adam, Terra es et in terram ibis [i.e., of earth was he made and into earth shall he go]. In sudore uultus tui comedes panem, tuum [i.e., he shall not obtain satisfaction without labour]. He said further unto the woman: Cum
be with
dolore et gemitu paries filios tuos et filias tuas [i.e., it shall insufferable pain that thou shalt bring forth
.

thy sons].

6.

The progeny of
,

Adam

sinned [thereafter] namely, the elder of the sons of Adam, Cain the accursed, who slew his brother Abel
.
. .

But thereafter the progeny of Adam wrought treachery, by way of pride,


kin-murder
of haughtiness, of sin, of Cain son of

and

(through his jealousy?) through his greed,

Adam,
his

the elder, he slew

brother Abel through

with the bone of a camel, as learned men say. (In

his greed

and

his jealousy,

with the shaft of a camelbone.

manner ?) began the kin-murders of the world.


this

[And
.

therefore

God

brought a Flood over the whole earth]

doluid in Coimdi chuca iarsin 6 sudoire dorignid


5.
9

adbert

tearra
8-8

tearaim
12

panam

f uigbed biad

can
filias

tuas

10 doloire adbert dono pcmras 13 bid congneid i galar do'fuisema do claindi

om.

et

20
7.
a

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


2
3

Seth imorro, in tres mac Adaim 5 4 is nata atiat fir in domuin uile eland i
||

J
:

aca mbai

7 Laimiach meic Mathusali meic Henoc 9 meic 8 Iared meic Malalel meic Cainan meic Enos meic 10 Seth meic Adaim

.i.

Noe mac

iiair is e

Noe
tii

in

tAdam

"uile.

12

Uair ro baid in
macaib,
.i.

tanisi, cusa 13 dlliu sil


.i.

mbertar

fir
14

domain

Noe cona
cethri

mnaa

Cobba

acht acus a Sem, Cham, Iafet, Olla i Oliba i Olibana.


uile,

Adaim

15 2 dorat larom Dia dilind darsin uile ndomuin, ni y therna di doenib in domuin on dilind acht mad lucht na hairce sin .i. Noe cona tri maccaib, i ben Noe, i mnaa a mac. 15

Ut

dixit poeta,

Sluag ndd chide cua-chel ....


8.
a

Sem
i

lafeth

nEoraip

didiu

ro

gob

nAsia,

Cham

nAfraic

Sem

rogab

n-Aisia n-ait
3

Tricha mac 2 batar ac Sem, im Arfacsad, im Asur, i 7 5 6 Tricha mac ac Cam, im Chus i im im Persius. 7 A coic dec imorro oc lafeth, im Dannai, im Chanan. im 8 Hispainius, im 9 Goimarus. Gregus,
10

No

is

moirfeisir ar fichid do macaib badar

ic

Sem.
3

this gloss airigda da bi ac Adam 6 5 Lamiach om. in: domain uili " dili 12 10 8 8 ardo "uili Seith Cainain Iareth 'Enog ,5 " 15 14 f ri Dia ( ?) om. F, and substitute Imroimadar clann Adaim uili co tard Dia dile tarsin uile domain co nach terno nech beo eisti acht
7.
'

Beth mac
4

Adaim

am.

uad ataid

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


7.

21

As
:

for Seth, one of the three sons of

Adam

[who had progeny], of him are the men of the whole


world
Noe
s.

Lamech
s.

s. s.

Malalahel

Cainan

Mathusalem Enos s. Seth

s. s.

Enoch Adam.

s.

Iared

s.

men

Noe who is the second Adam, to whom the For the Flood of all the world are traced. drowned the whole seed of Adam, except Noe with his three sons, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, and their four wives
For
it is

Coba, Olla, Oliva, Olivana.


Afterwards, when God brought a Flood over the whole world, none of the people of the world escaped from the Flood except it be the people of that ark Noe with his three sons, and the wife of Noe, and the wives of his sons.

Ut

dixit poeta,

Poem
in

no.

I.

Europe

8.

Now Sem

settled in Asia,

Ham

in Africa, Iafeth

Poem
Sem had

no. II.

thirty sons, including Arfaxad, Assur, and had thirty sons, including Chus and Persius. Iafeth had fifteen, including Dannai, Chanaan.

Ham

Gregus, Hispanius, Gomer.

Or
lucht

it is

twenty-seven sons that


.i.

Sem

had.

na hairce
.i.
'

Nae cona

tri

macaib Sem, Cam, Iafeth, cona

ceitri

Coba, Olla, Oliba, Olibana, amail asbert in file 8. Sem dana rogab an Aissia, Cam isan Adfraic, Iafeth asa nEoraip " 5 e 3 2 om. aili co Cam im om. i Airf ecsat badar ic 10 9 8 This gloss in F only Esbainus -merom. Cuss

mnaib

22

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

T rich a mac
9.
x

mm monar
2
||,

ngle ....
3

uad tuaiscert-leth 4 na Haisia, .i. Aisia Becc, Armenia, Media, Fir na 6 5 Scitia i is uad lucht na Haeorpa uile.
Iafeth
\

tra

mac N6e

is

7 7 is uad in Greg Mor, i in Greg na Halaxandracli. 9 Essbainus mac Iafeth, Beec, i Greg Goimerns mac Iafeth, da mac laiss, 6 tait 10 Hispana. Emoth t Ibath. Emoth, is uadh fine thuascirt in domain.

Greens mac Iafeth,


7

Ibath, da

mac

leis,

.i.

"Bodb
tri

Baath.

Bodb,

dia.r

bo

mac Dohe.
y
2

Elinus

mac

Doi,

meic
leis,

leis

.i.

Armen, Negua,

Isacon.

Armen

on, coic

meic

Burgantus, i Longbardus. Hisicon imorro, in tres 12 mac Eline, Boarus, Uandalus. 13 ceitre meic lais, Romanus, Francns, Britus, Albus.

Gotus, Cibidus, Uiligotus, Negna, tri meic leis, .i. Saxsus,

Is e in

tAlbanus dogab Albin ar


:

ttis

cona chlaind,
tar

~\

cor indarb a bratair is uadh ainmnigter Albo conad uad Albanaig Leatha Hoidia. nlcht,

Muir

^lagoth mac Iafiath, is dia chlaind-sin na 2 tfiatha tancatar Erinn ria nGaedelaib .i. Parthalon 3 mac Sera meic Sru meic Esrti meic Bimbind meic 4 4 Aaitheclia meic Magoth meic Iafeth; i Nemedh mac Aglmumaid meic mPaimp meic Tait meic Sera meic Sriu; i clanna Nemid, .i. Gaileoin, i Fir Domnan, Fir Bolg, i Tuatha De Danann. Amail isbert in fili,
10.
:

9.

Iafiatli

Nae
4

tuait siar-deise

cert-leth
5

na Aisia

Aissia

Beg

Armen

na Haisia L tuasFir na Sgeiaithia

6 7 uadh Grec (ter: in the first the scribe Horpa uili began to write Grec; but discovered his mistake and stopped half -way) 8 "Hispanus L. From this point to the bottom of the page beg (down to and including Poem IV, quatrain 1) L is illegible save for faint traces, sufficiently decipherable to shew that except some orthographical differences the text is identical with F, which is here followed.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Poem
is

23

no. III.

9. [With regard to] Iai'eth [son of Noe], of him the northern side of Asia namely Asia Minor, Armenia, Media, the People of Scythia; and of him are the inhabitants of all Europe.

Grecus s. Iafeth, of him. is Grecia Magna, Grecia Espanus s. Iafeth from Parva, and Alexandrian Greece. whom are the Hispani. Gomer son of Iafeth had two sons, Emoth and Ibath. Emoth, of him is the northern people Ibath had two sons, Bodb and Baath. of the world. Bodb, who had a son Dohe.
Elinus son of Dohe had three sons, Airmen, Negna, As for Airmen, he had five sons, Gutus, Cebidus, Negua had three Uiligothus, Burgundus, Longbardus. Isacon, moreover, one sons, Saxus, Boarus, Uandalus. of the three sons of Elenus, he had four sons, Romanus, Francus, Britus, Albanus.
Isacon.

This

is

that Albanus

who

first

took Albania, with his


:

children, and of him is across the Sea of Icht,

Alba named so he drove his brother and from him are the Albanians of

Latium of

Italy.

10. Magog son of Iafeth, of his progeny are the peoples who came to Ireland before the Gaedil to wit Partholon s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Bimbend (sic) s. Aithech s. Magog s. Iafeth; and Nemed s. Agnomain
:

s. Pamp s. Tat s. Sera s. Sru; and the progeny of Nemed, the Gaileoin, Fir Domnann, Fir Bolg, and Tuatha De Danann. As the poet said,

sometimes uses

""

and sometimes
It

thus

"Got;", but "Uiligotu;".


|

"u;" to represent final us: has not been thought necessary


10

to preserve this trivial distinction in printing. 11 Written Bod db, divided between two lines

F
Roman

,2

Hispania L om. mac F;


space

the

word can be detected in large enough to hold an n * 10. See % 9 note ( 9)


Fatocht

L
2

13

Written

us, the
3

Partholon

Bi(?)amin

om.

24

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Magog mac an

Iafeth

Second Redaction.

(Viol :Elal :Plal :D3al

first

two folios

lost.)

(The opening paragraphs are numbered to correspond with R\ being derived from *Q, a lost MS. of that Redaction;

and are distinguished by a


1*.

suffixed asterisk.)

'In

principio fecit
3

Deus celum
tfis.
4
3

et

terram

.i.

dorighne Dia
2*.

Neam
2 5

talmain ar

'Dorigne
J
7

cetunms in
issin cetna

maiss

n-ecruthaigh,
6
||.

soillsi aingeal,

firmaimint J
9

is'in'
||.

Lfian
8

||.

Dorigne 8 Dorigne ta'lmain' i muir


10
-\

Domnuch

esca i 'renda' 'Dorigne' grein 12 Nime J "issin Cetain ||. Dorigne 'enlaithe' % ind 13 aeoir tondaitheehu J na f'airrge' J Dia "Dardain i
t
|| ||

issin

Mairt

[|.

Dorigne anmanda
||

t 'in tal'man

15
||

olchena,

16

Adam
||

do "follomn'acht' foraib, J 18 issin nAendidin R'o chiunsain' | 19 Dla larom J 20 issin "tSat'hurn'd o 22 oipriugad a dula ima, %' i dorad bendachtain foraib linio 23 ollomnacht etir
||.

||,

||.

a.

Is
i

^mlaid
crlch,

Hossach
tossach
in
8

cen

dorona Dia na duile 3 .i. araile co amail 5 aingliu araile imorro 6 co


: ;

co crlch, amail anmanda indlightecha i 7 toirrthe 9 10 tosach i co "forcend talman; araile dana co cen
i
-\

12 forcend, amail atat na daine, .i. tossach 14 corpdai i forcend for n-a corpaib-sin, a n-anmandaib. 15

13

for a
15

ngenemain
forcenn for

-\

cen

1*. A space left in E for an initial monogram, never filled up 3 4 nemh E prindcipio fecid VE tal&main E 2*. All variants in these opening paragraphs from E unless other2 3 wise stated. Hns. A. V: doirighne E cedamus mais *sic VE but changed by a re-inker to re 'isin ced cruthaigh, domh"dorigni fiormamiint (doubled i due to change of line) 1 s words marked ' ... lost by a tear in the vellum of V dorighni (bis) 9 10 " isin y2 " -aithecha isin mhcedaoin esgai an aoeoir " -daoin " oleena 1S na fairrghe Adamh om. and sprs. cE
'

'

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Poem
no. IV.

25

Second Redaction.

1*.

In principio

fecit

Deus caelum
at the

et

terram,

i.e.,

God made Heaven and Earth

first.

2*. He made first the formless mass, and the light of Angels, [on the first Sunday]. He made Firmament He made earth and sea [on the [on the Monday]. He made sun and moon and the stars of Tuesday]. Heaven [on the Wednesday]. He made birds [of the and [marine] reptiles [on the Thursday]. air] He made beasts [of the earth] in general, and Adam Thereafter [God] to rule over them[, on the Friday]. the Saturday] from the accomplishment of rested [on His new creation [, and gave them a blessing, but by

no means from
2
a.

its

governance].
:

In this wise God made the creatures some with beginning and without end, as Angels some moreover with beginning and with end, as irrational beasts and fruits of the earth; some further with beginning and with termination and without termination, as are men a beginning to their bodily birth and a termination to their bodies, and no
;

termination to their souls.

11

-amhnoipriudug

1S

isind ain23

,9

om.

20

isin.

21

-arnn

22

f ollamhnacht itir

4 2 3 2a. j amhlaid om. .i. tossuch apparently V, doroine but in the handwriting of this MS. it is sometimes difficult to distinguish a 5 between u and open a tosach E go tosach ainghliu " f oircend 10 7 9 8 imorro tosuch V toirti an talmun V " 12 daoine forainngenemain (second time abbreviated to fcend) " 15 ~ 15 a n-an. om. and ins. -cend for a ngeinemain E chorpda
:

26

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


16 2 in duine sin Is amlaid dana doronad y l8 a) do talmain choitehend .... corp(
.i.

17

Adam:

22

a chend do 18 tir Garad, a cossa a tir 23Agoria


:

20

braindi a

tir

Arabia, a
26

21

bru a Lodain,

....
dond
y
3G
i

a fuil

24

a alius

||

do

23

uisci

in aeoir, a anal

Eua

30 27 thinfiud De. thes do 28 tenig, a 29 anam do aeor, a 33 31 32 Isin treas tiair lar cruthugad Adhaim, ro teipead 34 35 I n-aess trichtaig ro cruthaiged Adam; assa taeb. 37

n-aess da bliadan dec ro


3*.

cruthaiged Eua.

1 2 Dobert i Dia airc(h)indeacht Nime do Luicifiur, G 4 6 3 aircon nae ngradaib aingel imbe. Dobert t iarsain 7 8 9 cindecht talman do Adam t 1 do Eua, cona chlainn
||

j|

||

Ro
14

10

immarbsaigestar
fri
17

xl

Lucifuir

for

12

Nim

ar

13

uail

~\

dlumus

sin do
24

15 16 i cinaigh in dlumsa Dia, co ro hindarbadh 18 co triun sluaig aingeal 19 laiss ||, 20 in Neimi,
:

nlffrinn.

Conid andsin 21 asbert Dia fri 22 muintir 23 Nime 26 27 25 inti Lucsifiur (sic) et dixit, uenite | Ro- diumsaich 29 30 28 ut uideamus 7 confundamus consilium eius, .i. tait co 32 31 33 ro indi fegum 7 co ro melachtnaigium comairle 34 Issi cet breath rucad 35 riam sin. Lucifiur.
:

\\

4*.
2

Ro ^ormtigh
dobertha $
i
G

iarsain Lucifir fri


3

lais isse
esi.

ffochraic do
7

4
|.

Hadum, derb lmadh Nime dar a


||

Conid aire sin doluidh J Iofer Nigher 8 i ndeilb nathrach % co curp 9 seim co ro aslacht 10 in imarbus 12 13 for "Eua, im tomailt ind 14 ubaill don 15 chrund
||,

aurgartha,
cE
20 25
30
34

Ji

co ro

16

aslaich

17

Eua

for
18
-3

Adum
coitcend
24

||

in upper margin 21 bruo bhruinne

ie

an
22

" Adanih
cosa
27

39

thir

-oir=s

a luais
29

usci

uisgi

E
teinfi33

2G

iud
31

tes
32

tein33
37

aaim

V V

thinf uidh

asa thaobh
3*. '-edit

om. V ind aois triorhtaige


2
7

crutugh36 ind aois

teiped

Eba

-aigh- here
5 9

and above
neimhe
Lucif.
hie et
,0
3

'sic E, airecht
10 11

ngradh-

Adhani

l'mmarbusaigestar iar sin


dioralais
20
1!

" Lucifer

semper E

hi cion-

dimusa
21

immi Ebhe " nimh " nimh


8

iarsin

cloinn
13

uaill

18

co dtriun

19

"dioumsaid

and Ifernn conadh * anti 26 Lucifer

22 23 adbert muindt-mh27 2S om. et dixit uidiamus V

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


In this wise, further, was that man, Adam, made
:

27
his

body of common
his

earth,
:

head of the land of Garad, his breast of the land of Arabia,

his belly of Lodain, his legs of the land of Agoria

his blood [and his sweat] of the water of the air, his breath of the air, his heat of fire, his soul of the breath of God.

In the third hour after the creation of Adam, Eve was drawn out of his side. At the age of a thirty years' space Adam was created, at the age of twelve years Eve was
created.
3*. [God] gave the bailiff ry of Heaven to Lucifer, with nine orders of Angels about him. [Thereafter] He gave the bailiffry of Earth to Adam [and to Eve with his Lucifer made an assault upon Heaven, by progeny]. reason of pride and haughtiness against God, so that he

expelled, for the crime of that haughtiness, out from Heaven, [with a third of the host of anjgels in his comSo that then God said unto the Folk pany], into Hell. of Heaven: [Over-haughty is this Lucifer]: et dixit, Venite lit uideamus et confundamus consilium eius, i.e., Come and let us see and put to shame the counsel of this That is the first judgement which was ever proLucifer.

was

nounced.

Thereafter Lucifer had envy against Adam, he was assured that this would be given him [as (for) a reward], to fill Heaven in his room. Wherefore he [Iofer Niger] came in the form of a serpent [with a tenuous body] and persuaded Eve to the sin, in the matter of eating of the apple from the forbidden tree,
4*.

[and Eve persuaded


uidemusE
29
33
34

Ada m]
30

32 31 melachtem f egham taoid 35 -mh is hi ced breth rugad inti comairli 4 2 3_3 lionad leis ise doberta hi bfochraic 4*. 1 f oirmtig -sin 9 8 7 5 6 ins. a initial I erased, E -adh nimhe eisi aieorda seimh. cE inserted aieorda the text was originally natrach (sic) co curp seim interlined, and then, observing that seim was already in 10 indiumurbus a correction prima the text, scratched this word out. re-written in was scratched out, and manu of indium;. The 12 " Ebha blacker ink with v sprs. -mh-, the -final t erased

confunndamus

"m;"

i*

-bh-

,5

-and argarta
:

"

'f

asl-

"Ebha
I

but here and elsewhere (a) This word should of course be chorp preferred to let the mss. speak for themselves without fussy corrections.

have

28
5*.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Ocus
a

isbert
B

Dla friu

De

terra 2 es et in terrain ibis;


4

rega ||. Et dixit, t .i. Do thalmain 7 In sudore B uultus tui comedes '/xincin tuum; X -i- Bid a Asbert dana fri "hallus do gnuisi "domela do bairgena. 10 Eua Cum "dolore et gemitu paries filios tuos $ et filias 14 13 12 maceu crait i tuas galair tuisema do t >i- Bid co
atai-sra i hi

talmain

||

||

i' i

t'ingena
5a.

||'

||.

2 duile 'corpta do Adam, (<*)i ni derna failte 8 Isin cotludh sin Conid 4 aire 5 sain "tarlaicedh 'cotlud fair. 10 ro "delbud "Eua, "iar n-a teipe don tsechtmudh "asna "iartain ,5 Ecce "os de "Conid "andsin "asbert "Adum assa "toeb. 25 28 atchim-si -ossibus meis et 3 caro de "came mea $ .i. f is cuma 31 32 29 feoil In 33 chetchnamaib feoil dom t "cnaira 28 dom 38 39 88 37 36 35 "ghaire dernad riam indsin, i in chet-failte.

Ro thaisbenta na
3

friu.

'

||

3l,

-\

||

|j

iomarbais, ro Adam a Parrdus issin talmain 10 12 9 8 tuirthe "in Chraind coitchend, $ ar na toimled 15 16 14 13 Bethad i Parrdns; ar dla toimled, ni fnigbed 21 22 20 18 19 17 bass co brath, acht slainte i cenn fri cotlnd ||.
4*
. . .

resumed hinnarbad larsin

Iar

cintaib
6

ind

4
7

Eo Hmarbasaigestar sinnser mac nAdaim


6*.
.i.

Iarsain
5

3 6

clann

Adaim

.i.

Cain

misgadhach,
||.

do

marbndli a 7 brathar i. 8 Abel mac Adaim 9 tria 10 fornmd 12 Do Cet 13 fmgal 14 in domain "sin 1 "drunras. $ 16 lecain chamaill 17 dana ro 18 marb Cain a brathair.
5*.
c
'

adbert
'

eis

VE
8

ataoisi
9
12

painim tuam
doloire
5a.

bidh

hollus

raga -meala
13

ultus

10

Hebha
14

11

i geimitu pairieis filieos 2 f ailti EP corpda E


6

craid
3

galur
4

maca

conadli
8

EP
P
:

airi

E
to

sin

EP
P
P P
29

tarluic7

E
12

the

word changed by ignorant re-inldng

tarbiset
10

codl. hie et

" dealb- EP do P " assna E, esna P


18

ansin

aspert P 21 caireo E

" ar P semper EP 15 16 asa EP thaobh E taobh P the re-inker has missed the stroke over the n 20 2I Adh- hie et semper E oss V

semper

EP

is isin

iarom

P
E P E E

Ebha

hie et

thcipedh

" -adh

,9 22

adbert
oisibus

24

carni
27

cairne

EP
31

25

om.

is

cuma E

26

adcimsi
28

E
E
an

docimsi

doma P
32

-mh E: cnaim dom dittographed V 30 feoil E feoilsi P cn-EP, -mh P


ced

domh E
i

81

ins. fein
35

an

33

EP
(sic)

choibche
39

eaibhgi

ins.
37

cet failti

P: dodorondod

E, doronnad

M riamh

inisin

andsin

38 " 38

om.

ced-f ailti

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


5*.
ibis,

29

And God
[i.e.,

Et

dixit,

them De terra es et in terrain and into earth shalt thou go]. In sudore uidtus tui comedes panem tuum, [i.e..
said unto
:

Of earth thou

art

sweat of thy face that thou shalt eat thy said further unto Eve, Cum dolore et gemitu loaves]. paries filios tuos [et filias tuas, i.e., It shall be with torment and sickness that thou shalt bring forth thy sons and
It shall be in the

He

thy daughters].
5a. The corporeal creation was displayed to Adam, and he accepted them not. Wherefore a sleep was cast upon him. In that sleep thereafter was Eve fashioned, after being drawn from the seventh rib out of his side. And then said Adam Ecce os de ossibus meis, et oaro de came mea [i.e. (.b) it is as it were that (?) I see a bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. That is the first laugh which was ever uttered, and the first welcome].
:

4*. ... After incurring the guilt of the transgression, Adam was then expelled out of Paradise into the common earth, [lest he should eat the fruits of the Tree of Life in Paradise; for were he to eat,

he would never mind( c (!)].


)

die,

but have health and ease of

6*.

Thereafter the progeny of

Adam

committed

transgression, to wit, the elder of the sons of Adam, Cain the accursed, by the slaying of his brother Abel son of Adam in his envy and haughtiness. [That was the first kin-murder of the world]. With the cheek4*.
'

EP

preceding f:
-uis
7

are punctuated so as to append the first four words to the 2 3 4 centaibh P and E an P irnarb- P

aE
8
12

P isin EP E

innarbad

11

an EP Pardus air
22

-cend EP chroinn E
15

17

EP codl- EP
bas
6*
J

18

ach

Parrthus P E toirthi P cr- P "a Parrtus P "irgairti pui dtoimh- E toimledh P f uig- E -bedh P P -nti EP cend EP fria P

hiondarbad
9

Pardus
10 i

-mhl-

EP

-dh

tor-

16

19

20

2I

imarbaighesdais E imarbai^ftsistair P 4 clanna P sindser E sinser P 6 man. to Caim E Caidin P miscadac P


3

eland
tri

s
7

2 -sin E om. P Cadin changed sec.

P "an P

10

-ad E, at P 1B sain om.

"dio- E, diu-

12

bhced

Aibel

E
P

EP

16

camh-

(E here

illegible)

-cc" om.

(a) Here P becomes legible. (b) Is cuma is meaningless: (c) See the note on this H.

see the note on this

fl.

30
19

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO


No mar
20 22

21 marbtha intamail atberat araile, fo 27 26 25 24 32 ro iad immo braigid. na n-idhbart, issl a glacc
||

Here ends
11.
5

the matter on

original text of
. . .

2
,

as

we hare
2

the leaf derived from- *Q: it, begins at this point.

the-

'conid desin

tuc

Dia

dlliu

Mar

in

domain

9 8 acht 7 N6e cona mnai, iniaille, connach tenia bed dib 12 10 cona "thrib macaib, $ i t .i. a sinr "fodesin ||, 1 15 14 cona 16 thrlb i iat-sidlie fir a tri n-ingen, batar

||

17

ingenaib, J

badar

18

iat-side

mna na
2

19

tri

mac

||.

Ocus ba he 'fochond a saertha sech each, ar 6 3 4 3 nlr ehumascsat cairdes fri clainn Cain i dia lmad 12 10 8 Cethracha "laithe don dllind in 'domain doridissi. 16 13 14 13 Se cet bliadan aess Nae in tan dochnaid ic sllind. 20 18 17 do Xoe enmtach i ina aircc, % in tan "tarnaic 24 23 22 2, lar forcedal De %' i. deda do inglan, ecor na hairci 28 27 26 25 sechta ||" do glan, daig imorro %" no treda 32 30 2P Lnid dana 33 Nae na 31 dilind idparta deis 36 35 cona 34 macaib % i cona ingenaib 1 cona seitchib ina 41 40 38 37 sechtmad dec 39 esca Alai. % For non aircc(), hi 40 uas Da cnbat deg din Mai lotar isin 42 n-airec. 44 45 43 na sleibtib ata airdiu.
12.
7
;

||'

||.

||

||

" innamh- P E no asi P P "bradaid E br-aid P P "ghlac om. P tars EP dili EP 11. conadh E illegible: conach tucad beo {changed by re-vnker to bed) diph P s not dotted P mnaoi E -nai P Xaoi E Naei P " badesin E fodeisin a (om. con) P (changed by re-inker to -siu) P " om. i P " iadside E iad sidie P tri tri mic P 19 dtri E iadsidie P P "batar E hinngenaiph fochand E focul (changed by re-vnker to foeui) P 12. ins. so P ni ro cumusca a geairdus P -ad cairdes E saortha E saorthai P an P lion- EP do P CaidinP cloindE " -thi P 9 diliim E: dilin (changed -dhisi P domuin V

marp P "marta with b


13
"

,9

o?n,

no

araile

20

adberad

P sprs. hiadh ima P P tug E


-bhth26

=3

n-idhbartai
4

:4

,0

12

16

13

,s

"

10

12

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


bone of a camel Cain slew his brother.

31

[Or, as others the likeness of the slaying of the sacrifices, say, after it was his grasp which he closed around his neck]
. .

so that it was on that account that God 11. . brought a Flood over the world altogether, so that none thereof escaped alive except Noe and his wife, [his own sister], and his three sons, [who were the husbands of his three daughters], and his three daughters, [who were the wives of the three sons].
.
.

12.

Now

this

was the reason for

their deliverance

to the exclusion of all others, for that they

mingled no

friendship with the progeny of Cain; and for their replenishing of the earth again. Forty days was the Flood a-raining. Six hundred years was the age of Noe when he went into his ark, [when there came to Noe the construction and ordering of the ark in accordance with the teaching of God pairs of the
:

unclean, triple pairs (or sevens) of the clean, for the purpose of sacrifice after the Flood]. So Noe went with his sons [and with his daughters] and with their wives, into his ark, on the seventeenth day of the moon of May. [On the nones of May they went into the Twelve cubits [was the water] above the Ark.]

highest mountains.
Naoi aois EP E ag P 19 1S P aire P tairnig 20 P cumdadach E, cumhdach P tra tairnic P -da erased P bf- P foire- E hairce V ecor E egor P "seeht EP om. P treada E tredha P ning- V om, na E 28. h p dono P -end EP iodbar- E idhb- P g -cibh P macaibh Naoi E Naei P ingenuiph P 39 ,i "MaoiE (6is) seeht P airr P om.-aP esgaEP sleibi V sleibhttfcft E noin P "om. n- E: aire EP 45 hairdi E a hairdi P "ita E sleipti P
by re-inker to
.ix.

dilui)

13

hie
17

14

15

E E
21

(sic)

1G

an

om. -a om. E, do .ix.


22

23

24

25

26

29

3I

52

35

34

35

37

38

41

43

(a)

inserts a full stop here,

and begins

new

sentence with the following

Hi.

32

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Decc
is
46 52

cubait don aircc

47

fo
54

48
.i.

usce,

49

fiche 6s
55

50

usce

51
:

i
56

aire
60

is

a decc fo
58

53

usce,

da-deg don

dilin 6s

in

57

tsleib as

airdi, ar

daig na
61

59

fo
67 73

usce

49
:

nlr bo furail

da cubait

hairci, ar is decc cubat dl 62 dana do usee 63 etir

66 druim na 8*hairci i mullaige na 65 sliab. Conid aire sin 68 ita da cubait decc 69 ind airdi 70 na huisci os 71 cech 72 sleib

airdd.

13.
7

Ro

baidh 2 in 3 diliu 4 na huile 5 daine


lucht na
16
8

anmanna
10

archena,
15

aclit

Parrdus do "chathugud

hi haircce, $ i Enog, fil 12 13 14 ria Hainnticrist, i Findtan

mac

Boclira.
|]

Isse

17

adfeda na

18

scela-sa do each,

lar ndiliun.
14.

ar cet 3 rogabsat na "husce sercadli. Secht laithe 7 nchet i secht 8 miss 9 dind "aircc 5 "thuinn do 12 thuind, 13 co ndesidh for 1+ sleib Armenia. Ro 15 sergsat na 16 husce 17 cosin .... 19 "dechnrad miss 20 atchessa mullaige na 14 sllab. Hi 2, cind secht la cethrachat lar sin ro 22 oslaic Noe senister

Hi
5

cind

coicad laithe
6

na
'

23

haircce
34

24

faitte
29

25

in fiach
30

i
:!3

frithissi.

Ro
35

leic in

tanic

ar
i

culu,
39 45

ar
40
46

ni hi
41

immach; i ni thanic colum 31 iar na 32 barach, i 36 ind anadh. fuair airm

26

27

37

F6idis
44

38

Noe

doriss

la

fescor,

gessca

cind secht 42 laithi, i 43 doluid ola-chrainn cona 47 dhuillib ina

^cubaid
4 *- 4

E
50

*om. V "-inn P
60

" f on uns fo us (bungled in re-inking)


uisqe
61

P 56 an P
ins.

51

ot.iP
"
-eiph.

52

as

P
65

53 5S

P
da

uisqe airde
62

E P P

4S

uisqe

"ifor.i. P M -ceP
:

uisqe
67

P P

dana
itir

dono do uisce
iata E, it ind us- P
13.
8
"

"
.u.

E E
.ii.

coic for
64

EP
P P
P
69

-ee

sliabh

for

"

eupait

baid

E
'

gach EP an P
8

"

sleiph

om. dana do usee E 60 -adh E -ad P ,0 in airde P an us- E " aird EP

dili

-nnai

" cath-nnt-

P P

P P

E fri E "BocraP
-cena
,2

-ci

-ce

E P

dile

ina

daoine
,0

E
E E

Eneog E Enogh P
18

13 16

hancr"V hainnticr E ain xp" P " atf ed E -eta P ise EP

"Pint.

scel;aE

sccai so

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Ten
water
:

33

cubits

and

this is

was the ark under water, and twenty above why it was ten under water the Flood

had twelve above the highest mountain, for the sake of the So that ark, for it (the ark) had ten cubits under water. two cubits of water would not be excessive between the keel of the ark and the tops of the mountains. Therefore
the waters were twelve cubits in depth above every lofty mountain.

13. The Flood drowned all the men and beasts together, except the people of the ark, [and Enoch, who is in Paradise to fight against Antichrist, and Fintan son of Bochra. He it is who should relate these stories to all men, after the Flood]. 14. At the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters began to dry up. Twenty-seven days and seven months was the ark (moving) from wave to wave, till it settled on a mountain of Armenia. The waters dried up until the < tenth month on the first day of the> tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen. At the end of forty-seven days thereafter, Noe opened a window of the ark, and he sent the raven forth and it came not back again. He let the dove out on the morrow, and it came back, for it found no place where it should stay. Noah sent it forth
:

14.
7

cinn

E
8

gcimi
4

P E
13

chaogad

E
6

.l a .

P E
10

-a

changed

to -ad
-thi

oE -bhsat
-at

huis-

-scedha
9

P EP
E

serg-

sercc-

P
16

P E E E
P

12 15

tuinn

mis EP thuinn P

don

aire

P
P
E
26

" tuinn

P EP

con-deis-

sergtsat
17
21

gusan
cinn
hairci tainic

apparently -gsat changed 1S 19 deem. E mis


22

-deisigh P to -gsad cE -gsat

u sliabh P

(bis)

huis-

EP
f rithisi

20

adcesai

atceassa
feinister

EP P
P

fosgail

Naoi
f aiti

seinistir E, fosloig

Naei
29

23 27
30 35 38 44

hairce

P
2S
31

24

EP
i

s anP

amach
34

EP
E
:

colaim
cula
JNTai

for cula a bf ritisi E, 32 ar P maraeh

P
tain-

leig

P
gc-

33

EP
37

EP E fesgor E
l.g.

ifuair
39

E P
45

36 4n

an an E, ar n-anf ad
a

P
42

EP E leicc P for E faidis E


43

doridisi

VOL.

feasccI.

gesga

E E

41

EP
40

-the

E
47

-dh

gescai

alo-cr

duill-

P P

34
4S

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Ocus ro
53

beolu.
ni
52

49

faid

50

hi cind secht

51

la

doridissi,

tanic

ar

54

culu.

||

tiachtain assin n-aircc, lii sechtmad la fichet escai Mai, % for "pridnoin Mai, 13 12 Noe. aisse isin "cetna bliadain ar se cetaib
15.

Ro ^aid Dla
7

fri
8

Noe
9

nochat ar dib 26 25 23 cetaib iar 24 firinde na Septin imorro nEbraide, larsin


j^|

i9

y gen

14
2o

Tossach na

ir,

haeisse
j.

16

tanaiste

1T

in domain.
22

ls

Co

3ra j ra ro iigaioh

da bliadain

is
2S

da bliadain cethrachat ar
29

27

ocht ccetaib.
30

Dorone
in
32

Noe
33

larsin altoir do
altoir iar
37

chumtach do
35
||.

31

Dia
36

.i.

cetna
ro
48

34

ndilind

Coica ar
39

trl
:

cetaib bliadan
40 47

ocus
itir'

41

N6e 38 i mbeth'aid 43 42 rand Noe "in domun 45 hi


bai
29

iar
46

nd'ilind

trib rand'aib

a
2

maccu.
51
.i.

53

Anmand mac 50 Noe, Anmand V mban iarum, Olla,


y
49
55

Sem,

52

Cam,
Oliua

Iafet.
:

54

01ibana,

de

quibus dicitur

hoc carmen

Sluag ndd chide cua-chel

Cam
na

deisscert-leth ro gab-side in nAffraicc i tra, 60 Haissia. Sem for 61 niedon 62 Aissia, o sruth Eofrait co tracht airthir 63 in 64 bethad. Is 6 65 Iafeth
59

56

57

58

4j
51

-la

-lau

P P
2

4a

faoidh

faidh

P
52
3

50

a gcenn

hi cinn
53

la

54

yc gcida

V
P
5

sprs:

doridisi E,

-dhisi

tainicc

P
4 s
,:

f or

E
as

15. 'raidh

Naoi

E Nai P
10

teacht
'

assind

in
3

airc
9

EP

(om. n-)

escca
'-

MaoiE(6ts)

Naoi E " an E - nochad M Seibtin


30 35

.ix.

P
,8

M tossucli
,s

P prittnoin P
6

om.

hi

om. la VE " cedna E


16

e?gai E aois EP

tosach

EP

" E -aiph P " dcccc. P E cumdach E qmhdach P written tri caoga P


36

go

gein

EP
" bf- EP M -oine E

EP w Apraim P
15

haoisi
-

tanuste
:1

soicli

='J

5 nEabr- E nEprNaoi E Nai P {bis)

P P

31

Dhia
.ccc.

P E

32

cedna
37

baoi

E E

33

h-alt-

P E

r4

-inn

M ina

words

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

35

again at the end of seven days, and it came with the evening, having a twig of an olive-tree with its leaves And he sent it forth again at the end of in its beak. seven days, and it came not back.

come out of the Ark, on the twenty-seventh day of the moon of May, [on the day before the nones of May,] in the six hundred and
15.

God

said unto

Noe

to

first

year of the age of Noe. The beginning of the second age of the world. To the birth of Abram it reached, two hundred ninety and two

years according to the Hebrew verity, but according to the Septuagint it is eight hundred forty and two years.

Thereafter Noe caused an altar to be builded to God Three [, the first altar that was made after the Flood] hundred and fifty years was Noe alive after the Flood and Noe divided the world into three parts
. :

among

his sons.
:

The names of the sons of Noe names of their wives thereafter


de quibus dicitur hoc carmen:

Sem, Ham, Iafeth.

The
:

Olla, Olivana, Oliva(0

Poem

no.

I.

As

for Ham, he settled in Africa and the south side of Asia. Sem over the middle of Asia, from the river of Euphrates to the eastern border of the world. Of
and
41

letters

marked thus
42

'
.
. .

'

torn

away

V
44

39

-inn
45

E
a

40

occus
46

E etir P
do
55

rann
48

-ca

EP E
52

43

Naoi

E
-ndai
55 58

an

P
50 53

E
:

4a

-nda

P E

Naoi

EP

ins
54 Ba 59

P P dana E
trip

Seimh

E
E
:

Camh E Camm P

-nn

Oilibana
57
60

Oliua Olibanu
-aic

hocc cairmdeisc62

EP P
P
Aisia

Oilibai

-bhsidhe

Affraicc

(om. n-)

dq

Haisia

P EP

in

Seimh EP E an P
;

6I -medhon M betha EP

EP
G5

Aissai

om.

Iathfedh

Iaf eith

P
Olibana was the

give the (a) -wife of Iafeth.

EP

names of these women

in the correct

order

36

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


67
<i8

tra tuaiscert-leth na
i

dia
16.

clainn

Haissia, i lucht na Heorpa uile duinde 69 in n-ar 70nGraidelaib.


2

66

Glass ar sen-athair, mac- side Xiuil meic Feniusa Farrsaidli meic 4 Eogein meic 5 Glunimd meic 8LamJind meic 7 Etheoir meic 8 Thoe meic 9 Boidb
'Gaidel
3

meic u'Sem meic Mair meic "Aurthacht meic Abuith meic Ara meic 12Iarra meic Sru meic 13 Esru meic Ocus Baaith meic "Kifaith 15 Scut, 16 o tait "Scuit. 18 19 Rifath 20 Scot "tucastar 22 Scotic on Tur, ar ba isse 26 24 25 23 ccumtach 27 in bai i se in sesed prim- thaiseeh ro 2S Tuir 'Nemroith.
nach 29 raibe 30 Fenius 31 hi cumtach in 34 comsmiudh atberat na 33 senchaide een Tuir, mar 35 chomhaimseraid. Is aire 36 so on, ar 37 isse 38 Foenu Farsaid in 39 seised fer dec do 40 sll 41 Riafaid 42 tuc 43 Scotic on
Is follus de sin
32
44

Tur.
17.

bliadain sescat 6 scailiud in Tuir co flaitli Xin meic 5 Peil. Ceithre bliadna dec ar 6 trib fichtib ar 7 8 ocht cetaib o thus flatlia Nin co deirid flatha Tutanes, 9 10 xl 12 in domain. Fria lind- side ro toglad 13 Troe rig 15 14 din thogail dedenaig. Secht mbliadna larsin thogail 16 17 18 19 tuc Aenias t mac Anaciss Lauinia J sin, co 20 21 22 Latin meic Puin conid tri bliadna ingen cethrachat ar noi cetaib o 23 scailiud in Tuir co 24 tuc
|| || :

Da

c0 10

Haisia
-eal-

EP
nGaidheal;

67

cloinn

6S

-nne

EP

69

nar (om.

i)

a 2 3 16. Gaoid- E -dhe VP ins. .i. EP Feiniusa Fars- EP 5 6 Ebir E Eimhir P Gluin- EP, -mi E Lamh"f - E Laimhf- P 8 9 10 Taoi EP Eothoir E Ei- P Seim E Bridliph P 12 " Urthacht E Aurtachtt P " Essru E " Rif baidth Iara EP " Scot E ,6 " odtait P (d expuncted) E Sgot P Sguit P ,9 18 20 :1 ise E ase P -aith E ins. tucc (an incorporated Sgot P " 23 se in gloss on tucastar) V tugustar EP Scotig E Sgoitic P 21 * bui seised E, he an seisedh P -tuis- V -thoiss- E primh-tois- P 2' 28 EP cumdach P an P Tur (with subscript i added sec. 20 30 31 roibe E raiphe P Foenius E Feinius P i ecumtman.) P 4
'
:

:<s

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Iafeth
is
:

37

Europe

the north side of Asia, and the people of all and of his progeny are we who are Gaedil.

16. Gaidel Glas our ancestor, he was s. Nel s. Feinius Farsaid s. Eogan s. Glunfhind s. Lamfhind

Aurthacht Etheor s. Thoe s. Bodb s. Sem s. Mar Aboth s. Ara s. Iara s. Sru s. Esru s. Baath s. Rifath Now it is Rifath Scot, from whom are the Scots. Scot who brought the Scotic Language from the Tower, for he was one of the six principal chieftains who were at the building of the Tower of Nemrod.
s.
s.
,s.

From

that,

it

is

clear

that

building of the Tower, as the historians say

Feinius was not at the who have not

harmonized the synchronism. This is why we say so, for Feinius was the sixteenth in descent from Rifath, who brought Scotic from the Tower. s?
1

17.

Ninus son of Belus. hundred seventy and four years from the Eight beginning of the princedom of Ninus to the end of

Tower

Sixty- two years from to the princedom of

the

dispersal

of

the

the princedom of Tutanes, king of the world. Toward There his time was Troy taken for the last time. till Aeneas [son were seven years after that capture, of Anchises] took [Lavinia] daughter of Latinus s.

E
36

hi

cumdach

aidhe
seo

VP
P

34 37

E man.) P
Sguit

32 uide E P adberad E (the d yc E) adberait P 35 comaimsiraid E comhaimsire chomsiniud E -sinedh P 3S Foenius E Feinus (with subscript i added sec. ise EP 33 39

P
:

seissed

E
43

seisedh
-ice

40

siol
**
2

P
Tor

41

-aith
3

wis.
4

E, Sgoitic 1 17. -ccat E -Ixx- second x expuncted P dtucc Aenias written here and expuncted P

tucc

P
P E
6

sgaoil5

Pheil
9

tri
10

flaitusai

P
12

derid

deired

don toccV ins. i P -dhe VP 17 15 18 Aneas E Aeinas tucc E dtucc P -aigh E deighean- P 1S Anachis The glosses following this word are gg in VP, frfi in E. " conadh 21 19 20 Lathin P Aincis P Lauina EP ingin E 23 24 dtucc Aeinasin Tuir yc V tucc Aeneas ingin E sgaoil- P
14

"

Troie

-edh P Trai P

ri

din tog-

EP E

P EP an P
an

P
E P

38

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


ingen
25 25

Aeniass
28

Latin,

Latin

2fi

dorone

27

cuir

friss.

29 33 38

Is

follus

as
34

sin

conach

Auraiccepta, th5isech 39 ind Tuir,

combad he
-\

31 lucht 32 ind tiaghait in 36 seissed prima 40 fot 41 antiass 42 etorru 43 cethracha

cert-

30

35

Laitin
45

44 scailiud in Tuir co bliadan, o 47 attiaidh asin 48 Scithia cona


51

tanic
scoil,

46

49

Foenius Farsaidh do 50 iarraidh na

mberla
56
60

ar do- 52 rumenatar
57

ass ro

scailit.

Da

54 55 as fosgebtais and, ar bith lar 58 tiachtain do 59 Fenius bliadain


53

atuaid

corice Nin.

18. Is

e
4

Nel

mac Feniusa Farsaid asrubrnmar


2 3 5 6
:

7 forcongart Forand Cincris ri Eigipti ar imad a 9 10 12 fesa i a eolais i a "fogluma dobert 13 Forand i 14 15 16 17 ferann do, i dobreath a ingen .i. 18 Scota a hainm.

Ocus asberat araile 20 comadh aire 21 adbertha "Scota" 23 24 "Scot" ainm a fir, "Scuit" ainm na fria, ar ba 25 26 27 tuaithe dia rabe in fer; unde dicitur 28 "Scotus" 7 28 " Scota."
19

22

-\

19.

Conidli

do sin 3 asberar 4 so

siss

E
31

" Laitin

26

(bis)

ins. f ein.
2S

doroine
29

word VP, but om. a E luf changed by re-inker 33 32 na P auraicepta


86
41

f ris
ais

P
{the
I

iss

P E

27

acuir written as one

30

-aid

to

can
39

nuraicp
38

insseiss-as

E P

.uii.
42

mad P

-tois43

P
E
-lai
:

-orrai

.lx.
4S

P P E

be traced faintly) 34 * Latin comadli P 40 in E an P f ot E f od


still
**

46
61

Feinius
-lae

"

sgaoil49

E P E P dtanic P
luicht
:

-aid assin
52

B4
50 60

ann

EP
P

sgaoilsit -ricce

changed ar dittographed owing to change of column V " .XL. V 68 59 P ti.cb.tam (om. do) E Foen-

-att

Sgeithia P sgoil P to -atar V ruimnetar P

B0

iaraidh
53

V
P E P

-dais
55

is

Feinius

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Faunus
three
:

39

so that there are nine hundred forty and years from the dispersal of the Tower till Aeneas took the daughter of Latinus, and Latinus

made

his treaties with him.

From that it is clear that the authors of the Auraicept do not reach a correct conclusion, that Latinus was one of the six chief leaders of the Tower, seeing that the length downward between them is forty years, from the dispersal of the Tower till Feinius Farsaid came from the north, out for of Scythia with his School, to seek for the languages that they would find them there () inasmuch they thought There as it was from thence that they were dispersed. were two years after the coming of Feinius from the north
:

until Ninus.
18.

It is the aforesaid

Nel son of Feinius Farsaid


of
:

whom Pharao

greatness of his

Egypt invited, for the and his learning and Pharao granted him an estate, and his daughter, Scota her name, was bestowed.
Cincris

King

skill, his knowledge,

Some say that the reason why she was called "Scota" was that "Scot" was her husband's name, and "Scots" the name of the people from whom he came unde dicilur "Scotus" and "Scota."
;

19.

So that the following

is

said of those matters

P P P

18.
4

he

E
5

Foen-

Fein6

P
P

asrubramar
'

-nn
"f

E E

Cinciris

P
-ainn

Egipt

EP
10

ar

immed E

asrubartamar ar imat

9
12

essa

f eassai re-inked to f eaisai

eolusa

" -lumma

-gh-

14 ferand E feron {changed, by -aim P " om, .i. 10 15 dobertha ycE dobretli P irigin E re-inker to f erch-) P 21 20 19 18 asbertha E combad E P om. i E E ins. do P Sgotai 22 frie E pvmctuated, fria arba. Sgot by re-inker P atbertha P

dober
:

tuc

13

23 28

Sgot
-tt-

P
(bis):
'

Sguit

19.
5

Sgota Conid E conadh

P P

25

-thi
2

P
de

26

raibe
s

raibhi

2T

an

P
E

P
(a)
i.e.

E
Tower.

asbert

om. so

om.

siss

EP
at the

40

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO


Athair cdich, Coimsid Nime
Third Redaction.
. . .

(B 8 o 1

M
32
.

264 a 1
13
1
:

H
.

103 o 1
2
:

from

fl

32

j3

/3

32

22

(i

28.)

I.

The beginning of the Third Redaction is a translation into Irish of the first eleven chapters of the Book of Genesis. For the history of this translation, and of its connexion with
the text, see ante, p. 6. In the following pages the Biblical text is printed in larger type (the verses being numbered);

BOOK OF GENESIS
Chapter
20.
A.
1

I.

(1)
2

In principio creauit Deus celum


4

et

tenant

ro
yi
2

thuissimh Dia 3 Neanih


-j

talinnh
8

ar tus.

nj

ej u ^

tossaeh fair- simh

feisin,
10

na foircearid.
:

Is amhlaidh Morighni Dia na dtiili aroili dib co y "tosach i cen chiich, amhail aingliu; 12 araili dibh 13 cu 14 tossaeh i co 15 forceiid, amhail 16 anmanda, iiidlighthe 17 toirrthe in talman; 18 araile dibh imorro co 19 tossach i co 20 foircend i 21 cen 22 foircend, amail 23 atait daine, .i. 24 tossach for a 25 ngeinemain 26 corpardha i 27 forcend for a 28 corpthaib, 29 30 T gan forcenn for a n-anmaiiclaibh.
3

Isin
33

Domnach

31

dorighni Dia
34
7

nemhcruthaigh t -ii' .i. 36 tene i 37 aeor, 38 talam 39 April dono do reir Ebraide

mhoir

mais adbhur na ndul


in

32

n-adhbul-

35

corparda

usee
4r

||',

||

'Latinda,

||

$ hi .xn. kallann \' cen co tucadh

20. Variants from unless otherwise stated. It may be said here, once for all, that the lenition of b, d, g, m, is almost invariably left 2 3 unmarked in this MS. thuisini ins. A. in t Athair prindcipio * 5 6 Neamda talam om. ar tus: ins. isin tosach .i. isin Mac f uil T 8 9 10 tosach -seam na foireeand f eisin B doroinde duile M tosach a -oile 13 " foireeand M tosach aroile co ;
'

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Poem
no. V.

41

Third Redaction.

at the end of each chapter is a restoration of the text of the Latin MS. from which it was translated, with textual notes. The numerous glosses and interpolations are printed in smaller type, and all necessary annotations are given in the commentary at the end of this section of the entire work.

BOOK OF GENESIS
Chapter
20.
i.e.,
I.

(1)

In principio creauit Deus caelum

et

terram

God

created

Heaven and Earth

at the

first.

And He

hath no beginning Himself, nor ending.


:

In this wise God made the creatures some of them with beginning and without end, as Angels; some of them with beginning and with termination, as irrational beasts and fruits of the earth; some of them moreover with beginning and with termination and without termination, as
are men a beginning to their bodily birth and a termination to their bodies, and without termination to their
souls.

On the Sunday God made the immense formless mass, [the materials of the corporeal creatures, fire and air, earth and water, upon the fifteenth of the kalends of April according to Hebrews and Latins, although no sun
19
23
30

a dot over c erased ~ tosach. -ceand


-earn20

B
21

16

cean
32

f oirceand

chorparda 31 doridne

1T -nna aindligthecha toirthi 22 23 -ceand itait na daine " f oirceand 2S sic M, corp B

1S

-oile

24

tosach 2a cen

-bal-moir

33

-aich

34

-bar

15

sic
3T

corpdha changed by late corrector to corpdhada 38 39 w Laitinda Aibril talam usqi


-\

3S

tened

aeoir

42
grlan

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


41

i"or

rith co se
ndiil.

||';

is

and "dorighni Dia


| hi

43

tindscetal
44
|j

denma na

.xiiii. April, Luan, 45 Isand Mairt, 46 t hi -xiii. kallann dorighni Dia Ncam. 4U 48 tug muir ina dorighni Dia in talam, "April,
||

Isin

kallann

-\

50

April, Cetain, $ hi .xii. kallann 54 53 reltanda 7 55 renda nimhe. csca i dorigni Dia grlan 56 Isin Dardain, X -i- in xi kallann April ||, dorigni Dia
timceall.

Isin

51

52

||

"\

G0 Isan na hanmanda 57 muiridhi 7 58eathaidi in 59 aeoir. 63 Aine imoiTo | 61 .i. hi .x. kallann 62 April, dorigni Dia Adham na huili anmanda talmaidi. Ro 64 cumsain Dia
||

-\

imorro
68

69

tSatharrnd oipriugadh dula niia.


isan

65

66

.i.

hi

.ix.

kallann

67

April

||,

.i.

(2)

Iar tuismeadh
i

tra,

70

nime

in talam,
75

dimain cen torrti, i se Oeus no bidis $ in tan sin aitreabhaidhe. cen 79 77 76 dorchata dluithi for 78 dreich na haibhisi
se

i 72

talman,

is

amhlaidh 71 bai 73 74 falum fass

||

80
.i.

adbur

81

coitchend na ndul
83

84

;
85

82

no
86

fortairctha
87

Spirut

in

Comdedh

for

na

huiscib.

Ni
90

locdacht
i

dearrscaithi

tra raiter 88 sund don 89 Spirut Naem, acht miadhamlaeht de, seacha dtiilibh.
||,

(3) Ocus ro raidh Dia J .i. in tAthair Nemdha Dentar 91 in tsoillsi. Ocns 92 dorignedh in tsoillsi. 93 94 2 soillsi [s M] ona (4) Ro therba i ro deiligh Dia in 5 dorchadaibh. (5) Ocus dorad ainm "Lae" don 96 "Haidhchi" do na 97 dorchaib. i tuc ainm na tsoillsi, Ocus doronadh amlaidh sin 98 feascoir i "maiden .i. in
100

cet la.

41

43 49

frith stroke of abbreviation over f added sec. man. 44 45 46 " Aibril -eadal isin ins. dono Aipril

42

tuc
ora.

50

thimcliell

51

55
61

reanda
.i.

41
73

Aibfas
'4

Aipm AipM om. o

"
69
75

chedain am, hi
-ide
5S

52

Aip59
4

53

dorinde

doroinde doridne 54 retlanda


4S

-ide

M doroinde
oibreadugad
7S

a point over the e

M isind
ee

chumson
70

isin

-arnn

nimi
77

"

ins.

ro

" toirchi

-am

-ebaide

-ada

the 1 written in rasura as

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


was
set

43

upon

its

course as yetj

it is

then that God

made

a beginning of fashioning the creatures. On the Monday, [on the fourteenth of the kalends of April,] God made

Heaven. On the Tuesday, [on the thirteenth of the kalends of April,] God made the earth, and brought Sea On the Wednesday, [on the twelfth of the around it. kalends of April,] God made sun and moon and stars and On the Thursday, [on the eleventh of heavenly bodies.
the kalends of April] God made the marine beasts and On the Friday, moreover, [on the the birds of the air. tenth of the kalends of April,] God made Adam and all Moreover God ceased on the the terrestrial beasts.

Saturday,

work of a new
(2)

[the ninth of the kalends of April,] creation.

from the

Now, after the creation of Heaven and Earth, thus was the earth; fallow without fruit, bare and empty

And thick darknesses were at without indweller. that time over the face of the abyss

the

common

material of the creatures

And

the waters.

Spirit

of

the

Lord was borne over the

No wickedness
excellence
(3)

is spoken here of the Holy Spirit, but and honour of Him, 'beyond the creatures.

and God [the Heavenly Father] said: Let the And the light was made. (4) God light be made. and divided the light from the darknesses. separated to the light, and (5) And He gave the name 'Day' the name 'Night' to the darknesses. And thus were made evening and morning, the first day.
80 79 A dot -bar. -beisi dreikh and later re-inserted, B written over the b, afterwards scratched out, ^ hus84 83 82 81 Choimdead -rud no forchairthea cheand 61 w dears89 88 87 inn 86 -rit Naeim sunn thra lochtach 92 doridnead that would hold about 4 letters. preceded by an erasure 97 9G 95 n4 93 -caib B sic -dche dorchaib thoillsi delidh 98 "maidean an .i. with in written sec. man. above the .i. -scor

is

also the eich of dreich

78

100

om. cet

44
21.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(G)

Dentar 2 in firmamint a meadhon na n-usci, i fodlad na n-usci 3 o na 4 huiscib. 6 5 (7) Ocus dorigni Dia in firmaimint, i ro fogail na 8 9 usci ro batar fo Firmaimint 6 na huiscibh ro batar 6s Firmaimint i "doirigneadh amlaidh sin. (8) Ocns 13 12 "tug Dla ainm 'Nimhe' do Firmaimint, i "dorighnedh 15 feascoir i "maiden, .i. 17in laa tanaise.

Ro

raidh

dana

22.
-

(9)

atait fo

Ro Nimh

2 1 Tinoilter na husei raidh imorro Dia 4 5 i n-oen inadh, i artraigeadh in tirim


: :

6 dorigneadh amlaidh sin. (10) Ocus is e ainm tug 8 9 Dia don tirim, i. Talam acus ro "gairmeastar Ocus Dia 11 comthinola na 12 n-uisci, 13 Muiridhi. 14 atconnairc Dia cor bo maith. Ocus 15 atbert (11) 16 17 Dia an talam fer n-uraide, i fer Clandaigeadh 17 18 crand toradhi dogena sil; clannaigeadh 19 dodliena toradh do reir a 29 ceineoil, i a tairctheach, mbia a sil and fein for 21 talmuin. (12) Ocus ro leig "in talum fer n-uraide trid, i fer dognidh 23 sil do 24 25 26 27 reir a lec crand dognid torad, i no ceineoil; i ro 2? 29 30 thechtadh earnaili. Ocus gacli sil do reir a 3T adconnairc Dia sin, cor bho maith. (13) Ocus
7
:
:

C2

dorighnedh

33

fescoir

34
i

maiten,

35
.i.

in tres laa.

raidh 1imorro Dia Dentar 2 lespairedha 4 solus- thaitneaniacha i firmaimint 5 indimhi, [5 j\l] i 7 8 9 10 blt i comartaibh i i i Meilighead la i aidhchi
23.

(14)

Ro

a,

l-laithedhaibh i n-aimsiribh, i 14 taitneat i "firmaimint (15) co ro


1

12

i
16

mbliadhnaibh, ind nimi, i co ro


4

13

2 21. dono annirmaimint 7 s annirmaimint baclar husc12 M donirmaimint 14 Di B -gnead 2 s 4 22. -tear usan en 5 a ' an as tuc of column B
,

3_s
9

ora. B. badar
15

husc-

,0

-cor

" tuc doridnead " om. in 16 -dean

-gne

dittographed owing to change 8 9 talvmin B tirim (tirim 10 n coimacus written tir iniacus) B: acus here also in -estair 12 thinola (a g written and erased after the second o) n-usci 13 14 ,5 I0 "-" om. B adchonnairc adbmuirige clannaigead
-\

'

ar-

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


21. (6)
:

45

made

in the

Let the firmament be Further He said midst of the waters, and let it divide the

waters from the waters. (7) And God made the the waters that were beneath firmament, and divided Firmament from the waters that were above Firmament and thus was it done. (8) And God gave the name of 'Heaven' to Firmament, and evening and morning were made, the second day.
:

Moreover God said Let the waters that Heaven be collected into one place, and let and so was it done. (10) And this the Dry appear is the name which God gave to the Dry, 'Earth': and God called the assemblages of the waters, 'Seas/ And God saw that it was good. (11) And God said Let the earth bring forth green grass, and grass that shall make seed; and let it bring forth the fruitbearing tree that shall make fruit according to itskind, and that shall have its seed within itself upon earth. (12) And the earth put forth green grass, and that maketh ,seed according to its kind, and it grass put forth the tree that maketh fruit, and that hath And God saw every seed according to its species. And evening and morning were that to be good. (13)
22. (9)
:

are under

made, the third day.


lights be

Moreover God said Let brightly shining made in the firmament of Heaven, and let them divide Day and Night and let them be for signs
23.

(14)

and for times, for days and for years,

(15) that they

may
ins.
29

shine

in

the
20 25

firmament
a chel no a cenel
2G

of
21

Heaven,
2T

and

w thairceach
a
30

r,el

cheinel
31

leig
32

-main crann
f eascor
:

22

an talam
28

-eaeht.i.

-gnead deireadh lae written in top marg. in 18th cent, hand B 33 an treas la 4 3 2 a fir-tait-eada 23. 'Dia imorro
'

gan B

ernaile

-chonn

33

feascoir
31

maidean
5

mime
the
i

deligthear

lae

-dche

"bid

10

-arthaib
15

"
-sir-,
36

ycB

" -ead-

" mbliadain

" thaitnead

-mam-

indimi

46
17

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


18

soillsiget in

talani.
20

(16)

Ocus doroindi

Ocus Dia da

19
21

dorignedh amlaidh
22

sin.
:

leaspaire

solus-mora
grein
||

in lespaire is dorighni 24 ropdanaiged don 16, i in


2r,

am

mo
25

.i.

in
is

23

co

lespaire
28

luglm isin

ind esca ||. Ocus n-aidhci J .i. dorigni retlanda, 31 29 30 i firmaimint ro i indimi, co ro (17) suigidli iat 33 34 S2 do taitnidis for talmain, (18) i co ro aptainigdis 36 33 37 34 soillsi 6 na lo i do aidhchi, i co ndeilightis in 40 38 39 dorchaibh. Ocus atconnaic Dla sin, cor bo maith. 42 43 44 fescoir i in .i. maitin, (19) Ocus "dorignedh
4

27

"'cetramadh laa.
24.

(20)

Ro

tondaitechu fo firmaimint

Mana Dia Turgbhat na huisci na hanma beoaigheas, i 6 foluaimneachu


raidh
2
3
:

*!

Ocus 8 dorigned amlaidh sin. 9 thuissim Dia 10 bleidhmila mora J (21) Ocus ro lx muiridi ind uili n-anmand mbeothach i 12 so-cumsi 13 14 caightheach ro turgbatar na liusci i n-a n-ernailibh. 15 16 17 Ocus ro tuissimh Dia in uili foluaimneaclm do 18 rer a 19 ceneoil, i 20 adconairc Dia 21 cor bo maith sin. 22 ro raidh: (22) Ocus ro bennai[ge]stear Dla doibh, 23 Foirbridh i barnimdaighter i llnaidh usci in mhara, 24 imdaighthear na heoin for talmain. (23) Ocus 25 26 maiten i 27 fescoir, 28 .i. in dorigned amlaidh sin
7

indimi.

||,

-\

29

cuicedh
25.

la.

(24)

Ro
in
4

raidh

Mono
(sic)
.i.

Dia, $

Turgbadh
6

talmun

in Tuismeadh na hanmanda 5 examla lar


.i.
||
:

n-a

cenel imchubhaidh,

iuminti

tondaitechu,

"s-ged
22

18

sic

M,

tal23

B
2<J

10

doridnead
24

om. Dia
25

21

lesbairi

26 -airi -chi grian rapdanaided 27 30 31 32 a indimo thaitnidis suigig 33 34 ** 1 (obscured by a blot) con apdanigis don (bis) -gdis 36 37 3S 3S * om. solladchondaire om. apparently go mbo 41 42 " om. .i. -ead -cor changed sec. man. to gor bo "-ten

solusda mora 28 doridni int.

45

ceathrumad la 24. Dia dono


'

turcbad

husci

tonnaichu

ses

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


may
illuminate the earth.

47

thus was it done. and great lights He bright (16) made the greater light [the sun] that it might rule over the day, and the lesser light in the night [the moon]. And He made stars, (17) and set them in the firmament of Heaven, that they might shine upon the earth, (18) and that they might rule over day and over night, and might divide the light from the darknesses. And God ,saw that to be good. (19) And evening and morning were made, the fourth day.

And

And God made two

24. (20) God said further Let the waters bring forth reptiles of the life that quickeneth, and birds under the firmament of Heaven. And so was it done. (21) And God created great [sea] -monsters, and every living and mobile beast which the waters brought forth in their species. And God created all the birds according to their kind, and God saw that to be good. Increase and (22) And God blessed them, and said be ye multiplied, and fill the water of the sea, and let the birds be multiplied upon the land. (23) And thus were morning and evening made, the fifth day.
:

25. (24) Further God [the Creator] said Let the earth bring forth the different animals after their fitting kind, cattle and reptiles, and the beasts of
:

-echu

-ime
9

in marg.

"hern-

B
24

tuisim 15 written

doridnead changed by late corrector to dorignead ,0 " inn 12 13 -ili -caiththurcbadar c'pnii (an abbreviation which would more

,6 inn naturally suggest tursimh) B, c;im M. 19 20 21 cheniuil -chondsin cor bo maith

" -each
22

18

reir

beandachais

23

-gth2i

om.
25.

.i.

-gther 29 -ead
3

25

dorignidh
2

B
:

doridnead
t;m. M.
5

M
6

26

maiden

"

-cor

*Dia dono
turcbad

th;im.

om. in B * -muin

So lower down
-eol
'

in the

ecs-

-aithechu

48
8

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


;

blasda in 9 talniun iar n-a n-earnailib imchuibhdibh 10 doridned amlaidh sin. (26) Ocns do raidh Dia ^Denum 12 in 13 Duini "for n-imaigin i for 15 cosmhailus foden, i remliapdanaighed do lascaib in mara, i do 16 foluaimneaibh indimi, i do 17 bhlastaibh in uili 19 18 thuissim Dia in Duini 20 fo talman. (27) Ocus ro imaigin foden
:

amlaidh tra dorigni Dia in duine, .i. a 21 corp do talmain %', 23 .i. a 24 chend a tir Garad, a ucht a bruindi 27 26 a tir 25 Arabia, a bra a Lodam, a cossa a tir Agoiria, ||' a 28 aer ||, a anal do aeor, a 29 teas do 30 teinidh, ruil do usci % in a 31 anam do 32 tinfedh De. Is amlaidh sin 33 atat na 34 ceithre
Is
22
-j

ro
39

ngach duini. thuisim 36 em fear thuisim 37 iat (28) i ro


dnili
i

35

mnai
38

fo imaigin De.
i

Ro
:

Forbrid

dentar

bar

bennach doibh n-imdugadh, i


40

ro raid linaidh in

talmuin, i fomamaigid diiibh hi, i tigernaigid do lascaibh in mara i do 41 eatliaitibh inime i do na huilibh 43 ro raidh anmandaibh 42 for tahnain. (29) Ocus 44 Dia Doradus daibh co follus in uili Iear 45 tairgis 46 sll for talmain, i na huili crondu 47 techtait indtibh 48 49 foden silni a ceineoil |( a) comchubhaid, ardaigh eo 50 mbeadh sin daibh a mbiadh i a n-aileamain (30) i do
:
|

uilibh in

anmandaibh in talman, i do uilibh 51 eathaitibli 52 53 da fil 54 cumscugadh i nimi, i do na huilibh


56

55 inntibh ata talmain, i is t7 techat co tomultus. Ocus

ainim beoighes, co ro dorigned amlaidh sin. 59 adchondairc Dia na huili 60 dorigni, % i (31) Ocus 1 62 do bhadar comdar maithi co 63 hadhbul. Ocus
58
||,

e4

dorighnedh

65

fescoir

66

maiten, in seiseadh

la.

8
14

-sta

9 10 " denaid 12 -man om. in dorigni B foim maigin (second word in rasura) B fornimaigin

13
15

duine

16

"foluaimneachaib innimi
20

"

piastaib
2I

18

thal-

cosmailis "tusim Dia in

Duine 24 cheand
30

thenid each duine

-2 2* thaii for .i. chorp 25 26 " chosa 20 28 Lotain theas aeoir 31 32 33 34 M in ainm B anim thinfead -thri itat 37 36 3S aen 'fear B ins. imorro iad beandach

f oi

maigin Araibia

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

49

the earth after their fitting species; and so was it done. (26) And God (25) [This verse missing.] said Let us make the Man under our own image and likeness, and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and over the birds of Heaven, and over the beasts of the whole earth. (27) And God created His own image the Man under
:

Now

in this wise did

God make

the

Man

his

body of

earth [his head of the land of Garad, his breast and bosom of the land of Arabia, his belly of Lodain, his legs of the land of Agoiria], his blood of [the] water [of the air], his

breath of

air, his

heat of

fire,

his soul of the breath of God.

Thus

it is

that the four elements are in every man.

In truth of God.
said
:

He made man and woman under the image He created them (28) and blessed them and

and let your multiplication be and fill the earth, and subdue it unto accomplished, yourselves, and lord it over the fishes of the sea and the birds of the Heaven and all the beasts upon the earth. See, I have given you all (29) And God said the grass that bringeth forth seed upon the earth, and all the trees that have the seed of their proper kind within themselves, that they may be for food and sustenance unto you (30) and unto all the beasts of the earth, and unto all the birds of Heaven, and unto all that have motion upon the earth, and that have within them the soul that quickeneth, that they may have them for nourishment. And thus was it done. (31) And God saw all things that He had made [and that were], that they were wondrous good: and evening and morning were made, the sixth day.
Increase,
: :

39
44

talam
1 er
45

40

tigernaidhi
-rceas
4G 50

49
55

comcubhaib
intib
56

B
60
e5

chrunnu mbeith

ainm beoaiges
dorigne
66

59
64

otconairc -ridned
L.G.

42 43 ins. f uilet om. vo B " -taid intib f odein silne 48 chen51 52 53 Si -dib nime do fil -gud 57 58 thechtad -ghnidh B doridnead 61 63 62 ro badar comdartha B -dbal 41

-dib

-cor

-den.

VOL.

(a)
I.

These

words

s-

M
E

50
20.
2

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(l)(
a)

In principio
:

[Terra autem (2) 5 Domini ferebatur super et Spiritus super faciem abyssi Et facta est lux. Fiat lux. Deus aquas. (3) Dixitque 7 6 G [Et uidit Deus lucem quod esset bona,] et diuisit Deus (4)
:

1 creauit Deus caelum et terram. 4 3 erat inanis et uacua] et tenebrae erant

lucem

tenebris.

(5)

Appellauitque
est
10

lucem

'Diem,'

et

tenebras 'Noctem.'
dies "primus.

Factumque

<ita> uespere et mane,

Fiat firmamentum in 21. (6) Dixit quoque ^Deus] medio aquarum, et diuidat aquas ab aquis. (7) Et fecit Deus 2 firmamentum, diuisitque aquas quae erant sub firmamento 3 firmamentum et factum est ita. ab aquis quae erant super (8) Vocauitque Deus firmamentum 'Caelum,' et factum est uespere et mane, dies secundus.
:

Congregentur aquae quae sub locum unum, et appareat aricla factumque est ita. (10) Et uocauit Deus aridam, Terram; congregationesque aquarum appellauit Maria. Et uidit Deus quod esset bonum. 1 <Deus> Germinet terra herbam uirentem et (11) Et ait 2 facientem semen, et lignum pomiferum faciens fructum iuxta 3 genus suum, cuius semen in semetipso sit super terram. 4 (12) Et protulit terra herbam uirentem [Et factum est ita]. 5 et facientem semen iuxta genus suum, lignumque faciens fructum et habens unumquodque sementem secundum (13) Facspeciem suam. Et uidit Deus quod esset bonum.
22.
(9)

Dixit uero Deus:

caelo sunt in

tumque
23.

est

uespere et mane, dies tertius.

