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YOGA OF THE GUHYASAMAJATANTRA

The

Arcane

Lore

o f Forty

Verses

A

Buddhist

T antra

Commentary

A L E X

W A Y M

A N

M

(

)T I LA L

BAN AR

S 11)ASS

Delhi

::

Varanasi

::

Patna

©

M O T I L A L

B A N A R S I D A S S

H — i

Indological

Publishers and

Booksellers

O ffie*

:

B r a n th tt

b u n o a l o w

:

i .

c h o

w

r o a d ,

k ,

j a w v a r a

a h

a r n a s i - i

n

a

( u

c a r ,

. )

. p

d b l h i - 7

2 .

A M O K

R A JPA TH ,

PA TN a - 4

(B IH A R )

First Edition : Delhi,

1977

Printed in

India

■Y IK A K TU JU . JA IN AT «HRI JA IIVtNDftA

P * E » ,

A -4 5 ,

PH ASE- I ,

IND USTRIAL

A »B A , HARAIKA, W»W O K LH I-2B

IfO T tL A l BANABWDAU,

b u

n g

a

AND PU BLISHED

l o

w

r o

a d

,

j a w

BY IUN DAK LA L JA IN

FOR

a h

a r

n

a o

a

r

,

d

i l

h

i -7

 

T o

Professor

M urray

B.

E m encau,

W ho

set

the

standard

difficult

to

sustain

PREFACE

the

materials from the Guhyasumfijatantra cycle, stressing the aspect

of^vogfl, w ith sufficient introductory treatm ents to enable the reader to place this remarkable literature within the general

has

already made world-wide contributions to the theory of yoga.

frame of Indian

T he work h eir

presented

to

public

is

an organization

of

thought

and

religious

practice,

which

T he set of forty verses was memorized

for centurics

by

follo­

wers of the ‘A rva’ Guhyasanuija tradition, which claims that these verses explain the entire ( Guhyasanuija) T an tra. I m ade up a title, the lGuhyasamaja-nidana-karika, for those verses (kdrika) which go with each syllabic of the initial sentence

verses stem from the

(niddna)

of the

Guhyammajatantra.

The

Explanatory T antra

Vajiamaln, and

were

extant

in

the

origi­

nal

manuscript. As the synthetic comm entary on the verses became increas­ ingly technical, considerable introductory materia) was indi­

cated; and this grew to three introductions before I was satisfied

w ith the; standard of clarification. T hus the reader

to the verses, which in turn have been sulliciently annotated to bring out their individual character. Having long ago become aware of the hazards of speculating on the intricate subject of the Tantra, I have tried at every point to bring forward the authentic and reliable passages, whether in Sanskrit or Tibetan. But I do not deny my own contribution of selecting, translating, and organizing this mate­

has a bridge

the Pradipoddyotana

Sanskrit

by

reason

of

being

cited

in

rial; and especially the decision to group the forty verses accord­ ing to the steps o f yoga. .Since most of the m aterial in this book has not hitherto appeared in Western sources, certainly as far as English is con­ cerned, I have preferred to give the original passages. However,

I have omitted the T ibetan for Tsori-kha-pa’s Mchan (tgrel on

the forty verses, becausc the interlinear form of this annotation renders it diilicult to cite separately; and there arc some other omissions of Tibetan. The reader will soon notice my over­ whelming use of Tson-kha-pa’s works. His writing is like the

personal message of a guru, for it is always to explain, not to conceal. The Tibetan chroniclc called The Blue Annals lias a most eloquent tribute to Tsori-kha-pa for his authoritative works

on

the

Guhyasamaja system.

The concluded research is the outcome of a long-timt' aspi­ ration. My original delving into the major throries is found in my first major published article, “ Notes on the Sanskrit term Jfiana” (1955). Already I knew about the forty verses and that they are quoted in the Pradipoddyotana because they arc mentioned in an important context in Mkhas grub rje's Funda­ mentals of the Buddhist Tantras\ the late Professor 1; .L). Lessing and myself collaborated on a translation of tn.is Tibetan book during the 1950’s even though it was not published until 1968. I realized that to do anything scholarly with the forty verses I would have to obtain the original Sanskrit, wliich was pre­ sumably in the Pradipoddyotana manuscript of the Bihar Research Society. During my faculty research in India from February 1963 to January 1964, sponsored by the American Institute of

Indian Studies, it bccamc part of a wonderful memory of 1963 Divali days in Patna that the Bihar Research Society in con­ junction with the K.P, Jayaswal Institute graciously arranged

forme to secure an enlargement of the Pradipoddyotana manuscript,

for which I

author was granted an interview witli the Dalai Lama at Dharamsala (Punjab, India) during which His Holiness ex­ pressed delight to learn that the forty ‘revelation’ verses explaining the initial sentence of the Guhyasamaja were extant in that unique manuscript. He mentioned a Tibetan tradition that there had been an Indian commentary on these forty verses not translated into the Tibetan language, and asked to be in­ formed if such a Sanskrit commentary were to turn up. It is a spccial pleasure of this research that the present modest incursion into the vast Guhyasam&ja lore leads to the publication in India of this commentary on the nidana verses, which thus becomes an ‘Indian commentary’ in a sense. If an old Sanskrit conunen- tary ever turns up, the contents should overlap, but the fact that the data has been sifted through a Western consciousness will have brought many changes of outer form.

