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YOGA OF THE GUH YAS AM AJ ATANTRA

The Arcane Lore o f F orty Verses


A B uddhist T a n t r a C o m m en tary

ALEX

W AYM AN

M ( )T I LA L
Delhi ::

BAN AR S 11)A SS
V aranasi :: Patna


Hi

M O T IL A L B A N A R S ID A S S Indological Publishers and Booksellers


O ffie* : b u n o a l o w r o a d , j a w a h a r n a c a r , B r a n th tt : i. c h o w k , v a r a n a si-i (u .p .) d b lh i-7

2 . A M O K R A JP A T H , P A T N a - 4

(B IH A R )

First Edition : Delhi, 1977

Printed in India
Y IK A K T U JU . JA IN A T H R I JA IIV tN D ftA P * E , A - 4 5 , P H A S E - I , IN D U S T R IA L A B A , H A R A IK A , W W O K L H I-2 B AND P U B L IS H E D BY IU N D A K L A L JA IN FO R I f O T tL A l B A N A BW D A U ,
bungalow road

ja w a h a r

naoar

d i l h i -7

To Professor M urray B. E m en cau , W h o set the stan d ard d ifficu lt to sustain

PREFACE T h e w ork h e ir presented to the public is an organization of m aterials from the Guhyasumfijatantra cycle, stressing the aspect of^vogfl, w ith sufficient intro d u cto ry treatm ents to enable the read er to place this rem arkable literature w ithin the general fram e of In d ia n th o u g h t an d religious practice, w hich has a lre a d y m a d e w orld-w ide contributions to the theory of yoga. T h e set of forty verses was m em orized for centurics by follo wers o f the A rv a Guhyasanuija tradition, w hich claims th a t these verses e x p lain the entire ( Guhyasanuija) T a n tr a . I m ad e u p a title, the lGuhyasamaja-nidana-karika, for those verses (kdrika) w hich go w ith each syllabic o f the initial sentence (niddna) o f the Guhyammajatantra. T h e verses stem from the E x p la n a to ry T a n t r a Vajiamaln, a n d were e x ta n t in the origi nal S anskrit by reason o f being cited in the Pradipoddyotana m an u scrip t. As the synthetic co m m e n ta ry on the verses becam e increas ingly technical, considerable intro d u cto ry m ateria) was indi c a te d ; a n d this grew to th re e introductions before I was satisfied w ith the; s ta n d a rd o f clarification. T h u s the reader has a bridge to the verses, w h ich in tu rn have been sulliciently an n o tated to b rin g o u t th eir individual character. H av in g long ago become aw are o f the hazards of speculating on the intricate subject o f the T a n tra , I have tried a t every point to bring forward the au th en tic a n d reliable passages, w hether in Sanskrit or T ib e ta n . But I do not d eny m y own contribution of selecting, translating, an d organizing this m ate rial; and especially the decision to group the forty verses accord ing to the steps o f yoga. .Since most o f the m aterial in this book has not hitherto appeared in W estern sources, certainly as far as English is con cerned, I have preferred to give the original passages. However, I have om itted the T ib e ta n for T sori-kha-pas Mchan (tgrel on the forty verses, becausc the interlinear form of this annotation renders it diilicult to cite separately; a n d there arc some other omissions of T ib e ta n . T h e read er will soon notice m y over w helming use of T so n -k h a-p as works. His w riting is like the

personal message of a guru, for it is always to explain, not to conceal. The Tibetan chroniclc called The Blue Annals lias a most eloquent tribute to Tsori-kha-pa for his authoritative works on the Guhyasamaja system. The concluded research is the outcome of a long-timt' aspi ration. My original delving into the major throries is found in my first major published article, Notes on the Sanskrit term Jfiana (1955). Already I knew about the forty verses and that they are quoted in the Pradipoddyotana because they arc mentioned in an important context in Mkhas grub rje's Funda mentals o f the Buddhist Tantras\ the late Professor 1 .L). Lessing ; and myself collaborated on a translation of tn.is T ibetan book during the 1950s even though it was not published until 1968. I realized that to do anything scholarly with the forty verses I would have to obtain the original Sanskrit, wliich was pre sumably in the Pradipoddyotana manuscript of the Bihar Research Society. D uring my faculty research in India from February 1963 to January 1964, sponsored by the American Institute of Indian Studies, it bccamc part of a wonderful memory of 1963 Divali days in Patna that the Bihar Research Society in con junction with the K.P, Jayaswal Institute graciously arranged form e to secure an enlargement of the Pradipoddyotana manuscript, for which I am most grateful. O n December 24, 1963, the author was granted an interview witli the Dalai Lam a at Dharamsala (Punjab, India) during which His Holiness ex pressed delight to learn that the forty revelation verses explaining the initial sentence of the Guhyasamaja were extant in that unique manuscript. He mentioned a T ibetan tradition that there had been an Indian commentary on these forty verses not translated into the Tibetan language, and asked to be in formed if such a Sanskrit commentary were to turn up. It is a spccial pleasure of this research that the present modest incursion into the vast Guhyasam&ja lore leads to the publication in India of this commentary on the nidana verses, which thus becomes an Indian commentary in a sense. If an old Sanskrit conunentary ever turns up, the contents should overlap, but the fact that the data has been sifted through a Western consciousness will have brought many changes of outer form. Upon returning to my position of those days in M adison> Wisconsin, with the help of the T ibetan version I edited the

forty verses in Sanskrit, which along with the Tibetan and English translations, heads the Documents. As time went on, I collected materials for a synthetic commentary, on which account I must pay tribute to the remarkably convenient Japanese photographic edition of the Peking K anjur-Tanjur and of T son-kha-pas collected works, all of which has contributed so much to this endeavor. The early integrat ing labor was pursued in part-time research in the Fall of 196.1 supported by Ford Area funds of T he University of Wisconsin; and I tried out some of the subject matter in my seminars on lantric Buddhism at Madison in Spring 1966 and at Columbia (as a visitor) in Fall 1966. In Summer 1966, I put together a manuscript that had considerable information oil the subject. T he D epartm ent of Indian Studies in Madison kindly a Horded me secretarial assistance for typing u p these technical materials. During the next academic year I decided to include oven more new d ata while publishing such a book. During the Summer 1967 in a special teaching and research arrangem ent by mv departm ent in Madison, I selected from the photographic edition of the Tibetan canon a great am ount of works or portions of works dealing with these and kindred topics. Mv assistant, Mr. K.io Kanda, duplicated all those pages on the excellent machine of the Univorsity-Industry Research Program iu Madison bv the cooperation of the ladies in that ollice. This provided me maximum ease of consulting texts as desired. In my new position at Columbia University starting iu Fall 1967 I found some leisure from time to time for perusing more of the relevant texts, and for making more use of ihe I'ladifinddyotana manuscript, which however, is only of interest to me for completing this book. The sabbatical year (1 ) allowed me by Columbia University afforded me some leisure for further improvements and corrections. I am confident that ilu* delays have considerably strengthened the contribution to knowledge of this tantric system, and that any future investigator of this or associated Buddhist tantric litera ture will lind in this a rich reference work. Au important observation of comparing the basic text of the (luhyaiamajntantta with its commentaries, and in particular, with the kind of ideas found in the forty verses and their annota tion, is (hat the comnicntarial literature brings forth au array

of data that is not at all apparent in the basic T antra. I his observation leads to the surprising conclusion that one rannot evaluate the Gukyasamajatantra in its edited Sanskrit lonn simply bv reading it, which is the premise ol the modern-day <ondemnation of (he Tantra. Adding to the dilliculty is the loss in original Sanskrit of most ol the commentarial works; which, fortunately, are almost all available in fine 'I ibetan. translations. But few specialists are prepared to exploit these Tibetan woi ks. For example, the onlv published paper that I know ot as employ ing Tsori-kha-pas \tchan to anv extent is fliuseppe Tuccis Some glosses upon the (iufoauwutja." 'I ucci also explored the Guhyasamaja mandala iu his huht-'I the ticc and in his work translated into Knglish under the title [he ffinny and Prat tiff o f thf .\fandata. Without any reflection on those pre vious efforts, it still follows that the subject of the Guhyaumuija has an importance deserving its own book. I believe it lair to say that the very effort of integrating materials from the vast sources has brought this system into a locus not hitherto possible with those -o th e r than Professor Tticci who only brushed against it in the dark and then piaised or blamed. It is a pleasure to re.call the helplul conversations with Dr. Rasik Yihari Joshi about some of the Sanskrit verses included in this book. An explanation is due the readers who expe< ted this work to appear some years ago, since it was submitted to a publisher in South India late in Through no fault of that publisher but only ol troubles iu his rity, i t was finalh ne< essarv to iesubmit it to the present publisher. I am indeed grateful to Shree N. P. Jain ol Motilal Banarsidass to have undertaken this work and given it a speedv processing. However, those who appre ciate the appendixes should thank the publishing delav. Also, in the meantime Samuel Weisei, Inc. of New York, published another work of mini- on the Buddhist Tantras, with materials mostly different from the content ol the present work , just as this one is so different liom \tUnn tub tjr's Fundamentals t f the Huddhist lantras. This should point attention to the almost inexhaustible character of the Buddhist Tanlias. New York City , July 1*177 Alex Wavman

CONTENTS

P A R I' O N E : D O CU M EN TS I. II. III. The G u h y asam aja-n id an a-k arik a (SanskritT ib etan -E n g lish ) C h ap ters V I and X I I o f th e G uhyasam ajata n tra , translated into English Edited P ra d ip o d d y o ta n a com m entary on C h a p te r X I I , 60-64, a n d English translation : IN T R O D U C T IO N S

23 35 51 51 51 58 62 69 77 84 84 105 113 119 122

PART TW O I.

In tro d u ctio n to B uddhist T a n trism A. T a n t r a (generalities) B. Definitions and varieties of T a n tra s C. Some fundam entals o f the T a n tra s D. W inds an d m an tras E. T h e world o f light In tro d u c tio n to the G u h y a sa m a ja ta n tra A. Texts, com m entators, a n d history B. T itle o f the work an d n id a n a C. Seven o rnam ents and subdivisions D. Im portance o f the forty verses E. T h e m a n d a la of the G u h y asam aja Intro d u ctio n to the Yoga o f the G uhyasam aja system A. T h e chapters o f the G u h y asam aja ta n tra an d yoga B. T h e two stages, initiations, and the C lear Light C. T he four steps o f yoga a n d three sam adhis in the Stage of G eneration 1). T h e six mem bers o f yoga and five krnmas in the Stage of Com pletion E. G rouping the N id an a Karikas

II.

II I.

137 137 142 156 163 173

j j JI

CONTENTS

PART T H R E E : C O M M E N T A R Y ON T H E NIDANA K A R IK A S I. The Stage of Generation A. Evam maya srutani T hus by me it was h eard B. Ekasmin samaye Upon an occasion C. Bhagavan sarva T he LordAll D. T ath ag ata W ho has conic the same way T h e Stage of Completion E. K ayavakcitta Body, Speech, and M in d F. Hrdaya-vajrayosid D iam ond Ladies of the H e art G. Bhage-su vijahara Was dwelling in the Bhagas T he Larikavatarasutra and the G u h y a sam ajatantra T he Arcanc-Body Controversy T he Praxis according to Aryadeva G rading o f the Four-Stage Yoga

181 181 181 199 223 244 259 259 284 310

II.

A P PE N D IX I : II: III: IV :

332 340 349 361 363 373 389

B IB LIO G R A PH Y IN D E X E R R A T A AND A D D IT IO N S TABLES I. II. III. IV. V. V I. V II. V III. IX . T h e World of LightBrahmanical and Buddhist Correspondences of Aksobhva-inandal.i T he Clear Lights Intra-uterine correspondences Partite realities : five skandhas : four elements ,, ; six sense organs ; live sense objects T he G reat T im e

78 132 153 216 231 235 242 254


324

DOCUM ENTS

T he pukpose of p lacing the docum ents first is to expose the Guhyasamdjatantra on its literal level. T his was always the in itial step in th e trad itio n al u n d e rs ta n d in g o f B uddhism , p u rsu an t to th e th re e in stru ctio n s (iikfa-traya), insight consisting o f h e a rin g , i nsight consisting of c o n t e m p l a t i o n insight consisting o f c u ltiv a tio n (or p u ttin g into p ra c tic e ) . T h a t is to say, B uddhism alw ays acknow ledged a kind o f insight* {prajHd) for th e e le m e n ta ry step o f exposure to the text w hen it w as a c c o m p a n ic d b y dev o tio n even if necessitating personal dis com fort. T h e su b se q u e n t introductions, a n n o ta tio n o f the forty verses, a n d ap p en d ices, all represent the p o n d e rin g level for this study. W h ile the d ocum ents provide the m ost elem en tary level o f in sig h t, th e form in w hich they are ex hibited h ere has som e a d v a n ta g e over their service to the re a d e r o f edited S a n sk rit texts. I n p a rtic u la r, a n u m b e r o f corrections h av e b een m a d e to the S an sk rit text of C h ap ters Six an d T w elve, Guhyasamajatantra, p rio r to th eir tran slatio n . A gain, a portio n o f th e Pradi poddyotana co m m en tary on C h a p te r T w elve is p resen ted from an u n ed ited w ork, an d the sam e holds for the forty verses th e m selves, here edited in Sanskrit. Also, the translations o f th e tw o ch ap ters an d the extract o f com m ent on C h a p te r T w elve h av e been slightly ex p an d ed by the use o f com m entarial a n d su b co m m en tarial m a te ria ls, m a in ly available in T ib e ta n . O f course, the theory o f insight consisting o f h e a rin g takes for g ra n te d th a t the text itself is correct. T h u s considerable c a re has been taken w ith the D o cu m en ts to m eet this condition laid dow n for insight. I. T h e G uhy asam aja-n id an a - karika (Sanskrit - T ib e ta n English). T h is section of the documents* exhibits samples o f the languages em ployed: Sanskrit a n d T ib etan for research purposes , an d English for translation a n d communication, purposes.

T he nidana is the formula at the outset of the Guhyasamaja tantra : Evam maya srutam ckasmin samayc bhagavan **rvatathagatakayavakcittahrdaya-vajrayosidbhagesu vijahara. T h e word nidana is being employed in the sense of prim ary cause*, that is to say, the cause o f the entire Guhyasamdjatantra. T h e forty syllables o f that formula serve mnemonic purpose a s initials of forty verses (karika) : (1) E, (2) vam, (3) ina, (4) ya, (5) $ru, (6 ) tam. (7) e, (8 ) ka, (9) smin, (10) sa, (11) m a, (12) ye, (13) bha, (14) ga, (15) van, (16) sa, (17) rva, (18) ta, (19) tha, (20) ga, (21) ta, (22) ka, (23) ya, (24) vak, (25) cit, (26) ta, (27) hr, (28) da, (29) ya, (30) va, (31) jra , (32) yo, (33) sid, (34) bha, (35) ge, (36) su, (37) vi, (38) ja , (39) ha, (40) ra. T he original Sanskrit of the forty verses is here edited from the Pradipoddyotana m anuscript, the T ib etan translation from the D erge T a n ju r edition of the Pradipoddyotana and from the version o f the T a n t r a Vajramdld in the Peking T ib etan T rip ita k a edition. T here are relatively few textual problems. T h e Sanskrit m an u scrip t gives the syllables ci an d tta for n id an a verses 25 and 26, b u t I followed the T ib e ta n phonetic transcrip tion, since cit and ta correspond m ore closely to the initial words o f the Sanskrit verses. N idana verse 20 has a defective pdda in the m anuscript, gacchaty tndriyas tat tat. But the scribe h ad erased a syllable, leading to m y solution : gacchann asty indriyas tat tat. T h e correction gacchann asty is justified by the T ib etan equivalence hgro bar hgyur ba. T h e T ibetan text here presented follows the Vajramdld except for some obvious corruptions rem edied with the Pradipoddyotana version. T h e translation snaii ba gsal ba is the old one for nidana verse 4 s dlokabhdsa; the standard translation is snah ba inched pa.

q I

q*

5T5TT f i R m i f t W ! n f t T O T I T O r i t 11 [ i ]

r^TiTH u m u i m P u r

y ^ c r ^ g ^ * ^ c ^ v ^ rq |

E is the N oble w om an (sati) Prajfia, the m om ents o f aversion, a n d so on. T h is root is designated as the experience in the three worlds.

* i

'w r ^ T w f k

n [2]

q|

W C - J r s j q ^ v ^ g q * 1 ! ^

T h a t Spread-of-L ight vij'idrta called means* (updja), a tte n d e d w ith begetting o f desire, and so on, appears liJce a n em erging bam boo.

Y O G A O F T H E G U H Y A S A M A JA T A N T R A

IT I

^lf<lll

fcfN H : I
m

e f t a u r ^ w S d T iw iiisftw n w

[3]

Y a u j-^ -q -^ q c -q a T |

In the reverse order, the great Sciencc (=\Visdom) is itself the root of nescience. And the ( Spread-of-Light) arises from nescience (avidya) while from that (Spread-ofLight) arises Light.

m i

m f a f o r p m r c t c R m t v n r r n H f ^ m% i
m fk m * m fff u [4]

S ' ^ C ' ^ C q ' c r j M q - q ^ f

A t first, that vijildna (i.e. L ig h t) passes to w hat is called Spread-of-Light. T h a t passes to the great Void, an d the latter passes to the C lear Light.

sS cT T

sr^cfhnfkgf *j ?t w r ^ io U S K id : n [5]

T h e vijiiiina h eard here has the characteristics o f the three lights. T h is is entirely the root o f the prakrtis (natures) o f the sentient-being realm.

cf I

3K ^<| I

^ fW TH 5T ^ 5T^T 5
e *)l " e* s e- > * V V ^ V ^ Y i F * !

II [6J

T h e wind seizing, takes hold of that entity-light in each case, and lijtiana joined with wind continually operates in the world o f living beings.

&W Sf^rRT: T:

*T *T*T II [7] *?T

<w

'C Tliis wind, the great element, is the m o u n t o f the vijUdnas. ingly. By means o f it, three

the prakrtis always proceed accord

* i

w ; a t a r T m * t ^sr> s i g s ^ n r n i f a s n * snafk

^ i n [8 ] I

'ij!

S v w w s i^ f!

W h at be the solid realm and o f w ater : likewise that o f fire and windusing these, vijnana takes birth in the w om b o f triple gestation.

D O CU M EN TS

fw i i

75^

w m :

a*?tf!TWOT!r: 'TSWRq II [9]

^<Tf*KTTI H fTR T f a l t R
0 ,^ ^ -g c -c rg i-^ M V M t

IN

aqc-a * Q ^ * r g * r s M S ^ ^ !
<i -

|H\qsr^-$-grqaf|

A n d w hen this is present, th e five skandhas arise w ith the characteristic o f co n stru ctio n : possessing form* is n a m e the (th re e ) sam skaras, as is also perception (vij/tana), the fifth.

*T I n rc sif

STcO%T^T fcO T JG SH Sta ^ I f ^ 5r m x r v : n [lo j

NO

Q ^ -^ -^ sra -g fa jd ji

J u s t (the know ledges) E quality, D iscrim inative, Proced u re-o f-d u ty : as well as (the knowledges) M irror-like an d D h a rm a d h a tu . In this (know lcdge-pentad) is the vijndnap en ta d .

i i

tM iim in
tm i i f a ^ p a a :

an i
1 1 [11]

*i *v5, '^ fv v $ i
r v | - ^ c g | - j p - 5 | ,

The eiue base of mind, that of eyes, so of cars, nose, tongue, then o f torsothus is the origination of the sense bases.

^ I t} V $ * 15%

Sim runH flH Tfaai: I

^ r m i s t f c s i t t w T P m - n m ^ f ^ n : 11 L12]

g ^ - ^ C - g a i- q - m 'q ^ - s il * l | C * g 3 1 S ) - 5 a | - s r | N ,s j ^ ^ |

H\^srq*lsro]^gtj]-crgc\

T he beings in the three worlds taking recourse to prdnajama (breathing in and o u t) who rccite the king of m a n tra s with ignorance, miss the menial reading*.

H I cTTW 5 ^ * 3 ^ ^ c?|

TT*TTTnTTf?<FT: J tf: I | | [ 13] j

^ ^ ^ ^ C

* s i ^ 5 j q ; * a i ^ |

^ W

g ^ q c * q * t * i* |

\S

In this gestation art* the Prakrtis, desire, aversion, a n d so o n ; as a result of those, auspicious a n d inauspicious karma : therefrom the origination o f (rc)b irth .

IT i

*TfH: SPTWfo

g*T: |

q i - T n ^ TTfaHg t o f a f a TTR ST^tfeT: II [14] 7] I

c -* j* r * q y q ^ o r :r ^ !

A skandha occurs as a destiny (ga ti), also as (one of) the five Buddhas, and exhorted as (one of) the abhisanibodhi of five kinds.

in n a y ir M f ij t 'a a g a > f i r a ? w * j u

[15]

jj rg * * ic r0 * r g c '$ q - ^ |

W ind, fire, w ater, earth, are the quaternion Locanii and so on, which is to be known by one with the nature of the three gnoses as conferring the enlightenment of the Buddhas.

a 1

w fam n d fn u reg g

g fer: i

49^111 leHT! X * fa fiH lw ffe ftw U fll: II [16]

Every T ath ag ata body is sealed by four seals. By means of the eye, etc. identifications, in that (body) are the Bodhisattvas K fitigarbha, etc.

cr i

g gCHT $ f^ f^ ^ T T % G T

I II [17]

51

s T a r q jr s ^ iy q -^ c -w iv q S j

^ a r g

- s i ^ s s r c 1^

As for the m ig h ty F ury K ings who run delighted, one should depict them in their n a tu ra l abodes o f the quarters a n d in te rm e d ia te directions a n d in the limbs such as the arms.

cT I

cTrlcf

* # tffc r H 5T : a fc * *?T?ns? srfd3farTT: It [18] T

v ^ - ^ V s V ^ I

g v - ^- q aT i

O f the different gods an d goddesses generated by him an d his family, n eith er the gods nor goddesses exist, but are displayed for the sake o f sentient beings.

5TTT^af^Rf^TcI II [19]

Afterwards the yogin who sees the non-duality should he dwelling upon sense objects inferior*, interm ediate', and superior by seeing the triple gnosis.

T I

i r ^ Q H t o l f ^ F T T T c I FTO f ? f TOg ST% I


?iprrcT*rr^<F t T ^ G R j f ^ f ^ s n ^ f t ^ T ^ n [201

<7|

^ q r * C T ^ C ^ C 'o i - - |^ - ^ a j|

While each and every sense organ is going by itself toward its own sense object, whatever be the sense organ and its range, each of them is light only (dbkasamatra).

d o c u m e n ts

13

cT I <T*TFT^Tfl s 51 es

f<IW MI^M

I II [ 2 1 ]

ip-q^-^^rsjq-^l
^ ^ C *5v ^ 'ir q v q |

I
j

W hile the sndhaka is reaching the sense object by w ay o f this and that sense organ, he should m ak e offering com pletely satisfying the T ath ag atas.

^>T I

^TZT^IT

<pT7*nt* cTTfim I

q^T^TR 5 ^ t H h facq?W T *I>T H : II [ 2 2 ]

\J

ys'C ^ ^ ^ * q * ^ | i

T h e protcctor (i.e. th e B uddha) well tau g h t the three Bodies as being different. M oreover, their unity occurs through the yoga of ni}fmnm-kramn.

]4

YO GA O F T IIE

G U H Y A S A M A JA T A N T R A

q \

?ffIfa: fT qtft fteq*R >T :

t 1 [23] 1 \

t*||

^ sjp a rq v ^ * jp r^ * ^ l* l

Whatever body characteristic of the Buddhas has been stated to be conventional tru th (samvrti-satya), the nifpannayoga would be it through purification in the Clear light.

SHT |

q r o r a r o ? faan : K T O rafjid l ^ m

aiSflTO: ST^: I 5 I 3 T q ^ q II [24]

^ r T W V p 'S p : : '^ ! i U M r s ^ ^ r s u f rV * l

I i

T h e speech-paths topic, namely the L ordthe body m ade o f knowledge is seen like a rainbow, as well as ap art from the benefit of all sentient beings.

fs n f i

% r f ^ c r fa v rfT O T s m t a r o t a H f i w * * i

^ rfa surtax i [25]


S s| S fl^ z -w K rs c -s rS s jp i ,

so
4p - * j - ^ - : i F * q y q r ^ 1

T h o u g h t (citta), th o u g h t derivative {caitasika), a n d nescience {avidya) a rc also called respectively Insight (prajiia). M eans (updya), C u lm in a tio n (upalabdhtka) : as well as V o id (funya), F u r t h e r V oid (atifunya), a n d G r e a t V oid (mahaiunya).

a i

a+<ifa sfrm ^ raS rsfa^ i


q frfq s ir e rc & g rc im ijtii^ [26]

51

V^'V^*qyq|

T h e n , know ing the differences o f the prakrtis a n d the L ights, one should engage in the caryd, (nam ely) a b a n d o n in g the body of works (karmakdya), he w ould obtain the d ia m o n d body (vajradeha).

16

Y O G A O F T H E O U H Y A S A M A jA T A N T R A

fi

j w w v i f # tSWroSf h w n r a : i
fsnrfu a 'f a n n ' w w i 5^ u [27]

5|

| |* r ,ai^ i t r ^ -e r j ( * r 3 i

^ V ^ T * #< ^ '!53 V aH !W

T h e worldling praxis o f aim having been formed in the heart, he th c T a th a g ata , creating a conventional body, practises desires exactly as he cares.

f1

snfof a *
K55WT5W

^ W T H(m XVZH II [28]

. N C 3

Like the best wish-granting jewel, hatha grants everything desired, and seizing (by force) enacts even the success of the Buddhas.

II [29]

'

| |

3 v - r q 3 ^ \jp r ^ 5 V | ^ i

W h a te v e r the pow erful one o f yoga wishes, ju s t th a t he w o u ld d o w ithout h in d ra n c e ; an d by m ean s o f the yoga o f a ftc r-stability, is continually stabilized.

faccTTfaeaqfcTH ^

3 ^

I* t 3 l

I
I I p s r o j V r ^ s r a f t r q i
*

I I

X?

K now ing the portions of the three knowledges, thro u g h union of thunderbolt an d lotus,th e defiled an d the undefiled intelligence would dwell therein with bliss forever.

H3*TTSTc*TT w ftW H R lfasT T I f g WTfa II 131]


C \^

*t a'STsv^-iM'r?*!!
ti|^ - .V S iq - ij^ - s i|^ - s |- s r |^ s i|

i
,

T h e universal self of entities sports by means of the illusory samadhi, Jt performs the deeds o f a Buddha while stationed a t the traditional post.

s*.

u [32]

? C

Yoga, atiyoga, and m ahayoga occur l>v themselves; also vajrin, dakini, as well as any union 0 '/Jrf) o f both, by th e m r 1 t * *

f a ?N i

<

* f r r a ^ fSfWST: 'r s m f a ^ W T T II [33]


F 'V
5 ^ = '5 ' r ^ * S c ^ l

|
I

'

Having done even the prohibited, he renounces both the p roper and the im p ro p er act. T h e one know ing the in trin sic nature is not adhered to (by sin), any m ore th an is a lotus leaf by water.

H I

H ^ c ^ ^ ^ 'T ^ T S 'T c T : HWfacJ


f e ^ T
% \

I
[3 4 ]

r f t a q n r t ? 9T T O : u

gi

Equipped with the eight gunas to be practised, an o m n i scient being arises, and by him self wanders all over the w orldly realm by means of the knowledge body.

20

YO GA O F T H E G U H YA SA M AJA TA N T RA

*? I

*T5f ST ^TfrT ST^: I ^ T ^ q H lfsHT 1 [35] 1

5]j

I I
1

H is home is the sky w herever he the L ord does roam . By the samadki of great ecstasy he forever rcjoices in that very place.

Vcft *ft% 5 n H 3 W f ^ 5 m i^ II [36]

A conventional illustration is m ade in the w orld regarding ju*t these distinctions oflights as the twilight, the night, and the dayso as to see three gnoses (jUSna) .

fa |

sftfcF : qf<*fcqd l: I
q^^TTf^Fr?T if H 3 * m g :g^T: II [37]

qj

i j

N s r q * ! f ! ^ q

3 : : * q r !

W orldlings im agine the m ultiform conventions, w hich divided into three paths, o rig in ate the three knowledges.

5T \

s r a r c n w * if f lf a :

% ^ r ^ j f ^ T : II [38]

it

5]^C-^^N-^--^r=r]-JI^C-j
>
1

|
>

>

5, '
^
N.

(N am ely) birth, an d by loss of abode form ation o f the in term ed iate slate. T o the extent there is discursive thought in the w orld, so is there phenom enal projection of m ind an d (its vehicular) winds.

it [39]

^ .1

^ ^ c - y ^ - j r g ^ - s i ^ c - 1

^i^a^qVfjV^sri

Both the acts of laughter and accom panied dancc with the nine sentiments of dram atic art, as well as m u d ra , m an tra, and m ental formation, are enacted by V ajrasattva (the tantric hierophant).

sn n ^ rfq p f

[40]

S -s fiw -^ C N -q v ^ 'q -q ^ !
o

There is no jewel in iliis world so great as the Svadliisthana, if C lear Lighi like a gem eleanscd by fire.
r i f i e d b y t h e

II . C h ap ters V I a n d X I I of the Guhyasamdjatantra, translated in to Knglish. T hese two c h a p te rs a rc sclectcd for translation because they arc the most im p o rta n t in terms of co m m en tarial literature for statin g explicitly the steps o f yoga u n d erly in g the entire Guhyasamdjatantra. T h e p o rtio n s o f the two chapters w hich especially apply to steps o f yoga arc rep eated w ith ex planations in P a rt T w o ( I I I . In tro d u c tio n lo the Y oga of the G u h y a sa m a ja system ). H e re we m ay say by w ay o f in tro d u c tio n th a t the two stages, Stage of G eneration an d Stage o f C om pletion, are represented by verse blocks in b o th c h a p te rs, w hile o th e r blocks m ay go w ith b o th stages. In C h a p te r Six, verses 3-5 belong to the S tag e of C o m p le tio n , verses 6-14 rep resen t the prdndydma o f the S tag e o f G e n era tio n , a n d 15-18 show the a d v a n c e m e n t to the prdndydma o f the S tage o f C om pletion. In the case o f C h a p te r T w elve the Pradipoddyotana>in a u g u ra tin g its com m entary on verse 50 in th a t c h a p te r says : H av in g tau g h t the m u n d a n e siddhi by w ay o f the deeds of the yogin belonging to th e S tage o f G eneration*, now in o rd e r to teach the m ean s of accom plishing the siddhi o f m akamudrdoi those situated in the Stage o f C om p le tio n , there a re the words 'vajrasamaya' an d so on (of verse 5 0 ). P resum ably these S tage o f C o m p le tio n verses continue th ro u g h 59. T h e n verses 60-63 show the steps o f achieving those siddhis of the Stage of G e n era tio n ; while the verse 64 (on w hich C a n d ra k irti has the long c o m m en tary w hich is edited in the next section is understood to allu d e to the steps o f a ch iev in g the siddhis o f the Stage o f C o m p le tio n . T h e subse q u e n t verses can be understood to indicate both stages, by use o f the four expressions o f sadhana (elu cid ated in P a rt T w o ) w hich can be construed as the sh a re d (sddharana) term inology o f the two stages. T h e translations are m ad e from the B hattacharyya edition o f the T a n t r a w ith the verse n u m b erin g in D r. S. Bagchis edition, a n d with some m inim um expansion based on C andrak irtis Pradipoddyotana co m m en tary in the T ib e ta n edition w ith T so n -k h a -p a s tippani (Mchati hgrd) thereon. Since the Sans krit is readily available in Bagchis edition a n d in the rep rin t of B hattacharyya's edition, there is no reason to reproduce the entire Sanskrit text for the two chapters.

However, it has been necessary to correct the Sanskrit in certain places with the help of the T ibetan translation in the K an ju r and the Pradipoddyotana. And in C h ap ter X I I , the lines o f verses 39-41 have been grouped differently from the edited text. After this manuscript was being printed, I received from Professor Yukci M atsunaga his work, T h e Cukyasamdjatantra : A New Critical E dition. Upon comparing his readings for Chapters V I a n d X I I , I find confirmation for most of my corrections, in some cases from the readings he accepts, and in the rem ainder from the variants given in the footnotes. Following are the corrections which arc observed in the translation : C H A PTER SIX Verse
1

3 4 5
6

9 17 25 26

Incorrect reading guddham m anah santosanapriyiim vaca kayani$padayanti samyogam bodhicitte ca bhavana vidhisaipy ogam jflanadain m antra para karm akrt daranenaiva lak;itam

Correct reading guhyam manahsamtosanam priyam vacakayanispadayet trisamyogam bodhir vina ca bhavanam bodhisamyogam jfianapadam sarva padakarm akrt darsane naiva langhitam

C H A PT ER T W E L V E Verst Incorrect reading 2 pradegesu 4 siddhatma 5 mafijuiri 12 cintyadharma 15 vajra 16 trisahasraip maha^uro brahm a narottam ah 25 cakragrasadhanam cakrakayagrayogatah 40 parakarm akft 41 larvasiddhinam 45 sattvaip 48 vajrasattvatvam apnuyat 50 siddhyarthaip 51 siddhyante 53 tarvasiddhlnaip Correct reading prade?'e ca su d d h atm a manju vajradharm a tri vajra trisahasram ek&vuro guhyadharottavnah jrtanagrasadhanani buddhakayagrayoga ta h padakarm akrt sarvabuddhanam sarvam trivajratvam avapnuyat siddhyagrc siddhyagre sarvabuddhanam

58 59 64
66 68

72

k a ry a ih d r^ h a g ra v a jra p a n i s a r v a m a n tr a rth a m a n tre n a abdam d h a rm o vai v a k p a th a h

kayaih rd d h y a g ra v a jra p a d o m a n tra ta ttv a r th a sam cna a rd h a m dharmatavakp&thal>

C H A P T E R S IX T h e n the T a th a g a ta A ksobhya-vajra en tered the sam ad h i called S ecrct D ia m o n d o f the Body, Speech, a n d M in d o f all the T a t h a g a t a s a n d p ro n o u n c e d this m a n tr a w hich em pow ers the m in d : Om sarvatathdgatacittavajrasvabhdvatmako 'hamI O m . I am the self-existence of the cittavajra of all the T aL hagatas. T h e n the L o rd , the T a th a g a ta V airo can a-v ajra, entered the sam adhi callcd Dustless D ia m o n d Abode* a n d p ro n o u n c e d this m a n t r a w hich em pow ers the body : Om sarvatathagatakayavajrasvabhdvdtmako hamj O m . I am the self cxistcncc o f the kay av ajra o f a ll the T a th a g a t a s . T h e n th e L o rd , the T a th a g a ta Am itay u r-v ajra, en tered the sa m a d h i called X oiidual D iam o n d w hich is the Sam eness o f all T ath ag atas* an d p ro n o u n c c d this m a n tra w hich em pow ers speech: Om sarvatathdgataidgvajrasvabhdvdtmako * hamf O m , I am the sclf-existence o f the viigvajra o f a ll the T a th a g a ta s/ (1) O n e m ay perfect by these preem inences the triple d ia m o n d w hich has the T a th ag ata-secrets a n d the (absolute) a b o d e w hich contem plates the (conventional) ab o d e a n d is sym bolized by the characteristic of m antras. T h e n the L ord, the T a th a g a ta R a tn a k e tu -v a jra , e n te re d the sam ad h i called D iam o n d w hich is the L a m p o f Knowledge* a n d pronounced this m a n tra which impassions: Om sarvatathdgatdnuraganavajrasvabhavdtmako ham} O iti. I am the self-existence o f the a n u ra g a n a v a jra o f all the T a th a g a ta s . T h e n the L ord, tnc T a th a g a ta A m oghasiddhi-vajra,

entered the samadhi callcd Unwasted D iam ond and pronoun ced this m antra of worship: Om sarvatathagatapujavajrasvabhavatmako * hamf Om, I am the self-existence of the pujavajra of all the Tathagatas. (2) O ne should continually and methodically worship the Buddhas with the five strands of desire ( = sense objects). By the five kinds of worship he would speedily achieve Buddhahood. So spoke the Lord V ajradhara, master of the Body, Speech, and M ind diamonds of all the T athagatas. Then the Lord V ajradhara, master of the Body, Speech, and M ind diamonds of all the T athagatas, pronounced this secret m antra o f all the T athagatas: Otft sarvatathagatakayavakciltavajrasvabhavdtmako ham/ Om. I am the self-existence of the Body, Speech, a n d M ind diamonds of all the T ath ag atas. (3) The one who has body as the m antra visualized should accomplish, exhorted by speech in the mind, the surpas sing one, successful one, one satisfying the m in d , beloved one. (4) H e should accomplish the selflessness of citta being visualized, (then) the contemplation o f speech {vacd) and body, (then) the triple conjunction, (finally) the abode equal to space. (5) T he self-existence of body-, speech-, and mind-visualixation is not reached by the praxis of m antra-bodv, nor is revelation in the absence of contemplation. (6 ) H aving pondered in brief this characteristic of body, speech, and mind, he should contem plate the sam adhi C o n junction to revelation* as constructed by m antra. (7) T hen the glorious V ajradhara, accompanied by all the T athagatas, and most omniscient one am ong all the Buddhas, proclaimed the supreme contem plation. (8 ) O ne should imagine a moon disk in the midst of the sky. Having contemplated an image o f the Buddha, he should begin the subtle yoga* (siikfma-yoga). (9) O ne should imagine a (minute) m ustard seed at the tip o f the nose and the moving and non-moving (worlds) in the mustard seed. He should contemplate the joyful realm of

know ledge as the (highest) secret thai is im agined by knowledge. ( 10 ) H e should c o n te m p la te a solar disk in the m idst o f the sky, and having c o n te m p la te d an im age o f the B uddha, su p erim p o se il on that abode. Hunt I (1 1 ) O n e should co n tem p late a b rig h t disk in the m id d le o f the sky. (T h e n ,) he should contem plate a lotus and a dia m o n d in c o n ta c t in the m a n n e r of an eye. ( 12 ) H e should co n tem p late a ra tn a disk in the m id d le o f the sky a n d should persevcringly contem plate upon it the original y o g a (the syllables O m , A h, H u m ) . (13) [ o m itte d in T ib e ta n translation of the mulatanira a n d in the explanatory ta n tr a Sandhivyakarana ] (14) H e should c o n te m p la te a light disk in the m id d le o f the sky. H e should project (th ereo n ) a B uddha m a rk w hich is m ild an d in differentiation the retinue. (15) H e should im agine w ith perseverance at the tip o f his nose a five-pronged (th u n d erb o lt) a p p e a rin g like a blue lotus petal an d in the ad v an ced degree the size of a tiny barley grain. (16) W ith enlightenm ent his sole aim , he should contem p la te vividly at the tip of his nose an eight p ctallcd lotus w ith filam ents a n d the size o f a chick-pea. (17) In the ex trao rd in ary case, he w ould construct therein (i.e. in the chick-pea ) the contem plation o f wheel an d so on. T h e n , he w ould accomplish the ecstatic basis of en lig h ten m en t the store o f all (m u n d an e) siddhis an d the (eight su p ra m u n d a n e gtittas. (18) H e would project there in condensed m a n n e r w h a t has been placed in the B u d d h a s enlightenm ent. H e would d raw forth the D h a rm a W ord m arked w ith body, speech, a n d m in d . (19) T h e n the glorious V a jin d h a ra , the revealer o f all the m ean in g of reality, expressed the sublime secret th at issues from all the best praxis (caryd). (20) T h e wise m an, provided w ith forms, sounds, and tastes, should contem plate for six m onths; and should also c o n tem p late by offering the great offering to the secret reality. (21) T h e one desiring siddhis as fruit should perform by u sin g excrem ent an d urine as (im ag in ary ) food, H ew o u ld

a c c o m p li s h

the supreme reality and immaculate m ind of enlight

enment. (22) H e should imagine the great flesh as flesh for food. H e would accomplish the mysterious body, speech, and mind th a t are in all siddhis. (23) H e should eat as food, the sublime flesh of elephant, horse, and dog, and not partake of other food. (24) T he wise Bodhisattva becomes dear to the Buddhas. Indeed, by this praxis one would quickly attain Buddhahood. (25) H e would bccome in the world Lord of the R ealm o f Desire (kama-dhdtu), the doer of deeds of the r a n k ; the radiant, powerful leader, his handsome features gratifying the sight. (26) He would assent to the world on sight, without being exhorted. This is what for all the Buddhas is the sccret, the supreme enlightenm ent. T h is secret m a n tra is the reality transcending (the o rdinary) body, speech, a n d m ind. Ended is ch ap ter six, entitled E m pow erm ent o f Body, Speech, and Mind* in the M ah n g u h y a ta n tra G u h y asam aja 5 o f the sccret and the greater secret belonging to the Body, Speech, and M in d of the T ath ag atas. CHAPTER TW ELV E T hen the teacher V a jra d h a ra , who has accomplished the supreme J ftana, proclaimed the diam ond of speech which is the reality of the three diam ond pledges. ( 1 ) O ne should imagine this dance (ndtaka) am ong the natures pure by intrinsic nature, which are equal to the sky and have the intrinsic nature devoid of discursive thought. (2) O ne may accomplish the sum of all siddhis both in a spot of a great forest an d in a secluded m ountain adorned with flowers and fruits. Mam (3) T he contemplation of the mafijuvajra in the diam onds o f (ones own) body, speech, and m ind, is com parable to the maAjuvajra which radiates in the body, speech, and m ind (of the three realms). (4) T he pure self, adorned with all adornm ents, shines with a light of blazing diam ond for a spread of a h u n d re d yojanas.

(5) T h e gods B ra h m a , R u d r a , an d so on, never see it. (T h u s) the sam ad h i callcd C ausing the disappearance o f the highest sam ava of the m aftjuvajra. ( 6 ) H a v in g caused w h a t proceeds from the triple hook (i.e. the three lights) by m ean s of the five samayas o f excrem ent ( = sense o b ject) a n d u rin e ( scnse o rg an ) which arise from the in sep arab le triple v ajra (i.e. the m in d ) , he should c o n te m p la te it as cast into his m o u th ( = t h c C lear L ig h t). (7) H e should contem plate therein the citta as inseparable from all the B uddhas. It w ould have from th a t m o m e n t a light like th a t o f the m anjuvajra. (8-9) H a v in g co n tem p lated by w ay o f ones own m a n tra (O m ) , an d h a v in g im agined the w heel w ith the light o f a fire b r a n d as th e a b o d e of all the B uddhas, one w ould b e like a B uddha. As m a n y as be th e atom s o f the 36 Sum erus corres p o n d in g to th at (w heel), they a re all like V a jra d h a ra . (T h u s) the sam adhi called Pledge of the W h e e l. (10-11) H a v in g co n tem p lated b y way o f o n e s ow n m a n t r a (H u m ) , a n d (having c o n te m p la te d ) the M a h a v a jra in th e m iddle o f the m a n d a la as the ab o d e o f all the vajras, o n e ' w ould be e q u a l to the C itta v a jra . As m a n y as be the ato m s o f the 36 S um erus, that m any will be the ladies (yofit) w ho are its ab o d e o f m erits (^wna). H a v in g m a d e the obeisance o f R u d r a , lie w ould be the M a h a v a jra o f the three realms. (T h u s) the sam ad h i called D iam ond e q u a lity . (12-13) H a v in g contem plated by way o f o n e s own m a n tr a (A h) the great eight-petal led lotus, one would be the store of all d h a rm a s equal to V a jra d h a rm a . As m any as b e the atom s o f the 36 Sum erus, the pure self causes them to take shape in the suprem e m a n d a la o f B uddha offerings. (T h u s ) th e sam adhi called Lotus e q u ality . (14-17) H e stays serving the triple-aeon pledge o f the five knowlcdgc-bearers. H e m editatively worships the three secrets of all the B uddhas of the ten directions. H e should contem plate his own m a n tra (H a ) as the sword w ith a lig h t equal to the five rays. H olding it in his hand, w ide-e^ed, he would be a v id y a d h a ra of the triple vajra. W orshipping with the great (mystic pow ers)of the three realm s, having bow ed to B rahm a, In d ra a n d the Daityas, he, the solitary hero in the chiliocosm, w ould be the highest G u hyadhara. W h a t one

with his mind of the vajrins of Body, Speech, and Mind it confers such a siddhi created from ilit* citta vajra. I hits the samadhi called Best of all swords. (18-19) Having meditated on the pellet of O m , ihe size o f a pea kernel, one should contemplate- in its center the image of ones deity, imagining it in the mouth* the lu ah m aram lh r.i). Immediately he would have the same litjht a s ihe bodhisattva, the same light as the Jam b u river, appeal ini' like the lisen sun. (20-21) Having meditated on the pellet of Ah. the si/e of a pea kernel, one should contemplate in its eenter the image o f ones deity, imagining it in the mouth*. Immediately he would have the same light as the revelatinn-knowlcdge, the same light as the Jam bu river, appearing like the li'cii sun. (22-23) Having meditated on the pellet of Hum, the .ize o f a pea kernel, one should contemplate in its center the image o f ones deity, imagining it in the m o u th . Im m ediately he would have the same light as the diamond body, the same light as the Jam b u river, appearing like the risen sun. (24-25) One should contem plate Vairocana stationed in the center of a clear sky. Having imagined a wheel in his hand, one would be a cakra-Vidyadhara. Having im agined the G reat W heel family as the best praxis of Buddha body, one would enact with the knowledge diamond the best evocation (sddhana) o f knowledge. (26-27) O ne should contemplate a knowledge Aksobhya stationed in the center of a diam ond in the sky. Having imagined a thunderbolt in his hand, one would be a vajra-Y idyadhara. Having imagined the Great D iam ond family as the best praxis of Diamond body, one would enact with the knowledge diamond the best evocation of diamond. (28-29) One should contemplate a R atnavajra stationed in the center of a jewel in the sky expanse. H aving imagined a ratna in his hand, one would be a ratna-Y idyadhara. H av ing imagined the G reat Jew el family as the best praxis of Jewel body, one would enact with the knowledge diam ond the best evocation of jewel. (30-31) One should contemplate an A m itabha stationed in the center of the dharm a in the sky. H aving imagined a lotus in his hand, one would be a padm a-Yidyadhara. 1laving imagined the G reat Lotus family as the best praxis of Dluu niaw is h e s

kfiya. one would enact with the knowledge diam ond the best evocation of lotus. (32-33) O n e should contem plate an A m oghagra stationed in the center of the satnaya in the sky. H aving im agined a sword iu his hand, one would be a khadga-V idvadhara. H aving im agined the G reat S an iay a family as the best praxis of kayasam aya, one would enact with the knowledge diam ond the best evocation of saniaya. (34) T h e trident ( of M a h a b a la ), the knowlcdge-hook (of T a k k ir a ja ', a n d the o th er (symbols o f the K rodha-raja-s), to be evoked by diversification o f the vajra, are evoked with m editation of th a t (A ksobhya) by means of the evocations of body, speech, an d m ind. T h u s spoke the L ord who is the vajra of siddhi-(revelation) belonging to the G reat Pledge (m ahasam aya - the D iam ond V ehicle). (35) As a special (or distinguished) case, the performer should continually evoke the diam ond attractio n (of four linea ges of goddesses) at a crossroads, a solitary tree, an ekalinga, or in a calm place. (36-37) H av in g contem plated the incantation person of triple voga ( born from the 3 syllables, O m , Ah, Hurii) as the vajrin o f triple yoga ( having the stack o f three sattvas), the hook for the oidinary body, speech, a n d m ind, on the p art of the Buddhas (the jewel-like persons) who have jn a n a buddhts (i.e. seek the non-dual know ledge); and having a ttra c t ed, with the vajra arisen from the symbols ( - goddesses) of the ten directions, the supreme Buddha attraction that abides in the best windy m andala, he would partake of that. (Thus) the attraction by the diam ond of'sym bols in the sky* (khadhatusamaya = the goddesses). (38) Having m editated on V airocana, the G reat Wheel* with the hook store o f B uddhas, he should engage in the supreme attraction of the pledges (saniaya = the goddesses) by means o f the thunderbolt (vajra), lotus (padma)> an d so on. iT hus) the attraction of the samaya (the yaksinis, etc.) o f ihe three realms (below the e a rth , upon the e a rth , above the e a rth ). (*39) He should contem plate a B uddha image endowed with the best of all aspects. And he should contem plate in

its hand the hook and so on (the differentiation of the hook) of body, spccch, and mind. Indeed, with this yoga he would be a performer of the rites of the place (the rank of V ajrasattva). (*40) He should contemplate the diam ond o f body (ones own transfigured body) as endowed with the best of all aspects. Having m editated with the praxis (recitation of m antras) of diam ond tongue, he would be equal to the Vagvajra (i.e. A m itabha). When he offers the offering (i.e. ones own body) which is the best offering o f the pledge of the three secrcts, he would be consummated. (*41) This is the quintessence, the sum o f secrcts of all the Buddhas. Thus spoke the Lord, the great secret pledge. (42) He should perfect the supreme triple vajra by the best pledge of great flesh (the hum an corpse). H e would become the V idyadhara Lord by the best pledge of excrement and urine. (43-44) H e would obtain the five supernorm al powers by the pledge-flcsh of elephant. H e would become the m aster of disappearance by the pledge-flesh of horse; the achiever o f all siddhis by the pledge-flesh o f dog, the supreme attraction of vajra by the best pledge of cow flesh. (45) W hen he is unable to obtain any (such) (dead) flesh, having m editated upon any one (of them ), he should mentally construct (the fiesh). By this diam ond praxis he would become empowered by all the Buddhas. (46*47) H e should contemplate the V ajrin o f Body, Speech, and M ind ( the sam ayasattva) endowed w ith the best of all aspccts; then in its h eart (on a moon-disk) the Jfiana pledge ( * the jfla n a s a ttv a ); and on (the latiers) crown, the holder of the best vajra ( - t h e sam ad h isattv a). T his g ra ti fication o f all the Buddhas is the supreme m ethod o f pledge. Enacting it by the best pledge (yields) the finest creation o f every siddhi. (T hus) the samadhi called Partaking o f all the vajras of samaya and jftana*. (48-49) Having m editated on the V ajrin (i.e. A ksobhya) of Hutp when there is the best plcdgc-diam ond of the longue, and having enjoyed by the praxis of the five ambrosias, one m ay obtain the triple vajra. T his (same) pledge of Ah (for A m itabha) and Oni (for V airo can a)^ is the supreme diam ond

m ethod. Indeed, by this praxis one w ould become equal to V ajrasattv a. (T im s) the sam adhi called A m brosia-garland of Vaj rasa m ay a . (50) W hen he has the superior siddhi whose symbol (snmoya) is the triple vajra (of Body, Speech, an d M in d -th e three lights), he w ould bccom e the vajrin (possessor of the v ajra) of three bodies (the D h arm ak ay a, Sam bhogakaya, a n d N irm fm akaya). H e would becomc the sea o f w ish-granting jew els belonging to all the B uddhas of the ten directions. (51) T h e I)iam ond-soul shines on the w orldly realm on all levels. W hen there is the superior siddhi o f cakrasam aya (associated w ith V a iro c a n a ). it (the D iam o n d soul) becomcs equal to the body of a B uddha. (52) He w ould sport successful on all levels, num bering the G anges sands. W hen there are all the superior sainayas (dakiuls and d a k a s ), he w ould bccom e the V id y a d h a ra Lord. (53) H e shines alone in the chiliocosm during all disap p earances (of speech activity an d bodily m em b ers), he steals (the mystic pow ers) from all the Buddhas, enjoys the daughters o f the best gods (such as I n d r a ) when he has the superior siddhi o f all the samayas by reason of the potency of the kayavajra (= the M a h a m u d ra ). (54) H e sees with the diam ond eye (the pure, refined divine e y e ), like a single m yrobalan fruit in his h a n d , the Bud dhas in the n u m b er o f the G anges sands, who arc stationed in the triple v ajra abode. '5 5 ) H e hears through the influence of supernorm al faculty as though all around gathered to his car as many sounds as are revealed in fields num bering the G anges sands. (56) H e knows, in the form of a dram a, the thoughtannounccd ch aracter (the 160 prakrtis) of body, speech, and m ind of all the sentient beings in fields num bering the Ganges sands. (57) He remembers, as though o f three-days duration, the incidents of former lives occurring as he dwelt in samsara through aeons num bering the Ganges sands. (58) H e emanates through the vajrin of magical power (iddhi) with bodies num bering the Ganges sands and adorned with clouds of Buddhas, for aeons num bering the Ganges sands. T h u s spoke the Lord who has the supernorm al faculty of

samaya, namely : the diamond eye, tlic diam ond hearing, the diamond consciousness, the diam ond abode, and the diam ond magical power. (59) W hen one has the success of goal that is the B uddhas supernormal faculty, then he becomes equal to the B uddhas body. He, the diam ond of body and speech (and m in d ), would roam the worldly realm on all levels, su rround ed by retinues as numerous as the Oanges sands. (60-61 A) There are four (steps): I. occupation with the pledge o f service, 2. arising of near-evocation, 3. evoca tion goal and the symbol, and 4. great evocation. Having understood them as a division of vajra, then one should accom plish the rites. (61B-62-63) 1. H e should contem plate the samadlii-praxis o f service as the supreme revelation. 2. T h e deliberation on the bases of the vajras when there is foremost success is the niar-evocation. 3. T he contem plation of the lords o f the m antras is said to be the exhortation when there is evocation. 4. At the time of great evocation, when he imagines the form o f his own m antra-vajrin as the lord on the crown of his head, h e is succcssful because of the jnana-vajrin. (64) O ne should create, everywhere an d always, just with the knowledge nectar o f service. For this brings to success the aim o f m antra and o f tattva, of all m antras. (65) Success is always attained in spots of a great forest, places entirely clear of (other) persons, and abodes of m o u n tain caves. Thus spoke the Lord with the diam ond of A lahasadhana. (6 6 ) Thus, the one of firm devotions (vrata) should per form the service by means of four vajras (the four in C h ap . X V I I I beginning with the revelation of voidness). C o n tem plating through equality (of oneself) with the three vajra bodies (of V ajrad h ara), he reaches success. (67) T he wise man, having contemplated with the know ledge diamond of reciting Om, that is, by union with the four temporal junctures ( = the four goddesses) in five places ( = t h e distinguished kind of the live sense objects), engages in the vow ( = bliss). (6 8 ) T he siddhi is easily attained when one relies oil the vajrasamaya (the Clear Light in sense objects) for seven days

(by one <if superior organs 1, half a m onth (m edium o rg a n ), a m o nth or a h a lf more (inferior o rg a n ). ((>*)) I have explained extensively by stressing the difference o f days (for accom plishing siddhi in ihe Stage o f G e n e ra tio n ); (now ) the siddhi (hat lakes a half-m onth (the M ah ilm u d ra) is stated by sources (the T a th a g a ta s ) o f ihe high secrct (the C lear L ig h t). H erein is the d o m ain o f ihe U p asad h an a-v o w : (70-71) M ay the glorious holder of B uddha Body co n tem p lated as the inseparable triple vajra, crcatc for me today I lie place o f blessing by way of the D iam o n d -h o ld cr o f Body (V a iro e a n a ). M a y the Buddhas of ihe ten directions contem plated as ihe inseparable three vajras, create for me today the place o f blessing ch aracterized as body. H erein is ihe d om ain of the S ad h an a-v o w : (72-73) M ay the glorious speech-path of true-nature, c o n te m p la te d as the inseparable triple vajra, create for m e today ihe place o f blessing by way of the D ianiond-holder of S peed) (A m itab h a . M ay the Buddhas of the ten directions, c o n te m p la te d as the inseparable three vajras, create for m e today the place o f blessing arising from the path of speech. H erein is the d o m ain of the M ah asad h an a-v o w : (74-75) M a y the glorious holder o f the C ittav ajra, co n tem plated as the inseparable triple vajra, create for me today the place of blessing by way of the D iam ond-holdcr of M ind (Aksobhva . M ay the Buddhas of ihe ten directions contem plated as the inseparable th ir e vajras, create for me today the place o f blessing, arising from m ind. '76 T h e re is no doubt that if there is a B uddha ( yogin o f V airoeana , a V a jra d h a rm a yogin o f A m ita b h a ), or a Y ajrasattva - vogin ot Aksobhya . then if the deluded self ( mohdtman would go bcvoncl. it would become rent asunder. I,mlcd is ch ap ter twelve, entitled Instruction on the best evocation of the pledge in the M ah.'iguhya*iantra G uhyasam.Vja of the secret and the greater secret belonging to the Body, Speei h. and M ind ot .til the I ath.igatas. III. Lditcd Pradipoddyotana com m entary on C h ap ter X I I , 6(M>4, and I'jii^tish translation. T his portion of C andiakii (i's com m entary is devoted to defining the four s>tep:> ol sdtlhana constituting the Stage of

Generation and then to explaining in detail the six mem bers of yoga [fadaiiga-yoga) constituting the Stage of Com pletion. T he part of the commentary on the six members of yoga is almost the same as is found in a work attributed to X agarjuna, the fadaitgayoga-nama (PTT, Vol. 85). Therefore, this com m ent by Candraklrti may well have been a traditional com m entary on the six members. At the end of the work ascribed to Nagarjuna (meaning of course the tantric a u th o r), there is presented the lineage of the fadangayoga of the Guhyasamaja-. lluddlm V ajradhara; Arya-N agarjuna; N agabodhi; C andraklrti; Aryadeva; Sakyaraksita; R atn am itra; D h a rm a b h a d ra ; G u n a m a ti; ManjuiS rijnana; Amoghas r l ; Viram at i ; VijayakTrti; V araprajnadharm abhadra; Srlbhadra; D harm apfda; Sakyadhvaja; Vaglsvarakirti; R atn ak lrii; M ahasthavara ; S riv an aratn a; those arc the chief ones. Also, from ftiivanaratna to (the T ib e ta n ) Gnam-gan-rin-po-chc; the chief one is D h a rm a b u d d h i. However, the Karmuntavibhdga cited within the comm cnt is by Kluhi bio (*N agabuddhi) who might be the same person as the Nagabodhi in the above lineage list. Here I omit the verse numbers assigned in liagchis edition to the block of verses which C andrakirti cites from the Guhyasamaja, Chap. X V I I I . C andraklrti does not include the verse line (Bagchi, X V II I, 144A) : guhyatantreui sancftt tividhdh parikirtitdh; and the verse grouping thereafter diverges from the edited Sanskrit text. Otherwise* C an d rak irtis citation of the verses agrees for the most part with the edited text. But his line guhyatrayam vitarkai ca vicaras tatprabhogatah appears to be an improvement over the line guhyam tarkodayam tarkam vicaram tat prayogatalt (Bagchi, X V II I, 144B). N a m p a 's Sckoddeiatika (p. 30), when quoting the block of verses from C hap. X Y I I I , gives the line guhyatrayodayas tarko viedras tatprayogatd, which at least verifies the reading guhyatraya. T h e translation is somewhat expanded by extracts w ithin parentheses of Mchan hgrel comments by T son-kha-pa, P T T , Vol. 158, pp. 87-5 to 92-1. Edited Commentary on Chapter X I I , 60-64. Idanim utpattikram asadhanangam punah spastayann ah a/ evetyadi/sevyatc alam byata iti scva/tathatam eva sam ayah/

ta ta h bhubhagadinarp sam yojanaip n isp ad an ah / scvasam ayasam yogam / p ra th a m a m angam / Sunyatalambanarn su ry ad y alam b an am upasadhanarn / tad eva m antravinyasap ary an tam sam bhavatity upasadhanasam bhavo dvitlyam / sad h a n a rth a m ca sam ayam ili/sadhanopasthapanayas tal> a d hvcsanam sa d h a n a rth a h saniaye sameti gacchatiti sam ayah sam adhi-sattvah jnanasattvas ca sadhanartha: ca samayas ca trfiyam f ava^istasya m an d alarajag ri karm arajagri paryantasva m a h a ta h p ararthasya sadhanam m ah asad h an am tac c a tu rth a k a m / cvam arigacatustayam vijnaya vajrabhedcna kulabhedena tatas ta d a n ta ra m karm ani vaksyam anani purvanycva/sadhayed ity u d d esah /sev asam ad h h y ad in a uddistany arigani nirdiSatc/ bodhicitlalam banam /seva saiva sam adhiyate cctasi sthapyata ili sam adhih / sam vojanam samyogah / kim tat bhubhagadiip m an d alacak ram p a ry a n ta m y adhim uktya nispadayah / scvasamadhi ca samyogas ca scvasam adhisamyogam { tat krtva om su n y atcti m a m ra rth a p ra v ic a ra n [otpaditam ] sam bodhim tath atalak san am bhavavcd iti/ suryacan d rap ad m ad ik ram cn aiv a paryuparivyavasthapya tadupari u yak sa rain vmyasva sarvopagrahancna asarika> m an d a la m tad u p ari punas u y ak saram tad p arav rtty a cihnarn cih n a p a ra v rity a m ahainudrarCipanispadam upasadhanarn ya sam ipc sadhya nispadya ta ity uktva / siddhir m aham udrasiddhih ta^ya a g ra tm ad ib h u tah pranavadayo m a n tra ^ / yasmin tad upasadhanarn ity agram I vinyastasam antam antra [ksaram ] m ah am u d rai upas taMnin vajrani / vairocanadisum b h a p a ry a n ta h tesain ayatanani rupaskandhadayah / tesam trtiyavyavavihatikram cna nirniya karyakaranap arijn an am vicarani-sadhya ienadhis(hanayaradhyate ycna tat sadhane codanam proktam iiiparyavakathanam kim tu buddh ak ayadhara ityadi/gaihadvayah : m antradhipativibhavanam iti m a n tra onikaiadayah / sam adhisattvah ad hipatayah jn a n a sattvah m am rad h ip aiin am kulabhedena yaihasambhavarp d h vanam m antradhipativibhavanam iti/ m ahasadhanctyadi yad uddistam m ahasadhanam tat sam padanakalcsu juanavajrinah >svadhidaivatayogavan m antri vajrapadm asatnskarapurvikam , sam apattim krtva svamantravajradrgadayah . tatsam bhuta vajrinas tcsam viivam m ahamudrikrupam dhyatva mukute dhipatim dhyatvcli/paAcata-

thagatanam m aham udrarupasya jatin m k u tc m aha v a jr a d h a r a m adhipatim pariSislc tatkulinanam inukutc v a im ran a d ih I dliyatva siddhyatc siddhim apnoti yatharuiani evam caturyogakramena vajrasauva*amaradhaiiam pratipadycdanTm sadangakramena mah avajradharanisp aitm i aha/
Samajottare : sdmdnyottamabhcdena sevd tu dtii idha bhaiet vajracatufkftia samdnyam uttamam fadbhtr angatahff

scva jfianamrtcnaiva kariavyciyadi sevyatc mmmiksubhir abhyasvata iti seva kim tat parivisuddhadcvaiainui iih sa jfianamrtenaiva sadarigayogenaiva kartavya nispadya sai vatah/ sarvatmana / sada sarvakalam / sarveryapaihesti cvakaro Yadharanr eso hi jnanam rtakhyah sadahgayogah .arvamamranam sanatathiigaianam , m antrah 1 sarpadayah tauvam dcvatatattvam [*lcsam arthah phalam] tatsadhanan m antiam tattvarthasadhakah hi vasmad arthe yasmad cvam sadahga yogah / tasmat tcnaiva scva karycti tani pratyaharadtni sad an gani nirdistani Samajottare : sevam fadaiigayogena krtva .utdhanam uttamam sadhayrd anyathd naiva jiiyate sidd/iir uttnnuij pratydhdras tathd dhydnam prdndydmai ca dharandj anusmrtiyoga(h) samadhi i ca jadanga ucyatc ity uddeSapadanani nirdesnm a h a / daSandm indriydtidm tu svavrttistham tu sarvatah' pratyahdra iti proktah kdmaharam prati prati pancakdmas samdsena paiicabuddhaprayogatahf kalpanam dhydnam ucytta tad dhydnam paftcadhd bhaiet' ' vitaikai ca vicaras ca pritiS caiia sukham tathd cittatyaikdgratd caiva paiicaitc dhydnasarngrahdh. guhyatrayam vitarkas ca vicaras tatprabhogatah trtiyam pritisankdfarn caturtham sukhasamgraham / svacittam pancamam jiieyam jndnajneyodayakfayam I sarvtbuddhamayam Sdntam sarvakdmapratifthitam / paiicajt.dnamayani has ant pancabhutasiabhdvakam I nikdna pdmandsagre pindarufxna kalpayet ' paiicatarnani mahdratnam prdmy-imam iti smttam f stamantram hrdaye dhydtrd prdnam bmdugatani roasetf niruddht svendriye ratne dhdrayed dhdra/jarft smrtam / nirodhavajrapate citte nimittodgrnha(h) jayate I paiuadhd tam nimittam tu bodhivajrena bhdfitam /

prathamam maricikdkdram dh ftmrdkdram dviiiyakam / trtiyam khadyotakdkdram caturtham dipavajjvalam ( pancamam tu saddlokam nirabhraaaganopamam f sthiram rai vajramdrgena sphdrayet tam khadhatufu f vibhavya ya d anusmrtya taddkdram tu samspharet f anusmrtir iti jneyatn .pratibhdsas tatra idyate j prajnopdyasamdpattya <arvabhdtdn samawtah f samhrtya pindayogena bimbam madhve vibhavayet ( rtiti jiidnanicpattih samadhir iti samjiiitam f iti p ra tin ird e sa m alia / da.<anam itvadi / indriyani indriyarthiig ca indriyani tcsam d asan am indriyanarn visayavisayinam svavrttih / yatha, svagrahyagrahakasvarupcna p ra v rttih / svavrttis ta tra sthitam svavrttistham / sarv atah b in a m a d h y o tta m a b lic d c n a k am ah aram p rati p ratiti / kam yante ab h ila sy a n ta iti kam a ru p ad ay as tesam in d riy air y a d a h a ra n a m g rah an am p rati p ra ti p u n a h p u n a h ta d g ra h y a h fn a ityadyarigasya pratinirdesam / pratyfdiaravi^odhanaya dviiiyam aiigam ah a / pancctvadiy pafica kania r u p a d a y a h / indriyani v isav ab h u tah sam asena / indriyair ckibhavcna p a n c a b u d d h a h cak su rad ay ah ta m tcsam sam yojanam yojanam ' p aiicab u d d h ap ray o g atah / tasm ad r u p a d a y a h yc p a iic a b u d d h a { h ) ityrvam vidham vat pariudd h a k a lp a n a m tad d h y a n a m 'ta d vitarketyadibhedcna paftcavidharri b h av ati vitarkctyadi fad b h cd ak ath an am /Tguhyatravetvadi ! indriyavisayendriyajiianani guhyatrayam J paficend riy an i / in d riy ajn an an i / ta d \is a y a c a paucatatH agatatm akcti yat p arik alp an am sa vitarkah / tasminn c:va vicaranam sthitivicarah / cvain vicaravat sa tativap rav c ib h im u k h y en a yat saum anasvalaksanarn tat prititi samkagani tattve bhinivcicna k ay ap rasrab d h y ad ilak san am ' yat prap to m sukham tat sukhasam grahan 1 I cvam abhyasyatali p ra k a rsap ary an tag an ian at/ j n a nasya caksuradi s a ip ra v rttir vijnanasva jiievc riip ad id h aim ad h a tu p a rv a n te u d a v o jn a n a jn c y o d a y a h / tasva ksayah/cittasvag rah y ag rih a k a ^ u n y a tv a p arijn a n a la k sa n a cittaik ag rata svacittam ityuktah tadcvam vidham svacittam yogena sarvabuddham ayarp bantam iti grahvadivikalpaamanat/:intarTi/ bhasam a train tat sarvasunyataikanisjham jayaic/paA caprabhcdani dvitiyam angani paficetyadi ! adarSadipaficajnanasvabhavam adhahsvasam / tam cva prtliivvadyatm akani svavajravivaran niscarya padm a-

nasagrc pin^arupena bodhicittabindurupcna dhyayat / tam evordhvapravrtta$vasam parVavarnam paiicatathagatatm akam tam eva m aharatnam pranojjivitam avameti d irg h a (m ) \istaryatcycnetisa pranayam a iti smrtah jn a ta (vya)h/tam eva pravefadisvabhavcnaharnK am japam anatvai/svam antram hrdaycsvahrtpundarike dhyatva pranam bindugatam sam ahitam aksaiam nyaset iti trtiyam arigam / oiruddhetyadi svarupadaya indriye caksuradayah asinin dvendriyc nirodhe vilinc tato visayendrivadharabhute ratnc cittaratne ca pranayam ena saha nirodhe starngatc yad dharayet tad dharanarn/kim tat/b h u ia k o tih /n iro d h a v a jra g a te citte nim ittodgraha(h) ja y a ta iti/nirodhavajram p rabhasvaram tadbhute tajjatc citte nim ittanam u d g rah o /n im ittap ratib h asah jayate utpadyate / paflcadhatunim ittam tu bodhivajrena bha$itam iti prthivya mbhasi iayanan m aricikakaram pratibhasate/pratham am nimittam / cvam am bhasas tejasi jayanad dhum rakaram dvitiyam / tejasc vayau layan;it khadyotakakaram trtiyam /suksm adhator ab h asatray ag am an ad dipavadalokapuAjasvabhava (m) caturtham / prakrtyabhasaiayanan nirabhragaganavat satatalokaprabhasavararna Irani bhavati paAcamam / etani pancanim ittani nirvana (m ) prapayanti/, yathoktam Karmdntavibhdgt: prati mahi salilam gacchtj jalam gacchati pdvakam f pavako vdyum anveti i-dyur vijiidnam dviset f vtjnanam dhdrandnvitvam prabhasvaram opy dvifcdjiti/ sthiram ityadina / vajramargena Manghaniyam pancanimittanupurvena prabhasvarapravesena khadhatusu lokadhatusu spharaycd vyapayed dharmakayarupena/etad dharanarigam iti catur tham / evam atm anaip prabhasvaragatam vibhavya saksatkrtva yat purvam anusm rtya maricikadyakarena bhutakotini prapitam / tadakarena tcnaiva kramena sam spbaret/utpadayei/etad anantaroktaip anusm rtir iti jfteyam jn atav y am / pratibhasa saxpvit tatra paficamam ahgam anusm rtir jay ate [* n a n v a tra ]/ tarvabhav&b prajftopayasamapattya sam vrtiparam ai ihasatyayogena athavarajaiigamam sthitipindarupena niaham udrarupcna ckikftya tasya sthavarajangam asya niadhye yuganaddhatm akam ahavajradharabim baip vibhavayet/janiyut/ anena kramena r^iti ksancna jfianani$pattih / jftanadehanispattife { samadhir iti ?atham angam kathyate /

Sn-.Mdydjdie pim am eva d ev atan isp attib h ed am udddvotayann aha yogas tu trividho jneyo 'dhifthanah frank abas caf ni>pannair cittabimbasya yogo buddhais tu vam itahj adhi\thdnamdtr [<i] hamkdro yogo 'dhiffhdna ucyatef bodhicittaviiuddhis tu mantrabijodayo mahdnf kranum ni^pannabimbas tu mudrdganesu kaipitahf tatkalpiteti kathitayogah kalpita ueyate! sarvdkdra; aropetah spharet samhdrakdrakahl rtih jfidnanifpanno yogo ni\panna ucyata iti I Vairocandbhisainbodhitantre "pi dvividhadevatayogarp nirdiatc/ d e v a ta ru p a m api g u h y a k a d h ip a te dvividham pariSuddham a su d d h a m ca iti , t a t p a r i vuddham a d h ig a ta ru p a m sarvanim ittap a g a ta m a p a ri[s u d d h a ]m sarvanim ittam ru p av am asan isth.mas c a /ta tra dvividhcna d e v ataru p en a dvividhakaryanisp a ttir b h a v a ti.sa n im itte n a sanim itta siddhir u p a ja y a tc /a n im ittenfm im iita siddhir ista jin a v a ra ih sada anim itte sthitva vai sanim ittam p r a s a d h v a tc ia s m a t sarv ap rak aren a vinim ittani sevyata iti/sam dhya b h a sa // 7 ranslation The Stage o f Gt nr ration'. Now iddnim s o as to clarity the four) evocation m em b er(s) of the Stage o f G eneration, he says Service an d so on. Because one serves a n d envisages, it is service v*), nam ely, ju st tow ard reality, .is the pledge (saniaya). Pursuant to th at, the undertak in g an d generation o f the d iam o n d ) spot o f e a rth , etc. generation of the palace from B H R U M , u p to the C lear Light of conviction is the occupation with the pledge o f service seid>ama\asamyoga , the first m em ber. H av in g in that w ay) voidness as m editative object, the m ed itativ e object of miii, an d so on. is N ear Evocation {upasd dhana). Precisely the bringing to conclusion the depositing (in the body of m a n tra s (O m , etc.) is the arising of N ear Evo cation (upasadhana-sambhava), the second (m em ber). C oncerning 'th e aim of the sadhana, and the symbol (sadhandrtham ca samajam), the aim ol the sadhana means to solicit for establishing the evocation (ot o n es own three doors as the B u d d h a s Body, Speech, and M in d ). Sym bol (samaya) m eans "to get together, i.e. the symbol (ones own Symbolic Being), along with the Sam adhisattva and the Jn a n a sattv a , to

* wit, both the aim of the sadhana and th f symbol arc (he third (member). T he accomplishment of the great aim of others, (accom plishment) which is the best victorious m a n d a la and the best victorious rite belonging to the rem aining conclusion, is the G reat Evocation (mahdsddhana). T h a t is the fourth (member). Having thus understood the four members as a division o f vajra, i.e. as a division of family (kula) (the five families), then, i.e. next, one should accomplish the rites to be stated subsequently precisely as the first. (The first m em ber :) Starting with the lines Sevasamadhi he expands upon the (four) members which were touched upon. T h e bodhicitta (in the void) as m editative object is service (sevd). Precisely that concentrates, i.e. halts in the mind, hence samadhi\ Praxis (samyoga) m eans right a p p li cation. T h a t (imaginative) generation, by m eans of convic tion (adhimukti), from the (diam ond) spot o f earth , ctc. up to the mandala-circle, which is both the service-j<im<?<// a n d the praxis, is the sevasamadhisamyoga. 1laving done that (m u c h ), he should contemplate the supreme revelation, possessing the character of thusness, which has arisen from pondering the m eaning of the m antra, Om&inyata. (The second m em b er:) (T h en ,) in the sequence of sun, moon, lotus, etc., one stacks successively higher, places the three syllables (a. e, ha) upon th a t; then consolidates all that, and again imagine* the moon-disk, and upon that the three syllables (Om, Ah, H um ). T hen from the transform ation o f that, there arise the hand sym bol(s) (of the six fam ilies). From the transformation of the hand sym bol(s), there are completed the form (s) of M a h a m u d ra (of the six fam ilies). W hat accomplishes and completes nearby, that is said to be (definition o f' N ear Evocation (ufmsddhana^. T h e siddhi is the siddhi of mahamudra (body from the five abhisambodhis) . Its foremost is (he initial ones, the m antras O m , etc. W hen that is present, the N ear Evocation is foremost. H aving placed all the mantra-syllables, there are the form (s) of the M a h a mudra. Therein is the vajra. to wit, the (32) deities from Vairoeana down to S u m b h a (ra ja ). T h e ir >>ascs (d\atana) arc the skandhas of form, etc.