(14) Dixit
2

autem Deus: Fiant Huminaria

in firma-

dividant diem ac noctem, et sint in signa, 3 et tempora, [et] dies, et annos, (15) ut luceant in firmamento caeli, et inluminent terram. Et factum est ita. (16) Fecitque Deus duo magna luminaria luminare maius ut praeesset

mento

caeli,

et

5 <fecit> et [ut praeesset] nocti Stellas, (17) et posuit eas in firmamento caeli, ut lueerent super terram, (18) et praeessent diei ac nocti, et diuiderent

diei,

et

luminare minus

(a) Italics in the Latin text denote readings differing from that followed in the Vatican variorum edition of the Vulgate (here called ST = Standard Text). [Square] brackets mark words in the Latin not represented in the Irish transbrackets denote words presupposed by the Irish translation, lation.

<^Angled^>

but not represented in any of the mss. of the Vulgate used in the Vatican edition.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


lucem 6 a tenebris. Et uidit Deus quod esset bonum. factum est uespere et mane, dies quartus.
:

51
19)

Et

24. (20) Dixit etiam Deus Producant aquae 1 reptilia animae uiuentis, et Hiolatilia 3 [super terram] sub firmamento <Et factum est ita>. caeli (21) Creauitque Deus cete 4 <marina>, et omnem animam uiuentem atque grandia 5 motabilem quam produxerunt aquae in species suas. Et 6 <creauit Deus> 7 omnia uolatilia secundum genus suum, et s uidit Deus quod esset bonum. (22) Benedixitque eis <Deus>,
:

dicens

Crescite et multiplicamini, et replete aquas maris,


(23)

auesque multiplicentur super terram. 9 <ita> uespere et mane, dies quintus.


25.
:

Et factum

est

Producat terra 1 animalia (24) Dixit quoque Deus diuersa in genere suo, iumenta et reptilia, et bestias terrae secundum species suas; factumque est ita. (25) 2 [This verse
missing.}
(26)
et

Et

ait

<Deus>

Faciamus

hominem ad

similtudinem nostram, et praesit piscibus maris, imaginem 4 et uolatilibus caeli, et bestiis universae [que] terrae 5 [omnique

quod mouetur in terra]. (27) Et creauit Deus hominem ad imaginem suam. 6 Ad imaginem Dei creauit masculum et femiham. Creauit eos, (28) Bene[ilium]
reptili

dixitque

illis

[Deus] et ait: Crescite et multiplicamini, et

replete terram, et subicite earn, et dominamini piscibus maris 8 et uolatilibus caeli et uniuersis animantibus [quae mouentur]
9 super terram. (29) Dixitque Deus Ecce, dedi uobis omnem herbam adferentem semen super terram, et uniuersa ligna quae habent in semetipsis sementem generis sui, ut sint uobis 10 11 in escam (30) et cunctis animantibus terrae omnisque et universis quae mouentur in terra, et in uolueribus caeli, Et quibus est anima uiuens, ut habeant ad uescendum. factum est ita. Deus cuncta quae fecit, et (31) Viditque erant ualde bona et factum est uespere et mane, dies sextus.
: :

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter

I.

The following abbreviations are used in these notes: Heb. The original Hebrew text. LXX. The Greek rendering, commonly called the Septuagint. OL. The Old Latin version or versions. Vulg.The Vulgate.

52

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


text, as set forth in the Vatican variorum edition of the Vulgate. (For the apparatus criticus of the Latin text, reference must be made to this comprehensive work.) A The MS. of the Vulgate used by the Irish translator. Tr. The Irish translator, or his translation. R 3, sR 3 The Third Redaction of LG; a Scribe of the Third

ST

The Standard
1

Redaction.
fl

20.

that

we

1 2 showing at the outset , creauit, not fecit, as in a Vulgate text. 2 The bracketed have now to deal with
:

R R

words are paraphrased only in the text of Tr. possibly by sR 3 who inserted some of the long interpolation just pre,

ceding, in order to complete its incorporation with the text. It may be worth noting, as a coincidence, that the sense of the paraphrase resembles the possible alternative reading of

the well-known syntactic ambiguity at the beginning of Heb. (on which see any standard commentary, such as Driver's or

These opening words can be, and probably ought Skinner's). to be, translated "In the beginning of God's creating
. .

the earth was without


of

the

Irish

text

To this version the sense 3 The plural dorchata, approximates.


form ..."

corresponding to the Latin tenebrae, is an illustration of On the other hand, he never Tr.'s almost slavish literalness. hesitates to strengthen his rendering by inserting synonyms or adjectives (as here dluithi). ^Erant, rejected in ST, but Nobidis shows that it was found contained in many mss. in A. In tan sin corresponds to nothing in any ms., and is
5 Dei in ST, Domini in presumably an incorporated gloss. 6 Either Tr. or sR 3 has committed haptwo mss. only. lography. Possibly Tr.'s eye wandered unconsciously from 7 One of the commonest mannerisms et uidit to et diuisit. of Tr. is to render one Latin word by two synonyms, as here,

Deas rejected by ST, but supported i ro deilig. a few mss. as well as Heb. and LXX. 9 Ac tenebms ST by 10 No authority for but numerous mss. have a tenebris. ami aid sin in any version or ms. ""One day" in all
ro therba
:

versions

and mss. "the first day" in Tr. 1 Deus omitted, probably by a scribal error induced 2 Under the influence of the Latin text by dana following. Tr. has dropped the article before finnamentum in the later
:

H 21.

verses of this

fl,

as in the earlier redactions.

Ab

his in

ST.

Only one ms. (which also has the 5 The point U 20 note ) has ab aquis.

rare
is

reading Domini,

not of

much

critical

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

53

importance, as Irish idiom would almost require the repetition of the substantive. 1 Deus not in any Vulg. MS. It is, however, found ff 22. 2 direv 6 deos). No authority for the repetition in (ko.1 of fer in Tr., but it is practically required by Irish idiom. 3 chel no a cenel, the variant reading in B, recalls the

LXX

LXX

Kara yVo? kou

Kafr'
3
.

6/xoioTrjTa.

dropped by sR found in a few Vulg. mss.


fl

The bracketed words probably 5 Adferentem in ST forient em in OL, also


is

23.

Lespaireda solus-taitnemaclia,

a good illustration

of the tendency to verbosity which Tr. displays, for all his 2 Ut in ST, but there is considerable support for literalness.
4 Ut praeesset authority for the omission of et. one Vulg. MS. only. 5 No authority for fecit here. omitted by 6 Ac tenebras in ST. Two mss. have a tenebras, and several

et.

No

a tenebris.
fl

One has
in

ac tenebris.

24. ^Reptile

ST

reptilia in a

few mss. and some

The plural also in LXX. Wolatile in ST. Vulg. quotations. follows Heb. idiom in using a neuter singular collectively, and there is no Latin authority for the plural here. LXX,
however,

has

the

probably pcalfri The latter is marina, presupposed by the Irish muiridi. 5 Mutabilem in ST, but motabilem has probably a gloss. much support. 6 No authority for these words. 7 As before, 8 Deus not in Vulg., the plural is used for singular collective. 9 o 0eo S Note ( 10 ) in fl 20 applies here also. has but

3 3 Haplography by sR plural TreTctvd. 4 No authority for before pmcum. lost


:

LXX
25.

ff

Animam uiuentem
:

in

ST

nothing like rendering

any version or ms. possibly Tr. misread uiuentem 2 As verse (25) is almost literally identical as diuersam. with (24), it could easily have been passed over by a careless
in Tr. in

or lazy scribe.
4

has o <9eos. but 5 This omission of que. There is some ms. authority for the on account of the repetition terrae sentence lost, presumably 6 The punctuation of the terra, or its Irish equivalent.
3

Deus not

in Vulg.,

LXX

Latin text presupposed by Tr. is different from that usually 7 No authority for the omission of Deus, or 8 of quae followed. mouentur. 9 Co follus or is f alius is Tr. 's bad but invariable 10 In escam rendered by a mbiad 7 a rendering for ecce. n-ailemain: a good illustration of Tr.'s fondness for piling up the synonyms. ^Omnique uolucri in ST. No authority for has -n-aai to!? ireTivol<;. in Vulg., but plural

LXX

54

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Chapter
26.

II.

2 3 Ioirbthighid didu na Nimi i in talam 5 - 4 a n-uili cumdach. (2) Ocus ro comhslanaighstear Dia isin 6 seisead 16 in uili gnlm doroindi i ro cumsain Dia isin tsechtmadh lo on uili gnim issed on ro 9 8 bennachas Dia in (3) Ocus ro forbhthighthestar. 10 seaclitmadh laa i ro naemastar he, uair ro "cumsain ann on uili gnim ro 12 tuissimh.

(1)

Eo

27. (4) Is iad so tra Huismeadha in Nimi i in 2 3 talman, in tan do tuisinit imalle, isin 16 a ndearnai 4 5 4 an Coimdi Dia Neam i talum, (5) resiu na thurcbad 6 7 8 9 in talam uili fualascaigh in feraind, i resiu ro 10 clandaighedh in talam fer in feraind; uair "nuchu 12 dearna Dia fearthain for talmain, i ro bi and in 14 13 tan sin duini ro oipredaigheadh in talam. (6) Acht na freasgabad on talmuin 15 topar, ro 16 fliuchadli i ro bocadh "uili dreach in talman. (7) Ro 18 crutaigli dono Dia 19 duini 20 do criaidli in talmun coitcliind, i ro ?1 thinfeastar Dia tinfeadh beathadli i n-a gnuis, i

22

dorignedh in
In tan
do.
25

23

duine,

n-anmain na
nach
26

24

beoaigheadh.
fair,
28

cloronad duine
27

raibi

ainm

con-

debhairt Dia re
daircc retlaind

cheatra hainglibh dul d'iarraidh


airthir,
33
-j

anma
adcon-

Ocus dochuaidh Michel dochum in


29 30
.i.
-\

dorat Anatoile a ainm, 31 in n-anma sin. Ocus 32 docuaidh Raphel atconnaic retlaind 34 ann .i. 35 Dissis a hainm,
cet
39

leis cet litir

fodhess,
30

-\

-\

dorat a

litir

36
.

Ocus
40

atconnaic in
1

retlaind

dochuaidh 37 Gaibriel 38 fotuaidh, t 42 41 dorat dianadh hainm Arethos,


]

26.
9

-tigid
6

Nime
7

aigestair

sesed
10
2

talman seachtmad

in uili MSS.
. .

chomslan-

ised

orbtigeastair
3

bennachastair
27.

-astair
5
'

4-4

'tjmeada indime in Coimdiu .i. Dia nemda

thuismit

turcbadh resiu
(resiu
i

uile

eland, in rasura)

12 thusim om. a ndearnai B talam na talam i resiu na thurgbad 9 8 'f eraind -caich 1 instead of ro I2 10 " nocho roibi 'f eraind

" cumsan and

t;im

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter
26.
(1)

55

II.

So the Heavens and the earth and all their adornment were completed. (2) And God finished upon the sixth day all the work which He did; and God rested upon the seventh day from every work which He accomplished. (3) And God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, for He rested in it from every work which He created.
these are the generations of the the earth, when they were created together, in the day when the Lord God made Heaven and earth, (5) before the earth was raising up all the plants of the field, and before the earth was producing the grass of the field; for God made not rain upon the earth, and there was not there, at that time, a man who should till the earth. (6) But from the earth would rise a spring, to moisten and to soften all the face of the earth. (7) So God created a man out of the clay of the common earth, and God breathed the
27.
(4)

Now

Heaven and

breath of life into his face, and the a soul that was quickened.

Man was

made,
said

When Man was made and

as he

had no name, God

Michael to four angels to go in search of a name for him. its name, and he went to the east, and saw a star, Anatole

Raphael brought with him the first letter of that name. went southward, and saw a star there, Dusis its name, and he brought its first letter. Gabriel went northward, and saw the star called Arctos, and brought with him the first Uriel went westward, and saw a star letter of the name.
3
18

duine

14

-tair don criaid in talman choitchind eliruthaich 20 25 24 23 2 roibe dorondad dune dune doridnead mbeoaiged 30 29 28 27 dorad (bis) Anathole a hainm ceithri atcondairc 34 33 32 31 om. ann -deas n adchonnairc dochuaid an anma (bis) 39 3S 3s 35 adcondairc f othuaid "Gabriel ins. les Dessis 42 41 40 dorad les dianaid ainm retla
20

aitrebad 19 duine

15

tobar

" I liuchad

" om.

uili

drech
21

56

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


leis cet litir
44

Dochuaidli 43 dana Uriel slar, 4G adconnaic fuinedh 47 diana hainm retlaind isin 1 48 in cet litir. Ocus 49 adbert Dla tug leis Mesimbria, i a 50 Uriel, na litri-sea. Ro raidh 51 Uiriel Adham. Legh, Ocus adbert Dla Bldh amlaidh 52
31

in

n-anma

sin.

*5

28.
2

(8)
.i.

Ko ^hlonasdar imorro Dla Parrthus na


3

Toili %

locc

na n-airirdacht
5

||

on 4 tossach,

is

and

ro suighidh in duine ro cruthaigistar, J .i. Adham ||. 8 7 6 (9) Ocus ro thairg Dla i ro tusim don n-uir in uili 10 9 crand socraidh alaind o f eghadh, i in uili crand ailgin Ro suidhigh 12 dana Dla Crand co "tomultus. 13 Bheathadh a meadhon 14 Parrthuis, i 15 Crand 16 Feassa 17 Maithusa i Uilc. theigeadh sruth (10) Ocns no
t8
21

a Parrtus, co 20 ceitri cennaib 22 moethugadh i do bocgucadn Parrduis, i in


sechtair
co
1

19

fair,
23

do talman

24

uili

25

coitcend.
26

1 34
38

y na

Is
30

iat so

imorro
31 35

27

anmanda na
32

28

ceitri

29

cend

sin,

ceitri

sruth

filit

$
;

sel

ceitri airdibh in

domum

.i.

seachtar eistibh, fo 36 Fisson t Geon, 37 Tigris ||

33

Eofraiteis.

Fisson imorro, $ 39 risinabar sruth nGaind, sair 41 is e in ndiriuch 42 teidside sruth sin gach 46 44 4? a talmain 45 Euilath .i. inadh sin timchellus uili 47 is andsin or i logmur lan-alaind; (12) ngeinidar
(11)
40
||

fogabar

ainm
.i.

boellium, onichinus.
cloch
.i.

48

in

49

leg

logmar
na
53

50

eli

51

dianadli

gabhus
56

52
57

inti

clelba
58

mblath.
issi

54

Boelliiim
in

55

imorro

leg

logmar
45

lan-solusta,

fogebh

43

dono
28
]

41 48

hainm
8 11

atcondairc tuc les


2

ins. in
50
3

46

fuinead
51

'"

dianad and om.


52
5

40

d^eart
8

Uiriel
4

Urel

ins. ol se

clandustair 7 thairc do nuir


-alt18
12

Tole

tosach log uile crand sochraid


13

Dia dono
19
23

"
22 24

"-d;

cruthaigestair 10 9 f egad ailgen 10 15 fesa -ann

-ged

seach-

bogugad
uile

tal-

a -cheand

21 ;o maeth-thrib cendB, taiman corrected prima mann to talnian 29 27 26 M -thri crand iad anmand

om. a Parrtus

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


in the sunset called Mesembria, and brought with God said Uriel, read these letters. first letter.
:

57

him the
Uriel

said

Adam.

And God

said

So be

it.

28.

(8)

Moreover
[i.e.

God planted

Paradise

Pleasure

the

man whom beginning, and it is He had created [, Adam]. (9) And God prepared and created of the clay every tree pleasant and fair to Also God set the see, and every tree sweet to taste. Tree of Life in the midst of Paradise, and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and of Evil. (10) And a river would go past out of Paradise having four branches, to moisten and to soften Paradise, and the whole earth
in general.

place of there that

delights] He set the

from

of the

Now these are the names of those four branches, and of the four streams which are [a space] beyond, out of them, through the four quarters of the earth; Phison and Geon,
Tigris

and Euphrates.

for Phison, [which is called the river of It is that stream eastward straight it goeth] Ganges, which surroundeth all the land of Euilath, that place where gold is generated, precious and most beautiful (12) and there is found bdellium, and the other precious stone which is called onyx,
(11)
. :

As

a stone which receiveth within itself the figures of flowers.

Bdellium, moreover,

is

a precious, most brilliant stone,

cend, the former


31

word stroked through and expuncted


sel
31

B
f risin45

30
35

cethri
40

-lead

32

om.

33

sechtair
38

34

cheithri h39

Fison hie "-rech


48
52

36

et

semper
47

ins. i
43

^teitside

-chillis

Eof raites "thalmuin


49

-main each Euibath B

angenend
innti

-mar

54

55 bo ellium extending back to g

51 50 -naid ele leag E3 carelessly written so as to loolc like nibJath B 57 56 initial 1 in rasura om. imorro leag E8 lan-solusda isi of preceding word B

48

bo

eill-

58
59

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO


mairgreit isin ucht; i in baili aeht anadh 62 isin inat sin. seici,
60
61

a faghaibh

hi,

nl theit

in smth. Geon imorro, J frisinabar Nilus, 64 tanaisse J i fothuaidh 65 tlieitsidhe i is e in smth 66 67 68 sin timcellns i na tacmaiglieas uili talmuin 69 In Heitheoibi. tres smth imorro .i. Tigris (14)
(13)
||

63

||

70

$
74
7C

siar

71

teit-sidhe

Asardha.

In
77

75

73 ndirmch gach ceatramad smth

72

||

fri
80

tirib
.i.

imorro

fodhess 78 gach Eufraiteis, % 80 81 co roith tre lar mBabiloini.

79

ndlriuch

theidside,

||

Tobar Parrduis, buan a blad


29.
|i

(15)
3

Rug larom Dla

leis in

duine $
3
,

i.

Adham,

I'
i

lar n-a
4

dhennm

he
-1

Parrthns na

i Tar n-a cruthngad ||' i ro snigidh 5 Toili, ardaigh co n-oiprigeadh $ .i.


6

gan torrsi selbadh Parrthns lx gan 12 13 14 samgadh timna i aithni De (16) Ocus ro athain 15 16 Dla do ar raidis ris Tomhail i caith a thomdh gach craind fil i 17 Parrthus, (17) Ni ro 18 chaithea do 19 toradh Craind Feassa Maithusa i Uilc imorro, uair 20 cibedh gan
||.

co n-aireadh 7 co mbenadh, co 8 coimetadh, J .i. co ro


:

alius

||,

10

a caithfea ni do thoradh in bhas.


la

21

craind

22

sin,

atbela 6

Uair ro bo 23 chindti 24 demin chaithfeadh is airi ro raidhidh 26 so.

25

bass

do,

on

15

ro

y
28

Is airi ro
29

27

thoirmisc Dla toradh in ehraind sin do

ehaiteam, co
30

feasad

Adham

a bheith fo cumachta

fo

smaeht in
69
63 68 73

Coimdhedh.
(a misreading of up) M theid66 -chillis
e9
61

-ret

60

usin
64

-usti

bo-

6I

na Theoipe
-rech
74

B
-rrda
7S

treas

ins. i
76

02 isa ninat sin fagaib tacmainges uili talmain "theid "each

re

ceathrumad
-reach
3~ 3

Eof raites

deas

M
1

each
2

,9

8- 80

om.
. .

thre
4

29.

rue

dune

denam

chru-

fa B fo mBaibiloine. 5 -dus -ged


77
:

81

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


which findeth the pearl in
its

59

bosom
it

[the stone] findeth it [the pearl] abideth in that place.

the place where it goeth no further, but


:

(13) As for Geon, [the which is called Nilus], the second river, [northward it goeth] and it is that river which surroundeth and encompasseth the whole land

of Ethiopia.

(14)

As

[westward
regions.

it

goeth

for the third river, Tigris, straight] toward the Assyrian

river, Euf rates, [southward it so that it floweth through the middle goeth straight, of Babylonia.]

The fourth

Poem
29.

no. VI.

Thereafter God took with Him the man [Adam, after he was fashioned and created] and set him in the Paradise of Pleasure, that he might till it [i.e. that he might plough and reap, without sweat and without weariness,] and keep it, [i.e. that he might possess Paradise without transgressing the covenant
(15)

and commandment of God]. (16) And God commanded, having said to him Partake and eat of the fruit of
:

every tree that is in Paradise, (17) howbeit thou shalt not eat aught of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and of Evil, for whatsoever day thou eatest aught of the fruit of that tree, thou shalt
die the death.

in

For sure and certain was death for him, from the day which he should eat for that reason said He this.
:

The reason why God forbade the eating of the fruit of that tree, was that Adam might know that he was under the power and authority of the Lord.
6

ceii

(bis)

'toirrse

-edad
1S

aisebad
19

"tinma
18

thimna

" na haichne De
chaithi
21 25

14

" -dus torad each 20 ce la i caithf ea maithiusa 24 written as though deinin B 29 30 Choimdead. feassam B

chraind
26

" cen om. a thorad chraind f easa 23 22 chinti adb10

-dus

aithin

15

bais

seo

27

thair-

-s

-thim

60
30.
2

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(18)

Ko

beith aenar.
4

Denum

cosmail

fris.

Ni maith duine do raidh Dla Mana desidhe do 3 fortachtaighidh bus 5 ro cruthaighidh didu uili (19) O
:

anmand

in talman do criaidh, 7 uili foluaimhnigh in 8 7 Nimi, tug Dia leis iad co Hadhamh, co feghadh 7 9 10 co fessad ceti anmand o ngairfidh Adham "iat. Uair 13 14 12 is e ainm fil for gach aumand, in t-ainm o ra ghair

Adham
Adhamli
19

he
6
22 20

15
17

annsin.

(20)

Ocus
18

ro

16

gairmeastair

n-anmandaibh

fein

na
21

huili

amnanda
in tan sin

sin,

uile foluaiinnechu

Nime,

huili bhiasta in

talman.

Nuchu n-agbadh Adliamh imorro

24 23 Ronfuid didhu fortachtaigh da chosmail fein. (21) 25 Dia suan sadhal sir-codulta in Adam, ioro 26 chodail 29 28 27 Adhamli, ro thogaib Dia oen asna da asnaibh, i

ro lln o feoil a inadh.


Is
31 30

aire ro aslaigh

tuigsi na neichi splradallta 7 33 ar ro lln Dia he o 34 spirud eagna


aiti

Dia cotludh for Adamh, comad as 32 fiss na todochaide;


35

faistini

36

fochetoir

isin

37

cotludh

sin.
38

(22)

Ocus
7

ro co

Hadhamh,
denmach,

mbo

cumdaig Dia in 39 bean etrocht


leis co
42
46

dorad

Hadham.
1

t-asna dorad a 41 lanlan-alainn Ocus ro raidh (23)


40
43

Adamh
45

is follus

conid

cnaim dom
1

cnamaibh
47

44
i

conidh

feoil
49

dorighni
is

dom Adamh
||

feoil-sea 1 is
48

seo cet

faitsini

bidh

de a sloind-seo uirago, uair

do

fir

doronadh.

Is

50

so cet eoibhti
52

cet
55

51

faistini dorigni
.i.

Adamh, amail
os de
54

indistear isin

seriptuir diadlia

Ecce

r '

:i

ossibus

meis, et caro de
'

came
3

mea.
4

6
'f

2 30. aenur dono oluaimneach inime tuc

fortachtaidi
7

les

iad " om. n22

11

12

fuil
1S

13 19

f en
23

each om. sin

10 ngairf ead 16 I5 " anmanna B -istand20 "uili piasta uili foluaimneacha

f edad

chosmail 9 f easad

ra chruthaid

24 fen ro 'find (sic) B nocho " oen do thocaib 2S 29 chotail aen (sic) late hand before oen, and then scratched out, B

25 sadail sam-chotalta in written in marg. in 29 M airi ro dia

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


30.
:

61

man

It is not good for a (18) God said further Let us therefore make for him an to be alone.

(19) Now when helper that shall be like unto him. of the earth was formed of clay, and every animal every bird of the Heaven, God brought them with

and know by what name Adam For this is the name that every would call them. animal hath, the name by which Adam called it at that time. (20) And Adam called all those animals by their own names, and all the birds of Heaven, and But Adam could not at all the beasts of the Earth. that time find an helper like to himself. (21) So God sent a quiet sleep of lasting slumber upon Adam, and as Adam slept, God took one of his ribs, and filled

Him

to

Adam,

to see

its

place with flesh.


This
is

enticed a sleep upon Adam, for it [sleep] is the chosen teacher of spiritual matters and of knowledge of the future for God filled him forthwith with a spirit of wisdom and of prophecy in that sleep.
:

why God

fashioned the rib which He took out so that it was a bright woman, perfect in Adam, comeliness and in shape, and He brought her with Him to Adam. (23) And Adam said Lo, this is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh [this is the first
(22)

And God

of

prophecy which

Adam made]

and therefore

let

her

name be
This

uirago, seeing that

it

was of man that she

was made.
is

the

first

Adam
oslaic

made, as

it is

bride-gift and the first prophecy which related in the Holy Scripture, Ecce os

de ossibus meis,
31 34
"f

et

caro de

came mea.
32
3S

aidi tuicsi
35

na neichid

33

aro
-tenm-

-rait
t,
42

-tine

spiritalta -doir

fis
:

na togochaidl

significance over the


41

44

om.

B B

dorigne dorisne

con 45 conad 48 he
52

39 3S -daid B, conid (om. following i) 46 om. sea feoil-sea so cet B 50 49 seo cet choibchi doronnad M osibus B3 oss B scribtuir i

a dot with no 40 -aind ben edrocht


37

-tlad

43

clmamaib
4'

"fait sine
'f

51

aitsine

55

om.

mea

62

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


r,G

a athair i a mathair, lenfas da setigh, i beidid dlas an aen cholaind, 50 tusmidh cloindi ||. % arai gradha, no ar (25) Is 60 amlaid imorro bal ceachtar de na 61 deissi sin, i 62 siat
(24) Is airi sin
,

fuicfis in
58

duine

07

fl3

nochta,

.i.

Adanih

G4

seitigh

nir bo

65

nar

leo.

26.

(1)

eorum.

(2)

Igitur perfecti sunt caeli et terra et omnis ornatus 1 sexto opus 2 <omne> Compleuitque Deus die
;

[suum] quod fecerat


universo opere
diei
4

et requieuit

<id> quod patrarat.

(3)

<Deus> die septimo ab Et benedixit <Deus>

omni opere

septimo et sanctificauit ilium, quia in ipso cessauerat ab [suo] quod creauit [Deus ut faeeret].

1 27. (4) Istae sunt generationes caeli et terrae, quando <simul> creata sunt, in die quo fecit 3 Dominus Deus caelum et terrain. (5) ''Antequam oreretur in terra omne uirgultum 5 non et antequam germinaret <terra> oiimem herbam agri, enim pluerat 6 Deus super terram, et homo non erat qui 7 (6) Sed fons ascendebat e terra, inrigans operaret terram.

uniuersam superficiem terrae. (7) Formauit igitur [Domi8 nus] Deus de limo terrae <uulgaris>, et inspirauit in faciem eius spiraculum uitae, et factus est homo, in animam uiuentem.
Plantauerat autem 1 [Dominus] Deus Paradisum Voluptatis a principio, in quo posuit hominem quern formauerat. (9) Produxitque [Dominus] Deus de humo omne
28.
(8)

lignum pulchrum
suaue.

Paradisi, fluuius egrediebatur de

uisu, et <omne lignum> ad uescendum 2 Lignum etiam Vitae <posuit Deus> in medio (10) Et Lignumque Scientiae Boni et Mali.
3

Paradiso ad inrigandum Paradisum


4

[qui inde diuiditur in] quattuor capita.

(11)

[Nomen

unij

50

ifuicfeas

" a mathair

a athair

58

biaitdit

50

mead

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


(24)

63

Wherefore

shall the

man

leave his father and

his mother, and shall attach himself to his wife, and they shall be two persons in one flesh [for the sake of love, and for begetting of progeny.]. (25) Now in
this

Adam and

wise were both of those twain, naked, to wit and they counted it no shame. his wife
:

Fison ipse est qui circuit omnem terram Euilath, ubi nascitur aurum. [(12) et aurum terrae illius] optimum 6 ibi inuenitur bdellium et lapis onychinus. [est] (13) [Et
: :

nomen]
ipse
est]

terram Aethiopiae.

Geon ipse est qui circuit omnem [Nomen uero] fluminis tertii Tigris uadit contra Assyrios. Fluuius autem quartus, [ipsa Euf rates.
fluuio secundo,
:

(14)

29.

eum
(16)

(15) Tulit ergo [Dominus] Deus hominem, et posuit in Paradiso Voluptatis, ut operaretur et custodiret ilium.
:

1 Praecepitque ei <Deus> dicens Ex omni ligno Paradisi de Ligno autem Scientiae Boni et Mali ne comede, (17) 2 comedas; in quocumque die comediris ex eo, morte morieris.

30. esse

(18) Dixit
sui.

hominem solum.
(19)

similem
cunctis

quoque [Dominus] Deus Non est bonum Faciamus ei 1 <igitur> adiutorem Formatis igitur [Dominus] Deus de humo
:

animantibus

terrae,

et

uniuersis

uolatilibus

caeli,

adduxit ea ad Adam ut uideret quid uocaret ea. Omne enim 2 quod <tunc> uocauit Adam animae uiuentis ipsum est nomen eius. (20) Appellauitque Adam nominibus suis cuncta animantia, et uniuersa uolatilia caeli, et omnes bestias terrae. Adam vero 3 <tum> non inueniebatur adiutor similis eius.
ergo [Dominus] Deus soporem in Adam; cumque obdormisset tulit unam de costis eius, et repleuit
(21)

Inmisit

60

cecht-

n desi

62

siad

63

nocht

64

set-

65

nair

64

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


ea.

carnem pro

(22)

Et
:

aedificauit

[Dominus] Deus costam

quam

tulerat de

(23) Dixitque carne mea haec uocabitur Virago, quoniam de uiro


;

Adam Adam

in mulierem, et adduxit earn ad Adam. r Ecce os ex ossibus me is, et caro de


6

facta

est.

relinquet homo patrem suum et matrem, et adhaerebit uxori suae, et erunt duo in carne uno.
(24)

Quamobrem

(25)
et

Erant autem uterque nudi, non erubescebant.

Adam

scilicet et

uxor

eius,

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter


]\

II.

26.

^eptimo ST

sexto

OL.
:

LXX,
2

manu and

one secunda manu. 3 Deus found in one ms. only

one Vulg. ms. prima authority for omne. 4 No no other authority.

No

authority for the emphatic form issed on.

Sunt not in ST, but has fair support. No original ft 27. 3 for imalle in any ms. Dominus rendered here, but not later In the Latin mss., Deus is occasionally see notes on this fl.
1

omitted in the combination Dominus Deus, but not Dominus. 4 The order of words in ST and all mss. and Versions is Et omne mrgultum agri antequam oreretur in terra, omnemque s herbam regionis 2^ us Q uam germinaret. Priusquam, ST. One ms. has antequam, which corresponds more closely to the But we can hardly lay any Irish repetition reslu reslu. * critical stress upon this. Dominus Deus in ST and mss. 3 see note ( ). Unrigans is represented in Tr. by two Irish This mannerism is so constant ro fliuchad ro bocad. words, in Tr. that it is hardly necessary to call further attention to it. 8 Coitcliend, which has no original in the Versions or mss.,
. . .

"\

is

most likely an incorporated

gloss.

x See note ( 3 ) in preceding ff no further note need 1j 28. be taken of this point. 2 No authority for these words. 3 De No loco uoluptatis ST and all Vulg. mss.: i$'ESe/x LXX.
:

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

65

4 This part of Tr. has suffered to authority for de Paradiso. such an extent from the intrusions of scribes and glossators that the Latin original cannot be restored with certainty. 3 Spelt Phison in ST, but several mss. have the spelling G with P. The Irish boellium is the pardonable blunder of a

copyist.

The verbosity of the rendering of ct lapis onychinus be original, but is more probably a scribal modification, may meant to make these hard words clearer.
fl

29.

*One ms. has Dominus here


2

Kvpios

#os

LXX,

Dominus Deus O.L.


Y\

Literally rendered, atbela 6 has.

Dcside in Tr. no authority in Versions or mss. no authority in Latin Vers., but conceivably Tr. looked up the Greek and misread idv as wda. The rendering of this verse is less literal than usual. Animae uiuentis is treated simply as animal, and omne is transferred from the " names" to the ''animals." s In tan sin: no authority in Versions or mss. 4 Note the intrusive adjectives in Tr. here and after ben in the following verse. These may be due to the original Tr., but are more probably interpolated. See fl 31 3 note ( 1 ). Is follus, as already said, represents an original ecce. Ecce also appears in the Latin quotation in the gloss, and it must have been familiar from some earlier version which also influenced R 2 (fl 5 A). It is not found in any tovto vvv. G Sumpta in ST ms. ST has hoc nunc, Vulg.
30.
:

A.nnsin

LXX

and

all authorities.

l.g.

VOL.

I.

66

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter
31.

III.

bai $ in tan sin J i b' amaindsiu i ba tuaichliu 4 in talmun Moroinde Dia.


(1)
2

Ro

||

nathair ba
||

celgachu

o uilib

anmandaibh

fri Hadhamh, dearbh leis is 7 8 conidh airi dobert[h]a in Neam tar a eis, dia lmadh sin dochuaidh 9 a ndeilb 10 naithreach, eo ro "faslaigh 12 imurbus for 13 Eua, im thoradh in 14 craind ergartha do

Ro 6formthigh Lucifear

thomailt; co ro

15

faslaigh
1G

Eua
i

for
1T

Adamh.
18

y
isin

Is

seo cet

cheist

cet
etc.

imcomarc

dorigni diabui

domun.
$ is
I

Cur precepit
||

Ocus
di'a
20

in athair sin

ro raidh
21

19

risin

mnai

Cid

22 forcongair Dia duibsi gen nl do chaitheamh do 24 23 25 nili crand Parrthuis ? (2) Ro reagair in bhean 26 don nathraigh 27 Caithmit % 1 28 no sastar do thoradh
:

||

na crand 29 atat i 30 Parrthns; (3) ro 31 forchongair Dia 33 22 dtiin imorro na ro chaithmis do thoradh in 34 craind 35 36 37 a meadon ro taidlimmis he, ata, Parrthuis, i na 38 39 na ro aiplinm o thircur. (4) Ro raidh imorro 40 in nathair 41 frisin mnai 42 Nuchu n-eipiltaisi etir 6 bhas. 44 43 (5) Do- fuicfmd Dia imorro secip la chaithfithi-si do 46 45 toradh in craind sin, co n-oslaicfiter bar ruisc % .i. 47 im nilc .i. co mbeithi amail aingliu i tuicthi maitli
: ||

1 olc.

Atconnairc didu in bean cor bo maith in 4 crand re tomultus i re 3 chaithium, i cor bo socraidh
32.
(6)
2

fa hanmaindi i fa hamaindsiu i ba tuaithli i 4 -man a dot over the d without significance ' 8 9 8 B esi i 'f conad ins. do neoch; dorindi oirmdig 13 " cliraind 12 n faslaich 10 imarbuss Eba nathrach " " f risin " -inch,0 15 chest Eba 'f aslaid -gne qist B -3 -l " chaithim 21 10 chrand -duis f esin cen ro loreh25 26 'f recair da a bhaili here written in marg. in late hand B
31.

1_1

cealgachu

amaimsiu

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter
31.
III.

67

wiliest [,

[At that time] there was a serpent, the the craftiest, and the subtlest] of all the beasts of the earth which God made.
(1)

Lucifer was envious against Adam he was assured Heaven would be given to him in his [own] Wherefore he went in the form of room, to fill it. a serpent, and enticed sin upon Eve, in the matter of eating of the forbidden tree; so Eve made enticement upon
:

that the

Adam.
This
devil
is

the

first

question and the

first

enquiry which a
etc.

made

in the world.

Cur praecepit

And

[it is

that serpent which] said unto the

woman

For what reason hath God forbidden you to eat aught of every tree of Paradise? (2) The woman answered
the serpent eat of [and are sated with] the fruit of the trees that are in Paradise; (3) but God hath commanded us not to eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of Paradise, nor even to touch it, lest we die by a chance. (4) But the serpent said unto the
:

We

woman Ye
:

shall not at all die the death.

(5)

But God

knoweth that

whatsoever day ye shall eat of the fruit of that tree, that your eyes shall be opened [concerning evil] that is, that ye shall be as angels, in good and evil fortune.
in

32.

(6)

for eating

So the woman saw that the tree was good and for partaking, and that it was pleasant
i

nathair

" an inserted

sprs.

above

in late

hand

cai

68

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


i

feghadh i dorad $ in bean thoradh in craind dia 7 indsaigi, i ro 8 9 ro i chaitheastair, i dorat da fir $ i. "Adamh 12 hoslaicit ( ruisc J "chaiteastair. (7) Ocns ro
so-airfiteach 6 roscaibh
||

do

||

fl

"meanman
18

14

na dearnsiat gos in n-uair pecaich, 25 26 24 sin ro tuicsedar a mbeith nochta, ro Iuigsitar i o 28 29 30 27 fidhci i dorinsetar duillinna na fuathr6ga doibh
eolas in
|| ;

i 19

aigenta
20

||

na
21

15

deisi sin
22

1G

fri
23

17

fios

31

%
33

do na
.i.

32

dnillinnaibh
i

||.

(8)
||

$
.i.

Adamh
35
||

Eua imorro

Ocus adchualadar-somh 34 gnth an Choimhdia %


38
||

a n-imthigidh $ a 36 ndealbh 37 aingil 39 a bhfoghra gaoithi dearmhairi bPairrthuis, Eo 41 Jolaigh 42 he i a 43 setigh meodhon lai. 45 medhon( & ) chrainn Pairrthnis.

De

40
44

Iar
|

33.

(9)

Agas

ro
||

gairmeastair Dia
4
:

Adhamh
9

gnth aingleagda
(10)
10

i
7

ro raidh

A
12

Adamh,
i

cait atai?

Ro

frecair

imorro

Adhamh
a
16

ro

raidh

Adchualadhns

do
15

"ghuth
or

bPairrthais,
i

13

romghabh
(11)
20

14

eagla,

bham
:

nocht,
18

ro
19

17

foilgios

me.

Ro

raidh Dia

Cia

ro inndios
22

dhuit do
23

bheith

nocht acht

Me
6

fein?

21

In ro

chaithis

torad

sochraid
9
13

dorad

M M
2

ifegad
10 14

M
'8

chraind

dAdam

M
M
eolus

M
"
-thist1

'

hindsaigid

M
15
12

-ist-

" hoslaicid a
desin
(-ea/?

menman M/?
fria f3"

aicinta

18
20

"

fis

aigennta

(3

-nntadh

19

21 nach /? 2 dearnsad dernsat (3 ndern siad /? 2 gus an (3" ra thuicistair om. n- M/3 12 ro tuigset ar /3 ro tuigsat ar /3 2 23 26 27 noehtadh fj" nocht dtiillinda fuigseadar fuigsiodar /3" 29 28 duillionnadh j3 i2 fice ndhcidh /3 12 -rindsedar rinnsetar /3 12 12 12 2 31 32 30 don na /3 -eannaib -enn- /3 12 fuathrogadh /? (-gh- /J ) 33 34 in Choimhdia and om. .i. De /3 12 in Choimded om. this gloss /?" 35 .i. deanam thigidh (3 ag denamli clmcadli (3na imthiged
1

(3

-aid

f3

M M M
(3-)

pheeaidh 22 cus an
1

23

36
38

ndeilb

deailbh

S1

om. /?" u gaoithe dermhaire f3

a Parrdus

{3
39

svc
i

aingeal

/?

aingila

/3

aingilia

/3
2

fogur gaithi M, a bhfoghradli (g

iar

meadon

/? )
i2

iar

mhedhoin (d

(3*)

(3

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


and agreeable
:

69

and [the woman] to eyes and to sight took of the fruit of the tree to herself and she did eat, and gave to her husband [Adam] and he did eat. (7) And the eyes [of mind and understanding] of those twain were opened [to a knowledge and perception of sin, that they had not committed until that hour]
;

and as they realized that they were naked, they sewed the leaves of the fig-tree and made them aprons [of the leaves]. (8) And they [Adam and Eve] heard the voice of the Lord [God] a-walking [in the form of an angel] in Paradise in the sound of a violent wind, after midday. He and his wife hid them in the
midst of the tree-growth of Paradise.
called Adam [making use of an and said: Adam, where art thou? I heard Thy (10) Howbeit Adam answered and said voice in Paradise, and fear laid hold on me, for I was Who told thee naked, and I hid me. (11) God said that thou wast naked, other than Myself! Hast thou eaten fruit of the Tree which I forbade thee? The woman whom Thou gavest (12) And Adam said
33.

(9)

And God

angelic voice],

a falaid
44

f olaidli

12

42

/3

Adhamh
:

/3

Adamh

43

12

/3

and m is rarely indicated) 2 33. ' i -mist-mest- {3 12 Ocus /3 2 there does not appear to be sufficient room for
of
b, d, g,

45 i meadon chraind Parrduis a medoin (dh (3 2 ) iad /3 12 2 12 chrainn (cr- (3 ) Pharrthais /3 m(e)duin (throughout H, the lenition

ins,

seitigh

(3

this gloss in

M
8

only

it

in

Adaim
a
i

H
ghabh

ms. fris

MH

H
12

Adhamh
2

Parrdus
f3

(3

f regair /3 freagair 9 J0 ra raid -adus " om. f3 12 romgob gab

12

om. imorro -asadh /3 12


ro in

(3"

Adam

"

guth-su

M
1

doghabh oram (3 12
Acht
22

14

egla
16

J5

anocht

"

oir for ar hie et

(3

Mlg12

(ra for ro hie et


(sic)

M
(3

semper H) nochtadh as ft 12
12

dinnis

/3
21

chaithios
(a) (6)

-es /3

23

torrad

12 1S ro indis -ghas (3 20 1 duid nocht. duit /3 2 nior /? nuar (3 1 mar a (3 ni ro

roghabh /3 semper H, ar M,
f3

MH

19

(3

Text as printed from

here begins.

words that are here underdotted remain

Owing

this point follows (3, as a folio has been lost to the torn condition of the first leaf of in the opening lines.

from B.
H, only

70
24

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


"chrainn
28

in

26

do ro tairmioscios iomut?
2!)
:

27

(12)

Agas

do
31

raidh
32

Adhamh

In bhean
33

30

doraitaisi
35

damhsa
36
i

in

aentaidh

dorad

domh

34

do

chrann
frisin
41

ro
:

-'chaithius.
3n

(13)

Ocus ro raidh Dia


Is
40

38

mnal

Cia dia ndernais anl so?


in
46

ead ro
45

freagraistair

42

bhean
47

43
:

In

44

nathair nimhe ro

mheallastair me,

ro
34.

chaithius.

(14)
:

'Ocus

ro
4

raidh

in

Coimhdhi
in
i

ris
6

in
isat

nathair

Uair
7

dorighni[,s]-siu
8

m
9

so,

mallaclita
10

eidir

uilibh
ia

anmandaibh
12

blastaibh in
-\

talanili.( a)
14

Bidh

ar do
15

bhruinni
16

13

imtigfea,

bidli

talamh
(15)
21

caithfea 6
18

uilibh

laethibh do "bheathadh.
20

Ocus
22

suighidhfetsa
23

19

naimhdenus
na

edrut
25

in

mnai,
in

eadar
2T

do

si]

24

i
28

siol

mna 23
31

tiiairgndh
29 i

26

bhen do

chenn,

i
30

intledaiglifesu disi

leith

cosaibh.
24

(16)

Ro
23

raidh

dana don
fi-

mnaoi
26

32
:

Imdaigh-

an

ft

-nd

MH
:

crann

om. do

ro thairmisc
;

umut M: do
28

radh

aisiu
32

(3"

ro thoirmisgis ionium /? 12 29 an ben dains. fos f$"


1

"ocus ro M: om. H an bhean (3 2


12

ra
ao

rad-

-radaisidh

(3
i2

-radaisi

/3
33

dhamhsa

oentaid
/?

H
12

aon38
41 12

(3
35

dam

MH
36 42

/?
12

damn

34

/?

31 im don

M MH
12

do don

crand
2

H
39
12

ins. in

torad

3,

ehaithis

M
(3
45

-thes f3"
12

mnaoi

/?

cid dia ndearnais inni seo


f3

MH
H

anni

/?

"edh
in

/3

raid
43

M;
ins.

'fregair
12

an ben.
44
1

An

athair
12

in bheinn

bhen

/3

mellastair

MH
/3".
i
3

oga freagra
40

M
fi
:

nathar
4;

/?

om. nimhe

MH
12

mheall
2

/?

om. ro

ehaithis torad in ehraind


f ris in
4

M:
(mh

chaithes
34.
2
]

om.

/? )

athraid

M
1

an for

in

Coimdiu
fi"
5
2

MH

Choimdhe

/3

athair

nathar
/8

dorignis

rinnisigh

/3

rinnighsidh

seo

doridnis (om. sin) 6 i isad mallachta

M
M

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


me
(13)

71
I
ate.

as

companion gave

me

of

a tree,
:

and

And God
:

said unto the

was

thou done this thing? The serpent deceived me, and

woman Wherefore hast What the woman answered


I

did eat.

34. (14) And the Lord said unto the serpent In that thou hast done this thing, thou art accursed among all the animals and beasts of the earth. It shall be upon thy breast that thou shalt go it shall be earth that thou shalt eat, for all the days of thy
:

enmity between thee and woman, and between thy seed and the seed of the woman the woman shall stamp upon thy head, and thou shalt lurk aside from her, hiding from feet. I shall (16) Moreover He said unto the woman
life.

(15)

And

I shall set

the

isath
12

012

j8

-chtadh
12

/?'
9

-cht
2

/?

itir

MH
10

idir

12

anamaibh
bruindi eaithfedh
12

/?

H
/?

piastaib -nne
12
1

M
13
1

/?

uile
2

biastaib
-mth16

talnian
12

J3

-ne
J5

/3 /3

MH

imtigfedh

uile

laithib
21

"-eth-

18

yS
1

-denas

/3

edra
26

23 ~ 23

[i-

an ben

-fe-su dissi f3 faigfea-su indleadaigh fesu disi ^ (fes a /3 ) 2 so i leath o chosaib illeth o cossaib i leit a cosuib /? dono 31 Dia dan dia don mhnai /3 12 mnai mnai om. y sprs. c 32 -feadsa -fetsa iomadfadsa /? 12
: :

eadrud edrud H 24 bhur siol p' 2 sil " cheann an also /3 2


20

suigid feadsa

M
25

/?

" air u chaithfea


(-oth19
22

MH
1

/3

laoithibh /3"
12

/3 )

suighf edsadh

/3
1

-deanus

M
12

mhnai

MH tuaircfid MH M chend H cenn


2

/3

itir

M
28

idir

/?*
/3

-argf ad

ft

intlaed2

12

29

MH

M
H

(a)

The

mss. treat talamh as indeclinable.

72

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


33 34

feadh-sa

t'atliaisi,

bidh

35 i

3G

ngalair
i
42

ngoirtius
%
A.

tuismeadha
3fl

do

37

chompiortha
||

do

38

chlanna
43

iomad

40

galar mlsda "dhuit


46 1

bidh fo

chumhachta

(fl)44j ir

45

bia?
49

biadh a
50

47

thig]iernU g
31
:

48^
tjair
52
55

^
59
i

Rq

raidh

imorro Dia
i

go
53

Hadhamh
54

atchualachaithis

dhus guth

aslach do

setchi,

an uair ro
is

don "chroinn ro "thoirmiosciusa "ionrat,


in

mallaehda
a

talamh

60

id'gnimh

61
:

bidh
63

saethraibh
64

snimhaibh
C5

62

chaithfea biadh
(18)
69

6'n uilibh
67

laethibh do

bhethadh.
68

Ocus
drisi
72

66

clannaighfidh
70

in
i

talamh
71

dit

spine
alius
4

gera

deilgneacha,
i i

(19)
73

bidh in
i

do ghnuisi $
75
||

foghnamh do
77

chuirp
in
79

do

cholla
80

caithfea
81

76

luibhi
:

i
82

toirrthi

78

talainh,

i
83

notsasfar 6

bhiadhaibh

cen cor athadchuir fon

ialmain d'indearna Dia

thii.
i

Uair
85

is
86

do luaithread

do

83

thalmain
(20)
.i.

84

doronadh,

is

fae

ragha.

35.

"setchi
33 35

3 Ocus ro ^hairmeastair 2 Adhanih ainm a 7 5 6 Eua, Iar ,sin ni ro bhal, gor blio mathair
2

thathaisi

ingalar

M M

tataisi
12
1

/?'

daithaisi

34 3S
12

/3 /3 )

angalar

/?

biadh
37

(3

biaidh
-ortfi

/3
2
:

ngoirtes thuis39
42

H
1

fort tig- /3 -as /?' (3* biaigh /3 52 12 50 51 adchualadus oir /3 co om. imorro Dia /3 12 12 53 seitche /3 seitchi -asadh /?" adchualaidais (ais sprs yc) 56 55 54 ro chrund do for preceding chaithios /? om. an " thairmis-ciusa -cusa -casadh (2 chraim /3 1 crann /3 2 1 59 58 -achtadh /3 -acht /3 2 -chtha -chta iomad ft 12 umut ummut 61 00 biodh a sethraibh /? 12 nimh /? 12 bid a saetraib nim /? ad it /?
49

do chomhphrechadh /3 " clanda clannadh (ch. /J 1 ) (3 12 -perta H 40 41 miostadh /3 i2 duid ghalar 44 4J cumhachtadh /? 12 (comh- ,8 2) cumachta " -earn- M 46 biaidh biaid

tuismedh (ed

coimpeart:'.

M
2

MH

imad galair
/3

MH
/3
12

biadh
12

biaidh
4S

tfir (3
2

om. bia

MH

MH

j3

MH
:

MH

MH

H H

G2

caithfi

caitfedh /3"

o uilib

MH

on

uile

/3

M laithib

MH

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

73

multiply thy shames, and it shall be in sickness and in distress that thou shalt bring forth thy offspring and thy progeny [i.e. thou shalt have many monthly And under the power of a man shalt thou .sicknesses]. and his lordship shall be over thee. (17) Moreover be, God said to Adam In that thou hast hearkened to the voice and incitement of thy wife, and in that thou hast eaten of the tree that I forbade thee, cursed is the earth in thy deed. It shall be in labours and in tribulations that thou shalt eat food, for all the days of thy life. (18) And the earth shall bring forth for thee sharp thorns, and spiny brushwood, (19) and it shall be in the sweat of thy face [and in the servitude of thy body and of thy frame] thou shalt eat of the plants and fruits of the earth and shalt be satisfied with victuals, till He shall have laid thee again under( & ) the earth from which God made thee. For it is of dust and of earth that he was made, and
:

under

it

shall

he go.

35.

(20)

And Adam
66

called the

name

by reason of the
85

fact that she

was mother

of his wife Eua, of all living


1

beathad
drise
12
2
:

69

M
-sedh

/3

/?
ft

MH M
85

in "ia f odnum ag f ognamh /3 choirp (3 76 chaithfea chaitlifi -feadh /3 12 luibi luibhibh /3 12 ,7 toirthi 12 78 12 talman 80 toraibh j3 an na talmhan /3 notsastar 81 2 82 nodsastar notfasfar ft 12 bi- /3 cein gen go 83_83 Si rathadhchuir /? 12 (in {3 2 radh corr. to rath) om. f3 012 -nnad

an for

clandaigfead clanaigfi 2 70 -sa ft -necha delglecha

"anH H -nechadh
/3
12 73

6S
12

75

/3

geradh (3 " biadh M colla


1

12

H
/3

MH

M
2

f ai

86

radha

35.
s
7

'

gairmistair
12
4

ainim
eorbo
(a) (b)

MH

/3

seitchi

M -m;t- H -ester MH (se- M) seitche


(3
12

12

a
5

Adhamh
Eabha
/?

12

/3
12

(Aadh.
6

/3 )

12

/3

iarsani

gor ba

^8

From

this point the text of

is

continuous

till

the end of the column.

Following the reading of M.

74

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


10
||.

na 8 n-uili 9 mbeo % A. na ndaine 1J dana Dla do 12 Adhamh 13 i da


inaru "croichnidhi
17

(21)

14

15

seithigh
18

Doroighni tonochu i

(sic)

ro

eit iat.

36.

(22)
2

Ocus ro raidh Dla


3

Is follus
fios
4

Moronadh
i

Adhamh
5

aigi
6

amail

aen

fiaine,

go

maithiosa

rule

Mar bhadh
7

ni rob ail
16

ai

leis

.i.

imorro

7
i

ro

ed 8 adberadh Dla Ni 9 uair bheith 12 amail 13 oen 14 tiame. 17 seachmhaill in 18 maithius


:

Adhamh 10 an Ro 15 malairt
1

in

19

glaine

mbunaid
2n

ndemad

he.

Dichuiremh tra 21 anoissa 22 a 23 bPairtbas, 24 na 25 ro 26 cliaithea ni do 27 Chrann 28 na 29 Beathadh, i 30 nara bed 32 be tre 31 bhithadb. dhichuir imorro Dla (23) Ko 33 Adhamh a Parrthus na Toile, 1 ro 34 suidhigh he isin 3F talmhnin coitchenn dla 36 ndernadh 37 e. (24) Ocus ro 38 39 40 41 ordaigh Dla Hirnfm a bhiiaghnuisi Phairrtuis, i 42 43 cloidheamh teinntighi do 44 choimhed i n-a laimh, 45 46 47 Parrthais i na Beathadh. slighidh Crainn

nuile

J2

(3

beo
12

in blieo
12

30

doroindi
/3

M
1

daroigni

H
13

/?

dhuine

and om. gloss

12

dorighnedh ^
(3

/?

" dono

MH

/?
12

om.

"Adamh
15

is

"setig
12

/3
12

seitchi
ie

seitche

donacha imaru /3 donacha ionnara /3 12 changed by corrector to -eand H craicnedh 18 eid iad H.
36.
5
8
'

croicind

/3

croicend

/?

ins.

endatha

H
]

uaindi co
aici

dorondad -ronn- H fis aen uainni co

dAdam
fis

H
4

MH aigi -ered M -eiread H


12

/3

ins.

.1

MH
M

2 3 ainim aon uaine ,G 12 oen maithiusa maithusa -sa /? 7 bad bud ead badh /3 12

bail

/3

14 uaindi seehmall

M
H

9 ,0 12 adbh- /? 2 in ni fuair indi ro /? "ris /3 12 "amhuil /3 "eon aen aon /3 1 15 17 mhal- /?' "om, /J 2 uainne lart seaehmall 18 sechmhail /3 12 maithus H maithiosa /? mhaithesadh /3"
1

MH H M

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


[i.e.

75

and for

of mankind]. (21) Moreover God made for Adam his wife tunics and mantles of hides, and

clothed them.

36.

(22)

And God

said

Lo,

Adam

hath been made

as one of us, having a knowledge of good and of evil

As though what God would say was

Adam

obtained not

But he the thing which he desired, to be as one of us. and neglected the goodness and the original purity changed
in

which he was made.

So let us drive him now forth from Paradise, lest he should eat aught of the Tree of Life, and lest he should be alive for ever. (23) Wherefore God drave Adam forth from the Paradise of Pleasure, and set him in the common earth of which he was made. (24) And God ordained a Seraph in the forefront of Paradise, with a fiery sword in his hand, to guard Paradise and the way of the Tree of Life.

12 ghloine in buined inderna (Z -em H, diochuradh and om. tra /? 12 22 23 Parrdus anosadh /3 12 ins. Adam 12 24 25 ra chaithi H chaithedh /3 12 no /3 2 /? 26 27 2S don j3 chrunn om. na crund H chrainn f3 20 31 30 bethadh /3 12 nar ba bithu e tre bhiadhadh /3" 32 33 Toili H dhiochuir and om. imorro /3 12 a Parrdus na Tole 12 35 34 talam Pharrthas natolia /? 12 f uigid H suigh /3 suigid 36 choitchind talamh /? 12 -earnnderna /3 ndernada f3 2 (-inn H) 37 38 4U 3a om. e ordaid -aidh ,8 om. /3 12 hi fladnaisi 41 hi fiadnaissi H -fiadhnuise /3 ' H Pharrthais (-art ^ ) /? 12 -th; -d; 42 n claidem claidim H -emh /3 12 tendtigi tentigi H -ighe /3 43 12 44 i laimh choimet Parrduis Pharrthus H om. aingil /3 45 12 Parrth. t (3" Craind H Chraind sligheadh H slighe /? 4G 47 Chrainn /3 12 (Cr. /3 2) bhethadh (3 betad 0om. na MH.

1S

glaini

ghlainni
2

mbuneadh indearnad
20

(buinedh /3 ) 21 anosa anossa Parrtus H Parrtas

-earn

MH

MH

MH

MH MH M

M
:

76

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


31.
(1)

Sed

et serpens erat ^allidior eunctis

animantibus
:

terrae quae fecerat [Dominus] Deus; qui dixit ad mulierem Cur praecepit Deus uobis ut non comederitis de omni ligno

De fructu lignorum Paradisi! (2) Cui respondit mulier sunt in Paradise- ueseemur, (3) de fructu uero ligni quod quae est in medio Paradisi praecepit nobis Deus ne comederemus, 2 et ne tangeremus illud, ne forte moriamur. (4) Dixit autem
:

serpens ad mulierem

Nequaquam morte moriemini,


quocunque
die
3

(5) scit

enim

Deus

quod

in

comederitis

ex

eo,

aperientur oculi uestri, et eritis sicut et malum.


32.

angeli, scientes

bonum

(6)

Vidit igitur mulier quod


et

bonum

esset

lignum ad

tulit
(7)

uescendum, ^ulchrum oculis, de fructu illius et comedit, deditque uiro suo qui comedit.

aspectuque deleetabile; et
esse

Et aperti sunt

oculi

amborum, cumque cognouissent

consuerunt folia ficus et fecerunt sibi perizomata. Et 2 audiuerunt voeem Domini 3 [Dei] deambulantis in (8) Paradiso 4 [ad auram] post meridiem. Abscondit se et uxor
se nudos,

eius

[a facie

Domini Dei]

in

medio

ligni Paradisi.

[Dominus] Deus Adam et dixit Respondit uero Adam dicens Vocem tuam audiui in Paradiso et timui, eo quod nudus essem, et 3 abscondi me. <Deus> Quis [enim] in(11) [Cui] dixit 4 Ex ligno de dicauit tibi quod nudus esses nisi egometl quo tibi praeceperam ne comederes comedisti? (12) Dixitque Adam Mulier quam dedisti sociam mihi dedit mihi de ligno, et comedi. (13) Et dixit [Dominus] Deus ad mulierem: 5 Hoc est quod respondit mulier: Serpens Quare hoc fecisti?
33.
(9)

Vocauitque

<Adam>

ubi es?

(10)

decepit me, et comedi.

Quia (14) Et ait Dominus ^Deus] ad serpentem hoc, maledictus es inter omnia animantia et bestias terrae. Super pectus tuum gradieris, et terrain comedis
34.
:

fecisti

eunctis diebus uitae tuae.


te et

(15)

[Et] inimieitias
et

ponam

inter
illius.

Ipsa

mulierem, [inter] 4 caput tuum, et insidiaberis calcaneo eius. (16) Mulieri quoque dixit: Multiplicabo aerumnas tuas et
conteret

et

semen tuum

semen

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


5

77

coneeptus tuos
et
:

in dolore paries filios, et


tui.

eris,
6

ipse

dominabitur
7

(17)

Ad Adam

sub uiri potestate vero dixit

Quia audisti uocem [et temptationem] uxoris tuae, [Deus] et comedisti de ligno ex quo praeceperam tibi ne comederes, maledicta terra in opere tuo in laboribus comedes 8 e[se]am cunctis diebus uitae tuae. (18) Spinas et tribulos germinabit tibi, et comedes herbas terrae, (19) in sudore uultus tui 10 uesceris 9 pane, donee reuertaris in terram de qua fecit tc
:

Deus, quia puluis


35.

es, et

in puluerem reuerteris.

x (20) Et uocauit Adam nomen uxoris suae Eua, eo mater esset cunctorum uiuentium. (21) Fecit quoque quod [Dominus] Deus Adam et uxori eius tunicas pellicias, et

induit eos.
x

36.

(22)

Et

ait

<Deus>

Ecce

Adam
:

f actus est

quasi

unus ex
mittat

nobis, sciens
et uiuat in

bonum

et

malum nunc

ergo, ne

sumat etiam de Ligno et] aeternum, <emittamus eum de Paradiso>. 5 (23) Emisit <ergo> eum [Dominus] Deus de Paradiso G et posuit eum in terra de qua factus est. Voluptatis 7 (24) [Eiecitque Adam] et collocauit <Deus> ante Paradisum
comedat
Cherubin, et flammeum gladium satilem] ad custodiendam uiam Ligni Vitae.
[Voluptatis]
8

manum suam

[forte Vitae, et

[atque uer-

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter


fl

III.

31.

*On the adjectives qualifying

this

word

in Tr.

and

on the representation of the simple word qui by is i in athair 2 sin, see the notes on this ][. thircur, which means "from
a chance, accident," and in a good sense "from a windfall," suggests that the translator did not completely understand I am indebted to Miss M. Joynt for some the Latin forte.

references to passages containing this word.


all

mss. Oioi

LXX.

The rendering "angels"

Dii in ST and is a piece of

78

SECTION I.PROM THE CREATION TO


exegesis,

Jewish

mentary.

possibly conveyed to Tr. by some comSkinner quotes Abraham ibn Ezra, t c. 1167.

x U 32. Tr. has missed the elegant chiasmus of the Latin. Cum audissent in ST and Vulg. mss. Tr. here follows in making the clause independent (as in Heb.) k-ai ijk-ovaav
2

LXX

By exception, Domini is here translated. 4 Ad auram has been curiously Only one Vulg. MS. omits Dei. misunderstood by Tr. "'These words must have been lost from the Irish text at an early date by some carelessness, which
Ti)i>

(j}fri)v

k.t.X.

in this case

it is

impossible to explain.

fl

33.

\LXX
to

and a few Vulg. mss.

insert
to

Adam
(qui
s

here.
ait).

Nearer

LXX (koi tlntv uvto)) than


or

Vulg.

Adam may
rejected
etc.

may

by ST, 4 In Vulg., quod nudus quotations.


(so in

not be here an intrusive but found in several mss.


esses, nisi
<toj ... 1 1 fin

gloss.

Deus

and ancient
ligno,

quod ex

LXX,

rig avi'iyyttXiv

k.t.A.)

have been the reading in


written in such a

A,

but

quod
it

way

that Tr. misread

This must must have been as a contraction

for egomet, thus producing the nonsense acht Me fein, which, naturally, has given some trouble to his copyists. He then

began a new sentence with


into accord with the
to

Ex

Hebrew punctuation.

ligno, thus accidentally falling 5 Slightly closer

LXX
fl

(k-al

ilnev

?j

ywi)) than to Vulg. (quae respondit).


2

34.

Only two mss. omit Deus.


but

No

for inserting et, has koi. It also has (like Tr.) Ixfyoai'in the singular, unlike Vulg., in which inimicitiam has very slender authority. 3 No authority for repetition of

LXX

authority in Vulg.

found in LXX. This point is of no importance, how ever, as the repetition is practically 4 As suggested in the notes to required by Irish idiom. this fl, Tr. does not seem to have completely understood this 5 his rendering is rather free. Tr. seems to have passage conceptus tuos as linked to the following words, regarded governed by paries rather than by midtiplicabo, and to have
inter in Vulg., but
critical
r
:

supplied in imagination

et

Deus

here.

aslach

is

No authority for possibly another instance of Tr. 's


before
filios.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


fondness for duplication, but
s

79

it

may
9

also be

gloss.

eam

in Vulg.,

avri,,-

in

LXX.

an intrusive Apparently Tr. took


10

earn

for a contraction of escam.


a similar translation
1

gloss has ousted the

original translation of this simple word.

Sumptus

eo,

Vulg.

For
ff

compare

II. 23.

35.

Hauam

in ST, but there

is

plenty of authority for

Eua,

as well as

some for Aeua, Aeuam, and Euam.


has suffered considerably in translation or has authority for Deus, but

fl

30.

This

1|

transmission.
Kvpioi; 6 Bsog.

2 3

No Latin

LXX

The equivalent of these words was lost early, because two consecutive sentences began with presumably 4 There is an effective rhetorical aposiopesis in the na ro. But Tr., text here, in all versions from Heb. downwards. assuming that something had dropped from the text, has

made an attempt
imorro, but

at

filling

the

gap!

No

authority for

LXX
off
(fi

operaretur terrain

a Ut and a few Vulg. mss. have nal, et. de qua sumptus est in ST. Tr. has here

have already seen reason above) that the handwriting of A was not perfectly clear to him, and it is conceivable that ut operaretur was so written as to be read carelessly as et

gone altogether
to suspect

the

rails.
)

We

33 note

posnit

eum
it

in.

Once more we
factus

see

sumptus translated

as

7 Possibly Tr. or (cf. II 23, III 19). though one of his copyists thought these words superfluous after 8 I n-a laimh appears to be a gloss ro dhlchuir, just before. that has ousted the Latin atque uersatilem.

were

80

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter IV.
37.
'Is
7

follus

as so,

inn airt

ro bhadar "a bPairrthus

eorptar

oca.
8 9

etargnaigh imorro Ro "choimpir si, "seitigh.O)


(1)
14

Ro

Adhamh

10

Eua

ro "thuisimh Cain
.i.

do.

Chain
e
21

14 > 15

poseissio
i

no
fil

1G

lamentacio "interpretatur,
19

is
.i.

18

mlnughadh
22
:

ciall

isin

bhi'ocail sin,

20
.i.

Cain

sealbh

Adhamh
ro
2G
3r

i 25

is

do

23
.i.

Caneithi

foillsighadh
27

na
28

24

ceilli

sin

ro raidh

0cus ro Z9thuissimh sealbhus duine tre Dia. (2) 32 31 Is .i. Abel. 'dana Eua eile, dorighissi mac 3; amhlaidh 34 imorro 35 bhaoi 36 Abeil, 37 na 38 aoeghairi 40 39 .i. tirfreacuirti eiside. caoirach Cain t he, 42 41 imorro lar laithedaibh 43 imdaibh Dorighnidh (3) 44 con n-edhbradh Cain 45 maini do 46 thortibh in 47 talamh 48 49 do Dhia Abel 50 iodlibartha do (4) dorighni dono 53 52 "phrlomhgheinibh derrscaidhthechaibh a treoit do 55 56 57 54 Dhia. Ocus ro fegastair in Coimlidhia co 58 Habel
:
.,

go maoinibh, (5) ni ro 63 no 64 go 65 maoinibh.


Is as ro
66 68

59

60

61

fegastar

imorro

62

go Cain

do Dhia,

67 thuigestar Cain gor tholtnachset maoini Abel 69 70 ni ro imorro 71 a maoini fein r toltnaighsetar

2 37. 1 as f3' 2 aso ais so as so ar (air f3 2 ) a ndibirt /J 12

M
12

(3
4

inairet

indaired
5

as follus

ra badar

i
2

Parrdus

Parrthus

Pharthas
7

6~ 8

(3

Adhamh
10

[3"
:

occa

12 agus Eabha j3 ; i2 choimpir si (3 (but not (3) comper 2 14-14 1S a (fa (3 ) chialluighes (ci- (3 2 ) (3" do Cain posesio possesio 2 " om. 12 (&) 18 18 -tio ciall i miniughadh /3 j8 mineagud 12 21 19 n 20 selb seilbh is focol bhf ocal (3 (3 om. /? 24 12 22 23 -le f oillseagad om. /3 12 sealbhughadh (3

ins.

gur torrchadh (torrchad /? ) i dergnaidh 8 Adam etargnaid eadargnaid H u a a. seitig H, om. a seitigh ro setig " tuismedh 12 12

M M

H
1

M M
(3 (3

j3

/3
1

M M
28

/3
1

/J
1

25

canei

canai
29

me

(3

selbus

/3

28
31

agas

12

tusim

32 33 34 aile .i. Aibel amhladh /3 12 om. /? 12 ** bai M word almost invariably om. by the /? mss.) (this 3T 3S 28 Abel (3 12 Aibel om. na (3 aoidhire aegairi chaerach

doridise

M
:

-as 13"
:

21 12

Dhia
30

u
/3

(the

im

sprs. s

M)

toismidh

f3

M
f3

om. om. J3 1 bin /?"


1

/J

caorach /? 12 (a d sprs over the g) esige


aoidhre
2

**

tirfrecnairc frechuirthig 12 41 tir-f reacuirthe eisidhe f3 -ridned

om. (3

40

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter IV.

81

37. It is evident from this that so long as they were in Paradise, they were virgins.

(1)

Now Adam knew Eua

his wife.

She conceived and

brought forth Cain to him.


Cain, possessio or lamentatio interpretatur, i.e. this is the explanation and meaning which is in that word, "Cain";
i.e.

"possession."

And
i.e.

to set forth that

meaning

Adam

said "Caneithi,"

have acquired a man through God. (2) And Eua Thus was forth again another son, Abel. brought a shepherd of sheep, and Cain, an husbandman Abel, was he. (3) It came to pass, moreover, after many that Cain would offer gifts of the fruits of the days, earth to God (4) but Abel made offerings of the choice And the Lord looked firstlings of his flock to God. upon Abel and upon his gifts, (5) but He looked not upon Cain and upon his gifts.
I
:

Thus did Cain understand that the


acceptable to God, but that his
-nedh and om. imorro /?"
42

gifts of

own

gifts

Abel were were not accept-

laitheadaib
45

iomdh- /? 12 n-iodhbaradh and om. Cain /3 12 47 talman thoraibh /3 12 49 Abeal /3 Aibel


12
2

43

/3

(-eg

/3 )

laidhidaibh j3 laidhidegh " conedbrad go (tho d y sbs c)

maine
48

M
12

46 thoirthaib maoine /? 12 doridni do (om. righni dono) /?"