am most grateful. On December 24, 1963, the

Upon returning to my position of those days in

Madison>

Wisconsin, with the help of the Tibetan version I edited the

forty verses in Sanskrit, which along with the Tibetan and English translations, heads the ‘Documents’. As time went on, I collected materials for a synthetic commentary, on which account I must pay tribute to the remarkably convenient Japanese photographic edition of the Peking Kanjur-Tanjur and of Tson-kha-pa’s collected works, all of which has contributed so much to this endeavor. The early integrat­ ing labor was pursued in part-time research in the Fall of 196.1 supported by Ford Area funds of The University of Wisconsin; and I tried out some of the subject matter in my seminars on lantric Buddhism at Madison in Spring 1966 and at Columbia (as a visitor) in Fall 1966. In Summer 1966, I put together a manuscript that had considerable information oil the subject. The Department of Indian Studies in Madison kindly a Horded me secretarial assistance for typing up these technical materials. During the next academic year I decided to include oven more new data while publishing such a book. During the Summer 1967 in a special teaching and research arrangement by mv department in Madison, I selected from the photographic edition of the Tibetan canon a great amount of works or portions of works dealing with these and kindred topics. Mv assistant, Mr. K.io Kanda, duplicated all those pages on the excellent machine of the Univorsity-Industry Research Program iu Madison bv the cooperation of the ladies in that ollice. This provided me maximum ease of consulting texts as desired. In my new position at Columbia University starting iu Fall 1967 I found some leisure from time to time for perusing more of the relevant texts, and for making more use

of ihe I'ladifinddyotana manuscript, which however, is only of interest to me for completing this book. The sabbatical year (1 ) allowed me by Columbia University afforded me some leisure for further improvements and corrections. I am confident that ilu* delays have considerably strengthened the contribution to knowledge of this tantric system, and that any future investigator of this or associated Buddhist tantric litera­ ture will lind in this a rich reference work.

Au

important

observation

of comparing

the

basic

text of

the (luhyaiamajntantta with its commentaries, and in particular, with the kind of ideas found in the forty verses and their annota­ tion, is (hat the comnicntarial literature brings forth au array

of data that is not at all apparent in the basic Tantra. I his observation leads to the surprising conclusion that one rannot evaluate the Gukyasamajatantra in its edited Sanskrit lonn simply bv reading it, which is the premise ol the modern-day <ondem- nation of (he Tantra. Adding to the dilliculty is the loss in original Sanskrit of most ol the commentarial works; which, fortunately, are almost all available in fine 'I ibetan. translations. But few specialists are prepared to exploit these Tibetan woi ks. For example, the onlv published paper that I know ot as employ­ ing Tsori-kha-pa’s \tchan to anv extent is fliuseppe Tucci’s “ Some glosses upon the (iufoauwutja." 'I ucci also explored the Guhyasamaja mandala iu his huht-'I theticc and in his work translated into Knglish under the title ’[he ffinny and Prattiff of thf .\fandata. Without any reflection on those pre­ vious efforts, it still follows that the subject of the Guhyaumuija has an importance deserving its own book. I believe it lair to say that the very effort of integrating materials from the vast sources has brought this system into a locus not hitherto possible with those -other than Professor Tticci who only brushed against it in the dark and then piaised or blamed. It is a pleasure to re.call the helplul conversations with Dr. Rasik Yihari Joshi about some of the Sanskrit verses included in this book.

readers who expe< ted this work

to appear some years ago, since it was submitted to a publisher

in South India late

but only ol troubles iu his rity, it was finalh ne< essarv to iesubmit

it to the present publisher. I am indeed grateful to Shree N. P. Jain ol Motilal Banarsidass to have undertaken this work and given it a speedv processing. However, those who appre­ ciate the appendixes should thank the publishing delav. Also, in the meantime Samuel Weisei, Inc. of New York, published another work of mini- on the Buddhist Tantras, with materials mostly different from the content ol the present work , just as

Through no fault of that publisher

An explanation is due

in

the

this one is so different liom \tUnn °tub tjr's Fundamentals t f the

Huddhist

lantras.

This should

inexhaustible

character

of the

New York City

,

point attention

to the

Buddhist

Tanlias.

almost

Alex Wavman

C O N T E N T S

P A R I'

O N E

: D O C U M EN TS

 

1

I.

The Guhyasamaja-nidana-karika (Sanskrit- Tibetan-English)

1

II.

Chapters VI and X II

of the

Guhyasamaja-

 

tantra,

translated

into

English

23

III.

Edited

Pradipoddyotana

 

commentary

on

 

Chapter X II,

60-64, and

English translation

35

P A R T

T W O

:

IN T R O D U C T IO N S

 

51

I.

Introduction

to Buddhist T antrism

 

51

A. T a n tra

(generalities)

51

B. Definitions

and

varieties

58

C. fundamentals

Some

of

of T antras the Tantras

62

Winds

D. and

mantras

69

E. The

world of light

77

II.

Introduction

to

the

Guhyasamajatantra

84

A. commentators,

Texts,

and

history

 

84

B. of

Title

the

work

and

nidana

105

C. ornaments

Seven

and

subdivisions

113

D. Im portance of the forty verses

 

119

E. T he m andala

of the G uhyasam aja

122

III.

Introduction to the Yoga of the Guhyasamaja system

137

A.

T he

chapters

of

the

G uhyasam aja­

 

tantra

and

yoga

 

137

 

B.

T he

two

stages,

initiations,

and

the

 

Clear

Light

 

142

 

C.

The

four

steps

 

of

yoga

and

three

 

samadhis

in

the

Stage

of Generation

156

 

1).