D O CU M EN TS

(T h e th ird m e m b e r :) O f those (m em b ers), one becom es c c rta in by the stage o f the th ird series (the A tiyoga) an d accom plishes th ro u g h p o n d e rin g w ith th orough knowledge o f causc (the placem en t of deities in the b o d y ) an d fruit (of con tem plating after that p la c e m e n t). W h ereb y (by inviting the d e ity host of the triple v a jra a n d d ra w in g them in to oneself) one has pleased (the deities) for the sake o f blessing (ones own th ree d o o rs ), thereby th a t is said to be the ex hortation w h en th ere is e v o c a tio n . 1 T h a t is re la te d by w ay o f synonym (o f evocation a n d e x h o rta tio n ). But w hy (the ex h o rtatio n ) ? T h e two verses (Nos. 70-71) b e g in n in g buddhakayadkara\ T h e co n tem p latio n o f the lords of the m a n tr a s refers to the syllables O m , ctc. (i.e. w hen V a jr a d h a r a a n d A ksobhya are th e mandala-rulers, H u m ; an d the re m a in in g four samadhisalivas by O m , Sva, A h, H a ) . T h e S am ad h isattv as a re th e lords; the J n a n a s a ttv a s belo n g to the lords o f the m a n tra s. T h e m e d ita tio n on the various families acco rd in g to th e ir arising is th e c o n te m p la tio n o f the lords o f th e m a n t r a s / (T h e fo u rth m e m b e r :) R e g a rd in g the g re a t evocation ( M a h a s a d h a n a ) . . w h a t is pointed o u t as the g re a t evocation belo n g s to the jn a n a v a jrin -s a t the tim e o f g en eratin g it. T h e m a n tr in s possessing the yoga o f presiding d e ity , h av in g aro u sed samdpalti p reced ed by instigation of the vajra a n d padma (of th eir own fa m ily ), are th eir own m a n tra s Y a jra d rg , etc. (32 in n o .), i.e. the vajrin -s arisen therefrom (i.e. as in a w om b from th e syllables O m , c tc .). T o have im agined their totality as th e form o f M a h a m u d r a (o f th e V icto rio u s M a n d a l a ) , is stated as h a v in g im ag in ed th e lord on the crow n o f his h e a d , th a t is, h a v in g im agined the lord M a h a v a jr a d h a r a on the crow n a n d tw isted h a ir o f the M a h a m u d r a form o f the five T a th a g a ta s , a n d (h av in g im ag in ed ) V a iro e a n a a n d the o th e r B uddhas on the re m a in in g crowns o f their family deities (L ocana, etc.),. one is successful, i.e. attain s siddhi. yathdrutam I The Stage o f Completion : H a v in g thus explained the delighting of V ajrasattv a (for the p u rp o se o f m u n d a n e siddhis) by the stages o f four yogas (but w ith no treatm en t o f V ictory o f the R ite, w hich belongs to M a h a s a d h a n a ) , now (iddnim) he alludes to the com pletioa

o f M ahavajradhara by ihe stages of six members in the L'ttaratantra (Chap. X V I I I ) of the Guhyasamaja : By the distinction o f shared and .superior', one posits two kinds of service: the shared one by the four lajras, the superior' one by members six in number. (Cf. X I I , 64 : O ne should create, e v e r y w h e r e and a l w a y s , j u s t w i t h the knowledge nectar of ser vice. F o r th is b r i n g s to success the aim of m antra and ot tattva, o f all mantras. ) As to the words, 'O n e should create-just w ith the know ledge nectar of service, and & on, O n e serve*, having been o studying with desire for liberation (the highest siddhi), is (the definition of) service* (jm i). And why (the desired liberation) ? T he (yuganaddha) body of deity completely pure (of the two obscurations). T h a t is to be created, i.e. completed, just with the knowledge nectar of service, i.e. just with the six-membered yoga. Everywhere' means in the nature of all. Always means (those six) at all times and in all good postures. T he expression ju s t ('<i) is in the sense of restriction (to the particular instance). For this (c70 hi) refers to the knowledge nectar, i.e. the six-membered yoga. O f all m antras means of all T a th a g a ta s. M a n tra s arc SARPA ('serpent) and so on (diamond m uttering of both neydrtha and nitdrtha m an tias). R eality (tattva) means the god reality (of ultimate yuganaddha). T heir aim (attha) is the fruit (phala). By accomplishing that (fruit, by means of the six members) one accomplishes the reality aim for the m antra. F or, means wheiefore in the sense of aim . For the reason the six-membered yoga is that way, fur that reason the service is to create just with that (yoga). Those six members, pratyahara, etc. are set forth in the Uttara-tantra of the Guhyasamaja: When one does the service with the six-membered yoga, he wins the supreme success. In 110 other way does the supreme siddhi arise. Pratyahara, dhvana, pranayam a, dh aran a, anusm rti, and samadhi, are the six members. He expands upon those brief indications as follow s (Chap.

X V I I I , verses 141, flf. in Bagchis n u m b e rin g ): T h e dw elling upon interiorization of the ten sense bases on all levels severally directed toward the taking of desires, is callcd W ith d raw al (p r a iy a h a ra ). T h e five desires are in condensation through the application to the five Buddhas. M editation (dhyiina) is said to be imagination.*1 A nd that M ed itatio n is fivefold: P rim ary C o n c e p t i o n " ^ (v ita rk a )is the secret triad, from the enjoym ent o f which comes Secondary C onception (viciira). T h e vicinity o f ^ joy is the third, a n d the sum of pleasure is the fourth. O n e s own consciousness w ith removal o f the upsurge o f knowledge a n d knowables, is known as the fifth, w ith a peace composed of all B uddhas and ab id in g in all desires. D raw ing forth the b reath m ad e o f five knowledges a n d which is the self-existence o f the five elements, one should im agine it in the f o r m o fa tiny ball on the tip o f the lotus nose. T h e great jew el o f five colors is said to be pran ay am a. H av in g m ed itated on o n es own m a n tra in the h e a rt, one should place the p ra n a in its bindu form. W hen o n es sense organ and the jew el have ceased (to o p e ra te ) one should retain. (T h a t is) called R etention (dharana). W hen consciousness goes tow ard the d iam o n d o f cessation, the apprehension o f signs arises. T hose signs have been explained by the d ia m o n d o f en lightenm ent as fivefold. T he first h as the aspect o f a m irage, the second the aspect o f smoke. T h e third has the aspect of fire-flies, the fourth shines like a lam p , a n d the fifth is a steady light like a cloudless sky. O n e should rad iate that firm thing by the vajra p a th into the regions of the sky. C ontem plating w hich, by R ecol lection (anusmrti) one should rad iate those aspects. O n e should know about Recollection th a t there is the shining ap pearance, and that it (R ecollection) is engendered therein. H aving draw n together by the equipoise o f insight and means all states in condensation by the yoga o f the small ball, one should contem plate the image in their middle. Instantly there is th t consum mation of knowledge called 'S a m a d h i.

Explaining in detail, lie state* the vere of the ten* and so on. Sense bases arc the (personal) sense bases 'o f eye, etc.) and the objects (form s c*c.) of the sense bases. T h e interiorization (svavrtti) is of those ten sense base s which are the sense objects and the senses grasping them. to wit : accord ing to the engagement with the intrinsic fcatuie of ihe individual apprehended object and apprehending organ, there is interiori zation. T he abiding in that, is the dwelling upon interiorization. O n all levels means according to ihe distinctions of inferior, middling, and best (for each sense o b j e c t , that is, Severally directed toward the laking of desires. 'Desites* according to the passage, T hey desire and aie attached to , are lorm, and s o o n (the five sense objects). Seveiallv directed, i.e. again and again, toward that taking, i.e. apperception, ot those (sense objects) by the sense organs, ihcir apperception is the taking. T h at is the detailed explanation of the initial m e m b e r (which is the arcane body of purificationafterwards obtained*). With the aim of purifying the W ithdrawal, he states the sccond member with the verse the five' and so on. T h e five desires are the sense bases of form, etc., i.e. the live) sense objects. In condensation means by unification of the sense objects) with the sense organs. T h e live Buddhas are the eye and other sense organs. T h e light conjunction of them (to their respective Buddha, Aksobhya, eic. is the conjunction through the application to the five Buddhas. As a r e s u l t , form and so on, are (also) those five Buddhas. In that fashion (of conjunction), whatever is the imagination purified (of ordinary appearance) is the Meditation*. T hat becomes fivefold by the di\ ision into Priinarv Conception* and so on. The verse Primary Conception* and so o n . has t h e s e t t i n g forth of its division. As to the verse the secret tiiad* and <o on, the sense organ, the sense object, and t h e knowledge based o n the sense, are <he secret triad. T h e rough imagination that the five sense organs, the 'five) k n o w l e d g e s based on the senses, and their sense objects have the nature of the live l athagutas, is l*rimaiy Conception. T h e dclibetating (in detail) just on that, is Stcondaiy Conception in l o c a t i o n (t h o s e two arc also arcane body ot purification afteiwards obtained*). W hen one is so deliberating (with (hose two), what has the characteristic of contentment through facing the entrance into

reality. is the vicinity called Jo y (priti). W hat has attain ed the pleasure possessing Iho characteristic of body-cathartic an d so on the inind-t a t h a t l i e ), through adherence to reality, that is the sum of pleasure (sukha-samgraita). Tlic one who thus has applied him self repeatedly so as to go to the pinnacle o f excellence has the removal of upsurge o f knowledge an d know.ibles, w heie the upsurge o f knowledge is the six evolvcm enls as eye, and so on, o f perception (vtjridna), and w here the upsurge in ihe knowables is in (the six) from form up to the dhatmadhaiu (which is the object of the sixth sense ); and w here its rem oval is called o n es own consciousness (svacitta) as the voidness in consciousness o f both apperccived an d a p p e r cep tio n ,an d as the onr-poiiiicdncss o f m ind with the c h a ra c te ri stic of com plete k n ow ledge/ O n e s own consciousncss o f such fashion by reason o f yoga is w ith a peace composed of all B uddhas'. T h e Peace is through pacifying the discursive thought of the apperceived a n d so on. It is engendered (by successive dissolution of the three voids) as light-only an d the ultim ate that is one with universal void (the fourth void, the Symbolic Cllear Light . T h a t is the fivefold division of the second mem ber. R eg ard in g the verse five and so on, the dow nw ard breath has the intrinsic n a tu re of the live knowledges, beginning w ith m irror-like, and is the individualizing tactor of earth (and the o th er elem ents). D raw ing it forth from the nostril of o n e s vajra, one should imagine it in the form of a tiny ball, i.e. in the form o f the bndhicitta-bindu. on the lip of ihe lotus-nose (of the sacral place . Prccidy that is the breath proceeding upw ard with five colors, the nature of the five T athagatas. Preciselv that is the "great jewel' the "drop of light at the nose of the face, and which is retited . Prana* is w hat envigorates; ayaina' i< that b \ which it is spread far; thus the explanation of pianayiim a to be known, because one should recitc during day and night by way ol ihe own-nature of making that (p raiia y a m a , ente r and m on. H aving m editated on ones own m antra drop in the h c a ii, i.e. at (the nose of) the lotus fi-petallid of o n e \ heat t, one should placc (njaset) the Vrana in its bindu form the letter A, etc.) deposited, invio lable (ak^ata). T h at is the third member. C o n cern in g the verse has ceased and so on, ihe sense

bases arc ones form, and so on (tin- five sense objects1 as well *, as the eye, and so on (the five sense organs . When the pairs of sense bases have ceased, i.e. are not in evidence (as in death s sequence), then when the jewel which is the basis o f sense objects and sense organs, and the jewel of consciousness (the manwijM na%the sixth sense) have ceased along with tndndydmn, i.e. have set (astamgata). what one would retain, that is Retention. Why that ? T h e T ru e Limit (thegnosisofthe ( Hear Light). The verse states) When consciousness goes toward the diamond of cessation, the apprehension of signs arises. T he diamond of cessation* is the Clear Light (prabhdsvaia). When conscious ness has gone to it. it is born in it. T h e apprehension of signs i.e. the manifestation of signs arises, i.e. occurs as prior signs). Regarding the passage, the signs of the live realms have been explained by the diam ond of enlightenm ent the details are as follows) : Through dissolution into w ater by earth (in the performers body), thcaspect o f a mirage m an i feststhe first sign. T hrough the dissolution into lire on the part of water, the aspect o f smoke the second. T hrough the dissolution into wind of fire, the aspect o f fire-Hies the third. Through the going into the three lights on the pari of the subtle clement (i.e. w ind), the self-existence o f the set of lights like a lam p the fourth. T hrough the (sequential) dissolution of the (three) prakrti-\i^}u (s), there is only the Clear Light, a lasting light like a c lo u d le t skv the fifth. Those five signs bring (consciousness) to N irvana, as is said in the Karmdntaiibhaga : First, earth goes into water. W ater goes into fire. Fire passes into wind. W ind enter< perception (tiji/dna). Perception accompanied bv Retention in turn enters the Clear Light . T hen the verse that linn th in g fpurified in the (Tear Light) and so on (is as follows'I : 'By the vajra p ath , (expansion of buddhi to the whole sentient world i.e. by entering the Clear Light preceded bv the indispensable (non-evadible, alnnghaniya) five signs, one should radiate, i.e. pervade with the form of the D harm akaya, in the regions of the sky, i.e. the worldly realms. T h ai, explaining R etention, is the fourth member. Contem plating, i.e. realizing in immediacy, that oneself has in that way gone into the Clear Light, by Recollection that previously one has readied the T ru e Limit by means of

the aspects of m irage and so on, one should rad iate, i.e. engender, in a sequence which is precisely by those aspects (in reverse o rd e r'1. Im m ediately after that was told, one should know , i.e. it should be known, ab o u t R eco llectio n ' that there is the shining ap p e a ra n c e (f'rntibhd<a), which is right u n d erstan d in g (the gnosis o f the C lear L ig h t) an d that therein is engendered the fifth m em ber, Recollection, not anyw here else. H av in g unified by the equipoise of insight a n d m ean s, i.e. by the union o f absolute and conventional truths, all states (bhdva)y w hether stationary (the receptacle worlds, bhdjanaloka) or m oving (the sentient life, sattvaloka), in the form o f a tiny ball in location, i.e. in the form of M a h a m u d ra (the divine b o dy), (then) one should contem plate, i.e. should know , the image o f Mali a v a jra d h a ra w ith the n atu re o f y u g an ad d h a in the m iddle o f th at, the stationary an d the m oving. In this sequence, instantly, i.e. in a m om ent, there is the co nsum m a tion o f knowledge, i.e. the consum m ation o f the knowledgebody (the y u g a n a d d h a b o d y ), called S a m a d h i, i.e.ex p lain ed to be l he sixth m em ber. Besides, in the $ri~Mdydjdfa, he clearly states the varieties in the generation of deity : Yoga should be known as of three kinds: w ith blessing an d with im agination (on the Stage o f G e n era tio n ), an d the yoga (on the Stage of C om pletion) of the citta image which is extolled by the perfected Buddhas. T h e ego of Blessing-only is said to be the yoga w ith blessing. W hen there is the pure bodhicitta, an d the great source o f m antra-seeds; an d in sequence the per fected image, im agined in the set of m udras and when that (image is im agined with the thought, T h a t is im agined , it is ealletl the yoga with im agination. Endowed with the best of all aspects, and having conso lidated (the deities one should radiate (them ). Instantly, there is the consum m ation of knowledge, called the completed yoga. Also, in the I airoaimlbhisambodhi he sets forth the dcvatayoga as of two kinds: O master of the sccret folk, there are two kinds o f divine form pure and impure. I he pure kind is understood form, free from all bigns. T h e im pure kind has all signs,,

with color-and-shape forms. Now, two purposes go with those two kinds of divine form. T he kind with signs generates siddhi with signs; the kind without signs, the siddhi without signs. Besides, the holy Jinas have m ain tained that when one is always stationed in the signless kind, he can also bring to success (the siddhi) with signs. Therefore, by all means one should take recourse to the non-signcd. Samdhya bhasa/.

IN T R O D U C T IO N S I I N T R O D U C T I O N T O B U D D H IS T T A N T R I S M A. Tantra (generalities) W i i a t is a n introduction to the ideas a n d practiccs o f the B uddhist T a n tr a s ? Lei inc allude to the leading literatu re on ilu* subject. It is well know n that S. B. D asg u p ta w rote a book en titled An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism (U niversity of C a lc u tta , 1950). T h is has certainly been a helpful book for persons interested in the Buddhist T a n tra s . T h e Ja p a n e se scholars appreciated it especially since the kinds of T a n tra s , w hich h ad been co n tin u ed in J a p a n w ere o f a q u ite different c h a ra c te r from the works consulted by S. B. D asgupta, an d those scholars were also interested in the philosophical tenets w hich D asg u p ta found in the tantric manuscripts which he consulted. It m ust also be adm itted that D asgupta was himself a ttra c te d to certain features of the m anuscripts which he con sulted, such as verses ab o u t the cakras (mystic centers) in the body, a n d the special way in which the male and female are regarded, suggestive of being com pared with the akta m ove m ents th a t have been strong in Bengal. All the m aterial which he bro u g h t forward is indeed au th o ritativ e d a ta from those texts. N a tu ra lly he did not thoroughly represent the works he consulted; and besides they are replete with ritual details that arc often tedious. Benoytosh B hattacharyya m ade giant strides in opening u p this subject by his various text editions; a n d o f course he was well p rep ared to c*xplain elements o f the system, which he did in various publications w ith sym pathy. I have frequently recom m ended to my students to consult G. T u c c is Tibdan Painted Scrolls for its V ajray an a ch a p te r; but this is an expensive work of restricted distribution. T h en the late Professor 1 . D. Lessing <>f Berkeley and myself collaborated in the translation from 1 ibetan of the work now publi>hed (1968) a* Mkhas grub ije's Fundamentals o f the Buddhiit Tantras. In conversations I have freely adm itted that this is not an intro d u ctio n for W esterners as it was for Tibetans, even though it

presents the fundamentals of the four T a n tra literature divisions with a considerable and convenient fund o f inform ation not hitherto available in any Western language. T o answer the question posed above, an introduction should 'how what the T an tra is all about, the underlying suppositions, the leading instructions, to the extent of recreating the T a n tra as a viable entity to be liked or disliked. T h e trouble with so much of the present writing on the T a n tra is that the reader is, or should be, left with a feeling of distancv or bew ilderm ent; he is neither genuinely for or against it, because he does not understand it. It is on this point that one can praise S. B. D asg u p tas work: he was not simply reproducing citations from texts; he tried to explain as he went along. But he could only explain when his own background allowed him, namely when these Buddhist Tantras overlapped the Hinduism with which he had a natural knowledge through his birthright and training. Now, what is the relation of the Buddhist T a n ti a to H induism ? This is hardly a onc-dircctional influence. In fact, the Buddhist T an tra goes back in many of its leading ideas to the Brahmanism of the older Upanisads, and some of its ritual (e.g. the homa, or burnt offering can be traced in old Vedic rites. In short, the Buddhist T a n tra incorporated a large amount of the mystical ideas and practices that have been current in India from most ancient times, and preserved them just as did the Hindu T an tra in its own way, while both systems had mutual influence and their own deviations. T he Buddhist T antra is deeply indebted to certain later Upanisads such as the Yoga Upanisads, which were probably composed in the main f o r m about 1st century B . C . to the beginning of the G upta period, and which arc a primitive kind of Hinduism. But these m y stical practices were so thoroughly integrated with Buddhist d o g m a , that it is a most difficult m a tte r to separate out the various sources of the Buddhist T a n tra . Then, with regard to the chronology, it is not my original idea to put the revealed Buddhist T an tras in the period of 4th and 5th centuries, a . d . (B. Bhattacharyya m aintained such an early date for the (iuhyasamdjatav.tra). This certainly requires justification, and in the section Introduction to the Guhyasamajatantra* I shall present sonic arguments in its case. For the others I shall simply assert that there is no where else in Indian

chronology to put the bulk o f them : exactly in the same period which w as the creative period of H induism a n d which cast the m old for (Ik- forms of Indian religion in the subsequent centuries. T h e re are some notable exceptions just as there arc for H in duism ; and in the case of the Buddhist T a n tr a ccrtainly the expanded halacakratanha was composed m uch later. T h e T a n tr ic revelations were kept in esoteric cults for there m ust have been a tension betw een the orthodox Buddhist sects an d these far-out ta n tric groups. T his strict secrecy was continued u p to a ro u n d the 8th cen tu ry w hen com m entaries by nam ed persons a p p e a r. T hose com m entaries continue through the 12th century, m ore an d m ore coloring the public forms of Buddhism in its last In d ia n phase. H ow ever, we m ust look to o th er reasons for the disap p earan ce of B uddhism ; after all, the H indus themselves are fond o f T a n t r a a n d this has not caused H induism to d isap p ear ! T hese tan tric cults w ere in tro d u ced into C h in a from In d ia d u rin g the T ang D ynasty b ut did not take root u n til the 8th century w hich saw the activity of the In d ia n masters V a jra bodhi a n d A m oghavajra {cf. C hou Y i-liang, Tantrism in China'). T h e kind o f Buddhist T a n tra s which prevailed in C h in a gave rise to the two forms o f Buddhist mysticism in J a p a n the form handed down by the T en d ai school (in which the T a n tr a is one o f the topics of study) an d that h an d ed dow n by the Shingoii School in which the T a n tr a is the m ain thing). Buddhist T a n trism called the D iam ond V ehicle, was brought to com pletion in J a p a n by K obo Daishi, founder o f the Shingon. Jap an ese T a n trism is especially based on the works called the Mahdtairocanasutra, also known as the Vairocandbhisambodhi (which yields the Gai b h a -m a n d a la ) and the Tattvasamgraha (referred to in J a p a n as T ip of the T h u n d e rb o lt which yields the *V ajram andala? . Forms of T a n tra were also introduced a n d once apparently flourished in w hat is now called J a v a , where as Paul M us has shown, the five levels of B orobudur symbolise the five Buddhas. But more than anyw here else the Buddhist T a n tra s came to flower in T ib et, starting with their im plantation in the 8th century by the teachers Padm asam bhava and S am arak siia. After the c e s s a t i o n of composition in Sanskri o f the com m entaries, they continued in the T ib e ta n language in an enorm ous literature.

There are serious problems in studying the T an tric litera___ture. Becausc of the syncretic and deliberately mystifying \ nature of such texts as the Guhyasamdjatantra , their sentences, although relatively simple in language complexity, continually need the gurus oral expansion and authoritative commentary. i T he problem is not with the individual words, which indeed I mean w hat they ought; but rather in the fact th at so m any words, besides meaning w hat they ought, are employed in a range, of acceptable usages and then intend other senses in arbitrary analogical systems. Again, these texts are essentially ' practical, are concerned with doing things such as rites. And recipe books, even on the m undane level, arc notorious for > requiring a teacher to tell the missing steps. T h e n , in the case of the Tantras. the gurus have taken vows not to reveal the T antras to the uninitiated (im m ature) persons, and so the : difficulty is compounded, even for those persons who are initia ted. T he style of writing is conducivc to corruptions in the texts, certainly a fault in manuscripts of the Guhyasamdjatantra. It is understandable that the numerous difficulties of the literature might result in some unw arranted judgm ents. In fact, eminent authorities of the T an tras during their India period had disagreements with each other, and later investi gators, sucK1as the T ib etan gurus, decided that certain earlier authorities h ad misunderstood this or that im portant point. Therefore, it is right for us to be charitable in the event o f seeming m isinterpretations; but still they should be pointed out. In illustration, some questionable terms have been applied to the Buddhist T antras. ( I ) T h e re is no expression Dhyani Buddhas in the texts; one finds instead the words T a th a g a ta , Buddha or Jin a , as in the com pound pan catath ag ata (five T athagatas), (2) There is no terminology right and left hand paths in the Buddhist T an tras, an d no classification of the T antras on that basis, insofar as classification by the tantrics themselves is concerned. T he standard classification is into four classes. K riya-tantra, C a ry a -ta n tra , Y o g a -ta n tra , and A nuttarayoga-tantra. O f course, some Westerners m ay feel that certain Buddhist T a n tra s such as the Guhyasamdjatantra teach practices which fit the category of left hand p a th and there arc statements in those T an tras which lend credence to such a theory. We should observe that the H indu T a n tra s themselves use such terminology but in different ways, as shown

in C h in ta h a ra n G h ak rav artis work, The Tantra'. Studies on their Religion mid Literature. (3) T h e texts do not use the word sakti in the sense of the female consort pow er o f a deity (of course, the woril iakti can l>e and is used in the o th er m eaning of a certain w eap o n ). In the article, Fem ale Energy a n d Sym bo lism in the Buddhist T a n tr a s I gave the following list o f gcncric words used for the goddesses or females in the class of A n u tiaray o g atan tra prajud (insight ), yogini (female yogin), vidyd (occult science or know how), devi (goddess or queen), mdtr (m o th e r), rndtikd (m o th e r o r letters), ddkini (fairy*), dilti (female m essenger'), iftri (heroine), and mudrd (seaP or gesture). O f course, that use o f the word ia k ti for the female consort of the Buddhist T a n tra s implies that this is what the tantrics m ean by their consort. L ater on. various scholars (S. B. D.isgupta especially) protested against the use o f the w ord on the grounds that in these Buddhist T a n tra s , the projiid (one o f the most frequent o f the w ords) is passive, not active like the &aivitic akti. T h a t is one reason for m y w riting that article Fem ale E nergv. because w hen one goes into the texts he will find for the usage of the w ord prajiia that in the o rd in ary person who docs not control his m in d this is indeed a passive function, while the aim o f the Buddhist praxis is to arouse the fiery potentiality of this function. How is it aroused ? T h e Mahdvairoeanasutra has a celebrated verse about 11)is m atter, an d which is correlated with m a n tra steps in the Shingon sect. F ortunately it is in Sanskrit, as cited in K am ala' ilas (First . lihdvandkrama (G. T u c c is Minor Buddhist Texts, Part II, p. 1W : vairocanabhisam bodhau coktam /tad etat sarvajfiajn;*tinm kai unam ulam bodhicittahctukam upayaparyavasanam iti / And it is said in the Vairocandbhisambodhi : ^Master o f secret folk . T h e omniscient knowledge has Compassion for a root, lias the M ind of Enlightenm ent f o r a motive, and has t h e M eans for a finality. In that passage omniscient knowledge* is equivalent to the B u d d h as Perfection of Insight (prujfid/tdtnmitd). Compassion provides this Insight with a root in iIk phenom enal world. T h e M ind of E nlighten ment provides this Insight with a motive, the vow as cause. Th- M eans provides this Insight with a finality, its fulfilment. At t h e first two leve ls, the Insight is still passive; it is w ith the M e a n s that it a p p e a l ' in full flowering, its true active form.

When Insight {prajfid) is combined with the Means (uptiya), it is no longer passive. Therefore, while it is not strictly correct to call Prajna a Sakti, the persons who applied this expression and Bcnoytosh Bhattacharyya and Giuseppe Tucci had read widely in both H indu an d Buddhist T an traswere closer 10 the truth than those who insist on the passive5 interpretation. This general problem of explaining the T antras is so crucial that it is germane to dwell upon it some more. Fortunately, there is a master who expressed himself on this very point, the V~"8th century teacher Lilavajra, the teacher o f Buddhasrijnana ' who heads one o f the two lineages of G uhyasam aja intcrpre/' tation. Lilavajra has written a commentary on the S'ri-guhya\ garbha-mahdtantrardja (the fikd-nama) (P T T , Vol. 82, pp. 248 and 249). H e soon begins a section M ethod of Explaining the T a n tra , which he says has three aims, in the sense of aims for the superior, intermediate, and inferior am ong candidates jUid sense organs. In the course of explaining for the aim of the superior candidate or sense organ, he includes th at which is related to the form of meaning, which has certainty about the reality of the guhyagarbha (gsari bafii snit'i po de kho na nid ties pafio), regarding the chief words in the title o f the T a n tra on .which he is commenting. T h en he stales that there are three " kinds of guhya and three kinds of garbha. T h e three of guhya (secret)) are ( l ) o f the self existent (rati bzhin=*svabhava), (2) pregnant (sbas pa^garbhin), a n d (3) profound (gab pa*=gamll bhira). In explanation o f the first kind, that o f the self existent, he cites the text: Aho ! T he dharma which is the utmost secret is the in trinsic secret (behind) diverse manifestation, highly secret through self existence; than which there is nothing more sccret ! In summary of his commentary on this verse, it turns out that the utmost secret is the non-dual, self-originated Wisdom (ji?5na), an effortless fount of good qualities while its own aspect is incognizable, It is an element located in the stream of consciousness (the sarptdna or sairitati), an incessant fountain of entities self appearing, but this clement is obscured by dis cursive thought; it is both cause and effect as both conscious ness and the imagined objective dom ain; there is nothing more central, and it appears through introspection (svasamve-

d a m ) but by reason of obscurations, m en have sought it else- \ where. (This is certainly the em bryo of the T athagata* 1 theory from one stream of n o n -tan tric B uddhism ). T h e second j kind of secret is the p re g n a n t, so called bccause it is like the i w om an im pregnated by a n o th e r an d w ith the em bryo grow ing j in privacy. T h is secret is deliberately given or w ith h eld by , the g u ru , a n d concerns the secret practice of the T a n tr a . L ila v ajra says, I f one practices by praxis according to the w ord (of the T a n t r a ) but lacks the mantra-precepts, this is a grievous fa u lt (snags kyi m an nag mod pa dari/sgra bzhin spyod pa m a m s kyis spyad na/Sin tu nes pa che bas/ ). T h e th ird kind,~T the profound, is the perfcct m e a n in g o f the T a n t r a (rgyud kyi don phun sum tshags p a ) , a n d this is conferred by oneself through j the tw'o pramdnas. H e m ust m ean D irect Perception {pratyak$a\_ \ a n d Inference {anumdna). In sum m ary of the three kinds o f 1 sccrct, the first o f the self-existent is n a tu r e s secret, the second o f 1 p re g n a n t is conferred by another, the third o f profound is1 conferred by oneself. W hen we think over L ila v a jra s precepts, i t \ strikes us that it is easy to be irrelev an t a b o u t the B uddhist \ T a n t r a by treatin g as do ctrin e w hat in fact is a practice: as fary^ ^ as h u m a n secrecy is concerned, in T a n trism there is only pre- . g n a n t practice a n d profound doctrine. A n d th a t it is easy to go . w rong by in terp retin g the literal w ords o f the T a n t r a as the practice, w hile lacking the precepts o f the guru w hich clarify w h at the practice should be. I have been told that this p o in t is also stressed in the Shingon sect o f J a p a n , an d so this is a m a t ter in d ep en d en t o f w h eth er the passage in question has sexual* symbolism. L ately some persons have found only a sexo-yogic topic to set forth as characteristic o f the A n u tta ra y o g a -ta n tra , b u t L ilavajra informs us that the most im p o rtan t issue a n d aim o f the T a n tr a s is that elem ent hidden in the stream o f conscious ness, obscured by discursive thought (which plagues us a ll). ---- s T h a t m an becomes interested in finding the elem ent hidden in the stream of consciousness is probably the reason for the non-tantric teaching that B uddhahood is attain ab le only through a hum an body, which is a teaching continued in the T a n tra s (Snags rim, f. 460a-2): /clri m ed hod las/ skye ba hdi la sans rgyas nid kyi hbras bu rab tu ster ba rgyud kyi rgyal poho/lha la sogs pa hgro ba lriahi skye ba la ni m a yin no/zhes d a n / I t says

in the Vimalaprabha : The phrase grams the Buddhahood fruit in this life means the K in" of T antras giants the Buddhahood fruic in this hirih, which is a human birth; not in the birth which is one of the five (oilier) destinies(gati), god and the like. B.
D efinitions ami varittus o f 'I antras

The way of the Tantras is especially called the \ ajray.ma (Diamond Vchicic') or ihe M antrayaua (M antra Vehicle i. Tson-kha-pa in his Snags tint cites the Vimataprabhd : " I h e diamond (vajra) is the great insplittable and unbreakable ; and the Great Vehicle (mahdydna) which is precisely so, is ihe Vajrayana : it combines the Mantra-way and the Prajiiaparatnita-way, which are (respectively the Yll'ect (or 'fruit*) and the cause * ( / rdo rje ni mi phved pa dan mi chod pa chcn po yin la de Aid theg pa chen po yin pa ni rdo rje theg pa stc/ sriags kyi tshul dan pha rol tu pliyin pahi ishul hbras bu dan rgvuhi bdag ft id gcig tu hdres par gyur p a h o \ Hence in Tson-kha-pas reform, non-tantric buddhism (pdranutdyattd) must be mastered in preparation for ihe T an it as. Concerning the expression M a n tra y a n a . the standaid explanation is that in the Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. W i l l , p. 156 (two theoretical corrections with asterisks): '1 he theore tical correction* were made by Professor R,sik Yihari )ohi and myself putting our heads together on this when he w as teaching at Columbia University. Pall 1969. Com pare S. Bag* hi Guhasamdjatantra, X V I I I , 70A, and Yukei M atsunaga, T h e Guh\asam&jatantra: A New Critical Edition, W i l l , JOB.
pratityotpad'iate tanmano pdlanam \ad ya d ya d tu indnyair vifayair rnanaft uktam sam\asambatam katinate jl / *man-itikh)dt<im * tiakdram trdnandrthatah If sarvavajtais m a n tta ca yeti

lokd(aravini:muktam

Whatsoever mind arises in dependence on sense organs and sense objects, that mind is explained as the ktnan\ ihe 'tra' in the meaning of (its) salvation. Whatever pledge a n d vow said to be free from worldly conduct has protection by all the vajras. that is explain ed as the mantra practice. N a g a rju m s A<tdJa<a-patala-vistara-vydkhyd (P T T . Vol. tiO. p. 9-4, 5) explain* the sense organs* and sense objects' as

u n io n o f u p a y a a n d prajfta; a n d explains the words free from w orldly c o n d u c t as leaving off discursivc th o u g h t a b o u t the o rd in a ry body, a n d taking on the contem plation o f th e divine b o d y (th a m al pahi lus rn am p a r rlog pa d a n b ra l b a lhalji skur bsgom pa blans n as). H e docs not com m ent on the w ords all the vajras\ In this literature, the m ultiplicity o f vajras refers to the five T a th a g a ta s or Buddhas. Besides, various T a n tr a s m ay define the w ord Vajrayana* in a w ay th at characterizes the special subject m a tte r of th a t T a n t r a . So we a rc led to u n d e rsta n d Guhyasamdjatantra, C h a p te r X V I I I , p. 154: moho dvefas tathd ragah sadd vajrc ratih sthitd / updyastena buddhanam vajrayanam iti stnrtamlf D elusion, h a tre d , a n d lust arc always the repose lying in the vajra, W h ereb y th e m eans of the B uddhas is called V a jra y a n a ( D ia m o n d V eh icle). T h a t verse p resu m ab ly refers back to C h a p te r V I I I , verse 2: rtigadvefamohavajra vajraydnapradc$aka{ akaiadhdtukalpagra ghosa piijdm jitialayaf / M a y T h o u , the d ia m o n d o f lust, h atred , a n d delusion, w ho reveals the V a jra y a n a ; T h o u , the best like the sky, the w om b o f the T a th a g a ta s proclaim the w orship (p iija): C a n d ra k lr tis Pradipoddyotana, a n d Mchan hgrel (P T T ., V ol. 158, p. 62-1,2) first explain the passage according to th e I neydrtha com m ent w ith the usual m eanings o f the words ( = the j literal tra n sla tio n ), an d then go on to the nitartha com m ent , as follows : lust is m eans (updya), the spread o f lig h t and its ! 40 p rak rtis; h a tr e d 1 is insight {prajiid<, the light a n d its 33 p ra k rtis ; delusion is nescience (avtdyd). the culm ination o f j lig h t a n d its 7 prakrtis ; w orship is the yuganaddha w ith n o n d u al knowledge. T h a t terminology o f the nitartha com m ent J will be explained in later sections. As has been m entioned, the usual classification o f the Buddhist ta n tra works is into four classes cailcd K.riva-tantra, C a ry a -ta n tra , Y o g a-tan tra, an d A n u ttarav o g a-tan tra. T his is the classification o f the m ain corpus o f T a n tra s translated into T ib e ta n an d included in the collection called the K a n ju r, T h e orthodox way of explaining this classification is either in

terms of the candidates or in terms of i he deifies. Mkhas grub rjt's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras (p. 219) presents the candidate differentiation: Now, there are two methods laid down in the four T a n tra divisions, namely, outer action {* bdhya-kriya), such as bathing, cleaning, etc.; and inner yoga (*adhyatma-yoga) . T h e Kriya T an tra was expressed for subduing the candidates (pineya) who delight in outer action, while the Cary a T a n tra was expressed for subduing the candidates who delight in practicing outer action and inner yoga in equal measure. T he Yoga T an tra was expressed for subduing the candi dates who delight in thej'oga o f inner samadhi with minimal outer ritual, while the A nuttara Yoga T a n tra is the in comparable T a n tra for subduing the candidates who delight in inneryoga. Mkhas grub rje alludes to the deity differentiation as the four Passion Families (pp. 168-169), detailed in the notes thereto on the basis o f the Snags rim : T he m utual attraction o f Insight (prajna) and the M eans (updya) finds : some deities laughing Kriyii T a n tra ; some deities gazing Caryii T a n tr a ; some deities embracing Yoga T a n tra ; some deities in coition A nuttara T a n tra . T son-kha-pa emphasizes that this is not a description of the candidates o f these T a n tra divisions;... Besides, it can be speculated that the fourfold grouping of T antras (there were earlier groupings of six or m ore) is made with an eye to the four Siddhantas. In later Indian Buddhism, it was standard to divide up Buddhist metaphysics into four viewpoints, called Siddhanta, that of the Vaibhusikas, Sautrantikas, Yogacarins, and the M adhyamikas. T h a t could be the implication of Pandit Sm rti!s commentary callcd Vajravi44rand~ndma-dhdrani-vrtti (Tohoku no. 2684) to the cfleet that tb* four T antras constitute four kinds of washing by four kinds of persons, namely, ravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, Yogacarins, ^and Madhyamikas, in the given order. In M .thavana term i nology, the Sravakas and Pratyckabuddhas constitute the H inayina saints, while Yogacarins an d M adhyam ikas a re followers of the two main philosophical M ahayana schools constituting

the last two S iddhantas. Also the first two S iddhantas, those o f the V aibhasika a n d the S a u tra n tik a , arc classified as H in ay a n a , w ith the S a u tra n tik a considered p re p a ra to ry for the rise o f M ah iiy an a viewpoints. T h e relation set up by P an d it Sm rti (also called S m rtijn in a k irti) has an .artificial tone, a t best is an overgencralization, a n d a t the same time is suggestive. In th e A n u tta ra y o g a -ta n tra , th ere is also a principal d iv is io n into F a th e r T a n tra s , such as the Guhyasamdjatantra ; a n d M o th e r T a n tra s , such as the Sri-Cakrasamvara, a division w h ic h ^ j M k h as-g ru b -rje explains following Tsori-kh-pa. In brief, a F a th e r T a n t r a em phasizes the M ean s side o f the m cansin sig h t u n io n , an d so deals especially w ith the topics so p r o m i nen t in the present w ork o f evoking the three lights followed by the C lear L ight, an d o f in tro d u cin g the Illusory Body in to the C le a r L ight. A M o th e r T a n t r a p u ts em phasis on the In sig h t side o f the m cans-insight union, a n d so treats the indissoluble bliss a n d void; in fact, insofar as m aterial d ealin g w ith this topic is in clu d ed in the present work, it was derived from the M o th e r T a n t r a literatu re. Besides, the Guhyasamaja-tantra i r j considered the c h ie f T a n t r a o f the F a th e r class, as is the $rt~ 1 Cakrasamvara o f the M o th e r class, for th e reason th a t the litera- " * ture a n d cult for the two T a n tra s is the most extensive anddeveloped am o n g the T a n tr a s found in the K a n ju r an d T a n ju r . T h e Guhyasamdjatantra (C hap. X V I I I , 153, 6-7) also has its ow n definition a n d classification of ta n tra : T a n t r a is ex p lain ed as continuous series (prabandha). T h a t continuous' series is threefold th ro u g h the divisionadhdra, prakrti, a n d ! asamhdryn. T h e succeeding verse explains that prakrti is the hetu, asamhdrya is the phala, an d adhdra is the updya. A ccording to M khas-g ru b -rje, the T a n tr a o f Cause (hetu) is the chief of can d id ates for the high goal o f the T a n tra . T h e T a n tr a of M eans [updya) is the T a n tr a o f Path. T h e T a n tr a o f F ru it (phala) is the rank o f V a jra d h a ra . Those explanations clarify the definition o f T a n t r a as continuous series. A pparently w hat is m eant is that the T a n tr a shows the continuous progress o f a superior can d id ate ("I an tra o f Cause) along the T a n tric Path (T a n tra of M eans) to the high goal of V ajrad h ara (T an tra of F ru it). N a g a rju n a s A ctddasa-patala-vistara-vydkhya (P T T , V ol. 60, p. 6-1) sets lorth on the same basis three kinds o f V a jra d h a ra , causal V ajrad h ara, fruitional V ajradhara, and

Vajradhara of the means. T he causal V ajradhara is M ahavajradhara, the ddinatlfi. T he fiuitiou.il V ajradhara i Akso bhya and the other Tathagatas. The \'ajra d h a ra of the means is of three kinds, guarding of the place, guarding of oneself, and guarding of yoga. Guarding of the place is (he frightening away of the demons through emanation ot the ten Krodha deities. Guarding of oneself is ihe contemplation ol only Paramartha-satya (supreme tru th ), by recollecting such m antras as Om S u n y a ta .. . G uarding of yoga is of two kinds; the collection of merit (arousing compassion and contemplating the four Brahma-vihara-s) and the collect ion ol knowledge (contemplation of the four doors to liberation). C. Somt fnndammtals o( the 7 antrar

Here we shall consider four fundamentals: analogical thinking, the subtle body, the three worlds, anti initiation by the hierophant. The first fundamental is analogical thinking : "As w ith out, so within (yathd bahyam tathd 'dhydtmam iti). T h e Sanskrit is from A bhayakaraguptas .\i\pannayogdral i (ed. by H. B hatta charyya, p. 4), where it applies to the mandala of the Stage of Generation* (utpatti-krama). Set* Mkhas gmb rje's Fundamentals. . , Index under mandala* : the self existent mandala is i n the mind, and the reflected image mandala is drawn outside in conformity. T he outer rite must conform to ihe inner rile, and lice uisa. O ne must clear defiled thoughts from a space within the mind -4 and erect the meditative image in this space. In the external mandala-rite, first one drives away the evil spii its Iron, the '-d er ated area; in this consecrated space one will draw the mandala. In Mkhas-grub-rjes work, probably the most intricate sei of analogies is found in the chapter on the Yoga tantra. In the present work, the most remarkable analogies aie those in the treatment of the 'hundred lineages' under the com m entary o f the Bhagaviin Sarva and T a th a g a ta verses in Part Three, But the analogies are ubiquitous in the T antras. T he most Important analogy of all is that o f alliliation: the candidate should afliliatc his body, speech, anil m ind with the Body, Speech, and M ind of the Buddha, called the three mysteries. According to Mkhas grub rje, it is this affiliation which estab-

lishes the* superiority til' the D iam ond Vehicle (the T a n tra s ) over n o n -ian trie Buddhism. O n e affiliates his body by gesture (mudrn', his speech by incantation (mantra) an d his m in d by deep co ncentration (samadhi). Mkhas grub rje*s Fundamentals... states, In the Kriyii an d C arya (T a n tra s ) one intensely con tem plates the body as G reat Seal (mahamudra), specch as I n can tatio n {.mantra)^ an d m ind as R eality (tattva). This is the Q uick P ath ' because all avenues of the being are operating tor a com m on goal : the body, specch, and m in d arc not working at cross purposes. In such a case, we might say of body, specch, an d m ind, what Arya-Sfira w rote in his Jdtaka-mdld in description of K ing J*iibi (but iu liis case m eaning the three types, kdma, artha, an d dharma). ta\mim\' trivargdnugumi gitndaghdh samharsayogdd iva saniniii} tdhf uimastarufn't vibahhur na cdsu virodhasamkiobhavipannasobhdhll In him all forms having m ultitudes o f virtues consistent w ith the th ree types a p p e a re d with com m on rcsidcncc as though from m erger o f rivalries, a n d they had 110 loss o f brilliance d u e to opposition a n d com m otion. In H induism it is believed that those three types when in h a r m ony yield th*1 fourth one, liberation (mokfa). T o und erstan d any s\stem of Buddhist T a n tr a one must lind out the basic correspondence system or systems a n d carry through accordingly. Fourfold correspondences are especially prevalent in the Y oga-tantra. A m ong A nuttarayoga-tantras, the (>uh\a\amdjatantia tcgularly employs fivefold corresponden ces b a v d on the live Buddhas, the five knowledges, the five personality aggiegatcs, an d so on. 'I he h\Uacakra-tautra uses sixfold corrcspondem t-'., w herein the ilem ents arc increased to six by addition of knowledge elem en t to the five of earth, water, fire, wind, an d spate. Sevenfold correspondences can be noticed i'i c o im m n tai ics of the $ri-Cakrasamvara~tantra, An exam ple csp n ially pcitincnt to the present work is the G uhya sam aja set of four su ps of' sadhand or spiritual culture. O nce the pi axis is established in four steps, then some other principal entities are put in coi 1espondence; thus the four goddesses are identified with the four su p s T his very principle is employed

in the present work for grouping the forty verses which expand the nidana of the Guhyasamdjatantra. Is there a particular philosophical position of Buddhism that fits this kind of analogical thinking? M khas-grub-rje reports the thesis of the school founded by his teacher Tsonkha-pa that the Prasarigika M adhyam ika underlies all four classes of T an tra. This appears to stem from the acceptancc t of all four pramdnas by the non-tantric C andraklrti in his Prasannapadd commentary on the Mula-madhyamaka-karika. T h e re (in the commentary on the first ch ap ter) C andraklrti says, in agreement with the H indu Naiyiiyikas, that the four sources ("o f knowledge fpramdna) provide a foundation for the knowledge \ of worldly objects. Therefore, this Buddhist school accepts L upamana (analogy) as an independent source of knowledge. However, the epistcmology of this school m ay differ from th at of the Naiyayikas. Thus C andraklrti (text, p. 75) goes on to modify his acceptance of the pramdnas by insisting on their relativity,or m utual dependence: T h ere being the cognitions (pramdna), there are the cognizable objects (pramtydrtha) : an d there being the cognizable objects, there are the cognitions. But, indeed, there is no intrinsic-nature kind of establishm ent for either the cognition or the cognizable object (satsu p ram anesu pram eyarthah/ satsu prameyesv arthesu p ra m a n a n i/n a tu khalu svabhaviki pram anapram eyayoh siddhir i t i . . ) . In I"* contrast, Asariga (as I pointed out in T h e Rules o f D ebate According to Asanga ) accepts only three pramdnas, dircct per ception, inference, an d testimony of authoritative persons. T his appears to be consistent with A sangas Y ogacara idealism, wherein the subjective consciousness has the up p er hand over the objective domain. Because idealist philosophy does not adm it an equal status of subject-objcct, it does not agree w ith the precept As w ithout, so w ithin , a n d so does not ad m it r analogy as an independent source o f knowledge. T h e Buddhist \ logicians, as well known, accept only two pramdnas>direct percep t i o n and inference. A fundam ental metaphysical postulate is that o f the subtle cody, which of course is a basic idea of the H in d u systems as well. Tson-kha-pa explains in his com m entary on the Pailcakrama (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 41-5) that there arc two kinds . of 'mind-only bodies (sans tsam g y i lus, ciUamdlra-dtha) , nam ely

the body o f states (gnas skabst avastha) an d t h e innatebody* n,lt pahi lus%nija-deha). T h e first of these is the body of m a tu ra tio n ' (vipdkakdya) formed during the ten states (avastha), which are the lunar m onths of intrauterine life, an d which is born, m atures, and dies. T h e second of these is the body formed o f winds and m ind onlv, the m ind only including no five outcr-sense bated perception (vijM na) an d the w inds including only the basic five winds (prdna, ctc.) and not the secondary five (ndga, etc.). According to Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals. ., the uncom m on means body (asddhdrana-upd- j yadcha), a kind of subtle body, is the basis for the tantric m achi- \ nations; this body seems to be a developm ent of the innate b o d y J {nija-deha). T h e T a n tra s believe that by praxis involving mystic winds an d m enial m uttering, this innate body gradually becomes defined as separate though w ithin the coarse body. A more advanced stage is when this body can ap p ear separately" as an illusory body and be m ad e to enter an ultim ate state called the Clear Light, thus returning to a condition from w hich it had fallen, and which is a n terio r to the male-female division*--* As this innate body is strengthened, first it brings out exceed ing acuity of one or more senses. T h e supernorm al sharpness of smell is a topic in the celebrated Lotus Sutra (SaddharmaPundarika) chapter X V I I I on advantages o f a religious preacher. X on-tantric Buddhism speaks of six supernorm al faculties (abhijiid), while tantric Buddhism adds more, for example, the eight siddhis. T he rem arkable occult physiology of the tantric books is really based on their theories of this subtle body. T his body is said to have 72.000 V eins (nddi), of which three arc the chief one* located in tlie position o f the backbone. These three, the chief conduits of the winds, are differently named in the H indu an d Buddhist T a n tra s : right Pi'tgala Ra^ana middlt Susumna A \adhiiti left Ida L.ilana

H indu Buddhist

Brides. the Buddhist T - ^ipriim po e on those three channels four c a f r t i ' Migei>;ii.y hf\\ foui-fold analogies may be superimposed on tlu thre< -fold on>-. However. ilier,- - -

two systems, earlier and later. One primary group of four cakras, important for what is called the 'Stage ol Completion teachings, corresponds to four of the Hindu system as follows: head Ajna
Mahasukha

ntck
Visuddha

heart
A n a h a ta

navel
M anipuia

Hindu Buddhist

Sambhoga D h a n n a

N innana

H ere I may cite my articlc Female Energy and Symbolism in the Buddhist T an tras for observations stemming from Tson-kha-pas commentary on the Guhyasamaja Explanatory T a n tra Caturdcvipariprcchd : T he primacy in this system of four cobras for physiologi cal manipulation in ascetic practices may well go back to the old Upanisadic theories of the four states of con sciousness. T he Brahmopanifad, one of the Samnyasa Upanisads, later than the early Upanisads but preceding the T antric literature as we now have it, icachcs that the Purusa has those four states when dwelling in the four places, namely, waking state in the navel, sleep ( i.e. dream ) in the neck, dreamless sleep in the heart, and the fourth, Turlya, in the head. In agreement, Tson-kha-pa writes : When one has gone to sleep, there is both dream and absence of dream . At the time of deep sleep without dream the white and red elements of the bodhicitta, which is the basis of mind, stay in the heart, so mind is held in the heart. At the time of dream ing, those two elements stay in the neck, so m ind is held in the neck. At the time when one is not sleeping, they stay at the navel, so m ind is held there. When the male and female unite, those two stay in the head. The later system of four cakras is correlated with the theory o f four elements deified as goddesses, and is im portant for the practice during the Stage of G eneration (utpatti-krama). Following the indications of the .Manimald comm entary on N agarjunas Paiicakrama ( P I T , Vol. 62, p. 178-2) and the Sarvarahasya-ndma-tantraraja, verses 37-39 ( I T F , Vol. 5 ), the fire-disk at the throat (or neck) is shaped like a bow; the water-

disk at the heart is circular in shape; the wind-disk at the navel is trian g u lar; and the carth-disk in the sacral place is square. T hese are also the shapes of the four altars for rites o f b u rn t ottering (homa) aim ed at certain m u n d an e siddhis (see nidana verse 15), a n d they are also the shapes of the four continents o f Puranic m ythology (com pare the p rin ted geom etrical forms in the edition o f the Guhyasamaja > C hap. X V ) . T h e elements supply the names for ihesc cakras (frequently mahendra for e a rth , a n d vdruna for w a te r). A ccording to the Snags rim (Peking hlockprint, 4 4 la - 5 ). (kha sbyot las I jme Hid gait dan rlttn dan nif I(Iban chrn dan ni bzhin chuf fhkhor lor sems kyi kun spyod / >aj fsten dan nos dan btarl hog hgrof zhes gstiiis (his me stcn dati rlun bsegs dan sa thad kar dan chu hog tu hgroho / It says in the Sain/tufa : Fire, w ind, earth (mahendra), a n d w ater, are each the executors o f consciousness in a (given) cakra, an d move (respectively) upw ards, at acute angles, forward, and dow nw ards. T his m eans that the fire (v ib ra tio n ' m o v e s upw ards; the wind, at acute angles to the wave (tiryak); the earth , straight fo rw ard ; a n d the w ater, downwards. T h e earth disk is equivalent to the H in d u Mulddhdra-eakra, said to lie below the root o f the sex organs and above the anus. T h e series is increased in the H indu T a n tra s with Sahasrara a t the crown of the head, w here Buddhism places the B uddhas ufnifa (sometimes said to be outside the b o d y ); and with Svad h isth an a at the root of the penis, called in some Buddhist T a n tra s the tip of the gem ' ( *many-agra). T hen w e must take for granted that there are three worlds full of gods an d demons. In the Guhyaiamiijatantray Chap. IV , p. 17, there is the line atha vajradharah lastii trilokas tu tridha * tukah, on which Pradipoddyotana (M ch a n hgrel edition, P I T . , Vol. 158, p. 38.5) explains triloka as being sa hog (p d td la ), sa Steii (b h ttm i), an d mtho ris (svarga)', and explains tridhdtuka as being the realm of desire (kamadhalu ), etc. T h e correspondences ca n be tabulated as follows:

Old Vedic W0Tds Dyaus

Possibly the Buddhist three Svarga sa bla = m tho formless ris (superior realm (arupa w orld) d h a tu ) Antariksa Bhumi sa sten (above realm o f form the e a rth ) (rupa d h a tu ) PrthivI Patala sa hog (earth realm of desire7 an d below) (k a m a d h a lu ) T he Vedic mantras of the three worlds are also employed in the Buddhist T antras, as in this passage of T son-kha-pas Snttgsrim (f. 31 lb .4 ) : fbhur ni rlun gi dkyil hkhor la sogs pa hkhor dan beas pahi sa hog gojbhiwah ni sa sten gi hjig rten nofsvah thes pa ni mtho ris te srid rtse mlhar thug pahoj. Bhur is the underw orld accom panied by the circles of the wind disk (vayu-mandala) and so forth. Bhuvah is the perishable receptacle (loka) of above the e a rth . Svah is the ultim ate pinnacle of existence, the superior world. T he females or goddesses in terms of the three worlds are especially treated in the Srx-Cakrasatnvara-tantra and its com mentaries. How does one come in contact with any of those gods or goddesses ? M ircea Eliade (Toga : Immortality and Freedom, p. 208) cites the proverb a non-god docs not honor a god* (nadtvo devam arcayct). T h a t means that one must awaken the senses of that particular realm an d learn the rules. T h e child cannot make his way in the hum an world without hum an senses and without learning the hum an rules. Thus first one generates oneself into deity (selfgcneration in Mkhasgrub rjes work). T he last of these fundamental?* is the topic o f initiation (abhifeka) meant to confer power, explained as m atu rin g the stream of consciousness. The power, including the permission to continue that tantric lineage, is conferred bv the hierophant (vajracdrya). T he Pradipoddyotana on C hapter X V I 1 (Mr/ran hgrdy p. 157-4 contains this passage : I tathd cuha / mah'imahthdnaratnauijasutu // bhagavan tntjrapdnih f uddiydnapan'ate nifanrjahfsari'ami (a lajtayanaiikfitan amanttaydmdsal} it nut a nikhilaiajtajtina-

Hindu period

Tibetan

sikfitd/j tatfuigata m parinirvrta tji na pasyatijidstdram api iu vajrdcdryo vajragmuft j so atfi y idstd bhavatitif A nd it is also said in the Mahdmahdydnaratnardjasutra . T h e Lord V ajrap an i was seated on the m ountain of O d d iy an a, and addressed all the trainees of the V ajra yana : All you trainees in the V ajray an a, listen! W hen one does not see the T eacher, the T a th a g a ta entered into P arinirvana, then the hierophant, the diam ond guru, will serve as his teach er. V arious passages stress that one should look upon the hiero phant as upon the Buddha, to disregard his faults and notice only his virtues, in that way, he is able to play the role of m aster for the disciple. Initiations are conferred in m andalas and are accom panied by vows (samvara) an d pledges (sam aya ). T h e Stage of G e n era tio n has the five vidya initiations as described in M khasgrub rjes work. T hey arc called the *vidya because they are adversaries for the five forms of iavidyd (nescience), also because they are in reality conferred by the goddess consorts o f the five Buddha*;. M khas g ru b rje points out that although the preceptor* an d the h ie ro p h a n t lift up the flask (all five rites are accom panied with sprinkling), in fact the goddesses Locana and soon hold the flask an d conduct the initiation. In the transition to the Stage of C om pletion, there is the hiero p h a n ts initiation. T hen there are three initiations proper to the Stage o f C om pletion, the Secret Initiation, the Insight K nowledge Initiation, and the 'F o u rth . T h e initiating goddess is sometimes called the S e a l mudrd). T h e notes to Mkhas g ru b rje cite the verse: T h e seal pledge is explained as solidi fying the body m ade of mint!' (manomayakdya); because it solidifies all the body, it is called a seal (mudrd).'* T h e fact that in each instance the goddess is imagined as the initiator, or is the female element behind ihe scenes, indicates the initia tions as the step-wise progress in the solidification of the innate body of the tantras which non-tantric Buddhism calls the body m ade o f m in d , meaning the progress of that body to the pregcnetic androgyne state and then to the Clear Light. D. of the Buddhist If iuds and mantras T antras that deserves