31

primgenib
/?

priomhghinibh
53

thechaibh
55

12

threoit

(3
12

edbarta -barthadh 52 dearrscaitheachaibh


34 5S

M M

12

/?

-oid

an (3> 2 da m. /3 12 04 da j8 12
''

56

Coimdi
60
65

/?
12

57

,= w om. /3 M, do M mainib mhaoin- (S thuigistair 12 gur tholtnach siad maoinibh /3 tlioltnaigsead maine 70 om. /? 12 toltnach siad /3 12 tholtnaigsedar

fegastair

M M

go /3 n om.

derscaidha very faint dot over the f 59 co a mainib Haibel

(-arr-

/?')

e5

/3".

na
6T

M
cor
12

M M

w nior
71

ro

/?

a ye

M:

(a)

Here

a lacuna in

begins.

who thought it ought to be there but did it in marg. It is written as an abbreviation (an i and a p crossed) and probably was so written in R, in such a way that it could easily be overlooked.
(b) Not om. in 0, not notice it inserted

but a corrector

L.G.

VOL.

I.

82
72
78

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


ar "tioeth
ni
79

74

teine

do
70

75

Nimh

tigedh imorro

for

80

78 for "eadhbartaib Abel, iodhbairtaibh 81 Cain.

Ocus ro
a
8G

fergaidh Cain go dearmhair, 87 88 ghnuis $ a t-toirsi i in dubha ||.


J

82

83

84

85

dorochair

38.
5

(6)
6
9

Ocus ro raidh
7

in
i

8
5

Coimlidliia
8

go Cain

Cidh ar

ar

feargaighais,

ghnuis % i t-toirrsi ||! "fuidbheasu a "comain

torchair do 10 Cidli on, ar Dia, nach (7)


cidh ara

"Madh
18

olc
(8)
:

15

fort.

bhrathair
24

toclitain
29

doghneis? fogus a "indeochadh 19 adubhairt Cain 20 co 21 Habel, go a 22 23 Iar Tiagham amach isin bhfearann. 25 26 27 28 daibh isin bhferonn ro comheirigh

madh maith
16

13

dono Ocus

13

dogneis, bidh

Cain

an aghaidh
33
.i.

30

Aibeoil

31

a bhrathar,

ro

32

mairb

he
35 danadh ainm Damascus. cathraigh Abel dono, ced marb in domain, rob e Aibel 37 in 3s 3!) 40 cet mairtir() ro bai ariam, i ba(&) toltanaeh ro adaimh

y 2 y

isin

34

36

-\

a
(9)

martra 40
c (

42 43 )Ocus ro raidh Dia 41 go Cain bhfnil Cait a 45 46 Abel do bhrathair ? Ro f regair Cain Ni f eidar cidh on, % 47 ar Cain ||, in 48 missi 49 is 50 coimhedaigh dom' bhrathair 50 ?
:

44

maine

M
12

mhaoine
1

12

"
i

12

/3
74

tigedh /3 " iobarrthaibh ioilhbarthaibh (3 2 /3 SI 80 Chain [i idbartaib iodhbarraibh /3 12 12 84 83 derrahar /3 12 co fergadh (3 87 80 toirrsi ttuirsedh /3 12 gnuisi

tene

/3

" teigead (ge in rasura) " neimh 12 T0 fo /3 (bis) ins. 70 thiced

M
M M
V1

,2
83

f eargaidead
12

ro chuir

M
/3

w andubha p"
u
ft
2

/3

(om. do-)
2

38.
3
7

'

This word spelt agus, agas indifferently

Coimdi

M
12

-mhdia
:

/?

co

fergaidis y sprs. s 2 marl: ins. here /3

B
8

cia

f3'

(bis)
10

an om.
cia
1-

J3

ft"
12

12

Jergais

ttor2

toirrsi

ft-

an interropationced

attuirscd
1-

11

-bhesa
fi'-

/3

" chomain

"ma
18

"om.

M
/J
23

j3

-aoin
12

a
,6

/3

dognes

i'ocus
21
24

om.

M fert
M

/8"

"adurbairt
12

M
12

w
/3

go/3"

doghnidhis (3 (bis) " ineochad /3" Haibel co om. go /3M

/?

"ferann

bhfer-

/?

om.

tiachtain

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


able

83

in

that

fire

offerings of Abel, but of Cain.

would come from Heaven upon the would not come upon the offerings

and Cain was exceeding wroth, and fell % in distress and in gloom.
||

his countenance

Wherefore 38. (0) And the Lord said unto Cain wast thou wroth, and wdierefore hath thy countenance fallen [in distress] ! (7) How now, said God, shalt But its equivalent if thou doest well ? thou not obtain for it shall be if it be evil that thou doest, vengeance (8) And Cain said unto Abel his nigh unto thee. brother Let us go out into the field. After they had gone into the field, Cain rose up against Abel his
: :

brother and slew him,


In the city which is called Damascus. Now Abel was the first dead man of the world, and he was the first martyr that ever was and with good will he made confession in martyrdom.
;

(9)

And God

brother?

said unto Cain Where Cain answered: I know not.


:

is

Abel thy

[said Cain],

is it I

who am custodian
amacli
12

for

How now, my brother?


bf er2

doib
28

doibh

12

2G
1

coimh- /3 -rghe /? in Abel /3 choimerig 31 32 a brathair j3 om. ft 12 ins. iad a da laim fo bragait cor ba 34 2 marb M; mliaruh e /? 12 2 33 om.. .i. chathraid chathraigh /3 35 sic M: om. cet marb dianad darab ainim /3' 2 Aibel j3. Abel (din sic, bracketed in both MSS.) an ched mairbh marthar bha 2 2 2 [ba /3 ] ariamh i ba [badh /? ] toltanach [toil- /? ] ro H-Adhamh a 3T 38 39 an [i mhartra [martra /3 2 ] /3 12 inairtir bhaoi ariamh [i 40-40 41 42 ro adaim a martra do tholtanaich co cia hait /3 44 43 45 fuil bfml /? 12 do derbhrathair [dh p 2 ] Abel /3 12 freeair 12 46 " om. ar Cain feadar ifedair /?' an ft 12 'fregair /3 48 12 49 50 - 50 misi bhas /3 bus /3 2 comhedaid do fi i2 f3

/?

ins.

27

f earann
29

/3
30

-ann

ft
12

-\

-\

2 (a) s

M.

(6)

here resumes.

1 (c) s

M.

84 y
57
3

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Is
58
I

51

so

52

in

53

dara

54

ced bhreg,

.i.

55

an

B6

diabhul ar

ttus,

Cain

iartain.

(10)
61

Ocus ro raidh Dla


G2
i C3

59

go Cain:

60

60 Cid doroinnais ?

Nuallaigh

eigidh
G6

chugum don

64

talmlmnn gnth

foghar
y4
70
.i.

65

fola do
66

brathar.
67

Tri

nualla
71

ro saghat
72

dochum De
73

68

gan
1'ola

69

fuireach

nual] fola
75

finnghaili,
7G

amhuil

nuaill
;7
;

74

Abeil iar

n-a dortadh
79

do Chain,
80

da bhrathair
81

-\

nuall
82

78

pheacaidh
:

indirigh,
83

amhuil
gair
86
-]

nuall

pheacadh na
iar

Sodamdha
84

nuall

na

mbocht
87

mbreith

uaithibh

n- 85 ionmhais

Iar n-a

slat.

39.
4

(11)

^iadh-sa
5

dono

tu.

mallachdha
in

for
8
||

lalmhain $

budli
9

mallachta dono
fuil

talamh
ia

ro

foslaic a beal
12

ro

ghabh

do

10

brathar %

iar n-a

dortadh
y
1

13
II

dot laimh.

14

chnama camaill
15

Uair airmid na staraigeda diada co rob do Ed ro marb Cain a brathair og ingairi chaerach.
16

(12)

Agus

in tan

17

oibridfeasu

18

in

"talamh

a sin, ni( )

51 52 an ft" sco M diabal ft" co-co Joronnais pecad

S3

MH
M

daradh breg
='

ft

M cet breath
5S

tus

MH

(sic)

M
M

om. an
5

M
ft"
13

ft"

ins. i
63

M
H

Vo M

MH

62

egid

gaim n-adbal

M
:

cia doroinnis ft"

M nuallaid

eigid
ft"

"talmain
66

talamh

69

nuaillaidh ft" nuala fhuirech ft" fuireaeh

chucum eighidh ft" 65 foladh ft" "bhrathair ft: 6' do saiged M, sagaid ,0 n nuaill

ehugam
bh- also
os

ft

cen

fionghaile ft"

M "pecaid MH
"Aibel
pecadh
ft"

" nuall fola dia H, om. da bhr. ft" Abel ft 1 2 n om. "nuaill ft" pecaidh ft' 2 Sodoma Sodomaitibh ft"
,0

" amail ra dha ft"

MH
H

ft"

fingaile

M
n.

M
H
1

MH

fingaiU foladh

ft

"nuaill ft"

M
83

pecaid
nuaill

M
1

/3

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


This
is

85
first

one of the

first

two

lies

the

devil

and

Cain afterwards.

What hast thou done? (10) And God ,said unto Cain The voice and cry of thy brother's blood maketh complaint and call unto me from the earth.
:

There are three cries which made their way to God without delay the cry of the blood of kin-murder, as the cry of the blood of Abel after it was shed by Cain his brother the cry of iniquitous sin, as the cry of the sin of the Sodomites and the cry and lamentation of the poor, when their goods have been taken from them and when they have been slaughtered.
:

39. (11) Thou also ,shalt be accursed upon the earth [and the earth also shall be accursed] which hath opened her mouth and received the blood of thy brother [after it had been shed] at thy hand.

For the sacred historians consider that it was with a shank of a camel-bone that Cain slew his brother, as he tended sheep.
(12)

And when
12

thou shalt
M indmais

till

the earth, she shall not


12 86

"uadhadh
87

slad
39.
-clita

M
1

/3

MH
2 2

ionmhus
-\

ft

ar

/3

om.

/?

(i

biasu

MH
12 4

om, dono
12

M
8

M
H H

-uighe
:

/3
/?,

tall- /?

-mhuin
1

/3
2

tu /? 12 5 bid

om.

-\

H, but yc
6
7

bu

12

/3
2

-chda

mallach dana

ro (ra

H)
ft

sluig

ragab 13 dod
17

M) Abel MH w bhrathair p (bh- also


(si:

mallaighthe

/3

om. dono /3' -uighe 12 fosglaic a beul /3


/?
:

an

12

"

if in

(3")
15

" ar

only
1S

ocus

M M

/3
16

" dhor-

rogob

M
1

an

/3
12

/3

oibrigfeadfa-su
corr. in

oibrigfessu
2

marg. to oipd

/3

an

H oipd H

oibrid feasu
19

/?'

euspd oibrid

talmain
to

(a)

is

preserved continuously from this point

the next lacuna.

86
2
'

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


:

22 biasu 23 faelnedach 7 thibradh a "toirtha cllmit 7 26 for talmliain. teitheach t a "liinud. i n-innd 28 27 go Dia Is mo 7 is fnilliu (13) Ocns ro raidh Cain 2i so inas mar "dlighim loghadh. 'm'indirghi

24

||

y tan
40

37

Dearchainmdh 33 dono 34 dorighni Cain 35 sund Ni 38 gheabha-sa a 39 De, ro raid na brlathra-sa


32
:

3fi

in

nl

damh loghadh 44 De do- 45 som sin. egnach


thibrea
41
4

42

ce

dagneor

43

aithrighi.

Ocus

dichraighsm misi andiu o (14) Is follus, ar Cain, 50 "dhreach in 49 talamh, i namfoilgeabhthar od' ghnuis.

4<5

47

51

faelnedach-sa for "talmhuin, i 57 ''muirndh i nlmbcbeagela neach me. (15) Agas ro 58 59 Ni ba 60 hamhlaidh sin G1 doghraidh Dia go Cain 62 63 64 cudrnima 65 gach secht entar, acht planfaithair a
teiclitbeach
56
:

Bam

52

53

aon

6G

do
.i.

67

mhnirfeas Cain
68 69

y
78

Ni he
72

leighios

amliuil

saili,
i

acht

73

71 70 peacaidh fogheabha bas oband 75 76 77 74 mera go fada gorab moidi do

phian
80

do

79

dioghail.
81

Ro

snidhidb
84 86

marbhadh
y
4
.i.

Dia Cain nach 85 duine he.

82

comhartha

83

conach

cnocc ina S7 eadan 88 \ 7 cnoc ceachtar a da griiad a bheith 89 ghan for each laim 88 7 cnoc for each cois 91 no a bheith 92 teiththeach. "ulcha,
-j
|| ,

-j

20

thibra
12

MH
M MH
12

23

/?

aninad
28
31

34

H hionad, ionad -au f uilli inneirge minndirgi H in innirge dhldier- MH -nead M -nid H -aoinedli -dne M -gni H dorinigh sunn antan H
2

-bin- /3 tiubhradh f aoil- /3 -neadach anin with ad above

12

21

M
2a

/?
2i

thoirthi

techech

MH thoradh M teithibh
/3
26

12

/3

12
1

25

M biadhsa a hinad
27

/3'

/3
2

co
"

MH
H
12

/3

/3

na

32

12

/3

/3

w om.
so
1

/?

12

35

12

30

37

12

/?

/3

raid

na briathra-sa
12 39

012

/3

na briathra-sa
40

in

(om.
2

-sa) /3
41

Dhe
12
:

/?'

tibra

ft

dliamh
12

/3

logad
43

dam

ced agnair
45

/3

-ide
12

MH
-igi
012

M
H
50

M only
42

/3

3S

thibri

geba-su thibredh

MH gheabadh
/3

/3

om. ro

thiubhredh

ge dogneor

dosam
12

sin

H
49

do san
-siu

am
/?

sin
tal-

/3

-ighthe /3" 46 diclmirid-siu

ge do ner 44 ecnaeh
4S

MH
H MH
12

M MH

diacuirisi

diachragh and om.


-ech
(gh/?
2

"

/? )
2

-lman 5I bain

an
2

H
12

aniug

MH
M

aniu

12

/?

dreich

nomf oilgebthar

S2

B3

(-teith

/? )

-nead-

/3'

faoil-

j3

teicheach 54 -lmain

-teach

G5

H teiehtheeh murf. H nmirbhfedh

-gebhar

/?
12

/?
12

/?

THE DISPERSAL OP THE NATIONS.


:

87

and thou shalt be a yield her fruits unto thee wanderer and a fugitive [from place to place] upon Greater and the earth. (13) And Cain said unto God
:

linger
It

is

my

iniquity than that I deserve forgiveness.

said these words

was despair that Cain expressed there when he God, shalt not receive, and shalt Thou, not give me forgiveness, though I should work repentance. That was a blasphemy of God on his part,
:

Thou hast driven me today from the face of the earth, and I shall be hidden from Thy face. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer upon the earth, and anyone shall slay me, and shall not spare me. (15) And God said unto Cain Not thus shall it be done but everyone who shall slay Cain shall be
(14) Lo, said Cain,
: :

punished sevenfold.
not the remedy for sin that thou but thou shalt live long, so that thy punishment may be the greater.
i.e.

Sudden death

is

shalt obtain as thou thinkest

God him
a.

set

Cain in a sign, so that no


his

man

should slay

lump upon

forehead

his cheeks, and a lump and his being beardless,

[and a lump (on) each of on each foot and on each hand]

and being a

fugitive.

56

nimcoicela

MH
co
_

(-gela

H) -ehealgadh
ei

12

B7

/3
12

nech
6:!

MH

12

5S

(3

co

59

bu yp
(3

lad]l 0,2
63

do-dihentar
12

-fuighther
65

12

seacht
2

each oen marbhas tu

M
/3

M
H

each aen
12

(mh-

/3 )

pecadh
72 74 77

12

70

saile

co

M MH M

(3

saili

H
75
12

f o'geba
saoile

MH chodrumadh MH muirfes MH pecaid MH -ges M -g; H " MH f ogheabhadh opand M obann H


s- (3
64

/3

-f aidear

M
67

cuduma
eB

-faigter 2 12 (cod- (3 ) (3

MH H

gac

(3

om. do
i2

6S

69

(3

/?
1

12

ra 12

fata
78 81

moide

(3

mairradh
7e

(3

maredh

12

/3

f adadh

n
j3
/3

pian
hi

M
H
82

/3
79

corob

digal
(3

MH

corop

H
M

(mair-

/3 )
13

gurab

dh- f3"

(s84

M)

suighe

om. nach /3 12 etan edan (3 ulchadh (3 12


2

K duine nduine
88_88
91

in

12 83 -thadh /3 12 connach gonach /3 86 87 cnoc hedan cnoc ionna /? 12 89 90 cen can ulchain only gan (3" 92 teitheadach teichteach (the ch yc),

suigid

MH
H

(3

teitheach

/3

88
40.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(16)

*Ro scibh Cain


i

imorro o
6

freagnarcns in
7

ro "aitreabhaidh, is se teitheach *Coimhdhedh, 8 10 9 i rind an feroinn dar ainni 10 dasachtach, airtheraigh

"Eden
12
.i.

fcrand sin

fil

"inn airthear na

14

Haissia.

"etairgnaidh Cain a "seitigh i ro "coimpar"mac .i. 20 Enoch, i ro 21 cnmlidaigh-sinm 24 22 23 ainm di 6 25 ainm a 26 mic 27 .i. catliraigh, i tug 28 Enoch. (18) Ro thusim 29 imorro Enoch 30 Iaradh, 31 i 32 33 35 ro thuisimh Iaradh 34 Mauiabel. Ro thnisimh 3R 37 38 39 Mauiabel Matusael. Ro tusinih Matusael LaimhTach $ 40 diamus .i. on da mnai
(17)

Ro

astar

18

si

||.

imorro 3 in *LamhIach 5 sin da 9 10 seitigh, Adda i Sella a n-anmanda-sidhe. (20) Agas 11 12 13 14 ro thusimh Adda eisidhe ba liathair Iabal; is 15 16 ba 17 taoisech 18 na n-agairi i nam 19 no aitreabhl t dais |( a) a 20 bpniblibh | 15 i 21 a bhfaissaighibh 22 ainm a 23 bhrathar; is esidhe 24 ro (21) Iubal imorro 25 26 bha athair J i rob air each nani ro 27 chlechtaitis
41.
a

(19)
7

Dorad
8

6(*i/->

||

||.

||

cruit
32

28 i
33

orgain.

(22)

Ro

29 35

tusmestair
.i.

30

mac
40.
'

don

34

Laimhiach
2

ceadhna
3

36

dana 31 Sealla 37 a Tupalcan

ra scib
2

H
4 6

om.

12

(3

freacnarcus

fergnarcus
5

teichtheaeh (-eab M) /38 dhasachtach [blank space that would hold four letters] fuind (i dh. i 9 12 10 bhf uinn /3 n iartharaid om. /? 12 iartharaig airerthaigh /? " Etan in (an H) fearaind (r\ fer- H) dianaid dianad
i

aitreb

MH

(3

Coimdead

M ise H M

MH

an Choimdead
12

(frec-H)
12

Choimhdhe
'
:

/?

om.

is /3

re for se

H
:

,(l

Eadon no Eden fearann fuil Asia (om. na) /?"

MH

M
:

Edin /3 Eoin /? 2 13 an iarthar M an


1

12

oirrther

om. ferand sin fil /3 12 14 Haisia

15

seidid
20

"

eadargnaid (edar- H)

MH

choimpristair
2

MH

12

ft /3 cumdaigsim H chum- /3 23 24 25 "cathraid tuc ainim /3 12 annmin ainmuin (3 2* 12 2T 2S ainim (3" mliic /3 ins. primgenid tuisim ra thuis. 29 30 om- /3 12 thuisiumh /? 12 ins. mac .i. Iarad M Iaareth H la ret /3 12 31 32 om. i ra tuisim H om. /? 12 33 ins. imorro MH: Iareth Manuel H u ins. mac .i. 35 Iarec Iaret 2 ro Mauibel

-peir21

/3

om.

edar- /8"
si

'

MH

setig
r-

M M
H
H H

Eanoch

Eanoc

MH

M
/3

MH M

"irnac ft 2 -siom (3

/3
12

M;

om.

38

/3

Maubel mac
2

.i.
:

\lauabel Matusaoil

37

/3

ra

(not ra) thuisim Maithiusael M; Manuel Mathasael 3S om. ro tusimh, ins. ^ /3' 2 thusim

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

89

40. (16) Then Cain departed from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt, a wild fugitive, in the eastern border of the land called Eden

The land which

is

in the east of Asia.

and she conceived a ,son, (.17) Cain knew his wife, Enoch and he founded a city and gave it a name from the name of his son, Enoch. (18) And Enoch begat Irad, and Irad begat Maviahel, Maviahel begat Mathusahel. Mathusahel begat Lamech [the bigamist, i.e. (so called) from the two wives].
;

41.

(19)

Now

that

Lamech took two


(20)

Sella their names.

And Ada

wives, bore label

Ada and
;

he

it is

who was father [and chief] of shepherds and of those who used to dwell in tents [and in desert places]. he (21) Iubal, moreover, was the name of his brother it is who was father [and leader] of those who would
:

handle harps and organs. (22) And Sella bore a son to the same Lamech, Tubalcain his name. He,
thuisim om. Matusael
41.
7

39
2

/?

Mathasael mac w this in


g.
2
1

.i.

Laimiach
only.
3

Mathusael Laimiach
12

'darad
12

H
/J )
8

om.

12

(3
5

an
.i.

H
/3

om.

4
6

/3

Laimiach

Lamiach
ins.
12
.i.

9 12 -and-side (-sidi H) om. a nanmanda thuisiumh thuisim Ada (foil, by full stop) 1 12 n eside ins. mac do Laimiach .i. eissidi csidhe /3 12 -iomh f3 2 Z? 15 10 14 bu (3 2 A. to be read for i (Ms) all MSS. bu hathar /3 12 probably 17 1S na naegairi taiseach toissich do, with na sprs. ys 12 19 noch aitreabhas /? 12 ra aitreabadais -trebdnagari /? haegairib 12 22 12 23 20 21 i f asaidib a bf asaibh /3 ainim /3 brathar puiblib 02 24 25 26 rob athair ro ba /3 1 ro badh (3 2 looks like nam brathair /? 2 21 clechtaidis in /3 1 but may be given benefit of doubt: certainly nam ft 29 12 28 thuismedar /3 12 30 dono lechtatis /3 leachtadaois jS organ 32 33 ** 31 -ech 0* mac dittogmphed /3 1 do {3 012 om. /3" Sella 37 33 36 -dhe /? om. a Tubalchain Tubalcon /3 12 cetna cedna /3 12

MH

/?

(-iac

hi sin

012

Sealla

10

/3

ocus

" ra

H H

/?

MH

seitig

M
:

seitid

MH H

M M

M M

(a)

lacuna begins.

90

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO


38

einm-side.
4.;_
4n

Rob

eside
i

39

ail

44

C g ac| gaijjja

45-

imorro n ^gad

40

an
50

41

ehed

42

cheard
*7

46

saer.

Ocns
54

rug

4R

Sella inghen larsin, i.


rjI

49

Nema

sinr
-

Tubalcain.
ro

Ba

hi

52

sin in

53
55

chcad driiineach

is

chead-chum

edach re each ar

ttus.

2 3 *Agas ro raidh Laimhiach re seitchibh .i. 5 6 A seitclii Laimhlach 6 7 eistidh re Hada i re Sella 8 9 mo gnth oighidh i "tuigidh mo "bhriathair. 12 Uair ro 13 mharblras 14fer amiiigh 15 aniu, i is 16 inund fodhen 19 ro "chreachnaideas 18 annsin. Uairistar 20 form,

42.

(23)

-\

21

tri

22

formad ro
2T

23

mhairblnis in

24

maeth-dglach
2S

Z5

sein.
tria

29

ba gniomh comhaidhmhi lesiumh dhiomns i 30 in docbhail ro raidh.


1
31

26

sin,

nair

is

muirfeas Cain, 34 indecbfaidhair 31 32 tseachtoll ?air in ti imorro 33 mbnirfes 34 35 36 secht 37 cudrama fa Laimhiacli, pianfaidliair he a
(24) in

In

tl

32

traa

33

35

seachtmbogbait.

43.
t
.i.
|(

(25)
a)

Ro

'etargnaidh
5
||,

*Eua

ro

dana Adhamh 3 dorighisi tlmsimh si mac do, 7 i do ro


2

39 12 2 40 ba hisidhe /? 2 o?n. imorro M j3 in P (bis) 43 ^cerd p 2 goba cherd saer on. i p 12 ** 12 2 * an 12 saor 47 rue P ched-ghabhadh /3 (gabh- p ) /3 p" 48 49 50 " fa Sealla p 1 Seall p Neama p Thubalchain M 52 M died ruinech M chet sidhe P i2 ced dr. p ced cumedach

ainm-side
cet

41

12

**

ro

(ter) ced

012

55

yS

42.

M P" ocus M p
tus
2

M M

P"
7

Sealla

12

6_s

estig ghuth /? an attempt made afterwards

M
1

/3
8

Lamiae /3 1 Laimiach. M p 2 3 heitchib M 4 Hadda da seitig Laimiach (attached to preceding) M om. p 12


12

M
2
,

ins. ol se

,0

tuicid

-thar
10

inand
12

"om. p
ann
12

12

13

/3
1

w chrer-htnaideas
19

an i before the g 14 mbhairbhus p 2 fearM


to insert

" briathra
15

tugadh p
aniug

M M

eheachtnaighius
2

ceclitnaighes

p
20

om. p

f ormad

21

tria

oir (uair p) is tar (tair p ) 22 23 for- p 2 marbas

form (f. p) p 012 M mharbhas P"

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


moreover, was the
the
first
first

91

wright, the
Sella

first

smith,

and

bore a carpenter. sister of Tubalcain. thereafter, Noemma,

And

daughter

She was the first weaver, and the first who fashioned raiment for everyone in the beginning.

42.

(23)

And Lamech
of

said to his wives,

Ada and

Sella

Ye wives

understand

my

Lamech, hear my voice, heed and word. For I have slain a man without,

today, and it is the very same thing that I wounded (him) there. He injured me, and through jealousy I slew7 that tender youth.

And
(24)

he thought

it

his haughtiness

and

a deed for boasting, for it was through in vainglory that he spoke.

then who shall slay Cain, it shall be revenged him sevenfold but he who shall slay Lamech, upon shall be punished seventy and seven times the
:

He

equivalent.
(25) Then Adam knew again <his wife>, [to wit and she bore a son to him, and Adam called that Eua]
43.

24

to change of page dittographed thus: in 25 12 26 " fa sen sin /3 .i. maethog ft gnim 12 2S comaidme lesim in gnim sin oir /3 2 go maidhmi leasiumh /? 29 30 31 12 dimus -mas /3 ind tocbail M in docbal [i an /3 (bis) 32 33 34 thra M om. /3 12 murfeas ro mharblias /3 12 indeachfaidear
ft"
|

maoth-

(In /3 owing an maethoglach)


1

M -faigher
/3

fair
34

37

Lamiac /3 -dear M dher /3 cutruma f o seaclitmogat M cudrumadh


1

(3 -faisgar (s expuncted) fi w om. 12 techt ollfair fi l ~ /3


35

35

33
12

muirf eas
3G
1

seaeht ollfair secht muirblithas

oil
12

(cad-

/3 )

seaeht secht /3 12 fo seachtmhoghadh


/?'
6

/3

(s3

p) F*
43.
1

eadar12

-disi

eadargnadh
4

ft
12

dorighsi
j8

/?
'

Eabha
12

(3

tuisiomh

om.

j3

(not

(3);

2 dono dion om. ro (I 2 om. do ro M, -easdb

dionu thuisim

ft

Adam

(a) j=

M.

92

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


:

9 7 8 gairmeastair Adhaimh in mac sin .i. Seth i is edh 12 10 ro raidh Dorat "Dia dhamh, $ air Adhamh 13 "ar" .i. slol 14 samh 15 saineamhail aile, tar 16 a eisi ^Abeoil ro mhairbh Cain. (26) 18 Ro ghenair |( a ) mac do
: ||

19

Seith

.i.

Enos

20

a ainm-side.

Is
24

23

thionnsgain ar ttns ariam in 26 an Coimhdhia.C 6 )


j8.

23

e an tEnos sin ro 25 gairm i atach anma

21

12
(3
.

Mac dh'Enos Cainean. Mac do-siden MaleMac do-siden Iareth. leth. Mac Mac do-sen Enoc. do-siden Matasaliam. Mac Mac Laimhiach. do-sen
43a.

Gcin Ghein Enos Canaan. *G h e i n Canaan Malaleel. Gein Iaret Malaleel Iaret. Enoc. 2 Gein Enoc Matnsalem. 2 Gein Matusalem Lamiac, i

mac

dosin Noe.

do sidhen Noe.

vero cognouit 2 Euam uxorem suam, quae concepit et peperit Cain, [dicens] Possedi hominem per 2 fait Deum. (2) Rursusque peperit filium alimn, Abel autem Abel pastor ouium, et Cain agricola. (3) Factum est autem post multos dies ut offerret Cain de fructibus terrae munera 3 Deo, (4) Abel quoque obtulit <Deo> de primogenitis
37.
(1)

Adam

Et respexit gregis sui, et de adipibus eorum. Abel et ad munera eius, (5) ad Cain uero et ad
non
respexit.

Dominus ad munera eius

Iratusque est Cain uehementer et eoncidit

uultus eius.
38. (6) Dixitque Dominus ad Cain Quare mestus es, et x cur eoncidit facies tua? (7) Nonne si bene egeris recipies? Sin autem male, statim in foribus peccatum aderit [sed sub te erit appetitus eius, et tu dominaberis illius].
:

8
11 14

Set /? 2 om. Dia

is

seadh ro raidh
I2

dam
13

saimh (i 2 " Aibeoil ro marb

(i ro radh (om. is edh) /3" ar .i. /3 om. dhamh seanandiuil eile /3 12 om. a Abel do mharbhadh (om. Cain) (3

"

12

ar

1 -'

13

tUg y8 om. ar M
:

12

/3

eis
1

12

/3

ro

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


:

93

son Seth; and thus he spake God hath given me [said that is, other gentle excellent seed, in the room of Abel, whom Cain slew. (26) A son was horn to Seth, Enos his name. It is that Enos who began at the very first to call upon and to invoke the name of the Lord.

Adam] "ar"

son to Enos, son to him, Malalehel. A son to him, A son to him, Iared. Enoch. A son to him, Mathusalam. son to him, A son to him, Lamech. Noe.
43a.

Enos
begat begat

be-gat Cainan.

Cainan

Cainan.

Malalehel.
Iared.

Malalehel Iared begat

Enoch.
salam.

Enoch begat MathuMathusalam begat Lamech, and Noe was son to

him.

(8) Dixitque Cain ad Abel fratrem suum Egrediamur Hn agrum. Cumque essent in agro, consurrexit Cain aduersus 3 Abel fratrem suum et interfecit eum. (9) Et ait Dcus ad Cain: Vbi est Abel f rater tuus? Qui respondit Nescio; num custos fratris mei sum? (10) Dixitque 4 <Deus> ad 5 Cain Quid fecisti ? Vox sanguinis fratris tui clamat ad me
:

de terra.
39.

(II)

aperuit os
tua.
(12)
f ructus

Nunc igitur maledictus eris super terram, quae suum et suscepit sanguinem fratris tui de manu <Et> cum operatus fueris earn, non dabit tibi
: :

suos uagus et profugus eris super terram. Dixitque Cain ad Deum Maior est iniquitas mea quam ut ueniam merear. (14) Ecce eicis me hodie a facie terrae et a facie tua abscondar. [Et] ero uagus et profugus in omnis x [igitur qui inuenerit me] me. occidet terra,
(13)
19 2" 12 a he in Seth om, a ainm-side ins. i ft 2 geinther /3 /? 22 23 thinscain thion sguin /3 12 tus riam -amh fi 1 nigh- p25 2C atath aatach /3 12 in Choimdead M, on Choimhdhia /3 12 2 2 43a. J gein /? 2 gen /3 (bis)
12

1 (a) s M. (b) B lacuna

late copies, to

The U here numbered 43a attempts, on the part of the begms. supply connecting matter between the two sides of the gap.

94

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


:

(15) Dixitque ei Deus Nequaquam ita fiet, sed omnis qui occiderit Cain septuplum punietur. Posuit[que] Deus Cain
2

<in> sigrmm, ut non


.

eum

interficeret

omnis

[qui inuenisset
I

eum]

(16) Egressusque Cain a facie Domini habitauit in terra, profugns, ad orientalem plagam Eden. (17) Cognouit autem Cain uxorem suam, quae concepit 1 [et peperit]
40.

uocauitque Porro Enoch genuit Irad, et Irad genuit Mauiahel, et Mauiahel genuit Mathusahel, et Mathusahel genuit Lamech.
:

<filium

nomen

eius ex

nomine> Enoch nomine

et aedificauit ciuitatem,

filii

sui

Enoch.

(18)

Ada, et (19) Qui accepit uxores duas, nomen uni nomen alteri Sella. (20) Genuitque Ada label, qui fuit pater habitantum in tentoriis atque pastorum (21) et nomen
41.
x
:

et organo. Tubalcain, qui fuit malleator et faber in cuncta opera aeris et ferri. 3 Soror vero Tubalcain

fratris eius Iubal, ipse fuit pater


(22)

canentium cithara

Sella

quoque genuit

Noemma.
42. (23) Dixitque Lamech uxoribus suis *Adae et Sellae Audite uocem meam, uxores Lamech, auscultate sermonem meum, quoniam occidi uirum in uulnus meum, et adulescentulum in liuorem meum. (24) Septuplum ultio dabitur de Cain, de Lamech uero septuagies septies.
:

43. (25) Cognouit quoque adhuc ^uxorem suam], 2 et peperit filram, uocauitque nomen eius Seth, dicens Posuit mihi semen aliud pro Abel, quem occidit Cain. (26) Sed et
:

Adam

Seth natus est nlius,

quem

uocauit Enos

isti

coepit inuocare

nomen Domini.

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter IV.


*\\

37.

Hauam
2

in

ST,
all

but

as

before
all

support.
2

Domino

in

Fratrem ST and

eius in

ST and

Euam has much Versions and mss.

Versions and mss.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


j|

95

38.

make but
to

This verse, of which the best commentators can little, is baldly paraphrased by Tr., who has omitted
2 The Irish is closer The original is lost from but must be supplied (the

the unintelligible last clause altogether.

LXX

t" TTetiuv). (6tt\0t,ifxt%i tic

the Massoretic Hebrew text, English Revised Version makeshift "and Cain told Abel his s brother" is inadmissible). Dominus in ST, but 6 Oeog in 4 One LXX. Deus omitted in Vulg., but o Otnt,- in LXX. s Eum ST and all mss. No Vulg. ms. has Dominus.

equivalent in
fl

LXX.

1 3 These two similar passages are necessary to the and presumably were in the original text of Tr. It is sense, a curious coincidence that they should both have disappeared. 2 In omitted by ST, but there is authority for it, as for in Cain signum and in signum Cain.

39.

>

ro thuisim was probably in the text originally, n but dropped out early. 2 F ilium nomine found in four mss., but ST omits.

H 40.

This name is spelt with one d in all Versions and The interpolated mac don Laimhiaeh ceadna doubtless was originally a gloss explaining the personality of Tupalcan There is no authority behind the statement in (Tubalcain). 3 Tr. that he was the first craftsman in his trades. There is
jj

41.
2

mss.

no authority for the verbose Irish ocus rug Sella ingen iar
sin.

Tr. here follows Vulg. against other Versions in transferring the names of the wives from the beginning of the song (where the poetical structure requires them) to the The translation of the song is prose introductory matter.

U 42.

corrupt, and as notes to this If.


fl

it

stands

is

partly unintelligible.

See the

43.
.i.

seitig
2

gloss

Eua.

has been extruded from the text by the The speaker was certainly Eve, not Adam.
is

The
is

latter

name, for which there

no authority whatever,

doubtless an interpolation.

96

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter V.
44. (1)

As
||

*e

so thra leabar |( a )

.i.

in Genis, no canoin

2 thnisim pedarlaigi Dla in dnine fo chosmailis fodein, (2) ro thuisim fear mnai, i ro beandach doib, i tuc in n-ainm as Adam a doib isin 16 in ro thuismit. $( ) .i. duni

tuismeada Adaim.

Isin 16 in ra

||

Airmit eolaig na sdairi diada na ro beannaig Dla do


o daridni in pecad.
I

Adam
y
2

in pecad, .i. torad Chraind aslach na nathrach.


(3)

cind se n-iiair co leith do lo doridni Adam i Eba na hAithni do ch( & )aithem, tre

Tricha bliadan ar cet ro bo slan do Adam in tan rucad Seth do (4) i doridned laitheada Adaim lar

tuismed 3 Seth do
i
7

.i.

ocht cet bliadan,


5

ro thuisim
6

maccu
.i.

ingena.
8

(5)

Ocus Moridnead
i

uile saegal

Adaim
9

tricha ar noib cetaib bliadan,

adbath

Adam

iar sin.

10

Ocus

ro

hadnaiced

sin

chathraid

dianad

ainm

domun
re

Sabron, co roibi a chorp sa baili sin co tanic in dili tar in cor scarsad tonna na dilenn a chorp i a cheand
:

chele,

co

rucsad leo na tonna in cenn o Sabron co


:

Golgotha, cor thoiris an Golgotha co chrochad Crist. Co rob tre chend Adaim tarla cend na croichi co ndeachaid
fuil

in

Choimdead

baistead

Adam

agaid Adaim, conad mar sin do ar tus, do reir eolach na sdairi diada 10
fo
.

45.

(6)

Cuic bliadna ar cet imorro


2

fa

slan do Seth

hi

tan rncad

Enos

do.

(7)

Seacht mbliadna ar cuic


fa he
4

cetaib lar tuismead

Enos

saegal

Seth,

ro

44.

se seo

spelt

th;im wherever

it

occurs

Seith

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter V.

97

44. (1) Now this is the book [of Genesis, or of the In Old Testament canon] of the creation of Adam. the day in which God created Man under His own

He created man and woman, and blessed and gave them the name from Adam [i.e. man] them, in the day wherein they were created.
likeness (2)
1 Those skilled in sacred history consider that God y no blessing to Adam after he committed the sin. gave

At

Adam and Eve

the end of six hours and a half of the day did commit the sin, namely the eating of the

Tree of Knowledge, by the incitement of the serpent.


(3) An hundred and when Seth was born

thirty years

had

Adam

complete

to him, (4) and the days of the birth of Seth to him were made eight hundred after
(5) And all years, and he begat sons and daughters. hundred and thirty the life of Adam was made nine years, and Adam died thereafter.
is called Hebron, was in that place till the Flood came over body the world and the waves of the Flood sundered his body and his head each from the other, and the waves carried It abode the head with them from Hebron to Golgotha. in Golgotha till the Crucifixion of Christ. And it was through the head of Adam that the end of the Cross came and the blood of the Lord fell over the face of Adam, and thus was Adam baptized for the first time, according to

Adam

And

he was buried in the city which


:

so that his

men
45.

skilled in sacred history.

(6)

An hundred and

five

years were complete

when Enos was born to him. (7) Five hundred and seven years was the life of Seth after
for Seth,
4

-ned
45.

uili
10_1

H
in

Adam

M
3

iartain

H 'baH
(a)

M
2

spelt

triK in

M
4

uae

M
H

only

Enoss

bliadna yc
(fr)

H
H

Seith

These glosses Interlined.


I.

resumes.

L.G.

VOL.

98

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


7

thuisim 5 maccu
6

ingena.

(8)

Da
7

bliadain dec ar se
sin.

7 8 chetaib fa he uili saegail Seth,

adbath Seth lar


%
.i.

46.

(9)
2

Nocha ar ched bliadan


bliadan
||

deich mbliadan

ar

mae

fichtib

is

ead fa slan do Enos 3 in tan

mead Cainen
-

do.

(10) lar

tuismed imorro ( a
5

4
)

Chainen
cetaib,

d5, fa beo he fri re chuic

mbliadan dec ar secht


(11)

ro thuisim

maccu

ingena.
.i.

Ocus 6 doridnead
7

uili

laitheada Enos

cuic bliadna ar nai cetaib,

adbath larsin.
*% .i. deich 2 bliadan is ed fa slan do mbliadan 7 ocht fichit 3 Chainean 4 in tan ro thuisim Malalel. (13) Ceathracha ar seacht cetaib bliadan imorro is ed 5 fa bed Cainen 7 8 6 lar tuismed Malalel do, 7 ro thuismistair maccu 7 9 ingena. (14) Ocus dorignit uili "laitheada "Chainean deich mbliadan ar nai cetaib bliadan, 7 adbath .i.

47.

(12)

Seachtmoga ar chet bliadan


||

12

iarsin.
48.
1

Cuic bliadna 2 sescad ar ched is ed 3 fa slan do Malalel in tan ro thuisim 5 Iareth. (16) Tricha ar seacht cetaib bliadan imorro ba beo he lar e tuismed Iareth, 7 ro thuisim maccu 7 ingena. (17) Ocus 7 doridnit uili laitheada Malalel 8 cuic bliadna nochat ar ocht cetaib, 7 adbath 9 iarsin.
(15)
4

(18) Da bliadain Iareth 3 in tan ro thuisim


49.

seascad ar ched a fa slan do Enoc. (19) Ocht ced bliadan

macu
46.

hie et
1

nai do bo beo
47.
*
t

H H

semper
2

H
5

chedaib

sic

ms. dono

tus (om. -med)

H, fichit deg H 2 ba H 7 om. do H

M
s

M
3

'ba H an tan rugad


uili

dorigned
3 8

saegal Seith 4 Chainein, laitheda Enoss

-nen

an

H
9

ba

thuisimstair

dorigned

H H

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


the birth of Enos,

99

and he begat sons and daughters. Six hundred and twelve years was the whole of (8) the life of Seth, and Seth died thereafter.
46. (9) An hundred and ninety years, [that is, nine score and ten years] were complete to Enos when Cainan was born to him. (10) Now after the birth of Cainan to him, he was alive for a space of seven hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters. (11) And all the days of Enos were made nine hundred and five years, and he died thereafter.

47.

(12)

An hundred and

seventy years [that

is,

and ten years] were complete for Cainan when he begat Malalehel. (13) Seven hundred and forty years moreover was Cainan alive after Malalehel was born to him, and he begat sons and daughters. (14) And all the days of Cainan were made nine hundred and ten years, and he died thereafter.
eight score

years were he begat Iared. complete for Malalehel when (16) Seven hundred and thirty years was he alive, moreover, after the birth of Iared, and he begat sons and daughters. (17) And all the days of Malalehel were made eight hundred ninety and five years, and he died thereafter.
48.

(15)

An hundred

sixty

and

five

49.

(18)

An hundred
" -nen

sixty

and two years were


(19)

complete for Iared


10

when he begat Enoch.

Eight

laitheda
48.
J

-edh

cuig

H H

Cuig

lxx.

H H
7

12
3

Cainen iartain 4 ba H an
uili

H H
H

Iaareth
8

H
.i.
;

hie et

semper

dorignid

laithedha

ins.

49.

'ba

Malalel iartain H. 2 Iaareth


(a)

an tan ra thuisim Enoch

preserved continuously from here.

100

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


4

ina beathaig Tar tuismed 5 Enoc, i ro 6 thuisim maccu i ingena. (20) Ocus doridnead uili 7 laithoada Iareth .i. da bliadain sescad ar nai cetaib, 7 adbath 7 Iareth larsin.

imorro ro bal

Cuic bliadna sescad ar chet fa slan do Enoc in tan ro thuisim 4 Mathasalem. (22) Ocus is do 5 rer De ro imthig Enoc da ched bliadan imorro do 6 i mbeathaid choitchind chaich lar tuismed Mathusalam, i ro thuisim maccu i ingena. (23) Ocus s 9 dorignaid uili laitheada Enoc .i. coic bliadna sescat ar tri cetaib, (24) i 10 ro imthig "do rer 12 thoile De,
50.

(21)

13

fa

14

in

inadaib diamraib
16

15

dithrubdaib,
17

beathaid

choitchind chaich, no aitrebad

in fer

sin cein,

no co
20
-]

18

ruc Dia leis he, 19


21
i

ro co suigid he

Parrdus uasal Adaim.

22
25

in

t-Enoc

23

sin,

.i.

mac

24

Iareth,

ro

airic

Ocus is e na decc

n-anmand airegda Ebraidi, o ro 26 cet-gairmead Dia ar tusO), o anmandaib ecsamlaib na nEabraide.


(25) 'Ro thuisim dono Mathasalem Laimiach, sechtmad bliadain ochtmogat ar ched a aisi. (26) Da bliadain ar ochtmogaid ar secht cetaib fa beo Mathasalem iar tuismed Laimiach do, i ro thuisim maccu i ingena. (27) Ocus doridnit uili laitheda 2 Mathasaelim, .i. noi mbliadna ceathrachad ar noe
51.

isin

cedaib,

fuair bas iartain.

4
'

ana beathaid Iaareth (Us)

Enoch

(bis)
8
6

dorigned a

uili

laitheda

H
H

50.
5 s
12

reir

Enoch ba H Dia ra himig Enoch H


2

an
10

a mbethaid

Mathasailem Mathasailem

dognidh
thoili

"laitheda

H H

ra imid

"do

reir
1G

"baH

14

om. in

" dithrubaib

an

H H H

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

101

hundred years, moreover, was he in his life after the birth of Enoch, and he begat sons and daughters. (20) And all the days of Iared were made nine hundred sixty and two years, and Iared died thereafter.

sixty and five years were Enoch when he begat Mathusalam. complete two (22) And it is in God's way that Enoch walked hundred years had he in the common life of every man after the birth of Mathusalam, and he begat sons and daughters. (23) And all the days of Enoch were made three hundred sixty and five years, (24) and he
50.

(21)

An hundred

for

walked according

to the will of

God,
places,

And
season,
till

it

was

in waste

and desert

away from

the

common

life of

every man, that that

man was

living for a

God took him with Himself,


set

him in the noble Paradise of Adam. Now this is Enoch son of Iared, who invented the ten excellent Hebrew names, by which God was first called, out of the different names of the Hebrews.
and
that
51. (25) Now Mathusalam begat Lamech, in the hundred eighty and seventh year of his age. Seven hundred eighty and two years was (26) Mathusalam alive after the birth of Lamech to him, and he begat sons and daughters. (27) And all the of Mathusalam were made nine hundred forty days and nine years, and he died thereafter.

17 21

sM

18 19 20 ins. a Parrdhus H cur suigid H rug H 23 24 25 an H om, .i. H Iaareth H n-anmanda 26 aireada Eabraidi H -meadh H 51. The marks of prolongation are here omitted in accordance 2 with p. xxvi Written Mathasaeli in VM. Not understanding this,

sain

H
]

22

wrote Mathasael-i
(a)

lacuna begins.

102
52.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(28)

Ko

thuisim imorro Laimiach Noe, isin dara


aisi.
ciallaidi in

bliadain ar ochtmogat ar chet a


Is

he dono eitercheart i minugad Noe, .i. requies .i. eumsanad.

anma,

1
.i.

(29) Uair is ed ro raid Laimiach iar tuismed Nae Bid he in mac-sa 2 coimdidnaphas i saerfas sind o gnimaib i o gnimaib ar lam isin talmain mallachtnaich
:

mirathmair, ro eascain Dia,


ar pecad

Adaim

-\

Eua

Cain chlain, chosnomaich, chelgaig,

cona ehloind.
(30) Coic bliadna nochad ar coic cetaib ba he saegal Laimiach iar tuismed Noe do, i ro thuisim maccu i ingena. (31) Ocus dorignit uile laitheada Laimiach 3 .i. seacht mbliadna sechtmogat ar secht cetaib, i fuair bas iarsinO) ....

Hie est liber generations Adam. In die qua Deus hominem ad similitudinem 1 suam, (2) maseulum et feminam creauit eos, et benedixit illos, et uocauit nomen eorum "Adam," in die qua creati sunt. (3) Vixit autem Adam centum triginta annis et genuit 2 [ad similitudinem et imaginem suam, uocauitque nomen eius] Seth (4) et facti sunt dies Adam postquam genuit Seth octingenti anni, genuitque filios et filias. (5) Et factum est omne tempus quod vixit Adam, anni nonaginti triginta, et mortuus est.
44.
(1)

creauit

45-49. It is unnecessary to transcribe the Latin of these formal paragraphs, but some important details with regard
to the ages of the Patriarchs are set forth in the notes at the

end of the chapter.


52.
1

is

for

.i.

eoimdid naplias

se

(a)

lacuna begins.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Moreover Lamech begat Noe, hundred eighty and second year of his age.
52.

103
in

(28)

the

This
the

is

name

the interpretation, and the significant sense of Noe requies, or rest.


' ' ' '
;

For thus did Lamech speak after the birth of Noe this boy shall be he who shall comfort and deliver us from labours, from the labours of our hands in the accursed ill-fated earth, which God cursed,
(29)
:

Adam and Eve, and Cain, the and deceiving, with his progeny. contentious,
for the sin of

iniquitous,

(30)

Five hundred ninety and


after the birth of

five

of

Lamech

Noe

to him,

years was the life and he begat

sons and daughters. (31) And all the days of Lamech were made seven hundred seventy and seven years, and he died thereafter ....

^orro Enoch uixit sexaginta quinque annis et Mathusalam. (22) Et ambulauit Enoch cum Deo genuit Mathusalam ducentis annis, et genuit filios postquam genuit
50.

(21)

et filias.

(23)

Et
(24)

facti sunt dies

Enoch

trecenti sexaginta
[et

quinque anni,
quia tulit

ambulauitque

cum Deo

non apparuit]

eum

Deus.

51. (This paragraph partakes of the formal nature of most of the chapter.) 52.

(28) Vixit

autem Lamech centum octoginta duobus

annis, et genuit [filium (29) uocauitque nomen eius] Noe, dicens Iste consolabitur nos ab operibus et laborious manuum
:

nostrarum in

terra, cui maledixit

Dominus.

(30) Vixitque

Lamech postquam genuit Noe quingentos nonaginta quinque annos, et genuit filios et filias (31) et facti sunt omnes dies Lamech septingenti septuaginta septem anni, et mortuus
est 2
.

104

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter V.


Tl"

44.

^he

OL.
to

But there

for Dei.

punctuation, doubtless by accident, follows the is no authority for the substitution of suam 2 This passage was perhaps dropped from Tr. owing
in the

an eye-confusion induced by the similar passage

preceding verse.

In the ages of the Patriarchs Tr. follows the fl 45-49. This is authority of (and Isidore) as against Vulg. shown in the following table. (A age of each patriarch at

LXX

birth of firstborn,
age.)

B = years

lived after firstborn,

= total

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


In the Irish text
.xl.

105

has boon miswritten for

.lx.

in the age

of Methuselah, and in the age of Lamech a "c" has been The 677 years of Lamech 's age is a mere copyist's omitted. mistake which has here been corrected in the text, .dc. having

been written instead of .dec. The reduction of the age of Seth by 300 years has no authority.
50.
x

fl

This paragraph has been

much worked

interpolation and It has almost parted of Enoch.


original.

assimilation of details

over by the from the apocrypha


the Latin

company with

There is here a hint that Tr. is for the moment He does not show his usual becoming weary of his work. different words for operibus et laboribus care in finding contrast verses 4, 5 of this chapter, where he has duly
ft

52.

observed the difference of dies and tempus (laitheada, sdegal). The rendering (or more probably the transmission) of the paragraph is rather too free for any certain establishment
2 It is uncertain whether iarsin, the last of the Latin text. word before the lacuna, belongs to v. 31 (where the Latin does not call for it) or begins the lost v. 32, which enumerated

the sons of Noah.

106

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Chapter VI.
( a )Ro forcongair Dia] for chlannaib Se[th na ehummascdais cairde]s fri clannaib Cain, na ra [clannArai sin tra, odchondaigdis friu i na tucdais] mna dib.

53.

ro

-\

Tangadar tar nDe. Conad


1

feadar clanna Seth iad, tucsat ingena] airedha clainn Cain. ro clannaigset] friu tar sarugad [in forcital,
-]

lupraganaig each egosc dodea[lbda torothorda ra bai] for dainib an donrnin ria ndilind.
A[tberat Chaim.
araile

airi sin

[ro geinsit fomoraig i]

nach

dib-sidi]

iarricht

imorro;

is

do

sil

mo

Ocus ra [raid Dia Ni anfaid nios] fada x 17 duine Spirad isin duine | .i. ana [ ] conaid coland % A. ar a ro-med d[ 15 i]
54.

(3)

||,

||

cind ficbet [bliadan ar cet. (4) Do badar] imorro for talmain ar tan sin mileata i 6 giganteis, % .i. cora[id o macaib] hingenaib colacha Cain ||.

forbabtar laithedlia in duini

55.

(5)

Ot[chondairc Dia] imorro


feill,

a f[ 10
. .

techt tar timna doib J a feirg, a


n-uaill, a

Conad

dibadh

*]

n-ecrabad do dilgend.

||,

.]rad, a ra chindustair na hui[li daini] do


.

iarom ra raid Dia: (7) [Sgrios]fed, ar Se, an duini ra thuisim o dreich an talman, t [ 8 conid tucad] dono dilgenn for uilib anmandaib an talman, i for uair tanig aithrechus dam a ndenma. enaib an aeoir Fuair Nae imorro airmidin i onoir a fiadnaisi De (8)
||

The small number prefixed to this and such similar lacunae as certainly filled up indicates the approximate number of characters that have been lost the number of lost letters may have
54.
'

cannot

be

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter VI.
53.
. .

107

God forbade

the descendants of Seth to mingle

friendship with those of Cain, or to beget children by them, In spite of that, however, or to take wives from them. when the descendants of Seth saw them, they took the

They them in despite of God. Wherefore there were born giants and dwarfs and every unshapely monstrous being that was among the people of the world before the Flood.
Others say however that
it

beautiful daughters of the descendants of Cain. transgressed the commandment, and had children by

is

not of them that

they were

found

it

is

of the seed of

Ham.

54. (3) And God said My Spirit shall not remain man] for he is flesh [i.e. longer in man [i.e. in for the exceeding greatness of his (sins? ...)]: and the days of man shall be brought to a close at the end of an hundred and twenty years. (4) Now there were the earth at that time, [i.e. champions gigantes upon of the warlike sons and the fleshly daughters of Cain.]
:

55.

(5)

Now when God saw


[in wrath, in
. . .

that they were transgressing the covenant


treachery, in to annihilate
.,

in pride, in impiety],

He

determined

and

to destroy all
:

men.

"Wherefore

said (7) I shall root out, said He, have created, from the face of the earth, [(so there was brought) destruction upon all the beasts of the earth and upon the birds of the air] for repentance for having made them hath come on Me. (8) But Noe found favour and honour before God.

God
I

Man,

whom

been greater,
contractions,
(a)

for

allowance must

be made for possible compendia,

and suspensions.
previous line
left
(
. . .

not

fit

tew letters of the in with anything.

sadt

),

which

will

108

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Air is e Nae aenfer firen forbthe frith do chlannaib sainemla Seith, na ra cumaisc fri clannaib elaena Cain.

56.
i
i

(11)

Ra

truaillned
||

sin

indirgi na ndaini (13) ra raid fri Nae


huili cholla

ra linad tra an talam o ulc (12) i 66. chondairc Dia ani

na

am

fiadnaissi.
f

Tanig, ar Se, crich i forba Millfed i malartfad nili

aitrebaidi an talman,

ota

min

co

mor

||.

(14) Dena-sa, ar % Ra raid Dia dono fri Nae duit feisin aire letliain lnchtmair lan-fairsing, o Se, crandaib snaigthi slemnaigtbi
57.
||

y y

nach dernad

med, ar daingne, ar
2

Ocus

is

nach dingentar long bus samail disli, ar deig-denum. amlaid dorindead i ceitri slesa furri.
-\

di ar

Dena-sa dono
3

inti

aideda imda ecsamla,


i

fedsa in aircc ar

medon

i slemnaigdia n-echtair o bidamain.

y (a) Is e imorro aigned cruimi na gaetha na uisce


curter
(15)
inti.

fil

isin

na. tes

bidamain, nach milleadh ngreine, na cranda do

Ocus dena-su tri cet cubad hi fad na hairci, i caoga cubad in a 'leithedh, i tricha cubad ina bairdi. (16) Ocus dena seinistir isa n-aircc, i aen chubad ana
tigi.
2 Atiad a hadbair, .i. glae iuda i bidamain i ere, Bui Dia Anorlaoite ra ehumaisc na t -i. uir thiri Siria ||. hadbair sin tre na cheli, tre forgeall De fair brathair do 3 nus Uair do mac do [ 10 Eibifenius do saer na hairci. .] iad araen. Aitreb a comuir each cineil [ainmide ijnti, Nir cuiread aen 4 tairrngi uma na iaraind inti. [Is re

(b)

57.

The

final

is

little

doubtful

The scribe began

to

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


For
found,
this

109

Noe
the

is

of

excellent

the one righteous perfect children of Seth,

man who was


who had not

mingled with the iniquitous children of Cain.


56. (11) Now the earth was corrupted and filled with evil [and with the iniquity of men], (12) and when God saw that, (13) He said unto Noe The end and termination of all flesh hath come before Me. I shall destroy and confound all the inhabitants of the earth [both small and great].
:

57. [Moreover God said to Noe :] (14) Make thou, said He, for thyself a broad capacious roomy ark of

timbers chipped and smoothed


so that never
it

was made nor

shall be

made a

ship like unto


crafts-

in size, in firmness, in trustworthiness,


it

and in good
to
it.

manship. And thus was

made, with four sides


it

Make

also within

many

various chambers, and


pitch.

let

the ark be

smooth inside and out with


is

that pitch possesses, that no nor 'winds, nor water, nor sun-heat destroys the worms, timbers that have been placed in it.
this

Now

the nature

(15) And make three hundred cubits in the length of the ark, and fifty cubits in its breadth, and thirty cubits in its height. (16) And make a window in the ark, and one cubit in its thickness.

These
[that
is,

are

its

mould

materials, glue of the land of

Anarlaoite

who mixed

these

revelation of God.

He was

and pitch and clay, It was Dia Syria]. materials together, by the brother to Epiphenius, the

wright of the ark, for they were the two sons of ( )nus. There was a dwelling in preparation for every sort of
write ere here, but realised and corrected his mistake after writing the 4 the g sprs. c The first half of this u torn away

110

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Secht bida]main do chomdluthugad a clar re cheili. sul do fer tosach na dilenn, i is amlaid bai Nae [amain] siad ag a leth-gluini dessa fuithib, cona [macai]b,
1a
-]
"7

edarguidi

De im

[f]oirithin d'fadbail.

Da
ara

raid Dia co
slis,
i

Nae Dena-su imorro [d]orns na hairci dena cendacuili inti co feicib deiligtecha
:

eaturru.
uisci na 58. (17) Daber-sa co follus % ar Dia dilenn for talmain, do marbad hina lmili cholla hi x biaid forba i crich for na lull spirad bethad fo nim, hnilib itat a talmain. (18) Ocus doden caradrad rit, 2 1 raga-sn isa n-aircc i do seidig % .i. Coba ingen
|| -\

Laimiach, do siur-sin
imailli
(19)
ritsiu,

||,

-\

do mice

seitchi

do mac

Ocus

$ i is rlaid do geinsid diblinaib ||. bera leat isa n-airc caraid cacha lianmanda

in ecoisc chechtarda

fil for talmain, ardaig a mbethad do choimed t 1 silta uaithib iar ndilinn (21) Bera dono let isi n-aircc biad cubaid comadais % do each
||.

amnanda,
tra

et reliqua,
i

biad duidse

indligthech ||, i bid dligtheach doib-sim sin do chaithim. (22) Daroini


-\

Nae na

huili neithi ro forchongair

Dia

do.

54. *(3)

Dixitque Deus
(4)

Non permanebit
3

Spiritus

meus

in

homine
uiginti

diutius, quia caro est,


4
. . .

annorum.
illis

eruntque dies illius centum autem erant super terrain in Gigantes

diebus

58.

the a sbs.

-first

written ifa and afterwards corrected.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


:

Ill

Not a nail of bronze or of iron was animal within it. with pitch was its timber secured together. put into it There were only seven days before the first of the Flood poured down, and thus were Noe and his sons, with their right knees bent under them, interceding with God to obtain
succour.

Make, moreover, the door of the and make chambers within it, with separating roof-beams between them. 58. (17) Lo [said God] I shall bring the water of the Flood over the earth, to ,slay altogether flesh in which is a spirit of life beneath the heaven, and there shall be termination and end upon all that are in the earth. (18) And I shall make a compact with thee and thou shalt go into the ark, thou and thy wife [Coba, daughter of Lamech, thy sister] and thy sons and the wives of thy sons together with thee [and of thee were they born on both sides]. (19) And thou
said unto
its
:

God

Noe

ark in

side,

shalt take with thee into the ark a pair of every animal, in each shape that is on the earth, in order to preserve their life [and for seeding from them after the Flood]. (21) Thou shalt take also with thee into

ark food, meet and fitting [for every animal, et reliqua, lawful and unlawful] and it shall be food for thee and
for them, to eat thereof.
(22)

So Noe did

all

the things

which God connnanded him.

.... (7) Delebo, inquit, creaui a facie terrae, 2 ab homine usque ad animantia, a reptili usque ad uolucres caeli, paenitet enim 3 me fecisse eos. Deo (8) Noe vero inuenit gratiam coram
55.
(5)

Videns autem Deus 1

hominem quern

112
56
(33)
3
. .

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


autem terra [coram Deo et uidisset Deus 2 Dixit ad Noe Finis uniuersae carnis uenit coram me Ego disperdam eos cum terra. (H) Corrupta
:

est

repleta est iniquitate.


.

(12)

Cumque

Fac tibi arcam de lignis leuigatis. Mansiuncula.s in area facies, et bitumine linies intrinsecus et extrinseeus. (15) Et sic facies earn: trecentorum cubitorum erit longitudo
57.
J

(14)

cubitorum latitudo, et triginta cubitorum Fenestram in area facies, et in <uno> cubito consummates summitatem. Ostium autem arcae pones ex latere deorsum cenacula et tristega facies in ea.
arcae, quinquaginta

altitudo

illius.

(16)

58.

(17)

Ego ergo addueam

ut

interficiam

omnem carnem

diluuii aquas super terram, in qua spiritus uitae est

uniuersa quae in terra sunt consumentur. et ingredieris arcam, tu et filii tui, uxor tua et uxores filiorum tuorum tecum (19) et ex cunctis animantibus uniuersae carnis bina induces in
subter caelum,
(18)

Ponamque foedus meum tecum,

arcam
igitur

1
. . . .

(20)

ut possint uiuere.

(21)

Tolles

tecum ex omnibus escis quae mandi possunt, et comportabis apud te, et erunt tam tibi quam illis in cibum. (22) Fecit ergo Noe omnia quae praeceperat illi Deus.

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter VI.


Verses 1, 2, lost. 2 In aeternum, Vulg. 3 This obscure ft 54. and probably corrupt passage, usually (though not always) taken by commentators to indicate a limitation of the life of the human individual, is understood by Tr. in the alternative 4 The sense a term upon the duration of the human race. remainder of this verse dropped out.

ft

55.

Remainder of

this verse

and verse

dropped

out.

dilgenn is obviously a marginal comment which has entered the text, and probably necessitated some
(Co7iid

tucad)

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

113

subsequent modification of the context to modify the nonsense 3 which it produced. Domino in ST., but Deo has some
support.
2 3 These passages Verses 9, 10 omitted or lost. discarded by Tr. or by a copyist because they repeat possibly matter set forth immediately before.

56.

>

x H 57. This H has been rendered with tolerable literalness only in one place does Tr. stray from the text where he, renders the corrupt and unintelligible in cubito consummabis summitatem as though it meant that the walls of the ark should be a cubit thick. This is also the theory of the author of the poem no. V but the text cannot bear this meaning.

The rendering of tristega, "storey," by feice, "roof -beam," is noteworthy. The paragraph is so farced with glosses that
it is difficult

to

keep on the track of the biblical narrative.

The long passage here omitted enumerated the birds, It must have been in Tr. originally, for cattle, reptiles, etc. it is presupposed by the et reliqua of the gloss following. Probably some impatient scribe dropped them as being irrelevant to the main purpose of the present text.
fl

58.

l.g.

VOL.

I.

114

SECTION I.FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter VII.

Ocus da raid Dia re Nae Imthig-siu isin do muintir uili mailli rit, ar as tti aen-Iiren fuaras isin chinead-sa. (2) Bera leat dono isin aircc na sechta i na sechta ona huilib anmandaib glanaib, femen. Bera lett dono a do i a do ona .i. mascnl i hanmunnaib inglanaib, .i. mascul i femen. (3) Bera dono let na sechta i na sechta o ethaidib glanaib inimiO) .i. mascul i femen. Bera dono let na deda i na Meada do na foluaimnechaib inglanaib .i. mascul i femen. (4) Daber-sa dono, ar Dia re 2 Nae, a forba an isechtmad laithi oniu, fleochad silteach saidbir for
59.

(1)

aircc

talmain, ri re cethrachat laa i cethrachat aidchi. Ocus dilegfad i dicurfet o dreich an tahnan in uili fo-thairisim dorignus. (5) Darone tra Nae na huili ra athin Dia do.

60.

(6)

Se cet bliadan dono ba


(7)
i

islan

tanig an dile tar in talmain,

do Nae an tan dochuaid Nae, cona


n-aircc for uisci
i

macaib i cona seitchib imailli na dilenn, (8) i rug leis na


inglana
61.
(9)

ris, isa

huili

anmanna glana

amail ro forchongair Dia do.

ra comlanaiged tra secht laithi na ra iltondaid i ra imdaig uisci na dilenn sechtmaini, for talmain (11) i ra brisit uili thopur na haibeisi
(10)

mori

ra brucht

ro scenstar an talam suas ina diamra dichelta ra badar and.


~]

huili thoipri

Ea

nimi anuas foslaigid dono cam^ithisi $ i seinistir ra silsedar andsin cetha trena troim-^leachaid (12) i 2 for talmain fri re cetracha laa i cethracha aidchi
||
:

59. 61.

'

the a sbs.

The

first

a yc

sprs. c

H
thus written in full, not -chat

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter VII.

115

said unto Noe Go into the ark, with thee, for thou art the only thy people righteous man that I have found in this generation. (2) Thou shalt take with thee into the ark sets of seven of all the clean animals, male and female. Thou shalt take with thee sets of two of the unclean animals, male and female. (3) Thou shalt take with thee moreover sets of seven of the clean birds of heaven, male and female. Thou shalt take with thee sets of two of the unclean fowls, male and female. (4) I shall bring, said God unto Noe, the end upon the seventh day from today, a strong showering deluge upon the earth, for
59. (1)
:

And God

and

all

the space of forty days and forty nights. And I shall extinguish and remove from the face of the earth every substance which I have made. (5) So Noe did
all

that
60.

God commanded

him.

(6)

Now

six

Noe when

the Flood

hundred years were complete for came over the earth, (7) and Noe,

with his sons and with their wives along with him, went into the ark upon the waters of the Flood, (8) and he took with him all the animals clean and unclean (9) as God commanded him.
the seven days of the week were the waters of the Flood swelled mightily completed, and increased upon the earth, (11) and every spring of the great deep burst open
61.

(10)

Now when

the earth opened up and vomited altogether the hidden secret springs that were in it.

Moreover the sluices [and windows] of heaven were opened from above, (12) and then strong heavy-wetting showers poured upon the earth for a space of forty days and forty nights
:

(a) First written glaiab

inmi and then corrected.

116

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


caoga ar cet laa imorro ra bai can tragadh.
I

1
3

seachtmad

loo

deg an mis tanusti


fertain
||,
:

-i-

an
.i.

mis
hi

Mai

II,

ra thinscain an

dili

isin

16

sin

sechtmad decc in mis

tanaisi

luid

Nae

a muintir ochtair isa n-airc.

(13) In airtical thinoilit na huili

De doehum
do
linadli
||

lai in ra cumaclita chetugad na hairci dia liinotacht, % is andsin sanradh ra lainecradh in aire dmim-lethan domain,
t
-i||

dono

a tosach

an
i

anmanda

tria

Ba gnim
62.

saethair suad-lama, o ehlarud chaem-cumachta.

ndul tra, do Nae ina aircc cona muintir 2 ochtair, i iar Hinol na n-uili anmidi i na n-uili anmand n-ilarda n-examla inti (16) cos na huilib neichib taiscithib ra athin Dia do Nae, ra iad Dia dia n-echtair an aire (17) i doradad for talmain fri re cethrachat laa Ocus ra imdaigid na huisci i ro 1 cethrachat aidchi. na huisci suas an airdi o talmain in aircc thogbadar (18) lias tondaib na dilenn.
(15) Iar

Ocus ra bai an aircc ar snam a hinad a n-inad.


63. (19) Ba forbair i ra imtaid an t-uisci for talmain (20) co ruacht coic cubaid deg lias each ,sleib x is airdiu ra bai fo n-uili nim. (21) Ocus tucad dilcend
i

comarba

[lege
i

dainib (22)

talmain

coimnarbad] coitcend for na huilib for na huili a raibi spirad bethad for
i

ar a n-iumus

ar a n-anumuloid do Dia.

(23) Ba marthanach imorro Nae a aenur, i each aen ra oai amaille ris isin aircc (24) i ra bai an diuli for 2 dreich an talmain ri re caoga ar cet laa,
;

can esbaid can dig-bail


3

forri.

first

62.

written loog; the de y sprs. c Doubtful mark here ins. c


'

H H

anmidi

y sprs. c

THE DISPERSAL OP THE NATIONS.


and
it

117

was an hundred and

fifty

day of the second month of May] the Flood began to pour: on that day
the seventeenth

On

days without drying up.


[the
[i.e.

month
on the
of

seventeenth of the second month,]


eight persons,
("3)

Noe, his

company

went into the


[that

ark.