T he

six

members

 

of

yoga and

five

 

krnmas in

the

Stage

of Completion

163

jjJI

CO N TEN TS

PART THREE

: COMMENTARY ON THE NIDANA KARIKAS

181

 

I.

The Stage of Generation

181

A. Evam maya srutani ‘Thus by me it was heard’

181

B. Ekasmin samaye ‘Upon an occasion’

199

C. Bhagavan sarva ‘The Lord—All’

223

D. Tathagata ‘Who has conic the same way’

244

 

II.

The

Stage

of

Completion

259

 

E. Kayavakcitta ‘Body, Speech, and M ind’

259

F. Hrdaya-vajrayosid ‘Diamond Ladies of the H eart’

284

G. Bhage-su vijahara ‘Was dwelling in the

Bhagas’

310

APPENDIX I :

The Larikavatarasutra and the Guhya­ samajatantra

332

„ The Arcanc-Body Controversy

II:

340

„ The

III:

Praxis according to Aryadeva

349

„ Grading of the Four-Stage Yoga

IV :

361

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

363

INDEX

 

373

ERRATA

AND A DD ITION S

389

 

TABLES

 

I.

The World of Light—Brahmanical and Buddhist

78

II.

Correspondences of Aksobhva-inandal.i

132

III.

The Clear Lights

153

IV.

Intra-uterine

correspondences

,,

:

:

;

;

216

V.

VI.

Partite

realities

five skandhas four elements

231

235

V II.

six sense organs

242

V III.

live sense objects

254

D O C U M EN TS

T he pukpose of placing the documents first is to expose the Guhyasamdjatantra on its literal level. This was always the initial step in the traditional understanding of Buddhism, pursuant to the ‘three instructions’ (iikfa-traya), ‘insight consisting of

h earing’, ‘i nsight consisting of c o n t e m p l a t i o n ‘insight consisting of cultivation (or putting into p ractice)’. T h a t is to say, Buddhism always acknowledged a kind of ‘insight* {prajHd)

for the elementary step of exposure to the text when it

accompanicd by devotion even if necessitating personal dis­

comfort. T he subsequent introductions, annotation of the forty verses, an d appendices, all represent the ‘pondering’ level for this study.

provide the

‘insight’, the form in which they are exhibited here has some

advantage over their service to the reader of edited Sanskrit texts. In particular, a number of corrections have been m ade to the Sanskrit text of Chapters Six and Twelve, Guhyasamaja-

was

W hile

the

documents

most

elementary level of

tantra, prior to their

translation. Again, a portion o f the Pradi­

poddyotana comm entary on C hapter Twelve is presented from an unedited work, and the same holds for the forty verses them­

selves, here edited in Sanskrit. Also, the translations of the two chapters and the extract of comment on Chapter Twelve have been slightly expanded by the use of commentarial and subcommentarial materials, mainly available in Tibetan. O f course, the theory of ‘insight consisting of hearing’ takes for granted that the text itself is correct. T hus considerable care has been taken with the Documents to meet this condition laid down for ‘insight’.

I. T he

Guhyasamaja-nidana - karika

(Sanskrit - Tibetan-

English). T his section of the ‘documents* exhibits samples of the languages employed: Sanskrit and Tibetan for research

purposes , and English for translation and communication, purposes.

The

nidana

is

the formula

at

the outset of

the

Guhyasa-

majatantra :

Evam

maya srutam

ckasmin

samayc

bhagavan

**rvatathagatakayavakcittahrdaya-vajrayosidbhagesu vijahara.

The word nidana is being employed in the sense of ‘primary cause*, that is to say, the cause of the entire Guhyasamdjatantra. The forty syllables of that formula serve mnemonic purpose as initials of forty verses (karika) : (1) E, (2) vam, (3) ina, (4) ya, (5) $ru, (6 ) tam. (7) e, (8 ) ka, (9) smin, (10) sa,

(11)

ma, (12) ye, (13) bha,

(14) ga,

(15) van,

(16)

sa,

(17)

rva, (18) ta, (19) tha, (20) ga, (21) ta, (22) ka, (23) ya,

(24)

vak,

(25) cit,

(26)

ta,

(27)

hr,

(28)

da,

(29) ya,

(30)

va, (31) jra, (32) yo, (33) sid, (34) bha, (35) ge, (36) su,

(37) vi, (38) ja,

(39) ha,

(40) ra.

The original Sanskrit of the forty verses is here edited from the Pradipoddyotana manuscript, the Tibetan translation from the Derge Tanjur edition of the Pradipoddyotana and from the version of the T a n tra Vajramdld in the Peking Tibetan Tripitaka edition. There are relatively few textual problems. The Sanskrit manuscript gives the syllables ci and tta for nidana verses 25 and 26, but I followed the Tibetan phonetic transcrip­ tion, since cit and ta correspond more closely to the initial words of the Sanskrit verses. Nidana verse 20 has a defective pdda in the manuscript, gacchaty tndriyas tat tat. But the scribe had erased a syllable, leading to my solution : gacchann asty indriyas tat tat. The correction gacchann asty is justified by the Tibetan equivalence hgro bar hgyur ba. The Tibetan text here presented follows the Vajramdld except for some obvious corruptions remedied with the Pradipoddyotana version. The translation snaii ba gsal ba is the old one for nidana verse 4 ’s dlokabhdsa ; the standard translation is snah ba inched pa.

 

q

I

q *

 

5T5TT fiR m iftW !n ftT O T

I

 

r^TiTH u m

u

i

m P u r

T O rit

11

[i]

y

^

c

r ^

g

^

*

^

c

^

v

^

r q

|

|

“ E ”

is

the

Noble

woman

(sati)

Prajfia,

 

the

moments

of aversion, and so on.