A fundamental

spccial treatment is the practice of m antras and m achinations with winds. Such practices arc very ancient in India, ccrtainly of Vcdic charactcr. T he doctrine ol lile winds is lirst worked out in the old Upanisads. T he basic live winds are m entioned in ChandofD'a Up., III. 13 and V. 19, in the order puma, vydna, apana, samdna, uddna. The winds are the 'breaths resulting from w ater, as in the well-known 'Three-fold developm ent discussion of the Chdndogya; this is made clear in lirhaddranyaka U p 1.5.3. T he functions ascribed to these winds continued to be speculated upon, and so came into the Buddhist T an ti s in the theory of breath manipulation through yoga practice. Also a theory of five subsidiary winds developed, clarified later in Thf Toga Upanisads-, in the Buddhist T antras these latter live arc accordcd the function of relating external sensory objects to the five sense organs, while the former live are attrib u ted various internal functions. When ten breaths (prdna) are mentioned in Brhaddranyaka Up., II I. 9.4, Vedantic com m entarial tradition takes them to be the ten sensory and motor organs (jiidnakarmmdriydni), thus explaining away the palpable refe rence to winds: but we can infer the real m eaning to be that those winds vivify the sensory and motor organs. In the latter Brhaddranyaka Up. passage, modern translators have rendered the verb rodayanti with causative force (make someone lam en t), thus requiring an unexpressed object. A good Sanskrit gram m ar, such as the one by William Du ight Whitney, readily shows that the causative in fix-am-does not necessarily confer causative force upon a Sanskrit verb. So my translation of the Sanskrit passage: kafarnt rudra iti. dastmt puruit brand h atmaikddaiah tf yaddsmdt farirdn martydd iilktdtnanli, at ha rodayanti, tad yad rodayanti, tasmdd tudrd iti. W hat arc the Rudras ?* These ten breaths in the person with the dtman as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal frame, they cry out ; and because they crv out, they arc called R udras. In the Satapathabrdhmana's celebrated account of the birth of Rudra (Eggelings translation, SBLL, Vol. XL1, pp. 157161) we read : because he cried (rt/) therefore he is R u d ra . T he teaching that the winds make a sound as thev depart is continued into the Buddhist T antras, as in T so u -k h a -p js

com m entary Bzhis zhns on the Guhyasamaja E xplanatory T a n tra Caturderifiariftrci'hti Collected Works. Lhasa. Vol. Ca, 13b-5,6): T h e realitv mantra tone which each w ind has, is not revealed lo the c h ild bdla : its form, that is, iis self-cxistencc (svabhava) or identity (dtinaka). is revealed lo the yogin'' (/rlu n dchi ran g d a u s snags kvi de nid d u byis pa la mi gsai ba rnal hbyor pa la gsal b.ilii gzugs le/ran bzhin natn bdag nid c a n /). In the Guhyasamdjatantra tradition, the I 'ajramdld Ex planatory T a n tra , c h ap ter *18 (1VI T , Vol. 3, p. 221) holds that the phenom enal world is due to the two winds prdna an d apdna identified with u \o m a n tra syllables A an d H A M (aham, or egotism . which form the 'knot of the h e a rt : . I m i *ro" "i tin i du b<adl (dt' bellii; th.tr set ! IA .\ f du bijodl !df' g 'tis "rig )nr hkhot ha stt'l A is explained as the prdna wind. Likewise, apdna is said to be H A M W hen those two unite, there is samsdra (the cyclc o f phenom enal e x is te n c e '. In the full Nvstem of hum an life, there are, as was said, five principal an d five ".ubvidiaiy winds, genetically Yovm' or 1 prdna . T h e five principal winds have the respective natures of the five Buddhas and are associated with the five mantrasyllables an d bodv-ftf/.r/n as follows: all over the \ \ ana Vairoi ana Orn bodv,' or head 4 throat udana Ah A m itabha heart prana Aksobh\ a 11fim sacral region R atnas.unhhava - -a p a n a Sva -sam ana navel I la Amotrhasiddhi T he four winds, leaving out vydna, are held in basir time or ordinary life to breathe in and out cyclically through one or other riobtril or both. H e n c e these four are prdndyama. This word clod's not ordinarilv si^iiifv iu the Buddhist T a n tra , res traint of b reath ' but rather p t *a. in-breathing, and drama, : out-breathing: or prdra. t lie passage of winds through the orifices, anil aydma, the out-going m ental component that rides on the w ind. T h e Pavcakrama. in its first krama, called Vajrajdpa, cites the Vajramdld in legaid to the oidinarv outward passage of the winds:

Dakfirtdd uinirgato tafmir hutabhuhmandalam ca tatj Raktavarnam idam vyaktam padmandtho tta devatdff The ray leaving via the right nostril is the fire m a n date. This distinguished one of red color (i.e. the udana w ind) is the dcitv Padma-Lord (i.e. A m itabha). 20. Vdmdd vinirgato raimir vdyu man dalasamjvitahf HaritaSydmasamkaiah karmandtho 'fra dcratdjj The ray leaving via the left nostril is called wind m andala. With a yellowish-green appearance (i.e. samana wind) it is the deity K an n a-L o td (i.e. Amoghasiddhi). 21. Dvdbhydm vinirgato raimih fntavarno ntafiddjiutihf Mahendramandalam caitad ratnandtho 't>a dcvatdf! The ray leaving via both nostrils is the great radiance of yellow color the earth m andala (i.e. ap an a w ind) and this is the deity R atna-L ord (i.e. R atn asam b h av a). 22. Adho mandaptacdras tu sitakundendusamnibhahf Mandatatji vdrunam caitad vajrandtlw ' tro drvatall Moving slowly downwards (but also leaving via both nostrils) is the water m andala white like the Jasm ine (i.e. the p ran a w ind), an d this is the deity VajraLord (i.e. Aksobhya). 23. Sarvadehdnugo vayuh sarraccftdpraiartakahl Vairocanasiabhdio 'sau mrtakdydd viniicatrt, / The wind that proceeds throughout the body and evolves all activity (i.e. the vyana w ind) has the nature of Vairoeana an d departs (only) from the dead body (with blue color). Recitation of the wind in the Stage of G eneration (nidana verse 12) means reciting according to the n atural cycle of the winds. This recitation of winds is indicated, accotding to the Pradipoddyotana commentary, as the m eaning of the verves >-14 (omitting 13) in C hapter Six (D ocum ents'). Verse 9 deals with meditation on the tip ol the nose ot the face; at this stage one must take the passage of the winds on faith. T hen verse 10 mentions an image of the Buddha, which is V airoeana. lint as the Vairoeana wind, vyana, does not enter into the inbreathing and outbreathing, the diam ond recitation intended by thever.se is in fact A m h ab h as fiery ud.ma-wind. T h e text of C hapter Six interposes a H u m before verse U , hinting at (he recitation

19.

o f A k so b h y as w a te ry p ra n a -w in d . Verse 12 m entions a ra tn a disk w hich enables the know er o f the system to assign here th e re c ita tio n o f R a tn a s a m b h a v a s e a rth y a p a n a -w in d . T h e n verse 14 involves recitatio n o f A m o g h asid d h is w ind a n d black sa m a n a -w in d w hich is yellow green w hen passing o u t th ro u g h th e left nostril. T h e n in C h a p te r Six, verses 15-18 state th e a d v a n c e d level o f th a t recitatio n , as p racticed in the S tage of C o m p letio n (n id a n a verse 2 4 ). In the la tte r stage, the yogin m oves those w inds from th eir usual location in basic tim e to e x trao rd in ary co m b in atio n s in fruitional time, as I su m m a riz e d from T so n k h a -p a s Rdor bzlas in F em ale E n e rg y ... , p. 8 8 : O m , th e p r a n a w ind o f the h e a rt cakra, the u d a n a w in d o f th e neck cak ra, a n d the bindu in th e position o f the ufnfya, is the th u n d e rb o lt o f body a t the M ah asu k h a-cak ra o f the forehead. A h, the initial p r a n a o f the h e a rt cak ra, the a p a n a w in d of th e sacral centcr, alo n g w ith the u d a n a o f the neck cen ter, is the th u n d e rb o lt o f speech a t the neck cakra. H um , the a p a n a w ind o f the sacral center, th e u d a n a w ind o f the neck center, a n d the pervasive p r a n a (i.e. v y a n a ) norm ally in the forehead, is the th u n d e rb o lt of m in d a t the nave o f the h eart lotus. A n d the w inds m ixed th a t w ay dissolve the knots (mdud) o f those centers. A ccordingly, in fruitional tim e, the m a n tra s have been red u ccd from five to three. T h is is m e a n t to achieve three photism experiences called Might, spread o f lig h t, a n d culm in atio n of lig h t. T h e fu rth er reduction from three to one corresponds to the experience o f the C lear L ight w hich is free from the three. Also, the Stage o f C om pletion increases to three the noses m e a n t by tip of nose, a teaching found in the Vajramdld, sum m arized in Tsori-kha-pa, D kah g n a d , Lhasa collected works, Vol. C a, 8a-2 : T h e three tips o f nose (nasdgra) are 1. the tip o f nose* o f the sacral p la c e ; 2. tip of nose o f the face ; 3. tip o f nose o f the h eart (sna rise gsum ni/gsari bahi sna rtse, gdori gi sna rtse, sftiri gi sna rtse). Idem T h e three drops* . (bindu) are 1. d ro p of substance, 2. d ro p of light, 3. drop* o f m a n tra (thig le gsum ni/rdzas kyi thig le, hod kyi thig le, shags kyi thig le), Ibid., f. 8 a -6: T h e lustful person contem plates the substance d ro p on the tip-of-

nose at the sacral place; the hating person, t h e m antra drop* on the tip-of-nose of the heart; the deluded person, the 'drop of light on ihe tip of nose* of the face (j hdod chags can gjris gsar: bahi sna rtsn rdzas kyi thig le dan j / zhr sdafi can gyis snin gi sna >tsn snails kyi thig If dan // gti mug can gjis gdori gt sna ifsrr hod kyi thig te bsgom par b.tad citi f) Sec in this connection the explanation of prdnaydma among the six members of yoga iu the Pradipoddyotana commentary ( Documents), where the contemplation of the three noses seems not to go with three different persons but with the succe ssive contemplation of a single person. T he relation between prana and mantra is brought out in the discussion about the reality (tattra) of the mantra. T hus Paiicakrama, 1st krama, verse fiG; Sri I,akmi, Vol . 63. p. 21-5 and 22-1 : manhatattvam idam vyaktam vdgvajtasya prasddhanam1 jiidnatrayaprabhedena cittamdtrc nhojavct /,/ This clear reality of mantra as ihe accomplishment of the speech diam ond, is applied to M ind O n ly 1 by the variety of three gnoses. &ri Laksmi explains that mantra has two aspects, by distinction of cause and effect. T he cause is prana, the effect is mantra \ and their reality is the reality of mantra' (Me la rgvu ni srog rlun dan ! hbras bu ni snags ste/de dag gi de nid ni snags kvi do Aid de/ . The three gnoses mean the three lights. But then, do m antras have m eaning ? See the discussion in The Calcutta Revinv, 137-1 (Oct. 1955), a portion o f the serial translation by J . V . Bhattacharyya of the .\yayatnaiijari. here (pp. 7-13 discussing the validity o f mantras. T h e opponents hold that the m antras do not convcv meaning p. 8 A m antra renders its assistance to a Vedic rite only bv its recita tion. Among their illustrations is the mantra. " H e a r, oil slabs of stone ! (irnota grdvdnah). T hev sav pp. 8-9 : This meaning is absurd since unconscious slabs of stone are never employed to listen to something. T h e author of ihe .W ar amaiijari, when replying to their arguments, says of ihis p a rti cular example (p. 12) : Srnota gravanah is...a miraculous act by the influence of which slabs of stone can even h e a r. His chief answer is that the opponents have not taken .. .pains

to find out the m eaning. In conclusion he states (p. 13) : M an tras, revealing their senses, render assistance to a sacrificial rite. But they do not help a rite by their m ere recitation like the m u tte rin g o f a m a n t r a . . . . T h e view point o f the Nyayamaiijari is quite consistent with that o f the Buddhist T an tras, w here the m an tras do indeed have m eaning. For example, one need only consult the T a n ju r com m entaries on the Vajravidiirana-nama-dharani, to learn that each one of the m a n tra expressions is given its explanation in terms o f functions o f the various deities involved. T h e Buddhist T a n tr a also insists th a t m ere m u tterin g o f the m a n tra is useless, since one m ust sim ul taneously m ake a mudra a n d concentrate the m ind accordingly. A nd it also agrees w hen the Buddhist T a n tr a speaks o f success in ih r in can tatio n as the state w hen the m a n tra seems to p r o nounce itself, thus assuming the role of a d eity s body (mantramurti . An interesting exam ple o f this is in the last c h ap ter o f the Sri Paramadya tantra fP T T , V ol. 5, p. 171-5), understood with the help of A n a n d a g a rb h a s co m m en tary (P T T , Vol. 73, p. 127-5). T h e T a n tr a states: H ow is the Bhagavat the m aster of the deeds of d iam o n d p rid e ? Because the best mudra belong* to the great lord (inahesvara') who has the best o f great siddhis a n d she greatly praises the d iam o n d lord, the one w ho says 'I am the m a s t e r o f d iam o n d pride' is the Bhagavat, the suprem e p rim ordial person." (/ de la rdo rje bsnems bvahi bdag po bcorn Idan hdas ci liar yin zhe na // kun m chog duos gru b chcn po vi f ' d b a n phyug chcn po phvag rgvahi mchog // rdo rje d b a n phyug cher bstod pa* // rdo rje bsnems pahi bdag po b d a g ces by a ba ni bcom Idan hdas mchog dan pohi skycs buho / ) . T h e idea here, as gleaned from A n a n d ag a rb h a s comments, is that diam ond pride' is the nam e o f a goddess a n d she is the best mudra. Since she praises the Bhagavat, he is her m aster (fiati). T his alludes to the state when tin- mudra coalesces with the mantra to reveal it4 sense as the .\ydyan,anjari would say ; a n d since its sense i s diam ond p rid e (jajragarra) the m ind united with that mudra can be proud. She praises w ithout any prom pting :t he incantation sounds bv itself. She has her own deeds or functions. However, some Western scholars have quite m i e d the point of how m an tras acquire meaning. T ake the celebrated m a n tra of the Buddhist Bodhisattva Lord Avalokito vara, Oijt mani padni Scholars have ascribed this and that m eaning

to it; for example, Om, the jewel in the lotus, hum . The implication of such an explanation is that the m antra has a meaning independent of the recitation, which is denied both by the Hindu Jfydyamatijari and the Buddhist T antras. When one goes into this cult of Avalokite^vara, he finds out readily that this is called the six-syllabled formula. T he six syllables are recited in the six times of day and night, along w ith fasting an d correlated with gestures (mudra), and the imagined six destinies of gods, men. etc. as associated with six colors. 1 he meaning is the six Buddhas corresponding respectively to the syllables. By continual application to the cult with proper recitation of the six syllables in a correlation of body, speech, and mind, the yogin cxpecls to identify himself with the Lord Avalokitegvara who looks with compassion at the beings in the six destinies. Gradually the meaning is evoked by the recitation. While such a translation as Om, the jewel in the lotus, hum does not convey any intelligence of the c u ll; nevertheless, if one insists on a translation anyway in such form, it is proper to translate the mani padm e portion as jewel in the lotus be cause one would understand mani as the Middle Indie form equal to Sanskrit mani (A), the nominative. In terms of m antra construction, because the initial and final syllables are O m and Hum, themiddle portion 'mani padm e is equivalent to i he syllable Ah, for these arc the three heart syllables of the Buddhas corres ponding to Body, Speech, and M ind, respectively Vairoeana, Amitabha, and Aksobhya. Accordingly, the middle portion stands for the Buddha A m itabha in the heaven Sukhavati. T he gods arc literally expressed into manifestation; that is, they are called into phenomenal forms by m antra. In the Anuttarayoga-tantra cult, the syllables E -V A (M ) serve for this expression. *Evam (Thus) is the first word in the Buddhist scriptures, which normally begin Thus by me it was h e a rd (erarp mayd irutam). Mchan hgrel, P I T , Vol. 158, p. 13-3, states : The syllable E is like a mother. Therefore, the in sight (prajiid) syllable (E) is symbolized as the sixteen vowels (svara). Va is like a lather. T he seminal drop' (bindu, ihig le, jp) of Vani makes manifest the vowels. Hence the 'm eans (updya) syllabic (Vani) is symbolized as the thirty-three conso nants (vyaiijana). Through their union arises, like sons, the

host o f words. T h u s E is the w om b (alaya, kun g zh i) a n d V am the p ro g en ito r, pravacana (the B uddhist s c r ip tu r e ) . T h e bindu is also called in this lite ra tu re the bodhicitta (m ind o f e n lig h te n m e n t). E. The world o f light

In the article Notes on the Sanskrit t e r m j n a n a I first tried to co rrelate the G u h y a sa m a ja trad itio n of four lights (three light stages leading to or em erging from the C lear L ig h t) w ith o th er systems o f th o u g h t. A lready it was a p p a re n t to m e th a t the theory involved a re in te rp re ta tio n o f the old Buddhist for m u la o f D ep en d e n t O rig in atio n (pratitya-samutpada). W ith the researches of the present w ork b eh in d m e it is easier to detect the U p a n isa d ic precursors of this theory (it w ould be hazardous to try to trace it back to the IJig-veda). P erhaps the most discussed U p a n isa d ic passage is the Chandogya Upani$ad from V I . 2 to V I . 6. T his teaches a develop m e n t o rd e r o f 1. h eat, becom ing speech; 2. w ater, becom ing b r e a t h ; 3. food, becom ing m ind. By their respective colors o f red, w hite, a n d black, they were later (H in d u perio d ) identi fied w ith the three gunas (em ployed extensively in the Buddhist T a n tr a s ) , to w it: rajas (activity, passion), sattva (buoyancy, c la rity ), tamas (im m obility, darkness), alth o u g h the guna ap p licab ility to the C handogya text has been questioned. T h e Brhadarafiyaka Upanisad 1.5 portrays P ra ja p a tis production o f the w orld as food for himself; a n d this suggestion o f food as the first p ro d u c e d is consistent with 1.5.3; M ind, speech, breath, these he m ade for him self (mono vacant prdnam, (any dtmane kurutt7). sincc we learn from the Chandogya that food becomes m in d . T h e Brhaddranyaka order is consistent with a tantric in terp retatio n of Buddhist D ependent O rigination, with my u n d erstan d in g o f the f ardhopanifad, an d with the G u h y a s a m a ja - ^ ^ nid.ina doctrine of three lights or three gnoses (jM natraya). 1 he Vardhnpani^ad i- translated by T . R. Srinivasa A vvangar an d edited bv G. Srinivasa M u n i in The Toga Upanisads. In ih< I 'at aha we read : " F o r says the Sruti. These are the five r.sM-ntial features. \ iz.. Asti (there is).Bhati (there shines f o r th ', Preyas (whatev er p leases', R u p a (form i an d X anian (n am e). T h e first three are of the form of the Brahm an. T h e two there-

after arc the characteristics of the phenomenal w orld. If we rearrange the order of the Chandogya terms and employ these other sources, a tabular comparison can be m ade as shown in T ab le I.
i . THE WORLD OF LIGHT : B R A H M A NI CA L & BUDDHIST

Brahmanism O ld terminology of Chandogya Up. 1. 2. 3. 4. Black Food (krsna-anna) R ed Heat (rohita-tejas) W hite W ater (gukla-iipas) Fire, Sun, M oon, Lightning Buddhi sm O ld terminology of Dependent O rigination 1. 2. 3. 4. Nescience (avidya) Motivations (sam skara) Perceptions (vijftana) Namc-and-Form (nam a-rupa) L ater tantric terminology Culm ination-of-Light y (alokopalabdhi) Spread-of-light (alokabhfisa) Light (aloka) Phenomenal W orld L ater terminology of Varaha Up. It is (asti) It shines forth (b h ati) W hatever pleases (prcvas) 4, 5. N am e an d Form

Moreover, the relation of the tantric three lights to the fm t three members of D ependent O rigination is plainly stated by Mckan hgrel on Pradipoddyotana (C hapter I I I ) in P T T , Vol. 158, p. 38-1. T h e Pradipoddyotana quotes the Samdhivyakarana's remark, said to be the doctrine of D ependent O rig in atio n (rten cin hbrel hbyu-'i chos su grags), to which Mchan hgrd adds, arising from the wind and mind only of the Clear L ig h t hod ; gsal gyi rlun sm s tsam las skyts pahi). M aryla Falk wrote a book entitled Nthna Rupa and DharmaR&pa. It is undeniable that she hit upon the basic division by a p p re ciating the signifiqance of the research by the Geigers (p. 71, n . ):

O n e of the principal results of the long a n d detailed inquiry m a d e by M rs. M. G eiger a n d Prof. W. G eiger into the use o f ihe term dhamma in the Pali C anon (Pali Dhamma, vornehmlich in der kanonischcn LiUratur, A bh. de Bayer. Ak. d. Wiss., Philos.-philol. u. hist. K l., X X X I , 1. M u n ic h 1921) is the conclusion th at the concept dhamma takes in Buddhism the place o f the brahman o f older Vedanta* (p. 77). We have shown above that in U panishadic thought, ever since its V edic beginnings, the equivalence o f both term s reflects the sameness o f the entity they designate. In short, the equivalence of Pali dhamma a n d the old In d ia n term brahman leads to the equivalence D h a rm a -ru p a *= B rahm aru p a . T his D h a rm a -ru p a is therefore the pre-gcnetic w orld, an te rio r to the phen o m en al w orld d en o ted by X am a-ru p a. T h e Satapatha-brahmana (E ggelings translation as q u o te d by S u re n d ra n a th D asgupta, A History o f Indian Philosophy, I, p. 20) has the celebrated passage: T h e n the B rahm an itself w ent up to the sphere beyond. H av in g gone u p to the sphere beyond, it considered, H ow can I descend again into these worlds ? I t then descended again by m eans of these two, Form a n d N am e. W h atev er has a nam e, lhat is n am e; an d th a t again which has no nam e a n d w hich one knows by its form, this is (of a c e rta in ) form , that is form : as far as there are Form a n d N am e so far, indeed, extends this (universe). These indeed are the two great forces o f B rah m an ; an d , verily, he who knows these two great forces o f B rahm an becomes him self a great force. T h e equivalent statem ent involving the equation D h a rm a = B rahm an, a n d taking into account the Paitcakrama list o f eighty prakrtis in three sets (seven, forty, an d thirty-three), each set constituting m om entary dark spots obscuring three light realms, also called the triple vijnana, can be expressed by V ijn an a (the (La'ikdvatdra's body o f the T a th a g a ta ) descending into the w om b by means of nam e-and-form , the fourth m em ber of D ependent O rigination. So also, when G au tam a was m ed i tating u n d e r the tree of E nlightenm ent, an d according to the tradition found out the formula of D ependent O rigination by working backwards from O ld Age an d D eath, in each case

thinking, W hat is the indispensable condition for this to arise? \ he proceeded this way : T h a t No. 11 birth* is the indispensable condition for No. 12 old age and death, and the whole mass o f suffering; and for No. 11 b irth No. 10 gestation (bhava) ; for the latter, No. 9 indulgence (upadana); for the latter, No. 8 craving (tr$na); for the latter, No. 7 'feelings* (vedand) (and ideas, samjnd); for the latter, No. 6, sensory contact (sparia) ; for the latter, No. 5 six sense bases (faddyntana' ; for the latter, No. 4, namc-and-form (nama-and-rupa). And then, as \\c can see from the foregoing, in order for G autam a to answer the question W hat is the indispensable condition for nam c-andform to arise ? he had to go to the sphere beyond, himself the Brahman, hence obtaining the D harm a-kaya. In this pregenetic sphere, G autam a decided that 4. nam e-and-form has 3. perception (vijiidna) as its indispensable condition; the latter, No. 2 motivations* (samskara); and the latter, No. 1 nescience (avidyd). Andthe Guhyasamaja tradition suggests this is his way ofstating in psychological terms, the white w ater', red heat, and black food of the Chandogya Up. vision, the atomic triad of the superior realm. Since the correlation of the supram undanc light stages o f the Guhyasamaja com m cntarial tradition is associated with the first members of Dependent O rigination, an d with the develop mental order of the Brhaddranyaka Upani,\ad (rather than with the Chandogya order), it follows that if we are to acknowledge a feasibility that the formula of D ependent O rigination is based on the Upanisads, we have to further adm it that the Brhaddran~ yaka Up. is the one with wliich the Buddhist formula has the most affinity. Even if we accept that these three light stages may be traceable to such ancient sources as the old U panisads, it must still be acknowledged that the thcoiy of 80 prakrtis superimposed on the three lights is a development after the rise of the Buddhist Tantras. T h e Patlcakranta comm entary Maninulld cited under nidana verse 6 explicitly mentions that the ihirty-tln ce female natures arc generated by the wind in the h ft channel, the foitv male natures bv the wind in the light c hannel. ;uul the s e \ n neuter natures by the wind in the middle. Thi- tm thod of allotting mental states to three gioups '<rms to be a develop ment of the assignment of qualities to the three gunas as wc find

in th e Bhagavadgitd, C h a p te r 14, b u t o f course in the present form a n u m b e r o f centuries after this H in d u classic. I n contrast, as J o h n WoodrofYe, Introduction to Tantra Shastra, pp. 49, flf., points out, there arc six vrtti associated with the Svadhisfhana* cakra, ten vrtti w ith the M a n ip u ra , twelve vrtti w ith the Ana* h a ta , twelve vrtti w ith the ViSuddha, sixteen kald w ith the S ah asrara, four ananda w ith the Mulfvdhara, w ith no sets m en tioned for the Ajfia-cakra. T h u s, this kind of H in d u ta n tra assigns vrttis to cakras ra th e r than to the three nadi; a n d very few o f the vrttis can be identified w ith the prakrtis. As I perused the various com m entaries on the Padcakrama available in the T ib e ta n T a n ju r, I tried to find some explanation for the num bers th irty -th ree etc., an d any suggestions o f in tern al g ro u p in g w ithin the three sets of natures, b u t to little avail. H owever, the Paiicakrama c o m m en tary called M animain attem p ts to rationalize the eighty prakrtis in term s o f the Buddhist A b h id h a rm a set o f fifty-one caitasikadharmas (derivative m en tals), so in P T T , Vol. 62, pp. 186-187. I studied these pages w ith the help o f th e collaborated article by D r. P. C ordicr a n d L. de La V allee Poussin, Lcs soixantc-quinze ct les cent d h a rm a s . F or exam ple, when this com m entary analyses the set of thirty-three prakrtis (see the list u n d e r n id an a verse 1) it includes nos. 1-3, three degrees o f aversion, u n d e r kaukrtya (regret) ; 4-5 (thinking) future an d past, u n d er vitarka a n d vicdra (searching state of m in d a n d deciding state o f m in d ) kaukrtya, vitarka, an d vicdra being am ong th e list o f aniyata bhumikas (indeterm inate caitasikas ). It includes 11-13, thrccdegrees offcar, un d er the three virtuous roots (kuSalamQla) non-clinging (alobha), non-hating (<advefa)y an d non-delusion (amoha)y which are in the list of kuialamahdbhumikas (m ental elem ents present in every good co n cep tio n ); and so on. T h e atte m p t is obviously forced, but is significant for showing this a u th o rs belief that the dharmas are identical with the prakrtis. T his is a com m on theory that the conscious m ind docs not creatc a thought, b u t that the thought (here a dharma or a prakrti) flows into the m ind. W here docs the thought come from ? T h e G uhyasam aja system holds that the thought comcs from one other of three light realms. In terms of channels (nadi), the archetypal world is railed left, rig h t, an d m iddle. A consistent theory was earlier stated in the Bhagavadgitd (C hap.

X, 4-5): . the* different states of being procccd from me alone. Moreover, there is a curious resemblance between the thirty-three femalc prakrtis and the five sthdyi-bhdvas as d is c u w d by Edward C. Dimock, Jr., The Place o f the Hidden Moon, and earlier in his article Doctrine and Pr actice Among the Yai"iiavas o f Bengal. There are informative annotations concerning them in Saraswati Goswanii Ih ak u r, Shri Urahma-Sntnhttd. pp. 10-3, 159-62, which represents the five as devotion of dill'crent individuals. The only source in the English language to my noticc which presents these five in the form of stages ol a single person tounion with the L o rd K rsn a. isY .Ja g a n n a th a m , Divine Love and Amorous Sentiment, a m odern pam phlet picked up at Jayavelus in M adras. When I studied these passages and added the advice of Mr. K irpal Singh N arang about the five stages of the Sikhs (stated in his very words below on the occa sion of his Madison, Wisconsin visit on April 18, 19(i<), it oceurrcd to me that the thirty-three prakrtis o f female consciousness to be presented under nidana verse no. I arc roughly in five groups the fleeting moments of consciousness in the five stages of the devotees female soul becoming a Gopi (cow-gitl) in union with the Lord. I give here in outline im merely ten tative solution, observing that should it prove applicable, this would indeed provide a most im portant link between the Paiua~ krama tradition and the early V aisnava Sahajiva cult. Sihayi-bhdva (or Rasa) Sikh Stages Female Prakitis 1. Santa, pacification of V airagya 1-3. degrees of longing for the cxter(aversion) aversion nal world 2. Dasya, service to the Doing w hat is 4-9. thinking of Lord pleasing to future and the Lord past, sorrow and calmness 3. Sakhya, being a friend Fear and Love 10-22. vikalpa, to the Lord fear, down to feelings 4. Vatsalya, the Knowing the 23-30, intuition, Lord as a child L ords Will down to affection 5. M adhurya or <rrigara, Union 31-33. worry, the Lord K rsna as a collecting, and lover jealousy

In a com parable way, I noticed that the forty prakrtis listed un d er nidana verst* no. 2 seem to be the very characteristics a ttrib u te d to the Lord K rsn a in his various exploits, ranging from the C hild K rsna to the Divine Lover, and that the list seems easily to fall into five groups. Perhaps the forty prakrtis o f maleconsciousness derive from a V a h n a v a prototype. T h e only way that occurs to me to reconcilc the division of the eighty prakrtis into three groups, with w hat seems to me to be an obvious division of the m ale an d female ones into five groups, is to associate them with the right an d left in five cakras starting w ith no. 1 at the base of the spine, no. 2 at the navel, a n d moving upw ard to union in the ajiid-cakra or mahasukhacakra. A dm ittedly, I have found no textual passage to support this theory.

A.

Texts, commentators, and history

T he Guhyasamaja literature falls into two distinct groups the revealed texts in ihe T ibetan K an ju r and the exegetical literature in the T ibetan T anjur. In A Complete Catalogue o f the Tibetan Buddhist Canons (Tohoku catalog), the K an ju r works have numbers 442-447 (and disputed works 448-453), the T an ju r works 1784-1917 (cf. Alex W aym an, Analysis of the T antric Section of the K a n ju r C orrelated to T a n ju r Exege sis, p. 121). T h e chief revealed works in the T ib etan language with catalog titles are : No. 442. Guhyasamaja m ulatan tra : Sanatathdgatakdyavdkcittarahasya-guhyasanulja-ndma-mahakalpardja. Chaps. 1-17 of the Sanskrit text. No. 443. Guhyasamaja u tta ra ta n tra : C hap. 18 of the Sanskrit text. No. 444. G uhyasam aja-vyakhyatantra : Sandhiiydkarana-ndma-tantra. No. 445. G uhyasam aja-vyakhyatantra : Sriiajramdldbhidhanamahdyogatantra-sari atantrahrdayarahasyavibhaitga-ndma. No. 446. G uhyasam aja-vyakhyatantra : Caturdevipariprcchd. No. 447. G uhyasam aja-vyakhyatantra : Vajrajiidnasamuccaya-nama-tantra (However, from the T ib e tan translation one would expect *Jm navajra-). Tson-kha-pa writes in his com m entary on the Pailcaktama called Csal bahi sgron me (Vol. 158, p. 175-5) : Five Explanatory T antras (lyakhydtantra) have been specifically m entioned by the noble father and sons (i.e. the tantric N agarjuna as lather and the tantrics Aryadcva and C andraklrti as sons), that is, Caturdevipariprcchd, Sandhivydkarana, and Vajramdld are stated lo be Explanatory T an tras in the Pancakrama; I'ajrajndnasamuccava is also said to be an Explanatory T a n tra in the Carydnuldpakapradipa\ and while the first two syllables of the nidana (i.e.

E -V A M ) are being explained in the Pradipoddyotana, the Devendrapariprccha is specifically m en tio n ed as the s o u r c e ; . . . . the E xplanatory T a n tra Devendrapariprccha was not translated (into T i b e t a n ) . T h a t passage in T ib e ta n : / hdus pahi b fa d rgyud d u hphags pa yab sras kyis dnos su gsuns pa na lna ste / rim lna las lha mo bzhis zhus d a n / dgoris pa luri ston p a d a n / rdo rje h p h ren ba b ad rgyud du gsuns la / spyod bsdus las ye ses rdo rje kun las btus kvan b sad rgyud du gsuns in / sgron gsal las glen gzhihi yi ge d a n po gnis hchad pa n a lhahi d b an pos zhus pahi khuris dnos su smos $ in .. . /lh a h i d b a n pos zhus pa bsad rgyud du gsuns te hdi m a hgyur ro / . T h e reason the T ib e ta n tradition accepted the Devendrapariprccha as an E xpla natory T a n tr a is that im m ediately after the q u o tatio n from th a t work by title (reproduced in the m aterials for n id an a verses Evarn m a y a . . ) , C an d rak lrti continued w ith a verse citation (reproduced in section B, n ex t) w hich he introduced by the rem ark (Pradipoddyotana M S ) : / m ayetyadi v a jra p a d a n a m apy arth o v y a k h y a ta n tra d av a ta ry a te / O n e can u n d erstan d from the E x p lan ato ry T a n tr a the m ean in g o f the d iam o n d words tmaya> e tc . T son -k h a-p a in his SIchan hgrei (p. 14-1) on the Pradipoddyotana m entions, Skal-ldan-grags-pa exam ined the Vajramdld carefully a n d could not find this therein. T h e thrust o f the decision lies in the fact that the Vajramdld presents the forty nidana verses in its c h a p tc r 59. Its brief c h a p te r 58 is devoted to a treatm ent o f the two syllables E-vam. It is precisely the Vajramdld which should have had, b u t lacked the cited verses. C andraklrti preceded his citation of the forty verses by citation of verses about the nidana sentence but used other sources, first the nam ed Devendrapariprccha, and then an unnam ed work he calls an E xplanatory T a n t r a . T h e T ibetans (Tsorikha-pa, in any case) decided that C andrakirti had treated the Devendrapariprccha with the authority ordinarily accorded an E xplanatory T antva. and identified that work accordingly. But that T a n tr a had not itself been translated; the Pradipoddyo tana passage apparently is the full extant portion of Sanskrit of this work (the Subhduta-samgraha, Part II, pp. 32-3, quotes the Devcndrapariprcchd-tantra by lines contained within the Pradi~ poddyotana citation). T h e Vajrajiidna also has a difliculty of literary history. It is a curious feature of C an d rak irtis Pradipoddyotana that his

classifying terminology' used throughout this com incm aiy on the Guhyasamdjatantra, namely the Seven O rnam ents (iaptdiamkdra), is ascribed several times near the outset of his work to an Explanatory T an tra which he does not name, but which is none other than the Vajrajiidnasamuccaya; and so I son*klia-pa in turn cannot spccify the Pradipoddyotana for containing the name of this Explanatory T an tra. This silence regarding the title of the w'ork from which he drew the m aterial he populaiized may mean that Candraklrti had a hand in composing the Vajrajnanasamuccaya, the latter portion o f it, or the expanded version (Toh. 450), to justify his coinm entaiial position, as has been suggested by Yukei M atsunaga in his article, A Doubt to Authority of the G uhyasam aja-A khyana-tantras. Another mystery of Explanatory T an tras occurs in C andiakit ti's Pradipoddyotana at the very end of chapter Four: j yathoktam bhagavatd lydkhydtantrc { sarvaiigabhdvandtitam kalpandkalpavarjitam / matrabindusamdtitam dan mandalam uttamam j( As was said by the Bhagavat iu the Explanatory T a n tr a : Transcending the contem plation of all portions (i.e. color and shape), free from both im agination and lack o f im agi th at nation, transcending the upper sign and its bindu is the supreme m andala. Tson-kha-pa in his Afchan hgrel (p. 41) mentions that an almost identical verse is found in the Candraguhyatilaka (another quotation from this work in the Pradipoddyotana is reproduced in the initiation remarks in the section 'T h e two stages, initiations, an d the clear light ; an d A ryadeva appeals to this T a n tra for the expression 100 lineages). T h e only difference ib where in the verse the com pound mdtrabindu is translated in C andrakirti's work as gug skyed thig le, the Candraguhyatilaka T ib etan version has the words hdren dan tshig (guide a n d letter). Since the expression mdtrabindu is difficult to interpret, it is possible that it is ihe original for those T ibetan words, with hdren bindu, and tshtg mdtrd. Tson-kha-pa left the m atter open; he appears not to accept the evidence of one similar verse as final pi oof that Candraklrti had this T a n tra in mind. Howevci, it so happens that this same verse is cited by In d rab h u ti in his JnJnasiddhi (GOS ed., p. 83), and attributed to a chapter thiitccn. O n the preceding page he has cited the Advayaiamatdvijaya f and

his im m ediately succeeding q u o tatio n from a c h ap ter nine, a* well as that citation o f c h a p te r thirteen are presum ably from that T a n tra . A ccording to G eorge R oerich, The Blue Annals, P a rt T w o, p. 417, Bu-ston considered the Adrayasamatdvijaya to be an E x p lan ato ry T a n tr a of the Guhyasamdjatantra; he translated a version o f that work in 22 chapters th at was incom plete in the m iddle. Possibly this is the reason th at T son-kha-pa a p p aren tly ignores this work. Several centuries after his time, the Chinese version of this T a n tr a was used to fill out the missing portion o f Bu-stons translation, accounting for the present version in the T ib e ta n K a n ju r. But if Bu-ston was serious ab o u t this Advayasamatdvijaya as an E x p lan ato ry T a n tr a , I can find no confirmation o f this in his own Pradipoddyotana com m entary in Collected Works (Part 9 ), w here he freely cites the Sandhivydkaraiui (in an older translation preceding the one now officially in the K a n ju r ) , the Vajramdld, the Vajrahrdayalamkara, Y oga-tantras (on which he was the g reat a u th o r ity ), A ryadevas various works, a n d o th e r works, but not, as far as I could notice, the Advayasamatdvijaya. A gain, in his Pradipoddyotana on c h ap ter X IV , C a n d ra klrti quotes from an u n n am ed V y ak h v a-tan tra an interesting prose passage w ith V ajrapani as interlocutor (included in this work under V a n ') . Finally, having mystified sufficiently the E xplanatory T a n tra s , C an d rak lrti in his com m entary on C h a p te r X V II cites the M u la -ta n tra , w hich T son-kha-pa identifies as the M u la -ta n tra o f the Y oga-tantra, nam ely the Tattvasamgraha (cf. the passage in the treatm ent of initiation). A ccording to The Blue Annals, Book V II (T h e Preaching o f the T a n tr a s ), there was a distinction o f O u t c r Y oga-tantra an d In n e r Y oga-tantra, with the inner variety becom ing separately called A n u tta ra y o g a -ta n tra . O n e can therefore u nderstand C andraklrti's citation as indicating his adherence to this term i nology, since the Tattvasamgraha is the mula-tantra o f t h e outer* Y oga-tantra. Indeed, there is m uch in com m on between the Y oga-tantra (such works as the Tatti'asamgraha, the Maydjdla, Sarvarahasya-tantra, and Sri Paramadya) an d the F a th e r class o f A n u ttarav o g a-tan tra. Both classes of T a n tr a use the term i nology of three sam adhis, clarified in our Introduction I I I . C ., although there are differences in definitions.

C andrakirtis citation o f both the Sandhiiydkarana and the Vajramdld as Arya-vyakhyana* shows that h r took for granted the knowledge in his readers of those two works. By im pli cation, when he cites a verse from the Sanarahasya-tantra w ith out any indication o f source, those same readers are expected to know the work. T hen, when he cites by name some other T antras, such as the Maydjalatantra, the Vajrotm>atantra, the Vairocanabhisambodhi, and the Vajrahrdaydlamkara, we may infer that he gives the names because he cannot expect the followers o f the Guhyasamaja to know those other Tantras by heart. But if this is indeed the case, it would also have to apply to his quotations from the nam ed works Devendrapariprccha an d the Candraguhyatilaka. So there are certainly m any difficulties about the literary history of these works. Tsoii-kha-pa ( P I T , Vol. 158, p. 175-6) rcjccts the view advanced by some that the Vajrahrdayalanxkdra and the Maydjdla are Explanatory T antras, since some consistency with the Guhyasamaja does not qualify those works as E xplanatory. However, T son-kha-pa, as Bu-ston before him, often cites the Vajrahrdaydlamkura-tantra in commentarial m aterial on \\\? Guhyasamdjatantra. Ilisjustificaiion is suggested in his Paitcakrama com m entary, P I T Vol. 158, p. 186-5, where he refers to the Vajrahrdaydlamkara as a consistent means (updya) ta n tra (phyogs mthun gyi thabs gyi rgjud), that is to say consistent with one side of G uhyasam aja teaching. According to Tson-kha-pa (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 177-1), while the Explanatory T a n tra Vajramdld discusses some other matters, it principally teaches t h e arcane body, arcane speech, and arcane m ind, and the illusory body (mdyd-deha). He further explains (ibid., p. 177-1, 2 ) ) that the Caturdcvipariprcchd principally teaches extensively the essentials of prdndyama; an d that the Sandhiiydkarana is consistent with the sequence of c h a p ters of the mula-tantra and is an Explanatory T a n tra for the first twelve chapters o f the Guhyasamaja an d not for the rem aining ones. H e also mentions (ibid., p. 176-1) that a larger am i a smaller version of the Vajrajridnasamuccaya are stated in the com m entary on the Vajramdld; these are num bered respectively 450 an d 447 in the Tohoku catalog based on the Derge edition of the K anjur-T anjur (but the Peking edition of the K a n ju r omits the larger version). T he principle of the explanatory tantras seems to be a

consistcncv o f term inology. Such works should em ploy the sam e nam es o f deities a n d (real some m ajor subjects o f the basic ta n tra o f the Guhyasamaja. T h e one which most qualifies as such is o f course the Sandhiiydkarana bccause it does ex p an d on th e Guhyasamaja c h a p te r by c h a p te r for the first twelve chapters, a n d then itself comes to an end. O f course, o th er T a n tra s of the A n u ita ra y o g a -ta n ira class have m uch m aterial in com m on, b u t their d e p a rtu re in term inology makes it difficult to e q u ate th e ir subject m a tte r. T so n -k h a-p a, who com m ented on the ch ief F a th e r T a n tr a , the Guhyasamaja, a n d the ch ief M o th e r T a n tr a , the $ri-Cakrasamvara, frequently has rem arks w hich co rrelate these two extensive sets o f tantric literatu re. I m a d e a m odest a tte m p t at this too in my Fem ale E n e rg y . . . article, showing the equivalence o f the F a th e r T a n tr a v o cab u lary M other,* S ister, D a u g h te r w ith the M o th e r T a n t r a v o cab u lary T o g eth er-b o n i fem ale, field-born fem ale, a n d in c a n ta tio n -b o rn fem ale. As we pass from those revealed tantric works to the exegetical lite ra tu re , we should note that the former are w ritten in strict an o n y m ity a n d a ttrib u te d to divine au thorship, while in the case o f the la tte r, the w riters are pleased to a tta c h their nam es to co m m c n ta ria l literatu re and e lab o rate rituals w hich have taken centuries to develop. Before it is possible even tentatively to ascribe dates to the revealed literatu re, we m ust do the sam e for the co m m cn tarial works, a n d here we note th at some scholarly confusion already has set in. It simply is not possible yet to p in p o in t with accuracy the d ale o f N ag arju n a as 645 A .D ., the d ate given by IS. B hattacharyya in the introduction (p. x x x ) to his edition of the Guhyasamaja. A helpful a tte m p t is R a h u la S au k rty ay an a's geneological tree of the eightyfour Siddhas an d list of the Siddhas in journal Asiatique, O ct. Dec., 1934, pp. 213-225. Professor G iuseppe T ucci has given his lists an d tentative dates of Siddhas in Tibetan Painted Scrolls, I, pp. 227-232. T h e Ja p a n e se scholar H akuyu H ad an o , in Tohoku Daigaku Bungaku~bu Kenkyu-ncmpo, Xo. 9 (1958), pp. 58-18, thoroughly discusses the traditions o f K ing In d rab h u ti. A lthough the attem p t involves trepidation, some chrono logical layers can be worked out through textual analysis an d oth er considerations. I. First come the revealed texts Guhyasamdjatantra, the

three Explanatory T antras named in the Paiicakrama, and the (uncertain) Vajrajndnasamuccaya. In a negative way, no works are extant composed with their names by ihe first persons in the Guhyasamaja lineage list (Tibetan tradition), namely In d ra bhuti the Great, Nagayogini, and K ing ViSukalpa (per Tsorikha-pa, Vol. 158, p. 178-1, 2 ): i-ndra-bhu-ti chcn po daii kluhi rnal hbyor m a dan sa bdag bi-su-ka-lpas gzhun m dzad pa ni hdi na mi snan la /). T h ere is a legendary account in The Blue Annals (I, pp. 359-60) : T he adepts of the (Guhya )samaja agree that the G uhyasam ajatantra had been preached by ihe M u n in d ra himself, following a request o f Indrabhuti, the great king of Ooldiyana, at the time when the B uddha had manifested himself in O ddiyana and initiated (the king). T h e re upon the king an d his retinue practised the T a n tr a by means of the prapanca-carya (spros spyod) an d becam e initiates (V idyadharaone who has attain ed spiritual realization or siddhi, grub p a ), and the country of O d d i yana became deserted. After th a t a vogini, who h a d descended from the realm of the Nagas, h eard it (i.e. the T a n tra ) from (king) In d rab h u ti and taught it to king ViSukalpa of the Southern country. T h e m ah a-b rah raana Saraha heard it from him and taught it to acarya N agarjuna. T h e latter h ad m any disciples, but the chief ones were the four: Sakyamitra, Aryadeva, N agabodhi, and Candraklrti. Tson-kha-pa {op. cit., p. 178-2), right after the m ention of those first persons whose G uhyasam aja works do not exist (at least under their nam es), goes on to mention, what in this context should be the first work by an historical personnage, the Guhyasiddhi, whose authorship he assigns to $ri-M aliasukhanaiha (dpal mgon po bde ba chen po). T his name is undoubtedly draw n from the verse cited from a m anuscript of this work by S. B. Dasgupta, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, p. 156, note: Iri-m&hasukha-nathasya pada-padm opajivina / racitah padm avajrena sarvasattvanukam paya // . T h e a u th o r is well known by the name Padm avajra (who also has the nam e D cvacandra, per Tucci, Vol. I, p. 232). H e might be dilleieni from the disciple of Buddhaguhya (2nd half, eighth c e n iu rv who com ' mented on the Yoga-tantra. Tson-kha-pa states that the

Guhyasiddhi establishes the m eaning of the Sam aja. It princi pally establishes the n id a n a o f the G u h y a sa m a ja ; a n d it tcachcs about ihe stages o f the p a th : first, the Stage o f G eneration o f placing syllables; second, on the basis o f V ictory o f the R ite, o n e s own intrinsic n a tu re sym bolizing reality; third, for the sake of relying on th at, the co n tem p latio n w ith recourse to the J iV m a -m u d ra ; fourth, the contem plation o f m a h a m u d ra and abhisaiubodhi togetherw ith the fourfold praxis. The Blue Annals* I, p. 363, m entions besides this Guhyasiddhi, the work by K ing I n d r a b h u ti, the jfndnasiddhi, as also based on the G uhyasatnaja. H ence this m ust be a different In d ra b h u ti from the one who has no works on the G uhyasam aja. T son -k h a-p a also m entions that there exist no works by S a ra h a on the Guhyasamdjatantra. A bout his tim e begin two lineages of G uliyasam aja com men ta rial tradition the A rya school ( hphags lugs) an d the J n a n a p a d a school (ye fes zhabs lugs). (a) T h e Arya school is headed by the tantric N a g arju n a , whose most im p o rtan t works in the tantric field are his own compositions, th e Pindikrta-sddhana (especially for the S tage o f G eneration'i a n d the Paiicakrama (for th e S ta g e o fC o m p le tio n ), w hich becam e au th o rita tiv e for the sequence o f yoga. Besides, his com m entary Af/ddaia-patala-iistara-vydkhya on the 18th c h a p te r (ihe U tta r a - ta n tr a ) rem ained the most im portant o f any com m entary on that chapter, probably because C andraklrtis Pradipoddyotana does not cover this part. His com m entary Tantratikd on the in u la Guhyasamdjatantra was overshadowed by the Pradipoddyotana. His Pindikrta-sddhana a n d Paiicakrama were based on the Guhyasamdjatantra, first 12 chapters, especially c h a p te r Six a n d Twelve (D ocum ents) a n d the E xplanatory T a n tra s Sandhiiydkarana an d Vajramdld (although he also refers to the (,'aturdcvipariprccha). H e stressed the three lights an d the C lear Lighi, the theory of eighty prakrtis or vikalpas going w ith three vijitdnas, interpreted with Y ogacara-type vocabulary pro bably adopted from the Lankdvatara-sutra. N a g arju n a s Tantra tikd is an attem pt lo explain the Guhyasamdjatantra on the basis o f the utpatti-krama and sampanna-krama, as well as his five stages, to which he refers repeatedly, the latter under the title Prakarana (rab tu byed pa) rather than Paiicakrama. So in P T T , Vol. 59, he mentions all five krama by name at p. 200-5 and again all five beginning with from the Prakarana (rab tu byedpa las

kyart) at p. 239-4; and has numerous quotations from Prakarana at pp. 214-4, 218-5, 226-5, 236-2, 243-5, 289-1, 300-3, etc. Also, Bhavyakirtis Prakaiikd* commentary on Pradipoddyotana, P T T Vol. 60, quotes the Paiicakrama twice on p. 257-4, 5 as < Prakarana,} suggesting that he was consulting N ag arju n as Tantratikd while writing his commentary on C andraklriis work. But the commentators on the Paiicakrama itself do not call it tPrakarana\ An extensive commcntarial literature arose on the basis of the Paiicakrama. I have mainly employed Sri Laksmis commentary, bccause it adheres closely to the text commented upon without wild speculations, has a beautiful flow of language, and uses the nidana verses which are the basis of the present work. Another c o m m e n ta r y w'hich has supplied some im portant passages is ihe Manimdld which the colophon and accordingly the catalogs ascribe to N agabodhi. But this is hardly possible, because Nagabodhi is am ong the earliest in the lineage. T he Manimdld is the most developed of the Indian commentaries I examined. It employs the six alternatives (patkofi) terminology, which was popularized by Candraklrti. It is full of opinionated speculations, such as (PTT, Vol. 62, p. 160-2) equating N agarjuna's five stages, vajrajdpa, etc., with the five paths (mdrga), prayoga, etc. of the Prajdaparam ita exegesis. T he fact that the respective descrip tions in the two different literatures have virtually nothing in common docs not bother the a u th o r of the .Manimdld, who makes up five reasons which need not be cited. A clue of identification is a certain frankness oflanguage which the author has in common with Bhavyakirti, the author of the Prakd<ikd commentary on C andrakirtis Pradipoddyotana (see below). T hus in the Manimdld (op. cit. p. 155-3, 4, 5 a n d next page) the author takes up the problem of what is m eant by the w om an, mail, and androgyne of this literature. He mentions an d rejects various opinions before giving his own. His rem ark about the usual theory of the w om an is precisely the remark given by Bhavyakirti in the PrakaSikd (P T T , Vol. 61, p. 3-2), with alternate translation into T ibetan, w here he rejects the view that a w om an is described by breasts and hair : If the feminine gender (stri-linga) has breasts an d hair, then mala {garlands) and *svapnasatii (beds ) would not have feminine gender, because they do not have

breasts an d hair. A nd even w hen ihe (female) zones that do have hair are shaved, they have feminine gender. A nd it reduces to the ab surdity that an acto r im personating a w om an by m eans of a tta c h e d breasts an d wrig, would have feminine g e n d e r ( / gal te nu mat dan skra can mo rtags yin na f drhi /she phreti ba dari iial khri la sogs pa dag mo tings su mi hgyur tejde mams nu ma daii skrar mi Idan pahi phyir to // hbreg pahi skra dan Idan pahi sa phyogs dag kyari mo rtags su hgyur ro1 sbyar bahi nu ma dari skrahi cha lugs hdzin pahi gat mkhan skycs pa yati mo rings nid du that bar hgyur rof) T h e re arc o th er com m entators on the G uhyasam aja system who are equally scornful of the vulgar in terp retatio n o f tantric symbols, of which o u r own generation has no monopoly. But it would take the sam e person to m ake the identical rem ark, given above, in two books. In the Arya school, the tantric C a n d ra k lrti wrote the most em inent com m entary on the inula Guhyasamdjatantra, called the Pradipoddyotana. I ts m ain co n trib u tio n is to classify com m cntarial statem ents on the Guhyasamdjatantra by a rigorous application o f subdivisions o f Seven O rn a m e n ts , a term inology stem m ing from the I'ajrajiianasamuccaya, b ut which is m erely referred to by C a n d ra k lrti as the E x p lan ato ry T a n t r a (see the Section C, infra, for a sum m ary exposition o f the full tw enty-eight subdivi sions) a n d to avoid Y ogacara term inology. T h e first com m en tary on his work m ay have been the prim itive one by Laksm inkarii, sister of In d ra b h u ti, callcd the I'itamapada-pavjikd'. T h e m ain co m m en tary on the Pradipoddyotana, the Prakdsika o f Bhavyakirti (according to the T o h o k u catalo g ; P T T catalog incorrectly gives a u th o r s nam e as A ry ad ev a), seems intent on rebuking C an d rak irti by restoring the Y ogacara vocabularypursuant to the indications of N a g a rju n a s w'orks. In this tradition the greatest work on im portant phases o f tantric praxis is A ry ad ev as Carydmeldpaka-pradipa. Aryadeva is a tantric w riter, no m ore to be identified with the celebrated M adhyaniika a u th o r ol the same nam e than are the tantrics N ag arju n a an d C audrakirli. T his tantric a u th o r Aryadeva also wrote a num ber of brief sum m ary works of which now the most well-known is the GittaviSuddhiprakarana by reason of P rab h u b h ai 11. P atels edition. O f all the later writers o f this

A rya tradition of the Guhyasamaja cycle. A i\a d c v a gives the greatest literary impression ol' having actually 'tloiie it*. (b) T he Jn a n a p a d a school is named after Buddhas rijfiana, whose tcacher Lilavajra composed (in the G uh\asainaja class) only the iddnagur upadesa an d does not appear to have made a distinction between the Stage o f G eneration' an d t h e Stage o f Completion (PT T , Vol. 158, p. 178-3; slob dpon >grg pahi rdo rjes rgyud kyi glen gzhihi bsad pa tsam m dzad kyan/ rim giiis kyi lam gyi srol zur pa mi snari no ' ). BuddhaSrijfiana (see his legend in Roerich, Tfn Blue Annals, I, pp. 367, ff.) wrote works exemplifying both Stages: the Stage of G eneialion in the Samantabhadra-ndma-sadhana (Tohoku No. 1855) a n d the Stage o f Completion in the revealed Mukhdgama '1 oh. No. 1853) and Muktitilaka (Toh. No. 1859) based on that revelation (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 178-3). Buddhasrljfiana studied the Prajftaparam ita under the celebrated specialist H a rib h a d ia , a n d this part of his training is quite evident in his tantric works. He adopted an interpretive position in which at each point the explanations of the Guhyasam aja are tied in w ith M ahayiina Buddhism, particularly of the P ra jn a p a ra m ita type. T h a t kept obviously Brahmanical doctrines from flowing into the syncretic tantric literature of his school. Perhaps partly due to his Buddhist piety, Buddhasrljiiana h a d g ic a t fortune of disciples. O ne of his direct disciples, B uddhaguhya, became a celebrated com m entator on the C arya-and Y oga-T antra classes of tantric literature. A nother one, D ip an k arab h ad ra is credited with a work of highest im portance on ritual in the Stage of G eneration, the Guhyasamdjamandalavidhi (Toh. 1865), often referred to as the Four-hundred-and-fifty verses, which has a (ikd on it by Ratnakaraanti (Toh. No. 1871). T his D ip a n k a ra b h a d ra as well as R ahulabhadra an d some other direct disciples arc c re d it ed in legend with advanced success in the yoga of the G u h y a samaja, it being hinted that they did better than Kwldhasrijilana himself, who tried w ithout success to generate the diam ond body (vajrakaya). A nother disciple, nam ed ViiapJida, wrote lengthy commentaries on the m ain works of the master. T his school, a t least as far as its literary products are concerned, docs not bother with the topics of three lights an d the Clear Light so prevalent in the works of the A rya school. If the Jftanapada school comes across a term in the Guhyasamdjatantra

like 1 prakrtiprabhdsvara', it w ould be prone to explain it just as in non-tantric Buddhism, to wit 'intrinsically c le a r (said of the pure consciousness) ; w b ile a w riter of the A n a school would be likely to say it m eans (in w hat is called the pregnant sense') the C lear Light along wiih the (BO)/raA/iJ (of the three lights). However, it m ay well be the case that the J n a n a p a d a school does not deny lhat "pregnant sen>e but reserves it for the oial tra d i tion, rigorously kept a p a rt from the w ritten works. T h e em phasis on the g u r u s precepts is shown by the very title of th at work o f Buddhas rijfiana's, the Atukhagama the tradition from the m o u th . V ita p a d a s co m m en tary on the m aster's M uktitilaka carries on this sam e stress by a num ber of consistent rem arks ( P 'l T , Vol. 65, p. 134-5): from the m o uth o f o n e s own g u r u (rah gi bla m ahi kha n a s . . . . ) ; ibid, p. 135-2; arisen in the lineage c h a in m eans recourse to the errorless p a th of the illustrious g u ru s (brgyud rims las byun zhes pa ni bla m a d am pahi m a nor b ah i lam d u b rten p a h o ). V arious com m entaries on the mufa-tantrabe\ong to the J n a n a p a d a school; p robably the freedom from C a n d ra k irtis classifying terms in the later com m entaries is the best indication o f inclusion in that school. T h e J n a n a p a d a school took greater care w ith literary polish th an the A n a school. It has been preem inent in works on the G uhyasam aja ritual, especially on the praxis o f prdndydma\ a n d the w riter S m rtijnanakirti o f this school w rote a com m entary on the Coturdevipariprccha, w hich is m ainly devoted to prdndydma. T h e towering tantric com m en tato r of the last period o f In d ian Buddhism, A bhayakaragupta, is said to have belonged to the Jfia n a p a d a lineage. T h e a u th o r R atn ak arasan ti freely used both lineages in his own works, an d his attitu d e is about w hat is found in T ib e ta n tantrism , w here the followers o f the G uhyasam aja cycle w ere glad enough to u n d erstan d the T a n tra an d practice it in p roper fashion, no m atter which of the two lineages would contribute the most. In fact, both schools have an extensive literature on this T a n tra , as extant in T ib e ta n translation. In the present work, products o f the A ry a school are chiefly utilized for the simple reason that it is this school which is built aro u n d the position found in the forty nidana verses that are the m ain instig atio n o f the cu rre n t research. O n the other hand, some im p o rtan t

passages have been selected from texts of the Jn a n a p a d a school. T he above summary prepares us to make some chrono logical observations. Tucci (I, p. 232) argues that we should accept the T ibetan tradition which makes Padm asainbhava (middle eighth century) the disciple of a K ing In d rab h u ti who therefore would fall in the period end o f -seventh to first h a lf of eighth century. But H adano (op. cit. place* In drabhuti in the ninth century ami B uddhajftanapada in the eighth century. O f course, to reconcile the positions we should posit two Indrabhuti's. T h e first In d rab h u ti would be the one associated with O ddiyana, who has no works on the G uhyasamaja, but could well be the a u th o r of the great com m entary on the Samputa-tilaka 1 1 the M o th er T a n tra tradition, just as 1 Saraha, his junior, wrote comm entaries on other T a n t r a s , such as the Buddhakapala-Tantra, but no distinguishable work on the Guhyasamaja. Saraha is placed by S an k rtvayana as a co n tem porary of King D h arm ap ala (769-809). T h e lama T a r a n a th a , in his tales of the Siddhas, calls the second In d rab h u ti In d r a bhuti the ju n io r . He could be the In d ra b h u ti of Orissa (O divisa) whom S ankrtyayana considered to be the only Indrabhuti. His master is A nangavajra, an d the la tte rs teacher Padm avajra. T his would be the Padm avajra who w rote the Guhyasiddhi. His spiritual grandson In d rab h u ti w ould be the one who wrote the Jtlanasiddhi. P adm avajra w ould fall in the sccond h alf of the eighth century, ju st as do both the tan tric N agarjuna of the Arya school and B uddhaSrijnana of the J n a n a pada school. In the ninth century comes C an d rak lrti, a u th o r of Pradipoddyotana, as well as the second In d ra b h u ti who has a sister Laksm inkara ; and also, probably, A ryadeva. T his is easily the first h a lf of the ninth, as m a in ta in e d by (Miss) M alati J. Shcndge, cd. Advayasiddhi (Baroda, 1964), p. 11, in agreement with Sncllgrovc and Sankrtyayana. T h e K ash m i rian Sri Laksmi is probably not the same person as L ak sm in kara. Tilopa belongs to the tenth century because he is the guru of N aropa w hodicd in 1027, and the latter is a contem porary of R atnakara^anti. G uhyasam aja comm entaries continued 10 be written through the twelfth century, as is deducible from translations into T ibetan. T hus, the T a n ju r G uhyasam aja cyclc of com m cntarial literature is composed between the eighth and twelfth centuries.

O ncc wc placc the com m cntarial literature, the way is open to ap p ro ach the m ore tenuous clues for solving the problem o f the revealed T a n tra s o f the K an ju r. T h e tradition reported from T a ra n a th a th at the T a n tra s were transm itted in utmost secrecy for 300 years before being rendered somewhat m ore public by the Siddhas (cf. B. B hattacharyya, Intro, xxxv), would lead us to a fifth century A.D. time w hich is not unreason able, even though we should be u n h a p p y to have so little d a ta to go on. T h e early fifth cen tu ry is the creative period o f Asaiiga (circa 375-430 A .D .), b u t I have rejected the neversubstantiated a ttrib u tio n o f the Guhyasamdjatantra to his a u th o r ship in my Analysis o f the Srdvakabhumi Manuscript, p. 39, on the basis of m y studies in his known works (which include the Sanskrit prose com m entary on the S iitrdlamkdra, b u t not the basic verses) a n d repeat my rejection here as a consequence o f the intervening investigation o f the G uhyasam aja literature. N ot for the reason that the Guhyasamdjatantra is unw orthy o f Asariga, rath er that it is impossible o f Asariga, a n d further to m ention an extrinsic reason tantric com m entators do not quote from Asaiigas o r his bro th er V a su b a n d h u s works to justify basic tan tric id e a s ! R a th e r they quote the Lahkdvatdra-sutra for their Yogiicara-type vocabulary, a n d this sHtra was first translated into Chinese in 443 A.D. an d in the fifth century h ad bccome so popular am ong In d ia n Buddhists th a t it was the c h ie f text o f B odhidharm a w hen he cam e to C hina in either 520 A .D. or 527 A.D. (the alternate dates o f the Sino-Japanese trad itio n ). W c can strengthen this tentative attrib u tio n to the fifth century by considering some further m aterials o f the Vajramdld which, besides being the source of our n id an a verses, contains m any other passages of supreme im portance for u n d erstanding the G uhyasam aja cult. In m y Studies in Y am a an d M a r a , pp. 70-73, I show from a work ofTsori-kha-pa that the Vajramdld converts the V isnu A vatar doctrine, at least the first five Avatars, into a kind of esoteric embryology, namely that in the first five lunar m onths of uterine existence, the body has succes sively the forms of fish, tortoise, boar, lion, an d dwarf. Now this doctrineisset forth in Vajramdld*s C hapter X X X I I , which also contains Yogacara vocabulary lied in w ith the terminology o f the Laiikavatara-sutra, As an example o f this terminology in the Vajramdld, I m ay cite P T T , Vol. 3, p. 214-5, line 6 : the

secret state of the eight-ryrTona set (/ m am ics brgyad kyi tshogs dben pa / ). In that articlc, p. 71. note. I mention, 4*Miss K am ala Ray, T h e T en Incarnations of Visnu in Bengal, IHQ,, Vol. X V (1941), pp. 370-85, explains that while the A vatara theory is very ancient, the standard list is more m odern, and (p. 373) Epigraphic evidences testify to the exis tence of this theory from the 5th century A.D. onwards (in Bengal).* T his suggests that at the time the standard list o fte n incarnations became publicized, an esoteric tradition was developing concerning these incarnations as represented, at least the first five, by intra-uterine states. Furthermore, in the previous introductory section, T he world o f lig h t, I put forward the striking hypothesis that both the set of thirty-three female prakrtis a n d forty m ale prakrtis listed under nidana verses nos. 1 an d 2 can be interpreted as breaking down into five groups in each set, the first set especially going with the five stages of the V aisnava path to union with the Lord K r?na (presuming there was once a faith in such a path ). I f the sets o f prakrtis have their origin in a syncretism tvith Vaisnavism, then the fact that later on the com m entators on the Paiicakrama (from which the lists of prakrtis are d raw n ) have no inkling, as far as the texts are concerned, of how* to subdivide the sets of prakrtis, indicates that some time m ust have elapsed between the adoption o f this vocabulary in an esoteric o ral way and the more public com m entarial tradition. W e m ust grant that any conclusion about this m atter must be o f a highly speculative nature, since the early syncretisms of Buddhism and Vaisnavism arc obscure, an d since the erotic type o f K f?na worship is usually placed a t a considerably later date than what we are now considering (fifth century, A .D .). W hat I do m aintain is that the Vajramdld has the earm arks o f having been composed centuries before the tantric N ag ar ju n a quoted it in his Paiicakrama, and I tentatively place it in the fifth century. T h e Sandhiiydkarana should tentatively be placed at about the same time, since it shows the same definite style of authoritative revealed literature. T h e other explana tory tantras can be roughly placed there also, subject to later investigations. T h e above considerations leave open a d ate for the GuhyaMMdjatantra itself. T his problem cannot be separated from the

d a tin g o f all the m ain revealed Buddhist T a n tra s preserved in T ib e ta n translation in the K an ju r, because there is certainly a great deal of comm on m aterial to be found in all these T a n tra s ; as well as from the d atin g of the Saivitic an d V aisnava agamas. I see no reason for denying it a cen tu ry s priority to the Vajramdld; an d so, on a purely tentative basis, ascribe the Guhyasamdjatantra to the fourth century, A.D. But a decision on this m a tte r requires solution o f other problems o f In d ian literary history. I am well aw are that the kind o f reasoning employed above m ight be challenged by the scholars who insist on a later date for the Guhyasamajatantra, in fact placed ju st prior to the historical com m entaries on it. Therefore, I take the liberty o f quoting extensively from m y articlc in the Golden Jubilee V olum e of the B handarkar O rien tal Research Institute, E arly L iterary H istory o f the Buddhist T a n tra s, especially the G uhyasa m a ja -ta n tra : W hat is significant ab o u t the two com m entarial traditions is precisely that there arc two, with m any differences within each of these traditions. Ju st as the S autrantika a n d V aibhasika of non-tantric Buddhism could not have arisen fully-grown, in the form in which w r know them, in the century immediately following the passing of the Buddha, so also the Arya School* an d the J n a n a p a d a School could not have arisen in the century im m ediately following the composition o f the Guhyasamdja, let alone the very same century ! Indeed, any one who even partially surveys the Guhyasamaja literature as extant in T ib etan a n d notes the rem arkable variance in explanation of a given passage of the basic T a n tra , would experience at leait a mild shock at the flimsv reasons given for a late dating o f the Guhya samdja. O n e exam ple will be given to show what is m eant, and this case is particularly chosen for a context where one would expect minim al variation between the commentaries because the expression to be explained is merely the three kinds of each sense object as m ention ed without explanation in the basic ta n tra of Guhyasamdja, C hap. 7: Arya school: N ag arju n as ' / antrafikd on Guhyasamdja (Dergc ed., Sa, f. 105b-7); (form, the object of s i g h t ) has the nature o f outer, inner, an d both* (phyi dannan daA gni gahi ran hzhin).