In the
in

article,

is,

in the beginning] of the

which all the animals assembled, by the daj command and power of God, to the ark to enter it,
then exactly that it was filled] the broad-keeled ark was fully ordered. deep It was the product of the labour of skilled craftsmen, with boarding of beauty and strength.
[it is

Now after Noe went into his ark, with his of eight persons, and when all the creatures company and all the manifold various beasts were assembled within it, (16) with all the things in store, which God
62.

(15)

had commanded Noe, God shut the ark from the outside, (17) and there was a downpour upon the earth for a space of forty days and forty nights. And the waters increased, and the waters bore the ark aloft from off the earth (18) upon the waves of the Flood. And the ark was swimming from place to place.
63. (19) The water increased and augmented upon the earth (20) till it reached fifteen cubits above every highest hill that was under the whole heaven. (21) And destruction and a general common death was brought

life

upon all men, (22) and upon upon the earth,


for their haughtiness
(23)

all

that

had a

spirit of

and lack

of humility toward God.

him

But Noe alone endured, and all that were with (24) and the Flood was over the face of the earth for a space of an hundred and fifty days,
in the ark
;

without diminution or decreasing.


63.
'

fo

t/c

written

.l.a.

118
59.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(1)

Ingredere, tu et omnis enim uidi iustum [coram me] in generatione hoc. (2) Ex omnibus animantibus mundis tolles septena septena, masculum et feminam. De animantibus uero non mundis, duo duo, masculum et feminam. (3) [Sed et]
:

Dixitque Deus ad ^Noe

domus

tua,

arcam

te

de

uolatilibus

caeli

<mundis,

tolles>

septena

septena,

masculum et feminam. <De uolucribus non mundis tolles duo 3 duo, masculum et f eminam>, [ut saluetur semen super f aciem uniuersae terrae] Adhuc enim ego pluam super terram (4)
.

quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus, substantiam quam feci de superficie terrae. Noe omnia, quae mandauerat ei Dens.
60.
2

et delebo
(5)

omnera

Fecit ergo

(6)

Eratque

*<Noe>

sescentorum

annorum quando

diluuii aquae inundauerunt super terram, (7) et ingressus est Noe et filii eius 3 et uxores eorum cum eo in arcam
4

propter aquas diluuii.

(8)

De animantibus quoque mundis


praeceperat Deus
5

et

immundis
61.

(9) si cut

eo.

(10)

Cumque
magnae

inundauerunt super terram


fortes abyssi
et
2

transissent septem dies aquae diluuii 1 <et> rupti sunt omnes (11)
.

cataractae caeli apertae sunt (12) et

facta
3

super terram quadraginta diebus et (13) In articulo diei illius ingressus quadraginta noctibus.
est

pluuia

praeceperat

These verses paraphrased only .... sicut 1 arcam Deus deforis. Deus, [et] inclusit 2 (17) Factumque est diluuium quadraginta diebus <et quadraginta noctibus> super terram. Et multiplicatae sunt aquae, et eleuauerunt arcam in subliminc a terrae. (18) .... super
62.
(15,

16)
ei

aquas <diluuii>.
(19) Et aquae praeualuerunt nimis super terram .... 1 quindecim cubitis altior fuit aqua super monies sub 2 uniuerso caelo. uniuersi homines (22) et cuncta (21)
63.

(20)

in

quibus
(24)

spiraculum

uitae

est

in
et

terra

mortua

sunt.

(23) area.

.... remansit autem

solus

Noe

qui

cum

eo erant in

Obtinueruntque aquae terras centum quinquaginta

diebus.

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter VII.


U 59.
in
1

LXX.

ad eum (in some mss. ad ilium) Vulg. but7rpocN<7>e There is no authority in any of the Versions or
:

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

119

mss. for the emphasis laid upon Noah being the one just man 2 of his generation. The distinction between unclean and clean birds is lost not only from Vulg., but even from the current
text of Heb.
It
is,

clearly
TTtTStVlOV

the

authority

however, preserved in LXX, which is here followed by Tr. tea) airb tmv
:
',

TOU OVpilVOV TbtV KCldufJUIV tlTTn tTTTU, cljOfTi V KCl\ 6r)\v kiu airo \_travT(i)v\ tiov irtTUvdv tmv in) KaOapiov Su> Svo, lipaev K-al Ot}Xv. The word 7raiT<uif, not rendered by Tr., is absent
3 from some important mss. The equivalent of these words were dropped out from "JH and were reinstated in the margin, most likely by the copyist himself on discovering his mistake. They have crept back into the text in the wrong

place (gloss after


ft

vi. 19).

60.

Nwe

in

LXX,

not in Vulg.

An

dile is closer to
:

contrast 6 KaTuXvKafinq (LXX) than to diluuii aquae (Vulg.) diluuii in the following verse (in LXX, to vowp row aquas
KuTaicXvafxov),
3 duly rendered uisci na dilenn by Tr. The abbreviation of the verbal exuberance of the original text is probably due to weary scribes; compare the abbreviation of the repeated catalogue of the animals in v. 8. ^Propter 5 Noe, aquas = for uisci: has Tr. misread super for propter"!

Vulg.
passage omitted here, presumably because it 2 C<itaractae (LXX merely repeats what has gone before. which may here be translated "sluices," represents KarapaKTai)
ft

61.

the Heb. 'eruboth, literally

"windows"

(so in

English Auth.

A glossator seems to have disand Revised versions). from some source of information, and to covered this meaning When this 5 became g, the .i. have interlined .i. seinistir.
3 From this point to the beginning as usual slipped into "|. of ft 62 the passage has been written in an abridged or para-

phrased form, and deserts the Latin original. x Triv Kij5h)Tov in LXX: but arcam not in any Vulg. ft 62. 2 ms. Not in ST, but found in numerous Vulg. mss., and
also in
ft

LXX.
1
;

Sub uniuerso caelo is out of place it belongs to the end of v. 19, which is here omitted. Two clauses 2 Here, have here been abbreviated and combined into one. and also in v. 23, a long catalogue of the creatures which
63.

clause at the

perished

is

again omitted.

120

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Chapter VIII.
64.

(1)
i

Ra
na

'chuimnig imorro Dia J


n-uili

ra airchis

||

ani Naei

badar amailli fri 2 ro digbaid na huisci. i t do sugad na n-uisci Ocus ra hiadaid topur na haibeisi 7 camfithisi nime, (2) i ra tliairmiscid na fleochadha do nim. (3) Ocus ra thathcursedar na huisci don talmain is na hinadaib as a tancadar, i ra digbaid na huisce a cind caoga ar cet laithi. (4) Seacht laithi sechtmogad i secht mis don aircc o thuind do thuind, corgab airisim a sleib Armeinia. (5) Ra sergaid na huisci cosin deccmad mis. Isin cet 16 don deccmad mis adces mullaidi na
||

anmandaib i na n-uili umenti ra Nae ina aire. Ocus dorad Dia gaeth

sliab.

65.

(6) I

cind cethracha laa iarsin ra ^oslaic


i

Nae
i
||

seinistir

na haircce

thanig doridisi.
leig-sin
1

(8)

rusleig an fiach amach, (7) $ An sechtmad la iar sin

ni

an colam amach
aire andiaid

do

ra

dun an

an eholuim ar omun na ngaeth

(9)

Ocus tanic an colum 2 ar

tairisfed
1

culu, air ni tuair baili a

do thairind ar an

aire, o

nach luair

gles
1

da gulbuin forsan

clar

foslaiethi hi,

gabais

do sin Nae a laim amach ar cend an eholuim 1 tuc asdeach he isa n-airc. (10) Ra leig dono dorigisi a cind secht laa amach an colum, (11) 1 tanig a Jescur t an lai cetna 1 gesca olacraind cona duillennaib
leis
||

liraidi ina belaib.

Ocus do bendaeh Nae eisim de


64.
J

sin

ra mallach an
ro yc

fiach,

the

n y

sprs. c

THE DISPERSAL OP THE NATIONS.


Chapter VIII.
64. (1)

121

But God was mindful of [and had compassion

upon] the ,said Noe, and all the animals and all the cattle that were with Noe in his ark. And God sent a wind [to suck up the water], and the water
decreased. (2) And the well-spring of the deep and the sluices of Heaven were closed, and the showers from Heaven were withheld. (3) And the waters were restored to the earth into the places whence they had come, and the waters decreased at the end of an

hundred and fifty days. (4) Seventy and seven days and iseven months was the ark from wave to wave, till it took rest in a mountain of Armenia. (5) The waters were drying up till the tenth month. Upon the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains
appeared.
65. (6) At the end of forty days thereafter Noe opened the window of the ark and let out the raven (7) and it came not again. (8) [On the seventh day thereafter] he let out the dove

and closed the ark after the dove, for fear of the winds
(9)

And
it

the dove

came back, for

it

found no place

where

should stand,

and descended upon the ark, as it found it not opened, and made a working with its beak upon the board

and Noe stretched his hand forth for the dove and brought it with him into the ark. (10) Then he let the dove out again at the end of the seven days, (11) and it came in the evening [of the same day] with a twig of an olive-tree having its fresh leaves in its beak.

And Noe

blessed
1

it,

and cursed the raven; and for

that,

65.

y sprs. c

y sprs. c

122
tuc

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


3

1
4

Dia de

sin a dath-sain forsan fiach

taitnem an

?iaich fair-sim ar

anumlaeht in

fiaich.

Ea

tlmig Nae cor digbaid na huisci. (12) Ocns araidh ra ernaid secht laa aili an tan ra leig 6 amach an colum
i

an tres feacht,

ni thanig dorigisi,
les.

uair ni rangadar a

66. (13) An cet la don cet bliadain % iar mdilind ar sugad na n-uisci, do 2 scail Nae dorus na liairci, i do dech se an doman ana thimchell. (14) Isin sechtmad
|f

laa fichit don cet mi tanig Dia do labairt fris, (15) t ed ra raid Dia co Nae (16) Eirig asa n-airc, ar Se, do seidid i do 3 mic i seitchi do mac, (17) i beir lat na 1
is
:

huili

anmanna

filed

isa

n-airc

inclieimnig

for

talmain.
(18)

Forbrid i 5 dobarnimdaightber for talmaim Daclmaid din Nae asa n-airc

hi

sechtmad
.i.

fichit f esca

Mai imorro

||

an mis tanaisi

an mis Mai atharrach

isin cet bliadain.

Se

cet bliadan
i

do bo slan do Nae an tan


i

sin.

caoga
dixit,

se cet

mili bliadan o cruthugad

Adaim

Se bliadna co sin, ut

Cet aimser in bethad bind

Daclmaid imorro seidig Nae, i dochnadar a mic i 6 doclmadar seitclii a mac (19) i na huili ainimidi rabadar isa n-airc eisti.
Isin

an

sechtmad fichit an mis cetna atharraig tanic eisti, Aine imorro a laithi sechtmaine. Gonad se deg 7

Dia y

sprs. o

4
'f

y sprs. c

H H

second

sis. c

amach y

sbs. c

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

123

God gave the colour of the former to the raven, and the sheen of the raven to the other, for the insubordination of the raven.
that the waters were decreased. he waited other seven days and then (12) Howbeit, let out the dove for the third time, and it came not again for there was no need.

Noe understood

the first day of the first year [after the Flood], upon the isucking-up of the waters, Noe loosened the door of the ark and looked on the earth round about him. (14) On the twenty-seventh day of
66.

(13)

On

the first month God came to speak with him, (15) and thus God spake unto Noe (16) Rise from out the ark, said He, thou and thy wife and thy sons and the wives of thy sons, (17) and take with thee all the beasts that are in the ark, and step forth upon the earth. Increase and be ye multiplied upon the earth. (18) So Noe went out of the ark,
:

in the twenty-seventh day [of the moon of May] second month that is, the secondary month of May in the first year.
:

of the

Six hundred years were complete for Noe at that time. six hundred fifty and six years from the creation of Adam till then, ut dixit,

One thousand

Poem

no. VII.

and further the wife of Noe went, and his sons and
the wives of his sons (19) and all the beasts that were in the ark went out of it.

On the twenty-seventh day of the same secondary month, as regards the day of the week, on he came out of it
:

3 i y sbs. o 66. 1 d y sprs. e II 'li/cH the u sprs. s written do bar nim daighther

H
7

written ana

written

Aen mi

124

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Nae
isa n-aircc.
|],

bliadain deiside ra bai

An

don mis
fertain
:

an mi $ in mis tanaisi muintir ochtair, cos na huilib .i. i anmigib rug leis inti eupla do each "fiadach neoeh do beth re silad .i. eeitri lanumna do dainib, 1 eeitri lanumna deg do enaib, i secht lanumnu do chinelaib eisc, i lanomain do each einel egsamail o sin amach bai isa n-aire. Dia Haini didine arai laithi sechtmaini dochuaid Nae isa n-aire, i Dia Mairt dolodar aisti iartain, ut dicitur,
j|

R m is Mai an dechmad uathad esca


cetna,
isa

sechtmad deg

-i-

ra thinscain an dili

Nae anmandaib
doluid

n-aire,

Dia Haine docuas


67.

inti

dili tar an doman, ra baided na acht Nae eona tri macaib i cona eeitri (sic) mnaib, amail ra raidsimar romaind. Ar is e Nae an tAdam Enoec an tAdam saer tanaisti, cosa mberar fir domain Crist imorro an tAdam deidenaeh, tres ar saerad sil (sic) an trir remraite do raidsimar romaind, an a tuc he fein a

thuead dana an

huili daine

-\

croich cesta tar cend an trir sin da mbroid a Hiffern dar saerad lueht na
sligi.

n-eissi,

eoic n-aimsir ar

dorad an aen

tar an

Se eet bliadan do ba slan do Nae an tan tanig an dili doman caoga i tri eet bliadan ra bai Nae a. mbethaid iar ndilinn conad caoga i noi eet bliadan sin uili. Uair is 1 e Nae an eeatramad duine do sil Adaim as[s]ia saegal Nae. indisis eanoin, .i. xVdam i Iareth i Mathasailem Tricha i noi eet bliadan saegal Adaim. Da bliadain sescat Noi mbliadna sescat i noi eet 1 noi eet saegal Iareth. Caoga i noi eet bliadan saegal Nae saegal Mathasailem. amail adbea.rar andso
68.
: :

-\

Ceatra as [s]ia saegal slan


68.
J

sprs. s

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Friday.
<da.ys> in the ark. month, [that is, the
:

125

So that thence Noe was a year and sixteen On the seventeenth day of the same month of May], the Flood began to shower on the tenth of the moon [of the second month] of the month, Noe went into the ark with his company of eight persons, and with all the animals and beasts that he took with him into it. These were, a couple of every wild
creature, whatsoever should be for seeding; to wit four human pairs, fourteen pairs of birds, seven pairs of species of fish and a pair of every different kind from that

onwards, that were in the ark. As regards the day of the week, it was a Friday that Noe went into the ark, and Tuesday they came out of it afterwards, ut dicitur,

Poem

no. VIII.

67. Now when the Flood was brought over the world, all men were drowned save Noe and his three sons and their four wives, as we have said above. For Noe is the second Adam, to whom the men of the world are traced and
:

Enoch is the innocent ( 1) Adam but Christ is the last Adam, by whom the seed of the aforesaid three, already mentioned, were saved, when He gave Himself on the cross of suffering instead of those three, after their time, and brought the harrowingi over Hell by which the people of the five Ages all at once were saved.
:

68. Six hundred years were complete for Noe when the Flood came over the world three hundred and fifty years was Noe in life after the Flood so all that makes nine hundred and fifty years. For Noe is one of the four men
: :

of the seed of Adam, of whom the Canon telleth that had longest life namely Adam, Iared, Mathusalam, and Noe. Nine hundred and thirty years was the life of Adam..

Nine hundred sixty and two years the life of Iared. Nine hundred sixty and nine years the life of Mathusalam. Nine hundred and fifty years the life of Noe as is said here
:

Poem

no. IX.

126

SECTION

L FROM THE CREATION

TO

64. (1) Recordatus est autem Deus Noe, cunctorumque animantium et omnium iumentorum quae erant cum eo in x area. <Et> adduxit 2 <Deus> spiritum super terram, et inminutae sunt aquae. (2) Et clausi sunt 3 fontes abyssi et
et caeli, prohibitae sunt pluuiae de caeli. Reuersaeque aquae de terra euntes et redeuntes, et ceperunt minui post centum quinquaginta. dies, (4) Requie5 septime uicesima septima die mensis uitque area mense 6 (5) At uero aquae ibant et super montem Armeniae. Decimo enim mense clecreseebant usque ad decimum mensem. die mensis apparuerunt cacumina montium. prima

cataraetae
4

(3)

65. (6) Cumque transissent quadraginta dies, aperiens Noe fenestram arcae [quam fecerat] dimisit coruum, (7) qui 1 <non> reuertebatur ... (8) Emisit quoque columbam
.

(9)

quae

cum non
. . .

inuenisset ubi

requiesceret

[pes eius],

extenditque manum et adpraehensam intulit in arcam. (10) Expeetatis autem ultra septem diebus [aliis] rursum dimisit columbam [ex area] (11) at ilia uenit [ad eum] ad uesperam, portans ramum oliuae uirentibus foliis
reuersa est
cessassent aquae [super nihilominus septem alios dies, terram]. (12) Expectauitque 2 et emisit columbam, quae non est reversa ultra [ad eum].
in ore suo.
Intellexit ergo

Noe quod

primo anno, [primo [Igitur sescentesimo] mense], primo die [mensis] <post> inminutae sunt aquae 2 [super terram], et aperiens Noe tectum arcae aspexit 4 3 et uicesima die mensis (14) Mense primo septima (16) Egredere (15) locutus est autem Deus ad Noe, dicens de area, tu et uxor tua, filii tui et uxores filiorum tuorum 5 (17) cuncta <que> animantia quae sunt apud te [tecum]
(13)
. . . . .

66.

Crescite et tecum, et ingredimini super terram. 6 est ergo Noe terram. Egressus (18) multiplicamini super et filii eius, uxor illius et uxores filiorum eius cum eo, (19) sed et omnia animantia ....

educ

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter VIII.


2 Deus *Et in only two Vulg. mss., but nai in LXX. 3 Plural in Vulg. not in any Vulg. ms., but 6 6t<k in LXX.
fl

64.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


and LXX, but singular
seems a
CtTTO

127

in Tr.
:

little closer to

LXX
lxx.

The rendering

of this verse
5

na\ eveStSou to v$u>p iropsvofjuvov


K(ll
:

Tf)c

7^9' iVtS&OV
.uii.

TO

vBlOf)

r)\tlTT01>OVTO K.T.X.
la,

TlieSe

numbers have become corrupted


degenerated into
sing, in Tr.

evidently .uii "Plural in Vulg. and

.xx.

LXX,

has but

U 65.
half,

Non

however

ins. sec.

not in ST, but in numerous mss. (in nearly Also in LXX. 2 The biblical man.).

text has suffered severely by glossarial encroachment substitution in this paragraph.

and

1 Tr. in its present form corrupt and imperfect. Iar J[ 66. ndilind must be removed as glossarial perhaps ar sugad has somehow developed out of ar se cetaib. Confusion of a 2 scribe's eye has caused the loss of primo mense. The words
:

gap have no biblical warrant they are a gloss, which has ousted the original text. 3 Don cet ml is a mistake 4 all Versions agree on "the second month." Here again a
filling this
: :

5 gloss has expelled the original sentence. -que not in ST, 6 but in several mss. also nai in LXX. This verse is inter:

rupted by a chronological interpolation in the middle of a sentence. The mention of Noah's wife before his sons is in accordance with LXX but it may be a mere translator's
:

inadvertence.
68. These paragraphs are interpolations, and are IT 67, no part of the Biblical Text.

128

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter XI.

69. (10) Ced bliadan ba slan do Sem an tan ra thnisim Arifaxad, a cind da bliadain iar ndilinn. (11) dug cet bliadan imorro bai iar tuismedh Arafaxad, i ra thnisim macu ingena.
-j

70. (12) Cuig bliadna trichat ba slan do Airifaxad an tan ra thnisim Saile. (13) Tri bliadna ar tri cetaib ba beo Arafaxad iar tuismedh Saili do, i ra thuisim

macu
71.

ingena.
(14)

Tricha bliadan do bo slan do Saili an tan ra thuisim Eber. (15) Tri bliadna ar ceithri cetaib imorro ba beo he iar tusmedh Eber do, t ra thuisimh

macu
72.

ingena.
(16) Ceitri bliadna trichad

Eber an tan ra thusim Faillech.


cet bliadan

imorro ba slan do (17) Ocus tricha ar


i

ba beo he iar tusmedh Faillech do, thusim macu i ingena.


73.

da

Tricha bliadna ba slan do Faillech an tan thusim Keu. (19) Noi mbliadna ar dib cetaib imorro ba beo he iar thusmedh Eeu do, i ro tuisim macu i
(18)

ingena.
74. (20) Cuig bliadna trichat ba slan do Reu an tan ra thuisim Saruch do. (21) Cetheora bliadna ra ar dib cetaib imorro ba beo he an tan J() no iar tusmedh Saruch do, i ra tuisim macu i ingena.
||

Tricha bliadna imorro ba slan do Saruch thusim Nachor. (23) Da cet bliadan imorro an tan ra ba beo he an tan ra tusmedh Nachor do, i ra tuisim
75.

(22)

macu

ingena.
(a) This gloss interlined above.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter XI.

129

69. (10) Sem had an hundred years complete when he begat Arfaxad, at the end of two years after the Flood. (11) Five hundred years was he, further, after the birth of Arfaxad, and he begat sons and daughters. 70. (12) Thirty-five years were complete for Arfaxad when he begat Sale. (13) Three hundred and three years was Arfaxad alive after the birth of Sale to him, and he begat sons and daughters. 71. (14) Thirty years were complete for Sale when he begat Eber. (15) Four hundred and three years was he alive further, after the birth of Eber to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

(16) Thirty-four years moreover were complete Eber when he begat Faleg. (17) An hundred and thirty years was he alive after the birth of Faleg to him, and he begat sons and daughters.
72.

for

73. (18) Thirty years were complete for Faleg when he begat Reu. (19) Two hundred and nine years moreover was he alive after the birth of Reu to him, and he begat sons and daughters.
74.

(20)

Thirty-five years

when he begat Saruch. years moreover was he


was born
75.

to

were complete for Reu Two hundred and four alive when [or, after] Saruch him, and he begat sons and daughters.
(21)

(22) Thirty years moreover were complete for Saruch when he begat Nachor. (23) Two hundred years moreover was he alive when Nachor was born to him, and he begat sons and daughters.
L.G.

VOL.

I.

130

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

76. (24) Noi mbliadna ficliit dono ba slan do Naehor an tan ra thuisim Tare. (25) Noi bliadna deg imorro ar cet ba beo he iar tnsniedh Thare do, i ra tuisim

macu

ingena iartain.

77. (26) Sechtmoga bliadan ba slan do Tliarre an tan ra tlmsim Abram i Naehor i Aram. (32) Acus ba he uili saegail Tliarre coic bliadna ar dib cetaib, i adbath a Carran a tir Chandan iartain.

Ocus is e an tAbram sin cendadart an tres aimser an domain da bliadain ar nochat ar noi cetaib 6 dilinn co gein Abraim a tir Chailldiorum.
:

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter XI.

On the displacement of this passage see p. 11 ff. It is not Tr. adheres to necessary to print the Latin original here Vulg., and ignores LXX, which inserts an additional generation (Kaivav. between Arfaxad and Sale), and has several differences in the numerical statements of the ages. The only deviations in Tr. from ST are the age of Eber (130 instead of 430) and of Ecu (35 before son's birth, 204 after
:

as

against

Vulg.

32-207).

There

is

some

very

slight

Chapter VIII (resumed).


78.

(20)

Ra chumdaig Nae
||

altoir

don Choimdid
||

doroini idbarta toltanacha forthi do Dia ona huilib cethraib t i ona huilib enaib i eathaidib
iar ndilinn
i

glanaib
1

is i
1

sin cet
s

altoir ra
2

2 cumdaiged sa domain.

78.

y sprs.

scribe wrote

and then wrote

with a sbs. over

it

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

131

76. (24) Twenty nine years were complete for Naclior when he begat Thare. (25) An hundred and nineteen years moreover was he alive after the birth of Thare to him, and he begat sons and daughters

thereafter.
77.

(26)

when

he

Seventy years were complete for Thare begat Abram and Nachor and Aram.

all the life of Thare was two hundred and (32) five years, and he died in Haran in the land of Canaan

And

thereafter.

Abram is the head-rest of the Third Age of the nine hundred ninety and two years from the Flood to the birth of Abram in the land of the Chaldeans.
that

And

world

support for the Irish figures, but most likely they originated in copyists' errors it is easy to confuse xxxii with xxxu and ccciiii with ccuii. In H, our only ms. for this portion, the word cuig in the Reu passage is written in full, so that the The spellings error, if it be an error, goes back to "J'S.Saruch (ver. 20) Nachor (vers. 22, 26) Aram (v. 26) as against the ST Sarug, Nahor, Aran, are to be noted.
:

78. (20) Noe built an altar unto the the Flood] and made acceptable offerings God, of all the clean four-footed beasts birds] and clean fowls.

Lord [after upon it unto


[and of
all

That was the

first

altar that

was

built in the world.

132

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

(21) Ocus ba so-airigthi ailgen la Dia an edbairt sin; ocus adbert Dia fri Nae, Nocha mallachab $ .i. nocha tibar dilind don doman doridisi ardaig na ndaine, ar is aibrisc a n-aicned i is tairberta trascartha
||

i imragad in cridi daennae dochmn nilc do denum. Nocha muirbeb dono o so 3 amach in n-uili n-anmain mbi amail doronns. (22) Acht beidit 6 na huilib lathib don talmuin .i. earrach i samrad i fodmar 4 [i gemred cen cnmsanad].

airiugad

78.

(20) Aedificauit

autem Noe

altare

Domino,

et tollens

de cunctis pecoribus et uolucribus mundis obtulit holocausta super altare. (21) Odoratusque est Deas odorem. suauitatis
et ait

ad eum Nequaquam ultra maledicam ten-ae propter homines, sensus enim et cogitatio humani cordis in malum prona sunt [ab adulescentia sua]. Non igitur ultra percutiam
:

omnem animantem

sicut feci.

(22)

Cunctis diebus terrae r

Chapter. IX.
(1) Ea bendach Dia Nae cona macaib, i adbert Foirbr[id i dobar] nimdaigther i linaid an talmain, (2) i bid lar smacht i far [n-namain for uil]ib anmundaib an talman, i for uilib enaib an aeoir
79.
:

f rin

[archena
1

ro] thidnaicc doib uili domain,

iascc
fuil

an mara
:

(3)

betha

caithfigthisi

each an[nride der] scaigther i a na huili sin amail uile ilraidi,


4

am

sprs. c

these words torn

away

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

133

(21) And God considered that offering to be worthy of acceptation and pleasant. And God said unto Noe I shall not curse [i.e. I shall not bring a Flood upon] the world again by reason of men, for fragile is their nature, and the perception and imagination of the human heart are given over and subdued to work wickedness. I shall not slay, moreover, from henceforth every living soul as I have done. (22) But all the days of the earth there shall be spring and summer
:

and autumn and winter without cessation.

[sementis et messis]
et dies],

frigus et aestus, aestas et hiemps, [nox

non requiescent.

Note on the Biblical Text, Chapter VIII.


This paragraph represents the text of ST with hut whether with intention or not, the strong anthropomorphism of verse 21 is softened.
fl

78.

tolerable literalness

Chapter IX.
79. (1) God blessed Noe and his sons, and said unto them Increase and be ye multiplied and fill the earth (2) and your authority and terror shall be over all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air
:

together

and He gave the whole world


fish of the sea (3) and that hath life in itself

to them,

every beast that moveth and and ye shall eat of tho,se all,

134
(4)

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


cenmotha aen
(5)
lrailib

ni

nama,

.i.

can feoil cona


toibeochad bar

foil

do

chaithem.

Ar

sirfeadsa

?uili-si

-1

phiastaib i ona hnilib dainib, i sirfead anmain each duine o each aen muirfes he. (6) Ar each aen doirtfes in fuil ndaena, doirtfigter a fuil aris fo imaigin i cosmailus De dorigned an duine. Sibsi irnorro, ar Dia fri Nae cona macaib, f orb rig (7) dobarnimdaigter i linaid an tahnain.
:

cna

80.

(8)

Asbert dono Dia


i

(9)

Ordaigfedsa

biaid

mo

fri Nae cona macaib, charadradli imailli frib i

for bar claind do bar n-eissi (10) i fris na huilib tangadar asin aire. (11) i ni thibar dilinn tar an

Domun

doridisi,
i

cenmotha an tan dofas crich eoitehend ehaich

l-loo bratha.

Daber imorro comartha mo charadraig daib isin <n>em, i cein adcifigter an comartha .sin o nim (15) ni bia crich na comarba coitcend for na dainib. Is e so in comartha, .i. mo boga ina sduaig isin nim.
(13)

Conad do sin ata an sduag nime .i. a tabairt do chomartha caradraig do chlannaib Nae iar ndilinn, .i. co mbia Dia an aentaid friu, aireid ^dcistear an sduag nime. Is follus imorro asso cona roibhibh an sduag; nime ria ndilind,
nocha bia coic bliadna deg
ria

mbrath.

(19)

na

tri
i

ra silsad
ndilinn.

macaib-si tra Nae, .i. Sem, i Cam i Iafeth, ro thuismit an t-uili chinead daena iar

80.

'

second a sbs.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


:

135

as of every green thing, (4) except only one thing ye shall not eat of flesh with the blood thereof. (5) For I shall demand and require your blood of all beasts and of all men, and I shall demand the life of every man from every one who shall slay him. (6) For shed man's blood, his blood shall evervone that shall be shed in turn under the image and likeness of God was man made. (7) But ye, said God to Noe and his sons, increase and be ye multiplied and fill the earth.
:

said unto Noe and his sons, there shall be, friendship with you and upon your progeny after you (10) and with all that came out of the Ark. (11) And I shall not bring a Flood over the world again,
80. (8) Moreover (9) I shall ordain, and

God

My

except when the common end of every about in the Day of Judgement.
(13)

man

shall

come

Moreover, I shall put a sign of My friendship to and so long as that sign shall be you seen from Heaven (15) there shall be no end nor common death upon men. This is the sign, My bow arching in the Heaven.
in the Heaven,
the rainbow, given for a sign progeny of Noe after the Flood, that God shall be united with them so long as the rainbow is seen. Howbeit it is clear from this that the rainbow did

Therefore for that purpose


of friendship to the

is

not exist before the Flood,


and that
Judgement.
it

shall not

have being for fifteen years before the

(19)

From

was the whole human race begotten and born.


Iafeth,

those three sons of Noe, Sem, Ham, and after the Flood

136

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

81. (20) Ka thindscain dono Nae tirfrecar do denum, ra clannastar finemain. (21) Ocus luid fechtus Nae in a diaid sin i n-a theipernacuili do 61 Una. Rangab mieisci, i do thuit a chodlad fair, i do rochair a edach de, co mbai nocht ina theiparnacal. (22) Iar sin dolnid Cam .i. athair Chandain, anadochum, i adchondairc bnlln imnara a athar iar n-a nochtad, co ndernaid Luid amach iarsin i ad?ed dia braitrib, | gairi nime. .i. do Iafed i do Sem amail ra bai a n-athair i se
l
||

Dalodur imorro Sem i Iafeth isin is amlaid imorro dochuadar i a cnln tebernacuili, rempu, ardaig co nach faichtis feli a n-athar i doradsad a edach 2 thairis i ra Jagsad ana codlad he, i lodar uad iarsin. (24) An tan imorro ra eirig Nae as a chodlad, do faillsiged do gnimartha na mac sin; conad andsin ra mallach a athair Cam, is ed ra raid biaid Cam coma mogh (25) Is mallachda i is coirpthi, Ocus isbert Nae moghad da braithrib. Ra (26) bendacha an Coimdi ani an Sem, bid Cam a fognam do; (27) Ocus ra lethnaidi Dia Iafeth, i aitrebad a teibarnacuilib Sem, i bid Cam ag fognam do Iafeth.
(23)
-\
: -\ :

nocht

-\

-\

Gonad he Cam

cet duine ra mallaigedh iar ndilinn,

conad iarsin ra geinidar lupracanaig i fomoraig each egasg do-delba archena fil for dainib

gaburchind

dilgend ar Chandandaib, t tucad a ferand eomartha na mallacht eedna sin. Uair ro bo do sil Chaim Candandai, is tresin mallachtain cedna dilgend clann Da.rdain i Ioiph, cor marb each a cheli dib.
grid

Iarsin tuead

do macaib

Israel a

-j

conad

he sin bunad na torathar.

81.

'

c sprs. s

is

sprs. s

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


81.

137

(20)

Now Noc
went

began
(21)

to

planted a vineyard.
things,

And
his

work husbandry, and on a time, after those


tent
to

Noe

into

drink

wine.

Drunkenness seized hold on him, and his sleep fell on him, and his raiment slipped down from him, so that he was naked in his tent. (22) Thereafter came Ham father of Canaan, in to him, and saw the shameful members of his father which had become uncovered, and he made a mock of him. Then he went out and he tells his brethren [Iafeth and Sem] how that their father was naked. (23) So Sem and Iafeth came into the tent; and in this manner they went, with their backs forward, that they should not see the nakedness of their father and they put his raiment over him and left him asleep, and came again away from him. (24) Now when Noe arose from his sleep, the doings of those sons were revealed to him and then his father cursed Ham, and thus he spake (25) Cursed and is Ham, and he shall be as it were a slave of corrupt Let the slaves for his brethren. (26) And Noe said Lord bless the aforesaid Sem, and let Ham be in service to him; (27) and let God enlarge Iafeth, and let him dwell in the tents of Sem, and let Ham be in
;
:

service to Iafeth.

So that this Ham is the first man who was cursed after the Flood and thereafter there were born dwarfs and giants and horseheads and every unshapely form in general that there is among
:

men

Thereafter there was brought [as it were] ( a) destruction upon the Canaanites, and their land was given to the sons of Israel, in token of those same curses. For the Canaanites were of the seed of Ham, and it is through that same curse that there was the destruction of the children of Dardan and Ioph, so that each of them slew his fellow.

so that that

was the origin of the monsters.


See the note on
this paragraph.

(a)

138
79.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(1)

Benedixitque Dens Noe

et filiis eius, et dixit

ad

Crescite et multiplicamini et iraplete terram (2) et terror uester ac tremor sit super cuncta animalia terrae et super omnes volucres caeli 1 (3) Et omne quod mouetur et
:

eos

uiuit erit uobis in cibum quasi holera uiuentia .... (4) excepto quod carnem cum sanguine non comedetis. (5) Sanguinem enim animarum uestrarum requiram de manu cunctarum

bestiarum et de manu hominis, de manu uiri [et fratris eius] requiram animam hominis, (6) Quicumque effuderit humamim sanguinem, fundetur sanguis illius ad imaginem quippe Dei factus est homo. (7) Vos autem crescite et multiplicamini
:

et
80.
(8)

implete terram.

Haec quoque

dixit

Deus ad Noe
.
. .

et

ad

filios

eius

[Ecee] ego statuam pactum meum uobiscum et uestro post uos (10) et cunctis quae egressa sunt de area .... (11) ... nequaquam .... erit deinceps diluuium dissipans terram .... (12) .... hoc signum foederis
.

cum eo, (9) cum semine

....
81.

(13)

ponam

ab his disseminatum
(20)

Tres .... filii Noe, omne humanum genus .... Coepitque Noe uir agricola exercere terram et
(19)
est
1

in nubibus

....

plantauit uineam. (21) est in tabernaculo suo.

inebriatus
(22)

est, et

nudatus
pater

Quod cum

uidisset

Ham

Chanaan, uerenda scilicet patris sui esse nuda nuntiauit duobus fratribus suis foras. (23) At uero Sem et Iafeth .... incidentes retrorsum patris sui uirilia non
. . .

uiderant.

(24)

Evigilans autem Noe ex


.
.

uino,
:

cum

didicisset
2

quae fecera<n>t fili<i> su<i> (25) servus seruorum erit fratribus suis. Benedictus Dominus <Deus> Sem,
.

ait

Maledictus

Cham,
:

(26)
sit

Dixitque <Noe> Cham servus eius.

(27)

Dilatet

Deus

Iafeth,

et

habitet

in tabernaculis

Sem,

sitque

Cham

seruus eius.

Notes on the Biblical Text, Chapter IX.


fi

79.

This part of the verse has probably been

lost

owing

to confusion caused

by the repetition

mouentur

mouetur. glossator, observing the omission of the reference to fishes, inserted it in oratio obliqua, which betrays the intrusion.
.
. .

of the equivalents of

ff80. *As in previous passages, glossarial interpolations borrowed from Sex Aetates Mundi have here ousted the biblical lemmata; and though the framework of the Latin

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


original

139

is preserved, the words of the text cannot be comrecovered. pletely a The remarks on the preceding paragraph are ff 81. 2 There applicable here, if anything, to yet greater extent.

and Vulg., for the Chandan) but (ft) such (or an obvious, if inaccurate, change could have been made at any stage independently, and (b) it must have been made in
is

slight

support in the mss. of both

LXX

substitution of

Cham

for

Chanaan

the

tradition

subsequently to the incorporation of the

interpolated passages.

The following notes, which should follow ]\ 85 (pp. 142-3), are printed here for typographical convenience
:

82. (32) Haec familiae Noe iuxta populos et nationes suas ab his divisae sunt gentes in terra post diluuium. Erat autem terra labii unius et sermonum 83. (1)
:

eorundem
84.
(2)

(3)

Dixitque alter ad proximum

suum

Venite faciamus

coquamus eos igni. Habuerantque lateres pro saxis et bitumen pro cemento. (4) Et dixerunt Venite faciamus nobis ciuitatem et turrem cuius culmen pertingat ad caelum, et celebremus nomen nostrum, antequam diuidamur in universas terras. 85. (5) Descendit autem Deus ut uideret ciuitatem et turrem quam aedificabant filii Adam (6) Et dixit Deus, Ecce, unus est populus et unum labium omnibus coeperuntque hoc
lateres, et
:
: :

facere, nee desistent a cogitationibus suis donee eas opere (7) [Venite igitur] descendamus et confundamus compleant. ibi linguam eorum, ut non audiat unusquisque uocem proximi sui. (8) Atque ita diuisit eos Dominus ex illo loco in universas terras, et cessauerunt aedificare ciuitatem (9) Ed idcirco uocatum est nomen eius Babel, quia ibi confusum est labium uniuersae terrae, et inde dispersit eos Deus super faciem

cunctarum regionum.
TT

82. This, the


is

Nations,"

only surviving portion of the "Table of very freely paraphrased in Tr.

The rendering of Chapter XI, 1-9, is useless for critical purposes the story has been practically re-written inflated (after the manner of the later romances) with cumbrous accumulations of adjectives; and rendered partly unintelligible, especially in verses 4 and 6, by intrusive glosses.
:
;

140

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Chapter X.
(Vers. 1-31 desunt.)

Ra silsad imorro clanna Nae, i ro for talmain amail adbert Dia friu i ra imdaigsead roinnsed i ra fogailsead an talmain eturru iar ndilinn.
82.

(32)

Chapter XI.
83. (1) Is ainlaid imorro bai an talam an tan sin, aen berla inand ag na hnilib dainib ra batar fair,

Goirthigern a ainm,

.i.

an berla Ebraidhi,

no cor scailed na berlada ag an Tur. Is amlaid so adcaemnacair sin dia ndernad gnim n-ingnad( a n-indligteaeh isin domun an tan sin dorisi. o'
)
L

84.

17 [

tan sin
toir c[
9

15
[

each dib

ri

difuluing fir an domain an ] btha amor thoraid in talmain ]htuig a rabadar. (3) Ocus adbert 9 araile [ ] co tirmaigem an criaid
]
5

ro-ruaid, ro-rigin

[
5

]id, taidlig, tesaidi,

curab

Dentar eaidigter cairrgi crnaide, [ ] garba. dono lind an bidamain blaitli bith[*. ara n-ael .]in n-alaind n-aendatha. (4) Ocns dono raidsed beos
. .

4
[

dentar lind cathair chaem^cumdaigthi


2

dnn daingen
||

[bi]th- foduigthe.

Dentar lind dono tor


||

ro-mor, ro-remar, rigda, ro-ard, ro-fada, co ria % co feici fir nime J no nas aeor ard nasnadach eleithi

cendmnllaig an tnir sin. Ocus dono mortar i medaigter ar n-ainm anos ar irdarcus, riasiu ronscailter i Ocns ronscapthar hi crichaib ciana comaigthi. uili leosam an gnim sin. dorigned
84.
1

cum

sprs. s

the MS. reads bith-f oghlaidhi, which cannot


over

be right.
(a) Not clearly written: ngtlAT) apparently (indecipherable) that had been written in error.

covering

something

else

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Chapter X.

141

So the children of Noe increased and multiplied npon the earth as God said unto them and they divided and parted the earth between them after
82.

(32)

the Flood.

Chapter XI.
83. all

(1)

men

Now the earth that were upon


its

was
it

in this wise at that time, having one and the same

language,

and Gorthigern was

name,

i.e.

the

Hebrew language,

until the languages were separated at the Tower, That came to pass in this manner, when a wonderful lawless

deed was done in the world at that time once again.


84. [An] intolerable [famine ? ? seized the] men of the world at that time [and there could not be fo]und a trough (?) of the fruit of the [ ] earth

in the east

where they were. (3) And each said to the other [go to,] that we may dry the very red, very stiff bright heated clay, that it may be as solid as hard .... rough rocks. Let there also be made by us the smooth ever- [stiff?] pitch for their beautiful lime of uniform colour. (4) Moreover they said further .... and let there be made by us a fair-erected castle,
.

and a strong everlastingly founded fortress. Let there be also made by us a very great, wide, royal, lofty,
tall,

tower, that the ridgepole of the


.

summit of that

tower may reach [that men may see] the heavens, And thus let our name [or above the high upper air] be magnified and enlarged from on high in glory, before we be divided and scattered through lands distant and strange. And this deed was wholly done

by them.

142
85.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(5)
i

catrach
.i.

Ra thainustar imorro Dia do [fech]ad na an tuir ro cumdaigsed maic Adaim

scribtuir diada

maic an duini thruaid thalmaidi phecaid i oiltua sin .i. maic Adaim do rad dib.

isin

Ocus adbert Dia Is follus ataid na huili daini conad aen phopnl iad, conad aen berla fuil acu 2 $ 3 n-imraitib ra nocha n-uil i noclia n-anfad ona 2 thinscansadar, nocha chomlanaiged iad $ o gnimaib (7) Conifuiscem iarom i bruigem a mbeiia blaith, builid, (8) Ra binn, conna ra thuigi neach dib gnth araili. mescaid dono, ra medraid, ra meraigid an lnclit sin 4 re hilar na mberla n-anaich<ne> n-examail i is amlaid sin ra ansadar ona gnimuib ra thinscansadar dono do denum. (9) Ocus is airi sin ra gairmead ainm an inaid sin Babel, .i. cnmasc ar is and ra cmnuscid uili berla an talnian, .i. na da berla sechtmogat, o tri macaib Nae. Ra scail Dia na cineada sin isin n-uili talmain.
(6)
: : -;
||

||.

Here the Extract from


86.

the

Book

of Genesis ends.

a tri itir a macaib, .i. Sem Ocns adbath Iafeth an Eoraip. Afraicc, each fer dib ana rand bodeisin .i. marb tra Sem a mnllaig Sleibi Radraip do thes ngreine, marb Iafeth a mullach

Ra

raind Nae an

doman

an Aissia,

Cam an

Sleibi Formeinia,

Conad ar an fath

adbath 0)Cam a mnlla {sic) Sleibi Rafan. sin adrubrad an duan-sa,

(P)Atliair cdich,
87.
x

Coimsid Nime
feallsat
i

Ar

sin
i

tra

ro

clanda

Adaim

for uaill

for

for fingail, .i. Cain mac Adaim s 6 sindser ro 7 marb-siden a dearbrathair .i. Abel, tiia in
5

dimos

for imarbus

85.

The scribe began

to repeat isin, but finding his mistake before

i's, and adapted the s as the initial 2~2 probably the disjecta membra of a gloss, of the following word T nocha n-uil[liu] o gnimaib, "and there is none greater by reason of

he wrote the n he scratched out the

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

143

85. (5) Now God descended to see the city and the tower which the sons of Adam were building

i.e.

is

the sons of the wretched, earthy, man of sin that a reproach hi the divine scripture, to call them 'sons
:

of
(6)

Adam.'

said Lo, all men are as it were one and they have one language and they will not people, cease from the purposes which they have begun, till they have fulfilled them. (7) Let us therefore confuse and crush their smooth, gentle, tuneful speech, that none of them may understand the voice of another. (8) So that people was confused, maddened, and caused

And God

to err, with the multitude of the different unknown and thus they left off from their deeds languages
:

Wherefore the name of that place was called "Babel," i.e. "confusion": for there all the languages of the world were confused, to wit the seventy-two languages, from the three sons
which they had begun
to do.
(9)

of Noe.
earth.
86.

God

scattered those nations into the whole

Noe divided the world

into three parts

among

his

sons

Sem

in Asia,

each of them summit of Sliab Radruip of the heat of the sun, Iafeth died on the summit of Sliab Armenia, Ham died on the summit of Sliab Rafan. So that the following song was said of
that matter

And in Africa, Iafeth in Europe. died in his own division. Sem died on the

Ham

Poem
87.

no. V.

Thereafter the children of

Adam

played
:

false,

in

Cain son pride, in haughtiness, in sin, and in kin-murder of Adam, the elder, he slew his brother Abel through his
deeds."
4

The second

"bracketed letters not


87.

of gnimaib sos. and blotted. MS.

h-im. MS.
3

semper)
8

(variae lectiones 4 feallsad


Cain ms.

from H, text from M) iar 6 6 dimus an seindser


(6)

thra
'

ra

(tit

marbsigein

derb(<z)

here resumes.

144
9

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


12 11 chamaill formot, do ?id chnama 13 14 dorad Dla dilind tars in n-uili doman.

saint

tria

10

conad

airi

sin

"Ocus nir gein mac a cind a bliadna 6 athair "acht Adam nama, 18 19 is fir nar "slan acht aen bliadain Adaim, madab imslan, 20 in. uair ro "compread Cain.
uair

88.
4

Seth
5

ro bai

ac

mac ^dam imorro, in treas mac aireada Adam, i is uad atat fir domain uili, t -i2 3 G
7

Nae mac Laimiach meic 8 Mathasalem meic Enoc meic Iareth meic Malaleth meic Cainen meic 9 Enos meic 1G Seth meic Adaim. ||0) "Is he thra Nae 12 in 13 tAdam 15 14 16 co,sa mberar fir 17 domain uili. 18 Uair ro tairasti, 21 22 23 24 25 20 in "baid dili sil Adaim, aeht Nae cona tri 28 29 26 27 maeaib .i. Sem, Cam, Iathfed, i a ceithri nana 30 31 32 33 34 .i. Coba 01iua i 01Iuana. i Olla i
37 clanna 38 Adaim, 39 co Imroimadair 36 X dosfaidead 43 44 42 40 41 tard Dia dllmd tarsin uili doman, 45 conach terno 46 neeh beo 47 eisti acht lncht na 48 hairei .i. 49 Nae 50 cona 51 trT maeaib .i. Sem, 52 Cam, Iathfed cona 53 ceithri mnaib .i. Coba 35
||

Olla

54

Oliba

Olibana,

53

5j

amail asbert 50

Sluag ndd chide cua-chel

9
14

saint

10

formad
15

tarsa nuili
3

om.

16

" camuill ach o Adam


21

n darad " slan

13 1S

an

dile

Adhaim

19

20 do madob imlan an 88. Adaim and om. imorro

H
om.
-\

-pred
2

an tres
7

H H
tanaisti
2

aireda
8

om. ro

Enois
012

H H
12

sin

/3 /3

ag H "Seith H 12 an H
5

"

H
Nae
1

ataid
,4

-sail2

H H
/?

" oru

is e

H
/3 ,8

oir is e

tainaiste

15

gusa
20

/3

" tAdhamh 12 /3 012 " mairedh

an (in

/? )

Noe
an
012

tanasti

mared
oir
12

"

/?
:

ins.

and om.
/}
23

uili
/?

012

/J
12

uili also

bhaidh

om. an H
thri

H
/?

domli12

12

/3
21

/3
12

do
25

H
22
27

19

bhaith
/3

diliudli
24

/?

siol

nAdhaimh
/?
2
:

uili

f3

Adhamh

uile

/3
12

ach
26

H
Semh
/?

Noe gona
Cairn

tri
(3
,:

macaibh
23

Naoi gona
Iafeth

macaibh
12

/3
20

ins.

/3'

/?

Iaphet

/?

ceitri

geeithre mnaibh

/3

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


envy and jealousy, with a shaft of a camel-bone. God brought a Flood over the whole earth.

145

Wherefore

never was son born of father at the end of a year save Adam only for it is true that one year of Adam was not complete, if indeed it was quite complete, when Cain was

Now

[from]

conceived.

88. As for Setli, son of Adam, one of the three eminent sons which Adam had, from him are the men of the whole earth. [Noe s. Lamech s. Mathusalam s. Enoch s. Iared s. Malalehel s. Cainan s. Enos s. Seth s. Adam]. Now Noe is the second Adam, to whom are traced the men of the whole earth. For the Flood

drowned the seed of


sons,
Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

Adam save Noe and his three Sem, Ham, Iafeth, and their four wives Coba,
[fell]
;

God brought a one escaped from it alive except the people of the ark, to wit Noe and his three sons, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, with their four wives Coba,
so

The progeny of Adam sinned


Flood over the whole earth,

so that not

Olla, Oliva,

and Olivana.

As one

said

Poem
no.
I.

cceitre

Oliva

2 30 om. A. fift 3i om. fi 2 Olibana /3 im ro imair fi imromhair /?"

mnaibh
1

(i40
43

clainn
12

3S

/3

om.
uile
50

/3
012

32 33 12 om. om. Oliu /3" /? 35 Olivana /3 this y om. H: 36 om. /3 012 "ins. a suidiu [3 clann 39 Adhaimh (3 Adhamh /3 12 co darat /3 co tarat /3 12 41 12 42 an dillinn /3 in diliu /3 tarsan (3> 2
31
-\ -\

**

/3

dhomainn

"om.
'"

" om. 012 neach /3 12 P a chlann i a mnaibh do reir an


53_53

[i

domhainn
file

/3
48

domhaann
haircedh
51
.i.

45

/3
12

gonach
49

ri

j3
012

/3

Noe

/3
-\

12

/?

thri

/3

;"
55

Cham

ceathra mnaibh /3 r4 and sprs. but miswritten 1 Oliba om. an fili amail asbeart an filidh f3

Iafeth
'

Cobha Olla Oliua Oliuana


Olibana
amail adbert

(a)

Text of

here 'resumes,
I.

'jut

is

still

preserved in the transcripts only.

L.G.

VOL.

146
89.
lin
7

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


'Adam
fil
2

eo dilind
8

in chet ais.
4
.i.

Is e seo
10

am

in

eheadus, ls se "chedaib ar 14mile, 15 amail asbert

bliadan

innti

so

bliadna
16

in file

caecad "ar15

Cet aimsir in bethad bind ....


1T

Is

18

iad

19

seo

20

Seth

24

cheadas 22

airich

21

na

cet aisi sin

22

cona

23

saeglaib, Iar

"Adam

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

147

89. From Adam to the Flood is the First Age. This is the tally of years that are in it first, one thousand six hundred fifty and six years, as the poet said,

Poem

no. VII.

These are the leaders of that First Age, with their lives, after Seth first of all

Adam
Seth

Enos

148
91.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


Ra imdaig

tra uimir na cinel sin [sech n-uimir na ataid isa nAffraicc il-chinela [im oen-berla, miberla; ar] cen (?)] atharrach tengad accu. Is ed fodera sa(n), na thall aeon Tur, an tan rab[atar] aeh da chinel sechtmogat ee ra himdaigead na cinela, na ra sg [ailed na] berladha i a ro im[dai|g|ed (?) i] n-airim chinel n-examail iad, acht
:

nesa doib. Conad lia na leigiwd a fo-tasgor na cinel [ba] iar cinela iar tothacht an [date na berlae, cian] cob lia
n-uimir.

3 2 macaib sin Nae ro geneadar na da 7 6 cona dib berlaib n-dllind, chenel sechtmqgat iar 10 9 tairmesc "in Tnir sechtmogat Hucad doib Iarsin, ac 16 14 12 Nemruaid. 13 Conad i cind decc "mbliadan Iarsin ro 20 19 18 17 nGaedeal 21 as berla na Feinins Farrsaich thebistair

92.

Conad
5

na

tri

na
s

22

dib berlaib
x

23

sechtmogat.
||

*Tricha

$ no .uii.xx
28

mac
28

25

badar
31

26

ag

2T

Sem,

"nm

20

Airifacsad,
^Ocus
is
38

um

30

Assur,

um

Peirsins.

37 36 35 coic Is iad so na Hebraidi. sil-sidi na dia 40 ra silad aigi, .i. Alam, "Assur, "Airifacsad, "Luid, 47 46 45 coic meic is Aram: i cia "ainmnigter ag Sem, ni tabar a 60 49 "n-airim acht cinead da mac dib. 83
34

meic

39

5I
5

Tricha

"mac imorro badar


55
58

oc

Cham, im
ni
6I

53

Chnss, im

*Mesram, im
Ocus
62 57

Futh im
ainmigter
59

56

Chandan,
mac ^oc Cam,
tabar a n-airem

cia

tricha

acht cinead "da,


ora,
2

mac
o
5

dib.

92.
12

'- 1

H: conadh
012

thri macaib-siden
1

Noe

fi
2

(these words om.


3

/3
4

gheinseadar
012
12

fi

) (deg conadh da bhearla fi, gonadh chlannaib Naoi /3 12 1 012 9 on iarsoin fi (-soin fi da bherladh /3 Hugadh doibh (i 12 " an 2 i2 10 2 Neamhruaidh /? iair- /3 ) /3 toirmeasg fi toirmiosg fi 14 y" conadh a ccend deich Nemrodh fi 12 (-mh- fi 2) fi i a gcenn (3 2 012 " 16 012 15 -soin fi (-ar /3 ) bliadhna /3 teipestair /3 /3 *> 19 12 l8 nGaoidheal berladh fi 12 Fionnus Farsaigh /? F. Fairsaidh fi " 12 " di bherlaibh 21 12 012 ins. i fi (i da bherladh fi /3 (-dhel fi ) 2i 12 wi text from here print (d as in H: interlined 5 "sechtmhodh fi 12 2C 2 a /? 12 ac do /3' 2 bhadair fi bhadar fi 'ins. ro only 12 M Airifaxat M im M Nae [i v2 fi Arfacsat /3 "ins. mac (bis)

cheineil

fi

(-el fi
'

(g- f3\ -edar (3 -edair fi 012 deag is tri fithchiod /3


:

)
.
.

om. na

1-

/3
12

fithcit fi

-inn

012

fi

ins. o

12

H
34

/>'

31

Asur

31

Persius

012

32
12

/3 fi

uair

siol-seu fi;

siol

(om. sen)

om. is /3 02 ""Heabraidi
:

33 da sil-side Heabhraidhe fi " 2


1

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

149

91. Now the number of those peoples increased beyond the numbers of the languages for there are in Africa many
;

peoples having- one language, and no change of tongue. This is the reason thereof, that there were only seventytwo peoples yonder at the Tower, when the languages were separated and though the peoples were multiplied, they were not multiplied in the computation of different
:

peoples, but were left as a. subordinate company of the So that the nations are greater peoples nearest to them. in substance than the languages, though they are not greater
in

number.
92.

from those three sons of Noe that the seventy-two peoples were born after the Flood, with their seventy-two languages that were given to them thereafter, at the confusion of Nemrod's Tower. And it was at the end of ten years thereafter that Feinius Farsaid extracted
it

So that

is

the language of the Gaedil out of the seventy-two languages.

thirty [or twenty seven] sons, including Arfaxad, Assur, Persius

Sem had
and
five

of his seed that the Hebrews come. These are the whom he had descendants, Elam, Assur, Arfaxad, Lud, and Aram and though five sons of Sem are named, I do not give in enumeration the descent of more than two of them.
it

is

sons from

Ham

had

thirty sons, including Chus, Mesraim, Flit,

Chanaan,
and though thirty sons of Ham are named, I do not give in enumeration the descent of more than two of them.

37

12 3S no comad iad so no gomadh iat so /3 i is iad so ft ) 12 38 39 maic /3" oir sioladh aige /? da (do cuig /3 coig /? M Alamh cloinn ar bhfagham (air bhfh- /3 2 ) sliocht /3 12 aici 41 42 43 Asur Araf axat Arif axat (J Arf acsad /3 12 Luidi Saram

(-aidh

12

/?
3

/? )
12

MH
/?"

/3

Ludi Sarain
46

/?

Ludi Saram
/3

12

44 12

/3
/3 50

ac

aig

Semh

sin Seini

49 airemh /?" ach da mhac dhiobh [i i2 Cam mhac Naoi um Cus

airem aireamh /? cinneamh en da mhac dibh ft ceinemh in 51 Triothchad (Triochad (3 2 ) mac bhadh ag
12

ghth- /3 -thear " tabhair 012 /3

12

45

coig
48

/3

na coig

aile oc

Cam
(1

um Esrom um Futh um Canaan


Cham
53

mac
B5

eile o

/?

Chus
1

/?
54

Cus

/?

52 mac Esram H

Easrom

5S " B8 Futh /? Cannain (3 gia /3 -gthear 59 60 an /3 12 triotchad /3 triothchadh (3 2 -ghthear (i -ghther ag 12 61 Cam /? sin and om. oc Cam (3 tabhair /? tabhar /3 toabhar /3 2 03 012 12 63 diobh acht cinneadh da mac /? ins. a H (dlliiobh, cinedh, mhac /3 )
1

150

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


G4

A
67
65

cuig deg

65

imorro

66

ag Iafeth.

M
im 70 Gregi"is, im Espanus 69 im 72 Goim73 no 74 is 75 morseser ar erus fichit do macaib badar aici

H
1

im

68

Danai,

69

ni tabar a n-airim ach cinedh

71

tri

4.

.i.

oc
,6

Sem
cumad
sin

Ni hamlaid ra mac dib. badar na meic aili can geinemhain uaidhib; acht ri ro geinir uaidib ni ar bu dingmala ainm ceineoil da tabairt forro.

||.

no
7S

iad so annianda
,8

"na

mac
79

Iathfeth,

.i.

Gomer,

Magoc, Magia, Iaban, Tubal, 80 Masoth, Tirus, "Maisechda.


82 89

Is

a.mlaid

83

sin

84

imorro

85

do
90

86

silsad

na

87

88 cinela sin, M.

a
92

tricha imorro secht fiehit dib 6 Sem, 8S 94 93 ut dicitur cenela deg o Iafeth,

Cham,

91

euic

Tricha mac mln, monar ngle

dono mac Nae, Ms uad tuaiscert-leth na Sem imorro for medon Haissia 1 lucht na Heorpa uili. Cam 6 Srnth Eofrait co tracht airthir an betha. Aissia, deiscert-leth na Haissia. dono ragab-sidi an Affraicc,
93. Iathfeth
-\

4 3 Iafed 2 dono is iad a chlann-sidi lenfamaid 12 9 8 7 Haissia uad tuaiscert- 10 leath "na Is anossa. 17 16 15 14 lb Airmein i fir na Sceitliia .i. Aissia Beg i uili,

94.

,;l

ciiic

dec

M
68

65

om.

66

ft
69

oc Iathfed

M
70

ag Iaphet
Greagus
73-73 "-"

ft
12

6'

in

ft

am

ft"
72

-nn- ft""

urn ft" (ter)


1

ft

71

sei Gomerus ft Gomerius ft Gomeretis ftEasp- ft"" 75 74 2 morseisiur om. is ft sear dihiobh (dhiobli ft ) mar ata ft" 78 air fichit do mhacaibh bhadar ag Semh ft gomadh ft, possibly cumad iad so cert-anmanda in M: the writing hay partly effaced by a than blot badly rubbed out, and there is room for a letter or two more "mac Iafeth "Maghach (Magaeh ft' is printed in the text " Tiras ft 012 79 2 Massoth ft" Massoc ft -och ft ) Madia Iuban ft" 83 2 82 seo 81 amhladh ft amhlaidh ft' Maisectadh ft" Maisecdha ft

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Iafeth had fifteen, And
tion

151

including

Danai,

Gregus,
:

I do not give in enumera-

or Gomerus Espanus, had twenty-seven [Sem]


sons.
Or perhaps these are the names
of
the
,

the

descent
other
:

of

more than

three of them.
that

It is not the case

descendants

sons had no but none were born from them worthy of being called
the
'

sons

of

Iafeth

Gomer,

'

a people.

' '

Magog Madai, Iavan, Mosoch, Tiras, Maisechda.

Tubal,

Thus it is that those peoples were descended, twenty-seven from Sem, thirty from Ham, fifteen from Iafeth, ut dicitur

Poem

no. III.

93. Iafeth son of Noe, of him is the northern side of Asia and the people of all Europe. Sem over the middle
of.

Asia, from the river Euphrates to the eastern region of the world. settled in Africa and on the southern

Ham

side of Asia.
94. As for Iafeth, it is his progeny which we shall follow now. From him is the northern side of all Asia, namely Asia Minor, and Armenia, and the people of

M
12

so
89

12

8i

/?
87

(s B')

cenela

om. p
cineala

K ro

012

86

/3

silad

sioladh B 012
S8 ~ 88

seacht xxit diobh o /3 92 a cuig deg B cinela teolach seo amail isbert an filidh

B cinedhaibh /3 1 cinethehaibh B 2 91 ^ ins. i M Seimh triocha B 12

om.

ins.

-\

93

Iathf ed
reir

M
an
fhile

94

am ail

asbert in

p do

B 12

93. 94.

sprs. s

H
2
-

3 12 i ns mac Nae M M Iaphet B 12 tra M /? om. B 4 om. eland-sen M cldan /3 mhac Naoi B" mac Nai mac Laimhiach ft 012 5 e 'ins. lean- /3 -aoid /3 12 om. M /3 012 side B B 2 10 9 8 "na leithi M tuaitsciort /3 12 (-th- B ) uadh B uaidh B 12 " Aisia M Aissia 12 ,2 " om. M 012 Haisia M B 012 /3 /3 dittographed B "- 17 om. 15 12 18 Airmen M Armein /? 12 .i. for i B B
1

Iathfed

-\

152
1S
1
21

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


is
19

uad

20

Ha\a,xandria. 18
24

an Greg Beg 22 0cus is

an Greg Mor 17 i Greg na 20 23 tiad lucht na Heorpa uili.


i

Ocus dono is dla cloind each gaMil dogab Erinn, cenmotha Cessair nama. 22 24
95.

(A)

mac Nae
Gomer,
seindser

chlaimaib Iafed andso bodesta. Iafeth dono Oliuana a bean, ro thechtsad ocht maccu, .i. .i. an Magog, Maigia, Iabal $ no Eonae t
i
||

Do

||,

Tubal, Masoch, Tirus, Maisegda.

(B) Gomer imorro, is Ainm iadside i Gailli.

nada ataid Galladagdai,


aili

is

inann

doib Gailligregi.

Cid dia n-abur Gailligregi re sil Gomeir meic Iafeth? Ninsa. iad do bunad adbeir Asuidhir, i dorad rigi an feraind dlianad ainm Betania don Gregdo-sidi irandus dia thir ar chongnam Ra ansad aigi an agaid a braithrech; i is airi sin adberar fris. ni Gailligregi riu, ar a mbeith itir Greg i Gaillia do bunad, heir comad mac do Goimer Gregus.
Gailli
-\

(C) Teasallus mac Greguis ra cumdaig an catraig diana ainm Tesalonica, 7 is inti ro follamnaigsed a Haithus. Is uad ainmnigter in Tesaill iar firind, 1 o <a> athair ainmnigter an Greg.

(D) Ceitri meic la Goimeir, .i. Ripad Scot o taid Scuit; dob eisein Ibath mac Goimeir, senathar Feiniusa

Farreaid t A. Feinius Farrsaid meic Goimeir meic Iafeth ||.

mac Baaith meic

Ibaith

Cid dia n-abar Greg Sceithegda re Gaeidealaib, ar ni do sil Neimid meic Adnomain iad do bunad? Is do lucht na Sceithia
doib, uair is do sil Feiniusa Farrsaid doib ca raibi flaithus na Sceithia. Acht ceana ni raibi rigi na Sceithia aigi acht a flaithus,
1

ar a mbeith do chlannaib Goimer adberar Greg re Gaeidelaib; as decair lind a (a)scartain re Goimer da reir sin.

(E)

Na

tri

meic

aili

Goimeir,

.i.

Erifam

o taid Paplagoine,

Togarm

Asceinex, otaid Reigine, tait Frigia Ilia.


-\

ls -' s
2; - 22

om. om.

M
(3

19 23

uaidh
12

(3>

uatha
2i - 2i

(3

"o/n.

M
/3

21

-dreach

uile

f3

om.

fi

fi"

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

153

Scythia; and from him are Graecia Parva, and Graecia Magna, and Alexandrian Greece. Of him also are the

people of
Moreover

all

Europe.
is

it is of his progeny that took Ireland, save only Cessair.

every Taking which

95.

of

Iafeth son (A) Of the children of Iafeth here now. Noe and Olivana his wife, they had eight sons, Gomer,
eldest]
,

Magog, Madai, Iabal or Iavan, [the


Thiras, Maisegda.

Tubal, Mosoch,

Gomer, of him are the Galladagdae (B) As for [= Galatae] and they are the same as the Galli. Another name for them is Gallograeci. Why is the seed of Gomer son of Iafeth called Gallograeci ?
, ' '
' '

They were fundamentally


the land called Bithynia for giving him help.

and the ruler of Galli, says Isidorus gave to the Greeks a portion of his land
:

They stayed with him to oppose his brethren; and for that reason they are called Gallograeci, because they were fundamentally in part Greeks, in part Galli; and it will not arise that Gregus was a son of Gomer.
(C) Thessalus

Thessalonica,

him

is

son of Gregus built the city called From and therein he ruled his kingdom. Thessaly named authentically, and Greece is named

from

his father.

(D) Gomer had four sons, Rifath Scot from whom are the Scots; now he was Ibath son of Gomer, the grandfather of Feinius Farsaid [Feinius Farsaid s. Baath s. Ibath s.

Gomer s. Why

Iafeth].
are
the

Greeks of Scythia, seeing that son of not of the seed of Nemed Agnomain? They are of the people of Scythia, for they are of the seed of Feinius Farrsaid, who had the princedom of Scythia. However, he had not the kingdom of Scythia, but its princedom and as they are of the progeny of Gomer, the Gaedil are called Greeks. We find it hard to disconnect them from Gomer on that account.
called

Gaedil

fundamentally

they

are

whom

(E) The three other sons of Gomer were Aschenez, of are the Rifath of whom are the Rhegini, Paphlagonians, Thogorma of whom are Phrygia and Ilia.
MS.

(a)

-th-air,

clumsily corrected sec. man.

154

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


7

(F) Maigia no Meda mac Iafed, a quo Meda; ochtar o Meadaib rigi an domain.
(G) Ionan
Iafeth.

ragabsai

mac

Iafeth,

is

uaidib-sein ataid Iondaid,

is

uad rasgeinseadar Eoldaid.


-\

Ocus ainm

aili do,

Greg mac

[Is uad] ainmnigter an cuiged berla na Gregi, .i. an berla Eol[da, is ua]d ainmnigter Gregaig iar firind. Uair is co Gregus mac [Iafeth ber]ar genelach Alaxandair meie Philip rig Greg, 7 is uad Gregaig [ 4 Ocus .]cain. is uad adberar an Muir Eonda.
. .
.

Seithim a quo Ioif mac Saduirn, amail adbeir leabar Augustin o Chathair De, 7 uada Ceitheagdai. Is uaidib-sein ainmnigther cathair na Cipricai, .i. Ceithunt.
(I)

(H) Coig meic aigi-sidi, .i. Elisa, Tairsis, Elissa a quo Eigila, .i. Dodainim, Gregus. Sicimorum. Tairsis, is uad Tairsis 7 Cillegda.

Seithim.
geinilach

Dodainim,

is

uadha-sidi Rodai.

Is

uaidib-sein ra

foglad indseda Mara Toirrian, cona cinelaib examlaib, .i. Inis Roid, 7 Inis Coirbdith, 7 Inis Sicil, 7 Inis Creid, 7 Inis Ceithiria, 7 Inis Rodain, 7 oilena eirimda ele, ineoch na ra thuirmsemar sund, ardaig mi-chuimni. Gregus a quo
Gregaig.

(K) Tubal,

is

comad

mac

d'lafed

uada ataid Iberdaid 7 Espandai Easpanus o taid Espandai


;

X
||,

no
7

Uair Eiperus, do sil Tubail Celtiberdai, 7 Edaldai. or gein Ianus ri ehinel Iafeth, a quo Eipiritarum,
Heiperda.
Is e cet ri
7

do

da gab Romanchu.

is

na uad ainm-

nigter mi Ienuair,

is

uad

Coirinti.

(L) Massoch,

is

uada ataid Capadusdai.( a)


Maissegda, dibaid-sein.
fir

Tirass,

is

uada ataid Tragdai.


(M) Magog,
Gaidil.
7

is

uada ataid

na Sceithia

na Gaith,

.i.

Cuig meic la Magog, .i. Baath, 7 Ibath, 7 Barachan, Baath dono, mac do-sein Feinius Emoth, 1 Aithechta.
Feinius Farrsaid dono,
to
t)
;

Farrsaid, athair na Sceithegda.


(a)

Capaddai written and x changed clumsily

dus), sec.

jnan.

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


eight

155

(F) Madai or Meda, son of Iafeth, a quo the Medes; and men of the Medes took the kingship of the world.