This

root

is

designated

as

the

experience in

the

three

worlds.

*

i

'w r^T w fk

 

»

 

n

[2]

 

q |

I

 

W

C

- J r s j q ^ v ^ g ’q * 1^

!

 

|

That

Spread-of-Light

vij'idrta

called

‘means*

(updja),

attended

with

begetting

an

emerging bamboo.

of

desire,

and

so

on, appears liJce

In

IT I

YOGA

O F

T H E

«^lf<l€ll

G U HY ASAM AJATANTRA

f c f N H :

e fta u r ^■ w SdT iw iiisftw nw

m

I

[3]

the

Y a u j - ^ - q - ^ q c - q a T

reverse

order,

the

great

|

Sciencc

|

(=\Visdom)

is

itself the root of nescience. And the ( ‘Spread-of-Light’) arises from nescience (avidya) while from that (‘Spread-of-

Light’) arises Light.

m

i

m f a

f o r p m r c t

c R m tv n r r n H f ^ m

m f k

m

*

mfff

%

i

S '^ C '^ C ’q 'c r jM q - q ^ f

At first,

that

vijildna (i.e.

Light)

‘Spread-of-Light’.

T hat

passes

to

passes

the

to

great

what

Void,

latter passes to the Clear Light.

|

u

[4]

is

and

called

the

1

sSTcT

I

sr^cfhnfkgf *j?t w r ^ io U S K id : n

[5]

The vijiiiina heard here has the characteristics of the three

of the prakrtis (natures) of the

lights.

T his is entirely the root

sentient-being

realm.

cf

I

3 K ^ < |

I

 

^

fW5TH

 

5T ^ 5T^T

II

[ 6J

 

e

"■

e* “•> “s e-

—*

*)l

V

’V

^

V

^

Y

i F

*

!

!

The wind seizing, takes hold of that entity-light in each

case, and lijtiana joined with wind continually operates in the

world

of living beings.

 

&WT: Sf^rRT:

*T*?T *T*T II

[7]

<w

I

Tliis wind,

the great

vijUdnas.

ingly.

By means of it,

'C

element,

is the m ount

o f

the

three

the prakrtis always

proceed accord­

*

i

w;

« a t a r § T m * t

^sr>

s i g s

^

i

 

^ n r n i

§

fasn * snafk

n

[8]

'ij!

I

 

 

S

v w

w

s i ^

f !

I

W hat be the

solid

realm

and of

w ater

:

likewise

that

of

fire and wind—using these,

vijnana

takes birth in the womb

of

triple

gestation.

f

w

i

i

DOCUMENTS

7 5 ^ w m :

^<Tf*KTT«I HfTRT f a lt R

?

a*?tf!TWOT!r: •

'TSWRq II

[9]

I N

0 , ^ ^ - g c - c r g i - ^ M V M t

aqc-a*Q^*rg*rsMS^§^!

<i

-

I

|

|H\qsr^-$-grqaf|

|

w ith

the characteristic of construction:— possessing ‘form* is ‘nam e’—

A nd

w hen

this

is

present,

the

five

skandhas

arise

the

(three)

samskaras,

as

is

also

perception

(vij/tana),

the

fifth.

*T I

STcO%«T^T fcOTJGSHSta

^

I

 

n rcsif

f^ 5r m » x r v :

n

[loj

 

NO

 

Q

^ - ^ - ^ s r a - g f a j d j i

 

[

Just

(the

knowledges)

Equality,

Discriminative,

 

Proce-

dure-of-duty: as well as (the knowledges) Mirror-like and

D harm adhatu. pentad.

In

this

(knowlcdge-pentad)

is

the

vijndna-

»i

i

t M i i m i n

tm iif a ^ p

a a :

a«n

i

11

[11]

*»i

*v 5,§ '^ fv v $ i

 

i

r

v

|

-

^

c

g

|

«

-

j

p

«

-

5

|

,

The »eiue base of mind, that of eyes, so of cars, nose, tongue,

then of torso—thus is the origination of the

sense bases.

^

I

t} V $ * 15%

SimrunHflHTfaai: I

^

r m

i

s tf c s itt

w T

P m -n m ^ f^ n :

11

L12]

g

^ - ^ C - g a i- q - m 'q ^ - s i l

 

1

*

l|« C * g 3 1 S ) -5 a |-s r |N ,s

j ^

^

|

I

H\^srq*lsro]^gtj]-crgc«\

 

|

in the three worlds taking recourse to prdnajama

(breathing in and out) who rccite the ‘king of m antras’ with

The beings

ignorance,

miss

the

‘menial reading*.

 

H

I

TT*TTTnTTf?<FT:

Jtf:

I

 

cTTW

5 ^ * 3 ^

 

^

||

[ 13]

 

c?|

j

 

Y

^

^

^

^

C

*

s

i

^

5

j

q

;

*

a

i

^

|

I

^

W

g

^

q

c

*

q

*

t *

i *

|

f

 

^

\S

 

*

In

this

gestation art*

 

the Prakrtis, desire,

aversion, and so

on; as a result of those, auspicious and inauspicious karma :

therefrom

the

origination of

(rc)birth.

IT

i

*TfH: SPTWfo

g*T:

|

 

q i - T n ^ TTfaHg t o f a f a TTR

ST^tfeT: II

[14]

£7]

I

 

£ c - * j * r * q y q ^

o r : r ^ !