C andrakirtis Pradipoddyotana oil Guhyasamdja (Dcrge cd., H a, f. 49a-5): (form, the object of sight) should be perceived and comprehended as inferior, interm ediate, and superior (dman pa dan bar ma dan mchog gsum du mam par Ses firi rtogs pa) ; in Tsori-kha-pas .Mchan-hgrel on the Pradipoddyotana (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 55-3), wo learn that the superior kind is the Buddha going with that sense object, e.g. V airoeana as form; (p. 56-1, form is also of three kinds, pleasurable, repulsive or displeasing, and neu tral). Jnanapada School: P rasantajnanas Upadesd-niicaya on Guhyasamdja (P T T , Vol. 63, p. 64-5); the three kinds are superior (lu st), interm ediate (delusion), a n d inferior (h a tre d ). Celu-pas Ratnavrkfa-nama-rahasya-samdja-vrtti (P T T , Vol. 63, p. 183-5): inferior, interm ediate, an d superior, J in a d a tta s Panjikd-ndma on Guhyasamdja ( P I T , V ol.63, p. 259-1) : Because one discerns it as having the n atu re of superior, and so on, there are three kinds ; having the nature of outer, inner, an d both, m eans n o n -ap p reh en sion (anupalabdhi)t so one should u nderstand it by the nature of three gates to liberation, of voidness, e t c / (mchog la sogs pahi ran bzhin du brtags pahi phyir rn am gsum mo / phyi dan nan dan gni gahi bdag n id mi dmigs pa ste I stori pa ft id la sogs pahi rnam p a r thar pahi sgo gsum gyi no bos rtogs p ar byaho /). Ratnakaras antis Kusumdfijali-guhyasamdja-mbattdhanama (Vol. 64, p. 127-1): the three kinds m ean the respective offerings by the three kinds o f yogins, the one of lust, of delusion, and o f hatred. Smrtijftanakirtis riguhyasamdja-tanlrardja-vrtti (P T T , Vol. 66, p. 132-3): T h e three kinds m eans that one knows (the objcct) as the three gates to liberation, the signless, etc. Anandagarbhas $ri-guhyasamdja-mahdtantrardja- tikd (P T T , Vol. 84, p. 127-4, 5 ) : T h e throe kinds are outer, inner, and secret. T h a t was explained by AryaJftanapiida to mean fifteen in an external set,fifteen in a per sonal set, and fifteen in a secret set. H aving cited his words,

I should here explain clearly his m eaning.' (rnam pa gsum ni phyi d a n nan d an gsari b aho / / de hphags p a ye $cs zhabs kyis phyi hi bye brag bco lria dan / natfi gi bye brag bco lna d an / gsari bahi bye b rag bco lriar b$ad pahi don hdir sgrar draris nas gsal b a r b ia d p a r bya ate /) . H e goes on to take the outer as three, which m ultiplied by the five sense objects yields the n u m b er fifteen, an d does the same for the inner or personal, an d for the secret w hich involves the prajiidupdya union. In each case, the three arc the B uddha, the Bodhisattva, a n d the Devi, associated with th at object by the triad o f perception, sense organ an d sense object, i.e. for form, the three a re the B uddha V airoeana, the Bodhisattva K itigarbha, an d the Devi R u p av ajra. T h e re arc three m ain sources for the various com m ents cited above. O n e is the E xplanatory T a n tr a Samdhitydkarana, which is a verse paraphrase, w ith slight enlargem ent, o f the first twelve chapters of the Guhyasamdjatantra. I n its treatm ent o f C hap. 7, it states (P T T , Vol, 3, p. 240-3): / nari dan de bzhin phyi rol dan f gni ga rjes su mi dmigs paj I gzugs la sogs gsum de yin te f lha rnams la ni dbul bar byaff T h e three kinds o f form a n d other sense objects are the non-apprehension o f inner, outer, an d b o th ; one should offer those to the gods. T h e next source is the E xplanatory T a n tra Vajramdld, which states in w hat I call the *niddna-kdrikdr, no. 19 : sthdtaiyam rifayefv asmddyogindduayadarHna / hinamadhyapraniUfu jiidnatrayanidariandt ff Afterwards the yogin who sees the non-duality should be dwelling upon sense objects inferior, intermediate*, and superior by seeing the triple gnosis. T h e third source is the uttara-tantra (18th chap. of the Sanskrit text, p. 158) : rupafabdadayah karndh sukhaduhkhobhaydtmakdh } janayanti hrdaye ttityarji rdgadvefatamodayam // T h e desires (i.e. the 5 strands of desire, paricakdmaguQa) form , sound, etc. pleasurable, painful, and n eu tral^continually generate in the heart, (respectively), thesource o f lust, h a tre d , a n d delusion. W ith all that information at hand, it is easy to see that

tome commentators relied cspccially on the Vajramdld, some especially on the Samdhivydkaratia, some especially on the uttaratantra] and then some commentators tried to harmonize two different terminologies o f three kinds by taking it as three times three', i.e. three each of each three. T h e Samdhiiydkarana expression non-apprehension suggested to s o m e com m entators the non-tantric doctrines of Perfection of Insight (prajiidparami ta) with its stress on voidness (iunyatd), so they saw an Opportunity to make contact with non-tantric Buddhism by the well-known set of Buddhism, the three gates to liberation (trini vimokfa-mukhani), that is, the voidness (Sfinyatd'), the undirected (apranihita-), an d the signless (animitta-) gates. W hen one takes into account that these commentaries vary much m ore in most other places, where the Guhya\amdja passages arc not restricted by such concrete objects as the sense objects, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that some centuries o f oral tradition have intervened between the basic Guhyasamdjatantra and the eighth ccntury when the historical writers began to appear on the scene. O f course, if the basic T a n tr a had been concoctcd by the first com m entator, or h a d been composed just prior to his writing activity, there should not have been any question of w hat the three kinds were. Instead the com mentators might have differed only in their m etaphorical in ter pretation of the stan d ard three kinds. Another conclusion one may draw from the evidence o f the above extract is that it is hazardous to try to understand the Guhyasamdjatantra just from reading it. W ho, reading the phrase three kinds of form, would know what the three kinds are, unless someone told him ? Now turning our consideration to the forty nidana verses, since they arc a part of the Vajramdld, and no evidence has turned up to suggest their later addition, we may, pursuant to the above reasoning, place these verses also in the fifth century, A.D. Alarpkakalasas commentary on the Vajramdld, which is extant in the T anjur, does not comment all the way up to the ch ap ter which contains the forty verses. T h e verses are cited in the Pradipoddyotana without further explanation except for the classifying term pregnant sense* (garbhy-artha). T h e only Indian commentary on the Pradipoddyotana translated into T ib etan that generously treats these verses with comments is Bhavya-

k irtis Prakdfika, T his is a highly opinionated com m entary, but I f o u n d it w orthw hile citing in several places. L ater, in T ibet, C a iu lra k irtis w ork was highly prized. A com m cntarial tradition arose which did n ot neglect the 40 verses. T h e T ib e ta n Bu-stons com m entary on the Pradipoddyotana (Vol. T a o f his collected works, published by Lokesh C h a n d ra in Part N ine) must have been eagerly greeted by T ib e ta n monks when it first ap p eared , probably as the first native com m entary on that work by an em inent a u th o rity on the T a n tra s. H e continues the M ad h y am ik a tone o f com m en tary in the same m an n er as the Pradipoddyotana itself, th a t is, in a negative way by avoidancc of the typical Y ogacara vocabulary round in m an y oth er com m entaries, especially in the Pancakrama tradition. Bu-ston has various disagreements w ith Bhavyak irtis com m entaries (the m ain one a n d the sm aller one) and with K m n a r a s com m entary on the Pradipoddyotana, as also w ith u n nam ed teachers ( Some persons s a y ...,>). Bu-ston com ments topically, not sentence by sentence in the order o f occur rence in C a n d ra k lrtis work. T h is m ode o f com m entary is not original, for some o f the In d ian com m entaries arc o f this type. In line w ith this sort o f com m entary, he docs not com m ent on the 40 verses in their order, but topically. So after some rem arks for the first four verses, going with E-vam m a-ya, he begins to ju m p a ro u n d , although in the end accounting for almost all the verses. T h e T ib e ta n com m entary on the G u h y a sam aja by K u n -d g ah -d o n -h g ru b (the M an nag rim gflis gter m d z o d ', reccntlv reprinted in India, contains the 40 verses almost a t the beginning, and in section K A , f. 37a-b (pp. 73-74), also treats the 40 verses topically and with extreme brevity. T hese topical groupings are o f no help to me in the present work, because I shall treat the verses in their order, to fully bring out the a u th o r s intentions as an individual composi tion. T h e com m cntarial tradition on C an d rak irtis work culm inated in T so n -k h a-p as \tchan hgrcl (annotation in sm aller w riting in between the words or phrases) in the early fifteenth ccntury. T h e Pradipoddyotana had been first translated by the Indian pandit S rad d h ak arav arin a an d the great T ib etan trans lator Rin-chcn-bsan-po (958-1055); Tson-kha-pa used this translation as well as the two new translations (Xlchan kgrel, p. 91-4). T so n -k h a-p as annotation has evidence that he h ad

read Bu-stons work and continued many of his ideas, but Tsorikba-pa*s treatment is far advanced. He knew that in order for a commentary to be useful, it had to follow the order of the original work. So does his annotation Mchan hgrtl on the pradipoddyotana y and his M thakgcodtm the individual chapters. His Don gsal ba on the Guhyasamdja follows the order of the three mandalas ; and h is/^ flK ^ i don follows the order of the mandalaritc. Thereby his works were o f great convenience for me to consult, and it must have been the same for the Tibetans. T h ere can be little doubt that the Guhyasamdjatantra reached an a d vanced and m ature interpretation in T ibet at the hands ot the great teachers Bu-ston, Tson-kha-pa, and others.*
After the present work w as completed, 1 became indebted to Sriko ng Rjmpoche, Assistant T utor to H. H. the Dalai Lam a, for a llo w in g me to secure a copy o f a text ju st reprinted in North India for restricted circulation. This is by Ses-rab-seri-ge, a disciple o f Tson-kha-pa a com m entary on C an d rak irti's Pradipoddyotana in its T ibetan version. This native work is a remarkable piece o f popularization o f a T an tric topic, w h ich I believe w as composed after the death o f T son-kha-pa, his teacher. The author appears to have taken as basis Tsori-kha-pas M th a n annotation on the Pradipoddyotana, incorporating the annotation into the text commented upon in ft lucid paraphrase w hich, however, om its thorny points and th ru adds citations from other works, T antric and non-T antric. The author cons ta n tly rationalizes w ith remarks like don n i ( the m ean in g is as f o llo w s ") . In illustration, in the course of Chap. One com m entary, his explanation o f the forty verses is approxim ately a paraphrase o f T son-kha-pa's M tk c n b grtl on those verses, b u t om its mention o f T so n-kha-pas difficult comment on Sru. In Sec. K a , f. 4f.b to 463-6, he has vario u s w ays o f grouping the v e n e s (which Tsoii-kha-pa did not present in his com m entary , but give* no solution for the order o f the verses from 1 to 40. In Sec. N ga, f. 41a, he points out th at pratyahara and dh)ana (the first two o f the six-m em bered y o g a ) a re included in arcane body (T. I us d b tn ) w h ich is T so n-k h a-p a1 posi * tion. It is this position that is the ch ie f clue for so lving the order u f the forty verses, th at is,if one tries to accom modate this position w ithin the forty , t n o i especially w ith the A a-Ia 'B ody) verses. It is good that this fascinat ing work is receiving its due appreciation from the G elugpa Lamas who specialize in T antra, Besides, the Tibetans have recently reprinted works by M khas-grub-rje and by the First Panchen Lam a on aspects o f the cu lt. I have made an important observation about the latter two works in m y A ppendix 2. In any case, m y policy o f relying on thr M a 'te r Tson-kha-pa, rather than on the d e riva tiv e literature o f his followers, ^lould be appreciated by the present-day G elugpa monks, who can scarrelv deny Tson-kha-pa was as much a Lama 'g u r u ) as anv that can be met loday.

B. The title o f the work and its opening sentence ( nidSna) T he full title as found at the ends o f chapters in the edited text is: Sarvatathagatakdyavdkcittarahasydtirahasyaguhyasamdjamahdguhyatantrardja. T he follow ing translation o f the title w ill be ju stified : Great-secret K ing o f Tantras the Secret Union* o fth e secret and the greater secret belonging to the Body, Speech and M ind o f all the T athagatas. V itapadas com m entary Mukhdgama-vrtti (P T T , V o l. 65, p. 66-4) explains some o f the construction o fth e title: Tantra -of samdja by all the Buddhas* m eans Vajradhara because it is the union (samdja) by all the Buddhas in the m anner o f paramartha and samvrti. T o show that, there is T h u s (evaqi). *Great secret* (mahdguhya) m eans the illusory (mdyopama). 'Secret (rahasya) means the Stage o f G eneration, Greater secret (atirahasya) m eans the thusness o f all modes. T h e great 4gama which incom parably shows those matters, is the Samdja (/ sans rgyas kun gyis hdus pahi rgyud ces pa ni / sans rgyaa tham s cad don dam pa dan kun rdzob kyi tshul du hdus pahi phyir rdo rje hchari baho / de ston par byed pa la yah de skad ces byaho / gsah chen Scs pa ni sgyu m a lta buho / gsari la tes pa bskyed pahi rim paho / ches gsaii ba ic s pa ni dnos po thams cad kyi de b iin nid do / de rnams ston par byed pahi goh na n ied pahi luri chen po ni hdus paho / ). T his commentary makes it clear that the com pound rahasyatirahasya is a dvandva, to be understood by such pairs as samvrti-satya and paramarthdsatya; Stage o f Generation and Stage o f C om pletion. By bringing in the expression T h u s (m?z),Vitapada also indicates the relation betw een the title and the first sentence o f the.Tantra w hich begins w ith evam. T h e most im portant part o f the title is the expression guhyasamdja, because this is the standard abbreviated forul o f the title, which in turn is abbreviated to samdja. Som e light is shed on the abbreviated title by its chapter one, verse 3: Bhafasva bhagavan tattvam vajrasarasamuccayam / sarvatathdgatam guhyam samdjam guhyasambhauam fj Lord, pray explain the samdja, the reality, sum o f diam ond essences, the all-tathagata secret, and what arises from the secret ! T he Pradipoddyotana comments with various o f its classifying signals, invariant sense (akfardrthah), and so on: / bhdfasva

lam ajam iti sam bandhah / samajam iti dvayor ekibhavah samajam / aksararthah // vajrapadinasamayogain sam ajam f samastaiigam // prajnopayasamayogam samajam garbhi // *anivrtiparamarthasatyayor milanah samajam / gtihyasambhavam iti saiva viiesanah / guhyani piabhasvaram tasmat / sambhutam advayajnanatm akain m ahavajradharam iii yavad/ kolikah // sarvatathagatam guhyani iti sai vatathagatan.'im *paramparyena gopaniyam guhyain / vajrasaras tathagatah tcsam ckibhavalaksanam samuccayam ta ttv a m y a th a b h tita m 7 Trans lation (M chan hgrel, p. 2 4 ): Pray explain the samdja' is the application. Concerning lsannlja't the unification of a pair is samdja with invariant sense. T h e union of diam ond and lotus is samdja with shared sense. Insight, the means, and their union is samdja with pregnant sense. T h e merger of the two truths, conventional and absolute, is samdja\ what arises from the secret is precisely that as the extraordinary case, to wit, the secret is the C lear Light, an d w hat arises therefrom goes u p to M a h i vajradhara who is the non-dual knowledge; (samdja) with ultim ate sense. T h e all-tath ag ata sccret is the secret, to be preserved o f all the tathagatas, handed down in succession (of master and disciple). T h e diam ond essences are the T a th a g a ta s ; their sum has the characteristic of unification. T h e reality is as it really is. T he words Body, Speech, and M in d run through a gam ut of usages, of which the most comprehensive list is ten in num ber (see R a tn ak arasan tis exposition in C, below). T h e invariant sense is that the D iam ond of Body is V airoeana, the D iam ond of Speech is A m itabha, and the D iamond of M ind is Aksobhya. T o these three T a th a g a ta families are added Amoghasiddhi and R atnasam bhava to make a total o f Jive T athagatas, the usual m eaning of all the T a th a g a ta s . In the second paragraph after verse 3 o f ch ap ter one, there occurs the expression sarvatathdgatamhn kayavakcittaguhyam %on which the Pradipoddyotana comm ents (M ihan hgtcl. p. 2 4 ) : I sarvatathagatanam kayavakcittaguhyam samayasamvaradikulatrayaparinam ah / aksararthah sai vatathaga* tanam kayavakcittaguhyam vyanjana [ trayam ] / samastangah jf sarvatathagatanam kayavakcittaguhyam jn a n a trayaprakrtyabhasavayuvahanain / garbhi // sarvatathagat^nam kayavakcittaguhyam jtVinamayadchah kolikah/.

T h e sccret o f the body, speech a n d m in d o f all the T ath S g a ta s m eans the extending to the three families o f pledges, vow s,and so o n ; in v arian t sense.T h e secret o f the b o d y ... m ean s the three syllables {for generating the deities); shared sense. T h e secret o f the b o d y ..., m eans the windvchicle for the a p p e a ra n c e o f the (eighty) prakrtis upon the three lights; p reg n an t sense. T h e secret o f th e b o d y ..., m eans the body m a d e o f know ledge; ultim ate sense. T h e foregoing should d em o n strate the m ultiple levels of in te rp re ta tio n th a t c a n be, a n d w ere extended to the words o f the title. T h e length o f the o p en in g sentence (nidana) is established by theory th a t it dem onstrates the five perfections, th at is to say, o f the teaching, the retinue, the time, the teacher, a n d the place. N a tu ra lly we give m u c h w eight to the tradition o f the E x p la n a to ry T a n t r a Vajramdld, as found in AlamkakalaSas ri-vajramdld-mahayogatantra-tikd-gambhirdrthadipikd (P T T , Vol. 61, p. 164-1): / bsdus don es bya b a ni p h u n sum tshogspa ln a d an Idan p a stc ' de la h di skad ces bya ba la sogs pas bstan pahi by a b a p h u n sum tshogs p a h o // b d a g gi thos p a i t s bya b a la sogs pas ni h k h o r p h u n sum tshogs pa m d o r bstan p a h o 7 dus gcig na ces bya ba la sogs pas ni dus p h u n sum tshogs p a h o / bcom Idan hdas ies b y a b a la sogs pas ni ston p a po p h u n tshogs p a h o / / do b2in gsegs pa th am s cad kyi sku d a n gsuri d an thugs kyi sftin po rdo rje b tsu n m ohi b h a -g a rnam s bcugs ste / 2es bya b a la sogs pas ni gnas p h u n sum tshogs pa gsuns so / T h e concise m e a n in g is p o s s e s s i o n of five perfections. A m ong th e m , by way o f evam, there is the perfection o f w h a t is to be ta u g h t. By way o f mayd Srutam, there is the perfection o f the retin u e, in brief. By way o f ekasmin samaye, there is the perfection o f time. By way o f bhagavan, th ere is perfecrion o f the teacher. By way o f sarvatathd~ gatakdyavdkcittahrdayavajrayofidbhagefu vijahara, there is perfection o f the place. O n the o th er h an d both V ajra hasas Tantrardja-irtguhyasamdjafikd a n d L ila v a jra s Guhyasamdjatantra-niddna-gurupadeiabhatya (P T T , Vol. 66, p. 75-5 a n d p. 97-2) explain the ap p licatio n of five perfections {phun sum tshogs) in this m a n n e r : I. the teacher

(ston pa) indicated by bhagaidn; 2. compiler (sdud pa po), by tvam mayd Srutam tkasmin samaye; 3. plat e (gnas), by sanatathdgata. .pijahara; 4. retinue (hkhor) by anabhildpydnabhildpjaih (text, chap. I, p. 1, line 3) down to samdryale stna ( I<x t, p. 2, line 12); 5. tantra, i.e. the discourse (rgyud), by (lam. Therefore, the intention of these two authors (obviously closely affiliated) is to extend the nidana down through the naming of all auditors to the discourse. T h e same allotment of the text to perfection o f the retinue is apparently given by the writer K um ara in his Pradipadipa-tippani-hrdayadarSa ( P I T , Vol. (iO, p . 220-1). H ow ever, as the nidana verses are found in the Vajramdld, I accept Alamkaka lavas explanation especially since the forty syllables going with the karikas amount to the length as slated by Alamkakalasa. T h e nidana thus established is as follows : Evarn m ay a, srutam ekastnin samaye bhagavan sarvatathagata-kayavakciuahrdaya-vajrayosidbhagesu vijahara. Thus by me it was heard-on an occasion the Bhagavat (the L ord) was dwelling in the bhagas of the diam ond ladies of the heart belonging lo the Body, Spcech, and M ind of all the T athagatas. Sm rtijnanakirtis $ri-guhyasamdja-tantrardja-vrtti (P IT '. Vol. 66 , p. 125-5) makes a distinction of shared* and unshared sense to apply to defining the nidana itself. He says, Among those words, evam comprises all aspects of sound ; hence it is the form of the unshared nidana, which symbolizes the ad a m a n tine state of the m ind of enlightenm ent (bodhicitta) ( / de la hdi skad ces pa ni sgrahi rnam pa m thah dag bsdus pa stc / des thun mori m a yin pahi glen gJihi no bo byan chub kyi sems rdo rje Aid mtshon paho j ). l-'ui theim ore, T h e words mayd Srutam, ctc. express the foim of ihe shared niddna** ( bdag gis thos pa ies pa la sogs pas ni thun tnongi glen giihi no bo gsuns te /). His subsequent comments show that by shared nidana1 he moans the part which succinctly expresses the five perfections. According to his com m entary, 'by m e (rrmwi) is the perfection of the auditor (in other texts, the perfection of the retinue); was heard (Srutam), the perfection of the teach ing; on an occasion (ekatmin samaye), the perfection of ihe time; the Bhagavat (6A(j0;*Jn), the perfection of the teacher ; and the remaining words down to was dwelling in the bhagas

(...bhagefu vijahara), the perfection of the place. His explana tion leaves the nidana the same length as m y acceptancc. H ow ever, no other com m entary th a t I examined mentions such a divison of the words as m a d e by P andit Smrti. T h e m ean in g of the nidana as a coherent sentence can be considered on several levels. T h e re is the simple paraphrase, w ith a few w ords added, as in T so n -k h a-p as Mchan hgrel on the Pradipoddyotana (b rack etted expressions from Mchan hgrel, pp. 11 a n d 12): T h u s by m e it was h e a rd (directly, not from an interm e d ia r y ; b u t n ot yet co m p re h e n d e d ) on an occasion (not w ith a n o th e r elem ent o f consciousness; not a t a n o th e r tim e; a n d in a single in s ta n t) the Bhagavat (hav ing the six allotm ents, lordliness, etc.) was dwelling (with the dress o f a cakravartin) in the bhagas (destruc tion o f defilem ent) o f the d iam o n d ladies (the prajild view o f voidness a tte n d e d w ith great ecstasy, mahdsukha) o f the h eart (M ah'i v a jra d h a ra ) belonging to the Body, Speech, a n d M in d of all the T a th a g a ta s . T h a t p a ra p h ra se is consistent w ith In d r a b h u tis explanation in his Jnanasiddhi (G O S, p. 8 1 ) : / evam m aya Srutam ekasmin sam aye b h a g a v a n sarv atath ag atak ay av ak cittah rd ay av ajray o sidbhagesu v ijah ara ckasm inn eva kale / bhagavan aisv ary ad ig u n a y u k ta tv a t / hrdayain jn a n a m tad eva vajrayosit a b h e d y a p rajn asv ab h av aiv at, tad eva bhagam sarvakle^abhafijanat, tcsu sarvatathiigatakayavakcittahrdayavajrayosidbhagesu v ija h a ra / T h u s by m e it was h e a rd upon an occasion the L o rd was dw elling in the bhagas of the diam ond ladies o f the h e a rt belonging to the Body, Speech, an d M in d o f all the T a th a g atas : on precisely th a t occasion, the Lord, because endow ed w ith the (six) m erits o f lordliness and so on; was dwelling in those bhagas of the diam ond ladies o f the heart belonging to the Body, Speech, a n d M ind of all the T ath ag atas, w here the diam ond ladies arc precisely the heart-knowlcdge, bccau se of the self-existence o f non-dual insight, an d where the bhaga is precisely the same, because of destroying all defilement. T h e E xplanatory T a n tra of the Guhyasamdja called Samdhivydkarana re-tells the niddna in this revealing m anner (PT T , Vol. 3, p. 231-4), labelled lkolika' (ultim ate sense) for the por tion cited in Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrel, p. 17-5 to p. 18-1);

/ pu n ar aparam arya-vyakhyanam a h a / evam m aya Srutarr* tattvam ekasmin samaye sphutc / bhagavan guhyavajrcias triv ajrasam ay o ttam a(h ) // sarvatathagate jftane acintyagunasam padi / sadasadubhayatitc asthanasthitisamjfiini // akaiaikasvabhavesmin sarvajtiajftanabhavini / jagaddhrdi viSuddhiikhyc vijahara m ah am u n ih // (end o f q u o tatio n ). / m a rig pa dan hdu byed dan / / rnam par $es dah miii dau gzugs / / skye mched drug dai'i rcg pa dan / I tshor ba dan ni sred pa dan // f fter len srid pa skye ba dan / I rga Si $cs bya rig m a yin // / na rgyal che bahi h a rgya] dan / / naho sftam ria rgyal mtion ria rgyal / / g 2an yah n a rgyal las h a rgyal / I cun zad h a rgyal log par bcas // Furtherm ore, the Arya-Vyakhyiina* states : Thus, the R eality, was h eard by m e on a certain time extraordinary. T h e Bhagavat, diam ond lord o f mysteries, w ith the suprem e pledge of the triple vajra, Was dwelling as the M ah am u n i in the pure h eart o f the world, in this unique self-existence of sky having the modes o f omniscient knowledge, in the all-T a th a g a ta gnosis having the inconceivable perfection of m erits; beyond existence, non-existence, a n d both, callcd place o f no location. T h e wisdom (vidya) (there) is the know able o f nescience (aoidya), motivations (samskara), perceptions (vijfidna), nam e-and-form (ndma-rupa), six sense bases (faddyaiana), contact (sparfa), feelings (vedand), craving (trpid), indul gence (updddna), gestation (bhava), birth (jd ti), old age a n d death (jara-marana) ; a n d ( t h a t place of no location ) has pride (mdna), haughty pride (atimdna), I a m -pride (asmimdna), assuming pride (abhimdna), pride over pride (mdndtimana), begrudging pride (unamdna), along with the perverse kind (mithydmdna).

T h e Samdhiiydkarana represents the place w here the Bhagavat was dw elling to be the N irvana w ithout fixed abode* (apratiffkitaniri'Jna); his consort, the vidya, to be the instantaneous vision o f all twelve m em bers o f D ependent O rigination {pratftya samutpada) h ead ed by nescience (avidya); an d his pride, the s ta n d a r d seven kinds m entioned by Abhidharma-koSa (V. 10). A p p aren tly w hat is m ean t is that ordinary persons can have one prid e o r several in com bination, but it is superhum an to have all seven. T h e pride thereby becomes the divine pride* {devatd-garva). A n o th er re-telling of the niddna is qu o ted by C andraklrti from an (u n n a m e d ) E xplanatory T a n tr a (understood in T ib etan trad itio n to be the Devendrapariprccha) it was immediately p receded by the Devendrapariprccha passage on E-varnand is here ed ited from the Pradipoddyotana m anuscript an d transla ted w ith some Mchan hgrel (p. 14-1,2) expansion : m a y a Srutam iti proktarri cakravartisvarupina / b lja ru p c n a y a t srstarn devatacakram u tta m a m If p a ra m a n a n d a k a lo sau ckam sam aya ucyate / astaisv ary cn a b h ag av an m ahasukhapade sthitah // s a rv a ta th a g a ta h proktah paficaskandha jin a ir iha / ta d a tm a k a y a v a k c itto h rd v a jro sau m ahasukhah // yositsusam skrta m u d ra bh ag am pad m am susamskrtam / v ij a h a r a sthitas ta tra b in d u ru p c n a vajradhrk // T h e words by m e was h e a rd arc pronounced by the tru e form (the bodhicitta in father-m other union) o f the W h c e l-tu rn e r (cak rav artin ). W h at is em itted by that sced-form is the ch ief divinity-circle ( t h e Vijayam a n d a la generated in the m other-lotus). T h a t time o f suprem e bliss is said to be on an occasion*. T h e L ord abides in the place (the bhaga) o f great ecstasy w ith the eightfold lordliness. All the T a th a g a ta s are pronounced by the Conquerors to be the five personality aggregates in this world. T h a t d iam o n d of the h e a rt with great ecstasy has the body, speech, a n d m in d o f the (practitioners) self. T h e lady is the well-finished M u d ra (i.e. the karmaor jiiana-mudra as a result of having been generated into a goddess a n d having had the gods placed in her). T h e bhaga is the well-finished lotus. T h e Vajra-holder was

dwelling therein (i.e. in the bhaga), abiding in the form of the bindu. A pregnant im plication of the w inds is bro u g h t in by th e formulation in the Sri-Vajrahrdayalanikdratantra (P T T , VoL 3, p. 255-5) : T hus by me it was heardon an occasion the Bhagavat was dwelling in five-part m an n er w ithin the circle o f the ten ladies o f the heari belonging to the Body, Speech, an d M in d of all the T a th a g a ta s . (/ hdi skad bdag gis thos pa dus gcig na / bcom klan hdas de be in gsegs pa tham s cad kyi sku dan gsuns dan thugs kyi sniii po b u d m ed bcuhi dkyil na cha Basina bahi tshul du bsugs so / ). In five-part m a n n e r presumably means as live T a th a g a ta s ; an d circle o f ten ladies, the five principal a n d five ancillary winds. T h e p reg n an t sense of the nidana in terms of w inds is further borne out by Guhyasamdja, C hap. I, p. 3: / a th a khalu aksobhyas ta th a g a ta h sarvatathagata-kayaviikcittahrdaya-vajrayosidbhagesu caturasram virajaskaip m ahasam ayam andalam ad h isth ap ay am asa / j svacchaipca tatsv ab h av an ica nanariipam sa m a n ta ta h / / buddham cghasam akirnam sphulingagahanajvalam / j svacchadim an^alair yuktam sarvalaihagatam pu ram f( T h e translation is aided by Mchan hgrel (p. 20-4, 21-1, 2, and 81-4) : T h en , you know, (the officiant = ) A ksobhya T a th a g a ta (= vijnana-skandha an d lord of the three lights o r the three jndnas) blessed the four-cornered dustless mandala o f G reat Pledge1 in the bhaga-s ( = the C lear Light resorted to by illustrious persons) o f the d iam o n d ladies ( the C lear L ig h t) o f the heart belonging to the Body, Speech, an d M in d o f all the T a th a g a ta s on all levels with diverse forms, both clear an d the self-existence, of clarity, pervaded by a Buddha-cloud that thickly blazes with (five) tongues ot flame ( ^ the five ancillary w inds), (each) full of all the (five) T a th a g a ta s associated with the mandalas of clarity ( L ig h t), etc. ( = S pread-of-L ight and C ulm ination-of-Light). H ere the rays of the five ancillary winds are each m ultiplied by five, to be com pared with the twenty-five twisted th rea d s called jnana-sutra in the mandala-rite described in Mkhas grub rjes Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras. Each B uddha is associated with a certain color an d symbolized by a th r e a d of that color.

O n the o th er han d , the literal form o f the niddna is doubt lessly challenging, since the word bhaga often has the m eaning ol tom.lie o rg a n . T herefore, the Vajrajndnasamuccaya (P T T , Vol. 3, p. 253-1) has this passage : T h e Bhagavat spoke: T h e &ravakas a n d s o o n ,u n lib c ra te d from the discursive impressions o f practising the law free from passion (virdgadharma), becam e astonished to h ear the diam ond words (vajrapdda) o f the M ahay o g a -ta n ira s was dwelling in the bhaga(s )o f the ladies which exemplify the doctrine of lust (rdgadharma). T h e explanation w hich does not conflict with their aspira tions is said to be the explanation as the shared sense. T h e last sentence (sinon p ar byed pa de rnam s dan mi hgal bahi sgo nas 1)5ad pa do ni spyihi don du bad p a gsuns p ah o ) can be clarified with C a n d ra k lrtis classifying terms, as set forth below. The T a n tr a is here alluding to the sense shared w ith non-tantric Buddhism. Assuming an explanation o f the niddna is forthcom ing conco rd an t w ith ordinary Buddhism, wc assume such is the explanation in T so n -k h a-p as paraphrase presented above an d I n d r a b h u ti^ b rief expansion. T h e Samdhivydkarana's re-telling seems also to represent the shared sense. T h e explanations in terms o f winds an d in terms o f the three lights a n d C lear L ight should be considered as the un shared sense, especially unshared with non-tantric Buddhism. G. The seven ornaments and subdivisions

Also fundam ental to his tantric system is that there are levels o f interpretation of the basic T a n tra , a difference o f ex planation in accordance with the listeners, and a determ ined categorization of the sentences o f t h e T a n tra . H erein lies the great contribution o f Caiuli aktrii.s Pradipoddyotana employment of the classificatory twrniy-cighi subdivisions of the Seven O rn a m e n ts , a terminology stemming from the Vajrajndnasamuccaya-lantra. Some examples ol this classification have already been presented iu the foregoing sections, especially pregnant sense. At the end o f the Pradipoddyotana, Candrakirti suggests the r e a s o n for adopting this terminology by recall ing the B uddhas dilem m a immediately after his enlightenment, when he hesitated to teach his doctrine since it was too pro found for people at large. Vet the Buddha did begin to teach

on the basis th at persons were like lotuses some were still in the m ud, others had a stem reaching up, and a few had blossoms on the surface which needed sun w arm th. So also, in the case o f t h e T a n tra , one had to ad ap t the explanation to the particu lar stage of the candidate. Accordingly, the m aster had to know m ultiple explanations, so he could answer a disciple to his tem porary satisfaction. For presenting below the gist of the classification, I employ the Pradipoddyotana m anuscript which is somewhat chaotic at the beginning, T son-kha-pas Mchan hgrel on that work, and &raddhakaravarm ans *Vajrajndnasamuccaya-tantrodbhava-saptdlamkdravimocana (restored title) (P T T , Vol. 60, pp. 138-139). Yiikei M atsunaga has also studied this terminology in an article in Japanese, O n the S a p ta la m k a ra (M arch 1963). T h e seven ornam ents are : 1. Introduction (T. glen bslati ba)y 2. W ay (T. tshul), 3. Alternatives (T. mthah), 4 .Ex planation (T. b ia d p a ), 5. G rouping (the auditors) (T. bsdus p a ), 6. Persons (T. gan zag), 7. Purpose (T. dgos p a ). T h e first ornam ent, of Introduction, has five sections : 1. name, i.e. M a h a y o g a ta n tra (the com m entarial reference to the Guhyasamdjatantra, which however lacks that appellation in its formal title ); 2. for w hom , i.e. for the ocean o f c a n d i dates (vineya); 3. composer, i.e. V ajrasattva, thesixth Iiu d d h a; 4. extent, i.e. seventeen chapters an d twenty rites (cho ga tli / ), continuation ta n tra (uttara-tantra) in one ch ap ter, a n d expla natory tantras of such-and-such extent; 5. requirem ent, i.e. t h e Stage of Generation* (utpatti-krama) , t h e Stage o f C om ple tion (sampanna-krama) , the ordinary an d the superior, ctc. T h e second ornam ent, o f W ay, constitutes two in te rp re tations o f four parts, 1. lineage (samtdna, rgyud), 2. underlying cause (niddna, glen g fi), 3. true word (nirukti, ties pahi tshig), 4. impulse (hetu, rgyu). As to the two interpretations, the Pradipoddyotana passage (Mchan hgrel, Vol. 158, p. 4 ) states th at there are four parts to the W ay of becoming a B uddha according to the doctrine free from lust (virdgadharma) an d four parts according to the doctrine of lust (rdgadharma), as in the following ta b u la tio n :

Jour parts 1. 2. 3. 4. lineage i

as virdgadharma birth o fth e man (in a fortunate placc) rearing in the circle o f wom en the teaching according to the Vinaya (zestful) practicc of the Law with desire for the fruit (Enlightenment)

underlying cause true word impulse

> *

as ragadharma

generating the Buddhas of the five families in the Stage of Generation unification of those families in the Stage of Completion
dharanis such as (the incantation) *vajra'

practices such as the erotic

(irngara)

T h e V iragadharm a is o f course b aw d on the biography o f G autam a Buddha. In his case, the samtdna is the solar lineage (sutyaoarnfa) through his father King f>uddhodana and m other Q ueen M aya. T he nidana is his early life in the palace, reared by the nurses and then surrounded by the harem women, to w ard whom he had * virago* (aversion) and from whom he left for the religious life. T h e four parts seem to agree with the order o f superintendence of the four goddesses who in c h a p te r X V II implore the Lord to emerge from the Clear Light (see the section D iam ond Ladies of the 1le a rt) ; that is, they im plored in the order M ind, Body, Speech, Acts. = T he third ornam ent, o f Alternatives, am ounts to six (fafkoti) in three pairs, which are : hinted m eaning (neydrtha, drah bahi don) an d evident m eaning (nitartha, ties pahi don); twilight language (samdhyd bhd^d) an d non-twilight language* (no samdhyd bhdfd); stan d ard term inology (yathdruta)> e.g. *mandala\ and coined terminology (no yathdrata), e.g. *kotdkhya* (pseudonym for one o f the ten w inds). T here has been m uch scholarly discussion in the past on the m eaning o f the term sarpdhyd bhdfd (of which samdhi-bhdfd is a form ), a n d in the Renou memorial volum e I defended m y interpretation th a t it is twilight language. T h e fourth ornam ent, of E xplanation o f the sense o f a given passage, is o f four kinds (1) invariant sense (akfardrtha, y ig d o n ), ( 2 ) shared sense (samastaitgdrtha, spyi don)> ( 3 ) preg n an t sense* (garbhy-arthay sbas don), (4) ultim ate sense (kolikartha, mthar thug don)t in further explanation a n d breakdow n as follows : 1. invariant sense, i.e. literal m eaning. 2. shared sense, of two sorts : (a) sense shared with non-tantric Buddhism, (b) sense shared with the three lower T an tras. 3. pregnant sense, of three sorts : (a) pregnant sense clarifying the doctrine of lust (ragadharm a-prakas a n a-g arb h in ), (b) pregnant sense revealing conventional tr u th (-Illusory Body) (samvrti-satya-sambodhagai b hin), (c) pregnant sense considering the three gnoses (jrtanatraya-vicintana-garbhin).

4. u ltim ate sense*, of two sorts : (a ) ultim ate sense clarifying the C lear L ight (prabhasvara-praka& a-kolika), (b ) ultim ate sense revealing the paired-union (yug an ad d h a-p rab o d h an a-k o lik a). T h e fifth o rn am en t, o f G ro u p in g (the au d ito rs), is o f two kinds : an assembly, to which invariant sense* a n d shared sense* am ong the four E xplanations arc ta u g h t; an d disciples, to w-hom p re g n a n t sense* a n d ultim ate sense* am ong those four are taught. T h e sixth o rn am en t, o f Persons, means the five kinds o f persons w ho receive initiation (abhiftka) a n d adhere to pledges (samaya) a n d vows (samvara). T h ey are called jewel-like person* (ratna-pudgala)y the blue-lotus* (utpala), the white-lotus (pundarika), the rcd-lotus* (padma)t a n d the sandalwood* (candana), each o f which is defined in the Pradipoddyotana. In the notes to M khas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras, pp. 218-9, B havyaklrtis com m entary was cited : T h e sandalw ood-likc' is in the family of fools; the bluc-lotus-like* has in ferior faculty (indriya); t h e white-lotus-like* has interm ediate faculty; the red-lotus-Iike* has keen faculty ; the jewel-like*, has the m ost excellent o f faculties.* T h e notes also cited the Thobyig gsal baht me ion (of Bio bzan h p h rin las) showing the difference o f instruction in terms of the six alternatives: the evident m eaning, sta n d a rd terminology, a n d twilight language are expressed to the jcwel-like person. T h e o th er three alter natives are expressed to the other four types of persons. I n S ra d d h a k a ra v a rm a n s terminology o f three kinds o f T a n tr a , the five persons are called causal tantra* (hetu-tantra) because they are like seeds. U pon receiving initiation, they e n ter the ta n tra of means* (updya-tantra). First they attentively listen to the T a n tr a w ith listening insight (Srutamayi prajrid) then study to attach m eanings to the words w ith thinking insight* (cintamayiprajna) , w hereupon with cultivation insight* (bhdvanamayi prajiia) they conccptualize in the Stage of Generation* an d then do the praxis in the Stage of Com pletion. T h e discussion a b o u t these persons in Tson-kha*pas M thah gcod (on C h ap ter O n e ) (P T T , Vol. 156, p. 33-2, 3) makes it clear th at it is pre cisely in terms o f these three levels o f insight that the termi nology of faculty* (inferior, etc.) is employed.

T he seventh ornam ent, of purpose (kdrya), is the third kind of T a n tra , called fruitional (antra* (phala-iantra), and is o f two kinds, ordinary and superior. T he ordinary kind is the attainm ent by the four kinds of persons, exclusive of the jewellike person1 of the eight great siddhis at llu* limit of the Stage , of Generation, whereupon they go no further. T h e superior kind is the attainm ent by the jewel-like person of the rank of V a jra dh ara, because that person having arrived at the limit of the Stage o f Generation, rejects the ordinary siddhis, an d goes on to the Stage of Completion for the high goal. R atnakarasanti illustrates the classificaiory vocabulary of the Pradipoddyotana in the Pindikrta-sadhanopdyikd-vttti-ratndiali, P T T , Vol. 62, p. 69-3, 4 : / sku rdo rje ni rnam par snan mdzad do / / gsun rdo rje ni hod dpag tu med pahi / / thugs rdo rje ni mi bskyod pa ste / / y i gehi don to j I sku rdo rje n iy i ge om mo / / gsun rdo rje ni y i ge ah ho I j thugs rdo rje n iy i ge hum ste / / spyihi don to / / sku rdo rje ni rus sbal gyi rtsa dan / gsun rdo rje ni zla bahi rtsa dan / thugs rdo rje hdod pahi gdugs kyi rtsa ste / sbas paho j / sku rdo rje ni chags pa dan j gsun rdo rje ni chags pa dan bral ba danf thugs rdo rje chags pa bar ma ste / mthar thugs paho f f sku rdo rje ni khrag dan / gsun rdo rje ni ht-kra dan / thugs rdo rje ni dri chab ste f dgons pas bfadpaho / / sku rdo rje ni snan bahof f gsun rdo rje ni snan ba mched paho / / thugs rdo rje ni snan ba He bar thob pa ste f dgons pa inayin paho // sku rdo rje khru ni Su pahi dkyil hkhor dan / gsun rdo rje ni khru bcu drug pahi dkyil hkhor dan j thugs rdo rje ni khru bcu grlis pahi dkyil hkhor te I sgra j i biin paho / / sku rdo rje ni tshans paho ( / gsun rdo rje ni dban phyug chen po daii / thugs rdo rje ni khyab hjug ste / sgraji biin mayin paho / / sku rdo rje ni ii ba dan j gsun rdo rje ni dban dari / thugs rdo rje ni mtion spyod de j drari bahi don to f j skuhi rdo rje ni sku hi dkyil hkhor dan / gsuns rdo rje ni gsun gi dkyil hkhor j dan thugs rdo rje ni thugs kyi dkyil hkhor te j nes pahi don to / T h e D iamond o f Body is V airoeana; the D iam ond of Speech is A m itab h a; the D iam ond of M in d is Aksobhya; invariant sense. T h e D iam ond of Body is the syllable O m ; the D iam ond of Speech is the syllabic A h; the D iam ond of M ind is the syllable H uni; shared sense. T h e D iam ond of Body is the vein of the tortoise (k umiak a ) (the right nddi) ;

the Diam ond of Speech is the vein o f the moon (SaS&Aka) (the left nadi); the Diam ond o f M ind is the vein o f loves umbrella (madandtapatra) (the m iddle tta fi); pregnant sense. T he Diam ond o f Body is desire; the Diamond o f Spccch is aversion; the Diam ond o f M ind is indifference; ultimate sense. T he Diam ond o f Body is blood; the D ia m ond o f Speech is sem en; the D iam ond o f M ind i' scented water; twilight language. The D iam ond o f Body is Light; the D iam ond o f Speech is Spread-of-Light; th e / D iam ond o f M ind is Culm ination-of-Light; non-twilight language. T he Diam ond o f Body is the mandala o f twentyhasta size; the D iam ond o f Speech is the mandala o f sixtccn-hasta size; the Diam ond o f M ind is the mandala o f twclve-A(M/<z size; standard terminology. T he Diam ond o f Body is Brahma; the D iam ond o f Speech is MaheSvara; the Diam ond o f M ind is V isnu; coined terminology. T he D iam ond o f Body is an appeasing rite (Santika); the D iam ond of Speech is a controlling rite (caiikara); the D iam ond o f M ind is a destroying rite (dbhicdrika); hinted meaning. T he Diamond o f Body is the mandala o f Body; the Diam ond o f Spccch is the mandala of Speech; the D iam ond o f M ind is the mandala o f M ind; evident meaning. D. Importance o f the forty verses

Perhaps no more eloquent testimony can be made on behalf o f the verses than what is presented in the Pradipoddyotana itself im m ediately after its citation o f the forty verses from the Vajramdld. Insofar as I can make out the manuscript at this point (Plate 2A, foj. 1, lin e), it appears to read : / vijahdrapadam so'rthah irisamdjaparisphufeh f I lydkhydtah ma/jughojena vajramdldm updrata iti / There is a verse : *To the sentence vijahara, this meaning resting on the Vajramdld has been explained by Mafljughosa so as to elucidate the Glorious Samdja.** T h e Prakdsikd-ndma-vydkhyd-\ikd (PTT, V ol. 60, p. 296-1) com ments : explained the meaning to the sentence vijahdrat i.e. the meaning to the sentence o f the niddna (bfugs pahi tshig don ni glen g iih i tshig don bSad pa yin 2es pa n i). T he verse represents the Bodhisattva MaAjughosa as the pronouncer of the forty karikas in the Vajramdld to elucidate the niddna and

therefore the whole Guhyasamdjatantra. Tson-kha-pa explains it this way in his com m entary on ihe Paiicakrama called Gsal bahi sgron me (PT T , Vol. 158, p. I 7(>-5 to p. 177-1) : (Bui) the m ain thing is that the Pradipoddyotana has slated that all the m eaning of the (Guhyasamaja) T a n tra is comprised by the niddna of forty syllables E-vam ma-ya, etc., and that in this (Vajramdld Explanatory T a n tr a ) the m eaning o f each syllabic is explained respectively by forty verses starling with ihe verse * E signifies the Noble W om an (sati) P ra jn a V ( / glso bo ni E-vann ma-ya la sogs pahi yi ge biii bcuhi glen g2is rgyud kyi d on thams cad bsdus par sgron gsal las gsuns pa dc rgyud lulir / E ni Ses rab dam pa ste / / fes sogs tshigs b ra d b2i bcuhi tshigs bead res yi ge rehi don hchad pa luli yin no / ). While I am indeed far from having m astered the various T a n ju r comm entaries an d sub-commentatrics on the Guhya samdjatantra, on its Pradipoddyotana, or on the Paiicakrama, 1 d id scan a considerable num ber for the research em bodied in the present work; an d the only quotations of the forty verses I could find were in the beautiful T a n ju r com m entary on ihe Paiicakrama by Sri L a k s m l/c a lle d Paiicakrama-tikd-kramdrthaPrakdSikd. She quotes at least verses nos. 7, 12, 18, a n d 40 the nos. 7 an d 18 as from the Vajramdld, the other two w ith o u t nam e of source; an d at other places uses language rem iniscent o f still other verses am ong the forty. T h e reason, the quotations are easy to recognize, is that the translator into T ib e ta n o f her text, recorded as M antrakalasa, w ho is not the translator of the Vajramdld or o f the Pradipoddyotana w herein the translation of the forty verses into T ib e ta n differs trillingly an d in only a few cases, has employed the identical translation of those four verses as among the forty verses cited in the Pradipoddyotana. Presu m ably M antrakalasa (12th cent., A.D. ?) h a d m em orized the whole group of verses, as m any T ib e ta n followers o f the Guhyasamdjatantra still do today. A nd in consideration o f the kind of passages Sri Laksmi ordinarily quotes, namely famous, well stated, an d ap propriate lines, I d raw the conclusion th at when she quotes niddna verses 12 an d 40 w ithout nam ing the original work, she expects the reader to know the forty verses by heart, as she herself obviously docs. C andraklrti also knows them well since he quotes the block of forty verses in C h ap ter O n e of his great work. T his docs not prove th at all Indian

followers o f the Guhyasamaja m em orized the forty verses an d then received explanation o f them from the^uru^, b u t it does suggest this to be the case for followers of the Guhyasamdja in the light o f th e Vajramdld, a n d subsequently in the light of the Pradipoddyotana, hence for followers o f the * Arya school or tradition. I f this m em o rizatio n of the forty verses for centuries took placc as stated above, there m ust be a good reason to be ascer tain ed from the co n ten t or implications of the verses themselves. T h e section In tro d u c tio n to the Yoga of the Guhyasamdja-tantra* leads u p to the solution th a t the niddna verses can be grouped in conform ity w ith the m ajo r steps of the Stage o f G eneration a n d the Stage of C om pletion. O n e m ust therefore a d m it that, given sufficient insight into cach verse a n d into the groupings o f the verses, it w ould be theoretically possible to arrange u n d er n e a th these verses, or to present in introductions to groups o f the verses, every im p o rta n t statem ent o f Guhyasamdja pregnant* p ractice. A nd since the T a n tra s arc a practice ra th e r th an a philo sophy, the verses thereby elucidate the entire Guhyasamdjatantra. It m ight be objected, that if this is so, why are n ot these verses m ore w idely q u o te d , a n d a n u m b e r o f independent com m en taries w ritten ? T h e answer is th a t their very b re a d th o f coverage renders these verses less practical for the candidates o f the cult, w ho need specialized treatises or explanations for the p a rtic u la r phase o f the cull in w hich they are engaged. A sim ilar situ atio n is found with the celebrated formula of D epen d e n t O rig in a tio n in n o n -tan tric B uddhism . I t is adm itted th a t this form ula sums up Buddhist doctrine, a n d theoretically everything o f doctrinal im portance can be a rra n g e d u n d er one or o th er o f the twelve m em bers o f the formula. But in practice the B uddhist monks w anted specialized treatises; a n d there are a n u m b e r o f im p o rtan t works of Buddhist doctrine th at barely take account o f D ependent O rigination. T h e re is an o th er reason. It tu rn ed o ut in the course of g ath erin g m aterials for the present com m entary on the verses th a t they touch upon a num ber of disputed points in terms o f the steps o(yoga. It m ay well be the case that in classical times the com m entators did not wish to argue for their respective positions while w riting such a com m entary. C an d rak lrti takes the lead in this silence about the verses, since he refrains from m aking any com m ents on them other than appending his signal

'pregnant sense and adding the verse cited at the opening of the present section. But since the present work is not m eant to teach anyone how to proceed through the intricacies of the G uhyasam aja cult,, b u t rather to show w hat the Guhyasamdjatantra is all about, these forty verses with app ro p riate introductions serve admirably to advance this understanding. I t may well be the case during the time when this cult flourished in India, that the master would expect the disciples to understand these verses'more and more as they progressed in the praxis (caryd), and that the guru would provide oral ex planation coordinated with the disciples level of attainm ent. As soon as the Guhyasamaja literature was rendered out of its original Indie language into T ibetan, the necessity to have bird's eye* views of the literature m ade the niddna verses even more im portant, and led to T son-kha-pas invaluable an n o ta tion. E. The mandala o f the Guhyasamdja

T h e word mandala is uniform ly defined as an inner content (ma$da) bounded by an enclosing element (-/a). For example, the extract from the Samdhivydkarana in this sub-section illustrates the m eaning o f the w ord by the inner content as knowledge1 with an enclosing elem ent as the non-tantric state m ent o f the path. T h e re is also a ritual sequence o f two kinds o f mandala, the mandala o f residence (adhdra-mandala) and the mandala ofth e residents(adheya-mandala) ; the former is the palace and the seats for the gods; the latter is the group of gods who take their places in that palace. T h e palace is the inner sanc tum of the m andala. In the case o f the G u hyasam aja-m andala, the full complement of deities seated in the palace totals thirtytwo. T hey are the cast o f the G uhyasam aja dram a. The dram atis personae am ount to the following characters; and any other deities m entioned in the G uhyasam aja cycle arc held to be aspects or aliases o f these thirty-two prim ary o n e s: 5 Buddhas : Aksobhya, V airoeana, A m itabha, R atn asambhava, Amoghasiddhi. 8 Bodhisattvas : M aitrcya, K$itigarbha, V ajrapani, K hagarbha, L oketvara, Sarvanivaranavi^kambhin,. Maftjusri (or Maftjugho$a), Sam am a bha dr a.

Yosits : L ocana, M am aki, P an d ara, T a r a ; and R upavajrii, $ a b d a v a jra , G a n d h av ajra, R asavajra, S parsavajra. 10 K ro d h a s : Y am an tak a, P rajn'm taka, P ad m an tak a, Y ig h n a m a k a , Acala, T ak k iraja, N U adanda, M a h a bala, L 'snisacakravartin, S um bharaja. T h e following d ia g ra m o f the G u h y asam aja m a n d a la deities w ith assigned num bers shows their placcs in the palace in the event o f the A ksobhya-m andala :

In the center : 1. Aksobhya and 10. Sparsavajra. In th e inner circle : 2. V airoeana (K.)> 3. R atn asam b h av a (S .), 4. A m itab h a (\V .), 5. A m oghasiddhi (N .); 6. L ocana (S.E .) 7. M am aki (S .W .), 8. P am lara (NAV.), 9. T a r a (N .E .). In the second circle : II. R u p a vajra, (S. E .), 12. S abdavajra (S .W .), 13. G a n d h av a jra (NAY.), 14. R asa vajra (N .E .).

I n the third circlc : 15-16. M aitreya and K sitigarbha, on the two sides o f the East G ate on the Eastern (white) paffika; 17-18. V ajrapani and K hagarbha, on the two sides of the South G ate on the Southern (yellow) paffika ; 19-20. Loke4vara and Manjughosa, on the two sides of the West G ate on the Western (red) paftikd; 21-22. Sarvanivaranaviskam bhin and Sam antabhadra, on the two sides o f the N orth G ate on the N orthern (green) patfika. I n the four gates : 23. Y am antaka (E .), 24. Prajftantaka (S.), 25. Padm antaka (W .), 26. V ig hnantaka (N .). In the inter mediate directions : 27. Acala (S.E .), 28. T akkiraja ( S .W .), 29. N iladanda (N .W .), 30. M a h a b a la (N\ E .). I n the zenith : shown between M aitreya and K sitigarbha, 31. U?nl?acakravartin. In the nadir : shown between Lokesvara and M anjughosa, 32. Sum bharaja. W hen the G uhyasam uja-m andala is painted an d Aksobhya ia the chief deity; then in accordance with T u c c is indications in his article, Some Glosses upon the G uhyasam aja, p. 343, V airoeana, being in the cast and in front of the Aksobhya image, has to be represented in the painting upside dow n; and accord ingly with the other deities. R atnasam bhava (south) is to the right of the image. In the G uhyasam aja cult, there are several different deities that are taken as the central deity. W hile the Aksobhyam an^ala is predom inant, there is also the G uhyasam aja M afljuvajra (the first m andala in A b h ay ak arag u p tas Mifpannayogdtalt), based on Martjusri (M anjughosa). Also the Buddhairijftuna school had rites in which A valokiteivara was the chief deity. Fortunately, the most im portant mandala, the Ak$obhya-mandala, exists in Sanskrit in a precise form, namely the second mandala in the Ni*pannaxogdvali. I n his introduction (pp. xvii-xix) to the edition of the Guhyasamdjatantra, B. Bhattacharyya has well stated with brevity from the first chapter the procedure by which the Lord (as M ah avajradhara) first em anated the deities. In the term ino logy o f the Pradipoddyotana, this is a restricted circle of deities (prMtibaddhadfvatdcakra), because only the five Buddhas, four yo?its, an d four krodhas are specifically indicated in that emana* don. According to Ratnakara^ a n tis Kusumdnjali -guhyas amdja-

nibandha-ndma ( P I T , Vol. 64, p. 96-1), this involves the three secrcts of the Buddha, the sccret of Body, of Spccch, an d of M ind. In brief, the sccret of body is the lord V airoeana, and so on; the secrct of specch is L ocana, a n d so on; the secrct of m ind is Y am an tak a, a n d so o n ( /de la m dor bsdu na / skuhi gsah ba ni bcom Idan hdas rnam p a r snan m dzad la sogs paho // gsun gi gsati ba ni / spyan la sogs paho ( j thugs kyi gsah ba ni g sin rje g ^ e d la sogs pa ste j ). In that em anating role M a h a v a jra d h a ra is called* B odhicitlavajra (D iam ond ofthe Enlighten m ent M in d 5) because all the deities em anate from bodhicitta. But, as was m entioned, in the present case, only thirteen o f the deities are em anated. Also G. T ucci, The Theory and Practice o f the \fandala> has included his translation of ch ap ter one from the beginning. Therefore, it is not necessary to repeat here the whole process; b u t the essential details should be mentioned. T h e L ord first shifted from the role of V airoeana an d a d o p ted the role o f Aksobhya T a th a g a ta , in which form he blessed the four-cornered dustlcss m andala o f G reat Pledge* in the bhaga-s o f the diam ond ladies, according to the passage translated with an n o tatio n in our preceding discussion o f the niddna sentence. T h e n the Lord M ah.ivajradhara in the center o f this m a n d a la began the em anation. T h e L o rd s first samadhi involved a mystical generation called the body o f the great incan tatio n person (mahdvidydpuru<amurti) (the passage is trans lated w ith an n o tatio n under niddna verses on T a th a g a ta ). W hen the L ord blessed this body, the L ord was seen by all the T a th a g a ta s to have three heads. This is the stage called M a h a sadhana, a n d according to T soh-kha-pa, the phase of it called. Victorious m a n d a la (vijaya-mandala). T h e Lord thus ap p ear ed in the role of the hierophant (o teach the procedure to the disciples (in ihis case, the T a th a g a tas ). T hen, the Lord, in the ap p ro p riate samadhi, uttered the h cart-m antra Vajradhrk* of the H a tre d Family an d took on the black, red, an d white (headed) ap pearance of Aksobhya, thus situated in the center o f the m andala. In another savuidhi the Lord, uttering the heartm an tra Jin a jik of the Delusion Family, transformed himself into V airoeana, also black, red, and while, seated in front (cast). He continued with R a m a d h rk of the C intam ani Family and R atnaketu ( = R atn asam b h av a), seated in the south ;*Arolik* of the V ajraraga Family and A m itabha, seated behind (w est);

a n d Prajftadhrk o f the Samaya Family and A m oghavajra, ( A m oghasiddhi), seated in the north. T h e Lord, in an o th er samadhi, em anated five goddesses as consorts o f the five m ale deities. T hey are all called rati (love ) because they love their particu lar lord (whose family purifies the respective defilement o f hatred, etc.). T hus he first transformed himself into the goddess Dvesarati ( = M am aki) in the center w ith A ksobhya; then M oharati ( = B uddha-L ocana) in the east w ith V airoeana, Irsyarati ( = M am aki again) in the south with R atn asam b h av a, R agarati ( = P a n d a ra ) in the west w ith A m itab h a a n d finally, V ajrarati ( = S a m a y a ta ra ) in the north w ith Amoghasiddhi. T h e n the Lord, through a series o f four samadhis, transform ed himself successively into the K ro d h a deities, fierce directional guardians: b y the m an tra Y am an tak rt, the fierce Y am antaka a t the east g a te ; Prajriantakrt, Prajfiantaka at the south gate; P adm anta k r t, P adm antaka a t the west gate; V ig h n a n ta k rt. V ighnantaka a t the n orth gate. T h e basic m an d ala was now c o m p lete: the Lord had finished his masterful show to the assembly. W hile that projection or spill-out o f the deities is the goal to be achieved (step four), the hum an perform er has to start in a more hum ble m anner. H e is given a m editational sequence in which he first ascends to the plane o f the void (step o n e). T h e re he imagines germ syllables, which transform themselves into h a n d symbols (step tw o), a n d finally into the bodies o f the deities (step th re e ), thus the body m a n d a la . H e can then proceed with his own spill-out as a m an d ala (the utsarga-mandalay infra.) (step four). F o r the h u m an perform er the full set of thirty-two deities is stipulated in the case o f the Aksobhyaman<Jala, available in Sanskrit, as was m entioned, in the Nifpannayogdvali. T his m andala is based on N a g arju n a s Pindikrama (or Pindikrtasddhana). Following is my translation o f A bhayakarag u p tas text : The Akfobhyamandala Concerning the mandala stated in the Pindikrama it (in volves procedures) like the foregoing (M afijuvajra-m andala) u p to (creation of) the palace. Now we shall m ention the particulars o f the fierce deities. In the m iddle of the palace is a fierce black Aksobhya ; his right and left face (resp .) w hite an d red ; holding in his right hands the kula ( = K ro d h a v a jra ), wheel,

an d padm a ; holding in his left hands the bell, the wishing-gera, a n d sword ; an d em bracing a Spar&ivajra like himself. In the directions east, etc., of him are V airoeana, etc., an d in the inter m ediate directions south-east (dgnsya), ctc. are Locana, ctc. Among them , V airoeana is white, m ild ; has white, black, an d red faces ; holds the wheel, vajra, white lotus, bell, gem, and sword. T h e hand symbols (cihna) in four hands, as abovem entioned (for V a iro ean a) and below stated for other Buddhas arc in the respective order, in the upper, then the lower, right hands, a n d in the lower, then the u p p er left hands. T h e colors are assigned to the three faces by the order basic, right, left faces. R atn asam b h av a is yellow ; his faces (in o rd er), yellow, black, an d w hite; holds the grmt the vajra, wheel, bell, yellow lotus, sword. A m itab h a is re d ; his faces red, black, a n d w hite ; w ith his left h and, holds at his heart a staff having a red lotus together w ith a bell here following T ibetan ; with his right hand holds a full-blown lotus; a n d with his other hands, a vajra, wheel, ratna, a n d sword. A m oghasiddhi is green; has faces green, black, white; holds the sword, the: viSvavajra, the wheel, the bell, green lotus, and gem. Those five T ath ag atas and the other deities to be described below, down to S am an tab h ad ra are adorned with jafdjufa (twis ted m atted head h a ir), jewel diadem, and various jewels. L ocana is like V airoeana, but has a white utpala in place of th e w hite padma. M am aki is like Aksobhya, but has a reddish-blue utpala in place of the padma. P andara is like A m itabha. T a r a is like Amoghasiddhi and holds the viSvavajra, wheel, yellowish-blue utpala, bell, (mani-)jewel, an d sword. In the second circle, in the S. E. corner is R upavajra, like Locana, but with her first two hands holding a red mirror. In the Southwest is ^abdavajra, yellow, with faces yellow, black, w hite; her first two hands playing a blue vtrtd; her remaining hands holding the vajra, blue utpala, ratna, and sword. In the Northwest is G andhavajra, like P andara; her first two hands holding a yellow perfumed conch-shell. In the Northeast is

Rasavajra dark blue, her faces dark blue, black, w hite; her two hands holding a red savory chest (rasa-bhdnda) ; with the rem ain ing hands, holding the vajra, wheel, ratna, sword. In the third circle, on the Eastern pattikd (strip) are (the Bodhisattvas) M aitreya and K sitigarbha. O n the Southern paftikd are V ajrapani an d K hagarbha. O n the W estern pattikd are Lokesvara an d M anjughosa. O n the N o rth e rn pattikd are Sarvanivaranaviskam bhin a n d S am a n ta b h a d ra . These eight are like the lords o f their own families, b u t M a itre y a s basic arm holds a Nagakesara flower along w ith its b ran ch m arked with a wheel. At the gates of East, etc., and in the interm ediate directions o f Southeast, etc., also in the zenith an d in the n ad ir are the 10 krodhas in sequence. A m ong them , Y am an tak a is black his faces black, white, and red; holds a vajra club, the wheel, the vajra, at his h eart a threatening gesture {tarjani) along w ith a noose, the bell, and axe. Prajftantaka is w hite; faces white, black a n d red; holds a vajra, a white staff m arked w ith a vajra, the sword, a n d a t his breast the tarjani along w ith noose, the bell a n d axe. Padm antaka is red; faces red, black, w hite; holds a red padma, a sword, club, bell, an d axe. V ighnantaka is blue; faces blue, white, red; holds the tnSvavajra, wheel, club, tarjani along w ith noose, bell, a n d axe. Acala is blue; faces blue, white, re d ; holds the sword, vajra, wheel, tarjani, and axe. T akkiraja is blue; faces blue, w hite, re d ; w ith two hands he adopts the vajra-humkdra (gesture); w ith the rem aining hands he holds the vajra, the sword, the noose, an d the hook. N iladanda is black; faces black, w hite, a n d re d ; holds a blue staff m arked with a vajra, a sword, a wheel, against the chest a tarjani along with noose, a padma, a n d an axe. M ah ab ala is black; faces black, white, a n d red ; holds a black staff m arked with a vajra, a sword, an d wheel, at the heart a tarjani along with noose, the padma and axe. U sm sacakravartin is black; faces black, white, a n d red ; w ith his two basic arms grasps the uftiifa on his h e a d ; w ith his rem aining arms holds the vajra, the padma, the tarjani, an d the sword. His two hands execute the ufnifa-mudra called by some Sam antavabha, called by some otherwise, m ade as follows :

the palms stretched out together facing upw ards; the two thum bs hold on the nails o f t h e two ring fingers; the small fingers to a p o in t; likewise the nails of the two middle lingers together com ing to a p o in t; the two forefingers on the middle fingers, forming a cone. Sum bharaja is black; his faces black, red, w hite; holds a vajra, a wheel, a rattia, at his breast a tarjani along with a noose, a padma, and sword. 'I hesc(32) deities beginning with Aksobhya are three-faced, six-arm ed, all upon a viSvapadma, an d individually seated in their respective o id er, on a (1-5) (the five Buddhas, to w it:) five-pronged vajra \ (goddesses, Locana, etc.) (6) wheel, (7) nine-faced em erald, (8) red lotus, and (9) viivavajra\ (goddesses, R u p av ajra, etc. down to S p arsav ajra:) (10) wheel, (11) vajra, (12) padma ( 13) viSvavajra, an d (14) N agakesara flower; (eight Ilodliisaitvas, to wii : ) (15) wheel, (16) vajra, (17) ratna, (18) padma, (19) vajra, (20) viSvavajra, (21) vajra, and (22) stall-; (the ten krodhas, to w it: ) (23) vajra , (24) red lotus, (25) viSvavajra, (26) staff with sword, (27) vajra, (28) blue staff m arked with vajra, (29) black staff, (30) vajra, an d (31-32) sun an d moon cach situated on a vajra. F urtherm ore, they are composed of jewels coloured like their own deity (-progenitor). Among them, V airoeana, the goddesses, a n d the Iiodhisattvas arc located on a moon. T h e others are located on a sun. (T ath ag atas) such as Aksobhya are in vajraparyanka (leg position). T h e K rodhas have their left leg extended, their right one retracted; on each facc three eyes, each red an d ro u n d ; are howling and blazing; have espe cially frightening forms, and are called the fearful rakfdeakra (protective circle]. H ere only the m andala lord is together with his prajiia (goddess consort . I he other male deities, down to Sum bha raja, are without prajna. Y am antaka and the others in the rakfdeakra are together with a prajiia looking like themselves (or : their own light, svabha) in o rd e r: (1 ) V ajravetali, (2) Aparaj i t i , (3) Bhrkuti, (4) Ekajata, (5) ViSvavajri, (6) Visvaratni, (7) ViSvapadma, (8) Yi vakarm a, (9) G aganavajrini, (10) D haranidhara. In the heart of Aksobhya is a Knowledge Being (jnanasattv a), two-armed, with a red prajna. In its heart is a black

H um . Om in that of V airoeana; Sva in that o f R atn asam b h av a; A h in that o f A m itabha; H a in that of Amoghasiddhi : L am M am Pam T a m (respectively) in those of Locana and the other goddesses. (The officiant utters : ) J a h Hum V am Hoh. K ham in th a t of SpaH a vajra. M ai-thlim in those of the Bodhisattvas, M aitreya, etc. Om O m Orn H um O m Sam H um in those o f the ten Krodhas. T h e heart m antras of the deities are stated in the Vajravali (another work by A b h ay ak arag u p ta). T h e kuleSa (family m aster) is the previously-mentioned V ajrasattva o f Aksobhya and S am an tab h ad ra, b ut holds a vajra, wheel, padma, bell, gem, sword, an d embraces a V ajradhatvisvarl looking like himself. Aksobhya belongs (as their essence) to the T a th ag atas, M am aki, V ajrapanI, Mafijughosa, U snisa-, a n d S um bharaja. V airoeana belongs to Locana, R u p a vajra, M aitrey a, K sitigarbha, Y am antaka, Acala. Ratnea ( R atn asam b h av a) belongs to S abdavajra, K h ag arb h a, P rajnantaka, T akkiraja. A m itabha belongs to P andara, G an d h av ajra, L okelvara, P adm antaka, N iladan^a. Amoghasiddhi belongs to T a ra , R asavajra, SparSavajra, V ifkam bhin, V ighnantaka, M ah ab ala. So ends the A ksobhya-m antjala stated in the Pindikrama. + * *

T h e foregoing translation leaves some m atters to be explained. T h e six hand symbols o f V ajrasattv a are set forth by R a tn a karaSanti in the Pindikrta-sadhanopayikd-vrtti-ratndvali (P T T . Vol. 62, p. 77-5) as the signs o f the six families : T h e vajra is th e emblem of Aksobhya, being the intrinsic n a tu re o f contem p lating the wheel of the doctrine (dharmacakra). T h e red lotus (padma) is the emblem of A m itabha, being the intrinsic nature o ip ra jM n ot adhered to by the m u d o f lust, etc. T h e bell (is th e emblem of V ajrasattv a), being the intrinsic n a tu re o f prajtld th a t is the p u rity of gestation (bhava). T h e wish-granting gem* (cintamani) is the em blem o f R atn asam b h av a, being the knowledge which fulfills all hopes. T h e sword is the emblem o f Amoghasiddhi, being the prajild (that severs) the eorrupt practice. ( / de la rdo rje ni mi bskyod p ah i phyag m tshan te /

ye >cs lhahi ran b iin no f f hkhor lo rnam p ar snan m dzad kyi phyag m tshan tc / chos kyi hkhor lo bsgom pahi rah b i i n no // pa-dm a ni hod d p ag tu m cd pahi phyag m tshan te / hdod chags la sogs pahi lulam gyis mi gos pahi $cs rab kyi rah b i i n no { f dril bu ni srid pa rnam par dag pa ics rab kyi no bo Aid do / yid b ii n nor bu rin chcn hbyuii Idan gyi phyag m tshan tc I bsam pa thams cad rdzogs par bvcd pahi ye ies so // ral gri ni don yod par grub pahi phyag m tshan tc / non mons pa spyod pahi ses ra b b o /). T h a t attribution o f emblems to the individual T a th a g a ta families plus im portant elements from the translation of the A ksobhya-m andala can be clarified w ith corrcspondential significance in tabular form, as in T a b le II . Concerning the rem ark V ajrasattva o f Aksobhya a n d S a m a n ta b h a d ra , N a g arju n a s Pindikrta-sddhana, 52 B-53, states: T h en he should enterprise the Atiyoga : Following upon Aksobhya he should develop a V ajrasattva, three-faced, rad ian t w ith six hands, an d shining with sapphire light ( . a th a atiyogam sam arabhct / aksobhyanupravesena trim ukham sad bhujojjvalam / in d tan ilap rab h am diptam vajrasattvam vibhavayct I ). N agarjuna, in the subsequent verses, shows that this involves placing the G uhyasam aja deities in spots o f the body m andala. Ratnakarajianti (op. cit.t p. 77-4, 5 ) comm ents : threc-faccd because the purity of the three liberations; and six-handed bccause the purity o f the six perfections (rnam p a r th ar pa gsum rnam par dag pas 2al gsum pa / pha rol tu phyin pa drug m a in par dag pas phyag drug p a). (The three liberations are through voidncss, wishlessness, a n d signlessness; the six perfections arc giving, m orality, forbearance, striving, m editation, and insight). It appears that V ajrasattva is the yogin possibility of a person, as the essence of the T athagatas, Aksobhya, and as their enlightcnmcnt-plcdgc, S am an tab h ad ra; who has advanced, equivalent to the non-tantric progression o f the Bodhisattva during the first seven stages, to the last three Bodhisattva stages, as indicated by his embracing V ajradhatviivari (Q u e rn of the D iam ond Realm*), who is drawn from the yogins own heart, according to the verse cited under nidana verse 33.