(G) Ionan son of Iafeth, from them (sic) are the Ionians, He has another and from him were the Aeolians born. From him is named one of name, Gregus son of Iafeth. the five languages of the Greeks, the Acolie, and from him the Greeks are named authentically. For the genealogy of

Alexander son of Philip, king of Greece, is traced to Gregus son of Iafeth and from him are the ... (?) Greeks. Also, the Ionian Sea is named after him.
five sons, Elissa, Tharsis, Cetthim, Dodanim, Elissa a quo Aetolia, the pedigree-stem of the Siculi. Tharsis, from him are Tarsus and the Cilicians. Cetthim, a quo is Iuppiter son of Saturn, as the book of Augustine De Ciuitate Dei saith, and of whom are the Citii.

(H)

He had

Gregus.

From them

is

named

the city of the Cyprii, namely Citium.

By these people (I) Dodanim, from him are the Rhodii. the islands of the Torrian Sea, with their various inhabitants,

and

to w it Rhodes, and Carpathos, and Cytherea, and the Balearic Crete, Sicily, Islands, and very many other islands which we have not enumerated here, owdng to failure of memory. Gregus,

were appropriated,

and

a quo the Greeks.

(K) Tubal, from him are the Iberi and the Hispani [or perhaps Easpanus was a son to Iafeth, and from him are For [it is] the Hispani] and the Celtiberi and the Itali. Eperus, of the seed of Tubal of the race of Iafeth, a quo the Epirotae, and from whom sprang Ianus, king of the Epirotae. He is the first king who took over the Romans.

From him

is

named

the month of Januarv, and from


Thiras, of

him
him

are the Quirites.


(L) Mosoch, of

him are the Cappadoees.


Maisegda
is

are the Thraces.

missing.

that

of Scythia and the Goths, had five sons, Baath, Ibath, Magog Barachan, Emoth, Aithechta. As for Baath, his son w as Feinius Farrsaid, father of the Scythians. As for Feinius
is,

(M) Magog, of him are the


the Gaedil.

men

156

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Adl3eraid araile mac Baaith meic Magog meic Iafeth. imorro is Feinius Farrsaid mac Baaith meic Ibaith meic Goimeir meic Iafeth.
(N) Ibath dono, an mac aili do Magog, mac dosaidi Alainius. Tri meic aigi-sidi, A. Airmein, Negua, Isicon.

Coic meic ag

Armon

(sic),

A.

Gotus, Uiligotus,

Cebitus,

Brugandus

Longbardus. Negua dono, ceitreO) meic Isicon .i. lais, Uandalus, Saxus, Bogardus, Longbardus. an tres mac Elainius, ceitri meic lais, .i. Frangcus, imorro, Romanus, Albanus a quo Albania an Aisia Big, i Albanactus mac Britan meic Siluius meic Ascain meic raiter Aeniasa meic Anicis a quo Alba Iartair 7 Britus,
(sic),
:

Indsi Bretan.
(0) Is andsin do randad an doman a tri randaib, .i. Eoraip 1 Afraicc i Assia. Secht mbliadna decc re scailead na mberlad tanig an ced fer do sil Iafeth is an Eoraip, .i. Alainius mac Ibaith meic Magog meic Iafeth meic Nae. Alainius, is uada ataid Fraingc 1 Romanaig; 1 is amlaid thanig a tri meic laiss, .i. Airmein, Neagua, Issicon conad a fus ra clannaigsed na macu adchualumar.
:

mac Negua meic Alainius meic Ibaith meic meic Iafeth Meic Nae, is uad Saxain. Emoth mac Magoe Magoc, is uad fine thuaiscert an domuin. Barachan, a quo Gaeidel, mac Eitheoir meic Bai meic Tai meic Barachain meic Magoch. Aitheachtaig mac Magoch, is dia chloindna thuatha thangadar an Erinn ria nGaidelaib, .i. sein Parrthalon mac Sera meic Sru meic Esru meic Praimint meic Aithechtaig meic meic (sic) Magoch meic Iafeth meic Nae Neimid mac Adnomain meic Paim meic Thait meic
(P) Saxus
:

-\

Sera meic Sru. Ocus adberaid aroili do lebraib corab ar & slicht an meic do fagaib Parrthalon thair( ) do Neimead, Ocus clanda Neimid, Parrthaloin. .i. ar slicht Adla meic .i. Gaileoin i Fir Bolg t Fir Domnand i Tuaith De Danund. As doib-sin do chan an file.

Magog mac an
(a)

Iafeth

....
flanking

At

first

written

the

i,

to turn the

(6)

The

/i-dot

C (i.e., tri three) word into ceitre four. doubtful.

afterwards c-e was Written

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Farrsaid, he was son of Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth. say however that Feinius Farrsaid was s. of Baath
s. s.

157

Others Ibath

Gomer

s.

Iafeth.

(N) As for Ibath, one of the two sons of Magog, his son was Alainius. He had three sons, Airmen, Negua, Isicon. Airmen had five sons, Gotus, Uiligotus, Cebitus, Burgandus, Negua had four sons, Vandalus, Saxus, Longbardus.

Bogardus, Longbardus. Isicon, the third son of Alainius, had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Albanus, a quo Albania in Asia Minor, and Albanactus s. Britan s. Silvius s. Ascanius s. Aeneas s. Anchises, a quo western Alba, and
Britus,

from whom are called the Islands

of Britain.

into three divisions, Seventeen years before the Asia. Africa, Europe, scattering of the languages there came the first man of the seed of Iafeth into Europe, Alainius s. Ibath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe. Alainius, of him are the Franks and the

(0)

Then was the world divided

Romaais. And his three sons came with him, Armen, Negua, Isicon so that on the hither side they begat those sons of whom we have heard.
:

(P)
s.

Saxus

s.

Negua

s.

Alainius

s.

Ibath

s.

Magog

s.

Iafeth
of

is

Emoth Noe, of him are the Saxons. the people of the north of the world.

s.

Magog,

him

Barachan, a quo

the Gaedil,

s. Etheor s. Bai s. Tai s. Barachan s. Magog. Aithechtaig s. Magog, of his progeny are the peoples who came into Ireland before the Gaedil Parthalon s. Sera s.

Sru

Esru Iafeth s. Noe


s.

s.
:

Praiment and Nemed

s. s.

Aithechtaig s.O)

Magog
s.

s. s.

Agnomain

s.

Paim

Tat

Others of the books say that Nemed was of the family of the son whom Parthalon left in the east, Also the children of Nemed, the Adla s. Paxthalon. Gaileoin and Fir Bolg and Fir Domnann and Tuatha De Sera
s.

Sru.

Danann.

Of

those the poet sang,

Poem
(a)

no. IV.

Disregarding the dittography in the

text.

158

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


(Q) Is iad tra
flaithus
is

ferandus
Haissia
cona.
:

7 1

na cineada sin .i. clanda Iafeth, ra gabsad na Heorpa uili, 7 tuaiscert-leithi na


:

fo-ehinelaib
.i.

iad sin cuig prim-chinela deg chlainni Iafeth ra sealbsadar feranda imda isan 7

Mai 1 Sliab Tur a tuaid co Sruth n-Aissia, Danai 7 coruigi an Sceithia tuaiscertaig 7 ra selbsad an Eoraip uili, coruigi an aigen muiridi fuineada Insi Bretan Da 7 conuigi an Espain treuillig budeas, .i. Tuillslicht.
o Sliab
:

chlannaib Iafeth meic Nae eonuigi sin, cona prim-chinelaib eona fo-ehinelaib, 7 cona ngabalaib 1 cona ferandaib, itir Aissia 1 Eoraiph.

96.
7

Na
7

tri

meic-si tra
:

Nae

ra thuimiseniar romaind
sin.
:

.i.

Sem

Ocus adberaid araili co rugad mac do Nae iar ndilinn, .i. Eoinitus i than an rand feraind do gab, 7 as na tri randaib aili ra teibead a ferand. Ocus rob estrolagda maith he, iar n-a ifoglaim athair, Nae.
Iafeth
ria ndilinn

Cam

rugtha an triur

97.

Coba bean Nae,

is i

ra fig edach re each iar ndilinn.

Eua ben Adaim,


tus,

an

is i ra fig tonag di fein 7 do ar tress la iar teacht a sruth Tibir diaid a n-aitrigi,

Adam

iar n-a forchongar

do Dia

fuirri.

meic Adaim,

Catafola a n-ingen, rugad araen re Cain, seitchi Phendain is i ra figh edach ria chach. Is uimpi doronad
t-ed.

an

Iafeth
ndilinn.
(n)

mac Nae,

is

e ra seind cruit 7

organ ar tus iar


7

Sem mac Nae, an

cet

goba

an

cet cherd

an

cet saer iar

ndilinn.

Nae imorro, ra thindscain tirfrecar do bliadain iar ndilinn: .i. dorigni ar 7 buain,
nneamain.

denum,
7

an

cet

do chlandustair
7

Cam mac Nae

imorro ranig snara

aircheadal

filidecht ar tus.

na faidi ca 7 thirchartain co ticfa dilgend chlainni Adaim, tria i'ingail Chain for a braithrib, do rindi tri colamna ceithir-(&)slis, .i.
iarsin co
dili,

Ora airig tra

Cam

ticfad an

(a)

The

initial
it

thought that

S was a

is *)

of an extravagant shape;

it

looks

as

though the scribe

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


(Q)

159

these are those peoples, to wit the progeny of took the territory and princedom of all Europe and of the northern side of Asia and those are the fifteen chief people of the progeny of Iafeth, with their subordinate
Iafeth,

Now

who

people.

And

they possessed

many

territories

in

Asia,

namely from Mount Amanus and Mount Taurus northward and they to the river Don, and to Northern Scythia possessed all Europe to the ocean of sea in the west of the island of Britain, and to three-cornered Spain in the south, Of the progeny of Iafeth son of Noe i.e. the Astures. (?) down to this, with their chief peoples and their subordinate peoples, their takings and their territories, both in Asia and
:

in Europe.

Noe that we have reckoned above, before the Flood were those three persons Others say that a son was born to Noe after the Flood, born. named Ionitus. Ethan was the portion of territory which he out of the other three portions was his portion selected. received He was a good astrologer, having learnt it from his father Noe.
96.

As

for the three sons of


:

Sem, Ham, Iafeth

97. Coba, wife of Noe, she it is who wove raiment for every one after the Flood. Eua wife of Adam, she it is who first wove an apron for herself and for Adam, on the third day after coming from the river Tiber (sic lege Tigris) after their penance,
:

when God had commanded

it

to her.

Catafola their daughter, who was born along with Cain, wife of Pendan son of Adam, she it is who wove raiment before anyone else about her was the jealousy excited.
:

Iafeth son of Noe, it is he an organ after the Flood.

who

first

sounded a harp and

Sem, son of Noe, the first smith, the first wright, the first carpenter after the Flood. As for Noe, he began to work husbandly in the first year after the Flood. He made ploughing and reaping, and planted a
vineyard. Ham, son of Noe, bardism.
first

attained to

swimming and poetry and

Now when Ham understood thereafter that the Flood should come, and the prophets were foretelling that a destruction of the progeny of Adam should come, by reason of Cain's kin(6) the s sprs.

160

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


columan d'ael, i colaman do criaid, i colaman do chiaraig. Ocus do sgrib intu seela na haimsiri cora mairdis iar ndilinn. Ra millead an colaman aeil i an colaman criadh, ra mair an colaman ciarach. Conad he ra indis scela na haimsiri ria
-\

ndilinn;

mairid iartain.

Olibana a ben-sidi,

is

ra cet-cum eclaeh iar ndilinn.

98.

Greg
9

Grecus mac Iathfeth, is 2 uad in Greg 3 Mor i in 5 Beg i Greg na Halaxandria. Espanus mac
1
7

Gomerns mac "Iathfeth, 12 13 da mac lais, .i. "Emoth i Ibath. Emoth, is uad 13 14 15 16 fine tlraaiscert in domain. mac lais, Ibath, da 17 18 19 .i. Bodb i Baath. diar bo mac 20 Dohe. Bodb, Elenus 21 mac 22 Dohe, tri 23 meic 24 lais, .i. 23 Airmen, 26 Airmen 27 imorro, 28 coic meic 29 lais, Negna, Isicon.
"iathfeth, 6 tait
10

Espandai.

Burgandus, 39 4 36 37 38 Longbardns. Neagrla imorro, tri meic leis, .i. 41 42 Hisicon 43 imorro, 44 in Boarus, Uandalus. Saxns, 48 45 46 47 meic 49 lais, 50 .i. treas mac ceithri Elenuis, 52 51 he in Is Romanus, Frangcus, Britus, Albanns. 57 58 53 54 35 56 tAlbanus sin rogab Albain ar tns cona chloind, 63 62 59 a is uad 60 ainmnigther 61 Albn co ro indarb 1 67 65 66 eonad iiad Albanaich "brathair tar Muir nlcht,
.i.

3f,

31

Gntus,

32

33

34

Cibidus,

Uiligothus,

3F

leatha Hoidia.

na 12 rla Erinn "J ar trls tnatha tancadar "nGaeidelaib, .i. "Parrthalon mac Sera meic Srn meic
99.

Magoc mac
2

Iathfed,
10

is

dia

6 chloind- sen

in

||

98.
4

'- 1

om.

12

/3
5

bheg

/?
9

Greacus m. Iafet, &c, Halaxandreach /?


:

/3

uadh

/?

mhoir

f3

Iafeth/3

mhac

012

10

12

/?

leis/3

Iaf eth [i " Eamot

12

/3

'Easpain [i 12 om. /S' 2

uadh finidh thuaisciort in domhain ft uatha fine tuaitsciort (-ths- /? 2 ) 12 16 ,5 leis /? in domhuin /3 12 "Iobat /J 12 mhac /3 0U 20 ls Dothe /? om. M Boidhbh /3 012 dar /3 12 "Boidhbh /? 012 23 M mhac 12 22 mic /3 12 Tote ft" Dothe /? Dote /? 12 /3
13-13
21

leis

P
12

25

Armen
29

012

26
:

/?
1

Armen
12 .i.

12

27

/3
31

dono
012

(3

28 33

cuig mic
-gotus

M
ft

/?

leis

<"

/3
34

om.
012

/3

Gotus
/3
2

32

/?

om. /? 12 om.
0i

M
1'

012

012
37
,2

-ntns

M
3S

/3

-bh39

36
41

Negua

om.

"
ft

Longabairdus
w om.
.i.

ft"
ft

Sacsus ft"

Boaii-us ft"

mic ft" 43 om.

lais

ft"
44

ft"

in

yc

M:

an

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


murder against

161

his brethren, he made three four-sided columns, one of lime, one of clay, and one of wax. And he wrote upon them the histories of the [antediluvian] age, so that they The columns of lime and of should endure after the Flood. and clay were destroyed, and the column of wax remained this it was that related the histories of the Age before the
:

Flood, and

it

survives thereafter.
it is

Oliuana his [Iafeth's] wife, raiment after the Flood.

she

who

first

fashioned

98. Grecus s. Iafeth, of him is Graecia Magna and Graecia Parva and Alexandrian Greece. Espanus s. from whom are the Hispani. Gomer s. Iafeth Iafeth,

had two

sons,

Emoth and

Ibath.

Emoth, of him

is

the

Ibath had two sons, northern people of the world. Bodb and Baath. Bodb, who had a son Done. Elenus As s. Dohe had three sons, Airmen, Negua, Isicon. for Airmen, he had five sons, Gutus, Cebidns, Negua moreUiligothus, Bnrgnndns, Longbardns. Uandalus, Isicon over had three sons, Saxus, Boarns, moreover, one of the three sons of Elenus, had four This is sons, Eomanus, Francus, Britus, Albanus. that Albanus who first took Alban, he and his children, and of him is Alba named so he drove his brother across the sea of Icht, and from him are the Albanians
:

of

Latium of
99.

Italy.

Magog son of Iafeth, of his peoples who came into Ireland at


Gaedil,
*tres 48 mic
58

children are the first before the

namely Partholon
thres
'2

s.

Sera
'2

s.

Sru

s.

Esru
ceithre
52

s.

12

48
50
2

ft
12

ft 49

ft

leis ft
54

Heloni ft om. ft 012


55 59

51
2

"cethri Briotus ft' 2

ft"

an

"roghabh
cloind

M
12
2

ft

-uin
012

ft'

air

ft' ft

M ttus

57

ft

gonadh

ft' 012 ft 2 ft'

ehloinn
63

ft
12

uadha

uadh

ft'

62 gor iondairb ft 2 65 M bhr- 012 12 tair ft Briotus ft ft ft ) 012 67 " nlocht 2 uaidh Albanaigh ft (conadh ft") ft gonadh 3 2 2 Iafeth ft Iaphet ft" mhac ft' 2 99. ' Magoth ft Magog ft' 8 ' 12 * 5 4 tuathadh ft' 2 sin ft thangadair ft ehloinn ft 012 da ft' 2 2 " om. 2 " Eirinn 9 2 ft' an ft 2 ft' tangadar ft' 14 " 14 12 '3 om. ft n 2 " re nGaedhealaibh ft nGaoidhil ft

-ghther
f-airb-

ft

w Alba

ft

"-ghthair ft 12 gur hionarbadh ft

ins.

Britus

ft

'

'

ft

L.G. VOL.

i.

162
19

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO

Easrii meic Gaeidil Glais meic Niuil meic Feiniusa Farrsaig meic Bathatha meic Magog meic Iathfeth meic Nae no 14 15 Parrthalon mac 16 Sera 17 meic 18 Sru meic 19 Easru meic 20 Pramint meic "Aitheachda meic 23 24 25 22 Ocus 26 Neimead mac Magoth meic Iathfeth 28 27 Adnoimin meic Phaim meic Thait meic 29 Seara meic 31 Sru 30 meic Easru, -jrl. 30 Ocus Clanda Nemid, 32 .i. 34 36 35 ss Galeoin 7 Fir Bolc 7 Fir Domnand 7 Tuatha De
:
*

Danand.
Ocus fineada Cloindi Beothaig meic Iarmuineoil Fatha meic Neimid, .i. Tiiatha Taiden 7 Donmannaig dia roibi Conall Cruachain, 7 Clanda Umoir, 7 Cruithnieh na
Cruachna, 7 aiemeada Slebi Uiri, dia rabadar na riga, .i. Tindi mac Conraeh 7 Mac Cecht 1 Fir Chraibi, dia roibi Tindi mac Conraeh, 7 Eochaid Dala. Ocus airmid eolai"' corob d'iarsma na fineadach sin Clanna Morna. 7 sentuatha Condacht olehena. 37
37

Conad do na gabail sin Parrthaloin 7 Nemid, do genelaigib na tuath sin olehena 1 do chanad so
100.
,

Magog mac an
2

Iafeth ....

Scuirem do chlannaib Nae


2

sam do chlannaib
ngabhalaib.

Adfed7 dia n-imthechtaib. Gaeidil bodesta 7 dia n-imtechtaib 1 dia

Miniugad Gabal nErenn.


These two paragraphs are liA 25 y 40
101.
all

that represents

in Min.

^R

90

14

remend

7 a ^enchais, 7 a annso sis, 3 i ethre i mbeolo rigraidi, 3 4 6 aissneisen, 7 labra 6g dondni remimn, 5 thosueh in 7 s 9 libair anuas co tici so, ut dicit historia. Hybernia
2
16 "Partholon /3 Pairrthalon /3" mhac /3 12 Searra f3 Serra /3' " 19 " mine n 1S Sruth /3 12 Braimint Esru /3 012 /3 (hie et semper) 12 2I 22 12 23 Eackachta (3 Iafeth (3 /5 Framuit /3 Magog /? 24 2S 12 mc Seara mc Sru ins. and erased (3 ins. mic Naoi (3' Iaphet (3
2
:

Miniugudh Gabal nErenn,

mic Noe
27

20

/?"

Neimheadh

(3

is

uaid (uadh.

(3 )

Neirnhedh. mliac
29
12

(3

12 28 Paimm. Tait (3 012 Aglinomain (3 (mh (3 ) 31 sc - 30 Neimedh om. (3 012 1 Clann Neimeadli (3 7 is

Sera 0"
32

/3

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.


Gaidel Glas s. Nol s. Feinius Farsaid Magog s. lafeth ,s. Noe or Partholon
:

163

s. s.

Bathath s. Sera s. Sru


s.

s.

Esru
Esru

s.

And Nemed
s.

Brament s. Aithechda s. Agnomain s. Pamp

s. s.

Magog
Tat
s.

lafeth.
s.

Sera

Sru

&c.

Galeoin, the

the progeny of Nemed, to wit the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, and the

And

Tuatha De Danann.

And
Faith
of
s.

the families of the progeny of Bethach s. Iarbonel Nemed, i.e. the Tuatha Taiden and the Domnannaig,

whom was Conall of Cruachu, and the progeny of Umor, and the Cruithne of Cruacha, and septs of Sliab Puirri of whom were the kings i.e. Tinde s. Conri, and Mac Cecht, and the Fir Chraibi, of whom was Tinde s. Gonri and Eochu Dula. And learned men reckon that of the relics of these families were the Clanna Morna and the old populations of Connachta in general.
100. So that of the said Takings of Partholon and of Nemed, and of the genealogies of those peoples in general, was this sung Poem no. IV.

We

shall leave off

adventures.

and of their

from the progeny of Noe and their now of the progeny of Gaeidel adventures and their Takings.

We

shall tell

explanation of the Takings of Ireland, and of her history, and of her royal roll, here below and a recapitulation of the narratives, and a clear statement of the matter before us, from the beginning
101.
;

An

om.

12

33
12

(i /3

Gaileoin
'

Domhuann
100.
1~1

om.

/3

12 u (3 Bolg fi Bholg /3 37 " 37 om. /3 012 Tuat [i 2 amhuil asbeart in ffli /3, do reir in

35

Domhnaind
12
2 ~2

/?

36

file

/?

not in

and the following matter down to the poem Gaedel Glas The text of the missing portion printed otait Gaedil missing from fiV. ] seanchas from n A with variations from /iR unless otherwise stated. * 2 3 duinn -raide innso ambeolu aisueisin /iB, ethre om. n A 1 9 7 8 5 e dicunt indso ind om. remund /i A -ach
101. This
,
:

164

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


10

insola

sicut "Ade Paradisus 12 plaga orientis poissitus est, ita Hibernia in 13 septimprionali parte, apud 14 oecasmn sita est. Sic similes 15 snnt natura hnmi 16 sieut similes sunt ambo locis in orbe quoniam sicut absque bestia Paradisus est, ita periti Hiberniam non habere

possita est in occidente

in australi

serpentem uel leonem uel ranam uel murem nocentem draconem uel "scorpium uel 18 ununi noxinm animal nisi 19 lupum tantum testantur. Hibernia ergo 20 dicitur 'insola occasus.' 'Hyberoc' Grece, 'occasum'
uel

"dicitur Latine; 'nia' autem uel 22 'nyon' Grece, 24 insola' Latine dicitur. % Hybernia autem proxima 25 26 a) terrarum Britanie insola angustior, sect spacone( 27 situ fecundior. Hoc( & ) ab Affrico in Boriam porrigitur, cuius partes priores in Hiberniam, () $' id
23i
:

et Cantabricum Occianum unde et Hibernia dicta. Scotia( d autem intendunt; Illic nulla a Scotorum gentibus colitur. dicta, quia 29 e non sic in nulla adeo, f anguis, auis rara, apes( 31 30 seu hoc tempore ut adnectos inde pulueris(/)

est

in

28

Espaniam

||'

||',

lapillos,
filia
S5

sparserit inter apiaria,^) 32 a Scota. examina fauos deserunt ||. J Scoti autem
si

quis

alibi

fuit regis Egipti Pharaonis, sunt dicti, que 37 36 Nelii uxor. Phoeni autem a Foenio Fariseo %' 38 Scoti autem idem et Picti, a picto dicuntur ||'.
39

33

34

corpore,

40

quasi
||.

scissi

||',

eo

quod "aculeis
42

ferreis

cum

variarum figurarum atramento stigmate 43 Heriu 44 dono ab 45 heroibus nominata adnotentur 46 est. t Sudet qui legit %.
histonci
10
,2

14

"Adae septim trionaili poisitus poisita w ins. sunt M om. "scorpiam: occassum, the first c sprs. yc ^R 21 20 18 dieunt occassus unam "lupam -puim corrected later fi A 25 -3 "Hibernia van sol a (Latine sprs. yc ^R) -nvaon Britaniae, 2S 27 26 sutu the t sprs. yc /*R Hispaniam spaco fi A spatio ,uR 32 31 30 29 seuo lapilos fi A nearly a whole lint pulueres angis 33 Aegipti Faraonis of writing, probably written in error, erased here. 3T 38 35 31 Faisiseo p A Foeni Neli ux(or sprs. yc. /iR) fuit sprs. yc juR
38

18

Scotiorum

/j.

feraeis /xR

42

corpoire 43 Heri stimate

39

40

s<-isi

"

acules ferres
**

fi

A acnleis

/i

Hereo ^R

dana

"h-ioribus p A

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

165

of the foregoing book down to this, ut dicit historia. The island of Ireland is situated in the west; as the Paradise of Adam is situated on the southern coast of the east, so Ireland is in the northern portion, toward Those lands are as similar by nature, as the west. they are similar by their positions on the earth for
:

as Paradise hath no noxious beast, so the learned testify that Ireland hath no serpent, lion, toad, injurious rat, dragon, scorpion, nor any hurtful beast, And so Ireland is called "the save only the wolf.
island of the

west"
in

"Hyberoc"(
'nia'

in

Greek

is

called

or 'nyon' in Greek is Latin; called "insula" in Latin. [Now Hibernia is next to in extent of territory it is the island of Britannia narrower, but in soil it is more fertile. This stretches northward from Africa, and its foremost parts tend and the Bay of toward Iberia, that is, Spain takes its name. It is Biscay; whence also Hibernia called Scotia also, because it is inhabited by the nations of the Scots. Within it is no serpent, rare bird, not at this time nor bees; to such an extent

"occasum"

that if anyone were to scatter in any place amongst beehives dust or gravel carried from thence, the swarms would desert the honeycombs.] [The Scoti are named from Scota, daughter of Pharao King of They are called Feni Egypt, who was wife of Nelius The Scots are the same as from Fenius Farsaid as the Picts, so called from their painted body, inasmuch as they are marked with an scissi though iron impression of a variety of devices by means of Moreover the country is called needles and ink.] Eriu from the heroes. [Let him who readeth
:
J

perspire
46

!]

this is

gloss,

marginal in

/i

A expressed by initials

s.q.l.

in /mR,

s-.q

1;.

in n A
(a) (c)

Read spatio. (6) Read haec. Read Hiberiam, and omit the preceding in. Read Scotia autem, quia ab Scotorum gentibus cohtur, appellata. (fiO Read aluearia. (/) Read pulueres. (e) Read apis. tor is meant hyberoc c must be read as a (/t) The final Greek_ sigma for vrtffov accusative of vi)aos. eantpos. as nyon
(d)
'
:

'

'

166
102.

SECTION I. FROM THE CREATION TO


o
l

N6i tra ro Hnait tri 3 ranna in Sem mac 5 Noe talman, .i. Eorpa, "Affricca, Assia. 6 dana rogab ind Aissia, i secht eenela fichit 7 fiad innti. Cam in "Affraicc i tricha 9 cenel iiadh 10 inte. "Iafeth 1! mac Noi 13 ind Eoraip i 14 in tiiaiscert Aissia, 15 i coic lt cenela dec 17 tiad intib de quibus hoc 18 carmen,
thrib maeaib
:

Sem

rogab i n-Aisia n-ait Tricha mac min monar ngle


.

Iafeth dana in t-airter- 19 thnascert 20 .i. Scithecda i 21 Armenndai, i lucht na Hassia Bicce i ergabala i 22 cininda nEorpa nile, co lucht na 23 n-indsi atait frie aness i attiaidh i aniar, 24 i otha Sleibe 25 Riphi atuaidh co 26 traigh na Hespaine. Ocht meic 27 tra la Iafetli,

Magoth ba se dono la 31 Magoch larom rig Roman.


.i.
3f, 3r,

2&

29
.i.

t-ochtmadh mac. Da mac Ibadh i Baath. O 33 Ibadh Mac dono 34 do Baadli, Fenius
in
32 37

Brettain i Albandai. O Magoch mac Iafeth 39 didiu, na tuatha rogabsat Erinn 40 41 rla Parthal6n mac 42 Sera meic Sru nGaidelaib, .i. 43 meic Esru meic Briamin meic Fathecht meic 44 Baaidh meic 45 Magoch meic Iafeth meic Noe Nemed mac 46 Adlmomain dana meic Phaim meic Thait meic 47 Sera meic Sru i clanna 48 Nemhid, .i. Gaileoin i Fir 49 Bolgc
i
: :

Farrsaid 5 36 fnilet Scithecda, Ibad 38 Fraincc, Romain, Saxain,

dia

sil

Gaidil.

Fir Domnann.

De

quibus

50

Finntan
Iafetli.

cecinit,

Magog mac an

102.
e

'

tri
7

Noe

randa an
8 9

4
-\

Africa

Assia
10

Nae

tra

om. uada innte Affraic gen uada 12 13 " om. in 15 in Eoraip om. mac Noi om. " uada inntib 1S ,9 both mss. cairmen tuaisc21 22 Scithecdai Armendai Haisia Bice cineda na Heorpa uili ciniuda miswritten cinuida a and a dash put over the first stroke of
in Assia
-\
:

" Iaf edh /i A " gn in -" om. .i.


:

-\

/j.

the u to correct the error

23

ninnsi tainait fria anes

atuaith

THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS.

167

102. Now of the three sons of Noe were filled the three divisions of the earth, Europe, Africa, Asia. Sem s. Noe .settled in Asia, and twenty-seven nations

were descended from him therein. Ham in Africa, and thirty nations from him therein. Iafeth s. Noe in Europe and in the north of Asia, and fifteen nations from him therein de quibus hoc carmen,
:

Poem Poem

no. II. no. III.

Iafeth is the north east, Scythians, Armenians, and the people of Asia Minor, and the colonists and nations of all Europe, with the people of the islands tiiat are over against it from the south, north, and west, and from the Riphean Mountain out of the north to the shore of Spain. Iafeth had eight sons, one of whom was Magog he was the eighth son. Magog had two sons, Ibath and Baath. From Ibath Baath afterwards came the rulers of the Romans. had a son Fenius Farsaid, from whom are
:

From

the

From of his ,seed is Gaedil. Scythians Ibath are the Franks, Romans, Saxons, Britons, and Albanians. From Magog son of Iafeth are the peoples who took Ireland before the Gaedil, Partholon s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Braiment s. Aithech s. Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe Nemed s. Agnomain s. Paim ,s. Tait s. Sera s. Sru and the progeny of Nemed, the Gaileoin, De quibus the Fir Bolg, and the Fir Domnann.
: : :

Finntan

cecinit,

Poem
24 27
31

no. IV.

om. i om. tra la

25

Eipe atuaid
28

26 2D

traig (g sprs. yc fiR) na Haespaine


30 35

Bmagoc
f uil
37

Magoeh 32 Baad i Ibad


1

an tochtmad (om. mac) 34 33 Ibad da Baad


i

om. dono Farsaich

36
3<>

ins.
40 44

is

**

Frainc

Eomain
:

i
fi.

S.

i
41

Bretain
Partol-

Albanda
42

om. didiu

uGaidil- and om.


45

A.

nGail46 49

Soera

43
47

Bramin

Baaid

Magoich

Agnomain m. Paim m. Tait


50

48 Nemid Sera m. Stera m. Stru Finntan the last two words in marg.

Bole

hoe carmen dicitur

168

THE VERSE TEXTS

THE VERSE TEXTS OF SECTION

I.

R U7(L1/38:F1 S 28). R PljS 32). R H 88 (/3 34, 14


1
/

2
ff
:

15
1

(V
34

1 y 23
.

E
2

(3
.

/3

30

/3

10

38 15

267 y 47
1.
1

H
4

102 a

30).
2

Sluag nad
seel
12
9

chloe
7

cua-diel,
lx

Noe 5 nir 6 bo
co
10

iiiath-len,

ngrain

Sem,
2

Cam
3

ocus

ro glead ger 13 Iafeth.


4

2.

Mna

cen
8

os dilind
7

midend, mor-feba, 5 cen 6 dibada


;

Coba,

brlgda
12

in

10

bain-ela,

"Olla,
]

01iua, Olluana.
2

1.
3

sluaig

FR H
3 2

E Nai P Nae MH nior (3 ba L bu V miad-len LR midathlen F niath-nel VE matha-nel bho (3 bhodh /3 8 on P niadh-len /3 ngradh sgel FE sec P seeal /3 gan /3 u ro VE ngrad P ghradh /3 gleaid F rongleath gen V rogle gen S. is C. is I. F E rongleadh gen P ro gleodhagh and om. ger /3

gua-chel ac M, ag

LR

sluagh V sluacc P ecnad chel F conad chel


12 7 3

claoi
B

EP
0i -

clile ft

012

clae
4

MH
ins.

conadachel

H
6
12

Naoi

012

J0

012

012

12

II.

is.

R R 91
1

ff

8 (L 1 a 23).

(3

14
3

F
89
39).
3

1 y
(/3

2).

Min
1
:
.

fl

R
2

ff

34 29

(3

34

102 ( M A 25 S 23 2 10 29 47 (3
.

267

15
1 5

102 a

rogab i n-Aisia n-ait Cam eona 7 chlaind 8sin 9 Afraie 10 Iafeth nasal "is a 12 maic,
;

Sem

10

13

'siat
2

rogabsat
dogab F
fi /i

14

n-Eoraip.
rogab dittographed fiU roghabh /J 12 4 n-Assia L Aissia F n A ft H ft
1

Semh

rogob Asia fiR


fi

M
ft

ft
3

H
inn

012

ind
5

an
ft

ft

H
8

12

Camh

cl-

gonadh
2

ft

.i.

ft

claind
8

cloinn

ft

chloinn

ft

clann

(3

cloind

elainn /*R
/i

in

A /iR san

OF SECTION

I.

169

THE VERSE TEXTS OF SECTION


I.

I.

1.

host that a wintry death would not subdue, Noe, there was no hero's weakness, a story with horror has been made clear with keenness

Sem, Ham, and Iafeth.


2.

Women without evil colour, great excellences, above the Flood without extinctions, Coba, vigorous was the w hite swan,
T

Olla, Oliva, Olivana.


012

/3

13

Iaf edh

V
2

Semh Camli

Iathfeth
2.
1

M
mhidhen
12

(i

yc) Iataf en
12

Iaphet

12

/3

(not

/J)

mnaa L
(i

midhen

/3

ccomtin P, gen mieing

/?
4

gan /? moreua
'

can

H
V

rnideng

mor'feba

moireaba diobhadha

Ebha /3 nior Ebha /J 1 nior obha [i 2 012 6 can H di'gbada VH dibhada /3 gan EP /3 8 7 12 Cobba L Cobha E /3 012 brighdha VP brigha /3 /3 10 9 12 an H baneala FE banela V mbaineala E brioghdha /3 brig H 12 " Ola banealai P baneala /3 ben aladh /? changed oy re-inker to M Oliba Olibana L Olliua Oilibana E Olipa Olipa P Oliua P

morfephai,

nior
5

moff eabha moreba M

Ollai,

Oliuana Olibana

ft

Olliva Olivana

fi

Oilliua Olivana

(5-

Oliba Olibana

Oliu

H
II.

Sem

Ham
it is

settled in pleasant Asia; with his progeny in Africa

noble Iafeth and his sons,

they

who

settled in
9

Europe.

01

/3

ann
2

/3

sa

nAf raic

M
10

Affraicc

Aifric
11

/3

Afraicc

H
12

Iafiath
fi

Iafedh

/j.

^ A Adffraic F Aif raie 01 Iathfed a Iaphet /3

ft

A meie /xR fi A ite rotrebsat /xB, dogab sin F 01 012 /3 (roghabh in Euroip /3 ) is iad rogob an F om. in /z A Eoraip

om.

is fiU

F, hite rotrebsat

mc

mcc

mhac
is

012

13

/?

is

iad
sin

MH

iad roghabhsat Eoraip

(dogab an H)

"

170

THE VERSE TEXTS


III.
1

fj.

R P {not traceable, in L F 1 y 10). Min R 91 a 25). R 92 {/3 34 43 35


:

fl

/3

fll02 (fx\ 25 S 25 2 14 11 11
:
.

267

38
1

H
9

102
2

/?

19).

Triclia
cinsit 6

mac 3 mm, 4 monar 2 6 Cham mac 8 Nae,


7

ngle,

a
13

secht

10

fichit "fil 6
15

12

Sem,
=-=

15

is

14

coic dec 5
12

Iafeth.
2

Triocha comol fiR

/?

triothchat
3

(3

(-ad
4

/3 )

cenel comul

mind

is

rad

MH

cinnsit

clienel ,u A einset uR /3 12

IV.

R
1
(3
3
ff

1
ff
:

10

(L

first

47

1 8 8).
.

95,

100 (0 35
2

two and half quatrains frayed away ff 102 (pA 25 8 42 ^R 91 /? 10). 2 14 S 35 30 11 31 268 a 35 (3

Min
:

99 a 50).
1.
2 Magog mac an 3

Iafeth,

4
6

ata cinnti a
7

chland

dlb

Parthalon s Banba, 9 ro bo 10 chadla a "band.


2

20

2.

Ba
6

dib

Nemed
8

noithech,
:

mac 4 Agnomain 5 oen


ba dib
7

Gand, dib Genand, 10 12 Sengand, "Slaine soer.


2

3.

Gland
4
7

Eladan 3 imda,
5

25
:

fa dib

Bres,
8

can breig
12

mac Eladan
9

meic

10

arm-gaith, Delbaith "meic

Neit.
2

1.
3

Magoth
12

LF Magoch Min Magoc

Iaphet

/3

Iathfeth

MH
5

MH
4

mhac

/?*

(in
f3

ataiehinte

/j,R

ataithchinte

100) atait chinte


If

adaithinti

H
12
'

/3

atascinnte ft A 2 tait cinte (3 ad aithindti

ata cinti
02

F
e

dibh /3 diobh /3 8 Bannbha Partaloin /3 ba fiR do bu fi 012 do ba

chlann F Min /3 1 claim Parrtolonn F Parrthalon

/3
ft

ins.

A
"

12

/3

MH
F

ropa itR Partolon /iR


:

H
12

/3
10

Banbha

12

/3

do bo

ro
12

po

chahna n A cadla
2

/xR acadla

/3

fi A ro " bans

F Min bhand
2.
0i2

/3 (3

bhann
diobh
3

12

/?

dhibh
12

f3

Nemead
/?
)

/3

Nemid F

/xR

Nemedh

tx

A Neimheadh

(-ach

noitheach

naethach F naitech (i A noethech xtR naethoach /3 012 4 naideach H Agnumaid F Adnomain xt A H

OF SECTION
III.

I.

171

Thirty sleek sons, a brilliant fact, they sprang from Ham son of Noc, twenty-seven who are from Sem,

and
chinsiat
/u

fifteen

from

Iafeth.
6

/J

cinsed

A /R

012

/?

Naee

cinnsed ocht
/i

H /^R

Cam
fuil
/3

/*R

seacht

H
012

10

Noe nice fi A 2 fidhchet (3 1 fidhet [i


'

11

ar sin

13

om.
/?

is
12

F uad o Sem A ,uR F A M in ft 012 H


/x

(uadh Ma ) " .u.


15

dib
1

12

Sem

01

/3

/u

deg

euic decc

do dee /iR cuig deag /? cuig Iafedh /* A Iaphet /3 Japhet (I 2 Iatf edh

deg

IV.

1.

Magog son
there
of
is

of Iafeth,
:

them

certainty of his progeny was Parthalon of Banba

decorous was his achievement.


2.

Of them was noble Nemed son of Agnomain, unique


of

them were Gand and Genand,

Sengand, free Slaine.


3.

of

The numerous progeny of Elada, them w a-s Bres, no untruth


r
:

son of Elada. expert in arms, son of Delbaeth son of Net.

Agnomhain
diobh
2

12

/3

Agnomen
j3

M
/?

5 12

aen

F
7

fi

A ain

012

y8

aein

H
8
12

om. ba
/?

dib /xR: ba dhibh


12

ba diobh

Genan F Genann fi A /i A Sengann fiU M Seangand /? H Sengan


9

/3

Gann F fiU ft 12 Gaenann ,uR Ganann

is
10

^'dibh

/3

Seangann

1 12 " /? Slaigne /3 Slaingne 12 Slane saer F fi A saor jS 012 Slaene 2 a 3. Eladhan F Ealadain clann F /3 012 clanna ^R elanda 1 3 imdha fi A [i iomdha /3 12 om. /xR Elatha fiR Ealadhain /3 02 ti A P 4 5 6 ba Min (3 012 Bress Min Breas /3 gan breicc /x A cen 7 Eladain fi A breic jttR gan bhreig /3 012 (br- /3 2 ) cen breg 12 8 Elathain /*R Eladhain /3 Ealadhain /3 12 A -ghaith /? 'felgaith 2 9 mhic /3 12 "Delbaeith ^R Dealbhaidh /3 01 Dealbaith ($ 2 (-dh /3 ) 51 12 mic /3 012 (mh- /3 1 ) Neid Neitt fi A fi

j8

MH

M M

/j,

MH

FH

172
4.

THE VERSE TEXTS


^leic 2 Indai 3 meic 4 Alldai 5 Allda 6 ba 7 mac 8 Tait, 9 meic 10 Thabuirn "meic 12 Eno,

15

30

"meic
5.

13

Baith, "Ebaith
3

ait.

^feic
5

Bethaig',
6
7

meic
8

Iardain,
:

meic Nemid hm Phaim 12 13 10 9 Paimp meic "Thait meic Sera 14 meic 15 Sru, 16Braimin 17 bain. 15
6.
1

35

Braimin 2 meic
4

Aithechta
6
7

Mago>g, mor blad, 9 8 ro-bas a n-a n-aimsir

meic

"comthaidbsin
4.
1

uri
/t fi

12

Mag.
12 3

40
f3
5

mac
Allai

012

/3
4

Innui

L
/3

Indui

mic
Alii

12

f3

Alldui
fi

MH

L pR

Allai
12

Allaidh

MH Alia fa MH
A

A Inndui fiR India


on
(3
7

mac

(3

Alldui
8

nice

/j.

L Min Taitt L A
/x

9 10 mic 0" Thabairnn F Tabuirn fi A Tabuirnn /xU Taid /? 12 " mic 12 sic LF Tabairn /3 012 Thabairn /3 mhic /? (bis) 13 Baath L /3 12 Baaith a (3 Ceno Min, Enna (3 H Eanna /3 12 Enda 14 12 Ebath L i?is. meic L Min MH, mic (3 mhic /3 Baaid /*R 15 aitt L Ebaid F Ibaith fi A Magoich /iR Ebhaith (3 Eabhaith /3 12 H Baaith fiR HA 2 1 5. om. meic Min; mac /3 mhic /3 12 Beothaig FM Bethach Min, 012 02 3 ins. ba Min; mac Min mic j3 Beothaigh /3 Beothagh /?*

/j.

MH

Iarbaneoil

/x

Iarboneol
5

/iR

Iarbhoneoil
1

(3
G

Iarbonel

f3

-boneil
8

M
(3

-boinel

H
1

mic
2

012

/3

(mh-

/3 )

Neimlied

/3

-mhedh

LF Paim
ti

MH

/uR

(3

'lioLoF
(3
12

hua
(3

fi

Neimid ua /? n 2 hu
'

FM

Neimhidh

Paimp

Paimp

(3

Phaimp Poimp

Poimp

12

9
012

/?
10

Paim L
(mh-

(yc in marg.), also

/3

mac

[3')

u Thaitt

2
II

IS (V 1

5 9

1 y

21
a 1

2 a 13

10, 3 a 1).

R
1

3
IT

86

(M 267

from quatrain
AZso collated,

101 a
24.

36).

copy in Book of Ui Ma.ine (U) 38 a


1.

4 2 3 caich, Coimsid Nime, Ri 6 uasal 7 ainglige ar 8 Ctiingid, ar 9 Coimde, ar 10 Cend "cen 12 ttis, cen erlch, een 13 forcend.

Athair
in

1.

and

3 2 1 chaich eaith coimsidh (the second i atair TJ 4 nimi the dot of the d due to re-imker) P coimsich coimsig

OF SECTION
4.

I.

173

S.

Inda,

s.

Allda
s.

Allda who was


s. s.

Tat,

Tabam

s.

Enda,

Baath, [son of] pleasant Ibath.

5.

S.
s.

Bethach
s. s.

s.

Iardan
of

Nemed grandson
Tat
s.

Paimp

Pamp
s.

Sru

Sera white Braiment.

6-

s.

Of Braiment s. Aithecht, Magog, great in renown there happened in their time a joint appearance against a Plain.
:

Tait
ain

F
2

12

/*R
/3

/3

Taitt ^A Taid
12

12

fi
/x

mic
ft

Seara
ft

Serra
16

/3

" om. meic

ins.

Easra
6.
1

/?

Easru

meic L /iB " briaim

M
fi

inac
[i
:

H, mac
A ain
:

012 1S Sera /3 15 - 15 Easru mic /3 12 Bimbfind F Esru Min H

MH.

12 Braimid F Briamin li a Briamain meic j8 mic /? -ins. ba Fraimint /3 1 Froimint /3 2 Praimint /3 /xB 3 Fattecht F Min mac F Min ft, mic /3 12 ba mac dittographed, /iR L Aithiehta F Fathecht fi A Baaith /*R Eachachda /? 012 (-dha /3) Eachada 5 4 mac /3 mhic /3 1 mic /3 2 Magoth LF (3 Magoch Min Magoc 8 012 7 e robasa bladh ^a /3 02 blath fi ins. a /3 moir /3 ms. ba L nanamsir L ro bassa riana [i expimcted] naimsir /iR ro pass ria naimsir 012 ix A ro ba sona a naimsir /3 (sona in naimsear /?) do FM, da bas ina 10 9 comthadbsin L comthaibsin om. n- FM (amsir F) H ina also F co taidhbsin ria mag ll a oca taibsin dar mag /iR com thaibhsen /? gon comtaib (with sin sprs. yc) H dubh sin a reimed /3 12 comthaibsib

ins.

mac

MH

Braimint
:

MH

M MH

31

re

F R

12

Magh

/?

V.
1.

Father of

all,

Master of Heaven,

the noble angelic King,

our Champion, our Lord, our Head, without beginning, end, or termination.

HU
-ghe

mac maith Muire

cuindigh V,, and defacing another word) P cuingidh U 10 cenn ceand -di coimsid U -gi
-ghi

-dhi

ingine

an

ri

H
E

uassal

-de

cuinnidh

cuinge (written over 9 coimdhi V, -dhe E u can

(throughout the forceand U

12

line)

tuis

" f oircenn

gan PU,

foircenn

174
2.
a

THE VERSE TEXTS


Ferr na 2 cach rl 3 in 4 RI 5 raith lasndernad 7 in 8 maiss mor-maith, 10 grada Nime, "caem. in cloth, 12 araen 13 issin 14 cet Domnoch.
6
1

45

3.

Delbais secht
sin
7

sin
6

Mairt muir,
8

nime 3 sin Ltian, 4 talum 5 tond-buan


10 ngie grein 14 Dardaine.
8

50
;

Chetain, esca is "neoil 12 is eoin 13 Dia


4.

Duine 1 ro 2 delbad
3

iarsin,

n-Aenditin, 6 8 9 7 tucad, etir cliois is cend, 10 assin 11 doman 12 caem 13 coitchend.


!
,

debrad

isin

55

5.

Gnionirad in 2 tseisedh 3 laoi lain, aisneidfed duibh sin r'deg-dail,


in talman, thiar tair,
G
7

anmann'
an deilb
6.
a 5 2

n-ill-dathaig

nAdhaim.
4

60

Cend Adaim
tuead a
is
7

"airdirc co
:

hog

tir
8

maith Malon

tairis
10

tegaid
3

amach
12

srotha

Parrduis "co
Iir
4

bladach.
5

7.

Bruinde 2 ind

Haroin

aird,

65

a 7 bra a 8 Baibiloin 9 bith-gairg, a 10 chossa a "Labaan 12 ler-bla, a 13 sliasta 14 a tir 15 6ogoma.


2.
4
1

lassnernadh V lasndernadh E lasandernad ' PU (written over another word P) lasnderna an (-san- M) 8 9 10 " coemda cloth mais om. U nimi EU gradha VPU 12 VEP (caemda E caomdha P), caem a cloth maraen
5

rig

MU

maraid dogres
rath

MU

(-raigh U), fear


e

gach

EP

an

MH

EPM

araon

13

isin

isin

PHU

isa

HU

EMHU
H

14

diet

E cedomnach
7

domnach
4

PU

3. Mealbais talom E, -am chedain


11

PMH

-nimi
5

MH
8

tonn-

neoill

M MH

escca

niuil

nuiil
4.

i:

iM
2

'raH

In " om. dealbad


4

EU.

U
isa

HU sind VE isin P san H VEPH sa VH san P cet- PU n- om. VEHU grian VEPMHU
3

10

written over something

dfia

MU

else,

apparently
diard-

14

-aeine

E
3

-aoine

EMH

MU

dhealbadh
isan

P
5

debradh

EP

dearbad

M
P
7

deadbrad
aendidin

isind

HU
8

naindidin
cois

M
H

aoindidin

n-aoine didin

itir

EMH VMH

EPU

E
12

(the a yc E) isin

PMU
EP

tucadh V tugadh EU tuccad P 9 10 cheand asin chend H ceand U " domhan E domun issin

MH

chaem

caom

choitchend

(-nih

P) caem

13

coitchenn

VEP

choitchenn

choitceand

OF SECTION
2.

I.

175

Better than every King

is

the

King

of Grace

by whom was made

the great excellent world-stuff, the orders of Heaven, fair the fame, together on the first Sunday.

3.

He formed

the seven heavens on the Monday, on the Tuesday sea, earth with enduring surface; on the Wednesday, moon and bright sun clouds and birds on Thursday.
;

4.

Man, who was formed thereafter, Debrad on the Friday,he was taken, from foot to head,
!

out of the fair


5.

common

earth.

The works of the full sixth day I shall relate to you in (this) good company;
of the form of
[I shall tell of] the beasts of the earth, west Adam, rich in colour.

and

east,

6.

The head of renowned Adam perfectly was taken from the good land of Malon through which go forth
the rivers of Paradise famously.

7.

The breast of the man from lofty Aron, his belly from ever-fierce Babylon, his legs from Laban, a conspicuous land,
his thighs

from the country of GTogoma.


only
:

5.

this quatrain in

EP
-sed

printed as in E, these variants from


3

P
6

J
:

gnimrad
7
1

lai

aisneidhfit

deghaill

nillath6.

nAdhuim

(-und U)
2

3 Adhaim E, Aduim P oirdaircc V H (the mark of lenition scratched out)

tucad (tugudh U) cend (ceand U) Adaim co hog molfach (molbthach U) Malon (Molon U)
airrdeirc
4 8

MU

||

a fearand
:

ceand

H
P

airrdirc

airrdhirc

om.

hogh

PH
tecaid

"tucadh

srotha V Parrthuis Parrthais a 7. bruinne E bruindi

H
6

the is sprs. yo E (the a yc V) srota P


T

tec(ad)
10

MH
E P
3

tegait

U
P

Parrthais
12
2

PHMU
7

"go E
an
5 8

Parduis bhladhaeh
in

Partais blatach
fir

Haron

EH
EU

Haraib

M M

MH
MU

U EPU

Hardon

U
P

yc
9

a sbs yc E -garg lan-gairg 12 leir mbla E leir bla "i II cosa

pru

ard EU also H, but an i sis. Biblon E Lotain Babilon U

"cosa
erbla
15

lama
13

"Laban

sliasda

sec.

man. in

matrg.)

P Gomaa

Goghoma V Gagoma E M Gouma H Gogama

chosa M, lama Gogomah- (no Gomaa


:

EMHU H

176
8.

THE VERSE TEXTS


Tri H-rath 2 d'Adum 3 een 4 anmain 6 5 Iar n-a chruthugud 7 do 8 talmain;
9

70

13

ardaig cen 14 anmain n-a


rriar
7

10

Fiv "do

12

bai tri trath

15

ehurp "ehaem-gnath.
5

9.

ir

6
9

4 chrathaig a chorp 8 Iar n-erge do n-a bethaid,


2

ro

cain
75'

allus
tess

10
13

d'usce,
14

lx

ba dia deoin, 11
15

12

tened,
2

tinfed
fial
3

aeoir.
4

10.

*Adaig
sair
9
5

Adaim
6

in

feth
8

ar

sleib

Parrduis

Partech;

12 altuig "faicsin greine 13 tarO) mullach 14 in mor- 15 sleibe.

ro

10

80

11.

4 9

2 3 Adraim, adraim thusa, a De 5 6 7 8 is e cet-guth do raid se


:

ac faicsin

10

Eua
14

11

ame,
15

12

and

13

dorigne

a
2

chet-gaire.

12.

A
co

chet-imtheeht,
4

tobar

caine guis Pairtech 6 Parrduis:


9

85

a 7 chet-rith, 8 rem do 10 dechsain na


8.
3
'

11

co ndaithe, henlaithe.

thrath

VMH
4
:

tra

EPU cruthadh U
gan
ins.

anmuin

H
:

chruthugud
thai15

d 'Adamli E d 'Adam d 'Adham ! 6 ar cruth E chruthad ' other mss. have cruthar don
2

U
P

HU
PU

8
11

trom

EP
da

ro

VEP
]

talmhuin P " baoi E boi

bhi
3G

14

anmuin chaemnar
9.

PH

corp

chaemngnath

H
2

chorp

neirge do bhethaid """ f odein 10 9 ins. a U duisqi dusqi E duisqe P is uisqi " tenidili V teinf edh E 12 tes teass P teas U badeoid 14 tinfedh V teinfedh E tinfeadh U tenead U tineth P tinedh ,; aieoir P aiger M: the e written over another letter
n-erghi
s

ceathrar erathaidchi cruthaidh 6 5 ar U choin

comgnath

U
do

gan EPU can H caomhgnath E caomgnath P


13

-igh

EPU

10

fir

nergi

M M neirgi HU
U H
4
'

om. ro cruthad
7

H
V
V

dar
4

U
EPU
E

cruth-

bethaigh

corp neirge dlio beathoid

chuii-p

P HU

VEMH

10.
3

EHU
P

aiged

EH
U
"

ace

feith

P P

aidheadh
5

U fri VEPH

Adhaim
6

Sliab

MHU
ft:ich

-dhuis

-tais

P
9

-dais

-thuis

H
10

EU Adaimh P VEP (bh EP)


8

dhais

U
E
alt-

pairtech

failtigh

partiach

ra
:

H
aigsin

ins.

ag

EP

atlaig aicsin P faisci

altaig
,2

MH

grene

OF SECTION
8.

I.

177
life
;

Three days had

Adam

without

after his formation

from earth because of a Man who was three days without life in His ever-fair body.
There were Three Persons who formed his fair

9.

body
after he arose alive;
hea,t of fire,

sweat from water, it was with his good breath of air.

will,

10.

The night of Adam, generous the repose, eastward upon Pairtech Mountain of Paradise; he welcomed the sight of the sun over the top of the great mountain.
I adore, I

11.

adore Thee,

God!
:

this

was the first word that he uttered When he saw noble Eve,
then he

made
walk

his first laugh.

12.

His

first

beauty

of strength

to the

Spring of Partech of Paradise his first race, a course with swiftness,


to see the birds.

VMH
15

greini P in ngreni sleibhe E slebe sleiphe

" dar

DM

slebi

sleibi

VEDUH U
T7

do
2

M an

EPH
D

11.

adram adraim
3
5

E adhrum adhrum
mark faded
ic

tu

VEPMTJ
7

tusa

tliusu
is
8

H
9

Dhe, lenition

hiss
6

H
E
ann
ced

toisech
10

VEPD

ced guth

M toiseach H
E
" ane

ro

V iss ED hise P DU raidh EU


hie aicsin
aille

se

hie aiscin
13

VD

f aigsin
12 15

U
]

Ebha E Eba

aisgin

ac f aicsin

PM
E

ainee

DH EDH
VE

12.

dorinde E dorindi dorine doriglmi ched gam chetna V died ced P imtecht EP imdhecht U

M ailli HU
"in
2 3

ig

PM

guiss
4

cain aguis
top-

EM

caine

caini uiss II lith

gan
5

geis

go

DU

PD -each V paitrech EH pairtiach M parrtiach U partuis V parrdais E pairt'ais P ced E cheit D ched PM parduis D parrthuis H parrthais U rem VDM reim EP ceim U condaithi D co ndaite P conaichi M conaithi H condhaithe U descain E dechsinn P descuin D " haenlaithe P -laithi D henlaithi MH decain U
topur
tobor

PDH

prech

10

L.6.

VOL.

(a)
I.

Here

begins.

178
13.

THE VERSE TEXTS


^oic
d'
7

la

dec,

nl

luad
9

saeb,

Adam
10
14

is

d'

eo

toracht
saigid

Eua maraen, "demon 12 donim


15
i

90

"dia
14.
1

16

nAenditin.
3

seim droich-reim 10 12 X1 litri ro chan, ni 13 as llach, tria 14 Iae 7 lath. Iae, Uau,
5

Delb
tuc

nathrach, corp 7 8 lois diabul sin

aeoir

95

15.

Ata 2 sund 3 in 4 fath


6
:

rofess
5 8

ar a n- apar 9 ar 10 is I 11 in
i4

Cle
12

sech
13
i7

dess

lam

chle

chrom
100
3

ro
1

is

r jg6(j

iG

C0S j n
2
7

UDO ii.
dlecht
:

16.

Iar
4

n-imarbus
6 i

doib
12

nir
8

ro

laite
10

tir

n-aird
15

nEgept

remes

tri
14

"mis
ruseit
3

Iarsin

maidm
105

13

rusbiath

ind aen-phailm.
4

17.

nir chlan; 8 coimpred, rucad AbIal; do Chain 9 chrin 10 in ix caehta,

Ro 2 coimpred
6

Cain,

ro

12

ro len
cuig

13

gnim na
-

14

mallachta.

13.

coig

EP
-aon

H
B
7

laithe

VE

laithi

Adum VH Adhum EU Ebha E Eba PD " demun VH EP -oen D torracht EP tanic U deaman E demhan P deman M do uirnh E do uirri other mss. " da mellad MU Perhaps to be read do[g]nim saighid V om. MU saicc P soig D ind D san MH isin U aondidiu E aoinedittin P oendidin D aindidin M aeudidin HU 14. dealb EPH dealbh U natr- EPH eim aer U VH seim ED seimh P em M emh U les D tug E demin M diabal H demon U co MH tre U droch-reim VE drochmen P droichrem D ndrochmen M ndrochmein H droehmein U " tria ro can E triarrochan D trias archan M resar littri V " la Ae Uau raH is MU clian U i Aiath mss. except Anath P, ia uau i en iach M iae, uau, iaiath U sunn EPD 15. an H is he sin MU (e U) fat U ro-fes ED ro-feass P ro feas M ra-fess H rotfeas U apur V seach MUH des EHU deas abartor E apartar P abar MU issi VP as i E is hi M air P ardaig MHU (-gh U) PM thes D " an EPH lamh EP laam D chle ciom VH cle chrom E
s

'nocho M; ins. is saob P saebh. U

luadh
10

EP

luag

slicht

PDH U

deg EHU saobh E

Eu

12

I3

IS

16

10

1!

13

'

,0

12

I3

OF SECTION
13.

I.

179

Fifteen days,

it is

no

idle tale,

had
till

Adam and Eve

together,

a demon of misdeeds (?) reached them, on a Friday.


14.

The form of a serpent, a body of thin air, the devil took to himself on the evil course
the letters through which he

wretched

affair

made

incantation

were He, Vav, He, and Yodh.


15.

There

is

the reason
it is

it is

familiar

why men
because

say "Left beyond right" the crooked left hand that was stretched to the apple.

16.

After they had sinned it was not lawful they were cast into the lofty land of Egypt A space of three months after the transgression the one palm-tree fed and clothed them.
:

17.

Cain was conceived, it was not long; Abel was conceived and brought to birth to withered Cain of the shackle the deed of the curse adhered.

cle
14

crom

PU
da

do

MH
PU

(crum P) clirom chle written


15

first

and then corrected


16

gusin
later

cosa nuball

righed

hand nubhuill P ubaoll


2

16. ' ninarbus U erased after this word


laiti
8

" ubhall E nup, expanded in marg. in D uball M ubull IJ do P doibh U two letters {apparently do)
:

righeadh.

cossdn

cosind

D E

late

nEighept

U V nEigept EH
laitea

drecht 8 a

ra
7

laithi
9

VD

MH
P
Egeptt

nairdd

nard

nEigep

(sic)

EHU remiss V

10 remis E reimeas P remess D tri miss om. in text and ins. by 12 " mhis triasin V re sin late corrector in marg. V 13 " roset E rosneit rusneitli P rossbiath V rosbiath 15 an in rnsneid roseith the marie of lenition erased aon pailm E aonpa with ilm added by corr. in marg. P oen pailm

EU

VEMU

PH
D

aen-phailm aen-pailm UE 3 2 Chain D coimbread U choimp- D coimpread 4 5 ra nir chel ni eel U rucad ro coimpread 7 6 rucadli VE ruccad P 1 ru coimbread Abel U coimpredh V com- E 9 8 crin EPHU crich Aibial D Aibel Abel IJ rugad D 12 10 u cachtai P chachta ralen an roglen ED dolen 13 14 mallachtai D ronlen U gnimh E naen-pailm
17.

'raH cian D ni

M DMH

180
18.

THE VERSE TEXTS


^otar
4

d' 2 id()pairt da
5 6

reithe

Abel, Cain nlr chleithe; 7 nochor indraic 8 leis in Rig


in "idpairt
Taiiiie rath
lx

110

ruc

12

leis
3

13

Cain.

19.

ruithne
7

Rig *grian
:

5 9

forsin

8 idpairt ruc Aibial

de ro

10

lln

ni

Cain

colacli

formad 12 is 13 ferg na 14 claen-cherd.

15

20.

&) 1

2 3 4 Rogab Cain n-a laim luind 6


7

5 9

lecain

cintaig
10 14

in
ia

chamuill
12

co Haibel

leim

co
16

hiindi,

13

conid
2

ro

15

marb
3

d'aen- 17 builli.
4

120

21.

1 5

Tuc
'se

Seth a
9

laim re
6

lecain
:

ac faicsin fola
sin
12

in

phecaid

in fer
13

10

cen "urchra

arar
22.

fas in

chet-ulcha.
3

^dberait 2 rind na
lucht
4
7

heolaig,

125

in

ecnai

nach
10

iasait

na

cheolaig, 8 clocha 6 9 chein


12

il-

3 6

6'n 16 "rosfer fuil


2

Aibeil.

18.
4

Aibedl

MH

Lodar HU Anel U

idbairt
5

E
7

edbairt
gaai

rethe

ni

MH

ehlethe

P cleithi nocho ro gab ri na rig clethe U nochar gab ri na rig P noar gab ri na rig noclior indraice lasin ri s s 10 Iptssin V ind VE inn P nocho rogab in rig rel U idipart
chleithi

D reithi H D eleite E DE (gaib D)

E
18

idbairt

PD

eadbairt

U
3

" rucc

rug
2

leiss

lais

P E

Caen
19.
J

U
tanic

VU
P

ruithin

ind

M ruithen U VDM forand E form


E

tanuig

D tanig righ VE
foran
:

H
ri

ruitlini
6

VPDH
4

ruitni
5

rigrian IT

nel
8

for

ar an

U
7

(sic)

Aibel
12
-]

M Abel U
"
fearg

inpairt

idbairt
9

reithi

om. de

M
P

M
10

rug

ED

lion
14

Abial \rPDH "f ormud V format PU

edpairt

VDH

iopairt

claen-redlig V claon-cerd E -cealg XJ -redhg (no claoin-cerd mi marg.) P -redg D -cheard 3 2 laimh EP 20. 2 -gabh PU -gob Caidin P ragab 8 5 cintaieh VD lecea U leea luinn E: blind om. and sprs. cD 8 ' an ehamhaill chintaig -taigh E cMnntach P chintach 9 co Hab. P camhaill eo Habial E caraaill P chamuill

VMU

f errcc

M H

PH VEH

OF SECTION
18.

I.

181

to offer two rams, Cain who was not noble Abel,

They went

the

King did not consider worthy

the offering which Cain brought with him.


19.

There came the grace of the brilliance of the King of Suns upon the offering which Abel brought thence did envy and anger fill sinful Cain of the crooked crafts.
:

20.

Cain took in his savage hand


the guilty jaw-bone of the camel;
to

so that
21.

Abel he leapt with violence, he slew him with a blow.

Seth set his hand to the jaw-bone, on seeing the blood of the sin he is the man without deficiency
:

upon whom the


22.

first

beard grew.

The learned

tell us,

the people of wisdom of manifold melody, that from a long time the stones grow not from the day when Abel's blood suffused them.

go Haibial
12

luindie

D VEP

go Habial
luiruie

co

Hauel

D
P

luindhi
bulle

U
10

15
17

mharb
buille
21.

EH
VED

marbh PIT
bhuilli

10 lem DHU " conadh EP -ad do en V d'aon E d'en

"

MHU
PH

go DU M ra

H
D

d'oen

This quatrain is here im EP, follows no. 32 in M, and is absent ' 2 3 the other mss. Seith. EP lamh EP lam tig E 4 5 6 7 ins. a E ar bfaigsin E ag f aigsin P an P pee. E pecaig 8 9 10 sin fen (f ein P) in fer (fear M) an E gan E can " urcra mss. 12 in P another word has teen re-inked into can fas P "ced-nlcai E cet-ulchai P 2 22. atberait VU adberad E atberuit D adbearaid rinn PD 3 4 5 ind VD an EPH na MIT -aigh egna E egno (written egl-) 6 P ecna heagna hegna ceolaigh E ceol- P hil-cheolaich. D

from

all

PM

M M M
:

MH
E
o

VU DH

7 hassait na hasad -eheclaigh 8 D nach f asaid hassaid f asait TJ cloca 10 o rasben riu chein, the i expuncted 11 12 rosben Ab el VTJ AbeU

-cheolaich

asait
9

assuitt

cein

chen

da ben riu

ED

PH

2 (a) j

here.

1 (6) s

here resumes.

182
23.
1

THE VERSE TEXTS


3 2 Rogabsat secht ccnuic

*iar sain
;

Cain, iarsin fingail 9 cnoc 10 eechtar a 31 da 12 chos


"is
24.
a

for

130
13

cain,

da

15

chnoc
3

16

for a
4

17

lamaib.

Cnoc 2 ina
5

etan,
10

mo

ntiar,

is
8

cnoc
<J

cechtar a da

tar
j

chnoc

a etain,
14

gruad n ro- 12
15

lIach,

135

12

i3j._ llDa ii

tarlaic

Laimiach.

25.

^aimlach 2 digamus 3 cen 4 gai G 5 7 8 is e cet-fer thuc da mnai 9 10 leis dorochair "Cain 12 crom
:

13

dia

14

tarlaic

15

fair in
2

16

uboll.
3

140
mbrlg,

26.

Da mac ^aimiach,

laechda a
:

Iubal 4 is 5 Tubalchain Iubal fuair 6 cruit in 7 cara,


8

Tubalehain

in cet- 10 goba.

27.

3 2 ^dpairt Abeii, mar adclos 4 8 rucad Mia eis i Parrdos;


7

145

is e

10

sin
15

ai

in

12 16

14

tucad

dar

ran cenn mac 17 nApram.


rethe
2

13

23.

-sad

VEMH
U
7

EMPU -soin D Chain VMH ar MU isin EH iarsan P tresin U Caidhin P iarsindinguil, cnocc VH with f yc above the d D bhfingail P r'iugail H fingal U " dha VEU choss V chos E cos PU chechtar M cecthar U na EDM EDMU cnoc EPU choin M chain H lamhaibh VE lamhaiph P ar a U 24. munuar V ara M edan EMHU cnocc VH cnocc H ceachtar M monnuar E manuar UM gruadh VEPU an edain E cnoc VEDUM clinocc P cnocc H dar VEPH ar U " ra H liadh E Had D ind etuin D in edain M a edain HU M tarluic D ro tubull V tubhall EP turchur U a E an H Laimhfiach E Laimfiach P marg. thelg M ra thilg H ro theilg U Lamiach DU 25. Lamiach VEU Laimfiach P dighamuiss D diamus M goe E gaoi P bigamus U gan PD can H co mbrig U tuc VPU tucc E tug D thug H he cet fer V cet fer also E fear M adrochair M mnaoi P lais VEPH les IT dda E

EPDMH
10

ragab4

seacht

M
5 I2

cnuice
6
s

cnuic

cnuicli

-sin

"

18

14

15

te

17

,0

12

12

13

35

J0

OF SECTION
23.

I.

183

After that seven wens took hold upon Cain, after the kin-murder a wen [upon] each of his fair feet, and two wens upon his hands.
:

24.

A wen

and a wen [upon


!

in his forehead, alas, eacli of his cheeks J

through the wen of his forehead, very wretched [went] the apple which Lamech cast.
25.

Lamech
he
is

the two-spoused, without falsehood, the first man who took two wives
:

by him did crooked Cain fall, after he cast the apple upon him.
26.

The two sons of Lamech, valiant


strength,

their

Iubal and Tubalcain Iubal invented harps of music Tubalcain was the first smith.
:

( ?),

27.

The offering of Abel, as it hath been heard, was taken after him into Paradise
;

that

is

the very splendid


of

ram

which was given

in place of the sons (sic)

Abram.

adroeair

U
Lamiacli

" Caidliin

P
M tarlaicc

12

cromni

arlaig in tubull 10 ind ubull E ubhull


26.
1

tuboll
3

D
P

tuball

-luig
2

E D

crum P
-laig

13

ar arde
15

H
loechda

aire

diub.

H
*

EU
8

Laimli-

laocdha

P
sic

mbrig 5 Tupcai

M laeelidlia U
P P

mbrigh

(bis) Tubalclroein

E
"

carui
*

om. E, an
27.

HP
E

7 6 eharae chruit D Tubalcain {a stroke through the stem of the b) U

VEPDU D Tubalcain U

EU,

-\

all

laech co other mss.