I

A skandha

occurs

as

five

of five kinds.

the

Buddhas,

and

a

destiny

exhorted

as

(gati),

(one of)

also

the

as

(one

of)

abhisanibodhi

in n a y ir M fijt 'a

jj« r g * * ic « r 0

a g a > f ir a ? w *«j

*

r g

c ' $

q

- ^

|

u

[15]

|

Wind, fire, water, earth, are the quaternion Locanii and so on, which is to be known by one with the nature of the three gnoses as conferring the enlightenment of the Buddhas.

a

1

w f a m n d f n u r e g g

g fe r:

i

’49^111 leHT! X * fafiH lw ffeftw U fll:

II

[16]

means

of the eye, etc. identifications, in that (body) are the Bodhi-

sattvas Kfitigarbha, etc.

Every

Tathagata

body

is sealed by four

seals.

By

cr

i

g

gCHT $

I

 

f^ f ^ ^ T T % G T

 

II

[17]

 

51

s T a r q j r s ^ iy q - ^ c - w iv q S j

 

1

 

^

a

r

g

q

w

-

s

i

^

s

s

r

c

1^

!

|

As

for

the

mighty

Fury

Kings

who

run

delighted,

one

should

depict

 

them

 

in

their

natural

abodes

of the

quarters

and

interm ediate

directions

and

in

the

limbs

such

as

the

arms.

 

cT I

cTrlcf

 

I

 

*

#

tffcr H

 

5TT: a fc*

*?T?ns? srfd3farTT: It

[18]

§

v

^

- ^

V

s

V

^

I

I

 

g

v -

^ -

q a T

i

f

O f

the

different gods

and

goddesses

generated

by

him

and

his family, neither the gods nor goddesses exist,

but

are

displayed

for

the

sake

of

sentient

beings.

5TTT^af^Rf^TcI II

[19]

Afterwards

the

yogin

who

sees

the

non-duality

should

he

dwelling

upon

sense

objects

‘inferior*,

‘intermediate',

and

‘superior’ by

seeing the

triple gnosis.

 

»T I

ir^ Q H to lf^ F T T T c I FTO f ? f TOg

?iprrcT*rr^<F

t T ^ G R j f ^ f ^ s n ^ f t ^ T ^

n

ST% I

[201

<7|

|

 

^ q r * C T ^ C ^ C 'o i - - |^ - ^ a j |

1

While each and every sense organ is going by itself toward its own sense object, whatever be the sense organ and its range, each of them is ‘light only’ (dbkasamatra).

d o c u m

e n t s

13

cT

I

f<IW MI^M

 

I

 

<T*TFT^«Tfl

 

II

[ 21 ]

 

•s

es

 

51

I

 

ip-q^-^^rsjq-^l

 

I

^ ■

^ ■

C

* 5 v

^

' i r q v q

|

j

While

the

sndhaka

is

reaching

the

sense

object

by w ay

of

this and that sense organ, he

satisfying

the

Tathagatas.

should make

offering completely

^>T I

^TZT^IT

<pT»7*nt*

cTTfim

I

q^T^TR 5 ^ t H h

facq?W T*I>TH: II

[ 2 2 ]

The

protcctor

\ J

(i.e.

•ys'C ‘^ ’^

^

i

*

q

the

Buddha)

*

^

|

well

taught

f

the

three

Bodies as being different. Moreover, their unity occurs through the yoga of ni}fmnm-kramn.

] 4

q

\

YOGA

O F

T IIE

?ffIfa:

GUHYASAM AJATANTRA

t

 

fT qtft fteq*R>T:

 

11 [23]

t*||

\

 

^ • s j p

a r q

v

^ *

j p

r ^ *

^ l *

l

j

Whatever

body

characteristic

of

the Buddhas

has been

stated

to be ‘conventional

truth’

(samvrti-satya), the nifpanna-

yoga would be it through purification in the Clear light.

SHT |

q r o r a r o ?

f a a n :

aiSflTO: ST^: I

KTOrafjid l ^ m

 

5I»3T q^q II

[24]

^

r T

W

V

p

' S

p

:

:

' ^

!

I

i U

M

r s ^

^

r s u

f

« r V § * l

i

body made

o f knowledge— is seen like a rainbow, as well as apart from

the benefit of all

T he

speech-path’s topic, namely the

sentient beings.

Lord—the

fsnf

i

% r f

^crfavrfTO T sm ta ro ta H fiw * *

i

^rfa

surtax i [25]

S s |

S

f l ^

z

- w

K

r s c

- s r S

s

j p

i

,

 

so

 

4p

-

*

j -

^ -

:

i F

* q

y

q

r ^

 

1

Thought

(citta), thought derivative {caitasika), and nescience

{avidya)

arc also called

respectively

Insight

(prajiia).

Means

(updya),

Culmination

(upalabdhtka) :

as

well as

V oid

(funya),

Further Void

a i

(atifunya), and

G reat Void

(mahaiunya).

a+<ifa sfrm ^raSrsfa^ i

 

q frfq sir erc& g rcim ijtii^

[26]

51

,

 

V^'§V^*qyq|

I

Then, knowing the differences of the prakrtis and the Lights, one should engage in the caryd, (namely) abandoning the body of works (karmakdya), he would obtain the diamond body (vajradeha).