II. Tathagata Families (with colors) Aksobhya (black) V airoeana (w hite) i | Emblem

C O R R E S P O N D E N C E S O F A KO BH YA -M A T T A L A ro Prajiid (and seat) M am aki Locana (on w heel) ( M a m a k i) (o n nine-faced e m e ra ld ) P andara (on red lotus) T a ra ( on crossed thunderbolt, viSvavajra) V ajradhatvisvari 1 Vajra ( sense object goddess) Spargavajra R upavajra holding mirro> Bodkisattvas Vajrapiini and Mafijughosa M aitreya and K sitigarbha Krodhas Usnisacakravartin and Sumbharaja Yamantaka and Acala 1 Prajftanlaka and Takkiraja Padmantaka and N iladanda V ighnantaka and M ahabala < o o > o a M p) o C H < > > ^1 > H > H 7! * *

Thunderbolt ( vajra) Wheel (c a k ra )

R atnasam bhava Wish-granting gem (cinta( yellow) m ani) A m itabha (red) Amoghasiddhi (green) V ajrasattva Rod Lotus ( padm a) Sword ( khadga) j Bell (g h a n ta )

Sab da vajra, K bagarbha playing a vin<1 G andhavajra, holding a conchshcll Lokesvara

Yiskambhin R asavajra, holding savo ry chest Sam antabhadra

| i i i

T h e utterances J a h , H um , V am , Holj* also require ex p lanation. T h ey represent the four m a n tra stages of attracting tow ard the yogin, draw ing in, and bringing about non-duality w ith the knowledge beings. Gf. Sadhana-mdla, No. 110, pp. 230-231; O m vajrarikuM akarsaya J a h , O m v a jra p a ii praveiaya H um , O m vajrasphota b a n d h a y a V am , O m vajravete vaSikuru H oh. O m , M ay the diam ond hook attra c t, J a h ! O ip, M ay the d iam o n d noose d raw n in, H u m !* Om , M ay the diam ond chain tie, V am ! O m , M ay the diam ond bell subdue, H o h !** So far the d a ta about the m a n d a la has involved the deities who arc the residents o f the palace. N ow I shall turn to the theory o f the G uhyasam aja m an d ala as the residence. An interesting statem ent ab o u t the symbolism o f the G uhyasam aja m an d ala is presented in the Samdhivydkarana on Guhyasam&iat C h a p te r IV , verses 9-18, o f which verse 9 is as follows : dvddaiahastam prakurvUa cittamandaiam uttamam / caturawam caturdvaram caluskonam prakalpayct / / O n e should construct the suprem e m andala o f conscious ness, m easuring twelve hastas. O n e should imagine it w ith four sides, four corners, an d four gates. O n th a t verse o f the basic Guhyasamaja-tantra, the Pradipoddyotana cites this com m entary as from xhc* Arya-tyakhyand*, which in this case means the Samdhivydkarana : athdtnh kathayi ydm i man dalam cit tam uttamam f vajrajiidnapratikdsam kdyavdkcittamandalam lj navatmakam idam (rr<tham suniyuktam tathoditam / dvividhavamam a tiki tam supramdnam tad ucyate 11 samvrti paramdrtham yad advayam iobhanam matam f prajnd sutram idam tatyas tad updydnuvarttitam // t>rajiiopdyaikar Cttrrna dharmam sambhogam uttamam f sutntam mandalam eaitam piatitya dvddaiatigatah ff ( satyaryam caturauam sydd brahmnvihdrakonakah f f dvdrasamgrahavastvdkhyam pratyekam turyasamjiiakah // ! dharmatattvdrtham aiikitam cakrddyantaramandaiam / I abhedyajiidnacihnam tad vajrendranilamudrakam // I paiicakdraprabheddkhyam Sulam samsdranaSakam / / prdktdd ddar(arfipam tu eakram jvdldrcibhufitam // / samantasamatdjiidnaifi ratnam xdmyaikasamjAitam (

( pratyavckfonapadmakhyam padmaragdrcim paUimam // / uttarottaracittam ya j jagadvikalpaddlanam j I krtyanu?thdnakhadgam sydd raStnijvdlasamaprabham // I agneyydtji netram maitrim tti nilameghasamaprabham j I nairrtydm karundkhyd sydn mdmakikulavajrakah // / vdyavydm padmasamjiid tu muditdsusthitdnand / I aiSdnyutpalam dbhdti sopekfd nilasannibha // I ddnapurvam tathd dvdre mudgaram kdntisuprabham / I tathaiva priyavddydkhyam dandam vajrarcisuprabham jf I arthaearydni tu padmdkhyam paicime hayakanthare / I vajrant samdnacaryartham vajrakttndalivajrinah jj I tad ittham kathitam samyak mudrduinydsalakfanam / / yathasamsthanatah pujd bhavet trividhabhdvanaih / I mahatvapurvakam tv etam mudra mandalam ucyate // Translation (Mchan hgrelt pp. 4 0 -4 1): Now I shall relate the suprem e m andala o f consciousncss, the m an d ala of Body, Speech, an d M in d , resem bling the (non-dual) K nowledge o f D iam ond. This best one, m ade of nine (five personality aggregates a n d four elem ents), thus expressed as wcll-constructed, is that one said to be of goodly au th o rity m arked by lineage o f two kinds. W h at as convention (samvrti = illusory body) a n d su p re m e (param artha = C lear L ig h t) is the non-dual loveliness, that is this thread (for the m an d ala outline) as the insight o f which it is applied by the means. By the single thread o f insight a n d means, there is the supreme D h arm a (-body) (insight C lear L ight) an d Sambhoga (-body) (means illusory b o d y ), threaded as the m andala of m ind by twelve m em bers (12-hastas m easurem ent) in dependence. T h e Noble T ru th s are the four sides; the Sublim e Abodes (i.e. love, compassion, sym pathetic joy, a n d im p a rtia lity), the corners; the articles of conversion (i.e. giving, pleasing words, acts in accordance, an d exem plary con d u c t), the gatesin each case by fours. T h e inner circle of wheel, an d so on, symbolizes the m ean ing of dharm a-rcality. T he symbol of the indivisible knowledge is the diam ond-sapphire seal. I t has facets of five kinds ( * the five knowledges). T h e tip

destroys (the habit-energy of) the phenom enal world. In the cast is the form o f m irro r (-knowledge), its d i s k adorned w ith blazing light. T h e sameness knowledge all a ro u n d is the jewel whose one nam e is so u th ern . W est is the lotus o f discrim ina tive (-knowledge) w ith the light o f a ruby. W h at is the best m in d o f the n orth destroys the discursive thought o f living beings. T h e procedure-of-duty sword w ould have the same light as blazing rays. In the south-east is the eye ( L o can a) a n d love, w ith light the same as a blue cloud. In the south-west is com passion w ith the d iam o n d o f the M am aki family. In the north-west, there is the lotus, the unshaken face o f sym pathetic joy. T h e lotus o f the north-east shines in blue fashion w ith im partiality. As the eastern giving a t the gate is a m allet lovely in ap p ea rance, so also pleasing words are a staff (in the south) app earin g w ith diam ond light. Acts in accordance arc the lotus in the western horse-neck, a n d exem plary conduct is the (vi$va-)vajra o f the vajrin o f d iam o n d w inding ( am brosia). T h e characteristic o f placing seals is w hat has been thus rightly explained. By contem plations o f three kinds (arcane body, spccch, a n d m in d ) there w ould be th e worship according to the proper place. T his mudr& preceded by greatness is said to be the mandala* Besides, there are varieties of m andala. T h e Guhyasamdjatantra^ C h a p te r X V I I I , verse 99, mentions three kinds : bkagamandala, bodhicitta-mandala, a n d deha-mandala. Tson-kha-pa, in his independent Don gsal ba com m entary on the G uhyasam aja devotes individual sections to the three mandalasf keeping the terminology o f body-m andala (deha-mandala), while substitut ing other names for the two other m an^alas. In place o f *bhaga-mandata\ ht* employs the t e r m utsarga-mandala* (emission m . )from the Pradipoddyotana on C h ap ter V II (equivalent to its terminology house-m. puram mandalam, Pradipoddyotana M S., ch ap ter one). T son-kha-pa, following the Pradipoddyotana on chapter V I I , replaces the bodhicitla-m.* with the expression paramdrtha-mandala. He makes it clear that the thirty-two G uhyasamiija deities are involved in all three of the above-mentioned

mandalas, which arc* evoked in the order deha-mandala* uttargamandala, and paramartha-mandala. Tin- deha-mandala is p r frclcd in the phase of yoga called Atiyoga. and both the ut^arga-m. and the paramartka-m. belong to the phase o f yoga called M ahayoga, or M a h a sad h a n a : and are respectively equivalent lo the two sub-phases of M ahasadhana called'V ictorious Mandala* (rijaya-mandala and Victory of the R ite karma-iijaya So much for the terminological side. W hat is meant, is that the body-m andala of Atiyoga over flows into the bhaga, or mother-lotus, whereupon the latter be comes the bhaga-mandala. This phase is called letter placem ent (ak$ara-nyasa)\n the discussion o f the fourth yoga (cf. the section Four steps of y o g a . a n d this is the position of the Pradi poddyotana (D ocum ents)w hen in its treatm ent of the fourth m em ber it refers to the instigation of the vajra a n d padma an d then to the m antras (32 in no.) V ajradrg, etc. T his is also the phase discussed in the scciion 'T itle of the work and n id a n a , where the quotation from the Devendrapariprccha refers to the place ment of the gods in the goddess (ihe karma-mudrd or jndna-mudrd). T h e difficulty is that this process has several explanation* going respectively with the Stage of G en eratio n and the Stage o f Completion. T h e explanation that agrees with both Stages, is that this phase is the dem onstration of the m an d ala, the o b jective showing of the deity circle, cither in its restricted form as in Guhyasamdjatantra, chapter one, or in the full 32-deity group. Hence the Pradipoddyotana ('D o cu m en ts) refers to this fourth yoga as accomplishment of ihe great aim o f otheis'. T h e third m andala, t h e paramdrtha-m.s refers to the G u h y a samaja deities being draw n in to paramdrtha,or the absolute realm. Tsori-kha-pa explains in his .Mchan hgrel on C h a p te r V II that this means that the five personality aggregates (skandha , live dem en ts (dhatu), five sense organs (tnJr/jd), live seme objects (vifaya), and five knowledges (jiidna ), a total o f 25. are m cesi< sivcly draw n into the Clear Light (where, according to the Pradipoddyotana on C hapter eight, verse 7, they unite with the *25-ycar old girl"'.

A.

The chapters o f the Guhyasamdjatantra and yoga

1 he Eighteen chapters are discusscd here bccause, as will be soon dem onstrated, chapters 2 to 17 arc divided into four groups with titles almost identical with those o f the four sadhana steps. T h e word for c h a p te r employed by the Guhyasamdja tantra is pafala. T h e Pradipoddyotana, at the end of its com m en ta ry on c h ap tcr one, explains this word in two senses, going w ith pata- (clo th ) a n d -la (grasping): / pa to yathd damiamasakadyupadravam nirarayati / tathayaifi tantrdrthah kleiakarma janmadyupadravam nivarandt pata iva pata (la)h j tam lati grhndtiti taddharako granthasamGhafr pa tala h j J u s t as a cloth covering (pata) wards off the attack of gnats, mosquitoes, etc., so also, by w arding off the attack of defilement, karma, a n d rebirth, patala as the m eaning of the T a n tra , is like a cloth covering. Since it grasps an d holds that (m eaning), patala as the collection of compositions, is its receptacle. Also, a t the end o f its com m entary on chapter thirteen, the Pradipoddyotana equates a patala with the collection o f composi tions which teach it (tatpratipddako granthasamuhah). T h e following ch ap ter lilies as preserved in Sanskrit have varying relevance to the chaptcr contents. For example, o f the two chapters translated in D ocuments, chapter six does adhere to indications of its title, while chapter twelve is scarcely described by its title. 1. Blessing of the sam adhi-m andala of all the T a th a gatas (sarvatathagatasam adhim andaladhiflhana). 2. T h e M ind of Enlightenm ent (b o d h icitta).

3. Samadhi callcd D iam ond A rray (vajravyuhonam a sam adhi). 4. "Sccret m andala of Body, Spccch, and M in d (guhyakayavakcittam andala). 5. Best of all praxis (sam antacaryagra). 6. Em pow erm ent of the Body, Spccch, an d M in d (kayavakci t tadhi sth a n a ). 7. Praxis of m an tras (m antracarya). 8. Pledge of consciousness (cittasam aya). 9. Pledge whose goal is the reality of the non-dual supreme entity (p aram arth ad v ay atattv arth asam ay a). 10. Exhorting with the heart (m antras) of all the T athagatas (sarvatathagatahrdayasaficodana). 11. T h e highest vidyapurusa who has the m an trapledge a n d the rcality-diam ond of all the T a th a g a ta s (sarvatath ag atam an trasam ay atattv av ajrav id y ap u ru so ttam a). 12. I n s t r u c t on the best evocation o f the pledge (sam ayasadhanagranirdega). 13. Revelation contem plating the m eaning o f the re a lity of the array of pledges (sam ay av y u h atattv arth ab h avanasam bodhi). 14. Sam adhi called K ing o f sporting w ith attraction (of deities) by m an tras (m antrakarsanavijnm bhitarajo nam a sam adhi). 15. Source of the diam ond whose essence is the pledge o f all sentient beings (sarvasattvasam ayasaravajrasam bhutir n am a) (edited citta replaced by sattv a). 16. Revelation of the m an d ala-d iam o n d o f all siddhis (sarvasiddhim andalavajrabhisam bodhir n a m a ). 17. Blessing of the pledge an d vow-diamonds of all the T a th a g a ta s (sarvatathagatasam ayasam baravajradhisth a n a ). 18. Blessing o f the diam ond knowledge w hich explains all the secrets (sarvaguhvanirdcsavajrajnanadhisthana). The Pradipoddyotana com m entary covers only the first 17 chapters, although it cites the 18th c h ap tcr (D ocum ents) ; while the 18th chaptcr itself has some separate com m entaries preserved in the T ib etan T a n ju r. T h e reason is that there is a block of verses in the 18th ch ap ter (verses 25-31 in S. Bagchis num bering) which group the previous chapters 2-17 in four sets.

Consequently, the G uhyasam aja tradition generally labelled the 18th c h ap tcr a C o n tinuation T a n tr a (uttara-tantra). T h e fact th at those sixteen interm ediate chapters fall into four sets by authority of those verses is hardly noticed in the present edition o f the text, because of corruptions which cannot be corrected w ithout consultation o f the T ib e ta n translation. Indeed, there are even two im portant lines missing from the cu rren t edition, which I have restored along with the other corrections, w ith the help o fX a g a rju n a s com m entary (AftddaSa~pafala-vistara-tya~ M yi, P T T , V ol.60,p. 4 ). T h e two lines were still p art of the Guhyasamdja-tantra when R atnakaraanti composed his Kusumartjaliguhyasamdja-nibandha-ndma ( P I T , Vol. 6 4), which explains how to pair the verses for translation purposes. W h a t is presently num bered verse 30 is in fact the first line ^hemistich) o f one verse a n d the second line o f an o th er verse. I have m ade tw o new ve.'ses num bered 30 an d 30 in the following text o f correct ed Sanskrit. It can be speculated that factors in the g rad u al corruption o f the lines arc the original presence o f 9-syllable padas in some places, an d the use o f infrequent ordinal forms o f num bers. T h e translation will follow the order in which the Sanskrit verse m entions the ordinal numbers, in the first-men tioned set, the fifth, ninth, seventeenth, and thirteenth (chap ters). paiicamam navamam caiva daiasaptamam trayodaSam f buddhanam bodhisattvdnam desandsadhanam mahai //25// caturtham fodaSam caiva aftamam dvddasam tathd ( acdryakarmasamdnyam siddhif ca vralasambaram //26// faf f ham caiva dvitiyam ca daiam caiva caturdaSam ( ha fham anurdganam ca upasadhanasambaram //27// saptamam ca trtiyam ca ekddasam daSapat'icamam f siddhikfetranimittam ca scvdsddhanasambaram //28// sarvatathdgatakarma nigrahdnugrahatmanam / ddntadaurdantasaumydnam sattvdndm avataranam //29// utpattikramasambandham seidvajravidhU catuh f *sdnuinyasiddhisambandham agrabhutam ca granthanam //30// *mandalavratasambandham dcdryasampattigranthanam j gurundm mantramdrgena Sifydnam paripdeanam ff 30 fj suvratasydbhifiktasya svaSifyasya mahdtmanah f buddhanam bodhisattvdnam deiandparimocanam j(3\ //

25, 31 : T h e fifth, ninth, seventeenth, thirteenth (chap ters) have the great perfection of the teaching of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, to wit, liberating ones greatsouled disciple who is goodly vowed an d initiated, by means o f the teaching of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. 26, 30 : T he fourth, sixteenth, eighth, and twelfth have the common acts of the dcdrya, occult powers (siddhi), and the V ratasam bara, to wit, the compositions on the dcaryas perfection, associated with m andala-rites, m atu rin g the disciples by way o f the g u ru s m antras. 27, 29 : T h e sixth, second, tenth, an d fourteenth have the fierce act (hafha), attraction (of d e ity ), a n d vows o f the U pasadhana, to wit, all the T a th a g a ta acts w ith the nature of taming and assisting, introducing the sentient beings w hether tam ed, obdurate, or mild. 28, 30 : T h e seventh, third, eleventh, an d fifteenth have the cause o f the field of occult powers, an d the Sevasadhana-sam bara, to wit, the four diam ond rites o f Seva, associated w ith the Stage o f G en eratio n ; both the composi tions associated with comm on siddhis an d (those) w hich show the superior kind. T h e tantric N a g arju n a in th a t com m entary on the 18th ch ap ter (op. cit., p. 4) briefly alludes to the contents o f each chapter as he groups them by fours w ith titles : M ah asad h an a chapters (5, 9, 13, 17): Chap. 5 on the praxis (carya) Chap. 9 on the yogasamddhi Chap. 17 on samaya a n d samvara (pledges a n d vows) C hap. 13 on extensive treatm ent o f rites (karma) V ratasam b ara chapters (4, 8, 12, 16): C hap. 4 on the citla-mandala C hap. 16 on the kdya an d vdg-mandalas C hap. 8 on the guhya-abhifeka Chap. 12 on the change into the .Mahamudra U p asadhana chapters ( 2 ,6 , 10, 14) : C hap. 6 on the adhiffhdna of body, speech, an d m ind Chap. 2 on the bodhicitta Chap. 10 on exhorting all the T a th a g a tas by their hcartm antras Chap. 14 principally devoted to m an tras

Scva chapters {3, 7, 11, 15) : Chap. 7 on special practices (carya) Chap. 3 on the gods Chap. 11 on the scries of mantras and the knowledge body Chap. 15 on the illusory divine body K atnaknraantis com m entary (op. cit., P T T , Vol. 64, p. 98 and p. 201) mentions that ch ap ter 1 is the goal-tantra (literally: the ta n tra of what is to be ap p ro a c h e d . S. upeyatantra, T . thabs las byuf: bahi rgyud), while the chapters 2-17 are the ta n tra of the a p p ro a c h (S. updya-tantra. T . thabs kyi rgyud), and that the c h a p te r 18 is the continuation tantra* (uttara-tantra). F urtherm ore, each group of four chapters from 2-1 7 is also known by a num erical title. T h e Scva ch ap ters are TreuV ; U pasaclhana, D v a p a ra ; V ratasam b ara, K r t a ; and M ah a sad h a n a , possibly* N a n d in (T. dgah ba can). However, the words Seva, an d so on, ap p ear to be em ployed as categories ra th e r than as steps, in which m eaning virtually the same set of terms is employed below (sub-scction C ). C u n d ia k irtis Pradipoddyotana differs from Ratniikara* inti, by treating the first chapter as a basis for the rem aining six teen ; and so. for example, includes the forty nidana verses in the com m entary on C hapter 1. T h ere is a problem of how practical is that grouping by fours. T h e re is some confirmation for the validity of the grouping in terms of the M ahasadhana and V ratasam bara ( Sadhana) sets when these terms arc equated w ith the vajras, namely, M ahayoga and Atiyoga. As was shown, the body m a n d a la is associated with Atiyoga, and this is indicated by the V ratasam bara chapters, namely, C haptcr 16 (on the kaya-and vag-m audalas) and C haptcr 12 (on the change into the M a h a m u d ra ). T he samadhi Victory of the R ite, associat ed with M ahasadhana, is the topic of C haptcr 13 (on exten sive treatm ent of rites), and the utsarga-and param artham a u d a l a s , while not explicitly stated for the M ahasadhana chapters, presumably go with C hapter 5 (on the praxis, carya) and possibly with Chaptcr 9 (on the yogasam adhi), while the p aram aiih a-m an d ala also goes with C haptcr 13. Even clearer is the consistency of tin- U pasadhana chapters (2, 6, 10, 14) with the equivalent vajra called Anuyoga (as shown later) bccause this involves depositing m antras (parts of the bodhi-

cittta) in spots o f the body. Also when Guhyasamaja, Chapter 18, associates the four diam ond rites of Seva with the Seva chapters (3, 7, 11, 15) this is consistent with my later grouping o f the first six nidana syllables (for Evam m aya Srutam) with Yoga ( = S e v a ) because, as I later show, the four syllables E, V A M , M A, YA can indicate any four steps o f yoga, and 'Srutam means hearing or learning them. However, insofar as I have noticed cross-referencing in the Pradipoddyotana and its Mchan hgrel, the associations ap p ear to be independent of such grouping. For example, the im portant verses on the m editation on the tip of the nose are found in Chapters three and six, which belong to two different groups. Perhaps because there was a question of the viability of this grouping, R a tn a k a radanti composed his com m entary (op. cit.) by first com m ent ing on chapters 2-17 in the above grouping, and then com m ent ing on each of the 17 chapters iu their norm al order. O f those chapters, my researches indicate th at the first twelve are the most im portant. This is indicated in p a rt by th e fact that the explanatory tantra Samdhivydkarana, w hich expands the Guhyasamdjatantra in ch ap ter order, only goes u p through chapter twelve. T his set of chapters includes chapter 1, which is t h e goal or basis c h a p te r; ch ap ter 2, with the allim portant topic of bodhicittai chapters six an d twelve w ith the steps of yoga; and ch ap tcr seven with the three kinds of praxis (carya). Also, the theory' that the chapters 2-17 are grouped by fours in the scheme given above, acknowledges that the later chapters expand on m aterials of the earlier chapters rath er th a n start completely new topics. B. The two stages, initiations and the Clear Light

T he Guhyasamaja, in comm on with other T a n tra s of the A nuttarayogatantra class, w hether M o th e r or F ather T an tras, is divided into two stages of application, the Stage of G eneration (utpatti-krama) and the Stage of C om pletion (sampanna-krania) (or utpanna-krama). T his is said in the Guhyasamdjatantra, C h ap tcr X V I I I (p. 157) : /kram advayam upiigritya vajrinaip tatra deana / kram am autpattikarri caiva kraniam au tp an n akarp tatha / T aking recourse to two stages, the ad am an tin e one have therein the instruction, namely, the Stage of G enera tion and the Stage of C om pletion. Also, the Paiicakrama

(I, 2) states : /utp atti-k ram asam sth an am ni^pannakram akariksin.im / u pay as caisa sam buddhaih sopanam iva n in n ita b / T h e C om plete B uddhas have form ulated like a ladder this m eans for those well standing in the Stage o f G eneration a n d desiring the Stage of C om pletion. In terms ofyogins, C andrakirti a t the beginning of his com m entary on C hap. X I , distin guishes them as the kalita-yogin ( im agining y.**) an d the nifpanrtayogin ( com pleted In his Snags rim chen mo (f. 340a-5), Tsori-kha-pa illustrates the necessity to have the Stage of G eneration precede the S tage of C om pletion, by citing V a jra g a rb h a s com m entary on the Herajratantra: /mi yi skye ba dag 2in la / / dmigs mcd sArn rjehi sa bon ni/ Ib ta b pas gan phyir de yi phyir / / ston Aid dpag bsam Ijon Sin hbyuri / By reason o f having cast the seed of aimless compassion into the pure field of hum an birth, there arises the wishing tree* of voidncss. T son-kha-pa explains that the field is purified* by the Stage o f G eneration j and that the seed o f aimless compassion a tte n d e d with g reat ecstasy (mahasukha) is cast therein by the Stage o f C om pletion. T h e Stage o f G eneration is conceptual, the Stage o f C om pletion concrete. T h e reason the Stage o f G eneration m ust precede can be illustrated in terms of the theory o f winds. I n this first stage the candidate comes to understand the nature of the winds which arc not visible to the ordinary senses, a n d in the course of the yoga proper to this stage recites in accordance w ith the natural cycle of the winds. In the Stage of Com ple tion he proceeds to combine those winds in extraordinary ways. O f course one must understand a thing (first stage) before one can m anipulate it (second stage). It follows that unless one believes that there are these mystic winds the U panisads speak ab o u t an d which are so prom inent in the com m entarial litera tu re of the Guhyasamdjatantra, he can see little point to having these two successive stages of yoga; a n d , in fact, there is little profit to his pursuing the system at any level of application. T son-kha-pas rem ark, cited above, is clarified textually w ith such an expression as knowing the intrinsic nature* (suabhdvajna) (see also, niddna verse 33), that is to say, knowing th e natural cycle of the world in terms of the mystic forces, as

the achievement of the Stage of G eneration, prior to the great ecstasy (makdsvkha) of the Stage of Completion. H ere there arc two passages that show what is m eant. T he first is in Aryadevas Cittaviiuddhiprakaraiia, verse 20, where intrinsic nature* translates svabhdia : bald rajyanti rupetu vairagyam yanti madhyamah / svabkdvajiid vimucyante rupasyottamabuddhayah Children delight in forms; the middle-aged pass to aversion. Understanding the intrinsic nature of fonn, those with best intelligence arc liberated (from it). THfe second passage is from S a ra h a s Do/id-kofa, verse 23 in Shahidullahs num bering, translated here from the Prakrit (given) an d T ib etan text. W hile it does not have such a term as intrinsic n a tu re , it seems to have the same message, ja lla i m aral ubajjai [b a jjh a i] tallai p aram a m ahasuha sijjahi. [Sarahc gahana guhira bhasa kahia pasu-loa nibboha jim a rahia.] H aving taken which (ja lla i), one dies, is reborn, an d is b o u n d ; T aking that very thing (tallai) one achieves the supreme great ecstasy. But S arah a speaks these inexplicable an d profound words so this beastly world will not understand. Interp retin g S a ra h a s verse in the present context, in the Stage of G eneration one contem plates those n atu ral forces behind the cycles of birth, staying for a while, an d dying, an d the repetition of those three again a n d again, a n d then in the Stage of Completion, m anipulates those same forces to achieve the great ecstasy. Both stages have their own forms of subtle yoga {sfikfmayoga) o f prdtidydma. T h e former stage is held to extend certain worldly magical powers (siddhi) to its successful candidates. T he latter stage is held to confer the supreme achievem ent of Complete E nlightenm ent, which is the goal of non-tantric Buddhism as well. In the com m cntarial period, treatises were composed especially for one or other of the two stages. T h e most famous of such treatises, N a g arju n a s Paiicakrama, is devoted to the Stage of Completion but is also helpful for the prior stage.

T his is bccause the treatise is first to be read or heard with conviction, and this conceptual reading is an elem entary form o f t h e Stage o f G eneration which is the conceptual p re p a ra tion for the second stage. T he com m entators of the A iv a tradition of the G uhva* * sarnaja tried to com bine this theory of stages with the wellknown Bodhisattva stages of non-tantric M ahayiina Buddhism, thereby clarifying the tan tric version as the quick p a th . These ten stages either fall into a 5-5 grouping or a 7-3 grouping. Both groupings are ado p ted in tantric literature, but the latter g rouping was accepted for the correlation in this case, as is suggested by the Paiicakrama, 2d kram a, verse 79: ddikarmikayogena cdftamim bhumim dpnuyat f dfakatrayadarii ca dafabhumyam pratifthitah jj By yoga of a beginner, he attains the Eighth Stage, an d seeing the three Eights he is settled in the T e n th Stage. T sori-kha-pas Paiicakrama comm.. Vol. 159, p. 4-4,5, cites the view of Spyod bsdus (A ryadeva's Carydmeldpaka)i\\&t one attains the E ighth Stage by the Stage of G eneration. T he im plication is that the last three stages of the Bodhisattva Path constitute part of the Stage of C om pletion. T hereafter, the com m en tators differ along sectarian lines. C om m entators of Yoga cara preference would rom bine this tantric theory with the terminology revolution of the basis (aSraya-pardvrtti) of the set of perceptions, especially the store consciousness (dtayarijiidna) often associated in th.it Y ogacara literature with a tta in m ent of the Eighth Bodhisattva Stage. M adhyam ika-type com m entators would avoid the term store consciousness in this connection. However, no attem pt is m ade in these tantric correlations to make a full-scale dovetailing with the theory of ten Bodhisattva Stages, in the m anner as these are portrayed in great detail especially in the I)a<ab/iumikd-sutra. T h e old theory of len Stages implies an eleventh (the Sam m ta p ra b h a ), the stage of the complete Buddha. A further difficulty arose when tiireeextra Stages (bhiimi), with varying names, were added to the traditional ten, with the previous nam e Sam antaprabha moved to the thirteenth. For example,. Alarnkakala<a, P I T . Vol. 61, p. 1H2-2, explains the name VajrainaLV as the Stage called Sam antaprabha, and cites the verse (the original Sanskrit given under 'Bhagesu vijahara),

including: T h e Stage resorted to by all the Buddhas is the T h irteen th , and it is called the lady. T h e two systrtns of stages, the ten plus one, on the one hand, and thirteen on the other, relate to two ways of assigning the initiations (abhiscka) and mystical visions of the Guhyasamdjatantra. ---- According to the notes to Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras, initiations arc the means of attaining power over nature. T here are two kinds, initiation simply in an honorary way, namely to the Iiuddhas; and initiation for the purpose of generating the power, namely to the Bodhisattvas. T h e re are further varieties, such as those stated in the Guhyasamdja, Chap. X V I I I , verses 111-112A : abhijekam tridhd bhedam asmin tanlre prakalpitam / kalafabhifekam prathamam dvitiyatfi guhydbhifekatah ff prajfidjtldnam trtiyam tu caturtham tat punas tathd / A distinction of three initiations is prepared in this T a n tra , to wit : initiation of the flask as the first; the second, as 1 the secret in itia tio n ; insight-knowledge, the t h i r d ; and the fourth, precisely the same (as the th ird ). T h e first initiation, that o f the flask, is laid in the Stage of G eneration, an d is usually divided into five initiations of the flask, going w ith the five T ath ag atas, a n d all accom panied by sprinkling rites. An initiation of the hierophant (vajracdrya) is laid in the transition to the Stage of Com pletion. T h e last three initiations, the secret, the insight-knowledge, and the *fourth* arc laid in the Stage of C om pletion. All those initia tions arc described a t length in Mkhas grub rjers Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras; here some correlative m aterials are presented in order to clarify the role of the initiations in the Yoga of the Guhyasamdjatantra. G andrakirtis Guhyasamdjdbhisamaydlamkdra-vrtti (P T T , Vol. 62, p. 26-5) mentions three kinds of flask in itiatio n : outer, inner, an d p reg n an t (phyi dari nari dari sbas p a h o ). T h e outer kind uses a flask m ade of precious m aterial for the five initiations of the flask. T h e inner kind also uses a precious flask for the five kinds of am brosia, empowered by the T a t h a gatas. T h e p reg n an t kind also has two varieties, m eans (ttpaya) an d insight* (prajiid) flasks. T h e pregnant flask of means has the w ater from the m outh of the g u ru ; the pregnant flask o f insight has the w ater from the lotus o f the prajfia lady.

T h e p reg n an t kind o f flask initiation appears to be the unshared kind (atddhdrana) involved with the H ierophants Initiation. In the latter initiation, the candidate is given the vidyl (goddess) called the seal pledge (mudrd-samaya) and made to enter the union bliss-void (xuA'Aa-i unya) by embracing th at vidya. Passing to the three initiations of the Stage of Completion, we note two ways of relating those initiations to the system as stages, as is set forth in AlamkakalaSas commentary on the Vajramdld ( P I T , Vol. 61, p. 180-2, 3) : / dehi phyir las dan po pahi rnal hbyor gyi no bo slob dpon dan gsah bahi d ban bskur ba dag ni sa brgyad pa 2es bya ba rnam par b2ad go / / es rab ye Ses kyi dgu paho / b2i pa dpehi rnam pas ni bcu paho / . . . . / yah na slob dpon gyi d ban ni sa brgyad paho / /gsari bahi dban gis ni rnam pa gah gis rdo rje bzlas pa la brten nas dgu p.iho / / ses rab ye ses kyi dban gis sems rnam p ar dag p.ihi ho bo hid kyi bcu paho , raii byin gvis brlab pa yah de hid < > / ' b^i pa hid kyi muon par byah chub l< pahi ho bo hid kyis bcu grig paho 1 'mos pa spyod pahi sa dah bcas pa ui bcu gnis paho // zuh du hjug pahi rim pas ni bcu gsum p.iho / Hence, the initiation of ihe hierophant (vajracdrya) who is a b e g in n e ryogin and ihe Secret Initiation are laid in the Eighth (B odhisattva)Stage; ihe Prajha-jiiana initiation is on ihe N in th ; the Fourth Initiation, by form of example (i.e. taking the preceding initiation as exam ple), on the T e n t h . . . . In another way, the H ierophants Initiation is on the Eighth Stage; the Secret Initiation for which one depends on Diamond M uttering (vajrajdpa) on the N in th ; the Prajfia-jiianu Initiation whereby there is cittaviiuddhi is on the T enth, as is also the svddhiffhdna; the Fourth through abhisambodhi is on the Eleventh; the Twelfth has the Adhimukti-carya Stage; and with the Y uganaddha-kram a there is the Thirteenth. T h e second type of correlation involves the five krama titles of NAg.irjunas Paiicakrama (V ajrajjpa, Cittavisuddhi, Svadhisfhana, Abhisambodhi, and Y uganaddha). I h e first type stems from A ryadevas Carydmelapaka, in a passage cited in

the notes to M khas grub rje s work, pp. 312-3: (T ibetan o m itte d ) : M oreover, Dbyaris-can-dgah-bahi-blo-gros, following the Arya school o f the Guhyasamaja, writes in his Dpal gsan ba hdus pa hphags lugs dan mthun pahi shags kyis lam rnam giag legs biad skal bzah hjug nogs, folio 2 0 b -1, f . : T he one who has arrived at the limit of the subtle an d the coarse of the Steps of Production which conclude the m atu ratio n of the stream o f consciousness, is asso ciated with a tta in m e n t of the eighth stage. B oth the arcane body a n d arcane speech o f the Steps of C om ple tion are associated with the latter p art of the eighth stage as well as with the n in th stage. Both the arcane m ind an d the illusory body are associated w ith the first p a rt o f the tenth stage. Both the C lear L ight an d the co u p ling in the realm of learning are associated w ith the latter p a rt of the tenth stage. T h e coupling beyond learning is posited on the eleventh stage, S a m a n ta p ra b h a . T h a t is the p u rp o rt of the Carydmelapaka (Toh. 1803.) F urtherm ore, there is a difference in w here the initiations of the Stage o f Com pletion are conferred. T h e notes to M khas grub rjes work show th a t the Sccret In itiatio n is a tta in e d in the .relative bodhicitta-mandala,the Insight-K now ledge (prajiid-jiidna) one in the bhaga-mandala of the vidya, a n d the F o u rth In itiatio n in the absolute bodhicitta-mandala. C om paring this term inology w ith the previous discussion of the m an d ala, it is easy to observe th a t the relative bodhicitta-mandala is the b o d y -m an d ala (dehamandala), an d the other two, the utsarga-mandala a n d the paramartha-mandala; while all three are understood in the present case with interpretations of the Stage of C om pletion. Also, these initiations can be stated in terms of the consorts (mudra). Following the exposition of the K loh-rdol bla-m a as set forth in my Fem ale E n e r g y . . . article, the in c a n ta tion-born fem ale is the yogini at the final lim it of the Stage of G eneration; hence is involved in the M a h a s a d h a n a phase of 'in v arian t (letter) p lacem en t (in the samadhi 'V ictorious M a n d a la ), an d presum ably is the vidya o f the P recep to rs Initiation. T h e field-born fem ale enables one to a tta in the Symbolic Clear-Light w ith the arcane state of body, speech, an d m in d ; an d so is the vidya of the Secret In itia tio n . T h e

together-born fem ale enables one to attain the Illusory Body an d the Goal C lear-L ight (or the C lear L ight of the Absolute E n tity ) ; lienee is the vidya o f the Prajfiajiiana In itiatio n ; an d since the Fourth Initiation is said to be ju st the same as the third, she is a Wo the vidya or m udra intended here. R eg ard in g the Secret In itiatio n , the Pradipoddyotana in its c h a p te r eight devoted to this initiation cites the T a n tra catalogued as Candraguhyatilaka ( yathoktam bhagavata guhye candratilake, , ): uhrjya ratnojiala-*bodhicittam sarniuikamurtim sakalam
jin d n a m f

abhififieya m urdhndmalaratnavafair viSuddhavajrodbhavajfidnatoyaih f( H aving draw n forth the bodhicitta jew el-blazing of the Jinas. he sprinkles all the arid body by way of the head with knowledge drops issuing from the pure vajra, (drops) with the power of the im m aculate jewel. T h e context shows that the expression by way of the head* means that the can d id ate imagines that the substance flows down from the crow n of the head a n d first stimulates the little tongue' (the u v u la ). F o r a clear statem ent o f its further pro gress through the body, see Sri L aksm is passage presented u n d er nid.'ma verse K .V (No. 22). For the reference to the tongue, the Pradipoddyotana on chaptcr seventeen quotes the W iulatantra (in fact, the Tattvasamgraha of the Y oga-tantra c la s s ) : jihvdm talagatdrn krtva nasikdgram tu cintayel } s tiksmavajrasukha < ar sad bhavet cittam samahitam jf ; p H aving placed the tongue on the roof of the m o u th , he should contem plate the tip of the nose (of the face). From blissful contact with the subtle vajra (the little longue), ihe mind becomes stabilized. In the same place ihe Pradipoddyotana cites a clarifying passage from ihe 'Prajtidsutra' (which Alchan hgrel identifies only as M other T a n tr a ): dhdrdmrtamayi nityam yd murdhni var^ate dhruvam / pitvd hayayogindrena jardmrtyuvindSakah fj yalhotpalandlena (iu) toyam dkarfate narah / evam upajivya jived yogi mahdbala iti 11 W hat consists of streaming ambrosia continually and

steadily rains in the head. H aving drunk (th a t) w ith the yogi organ of a horse (i.e. the strctched-out tongue curled back to the u v u la) one destroys old age an d d eath, (drinking) like a m an sucks w ater through the stalk o f an utpala-lotus. So having subsisted, the yogi lives w ith the nam e M ighty O n e . Furtherm ore, according to that work of C a n d ra k irtis, the vrtti (op. ctt., p. 29-3), the place where the initiation is conferred is the disciplcs tongue, o f which there arc three: in the th ro a t, the heart, and the navel, the placcs where he enjoys the substance. This refers to the dow nw ard passage of the w hitc-and-red bodhicitta drop. In the case of the third initiation, this is the knowledge based on the insight (C a n d ra k irtis explanation, the vrtti, p. 30-3, 4) as a definition o f prajiid-jiiana (insight-know ledge). According to M khas-grub-rjes work, the Insight-K now ledge Initiation is associated w ith the passage of winds in the central vein9 arousing ecstasies in four cakras. H ence it is u n d e rs ta n d able that definitions of mahasukha are given in connection w ith this Initiation. T hus, T sori-kha-pas Snags rim chen mo, in the Prajfla-jfiana Initiation section, quotes V ita p a d a s Yogasaptandma-caturabhifekaprakarana: T h e distinction of w hether there is or is not the great ecstasy (mahasukha) is accordingly the last o f explanations. However, in the Prajfta-jftana the c h a ra c teristic of mahasukha takes s h a p e . . . . Bccause it is w ithout place a n d w ithout deception, it is explained as mahasukha1 (sbyor ba bdun pa las kyari // bde ba chen po yin m a yin gyi khyad p a r de b ii n du bSad pahi m th a r / ho na kyari $es rab ye ie s la bde chen m tshan i\id gzugs su gnas / t c s dan // mi gnas kyari ni mi sluhi phyir // bde ba chen po ies su bSad / ces d b a n gsum pa l a . . . . ) . Also, T sori-kha-pas com m entary on the Six Laws o f N aro -p a, (P T T Vol. 161, p. 8-2,3) states: T h e m ain thing here is the requirem ent th at the ecstasy o f the Stage o f Completion belong to the consubstantiality (sahaja) arising from making the w in d (s) enter, dwell, a n d dissolve in the 'central vein* " (/ hdihi yari gtso bo ni rluri d b u m a r iugs gnas thim gsum byas pa las byuri bahi lhan skyes kyi rdzogs rim pahi bde ba dgos so / ). In C a n d ra k irtis way of explain ing (the vrtti, p. 30-3, 4) the initiation is conferred in the three series o f caves or in the p ad m a. Since the bodhicitta proceeds

dow nw ard in the central vein through four cakras, we m ay u n d erstan d C a n d ra k irtis rem ark as intending the u p p er three cakras as caves* and the lowest cakra as the p a d m a , where the bodhicitta should not fall o u t or be released. T h e Fourth Initiation, also c a l l e d Initiation of the N a m e , is said to be just like the Prajrta-jAana one, m eaning that the bodhicitta passes through the reverse order of the same cakras; and, according to the note in M khas grub rjes work, p. 36, upon reaching the forehead cakra, the small circle called urna-koSay passes out into the ten directions like a lightning flash. F u rth e rm o re , the theory o f the C lear Light preceded or followed by three Lights, is related to the division into two stages. Now I shall present m aterial from several works of T so n -k h a-p a, leading up to a convenient table, after which some classifications in T a n ju r works can be appreciated better. T so n -k h a-p a, in his com m entary on the Caturdevipariprcchd labelled lBcis ius' (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 97-4) writes: T h a t is the concise paramdrtha-mandala as the C lear L ight o f conviction* in the phase of the Stage o f G eneration, an d is com parable to the four voids of which the C lear L ight belonging to the Stage of C om pletion is the ch ief o n e ( f de ni bskyed rim gyi skabs su lhag mos hod gsal du bsdus pahi don dam pahi dkyil hkhor dari/ rdzogs rim gyi hod gsal gtso bor byas pahi stori pa b 2' lta buho /). R estricting ourselves to this C lear Light of conviction concern ed w ith im agining t h e basic tim e the cycle of life and d e a th we find th at there are two kinds. T here is a Clear Light o f deep sleep which contrasts with dream , an d a C lear Light o f d e a th w hich contrasts with the interm ediate state, as in this passage o f T sori-kha-pas Gsan ba hdus pahi ia l Ses yig chuti thor bu pa (Vol. 159, p. 136-2): Since the Clear L ight of deep sleep, an d d ream are controlled by the power of wind, there is the invariable accom panim ent that the Clear Light of death, a n d the interm ediate state arc controlled by the power of wind. In the same wav, since the C lear Light of deep sleep, and dream are controlled by craving, there is the invariable accom pani m en t that the C lear Light of death, and the interm ediate state are controlled by craving* ( / gnid kyi hod gsal dari / rmi lam rluri stobs kyis zin na , hchi bahi hod gsal dari / bar do rluri stobs kyis zin pas khyab / de b iin du gnid kyi hod gsal dari / rm i lam hdun pas zin na hchi bahi hod gsal dari / bar do hduu

pahi zin pas khyab cii'i /) . According to this passage, the basic time* is controlled by wind and craving; deep sleep corresponds to d e a th ; dream corresponds to the interm ediate state. T u rn in g to the time of the p a th in the Stage of C om ple tion, when the four voids are evoked concretely, there is also a terminology of two kinds of C lear L ight, as in 1 sori-kha-pa s Gsal bahi sgron me (Vol. 158, p. 194-1) : M oreover, a t the conclusion of the C lear Light of the (Suprem e) E ntity, he accomplishes the Y uganaddha-deha {pair-united b o d y ); a n d a t the end of the Symbolic C lear Light, he accomplishes the Illusory Body ( f deyari don gyi hod gsal gyi m jug tu zuri hjug gi sku dari / dpehi hod gsal gyi m jug tu sgyu m ahi sku hgrub po /) . However, both the basic tim e a n d the time o f the p a th are involved in the varieties of interm ediate states an d of births, as in that same work of T son-kha-pa (his com m entary on the Paiicakrama), first the interm ediate states (bar do) (Vol. 159, p. 53-4): (1) bar-do of gestation (srid pa bardo), w hich agrees with (2) the bar-do o f d ream (rmi lam gyi bardo) according to the M ar-p a school the two being the bar-do o f the basic time (giihi bar do) ; (3) bardo of the p a th (lam gyi bardo). Next the births (Vol. 159, p. 53-5): (1) b irth in a w omb through in ter m ediate ^ ta te of gestation; (2) birth through b ar-do o f d re a m at the time of waking up to reoccupy the gross personality aggregates the two being the b ir th of the basic time (jliAs skyeba); (3) birth o f apprehending the gross personality aggre gates by the bar-do o f the illusory body (sgyu lus kyi bardo). T h e above d a ta can be clarified in tab u lar form, where the C lear Lights of deep sleep a n d d e a th of everyday life corres pond respectively to the Symbolic C lear L ight a n d the C lear L ight of the Absolute Entity. Now for the T anjur classifications, of which a good start is Sakyamitras fikd on the Cafydmeldpakapradipa (F I'T , Vol. 62, p. 300-5) : T he varieties are Clear Light o f (1) training (faikfa), (2) beyond training (aJaikfa), (3) true mind (cittald), and (4) entity (artha). Nos. 3 and 4 in his classification seem to be the two mentioned by rl Lakmi (Vol. 63, p. 29-4): "T h * Clear Light is of two kinds, Clear Light of consciousness an d Clear Light of intrinsic nature. Among those, the Clear

III.

THK

CLEAR

L IG H T S

IN TROD U CTIO N

Basic Time (w Stage o f Generation)

Time o f the Path ( in Stage o f Compie(ion) Symbolic Supreme Entity ( p ara m a rth a ) Yuganaddha-deha (pair-united body) ( apprehending the world, in the N irm ana-kaya)

Clear Light

Deep Sleep

Death

T O THE

Intermediate State Birth

Dream

Gestation

Illusory Body ( m aya-deha) (apprehending the gross personality aggregatesvipaka-kaya)

GUHY A SA M A JA

Waking up

Birth (exit from womb, or by some other means)

SYSTEM

Oi w

Light of consciousness is the (Yogiic.iras) representation* (mjitapti) without aspect (mrdkdra); anti the Clear Iaght of in trinsic nature is universal void (san-a/iinya) which is obtained at the fourth stage (/ hod gsal ba ni rnam pa griis tc , sem skyi hod gsal ba d an / ran b iin gyis hod baho 1 de la sems kyi hod gsal b a ni rnam pa m cd pahi rnam rig dari / ran b iin gyis hod gsal b a ni thams cad ston pa ste rim pa b ii pas thob par byaho/) . T h at i$ to say, Sakyam itras kind called true m ind would be the Y ogacarins representation without (external) aspect* : an d the one of entity (short for supreme entity) would be the universal void. Nos. 1 and 2 of Sakyam itras classification arc explained in C andrakirtis Guhyasamdjabhisaniaydlarnkdra-irtti ( F I T , Vol. 62, p. 35-3) in sum mary verses : O ne should understand two Clear Lights by training (Saikfa) and beyond training* (aSaikfa). T h e Clear Light of training is explained as (the dhydnas of) contraction* (pindagrdha) and expansion* (anubheda) . T he one beyond training is non-discursive (a; ikalpa), not perceptively reached (anupalabdha) , pure from the outset ( ddiiuddha) T h e s e two are respectively equivalent to the Sym bolic Clear Light and to the Clear Light of the Absolute entity in the tim e of the path. Therefore, Sakyam itras varieties (1) and (2) are respectively equivalent to his varieties (3) and (4). All of the above T an ju r classifications apply to Tim e of the Path. T he C lear Light o f D eep Sleep appears mainly a m atter of oral instruction. Finally, there is the dillicult but im portant topic o f three caiyds in relation to the two Stages. In his Mthah gcod, Tsorikha-pa points out that A ryadeva* Caryameldpaka took account of the three caiyds only for the Stage of Com pletion, but th at the Pradipoddyotana on C hapter X (in fact the initial sentence) implies that both Stages have their version of the three caryds. T he three according to the Pradipoddyotana m anuscript on C haptcr V II are prapaiica-caryd, niiprapaiica-caryd, and atyantanifpraparica-caryd. Tsori-kha-pa elaborately discusses these m atters in his Paricakrama com m entary (P T T , Vol. 159, pp. 67 to 78^, the section entitled T he cand which is the means of issuing the profit in the two States (rim grlis la bogs hbyin pahi thabs spyod pa) ; and has a briefer, but also complicated discussion in his Mthah gcod on C hapter V II (P I T , Vol. 156, pp. 42 to 45).

T he discussion shows that in each ease this is a caryd (advanced yoga tichniquc) conncctcd with the female element of the world. I h e word prapaiica has here the special meaning, involvement with the five sense objects . In ancient Buddhist texts, these five are called the paiicakdmaguna ( the five strands of desire'*), and they prom ote developm ent of the being, his taking a place in phenom enon (a m ore usual Indian m eaning of the Sanskrit word prapaiica) . T he addition o f the word carya serves for classifying the yoga techniques o f this T antric tradition. C andra k irtis com m entary on C haptcr V II associates the three in the given order with three of the four ways of interpreting Guhyasamdjatantra passages, namely with the shared sense,* and pregnant sense, and the ultim ate sense (see my section Seven ornam ents and subdivisions ) . In illustration, when one contem plates the deities in their proper dress, hence in their corporeal form, this is a case of prapaiica; however, properly speaking, the addition of the word carya restricts this case to the five sense objccts deified as goddesses (as in niddna verse 21). Again, in relation to the three Lights, the caryd would be of the iinor\'prapanca type; and in relation to the Clear Light, the can l would be of the extrem e mm-prapaiica'' type. Hereafter, the term prapaiica will be left untranslated; 'caryd' is either trans lated as praxis or left untranslated. Now th at we have alluded to both superficial and profound aspects of the two stages, wc should prepare for the separate discussion of the two stages by the verse cited in Documents* (Pradipoddyotana on X II, 60-64) : By the distinction of shared' and superior, one posits two kinds of servicc : T h e shared one by the four vajras, the superior* one by members six in number. This verse shows that the word Service (jrta) can be employed in generalized ways to indicate the entire praxis of the Guhyasamaja. Previously in section A, on the chapters, we have translated that there are four diam ond rites of Seva associated with the Stage of Generation. T hen the superior service is the six mem bers of yoga in the Stage o f Completion. To anticipate, the four diam ond rites are nam ed 1. yoga, 2. anuyoga, 3. atiyoga, and 4. mahayoga. T he six members of yoga have already been defined in Documents : 1. pratyahara, 2. dhyana,

3. pranayam a, 4. dharana, 5. anusm rti, and 6. sam adhi. W hat is m eant by shared service is th at the terms 1. seva 2. upasadhana, 3. sadhana, and 4. m ahasadhana, can be employed in one sense of the words as equivalent to the four vajras as nam ed above, and can be employed in another sense as equiva lent to the six members of yoga. In the latter case, seva covers pratyahara, dhvana, pranayam a, and d h aran a; upasadhana equals anusm rti; and both sadhana and m aha sadhana are included in sam adhi. Moreover, as has been shown, sixteen chapters (2-17) of the Guhyasamdjatantra are labelled by these four generalized terms of service. It may be the intention of such labelling to indicate the shared aspects of the two stages insofar as these aspects can be assigned in four groups by those four labels of the chapters. However, the Guhyasamdjatantra has itself briefly defined the common elements indicated by the four vajras in its chapter X V III, verse 137 : prathamani SGnyatdbodhim dvitiyam bijasamhrtam / trtiyam bimbanifpattii caturtharji nyasam akfaram If T he first is the revelation of voidness; the second is the drawing together o f germ syllables; the third is the per fection of the im age; the fourth is the invariant ( letter) placement. In order to apply to both stages, those four have to be explained w ith utmost generality. T he first indicates the yoga of reaching up through the void or light stages to the Clear Light. T he second is a descent of divine elements. T he third is the consum mation of the candidate. T he fourth is the saintly re-involve m ent with the world. C. The four steps o f yoga and the three samadhis in the Stage o f Generation

The four steps of yoga in the Stage of G eneration are frequently referred to as the four steps of scrvice (jvi) or of evocation (sddhana). They are presented this wav in the Guhyasanulja, X V III, p. 162: yogatantrefu san-efu Sasyate yogind sadd f stvavidhanam prathamaiji dvitiyam upasadhanarn f sadhanam tu trtiyam vat mahasadhanam caturthakam j T he yogin always praises in all Y ogatantrathe rite of

scrvicc as first, the near-evocation as sccond, evocation as third, and great evocation as fourth. These steps arc stated somewhat more fully in Ibid., X II, p. 58 (com pletely Riven in D ocum ents') : He should contem plate the sam adhi-praxis o f scrvicc (jm l) as the supreme revelation (ttdama-boiihi)" (sevasamadhisamyognm bhavayet bodhim u ttam am ). . . .th e deliberation on the base of vajra (vajradyalatia) when there is foremost succcss is the near-evocation (;upasadhana) (upasadhanasiddhyagre vaj ray a ta na vicaranam ). T h e contem plation o f the lords of the m antras stated to be the exhortation at the time of evocation (sadhana)" (sadhane codanam proktam m antradhipatibhavanam ). At the tim e of great evocation (mahasadhana), when he imagines the form of his own mantra-rajrin as the lord on the crown o f the head, he is successful bccause of the jiidna-vajrin (m ahasadhanakaleju bim bam svam antravajrinah / m uku(e dhipatim dhyatva siddhyatc jA anavajrinah). Tsori-kha-pa further clarifies the four steps by identifying them with the four yogas of the Krfnayamdri-tantra (presumably Tohoku No. 467) in this passage (Sr.ags rim, f. 364b) : t rdo rje sans dpah rdzogs pa ni // mal hbyor yin par hdi Itar hdod I I de y i rgyu mlkun lha y i sku f rjes kyi mal hbyor yin par grags f j hkhor lo thams cad yons rdzogs pa / Sin tu mal hbyonin par hdod // sku da:', gsun dan thugs mams dan jf lha y i mig sogs byin brlabdan / / y e Sts hkhor lo giug pa dan // mchod daii bstod pa chcn poni j I mal hbyor chen po Us byaho f T h e perfection of V ajrasattva is thus held to be yoga. His affiliated divine body (*devatd-kdya) is known as anuyoga. T h e perfecting o f all the circles (cakra) is held to be atiyoga. T he blessing (adhif(hdna) of body, speech, and m ind, and of the divine eye (divya-cak$us), etc.; the draw ing in of the Jriana-cakra (-k n o w led g e beings, jitdnasatlva), the great offerings and praisesis called mahdyoga. N agarjuna, in his Pindikrta-sadhana, is consistent with his employ m ent of this terminology of yogas, starting with verse 44 (in La V allec Poussins num bering). Wc learn that in yoga there is the rile involving the recitation ol the celebrated mantras, O qi Sunyatajrianavajrasvabhavatnuiko ham, and O m dharm adhatusvabhavatm ako 'ham . W ith verse 51, he mentions the

4 nuyoga

and this culminates in the contem plation of the primeval lord* (adindtha). T hen the atiyoga develops vajrasattva (the diam ond being) as the progressed self of the yogin w ith his Ixxly as a mandala (the deha-mandala mentioned earlier in our m andala section). T he mahdyoga starts with verse 70 and involves the blessing or empowerment of body, speech, and m ind, using the m antras of Guhyasamdja, chaptcr 6 (Documents). Passing to some individual explanations for the four steps, especially as they apply to the Stage of Generation, wc note th a t the Pradipoddyotana (D ocuments) is helpful for clarifying the 1st step. It is ncccssary to place consciousness in samidhi. T h e practitioner then reviews the evocation from the spot of earth, etc. up to the m andala circle. He then enters the realm of the void through contem plating the m antra, O m Sunyatajflanavajrasvabhavatm ako ham (Om. I am the intrinsic nature of the knowledge diam ond of voidncss). Hence in this step the officiant evokes the void m andala-palace, also called the perfection o f V ajrasattva. Commenting on the tvajra-dyatana of the second step of sadhana, namely upasadhana, Shags rim says (f. 3G3a-6 to 363b-1): Thugs-rje-abs explains th at vajra means the thirty-tw o deities from V airoeana down to Sum bharaja; while its base (dyatana) refers to the spots wherein are deposited the syllables o f those (deities) in the aggregate of form all the way down to the soles o f the feet. ( / rdo rje ni m am snan nas gnod mdzes kyi bar so gfiis so If delji skye mched ni gzugs phuii nas rkari mthil gyi bar yin te de dag gis yi ge hgod pahi gnas bstan par thug rje fabs hchad do / ). T his rem ark im m ediately shows the connec tion between the 'vajra-dyatana of the second sadhana step with the second vajra, the drawing together of germ syllables (btjasamhrta) (cf. preceding sub-section). T his refers to the body-ma$<Jala where thirty-two syllables representing the thirtytwo deities are deposited in the appropriate spots of the IxkIv. But without this com m ent, the relation between the two second ones would not be clear. Also the com m ent clarifies the Snags rim remarks (362b-6, ff. through 363a-1, 2, 3) that on the Stage of G eneration the second sadhana yields the incantation body (mantra-deha) while the same sadhana, interpreted on the Stage of Completion, yields the knowledge body (j/idn<j-;tJy<i). This evocation o f a sanctified body, which the Ptadipoddyo-

tana calls the form o f M aham udra, is alluded to in N agarjuna's Pin<fikrtasddhana (verses 51-52) : . . . . anuyogam samdeaut / tatas tryak}arasambhutarn sitakundendusannibham / adindtham licintya. . . . . . . . He should engage upon the Anuyoga. T hen, im agin ing the prim eval lord (ddinatha) arisen from the three syllables like the white-Jasm ine m oon.... As to the three syllables, these can be either d, o, and ha, or they can be O m , Ah, and H um . T hus Mchan hgrel, P T T , Vol. 158, p. 14-3, states : a, o, and ha are the three basic syllables...; th at m eans th at from the thirty-tw o parts of the seminal drop (bindu-bodhicitta) the three syllables become 32-fold and gene rate the gods on the lotus. T his alludes to generation o f the thirty-tw o G uhyasam aja gods from germ syllables. Further m ore, T son-kha-pas Rnal hbyor dag pahi rim pa (PT T , Vol. 160, p. 91-1), shows the process o f imagining a single bindu (of bodhicitta) as the syllable Bhrum and from its transform ation generating the 4-cornercd, 4-doored, etc. palace along w ith thrones (Step No. 1); and continues : T hen the single-part bindu becomes 32 parts upon the thrones, an d from their transform ation (there arise the syllables) O m , Ah, Hum. T hen the incantation o f each of the seed syllables H um , etc. gives rise to 32 Jfianaadhisthanas of the three vajras. Therefrom there arise 32 hand symbols of thunderbolt (vajra), etc. (Step No. 2 ). Therefrom one generates sequentially the bodies of the deities (Step No. 3) :the foregoing is the way of genera ting'. In the case of the third step generation of the bodies of the deities (especially w ithin the practitioners own body as a bodym andala) is presumably w hat the hrfnayamaritantra (op. cit.) calls the perfecting of all the circles. The Mchan hgrel on chaptcr X II (Vol. 158, p. 92-2, 3) adds information for the third step th at the perfection here comes from the five abhisambodhis. In summary of N agarjuna s text, R atnakaraianti s Pittdikrta-sadhanopdyikd irtti-rotnavali-ndtna (Vol. 62, p. 62) places here the blessing oi the sense bases (dyatana), the personality aggregates (skandha), the elements, the major and minor limbs, by the various 32 deities; and (ibid., p. 77) states that by divi

sions of the skandhas, there are V airoeana and the other T a th a gatas; and so on, down to Sum bharaja (in the feet). These arc w hat the Guhyasamdja calls the 'lords of the m antras. T he Pradipoddyotana (Documents) alludes to verses X II, 70-71 to explain the blessing, but thereby disagrees w ith both the Kffnayamdritantra and N agfirjunas Pindikrta-sddhana which place this blessing or em powerm ent of Body, Speech, and M ind in the fourth step. T he fourth step in the Pradipoddyotana treatm ent involves im agining the lord on the crown of the officiants head, and the five T athagatas on the heads of all the deities in their particular families. Mchan hgrel (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 92-2, 3) brings in the terminology of the fourth vajra, the invariant ( = letter) placem ent, and states that this refers both to letter placem ent of the samadhi-sattva (tin he hdzin sems dpah) an d to letter place m ent in the body of the vidya (rig m ahi lus la yi ge hgod p a), hence to letter placem ent of vajra and padma (rdo rje dari padm ahi yi ge hgod pa ste), referring of course to the m ention of vajra and padma in the Pradipoddyotana com m ent (D ocum ents) on this step. T his would then be the overflow m andala (utsarga-mandala) spoken of in our m andala section. As was mentioned, other sources place here the em pow erm ent of Body, Speech, and M ind. Furtherm ore, the Pradipoddyotana (D ocum ents) clarifies that the M ah asad h an a, w hich is the fourth step, is th e accom plish m ent o f the aim of others. T his agrees w ith the Guhyasamajatantra's explanation of M ah asad h an a as a title for chapters 5, 9. 17, and 13, th a t these chapters have the teaching th a t liberates ones g re a t sou led disciple. T h e Pradipoddyotana m e n tions th a t the M ahasad h an a include* th e best victorious m an d ala an d the best victorious rite . In fact, these are the second an d th ird o f a w ell-know n set called the three sam adhis. T h e set o f three sam adhis constitute a terminology in com m on between the Y oga-tantra and the A nuttara-voga-taiura classes o f tantric literature. Even though there arc some differences in explanation o f those three, there are strong indications that the Stage o f G eneration of the A niittaravoga-tantra is the por tion o f th at kind o f T an tra that has practices shared with the Y oga-tantra. T he three sam adhis are called prelim inary praxis* (pratham aprayoga), trium phant m andala (vijaya-tnan<Jala),

and victory o f the rite (karm a-vijaya). Stiags rim, f, 364a1, 2, mentions as the im plication of those remarks of the Pradipoddyotana th at the first three steps of service are the prelim inary praxis and am ount to steps that accomplish ones own aim. T h e em ploym ent of two samadhis to cover the 4th step of yoga helps to resolve the several ways of explaining the 4th step as not constituting rival methods of conducting the rite of th at stage, but rather as suggesting the grouping into two phases. T h e 'victorious m andala is the initiation phase of the Stage of G eneration, involving the five vidya initiations, as they are called. T h e victory o f the rite includes those rather strange rites filling up a num ber of verses in both C hapter 6 and C hapter 12 (Docum ents) about the ritual eating of different kinds of flesh, in fact the m editative eating of th at flesh, credited w ith leading to supernorm al powers (on which I once wrote an article, Totem ic beliefs in the Buddhist T an tras ). T he apportion m ent of rites between the three sam adhis can be seen rather clearly by placing in concordance w ith the four steps the m andala rites of the G uhyasam aja which can also be arranged in four parts following the classification of Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras, which in turn is based on the Snags rim. These two works enabled me to group the rites in N agabodhis riguhyasamaja-mandalopdyikfivimSati-vidhi-ndma (P T T , Vol. 62, pp. 12 to 18), where there are actually twenty-one rites despite the lvimiatV of the title. Adm ittedly, this correlation dem ands m ore justification than here given, and a study of the M khas grub rje context will provide some of the missing links, for exam ple, th at the rite of the site also requires contem platioa o f voidness (as we saw in the case of the first yoga step). (A) Rites of the site: 1. Clearing the site (sa sbyori ba) 2. Seizing the site (sa yoris su gzuri ba ) 3. Elim ination of the obstructing demons (bgegs fie bar i i ba) (B) Rites of preparatory acts : 4. Pitching the lines with chalk (thog le kor gyis thig gdab p a ) 5. Preparing the flask (bum pa Lhag par gnas pa) 6. Beseeching the gods (gsol gdab pa) 7. Preparation of the disciple (slob ma lhag par gnas pa)

The m ain rite, beginning with construction of m andala: T he five colored threads (tshon sna lna) Putting in the colors (tshon dgved pa) Invitation of the gods (spvan drari ba) Initiations of the flask : Drawing the disciple into the mandala (slob ma g iu g ]>a) D iadem Initiation (cod pan gyi dban bskur) D iam ond Initiation (rdo rje dbari bskur) M irror Initiation (me Ion gi dban bskur) ( = W ater Initiation) 15. Name Initiation (miri gi dbari bskur) 16. Emblem Initiation (phyag m tshan gyi dbari bskur) (=B eIl Initiation). . Offerings: 17. Offerings to the gods (lha la yon hbul ba) 18. Offerings to the guru (bla m a la yon hbul ba) Permission and Unification : 19. Conferral of permission (amtjiid) on the disciple (slob ma la rjes su gnari ba sbyin pa) 20. Unification (of the G uhyasam aja deities th at are in various spots of the body) (rie bar bsdu b a) Concluding Acts: 21. Release of the magic nail (phur bu dbyuri b a ), i.e. dismissal of the deities, along with a burnt offering (homa). In sum m ary, one can establish the first sam adhi of prcliminary praxis1 to cover the three parts. A. Rites of the site, B. Rites of the preparatory acts, and C. T he m ain rite, where the three (as external ritual) arc analogous to the first three steps of service (as internal ritual) which in both cases accom p lish ones own aim. T hen the second sam adhi victorious m andala covers the initiations of the flask for the benefit of the disciple, but since in reality these initiations arc conferred by the goddess, the female elem ent enters at this point. T h e third samadhi victory of the rite covers the offerings, permission to the disciple (to repeat the ritual himself) and re-unification of the 32 deities into Bodhicitta, as well as concluding acts. 1'his helps to clarify the M ahayoga as the second and third sam adhi. Also, it is becoming apparent th at there are various ways of Stating the four steps of service or yoga, and this m ay be the

(C) 8. 9. 10. (D ) 11. 12. 13. 14.

implication of the rem aik in Snags rim, f. 364a-l, 2 that for accomplishing the four sicps there is a lesser, a middling, and a great (chun hbriii chen po gsum ga dgos pas). Besides, there is Tson-kha-pas insistence on correlating tantric materials with the three phases, birth, death, and the inter mediate state, which are referred to in nidana verse 38, and those three with the three bodies of the Buddha. This is stressed am ong other places in his independent work Don gsal ba on the Guhyasamdjatantra (I* IT . Vol. 160, p. 128). In this way, D harm akaya goes with death, Sambhogakaya with interm ediate state, and N irm anakaya with birth (cf. the table about the three phases in the preceding section). T here Tson-kha-pa argues at length about the A dinatha (which according to N agarjuna is the germ inal V ajradhara) to the conclusion that the generation of the adinatha' agrees with the interm ediate state. In the foregoing discussion of the four yogas, the genera tion of the adinatha was placed in the second yoga called anuyoga. In my aiticle, T he Five-fold Ritual Symbolism of Passion," I showed T son-kha-pas view that the contemplation of voidness is equivalent to death; and since this contem plation takes place in the first yoga, this step can be correlated with death. T hat leaves the third step to go with birth, which is reasonable since it is the culm inating step for ones own sake. YVe therefore have the following line-up of the steps : 1. Yoga symbolic death D harm akaya 2. Anuyoga symbolic inter m ediate state Sambhogakaya 3. Atiyoga symbolic birth N irm anakaya O f course, such concordances are not m eant to suggest that the Yogin attains such bodies by following through with the several steps. Tsou-kha-pa makes it plain that this correlation is meant lo establish those steps as the eauses in the Stage of G eneration for the subsequent attainm ent of those Buddha bodies in the Stage of Completion. The six members o f yoga and the Jive kramas in the Stage o f Completion T he six members are stated in the Guhyasanuljatanira for the first time in chapter IJi, which is generally regarded in commcn tarial tradition as an L tiaia-tanira continuation tantra* be D.

cause it includes verses grouping the preceding chapters 2-17. However, C andrakirti's Pradipoddyotana 011 C hapter 12 (sec Documents*) insists that verse 64 has the implication ol these members, especially by the words seiajfuindmrtma; and accord ingly wrote in comment upon that verse a fairly lengthy account of the six members. This account, curiously, is almost identical with the work Sadanga-yoga (extant in T ib etan ), attributed to N agarjuna (in P T T Vo). 85). It may be that the com m ent was a traditional one for that block of verses in chapter 18. T he same verse block that C andraklrti quoted, plus some more, were later quoted by Naro-pa. in his Sekvdde.safikii, a com m en tary on part of the halacakra-tantra. Naro-pa, devotes much of his subsequent com m entary to aspects of those members, follow ing the K alacakra tradition. T his shows that it was feasible to carry through the tantric praxis in term s of those six m em bers; and the occurrence in the Guhyasamaja, chapter 18, indicates that this formulation was once a viable procedure in this tantric cult. O f course, the names of the six mem bers of yoga are ancient. They are almost the same names as the members of yoga in the Kiaitri Upattifad. However, over the centurics different inter pretations have been m ade of the chief term s; and they do not always occur in the same order as in the Guhyasamdjatantra. Also, the order o f the members in this T an tra, while standard in the A nuttarayoga-tantra, has occasioned some sharp disputes. O f course, N agarjunas com m entary on the 18th chapter, w here the six members are defined, was exam ined carefully by the commentators, but their silence regarding his com m entary when they engage in disputes on these m atters is due to N agar ju n as way of comm enting, which we m ight call aro u n d and not to the point. However, it is interesting to observe how he did procecd in his com m entary, the Asiddaia-pa{aUi-vistatayydkhyd. He found his first opportunity to go into the m atter when commenting on chapter X V III, verse 24 : trividhatn kayavdkcittam guhyam ity abhidhiyate f samajam milanam proktam sarvabuddhdbhidhdnakam // T he three types, body, speech, and m ind, are explained as the secret*. Sam aja is said to be union, the definition of all the Buddhas.