30

gaba

Aibel
4

DesU
10
14

lies V ess E rucad P rugad DU da MU Pardos VD Pardoss E Parrtos H VEPD a HU ins. U is hessin V isse P liise D hessin {om. is) H Parrtus HU " an PH rain H om. sin U reithe EP reithi MH cend EHU arM tar HU tucadh V tucead EP tugad D

M Abliel U
V

hedp-

eadhp3

hedb-

VDHU gabae E gabhadli P PD edb- M eadb- U


V
adcloss
8

Aibeil
6

atcloss

atclos
5

PD

daclos

M doclos HU
13

DH

rucadn

ruccad
hi
9

-\

12

!S

10

"

nAbram

VDPM

Abrara {om.

n-)

EU, nApraim

184
28.
1

THE VERSE TEXTS


Crocenn 2 ind 3 rethe sin rlam 5 d 'Abram iar B n Abial 7 itches 8 im Crist 9 cen in chinaid,
4

riacht
12

150

1J

ic

fosaic

13

dla

14

desciplaib.

29.

Daisia fa sead ainm l in chroind co 2 torad n-imda n-aloind,


3

4 Muig Aron a Parrdus


5

155

dia
X

ndernad 6 in 7 t-imarbus.
2

30.

A
3

hocht cethrachat
4

noi cet
s

mile, ni himarbrecc, 5 re 5 ind 6 Adaim 7 chetna


is
9

cain

co

10

Hapram.

"cossin
3
7

12

n-athair.
4

160

31.

Tricha 2noi cet


6

bliadan
9

mban
:

saegal deich 8 mbliadan,

Adaim
12

ria
13

imrad
10

risin

uile,

"saegal
32.

mna
3
7

mong-buide.

^aegal
a
6

Seith

is

col
8

Mam

sin

165

cuig dec ar noi cetaibh 9 10 noi cet ro "clos cuig bliadna no 12 co a3 rug 14 in 15 t-ec 16 Enos.
:

28.

crocand

V
2

croccami

croiceim
s

PM

crocann

crocend
rethi
'

croicend
6

PH rithi U doriacht VEPDH do nAip- P nAibeil M nAbhel U


in

EMU

H
D

an

reithe

ruacht ' atches

reitlii

EMHP
5

arucht

om. d
cin

U
D

atces

iteheas

MH
14

VPU

itchess9

adces

H
12

om. TJ cD ig- P do

10

cinaid

M
E

8 an P dar cabair

am

MH
"

EM
P

hitchess

g&n

can

f ossaicc

asaic

Me

osaicc, with f sprs.

asaig-li

U
-

M da

deisciplaib

disgiplaib (in marg. absdalab)

apsdalaib

M deiscep. H
nimdha
7

U
P

aptalaib TJ
29. this quatrain
3

amuigh
30.
J

P P

om. YEDHTJ Parrtos P

an eroinn

P
an

dtor.

-adb

-bhas, in

marg. timarbus

a hocht ceathrachad cem [cein?] glan, mill ar noe cedaib o re Abraim chedna chain, co Hadam, cus in athair bliadan, 2 3 4 B noe V nai ced mili HTJ inn P -breg D himirbreg 6 an H in U Adiiaim VEU Adaimh P Adauim D cetna VH
| |

HU

OF SECTION
28.

I.

185

The hide formerly of that ram came to Abram after Abel it was seen about Christ without fault as He washed for His disciples.
:

29.

Daisia, that

was the name of the tree


beautiful fruit,

with

much and

in the Plain of

Aron

in Paradise

for which the sin

was committed.

30.

Eight and forty, nine hundreds and a thousand, it is no fiction, from the time of that same fair to Abram, to the father.

Adam

31.

Thirty and nine hundred clear years life of Adam with its fame ten years, with all of those,

was the was the


32.

life of his

yellow-haired wife.

The
five

life

of Seth, I have that knowledge,

fifteen over nine

hundreds

years and nine hundred, until death took Enos.

it

was heard,

chetnai
11

cos hi

E cedna P EP gussm D

8 chain ED cusan gusin

go

D
12

gu

10

Habram
:

EU
E

om. n-

EDUH
U

athair

athauir
31.
'

D
trica II
5
4 3 om. m-ain P mbliadan nai U saedhal (no g written sec. man. above the d) saogh' 6 ria imradli EP re imrad Aduim D Adliaim
-

noe

MH
D
10 1J

MH

soegul re imrath

U
9

huile

U D mile H
13

-dhuili

H
U
2

riss sin

rissin

EDH
D
4

iarsin

ule

H
6

"

saogli-

P
3

soegal

saegul

U U

VE budi H bhuidlie U damh VP as H 32. Seth EDMU saocc- P soegul U cettaib E cetaip P sain V soin D se DM do MU 9 nochad V nochat ED .lxxxx. at P cetauibh D cuic YM se EP " closs VP chloss E ra clos H noe cet M go DU cho H " an PH Enoss VE rue VMHU teg VEPDMH tec U
Eua

U
"

buidhe

10

12

13

15

16

186
33.

THE VERSE TEXTS


4
T

Deich a mbliadan 2 noi cet, 3 cen craid, aes meic 5 Enosa, 6 Cainain
:

170

n6i

cet

acht

10

1J

ctiie,

eo

12

mblaid,

13

saegal

14

Malaleith mor- 15 glain.

34.

Cuic 2 bliadna 3 sescat, 4 noi 5 cet do Iareth 7 ria 8 ndul 9 i n-ec 10 tri "chet sescat 12 a 13 euic ro 14 clos d' 15 Enoc 16 rla 17 ndul 18 i 19 Parrtos.
6
:.

175

35.

Ochtmoga
5

ocus 4 noi
7

cet
9

bliadan 3 co mblaid do 6 bliadnaib

seng "tucad do 12 Mathasalem.


saegal
36.

is e

sin

in

10

180

Laimiack, ltiaiter lat, G a 7 c1iic 8 sechtmogat 9 10 12 Noe, "noeb a saegal blad, 13 14 15 caeca ar noi cetaib 16 bliadan.
Saegal
5

secht cet

37.

TrI meic
4

M'Aclam 2 ca mbai 3 eland


5
: !

185

Seth, Sile, Cain claen-cam a 6 teora mna, 7 buadach 8 brig


9

Olla,

Pip,

10

Pithip.

33.

cet

This quatrain om.


nocliat other

U
4

MSS.

VP

resembling u) co ngrain

M
V

mbliadlna P 3 cen crad ins. a V aess


*
:

lxxxxat cc cradh

nai

VEDH (in E VED aois P


D

Enos

ED

Chainean

Cain ean

Cainan

an open a 5 Enois Caiuean (the i and

second a soscr. apparently in a slightly different ink) 8 9 10 a ins. bliadna cett E ach. om. a 12 " co mblaidh. V bloid blaid saogiial P 15 VED Maialeit P Malalel gloin D

MH
34.

MH H
U

MH
3

M Malaleth
sesca 8 dul

nai ar for

coic

VED

ins. is

ndol

nai nvd
coig

M
H
10

coig5

da

M
V

decc
6

mbl.
'

M
P

cett
9

d 'Iareth

re

MHU
U
18

adecc

a dh" cet

aneg
coicc

U
E

sesca tri cet

VM

adec ineg D a dec 12 om. a E

M
13

a deg
coic
closs

H
H

* Enocc ED 1G Enogh P Enog 19 Parrthoss V Pardoss ED Parrthos

om. and euig

ins. in

bad hand in marg. " ndol D re MHU

"
hi

VD VE

VPD

P Parrdus
2

M Parrthus H PaiTtus U
3

35.

'

-gha

EP

sechtmogha

MU

-ain
6

P
P

co??i
'

-aip

is

mblaid V co he sin E hisse


:

OF SECTION
33.

I.

187

Ten years and nine hundred, without vexation the age of the son of Enos, Cainan; nine hundred save five, with renown,
the life of Malaleth great

and pure.

34.

Sixty five years, nine hundred to Iareth before going to death

three hundred sixty and five was it heard to Enoch before going into Paradise.
35.

Eighty years with fame and nine hundreds of years


that
is

the stately

life

which was given


36.

to

Mathusalem.
to

The

life of

Lamech,

you

is it

mentioned,
:

seven hundred, five and seventy the life of Noe, holy his renown, fifty over nine hundreds of years.
37.

Adam

had three sons who had progeny


:
!

Seth, Sile, Cain perverse and crooked their three wives, victorious strength

were

Olla,

Pip and Pithip.

sin

an

H
U
sec.

saog-

P
12

-gul

10

tugad
second
36.
4

PD
1

m dotted
saoghal
leat TJ

tugadth

Mathasaileam man. P) Mathusalem D

VH

u tuccadh E seang U Matlia Salem EP (the


3

saeghal
6
7

Lamiach
6

VU Lamech ED

luater

latt

seaelit

M
VED
P

seaeht mbliadna caeead

U
E

secht

mbliadna trichat
9

UO)

coic

-mogad H saoghal naobdha P niamda


ll

coig
10

H
12

-moghad

nai

M
1

MHU
2

soegul

Naoi

P Naee
16

MH

-moghat " naeb


,3

15

cettuip

37.
3 6

om.

d'
4

Adhaimb
clann dteor

U
tri

D
P

E cetuib D cetaibh U -dhan P MU: Adum VH Adhain E Adaum D Adaim M coa mbae E ga mbaoi P coamboi D ga mbi U chain VDU chamm E claon P cloen D Sili H
5
:

(-dha U)

bladh

VDU

eoica

V D

EU

a mbrig

MHU MH
U
:

buadQiach

VU
10

Pib

Pithib

EDMU
is

brigh VPD a mbrigh Pitib P

(a)
reir

In marg. of an biobla.

seaeht moghat seaeht ccet

so

airemh

is

firianigh

do

188
38.

THE VERSE TEXTS


TrI meic
4
5

Noe nair 2 cech 3 neirt, 6 Sem, Cam, Iafet aurdairc 8 9 10 is re Cam, calad "ciape,
1
7
:

190

12

ro

13

scarad

14

ind

15

airdrlge.

39.

'Cata
5

Cata Cata 7 Flauia, 8 co 9 ngrad 10 ngrinn, ainm nana 11 Caim, 12 nocho 13 celim.
40.

Rechta 3 ba ben 4 Sem, Chasta ben 6 Iafeth,

195

^am

ro gab
6

i
i

nAffraicc n-ait,

"Tafeth

m
41.
5

rogab
10 12

nEoraip
13
i

chelar

duinne, dar Dla


uile
3

200

Sem "rogab
^richa
cinsit
7

14

nAisIa.

eined,

rad
8

nglan ngle
:

Cham mac Noe


6
9

a
10

secht
etiic
2

fichit, fuil

Sem,

dec o Iafeth.
3

42.

*I
6

Sleib
7

Radruip
s i

aided
10 14

bas Iafeth
12
i

Sleib
17

Seim Armein
;

205

lx

Sleib

1?

Raphan,

rad
18

16

ro-thatham

Cam
'

meic

nglan ngle, Noe.

15

38. This quatrain om,


3

M
Camli
I3

Nad
5

P Nae
caladh

HU
VEU
P
3

nert U"

SeimP Semh U
'

Iafeth
eebe
15

PU
ro
12

aurdaircc
9

Gham ED Oainh PU E oirrdirc P airdirc HU

gach

PU

ce
6

D
8

cen
is

ins. is

H U
:

ria

VPH Ms U

Cam ED
do

U
D

30

H
U

scaradli

VU

sgarad

n ciabe EH cipe u int D an in

U
V

ardrig-he E n-airdrighe ' 39. 1 Catirasta

P
-

ard-

Iaf edh V EDHU Casta P Iafet Flaia M Flagia H go U ngradh VPU u Cam P nocha PDH ngrain M ngrind VPHU grind E ceilimm E chelim D ceilim PU ind VP inn E an H 40. Camh P ragab H rogabh U om. u VP Affraic P Athf raic M Affraich U Iathfed M dogab H inn V ind P an H eel ar P chel ar nEorniph E rcgabh U dnini H dnine all other mss. except U duine D chel arduin U u lmile D uili MHU inn VE an H rogob M ragab H Aissia VH Assia EDU

tSeim

P tSeim H Semh P Iathfed M


10
1

Eeacht 5 Casta

fa bean
8

M
6

tSem

'

12

1=

'

30

11

13

14

41. This quatrain om.

VDU;

quatrains in this part of the

poem

In the follows quatrain 21 in E. are in the following- order: 37, 40,

OF SECTION
38.

I.

189
of]

Three sons of noble Noe, of every [kind


strength Scm, Ham, glorious Iafeth from Ham, for all his firmness,
:

the high-kingship
39.

was sundered.

Cata Rechta, she was the wife of Sem, Cata Casta, the wife of Iafeth, Cata Flavia, with pleasant love,

was the name of Ham's


40.

wife, I conceal

it

not.

Ham
Sem

settled in pleasant Africa,

Iaphet settled in Europe; it is not hidden from us, before God


settled altogether in Asia.

41.

Thirty races, a pure, clear saying, sprang from Ham son of Noe twenty seven, which are from Sem,
:

fifteen
42.

from

Iafeth.

In the mountain of Radrap the fate of


the death of Iafeth in a
in the

Sem

mountain of Armenia

mountain of Rafann, a pure, clear

saying, the great sleep of


41, 39, 42, omitting 38. 4 radii glan gle
1

Ham

son of Noe.
2

Naoie 3 Seimh
is

E E

EPM
10

Fichi 5 rinsed

cinedJi

cineth

P
6

cinead
8

E
7

-set

-sead

Naoie also in P, Naei

M
PM

M
H

Cham m.
og

coie dec badlar

PM

EP
P
is
:

Iathaf eit

as follows

a cuig deg o Iathf eth E Is a cuig- dec ag a undec at Iathf eth M. The version of this quatrain in
cirmsed on fir can olaid, a cuig deg ac Iatafet.

Tricha cinedh Chaim eolaig a secht fichit fuil o Sem


42.

hi

VEPD

MH
9

sleip

sleb
4

MU
aiged

M
11

Radraip

H
B

Rathuir chain

U
P Seim

VH
6

Radhruip
aidedh

P E
'

Eathuiris

bas

Armen VM Armein U sleb EM sleab U "liiPaH " hi EPH sleb M sliab U Rapan V Rafan MH Rafm U " radh VP ro hatham raglan gle U glan gle VPMH glan ngle E V ro athtam ED (in D changed sec. man. by writing tli sprs. and
10
12 15 16

MU

Sem

EDMU

Seimh

bass

aighed Iathf ed

ro hat him

rxpuncting the 2nd t) ro attham " mc V mc E mac

ro

ratham do ratham (in rasura) 18 written ixe P Naei M Naee


:

H H

190
43.

THE VERSE TEXTS


^irde
5

hairce,
G
7

baile *ita

tricha

tri
11

cubat cutroma; diet 8 cubat 9 i n-a 10 fat;


12

210

n-a lethet

coica
'n-a

13

cubat.
5

44.

^en^chubat
6

tigi
:

thair,

itir

fid

is

bidumahi
uimpi
15
-j

10
13

bidumain
dia 'muig

11

12

cen bron,

215

14

dia

16

medon.

45.

A
4
8

doras 1 assan 2 sliss 3 soer, amail 5 ro ordaig 6 Noe 7noem

9 10 a toeb "thair daig ro oslaiced 12 ar Crist, ar 13 Ceim, ar n-Athair.

220

46.

Tri ^oecait 2 mlle co 3 mbuaid airde 5 Thuir 6 iioithig- 7 NemrTiaid, caeca 8 mile 9 tar 10 cech "leth
4
12

rogab

13

in

Tor

14

tren

15

rigthech.

47.

Tri 2 cetlirair 3 tri ficbit, 4 fir, airem 6 thoisech 7 is tren- 8 rig


lasaiidernad
12 10

225

thoir
13

11

in Tor,

im
43.

Nemrtiad, im
arde na hairce

Nabcodon.
2

airdi

PMH
:

fir trath. U"

ins.

na
3

4 itha V itta P t-a the t an a faintly G 7 caeca cubad cubhat T7 eutruma VE 8 9 cudruma PH cutranuna D cudrama inna D cubad 10 " na leithe V leithed ana fad na llethe D 12 ,3 lethat U cubatat coeca V coicca D caeca cubad E cubaat (sic YD, but in D copied like cubattt) D 2 3 44. ' aon P aen HIJ ina natigi U chubad cubhat * tighi VP tig-he EP (the dittography caused by a change of line)

H, but erased)
i

aircce

fail tra

M
6

VE

airce

airci

sbs.

cH

MH

D liairci MH DH (before

baili

ED

(also in bail

VM

EMH

EPM

VM

tige

tair

bidamuin 10 uitumain VP bittummain E bituniain D bidamain 12 11 gan EPU can H impe E impi PM immpi D umpi U " occus P U VP diamuich ED imaig immaigh
bittununain

EMH bi U

PU thoir M 1 U

6 a

etir

eitir

EP

fidh

VP

"fid

MH bidomain U M bidomain U
"

diamuigh
15

ar
3

MTJ
saer

16

medhon
45.
J

VU
D

meton P.
asa
4

ara
saor

PMH
P

D
is

ar

U
E

slis

EMHU
7

slios

PH
B
6

VDMH
naom P

amlaid

ro ordiuighl
(ins. sec.

rosordaigh

samlaid DHTJ ra for ro as usual in

H
naem

ro ordaigh

om.

Noe
noeb

man. D) Naoi 8 daigh

P Nae

MH

Nai

IT

VMHU

VE ED ED

VEP

(also perhaps D, but the marie of lenition

OF SECTION
43.

I.

191

The height of the

ark, a place in
its

which are

thirty balanced cubits;

three hundred cubits in

length

in its breadth, fifty cubits.


44.

One

cubit in

its

thickness eastward,
:

what with wood and pitch

pitch about it without regret outside and inside.


45.
Its

(?),

door out of

its

free side,

as holy for He

Noe ordained;

would open its side eastward, our Christ, our Head, our Father.
Thrice fifty miles with victory

46.

was the height of the famous Tower of Nemrod;


fifty

miles over every side did the strong royal Tower contain.

47.

Thrice four

men and

three score, truly,

the reckoning of leaders by whom the Tower was


i including s

and strong kings


East,

made in the Nemrod and Nabcodon.

faded) ardaigh.
roslaiced
:

IT

co ros f oslaic a taeb thair

M
U

roslaicedli
10
12

ED hosluiced P foscail H oslaicthi VEP taeb VD taobh P thaeb H taib U

(om. to) " tair HIT

om. a

ar Crist

chaem ar ar n-athair
46.
4
1

M ar Oris
E
la

coecat

choicat

-dtti EPTJ cubat EP mib IT but erased) D chaecaid 6 tuir E in tuir MIT arddi E airdf ins. fa he M, ba he IT * -dh E Neamraaid 'noithich VE noitc P om. MIT naithid 8 mili Neamrudid with attempt sec. man. to turn the first d to an a IT " leath I0 9 each dar E for HIT gach 15 I4 13 12 trennilleach an -bh IT rigtheaeh V dogab rogob
2 3
:

" cend) (sic) uais ar innathair IT P choica (with a d apparently following,

EH

MH H

MH

VEPDU
P

PH

MH M

M
M

-tech
s
8

righeach IT 2 chetrair om. ar fiehit instead of tri f. M: dairim V dairem P airim ETJ
47.
1

PH

cethruir
.xx.
6

ceathrar
fir

M
IT
8

tri

ficit

(sic)

ceathrair HIT 4 co

tuisseeh
7

taoisech

P
ri

toissech

thaiseach
9

toiseeh

taiseaeh

U
-earn-

lassandernadh

-adh also

thoir (the lenition

mark faded) D "Nabgadon VPDU -gaton P Nabhgodon

lasadngadh IT " an PH thair HIT


IT

in_M

E
,0

righ
tair
,2

D PU VP
IT

-adh

192
48.

THE VERSE TEXTS

^m 2 Assur, im 3 Ibad 4 n-ard, im 5 Laitin is G im Longbard, im 8 Grecus, 9 im Gomer ngle im 10 Eber mor mac 11 Saile.
7

230

49.

^m
5

2 s 4 Boidb, im Britus cen brath, im 6 German is 7 im 8 Garad, 9 im 10 Scithus, im "Gothus nglan, im 12 Dardan, Sardan solam.

235

50.

Ri na 2 talman is na tor in Rl 4 slnes 5 caeh 6saegol, 7 buanaided mo 8 cbruth, mo chli cid 9 oen in 10 t-abb sa' t-airdrl.
2

240

51.

Ro
do
1
8

\scailti
4

na
5

berla

doib

traetad
6
9

Nemruaid nert-moir;
7

ro

trascrad

comad

isligthe

in Tor, 10 a n-uabor.

52.

Coic 2 bliadna cethrachat cain, mile secht cet do 4 bliadnaib, o 5 thosach 6 domain co 7 n-uaill, 8 no co 9 torchair 10 Tor 11 Nemrtiaid.
3

245

48.

'

(written like

Laidin
g-le

M
49.

HU

Amasur Amabad M bacc&) E Ibath


6

Asir

P Asur

HU
om. n-

Baad
9

am

Ibliadh -bhard

U
8

VPH

D Baadh Latin E
5

10

Emir

Eimer

P Emer

MH
Bodb
4

Gregus
" Sale

MH
U

mac Gomer
3

'

am

MH

Imodlbt

U
E am

VH

Boid

EPDM

Boritus
(-dh.
9

gan brath P co mblad 8 7 T 6 ; Garadli V Gharadh L Gomer nm P " Scotus w Garath Gothius U Scithius TJ Scotus (hut the second compendium perhaps to be read ai) T)
(the o expunvted)

Brittus

MU
12

H H

U)

am P

Dordarn

at the 50. This quatrain om. VED, in this place in PM, and in end of the poem, where it is more appropriate so far as the sense is is probably correct, as it concerned: the version of the last line in 3 2 ' an talmhan U ends with the word athair. Big U

HU

OF SECTION
48.

I.

193

Including Assur and lofty Ibad, Latinus and Longbardus, Grecus and brilliant Gomer, great Eber son of Sale.
Including Bodb and Britus without deception, Germanus and Garad, Scithus and pure Gothus, Dardan and swift Sardan.

49.

50.

the

King of the earth and of the lords, King who prolongeth every life, may He make enduring my form, my body though the abbot and the high king be alike.

51.

The languages were dispersed for them, for the subjection of Nemrod, great in strength and the Tower was overturned, so that their pride was humiliated.
Five years and forty fair, a thousand seven hundreds of years, from the superb beginning of the world,
till

52.

the

Tower
5

of

Nemrod
6

fell.

saeghul U saoghal P saegal gach cruth can cair, is e ar n-ab is ar n-athair H, buaidnaidhbuanaigedl 8 cruth. mo cli P eadha dom chorp cain co tuga in tab sin tathair 10 9 in tadm ( ?) sa tairdrigh P tab aon P
4

sineas

MU

snow

PU

mo

51.

sgaoilti

sgailti

scailtea

MU
P
9

berlae

doip

doibh
yc)
7

U
8

traetliad

VEDH
5

M thraetliad U
P
comud

-oid

thraedad (t sprs. over first d traothad 8 thascrad E -grad PD -cairtea U


isslitte

an

combad
10

islidi

MHU
PH
P

E gumad U

isliti

islide

annuabar

PU

(first

n expuncted P) anuabur

PD D

anuabar

52. This quatrain -uib -aiph

om.
B

VMH. tosach P
9

Coig

P
6

mile

P
T

mili

-eac

-uin
10

E
ins. in

mbuaidh

DU U

om. no

no go
I.

torcair

ndorcair

" -ruad

-ruaidh
l.g.

vol.

194
53.
:

THE VERSE TEXTS


I

m-Maig
5

Senair,
e

iarsin Tor,

4 8

ro
sin

tinolad

in
10

choem-scol,

250

chathraig Ibitena, xl do 12 foglaim na 13 n-il-berla.


54.
4 5 is blad bind a n-ergna 7 nostuirmim, im 8 Feinius 9 Farsaid 10 co "rath,
2 ^olaig na mberla,

ar

255

im

12

Chai
2

13

cain-brethach.

55.

^iruath,
3

Nenual brathair
5

Niuil,

1
6 8

Gaedel mac
i
9

Ethiuir,

Dauid

Loth 7 na land, Saliath, Nabgadon, Forand,


Talemon,
2 3 4

260

56.

Cainan, ni chel, 7 Caleph, Mored, Gad, Gomer, 8 9 10 Etrochius, Bel, Bobel binn,
5 6

11

12

13

Ossi,

Iessu,

Iochim,

57.

4
8

Hidomus 2 is 3 Ordmor ard, Achab 5 is 6 Ruben ro- 7 garg,


Humelchus,
Affraim,
1:L

265

Ionan an,

10

Sru, Iar

mac

12

Neman.
a muig H a 4 iman U ra H 7 chaem VE caom
10

53.

'

imrauig
2

immaigh

ED

immaigli
3

P
6

hi

maig

E -oil- P -oileadJ M -oileadli HU an H P mor- M tren- H trom- U isin H gusiii U "cathraig V catkraich E catraig PH chathruigh D ehatraid M catraigli U Pbitliena V Ibithenae E Ibitena P Imbithena D Hebotena M Eba tena H Gan
5

maig-li TJ

Seimair

ED

(S E)

imon
8

M iarsan H

-ladh

secoil

sena

U
E
'f

"ro
1

dinidhagliud na nilberla

U
"
-lae

12

f occhlaimm
54.
4

ogluim
binn

ifoglaim

'f

odlaim

f oglaim

-lai

hil-

2 3 D mberlo D as PH om. U ' rosturmim ergna E a n-ergnai 8 VH -tuirbim P tuirniinmi D -aimiim U Fenius V Foenius D Feinus 10 9 -aidh V Farr- PH Farrsaich Feinius TJ go D Farrsaigh U 1S 12 brath U -breathach Cliae V Cliaoi E Oaidhe P U gan

-laigh

EU

-lach

PM

-luich

bladh

PD

in

VM
3

caoin-breatk (ach yc)


'

chain-

55.
1

Iruath

TJ
4

Nenbhal
Gaoidel

yc

Gaidlel

E E

Noenal

Gaoidhel

D Naeneal M P Goeidel D

Neanual
Gaedeal

TJ

OF SECTION
53.

I.

195

In the plain of Senar, after the Tower,

was the

fair school assembled, in the city of Ibitena, for learning the manifold languages.

54.

Those skilled in the tongues 'tis tuneful fame for their cunning I enumerate them including Feinius Farsaid with grace
:

and Cai of the just judgements.


55.

Hiruath, Nenual brother of Nel, Gaedel son of Etheor,

David, Loth of the blades, Saliath, Nabcodon, Forand.


56.

Talemon, Cainan, there is no concealment, Caleph, Mored, Gad, Cromer,


Etrochius, Bel, tuneful Bobel,
Ossi, Iessu, Iochim.

57.

Hidomus and lofty Ordmor, Achab and very rough Ruben,


Humelchus,
brilliant Ionan, Affraim, Sru, Iar son of Nema.

Gaeid.

na

lanoi

H Goedel U PDM

5
s

Eithiuir

EPMHU
8

Sailiath

-godon U 2 Tailimon P Dalamon Talumon H Tailemon U cain 4 3 B caem IT nocho nocha eel PH E Saleph P Calep 6 7 mor iath U Pilib U Moriath Goimher E G-oimei' Quiliph. 8 Etrochius (o sprs. yc) V Etroichus P EtroicMuss- U Eochrochuis 9 10 Etroichus Bel babebind Belbobel U bind VEHU Etrocus U 11 12 " Ioeim E Iochimm Oss ED Ose Iasu EU Isiu Osu U D IacMm Iacim U
56.
1

D Nabhcadon

-codon

Dabhi E E Nabgodon P
6
-

'

nalland

JNTabcadon

MU

MH
H

M
;

1 2 57. Hidomiiis- VED Hidmius P Domu Idonius U om. MU" 4 Oirdmor E Ordinor P Ordonus Adrarnus U Aehap P Aeab U 5 6 7 8 Sru MU Ruiben EP Rumen U Humeleus EPH gharb E 9 10 Umelchus ins. is U Affraim is Iar VEPH Imelcuw^ U " om. Sru Affram P Affraim Isiar D Ef raum Eaffraim U

MH

(is

Iar

H) Iarinach

(or -mach) is

Neaman U

I2

Nemain

VDH

196
58.
J

THE VERSE TEXTS


Nel mac
luid
6
7 i

Feiniusa
8

nir
9

bfann
270

Forann; nEigept, 10 11 i ferann 12 Eigipt 13 Iartain, 14 rucad 15 Gaidel ar n-athair.


4 7

co

Feinus P Foeniusa D Feiiiiusa M Niuil U luidh E luig H VPH f ann D faun MH f and U Eigipt EHU Eigipit P Egipt D Eigep M go D
58.
1 2

nar

MH
EH U

bf and

an

re

iar

VI.

R
1.
1

3
fl

28 (B 8 y 53
2

265 a

40).

Tobar Parrduis, buan a 3 blad 4 dianaid ainm 5 Nuchal nlam-glan; 6 smit as, nl 7 thruag a 8 threoir
9

275

ceithri srotha
1

soer-cheneoil.

2.

Fiso n
,

sufflatio arfas,
felicitias,
4

Geon

uelocitas Tigris tren,


is fertilis

Enfraiten.
2

280

3.

Fison

sruth. ola,

sair suairc,
3 5

Tigris in fin, siar 4 Eufraites in mil,

soer-chuairt,
fodess,
7

Geon
1.
6
1

in loim,

thuaid
3

tibes.

sighnit ass
2.
1

B B Fisson B
tobur

'

Parrtuis B truag MSS.


2

bladli
s

dianadh
s
3

Nuchul

treoirB
4

saer

suflatio
:

retained for the metre)

B suflaitio M Eofraten -itas B


VII.

sic

-cheineoil

{which must be

R U 102 a
3

66, 89
35).

((3

34

20

1
;

/3

34

39

2
;

/3

10

21

267

Cet 2 aimsir 3 in 4 bethad 5 bind otha Adam co dilind, 8 9 se 7 bliadna coicat, rad ngle, 10 ar "se 12 chetaib ar 13 mile.
J

285

2 1 aimser cead /? bheatha /3 blietliadh /3 12

MH
5

aimsior

/3

bhinn (i

ota

an H/3
ato

4 beath ata o Adhamh.

OF SECTION
58.

I.

197

Nel son of Feinius who was not weak

went into Egypt, to P.iarao; in the land of Egypt thereafter, was born Gaedel our father.
*

" -nd EHU 10 hi bf E hi f D, a f " iardtain Egipt D Eigeipti H Egeapt U " mcadh V EH ruec P rugadh U Diardain U rugad Gaoidel EP Goeidel D Gaedhel U
-and

EPMU
P

MH

Eigipti
iartoin

Eigipit

E
13

Gaedeal

VMH

VI.
1.

The spring
whose name

of Paradise, lasting its renown, is Nuchal of clear brilliancy;


it,

there extend from out of


strength, four rivers of free nature.
2.

not miserable

is its

Phison was revealed as

sufflatio,

Geon as

felicitas,

strong Tigris as uelocitas,

and Euphrates
3.

as fertilitas.

Phison a river of oil, gently eastward, Tigris wine, a free circuit westward,

Euphrates honey, southward, Geon milk, which laugheth northward.


3.
*

^isson B

saer
6

fodhes

f odeas

tuaidh

saerchuart tibhes B thibeas

Eofrates

VII.

The first age of the tuneful world from Adam to the Flood,
fifty-six years,

a clear saying, over six hundreds and a thousand.


7

go dilinn
12

012

/?
10

bliadhna
01

rangle

/3

air
012

"

/3

/3

se

12

(3

radh /? caecad caogad jB 2 12 ceadaibh /3 chedaib /3" (ced- /3 )

012

" mili

mhile

/3

198

THE VERSE TEXTS


VIII.

R
isa n-airc

3
fl

66

(H

98 a

3).

Dia Haine docuas

inti,

comlain chinti. De Mairt dolodar amach asin lestar chaem-chlarach.

290

IX.

R
1.

3
fl

68

(H 98

a 21).

Ceatrar as
indisis

(s)ia saegal slan,

Canoin chomslan,

Adam, Iareth, ailli (a) geal, Nae nar is Mathasalem.


2.

295

Tricha ar noi cetaib can ail saegal airmidnech Adaim; a do sescat noi cet cain,
saegal Iareth abrad-chain.

300

3.

noi sescat ar noi cet


:

do Maithisailem, ni breg caoga ar noi cet, nir bo liaeh, saegal Naee meic Laimiaeh.
(a) geall MS.

OF SECTION
VIII.

I.

199

On Friday

there

was the ingoing

into the ark complete, appointed.

On Tuesday they came out from the fair-boarded vessel.

IX.

Four who are longest of complete Canon hath related Adam, Iareth, a bright praise, noble Noe and Mathasalem.
the perfect
:

life,

Thirty over nine hundreds without reproach the venerable life of Adam
:

nine hundred sixty and two fair, the life of Iareth of the fair brows.

Nine hundred sixty and nine to Mathasalem, it is no falsehood nine hundred and fifty, it was not the life of Noe son of Lamech.
:

pitiful

200

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

NOTES ON SECTION
Prose Texts.
First Redaction.

I.

(For the explanation of the asterisk see the beginning of


1, 1*.

2 .)

Fecit shows that

man

text of Genesis.

worked on an ante-HieronyThe Vulgate has creauit, as in R 3 fl 20.


oo

The gloss in R 1 is of some critical importance. It is absent from T[ 1*, therefore it was not incorporated in the text of *Q. In LF it appears in the form nl fil fairseom, to which F (and L sec. man.) add fein. The version in *X is preserved In LF nd foircend in R 3 ff 20 there we have the older feisin. Such a precedes fairseom, in *X it follows fairseom feisin. shifting about of words is practically diagnostic of the incorporation of a superscript gloss, therefore nd foircend must be a further glossarial addition made after the incorporation of the original gloss with the text. The history of the interpolation was therefore as follows
-\
. . . .

(1)

The

VLF*X*Q
(note, that
(2)
it

or interlined marginal, existed, gloss in the simple form .i. nl fil tosach fairseom

in
:

very natural comment

"In

the beginning

God made ....


most with

He

oo

*Q was

hath no beginning)." copied, without the

gloss, or at

in an interlineation.
(3)

There must have been a ms. \/LF*X in which the was added gloss was incorporated, and to which nd foircend R3 these words must have been still inter(In glossarially. lined in yBMH, for B has them in a different place from
,

the other two mss. of


(4)

3
.)

From

this

ms.

\/LF and *X

derive.

But

as

generally displays closer affinities with

*Q than with L, we

must suppose that L has undergone scribal distortion or If we had editorial manipulation in deriving from \/LF. 1 nearest to co R more of *X, we should probably find it F and *Q must on the whole be good copies of V^F *X *Q,
:

NOTES ON SECTION
as they are in close agreement
oo
:

I.

201

is

the farthest

away from

R1

represents an olchena, Aendidin as contrasted with chetus, archena, Aine, in 2. Dorigne and the consistent spelling -nd- are also older than doringne and the spelling -nn-. In these readings F shows a closer affinity to
2, 2*.

Here again we
;

find evidence that

*Q

older text

in

2*

we have cetumus,

*Q than
as to

to L.

an attempt at a solution of the old puzzle, light could have been created before the luminaries The creation of the angels see Augustine, Civ. Dei sd. 9.
Soillsi aingel is

how

usually described in summaries of the for example, in the Arabic Book of the Rolls 1 "The Holy First Day, chief of Days early in it God created the Upper Heaven and the Worlds, and the and the Archangels," etc. So in highest rank of Angels Prima aetas in exordio sui continet Isidore, Etym. v. 39 Primo enim die Deus in lucis nomine creationem mundi. condidit angelos. And in the old English Lyff of Adam amd

upon the First Day


.-

is

Creation such as this

Eve
p.

(ed. Horstmann, Sammlung altenglischer Legenden, 220 ff.) "God as his wille was behihte to make liht and bo he made angelus." Firmament. The absence, of the definite article shows that the writer took the word, which he found in his Latin Bible, for a proper name. The reading in F, neam .i. firmamaind, is a misplacement of a gloss, for neam must originally have explained the The gloss must difficult word firmament, and not vice versa. also have been in *X, for in R 3 ff 20, third interpolation, it has displaced firmament altogether. That *X, and not *Q, is the source of this passage is shown by its use of This nem-chrtithaig as against the n-ecliriithach of F* Q. # is further instructive, as it shows that all excerpt from the dates are interpolations. They precede the works in *X, but follow them in the other mss. The original text was He made first therefore a bald list of the works of creation
: :

' '

the formless mass.

and Seas,"

etc.

He made Firmament. He made Earth The names of the days were interlined as
p.
3.

Ed. Gibson (Oamb. Univ. Press), transl.

202
glosses,

NOTES ON SECTION
and taken
in at different times

I.

and

in different places.

They were not securely in the text even in L, for at least three of them have been inserted sec. man. in that MS. After tondaitecha, the words in mora in LF and na fairrge
one another. They are both glosses, inserted independently by readers who knew or discovered for themselves that marine creatures were created on the Fifth Day. It follows almost inevitably that ind deoir and in tahnan are
in

*Q

kill

ehumsain is correctly omitted by E as it has entered the text before larom in *Q, and after it in \/LF*X, it is suspect on the principle already set down. Most likely it remained as 5 till late in the R 2 tradition. In the original text, the verb ro chumsain, like dorigni, had no
;

giossarial also. Dia after ro

subject expressed. Oipriugad for foirbthiugad

is

another mark of affinity

between
1

F and

ni

*Q. follomnaclit
text

itir

may perhaps have

been suggested

requieuit ab omnibus operibus suis quae inchoauit Deus facer e (cf. LXX,<Lv r/?sro 6 Otoe; Troiijnai) an implication that the Divine energy continued after the

by the

OL

must be

As it occurs in F*Q it accomplishment of the Creation. original, or a very early interpolation more probably the latter, as it is absent from *X. 2 must have been inserted T clorad bendachtain foraib in R after the incorporation of the first leaf of # Q with that text. It is unknown to LF*X, and breaks awkwardly into the
;

sense.

Foraib is almost certainly a copyist's mistake for fair: he forgot that the blessing was upon the rest-day, not upon
the creatures (Gen.
2

ii.

3).

2a (in R ). A group of three late interpolations (y 1 , y 2, y 3 ), which (like the gloss at the end of 2* just noticed) entered the *Q tradition independently, after its first leaf had been 1 The first two were borrowed separated from the rest of R but the third was ignored as 1/R 3 was nothing if by yW, not acquisitive, we infer that *Z, his copy of R 2 did not contain it. Y 2 which is a natural pendant of U 2, was the first of the three to make its way into the text but y 1 y 2 must both have been no more than marginal notes in # Z, for yW
. : , , :

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

203

has inserted y 2 before, not after, the list of the works of 1 Creation, and has taken in y at a different pla.ee (fi 25). 3 and therefore is not found in R it 1 a alius is a gloss
:

was unknown to *Z. The original purpose of y 2 was to show that Adam was made from the four elements. A further interpolator has confused this by inserting the specification of the countries from whose earth Adam was fashioned. YR 3 C\\ 25) has discovered anew the purpose of the passage, and has expressed his discovery by adding the comment is amlaid in gach
.

duini.

For parallels to the ideas here expressed as to the materials from which Adam was made, see Stokes, Three Irish Glossaries The idem, Man Octipartite (sic), in R.C., i, p. 261. p. xl formation of Adam from the four elements is thus described in the Syriac Cave of Treasures 2 "The angels saw the right hand of God opened out flat and stretched out over the whole world and all creatures were collected in the palm of His And they saw that He took from the whole right hand. mass of the earth one grain of dust, and from the whole nature of water one drop of water, and from all the air which is above, one puff of wind, and from the whole nature
: :

of fire a little of its heat

and warmth"

and therewith made

In the same work Budige quotes from a Coptic tradition preserved in The Discourse of Abbaton the Angel of Death, by Timothy, archbishop of Rakoti (Alexandria), to the effect that the clay of which Adam was made was brought More by the angel Muriel "from the land of the East." specific but mutually contradictory information is afforded 3 Eisenmenger by various Jewish Rabbis on the subject. quotes Rabbi Meir as saying that the dust from which Adam was made was brought together from the whole earth; ingeniously deducing the fact from a combination of Ps. exxxix [Vulgate exxxviii] 16 and 2 Chron. xvi. 9. Rabbi 'Oshaya declares that the body of the first man came from Babel, his head from the land of Israel, his limbs from the other countries. Other theories are given in the same place, but none so specific as the version which has reached
the Irish interpolator.
-

Adam.

Tr.

Budge, pp. 51-2.

Entdeclites Judentlwm, vol.

I, p.

364.

204

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

For Garad, Arabia, Lodain, Agoria the homily on Creation in Lebor Brecc* substitutes Malon, Arton, Biblon,
I can make nothing of these, unless Agore respectively. "Agoria" be a. misreading for "Moria": in some forms of Irish script capital M is not unlike Ag. Mount Moi-iah is

alleged to have been the site of the altars of Solomon, David, Noah, Cain, and Abel as well as of Abraham, and is specified by Maimonides (Beit Abacliria, c. 2) as being the source of the earth from which Adam was made. According to The 5 Dialogue of Salomon and Satumus, Adam was made of eight pounds weight of materials, which are specified, but here
irrelevant.

The same authority agrees with y 3 in saying that Adam was created as at the age of thirty, but the age of Eve is not specified. According to the Lebor Brecc homily, Adam was created nine months before Eve.
3.

3*.

The legend

of the Fall of the Angels, here intro-

duced as a necessary preliminary to the Fall of Man, is part of the complicated angel-demon mythology that was absorbed from Persian sources and developed in post-exilic Judaism quite likely it has its roots in the myth of the combat of Marduk and Tiamat, which is the prologue to the Babylonian
:

legend of Creation. Brought to shape by false exegesis of such scattered passages as Isaiah xiv. 12, Luke x. 18, Revelation ix. 1 ff., the story was taken over into early Christian tradition. The first of these passages, foreshadowing the downfall of the King of Babylon, and addressing him ironically as "Morning Star," has given the name "Lucifer"
to the leader of the revolting angels see Augustine Civ. Dei, xi. 15. The story appears in mast early paraphrases of the Biblical history, as for instance in Saltair na Rann, no. vi,
:

and

LG

in the fourteenth century Cursor Mundi. 6 None of the knows of the second fall of the infernal angels, after the temptation of Eve, referred to in the hymn Alius Prosator,
texts

verse G.

In both
to decipher
4 5 6
:

and L this paragraph is desperately difficult impossible indeed, at least for me, without the
p. 48.

Ed. MacCarthy, Todd Lectures, iii, Ed. Kemble (Aelfric Society, 1848), Ed. Morris, E.E.T.S., line 473 ff.

p. 180.

NOTES ON SECTION
help

I.

205

of ultra-violet photographs prepared by Professor Ditchburn. But the page is so badly rubbed, in both mss., it is, that the photographs do not recover the whole text however, clear that L here stands by itself, and F and *Q, though not identical, are related. L's reading- looks like a
:

scribal guess at

an illegible passage in \/h. Comparison between the two texts reveals two or three minor interpolations, indicated by the marks |-|| on the printed page, but not calling for special remark. Imbe in *Q as against Nime in LF is probably right. I take do Eioa cona chlainn In the original, Lucifer and to be a double interpolation. Adam were in partnership. Then someone, forgetting that Adam was at the time expected to be a virginal immortal, After that someone else slipped in added cona chlaind. i do Eua, and forgot to make the consequential change cona
-\

cclaind.

In
it

looks like in V.

anomalous, but it is certainly what very worn and obscure in this place. The "Nine orders" of the Angels are very frequently
,

do Neimi

is

It is

Apocryphal literature, as in The Book of the 7 The following enumeration is Secrets of Enoch, xx. I. 8 "The angels are of Basrah: gtiven by Solomon, bishop divided into nine classes and three orders. The upper order contains Cherubim, Seraphim, and Thrones, and these are the bearers of God's throne the middle order contains Lords, Powers, and Rulers the lower order contains Principalities, Archangels, and Angels." Isidore (Etym, VII. v. 4) gives
specified in
: :

a similar enumeration, but in a different sequence.

and

[Ro] -diumsach intl Lucifer, though appearing both in *Q in LF, is probably an early interpolation, seeing that the words of the Almighty are habitually reported in Latin. It is probably nothing more than some reader's personal opinion on Lucifer's proceedings. The words Venite, etc., are a reminiscence of the sentence

upon the builders of Babel Venite et confundamus linguam eorum (Gen. xi. 7). The words ut uideamus, imported into
7

Charles,

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the


i.

O.T., vol.

ii,

p. 441.

See also Colossians


Society edn.), vol.
8

16

Irish

Liber

Hymnorum (Henry Brad&haw

ii,

p. 155.

As quoted by Budge, Cave of

Treasures, p. 45.

206
the

NOTES ON SECTION
*Q
tradition

I.

from the preceding verse 5 of the Babel are also found in the quotation from the Babd narrative, 9 The Irish translation there story in Auraicept na nEces. given, mutatis mutandis, is identical with that found here
2 Obviously the annotator of R was familiar with the we find further evidence of this on a later page. Auraicept

in *Q.

4,

I*.

That the envy of Satan for his supplanter was

the reason for the Temptation and the Fall of Man, is the usual belief, derived ultimately from that popular apocryphon, The Book of Adam and Eve. The passage, which it is need-

quote here, will be found in Charles, Apocrypha and PseudepigrapJia, ii, 137. The Irish historian has, however, missed the contrast between the Paradisus spirit uum, from which Lucifer was cast out, and the Paradisus corporum (not "heaven") which was to have been the portion of Adam: even the glossators in R 3 overlooked this, though they could have learnt of it from Comestor, Historia Scholastica, chap. Our text knows nothing of the refusal of Lucifer to xxi. do homage to Adam a very common incident in Creation
less to
:

Lebor Brecc Homily. The subject of the verb must Dohiid Iofer Niger. originally have been Lucifer, carried through from the preceding sentence. "Iofer Niger" is beyond question an intrusive gloss, written in by someone fresh from reading the
storias.

It is related in the

10 The name is there Life of the fourth-century St. Juliana. given as an alternative for Belial son of Beelzebub, totius mali inuentor but so far as I have been able to find out for
.

myself, or through enquiries which the Rev. P. Grosjean, S.J., has most kindly made on my behalf, the name does not appear

any other text. Bespelled by Juliana, this compelled to confess his own misdeeds, the first of which is Ego sum qui feci Adam et Euam in Paradiso 103 The editors of Acta Sanctorum quote variant praeuaricari forms Iophin, Iofet, Iofen, Tophet, and they suggest an " black "). (improbable) etymology (Hebrew -^ntT- sahor,
to be recorded in

being

is

_____

Ed.
,n 10 a

Caltler, p. 12.
vol.
ii,

Acta Sanctorum, February,

esp. p. 875.

Alluding, of course, not to the original transgression, but to the Our glossator has overlooked subsequent subterfuges of the culprits. this so has the Irish translator of the Juliana text.
:

NOTES ON SECTION
The relevant passage
t

I.

207

is quoted in the glosses to Feilire 11 the name there appears as Iafer, Iofer, and (in Oengusso Labor Brecc) Ethiar. Of all these forms, "Tophet" is the most comprehensible, but is not on that account necessarily the most authentic. The critical history of this interpolation

usefully supplements that of the gloss in fl 1. from *X, as will be seen by reference to ft 31
:

It

was absent cannot have

taken this from *Z, because that MS., being dependent for opening words upon *Q, would have included the demon's name. It is also absent from F, which here shows itself earlier in tradition even than *Q. In L it has become distorted by corruption the form there found, Iarngir, may be compared with Ifirnaig, the form which the name has assumed in the Irish text of Vita Iulianae (R.C., xxxiii, p. 316) under the influence of the word Ifernd. The occasional superiority of F and *X to *Q is further illustrated in this ]\ *Q contains two other interpolations, not in *XF. I ffochraic do is an attempt to fill in what someone took for a lacuna after dobertha; and co curp seim
its
: ;

borrowed from Poem V, line 93. The detached part of this paragraph, which follows If 5a in R 2 contains an unintelligible expression q cenn fri cotlud. Though a guesswork rendering for it is offered in the translation, I suspect tha.t it is really nothing but an early misreading of cen forcend, "without end."
is

a cheville

5,

5*.

This

If

a marginal gloss into the text before the words Conid aire sin, etc. in *Q, and after them in VLF*X. Moreover, the differences between the texts in the two traditions cannot be explained except on the
;

was no part of oo R 1 in yR 1 it was taken

It

must have been

in

assumption that when it was in the marginal- gloss stage it was Latin throughout, and that what we have are two independent attempts at a translation. The renderings into Irish of the words of the Deity are later still. Those in *Q
are obviously quite independent of those in LF. On the whole the texts are Old Latin. Terra es et in terrain ibis is OL Vulg. has Puluis es et in puluerem ibis.
:

Sabatier's restoration of the

OL

of the second quotation


:

is

In sudore faciei tui edes


" R.I.A. edition, p. 52
;

panem tuum

Vulg. has In sudore


edition, p. 74.

H. Bradshaw Soc.

208

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

uultus tui ucsceris pane. Our text lies between the two; but Sabatier in his notes quotes an identical version from Hieronymus In Isaiam. The OL of the third quotation is Multiplieans multiplicabo tristitias tuas et gemitum tuum; in tristitiis paries filios. VuLg. has Multiplicabo aerumnas
tuas et conceptus tuas; in dolore paries filios. It is worth passing notice that the biblical order of the three texts is reversed. Almost certainly the original
glossator quoted them from memory. note as a contribution to the genealogy of the mss. that the unauthorized addition et filias tuas is omitted in F,

We

inserted without translation in L,


in *Q.

and inserted with translation

We

have no excerpt from

*X

at this point, so

we

do not know what was in that MS. Sasam in E 1 may also be read sasad, in the obscurity of
the page.
5a.

(in

2
).

cannot find the reading Ecce os in any of

the Latin versions, but it is presupposed by all the redactions. 75 cuma, which is absent from E, does not seem to make

makeshift.

the suggested translation is a mere suspect that the words have no glossarial or other connexion with the text at all that they were originally

any reasonable sense


I

a marginal scribble conveying a surreptitious communication from one student to another on some subject of transient " "It doesn 't matter. interest Never mind

' '

' '

In cliet-gliaire, here adopted from P as against VE, is the gloss was clearly suggested by line 84 certainly right of the poem no. V. The change to choibclie is arbitrary, made by someone who did not understand the original reading.
:

It

is

obvious

that

this

ff

is

irrespective of its absence of Eve follow the Fall


!

from

1
.

an interpolation, quite It makes the creation

6. This paragraph is the most difficult to read of the whole Here again *Q gives a better text, obscure first page of L. though there are several interpolations, especially the alternative version of the death of Abel. There are numerous speculations as to the instrument of Abel's murder. The Book of Adam and Eve does not

enlighten us.

Tlie

Book

of

the

Rolls says that

sharp

NOTES ON SECTION
stone was used.
said that the instrument

I.

209

it is commonly was an ass-bone thus, in the Lyff of Adam and Eve we read "wib be eheke-bon of an asse he smot him on be hed"; and in Cursor Mundi (1073) we are told
:

In the Old English versions,

Wit

the chafte ban of a ded has


sais bat

Men

bar wit slan he was.

This was presumably suggested by the exploit of Samson


Salt air na Rann, which follows The Book of Adam and Eve, has nothing to say on the subject and there does not appear to be any authority for the idea Did the old Irish historians that a camel-bone was used. fully comprehend the difference between an ass and a camel? In Cashel Cathedral there is a quaint carving of an elephant,

against the Philistines.

of

later date, which reveals a very rudimentary of the appearance of an exotic animal and as in conception ancient Ireland the camel and the ass were equally

much

12 it is quite possible that they were supposed to unfamiliar, be similar or identical.

the faint traces in L.

"Lasin enaim chamaill" is the best that I can make of It seems to be different from the do 3 2 The lecain chamaill of R and the fid chnama of FR ( 87).
:

version of this para-graph in F is glossarial, and has ousted its lemma the original form (with some, minor verbal

The F version has been variations) is preserved by L*Q. written after 2 attained its present form, in which the Flood One is sta,ted to be a punishment for the murder of Abel.

3 has copied it in ff 87, directly from F of the glossators of or perhaps this late and corrupt version cannot come 1 from the early MS. *X, which is the source of most of the

V^
.

glosses in

Fo intamail marbtha na n-idbart is a gloss which has come 2 *Q tradition after its incorporation with R it refers to Exodus xiii. 13, xxxiv. 20.
into the
:

2 7. The folio torn from *Q to complete comes to an end just before ]\ 7. The mutilated MS. still remained, to form the basis of R 3 the *Q equivalent of this paragraph will be found in R 3 at ft 88. The text of L is thus revealed as
:

yR

12

See Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy, xxxiii, section C,


L.G.

p. 530.

VOL.

I.

210
corrupt.

NOTES ON SECTION
:

I.

Mac Adaim has become imorro aireagda ro bdi ac has dropped out, almost certainly by oversight of a cor fa chasdn (these words are in a cor fa chasm in F) 13 aoca rribdi eland is a gloss. In these respects F follows *Q exactly. The genealogy breaks the sense awkwardly, and is doubtless an early interpolation it appears in all three mss. Most likely it was first written by an annotator in the margin. The second interpolation of L is not in F, which substitutes the Imroimadar .... Olibana also found at the end of fl 88.
:
:

part genealogical, giving the following particulars

The

remainder

of

the

text

of

this

of

is

(i)

Seth to Noah, a genealogy at

first

assumed rather than


(IT 8).

expressed, but early interpolated into ff 7. (ii) The three sons of Noah, with their inheritances
(iii)

(iv)

The sons of Japhet (fl 9). The descendants in Ireland

of

Magog

(IT 10). Everything outside this brief scheme as interpolated matter.

son of Japhet may be taken

Acca mbai claind, shown by its absence from F*Q to be glossarial in the L tradition, is interesting, as it proves the acquaintance of a glossator in that tradition with poem no.
(see line 185 of that poem). 1 from this poem quoted in

There are two quatrains from a version widely different from


.

that which appears in

R R
2
,

In tAdam

tanisi

has

grown out of

a.

confused

and

inaccurate recollection of 1 Corinthians xv. 45. The second interpolation is otiose, as it merely repeats what has gone before. F has a different interpolation here, which must come from a MS. of R 2 (IT 10, H) #R3 has copied Note it, like the preceding paragraph, from F or from \/F. that the discovery that the wives of Noah and his sons were 2 their respective sisters had not been made when the MS. of R
:

used by

hairci sin,

Also note that the expression na written. which appears in the L interpolation, postulates a previous mention of the Ark which, in fact, does not occur

g was

in the present context.


13

An

illustration of the fact that the external

of

considerable

importance
affinities.

in

criticising

MSS.,

form of the texts and especially

is

in

determining their

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

211

The almost complete absence of the Flood story from R 1 3 contrasts notably with the emphasis laid upon it in R 2 and is one of several indications of the primitive simplicity of that text.
,

The names of the women of Noah 's family were themes for endless vain speculation. According to The Book of Jubilees Noah's wife was called 'Enrzara, and the wives of his sons were respectively Sedeqetelebab, Ne'elatama'uk, and
'

Adatan 'eses.

Various

Jewish

and
Noria,

other

authorities

name Noah's wife

Noema,

apocryphal Bath-Enos,

Tithea, and Haical; Eutychus as the wives of his sons. 14 The

names Salit, Nahlat, Arisisah poem Athair caicli gives Cata

Rechta, Cata Chasta, Cata Flauia as the sons' wives (quatrain 39). Olla, here named as Shem's wife, there becomes the wife of Seth. Cbmestor gives similar names Phuarpara for

Noah's wife, and Pharphia, Cataflua, Fliva as the sons' wives. Cata Flauia or Cata Flua, expanded into Cata Folofia, appears in the compilation known as Bansenchus as the wife of Cain confusion between Cain and Cam or Ham

is

not infrequent as facsimile 136 b 32.


before us.

we may
In
is is

the

Saturnus 15 this tradition

Book of Leinster Dialogue of Salomon and combined with that in the text
see in the
:

Noah 's wife

there called Dalila

those of

Ham

and Japhet are respectively Jatarecta and Catanuuia, but, the author adds, "by other names are they named, Olla, Shem's wife does not appear indeed, Ollina, and Ollibana." Shem himself has become the wood of which the ark was
:

In the fifteenth century Master of Oxford's Catechism was rectified: Noah's wife is called Dalida, and the sons' wives are Cateslinna, Laterecta, and Aurca, otherwise Ollia, Olina, Olybana. 16 In the Pseudo-Berossus of Johannes Annius 16a for what that absurd document may be
made.
the omission

M
15

Ed).

16

Pabriciua, Codex Psendepigraphus Vet. Test., p. 277. Kemble, p. 184. The confusion of D and L (A, A ) in these last two Ibid., p. 218.

versions of the

name
source.

of Noah's wife shows that

it

must come ultimately

from a Greek
ie

a On this The only worthy see Proceedings R.I.A., viii, p. 354 ff. reason for quoting him here is the fact that he had somehow become acquainted with these names the use which he made of them concerns no
:

one but himself.

212

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

worth
time,

we
and

read how

"Noah taught astronomy,


:

division of

and he was considered as being of divine origin therefore was he called Olybama and Arsa, which mean 'heaven' and 'sun' wherefore the Scythians of Armenia have towns Olybama and Arsa Rath a and the like. m In the Caedmon Genesis the names of these
astrological predictions,
'

women
in

his

are given as Percoba, Olla, Oliua, Olliuani. Gollancz, introduction to the sumptuous facsimile of the
ms.,
19

Caedmon
names
is

considers that the passage containing these

an interpolation, on the ground that elsewhere the

ms. closely follows the Biblical text. He suggests that they have been picked out more or less at random from some Onomasticon of Biblical names, in which Aholah, Aholibah, Aliolibamah (Vulgate Oolla, Ooliba, Oolibama) occurred This is quite admissible, assuming the early together. existence (and local availability) of such an Onomasticon; but the compiler can hardly have taken the trouble to look up the unsavoury connexion in which the first two
of these
less

that Percoba

His suggestion names are found (Ezekiel xxiii). is a corruption of "Berseba" seems, perhaps,

Percoba figures in Bansenclius along with her happy. daughters-in-law, thus characterized {Book of Leinster facs.
136
b,

35-40).

Percoba ben Noe co n-nari, 20 Cen choi, cen gari ba gaud! 21 22 Copa seim ba comse a caem-fir,

Toirsech ca coiniud a eland.


Olla. setig

Seim blaith

bithi,

Ben Chaim Oliuan

o hais,

Commam
Na

Iafeth Olluane, tarat barr for bais.

"Percoba the wife of Noe with shame, 21 without weeping, 22 That she was modest suited without laughter how dull!

17

Fabricius, op.

tit., p.

245.

18 39

20
21

" The translation adopted is a perhaps Lit., "it was niggardly of supererogatory attempt to endow the cheville with some semblance
!

Also in Saltair na Mann, ed. Stokes, lines 2485-2488. Published 1927 by the British Academy. Referring, presumably, to the episode of his drunkenness.

sense.
22

Ba comsech

ca caem-'fir ms., which

is

unmetrical.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

213

her fair husband, sad in lamenting her were her children. Olla the spouse of Sem, smooth and feminine, the wife of Ham Oliuan of free-will the wife of Japhet Oliuana, that won not the goal over death." Epiphanms (Adv. Haeres. I ii 26) gives us a long and silly story about "Noria wife of Noah" who burnt the Ark while it was a -building. This is irrelevant here but it may not be a mere accidental coincidence that he makes reference immediately afterwards to a certain prophet, one Barkabba, whose name he describes as suitable,
: :
'

KajSpa

J(ip spfirivevtrai

vopvtia' Kara
r

rrjv ^LvpictKi)}* S<uAfcroi'.

For completeness' sake w e may add that the poem beginning Iiedig dam a De do nivn, contained in the Irish Sex Aetates Mundi, has the same names, Copha, Olla, Oliua. It also gives Olla as the wife of Seth, along with Pibb and Pithibb, the
wives of Adam's other married sons
(cf.

Poem

V, line 188).

8. The *Q version of this ff, much farced with glosses and 3 partitioned between ]} 89 ad fin. interpolations, appears in and H 92. Its principal contribution to criticism is the close

relationship which once more it shows between that ms. and F, as both have a glossarial addition correcting the number
of the sons of

Shem

(but in different words).

On

the other

hand it does not show some careless omissions of F. The world was supposed, on the basis of the data supplied
in Genesis x, to have been divided into 72 nations or linguistic groups see for instance Isidore, Etym. IX ii. The total of
:

30

30

15

is 75,

which

is

three too

many

the glossarial

note just referred to corrects this. The names of Shem's sons here specified are the first three It is not clear why they of those enumerated in Gen. x. 22.

should be reversed in order.


Biblical

"Persius" corresponds to the Elam. CUsh and Canaan are the first and last of the sons of Ham enumerated in Gen. x. 6. Dannai preThe sons of Japhet are more disguised. means Dodanim (recte Rodanim) at the end of the sumably list in Gen. x. 4. Gregus no doubt is the same as Javan (= Ionians). Hispmnius is Tarshish, the leading town in Southern Spain. like "Dodanim," appears in This, Gen. x. 4 as a. son, not of Japhet, but of his son Javan. The the Biblical Gomer needs no comment. equation Gomerus

214
9.

NOTES ON SECTION
The *Q version of
this
ff

I.

appears is R partitioned, It owing to later interpolation, between fl 94 and U 98. became the common property of early historians, and appears also in Sex Aetates Mundi, from which another version of it has entered the text of H, in the long- extract from Sex Aetates which forms oar fl 95. It is also found in Nennius. Leaving
3
,

for the
let

moment the general question of the text and its origin, us concentrate our attention upon the LG- version, as it
2
.

It is unknown to R The irrelevance appears in LF*Q. of the passage to the main purpose of LG shows that it can be no part of the original text but as it appears in *Q it must have been an early interpolation. The oldest form of it, however, happens to be preserved by a late interpolation in (fi 93) Iathfeth dono viae Nde, is uad tuaiscert-leth na Haissia luclit na Heorpa wile. This must derive from a in these, the tradition earlier than the extant R 1 texts Fir na Scithia obviously glossarial A. Aissia Becc, Airmen, had already become incorporated after Haissia, making it
:

-\

-\

necessary to repeat is uad before luclit. L makes the further addition of Media, and corrupts tuaiscert-leth to slor-deise. "Mac Nde" was probably also glossarial, and I suspect that 3 dealt with the text it does it was still interlined when oo R in the "full-dress" form in which we find the in not appear
:

passage in I take
(Triclia

fl

94,

though

BM

both contain

it.

it

mac

that these words, and the preceding quatrain mm) were set out in \/HMB as follows:

Jdjre^fr u<xvuiAifcz:t ijdfatfp2udiffabccdpwn 1 p/i vjlSckiai


If uAtn

gcbcol^TMM&x

To the margin of this MS. someone added against these words is iad a cland-sem lenfamaid, which appeal's in all three derivatives. M, and B as presented by its eighteenth-century follow the text with this addition, and display no copyists, more than unimportant orthographical variations. But coH started a vicious tradition by overlooking the words in the cor fa chasdn (line 2 of the above figure) at the end of the

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

215

He proceeded from the quatrain to line 3 thence, quatrain. misled by the continuity of the sense, to line 4; and did not notice the omitted words till he came to Alaxandrach. So he
;

them in his transcript at the place which he had reached, allowing the repetition of the words is Had .... Alax. to remain, to save himself the trouble of making erasures. As he wrote Greg Beg .... Greg Mor in the first of these repetitions (ff 94) and reversed the order in the
inserted

second
inserted

(ff

(VHMB)
it

were subsequently made piecemeal in the H tradition fl 93 after the quatrain, and fflj 95-97 before Grecus mac Iafeth.

98) it follows that the scribe of his exemplar must have accidentally omitted Greg Mor, and as an interlined correction. Large interpolations

onward the two texts, R 1 and *Q, are virtually identical, and we need notice no more than that *Q justifies the insertion of mac after Hisicon imorro in tres,

From

this

point

where

has left

it

out.
:

Taking now

and probably

the paragraph in detail the only original part

the
of

first

few

lines,

the

paragraph,

enumerate the peoples descended from Japhet in Western Asia and Europe. The first interpolation enlarges on these details, assigning various peoples to the sons of Japhet from whom they are descended. These sons are the same as those " who is here enumerated above, in 8, excluding "Dannai, disregarded. Grecus and Essbdinus correspond to the Biblical Javan and Tubal. Isidore helps us to link them together "Iauan a quo Tones qui et Graeci, Thubal a quo Iberi, qui et
]\
:

Hispanic

Gomer, according to Isidore (loc. tit.), is the ancestor of the Galatae or Galli, so it is natural to affiliate to him two personages, Emoth and Ibath, who are in the

traditional Teutonic

and Celtic ancestry respectively; even although these have no warrant either in Genesis or in The important son Magog does not appear but Isidore. that is because the following interpolations have divorced him from his context. Properly speaking, fl 10 should follow on immediately after the first interpolation, to which it belongs. The second interpolation is an Irish version of the 24 Frankish "Table of Nations," published first by Grimm,
:

23
24

Etym., IX, ii, 28-29. Teutonic Mythology, Eng-. Tr. by Stallybrass,

vol. iv, p. 1734.

216

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

and afterwards, with a much more extensive apparatus 25 This document must date from criticus, by Miillenhoff. about the year 520, as Miillenhoff has shown basing- his conclusions on the names included and (what is equally important) omitted. The genealogy starts from the statement for which Tacitus is our oldest authority, 26 that the god Tuisto bad a son Mannus, from whose three sons are descended the three branches of the Germans, the Herminones, the Istaevones, and the Ingaevones. The Frankish Table gives eponymous

names, Erminius, Inguo, Istio, clearly postulated to explain the names in Tacitus and these are the Armen, Negna, and Isicon of the Irish version. Two mss. of the Frankish Table
:

give Alanus or Alaneus as the father of these three eponyms. These mss. (E and F in Miillenhoff s enumeration) appear
to be of Irish origin. In the others, the parentage of the three brothers is not specified, though Alanus appears in the document as "the first king of Rome"! In "Alanus" Grimm recognized long a miswriting for the "Mannus" of Tacitus. ago To Erminius the Frankish Table assigns the Goths, the Walagoths or Goths of Italy, the Vandals, the Gepidae, and the Saxons to Inguo, the Burgnndians, Thuringians, Langobardi, and Baioarii or Bavarians, who a,re here referred to in literature for the first time. This distribution somehow became disjointed when the document reached Ireland. There, in Sex Aetates Mundi (see Booh of Ballymote, p. 3 of
:

from the forms which the names assume

facsimile a

50,

also

LG

H 95 N)

in

LG,

in the present

in the Reichenau ms. of the Table, lettered F in Miillenhoff 's edition; and in Nennius, who has certainly derived his copy from an Irish source the Burgnndians and

paragraph

Langobardi are transferred to "Airmen" or Erminius, and All the the Vandals given to "Negua" or Ingno in exchange. versions agiree in assigning: Romanus, Britones, Francus, and

Alamannus

the

Romans

of

Central

Gaul,

Britons

(of

Brittany), Franks, and Alemanni, the four peoples who in or about the time when the table was drawn up were under the domination of the Frankish Kingi Chlodwig) to Istio or

"Die frardrische Volkertafel" 1862, p. 532.


"
Germania,
2.

25

Abhandlimgen der Ak. zu

Berlin,

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

217

Isacon, the third of the three brothers. (Naturally Romanus, Francus, etc., in the Irish text are to be regarded as

representing Latin accusative plurals.) The table also appears in Sex Aetates Mundi and in Nennius the latter version, as Zimmer has shown 27 must have But we ca,nnot follow been taken from an Irish source. Zimmer in concluding that that source must have been either LG or Sex AetatesZimmer prefers the former hypothesis.
;

fact, all three compilations must have borrowed it from for all three treat the some common source unknown LG- links it on to Gomer, son of genealogy differently. Noah Sex Aetates to Magog and Nennius to Javan. The last named gives us a long genealogy, back to the antediluvian patriarchs, impinging in one or two places only on the much shorter pedigree in R 1 we find Nennius 's version, however, 2 in another connexion, in R (see below, ^ 16). The peculiar pendant which is found in LG only, must be an addition by some philomath within the LG tradition

In

itself.

"Albanus" should
is

of course be

"Alemanus":

the

miswriting

Our glossator thought a very simple matter. of "Alba," and associated "Britus" with Britain (instead So he seemingly invented this story of the of Brittany). driven out the "Albans" across the English Britons having Channel, in order to secure the monopoly of the Island of
and he seeks to account for similar ethnic names on the continent Albanians, Alba Longa, or what not as the Sex Aetates has something similar, result of this manoeuvre. 28 in saying that from Albanus come the "Albanians of Asia."
Britain
;

99, 100, much inflated with glosses.) a noted, this paragraph is properly The names in fl 9. continuation of the first interpolation in the form in which they appear here, from F, are very 10.

(*Q version in

ff

As has already been

corrupt.

Tancatar Erinn, in which the verb of motion is used without a preposition, is a favourite construction in this text, and may possibly indicate the influence of a text originally in Latin \ as in Vergil's Italiam uenit).
27 28

Nennius vindicates, p. 234 ff. See Zimmer, op. tit., p. 237 ff.

218

NOTES ON SECTION
Second Redaction.

I.

11. This fl hints that in the original form of R 2 there was an antecedent in which the unions of Sethites and Cainites were denounced. It is more fully preserved in R 3 to which
,

the discussion of the subject. The three sentences, in which a singular conception of the family of Noah is suggested, are clearly glossarial interpolations. They

we may postpone

have made no impression on R 3 except in the late MS. M, at fl 188, where the idea, implied is referred to. It is probably inspired partly by a desire to draw an exact analog}- between the households of Adam and of Noah, partly to insinuate that only by such irregular unions could the contamination of Cainite blood be avoided. I have found no authority for it in apocryphal or pseudepigraphic literature. The Syriac Cave of Treasures says that Noah married Haykel d. Namus d. 283 It is referred to Enoch, brother (sic) of Methuselah. borrowed from the text before us) by the compiler (probably of the prose version of Bansenchus. The statement that the Flood was a penalty for the crime of Cain has here arisen fortuitously, owing to the accidental
-

2 It is possible juxtaposition of ff 6 from *Q and fi 11 from R it elsewhere in Apocrypha thus The Book of the to find Rolls, to give but one example, makes Adam prophesy to Seth
.

in these
to

Know, my son, that there must come a Flood the earth, on account of the children of Cain, the But this is not really wicked man who slew his brother. the Flood is here a punishment for the children parallel
words
all
:

wash

of Cain [and their union with the Sethites] not for the crime of Cain.
12.