1 6

YOGA

O F

T H E

O U H Y A SA M A jA TA N TR A

f

i

j w

w

v i f

# tSWroSf h

« w n ra :

i

 

fsnrfu a 'f a

«n n '

w

w

i 5^

u

[27]

 

5 |

|« » |* r ,ai‘^

i t»

r ^ -e r j ( « * r 3 i

 

t

 

^ ■ § V ^ ¥ T * #< ^ '!53 V aH

!W

I

The worldling praxis of aim having been formed in the heart, he thcTathagata, creating a conventional body, practises desires exactly as he cares.

f 1

snfof a*

K55WT5W

^

W

TH(m XVZH

II

\

[28]

 

V

’C.

N3

I

I

Like the best

wish-granting jewel,

hatha

grants

everything

desired,

and seizing

(by force) enacts even

the success

of the

Buddhas.

 

II

[29]

 

S

'

|

 

3 v

- r

q

3 ^

\ j p r

^

5

V

|

^

i

|

 

v

C

W hatever

the

powerful

one

of

yoga

wishes,

just

that

he

would

do

without

hindrance;

and

by

means

of the

yoga

of

‘aftcr’-stability,

is

continually

stabilized.

 

faccTTfaeaqfcTH ^

3

^

^

I*

t 3° l

I p s r o j V

r ^ ’s r a f t r q i

*

X?

I

I

I

I

Knowing

the

portions

of

the

three

knowledges,

through

union of thunderbolt and

intelligence would dwell therein with bliss forever.

lotus,—the

defiled and

the undefiled

^

|

H3*TTSTc*TT w ftW H R lfasTT

I

 

f g £ WTfa

II 131]

*t

C\^

a'STsv^-iM'r?*!!

ti|^ -.V S iq -ij^ -s i|^ -s |-s r|^ s i|

i

,

The universal self of entities sports by means of the illusory samadhi, Jt performs the deeds of a Buddha while stationed at the traditional post.

 

s*.

u

[32]

 

■C?

Yoga,

atiyoga,

and

mahayoga

occur

l>v

themselves;

also

vajrin, dakini, as well as any union

r « 1 t •**

0 '°/Jrf)

of both, by them -

fa ?

i

i

i

N

«

C

<

 

*

frra ^ fSfWST: 'rs m fa ^ W T T II

 

[33]

F'V

 

|

5

^

=

' 5

' «

r ^

*

S

c ^

l

I

 

1

'

Having done

even

 

the

prohibited,

he

renounces

both

the

proper and the improper act. The one knowing the intrinsic nature is not adhered to (by sin), any more than is a lotus leaf by water.

H

I

g i

H ^c^^^ 'T ^ T S 'T cT : HWfacJ

f e

^ « T

%

\

rfta qnrt?9T T O :

u

I

[34]

I

Equipped

with

scient being arises,

the

eight

gunas

to

be

practised,

an

omni­

and by himself wanders all over the worldly

realm

by

means

of the

knowledge

body.

20 YOGA

*?

I

5]j

OF

THE

GUHYASAMAJATANTRA

*T5f ST ^TfrT ST^: I

^ T ^

v

O

q

H

lfsHT 11

[35]

1

I

I

1

the Lord does roam.

By the samadki of great ecstasy he forever rcjoices in that very

place.

His home

is

the

sky

wherever

he

 

Vcft *ft%

5 n H 3 W f^ 5 m i^

II

[36]

A

conventional

illustration

is m ade

in

the

world

regarding

ju*t these distinctions oflights as the twilight,

the night,

and the

fa

|

sftfcF: qf<*fcqd l: I

q^^TTf^Fr?T

ifH 3 * m g :g^T: II

[37]

q j

)

 

i

j

Nq

s

r

q

*

!

f

!

‘ ^

3

:

:

*

q

r

!

i

Worldlings

imagine

the

multiform

conventions,

divided into three paths, originate the three

knowledges.

which

5T

\

s

r a

r c

n

w

*

i f f «

l f a

:

i

 

%

^

r ^

j f ^

T

:

II

[38]

 

it

5]^C-^^N-^--^r=r]-JI^C-j

 

|

“>

1

■>

>

 
 

5, “ '

I

/

 

^

^

N.

(Namely)

birth,

and

by

loss

of

abode— formation

of the

interm ediate

slate.

T o

the extent

there is discursive

thought

in the world,

so is there phenomenal

(its

vehicular)

projection

of mind

and

winds.

 

it

[39]

^

. 1

^

^

c

-

y

^

-

j

r

g

^

-

s

i

^

c

-

1

|

 

^i^a^qVfjV^sri

i

Both the acts of laughter and accompanied dancc with the nine sentiments of dramatic art, as well as m udra, m antra, and mental formation, are enacted by Vajrasattva (the tantric hierophant).

s n n ^ r f q p f

n

S -s fiw -^ C N -q v ^ 'q -q ^ !

o

[40]

.

There is no jewel in iliis world so great as the Svadliisthana, if

p

u

r

i

f

i

e

d

b

y

t h e Clear Lighi like a gem eleanscd

by fire.

II.

into

Chapters VI and X II of the Guhyasamdjatantra, translated Knglish.