Using rem arks based on those three, body, etc., he first explains the three sam adhis, prelim inary praxis, etc.; then the Stage o f G eneration and the Stage of Com pletion; then his five kramas in order; the 'cause (hetu), action (karma), a n d fruit (phala)\ then the six mem bers of yoga in order. T hen he starts over again, w ith somewhat different rem arks based on those three, body, etc., w ith which he first explains the three samadhis, then the two stages, then the five kramas in order, then those three, cause, etc., and finally the six members in order. His next opportunity presented itself when com m enting on the definition oi 1 an tra (chapter X Y I1I, verse 33), in particular the expres sion asamhdrya (w hich cannot be led astray). He says this m eans the T a n tra of the Fruit, free from fear, wherein the achievem ent V ajrad h ara, and so on, is conferred by way of the yogin of subtle yoga in the Stage of G eneration or the Stage of Com pletion, or o f (the five kram a) D iamond M uttering, etc., or o f the six mem bers. By this com m ent he clarifies that his five kram as and the six mem bers are alternate ways of expressing the tantric path (in fact, the Stage of Com pletion). T hen in verse 35, still devoted to definition o f T a n tra , the expressions paftcakaip trikulam c a i v a . . . . gave him the opportunity to talk about five-fold sets,. three-fold ones, and so on. His five kramas are such a five-fold set, so they arc mentioned, along with the three sam adhis again; and he cannot m ention those w ithout alluding to the six members, so now (PT T . Vol. 60, p. 6-3) he gives a brief definition of each of the six members. W hen he comes to the block of verses on which C andraklrti comm ented (Docu m ents) he has a rather lengthy treatm ent of the six members (op. cit., p. 14-3, 4, 5 and p . 15-1 ) in a m anner consistent with C an d rak irtis statem ent, although having some other materials, and in particular agrees on the disputed point that the dhydna m em ber has the five parts of non-tantric Buddhism and that these do reach up to the Spread*of-Light, Culmination-olLight, and finally the Clear Light; while also placing the six mem bers in the Stage of Completion. As though that were not enough, he continues (p. 15-1,2) with brief explanations of the benefit resulting from each member, for example, that dhyana yields the five supernormal powers (the teaching of nontantric Buddhism ). There can be no doubt that Nagarjuna gives the subject of the six members its proper duc< He presents

considerable information, all taken together. But sincc he introduced his five kramas into this com m entary when they were not mentioned in the original text of chapter 18, he could have been helpful to show the relationship between his five kramas and the six members, which he avoided com m itting himself upon. And so subsequent centuries o f com m entators had to dispute over w hat was m eant. In the G uhyasam aja cult, his Paiicakrama trium phed over the six-membered term i nology, for which we are fortunate to have C andrakii tis Sanskrit commentary. As we consider C a n d ra k irtis com m ents, it seems th a t the first two members pratyahara and dhydna, am ount to a sum m ary of non-tantric Buddhist m editation. In standard m editation, first there is withdrawal of the mind from the m ultiplicity of external objects, with focussing upon one properly chosen m editative object, which is contem plated in the m ind. T his is close to the pratyahara of C andrakirtis explanation which, however, adds some tantric remarks. T hen the five parts to D hyana are the traditional parts assigned to the dhyanas in non-tantric Buddhism which teaches that there arc four D hyana levels or heavens constituting w hat is called the realm o f form (iQpa-dhdtu), below which is the realm of desire (kdma-dhdtu) and beyond which is the formless realm (arOpa-dhdtu), W hile it is true th at the further explanations given by C andraklrti for the five parts o f dhydna are not how those same words arc explained in the Abliidharm a treatises, it is intriguing to notice his rem ark that the fifth part is engendered as light-only and the ultim ate that is one with universal void. This claim that dhydna reaches up to the Clear Light (of which 'universal void is a synonym ) practically adm its that the Clear Light is an experience at the top of the realm of form, which is precisely where M ahayana Buddhism places the Complete Buddha in a heaven called A kamstha with a body called Sam bhogakaya. But w hat sense is there to commenting that way, when dhydna prccctles the next mem ber, 3. pranayama, in which there is no m ention of oxjjeriencc of the Clear Light, but which is a necessary prelim inary of the next mem ber 4. dharana which covers the mystic experience o f entering the Clear Light ? It makes sense only if one takes into account the kinds of Clear Light as iti the previous section that summarized the varieties in a table. T h a t is to say, the

Clear Light reached by the dhydna m em ber is not the Clear Light o f th e Supreme E ntity; hut, on the other hand, w hat is its C lear Light is not definite without further information about this m em ber of yoga, especially sincc there was a controversy about the first two members. Tsoii-kha-pas com m entary on Paiicakrama, PT T , Vol. 158, p. 196-4, says : / sgron ma rab gsal las sor bsam giiis scms dben dan f srog rtsot rdor bzlas dan j hdzin pa hod gsal dan / rjes dran dan tin nc hdzin zun hjug tu hdus par bSad de / According to the Pradipoddyotana, (am ong the six members) ptatydhdta and dhydna arc incorporated in secret state of mind (citta-inveka) ; prdndydma in diam ond m uttering (iajrajdpa) (i.e. secret state of speech, vdg-viveka); dhdrand in C lear L ight; anusmrti and samadhi in pair-united {yuga naddha ). This T ibetan tradition then proceeded to reject a portion of C an d rak irtis [xisition, and by implication, X agarjunas com m entary on the 18th chapter. This is m ade clear in Tsonkha-pas com m entary Mthah gcod ( P I T . Vol. 156, pp. 50-52, Deciding am ong the alternatives' for chapter 12). He says (p. 51-2-4) : According to the Pradipoddyotana, both pratyahara and dhydna are the arcane mind (citta-viveka) (sor bsam gHis sems d b e n ) ...." L ater he says (p. 52-4-4): In our school, if one treats the six members as six stages of the Stage of Comple tion, then we heartily endorse Sgra-dbyaris-bcu-gcig-pa (for his position) to treat both pratyahara and dhydna as the arcane Ixxly (kdyaviieka)'' (ran gi lugs kyis rdzogs rim gyi rim pa drug la yan lag drug sbyar na / sor bsam gnis lus dben la sbyor ba sgra dbyaris bcu gcig pa liar legs so / ). T he mentioned author (* likudaUisvata) is the author of the Mahdvajradharapathakramopadefdmrtaguhya 'T ohoku catalog Xo. 1823). W hat Tson-khapa means by the words if one treats is that some authorities treated the first two members as part of the preceding Stage of Generation. Thus, there are three possibilities posited : 1. The first two members belong to the Stage of Completion as arcane m ind; 2. they belong there as arcane body; 3. they belong to the Slagc of Generation. A part of the dispute is exposed in Hu-stons commentary Bfad sbyar on the Pradipoddyotana (Collected Works, T a, f. 172 b,

published in Part 9 ): Here, the acarya A bhayakaragupta held that pratyahara and dhyana belonged to the Stage of G eneration; that pranayama is Diamond M uttering, dharana is the Illusory Body and the Clear Light, and that anusmrti and samadhi arc Yuganaddha. And the author K um ara claimed that pralydhdra and dhydna arc the arcane m ind, and that anusmrti is the Illusory Body. N either are correct ( / hdir slob dpon a-bhyas/ sor sdud bsam gtan bskyed rim dan / srog rtsol rdo rje b/las pa dan j hdzin pa sgyu lus hod gsal dan / rjes dran tin hd/.in zuft hjug bstan / ies pa daii ku-ma*ras / sor sdud bsam gtan scms dben / rjes dran sgyu lus su byed pa mi hthad de /) . In the case of A bhayakaragupta, Bu-ston gives the obvious reason that the position is in conflict w ith the L 'ttara-tantra (as cited in D ocum ents') which places all six members in the superior category understood to be the Stage of Com pletion; but the reason A bhayakaragupta was forced into his position is that N agarjuna's Paiicakrama begins with D iam ond M uttering ( prdndydmay m em ber No. 3). However, Bu-ston apparently believes that the refutation of A bhayakaragupta takes care of K um aras position as well presumably on the grounds that pratyahara and dhydna cannot be arcanc m ind except in the con ceptual meaning proper to the Stage of G eneration; but, as we saw, C andraklrti may well have this position even though he places all six members in the Stage of Com pletion (D ocum ents). Bu-ston continues by saying, Some teach the caryd w ith pratydhdra and the arcane body with dhydna; that is most certainly wrong ( j kha cig sor sdud kyis spyod pa bstan / bsam gtan gyis lus dben bstan / ics pa in tu mi hthad d c ). By 'caryd' Bu-ston refers to the technical use of this term , of which there a re three kinds alluded to in Tsori-kha-pa's annotation of niddna verse 26 (which sec). Although Bu*ston denies arcane body to dhydna, he goes on to give his own position, Hence, when one combines the six membered yoga with the five kramas, pratyahara and dhydna arc included in Illusory Body ( / des na sbvor ba van lag drug lam rim pa hiar sdud na sor sdud bsam gtan sgvu lus su hdus te /) . He also quotes approvingly that one sees samitti-saha with pratydhdta" (so sor sdud pas kun rdzob kyi bden pa nuhori baho). Although there may be a difference in usage of the term arcanc body , it appears to me that Tson-kha-pa accepts Bu-

ston's position; and Tsori-kha-pas annotation of nidana verses 22-23 (on K a-ya) seems indebted to Bu-stons comm ent on this K a {op. c i t f. 55b). T he solution was to call these two m em bers the sam vrti-m ava stages. My own solution of the nidana grouping took account o f the m ention in verse 22 of the word nispatina-kram a (Stage of C om pletion) and in verse 23 of the word nispanna-yoga (Yoga o f C om pletion). Sincc these two verses go w ith the word 'K ay a, it is clear th a t die author of the nidana verses of the Vajra mdld explanatory tan tra understood the Stage of Completion to begin w ith an emphasis on body. T o deny th at this is arcane body b ut then to aflirm th at it is Illusory Bodyas Bu-ston d idseems a n unnecessary quibbling over words. T he nature of this body will bccomc clcarer as we proceed. Now, the Guhyasamdjatantra has an earlier treatm ent of yoga th at seems to belong to the Stage of Completion, namely in its chaptcr 6 (see D ocum ents). Verses 3-6 constitute the im por tan t block, and we present them here again with the Sanskrit corrected and translated with the help of the PradipoddyotaitOy Tsori-kha-pas Mchan hgrel, as w ell as with the Samdhivydkarana (P T T , Vol. 3, p- 239-3-8) for verse 5: mantranidhyaptikdyaia idea manasi coditah f sddhayct praiatdm siddhim manahsantofandm priydm //3 // cittanidhyaptinairatmyam idea kdyaiibhdvanam f nifpadayet trisamyogam dkdiasamatdlayam // 4 // kdyavdkcittanidhyaptch siabhaio twpalabhyate f maniramurliprayogcna bodhir lind ca bhdiandm // 5 // vicar)cdam samdscna kdyai dkcittafaktanam j bhdvayed bodhisamyogam samadhim mantrakalpitam // 6 // T he one who has lx>dy as the m antra visualized should accomplish, exhorted by speech in the m ind, the surpass ing one, successful one, one satisfying the m in d / beloved one*. He should accomplish the selflessness of citta being visua lized, (then) the contem plation of speech (vdca) and body, (then) the triple conjunction, (finally) the abode equal to space. T he self-existence of body-, speech-, and mind-visualization is not reached by the praxis of mantra-body, nor is revelation in the absence of contemplation.

Having pondered in brief this characteristic of Ijodv, speech, and mind, h r should contem plate the sam adhi Conjunction to revelation as constructed by m antra. C andrakirtis comment on those verses implies a kind of sixmembered yoga amorn them. 1. 'w ho has body as the m antra visualized. 2. exhorted by speech in the mind*. 3. surpassing one*. 4. successful one. 5. one satisfying the mind*. 6. beloved one. T here are four states (avastha) to be achieved in the stream of consciousness of a yogin ( yogisamtdna) : surpassing one* because it outlasts diam ond m uttering {vajrajapad adhikatidl); successful one, i.e. the Svadhisthana (^mahamudra)', one satisfying the m ind because it is the puri fication o f the mahdmudta (mahdmudia-vtiuddhikarati'dt); beloved one, which generates the IxkIv of M ahivajradhara. And these four successive states are respectively, the selflessness of citta being visualized; the contem plation of speech and body; the triple conjunction as the divine body m ade of m ind (manomaya-daatdrUpam); and the alxxie equal to space. Therefore, 'exhorted by speech in the m ind refers to the diam ond m utter ing which is outlasted by the citta visualized. This diam ond muttering is preceded by an achievem ent referred to as body as the m antra visualized*. T h e Mxxly as the m antra visualized must be the achievem ent o f the Stage of G eneration kept over for the Stage of Completion, because having already achieved that much, the practitioner will naturally carry over th at bodily attainm ent to the next stage, that of Com pletion. T he self-existence of Ixxly-, speech-, and m ind-visualization means the self-existence of the three lights, respectively prajiia, upaya, and upatabdhi, th at is to say, the selflessness o f citta being visualized. T h at self-existence is not reached bv the praxis of m antra-body, i.e. by having IxkIv as the m antra visualized, because, the foregoing memljcrs show that it is necessary' to be exhorted by speech in the m ind. O n the other hand, without contem plation (l>ody as the m antra visualized) neither is revelation reached. Having appreciated this point, 'he should contem plate the sam adhi Conjunction to revelation as constructed by m an tra. While there are definitely six stages in that formulation, there is no expressed indication that the (iuhyasamdjatantia (first 17 chapters) has in m ind here such a divisionas the U ttara-

tan tra imposes, of Stage o f G eneration and Stage of Completion. It may have implied the two in the dvandva of the title, rahasy&tirahasya. But our foregoing materials make it quite clear that the body as the m antra visualized is indeed the accomplish m ent of the Stage of G eneration. If one leaves out that body, the rem ainder ol the m em bers in th at passage o f chapter 6 pertain to w hat becam e called the Stage of Completion. In such a case, the first m em ber in this second scries is the one called exhorted by spccch in the m ind', th at is to say, diam ond m utter ing attended w ith pmndyama. Tsori-kha-pas commentary Deciding the alternatives7 for the chaptcr 6 (op. cit., Vol. 156, pp. 25-5 to 26-1) cites in this connection the Vajramdld explana tory tan tra (actually in chapter 68, the last c h a p te r): I rdo rje bzlas par rab sbyor bas j rluri gi mtshan nid fes nas ni / j mam rtog rluri mams rnam par gcod / I sems la dmigs pa thob par hgyur // j bdag la byin brlabs rim pas kyaii / I dnos grub brgyad ni thob par hgyur . snan ba la sogs dbyc ba ies ! mtion par byatl chub pa ni hthob / I zun hjug rim pa Ia gnas pa f I dnos grub thams cad bsdus pa ni / I tshc hdi nid la hgntb hgyur bar f f mal hbyor pa yis the tshorn mtd fl T h e one who bv the praxis of diam ond m uttering under stands the characteristic of the w ind(s), destroys the vikalpa-winds and attains visualization of the citta. Then, by the Svadhisthana-kram a he wins the eight siddhis. Knowing (already) the distinctions of light (dloka)t etc. he gains the Abhisambodhi. Stationed on the Yuganaddha-kram a, the yogin doubtless accomplishes in this very life the sum of all siddhis. Im m ediately after this passage, Tsori-kha-pa points out that this is the source of the five kramas. It cannot be doubted that N agarjuna based his Pancakrama work especially upon the sixth chaptcr of the Guhyasamaja and the explanatory tantra I ajramild. H e has not altered the terminology in the names of the five kram as : 1. D iamond M uttering (V ajrajapa), 2. Purification of consciousness (Cittavi^uddhi), 3. Personal Blessing (Sva-

dhisthana), 4. Rcvelation-Enlightenmcnt (Abhisambodhi). 5. Pair-wise united (Y uganaddha). N ear the beginning of his first krama, he has this s u m m a r y statem ent consistent with that sixth chapter and with the Vajramdld position : 4B. mantranidhyaptim dgamya lajrajdpah susikfyaU 5. vajrajdpasthito mantii cittanidhyaptim dpnuydi mdyopamasamadhislho bhUtakotydm samdiiitt 6. bhutakoteh samuttifthann adtayajiidnam apnuydt yuganaddhasamddhistho na kirncic (hi sate punah Having understood the mantra-visualization, he trains himself with diam ond m uttering. Firm in diam ond muttering, the yogin achieves the citta-visualization. Stationed in the illusorv sam adhi,7 he enters the true limit. * Emerging from the true limit, he achieves the non-dual knowledge. Stationed in the pair-wise united sam adhi, there is nothing more for him to learn. T hat is to say, after one has gained the m antra-body (in the Stage of G eneration) he proceeds to the Stage of Completion with that kind of body prepared by yoga (which therefore may or may not be counted as the initial p art of the Stage of Com pletion). If the m antra-body in its developed status as an arcane body is not counted in the num bering, then the fust mem ber is the diam ond m uttering. T he yogin outlasts this with the state of visualizing the three Lights w ith their associated eighty prakrtis. Stationed in the illusory sam adhi, to wit, with the Illusory Body, he enters the Clear Light in this stage of Personal Blessing (siddhi}thana). In the stage of Abhivtm bodhi, by the reverse order of the Lights, he achieves the nondual knowledge. Finally, he attains the yuganaddha wherein there is nothing further to learn (aSaikfa-yuganaddha). Now returning to our considerations of the six-membered yoga on which C andrakirti wrote liis comments, it seems that the set of terms applies to the yoga praxis in a period prior to this terminology of two main Stages. W hen it was derided (per N agarjunas system) to begin the Stage of Completion with the diamond m uttering along with prdtidydma> the third mem ber of the other terminological system, it became a problem of hmv to define the first two members 1. pratyahara and 2. dh\ana in a m anner applicable to the Stage of Completion. N .igaijima evaded the issue in his comm entary on the 18th chaptcr in which

the six-membered yoga was presented. T h e solution adopted by Tsori-kha-pa is that they represent the arcane body (kdyaviveka). W ith the help of C an d rak irtis explanations ( Documents ), and availing ourselves of the preceding data, the rest of the correlation in term s of the G uhyasam aja cult can be set up as follows : six-membered yoga f i ve stages 3. Prariayam a 1. vajrajapa 4. d h a ra n a f 2. cittaviuddhi ^ 3. svadhis thana 5. an u sm rti 4. abhisam bodhi 6. sam adhi 5. yuganaddha I t should be em phasized that such a correlation m ay help us to understand the stages of yoga in a terminological sense, and enable us to cross over from one system to the other one; and also th a t in practice authors settled on either set of terminology; and th a t either could be used by authority o f the Guhyasamaja~ tantra, w hich presents them in its C hapter V I and C hapter X V II I. Finally, I w onder if this rem arkable description o f yoga is m eant to duplicate the B uddhas feat in the celebrated account of the Parinindna-s&tra. H ere the Bud<Jha passed beyond the realm of desire up through the various divisions of the realm o f form and then the divisions o f the formless realm until he reached the cessation of ideas and feelings. H e then reversed himself, going through the dow nw ard stages in order until he arrived a t the lowest division o f the realm of form. He then proceeded upw ards again until he arrived at the top o f the realm of form and then entered Parinirvana. Later, in M ahayana Buddhism, for example in the I^ankdvatara-sStra, the place where he had entered Parinirvana was considered the place where one is initiated as a Com plete Buddha. E. Grouping the niddna karikas

T he reason for including this topic under the general dis cussion of yoga, is that repeated consideration of these forty verses w ith great labor of collecting com m cntarial materials for them , finally convinced me that they represent a sequence of yoga, and in th a t case the only yoga that can apply by authority

o f the Guhyasamdjatantra toward any grouping is the four steps in the Stage of G eneration and either the six-membered yoga or the five stages in the Stage of Completion. But before we can take up this m atter of grouping, it will be necessary to establish where to place w hat is called the hund red lineages . This involves some disputed points about the arcane body . Some authorities held th at the arcane body was restricted to the Stage of Completion. In the course of Tson-kha-pas lengthy discussion of this topic in his Paiicakrama commentary, he states (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 201-4,7,8) : Since the Caiyamelapaka has stated the arcane body of one hundred lineages to three lineages and then compressed into one lineage, w ith the Stage of G eneration as the basis of inclusion, they should be included there, and so (in th at case) it is not proper to in clude them in the Stage of Com pletion (rigs brgya nas gsum gyi bar gyi lus dben rnam s rigs gcig gi lus dben du sdud par spyod bsdus las gsuxis pas / bsdu rgyu bskyed rim der de rnam s bsdus pa rdzogs rim du mi run bahi phyir ro /). W hen we know th at Tsori-kha-pa held Aryadevas Caiyamelapakapradipa in highest esteem and drew from th at work the entire m aterial on the hundred lineages after com paring three versions of Aryadeva's text then extent in T ibet, we must conclude th at Tsorikha-pa gives his own position as far as the hundred lineages is concerned. Since Tsori-kha-pa refers to those hundred lineages as arcane body , it is clear to m e th a t his arcane body annotations on nidana verses, starting w ith verse 14 in my third group, is his way of placing those verses in the set describing the Stage of G eneration. A lthough the hundred lineages stem ultim ately from Aryadevas work (in the Peking edition, P T T , Vol. 61, p. 295-5, line 7, to 297-5, line 8 ), I have taken them from the edited form in Tsori-kha-pas Paiicakrama commentary. H ere, Tsori-kha-pa (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 201-3-7) mentions th at when the arcane body is included in the Stage o f Generation, it is placed in the Atiyoga step, which is the third o f the four steps. R atnakara& nti also implies th at the arcane body is located in the third step by our inform ation included from his book th a t the blessing is of the sense bases, personality aggregates, the elem ents and the m ajor and m inor limbs. T h e arcane body , which thus begins w ith yoga praxis in the third step, must continue through the fourth step for the simple

reason that it is present at the outset of the next stage, th at of C om pletion. We shall sec th at this observation agrees w ith the three kinds o f caryd of the Stage of G eneration, which arc illustrated in the T a th a g a ta verses (niddna verses 18-21). It thus becomes obvious th at the niddna verses which invite com m en tary of portions of the hundred lineages belong to the Stage ot G eneration, and also obvious th at the niddna verses beginning w ith verse 22, which speaks for the first tim e about the yoga of com pletion , belong to the Stage of Com pletion. All my further collection of m aterial confirmed this division and worked o u t w ith continual consistency. U pon scanning the various com m entaries on the Pradipoddyo tana in the T an ju r, I find only one com m entator who attem pts to group the niddna verses. O ne reason for the general silence o f the sub-com m entators is that the com m cntarial flow is inter rupted by stopping to com m ent in a completely different way, as would be necessary w ith argum ents in the case of the niddna karikas, sincc C an d rak lrti had cited them only in a block without individual rem arks or grouping suggestions. Thus, even pre sum ing th at these com m entators had their own thoughts about grouping, ordinarily it would be only such an independent com m entary as the D alai L am a referred to (cf. Preface) th at would try lo explain the verses from all possible angles including grouping. By ihe one com m entator I m ean the K um ara whose Pradipoddyotana com m entary was noticed in a preceding section, l i e is probably the same K um ara who is listed as a translator of B havyakirlis long com m entary on the same Pradipoddyotana, so he may even have been a personal disciple o f Bhavyakirti. His com m entary is rath er brief; he calls it a tippani-hrdayddarSa {A nnotation w hich is the M irror of the H eart), and so he concerns himself w ith w hat he considers the most im portant elem ents of the work he is com m enting on, rather than comm ent ing on everything. It is worthwhile to present his solution, even though I do not accept it. He apparently followed this initial course of reasoning: At the end ol the citation of the forty verses by the Pradipoddyotana, there appears C andraklrti s signal jIarbfiyartha' (T. st/as pa or sbas don). In a previous in troduction, I have shown that C andrakirtis lgarbhyartha has the three varieties of pregnant sense clarifying the doctrine of lust, pregnant sense revealing conventional truth ( Illusory

Body), and pregnant sense considering the three jildnas'. Also Tson-kha-pas Mchan hgrel mentions these three varieties when annotating that word lsbas pa at the end of the forty verses, so it was quite reasonable for K um ara to expect th a t the three varieties would be found presented am ong the forty verses. However, it is one thing to exemplify the three varieties some where or other; and another thing for the forty verses to fall into three groups, as K um ara forces them (P T T , Vol. 60, p. 219-5). His first group am ounts to verses 1 through 9 : / E ni Ses rab dam pa nid ces bya ba nas / rnam Ses nid ni lna poho zes bya bahi bar gyis ni sems mam par dag pahi rim pa yin no // ye Ses gsum rnam par hbyed pa ni gcig tu sbas pahi don no j. From , E signifies the Noble W om en P ra jn a , down to perception (vijrldna), the fifth, is the stage purification of the mind* (citta-viSuddhi). A nalyzing the three gnoses (jflanatraya) is one kind o f pregnant sense. T he second group constitutes verses 10-18 : I mrlam nid so sor rtog pa dan zes bya ba nas } de dan der rigs las hbyuh ba f lha dan lha mo tha dad pa dc ni yod min de med kyari j hgro bahi don phyir ston pa yin zes bya bahi bar gyis ni j lhahi sku mam par dag pa mhott tu hgro bahi rdo rje bzlas pahi rim pa bstan to j f dehi nan nas phyag rgya b ii ni rgyas gdab cin Zes bya bas ni sans rgyas spyan la sogs pa ham dgug pa dan kugs pa la sogs pa ham / las kyi phyag rgya la sogs paho f I de nid hdod chags kyi chos ston pahi sbas pahi don griis paho } From (the knowledges) Equality, D is c r im in a tiv e .... down to O f the different gods and goddesses generated by him an d his family, neither the gods nor the goddesses exist, b u t arc displayed for the sake of sentient beings shows the stage D iam ond M uttering (vajrajapa) which brings directly the pure body of a god. Among those (verses) the phrase sealed by four seals (verse 16) implies either Buddhalocana and the other goddesses; or a ttra c ting, draw ing in, etc. (the four steps in bringing non duality w ith the jMtfna-being); or the karma-mudrdt ctc. Exactly th at is the other kind of pregnant sciise which teaches the doctrine of lust. T h e third group includes verses 19-40 : j hdi las git is med mthon bahi ies bya ba nas j sbas paho zes

bya bahi bar gyi ni sgyu ma Ita buhi tin fie hdzin bstan pa ste I de kho na rat) byin gyis brlab pahi rim bstan paho / / kun rdcob kyi bdtn pa la de ma thag mt'ton par byan chub pahi run pa ni sbas pahi don gsum paho f From 'A fterwards, who secs the non-duality* down to (the signal) pregnant senseteaches the illusory samadhi (mdyopama-samadhi), and only that teaches the Svadhisthanakram a. Im m ediately after that conventional truth*, there is the Abhisam bodhi-kram a. So the third preg nan t sense. T h e weakness of K um aras solution can be judged from these viewpoints: (1) It was reasonable for him to impose stagesfrom N agarjunas Paiicakrama, but he does not adhere to the order of the kram as, interchanging the first and secondCittaviuddhi and Y ajrajapa. By applying these stages throughout, w hich arc prevalent on the Stage of C om pletion he leaves no group o f niddna verses to depict the Stage o f G eneration, which be lies C andrakirtis verse to the effect th at the forty verses explain the Guhyasamdjatantra, which on the strength of K u m aras divisions has n o Stage o f G eneration at all. (2) I t was reason able for him to apply the terminology of three kinds of preg nant sense but it is contrary to the obvious d ata of the verses to divide them into three consecutive groups on this basis. For exam ple, the three knowledges (jiidnatraya) kind of pregnant sense in fact covers the verses 1-7, 25-26, 30, 32, and 36-38. (3) His solution takes no account of the words of the niddna sentence, because his second group (verses 10-18) goes down to the first ta o f tathagata. He evinces no indication that he tried to relate the subject m atter of the verses to the w'ords which furnish the forty syllables. Having by those considerations eliminated the one classical attem pt to group the verses, the way is clear to group them by appeal to the evidence of the verses themselves. T he forty verses divide into sets on the basis of the Stage of G eneration and the Stage of Completion, as previously discussed. Verse 22 employs the expression nifpantia-krama (Stage of Completion*). Therefore, the last nineteen verses are devoted to the Stage o f Completion. T hen, within the two sets of verses some groups are obvious and others require further justification. T he most difficult group

in the first set is formed of the verses for Kkasmin Sam aye, to which I assign the second vajra or step of scrvicc, anuyoga. T h e decision to make three groups out of the second set yields a solu tion compatible with the six-membered yoga, the five kramas, as well as with the four steps of service as shared with the Stage o f Completion. T he full picture in each case is provided in the respective groups. Now I present the final arrangem ent w ith some m inim al remarks : I. T he Stage of Generation. Yoga ( Scva) A. Evam m aya rutam. Anuyoga ( L 'pasadhana) B. Ekasmin samaye. Atiyoga ( - S adhana) C. Bhagavan Sarva. M ahayoga ( = M ahasadhana) D. T athagata. II . T h e Stage of Completion. E. K ayavakcitta. Pratyahara and D hyana ( kayaviveka) Pranayam a ( = Yaj r ajapa ); D harana {= C ittavisuddhi and Svadhistfuina) Scva F. H fdaya-vajrayosid. A nusm rti ( = A bhisam bodhi) U pasadhana G. Bhagesu vijahara. Sam adhi ( Y uganaddha) S adhana and M ahasadhana It m ight be objected th at E-YAM applies to both Stage of G eneration and Stage of Com pletion, and therefore it is im proper to restrict it to the Stage of G eneration, as in my solution. T o this argum ent, one may respond that it is usual in the beginning of the path (e.g. the ten-staged Bodhisattva path, or the present T antric path of two Stages) for the guru to tell the disciple the steps th at lie ahead so that he m ay be realistic about the course he is to follow w ith its expected fruits. Accordingly, it is quite proper for E-VAM , which condenses the entire path, to appear first and to head the Stage of G eneration. This would be the E-VAM of the path of attainm ent, am ong the three kinds o f E-VAM to be explained later. H ere also a few rem arks are in order regarding the correlation of the shared steps of serv ice w ith parts of the Stage o f Comple tion. Seva in the Stage of G eneration is the conceptual reach up to the Clear Light. In the second stage, the yogin is held

to enter the Clear Light w ith a subtle body in the kram a of Svadhisthana. Therefore, all the members and kram as up to Sviidhisthana arc the superior kind of Scva. U pasadhana in the Stage of G eneration evokes the 'prim eval lord (Adinatha) with a m antra-body (a kind of mahamudra). In the Stage of Completion, the Abhisam bodhi-kram a represents the emergence from the C lear Light w ith the Sam bhoga body, a knowledgebody (also a kind of mahamudra). Therefore U pasadhana is the superior step in this case. T he rem aining correlation is by reason of the distinction in this literature of coupling in the realm of learning (Saikta-yuganaddha) and 'coupling beyond learning (afaikfa-yuganaddha). W hile there is a beginning of this Saikfa-yuganaddha in the A bhisam bodhi-kram a, both kinds o f yuganaddha arc proper to Y uganaddha-kram a. Sadhana in the Stage of G eneration accomplishes the body-m andala and ones own aim ; therefore, in the Stage of Completion, it fulfills the Saikfa-yuganaddha of being a Iluddba in this life* as the lord with eight gunas (nidana verse 34). M ahasadhana in the Stage of Generation serves the aim of others; therefore, in the Stage o f Completion it is the aSaikfa-yuganaddha, equivalent to the 'N irvana of no-fixed aljode, or the Complete Buddha (Sam* buddha or A bhisam buddha). Besides, the basis laid in the Stage of G eneration for the later ac complishment of the Stage of Completion can be treated in terms of Tsori-kha-pas correlation with the three Bodies of the Buddha. T he set T hus by me it was heard is associated with silence, death, and the D harm akaya. I;or as N agarjuna pointed out in his com m entary on chapter 18, when the Bodhisattvas were reduced to silence it was because they heard the teaching and entered one-pointed concentration. T hus they became affiliat ed with the Mind of the Buddha. T he set U pon an Occasion is correlated with magical Speech, the interm ediate state, and the Sambhoga-kaya, by evocation of the primeval lord. T hen, the set T he Bhagavat All affiliates the yogin with the Buddha's Body, the Nirmiina-kaya, or birth, as the fulfil m ent of the microcosm. T he fourth set, T aihagata , involves all the previous three, by imagining the Acts of the Buddha in projection upon the external world, the macrocosm.

Then, in the direct order of the three doors*, the yogin ex periences the Body, the Speech, and the M ind, arriving a t the supreme plane, the Clear Light. T h e D iamond Ladies o f the H eart draw the yogin from the Clear Light. In the pregnant bhaga they train him in the great attainm ent of the three mysteries o f Body, Speech, and M ind, through which lie can dwell, beyond training, to inspire the later candidates. Also there are technical and scholarly aspects. T he principal authorities for th a t grouping and the consequent annotation of the forty verses are : Guhyasamdjatantra, especially chapters 6, 12, and 18; its explanatory tantras Vajramdld and Satjidhivyakarana\ N agarjunas com m entary on chapter 18, his Pindikrtasddhana, his Paiicakrama and its com m entary by Sri L aksm i; Aryadevas Catydmeldpakapradipa; C andrakirtis Pradipoddyotana, especially on chapters 1, 6, and 12; and am ong native T ibetan works, Tson-kha-pas Mchan hgrel on the Pradipoddyotana, his Gsal bahi sgron me on the Paiicakrama, and his Snags rim chcn mo.

P art T hree C O M M E N T A R Y O N T H E FO R T Y N ID A N A V ER SES


I. STA G E O F G E N E R A T IO N

A. Evam maya Srutam (Thus by me it was heard). T hose initial words of the T a n tra can be treated in several different ways : (1) separate treatm ent of the expression Evam*, (2) separate treatm ent of the expression Evam m aya, and (3) treatm ent in term s of the six verses going w ith the words Evam m aya Srutam. (1) For separate treatm ent of Evam, there is the Pradi poddyotana (.Mchan hgrel, p. 13) citation of the Devendrapariprccha. T his appears to be the only original passage extant from this T a n tra ; the selection found in Subhdfita-samgraha is included w ithin this longer selection. f uktatp bhagavatd / devendrapariprechdydm / Sakras aha / kim artham evam ily etat kasmdd dda'u prayujyate f kim idam saugatam lakyam kim id Srdvakabhd$itam } etan me samiayam sanam apanetu bhavantakah // Smtid idkyam surapates saddhannagunabhafitam j sddhukdram tato datva bhagavan idam abravit // ddav evam iti proktam yad artham sanadarSina } tat Srnu tvam surapate yathdvad anupunaJah // dharmaskandhasahastandm eaturaiitisamkhyayd } sanaSrayam pitdmatd diyakfaram kathitam tathd Jj ckdras tu bhaven mdtd vakdras tu pita smrtah f bindus tatra bhaven yogah sa yoga h paramddbhutah jj ckarah padmam ity uktatn vakdre vajram eva ca f bindus tatra bhaied bijam tah prasit tam jagat trayam Jj ckdras tu bhaiet prajnd vakdrah suratddhipah f bindui candhatam tattiam taj-jdtdny akfardni ca // yo vijandti tattvajiio dharmamudrdkfaradvayam / sa bhavet sarvasattvdndm dharmacakrapravartakah jj yo viditvd pat hen nityam akfaradvitaya m janah j sa bdhyo buddhadhardndm dhanivad bhogavarjitah jf evam dvir akfaram mdyd sarvajiio tra by avasthitah j ddau saddhannaidstrdndtji tad evar/t pratigiyate jf tasmdt surddhipa iakra yadi cel SdSvatar/i padam / saddharmo guru kartavyah smara mdyd dvir akfaram jjitij

I t was said by the Lord in the Devendrapariprccha : In d ra asked : W hy the term evam ? W hy is it placed first ? Is this an expression coming from the Lord, or is it a com m ent by a disciple ? M ay the destroyer of phenom enal life remove from me all this uncertainty ! H aving heard this discourse of the m aster of the gods, concerning a m erit of the Illustrious D octrine, the Lord then conferred a Sadhu (Excellent !) and spoke as follows : For the purpose o f seeing everything, the term evam* is stated first. M aster of the gods, listen to th a t w hich, in regular order according to its full extent, has the count of 84,000 dharm askandhas, namely, the two syllables, father-m other, the universal receptacle, w hich express the same. E is the m other; VA the father, th e bindu (m ) there th e union, and th a t union a m arvel. E is said to be th e lotus; diam ond the m eaning of V A ; the bindu there the seed, and this engenders the three degrees o f living beings. E is insight (p rajfia); VA the lord o f pleasure; the bindu is the inviolable reality, and from th a t arise the letters (of the alphabet). W hatever know er o f the reality recognizes the two sylla bles as the seal o f the doctrine, he becomes the setter into m otion o f th e W heel of the Law am ong all the sentient beings. W hatever person not knowing (the reality) would constandy recite the two syllables he, outside the Buddha-dharm as, would be like a rich m an missing the enjoym ent. T h e two-syllabled E vam is illusion (maya); since omniscience is located therein, th a t Evam* is rehears ed at the outset of treatises o f the Illustrious D octrine. Therefore, Indra, m aster o f the gods, if you would have (your) rank be perpetual, let the Illustrious D octrine be your m aster (guru). R em em ber th a t the two syllables are the mdyd ! V ajrayana (the D iam ond V ehicle) is sum m arized by the three meanings of E-vam (1) th e fruit to be attained, ( 2 ) the p ath of attainm ent, and ( 3 ) the signs guiding th a t path, for which there is Tsori-kha-pas summary' from his Mthah gcod, as

presented in my Female Energy and Symbolism in the Buddhist T an tras," p. 82 : 1. E is the secrct place for teaching the doctrine (dharma), such as the sky, the bhaga (female organ, m etaphorical), the dharmodaya (source of natures), the lotus, and the lions scat. VAM is whoever the T an tra sets forth as the T eacher, be he V ajradhara, H eruka, and so on, who dwells in the bhava, lion's scat, and so on. (These deities symbolize the inseparable union of the void and compassion). 2. E. is insight (prajiia), voidness (iunyata). V AM is means* (updya), great compassion (mahdkarund). T ogether they constitute the bindu (T. thig le). 3. E is the m others bhaga place (adhdra) (yum gyi bhaga rten). V A M is the fathers vajra (m ale organ, m eta phorical) placed (ddhcya) therein (de la brim pahi yab kyi rdo rje). This again is of two kinds : (a) the external E-vam as signs, the union w ith the seal (mudra); (b) the internal E-vam as signs, the guiding agent for the p ath of piercing the vital centers of the cakras (the wheels im agined along the spinal colum n). Here, signs* means signs o f the genitals in the sense of shape. These shapes associated with the cakras are the triangle and the circle (in other texts, the lour geometrical shapes associa ted with the tour elem ents). These three meanings of E-vam are especially explained in cer tain verses. T he F.-vam of the fruit to be obtained is in verses 30-36 (V ajrayosidbhagesu). T he E-vam of the path o f attainm ent is in verses I and 2 of the first group of verses. T h e E-vam of the signs guiding that path is in verses 37 and 38 of the last group of verses. (2) T he separate treatm ent of Evam m aya is to indicate any four steps of yoga. T h e four syllables arc given symbolic values in N agarjuna's Stka-caluh-prakarana (PT T . Vol. 61, p. 284-5), where the four are said to summarize the m eaning of all the T antras. For example, he says, E is the voidnessLight; VAM the further voidness-Spread-of-Light; MA great voidness-Culmination-of-Light; and YA universal voidnessthc single taste (samatasa)"1 F. ni snan ba ston pas ste/ /VAM ni mehed pa sin tu ston/ /M A ni iier thob chen po stori/ /YA ni ro mil am thams cad ston/ These values are immediately

applicable to the first four niddna verses since these serially in troduce the four voids or four lights, the fourth light being called the Clear L ight (prabkastara) in the verses, but called single taste by N agarjuna at this point. A nother set he gives suggests the four steps of sSdhana in the shared sense : *L achieves the unachieved; YAM reveals the achievem ent; MA is the going successively higher; YA is the becoming of a Com plete Buddha in this life ; E ni m a thob thob par byed YAM ni thob pa bstan par byed ' MA ni gon nas goii du hgro / / YA ni tshe hdir rdsogs sajis rgyas/. We can associate the lour steps o f sadhana (generalised) with N agarjuna's four values: Syllable E 1. VAM 2. MA 3. YA 4.

T he void palace Achieving the unachieved Residents in the palace Reveals the achievem ent Perfection o f the circles Going successively higher Entrance of the knowB uddhahood in this life ledge being (3) W hen we treat the words Evam m aya Srutam in accor dance with the nidana verses, they refer to Yoga, the first of the four parts of sadhana in the sense of the Stage of G eneration. As this part is discussed in my sub-section T he Yoga of the G uhyasam aja, the perform er must first m ake his consciousness soar to the realm of the void. According to C an d rak irti comm cnt (Docum ents) this is done w ith the help of m antras, o f which the most popular one is: O m Sunyatajnanavajrasvabhavatm ako ham j O m . I am the intrinsic nature of the knowledge diam ond of voidncss ! T h e occupation with the four voids corresponds conceptually to the m andala ritual Rites of the Site. T o prepare the candidate lor the later praxis in which the yogin learns to live in those void realms, now he merely imagines in conformity. Since the subsequent praxis involves the ascent into the void stages called Light, Spread-of-Light, and Culm ination-of-Light, followe d by the C lear Light, the candidate engages his mind with those same mystical states, principally along intellectual lines, but making a break with his previous habits of thought. He divides up the elements of consciousness into three groups. T here a te 33 female ideas, obscuring the m oonlight; 40 male ideas obscur ing the sunlight; and 7 androgyne ideas obscuring the dark

light. H e contem plates the flow of those 80 ideas in day and night, m aking a total of 160. Verse E introduces the female, V A M the male, and MA the androgyne. T hen verse YA, nam es the Clear Light, the fourth light, the negation of the 160 ideas. Those groupings of female, male, and androgyne ideas m ay first give the impression that the discussion devolves about ou r ordinary consciousness. O n the contrary, they establish a kind of archetypal world, because those ideas are deem ed not to belong to us: they enter our minds. T hen the verses R U and TA M turn to the phenom enalization of th a t anterior world, as indicated by the phrases T h e uijfitina heard here and the w in d ... operates in the world of living beings . //E // ekdro pi sati prajtia virdmddikfatidtmikd / ctnn mulam vinirdiftam parijiidnam bhavatraye // l/ / E is the Noble W om an (sati) Prajiia, the moments of aversion, and so on. T his root is designated as the experience in the three worlds. Mchan hgrel (hereafter 'Mchan' when on the verses in their regu lar o rd e r): Aversion, and so o n ' the thirty-three ideas, from aversion down to jealousy.* Moments*the wink of an eye, etc. D esignated in the T antras. T h e three worlds *of desire, etc.'. i.e. realm of desire (ikdmn-dhdtu), realm of form (riipadhdtu), and formless realm (atupa-dhatu). Paiicakrama, II, 8-13: T he thirty-three natures (prakrti) are night-tim e signs (nisd-samjiid) and female ideas (stri-samjiid), w ith full-blown form of the covering process (samvrtisphutarupena), as follows (Paiuaktama order and my own grouping): 1-3. (incipient) aversion, medium aversion, intense aversion (liiaga, m adh\am a-viraga, adhim atra-viraga). 4-9. (thinking of) future, (thinking of) past (anagata, a g a ta ); sorrow, of three degrees (oka, m adhyam a-i, adhim atra-s); calmness (saum yam ). 10-22. m ental wandering (state of being scatter-brained) (vikalpa); fear, of three degrees (bhita, m adhyabhita, a tib h ita ); craving, of three degrees (trsna, m adhya-t, a ti-t); indulgence (u p ad an a); inauspitiousness (nihsubham ); hunger and thirst (k su t-trsa); leelings, of three degrees (vedana, sania-v, ali-v).

23-30. intuition (vettivit); m em ory (d lu ira n a p a d a m ); discrim ination (p raty av ek san am ); sham e of (lajja); compassion (karunyam ); affection in three degrees (snehatas tray am ), to w it: (a) protection o f th e object, (b) adoration of it, (c) ovcr-posscssion of it (as of a son). 31-33. w orry (cak itam ); collecting (jawjmv*), of u ten sils, e tc .; jealousy (m atsarya). T he annotations o f this niddna verse did not clarify the claim th a t this root is the experience in the three worlds. It may be intended th at knowledge through experience is m ade possible by the degrees of aversion, which seems to be the psychological premise of the A poha doctrine o f Buddhist logic. In this doc trine a thing is defined by exclusion of w hat it is not. A cow is the not not-cow. W hat m ight well be the explanation is th at to have the concept cow in the m ind requires th a t a dis tinct idea o f cow be formed, the very clarity and determ ination of which invlovcs the rem oval (apoha) o fall other non-cow entities. In this way, experiential knowledge (parijiiana) occurs w ith the aversion to everything inconsistent w ith and contrary to th at knowledge. U nderstanding begins w ith a kind o f retreat. O ne must neglect the rest in order to ap p re ciate som ething; and th a t thing understood m eans th a t a faculty o f prajnd has arisen which understands the rest. Paiicakrama, I I , 29: I dSvdsasas tu muhurtam sydn nimefo'kfinimrfanam}. / matra tu hastatalani sydt kfaijddindm tu lakfanam T h e characteristic of m om ents etc. is the short tim e o f an inhalation, the wink o f the tw inkling eye, the brevity in a clap of hands. In the Vajrajiianasamuccaya (P T T , Vol. 3, p. 252-5), conscious ness (citta), which is like a bright moon in the w ater, ha? the prakrtis, aversion, etc. In convention (sflmtrfi), it is sym boli zed by the directly manifested w om an, the bhaga, the padma, and the host of goddesses. (kun rd/.ob tu ni mrion sum kyi bu m ed dan bha-ga dan pad-m a dan lha m ohi tshogs kyi b rd a h o /). //V A M // vaijiSas tad bhavad dbhati argadiprasavdnvitamj dlokdbhdsa-vijrldnam updya iti satnjrlitam //2 // T h a t Spread-of-Light vijiidna called m eans (updya).

attended with begetting of desire, and so on, appears liki* an emerging bamboo. Mchan: 'Desire and so onthe forty conceptions from desire down to dishonesty. Patuakiiitna, II, 16-21: T he forty natures are daytim e and male ideas or signs (diid-purufa-samjiid), as follows (Pailcakiatna order and my own grouping): 1-7. desire (riiga); attachm ent (rak tam ); joy, medium joy, intense joy (tus|am , m adhya-t, a ti-t); thrill (h arsan am ); bliss (pram odyam ). H-13. surprise (vism aya); laughter (hasitam ); refresh m ent (h lad an a); embracing (aliriganam ); kissing (cum bana); sucking (cusanam ). 14-26. firmness (dhairyam ); striving (viryam ); pride (m atin); getting things done (k a rtr); theft (h a rtr); strength (b ala); enthusiasm (u tsah a); daring, m edium daring, super-daring (sahasam, madhyam a-s, uttam a-s); aggression (r a u d ra ); coquctry (v ila sa ); anim osity ( vairatu).
2 7 - 3 4 . a u s p i c i o u s n c s s ( * < u b h a ; te x t r e a d s l a b h a ) c l a r i t y

o f s p e e c h f v a k s p h u { a ) ; t r u t h ( s a t y a m ); u n t r u t h ( a s a t y a m ) c e r t a i n t y ( n i s c a \ a ) ; n o n - i t i d u l g e n c e ( n i r u p a d a n a ); g i v i n g ( d a t i t v a ) ; r x h o i t.ition (* <Kl.in.im .

35-40. heroism sm .ita ; lack ol shame (alajja); decep tion dhurta : wukedness dusta ; oppression (h ath a); dishonesty kutila). The Spread-of-Lii;hi* itjndna or means (upaya), is symlxilizcd by the form of the male. MA mahaiidyd siaiam mulam aiidyayd lihmatah aiidyayd bhaiec faitat ttnmdd dhkasarribhaiah //3 // In the reverse order, the ureat Science (= \V isdom ) is itself the root of nescience. And the (Spread-ofLiglu) arises from nescience (aiidya) while from that (Spread-of-Light) arises Light. Mchan: the great Science' the Clear Light {ptabhdsvara, hod gsal) (to be siX'cificaNy mentioned in verse 4). 'nescience* the mixture ot prajitd and updya, thus ot citta and caitta, and generates the seven conceptions of prakrtis, indifference, etc.* (which are therefore androgynous ideas). Prakdiikd (by Bhavyakirti) on MA, p. 292-5; T he great science (mahd-

mdyd') is the D harm adhatu-naturc, the Clear Light; and why ? As the verse says, it is the reverse of ncsciencc (aridyd) (rigs chcn ni dJbs kyi dbyiris kyi no ho ste hod gsal baho , / gari gi phyir ic na / m a rig pa ni bzlog pa yin os smos te). Paiicakrama, II 24-25: T he seven prakrtis are as follows (Paiicakrama order and my own grouping) : 1-4, indifference (m ad h y arag a); forgetfulness (v ism rti); illusion (b h ra n ti); specchlcssness (tu sn im b h av a). 5-7. weariness (k h e d a ); indolence (a la sy a ); am bivalence (d a n d h a ta ). Vajrajildna-samuccaya (P T T , Vol. 3, 252-4) : H ere, the C lear Light is w ithout location, w ithout cessation or orgination, is Supreme T ru th (paramdrtha-satya) , and T rue End (bhutakoti) . T he dark light arisen therefrom is nescience (avidyd)f dc la fcod gsal ba gnas pa m cd pa / hgag pa med pa / skye ba med pa / don dam pahi bden pa / yan day pahi m thah ste /d e las byun bahi m un pahi snari ba ni m a rig paho /. Guhyasamdjatantra (V II, verse 35) : j tatra katham anutpddanusmrtibhavandj prakrtiprabhdsvaram sarvam nirnimittam nirakfaramj na doayant nddvayam Sdntam khasadriam sunirmalam // H ere, w hat is the contem plation, recollection of non-origi nation ? T he C lear Light w ith the intrinsic nature is com pletely signless, unlettered, neither dual nor non*dual, quiescent, spotless like the sky. PaHcakramaj II, 53: titxyatrayavifuddhir yd prabhasvaram ihtxyatej sarvaiQnyapadam tac ca jnanatrayaviSuddhitah // T h at purity o f the triple void is here callcd C lear Light. A nd th a t is the plane of universal void through purity of the triple knowledge. Pricakrama, II, 57-62: 57. tathd coktam mahdydnasUtre lalitavistare f abhisambodhikdmo am iakyasimhas tathdgatah // y 58. mahdtGnyena buddhatvam prdpsyamity abhimanatah f niranjandnadit ire nifpddydsphdnakam gatah //

59. tilabimbiva sampurnah khavajrasthd jinds tadd f tkasi'ttrena tam prahur acchataia jinaurasam ff 60. aviiuddham idam dhydnam na caitad iftakavaham f prahhdsiaram tu dlambyam dkdiatalavat param fj 61. prabhdsiarapade prdpte svecchdrupas tu jdyase / sarvaisvaryatti tathd prdpya vajrakdye pramodase // 62. evam irutvd tu tam iabdam visrjydsphdnakam tatah ( ni\drdhasamayc tattvam dlambyaiva jinattrasah ff So it was said in the M ahay iinasutra Lalitavistara: T h e Lion of the Sukvas, the T ath ag ata, thought, I shall attain B uddhahood through the great void; and seated on the N airanjana river bank, w ent into the A sphanakasam adhi (the breath-holding concentration). T h ere upon the V ictorious Ones dwelling in the diam ond o f the sky and fulfilled like the sesame fruit, spoke to the Son of the V ictorious O nes w ith a single sound by the snap of fmgers. Im pure is this m editation and nonconducive to the desired goal, la k e as m editative object the C lear Light, beyond like the dom e o f the sky. W hen you have attained the plane of the C lear Light, you shall emerge with a gratifying form, in that way acquiring universal sovereignty in a delightful diam ond body." H aving thus heard that sound, he abandoned the breath-holding concentration, and at m idnight visua lized realitydid the Son of the Victorious Ones. O f course, the account as the tantric N agarjuna states it, is not actually found in the /.alitavistara in those words. It appears to be one tantric interpretation of the purport of the Lalitavistaray the M ahayana biography o f the Buddha. Tson-khapa, when citing the same passage in his Pancakrama com m entary (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 59) states (ibid., p. 59-2) th at the passage m aintains that after coming to the limit of the M ahayana path of the Piiramitu, one becomes a Buddha by the supreme path (anuttara-mdrga) (which of course is the Anuttara-tantra) (ces pha rol tu phyin pahi thegclien pahi lam gyi m thar bla med kyi lain gyis htshan rgya tshul gsuns s o / ) . Tsori-kha-pa goes on to point out that while the part about dwelling in the Motionless Sam adhi (aniftjya-samadhi) ( apparently equivalent to the breath-holding, concentration ) on the NairaAjana river bank is indeed in that scripture, the rest ot the account

is not expressly stated in the Lalitavistara. Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras d e v o te s its first c h a p ter to the various theories of how G autam a b e c o m e a Com plete B uddha; and in the T an tras the m ain theories d iverg e b e tw e en the Y oga-tantra and the A m itta ra y o g a -ta n ir a specialists. Sri Laksm ls discussion in her Parlcakrarna com m entary (PT T , Vol. 63, p. 29) m entions that the single sound* (ekasvara) refers to T lius (evam) on an occasion (ckastnin samaye) by purport of single m eaning (/de la dbyaris gcig ni don gcig la dgons nas dus gcig tu hdi skad gsuns so /). She goes on to the two varieties o f the C lear Light discussed pre viously in my introduction on this topic, and claims th at the C lear Light of consciousness is m eant in the present account: H ere, according to w hat I heard from my venerable teacher, we m aintain it is only citta-prabhasvara* ( / h d ir rje btsun gyi 2al sna nas kyis/sems kyi hod gsal ba kho no bcd pa yin te /). H er statem ent implies the word prabhasvara qualifying the word *citta* in the A bhisam bodhana chapter of the Lalitavistara, where the w ord is em ployed three tim es for each of the three watches of the night (an old division of tim e) during which G autam a attained Com plete E nlightenm ent. A ccording to my introduction, the C lear Light of consciousness is equi valent to the C lear Light o f deep or dream less sleep. //Y A // yati vijiidnatn ddau tad dtokabhdsa-sarnjfiitamj tan mahd<Gnyatdm yati sd ca ydti prabhasvaram 4// A t first, th at vijnana (i.e. L ight) passes to w hat is called Spread-of-Light. T h a t passes to the G reat Void and the latter passes to the C lear Light. Mchan: Passes to in each case means dissolves in'. T his is the direct order, anuloma, of the three Lights leading into the fourth or C lear Light, the latter being m entioned in the niddna verses for the first time along w ith the term inology o f voidness. For the. sequence, cf. Paiicakrama, II, 4: "V oid, further void, and great void, the third, as well as universal void, the fourthby distinction of fruit (the succceding one) and cause (the preceding o n e ) (j&unyam ca atisunyam ca mahaunyam trtiyakam / caturtham sarvaSunyam ca p h alahetuprabhedatah //). Besides the direct and the reverse o rd er, there is the recita tion order, frequently indicated by the Sanskrit words raga, dvesa, moha, as in Guhyasamdja (C hap. V III, p. 32) :

rdgtidvefamohavara vajraydttapradeiikaj dkdtadhdtukalpdgra ghofa ptijdm jindlayaff (), the best of lust, hatred, and delusion, explaining tin* V ajrayana; O , the best like the plane of the sky, the womb of the Victorious Ones, Pray announce the pujd ! Pradipoddyotana on the preceding: best of lust, hatred, and delusion, because the V ajrayana purifies lust, hatred, and delusion.' Mchan hgrel on C hap. V III {PTT, Vol. 158, p. 62-2) : T h e three poisons' or basic defilem entslust, hatred, and delusion are associated w ith the three lights. Lust stands for the 40 prakrtis covering Spread-of-Light; h atred for the 33 prakrtis covering L ight; delusion for the 7 prakrtis covering C ulm ination-of-Light. (The three terms lust, h atred and delusion* arc apparently to be understood in generalized senses, to wit, lust all attraction towards, desire, h atred -all repulsion, aversion; delusion-all inter m ediate and indecisive stales, indifference). T he following passages give further inform ation on the direct order. Paiicakrama, II, verse 5: piajnopdyasantdyogdn ni,\pannam upalabdhakam f upalabdhdc ca iiispunndt iarva<Bnyani prabhiisvaram !j T hrough union of prajiid and updyat the Culm ination (of Light) is perfected; and through Culm ination perfected, there is universal void, the C lear Light. Sri-Laksm i comments (Vol. 03, p. 23-3-4): dan po ses rab kyi ye Ses skye ba dari, de nas gi\is pa thabs kyi ye es dan po las lliag pa skye ba ste / de gnis ga sbyor ba las rie bar iliob pa ni ye ses gsum pa rd/.ogs par hgyur ro j de nas rie bar thob pa rdiogs nas tham s cad ston pahi hod gsal ba ni ye Ses bi pahi hog nas bsad par hgyur bahi snags d a ii' phyag rgyahi rim pas m al hbyor pa la snan bar hgyur ro, First arises the Prajna knowledge; then, second, arises over the first, the Upaya knowledge; from the union the third knowledge, which is Culm ination (of L ight), is

completed. T hen, through the- completion of the Cul m ination, the C lear Light, the fourth knowledge, which is universal void, manifests to the yogin by a sequence of mantra and mudra, as will be explained below (cf. Paiicakrama, II, 48-50, cited later). N agarjunas Pindikrta-sddhana, 43-44A (some additions from R atnakaragantis com m entary, P I T , \ o l . 62, p. 75-5) refers to the direct order with consideration of the bodv-m andala: Qrdhvddhahkrodhasamyuktam prakrtydbhdsam eva ca / vijiidnaskandham dydti vijiidnam ca prabhasvaram jj sanirvdnam sarvaSunyam (ca) dharmakdyai ca gadyatc j Precisely the Light (triad) with its (160) prakrtis, asso ciated w ith the upper (i.e. U snisacakravartin at the B rahm arandhra, the orifice at crown o f head) and the lower (i.e. Sum bharaja at sole o f feet) W rathful (Kings; cf. nidana verse 17), passes to the aggregate of perceptions (oijiidna-skandha) (Aksobhya and M a m a k i); and perception (passes) to the C lear Light, also called universal void w ith nirvana* and Dharmakaya*. //&RU// Srutam yad iha vijnanam abhasatrayalakfanam prakrtinam idam mSlam sattvadhdtor aicfatah //5// T he vijiidna heard here has the characteristics of th e three lights. T his is entirely the root o f the prakrtis (natures) of the sentient-being realm . Mchan'. H eard here arc both the essential n atu re (no bo) and the sequence (go rims), m eaning both the path an d the four states (avasthd). First ( the disciple) is tau g h t how to dw ell in the four, and then tau g h t how to generate the p ath consistent therew ith. T son-kha-pas Mchan note about four states undoubtedly refers to the three lights and the C lear Light. T h e p ath doubles the (80) prakrtis by contem plation in both day and night, per Paiicakrama. II , 27: T hose subtle prakrtis proceed in both day and night, thus to total 160, by cause o f w ind-conveyance (etah prakrtayah suksmah satam sastyuttaram diva j ratrau capi p rav artan te v av u v ah an ah etu n a//). But how should wc understand the word vijiidna* of niddna verse 5 ? Vajrajndnasamuccaya (P F T , Vol. 3, 252-4): ,T h at tnjnana arisen from the C lear Light is called consciousness* (fi/to), mind* (manas), and perception* (vijiidna); and th at is

entirely the root (miila, rtsa ba) of dharmas. T herefrom defile m ent and purification give rise to two false conceptions, th at of onesell and th at ol the o th er. (^gari hod gsal las bvuri ba rnam p ar ses pa de nid sems dan yid dari rnam p a r ses pa i t s bya la de ni chos tham s cad kyi rtsa ba ste / kun nas rion moris ba dari rnam p ar byari bahi bdag iiid dc las rtog pa gnis su gyur te bdag dari gan dag tu h o /). Bu-ston (BSad sbyar on R U , f. 50a) says, From the w ind arises fire, from th a t w ater, from th at e a rth ; from that the personality aggre gates, the elem ents, and the sense bases; (th at is the m eaning of the passage, to w it) from that, arise the three lights, and from th at arise the 160 p rak rtis. From th at arise the 98 defilem ents, the 62 false views, and so on. Bccause sentient beings arise w ith a birthplace by d in t of the so-amassed karmay the text savs this is the inexhaustible root of the sentient-bein? o re a lm '. ( ' rluri las m e dc las chu ' de las sa / de las phuri po kham s dari skvc m ched hbyuri ' dc las snari ba gsum hbyuri / de las ran b iin brgya drug cu hbyuri rio / de las non moris pa dgu bcu rtsa brgyad dari Ita ba dru g cu rtsa gnis la sogs pa hbyuri / des las bsags pahi dbari gis skye gnas g iih i sems can hbyuri has sems can gyi kham s ma lus pahi rtsa ba hdi yin no /) . Besides, Tsori-kha-pa, com m entary on the I'ajrajnanasamuccaya (P T T , Vol. 160, 154-3, 4 ), following the M adhyam ika point o f view, insists th a t the vijiidna m eant by the three lights is m a n o v i j h a n a . Also, in his com m entary on the Caturdevipariprcchd (Lhasa Coll. Works, Vol. C a, f. 37b-6 to 3 8 a -l): 'T h e three vijiianas proceed from the 18-fold dharmadhatu w hich is the C lear Light of D eath. T hey (the three) are bodhicitta the B odhisattva S am an tab h ad ra.5* Ibid. f. 37b-3: T h e dharmadhdtu is the source of the six outer sense bases, tin* six personal sense bases, and the six perceptions (vijiidna), 18 in all. (The sixth perception is the manovijndna, the other five being based on the five outer senses). T his use of the Bodhisattva nam e S am an tab h ad ra presum ably stems from the Guhyasamdja, C hap. IV. p. 17 (Mchan hgrel} p. 3 8 ): Sdntadharmdgrasambh utam jiidnacarydviiodhakam j iamantabhadravdcdgryam bhdfa mandalam uttamam jj "P ray explain the supreme m andala having the best speech of S am antabhadra, arising from the sum m it o f quiesccnt dharmas (=pararndrtha-satya) and purifying
*

(the 80 prakrtis) by the* praxis of the gnoses ( = the three lights). M y Notes on the Sanskrit term Jfta n a , p. 260, quotes from Tsori-kha-pas com m entary on the I'ajrajnanasamuccaya (Lhasa ed., Vol. C a) to the effect th at the vijiiana (perception) arising from the C lear L ight of dying from the Interm ediate State (bar do) is the C ulm ination of L ight; the manas (m in d ) arising from th at, is the Spread-of-L ight; the citta (consciousness) arising from th at, is Light. O bserve that the o rd e r: 1. d elu sion ( - v ijf ta n a ) , 2. lust ( - m a n a s ) , 3. h atred ( = citta) is consistent w ith the order of appearance of the three poisons in the Buddhist genesis legend, as discussed in my article Buddhist Genesis and the T an tric T ra d itio n . But the tantric N agarjuna, Sri Laksm i, B havyakirti, and some other T an ju r com m entators, em ploy a Y ogacara-type vocabu lary, to w it: Slaya-vijhana> kliffa-manas, and pravrtti-vijnana. T h e following tabulation should make the difference clear: Lights Voids T h e C o v erin g -*80 P rakrtis M adhyam ika term inology Y ogacara term inology T erm inology in com m on

T h e C lear L ig h t* U n i versal Void C ulm inationof-Light = G reat Void Spread-of-light -F u rth er V oid L ight Void Perception (vijflana) Basic perception (alaya-vijfiana) Nescience (avidya)

M ind (m an as) Consciousness (citta)

Defiled M ind ( k li^ a -m a n a s)

M entals (c a itta )

Evolving Percep Conscious tion (p rav rttiness (citta) vijftana)

Therefore, when B havyakirti in his 'PrakdSikd (P T T , Vol. 60,

p. 293-1) com m ents on niddna verse 5, he first states vijnana* to be the three as previously explained, m eaning the three Y ogacara term s he has been em ploying for explaining the pre ceding nidana verses; and states these vijnanas to have the cha racteristic (lakfana), i.e. the prakrtis of (covering) the three lights; an d so those lights appear when those vijnanas cease. T h en B havyakirti quotes two texts w ithout nam ing their sources. T h e first is the celebrated verse of the Samdhinirmocana-sutra (which was translated by E tienne L am otte into F rench; and the verse is in Louis de la V allee Poussin, Vijixaptimatratdsiddhi, I, p. 173): T h e addnavijnana, profound and subtle, like a violent cu rren t, proceeds w ith all its seeds (bya). D eem ing it im proper for them to im agine it as a self, I have not tau g h t it to the im m ature au d ito rs (/ ji skad du 1 len pahi rnam p a r ses pa zab ciri p h ra / sa bon tham s cad chu bohi rgyun b iin h b ab / bdag tu rtog par gyur na mi ruri ies j ftan thos byis pa rnam s la has ma bstan / ies hbyuri b a ). T h e next one he quotes, is a w ell-known line from the Madhyanta-vibhaga (I, 8A ; 20 in G adjin M . X agao's edition of the Bhdfya): A nd th e im agination of unreality (abhutaparikalpa) is the three w orlds w ith their citta and c a itta (/ de b iin du yari / yari dag m a yin kun brtags ni ' sems dari sems byuri khams gsum pa / ies hbyuri rio / ) . T hese qnotations do not necessarily m ean th a t Bhavyakirti makes the usual identification of dddnavijiidna w ith dlayavijiidna, which he equates w ith the avidya having seven prak rtis; b ut it certainly m eans th at he considers the *vijiidna* o f niddna verse 5 to be this dddnavijiidna as well as abhu taparikalpa; and so he may understand by dddnavijiidna* all three vijnanas rath er than simply dlayavijiidna. Since his alayavijnana is equivalent to verse 3s avidya', it is unacceptable to Tsori-kha-pa, w ho rejects the equation jn P T T , Vol, 159, p. 31-3. In fact, both B u - s t o n and Tsori-kha-pa in their an n o ta tion of the niddna verses agree in ignoring B havyakirtis commen tary. T his subject is resumed under niddna verse 7. /,T A M tam ekaikam arthdbhdsam vdyui samgrhya dhdrayetf vajuyuktam ca vijndnam SaSvaj jagati vartate ,//6// T he wind seizing, takes hold o f th at entity-light in each case, and vijhdna joined w ith vdyu (w ind) continually operates in the world of living beings.