Here we have

definite
:

proof of what we suspected

that the Flood, according to in the preceding paragraph 2 in its original form, was the penalty for the sinful marriages of Sethites and Cainites, and not for the crime of

Cain

itself,
is

as the

text,

theory
2s a

based upon
p.

suggests. a misinterpretation of Genesis vi.


(ibid., p.

in its present

form

The
1,

2.

Tr.

Budge,

99,

who quotes

97) the

Book

of Enoch,

eh. x, for a marriage between Noah find this in Charles "s translation.

and Enoch's daughter: I cannot

NOTES ON SECTION
R

I.

219

The copyists of 2 have here and there made a bad muddle of the story conspicuously so in this paragraph, especially in the laboured arithmetical disquisition inserted at the end.
:

copyists took little interest in it. version has carelessly admitted certain discrepancies with the biblical history. The forty days of downpour, and the 600 years of Noah's life, come from Genesis vii. 12, 11. That there were "three pairs" of clean beasts is a lapse of memory no sechta is a reader's correction. The month of May is named in the Irish text the Hebrew and all the " versions say "the second month. On the hypothesis that the
:

R The R
the

The account of the Flood was developed by the copyists of


2

tradition

the

Creation took place at the Vernal Equinox, April would be first complete month, and so May would be the second. That the biblical months were lunar was hidden from the The date (seventeenth) agrees with Heb. and compilers. Latin: has "twenty-seventh." careless glossator seems to have misread the date as "seventh," and to have rushed in with the information that the embarkation took I take the sentence place on the nones (seventh) of May. beginning In tan tarnaic to be a gloss, as it breaks the sense deda do inglan, etc., is a further gloss upon that and no sechta is an additional gloss. Lower down, t cona ingenaib is obviously iglossarial, as it is superfluous before seitcliib, and indeed makes nonsense. "Twelve cubits," which is given by all mss. for the height of the water level above the loftiest mountain-tops, is an and error the biblical text in all versions says fifteen, in the fl) E and P have given the correct figure. So, (later apparently, did \/ V, as is suggested by the form cub ait for cubat. Early in the history of the text or even in the 2 history of the document from which the R compilers derived their information .xii. must have been misread and miswritten for .xu., as often happens. It is indeed possible to and E but read .xu., as the number is written, in both as it dislocates the arithmetic of the following inadmissible, The Ark, we are told, drew ten cubits (there interpolation. is no biblical warrant for this) its keel was two cubits above the highest summit therefore the water-level was twelve This note further contradicts the orthodox cubits above them.
the

LXX

' '

'

'

220

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

version of the height of the Ark (30 cubits, Gen. vi. 15) ten cubits below water and fifteen above make only twenty-five. Something- has been lost from the sentence, .xii. cub at diu uas na sltibtib aid airdiu I suggest diu < don usee > uas,
: :

which would be an easy haplography.


13. The irrelevance about Enoch and Fintan is clearly a reader's note. Of the latter we shall hear more on a later On the legend that Enoch is reserved to fight against page. Antichrist, along with Elijah (and even to perish in the

fighting), see there.

Revue

celtique, xxvi, pp. 164-5,

and references

14. The waters began to dry after 150 days (Gen. viii. 3), but the Ark was floating for 7 months 27 days (Gen. viii. 4, The waters conand Vulg. Hebrew says 17 days). tinued to dry until the tenth month (Gen. viii. 5). An early loss by homoiotes at this point has affected all the mss. before dechmud miss we must supply the words dechmad The raven was sent out after 40 days miss i ccet 16 don. the 47 of the Irish text is a (Gen. viii. 6, all versions) mistake. There is no Biblical warrant for sending forth the dove on the following day it is derived from b-rriaw avrtw

LXX

(LXX)

or

post

eum

(Vulg.)
(i.e.

original meaning from him

which represent a Hebrew from Noah). The seven days'

intervals of the missions of the dove follow the Biblical story.


15.

The date of the exodus from the Ark,

in

all

the

Biblical versions, is given as

twenty-seventh day of the For pridnoin Mai must be second month" (Gen. viii. 14). due to the same glossator as the author of the similar gloss
in
fl

"The

12,

who

believed that the voyage occupied exactly a solar


. .

year, which, in fact, was approximately true. oclit ccetaib is an interpolation, The passage tossuch
.

It must come from some historical breaks the sense. The treatise (not Sex Aetates Mundi, but resembling it). The a. are heading. chapter clearly opening words double article na Jideisse in domain may be accounted for by an "age-of-the-world" having come to be regarded as The figures are not accurate the indivisible technical term.

as

it

Hebrew

reckoning should be 390, not 292; the Septuagint

NOTES ON SECTION
reckoning
1170,

I.

221
in

not

842.

(See

the

table

Skinner's

Commentary on Genesis, p. 233.) The statement that Noah's altar was the first built after the Flood is preceded by the mark .i., which is usually The passage anmand mac diagnostic of an interpolated gloss. Noe to the end of the annexed poem is also no part of the
It likewise interrupts the sense, which is a original text. description of the divisions of the world and it gives names for the wives of Noah's sons not in accordance with the
:

This tradition is summed up in and if the original redactor had named these women, poem V, he would presumably have followed its lead. See note on ff 7. The last sentence is a relic of the original abstract of the rendered obsolete Biblical by the elaborate history, matter which has been superposed upon it. genealogical
tradition followed

by

whom the pedigree in this paragraph is comes from Gen. x. 3. The original meaning of the traced, name is obscure in 1 Chron. i. 6 it appears as "Diphath," the discrepancy being due to the similarity of the characters for D and R in both the older and the later Hebrew scripts. The addition "Scot" has of course no Biblical warrant, but conceivably it has arisen from some copy of the Latin version in which the name was given as Riphaz or Rifatz (as in two of the mss. on which the Vatican variorum edition is based). The z we may suppose to have become separated from the rest of the name, resolved into sc or st, and then expanded into "Scot."
16.

Riphath, to
:

The genealogy
in

1
:

but

in

the

is obviously quite different from that given of equal if not greater antiquity, for it was The ancestry of document used by Nennius.
it is

''Alanius" as given by Nennius See fl 9 above. that before us.

is

practically identical with

The interpolation at the end is an attack on an opinion, but presumably held by many men of learning at the time, But it illustrates the now of insignificant importance!
difficulty

which the compilers had, in reducing their chaotic

materials to order.
17.
tions,

have here the first of the Synchronistic disquisiof Eusebius, which chiefly founded upon the Chronicle

We

222

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

R2 has 874. As for Tautanes, we must take we find him. It has proved impossible to reconcile the names of Mesopotamian kings, derived by Eusebius from Berossus, with the names recovered from the monuments. The interpolator in this paragraph reckons 40 years from the Tower to Feinius Farsaid he must therefore be a different person from the author of the otherwise very similar interpolation in If 16, who makes Feinius the sixteenth in descent from Rifath of the Tower. If 17 allows two years from Feinius to Ninus, and from Eusebius we learn to consider Ninus a contemporary of Abraham. But we have already seen that on the lowest estimate there were 292 years from the Flood to Abraham a long period must therefore be assumed from the Flood to the Tower, to be bridged by three generations only Japhet,
text)
:

form an important but probably intrusive element in R 2 R 3 The figures of Eusebius are not correctly reproduced. He allows only 853 years between the beginning of the reign of Ninas and the end of that of Tautanes (the Tutanes of our
, .

whereas

him

as

is a fatuity on referring to that text (ed. Calder, line 126) we find that the Latinus of the Tower was quite a different person from
:

Gomer, Rifath. The animadversion on the Auraicept

Latinus son of Faunus.


18. "Cincris" is of Eusebius, the Akenkheres the Smenkli-ka-ra of modern Egyptology. He is of no importance in Egyptian history a mere ghost -king who reigned for a brief space c. 1360 B.C. immediately before the now famous Tutankhamun. The glossarial addition, explaining the name of Scota, has arisen from a later passage in the same redaction It was primarily an (see vol. ii, If 129, and note thereon). to explain the relation of Scota II, daughter of attempt Nectanebus, to the name "Scota," and to differentiate her from Scota I, daughter of "Cincris," who is the person before
:

us at the moment. Dobreath a ingen

is

in

all

the

mss.,

and in the

It should be dobretha a ingen, appropriations of the text. as the corrector of E has noted in a very bad hand, which has induced the misreading, critical note (15) ad loc.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

223

Third Redaction.

B is written in an hand "Accounts partly authentic and eighteenth-century partly fabulous of the first Inhabitant (sic) of Ireland." At the top of the first page in M is written in a hand conAt
the

beginning of the text in

temporary with the text

An toibrechan selaithi annso sis. This has been partly cut through by a bookbinder, and is in consequence not perfectly easy to make out.
20. The gloss ism Mac, which has entered the text of M an interpretation of ar tils or in principio (critical note no. 5), is an exegesis as old as Irenaeus, who saw what he presumably thought was the Hebrew word bar, "son" (it is really Aramaic), in the opening words of Genesis, B'reshith

as

bard,

"In

the beginning of creating." 29

The Irish annotator probably borrowed the idea from Petrus Comestor, whose influence is obvious throughout the glosses Verbum erat principiuni in quo et per quod Pater in R 3 Creatus autem est in principio, id est, creauit mundum
:

in Filio. 30

we have seen above 1 2 y does not come from *Q, the ms. of R 1 3 but used by oo R nor from *X, the ms. of R used by yW, from *Z, the ms. of R 2 used by y~R 3 in which ms. it was still Y 3 comes from # X. a recent interpolation in the margin. That it was added later than the others is shown by the 3 reversal of the blocks of material, for the matter of y 2 2 the The first interpolator knew that precedes y in R
With regard
ff
,

to the interpolations,

(note to

2a) that

Creation was fully described in the following text the second it interpolator rushed in where his predecessor had thought The following differences to tread. at least unnecessary
:

29 See Gwatkin, Early Chwrch History to A.D. 313, vol. i, pp. 196-7. The Armenian (the only extant) version of the Irenaeus text, at p. 692, See also Augustine, The Son in the beginning. translates these words
< < ; '

De CvoHate
30

Dei,

xi. 32.
i.

Eistoria Scholastica, cap.

224

NOTES ON SECTION
this passage
:

I.

between

and

its

cognates in the other mss. are

noteworthy
(i)

inverted, each day being named work. (The significance of this has already been pointed out in the notes to ft 2.)

The statements are


its

before

(ii)

The

rn.onth-da.tes are inserted (possibly a still later

interpolation).
(iii)

Adam

is

mentioned before the beasts in the sixth


:

day's work.
(iv)

There are some differences of Vocabulary

neam

"muir" ina for firmament (on which see note to ft 2). timchell, reltcmda for renna, anmanda muiridi for tondaitecliu. few passages have all the appearance of intrusive glosses, and are marked as such in the text.

The date assigned


of

to the beginning of Creation

Kalends of April, i.e., 18th March is obviously determined by the Vernal Equinox. The completed Universe is set upon its course on that day, the natural beginning of the year, solar and agricultural. Though not stated, it is 2 see note to ft 12. presupposed by the Flood story in K With the description of the Matter of Creation compare the following, from Cursor Mundi (1. 348)
the
:

fifteenth

The mater first ther of he mad, That es the elementes to sai, That first scapless al samen lay
This elementz that
al

thinges bindes,

Four er thai als elerkes fhides, The nethermast es watur and erth, The thrid es air, and fir the ferth.

The gloss ni locdacht, etc., may be borrowed from some commentary or homily, though I have not succeeded in tracing But it reads more like the interpolation of a its origin.
copyist, anxious to reassure himself that the transcription of the words which he has just written down did not constitute

an act of unpardonable sin. If this were so, we must assume that the major interpolations had already established themselves in the text, concealing from the writer the fact that he was dealing with a text which had scriptural warrant.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

225

21. It is important, as will appear presently, to note that the words dropped by homoiotes in B (-] fodlad na n-usci) contain 14 letters.

ro fogail may be either Dla or firmamint probably the latter, as it carries on the command "let it divide ... it divided. The ambiguity exists even in Heb. has removed it by inserting 6 0e6g. The Irish translator is not quite emancipated from the idea of his predecessors 1 R 2 that firmamentum is a proper noun, responsible for R, and does not require the article.
'
'
:

The subject of

LXX

22.

Here there

is

another haplography in B, caused by


;

The mistake existed in \/B the homoiotes of clcmdaiged. for sB has observed the gap in the sense, and has inserted
His a full stop after the clcmdaiged which has survived. did not, however, carry him to the further step intelligence of realising that he was copying a biblical text, so that had
he chosen he could have filled the lacuna by referring to a copy of the book of Genesis, and translating the equivalent of the missing words.

Note that 43 letters are lost, practically the exact triple noted in the preceding U this indicates (i) that written in narrow columns of short lines, with an "X^B was average of 15 letters to the line, and (ii) that some of the carelessnesses for which the Book of Ballymote is notorious must be laid to the account of the exemplar from which it
of the loss
:

is

copied.

23. In grein, ind csca, which have no authority in any version of the biblical text, are evidently old glosses, interand incorporated with the text after the lined in

VBMH

separation of the B,
contexts.

M (and H) traditions, in different relative


to

is an illustration of the use of the supply the place of the missing first possessive pronouns and second persons of the passive but it is probably an One distinguished Celtist artificial archaism in this place. whom I showed it called it "a monstrosity." to

24.

BamimdaigMer

25. In Tuismeadh is another old The omission of verse 25, which


L.G.

gloss, earlier
is

than

yBMH.
Q

VOL.

almost a repetition of

I.

226

NOTES ON SECTION
;

I.

verse 24, may have been intentional but Tr. is on the whole too conscientious for this, and it is more likely a piece of
carelessness or laziness on the part of a copyist. On the interpolation, see notes to 1J 2a.

paragraph begins the J-source of the Hebrew Although Comestor calls special attention to the critically important word Dominus, which here begins to appear in the Divine name adding an exegesis with which we need not trouble ourselves the glossators have not shown any special interest in it nor has the Irish translator made any endeavour to maintain the distinction, which is found in the Hebrew and -all ancient versions. The story of the finding of a name for Adam, contained in the long interpolation at the end of the paragraph, appears first in The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, written in Egypt somewhere about the beginning of the Christian Era, and 31 It survives brought to its final form by a Hellenistic Jew. to-day in a Slavonic version only but in its time it had a considerable influence upon Early Christian literature. In
27. This

Genesis.

chap. xxx. v. 13 ff. we read: And I [God] appointed him [Adam] a name, from the four component parts, from east, from west, from south, from north, and I appointed for him

four special stars, and I called his name Adam. Charles cites Pseudoparallels from The Sibylline Oracles (iii. 24-6) et Syon iv; Bede, Exposition of Cyprian, Be Montibus Sina Genesis, iv; which in one form or another narrate the same In Cursor Mundi we read story; others might be added.
;

(line

592)

In this nam er four letters laid That o the four 3a,tes er said Sua micul es Adam for to muth Als est and west and north and south. And thou mai ask, wit-outen blam, Qui God him gaue sua mikel a nam
:
. .

It takens

Adam and

his sede

Ouer

al the

werld than suld thai spred.


and Pseudepigrapha of the Old

81 See R. H. Charles, Apocrypha Testament, ii, p. 425 ff.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

227

So we find in The Dialogue of Salomon and Satumus (Ed. Kemble, pp. 178, 194)

"Whence was
stars.

How

the name of Adam formed? Of four are they called? Arthox, Dux, Arotholem,

' '

Minsymbrie.
In illustration of which Kemble quotes the following' elegiac
couplet from MS., Harl. 3362,
fol.

Anathole dedit A, Disis D, contulit Arctos Et Mesembrios collige, net Adam.

The Master of Oxford's Catechism (op. cit., p. 217) gives Artax, Dux, Arostolym, Momfumbres as the names of the four stars. None of these versions of the story refers to the mission of the angels, which, however, appears in the Old English Lyff of Adam and Eue this text gives us the closest parallel
to the Irish version

in be vale of

made mon of erbe in nesch and bon, ber-aftur God bad foure angelus Ebron bat heo schulden seche bulke monnes nome bat he hedde

"bo

after he

imaad.

Seint Mihel wente in to be est

he seih ber a
sterre ihote,

sterre bat

was swibe

briht,

Anatalim was bat

wib be furste

and soone he com a3eyn. Gabriel in to be west-half wente; and he sei3 in be firmament a be furste lettre D ber-of sterre bat hihte was Dysus com to be north he say ber soon he brou3te. Raphael a sterre bat is iclepet Arcis; anon he fleyh a3ein, wib be furste letter A bat he con wib him bringe. Forb him Messembrion hihte be soub. wente Vriel riht in to be
lettre A,
:
:

he wente sterre bat he sih bere; wib be furste lettre swibe a3eyn & broulit hit tofore God wib >e obur breo. God took >eos foure lettres & bad Vriel rede & he radde
:

Adam."
na Toile is a rendering of Paradisus the Vulgate equivalent of the Garden of Eden. Toluptatis, 1 OL. has simply Paradisns, to which the Parrthus of
28.

Parrthus

corresponds.

228

NOTES ON SECTION
:

I.

The Rivers of Paradise were a favourite subject for speculation it is therefore not surprising to find, this paraThe conceptions that lie behind graph farced with glosses. them are set forth most simply in Cursor Mundi (line 1032)

Midward

that land [Paradise] a wel springes,


.

That remies out with four strandes, Flummes farand in fer landes The first es Tigre and sithen Gyon, 32
. .

Sithen Eufrates and Fison.

Some hints at the characters attributed to the Rivers of Paradise are given by Comestor (borrowing from Isidore XIII. xxi, 7). Unas dictus est Phison, qui a Gangaro rege Indiae dictus est Ganges Tigris animal est uelocissimum, et ideo fluuius a sui uelocitate tigridi equiuocatus est Z2a The Master of Oxford's Euphrates frugifer uel fructuosus. Catechism comes close to the statements in Poem no. VI
. . . . . .
-

iiij waters that renneth through hight Fyson, the other Egeon, the Thise be milke, iijde Tygrys and the iiijth Effraton. and wyne." hony, oyll.

"Whate

Paradise?

hight The one

the

is a similar passage in Salomon and Saturnus. These are forced, in Christian tradition, into an analogy between the four streams and the four evangelists Cursor Mundi at line 21,293, likens the words of the Evangelists to

There
ideas

water, wine, milk, and honey respectively. They are, however, of Jewish origin. Rabbi Yehosha ben Levi is quoted in Yalkut Shimoni as saying, in the course of a description of the terrestrial paradise, "And there flow out from it four rivers, one of milk, one of wine, one of balsam, and one of honey.

had about 15 letters to have already seen that The haplography in the last interpolation in B is the line. evidently due to a careless copying of words arranged thus
32

We

^B

In some MSS. Ganges. Hist. Schol., Liber Genesis, cap. xiv (all quotations from this book are from the section on Genesis unless otherwise stated). 33 Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii, p. 310.
32 a

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

229

-p cfceppc

obi trfjviiuch

rf)eio^ibecoj\ofd)

the
its

central line of the three being omitted, because either


line 1, or its

end was similar to the end of


3.

beginning to

the beginning of line

purposes.

Bdellium was the name of a gum, used for medicinal But Tr. or his copyists having turned the word into Boellium, the glossator identified it with the Latin opalus. His note is obviously a description of the opal set in the volcanic matrix (andesite or what not) in which it is found I have not traced the source of his information, in nature. but what he says about the stone seems to be a confused
recollection of

when

it is

some description of the play of colours seen contemplated from different angles.

29. That Adam was created first and afterwards transferred to the Paradise was the general belief, following Genesis iii. 7, 8. Damascus is named as the scene of Adam's creation, and of his retreat after the Fall see Comestor, eh. xiii. This
:

Tradition

is

followed by

gW,

ft

38.

upon oipriged and coimetad are obviously Tulit ergo Deus hominem de loco Comestor. suggested by
The
glosses

formationis suae in Paradisum, scilicet terrestrem, ut Non tamen laborando ex necessitate, sed operaretur ioi. delectando et recreando, et sic Deus "custodiret ilium/' Vel utrumque refertur ad hominem, ut scilicet hominem. scilicet homo custodiret Paradisum et "operaretur" ut dictum
est.

(Hist. Schol. xv.)

is meant to explain away the discrepancy between the threat of immediate death upon for over eating of the fruit, and the fact of Adam's survival 900 years.

The interpolation y 1

again, is the source of ut homo sciret se esse sub dicens, etc.;

Comestor,

Praecepitque ei y Domino, praeceptum


:

accepit a

Domino

(loc. cit.).

230

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

30. It is impossible to decide whether the string of adjectives after sum and ben in this fl, which is anticipatory of the vicious style of the later romance-writers, is due to Tr. or to his copyists. But see the note to the following ff.

The idea that Adam's sleep was mantic rather than anaesthetic seems to be another borrowing from Comestor
:

sed exstasim, in qua creditur supernae interfnisse curiae; unde et euigilans prophetauit de coniunctione Christi et Ecclesiae, et de diluuio futuro, et de iudicio per It was, however, a common idea ignem (Hist. Schol. xvi). Epiphanius (Adv. Haeres. II i 48) ingeniously proves it by pointing out that Adam spoke of the past (os ex ossibus), present (ex uiro suo sumpta est) and the future (homo adhaerebit uxori sui) In the Old English Paraphrase of Genesis and Exodus 34 we read
: !

Non somnum,

God dede

Sat he on sweuene cam,

And

in Sat sweuene he let

him

sen,

Mikal Sat after sulde ben.


other quotations to the same effect might be taken from various sources. The note is I seo cet faitsine appears to be due to a dullard homiletic glossator who has made several comments of the

Many

same kind on the


for the silly note

text,

and who
etc.

is

also probably responsible

did not observe that a grada, predecessor had already called Adam's words, Ecce os etc., "the first coibche and the first prophecy which Adam made." The longer gloss is older than the shorter statement, as it This is a very important critical comes later in the text. of not infrequent application in the text before us. principle,

ami

He

The annotator was in such a hurry to "hold his farthing rushlight to the sun" that he had not the patience to read a line or two further, when he would have found tha.t he had been anticipated. In fact, both wiseacres have been misled by careless reading of Comestor, who definitely asserts that
passage which follows (Quamobrcm, prophecy (Hist. Schol. xix).
the
34

etc.)

is

the real

Ed. Morris, E. E. T.

S. (1865), lines

224-6.

NOTES ON SECTION
31.

I.

231

There is evidence in the beginning of this ff that the adjectival exuberance of the biblical translation is to some xtent giossarial. The superlatives attached to the Serpent
:

in the original text have been multiplied by an annotator they appear in the two mss. in a different order, which as

before indicates the interpolation of an interlined gloss. 2 The interpolation y 1 appears to come from because Eve is represented as being the sole victim of the Serpent's 2 temptation. Comparison with the text of (ff 4*) shows that co curp sewn is an interpolation made after the leaf of

of

2 *Q had come into R but before the writing of *Z, the copy R2 used by gW. The omission of Iofer Niger is a striking
,

feature in this version of the passage. The envy of Lucifer against Adam

is

referred to by

Comestor {Lucifer enim deiectus a Paradiso spirituum, inuidit Jiomini quod esset in Paradiso corporum, sciens si facer et eum For transgredi quod et ille eiiceretur (Hist. Schol. xxi)).
once, however, this is not the source of the interpolation the idea had been in the text from before Comestor's time, and LGr, as we have seen, has no hint at the contrast between
:

the
It

Comestor.

and the terrestrial paradise emphasized by The interpolation y 2 has nothing to do with y 1 comes from a different source, and is most likely due to a
spiritual
.

different annotator.

Before these interpolations were made the text probably As the interpolation ro raid. ran thus Ro oai nathair ,
: .

-\

separated the subject from the verb, a later glossator interWhen the gloss entered lined .i. in athair sin above ro raid. This glossator's spelling of the text is I evolved out of .i. of athair, without the initial n, has survived the vicissitudes his note after its incorporation.

After This paragraph is much farced with glosses. Its matter is a leaf has been lost from B. is a preserved in the eighteenth-century transcript /?, which The two other not a perfect copy of the MS.
32.

ro

hoslaicit

good, though

eighteenth-century copies, p

1
,

2 /3
,

have been collated through-

their only out, but (as has been shown in the introduction) value is as a check on (3, confirming some of its readings;

own variations do not appear to possess any importance, but they are recorded in order to secure completeness.
their

232

NOTES ON SECTION
''In the noise of a

I.

pretation of the Latin

mighty wind" ad auram.


:

is

a carious misinter-

A medhon chrainn Pairrthus the singular number of chrainn reproduces the Latin ligni.
33.

The

but probably

gloss 6 guth aingleagda is another loss in the

is

preserved in

only,

tradition due to the


If the text

short lines of "f/B were written in

and the
thus

carelessness of s\/B.

^B

o ttcfy din gZ ed^&a

IjicjidlDdAfcAcouc
there would have been homoiotes at both ends for s\/B.

a fatal trap

most 16

of H, which begins in this fl, the topcolumn are torn away entirely, and some of the others are injured, as the tear runs obliquely. In fact, the first few of the surviving lines are reduced in this manner to a few letters only, which would be quite unintelligible if we did not possess a perfect copy in for comparison. If this first leaf of H had been perfect, the surviving portion of that text would have begun somewhere about verse 4 of the chapter, thus extending back to slightly before the

On

the

first leaf

lines of each

beginning of the lacuna in B. It may be worth mentioning that the "Welsh antiquary, Edward Lhuyd, according to a letter written by him on 20
p. 246,

December 1702, and printed in Archceologia Cambrensis, 1859, was possessed of "an imperfect copy of the B[ook] of Genesis in Irish" bestowed upon him by a priest near Sligo, who told him that "in the opinion of one of their chief est antiquitys [sic]" it "was very little later than the first
planting of Christianity' in Ireland. This fragment does not seem to be preserved among Lhuyd 's mss. in Oxford; and as one or more of the fragments now bound up in the were at one miscellany which includes our manuscript time in Lhuyd 's possession and bear his autograph, I am
'

NOTES ON SECTION
inclined
to

I.

233

suspect

that

this

"fragment of the book of

may

If so, its Sligo provenance possibly be confirmatory of the suggestion made above leaves had been torn out to supplement (p. 13) that the the deficiencies of the Book of Ballymote. In that case,

Genesis" was no- other than H.

however, the deficiency was not that caused by the loss of folio 9, which must have taken place after Lhuyd's time, but
this text described, loc. cit. Further, the depredation most probably took place before 1522, when the Book of Ballymote appears to have migrated from Sligo to Tir Conaill. Dorad domh do chrcmn, omitting the definite article, is a literal translation from the Latin dedit mihi de ligno. It adds a subtle point to the story, as suggesting that Adam professed ignorance of the tree from which the fruit had come; but

the chasm in

unfortunately the Hebrew text disallows it. For the curious rendering acht me fern, see the notes on the Latin text.
34. The translator seems to have missed the point of the serpent's "lying in wait," and to have understood it to mean self -protection rather than hostility. The gloss iomad galar mlsda dhuit is paralleled by a Kabbinic idea (Eisenmenger, i, p. 833) that this disability is

due

to a

union between Eve and Sammael in the guise of the

Serpent.
of -tyB

Further confirmation of our conclusions as to the nature is here forthcoming. As the words d'indearna Dia 012 we may take it for certain 1 do thalmain are absent in /3 that they were also absent in B. They just amount to two of the short lines of which we have already found
.

indications

cen coj\ <xt<vcui/vpo

234

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

The eye of s\/B wandered from the beginning of the second of these lines to the beginning of the fourth.
35. Our worthy glossator seems to fear that subsequent readers, if not warned, would take Eve to be the mother of animals as well as of men
!

How gH
and Eve

ascertained that the garments made for were of one colour does not appear.

Adam

is

in

36. The perverse exegesis in the interpolation in this ff from Comestor Ironia est, quasi uoluit esse ut Bens, sed euidenti est modo quod non est (Hist. Schol. xxiv).
:

is clearly an incorporated gloss, the lemma of which the sentence following. It filled the whole interlinear space above that sentence in the ms. from which it entered the

37.

is

body of the text, and thus it was taken in before the words which it ought to have followed. That Adam and Eve remained virgin in Paradise was a notion suggested by the fact that Eve's name of universal mother is not recorded till after the Fall. Something of the idea will be found in and it was emphasised in Civ. Dei xiii, 13, 14 Augustine,
:

the Bevelationes of Pseudo-Methodius, according to which, Sciendum est quod exeuntes Adam et Eua de Paradiso
uirgines fuerint; or as the Old English paraphrase expresses

it/
3et

owt of Paradyse when bey paste

clene vyrgenys were bey both

Our glossators, however, show no direct acquaintance with that singular production, and probably took the idea from Comestor, who gives a paraphrase of the words of PseudoMethodius in his chap. xxv. According to the Syriac Book the Bee, Adam and Eve remained virgins for 30 years after of

borrowed in Cain possessio interpretatur, unde etymologiam ipsius exprimens pater eius ait "Cain" (( id est Possedi hominem per Deum." Idem et lamentatio, eo quod pro interfecto Abel interfcctus sit, et poenam sui Abel luctus inter pretatur (Etym. VH. sceleris dederit.
the
first

their expulsion (ed. Budge, chap xviii). The interpretation of the name of Cain is

instance from Isidore

NOTES ON SECTION
vi. 7).

I.

235

must regard no lamentacio as a gloss, although Isidore gives the alternative interpretation, partly because, though in a Latin context, it is introduced by an Irish
conjunction, and partly because it is ignored in the Both etymologies are of course wrong. subsequent matter. Caneithi is the Hebrew MTOp qamthi, "I have gotten," Lamentatio looks back to the quite independent Hebrew

We

word HTp qinah "a dirge." All these early commentators overlook the fact, which a little knowledge of elementary Hebrew grammar would have taught them, that it was Eve, not Adam, who said Possedi hominem. But they are in the good company of Augustine, Civ. Dei xv. 15.
The
idea

expressed

in

3
,

following

many

ancient

commentators and versions, that the acceptance of Abel's offering was indicated by fire from heaven, seems to go back to the version of Theodotion, in which l'I^ (respexit) is translated ivtirvpiatv. It is, of course, developed under the influence of the narrative in I (III) Kings xviii (Elijah on Carmel). As usual, Comestor is the proximate source of the Quia placuit Deo Abel et pro ipso glossator's information
:

placuit oblatio eius, quod quomodo cognitum fuerit, alia translatio aperit. Inflammauit Deus super Abel et super munera eius." Ignis enim de coelo oblationem eius incendit.
'

'

(Hist. Schol. xxvi).

There is no authority for the words a which must be a glossarial expansion.

ttoirsi

-\

in

dabha,

38. The simple account of the murder of Abel in B (as preserved in the derivatives of that ms.) is clearly the original The interpolation version, being based on the Genesis text. in M, ro tad a da laim fo bragait cor ba marb (H here 2 This unfortunately fails us) is as clearly borrowed from R
.

introduces us to a further complication in the history of the text the borrowings from earlier redactions at late stages of development. This cannot be one of the borrowings

originally in also.

made from

*Z, as in that case

it

would have been


in

in one form or another, must have been The family had returned to Damascus where
,

B Y

yBMH.

Adam was

236
created

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

need not vex the shades of the glossator by that Damascus could hardly have been a cathair at insisting Comestor this stage of the world's history, as he conceived it. says of the expulsion from Paradise: Emisit eum Dommus
in agrum scilicet Damascenum, de Paradiso Voluptatis de quo sumptus fuerat, in quo Cain Abel swum fratrem inter.

we

fecit (Hist. Schol. xxiv). 2 seems to be an extract

from some homily upon Abel. Y The haplography attested by (3 012 must have been in B. It Abel was easy for a scribe to commit (Abel do cet marb
. . .

in cet martir) but for once it cannot be laid to the account of \/B, for the omitted words are too long for the 15-lettcr
lines of "^B.
is curious. The variant of the question Quid fecisti in Presumably it is due ultimately to a reader who, having read Cid doroinnais was moved to write in the margin Pecad 7 gnim n-adbal (He was of the spiritual kindred of Lucifer's The loss of cid, which might easily happen after critic in fl 3.) the preceding Cain (especially if it were written Caidin, as in P) would result in the absorption of this note by the text. Y 4 seems to come from another homily, in which reference was made to Genesis iv. 10, xviii. 20, and Luke xviii. 7, 8.
e l
!

Once more we have a paragraph filled with glossarial The ms. from which coH, coM, and 00 B were copied, in this order (as .shown above, p. 14) must have had ro oslaic a bel, probably with an open a in oslaic. Both 00 and 00 H independently misread this as ro slide Abel: but 00 B copied it correctly, and in the derivatives from B
39.
fatuities.

the reading has been put beyond a doubt by inserting the have already seen that we cannot assume prefixed /. M a '1JMH differentiated from JB the mistake must therefore tradition a number of In the twice. have been made three in this paragraph alone have entered

We

interpolations Y 1 has been inserted by or in B. the text, not found in some one who did not take the trouble to observe that it But contradicts the biblical story, related a few lines above. tradition before the story about the it must have entered

Abel's being strangled with Cain's hands (fl 38) was inserted. For we may lay it down as a general principle that when we have two contradicting interpolations (a) and (&), if they

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

237

lun consecutively they may be contemporary, the glossator setting down two opposing views between which he makes no choice; or else (&), the second, may be later than (a), having been interpolated by a second glossator to contradict what was already in the text. But if the two are separated by some lines of text, then the probability is greatly in favour of () being the later of the two, having been inserted by a reader who has not yet reached (6) and does not anticipate
it.

to secure a prolongation of his

The perverse notion that the mark of Cain was designed punishment is borrowed from " Omnis Comestor. quis inuenerit me occidet me." Ex timore

hoc dixit, uel optando dixit, quasi dicer et: JJtinam occidant me. Non cito "Dixitque ei Deus: Nequaquam it a fiet." " sed omnis scilicet morieris, qui occiderit Cain" supplendum est, liberabit eum a timore, a dolor e, et miseria "septuplum Id est, punitio fiet de eo dum uiuet in poena. punietur." There have been many speculations on the mark of Cain. For once Comestor is jettisoned by our glossators, who say nothing about the theory adopted by him, that the mark was a perpetual shaking of the head that "he wagged alwey forb wib his heued" as the Old English Lyff of Adam and Eue puts it. The 'lump in his forehead' goes back to a lost Book of Lantech, which told how Lamech, under the guidance of his son Tubalcain for he was blind shot an arrow at a wild man covered with hair, and with a horn growing out of his forehead, who proved to be Cain. Lamech was so distressed The additional by the discovery that he killed Tubalcain. "lumps" are added by yM. under the influence of poem no.

That Cain had no beard comes indirectly from the same authority, which states (lines 123, 124) that Seth was the first man who grew a beard.
(quatrain 23).
40. A glossator has doubtless introduced the appellation dlamus, in order to distinguish the Cainite from the Sethite Lamech. The interpretation of the w ord is most likely the
T

work

of a

still

later annotator.

That Naamah was a weaver or embroideress was a commonplace of mediaeval apocryphal speculation. Probably our glossator borrowed the fact from Comestor Soror uero41.

238

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

Schol. xxviii).

Tubalcain Noema, quae inuenit arUm uariae texturae (Hist. So also Cursor Mundi (line 1523)

had this brether alsua, was heiten Noema Scho was the formest webster, That man findes o that mister. That fader was the first o liue, That bigam was, wit dubul vijfe.
sister

And

sco

Ro chet-chum is a favourite construction in this text composition of cet with a verb, to denote "he was the
to
'

the
first

'

perform whatever action

is specified.

42.

The

difficult

Song of Lamech has given trouble

to the

The rendering translator, and apparently also to his copyists. as we have it does not even make reasonable sense, to say
nothing of its relation to the original text. Ro mharbus fer amuigh aniu seems to have arisen out of Ro mliarbas fer am
guinib (the last word perhaps written guiniu), thus representing the Latin occidi varum in uulnus meum. The sentence which follows is apparently a gloss, the original form of which was most likely .i. is inund q " ro chrechtnaiges" annsin. The word sechtoll does not seem to occur elsewhere in
Irish literature.
It is curious that none of our meddlesome glossators have come forward with the information known to the author of poem no. V, and universally believed that Lamech 's victim was Cain.

thus written in /3 air Adhamli, \ar\ that the scribe was puzzled by the A. siol, etc., indicating It can scarcely be equated with the Irish ar, word ar. "ploughing": it is perhaps a degeneration of the Hebrew
43.
is
:

Adam's speech

I'H*

zer'a,

"seed"

read

backwards, like the Tetragram-

maton in poem no. V. This word appears in the original of the passage, and may have reached the Irish translator by some
circuitous route. At the end of this paragraph there comes the lacuna in the B-tradition (see p. 13) which was there even before B lost its leaf. The eighteenth-century copyists were conscious of

a gap

in the sense,

and each

in his

own way made

a makeshift

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

239

resumes in the course of stop-gap, here printed as fl 43a. fails us at the end of the following paragraph, and until It is and are the only authorities for the text. \\ 52

here printed from M, with variants from H.


is here defective, but a y was in only. count of words shows that there was no room for it. According to a belief recorded by Comestor, Adam was only seven hours in Paradise (Quidam tradunt eos fuisse in Faradiso sept em horas Hist. Schol. xxiv). With this Cursor

44.

Y2

like

Mundi more

or less agrees (line 985)

For he [Adam] was wroght At middai Eue draun of his

at

undern

tide,

side.

Thai brak the forbot als sun, That thai war bath don out at none.

A poem contained in the Book of XJi Maine specifies 134 hours but the Master of Oxford makes the time seven years. The writer of y 2 must have copied it from some other literary source, as is indicated by the spelling Eba, by the here superfluous specification of the nature of the sin, and by the description of the forbidden tree as Grand na Haithne (not
:

Fessa).

with a

Of the transfer of Adam's head to Golgotha, Comestor, critical judgement which he does not as a rule
T
:

encourage us to expect in him, w rites as follows Ambrosias, in Epist. ad Romanos uidetur uelle quod ibi sepultus fuerit Adam, et a capite eius dictum Caluariam; et ei dictum ab
apostolo: Surge qui dormis, exsurge a mortuis, et illuminabit Be qua opinione dicit Hieronymus quod te Christ as. fauorabilis est inter pretatio, et mulcens aures, non tamen uera. Vnde credimus hoc a. falsariis positum in Ambrosio. (Hist. Of the burial of Adam in Hebron Schol. in Euangel. elxx).

we read

in Cursor

Mundi

(line 1415)

Doluen he [Adam] was thoru Seth his sun, In the dale that hat Ebron
:

and

in

Comestor

Locus in quo luxerunt [Adam and Eve,

after Abel] dicitur Vallis Lacrymarum iuxta Hebrom (Hist. Schol. xxv, doubtless suggested by Ps. lxxxiii [Hebrew lxxxiv]

240
verse

NOTES ON SECTION
7).

I.

This geography

is

a commonplace of the
3
.

Adam

The interpolation y is peculiar to M, and apocrypha. probably came from the same literary source as y 2 The glossators have apparently never heard the Eastern story,
The Cave of Treasures, that the body of Adam was part of the cargo of the Ark, where it served the useful purpose of keeping the men and the women apart and that it was afterwards buried by Shem in Golgotha.
told in
;

45 ff. Worthy of passing notice is a commentator, possibly of ethnological or psychological interest, who was apparently unable to conceive of large numbers except in scores, and

had to reduce the hundreds to that unit, in order to understand them.


50. Enoch was the central figure of a. vast mass of folklore and apocryphal literature. His existence "in desert places and away from common life" is doubtless an expansion of the Biblical et non apparuit, but it may have reached the Irish glossator from some special source. The ten names of God are thus enumerated by Isidore

{Etym. VII. i. 1) El, Eloi, Eloe, Sabaoth, Elion, Eie, Adonai, Tetragrammaton, Saddai. The list gjven by Epiphanius {Adv. Haeres. I, iii, 40) is Sabaoth, Eli, Eloi, Israel, Sadadai, On their magical use, Ellion, Rabboni, la, Adonai, Iabe. see Budge, Amulets and Superstitions, pp. 369 ff. From o anmandaib ecsamlaib in this paragraph to the end of ]\ 52, is our only authority for the text.
:

la,

in

52. With the end of this paragraph the great lacuna begins M. Unlike sB, sM was conscious of the gap in his exemplar, ?nd left the remainder of the column, upon which he was

writing, a blank, in the hope of filling in the missing matter This neither he nor the subsequent owners of afterwards. able to do and H, which now carries on the story, were ever shows us that the space provided (32 lines in a column of

50 lines) was absurdly small. We are still in the mutilated first leaf of H, which has The missing portions of lost the top lines of all its columns. so that at this point there are the two texts slightly overlap,
a

few

lines of the text

which are altogether

lost,

as well as

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

241

portions of the beginnings and endings of others coveringverses V. 31 (last clause) and VI. 1, 2, of the biblical text.

In the gloss explaining the name of Noah,


less to

is

Noe

is

doubt-

be corrected to

.i.

Noe.

From here on to ff 87 our only authority is H. The two verses of chap. VI, lost from our text, contain the fragmentary tale of intercourse between filii Dei and filiae hominum. This tantalizing story was for long the subject of speculation and some copyist seems to have considered these speculations more interesting than the barren biblical narrative. That the "sons of God" were the Sethites, and the "daughters of men" the Cainites, was the normal mediaeval solution of the enigma. It is set forth in PseudoMethodius as well as in Comestor, ch. xxxi, the Old English
53.
first
:

The many other authorities. The Gave of Treasures, is to the effect that Adam, when dying, had commanded Seth and his descendants to remain on the holy mountain of Hermon, apart from the offspring of Cain, and that this injunction was lepeated by each succeeding patriarch till the days of Yared (Jared, which means "descent"), when the Sethites broke their oaths and went down to the encampment of iniquity of the Cainites. The glossator has based his interpolation, with which the text resumes after the lacuna, upon the detailed paraphrase of this story in the Irish Sex Aetates Mundi. The ms. is here much injured. The inner edge of the leaf has been made ragged by tearing the fragment from its proper place (as described, p. 13 ante), and in consequence
Lyff of
full story, as related in

Adam and

Eve, and

Some of the gaps can be filled parts of several lines are lost. up by a collation of Sex Aetates (Rawl. B 502 facsimile) but not all, for the texts, though similar, are not identical. Restorations of the text are here contained within square
;

brackets.

The alternative explanation of the origin of the monsters, recorded here by a later glossator, will be found below, fl 81.
54. The glossator has forgotten that the descendants of Seth had their share in the production of the giants.
L.G.

VOL.

I.

242

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

55. Here again an extract from Sex Aetates Mvmdi has been interpolated, and has ousted verses 5, 6, of the biblical text a process facilitated by the fact that the two passages The passage as it appears in began with the same words. Eawl. B, 502, reads Otchonairc Dia imorro tictain doib dar a thimna, ro chinnistar na doini do huili-dilgenn, coni do tucad in diliu. This has been expanded in our text by
:

glossators.

The interpolation
another source.

at the

end of the paragraph

is

from

obviously suggested by Comestor's fuit liaec area fundamento quadrata (Hist. Schol. xxxii). The interpolations y 3 a, b, are parts of a single marginal note that has become bisected, and has entered the text in two different places in the second place breaking very awkwardly into the sense. The information is derived in part from Comestor Bitumine intus et extra Imita est, quod est gluten feruentissimum quo ligna linita non dissoluuntur
57.
is

in

aliqua ui uel arte nee materia uel maceria bituminata solid In lacubus Iudaeae supernatans colligitur. In potest ... Syria limns est a terra aestuans. Comestor in his turn seems
to have taken this

from Isidore (Etym. XVI.

ii.

1)

Bitumen

in Iudaeae lacu Asplvaltite emergit, cuius glebas

supematantes

In Syria autem nautae seaphis adpropugnantes colliguntNatura eius ardens et limus est passim aestuans <h terra
.
.

ignium cognata, et neque aqua neque ferro sumpitur utilis ad conpages nauium. I can find no authority for the two persons who altruistically contributed to the success of an enterprise from which the carpenter with the they themselves derived no benefit improbable name Epiphenius, and the mixer of pitch whose
. .
. :

name,

the absence of auxiliary evidence, cannot be read in the text evidently sH could not read it certainly in yi[, and did his little best to copy it as it stood. clearly
in
:

$iffbrd4f?flire

The curved
usual

line over the

is

turned the wrong

way

for the

contraction.

It is a little to the right of the

middle

NOTES ON SECTION
of the n, and

I.

243

is attached to the top of the following I. The only expansion that I can think of is Dia-anarlaoite, as printed in the text, or perhaps Anarlarte. By a perverse fate the name of the father of these brethren is torn away except the

This 13, in which the minim is most likely part of an n. gives -nus, a termination that will not fit any antediluvian name in history or legend that I ever heard of. These names,
end,

and the details of the construction of the Ark here set forth, and the prayers of Noah and his sons, appear to come from some lost homily or apocryphon.
58. Here again a glossator tells us of the peculiar matrimonial relationships of Noah and his sons, presumably 2 borrowing them from some late ms. of R
.

59.

On

the importance of the discrimination between clean


this

The paragraph, see p. 9 ante. be original or glossarial, it is saidbirm&y uncertain which, and matters little.
adjectives silteach
in these paragraphs to call for notice referred to in the notes on the biblical The glosses are more than usually naive note especially text. the expression of admiration for the Ark at the end of ff 61, and the description of the proceedings of the dove in ff 65. If the latter is not an invention, it would be difficult to say whence the glossator obtained his information. Someone has
is little
is

and unclean birds in

60-65. There

other than what

acutely observed that glosses like this express and partially In satisfy a natural craving for an illustrated history-book.
the absence of pictures, the annotator jots down picturesque details, which fill in the mental picture suggested by the words.

That the first emission of the dove took place seven days after that of the raven is a glossator's discovery, with no
biblical authority.

of the Flood according to the interand the following paragraph is not polation forming to easy to follow, and the attentions of glossators have added But the following is clear (paying due the confusion.
66.

The chronology
this

attention to the corrections, p. 127)

year

NOTES ON SECTION
human human
physical
spiritual
life, life.

I.

245
of

the pious

Enoch was the founder

78. The gloss i ona huilib fnaib is a good illustration of the haste of a reader, too impatient to read to the end of the sentence, where he would have discovered that' the birds had

not been forgotten.

Comestor says (on earlier authority) that the rainbow appear forty years before the Last Judgement Et tradunt sancti quod quadraginta, annis ante Indicium non v.idebitur arcus, quod etiam naturaliter ostendet desiccationein This paragraph is aeris iam incoeptam (Hist. Schol. xxxv). greatly influenced by the corresponding passage in Sex Aetates Mundi, from which also the long passage on the The absence from Sex history of the rainbow comes.
80.

shall cease to

Aetates of the anticipation that the


the

bow

will not

appear before

Judgement indicates that


text.

this is a later intrusive gloss

on the LG-

81. Here again the translation has been contaminated by The glosses also come an extract from Sex Aetates Mundi. from that work, so that the obvious interruption of the former 3 by the latter is old. Jl interpolates the mutual slaying of Dardan and Ioph," which does not refer to "the children of
36 but to the the Trojan war, as might appear at first sight, destruction of the Midianites (Judges vii. 19 ff.) Dadan and Ephai appear in the Latin version of the account of the family from which this people is said to have descended (Gen. xxv.
:

3, 4).

are not, however, to suppose a simple cross-copying The curse on Ham, and the to the other. the destruction of his descendants, were written in first further note, here printed in smaller type, attributing the

We

from one book

existence of monsters to the curse on Ham, must have been added as an interlined and marginal afterthought. This is shown by its dispartition (compare the fate of the note on

the composition of pitch,

ff

57.)

36

Notwithstanding

connexion,

among

occurrence the the descendants of

of
in

these

Ham

names, in Trojan Sex Aetates Mundi.

246

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

The word gid (in tucad gid dilgend) does not appear in the corresponding- place in Sex Aetates Mundi (see Bawl. B, I take it that the words in \/H 502, facs. p. 71 b, line 49).
were tucad aigid-dilgend "a death-destruction was brought" (on the persons of the Canaanites, and confiscation on their The missing letters were in a cor fd chasdn at the land). end of the preceding line, and were overlooked by sH.
I

2
4
ItfiU cd(tAX]mdlldcz.cm j?n -aj
MApCACACtle-h'Dlb
.

5
6

\iobedofiUM Carifa Z!l ?i nriAWj^pefmdiifdlcwiD]lienT3ctbAi^m^]o\pcoiipt..n, b


O&b
her

pn

bufiXO nTOph<ffl

sliows what must have lain The which he was copying. (VH) ms. (^H) had nothing but the matter of the first preceding and last of these lines in sequence (omitting, of course, the letters after lafeth in line 1). Later, someone wrote into the margin of "^H the note about the consequences which the curse upon Ham had brought upon his Canaanite descendants. After this, was copied from -fH.; and the copyist took

The accompanying diagram

before

sH

in the ms.

VH

this note into the text, the writing being disposed as in the

another scribbler, writing partly between the lines and partly in the margin, enriched \/H with the further details about the monsters descended from Ham an item of special interest, apparently, as another glossator

diagram.

Still later,

again in \/H, at fl 53. our ms. was copied, history repeated itself. The new paragraph was incorporated in the text at what was obviously the most convenient place, the period preceding The scribe pursued it as far as da nib, in Iarsin in line 2. the margin at the end of line 5 but he failed to observe its conclusion, tucked into the blank space at the end of the He then returned to Iarsin but the intershort line 6. lineation which he had already copied, and at which he did not look again, screened from his vision the cor fd chasdn, which must have concluded the first line and contained the beginning of the obviously imperfect word "gid." There
inserted
it

When

NOTES ON SECTION
originally

I.

247

must have been no more than a short sentence before Iarsin a longer sentence would have filled up the preceding line to the end, kuving no space for the indispensThis is an additional argument for the able cor fa chasan. secondary nature of the "monsters" gloss. It is most fortunate that sH possessed in abundant measure the most valuable of all endowments for a scribe He copied by rote what lay before him its ww-intelligence. meaning, if it had any, was not his concern that was the
:

Owing to this admirable quality, he failed to identify, in the words at the end of line 6 when at last he reached them, the end of the "monsters" note which
affair of his betters.

he had copied only a few moments before although he had already copied out its whole text some time previously, when He therefore transcribed them just as they writing ff 53. and made no attempt to insert them in their proper stood, It never occurred to him that "gid dilgend" was place. incomprehensible nonsense. Had he realised these things, he would infallibly have made disastrous efforts after emendation, and would thus have destroyed all the clues R 3 while copying these details, omits a censure upon the Gaedil for ascribing the monsters to the Cainites, this being
! ,

a violation of the scriptural

truth that

all

life

perished in

the Flood.

Augustine (Civ. Dei XVI. 8) discusses at length whether the monstrous races of men (in which there was in he gives a list of these his time at least a half -belief deformities of folklore) were descendants of Noah, and answers
:

in the affirmative.

He

does not, however, call in the curse

of

Ham

to account for them.

The heterogeneous 82. The genealogical chap, x is lost. paragraphs which follow the Biblical translation represent various attempts to fill its place.
very diffuse, and from the biblical departs widely, text. The lacunae near the beginning are due to a tear which mutilates the inner margin of the leaf. "Hebrew," says Augustine (Civ. Dei XVI, 2), "was the common language of the race of men till the time of Heber Till then it did father of Pefeg, when the earth was divided.
83.

The story of the Tower of Babel

is

in its language at least,

248

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

not require a distinctive name, but after that it was called " Nowhere can the Hebrew, after Heber. origin of the name

given to this primitive language by Irish and grammarians, be discerned we might guess that it is a corruption of some sort of rendering of the Vox Domini of the Psalter, the language being assumed to be the speech of Heaven.
Gorthigern,
historians
:

[It may be desirable to explain here, in condonation of the use of the symbol A for the Latin manuscript which lies at the basis of the biblical text which we have been studying,

has been chosen simply because it is one of the very symbols not already pre-empted by the elaborate apparatus criticus of the Vatican edition. There is not the slightest fear of its ever being confused with the St. Gall ms.]
that
it

few

86.

The

biblical

extract

is

followed by a miscellaneous

collection of snippets, with the basal text *Q acting as framework. For an analysis of this part of the compilation see the

introduction to the present section. In these paragraphs, the parts belonging to *Q are printed in ordinary type, the stratification of interpolations being roughly indicated by two

This paragraph is in varieties of smaller type. only, but The the lacuna of ends at the beginning of the poem.

particulars as to the place of death of the patriarchs are doubtless taken primarily from poem no. V, quatrain 42 but from what source it reached that authority I have not discovered, and until it is found attempts at explaining
:

Eafan and Eadruip would be mere guesswork. Formeinia, of course, Armenia, and the mountain intended is no

doubt Ararat. 87. In and M, apparently from R 2 or from some text depending thereon. The comment regarding the age of Adam seems to come from this passage of Comestor, quoting PseudoMethodius Et anno creationis uitae Adam decimo quinto Et si enim factus natiis est ei Cain et soror eius Chalmana. est Adam quasi in aetate triginta annorum tamen fuit unius

H
:

diei et
88.

anni (Hist. Schol. xxv).

1 The This comes from *Q. See the notes on ff 7. the same substance as the appended gloss, though containing
,

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

249

corresponding gloss in fl 7, is differently worded and must have been introduced independently.

and the appended quatrain continue but before it a passage from Sex Aetates *Q Mundi has been interpolated. This includes the first verse of a poem (gfiven in full in Sex Aetates) and the tabular statement of the ages of the Patriarchs. These figures agree with Sex Aetates against all versions of the biblical text (except the Irish translation printed above) in the case of Seth
89.

The

last sentence
:

the matter from

against all versions including the Irish translation in the and with all versions against the Irish ease of Mahalaleel translation in the cases of Methuselah and Lamech.
:

90.

In

Two

But see below ff 92. only, of unidentified origin. successive readers have appended speculations on how
came
to be.

the Goidelic language

It is mutilated by a tear from the 91. Also in only. inner margin of the leaf, and would be unintelligible if it were not borrowed from Sex Aetates Mundi, with the aid of which text it can be partly restored though with some slight verbal differences from the copies in Rawl. B. 502 and in B. The words acht a leigiud a fo-tasgor na cinel appear in

differs only in some form acht a lecud hi orthographical trifles, The following passage from fothechdas na genel n-aile. Isidore (IX ii. 39) appears to be the basis of the paragraph Nam quod ex filio Cham qui vocatur Mesraim Aegyptii sunt exorti, nulla hie resonat origo uooabidi, sicut nee Aethiopum, qui dicuntur ad eum filium Cham pertinere, qui Chus Et si omnia consider entur plura tamen appellatus est.

Rawl.

(41

20)

from

which
the

in

gentium mutate quam manentia uocabula apparent, quibus


postea nomina diuersa dedit ratio.
Dei,

See also Augustine, Civ.

XVI,

6.

92.
it is

interpolation. correction about the

as well as H, but The beginning of this fl is in a continuation of the matter in H 90; H 91 being a later The text of *Q then resumes note how the
:

BM

taken over.

The passage

Shem has been number is much farced with interpolations.


of the sons of
.

The formula

cia ainmigter

ni tabar a n-airem comes

from

250

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

Sex Aetates Mundi, as also does H's note, which has ousted lemma, to the effect that the unnamed sons had no but of The descendants, importance. summary enumeration of the sons of Shem and of Japhet in R1 has been expanded by reference, not to the Biblical source, but to Isidore (IX ii 26 ff.). He enumerates the sons of Japhet
its

thus Gomer (ancestor of Galatae i.e., Galli), Magog (supposed ancestor of Scythians and Goths), Madai (supposed ancestor of Medes), Ieiuan (ancestor of Ionians, who are the Greeks, and eponym of the Ionian Sea), Thubal (ancestor of Iberi who are the Hispani, by some supposed ancestor of the Italians), Mosoch (ex quo Cappadoces, unde et urbs apud eos usque hodie Mazaca dicitur), Thiras (ancestor of Thracians).
:

misunderstanding the city of Mazaca (Caesarea in Cappadocia) has become an unauthorized additional son, Maisechda, whose descendants a later interpolator naturally 95 L. The variant in (i ni sought in vain see below lobar .... tabairt forro) is an adaptation of a similar passage

By some

fl"

in Civ. Dei,
93.

XVI,

3.

2 It is borrowed from R This paragraph in only. order of the sons of Noah It is not clear why the (ft 15). has been reversed.

mss.

This paragraph, more or less mutilated, is in all the comes from R 1 but there are some traces of the The version before us gives some good influence of R 2 It is more probable that Fir net Scitluet should readings. decline into Farsacca, and that this, owing to the constant
94.

It

association of

should develop a prefixed Media, than that Farsacca (protected by the associated Media from misunderstanding) should evolve into Fir na Scithia, The phrase Is Had lucid net Heorpa uile is now exposed as a and marginal gloss, taken into the text in different places: "Greens mac Iafeth" is likewise shown to be an intruder
Persians,
into the text of

"Medes and

'

'

1
.

is it
it

95. For convenience of reference this very long paragraph broken into sections, denoted by capital letters. Most of comes from Sex Aetates Mundi (here referred to as SAM) is found in only.
:

NOTES ON SECTION
A.

I.

251

gloss no Eonae and the secondary gloss .i. an But the additional son of Japhet seindser, are not in SAM.

The

appears, there

named Masseca.

B. The interpolated explanation of the name Gallograeci

based on Isidore, Etym., IX, ii, 68. {Galatae Galli esse in auxilium a rege Bithyniae euocati regnum noscuntur, qui cum eo parta victoria diuiserunt: sicque deinde Graecis admixti primum Gallograeci, nunc ex antiquo Gallorum nomine Galatae nuncupantur.)
is

C.

Also based on Isidore, Etym.,


a
Thessalo,

Thessali

postea

IX, ii, 69 (Graeci ante Graeco rege Graeci sunt

nuncupati).

D. This section only repeats well-worn etymological speculations with neither value nor authority behind them. The harmonistic identification of Rifath with Ibath is perhaps

worth a passing acknowledgement.


E.

Taken direct from the


gloss.

list

of Japhet 's descendants in

Isidore Etym., IX ii, 26 ff. (Filii Gomer nepotes Iaphet, AscJianaz a quo Sarmatae quos Graeci Rheginos uocant, Riphatli a quo Paphlagones, Gotorna a quo sunt Phryges).

"l Ilia" must be a

F. Madai, a quo Medos existere putant

Isidore, loc.

cit.

We

shall hear of the eight

Medians who ruled the world,


later synchronistic insertions.

in

due course, in some of the

combination of Isidore and SAM. According to G. Filii lavan Elisa, a quibus Graeci Elisaei, qui the former TJnde et lingica quinta, Graece AloXic, uocantur Aeolides.
:

appellatur; and again, Iauan, a quo Tones, qui et Grae'ci-; we read Iaban a quo Ioni unde et Mare Ionium. In

SAM

sunt,

Ocus is a quibus 7iominantur Iolici. uaidib ainmnigthir in cuiced berla na Greci i. Berla Eolla. There is no reference to Alexander the Great in either
-\

a quibus rogenatar Eolldai


et

nominatur Ionicum Mare,

-\

is

uadib

source.

H. Isidore, loc. cit. Tharsis a quo Cilices, ut Ioseph us arbitraturUnde et metropolis ciuitas eorum Tharsus dicitur a qiw Citii id est Cyprii, a quibus liodieque urbsCetlmn, I cannot find Citium nominatur. Dodanim, a quo RJiodii.
:

252

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

any
.sunt

unless

justification for the quoting of Civ. Dei as an authority, it be this sentence from XVI, iii, ad init. Coeptae
:

cnim commemorari a mmimo fUo qui meatus est lapheth. A poor latinist, with an ill-written MS., might mix up "Coeptae" with "Seithim," and "lapheth" with "Ioif," and An absurd reading, but produce the reading presupposed. most of us have heard or perpetrated equal probably
absurdities in our
I.

own

schooldays.

from some other source. The islands are enumerated from memory, and the names appear admittedly to be distorted Edict, Sicil and Creid are the only ones whose Corbdith and Ceitliiria are presumably identification is clear. Rodain I the Cycladic islands Car pathos and Cytherea.
:

This comes

conjecture (with fitting hesitation) to be the Balearic Islands,

which were colonized by Khodians, and are roughly speaking


opposite the

mouth

of the

Rhone {Rhodanus).

Iberi qui et Hispani: Hat quidam ex The Irish compiler is less cautious eo et Italos suspicentur. The remainder of this section apparently Isidore. than

K.Thubal, a quo

comes from Augustine (Civ. Dei, VII,


L.

4).

ex quo Cappadoces, wide et urbs apud eos lwdic Mazaca dicitur; Thiras, ex quo Th races, Isidore, usque The Irish writer does not trouble himself with the loc. cit.

Mosoch,

Cappadocian city of Mazaca, which, as we have already seen, has become "Maissegda" son of Japhet, SAM, while briefly enumerating the descendants of the sons of Japhet, though like mentioning this fiction in the preliminary text, does not,
the

author of the interpolation before us, confess that It gives us the information about his progeny is missing. information that Thiras had seven sons: and extra-biblical E then enumerates the children of Corner, as they appear in
does not. like the text before us, duplicate the personality of Rifath.
above.

But

it

Magog, a quo arhitrantur Scythas ct Gothos traxisse The identification of the Goths Isidore, loc. cit. and the Gaedil follows from the historical sojourn of the in the land former, and the legendary sojourn of the latter, The matter of which we shall hear later. of the Scythians,

M.

origin cm

NOTES ON SECTION
remarks

I.

253

of this section, in shorter: form, appears in


:

SAM

Isidore

further Gothi a Magog filio Iaphet nominati de similitudine ultimae syllabae, quos ueteres magis putantur "Getas" quam "Gothos" uocauerunt (IX, ii, 89).

N.

This repeats matter which has already appeared in R

The (U 9) and will be found again in ff 98, taken from *Q. text here is different, and more closely in accordance with that in SAM. The paternity of Baath is differently given, and
the genealogical steps between him and Elenus or Alanus are omitted. Longbardus has been duplicated, and his double

has been

made

into a fourth son of Negua.

SAM

differs
:

as to the geographical connexion of Albaniis there read .i. ota ind Albcrin airtherach isind Assia Moir.

from

we

0.

Borrowed

descent of the Franks and the

from SAM, with an interpolation on the Romans from Alanus.

P. The rest is the Only the beginning from SAM. orthodox LCr tradition, though the family of Barachan is new.

SAM but with some expansion. "Sliab can be identified with Amanus by the help of Comestor (Filii Iaphet tenuerunt septentrionalem regionem a Tauro et Amano montibus Ciliciae et Syriae usque ad fluuium Tanaim Hist. Schol. xxxvii). Isidore testifies to the same distribution Haec sunt gentes de stirpe Iaphet, quae a Tauro monte ad aquilonem mediam partem Asiae et oninem Europam The sentence usque ad Oceanum Brittanicum possident. In SAM it reads relating to Spain appears to be corrupt. conice in 1 in Espain n-uilidi co huilinn talmain (Rawl) or uilide fodeis .i. treuilleach, which is nearer our Easpain
Q.
' '

Mostly from

Mai

-\

Tre-uilleach is written rinlle^c, which present text. for the mysterious word uuillflichc suggests a possible origin but tre-uillig also appears in the text before us, and if this excludes the explanation suggested, I can only conjecture that it is a corruption of Astures.
96.

Ionitus, the fourth son of Noah, has Centesimo obviously reached our text through Comestor. tertiae chiliadis natus est Noe fHiuS in similitudinemanno

In

only.

254
eius, et dixit

NOTES ON SECTION
eum Ionithum.

I.

Trecentesimo anno dedit Noe suo Ionitho, et dimisit eum in terram Ethan, et intrauit earn Ionithus usque ad inwe orientis, quod dicitur " solis Hie accepit a Domino Elioschora, id est, regio."
donationes
filio

donum
xxxvii).

sapientiae,

et

invenit

Astronomiam

(Hist.

Schol.

Comestor here follows Pseudo-Methodius, 37 whose "Revelations" popularized this personage in Europe. alleged He passed into the traditions of the founding of Rome, the See CI. A. greatness of which he was said, to have foretold. Graz, Roma nella memoria e nelle immaginazioni del medio
eve, Torino, 1882,
I, p.

86. 38

The legend

is

of oriental origin.

According to the Cave of Treasures Nimrod learned wisdom from Yon ton son of Noah, but the devil afterwards perverted the teaching, which accounts for the mixture of good and evil in astrology, magic, etc. The Book of the Bee gives Y6nat6n as the name of the post-diluval son, whom Noah loaded with 39 of the sun" in the east. gifts and sent forth "to the fire A history of the beginnings of the arts, 97. In only. of the inventions clearly an imitation almost a parody attributed in Genesis to the sons of the Cainite Lamech. Eve's

penitence in the Tigris

is

the central incident in the Book of

Adam and Eve and


sister of

related apocryphal documents.

The twin

usually (following Pseudo-Methodius) called Calmana. Is uimpi doronad an t-ed refers to the story that the real cause of Abel's murder was the desire of both brethren to marry this sister a dispute in which Adam took the part
is
:

Cain

of Abel, as he considered that Cain's twin consanguinity was The brother 'Pendan' too close for an admissible marriage.

appears in the later redaction of Tenga Bith-nua (Revue Celtique, xxviii, p. 300) as a second victim of Cam's jealousy. Two long interpolations have divorced Oliuana from her

husband Japhet. The erection of the


Josephus, who
is

pillars

is

attributed

to

Seth by

apparently the source of this frequently-

37 See C. D 'Evelyn, The Revelations of Methodius (Mod. Language Assoc, of America, xxxiii (1918), p. 135.) 38 1 have had no opportunity of verifying this reference. 39 "Fire" should be "land." The corresponding Syriac words in their native script have some superficial resemblance, which might mis-

lead a careless or astigmatic copyist.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

255

repeated story (Antiqq. I, ii, 3). The Irish writer has missed the point of the difference in the materials of the pillars. According to Josephus, there were two pillars, one of brick and one of stone. If the anticipated destruction came by water, the stone pillar would survive, if by fire the pillar of
brick.
98.

On

this

paragraph see notes

to

f[

9.

99. This is from *Q. It is instructive to compare the two genealogies of Partholon wdth the corresponding text in F, 1 text which has preserved this passage. fl 10, the only other

*Q (i)

*Q

(2)

Parthalon

256

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

relationships of these communities will be found. there derived from the Fir Bolg, not, as here,

They are from the


s.
:

Nemedians. One or other of the two references to Tindi Conri in the paragraph before us, must be intrusive it

is

not certain which, as the Genealogical Tracts assign him to the Fir Taiden. These, with the Domnannaig and the Fir
Sliab Craibe, constituted the "three original Connachta." (F)uirri is in Galway, near the Roscommon boundary, and close to Ballygar.
101. This paragraph, as is explained in the introduction, begins a translation of the early Latin text. It was headed

Miniugud Gabal nErenn

"An explanation (i.e. translation) The following words were of the 'Takings of Ireland'." doubtless added when the text (originally independent) was tacked on to 2 to supplement the deficiencies of that version.

mbcolo aissyieisen ''an end (or tail) in a mouth of relation" rendered by Thurneysen (Zu ir. ffandschr. u. Lit. ii, 5) as "recapitulation" perhaps might rather be supposed to refer to the end of a chain of oral transmission, and be translated "tradition." 6 thosuch in libair aniias an editorial note, inserted to 2 link the text to R to which it is now appended.

Ethre

insola" Latine dicitur, is probably the preface of the original text. Then follows an interpolation derived from Isidore (XIV, it is not reprovi, 6) as Thurneysen has already observed the true readings of duced quite correctly in our mss. There are Isidore are given here in footnotes to the text,

Hybernia

insola, etc.,

down

to

il

explaining the corrupt Hiberniam (for other contradicting the oft-quoted disseminated by Solinus, as to the absence of bees. statement, adnotentur is an additional Scoti autem a Scota suggested by the reference to the Seotnrum interpolation,

two

glosses,

one

Hiberiam)

and

the

gentes in the excerpt from Isidore. The sentence beginning Plioeni autem is a further interTheir about the Scots. polation, interrupting the remarks is identification with the tatooed Picts in this passage

contrary to
follows

all

With Heriu dono


on

the orthodoxy of the the original


to

LG

tradition.

passage

resumes:

this

naturallv

the

etymological

speculations

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

257

interrupted by the intruded excerpt from Isidore. Here again an unusual idea is suggested. The comment s. q. 1. is a frequent formula, of complaint regarding a passage which a reader found it hard to understand. It is equivalent to the difficilis est haec pagina of the Saint-Gall Priscian. Quasi scissi is another etymological interpolation, a guess by some wiseacre at the origin of the word Scoti.

Verse Texts.

Metre

the

two quatrains forming

this

composition are

probably, in origin, independent compositions, as is suggested The second is in. cmbairdne by their diversity of metre.
(7
3

first

7 3 ) with trisyllabic rhymes between lines 2 and 4; the is in sndm sebaic, a variety in which the third line ends

with a monosyllable. The text has been greatly corrupted by scribes, who tinkered with it unrestrainedly in the vain hope of extracting more sense out of it than the author or authors ever put into
it
:

as the verses are

the

meaning

first two lines of each stanza, and an alliteration in every line, which the attentions of the scribes have to some extent suppressed. This is the chief help toward

the assonance between the


restore

mere displays of metrical gymnastics, of minor importance in an endeavour to In addition to the rhymes, there is text.
is

restoring the text.

The ms. P has been re-inked

unintelligently.

1. Sluag has evidently been changed to the plural after the incorporation of the second quatrain, bringing another Both alliteration and meaning help us to host into view. choose cua-chel "a winter (or rainy) death" as the true
' '

' '

reading, although it happens to be found only in the three Conad has arisen from a inferior derivatives from B. of a mark of prolongation as an abbreviation misreading
for

n the same mistake is probably at the base of F's ecnad. In sndm sebaic there is no necessity for vowel-assonance between lines 1 and 3, and therefore we can read eel, "death, fate" instead of the less tractable eel "an omen."
:

L.G.