These two chapters arc sclectcd for translation because they arc the most im portant in terms of commentarial literature for stating explicitly the steps of yoga underlying the entire Guhyasamdjatantra.

the two chapters which especially apply

to steps of yoga arc repeated with explanations in Part Two (III. Introduction lo the Yoga of the Guhyasamaja system). H ere we may say by way of introduction that the two stages, Stage of Generation and Stage of Completion, are represented by verse blocks in both chapters, while other blocks may go with both stages. In Chapter Six, verses 3-5 belong to the

Stage of Completion, verses 6-14 represent the prdndydma of the

Stage of

G eneration, and 15-18 show the advancem ent to the

T he

portions

of

prdndydma of the Stage of Completion. In the case of Chapter

Twelve the Pradipoddyotana>inaugurating its com m entary on verse

50

in

that

chapter

says : “ H aving taught the m undane

siddhi

by

way of

the deeds

of the yogin

belonging

to the ‘Stage

of

Generation*, now in order to teach the means of accomplishing the siddhi of makamudrdoi those situated in the ‘Stage of Com ­

pletio n ’, there are the words 'vajrasamaya' and

so on (of verse

50). Presum ably these ‘Stage of C om pletion’ verses continue

through 59. Then verses 60-63 show the steps of achieving

those siddhis of the

‘Stage

of G eneration’; while

the

verse 64

(on which Candrakirti has the long com m entary which

is edited

in the next section is understood to allude to the

steps of

achieving the siddhis of the ‘Stage of C om pletion’. T h e subse­ quent verses can be understood to indicate both stages, by use of the four expressions of sadhana (elucidated in Part Two) which can be construed as the ‘shared’ (sddharana) terminology of the two stages.

Bhattacharyya edition

of the T a n tra with the verse num bering in D r. S. Bagchi’s edition, and with some minimum expansion based on Candra- kirti’s Pradipoddyotana commentary in the Tibetan edition with T son-kha-pa’s tippani (Mchati hgrd) thereon. Since the Sans­ krit is readily available in Bagchi’s edition an d in the reprint of Bhattacharyya's edition, there is no reason to reproduce the entire Sanskrit text for the two chapters.

The

translations

are

made from

the

However, it has been necessary to correct the Sanskrit in

certain places with the help of the Tibetan translation in the Kanjur and the Pradipoddyotana. And in Chapter X II, the lines of verses 39-41 have been grouped differently from the edited text. After this manuscript was being printed,

I received from Professor

Yukci

Matsunaga his

work,

“ The

Cukyasamdjatantra : A New Critical Edition.” Upon comparing his readings for Chapters VI and X II, I find confirmation for most of my corrections, in some cases from the readings he accepts, and in the remainder from the variants given in the footnotes. Following are the corrections which arc observed

in the translation :

CHAPTER SIX

Verse

Incorrect reading

Correct reading

 

1

guddham

guhyam

3

manah santosanapriyiim

manahsamtosanam

priyam

4

vaca kaya-

vacakaya-

ni$padayanti samyogam

nispadayet

trisamyogam

5

bodhicitte ca bhavana

bodhir vina ca bhavanam

6

vidhisaipyogam

bodhisamyogam

 

9

jflanadain

jfianapadam

17

mantra

sarva

25

para karmakrt

padakarmakrt

26

dar£anenaiva lak;itam

darsane naiva langhitam

CHAPTER

TWELVE

Verst

Incorrect reading

Correct reading

 

2

pradegesu

prade?'e

ca

4

siddhatma

suddhatma

 

5

mafijuiri

manju

12

cintyadharma

vajradharma

 

15

vajra

trivajra

16

trisahasraip maha^uro

cakragrasadhanam

trisahasram

ek&vuro

25

brahma narottamah

cakrakayagrayogatah

guhyadharottavnah jrtanagrasadhanani buddhakayagrayoga ta h

40

parakarmakft

padakarmakrt

41

larvasiddhinam

sarvabuddhanam

45

sattvaip

sarvam

48

vajrasattvatvam

apnuyat

trivajratvam

avapnuyat

50

siddhyarthaip

siddhyagrc

 

51

53

siddhyante

tarvasiddhlnaip

siddhyagre

sarvabuddhanam

58

karyaih

dr^hagra

59

vajrapani

 

64

sarvam antrartha

66

mantrena

68

abdam

72

dharm o

vai

vakpathah

kayaih rddhyagra vajrapado m antratattvartha samcna ardham dharmatavakp&thal>

CHAPTER SIX

samadhi

called ‘Secrct D iam ond o f the Body, Speech, an d M in d of all the T ath ag atas’ and pronounced this m antra which empowers

Then

the

Tathagata Aksobhya-vajra

entered

the

the

mind

:

Om

sarvatathdgatacittavajrasvabhdvatmako

'hamI

Om.

I

am

the

self-existence

of

the

cittavajra

of all

the

TaLhagatas.” Then the Lord, the Tathagata Vairocana-vajra, entered the

samadhi callcd ‘Dustless D iam ond Abode* and pronounced this

m antra

which

empowers

the

body

:

Om sarvatathagatakayavajrasvabhdvdtmako ’hamj

“ Om .

I am

the

self cxistcncc

of

the

kayavajra

T athagatas.”

of all

the

Then the Lord, the T athagata Am itayur-vajra, entered the

sam adhi called ‘X oiidual D iam ond w hich is the Sameness of all

Tathagatas*

and

pronounccd

this

m antra

which

empowers

speech:

Om sarvatathdgataidgvajrasvabhdvdtmako *hamf

“ Om,

I

am

the

sclf-existence

of

the

viigvajra of all the

T

ath ag atas/’

may

(1)

One

perfect

by

these

preeminences

the triple

diam ond which has the Tathagata-secrets and the (absolute) abode which contemplates the (conventional) abode and is

symbolized

by

the

characteristic

of

mantras.

Then

the Lord,

the

Tathagata

Ratnaketu-vajra, entered the

sam adhi

called

‘D iam ond

which

is the L am p of Knowledge*

and pronounced this mantra which impassions:

Om sarvatathdgatdnuraganavajrasvabhavdtmako ham}

“ O iti. all

I

the

am

the

self-existence

of

the

anuraganavajra

Tathagatas.”