Mchan: E ntity-light in each case means th r five sense objects as m anifested. T hey arise by the reverse o rd er of the three lights (vijfiana-m anas-ritta) and dissolve by the direct order (citta-m anas-vijnana). V ijnana ( the three lights or vijflana, m anas, c itta ) rides on the winds which seize their respective sense objects. Paiicakramat II , 32-34: vayunti sukfmarupena jnanam sammiSrataiji gatam / nihsrtyendriyamargebhyo vifoyan avatambate jf dbhascna yadd yukto vdyur vdhantam gatah / tadd tatprakrtdh sarva astavyastah pravartayet // yatra yatra sthito vayus tam prakrtim udvahetf yiva t samiranotpado ndbhdso niicalo bhavct // W hen know ledge (jnana the three lights) becomes associated w ith subtle-form ed w ind, then issuing forth from the paths of sense organs it grasps (hangs on to ) the sense objects. A t w hatever tim e the w ind, having becom e a vehicle (for vijfiana), is yoked by the lig h t, at th a t tim e all those prakrtis are com pletely dissipated. A t w hatever (vein, nd(fi) the w ind stops, at th a t one it sustains some p rak rti (am ong the 80 p rak rtis). As long as (the w ind) stirs up, the lig h t is not steady. Verses 33-34 m ention the altern ate conditions o f the three gnostic lights (L ight, Spread-of-L ight, and C ulm ination-ofL ig h t), nam ely ( I I, 33) when those lights arc free from the eighty prakrtis, and (II, 34) w hen they arc subjected to the eighty prakrtis in w hich event their light is not steady. T h e Majimdld com m entary on the Paiicakrama (P T T , V ol. 62, p. 188-3, 4 ) explains th e second verse: I re ig rluri gi rnam lna dari rnam pa bcu yin p a r sriar bSad ciri dehi gnas sftiri ga la sogs pahi gnas rnam s dari las kyi bye brag kyari bstan m od kyi hon kyari rarigi no bo dpyad na chos kyi dbyiris kyi hkhor lo lux! g-s^l ba las rluri byuri ste / dchi phyir gYon dari gYas dari b a r m ahi rtsa gsum ni lam yin no / de bas n a gari dari gari du ste gYon nam gYas sam dbus su rluri gnas pa ni ran b fin d ed ari de ste sems las byun bahi chos dc Ita bu dari de Ita bu skyed p a r byed ciri hbyuri b ar byed do / / de b iin du

yari rtsa gV on p ah i lam nas byuri bah i rluri gi $es rab kyi no bo ran b iin rnam s skyed p ar byed do / / gYas na gnas pas ni thabs kyi no bo rnam s so / / dbus na gnas pa ni m a rig pahi no bo rnam s skyed p a r byed m od kyi lion kyari dmigs pa la bltos dgos te / ........... / dc lta r rtsafri bye brag dari rjes su m th u n pahi yul hdzin pa las ran b iin rnam s hbyuri rio / Now the topic is the five kinds and the ten kinds of w ind, as previously set forth, w hich are located in the h e a rt and in the o th er places. W hile they are tau g h t as th e m u l titu d e of deeds (perform all deeds*), if one ponders th eir intrinsic n atu re, they are the w ind w hich arises from the C lear L ight of the D h a rm a d h a tu circle. T h ere fore th eir p a th is the three nafis, left, right, and m iddle. H ence, at w hatever one,* left, or right, or m iddle, the w ind stops, it generates w hile arising there th e com p arab le p rak rti or sort o f caitasika-dharma. A ccordingly, the w ind arising in the p ath o f the left ndtfi generates the (th irty -th ree) prakrtis w hich have prajna n a tu re ; the one of the right, the (forty) prakrtis of updya; and th e one in th e m iddle generates th e (seven) prakrtis o f avidya. H ow ever, th a t needs dcpcndence on a support of con sciousness (dlambana). . . .T h u s, the prakrtis arise from apprehending a sensory object consistent w ith the basic m u ltitu d e (of deeds). T h e im plication o f th e Manimdld com m entary is th a t as long as th e winds arc correlated w ith external objects, the lights o f th e three na<lis arc unsteady. H ence the yogin m ust close the sensory doors to dissipate the prakrtis associated w ith those n& <jlis. Sarjidhwydkarana (P T T . Vol. 3, p. 236-2): I byan chub sems ni rluri gyur ciri j I nam mkhafi la ni rnam gnas pa j f sems can kun gyi srog gyur gan j I lna y i bdag nid bcu mirl can jj j rten hbrel bcu gnis ics grags pa j j no bo nid rnam gsum du gyur j j rlun its bya bahi byah chub sems j j dban po kun gyi gtso hdi yin jj

T h e bodhicitta w hich being wind and dw elling in space* then becomes the life w ind of all sentient beings, is five and called ten. T h e bodhicitta called Twelvefold D ependent O rigination* is the three n atu res; and called wind*, governs all the sense organs. Paiicakrama, I, 3 (and SAags rim, 408b-5 and 440a-4, e tc .): prdnabhutaS ca sattvdndm vayv-dkhyah sarvakarmakrt / vijMnavdhanaS caiva pancatmd daiadha punah // Being the life force o f sentient beings, w hat is called wind* performs all deeds; and as the vehicle of vijnana is five, besides is tenfold. In the case of w ind as the vchicic of vijnana it is the five secon dary winds, to w it: 1. naga reveals forms th ro u g h eye 2. kurm a reveals sounds th rough ear 3. krkila reveals odors through nose 4. d ev ad atta reveals tastes th ro u g h tongue 5. d h an an jay a reveals tangibles th ro u g h torso In the case o f w ind identified w ith prana itself, it is tenfold, i.e. the five basic w inds as well as the five secondary w inds. C ooperating w ith vijiidna the five basic w inds perform all deeds and the five secondary w inds perceive all things. N otice the respective approxim ation to the classical Sam khya k a ra m e n d riy a s ^ p e rfo rm a ll deeds ) a n d buddhlndriyas ( perceive all things ). R egarding th e all deeds perform ed by the five basic w inds, SAags rim (f. 439b-2) draw s upon a citatio n in Carydmeldpaka about the function o f those w inds: 1. P ra n a has th e n a tu re o f stream ing th ro u g h th e sense doors, coursing as the b reath in g an d extending far (Pr&na and dydma), an d co n tin u ally coursing. 2. T h e yogin will alw ays u n d erstan d apdna as (b reak in g ) w ind, expelling urine, excrem ent, and sem en, and con veying dow nw ard. 3. S am ana is so called because it is w hat is alw ays conco m itan t w ith tasting, eating, licking, drinking, an d sucking. 4. O ne understands u d a n a to have th e action o f d raw ing upw ards, eating food an d enjoying it, associating w ith awareness.

5. V yana has the function of filling, holding, (enabling) w alking and returning, and of pervading all the jo in ts. Paiicakrama, I I I , 19: fad eva vayusamyuktatfi vijMnafritayam punah f jayate yogina murtir mayadehas tad ucyate ff Besides, precisely th a t vijfiana-triad jo in ed to the winds is engendered as a body by the yogin. T h a t is called Illusory Body*. T h e conception of these winds is a topic in the Stage of G ene ratio n . L ater, in the Stage of C om pletion, the yogin learns to control them to engender a body called Illusory Body*. B. Ekasmin samaye (Upon an Occasion)

T his group o f verses represents the m eaning of the Stage o f G eneration (utpattikrama) as o rdinary generation, b u t w ith the clim actic tim es o f b irth , d eath , and interm ediate state, w hich a theory (see verse 38 and a n n o tatio n ) correlates to the Bodies of th e B uddha. T h e m eaning of this group of verses is frequ ently referred to in T ib e ta n literatu re such as T son-kha-pas w ritings as the basic time* (gzihi dus) to contrast w ith tim e o f the p a th (lam gyi dus). In the p ath , th e yogin seeks to evoke the entire cycle, passing through the portals o f d eath as a n experience o f yoga and then retu rn in g to norm al consciousness. In p rep aratio n for the separation from the coarse body o f a subtle body called the Illusory Body th a t takes place in th e Stage of C om pletion, in the present phase th e p ractitioner develops a body which is called th e M a n tra body. T his takes place in the second sadhana called A nuyoga w ith depositing of germ syllables in spots of the body. It corresponds in ex ternal m andala ritu al to the second p art Rites of preparatory acts, such as pitching the lines w ith chalk and beseeching the gods. A sim ilar result is obtained in the present instance if the practitioner, following through the suggestions o f this set o f verses, goes through the im aginative procedure o f analyzing his m ake-up and then of identifying his personality aggregates w ith the five winds and so on. In short, the verses can be in terp reted as doctrinal assertions, but above all they are direc tions for praxis in the form of im aginative identifications.

Concerning the present anti the anterior conditions of o rd i nary generation, K luhi-bio's (N agabuddhi's) Samdja-sddhanavyavasthaii (P T T , Vol. 62, p. 7-5, ff.) m entions the standard four birthplaces, to wit, birth from eggs, birth Irom a womb, b irth from w arm th and m oisture, and birth through trans form ation; and then gives standard exam ples, as birds, etc. from eggs; cows, etc. from a w om b; worms, etc. from w arm th and m oisture; and the gods, hell beings, interm ediate state beings, and men o f the first aeon, through transform ation. All those beings are called sattva (sentient being ). This work also gives the tan tric version of Buddhist genesis th at was introduced into T ib etan literatu re such as T so n -k h a-p as writings. K luhi-blo m entions, p. 8-4, th a t after the m en o f th e first aeon tasted the amrta, and so on down to their partaking o f the prim eval grain, w hereupon their bodies becam e heavy the light disappeared, and a darkness ensued; and then the sun and moon appeared in the w orld. At this tim e, through the separation of prajha and updya> the beings becam e distinguished w ith the m ale and female organs. G radually, m utual craving was aroused, w hereupon these beings, known as gandhanas, experienced the three states (aiasthd), and entered into the wombs o f m others. T h en the wom en, w ithout illness, began to have menses; and a fath er and m o th er through desire for each other, engaged in various sexual techniques. Seeing this, for the sake of indulgence-in-desire, a vijiidna-pati, as though riding on a horse ( the w in d ), left the interm ediate state and entered (the m o th er) through the Y airocana-portal (i.e. the crown of the h ead ) (and then m erged w ith the agglom eration in the w om b). As to the reason these beings fell from the C lear Light (p. 8 -2 ): A lthough they possessed the gnosis body (jnana-dcha), they did not know the Illusory Sam adhi, . . . . (yc ses kyi lus can yin yari de rnam s kyis sgyu m a Ita buhi tin rie hdzin mi ses s i r i . . . . ) . O f course, th a t account has profound im plications for the whole Guhyasamdja praxis. Isori-kha-pas Don %sal ba com m en tary on the (tuhyasamdjatantra com bines K luhi-blos account w ith the abhidharma teaching of sentient-being w orlds (sattva-loka) and receptacle w orlds (bhdjana-loka) as well as w ith the tantric idea of the 'prim eval lord (adinatha). T he whole idea ol transm uting the body into a palace containing

the thirtv-tvvo deities is to replacc the im pure reccptacic w orlds w ith a pure w orld, and this is founded on the evocation of the 'prim eval lord in the present (A nuyoga) phase. W hile most o f the nidana verses in this group do not obviously show them selves as a phase of voga, the last one, nidana verse 12, sets forth the praxis of pranayama, and pranayama is generally described as subtle yoga (s ukfma-yoga). Pranayama is accom panied by m antra-prax is, hence in this phase the yogin gains the m a n tra-d eh a'. T h e school o f B uddhajfianapada, especially in B uddhasrijfianas Mukti-tilaka-ndrna, and its com m entary' V itap ad as Muktitilaka-nama-vydkhydna, discusses this situation using the term s the Profound (zab m o ) and the Bright* (gsal b a ) . T h u s, in V ita p a d a s com m entary (P T T , Vol. 65, p. 136), we read th a t the m eaning of the Profound and the Bright* has been obscured for tim e im m em orial by d in t o f h a b it forces (vasana), and bccausc the ordinary persons do not understand those two, they are plagued by the sufferings of the three realm s. W hat is the P rofound ? In this regard, (B uddhaSrijftana) states (the o b scu ratio n ), discursive th o u g h t (vikalpa) ___ * T h a t is to say, (the P rofound) rightly and from the outset surpasses all forms of speech and conception because it is free from all forms o f erro r (bhrdnti). . . . W h at is the Bright* ? (H e) states, the M a h a m u d r a .. .. T h a t is to s a y , .. . the u n b o rn body w hich is like an illusion an d shines like a ra in b o w . . . . T h e self-cxistcnce of the non-duality of the Profound and the Bright has the n atu re of pervading all states (bhava) an d is not included in the dharmas of samsara; it is called D h a rm a d h a tu . C om bining this term inology w ith the previous account, the sentient beings did not know the Profound* because they lacked the Illusory Sam adhi. T herefore they gradually lost the B right, the Illusory Body. jjEjj efo vdyur mahadhdtur vijndnatrqyavdhanah f tebhyah prakrtayah SaSvan nirgacchanti yathd yathd ( fill T his w ind, the great elem ent, is the m ount o f the three vijnanas. By m eans of it, the prakrtis always proceed accordingly. M chan: T his wind* means riic wind of action (cf. Paiicakrama verse cited under verse 6, wherein the wind is said to perform

all deeds*), and therefore is callcd great elem ent . . . . It is w ritten in the Yajrajnana-samuceayay T h e w ind is the m ount o f th a t vijnana. From the wind arises fire; from fire, w ater; from w ater, earth. From those, the five personality aggregates (skandha), the six sense bases (fadaiatana), and the five sense o b je c ts ;... and the prakrtis are generated by reason o f the m anifestation. In th at T a n tra , the three lights arc explained to arise from the C lear Light, and subsequently the w ind, etc. arises. T he m ount of cijriant7 as im agination (parikalpa) arises from the ordinary lights of the reverse order, w hich are the phase of rebirth by transm igration into the w omb. T h e explanatory tan tra I'ajramalti states further how th at wind is responsible for generation. T his passage in au g u ratin g its ch ap ter 32 is involved w ith Y ogacara vocabulary; it is here translated w ith the help o f A lam kakalasas com m entary (P T T Vol. 61, p. 251-4,5 to p. 252-1, 2 ): 1. Now listen to a further ex p lan atio n and rightly understand concretely how the wind has the characteristic of generation and seeks the tem poral o pportunity. j de nas gtan yan bSad kyis non / I rluri skye ba y i mtshan nid ni I dus kyi glags ni brtsal ba ni ( j j i Itar drios su yah dag Ses 2. T h e m ind defiled (klif(amarias) by habit-energv (vasana) sees its own (w ind) n atu re as (though it w ere) an o th er form. N ot know ing the real state of affairs (th e pr&na and apana w inds), it is deluded by ju s t w ind alone. I bag chags non mons can gyi yid I ran gi no bo gzugs gian mthoii ; I don ni yod par mi fcs Sin ' j rluh tfam gcig pus rmoits paho 3. C onjured up by dlayavijnana, the habit-energies roam around w ithin. 1ijnana is controlled by habit-energy through (d eath s)sequence of adm ixture w ith habit energy. / kun g ii rnam Ses bkug nas ni j I bag chags nan du rnam par spyod ' I bag chags kyis ni rnam Ses bzun , f bag chags dari hdres rim pa Itts // 4. T h en , by the infusion of inner habit-encrgv, at the tim e of (welling u p ) menses, it evolves in the m other's

channel as a diam ond bindu o f the m elted semen and blood. I not) gi bag chags bsgos pa yis j I de nas zla mtshan dus su ni j I rniial gyi rtsa la hjug pa ni j I rdo rje khu khrag iu thig k // 5. It develops according to the ad m ix tu re; vijnana is aroused by the dlava as though intoxicated by w ine: from the habit-energics o f dlayavijiidna the stream o f vijnana arises. I hdrcspa ru ni gyur pa dan j I kun g ii las ni rnam Ses skye / I j i {tar chan ros myos pa biin f / kun g ii rnam Ses bag chags las // T h e verses 3-5 arc the portion quoted by T son-kha-pa in his com m entary on th e Vajrajiidnasamuccaya (P T T , V ol. 160, p. 154-4, 5) w ith th e rem ark, T h e alaya' and kliffamanas m entioned in this T a n tra (the Vajramdld) are the same term s explained in other texts but have different m eanings* (/rgyud hd ir kun g ii d a n non yid ces gsuns pa ni g iu ri g ia n nas bsad pa d an miri h d ra van don mi hdra ste). I have come to u n d er stand th a t by o th er texts lu* m eans th e com m entaries by the tan tric N agarjuna and Rhavyakirti, as well as Sri Laksm l am ong others, that insist on assigning the term s dlayavijiidna, kliffamanas, and pravrtti-vijhdna to the three sets o f prakrtis^ adding up to eighty, thereby equating dlayavijiidna w ith t h e nescience* (aiidyd) of niddna verse 3. T son-kha-pas rejection of this appli cation o f Y ogacara term s is consistent w ith how we m ay interpret those Vajramdld verses in its chapter 32. T h a t is because, in terms of Buddhist D ependent O rigination, the Vajramdld verses can be interpreted as setting dlayavijhdna equi valent to 3. vijiidna as a stream of consciousness w hich had undergone d eath 's traum a and now (having 1. avidyd and 2. samskdra, as conditions) w ith reviving habit-energy is attracted to a new birthplace offering a field for evolving perceptions. T h a t phase of attraction to the womb is stated in terms o f tf/i^/raira-consciousncss in Tsori-kha-pas Shags rim chen mo (f. 4 3 8 a-4 ,5 ): I de las stoh chen tier thob ste dri zahi sems so j j de las thabs snan ba niched pa hdod pa he bar len pahi sems so / / de las Ses tab snah ba ste skye ba gzut1 bahi sems so /.
A

From th at (C lear Light of D eath) comes the great void, Culfiiination-of-Light, which is the ^arf/wrya-consciousness. From th at, comes the means, Spread-of-L ight, which is the indulgence-in-desire consciousness (*trfno~ padana-citta), From th at, comes the insight, Light, which is the seizing-of-birth consciousncss ( *janma-gtdhanacitta). T h e above passage has term inology associated w ith m em bers 8-10 o f Buddhist D ependent O rigination: 8. craving (tffna), 9. indulgence (upadana), and 10. gestation (bhava). After considering the foregoing tw o selections from the Vajrmali and the Siiags rimt it becomes credible th at the three lights are the Guhyasamaja trad itio n o f recasting the hi st three m em bers o f the 12-mcmbered Buddhist D ependent O rigination [pratityasamutpdda) \ w hile the sam e three lights interpreted to start w ith 0m/A<m><j-consciousness are explanatory of m em bers 8, 9, and 10 o f th a t sam e D ependent O rigination. T o be explicit: Dependent Origination 1. nescience (avidya) 2. m otivations (samskara) 3. perception (vijnana) 4. nam e-and-form (nama-riipa) 5. six sense bases (fadayatana), 6. contact (sparia). 7. feeling (vedand); then, Dependent Origination 8. craving (tr$n&) 9. indulgence (upadana) 10. 11. 12. gestation (bhava)

Bodhicitta stages C ulm ination-of-L ight Spread-of-Light L ight

Rebirth consciousness gandharva-consciousness indulgence-in-desire consciousness seizing-of-birth consciousncss

b irth ( j it i) , and old age and death (jatd-marana).

II KA ff kah khafidhdtur dpai ca tejo virus tathaiva ca j upidiya tu vijiidnam jiyate tribhavdlaye //8 // W hat be the solid realm and o f w ater; likewise th a t of fire and w ind using these, vijnina takes b irth in the womb o f triple gestation.

Mchan: At the tim e o f transm igration, the manoi'ijnana uses as base the four elem ents w ithin the sem en-blood entity and thus takes birth in the abode o f triple gestationsuperior, m iddling, and inferior d rstin y . T he gram m atical formation of the first sanskrit line, w ith ca. . . .tathaiva ca, pairs the four elem ents in a m anner consistent w ith astrology, w herein earth and w ater (the hard and soft heavy elem ents) are m utually concordant, as arc fire and wind (the hot and cold lig h t elem ents). Furtherm ore, the order of elements in the verse is that in which the equivalent goddesses L ocana, M am aki, P an d ara, and T a ra ask their questions in the explanatory ta n tra Caturdevipaiiprcchd. T h e four elem ents and their evolutcs constitute the aggregate of form (r upa-skandha) am ong the five aggregates. Vijnana uses this aggregate of form to bccome em bodied in the dlaya (abode) which m eans the w om b according to Mchan hgrel on the present verse. H ence, the verse practically defines the celebrated term dlayavijiidnay w hich thus m eans *vijnana in (or tow ard) the w om b as the 3rd m em ber o f D ependent O rigination or a phase o f th a t m em ber. T h e location of vijndna in the w om b is understood to be the place which becomes the heart o fth e new being. T hus, in his Dkah gnad com m entary on the Guhyasamdja (Lhasa ed., Vol. Ca, 1 0 a -l), Tsori-kha-pa starts by quoting passages about the suprem e A, the indestruct ible syllabic in the m iddle of the h e a rt; and says, In short, the very placc w here the vijiidna along w ith its together-born* (sahaja) wind enters am idst the semen-blood*, is the heart. Also at the tim e of death it passes aw ay from the h eart when gathered in the expiring sequence (/ m dor bsdu na dari por rnam par ses pa lhan cig skyes pahi rluri dari lhan cig tu khu khrag gi dbus su gari 2ugs pa de nid sfiiri ga yin la / hchi bal?i tshe hari hbyuri ba rim gyis bsdus nas sfiiri ga nas hchi hpho ba yin no /). At th at h e a rt site, according to the citations and discussion of Snags rim, f. 435a-2, If, first the three prim ary channels o f right, left and middle, are established. T hen the five veins of the heart are originated. These veins are deified by goddesses, especially nam ed in M other T a n tra tradition: T raiv rtta is form (ru p a), K am ini is sound (sab d a), G eha is odor (g an d h a), Cantfika is taste (rasa), and M aradarika is dharma.

M arad arik a is in th e m iddle and hence associated w ith the m iddle channel of A vadhuti; however, the five are separately counted to add up w ith th e prim ary three to th e total o f eight, referred to as the eight petals o f th e heart. T he o th er four goddesses are placed in the four directions and are said to be th e selfexistence of the four elem ents (dhdfu-svabkdva). As th e o th er cakras are established these goddesses transfer th eir essence accordingly; so it is theoretically possible to identify th e four goddesses of the directions w ith the four o f the Guhyasamaja, L ocana and so on. T h e num bers of petals in th e o th er cakras are m ultiples o f the original four directional veins of the h eart. In the full list, according to the Snags rim, f. 436b-4, q u o tatio n from A b h ay ak arag u p tas Amndya-manjari, there are 4 petals a t the U)il$a-cakra (crown o f head a t place o f B ra h m a ra n d h ra ), 32 fit the forehead cak ra (sometimes m isunderstood to be a t th e crown of the h ead because of th e T ib e ta n w ord spyi bo), 16 a t the th ro at, 8 as m entioned a t the h eart, 64 a t the navel, 32 at th e cakra of the sacral place, an d 8 a t th e tip o f the gem (root o f the penis). H ow ever, th e in tra u te rin e o rd er o f es tablishing th e elem ent bases, according to the Sriags rim discus* sion, shows reversal w ithin the pairs o f the nidana verse: 1st m onth w ater vortex in h e a rt; 2nd, e a rth vortex in sacral region; 3rd, w in d vortex in n av el; 4 th , fire vortex in th ro a t (o r neck). I n th e 5 th m o n th , 'dkdSa' is invested th ro u g h o u t the body. T h e Snags rim (f. 438a-6) citcs th e Mahdmudrdtilaka, a p p a rently as A ryadevas q u o tatio n in his Caryamelapaka, w ith a different o rd er of th e elem ents:
I rnam Ses no bo la brten nasf f daft por hbyuh ba b ii po la

/ j de tshe ran g i gn a s nas thim //


I rati b iin nes p a r bskrun p a y i s j rnam Ses las n i rluA skye ste j I de la s me n i y a A dag hbyuri

I hdi las chu m am s y a A dag (ibyuit { I de las sa n iy a A dag hbyuA f j I ffdi m a m s la s kyaft phuA p o hbyuA I de las skye m ched rnams kyaA Ao j de las Ses p a h i raA b iin can j I drug cu lhag p a h i b rgya rim p a s

// /

// ic s . . . . W hen initially the form o f vijnana takes recourse to the lour elem ents through the propagation o f prakrti(s), at that time it passes away from its ow n abode. From vijnana the wind arises; from that the fire; from the latter the waters arise, and from these the earth. From these (fo u r ), in turn the personality aggregates ( skan tiha ) arise; from these (he sense bases as well. From the latter, the holder o f t h e prakrtis o f consciousncss, in a sequence o f U>0, dissolves here in the same w ay as it was born, from the prakrtis.
II S M l .X i asmimS ca p a h ca sam bhutdh skandhas satfiskrtilak fan&h rupavin nama samskdrd tijn d n am caiva pancam am f

j i Itar skyrs pa de Itar hdir J j thim par hgvtir ro ran b iin las

//9 // And when this is present, the five skandhas arise with the characteristic o f con stru ction : possessing form* is n am e the ( th r e e ) samskaras, as is also perception ( v ijn a n a ), the fifth. M ch a n : As previously stated, w hen this the four elem ents is present, the five skandhas arise. Arising w ith the charac teristic o f construction, the five are form ( r u p a ) , feelings ( ted a n a ), ideas ( s a m j n a ) , m otivations ( sa m sk a ta ), and percep tions ( v i j n a n a ) In the verse the word saniskara stands for the three m iddle skandhas vedana, sarnjnd , and saniskara and labelled name* (nama). T h e fact that in Buddhist D ep en d en t O rigination, the nam a o f nam a-rupa' stands for the three m iddle skandhas o f vedana, sam jna , and sam skdra, is an ancient teaching preserved in B uddhaghosas I'isuddhimagga in the chapter on D ep en d en t O rigination, section devoted to ndm a-rvpa. O n the other hand, when the term indma~rupa' is em ployed for the live skandhas in discussions apart from D ependent O rigination, it is standard for nam a' to include vijnana as well. Guhyasam djatantra , Chap. X V I I I , verses 45-47, with em endation o f verses 45, 46 :
vijnanam rupam sam jna d ieja m iti dkhydtam hetukaryadiayair dvi,\dt J moham khyatam jad&bandhasvabhaoatah atmanam vastutah &aktilakfana/}i

//
fl

vedana ghaftam dnJkhjd aham katasvabhdiatah j sarprdgatn

sam skaras svabhdvam

tu

sada

irjya tu

p ra titya

prerandtmandin

/ //

bodhicittam

sarvatra bhavasam bhavam

V ijnana is called h a tre d because it is hostile to both cause and effect. R u p a is called delusion because its nature is insentient bondage. V edana is callcd stirring pride becausc its n atu re is egoism. Sam jna is lu st, having the ch aracter o f atta c h m e n t to things. Sam skara is always envy, being the instigation in dependence. (T h e ir) intrinsic n atu re is b od h icitta , the source of gestation everywhere. C elu-pas R atn avrkfa-m im a-rah asya-sa m a ja-vrtti ( P I T , V ol. 63, p. 174-4) explains the attrib u tio n to vijn an a : j ic sdari 2es pa ni rgyu libras gnis dbycr m ed p ar thugs su chud pahi yc ses te / gnis kyi rnam pa la sdari b ah i phyir ro // ji skad du / rgyu libras gnis la sdari bas na / rnam ses c sdari 2cs su bstan /es so jl d c nid rigs te thog m a med pa nas rgyun chad pa m ed pahi phyir ro /. Called h atred m eans it is the know ledge fully com pre hending in an inseparable m an n er both cause a n d effect, because it hates the (sep arate) aspects o f both. It is said, Because it is hostile to both cause and effect, vijiidna is c a lle d h a tre d . T h a t is valid, because it (i.e. v ijiid n a ) has been u n in terru p ted for im m em orial tim e. T h e idea seems to be th a t the notions of cause and effect req u ire discontinuity the cause m ust end so the effect m ay begin. But the stream o f consciousness ( citta -sa m td n a ), here the *vijnana\ is continuous, not discontinuous. So it is said (m e ta phorically) to h ate cause an d effect. W ithout this plausible explanation by C elu-pa, I w ould have supposed th a t the reason vijiidna is called hostile tow ard cause and effect is th a t the latter are inferred, not perceived, otherw ise stated , vijiidna is the eternal
present.

T h ere is considerable com m cntarial m aterial on the live skandhas, and since this topic is so im p o rtan t to the T a n tra s, m ore inform ation is now given. T h ere is ( 1 ) the order of tre a t ing the skandhas , ( 2 ) the locations attrib u te d to the skandhas , ( 3 ) further explanation of the individual skandhas, and ( 4 ) the skandhas in the In term ed iate State. (1 ) For the order o f the skandhas , we m ay refer to A lanikakalaSas com m entary on the V ajram dld, the G a m bh ird rth a -d ip ikd -

nama (Vol. 61, p. 204-4) : T h e basic nature (do bo Hid) o f the five skandhas is as follows : Prana is vijfiana-skandha; A pana is vedana-skandha; Sam ana is samjfta-skandha; U d an a is samskara-skandha; V yana is rupa-skandha. (T his passage will be conti nued under the next niddna verse). W hile the nidana verse calls vijhdna the fifth, it is usual in preg nant embryology of the T an tras to assign vijiiana-skandha to the first lunar m onth, since in Buddhist dogmatics vijftana is said to fall into the womb. T he above passage from Alamkakalasas com m entary states the traditional order o f skandhaarising in the womb, namely during first through fifth lunar months. T h e old Buddhist order of slating the skandhas, to wit : rupa, vedana, samjna, samskdra, vijhdnais said by Buddhaghosa in Visuddhimagga (of course in terms of the Pali equivalents) not to be the order of arising, rath er to be the order of expla nation difficulty, starting from the easiest to explain, namely rupa. Hence, when it is a m atter of giving definitions o f the skandhas, that explanation order is followed. (2) T h e locations of the skandhas is hinted at in a passage o f the Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. X V I, verses 66-67A, which I discussed at length in my article, T h e fivefold R itual Symbolism of Passion, Part I. This is the passage : khavajramadhyagatam cintet maiijuvajram mahabalam f pancabanaprayogena mukutagram tu samsmaret f paiicasthanefu mantrajhah kruravajrena pdtayet f T he knower of mantras should contemplate in the m iddle of the diam ond sky Maftju vajra/ (=*Maiiju$rI) of great power; he should recollect the crest pinnacle by the praxis of five arrows (which) he makes fall, by the dia mond of ferocity, into five spots. As that article explains, the deposits five mantras in locations of the skandhas as targets tor five arrows shot by a red Mafijusri in the sky (the Clear L ight) to instill the essence of the five T athagatas, thus identifying the five skandhas with the five T athagatas. Those five mantras as germ syllables, with the respective skandhas and Tathagatas, are set forth in N agaijunas Pindikrtasddhana, verses 56-60. :

Vairocaniyabijam tv omkaratji iuklavarnakam / RUpaskandhasvabhdvena nyasen murdhani mantravit jf Ahkaram amitabhasya samjndskandhasvabhavakam / Raktavarnam mukhe dhyatva vagaiivaryam avapnuyat ff Akfobhyasya tu humkaram rdjavartakasuprabham j Vinyased dhrdaye mantri vijndnaskandharupatah ff Svakaram ratnanathasya vedanaskandharupatah / Pitavarnam nyasen nabhau vcdana-Suddhihetukam ff Padadvaye tu hakaram samskaraskandhabhavatah j Haritabham nyasen mantri karmanathasya tattvatah jj T h e knower of mantras will place at his head V airo c a n a s germ syllable O m of w hite color, because it is the intrinsic nature of the personality aggregate of form. H aving contem plated in the throat A m ita b h a s red Ah, pertaining to the intrinsic n atu re of the aggregate of ideas, he attains lordliness of speech. T h e mantrin should deposit in his heart A ksobhyas H um , shining like the deep blue gem, as the form of the aggre gate o f perceptions. H e should place a t the navel a yellow Sva belonging to the Jew el L ord { R a tn a sa m b h av a) an d the cause of purifying feelings, becausc it is the form of the aggregate of feelings. T h e mantrin then deposits in b o th feet a H a of green light, as the reality of the K a rm a Lord ( = A m oghasiddhi), because it is the n atu re of the personality aggregate o f motivations. (3) For further explanations o f the skandhas, in fact there a re m any such in non-tantric Buddhist commentaries. H ere it suffices to present the explanations in the E xplanatory T a n tr a Vajramdld, C h a p te r 23 (P T T , V ol. 3, p. 214-1,2) : / p h ra rags la sogs dbye ba vis / / thogs bcas thogs med m tsham fiid dan / /hbyuri ba chcn po b^ihi drios / /' hdi ni gzugs kyi p h u n por gsuris / / der ni rnam snari rio bo dari / j thams cad spros p a r byed pahi rgyu / / bde dari sdug bsrial mchog tu t\ / /gran dari dro ba mchog gi mchog f /gan gis sin tu rig pa ni / / de ni tshor bahi phuri por bsad / / rin chcn hbyuri Idan nid kyi m tshan / / de b iin gScgs pahi spros bdag nid / / glari po bori bu Icc sbyari dari / /rta dari ri dags dari ni phag / / p h a dari m a dari pha yi spun ff m dzah bo snag gi grien tshan sogs ff gan

gis yari dag ses pa ni / / hdu ses phuri pohi mtshan ftid ni ' de b iin gsegs pa hod dpag med / / de ni spros pa kun nas gsal / hgro ba khyab par yoris su ses / / dge dari mi dgehi las hbras bu ; ' g2an yari luri du ma bstan miri // de yi hdu byed du ni bsad f f don vod spro bahi ran b iin can ' hkhor ba drios dari drios med sogs / / kun rtog hbyuri bahi bdag Aid can p rnam ics te s ni rnam par ses jf mi bskvod spro bahi bdag nid can / 1. T he characteristic of being obstructing and non-ob structing by division into subtle and coarse, etc.. and the substance of the four great elements this is said to be the aggregate of form (rupa-skandha). Therein is the nature o f V airoeana and the basis of all manifestation. 2. W hereby one feels joy and suffering and the highest calm ; cold, heat, and the furlhcrest supreme that is explained as the aggregate of feelings ( vedana-skandha). It has the character of Ratnasam bhava and the egoity of T ath ag ata manifestation. 3. W hereby one recognizes a cow, an ass, a jackal, a horse, a deer, a hog; lather, mother, brethren on the fathers side; friends, relations on the m others side, etc. that characteristic ol idea aggregate (samjha-skandha) is the T ath ag ata A m itabha and that clarifies the m ani festation. 4. T he thorough knowledge jwrvading the world, the fruit of good and evil deeds, besides being named the indeterm inate (anakrtn , what is explained as their moti vations (samskdro-skandha) is Amoghasiddhi, the ownbeing ( svabhava) of the manifestation. 5. T he perception of presences and absences of samsara, etc.; what has the nature ot vikalpa-arising, the (aggregate of) perceptions (lijitana-skandha) is Aksobhya, the soul of the manifestation. T h e above is self-explanatory except in a few particulars which are explained in Al.unkakal.isa's commentary (PTT, Vol. 61, p. 235-3). In the case ot the samskdra-skondha he says, Be sides being named the indeterminate means that its intrinsic nature is indeterminate, because it generates the realms of form, formless, and so on (g/an yari luri ma bstan miri tcs bya ba ni / luri m a bstan pahi ran b2m tc / gzugs dari gzugs med la sogs pa

bskyed pahi phyir ro ). In the ease of the vijiiana-skandha, he explains the presences (bhaia) and absences (abhava) this way : A presence has the nature of efficiency (arthakriyakdritva) ; an absence is the reverse of th a t (drios po ni don byed nus pahi bdag nid can no ! drios mod ni de las bzlog p a h o ) . This explanation is consistent with Tsori-kha-pa's explanation of M adhyam ika philosophy in the vipaiyana (discerning the real) portion of his Lam rim chen mo, where he defends the position at length th at entities arise dep en d en cy , void o f intrinsic n a tu re but possessed of efficiency. An intriguing feature of the above I'ajramald passage is that while it explains more about the skandhas it is not directly expla natory o f the Guhyasamajalantra; for example, it does not explain the passage about the skandhas in ch ap ter 18 (the U tta ra T a n tr a ) , e.g. th a t vijnana is called h a tre d . It does set forth the standard correspondence of skandhas to T ath ag atas, which is a m atter o f conceptual praxis in the next group o f verses (Bhagavan-Sarva ). This and other passages of the I ojramala suggest th a t its explanatory n a tu re consists in giving more information consistent with the Guhyasamaja. In the present case, once the skandhas are so identified, one can proceed to correlate that ch ap ter 18 passage with the current inform ation to associate the T ath ag atas respectively w ith the defilements (kleSa)y as follows : h a tre d A k so b h y a ,delusion V airo ean a; stirring pride R atn asam b h av a; lustA m ita b h a ; and envyAm oghasiddhi. (4) T h e skandhas in the Interm ediate State are already a teaching of non-tantric Buddhism in a scripture entitled Aryananda-garbhavakranti-nirdeia (in the collection called Ratnakuta) : /de la bar m a dolii plum pohi dbyibs de yari rnam pa gflis su gyur te/ kha dog sdug ciri mdzes pa dari j kha dog mi sdug ciri mi mdzes palu> / ' sems can dm yal ba rnams kyi bar m a dohi srid pahi kha dog mi sdug pa yin tc j hdi Ita ste dpcr na sdori dum tshig pa dari lulraho//dud hgrohi rnam s kyi bar m a dohi srid pahi kha dog ni hdi Ita ste j d p er na dud pa dari h d rah o / j yi dag kyi bar m a dohi srid pahi kha dog kyari hdi Ita ste / d p er na chu dari hdraho / / lha dari mi rnam s kyi bar m a dohi srid pahi kha dog ni lidi Ita ste / dpcr na gser gyi kha dog dari hdraho / / gzugs kyi bar m a do|ii srid pahi kha dog

ni clkar por hdug go / / gzugs med pahi khams kyi lha rnams ni bar m a dohi srid pahi kha dog med de / hdi Itar do ni gzugs med pahi phyir ro / Now, that form of the Interm ediate-State skandha is of two kindsof pleasant, lovely color; and of unpleasant, ugly color. T he color of the Interm ediate State of sentient beings who are hell beings, is unpleasant, in this way; for example, like the b urnt stump of a tree. T h e color o f the Interm ediate State of animals is this way : for example, like smoke. T h e color of the Interm ediate State of hungry ghosts (preta) is this way : for example, like water. T h e color of the Interm ediate State of gods and men is this way: for example, like the color of gold. Tlu* color of the Interm ediate State of the realm of form {ritpa-dhatu) is abiding white. T he Interm ediate State of I he formless realm (arupa-dhatu) gods, has no color, for the reason that it is formless (arupa) (i.e. since form means shape, samsthana, and color, varna). T h e above description goes with the five-destiny list, omitting any reference to the asura destiny which in some lists brings the total to six. SA samatd puityai ek<ana krfydnu,' thdnam eva ca j adario dharmadhatu i ca asm in vijiidnapaiicakah 10// Ju st (the knowledges) Kquality, Discriminative, Procedurc-of-duty: as well as (the knowledges) Mirror-like and D harm adhatu. In this (knowlcdge-pentad) is the i i//iofl-j>entatl. Mchan does not help lu re, but mentions the theory that the D h arm ad h atu kind is the basis of the other four knowledges. T h e solution that is faithful to the expression *i>i/7ianfl-pentad should be the five proper functions of the sense organ of mind th at correspond to the live knowledges as explained by Tsorikha-pa, Paiicakrama comm entary ;Yol. 158, p. 204-5) : (1) the bright appearance of objects like the bright reflection on a m irror; (2) equality consisting in the unified experience of the three kinds of feeling (i.e. pain, pleasure, and neutrality); (3) remembering the various names of beings, such as ones father and mother ; (4) remembering the deeds and needs o f the world; (5) the transmutation [pardvrtti) through elimination of impurity. Now, these arc obvious references

to the five skandhasy and consistent with the fact that this nidSna verse 10 groups a p art the three middle knowledges on the first line (hem istich), com parable to the three m iddle skandhas being set a p a rt in niddna verse 9. This suggests th a t the term t'(/ii<5na-pentad means the five having vijnana as salient member. This would perm it the M adhyam ika type correspondence between the five skandhas and five knowledges. Thus, A lam kakalasas com m entary on the Yajramala (continued from citation under nidana verse 9) slates that when the personality aggregates (skandha) are pure, their equivalent winds correspond to the five knowledges as follows: Wind Skandha Knowledge P ran a vijnana d h a rm a d h a tu ap an a vedana equality sam ana sam jna discrim inative udana samskara procedurc-of-duty vyana rupa m irror-like O f course the term vyiM/ia-pentad can also m ean the five vijnanas based on the five d o o r senses, that ride on the five ancillary winds, as is shown elsewhere. I n this case, the five vijnanas also correspond to the five knowledges by w ay o f th e five-Tathagata correspondence to sense objects, presented under niddna verse 21. For individual explanations of the five knowledges, am o n g m any such there is a fine statem ent by Sri Laksm i (Paiicakrama comm entary, p. 29-1) : / hgyur ba med pa ni me lori h a buhi ye ses te / dri m a med pahi me lori b iin d u th a d ad m ed pah i phyir ro / snan ba med pa ni mfiam pa nid kyi ye ses ste / ra n dari g i an gyi dbye ba so sor mi snari phyir ro / / gftid m ed ies pa ni so sor rtog pahi ye ses tc / sgrib pa griis rn a m p a r d ag pahi phyir ro / / m chog ni bya b a n an ta n g ru b pahi ye Ses te / dmigs pa med pahi sbyor bas g i a n gyi d on mdzad pahi phyir ro / / ii ba ni chos kyi dbyiris kyi ye Ses tc / b dag med pa gnis mrion sum d u m dzad pah i phyir ro /. T h e mirror-like knowledge is unchanging, becausc there is no difference (i.e. it is a faithful reflection) in a clear mirror. T h e equality knowledge docs not ap p e a r, because it has no appearance separately o f a division

into oneself and another. T h e discriminative knowledge docs not sleep, because it is the purity of the two hind rances (of defilement and the know able). T h e procedurcof-duty knowledge is best, because it performs the goals of others by a praxis w ithout aim. T he D h arm ad h atu knowledge is calm, becausc it produces in immediacy the two kinds o f non-self (of pudgaia and of dharmd). If MA // manadyafanam caiva locane fravane tatha j ghranajihvtl tatah kdyai cely ayatanasambhavah / / l l / / T h e sense base of m ind, th a t of eye, so of cars, nose, tongue, then of torso thus is the origination o f the sense bases. Mchan : By the condition (pratyaya) of accomplishing namcand-form (tiama-riipa) in the womb, the six sense bases arise thus the origination of the sense bases in the womb. Mchan alludes to the correspondence of ten lunar months to sequential developm ent o f five skandhas and then ayatanas in the womb. T h e sense base of m ind arises in the fifth lu n ar m onth, then the five door sense bases in the stated order o f t h e verse during the lu n ar m onths sixth through tenth. In the traditional treatm ent, to the filth lunar m onth are assigned both the rupa-skandha and the manaayatana. C h ap ter 32 of the Vajramata identifies the first five lu n ar months of the em bryo with the first five Visnu Avatars along with the sequential emergence o f the five basic winds, and the second five with the emergence o f the five secondary winds (Alarpkakalasas comm entary adds the second five A vatars). T ab le No. IV has some further d ata added from R gyal-T shab-R jes Dpyid ihig cfn brit (Lhasa collected works, Vol. K a, f. 7b-8a) j. In the explanatory tantra Calurdcialdpariprccha, and accord ingly in its comm entary by Smrtijnanakirti, the UpadcSa-pauftika (PT T , Vol. 66, p. 160-1) the discussion about the embryonic states of mcr-mer-po (S. arbuda), etc., is followed immediately by mention of the nine orifices of the body : don de gsuns pa sgo dgu la ni kun tu hgro 2es pa ste / spvi bo tsharis pahi bu ga dari / mig dari / rna ba dan sna dari ! kha dari sniri ga dari / he ba dari / gsari ba dari ' chu miri (sic. for chu mig) gi bu ga rnams dguho / / de rnam s la byari chub kyi sems khyab par gyur to 2es pahi tha tshig go /

'216

TV. A vastha in womb ]. 2. 3. 4. 5.

IN T R A -U T E R IN E Vi.mu Avatar

CORRESPONDENCES Winds Base o f Wind or Orijice heart sacral region navel ncck 12 great dhatu

Skandha and ayalana perfected vijftana vedana samskara sam jna ru p a a n d m anaay a ia n a locana sravana ghrana j M va i kaya

Fish Tortoise Boar M an-L ion D w arf

prana apana sam ana udana vyana

YOGA O F THE G U H Y A SA M A JA TA N TR A

6. 7. 0. 9. 10.

Parasu-R am a T h e 2nd R a m a K rsna B uddha K aiki

naga kunna krkila d cv ad atta dhananjaya

eye ear nose tongue torso

T h e m eaning stated as going every where in the nine orifices is a reference to the bodhicitta's pervasion in those nine orifices, to wit : 1. b rah m aran d h ra at the top of head, 2. eyes, 3. ears, 4. nose, 5. m outh, 6, heart, 7. navel, 8. the anus, 9. the urinary passageway. //i7 i// vai traidhdtukc sattvah prandydma-samdSrit&fr / mantrarajam japan ty ajha dhyanadhyapana-varjil&h //12// T h e beings in the three worlds taking recourse to prdndyama (breathing in and o u t) who recite the king of m an tras* w ith ignorance, miss the m ental reading*. Mchan : T h ree worlds m eans earth and below (sa hog), above the earth (sa sten)) an d the superior world (^a bla). Prdndydma means breathing in (prana) and breathing out (dydma). M ental read in g is the nitartha kind of m an tra reading (hes don gyi snags klog p a ). K ing of m an tras means O m , etc. (i.e. O m , Ati, H u m ). (Tsori-kha-pa in his annotation also rejects a viewpoint of Skal-ldan-grags-pa that the pregnant doctrine of lust (hdod chags chos sbas) occurs in the phase of diam ond recitation in the form of enjoying the consort). T h e epithet * manfrardja' for the three heart syllables is found earlier in the Vajramdld ( P T T , Vol. 3. p. 211). According to the indications of Mchan hgrc't, p. 51, the O m is recited for entrance of the breath, for the time the breath is held ih within, an d H u m for the outbrcathing. T h e m ental reading o f course is the icciiation w ithin the mind. Smrtijriiinakirti's Caturdtiatd-paripriccha-iyakhydna-upadeSapauftika ( P T T , Vol. 66, p. I 60-2): Earth and below means Ja m b u d v ip a (e a rth ) downwards and hell upwards; superior w orld means where the sun pervades; above the e a rth means the peak o f M t. Mem'* ( de la sa hog ni hdzam bu glin m an chad dmyal ba van chad do / / sa bla ni fii mas gar khyab paho / j sa stc/i ni ri rab kyi rtse moho /). T h e niddna verse sets forth the praxis of pranayama proper to the stage of Generation. In this case, there are two im portant verses of the Guhyasamdjatantra : pailcavarnam mahdtatnam sar>apasthalamatrakam f ndsikdgrc prayatncna bhdvayed yogatah mdd j f II I , 12 / / H e should imagine a great five-colored jewel, no bigger in area than a mustard grain, on the tip of the nose, through continual yoga zealously.

ndsdgre sarfapam (inttt sar<ape sacaracaram ( bhavayft jnanapadam rant)am tahasyam jiiiinakalpitam 1,9 // He should imagine a mustard grain at the tip of the nose, and the moving (sentient beings) and non-m oving (recep tacle worlds) in the mustard grain, lie should contem plate the joyful realm o f jftiinn as the ( hig h est) secret that is imagined by jiian a. T h e foregoing two verses are t iled c o n s e i utively by N agarjuna in his Pintfikrtasadhana, verses I*9-200. and in his Paiicakrama, I, 10-11. T h e Pradipoddyotana and Mchan h^rel 1 IT . Vol. 158, pp. 36 and 37; ibid. p. 50) inteipret them differently foi the Stage o f Generation and the Stage of Completion. In both cases, the enterprise is called subtle yoga' siikynayoga and involves the reality of the wind and the reality of the mantra: and the five winds have the nature of the five knowledges and the five T athagatas. In the Stage of G eneration the winds are the breathing in and out, as in nidana verse 12 and the tip o f the nose* is on the face. In the Stage of C om pletion, the winds are m ade to enter the central vein, along which theie are thtee kinds of tip of nose, detailed in my introduction. Concerning the recitation, Guhyasamdja , C hap. X V I I I , p. 159, employs metaphorical language : pufpam ity abhidhiyante naiayofitkhadhatavah / kdyavakcittabhedena nyasatn kuryat knlakrarmiih j / T he nine ladies (jo fit) a n d realm of space akaSadhatu) are called flower. O n e should arrange it bv division into body, speech, and mind in the order o f the families (kula). Tsori-kha-pa (Mchan hgrel, p. 20-2) explains that the nine vomits arc the nine winds while the akasadh.itu is the tenth wind, tydna: and that the verse refers to diam ond m u tte iin g o f the three syllables (Om, Ah, H u m ) ol the three families respectivelv V airocanas Body, A m itab h as Speech, and Aksobhva's M in d ) to cause the (five) basic and (five) sreondarv winds to enter, stay, and rise (for leaving) (hjug gnas Idan). In its discussion of the Stage of G eneration' kind o f subtle yoga*, the Pradipoddyotana on C h ap ter Six cites the Samdhimikarana on C h ap tcr T hree (Mchan hgrel, p. 51) : pdn^aradijapah proktah pancavimiac chatadiaya caturbhir gurntam sarnyak caturyogam Satam nata (l

navaiatam tu yad drfjam caturvimSatparikramaih J pratyutpaddt bhaiet atra dvyayutam Sata^odaSam jj It is said th at the rocitaiion of Pandara and the other goddesses involves 225 (wind recitations). W hen well m ultiplied by four (goddesses), the union with four is 900. Now that observed 900 by a series of 24 would increase here (for day and night) to 21,600. W hen this same passage from the Samdhiiydkarana is quoted in Snags rim, f. 4 4 2 a-1, Tsori-kha-pa gives the explanation of the Amnaya~maiijari, th at w hen one is reciting the P andara wind, which is the (fire) wind of the Lotus-lord (A m itabha), then there arc 225 o f fiery P an d ara of fire, 225 of windy T a ra of fire, 225 of earth Locana of fire, and 225 of w atery M am aki of fire. A nd one can understand the recitation of the other three the same way. T h e *24' comes from division of watches. ( / gos dkar la sogs 2es pa ni pad m a mgon pohi rluri la mehi me gos d k a r m o dari mehi rluri sgrol ma dari mehi sa spyan m a dari m ehi chu M a-m a-kihi rluri riis brgva ner Iria re yod pahi dbari du byas la des g2an gsum yari ses par byaho ' hdi la thun phyed pa fier bi 2es m an srie las gsuns so / ). Since there arc eight watches by day and night, the num ber 24 must result from m ultiplication with the three mantras. T h a t this comes out com m ensurate with 24 hours seems lo be an accident. Divid ing on this basis, we find that each shortest recitation takes 4 seconds. W hen one is reciting the wind of the Lotus-lord, he would recite first the fiery Pandara of fire for four seconds of O m , four seconds of Ah, and four seconds of Hum. He continues this fiery P andara o f fire recitation for 225 times (45 minutes) before going to the windy 'Para of fire, and so on to the other goddesses for a total of three hours. T hen the instruc tion states to go through the process similarly in the case of the other three elements. This rem ark is clarified by observing that the Samdhivyakarana verses in question are quoted in the Paiicakrama (kram a No. 1; but the edited text by La Vall<e Poussin num bering them 45-46 does not notice these as con tinuation of quotation). T he commentary by Sri Lak$ml (P T T Vol. 63, p. 13) explains : / de la nin mo thun dari po la mgrin par gnas pahi padm ahi mehi dkyil hkhor las snahi bu ga gYas pa las kha dog dm ar pohi hod zcr hbyuri ba ste / dehi tshe dbari gi las hgrub pa

yin no/ thun gfiis pa la lte bar gnas pahi rluri gi dkyil hkhor las I snahi bu ga gYon pa la kha dog srion pohi hod zcr hbyuri ba ste / dehi tshe mrion spyod kyi las hgrub pa yin no j fli m a phyed las hrtsams tc / th u n gsum p a la gsari bahi padm ar gnas pahi sahi dkyil hkhor las gnis ka la kha dog ser pohi hod zcr hbyuri b a ste / dehi tshe rgyas pahi las hgrub pa yin no / thun h\ pa la sniri gar gnas pahi chuhi dkyil hkhor las / kha dog d k a r pohi hod zcr dal tin dm an p ar rgyu b a gnis ka las hbyuri ba ste / dehi tshe t\ bahi las hgrub pa yin no / m tshan m o yari de b iin du ses p a r byaho I H ere, during the first w atch of day, a light of red color issues through the right nostril from the fire circle o f the lotus based in the th ro a t; at th a t time one can succeed in the rite o f dom ineering magic. D uring the sccond watch, a ray eolored green issues through the left nostril from the wind-circle based by the navel; a t th a t tim e one can succeed in the rite of destructive magic. S tartin g at noon, in the third watch, a ray colored yellow issues through both nostrils from the earth-circle based in the lotus o f the sacral place; at th at time one is successful in the rite o f prosperity. D uring the fourth w atch, th rough both nostrils issues a slow an d slight ray, colored white, from the water-circle based in the h e a rt; at th a t time, one is successful in the rite o f appeasing (the deities). T h e same order takes place d u rin g the night (w atches). Sri Laksmi continues with explanation that those descriptions show the dom inant ray, but that the other three are represented fractionally. This agrees w ith the foregoing m an n er o f recita tion, which obviously involves a p erm u tatio n of the goddesses in the order of the four watches of the day, rep eated in the four watches of the night. T h e total o f recitations for the eight watches thus amounts to 21,600. O n e m ay observe that these subdivisions are governed by the eight-watch system o f classical times. T h e re is evidence th at in the B.C. period there was a system of six w atches (three by day and three by n ig h t). T his divided neatly w ith the muhurta (48 m inutes) u n it; an d recitation based thereon would be m ulti plied by five tattvas (or elements) in a pa heikarana type o f five fold fractions similar to the above four-fold fractions.