VOL.

I.

258
2.

NOTES ON SECTION
The

I.

insertion of oc in (not in B) is an attempt to the metre, after Noe had come to be pronounced as a The alliteration decides for niath-Un monosyllable, Nai.

MH

mend

against rival readings.


3.

The evidence

for

the

infixed

pronoun

(ronglead)
it,

is
it

hardly strong- enough to justify us in adopting may be right.


4.

though

Iatafen in

is

an attempt

to

mend

the metre, the

name

having sunk into a


8.

dissyllable.

The rhyme with dibada teaches us the pronunciation

Olluana.
II.

Metre
in

debide irnrind. Apparently a. variant of


:

any complete text

of the

another poem on similar has only two quatrains (23, 49) in debide imrind.
III.

poem V quatrain 40, not found poem or more probably from lines, as V is in debide scdilte, and

debide scdilte. A variant of poem V quatrain 41, likewise not found in any complete text of the poem. In Min these two quatrains run continuously, as though forming one extract this may be original, the matter which separates them in the other Nae is here still a dissyllable, Kedactions being editorial. The variant do dec in but Iafeth is no longer trisyllabic.
: :

Metre

the last line has obviously arisen from a misreading of the

numeral sign

.u.

IV.

Metre: cro cummaisc etir casbairdne letkrcnnmgecht. There should be alliterations in the first two lines at least, but in a poem so full of proper names this is impossible to maintain consistently. The language is Middle Irish.
-\

20. This cheville

may

also be translated

something

like

"well seen was his authority," but makes little difference to the sense.

the rendering chosen

NOTES ON SECTION
22.

I.

259

den used

absolutely, as a

rhyme

to soer.

32. Meic, inserted before

desirable,

is

Ebaith by numerous MSS., though and must be rejected. hypermetric

33. Iardain

reasons, thougjh the last


36.

must be read instead of larboneil, for metrical is the more orthodox form.
reasons.

Esru and meic must be omitted, for metrical Compare line 32.
39.

De Danann

This refers to the magical apparition of the Tiiatha the is Mag Tuired. plain
' '
' ' :

V.

Metre

debide

scdilte.

The

versifier

began by making

(conacJilann) between the end of every quatrain and the beginning of the next, but after the seventh no re-arrangement of the quatrain abandoned the effort
alliterative linkages
:

quatrains can establish the device after this point, and we must assume that the few cases to be found in the latter part of the poem are accidental. There are two versions of this long composition, contained I have collated several of these in in not a few modern mss. the Royal Irish Academy 40 without finding anything of importance no version contains the isolated variants which
:

40

23

23 A 40, 18 audi

III

Cvl

2,

23

18,

peculiar

readings

belong- to the and) arrangements

vi 1,

24 P 13. Of these 23 A 40 group and show nearly all of its of the quatrains. Except for

scribal mistakes (as abartar for abar, line 98 (23 40)) or the peculiar 18, they show no particular individuspelling Caidin for Cain in 23 40 an attribution of the later hand has inserted into 23 ality.

poem

18 is content to say Ollamh eigin cct. Eochaid ua Floind 23 III 2 and) 24 P 13 are closer to the printed version. F III 2, which
to
:

poem to Colum Cllle, closely follows EP in its readings. The following variants may be worth noting: line 58 (this spurious line 68 Agania (for quatrain is present, as in EP) dib gain, Chaim:
attributes the

50 are omitted. The city in line 251 is called Imbitena, as in D in 263 we find Etrosius one of many proofs afforded by Irish mss. that

Gogoma): line 89, tri troth go leith, nl luad saobh: line 129, ro fasadh Stanzas 28-30, 34, 37, 39, 45, 46, Mii. ccnoic: line 142, Tubadh Caoin.

it was pronounced as although c was always pronounced hard in Irish, before i and e in Latin. 24 P 13 has also close affinity with EP, but has nothing of importance to tell us.

260

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

in nos. II, III above. In the mss. before us, be taken as the type of the one text, R 2 of the other. H, on the Avhole, follows R 2 but U (the Book of Vi Maine), which has a fine copy in a different context, follows the version. Referring back to the diagram, p. 14 ante, I am now inclined to think that the two folios, 2 and 7, disappeared together, and had both gone when coM transcribed the text. He recognised the torso of the poem, and found another copy from which to supply the missing quatrains (1-30). and

we have seen

may

2 appear to agree against R more frequently in the second half of the poem than in the first.

42. Mac maith Muire ingine (an unconscious lapse into the heresy of Sabellianism !) is peculiar to among the manuscripts here used. Though not in U, it is a reading of version of the text. the

43.

None

of the mss. indicate the nasalization after dr.

46. Maiss, the chaotic material

out of which the universe

was fashioned.
52. The "clouds" (neoil) are introduced to make an The poet takes advantage of the assonance with coin. freedom in debide rhyme to unite the long vowel in gle with Some peculiar minor verbal the short vowel in Darddine.

differentiations appear in the


54.

text in this quatrain.

The

assertive
in

interjection

Bebrad

is

here

left

view of the uncertainty attaching to its untranslated, As everyone knows, an over-indulgence in this etymology. expletive was one of St. Patrick's few human weaknesses.
57. This stanza breaks the conachlann, which has not yet been abandoned; and as it appears in two mss. only it is probably spurious, even although it is a necessary supplement to the preceding stanzas, which describe the works of creation. It is here printed as in E, with the addition of punctuation

and

prolongation

marks

only.

Dcg-dail,

the

listening to the narrative. (the a elided before the

Anmann must
following

be for
this,

company anmunna
and the

vowel);

article accusative deilb, are governed by aisneidfcd. a noun depending on a proper-name genitive in the last with
line.

Note the

NOTES ON SECTION
61
ff.

I.

261

differing

The poet is here dealing with a body of apocrypha from that followed in the prose text, as may be
table
:

shown bv the following

Prose (U 2a, 25)

Verse

Head from
Breast
Belly
,,

Garad
Arabia Lodain
Aojoiria

Malon Aron Babylon

'disregarding the variant

Legs

Laban, Gogoma forms in the different mss.

This, however, does not bring us nearer to discovering the Verses which appear origin of the Irish version of the story. to be a. rather remote variant of these quatrains, found in

Codex Palatino-Vrtticamis (Todd Lectures, III, p. 24) revert Arabion [or Aradon, or Adilon], The poet has also his Laban, and Dagaria [or Gagaria]).
to the prose version (Garad,

own views
if

as to the course of the rivers of Paradise.

Tairis

the reading of all the mss., but we should doubtless emend this to tairse the rivers ran through the (fern.) land, not the
:

In this stanza (masc.) head. in the text.

we note an important

deviation

text,

Trdtli(a) means "days," as is more usual in this not (canonical) hours, on account of the reference to Christ's three days in the tomb. The first couplet of this
69.

quatrain
syllable.

popular independent of the three-days' sojourn of Christ in the tomb, with which it is here typologically connected. In fact, the stories vary as to the length of time which elapsed before the body of Adam was quickened. A Muslim legend shows some "Allah formed Adam affinity with the ideas here expressed. out of a handful of dust had been collected which
: . . . . . .

metrically faulty, as both lines end in a disAdam was for some time without life is a belief in apocryphal literature but it is quite
is

That

different parts of the world, and consisted of various kinds of soil, which accounts for the divers colours of men

from

and women.

When

Allah had formed Adam,

figure lying lifeless forty days

some

He

left the

say forty years

while

262
notice

NOTES ON SECTION
was sent
to

I.

ready

to the Angels, the Jinn, and the Jan, to be worship and do him honour as soon as Allah had put

breath into his nostrils. 41


Trior presumably means the three Persons of the who are represented as collaborating in the creation of Adam another variant from the conception in the prose text. To make any sense of the cheville at the end of line 75
73.

Trinity,

we should have to read bet did ndeoin but no ms. supports this.

"by Their good will"

77. An abridged translation of quatrains 10-13, 15 will be found in Archdeacon Seymour's paper. The Book of Adam and Eve in Ireland, 42 which should be in constant reference in studying the apocryphal Adam matter in this compilation. Pairtech, the "great mountain" of Paradise, is new: it appears again in the form Pariath in the Lebor Brecc history

of praise

Adam's hymn of the creation (Todd Lectures, III, p. 48). In Pirqe Rabbi is a commonplace of apocrypha.
we read "And as [Adam] saw the creatures which God had made he began to praise God his Creator, and said: Lord, how great and many are Thy works!"
Eliezer, chap. II,

81-2.

Another metrically faulty couplet, both

lines

ending

in a monosyllable.

According to the Syriac Cave of Treasures "God took from the loins on the right side of Adam and He made Eve and when Adam woke up and saw Eve he rejoiced in her greatly. And Adam and Eve were in Paradise, clothed with glory and shining with praise, for three hours." (Tr.
83.

a rib
:

Budge, pp. 59-60).


87-8. This apparently refers to the naming of the birds can find no other story connecting Adam with birds. Syncellus. Chronography, gives the dates of the incidents of
:

at least I

Adam's life thus: 1st day of week [3rd day of Creation of Adam, 8th of Nisan, 1st of April. 6th of Phamouthi] Adam named wild boasts 2nd day. named cattle 3rd day. named fowls 4th day, named creeping things, etc., etc.
:

41 42

J. E. Hanauer, Folklore of the Holy Land (London, 1907), p. Proceedings, R.I.A., xxxvi, section C, p. 121.

9.

NOTES ON SECTION
91. All

I.

263

incidentally nonsense.
(gen. plur.)

the mss. read do nim, which is unmetrical, and It seems best to emend it to do-gnim

"of

evil

deeds," the complementary formation to

so-gnlm,
96.
i""niT

"a good deed."


the

These words spell the letters of the Tetra gramma ton

Hebrew

divine

name

Ydhweh,

inaccurately

rendered "Jehovah" in European popular speech. The notion that the Devil was the first to invoke the name of God
reappears in Salomon and

Satumus
name
of

(ed. cit. antea, p. 191)

"Who
name

first
' '

named

the

God? the

devil first named) the

of God.

We

Ritheus

find the statement repeated in the Colloquy of Adrian and (ibid., p. 204), and also by the Master of Oxford

"Who

cleped

first

God? The

"

devyll.

The basal idea doubtless is that the devil acquired power over the Deity by knowing and using His secret name. 43 The poet 's knowledge of Hebrew was limited to the letters of the alphabet and their names, possibly learnt from the section-headings in Ps. exix (Vulgate cxviii) and to the external appearance
;

did not even know that Hebrew written and read from right to left, so that when he spelt out the letters of the divine name he enumerated them in the reverse order the left-to-right order in which he was accustomed to read or write Latin or Irish.
of the Tetragrammaton.
is

He

97. An aetiological myth to account for the superiority of the right hand to the left. In an account of the Creation 2 5, most of which and subsequent events in T.C.D. ms.

follows

LG

closely,

I find this

Ro hiomuil imorro Adamh


-\

les ta lamh chle an t-ubhall q ro bad tarnocht da eis, seochus lamh dheas ann, mar as I an lamh chle sineadh chum an ubhaill. "A. ate the apple and became naked thereafter [compare Cod. Pal. Vat., p. 54] and therewith the left hand comes after the right hand, for it is the left hand that was I have not come across the idea stretched to the apple."

elsewhere in apocrypha, though doubtless


43

it

exists.

For analogies

see Frazer,

Taboo and the Peril of the

Soul, p. 387

ff.

264
101.

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

orthodox

The expulsion of the errant pair Damascus is the usual place of


:

to

Egypt

is

un-

their exile.

The

"one palm" suggests that the poet did not know the between dates and figs.
105.

difference

Throughout the poem the name Cain

is

treated as a
spelling
it

dissyllable.

sometimes

emphasises

this

by

Caidin.
109. The poet, writing presumably from memory, has forgotten that Cain's offering was "of the fruits of the earth." Once again we see a faulty couplet, with the end words having the same number of syllables. 124. Seth was the first man to grow a beard, for Adam was presumably created with his bea,rd, Abel died a beardless youth, and it was part of Cain's punishment to have no beard (as in the prose text fl 39). But no ancient authority known to me explains how Seth was a witness of the murder of Abel (which took place before he was born), why he "put Lis hand to the jawbone," or what he did with it.

That stones "grow" is still an article of popular have been shown, by a Co. Meath farmer, a stone with a mark upon it which, he believed, was produced by the pressure of another stone, while the marked stone was "growing." Salomon and Saturnus agrees with our poet that this growth had been stopped by the flow of Abel's blood. We there read
127.
:

belief

fell

"Tell me why stones are not fruitful?- Because Abel's blood upon a stone when Chain his brother slew him with the jawbone of an ass."
in

Also

The Master of Oxford's Catechism

Cayne slough
his

"Why bereth not stonys froyt brother Abell with the bone of an asse cheke.

as trees? For

"

139. The tale of how Lamech accidentally slew Cain is cue of the most familiar legends of Apocrypha. It is of Jewish origin, and as stated above, in the notes to f 39, was probably imported into Christian tradition from a lost "Book of Lamech." See Seymour, op. cit., p. 130, for references to which add the quotation from Eabbi Solomon Jarchi in

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

265

The Eisenmerger's Entdecktes Judenthum, vol. i, p. 470. used by Lamech was, however, an arrow not an apple, weapon
;

as in the text before us.


142.

On the other as against the ocus of other mss. hand it is a trisyllable in line 144, unless E is right in But emphasizes the emitting the following article. difference by a difference of spelling.
is,

syllable, in reading

The name Tubalchain must be scanned as a tetrato give a rhyme for brig we must therefore follow E
:

143.

The words

in car a are difficult to deal with.

See

Meyer, Contribb.
translation.
145. I

s.v.

cor for the

meaning suggested in the

know
of

of

no other version of the almost nauseatingly

subsequent adventures of Abel's ram, silly story narrated in this and the following quatrains.
the
148. It is common sense that this must refer to "the ram caught in the thicket," which provided a surrogate for Isaac and that the original version ran dar cend meic Aprdni (not Apram is Apraim, which is forbidden by the rhyme in declinable). Some meddler, however, older than the
:
:

existing ms. tradition, oblivious of the story of the sacrifice of Isaac, assumed vaguely that the event must have been something or other in the history of the Children of Israel
;

so

he changed the genitive singular to genitive plural.


:

153. This quatrain seems out of place it probably should The name of the tree is given as follow quatrain no. 15.

Sezen in the Ethiopic Book of Mysteries of Heaven and Earth. (See Budge, Cave of Treasures, p. 66); as Deachuimhan
Celt. ["tithing"] in the late version of Tenga Bithnua (Rev.
xxviii, 300).

155. We have heard of "the plain of Aron" before, as the region over which the rivers of Paradise flow. This looks like a confusion based on some old misreading of the Hebrew

source (the
xxvi. 36.

"7,

d,

in
is

"Eden"

being misread as

contrary mistake

made

in the

The r). Greek version of Numbers


"I

266
163. Deicli

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

to all the

mbliadan risin idle, i.e., ten years in addition 930 years of Adam's life. That Eve survived Adam is generally agreed in apocryphal literature, hut the actual length of her widowhood is very variously stated.

166. The poet has misread .d.cccc.xii. in his authority, On the other hand, he substituting .xu. for the last letters. has not docked Seth's life by three hundred years, as the The text has altered the verse prose texts have done.

text to

conform with the prose.

173. Jared's life

was 962 years

long.

Here again

.ii.

has

been misread as
177.

.u.

Most of the mss. agree on ochtmoga, but the variant


is historically correct.

seclitnwga
182.

Lamech's

life

was 777 (Hebrew) 753 (Septuagint).

figure in the text 775 and H's correction 757 are both unauthorized. An owner of has taken the trouble to look

The

the matter

up

see the footnote.

186. Adam's son Sile, and the three wives in line 188, reappear in Sex Aetates Mundi, but whence they reached that text I have failed to discover. Olla was Seth's wife,

Pip was Cain's, Pithip was Sile's. Evidently there is some confusion between Seth and Shem, just as Cain and Ham (Cham) are sometimes interchanged. Pip and Pithip must therefore have some kinship with Oliva and Olivana, but the nature of the kinship is not clear.
193. On the names of these prose texts H 7.

women

see the note

on the

205.

On

this quatrain

and
ff

its

mysterious geography, see

the notes on the prose text

where we find the interesting back-formation Formenia > Armenia on the basis of ar < for.
86,

212. D spells this word cubaat, and writes it thus (as nearly as can be represented in print) cub&ccc, the first two r 's being really a fantastic a. The same peculiarity was robably also in yD, and has influenced E's cubatat. E was certainly not copied from D, but might well have come from
1

NOTES ON SECTION
VDThis
is

I.

267

a good illustration of the way in which the of the mss. and their handwriting may sometimes give us some crumbs of information as to their It must be admitted that relationship see ante, p. xxvii. this peculiar way of writing a sequence of 's and t's, in any combination, is a trick of Muirges 6 Maoil Conaire, the scribe of D, and that it reappears in the Book of Fenagh, another
external

form
;

It is not, however, a regular habit it of his productions. looks more like an artificial affectation, in which he indulges
:

whenever he remembers
his

to

do

so,

and he may have made

it

own
215.

after learning

it

from

\/~D.

The
if

cheville cen bron

less

here

we

"sorrow.'''

is more than usually meaninggive to the word bron its ordinary meaning K. Meyer, Contribb. gives (with a query) an

alternative

much.

meaning "burden" which helps slightly, but not But we need not expect a poet in metrical difficulties
:

our present poet to be intelligible all the time this respect than many of his colleagues.

is

better in

218-219. In both these lines the o of ro is metrically Several of the scribes have failed to notice this, and have endeavoured to emend w hat they took to be the faulty measure of the rhythm.
elided.
T

221. I

know

of

no authority for the extravagant dimen-

sions here ascribed to the tower.

228.

The
in

list

of the heroes

of

with

Auraicept, except Dardan appears in Rifath) Scot are here omitted. Auraicept as "Bardanius." The names are selected, on some random principle which it is futile to try to determine, from

that

that

Nimrod's Tower agrees Peleg and Rabiath

(=

with such of the immediate descendants of Noah additions as Nabcodon, Latinus, and Longbardus. incongruous The first of these comes from an Ogham alphabet of names
a
list
;

see Calder's Auraicept, p. 20,

and

also below, line 257.

240.

The sense

of the couplet seems to be

be no respecter of persons mav all one in His sight

"though though the abbot and the king be

God

He

grant

me

the favour of a long

life."

268

NOTES ON SECTION

I.

251-2. These lines appear in the order as printed in all the mss., but as the tetrasyllable Ibitena should follow the tri-

The city of they should be transposed. apparently an echo of the name of the Median city of Ecbatana. As the table of va/riae lectiones shows, this name assumes a variety of forms. Keating gives another
syllable
il-berla

Ibitena

is

version, Eathena,

Snechta

quatrain which seems quotes that this poem was contained to suggest

and

this

as

from Cin Droma

in that important manuscript.

257 ff. This is the Ogham-alphabet list of the chief persons Nimrod's Tower, from -which one set of names for the For metrical reasons the Ogham letters was derived. order has been disturbed (see for the proper alphabetic arrangement Ca.lder's Auraicept, p. 20) and some of the names have been modified. Mored, Gad, Hidomus correspond Ordmor respectively to Muiriath, Grotli, and Iudonius. (possibly meant for Ord Mor, but the variae lectiones suggest that it is one word) corresponds to Ordines (Ordonus in M). Srti, the Stru of the Ogham list, has been lost from all the mss. except M; and additional names have been interpolated
of

(Nenual, Gaedel, Cainan, Ionan).

VI.

Metre
273.

debide

scailte.

On

see the note

the characters ascribed to the rivers in this poem, on the prose H 28.

274. The name Nuchal here given as the fountain-head of the four rivers, can hardly be dissociated from Nuehul, given as the name of an African river in the Geographical Poem of

Eos

Ailithir

(P.R.I. A.,

xvi,

p.

241).

Its

(probably

erroneous) identification with the Nile, and the identification of the latter with Gihon, may have led to the transference of the name to the well-spring of Paradise.
278.

We

must read

felicitias for the

sake of the metre.


it

it in

284. I suspect that tibes is wrong, but I take the mss.

as I find

NOTES ON SECTION
VII.

I.

269

Metre

debide

scdilte.

VIII.

rannaigecht becc. This quatrain, and the following poem, found in only, are printed exactly as they appear there, with the addition of punctuation marks only.
:

Metre

IX.

Metre

debide

scdilte.
;

296. In this poem Nae has become a monosyllable a fact emphasised by the spelling of the genitive Naee in line 304.

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to the Society, not to individual Officers.

Vols. I. II. III.

becoming

scarce.

and XIV. are now out of print and others are rapidly The ordinary sale price to non-members through
Marshall, Ltd., 4 Stationers'

Messrs. Simpkin,

Hall Court, London,

E.C.4.,

is

25/- per volume (post free).

The Council makes a strong appeal

to all interested in the preservation to join the Society

and publication of
bute to
its

Irish

Manuscripts

an d

to contri-

funds.

Please Note Address.

All communications should be addressed


Texts Society, c/o National

to the

Hon. Secretary,

Irish

Bank

Ltd., 15, Whitehall, London, S.W.I.

IRISH

TEXTS SOCIETY.

The Thirty-Fourth Annual

General Meeting of the Irish Texts Society was held on Saturday, nth February, 1933, in the Library of the Irish Literary Society. Dr. Robin Flower, chairman of the Executive Council, presided. The Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting, held on the 13th February, 1932, were taken as read. Mr. Maurice O'Connell, Assistant Secretary, read the

Thirty-Fourth Annual Report


The Council are glad to report that all the translations forming Part II of Duanaire Finn are through the final proofs. Arrangements are now being made for This volume will be followed by Part III, consisting of binding. the Preface, Notes to the Poems, Glossary, and Index of Persons and Places, etc. Both volumes are being edited by Mr. Gerard Murphy, M.A. Part I, edited by Professor Eoin MacNeill, D.Litt., was issued by the Society in 1907, and is now nearly out of print.
Duanaire Finn.

poems and

Instructio Pie Vivendi (Holy Life and Heavenly Thought). The part of this interesting theological work is now nearing completion. It will consist of the Latin original and Irish
first

The translation, with a short glossary of the rarer Irish words. Irish is a very good specimen of the early modern language. The work will be in two volumes, and volume, two is in active
preparation. The Great Blasket. The Council regret that owing to illness, the result of an accident while on a visit to the Aran Islands, Dr. Flower was obliged to suspend his work on this volume for some time. He has now resumed. The volume will consist of a collection of tales dealing with the life of the Great Blasket Island, Co. Kerry, in the nineteenth century. A number of poems by a poet of the locality will also be included, with stories illustrating their
subjects.
Note.year.

Part

II of

Duanaire Finn was distributed

in

September of

this

The number of back volumes disposed of during the year was 94. The Rev. P. S. Dinneen's edition of the Society's revised and enlarged Irish-English Dictionary is now nearly exhausted. The
Council have under consideration the question of a reprint. During the year an edition of the Society's smaller dictionary in Roman type was completed, and a new edition in Irish type has also been printed. Both editions are now obtainable at 3/-. The Council regret to report the deaths of the following Right Rev. Dr. Shahan, Vice-President of the Society Lady Gregory, Col. J. W. MacNamara, Dr. Goddard Orpen. Members who joined during the year were Dr. Gerard Coyne, Ballinasloe Miss Anna Irene Miller, Baltimore, U.S.A. Maire Ni Locain, Dublin Fergus Patterson, Putney, London Convent of Minnesota University Library, Minn., U.S.A. St. Louis, Monaghan
:

J. C. Sprott, Esq.,

moved and seconded. During the discussion which followed, Dr. Joyce referred to the
The adoption
of the

Glasgow, resigned. Annual Report was

slow rate of production of the Society's books. It was explained that the delay in every case was occasioned by illness or pressure of other business that obliged the editors to postpone their work on the Society's volumes. On a show of hands the Report was
adopted. The Financial Statement was explained by the Treasurer and adopted on the proposal of Mr. Buckley, seconded by Dr. Joyce. The re-election of the Officers and outgoing members of the Council, Mrs. Banks, Mr. Buckley and Dr. Flower, was proposed by Mr. O'Keeffe, seconded by Mr. FitzGerald, and carried. A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. R. W. Farrell, F.L.A.A., for auditing the accounts, and his appointment as auditor for the year 1933 was agreed upon.

IRISH TEXTS SOCIETY.

RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR,


Dr.

1932.

GENERAL RULES
Objects
1. The Society is instituted for the purpose of promoting the publication of Texts in the Irish Language, accompanied by such Introductions, English Translations, Glossaries and Notes as may be deemed desirable.

Constitution

The Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, an Executive 2. Council, a Consultative Committee and Ordinary and Life Members.
Officers
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Society shall be the President, two

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5.

All property of the Society


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Three members of the Executive Council shall retire each year by 6.rotation at the Annual General Meeting, but shall be eligible for re-election, the Members to retire being selected according to seniority of election, or, The Council shall have power to co-opt Members in case of equality, by lot. to fill up casual vacancies occurring throughout the year. Any Member of Council who is absent from five consecutive Ordinary Meetings of the Council to which he (or she) has been duly summoned, shall be considered as having vacated his (or her) place on the Council.

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'

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resign

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in writing to the of the year, of their intention to do otherwise they will be liable for their subscriptions for the ensuing

must give notice

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fund shall be opened for the remuneration of Editors for their work in preparing Texts for publication. All subscriptions and donations to this fund shall be purely voluntary, and shall not be applicable to other purposes of the Society.

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the notice summoning the General Meeting, the Executive Council shall give notice of any change proposed by them in these Rules. Ordinary Members proposing any change in the Rules must give notice thereof in writing to the Honorary Secretary seven clear days before the date of the Annual General Meeting.
18.

10

LIST

OF

IRISH

TEXTS SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS n


(Out of print)
(i.)

5 1oUA An puS 4 [The Lad of the Ferrule] Cacc^a Clomne R15 tia ft-1of\uAi-oe. [Adventures Children of the King of Norway]
-

of

the

Edited by

PROFESSOR DOUGLAS HYDE,

LL.D., D.Litt., M.R.I. A.

(Out of print)

(2.)

'pie-o t)f\icpen-o

[The Feast of Bricriu] (From Leabhar na h-Uidhre). Edited by GEORGE HENDERSON, M.A., Ph.D.

Out

of print)

See Volume 3a

New

Edition.

(3.)

"DAncA Ao-CA^Airi O'Rahilly]

Hi

ft.at.AiUe

[The

Poems
by
D.Litt.

of

Egan

Edited, chiefly from mss. in

The REV.

Maynooth

College,

P.

S.

DINNEEN,

(Volume
(3a)

for 1909)

(See

No.

3)

T)atica Ao-OAgAin tli UAtAiUe [New Edition of the Poems of Egan O'Rahillv] Revised by PROFESSOR TADHG O and The REV. P. S. DINNEEN, D.Litt.

DONNCHADHA

(Volume
(4
)

for

1901)

yo|\Ar

T^T 4

Ap

6i|Mtm

[History

of

Ireland.]

By

Geoffrey Keating. Part I. (See Vols. Edited by the late DAVID COMYN, M.R.I.A.

8, 9, 15).

II
{Volume
(5.)
for

1902)

CAit|\eim

[The Martial Career of Con$Ail CUininjnit; Clairinghneach]. Edited by The REV. P. M. MacSWEENEY, M.A.

Conghal

(Volume
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for

1903)

Virgil's

iEneid,

the Irish

Version,

from the Book of


B.D., D.Litt.

Ballymote. Edited by The REV.

GEORGE CALDER,

(Volume
(7.)

for 1904)

"OuATiAife

pnn. The Poem Book


I.

of Finn.

[Ossianic Poems].
D.Lttt.

Part

Edited by

PROFESSOR EOIN MacNETLL

(Volume
(8.)

for

1905)

pofAf "pe^f-A Ap6inmn [History of Ireland]. By Geoffrey Part II. Keating. Edited by The REV. P. S. DINNEEN, D.Litt. (See Vols. 4, 9, and 15).

(Volume for 1906)


(9.)

pof-Af V eA V A A P 6itMnn [History of Ireland]. By Geoffrey Keating. Part III. Edited by The REV. P. S. DINNEEN, D.Litt. (See Vols. 4, 8, and 15).

(Volume for 1907)


(10.)

Two

Arthurian Romances [e.ACqA4 tTUcAoirh an 1oUMp Adventures of ^5uf e^ccn^ An rtlA-onA iruoit] the Eagle Boy and Crop Eared Dog. Edited by PROFESSOR R. A. S. MACALISTER, M.A.. D.Litt.

12

(Volume

for

1908)

(n.)

Poems

of David O'Bruadair. (Parti.) Edited by The REV. J. MacERLEAN, S.J. (See Vols. 13, 18).

(Volume

for

1909 see

3a

supra.)

(Volume
(12.)

for

1910)

Buile Suibhne Geilt, A Middle-Irish Romance. Edited by J. G. O'KEEFFE.

(Volume for 1911)


(13.)

Poems

of

Edited by The REV.

David O'Bruadair. (Part J. MacERLEAN,

II.)
S.J.

(See Vols. 11. 18).

(Volume
(14.)

for

1912

Out

of

print)

An

Irish

Astronomical Tract, based on a Mediaeval Latin version of a work bv Messahalah. Edited by the late MAURA POWER, M.A.

(Volume
(15.)
"po|\Af

for

1913)

pe^fA Af itMnn [History of Ireland]. By Geoffrey Keating. Part IV. Containing the Genealogies, Synchronisms and an index, including the elucidation of place names and annotations to Parts I., II.,

III. (See Vols. 4, 8, 9 supra.) Compiled and Edited by REV. P. S. DINNEEN, D.Litt.

(Volume
(16.)

for

1914)

Life of St. Declan of


of Lismore. Edited by The

Ardmore and
P.

Life of St.

Mochuda

REV.

POWER.

M.R.I.A.

13
(Volume
(17.)
for

1915)

Poems

of Turlogh O'Carolan and additional Poems. Edited by PROFESSOR TOMAS O'MAILLE, M.A., Ph.D.

(Volume
(18.)

for

1916)

Poems

of David O'Bruadair. (Part III.) Edited by The REV. J. MacERLEAN, S.J. (See Vols. 11, 13).

(Volume
(19.)

-for

1917)

^dtMicAf Sefvun^
Edited by M.R.I. A.

liloif [The Wars of Charlemagne] PROFESSOR DOUGLAS HYDE, LL.D., D.Litt.,

(Volume
(20.)

for

1918)
I.

lomA^ttAj

riA r/ple<vo [The Contention of the Bards] Part Edited by The REV. LAMBERT McKENNA, S.J., M.A.

(Volume
(21.)

for

1919)

lotnAHbAj nA t>1?ile<vo (Part II.) Edited by The REV. LAMBERT

McKENNA,

S.J.,

M.A.

(Volume
(22.)

for

1920)

Poems

of C-At)5 DaU. O Edited by ELEANOR

11111511111

KNOTT.

(Vol. I. Text.)

(Volume
(23.)

for

1921)

Poems of CA65 T)aU O 11111511111 Bv ELEANOR KNOTT.

(Vol. II. Translation.)

14
(Volume
(24.)
for

1922)

The Pursuit
Edited

CECILE O'RAHILLY, M.A.

of ^nuAi-O 5F uu1 ~f lu ra ms. in from Trinity

College,

Dublin,

by

{Volume
(25.)

for

1923)

Rosa

An Early Modern Irish Translation of Anglica. Part of John of Gaddesden's Text-Book of Mediaeval Medicine.
Edited by

WINIFRED

P.

WULFF,

M.A., Ph.D.

{Volume
(26.) Cditri6irn Uoitv6ealrj.Ai$

for 1924)

Edited by
Text).

[The Triumphs of Turlough]. DR. STANDISH HAYES O'GRADY. (Vol.

(Volume
(27.)

for 1925)

CAicfeim t"oif"6e4tt)Ai5 [The Triumphs of Turlough]. Edited by DR. STANDISH HAYES O'GRADY (Vol. II.
Translation).

(Volume
(28.)

for 1926.)

Duanaire Fhinn.

The Poem Book

last part of the Poems Edited and translated by

of Finn. Part with translations.

II.

The

GERARD MURPHY,

M.A.

(Volume
(29.)

for 1927.)

Instructio Pie Vivendi

Holy

Life

and Heavenly Thought.

Part I. words.

Latin and Irish versions with Glossary of Irish

Edited by The Rev.

JOHN MacKECHNIE,

M.A., B.D.

15
(Volumes in Preparation)

The

Great

Blasket.

Collection

of

tales

told

by

CornerD.Litt.

O CtMomtAinn and recorded by ROBIN FLOWER, with poems by Sean O "OmnnfteiVte (in the Press).

Duanaire Finn.

Part III.

Containing Notes to

all

the

Poems,

Glossary, Indices, etc. Edited by GERARD MURPHY, M.A.

Instructio

Pie
II.

Part
etc.

Holy Life and Heavenly Thought. English translation of the Irish version, with Notes,
Vivendi

Edited and translated by

REV.

JOHN MacKECHNIE,

M.A., B.D.

The Harrowing

of

Hell and other

New

Testament Apocrypha.

Edited and translated from Irish Manuscripts of the 15th century, with a critical study of the sources and with notes. By ROBIN FLOWER, D.Litt.

Irish

versions of three tales by Montalvan, Spanish text and synopsis in English.

with the original

Cinn-Lae
Diary,

Amhlaoibh Ui Shuilleabhain.
1827-1835.

Humphrey

O'Sullivan's

Two

volumes.

The

revised edition of the Society's Larger Irish- English Dictionary (1340 pp.), edited by Rev. P. S. DINNEEN, D.Litt., (price 12/6

net

post free 13/-) can be purchased from

The Educational

The of Ireland, Ltd., 89 Talbot Street, Dublin. Smaller Irish- English Dictionary (240 pp.) by the same editor, can be had of Messrs. M. H. Gill Son, 50 Upper O'Connell

Company

&

and of Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, Street, Dublin, 4 Stationers' Hall Court, London, E.C.4. (price 3/- net.).

Ltd.,

i6

LIST OF MEMBERS.
of Address to the
15,

to send Notice of any Change Hon. Sec, Irish Texts Society, c/o National Bank, Ltd., Whitehall, London, S.W.I,, to avoid loss of books and notices).

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Members

NAMES.
Hull, Miss Eleanor, D.Litt.
...

ADDRESSES.
2,

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Hill,

Life

Members

Bradley, The Rev. Michael, P.P. Braunholtz, Prof. G. E. K., m.a. ... ... ... Byrne, G. P. ... ... Byrne, The Rev. J.
Crotty,

Knockloughrim, Co. Deny. 22, Old Road, Headington, Oxford. 24 College Square North, Belfast.
Castlehead, Grange-over-Sands, Lanes.

The Rev. Michael, P.P. Abbeyside, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford. Curran, The Rt. Rev. Monsignor Irish College, Rome, 24.
M.J.
Dalton, J. P Paor, Eamonn Diolun, Maolra, M.A., Ph.D. Donnellan, J. P. Doolan, Thomas Dowling, Frank ...
19 Belgrave Square, Monkstown, Co. Dublin Fatha, Eadarghoil, Bantry, Co. Cork. University College, Dublin. Killeany,

De

Aran

Isles,

Co. Galway.

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f.l.a.a.

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Dr. A. G.

Dun Cormac, Wexford.


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CM
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Sir T. Grattan, Bt.

Ballynastragh, Gorey, Co. Wexford.

FitzGerald, M. J. FitzGerald, Rev. Wm., c.c. FitzSimmons, B. Fitzsimons, Patrick J. ... Flower, Robin, d.litt. ...

18, King St., Snow Hill, London, E.C.I. Thurles, Co. Tipperary. Sheepshead N. School, Kilcrohane, Bantry. 48, Longstone Street, Lisburn. Dept. of MSS., British Museum, London,

W.C.I.
Flynn, Francis
Franklin,
4,

Avon

Place, Scotland.

Bothwellhaugh, Bothwell,

Freeman, A. Martin
Fynes-Clinton, O. H.
Gaftney, J. S., b.a., Solicitor Gaidoz, Professor Henri Gates, H. C.
Gill,

74, St. Lawrence Rd., Clontarf, Dublin. 166, Lauderdale Mansions, London, W.9.

Weirglodd Wen, Bangor, N. Wales.


86,

O'Connell Street, Limerick.

22
24,

Rue Servandoni,

Paris

vi.

Mrs.

M
S.

Gogan, L.
Green,
Griffen,
Griffin,

J. S.,

Lt.-Col., r.a.m.c.

Skircoat Green, Halifax, Yorks. Castle Street, Carrick-on-Suir, Ireland. 373, North Circular Road, Dublin. Air Hill, Glanworth, Co. Cork.

Bayswater Terrace,

m.r.i. a.

Harold D., m.a.

William Woods' College, Fulton, Missouri,


...

Henry Farrand

U.S.A. Barnstable, Stevens


s.j.

Massachusetts,

U.S.A.,

& Browne,

per

Ltd.

Gwynn,

Grosjean, The Rev. Paul, Dr. Edward

Boulevard St. Michel, Brussels. Provost's House, Trinity College, Dublin.


24,

Haran, Dr.

J.

A.

Hayden, The Rev. E. M. Headlam, M. F., c.b.


Healy, A. Collins, b.a.
..

Shelley Road, Beechen Cliff, Bath. John's Rectory, Clinton, 111., U.S.A. 5, Tedworth Square, London, S.W.3. 521 West 124th Street, New York City, U.S.A.
15, St.

... 114E, 2nd St., Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. Heggarty, The Rev. J. M. Henry, Prof. Robert Mitchell, m.a. Queens' University, Belfast. ... ... St. Hickey, The Rev. B. Mary's, Wellington Road, Ashtonunder-Lyne. ... ... 20, Nassau Street, Dublin. Hodges, Figgis & Co. ... ... ... 7 Prince Arthur-Terrace, Leinster Square, Hogan, John Rathmines, Dublin. Hogan, The Rev. Stanislaus, o.p. Holvrood, East Camberwell, Melbourne. ... 43 Maple St., Hvde Park, Mass., U.S.A. Houlihan, The Rev. M. J. 29 Randolph Hall, Cambridge, Mass., U.S. A. Hull, Yernam E. ... The Monastery, Killarney, Co. Kerry. Hurley, The Rev. T. A. Hyde, Professor Douglas, d.litt., 65 Adelaide Road, Dublin.

20

NAMES.
Jarcho, Saul W. ... Jennings, Rev. T. A., m.a. ... Johnston, J. P., SC.D.
Joyce, Francis, m.b. Joyce, Wm. B., b.a. Joynt, Ernest E....

303 West 106th Street,


St. Jarlath's College,

ADDRESSES. New
Tuam,

York, U.S.A.
Co. Galway.

Royal College of Science, Upper Merrion


Street, Dublin. 190 Camberwell Road, London, S.E.5. 1 Effra Road, Rathmines, Dublin. Kingston, Tyrconnell Road, Inchicore, Dublin.

Keappock, The Rev. Thomas


Keenan, L. F. m.d.
,

Parochial

Keliher,

Thomas
J.,

Kiernan, T.

m.a., ph.d.

House, Collinstown, Co. Westmeath. 58 Upper Clapton Road, London, E.o. 134, Upper Thames Street, London, E.C.4. Office of the High Commissioner, Irish Free State, 33-37 Retrent St., London,

King, Michael

J.,

b.a.

...

S.W.I. Borrisone, Co. Limerick.


7 Ashburton Hill, St. Luke's, Cork. Glaslough, Co. Monaghan. University College, Aberystwyth, Wales. 35, Trinity College, Dublin. Buaile na Greine, Stillorgan Park, Dublin.

Lankford,
Leslie,

J.

R
...

Shane

Lewis,

M. F Lloyd, Joseph H., m.r.i.a.


Liddell,

Timothy

Lynam,

E. \V., b.a., m.r.i.a.

Lynch, M. C. Lynch, Timothy


Macalister, Prof. R. A.
S.,

British Museum, London, W.C.I. 2o East Bank, Stamford Hill, London, N.16. Sun Lodge, 65 Sunday's Well, Cork.
18

m.a.

Mount Eden Road, Donnybrook, Dublin,


S.E.I.

MacAoidh, Ian ... MacAoidh, Micheal


MacBhloscaidh, P. MacBride, A., m.d. MacBride, Joseph M. MacCana, Peadar MacCarrthaigh, Tadhg ... McCarthy, P. J., n.t MacClintock, Major H. F. MacColuim, Fionan MacCosgair, Liam T. MacDermott, The Very Rev.

33 Curzon Rd., Muswell Hill, London, N.10. Teach Druim, Drum Amharc, Dan na nGall. 17 Sraid Caitrin, Limerick. Infirmary House, Castlebar, Co. Mayo. Mallow Cottage, Westport, Co. Mayo. 25 Mary Street, Drogheda.
X.S., Kinnegad, Co. Meath.

Shannon Mew, Glin, Co. Limerick. Red House, Ardee, Co. Louth. Department of Education, Dublin.
J.

Beechpark, Templeogue, Co. Dublin. Croghan, Boyle, Co. Roscommon.

Canon MacDiarmuda, An t-Athair M.


MacDomhnaill,
F. S.

Keady, Co. Armagh. o. Barclays Bank, 9 Russell Square, London, W.C.I. MacDonald, The Rev. Archibald Kiltarlity Manse, Beauly, Invernesshire. MacEochagain, Stiobhan Padraig Lome House, Coleham, Shrewsbury. Drumcondra Road, Dublin. MacGinley, P. T. MacGiolla Seannaigh, an t-Athair Spiddal, Galway. 20 East Essex Street, Dublin. McGrath, Patrick 15, Cheyne Gardens, London, S.W.3. McGreevy, Thomas On, Lindsay Road, Glasnevin, Dublin, .rianna, D. c/o Miss M. MacKay British Bank of South MacKay, Donald America Ltd., Caixa Postal, 83 Sao
i
:

MacCarvill, Mrs. Eileen.

Paulo, Brazil. 8 Fitzwilliam Square,

Pir

lin.

21

NAMES.
McKenna, The Rev.
McLees, William H.
L.
s.j.
... ...

ADDRESSES.
Castle, Co. Dublin. 379 Grant Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

Rathfarnham

MacLennan, The Rev. Malcolm,


D.D.

Polwarth Terrace, Edinburgh.

MacLeod, The Rev. Malcolm, m.a United Free Church Manse, Lochgilphead
Argyllshire.

MacLoingsigh, The Rev. Peadar

MacLysaght, E. MacMurnaigh, Micheal ... Macnaghten, The Hon. Helen MacNeill, James
MacNeill, Patrick Charles MacNiocaill, S. ...

...

Columb's College, Deny. Raheen, Tuamgraney, Co. Clare. St. Anne's, Anne St., Dundalk. Runkerry, Bushmills, Co. Antrim.
St.

Dundrum,
27,

Co. Dublin.

Edenvale Road, Rathmines, Dublin. 46 Oakley Road, Ranelagh, Dublin.

MacSeain, The Rev. Sean Omagh, Co. Tyrone. 5 High r eld Avenue, Cork. MacSuibhne, Padraic MacSwiney of Mashanaglass, 39 Upper Fitzwilliam Street, Dublin. The Marquess, m.r.i.a. Xewtown School, Waterford. MagFhloinn, Liam Suite 608, Ashland Block, Chicago, U.S.A.. Mahony, J. J. St. Thomas of Canterbury, Waterloo, Meaghar, The Rev. J. R.
Liverpool.
Leitrim, Ireland. Meehan, Francis Merriman, Professor P. J., m.a. President, University College, Cork. Mhic Chathmhaoil, Mairead, Bean Westpoint House, Strand Rd., Sutton,
Co. Dublin.

Micheal, an t-Athair, o.s.f.c. Miller, Miss Anna Irene


Miller, C. R.

Fr. Mathew Hall, Queen St., Cork. 242<i Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Maryland,
I

.S.A.

301, Craigie Hall, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.

The Rev. W. Moloney, Francis Moynihan, James Miihlhausen, Prof. Docktor


Miller,

Braganza House, Carlow.


74 State Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 34 Dunbar St., Cork.
Ruldolfstr, 48,
... ... ... ...

Hamburg,

34.

Ludwig
Mulcahy, Timothy, b.a.... Mullen, The Rev. E. J., c.c.
2 Tivoli Terrace, Clonmel. Carrick, Tirconaill.

Munn, Dr. James Buell ... Murphy, F. T. Murphy, J. J. Fintan Murphy, William, n.t. Murphy, Dr. Philip Murray, Sir Hubert Murrin, James B.
Nesbit, Mrs. M. K. Newlin, Nicholas...

58 Garden

St.,

Cambridge. Mass, U.S.A.

...
.

...
... ... ...

4 Highland Park, Roxbury, Mass, U.S.A. 16 El/ra Road, Brixton Hill, London, S.W.2 53 Harbour Row, Cobh, Co. Cork. Main Street, Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary.

Government House, Port Moresby, Papua., Carbondale, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.


Montilly, Sion Mills, Co. Tyrone. 1804 Pine St., Philadelphia, Penn., U.S.A. Baile an Chongnaimh, Cuan an Chaisleain, Cill Airne, Co. Ciarrai'*!he.
116,

Ni Bhruadair, Gobnait
Nic Dhonnchadha, Lil. Nic Eochagain, Seosaimhin Nic Mhathghamhna, Lil.

87

Lower Baggot St., Dublin. Upper Dorset St., Dublin.

Listellick, Tralee, Co. Kerry.

22

NAMES.
Ni Dhunlainge, Sighle Ni Locain, Maire...
Nilsen,
...

ADDRESSES.
19 Finglas Rd., Glasnevin, Dublin.

Eugene

...

Ni Raghallaigh, Maire Ni Shuilleabhain, Eibhlin


Nolan, P. J

Upper Drumcondra Rd., Dublin. Ekebergueren, Christiania, Norway. 87 Upper Dorset Street, Dublin. Baile h-Eil, Co. Kilkenny. Roosevelt Avenue, York, Penna., 624, U.S.A.
136, 20,
2,

OBeagain, R. OBraoin, D.

S.

...

OBriain, Art. OBriain, Padraig Sean, OBriain,


h.d.e.
D.D.
...

Wilmont Avenue, Sandycove, Dublin. Ennismore Villas, Magazine Road, Cork. 15 Mecklenburgh Square, London, W.C.I.
Kerry.

Ballyferriter, Dingle, Co.


b.a.,

b.com.

OBrien, The Rev. Denis, d.ph.,


OBrien, Michael ... OBrien, Edward, m.a. OBrolchain, Padraic

Ceimin, Dorgan's Rd., Glasheen, Cork. Errin, Kilmallock, Co. Limerick.

...

Ballymakeera, Co. Cork. Falmore House, Moville, Derry. Dun Bride, Nashville Park, Howth, Co.
Dublin.
.,

OBrosnachain, an t-Athair D.

Colaiste Bhreannainn, Chiarraidhe.


Cliath.

Cill

Airne,

Co.

OByrne, William
OCadhainn, Liam
OCadhlaigh, Cormac, m.a. OCallaghan, Jeremiah ... OCaoimh, Micheal
OCarroll, OCarroll.
J.,

Eascrach, Cruimghlinn, Co.

Bhaile Atha

Les Buissonnets, Bridgemount, Castlebar,


Co. Mayo. 5 Hill View, Cross Douglas Rd., Cork. 121 Duke Street, Sheffield. 3 Ashbourne Villas, Limerick. 2 The Terrace, Arklow, Co. Wicklow.

b.a

J.

OCeallaigh, Sean OCeallaigh, Sean T.


OCeileachair,

The Rev. Sean OCeochain, Domhnall ... OCinneide, An Bra. S.M. OConchobhair, Diarmuid OConchobhair, Risteard OConnell, Maurice, a.c.i.s.
OConnor, Denis Hayes OConnor, Michael OCriochain, an t-Athair Brian OCuill, Sean OCuinn, The Rev. Seamus OCurnain, The Rev. Tadhg ODalaigh, R

129 Queen's Road, Richmond, Surrey. Ros Cathaill, Cill Mhine, Westport. c/o. The Nation, 91 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. Colaiste Naoimh Eoin, Portlairge. Coolea, Macroom, Co. Cork. Mainistir na mBrathar, Dun Dealgain. Carrignaveeah, Sunday's Well, Cork. 7, George's Quay, Cork. Hill Mew, Marion Rd., Mill Hill, London,
.

N.W.7. Monster House, Charleville, Co. Cork. Clooncurra N.S., Lispole, Co. Kerry. Grange, Sligo. 44 Mountjoy Street, Dublin.
Bessbrook, Co. Armagh. The Presbytery, Dingle. 63 Handside Lane, Welwyn Garden City, England.

ODea, The Rev. D., b.a. ODomhnaill, an t-Athair M.

Newmarket-on-Fergus, Co. Clare. Teach na Sagart, Castlerea, Co.

Ros-

common.
ODonachu, an t-Athair D. ODonnchadha, Prof. Tadhg,
D.LITT.
.

Tracton, Co. Cork. Croata, Glasheen Road, Cork.

23

NAMES.
ODonnell, The Rev. M. ODonnghaile, an t-Athair N.

ADDRESSES.
Kilronan, Aran, Co. Galway.

Galway.
2

ODonovan, J. JODonovan, T. J., b.a. ODubhda, Peadar


ODubhshlaine, F.
ODuibhir, Antoine

Eden

Terrace, Limerick.

...

An Cappach, Brean Traigh, Co. Bothar Dealgan, Dun Dealgan.


Customs and Excise
Office,

Cork.

Glenamaddy,
Maynooth.

ODwyer, Professor R.

...

Co. Galway. Roinn Josef, Colaiste Phadraig, 9 Upper Leeson Street, Dublin.

OFionnachta, S. ... OFlaherty, The Rev. Michael OFlynn, John


OFearghaill,

6, Warrenpoint, Clontarf, Dublin. Summerhill College, Sligo. Kirwan's Hotel, Carrick-on-Suir, Co.

Tipperary.

Rev

A.

s.j.

...

Colaiste Iognaid, Gaillimh.

... OGabhlain, Padraic ... OGallagher, M. ... ... OGlasain, Seamus OGorman, The Rev. J. J. d.c.l. OHalloran, The Rev. P., c.c. ... ... O h-Annrachain, Peadar
,

OHanrahan,

T.

W.

...
... ...

h-Aodha, Seamus, m.a. OHegarty, P. S

Cloongoonaugh, Aughamore, Co. Mayo. 1430 Plaisance Court, Chicago, U.S.A. Barry's Hotel, Rath Droma, Wicklow. 193 Fourth Avenue, Ottawa, Canada, St. Mary's Nenagh. Dun Aoibhinn, an Scibrin, Co. Cork. Altamount, Kilkenny. Ive-Le-Bawn, Fermoy, Co. Cork. Highfield House, Highfeld Road, Rathgar,
Dublin. Ouigley's Point, Derry. St. Colman's Cathedral, Oueenstown. 1, Dynevor Rd., Richmond, Surrey. 40 Hilldrop Road, London, N.7. Crehana, Carrickbeg, Carrick-on-Suir.
5-6 Fleet Street, Dublin.

OHegarty, The Rev. T., c.c. OKeeffe/The Rev. David


OKeeffe,
J.

... ...
...

G
...

O Kelly, Thomas
OKiely, Laurence, m.a.

...
...

OLoughlin, Colm

...

Glasnevin Lodge, Glasnevin, Dublin. OMahoney, D., m.b. OMaille, Prof. Tomas, m.a., ph.d. Roigne, College Rd., Galway. Colaiste Chnuic Mhelleri, Ceapach Chuinn, OMaolcathaigh, Padraig Co. Waterford. An Ghrainseach, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary. OMaolchatha, Seamus Killaloe, Co. Clare. OMaoldhomhnaigh, an t-Athair
Mairtin

OMeachair, Padraig

2184,

Valentine York, U.S.A.

Avenue,

Bronx,

New

OModhrain, The Rev. S. OMoghrain, Padraig, m.a. OMorain, The Very Rev. P.

St. Jarlath's College,


S.,

Tuam, Co. Galway. Knockloughra N.S., Westport, Co. Mayo.

Claregalway, Ireland.

Canon OMuimhneachain, Conchubhair


OxMuirthile,

An

Br. D.L.

Beal Atha an Ghaorthaidh, Co. Cork. Colaiste Cacimhghin, Glas Naoidhean, Baile
Colaiste

OMuimhneachain, Aindrias

Atha Cliath. Caomhghin, Glas Naoidhean, Baile Atha Cliath.

OMurchadha, Colm OMurchu, Micheal


ONeill, Sean
'

ORaghallaigh, Criostoir, m.a. ... ORahilly, Professor T. F., d.litt, Ballincurrig House, South Douglas Road,
Cork.

Leinster House, Kildare St., Dublin. 33 Home Farm Rd., Drumcondra, Dublin. Customs and Excise, Swinford, Co. Mayo. 269 Clonliffe Road, Drumcondra, Dublin.

ORayla, Proinsias

19 Munster Street, Phibs borough, Dublin.

=F
NAMES.
OReilly, The Rev. J. M. OReilly, The Rev. Robert ORiain, Liam P.
.

ADDRESSES.
Bekan, Ballyhaunis, Co. Mayo.
Prior,
Ballinskelligs.
.

15

Kempshott Rd., Streatham, London,

S.W.16. ORiain, The Rev. Nioclas Tipperary. 3, Pairc Cille Muire, Dublin. ORiain, Art. ORioghbhardain, Domhnall, o.s Tamhain, Oran Mor, Co. Galway. ORioghbhardain, M., b.a., f.r.g s. X.S. Abbeydorney, Co. Kerry. Suite 608, Ashland Block, Chicago, U.S.A. ORiordan, E. F., m.a. ... 59, Harberton Rd.,Highgate, London, N. 19. ORiordan, J. P. Ormond, The Rev. W., Adm. .. Carrickbeg, Carrick-oh-Suir, Co. Tipperary.
.

OSeaghdha, Muircheartach, OSeochfhradha, Padraig


OShaughnessy, J. OShea, The Rev. John OSuilleabhain, Sean

o.s.

Ard na Greine, Eadar Goil, Bantry. 119, Morehampton Road, Donnvbrook,


Dublin.
Gifford Park, Bronxville, N.Y.. U.S.A. Carrick on-Suir, Co. Tipperary. Kinnard, Lispole, Co. Kerry. Cairn Hill, Foxrock, Co. Dublin. 89 Emmet Rd., Dublin. St. John's, Port Glasgow. Beni Suef, Egypt. 9 Geraldine \ illas, Traghli. 57 Palmerston Road, Dublin. St. Michael's, Pery Square, Limerick.
15,

OSullivan, D. J OSullivan, D. K OSullivan, Jerh. ... OSullivan, John ... OSuilleabhain, Tomas, Cigire

OTighearnaigh, P. S. OTreasaigh, an t-Athair M. OTuathail. Eamonn, m.a.


Parker, The Rev. P., Patterson, Fergus
p.p.

Lower

Kenilworth

Park,

Harold's

Cross, Dublin.

Cushenstown, Ballynabola, Co. Wexford. Stella Polaris, Westleigh Avenue, Putney, London, S.YV. 15.
Hern's Nest, Rugeley,

Perry, The Rev. J. F Phleimoinn, Maire Bean

An
Box
41,

Starts. Sgoil, Sil Eiligh, Co. Wicklow.

Porter, Mrs. Valentine Mott. Probsthain, A.


Purcell,

Joseph

211, Carmel, California, U.S.A. Great Russell St., London, W.C.I. 2 Glenmalure Villas, Castleview Gardens,

Limerick.

Redmond, Owen
Reinhard,
J.

J.
...

. .

13

Lomond Avenue,

Fairview, Dublin.

R.

..

328E. Huron St., Ann Arbor, Michigan, per B.H. Blackwell, 50 and 51 Broad St., Oxford.
St.

Rice,

The Rev. James

..

Joseph's, Surrey.

Headley

Road,

Hindhead'

Rice, Ignatius J. Robinson, Prof. F. N.

...

..

Roche, Miss K.

..

Rohan,
Ross,

T., M.A.

...

..

Roselawn, Ballybrack, Co. Dublin. Universitv, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. Mater Dei Gymnasium, 59 Batavierenwe, Nijmegen, Holland. 84, St. Lawrence Road, Clontarf, Dublin.

Harvard

The Rev.

Neil, m.a., b.d.

The Manse, Laggan, Kingussie.

25

NAMES.
Saurin, C. Seton, Sir
Sloane, C.
J.

ADDRESSES.
23 Grosvenor Road, Ilford. 26 Upper Park Rd., Haverstock Hill,N.W.3. William Street, Fermoy, Co. Cork. Platten Hall, Drogheda, Co. Meath. Magdalen College, Oxford.

Malcolm

Sheehan, John

Gordon

Smith, J. A., ll.d. Smith, Prof. Roland M.

Smyth, F. Acheson Suipeal, an t-Athair T., b.d.,b.a.


Taylor, Barry

Dept. of English, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., U.S.A. 71 Harcourt Street, Dublin. Lixnaw, Co. Kerry.

Thompson, Lady
Thurneyson, Prof. Dr. L. Rudolf Tierney, Rev. John, d.ph. Townsend, E. R., PaymasterLieut.,

5124 Calumet Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 39, Steele's Road, Hampstead, N.W.3. Bonn. Mechenheimer Allee 55, Germany. Edenderry, Offaly. Boundary Oak, Waterloo ville, Cosham,
Hants.

R.N.

la Ua Ua

Buachalla, Domhnall Ciarain, Rev. A. Fearachair, D.

Maynooth, Co. Kildare.


Ballincondan, Ballina, Co. Mayo. 17 Grattan Square, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford.

Ua Gadhra, Proinsias Ua Mathghamhna, Seosamh Ua Tuama, D.


Ui h-Ainnin, Maire, Bean Ui Chuinn, Maire, Bean...
Vendryes, Professor
J.
...

Ceibh na gCeannaidhe, Limerick.


Patrick Street, Listowel. Kincora, Moreton, Cheshire. Crecora, Patrickswell, Co. Limerick. National School, Killala, Co. Mayo.

85

Rue

d'Assas, Paris.

Walsh, The Rev. Paul Walsh, The Rev. R. F., Walshe, M. C., j.p
Walsh, Miss R6isin Walshe, Rev. J. A Waters, Eaton W., m.d. Webster, K. G. T

c.c.

...

Weisweiler, Dr. Phil. Josef. Whitehill, Walter Muir, Jr.

Williams, Professor Ifor. Williams, T. W.

Stamullen, Co. Meath. Draperstown, Co. Derry. 2b, Bickenhall Mansions, Gloucester Place, London, W.l. Cypress Grove, Templeogue, Co. Dublin. Rossmuck, Maam Cross, Galway. Brideweir, Conna, Co. Cork. Gerry's Landing, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. Frankfurt a.M., Kurhessenstr, 68. c/o Barclay's Bank, (France), Ltd., 33 rue du iv Septembre, Paris. Y Wenllys, Menai Bridge, Anglesey.

Woolcombe,
Regis.

St.

Mary's,

Uplyme,

Lyme

Woulfe, The Rev. Patrick, c.c. Wulff, Miss Winifred P., m.a., PH.D. Young, Miss Rose M.

Kilmallock, Co. Limerick. Cypress Grove, Templeogue, Co. Dublin.

Portnagolan, Cushendall, Co. Antrim.

26

Libraries, Societies, Colleges,

and Schools
Aberdeen, University Library ... per Librarian, Aberystwyth, Library of Univer- per Librarian.
sity College of

Wales
State

Albany, U.S.A., Library

New York

per

Stevens
Russell

St.,

and Brown, 28-30, London, W.C.I.

Little

Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., per E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 Grape St., Enoch Pratt Free Library ... Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C.2. Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., per E. G. Allen and Son, Ltd. Johns Hopkins University Library Belfast Central Public Library per G. H. Elliot, Chief Librarian, Royal

Avenue, Belfast,
Belfast, Clonard

Monastery Belfast Library and Society for Promoting Knowledge (Linen


Hall Library)
Berlin,

per The Rev. Fr. Rector, C.SS.R. per F. J. P. Burgoyne, Librarian, Donegall Square North, Belfast. per Dr. Pokorny, Berlin, Charlottenburg, Stuttgarter Platz. 21.

Indogermanisches Seminar (Indo-germanic De-

partment) of the University


of Berlin.

Birmingham Public Library


Boston Public Library, Mass.
California University Library
Cardiff Central Library
...

Librarian, Reference Dept., Ratcliff Place,

Birmingham,
...

per Bernard Quaritch, 11 Grafton Street,

New Bond
Stevens

Street,

London, W.l.
28-30
Little

...

per

and

Brown,

Carnegie United

Kingdom Trust

Russell St., London, W.C.I. per Harry Farr, Librarian, Cardiff. See under Coleraine, Dublin, Kilkenny,
Lifford, Sligo,

and Wicklow

(below).

Carrick-on-Suir, Convent of

per The Reverend Mother.

Mercy
Chicago, Newberry Library

Chicago Public Library Chicago University Library Cleveland Public Library

and Brown, 28-30 Little London, W.C.I. per Stevens and Brown. per Stevens and Brown. per B. Cjuaritch, 11 Grafton St., London,
per

Stevens

Russell

St.,

W.l.
College per Rev. C. Mulcahy, Colaiste Bhrighde, an Falcarrach, per An Priomh-Oide. Tir Chonnaill Do. Colaiste Caoimhin, Glas Naoidhean, Baile Atha Cliath Do. Colaiste Einne, Teach Talb6id, Baile Atha Cliath Do. Colaiste Ide, Baile an Ghoilin,

Clongowes

Wood

s.j.

Daingean
Colaiste Moibhi, Glas Naoidhean, Baile Atha Cliath

Do.

27
Colaiste Muire, Leitir Ceanainn, Tir Chonnaill Colaiste na Mumhan, Magh Ealla, Co. Chorcaighe

per

An

Priomh-Oide.

Do.

Coleraine, Co. Deny, Carnegie Libraries Concord State Library ...

County Book Repository,

Coleraine.

Copenhagen, Royal Library


Cork, Public Library Cork Co. Council Carnegie

per Arthur H. Chase, Librarian, Concord, N.H., U.S.A. per Haase and Son, Levstroede, 8, Copenhagen. per Librarian, James Wilkinson, f.l.a. 25, Patrick St., Cork.
per Librarian.

Library Service. Cork, University College Library

Derry, Convent of Mercy per The Superioress. LandesSaechsische Dresden, bibliothek Dresden, Saxony. Droichead Nuadh Co. Kildare, per The Very Rev. The Prior, o.p.
:

... An Fainne Dublin, Dublin, Carnegie United Kingdom Trust Dublin County Council Library Dublin, King's Inn, Hon. Society

Dominican College "

"

per
32,

An Runaidhe, 25 Parnell Sqr., Dublin. Merrion Square, Dublin.

Dublin, National Library of


Ireland.

The Courthouse, Kilmainham. per Hodges, Figgis & Co., 20 Nassau Street, Dublin, per Hodges, Figgis & Co.
per per per per per per

Dublin, Dublin, Dublin, Dublin,

Oireachtas Library

Royal Irish Academy Royal Dublin Society

..

..

Trinity College Library Dundalk, Free Library

Hodges, Figgis & Co. Hodges, Figgis & Co. A. de Burgh, Librarian.

Controller, Stationery Office, Dublin.

Town

Clerk,

Town

Hall, Dundalk.
c.ss.r.

Dundalk,

St.

Joseph's

...

The Rev., The Rector,

Edinburgh Public Library Edinburgh University Library


Esker, Athenry, St. Patrick's Evanston, 111., U.S.A., Northwestern University Library
..

per E. A. Savage, Principal Librarian. per J. Thin, 54-55 South Bridge, Edinburgh. per The Rev., The Rector, c.ss.r. per Stevens and Brown, 28-30 Little Russell St., London, W.C.I.

per Hodges, Figgis & Co., 20 Nassau St., Dublin. rary Glasgow, The Mitchell Library... per S. A. Pitt, City Librarian, North St., Glasgow. ... Glasgow University Library per Jackson, Wylie & Co., 73 West George Street, Glasgow. Gottingen University Library per Librarian, Prinzenstrasse 1 Gottingen,

Galway, University College Lib-

. .

Germany.

Hamburg, Seminar

fur VergHamburg, Universitat. leichende, Sprachwissenschaft Harvard College Library ... per E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd.

28
Iowa

The U.S.A., City, la, Library, Library Annex, State University of Iowa. Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A., Cornell University Library
Kilkenny, Carnegie Free Library

per Stechert
Street,

&

Co.,

Star Yard, Carey

London, W.C.2.

per E. G. Allen

&

Son, Ltd.

per

Ed. McSweeney, Quay, Kilkenny.

Librarian,

John's

Kilkenny Carnegie Library


Service

Book Repository, John's

Qua}', Kilkenny.

Leeds, Central Public Library Leipzig, Borsenverein .der Deuts

per T. W. Hand, Librarian. Konigstrasse, 3-5, Leipzig.

chen Buchhandler
Leipzig, Universitats-Bibliothek

Beethoven Strasse

6, Leipzig, Germany per A. Probsthain, 41 Gt. Russell Street,

London, W.C.I.
Librarian, County Book Repository, Lirford, Co. Donegal, Library Limerick, Carnegie Free Library per J. P. McNamara, Director, Limerick, Connradh na Gaedhilgt per The Secretary, 17 Thomas Street, Limerick, Limerick, Mary Immaculate per The Principal. Training College Limerick, Mount St. Alphonsus per The Rev. Fr. Rector, c.ss.r. Listowel, Co. Kerry, Presentaper Sister Michael.
Lifford, Tirconaill,

County

The

tion Convent Listowel, Carnegie Free Library

Liverpool Public Library London, Connradh na Gaedhilge

London,

Irish Literary Society

London Library

London University

College

London, University Library


Los Angeles Public Library Louvain, Belgium, Bibliotheque de l'LTniversite Catholique de SaintLouvain, College Antoine Lund, Sweden, University Library
. .

per Veritas Coy., Ltd., Dublin, per G. H. Parry, Librarian. per The Secretary, 31 Red Lion Square, London, W.C.I. per The Hon. Secretary, 39 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.I. per C. J. Hagbert Wright, Librarian, St. James's Square, London, S.W.I. per Librarian, Gower Street, W.C.I. per The Goldsmiths' Librarian, University Library, South Kensington, London, S.W.I. per Stevens & Brown, E. Van Cauwenbergh, Chief per Dr.
Librarian,

per Rev. Fr. Guardian. per


A.

B.

Gleerupska,

Universitets

Bokhandeln.
.

Manchester Reference Library per Manchester, John Rylands per Library Manchester.Yictoria University of per Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Cuallacht per

Librarian, Piccadilly, Manchester. H. Guppy, Librarian, Deansgate,

Manchester.
Librarian.

The
St.

Chuilm

Cille (St.

Columba's

Secretary, St. Columba's League, Patrick's College, Maynooth.

League) Meadville Theological School Library

per Stechert
Street,

&

Co.,

2 Star Yard, Carey

W.C.2.

29

Melbourne, Public Library

...

(E. C.

Michigan University Library Minnesota University Library

... ...

Armstrong, Librarian), per Sotheran, Ltd., 43 Piccadilly, W.l. per Sotheran, Ltd., 140 Strand, W.C.2.
Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A., per Stechert & Co. per Sr. M. Laurentia. per Asher & Co., Behernstrasse, 17, Berlin.

Monaghan, Convent

of St. Louis

Munich, Bavarian State Library

New York
New

Public Library

...

per Stevens
Street,

& Brown,
W.C.I.

28-30 Little Russell


do.
do.

York, Columbia University Library North Carolina, University of, Chapel Hill. Nottingham Public Reference Library

per Stevens
per Stevens

& Brown

& Brown, London,


Nottingham.

W.C.I.

per Librarian, Central Public Library, Sher-

wood

St.,

... Oslo University Library per Cammermeyers boghandel, Oslo. Ottawa, Library of Parliament... per E. G. Allen & Co., Ltd., 14 Grape St., Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C.2. Oxford, Meyrick Library, Jesus per L. B. Cross, Librarian, Jesus College, Oxford. College ... Oxford, Taylor Institution per L. F. Powell, Librarian.

Paris, Bibliotheque de l'Universite a la Sorbonne


Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale Pembroke Urban District
...

per C. Klincksieck, 11
do.

Rue de
do.

Lille, Paris.

per City Treasurer, Dublin.


...

Library, Ballsbridge Philadelphia Free Library

per Stevens

& Brown,

28-30 Little Russell

Philadelphia, Mercantile Library

Philadelphia Philo-Celtic Society Princeton University Library ... per Sotheran, Ltd., 140 Strand, W.C.2.

Street, London, W.C.I. per T. Wilson Hedley, Librarian, 10th St., above Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 1504 N. Gratz St., Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A.

Rathmines, Co. Dublin, Public


Library. Ring, Co. Waterford, Iol-Scoil

per Librarian. per Seumas

h-Eochadha.

na Mumhan
San Francisco Public Library,
Civic Centre
Sligo,

per Stechert
Street,

&

Co.,

Star Yard, Carey


Sligo.

London, W.C.2.

Carnegie United Kingdom Trust


California

County Book Repository,


per Stechert
Street,

Stanford University Library,


Strasbourg, Bibliotheque Universitaire et Regionale Swansea Public Library (Welsh

&

Co.,

Star Yard, Carey

London, W.C.2.

per M. Le Directeur.
per Librarian,
Singleton Park, Swansea.
,

and

Celtic Dept.)

Swansea, University College


Library.

30
Thurles, Co. Tipperary, Carnegie Libraries

per Librarian,

County Book Repository,

Toronto Reference Library

Thurles. per Messrs. Dawson

& Son, Cannon House, Pilgrim Street, E.C.4.

Uppsala Kungl. University


Library Urbana, University of U.S.A.
Illinois,

Uppsala, Sweden.
per Stechert
Street,

& &

Co., 2

Star Yard, Carey

London, W.C.2.
Co.,

Washington, Library of Congress

per Stechert
Street,

2 Star Yard,

Carey

London, W.C.2.

Waterford Public Free Library Wicklow, Carnegie Libraries


Yale University Library

County Book Repository, Wicklow.


per E. G. Allen & Co., Ltd., 14 Grape Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C.2.
St.,

per Librarian,

Lady Lane, Waterford.

PB 1347

.17 v. 34 C.2 SMC

Leabhar gabhala Lebor gabala Erenn