Then the Lord,

tnc Tathagata Amoghasiddhi-vajra,

of

entered the samadhi callcd ‘Unwasted Diamond’ and pronoun­ ced this mantra of worship:

Om

sarvatathagatapujavajrasvabhavatmako

*hamf

“Om,

I

am

the

self-existence

of the

pujavajra

of

all

the

Tathagatas.”

 

(2)

One

should

continually

and

methodically worship

the Buddhas with the five strands of desire ( = sense objects).

By

Buddhahood. So spoke the Lord Vajradhara, master of the Body, Speech, and Mind diamonds of all the Tathagatas. Then the Lord Vajradhara, master of the Body, Speech, and Mind diamonds of all the Tathagatas, pronounced this

speedily achieve

the

five

kinds

of

worship

he

would

secret mantra

of all the Tathagatas:

Otft sarvatathagatakayavakciltavajrasvabhavdtmako ham/

“Om.

I

am

the

self-existence

of

the

Body,

Speech,

and

Mind diamonds of all the Tathagatas.”

visualized

should accomplish, exhorted by speech in the mind, the ‘surpas­ sing one’, ‘successful one’, ‘one satisfying the m ind,’ ‘beloved

one’. (4) He should accomplish the selflessness of citta being visualized, (then) the contemplation of speech {vacd) and body, (then) the triple conjunction, (finally) the abode equal to space. (5) The self-existence of body-, speech-, and mind-visuali- xation is not reached by the praxis of m antra-bodv, nor is revelation in the absence of contemplation. (6 ) Having pondered in brief this characteristic of body, speech, and mind, he should contemplate the samadhi ‘C on­ junction to revelation* as constructed by mantra. (7) Then the glorious Vajradhara, accompanied by all the Tathagatas, and most omniscient one among all the Buddhas, proclaimed the supreme contemplation.

imagine a moon disk in the midst of the

(3)

The

one

who

has

body

as

the

mantra

(8)

One should

sky.

Having contemplated an image of the Buddha,

he should

begin the

(9)

‘subtle yoga*

should

(siikfma-yoga).

a

One

imagine

(minute) mustard seed at

the

tip of the

the mustard seed. He should contemplate the joyful realm of

nose

and the moving and non-moving

(worlds)

in

knowledge as the (highest) secret thai is imagined by knowledge.

H e should contem plate a solar disk in the midst

of the sky, and having contemplated an image of the Buddha, superim pose il on that abode. Hunt I

O ne should contemplate a bright disk in the middle

( 10)

(11)

of the sky.

m ond in contact in the m anner of an eye. ( 12) He should contemplate a ratna disk in the m iddle

of the sky and should persevcringly contemplate upon it the

(Then,)

he should contemplate a lotus and a dia­

‘original

yo g a’

(the

syllables O m ,

Ah, H u m ).

[—om itted in Tibetan translation of the mulatanira

and in the explanatory tantra Sandhivyakarana— ] (14) He should contemplate a light disk in the middle of the sky. H e should project (thereon) a Buddha m ark which is mild and in differentiation the retinue. (15) He should imagine with perseverance at the tip of his nose a five-pronged (thunderbolt) appearing like a blue lotus petal and in the advanced degree the size of a tiny barley

grain.

(16) W ith enlightenment his sole aim, he should contem­ plate vividly at the tip of his nose an eight pctallcd lotus with filaments and the size of a chick-pea. (17) In the extraordinary case, he would construct therein (i.e. in the ‘chick-pea’) the contem plation of wheel and so on. Then, he would accomplish the ecstatic basis of enlightenm ent— the store of all (m undane) siddhis and the (eight supramundane gtittas. (18) H e would project there in condensed m anner w hat has been placed in the B uddha’s enlightenm ent. He would draw forth the Dharma Word marked with body, speech, and mind. (19) Then the glorious Vajindhara, the revealer of all the meaning of reality, expressed the sublime secret that issues

from all the best praxis

(13)

(caryd).

sounds, and

tastes, should contem plate for six months; and should also contemplate by offering the great offering to the secret reality. (21) T he one desiring siddhis as fruit should perform by using excrement and urine as (imaginary) food, Hewould

(20)

The

wise

man,

provided

with

forms,

a c c o m p lish the supreme reality and immaculate mind of enlight­ enment.

(22)

He should imagine the great flesh as flesh for food.

He would accomplish the mysterious body, speech, and mind

that are in all siddhis.

sublime flesh of elephant,

horse, and dog, and not partake of other food.

Buddhas.

Indeed, by this praxis one would quickly attain Buddhahood.

Realm

of Desire (kama-dhdtu), the doer of deeds of the ra n k ; the radiant,

(23)

(24)

(25)

He should eat

as food, the

The wise Bodhisattva becomes

He

would

bccome

dear to

the

in the world Lord

of the

powerful leader, his handsome features gratifying the sight. (26) He would assent to the world on sight, without being exhorted. This is what for all the Buddhas is the sccret, the supreme enlightenment. This secret m an tra is the reality transcending (the ordinary) body, speech, and mind. Ended is chapter six, entitled ‘Empowerment of Body, Speech, and Mind* in the M ahnguhyatantra ‘G uhyasam aja 5 of the sccret and the greater secret belonging to the Body, Speech, and M ind of the Tathagatas.

CHAPTER

TW ELVE

Then the teacher Vajradhara, who has accomplished the supreme J ftana, proclaimed the diamond of speech which is the reality of the three diamond pledges.