Finally, T son-kha-pa quotes nidana verse 12 in the course o f a com m ent th at clarifies the relation o f the generation cycle to the system of praxis, namely, in his Paiicakrama commentary (P T T . Vol. 158, p. 192-5 to 193-2): j hdi ni hchi bahi dus kyi rluri hjig tshul dris pahi lan yin la / de yari ji Itar mes bsrcgs pa na sin gi dnos po med par hgro ba b i i n d u / hchi bahi tsheyari rlun rnams srog Ijdzin gyi b a r d u rim gyis thim nas hchi iiri / yan ii bahi hod gsal las las kyi rluri sar te / de dari rnam Ses gnis lhan cig tu hjig rten gsum d u gnas pahi skye ba len no / / las kyi rluri de las kyari chags pa la sogs pahi kun rtog rnam s skye la / des las bzari nan gfiis bsags nas yari hchi iin yari skye b a hkhor lo bskor ba b i i n du hgyur ro / / srion du bsad pahi rdo rje bzlas pa sogs rim pa Iria ni g fi dus kyi skye hchihi rim pa dehi dbye bar hgyur ro fes gsuns so / j hgyur tshul ni / rluri hbyuri hjug rgyun Idan d u byed pa ni g iih i rdo rje bzlas pa yin te / de ftid las / gari yari khams gsum sems can rnam s / / srog dari rtsol ba la brtcn pa / / gsari sriags rgyal pa zlas b i i n du / / mi ses bsam gtan klog pa spans / / ies so / / dc Itar Ain m tshan kun tu rluri gi bzlas pa bvas pahi m th ar hchi ba ni / rluri phyi nari du rgyu ba log nas hbyuri ba rnams rim gyis thim ste / snari mehed thob gsum gyi fiams hohar ba ni sems dben gyi rim paho / / ricr thob kyi m th a r hchi bahi hod gsal h char ba ni hod gsal gyi rim pa ste g iih o ohos sku ic s kyari byaho / I hchi bahi hod gsal gyi m th a r phuri po rriiri pahi khrod na gnas pahi rluri sems tsam las lus rniri pa las logs su bye nas bar dohi lus grub pa ni rgyu lus kyi rim pa ste g iihi loris sku 2es kyari byaho / f g i i la dag m a dag gi sgyu lus kyi rim pa so so ba gnis med kyari / hdis lam dus kyi sgyu mahi sku gnis ka mtshon nus pa ni hchad par hgvur ro 1/ giihi bar do loris sku mig th a mal pa sahi mig gi yul du mi mthori pa de / skye srid du skye ba blaris pa na mig dehi yul du hgyur ba ni g iih i sprul sku ho / This (passage of the Vajramdld) answers the question about the dissolution of the wind at the time of death. Thus, just as when b urnt by fire, the substance of the tree is annihilated, so also at the time of death the winds sequentially dissolve up to prana (i.e. in the order, vyana, udana, samana, apana, p ra n a ) and one dies. T hen,

from the Clear Light of D eath the wind of action arises, and the pair consisting of the latter together w ith vijiidna, takes birth somewhere in the three worlds. From th a t wind of action the (80) vikalpa-s of desire, etc. arise, and therefrom one amasses good and evil, and the wheel of death and rebirth is so-to-say turned. T h e five stages (paiicakrama) of the aforem entioned diam ond m u tte rin g , etc. are said to differentiate the stages of b irth an d d e a th pertaining to basic time*. T h e m ethod of differentiating is as follows : T he continuous activity o f the w in d s in h a la tion and exhalation is t h e basic (1) diam ond m u tte rin g , as said in the same work (the Vajramdld), T h e beings in the three worlds taking recourse to pranayama (b rea th ing in and o u t) who recite the king of m a n tra s w ith ignorance, miss the m ental read in g . In th a t way, at the conclusion of the w ind-recital during the whole day and night, d e a th occurs by the passage outw ard and inw ard of the w ind being averted, followed by the serial dissolution of the elements, an d then (2) stage o f the secret state of m in d (cittaviveka), wherein the three (gnoses)L ight, Spread-of-Light, an d C ulm ination-ofLight, arise. T h e arising of the C lear L ight o f D e ath at conclusion o f the CuIm ination-of-Light, is the (3) stage o f C lear Light, also called basic D h a rm a k a y a '. A t the conclusion of the C lear Light of D eath, a body formed of wind and m ind-only emerges from the aged mass o f personality aggregates (skandha) , an d from the aging o f th a t body and consequent alteration the Interm ediateState body is produced, w hich is (4) stage o f Illusory Body, also called basic S am bhogakaya. As far as the basic (time)* is concerned, there is no differentiation o f t h e stage of illusory body into pure and im pure. However, as will be explained, for the time o f the p ath , it is necessary to posit two sorts of illusory body. T h e basic Interm ediateState Sam bhogakaya is not seen in the sense field of the fleshly eye, which is the ordinary eye. U pon taking birth through the birth process, w hat occurs in the sense field of that eye is (5) the basic (tim e) N im iana-kaya. I n that passage, Tson-kha-pa shows how to relate the five kramas o f the Stage of Completion, that is, in the time of the p a th ,

with the sequence of ordinary generation in the cycle of death and rebirth, that is, in basic time*. T h e correspondence thus established can be listed as follows : Basic Time Inhalation and Exhalation Dissolution o f the elements Clear Light of D eath Interm ediate State body Birth Time o f the Path D iamond M uttering Purification of M ind Personal Blessing Revelation-Enlightenment Pair-united

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C. Bhagavan sarva (The LordAll) C andrakirtis Pradipoddyotana on C hapter X V II (Mchan fygrtl, p. 152-5) cites this verse w ithout identification : / sarvavogo hi bhagavan vajrasattvas tathagata h j I tasyopabhogam sarvam vai traidhatukam aSefatafy // For all yoga is the Bhagavat. T h e D iam ond Being (vajrasattva) is the T ath ag ata. His whole enjoyment is the three worlds w ithout rem ainder. Now the yogin advances to a more refined yoga, with m inute partition of the world into partite realities (the hundred linea ges) identified with the five Buddhas or T athagatas. This is the Atiyoga, or stage of the body-mantfala containing the bodies o f all (sarca) the thirty-two deities em anated from the Lord (Bhagavat) as the bodhicittavajra. It corresponds in external ritual to the main part of the m andala rite during which one employs the five eolored threads representing the five T athagatas. T h e usual commcntarial explanations of the word Bhagavat*, in both non-tantric and tantric Buddhist texts, refer to the six allotments (or good fortune, bhaga) and the defeat of the four M aras (tcmptors or metaphorical death). For the six allot ments, there is the verse cited in SckoddeSafika o f Xatfapada (N aropa), p. 3 : aiSvaryasya sani'igrasya rupasya yaSasah Sriyafi j jnanasyarthaprayatnasya jannthfi bhaga iti sinrtih // It is taught that his good fortune is of the six : lordliness, excellent form, fame, prosperity, knowledge, and zeal o f the goal. For the defeat of the four Maras, this tradition has special

features such as explaining the defeat of the skandha-m ara in terms of the body-m andala, as in Alamkakalasa s I ajramatd commentary, p. 164-4 : / de la bdud bzi bcom pa ham dban phyug la sogs p a h i yon tan d ru g d an Idan pas na 1 benm Idan hdas so / dc la ston pa nid bsgoms pas hchi bdag gi bdud bcom mo // lha sum cu rtsa gnis kyi bdag Aid can gvi dkvil hkhor gyi hkhor lohi rnam pa ran gi lus la vons su ses pas plum po bdud bcom mo de b fin gsegs pa lnahi rnam pas fion moris pa lna vons su ses pas non moris pahi bdud boom m o / bgegs skrad pahi dus na dban po la sogs pahi phyogs bcuhi hjig rten skyori ba la plm r bus b tab pas rnam par bcom pahi phyir lhahi buhi bdud bcom mo By reason o f defeating the four M aras or o f having the six qualities of lordliness, and so on, h r is the Bhagavat. By contemplation o f voidness he defeated the M rtyu-m ara (D eath m a ra ). By fully recognizing his own body as the circular form of the mandala having the em bodim ent of the thirty-two gods, he defeated the Skandha-m ara (Personality-aggregate* m a r a ). By fully understanding the five defilements as the aspects o f the five T ath ag atas, he defeated the K lesa-m ara (Defilement m a r a ). At the time of frightening away the hindering demons, be cause he defeated In d ra and the other ten Lokapalas by applying the magic nail, he defeated the D evaputram ara (Son-of-the-gods m a r a ). Concerning the AH (sarva), Pradipoddyotana on C h ap ter X I I I , first sentence, comments on the epithet muni : He is called muni because he lives in the mind of all the T a th a g a ta s* (ian>atathdgatamanovarttitvad muniin). Besides, all tilt- deities are an expres sion o f the B uddhas mind of enlightenm ent' (bodhicitta), a term which also means the male-female bindu in the central channel and the mysterious substance tasted in the 'Secret Initiation ol the Stage o f Completion. This *aIl'-int'liisive character of the bodhicitta is portrayed in some verses of Tsonkha-pa, in his Rnal-hbyor dag-pahi rim p a " (P T T . Vol. 160. p. 85) : I gat) iig gzugs dan tshor ba hdu Ses hdu byed dan / / mam par Ses dari skye niched drug dan dbaii po drug j j sa chu me dan rlun dati nam mkhah thams cad ni j

( bya ft chub sans hdra rgya chcn de la phyag htshal lo jj / gti mug nes pa hdod chags rdo rje chos bcas gafi f ! rig pahi sbyor ba lasbyun rtag tu rab hbrcl bar / j rnam pa sna tshogs dgah has myos pahi dnos gyur pa f j byan chub se w hdra igya chcn de la phyag htshal lo jf j sdud dan dgah dan rnam pa dc bzin mi hgyur dat) f j rgyu dan hbras buhi ran biin sems su rjes thogs chos f j rmons dan ic sdan hdod chags sgrib pa rdo rje sic j j byaft chub sems hdra rgya chen de la phyag htshal lo jj f Ses pas lha sum cu so gnis la phyag byaho j. I bow to th at expanse like bodhicittaall that is riipar vedana, samjria, saniskara, and vijfiana; the six (external) sensory bases, and the six sense organs; earth, water* fire, an d wind and space. I bow to that expanse like bodhicittaany fault of delusion along with the nature of diamond lust; which by continual union arisen from association with the consort (vidya) becomes an clement intoxicated bv variegated ecstasv. I bow to that expanse like bodhicittathe reunification, the ecstasy, the aspect, the unchanging Thusness; the intrinsic nature of cause and effect as a nature afterwards obtained in the m ind; the diam ond obscuration of delu sion, hatred, and lust. W ith those verses one bows to the thirty-two gods. In the first of those three verses, the five personality aggregates (,rupa, etc.) arc the five skundha-Tathagatas; the six (external) sensorv bases are the live goddesses called vajra and also sems ma (for the sixth sense object, some goddess would do double d u tv ); the six sense organs are six of the Bodhisattvas; the five elements (earth, etc.) are the lour goddesses Locana, etc. (the dhatu-mndrii) ami the Akasadhatii. T h at list includes all the deities which are subject to division into five aspects, namely : (a) five skandha-Tathagatn (nidana verse 14). (b) four dhatumudra (verse 15), six indriya-bndhisattva (verse 16), and (d) five vifaya-uajra (nidana verse 20), Tsori-kha-pa explains (PIT ', Vol. 158, p. 205-3) that the ten krodha or wrathful gods, in the ten litnbs, and the bodhisattvas Maitreya and Sam anta bhadra, in the joints anti vein's, are counted among the thirtytwo gods for the purpose of arcane body (kaya-viveka), but are

not each divided into five aspects because they were not so indicated in the basic T antra. T he hundred subdivisions arc listed by Aryadeva in his Caryameldpakapradipa (P IT ', \ ol. 61, p. 205-'), line 7, to 297-5, line 8 ). In my annotation I follow the sulxlivisions as present ed in Tsori-kha-pas Paiicakrama com m entary Gsal bahi sgron me (PT T , Vol. 158 pp. 20-1 and 205) and a few differences with the lists in that Peking edition ol Aryadeva s work may be due to the fact that Tsori-kha-pa employed all translations o f this work in T ibetan, as I pointed out in Notes on the Sanskrit T erm Jndna p. 267, note 59. Aryadeva, op. a t., p. 295-5, merely cites the Candtagtthyalilaka (^/ gsari thig le) as m ention ing the term hundred lineages. Tsori-kha-pas exposition always uses the order V airoeana, R atnasam bhava, A m itabha, Amoghasiddhi, and Aksobhya; and means this order in m any other places by saying V airoeana etc. T his shows the Guhyasamaja traditional correspondences to the skandhas to agree with the old Buddhist statem ent of the skandhas (cf. nidana verse 9, above), and this gives rise to the table in Tucci (Tibetan Painted Scrolls, I, p. 240), where the standard jurisdictional activity of the Buddha families is given in the same order : m o h a(d elu sio n ), abhim ana (pride), raga (lu st), irsya (envy), krodha (w rath ). W hile this work was being p rin ted , th e a u th o r tem porarily in J a p a n heard th at a scholar w ondered ab o u t th e consistency of the Guhyasamdjatantra to have A ksobhya as the chief deity and yet apparently in another place assigning this role to V airoeana. But by reference to the A ksobhya-m andala translated above it will be noticed th a t the placem ent o f Aksobhya in the center gives V airoeana the assignment to th e East. In this T a n tr a Aksobhya has the role of em an atin g , as though from above downwards, the whole m an d ala. T h e h u m an c a n d id ate has to work from dow nw ards u p w ard and lie docs this by the corres pondences which start from the East, so there is no inconsis tency. T he subdivisions am ounting to a hundred lineages as well as other lists in the annotation ol these verses, are somewhat tedious, unless the reader can sense the interesting sidelights on Indian civilization suggested by the way o f sectioning the worlds into these partite realities grouped under the five T a t h a gatas as building-blocks o f the world, which is m ade u p of them

in various permutations and combinations. T o help the reader to this point of view, four summarizing tables have been included under the respective nidana verses (Nos. 14, 15, 16 under Bhaga van sarva and No. 20 under T a th a g a ta ). By way of easing the reading of this annotation set, I have omitted the T ibetan passages for the partite realities and hundred lineages, since th is subsection is already swollen with technical details. j jBHAjf bhaviny asmiti prakrtayn rdgdrdgddikdh punah J tdbhya(h) SubhdSubham karma tato janma-samudbhavah //13// In this gestation are the prakrtis desire, aversion, and so on; as a result of those, auspicious and inauspicious karma; therefrom the origination o f (re)birth. Mchan : In this gestation means the three lights. Auspicious karma leads to birth in a good destiny (sugati), inauspicious karma to birth in a bad destiny (durgati). Again, after amassing the two kinds of karma one experiences the Clear Light of D eath, then undergoes the Interm ediate State (antardbhava), and is reborn through a womb or by some other means of birth. In further explanation, after the amassing o f karma, when facing death, earth dissolves in water, watci in fire, fire in wind, the wind which stirs up the (80) vikalpa-s in Light, that in Spreadof-Light, that in Culmination-of-Light, and that in the Clear Light of Death. This sequence of dissolution is the direct order (ianuloma-krama) and describes the secret state of mind (cittaviveka, sans dben). Pancaf:rama. 2nd krama, 44-47 ; Sri L.iksmi (op. cit.), p. 27-3, ff.: krtva subhdiubhain kamia bhuvruinti gatipahcake ff dnantaryddikatn krtva narakesu vipacyatc ff Subham danddikam krtva svargddtfii mahiyate f anantajamm sdhastam prdpya caivam punah punah ff punakarmtv ipako ' yam iti Socati mhatah j prakrtyabhdiayogaia ycna kliiyanti jantavah jf jtiatvd tam eva mutyante jndnino bhai'apaiijatdt f prajndsvabhdva evdyam atndianiandalakalpana Jf Having done go<d and evil deeds they wander in the five destinies; having committed the sins of immediate retri bution, they ro;isl in the hells; having done the good deeds of giving and the like, they thrive in heaven and other (good destinies):Again and again this Ixappens during their uncountable lives. This maturation of former

deeds distresses bccause* ol delusion; the beings arc tor m ented by wav of the (eighty) prakrti lights. T h e knowing ones who know that, are liberated from the net of genera tion. This intrinsic nature of ptajnd is (tepresented in the Stage of Generation' as) the imagination of the lunar disk. While the Mchan annotation and the above citation from the Paiicakrama treat the entire cycle of karnm and truil in generali ties, the nidana verse 13 in tact emphasizes birth or rebirth. This is consistent with the observation in the Introduction III* E. Grouping the nidana karikas', that the stage ol Atiyoga, the body-mandida, corresponds to biith. This nidana verse therefore corroborates the remark in 1 sori-kha-pas I)n gsal ba on the Guhyasatnaja ( P r i , Vol. 100, p. 121-1, 2) that tlu* Stage of Generation corresponds to the development of the nu n ot the first aeon : first, a condition of d eath ' corresponding to the generation of the palace in Yoga; second, a condition of inter mediate state5 corresponding to the generation ol the prim eval lord in Anuyoga; third, a condition of b irth conesponding to the body-mandala as though in the genet ation cycle of the womb during Atiyoga. According to Tson-kha-pa in that place, this birth* is illustrated by the dcscent from the T u sita heaven of the Bodliisattva for his last life. Referring to the correspondence of five stages at the close o f the preceding gio u p of verses (Ekasmin samaye), birth corresponds to the fifth krama, pair-united {yuganaddha), and so to the pair-united with training (.Saik^a-yuganaddha). 1'his yuganaddha phase o f course occurs in the Stage of Completion, not in the present Stage of Generation. II GA If gatih satnbhavati skandhah paricabuddhatmakah punah j paiicakarabhisambodhir iti nama pracoditah If 14 // A skandha occurs as a destiny (gati), also as (one of) the five buddhas, an d exhorted as (one of) the abhisambodhi of five kinds. Mchan : As a destiny (gati)* means belonging to the six fami lies (rig* drug g i). T h e contemplation of the skandhas as equi valent to the Buddhas is the arcane body (kayavivtka). Tsori-kha-pas remark about destiny means the standard Buddhist doctrine that the live skandhas can appear in any one of six destinies, those of gods and m e n ; of asuras; and o f anim als,

h ungry ghosts, hell beings. T he correspondence of skandhas to Buddhas is standard (cf, Guiscppc Tucci. Tibetan Painted Scrolls. I, p. 238) : rupa (Vairoeana), vedana (R atnasam bhava), samjna (A m itabha), samskara (Amoghasiddhi), vijnana (Akso bhya). T he contemplation of the correspondences takes place in the Stage of G eneration; the identification in fact is the achievement of the Stage of Completion. The five kinds of abhisambodhi mean here the five of the Stage o f Generation rather than the five of the Stage of Completion (nidana verse 36). In the present case, fortunately we can use the correspondences from Mkhas grub rjes Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras, C haptcr One. T here the moon corresponds to Aksobhya, the second (the red m oon) to Ratnasam bhava, the germ syllable to Amitabha, the hand symbol to Amoghasiddhi, and the image to Vairoeana. Since the five T athagatas have already been indicated in terms of the skandhas, the five abhisambodhis of m oon, and so forth, are in turn made to correspond. In their undivided correspondence to the Tathagatas, the five skandhas arc said to have partite reality, in terms of their coirespondence to the five defilements given above under Sm in, with rupa-skandha called delusion (moha). Tson-kha-pa, R nal hbyor dag pahi rim p a (Vol. 160, p. 91) : Having purified delusion, . . . (etc.), one is transferred to the rank of Vairoeana, etc.; thus the partite reality of the (iespcctive) T ath ag ata (gSegs pa dbyun ba hi de nid). T hus the defilement (kUfa) brings the yogin to a particular Buddhahood, by his purifying that very defilement going with that Buddha. T he authority for the hundred lineages subdivisions of skandhas is Guhyasamdjatantra, X V II, p. 137 : ' paiieaskandhah samdsena pahcabuddhdh prakirtitdh / T he five skandhas are proclaimed in short to be the five Buddhas. Tson-kha-pas Pahcakrama commentary (Vol. 158, p. 204) : Among them, when dividing up the rupa-skandha = Vairocana, (1) Shape, long and short, etc., whether inner, outer, or both; (2) aspect of oneself, other or both; (3) color, blue, etc., whether inner or outer; (4) lustre of sun, moon, etc., whether inner or outer; (5) form which lacks representationhave in the given order, the Vairoeana, the Ratnasambhava, the

Amitabha, the Amoghasiddhi, the Aksobhyaof V airoeana. When dividing up the vedana-skandha R atnasam bhava (1) impartiality and indifference; (2) (feeling) arisen from bodily phlegm and wind; (3) joy a n d suffering; (4) (feeling) arisen from meeting (of perception, sense organ, an d sense object); (5) feeling arisen from bile,have in the given order, the Vairoeana, etc., of R atnasam bhava. W hen dividing u p the samjiia-skandha A m itab h a ( I ) (ideas of) the non-moving an d the unchanging; (2) (ideas of) the four-footed stage; (3) (ideas of) the footless stage; (4) (ideas of) the multiple-footed stage; (f>) (ideas of) the two-footed Stagehave in the given order, the V airoeana, etc., o f Amitabha. When dividing u p the samskara-skandha A m oghasiddhi, (1) (motivations of) the body; (2) (motivations of) the three realms; (3) (motivations of) speech; (4) (motivations of) libe ration; (5) (motivations of) the m ind have in the given order, the Vairoeana, etc., o f Amoghasiddhi. W hen dividing up the vijndna-skandha Aksobhya, (1-5) the perceptions based on eye, etc. down to bodyhave in th e given order, the V airoeana, etc., of Aksobhya. This multiplication o f each T a th a g a ta by each T a th a g a ta yields the num ber 5 x 5 = 25, the num ber o f twisted threads outlining the palace in the m andala-rite. Also, Tson-kha-pa, Rnal hbyor dag pahi rim p a (P IT ', Vol. 160, p. 89-2) states : T he five colors of the mandala are the purity of the five skandhas {phun po lna rnam par dag pa ni dkyil hkhor kha dog lna).

V.

PA RTITE R EA LITIES O F T H E FIV E TATH AGATAS IN T H E F IV E SKANDHAS Vairoeana shape impartiality of the inanimate of body eye Ratnasam bhava aspect from phlegm and wind of the fourfooted of three realms ear A m itabha color joy and suffering of the footless of speech nose Amoghasiddhi lustre from sense contact of the multiple footed of liberation tongue Aksobhya (unrepre sented) form from bile of the twofooted of the mind body

Skandha (T ath ag atas)' rupa vedana samjfta samskara vijnana

II FXV jj vdyus tfjo jalam (bhumir) locanddicatuftayam / jndnatraydtmakajneyam buddhabodhipradiiyakam // 15 // Wind, fire, water, earth, arc the quaternion Locana and so on, which is to be known by one with the nature of the three gnoses as conferring the enlightenm ent o f the Buddhas. Mchan : O ne with the nature of the three gnoses means one who has experienced the three - Light, Spread-of-Light, Gulmination-of-Light in meditative attainm ent after being engaged in subtle contemplation of the lower orifice (hog sgohi phra mo bsgoms pa). Which is to be known means after having realized the inseparable bliss-void (sukha-iunya) one returns to expe rience of external objccts along with the subsequent attain m en t o f knowing them in the m anner o f t h e three gnoses = the three lights. This involves contem plating the five progenitor-Buddhas in each of the four elements. T his is the arcane body (kdyaviveka) in terms of elements (dhatu). T he four goddesses are assigned interm ediate directions in the mandala. South-east etc. are Locana, ctc. T hus, Locana, south-east; M ainakl, so u th -w est; Pandara, northW'est; and T ara, north-east. Since Locana, ctc. means, in correspondential terms, earth, etc., niddna verse 15 states the goddesses in reverse order. T h e verse indicates that one must be cautious in interpreting the phrase Locana, etc. sincc a series may be m eant th at does not really begin with the corres pondence to Locana. This is also a problem in the respective jurisdiction of the goddesses, as follows : Tson-kha-pa, R nal hbyor dag pahi rim p a , (Vol. 160, p. 91) : T he jurisdictional activity (sgos mdzad p a ) . o f t h e four goddesses Locana, ctc. is in order : 1. Appeasing (Sdntika) the sentient beings torm ented by illness an d demons. 2. Protecting and making prosper (pautfika) those troubled by hindering elements. 3. Pacilying and guarding against the demons which oppress sentient beings. 4. Dominating (vaStkarana) all sentient beings. Thus the partite reality of the (respective) T a th a g a ta consort. According to the information presented under niddna verse 12, it is clear that the correspondence does not take No. 1 as going

w:th Locana, despite the Locana, ctc. Indeed, the jurisdic tion order is Mamaki for No. I, Appeasing (Sdntika); Locana for No. 2, 'Prosperous' (pauffika); T a ra for No. 3, Overpower ing (abhicaraka) ; and Pandara for No. 4, Dominating (oaif* karana). At the beginning of C andrakirtis Pradipoddyotana on Chaptcr X IV , he mentions that one performs the appeasing rite (white), facing N orth; prosperity rite (yellow), facing East; over powering rite (black), facing South; and dominating rite (red), facing West. (Therefore, the jurisdictional order ofthe goddesses is clockwise in tenns of the direction being faced.) Candraklrti goes on to citc an unnam ed explanatory tantra: yathoktam bhagavata vyakhyatantre / vajrapanir aha / adhyatm ika vela iti bhagavan kim ucyatc / bhagavan aha / adhyatm ika vela nam a vajrapanc mahaguhyatiguhyam atisiiksmam bodhicittadhisthitam jn an am moksaya satlvanam m antranam siddhisadhane santi-paustikakarm a ca / tatha vasyabhicarake * agrahyo bhagavan / santah cittadhatus tathagatah / yatha puspe bhaved gan d h ah tatha sattvahfdisthita vihared ardhayamika vela parip aty a y ath ak ram am agnivayavyam ahendravarune p ratim an d ale rakta krsna tath a pita sita caiva samasata iti / T he following was said by the Lord in the Explanatory T a n tra : Vajrapani said, Lord, what is said to be the inner interval ? T he Lord spoke, Vajrapani, the inner interval is among great secrets still more secret, highly subtle the gnosis empowered by the bodhicitta for the liberation of sentient beings, and the rites of appeas ing and prosper ity, so also, of overpowering and dominat ing, in the accomplishment of siddhis going with mantras. T he Lord is imperceptible, calm; the T athagata is the realm of consciousness. As in the flower is perfume, so in the heart of sentient beings dwells the half-watch interval, in short, red, black, so also yellow, white, in sequence according to their order, in the several tnantfalas (cakras of the body), to wit, fire, wind, earth, and water. The meaning of haIf-watch interval is clear by the data under nidana verse 12, that one recites each goddess in periods of 45 minutes. Therefore, the red, black* is two such periods or the

hours constituting a half-watch; so also yellow, white*. It is of interest to observe that the sequence of jurisdiction by the goddesses over the four rites is the same order in which their respective elements are said to arise in lunar months in the information under nidana verse 8; and of course, the very reverse of this order is the recitation sequence ot the tour goddesses. T he hundred lineages authority for the four goddesses is Guhyasamajatantra, Chap. X V II, p. 137 : prthioi locana khyatd abdhatur mamaki smrta j pandarakhyd bhavet tfjo vayus lara prakirtita // Locana is earth; M amaki, water; Pandara, fire; T a ra , wind. Tsori-kha-pas Paiicakrama commentary (Vol. 158, p. 204) : Among them, when dividing up the earth element Locana, by external and personal, (a) the personal arc : (1) the essence of head hair, bone, excrement, liver; (2) the essence of body hair, nails, pus; (3) the essence of teeth, skin, flesh(?); (4) the essence of tendons, flesh, ribs; (5) the essence of filth, intesti nes, b ile ;...a n d , (b) the external are: (1) M ount M eru; and (2-5) the South, West, North, and Last Continents. T h e five personal and external groups have in the given order the Vairoeana, etc. o f Locana. (Vairoeana, etc. means V airoeana, Ratnasambhava, A mitabha, Amoghasiddhi. and Aksobhva). When dividing up the water element M am aki, (a) the personal arc: (1) phlegm, along with tears; (2) menses and blood; (3 )(sem en ); (4) lym ph; (5) urine; and (b) the external are: (1) waterfalls; (2) rivers; (3) springs; (4) ponds; (5) oceans. Both groups have, in the given order, the V airoeana, ctc. of Mamaki. W hen dividing up the fire clement Pandara, (a) the per sonal are : (1-5) the heat of (1) the head, (2) the (secrct) navel, (3) all the limbs, (4) the belly, (5) the heait (the c h e s t? ); and (b) the external are: (1-4) fire from ( I ) stones, (2) burning crystal, (3) wood, and (4) forests; (5) tire placed in continual series (as in Divali ?). Both groups have, in the gfiven order, the Vairoeana, ctc. of Pandara.

VI

T H E TWENTY PERSONAL-EXTERNAL PAIRS R E P R E S E N T IN G P A R T IT E R E A L IT IE S OF T H E FIVE TATHAGATAS W IT H IN T H E F O U R ELE M E N TS_________________ Earth (Locana) head hair, bone, excrement, liver Mount Meru W ater (M am ak i) phlegm and tears waterfalls menses and blood rivers Fire (Pandara) head heat fire from stones heal of (secrct) navel fire from burning crystal heat of all the limbs fire from wood heat of the belly forest fire heat of the heart (the chest) ? fire placed in continual series 1 Wind (T ara) vyana upper winds apana
o n the commentary

Elcment-Goddesses: 1 Vairoeana

Ratnasambhava

body hair, nails, pus South Continent

south winds

forty

Amitabha

teeth, skin, flesh West Continent

(semen) springs lymph ponds urine oceans

udana west winds samana north winds prana

n id a n a

Amoghasiddhi

tendons, flesh, ribs North Continent

verses

Aksobhya

filth, intestines, bile East Continent

235

east winds

**When dividing up the wind element = T ara, (a) the personal are : (1) vyana, (2) apana, (3) udana, (4) sam ana, (5) prana; and (b) the external a r c : (1) upper, (2) south, (3) west (4) north, (5) eastwinds. Both groups have, in the given order, the Vairoeana, etc. of T ara. G ranted that if one counts separately the personal and external subdivision among the four elements it adds up to twice twenty. Nevertheless while thus dividing the earth element, etc. into personal an d external elements, (for purposes of one hundred lineages) the total is taken as tw enty. Besides the above materials, which draw out the implications -of nidana verse 15 in terms of ihe praxis in the Stage o f G enera tion, that niaana verse requires further annotation to explain how those goddesses confer the enlightenm ent of the Buddhas as a conceptualization in the Stage of G eneration and as an actual accomplishment in the Stage o f Completion. Mchan's annotation suggests that the particular phase of the Stage of Generation in which such a conceptualization takes place is taught by nidana verse 19 which deals with the subsequent attainment*. T here are two m atters to be discussed : (1) the -conferring of enlightenment, (2) Mchan's rem ark ab o u t subtle contemplation o f the lower orifice. (1) O n e explanation for the statem ent that those goddesses confer the enlightenment o fth e Buddhas is that the explanatory tantra Caturdevipariprcchiiy in the com m entary of Sm rti (P T T , Vol. 66, p. 155-2), shows that the four steps o f sadhana arc identified with the four goddesses: 1. seva L ocana; 2. u p a sa d h a n a * M am aki; 3. sadhana Pandara, 4. m ahasa d h an a* -T ara. However, the chief explanation would be in the Guhyasamdjatantra, C hap. X V , the chaptcr devoted to dream s and other auspices. Verses 32-34 can be understood as the auspice o f the later role of the four goddesses to be treated in verse group D iam ond Ladies of the H eart ; those three verses are here translated in Pradipoddyotana context (M chan hgrel, p. 123) : jn&nasattvaprayosoia madhye bimbatji prabhavayet / catuksthdneyu mantrajno yofitarji ithdpayet sadd // san'dlaAkarasanip urridm sarvalakfanalakfitdm j padmarfi prasaritarji krtvd idant tnantratji vibh&vayet //

II Hum ff pancaraSmiprabham diptam bhavayet yogam vajrinah / kdyardkcittavajufu pdtayan bodhim dpnuydt // By the praxis of the Knowledge Being, he should contem plate the image (of M ahavajradharas Body appearing instantly) in the centcr (of the lotus). T h e mantraknowcr should always place the lady (i.e. Locana, etc.) in the four spots (corners, i.e. intermediate directions) who has the full range of ornaments and who bears all the (ladylike) characteristics. Ha^jng made the lotus (of liis own heart, svahrtpadma, and of the doors, mukhak am ala) wide-open, he should contemplate this m antra : II H um ff He should contemplate the blazing light o f five rays as the yoga of the vajrin. Falling into the diamonds of his body, speech, and mind, it attains enlightenment. T he actual experience so indicated belongs to the phase Stage of Completion with the praxis called without prapafica* (nifpraparlca, '1'. spros brnl), which involves the experience of the three light stages whether in the forward or reverse direction. (2) T he subtle contemplation of the lower orifice is dis cussed at length in Tson-kha-pas commentary on the Pancakrama called (dan rdzogs kyi dm ar khrid (PTT, Vol. 159, pp. 120 and 121). Ii is the arcane body as a practice in the Stage of Completion; therefore it does not involve experience of the three Lights, which is called arcane m ind (ritiaviveka); rather, it is a preparation for (hat experience of the Lights. The lower orifice refers (o the lower orifice of the central vein (the avadhuti), which Tucci (Tibetan Painted Scrolls, I, p. 241) identi fies as the perineum. In Tsori-kha-pas work (op. cit., p. 120-2) the Mower orifice seems to be equivalent to the middle of the gem (nor buhi dbus) or lip of the gem (nor buhi rtse). In the male this is the root of the penis. T he subtle contemplation* (ibid., p. 120-4) involves contemplating at that spot a small solar disk and on it a drop (thig le, S. bindu) of substance having three features : its color is blue; its shape is round; its size is no bigger than a tiny grain such as barley and seen as the form of ones presiding deity (adhidera) brilliantly shining with five rays. In the basic Tantra, this contemplation is alluded to in Chapter Six, verse 15 (Documents). Iu Tsori-kha-pas

Mthah gcod on Chaptcr Seventeen ( P I T , Vol. 156, p. 58-3), the same spot seems to be called site of the vajra (rdo rjehi sa ^Si), which he explains as the lotus of the woman which is the basis o f the vajra (i.e. penis) in the sacral place (gsari gnas kyi rdo rjehi rten yum gyi padma). In the light of this terminology, when the yogin imagines there a bindu as above described, it can be described mystically as depositing the seed in the w om an. Accordingly, one could expect some different terminology in the case of an actual woman. Such seems to be the implication o f Tsori-kha-pas citation from the Yajtamdld (its chapter 16) in his commentary on the Vajrajnanasamuccaya (PT T , Vol. 160, p. 153-4, and p. 154-1). T h e verse citation as follows is not transparent : I bSari sgo gsari bahi dbus na gnas / j miri ni ma sky's rtsa chen no j j de yan mam Ses dari bral ba ! f ye Ses lus ni bdag med pa ! j der ni skye ba srog gi mchog j j srog chags rnams kyi mchog tu brjod I I t is situated in the middle of the sacral placc by the excrement orifice. Its nam e is G reat U n b o rn Root*. I t is free from vijhdna. T h e K now ledge-Body, selfless, is the best o f life born there, and is said to have the best of anim ated beings. Tsori-kha-pas com m entary (based on A lam kakalasas) ex plains the Great U nborn R oot as the w om b of the m other, the place where one takes birth. It is unconscious, insentient m atter, hence free from vijhdna. T h e Knowledge-Bodv of the Intermediate State, which is selfless because devoid of any ego substance that craves rebirth, so also devoid o f the coarse body (the vipdka-kaya) that undergoes states, is the best o f life born there, and rides on the prdna-w'md which is the best o f anim ated beings. (That discussion may point to the yoga-praxis of a woman as distinct from that of a m an ). II ^ II sarvatathdgatah kdyai caturmudraya madritah j cakfurddydtmand tatra kfitigarbhddijinaurasdh // 16 // Every T ath ag ata body is sealed by four seals. By means of the eye, etc. identifications, in that (body) are the Bodhisattvas K sitigarbha, etc. Mchan : T h e four seals arc the sam ayam udra of M ind, the

-dharmamudra of Speech, the m aham udra of Body, and the karm ainudra of Action. T he Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha is imagin ed in the eye; Vajrapani in the ear; K hagarbha in the nose; Lokcsvara (or : AvalokitcSvara) in the tongue; Sarvanivaranaviskambhin in the body surfacc; MafijuSri in the mind (manasindriya). This is kdywweka in terms of the (six) sense organs (indriya). Prakaiikd on SA, p. 293-4 : T he four seals (mudrd) have the characteristic of attracting from that (realm of light), drawing in, tying, and subduing. Some (Tathagata body) does the attracting, etc. of the knowledge being (jhdnasattva). Also, the four goddesses, Locana, etc. are the four seals ( / de las dgug pa dari/g2ug pa dan / bciri ba dan / dban du bsdu bahi mtshan nid can phyag rgya b i i poho / / gari gis ye Ses sems dpah dgug pa la sogs bya baho / / yari na spyan la sogs pa bi po ni phyag rgya h\ ste /...) . Paiicakrama, II, 50 : projiwpayasamdyogdt jayate devatakrtih j caturmudrabhir dmudrya dtvalagarvam udvahan jj Through the union of prajha and updya the configuration of deities is generated scaling with by four seals, conveying the pride of divinity. T he following directions arc assigned to the eight Bodhisattvas in the Aksobhya-mandala, translated pre\iously : M aitreya and Ksitigarbha Eastern pattika V ajrapani and Khagarbha Southern pattika Lokesvara and Manjughosa Western pattika Sarvanivaranaviskambhin and Sam antabhadra Northern pattika T he rite of imagining the Bodhisattvas in the respective places is depicted in the Guhyasamdjatantra, first half of chaptcr 11, where the emphasis is on the M aham udra, or body of deity. In regard to the lour seals of the niddna verse, the dharmamudra, samayamudra, mahamudra, and karmamudra, are explained in these passages of Tsori-kha-pas Don gsal ba (PTT, Vol. 160, p. 141-4): The syllables Hum, etc. are the dharm a mudra (seal of the law). The thunderbolt (vajra), etc. are the samayamudra (symbolic seal). Aksobhya, etc. constituting the circle of deities, are the mahamudra (great seal). (Hum la sogs pa ni chos kyi phyag rgyaho / / rdo rje la sogs pa ni

mtshan mahi phyag rgyaho / mi bskyod p a sogs pahi lhahi ^khor lo ni phyag rgya chen poho / . . . . (According to one view :) T h e wondrous action accomplishing the aim of all * sentient beings by diverse appearances ol the gods is the k arm a m udra (seal of actio n ). (lha rnams kyi gzugs sna tshogs kyis sems can thams cad kyi don byed cin sgrub pahi phrin las ni las kyi phyag rgyaho/). T son-kha-pa, R n al hbvor dag pahi rim p a , Vol. 160, p. 91-2: T he jurisdictional activity. . . .o f the eight, M aitrey a, e t c . , is, in the usual order, purifying the (1) veins; purifying (2-7) the sense bases o f (2) eyes, (3) ears, (4) nose, (5) tongue, (6) mind, (7) body; and purifying (8) the jo in ts of all sentient beings. Thus the partite reality of the Bodhisattvas. (The order is seen by the assigned directions, above, or else by the mchan note). T h e hundred lineages subdivisions in terms of the Bodhi sattvas is based on Guhyasamajatantra, X V I I , p. 137 : I vajra-ayatanany eva bodhisattvagryamandalarn iti / Precisely the adam antine sense bases arc called best m andala of bodhisattvas. Tson-kha-pa, Paiicakrama com m entary (Vol. 158, p. 204-4) : Among them, when dividing u p the eye K sitigarbha, (1) grasping the three kinds o f form (cf. verse 19) by means of the eye; (2) the white part around the pupils o f the eye; (3) form seen through a corner o f the eye ; (4) m ovem ent o f the eye; (5) an eye organ no bigger th an a grape or cornhave in the given order the Vairoeana, etc. o f K sitigarbha. W hen dividing u p the ear = V ajrap an i, (1) the intrinsic nature of the ear; (2) grasping the three kinds of sound; (3) the ear orifice; (4) the ear root; (5) an car organ like a twisted, cut-ofT ravinehave, in the given order, the V aiioeaua, etc. of Vajrapani. When dividing up the nose *= K h a g arb h a , (1) the ownbeing of nose; (2) inside of nose; (3) grasping the three kinds o f odor; (4) orifice ol the nose; (5) nose organ like a thin spoon for antim onyhave, in the given order, the V airoeana, etc. of K hagarbha. W hen dividing up the Lokcsvara of the tongue, (1) the own-being of the tongue; (2) its root; (3) its lip; (4) grasping the three kinds of taste; (5) tongue sense organ shaped like a

half moonhave in the given order the Vairoeana, etc. o f Lokcsvara. When dividing up the body < Sarvanivaranaviskambhin, (1) the sense organ of body; (2) the skeleton of the body; (3) the own-being of flesh; (4) the own-being of skin; (5) grasping the (three kinds of) tangiblehave, in the given order, the Vairoeana, etc. of Sarvanivaranaviskambhin. When dividing up the sense organ o f mind Mafljusri, where is gathered the three, Light, Spread-of-Light, and Culmination-of-Lightthe five knowledges: (1) mirror-like, (2) equality, (3) discriminative, (4) procedure-of-duty, (5) dharm a d h a tu have the V airoeana. ctc. of Maftjusri.

V II.

T H E P A R T IT E R E A L IT Y O F T H E FIV E T A T H A G A T A S W IT H I N T H E S IX SENSE O RG AN S R atnasam bhava A m itabha Amoghasiddhi Aksobhya

N O

ro T he Six Senses Vairoeana (Bodhisattvas) eye grasping the three kinds of form 1 car ow n-being of ear

w hite part around the pupil of the eye

form seen through a corner of the eye e a r orifice

movement of the eye

eye organ no bigger than a grape car organ like a twisted c u t off ravine nose organ like thin spoon for antimony tongue organ shaped like a h a lf inoon grasping the three kinds of tangible d h a rm a d h a tu knowledge

YOGA O F

grasping the . three kinds o f sound i inside o f nose

car root

THE G U H Y A SA M A JA TA N TR A

nose

ow n-being of nose

grasping the th ree kinds of odor

orifice of the nose

tongue

own-being of tongue

root of tongue

tip of longue

grasping the three kinds of taste own-being of skin proccdurc-of-duty knowledge

body

sense organ of body mirror-like knowledge

skeleton of body equality knowledge

own-being of flesh discrim inative knowledge

m ind

// II ananti ye tu tu,\fa vai ktodharajamahabaldh / tan digvidik-siabhavrw bhujadyangffu lakfayet // 17 // As for the mighty F u n - Kings who run delighted, one should dcpict them in their natural alxwJes of the quarters and intermediate directions and in the limbs such as the arms. JMchan : 'W ho run delighted means that they subdue the hostile spirits. This contemplation is kiiyaviveka in terms of the rakfdcakra> the protective circle. T he Fury Kings are ten in number, as named in the Vajramaid, chaptcr 23. T heir directions are stated in the Akfobhyamandala. body positions given in N agarjunas Pindikrta-sadhana 66-67, taking Prajfiantaka Aparajita, Padmantaka Hayagriva, Y ighnantaka = Amrtakundali. Fury Kings Position in Body Directions R ight arm (savyabhuja) 2. Prajnantaka South Left arm (apasavyabhuja) West M outh (m ukha) 3. Padmantaka North Face (vaktra) 4. Vighnfmtaka Agni (S.F.) Right side (daksina5. Acala bhaga) Nairrta (S.VV.) Left side (vamaG. Takkiraja bhaga) Vayu (N.W.) Right knee (daksina7. Niladanda jan u ) Left knee (vamajanu) Tsana (N.E.) 6. Mahiibala Above Crown o f head 9. Usnisacakravartin (murdhan) Below Both feet (padanta10. Sum bha(raja) dvaya) Tsori-kha-pa, Rnal hbyor dag pahi rim pa, Vol. 160, p. 91 : The jurisdictional activity. . . of the ten. Yamantaka, etc., is, in the usual order, destroying (1) the demons of senses, etc. (2) the demons o f jama, ma-rno, etc., (3) the demons of song and genitts loci, (4) the demons ofyak*a, ganapati, etc., (5) the demons of agni, (6) the demons of nairrta, (7) the demons of vdyu, (8) the demons of iiana, (9) the demons of brahma and deva9 F.ast 1. Yamantaka

(10) the demons of stationary and mobile poison (e.g. of herbs and of snakes, resp.), ndgay and genius loci. T h u s the partite reality of the krodhas. D. Tath&pata (Thus~Cone) T he last stage o f sadhanay the M ahayoga, includes the two samadhis called T rium phant m an d ala and Victory of the Rite*. In the Guhyasamdjatantra (C hapter O n e ) , the T riu m p h an t m andala1 is the thirteen-deity m andala (Tsori-kha-pa, Don gsal bay p. 144-1), because it is the revelation of the B uddha to the retinue of T athagatas. Similarly in this phase the m aster reveals the m andala to the disciple, who is then initiated in it. In fact, the T a th a g a ta verses fall into two of T a th a for the *Triumphant mandala* and two of G ata for the *\ ictory of the Rite*. T here are two interpretations of T a th a (the same w a y ) : (a) displaying (the same way) for the sake o f sentient beings {nidana verse 18); (b) afterwards ... should dwell (the same way) (verse 19). T here are also two interpretations o f G a ta (gone) ; (a) gone (as a divinity) to sense objects (for super normal faculties) (verse 2 0 ); (b) gone, rendered u p to, the T athagatas (verse 21). T here are five T a th a g a ta families (Guhyasamaja, C h ap ter I, p. 6) ; dtHfamohau tathd r&gai cintdmanisamayas tathd f kuld hy ete tu vai pancakdmamoksaprasadakdh jf H atred and delusion; likewise lust, wish-granting gem,, and symbol-pledge are the families. A nd they arrange the liberation in terms of the five desires (sense objccts). Mchan frgrel (p. 26-5) : H atred (dve$a) is Aksobhya*s F am ily; delusion (moha)y V airocanas; lust (rdga), A m itab h as; wishgnm ting gem (cintdmani)y R atn asam b h av as; an d symbol-pledge (samaya)) Amoghastddhis. Liberation in terms o f five desires (tense objects)* means the ultim ate akfara-mahdsukha (incessant great ecstasy).** According to our earlier indications (T h e two stages), the verse can be understood to m ean that the T athagatas arrange in the Stage of G eneration for the later liberation in the Stage of Completion. Also this literature attributes to each T a th a g a ta a superinten dence or empowering (adhif thana) f Vairoeana of Body, A m itabha

o f Speech, Aksobhya of Mind, Ratnasam bhava of Merits and Amoghasiddhi (called the karmanSlha) of Acts (karma). Following is a summary of the hundred lineages in terms of the partite realities allotted to cach T athagata on three tables in the previous group of verse comments and here under verse 19 : Vairoeana : Shape, im partial feeling, idea of the inanimate, motivation of body, eye perceptionamong skandha* Tathagatas. Head hair, etc. and M eru; tears and water falls; head heat and fire from stones, vyana and upper windsamong dhatu-mudras. Grasping three kinds of form; own-being of ear, of nose, of tongue, of body sense; and mirror-like knowledgeamong six indriya-Bodfusattvas. Barely visible form, sound inside ear, diffuse odor, sweet taste, and tangible of sitting on m atamong five vifayavajr&s. R atnasam bhava : Aspect, feeling from phlegm and wind, idea of the four-footed, motivation of three realms, ear-perceptionamong skandha-Tathagatas. Body hair, etc. and South Continent; menses and rivers; secrct navel heat and burning-crystal fire; apana and south windsamong dhatu-mudras. White part around eye-pupil, grasping three kinds of sound, inside of nose, root of tongue, skele ton of body, equality knowledgeamong indriya-Bodhi* salivas. Form clunvj to, song, specific odor, astringent taste, tangible of embracingamong vifaya-vajrds. Amitabha : Color, joy and suffering, idea of the footless, moti vation of speech, nose-perceptionamong skandha-Talhdgalas. Teeth, ctc. and West Continent; semen and springs; heat of all limbs and fire from wood udana and west windsamong dhatu-mudras. Form seen through eyecorner, ear orifice, grasping three kinds of odor, tip of tongue, own-being of flesh, discriminative knowledge among indriya-Bodhisattvas. Form of three kinds, pleasur able, etc.; palatal, labial, and voiced sound; odor of three kinds; salty taste; tangible of kissingamong tnfayavajras. Amoghasiddhi : Lustre, feeling from sense contact, idea of the multiple-footed, motivation of liberation, tongue-

perceptionamong skandha-Tathagatas. 1 endons, ctc. and N orth Continent; lymph and ponds; belly heat and forest fire; samana and north windsam ong dhatu-mudras. M ovement of eye, ear root, orifice ol the nose, grasping three kinds of taste, own-being of skin, and procedureof-duty knowledgeamong indriya-fiodhisaftras. Form accomplishing duties, nature's music, savory odor, sour taste, tangible o f inhalation-among vi^aya-vajras. Aksobhya : Unrepresented form, feeling from bile, idea o f the two-foolcd, motivation of the mind, and bodv-pcrcrption among skandha-Tathagatas. Intestines etc. and East C ontinent; urine an d oceans; heat ol heart and fire in series; p rana and east w indsam ong dhatu-mudtds. Fyc organ size o f grape, ear organ like ravine, nose organ like spoon for antimony, tongue organ like half-moon, grasping three kinds of tangible, and d h a rm a d h a tu knowledge am ong indriya-Bodhisattvas. Sensual form, incantations, foul odor, pungent and bitter taste, tangible o f copula tionam ong visaya-vajras. jj TA jj tattatkulasamudbhuta dcva devyah prtha^iidhah j na te santi na tah santi sattuartham pratidariitdh // 18 jj O f the different gods a n d goddesses generated by him and his family, neither the gods nor the goddesses exist, b u t are displayed for the sake o f sentient beings. Mchan : T hey do not exist separately : all those gods and goddesses are unified in the family o f V ajrad h ara. T his is ktyaviieka in terms of M ahaguhya V ajradhara. T he families are detailed at the end o f the Akfobhya-marj(fa!af previously translated, b ut I follow here X a g arju n a s com m en tary on the basic T a n tra (Dergc, Sa, 30a-1, ff.). T h e T a th a gata families include the following deities :

Tathagata V a iro ca n a

Fam ily M other L ocana

Sen se Object R u p av a jra

R a tn a sa m b h a v a

M am aki

Sahdavajra
G a n d h a v a jr a

A m ita b h a

Pantlara *

A m og h asid d h i

T a ra

R asavajra

A k sob h ya

(M a m a k i)

Sparsavajra

COMMENTARY

B o d h isa ttva

K rodha

Ksitigarbha and Maitrcya


O

Yamantaka and Acala Prajnantaka and Takkiraja Padmantaka and Nil ad and a Vighnantaka and Mahabala Usnlsaoakravartin and Sumbharaja

O N

Vajrapani Khagarbha Lokcsvara Sar van ivara naviskambhin, Manjusrl, and Samantabhadra

THE FORTY NIDANA VERSES

to

Those deities are all involved in what Bhavyakirti calls in his commentary on the Pradipoddyotana (F I I , \ ol <>0, j>. 275-2) the Tantric options' (hdam kha), citing in this connection Guhyasamdja, X I I I , verse 36 4 second hemistich here considerably emended) : kdyavdkcittavajrais tu svamantidrthagunetui ; d athavau}ni}asamayai r ajiidcakraprayojanam There is application of the command-circle (djndcakra) either bv means of the diamonds ol hodv, speech, and 4 * * m ind; by the purpose and the merit of one's own mantras', or by the pledges of the u\ni<a. According to the Pradipoddyotana on Chapter X III {.Mchan hgrel), p. 100-2, 3), the com m and' is used against the dcmonic dements. When by the diamonds ot body, j.pceih, an d m in d the five T athagatas arc m eant; and the 'com m and circle be longs to the goddesses, Locana, etc., of the five lamilies. W hen by the purpose and the merit of one's own numtias, i.e. the yogin families of Vairoeana, etc. the associated eight Bodhisattvas, Maitreya, etc., are m eant; the com m and circle* belongs to their purpose (artha) the mahamudra form generated trom the five abhisambodhis in the phase of prafhama-prayoga and belongs to their merit (guna), the fierce aspect of V ajrasattva arising from the transformation of the Bodhisattvas in the phase ot Victorious mandala. W hen by the pledges ol' the ufnha- -the ten krodhas starting from Usnisacakravai tin are m ean t; an d one applies their comm and circle. Besides, the generation phase o f niddna verse 18 can be illus trated both by the method of C hapter O n e and by the method of the master revealing to the disciple. In the first case, there is Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. I, p. 3 : I atha bhagavan bodhidttavajras tathdgatah $anatathdgatakd\avdkcittavajrasamayodbhai a-: ajram nama samadhim samapadyandm mahandydpurusamurtirn sanatathdgata-sattiddhiffhdnam adhi\fhdnam adhi,\fhdba\dim dsal samanantarddhiffhitamdtre sa eva bhagavan bodhidttavajras tathdgatas tnmukhdkdrena sanatathdgataih samdriyate sma / Then the Bhagavat, the vajra of bodhicitta, the l'ath.igata (come or gone the same w av'), immersing himself in the samadhi named D iamond of the Body, Speech, and Mind of all the 1 athagatas and D iam ond ol symbolic

generation, blessed the body of the great incantation person to have the blessing of the sattvas belonging to all Tathagatas. No sooner was that blessed, than the Bhagavat, the vajra of bodhicitta, the T athagata, was seen by all the T athagatas to have three heads. Mchan hgrd (p. 22-5) Diamond of Body, Spccch, and M ind, means respectively the syllables O m , Ah, H um. Diamond of symbolic generation* means deific generation through the five abhisambodhis, namely, generating from those three syllables the pair hand symbol* [Anuyoga] and finished body [Atiyoga], Great incantation* means the three syllables; and the body of a person o f those syllables means a mantra-body. T he method of generating is through the four^>'0,g< called (a) yoga, (b) anu yoga, (c) atiyoga, (d) mahayoga, which goes up through the generation of the three sattvas. Seen to have three heads means seen by al! the candidates in the world. In the second case, there is Guhyasamdjatantra, X , p. 40; Mchan hgrcl, Vol. 158, p. 73-4, 5 : .umtnim!rnpurufam dhyatva catuhsthdncfu rupatah j irimukhdkaraynoena triiumuna vibhdiaytt // Having meditated upon oneself as the incantation-person, one should contemplate in the manner of form (bodily color, hand symbol, etc. of Yairocana, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi) in lour places (the cardinal directions) by way of three-faced aspect (the three, lust, etc.; the three lights; and so on) and by means of the three syllables (Om. Ah, H um ). The second passage makes it clear that the three heads can be understood as the white light, red light, and dark light respecti vely of Light, Spread-of-Light, and Culmination-ofLight. Concerning the sattvas* of the first passage, which Mchan hgrd expands as the three sattvas, there is this passage in Nagarjunas Pindikrtasddhana (R ainakarasantis commentary, P T T Vol. 62, pp. 80 and 81): O m sarvatathagatakayavakcittavajrasvabhavatmako ham 91. adhisthayaivam atinanam sasimandalamadhyagam sadbhis cihnaih samayuktam cintct samayasattvakam 92. hrnmadhyasamsthitam suksmam jnanasattvam vibhavayet samadhisattvasamjiiain ca humkaram taddhrdi nyaset

nispadvaivam mahayogam uisattvattnakam atm avan anena vidhivogena mahasadhanam arabhet Om. I am tlio nature ot the liodv, Speech. and Mind diamonds ot all the T athagatas Having in that wav empowered himsrlt. he should rnntem platc a Svmbolic Being mma\asatt; a endowed with six signs(vajra, etc.. as listed in the Aiyhh',>i-ttir,ndala and lo( ated in the middle ot' a moon-disk. I l< should <ontemplate as stationed in the middle of its h*\ut a tinv Knowledge Being, and shotdd place in the la tte is hean heie, meaning first at the crown of head a Hum referred to as a C on centration Being samadhisattv.i . I he selt-possessed one in that way completes the M ah a\o g a identical to three sattvas. With such a praxis of rite he should enterprise the M ahasadhana. The contemplation o fth e three sattvas is s t a t e d brietlv iu Guhya samaja, Chapter X II, verses 4*v47 *I)f u m e n t s ' N agarjuna refers to this portion of C h ap ter X II in his Guloasamaja-mahayoga-tantrotpattikrama-sadhana-sutramdiipaka-nama I* I I . Vol. f>l, p. 274-2) and continues with a citation from (iuhasamaja C haptcr X I, which apparently justifies the verse 92 of his Pindikrtasddhana. T he Guhyasamaja verse is No. 1 > in that ch ap ter : * khavajramadhyagam dntet vajraman < Iant uttamam ja nispadya svarnanttapuru\am liumkaratn dttasamsthitam He should imagine in the middle of the diam ond sky the supreme diamond m andala, and complete his Mantra* purusa as a H um formed of dtta. In Mkhas grttb rjes Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras. pp. 29ti-7 (footnote), there is the citation from P adm avajras l\ihikatika on the Sri-Dakarnava : "The D harm akaya ot the yogim is the Samadhi Being; the Sambhogakaya, the Knowledge Being; the Nirmanakaya, the Symbolic Being, because one creates (those Beings) in direct vision in this world bv means ot those Bodies that wav. In his Dkah gnad, Tsori-kha-pa (Lhasa ed.. Vol. Ca. f. lOa-ti) shows the dissolution sequence of those same three sattvas, and uses the term article ot purification ' fbvan < 5 which means /) the affiliation to the three l>dies of the Buddha as in the loregoing identification by Padmavajra : In the lime of contem plating the Stage of Generation, the arising of the articles o f

93.

purification being consistent with the sequence of dissolution the Samayasattva dissolves in the jrtanasattva; the latter dissol ves in the Samadhisattva, whereupon (the yogin) enters the nada C.lear Light, his gaze fixed thereon ( / bskyed rim sgom pahi dus su sbyan gJihi hbyuri ba thim pahi ritn p a d a rim th u n par dam tshig sems dpah ye ses seins dpah la thim 1 de tin rie hdzin sems dpah la thim pa nas na-da hod gsal la Sugs pahi bar van gnas tier dmigs pa gtod c ir i... ). Alamkakalaias commentary on the Jajramdla (Dcrge K anjur , (Ji, f. 16Cb-3) says, 'lhe expression nada means the aspect of the A-letter (na-da ni Jes bya ba ni A yig gi rnatn paho). Thus, finally the yogin reaches the extreme non-prapanca (atyanta-nifprapaiiai) in the letter A, wherein neither the gods nor the goddesses exist. // TH A If .\thatavyam vifaytsv nsmQd yaginadvayadarfmd / h inamadhyaprarjilefu jiianatrayamdariatwt jj 19 If Afterwards the yogin who sees the non-duality should be dwelling upon sense objects inferior, intermediate, and superior* by seeing the triple gnosis. Mchan : Sees the non-duality m eans:sees directly the non dual knowledge o f bliss-void (sukha-i unya) while expctiencing the three light stages. Each of the sense objects is of three kinds according to the Guhyasamdjatanlra. C hapter V II; see B. B hattacharv)as edi tion. pp. 27-8: rupain vijnaya nividham pujayet pujanatm akah, ctc. T h e three kinds are now to be stated a s inferior, interm edi ate and superior. T h e Mchan hgrcl on Pradipnddyotana, Chapter \ II (Vol. 158, p. 56-1) mentions that riipa is of three kinds pleasurable, repulsive or displeasing, and neutral. Ihus, they correspond to the prakrtis of the three lights ( three jnanas), i.e. desire* lust for pleasurable torm; aversionhatred for repulsive form, while indillerence is said to be intermediate. Fur thermore, ibid., p. 55-3, the 'superior' kind of the sense object is the one seen as its own Buddha Family, and one should have desire for that kind. For example, the superior form* (rupa) is Vairocana and the deities generated by him. The idea here is alluded to in the Guhyasamaja, Chapter X V III, p. 158 (Sanskrit cited in history introduction): The desires (i.e. the live strands of desire, pancak&ma-

guna) form, sound, etc. pleasurable, painful, and neutralcontinually generate in the h eart th e source (respectively) of lust, h a tre d , and delusion*. Since the yogin experiences the three light stages, this is the second kind of carya, the inon-praparica kind. T h e hundred lineages subdivisions in terms o f deified sense objects are based on Gukyasamaja, C h ap ter V II, verse 14 (edited text corrected by authority of both T ib e ta n and C hinese): jrupaSabdadxbhir mantri devata bhdvayet sadaj T he mantrin should always contem plate as a divinity by means of form, sound, etc. Tsoii-kha-pa, Vol. 158, p. 205-1, fT.: A ccording to th a t (Guhyasamdja) passage, the arcane basis (dben gzi) o f the kaya~ viveka in terms of sense domains, is the five sense dom ains (themselves); and the contem plation of those five as the five diam antine goddesses (vajrd) is the kayaviveka (itself). Among them , the rgyu ba wind, based on the eye, assists in seeing the five kinds of form; a n d when dividing u p the visible form = R u p av ajra when it (the w in d ) is based on the set of three conditions [pratyaya, rkyen), (1) the barely visible form; (2) that clung to; (3) th a t of the three kinds, pleasurable, repulsive, n eu tral; (4) th a t one accomplishing duties; (5) sensual form, namely, vulgarly carefree, playful, an d co q u et tishhave in the given order the five families, V airocana, etc. of the goddess R upavajra. T h e mam par rgyu ba wind, based on the ear, assists in hearing sound; an d w hen dividing the h eard s o u n d * Sabdavajra ( I ) the sounds inside the ear, an d those of the h ead and its hair, (2) the sounds of song an d (tinkling) o rn a ments; (3) palatal, labial, and voiced sounds; (4) musical sounds o f glades, rivers, claps o f the palms, drum s o f earth en ware, etc., (5) mild an d fierce sounds of syllables such as H um have, in the given order, the five, V airo can a, ctc., o f the goddess abdavajra. T he yan dag par rgyu ba w ind, based on the nose, assists in the selection o f odors; an d w'hen dividing up th e smelt o d o r G andhavajra (1) a general odor, (2) specific odors, (3) the three kinds of odor, (4) savory odor, (5) foul odor-have, in the given order, the five, V airocana, etc., of the goddess G andhavajra.

T h e rab tu rgyu ba wind, based on the tongue, assists in enjoying tastes; and when dividing up the enjoyed taste R asavajra (1) sweet, (2) astringent. (3) salty, (4) sour, (5) pungent and bitter, tasteshave, in the given order, the five, Vairocana, etc. of the goddess Rasavajra. T he rtes par rgyu ba wind, based on the torso, assists in enjoy ing tangibles; and when dividing up the enjoyed tangible = SpaHavajrii (1) th at o f sitting on a single m at, (2 ) th at o f embracing, (3) that of kissing, (4) that of inhalation, (5) that of copulationhave, in the given order, the five. V airo cana, etc. of the goddess Spariavajra. T h e five ancillary winds, m entioned above successively by their a lte rn a te names in T ib e ta n , are further treated u n d er nidana verse 20.

254

V I I I . P A R T IT E R E A L IT IE S O F T H E F IV E T A T H A G A T A S IN T H E F IV E SEN SE O B JE C T S Sense Objects {Goddesses) Form Sound Odor T aste T angible Vairocana barely visible inside ear difTusc sweet o f sitting on a m at Ratnasambhava clung to o f song specific astringent of em bracing Amitabha o f three kinds, pleasurable, etc. p a la ta l, labia! and voiced three kinds salty of kissing Aitioghasiddhi th a t accom plishing duties musical sounds savory sour of inhalation Akyobhya sensual form mild and ficrcc incantations foul pungent and bitter of copulation

YOGA OF THE G U H Y A SA M A JA TA N TR A

l/O .tjl gacchann asty indriyas tat tat svayaifi svavifayarfi prati/ dhhasamdtrakam tat tad yad yad tndriyagocaram //20// While each an d every sense organ is going by itself toward its own sense object, w hatever be the sense organ and its range, each of them is light only* [abhdsamdtra). Mchan : Each o f them is light only means that both the sense organ and its range (gocara) is merely the combination blissvoid along with the knowledge of the three lights. Cf. Guhyasamajatantra, C hapter X I (2nd half), beginning with text, p. 46, line 12; now' text, p. 47, Mchan hgrel, p. 80-1-5: ftrivajrasaimyadhyamna trivajraketusamo bhaved ity dha bhagavan ratnaketuvajrahj By the m editation consolidating the three vajras (here: o d o rs pleasurable, repulsive, and neutral) one would be equal to Three-D iam ond Glory (T rivajraketu) so says the Lord R atnaketuvajra. (Three-DiamondGlory is hcnce the Bodhisattva K hagarbha generated in the nose by a R a tn a -O m ; compare niddna verse 16 above). (This m editation leads to supernormal faculty regarding odor). Likewise, Sanskrit text, p. 47: By the meditation consoli dating the three vajras (here : the three tastes) one would be equal to T hree-D iam ond-Im m easurable (hence the Bodhi sattva Lokesvara generated in the tongue by a D harm a O m , a n d leading to supernormal faculty regarding taste). Following is a sum mary of the five meditations that lead to supernorm al faculty (abhijnd) by consolidating the three vajras ( Guhyasamaja, X I, p. 46. 12, ff., with corrections in names of the O rns) : Bodhisattva Three Vajras o f or Buddha sense objects [i.e. pleasurable, repulsive, and neutral) Sound odor taste tangible form V ajrapani K hagarbha Lokcsvara Sarvanivarana viskambhin Vairocanavajra Om by which is generated the abhijnd Jiiana-O m Ratna-O m D hatina-Om Sainava-Oin Trikaya-Om Organ in which it is generated ear nose tongue body (surface) eye

Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrel (p. 81.4) : Previously, by the stage of generation (u tp atti-k ram a) one placrs the seedsyllables and (merely) points to the accom plishm ent of the five abhijna-s, because the Stage o f Com pletion (iampannakrama) demonstrates the actual accom plishm ent. Guhyasanuija, C h ap ter X I, p. 48, and Mchan hgrel (p. 81-4) : pancaiulam mahavajram paiicajvalazibh ufitamj pahcasthanaprayogena pahcabhijiiasamo bhaietff By the praxis o f the five abodes (the objects, form, e tc .), the great thunderbolt (maharajra) (which cannot be warded off) with five prongs (the five sense organs pierc ing their objects like spears) adorned w ith five flames (the five ancillary winds proceeding through sense orifices to objects an d returning as vehicles o f vijiiana), would be tan tam o u n t to the five abhijiia-s Ancillary wind Alternate name and color rgyu ba, red rn am p a r rgyu ba, blue yah dag p a r rgyu ba, yellow' rab tu rgyu ba, white nes p a r rgyu ba, green Passing through Piercing which which orifice sense object eye ear nose form sound odor

Naga K u rm a K rkila

D evadatta D hanartjava

tongue torso (surface)

taste tangible

N ote : In the foregoing table the o rd er o f the ancillary winds is the traditional order and the same in which they arc supjxised to arise in the intrauterine states, lunar m onths (>th through 10th. T he five colors are given by Tsori-kha-pa, Vol. 159, commentary on Pancakramat p. 7-5-5, a n d ascribed to a precept of Rje-hgos. According to Alchan hgrel on Pradipoddyotana, C h ap ter X V , verse 125, there is a d ream auspice of the m u n d a n e siddhi : jsarv&laAk&rasampSrnam surakanyam manoramamj jddrakam ddrikam paiyan sa siddhim adhigacchatifj

When he sees the delightful daughter of the gods replete with all ornaments, the lad, (or) the maiden, He gains the occult power (siddhi). As to when* one practises those m editations: Githyauitmljatantra, C hapter X I, p 48 : fiarratefu vivikteyn nadtprasravanefu ca' fSmaSdnadifv api kdryam idam dhydna^amuccayam!{ The set of meditations is done on lonely mountains, at flowing streams, and in cemeteries, etc. Ptadipoddyolana on tlu* above : In hinted m eaning (neyarlha), lonely m ountains arc m ountain peaks graced with flowers and f r u i t ; flowing streams' arc glades with flowing streams; cemeteries, etc.' means (for the etc.) isolated tree, empty house, temple, and so on. (Note that the three main categories go with three kinds o f magical practicea. appeasing deities, b. prom oting prosperity, c. destructive m agic). In evident meaning (nitartha), the lonely of lonely m ountains means free from reliance by other men, and m ountains can refer to maternal women. Flowing streams arc frequented by all men, and so arc the dissolute women. Worldly persons are like cemeteries, and so these are ontcaite women, washerwoman, and so on. (Note that they are the goddess in three forms : the mytholo gical M other, W hore, Devouring Karth*). I l l A jj tattadindriyamar&'na tifayani prdpya sadhakah f tathii"atebhyas sakalarn prinanfiya nivedayet //21 // While the sadhaka is reaching the sense object by way of this and that sense organ, he should make offering completely satisfying the Tathagatas. Mchan : The verse indicates the secret state of body (kSya~ viveka) consisting in contemplating the five sensory objects as the adamantine goddesses (uajta). Tson-kha-pa, Rnal hbyor dag pahi rim p a, Vol. H>0, p. 91 : The jurisdictional a c tiv ity ... of Rupa vajra, etc., is, in the usual order, purifying the longings for form, sound, odor, taste, (tangible); and then bring offerings to the Jinas as the pleasure of form, ctc. Thus, the partite reality of the sems-ma (the vajrd). Mchan hgrel, pp. 55 and 5G-I, 2 :For example, when

reaching the sense object forms by way o f the eye, he offers the lady R upavajra, who is the wtfjd-wind, completely satisfying V airocana. An a n a l o g o u s offering is made: in the case o f the oth er sense organs and sense objects, i.e. abdavajra to R atnasam bhava G andhavajra to A m itabha Rasavajra to Amoghasiddhi Sparsavajra to Aksobhva T he goddesses arc also referred to as offering Howers in Guhyasamdja, C hapter \* 111, p. 33 : padmam paneavid ham j fidfra ulfuilam ca vicakfanah jatikam triiidham ktiid deiatdndm niicdaytt fl ktirnikdrasya kusumam mallika) ulhikdm tathd karaiirasya kusumam dhydtid pttjdm prakalpayet A wise person, knowing the pndma and the utpala, of five kinds; an d having prepared the three kinds of jd ti, should offer them to the gods. H aving im agined th e K a rn ik a ra , M allika, Y uthika, and K arav ira flowers, he should co n tem plate them as worship. C elu-pas Samdja-vrtti (p. 185-4) explains that the five lotuses, utpala, etc. arc the five goddesses of the senses, R u p av ajra, etc.; th a t the three kinds o f jd ti are D h arm av ajra who pervades the three birthplaces; an d that K a rn ik a ra is L ocana, M allika is M am aki, Y uthika is Piin<j;ua, and K arav ira is T a ra . T h e Pradipoddyotana oil C h ap ter V I I I (op. cit.)> p. 64*I, explains th a t the five lotuses have the five colors going w ith the five T athagatas, and that jd ti is m ade into three colors. A m ong those words for flowers, jd ti is the Jasm in u m grandillower ; K arn ik ara, flower of Pterospermum acerilolium (Hibiscus m utablis, with red flowers); M allika, the Jasm in u m Z a m b a c ; Y uthika, a kind of Jasm in e; and K aravira, the O leander.

E. hdyai'UKcitta (Body, Spetch, and Mind) In the introductory discussion of the four Tantras, it was pointed out that the Anuttaravoga-tantra is preeminently inner samadhi. This description is justified by the Stage of Completion, which begins with niddna verse 22. According to Guhyasamdjatantra, X V II, p. 142: caityakamia na kurvita na ca pustakaiacanam / mandalam naiia kurvita na trivajrdgrarandanam // He should not engage in the rite of caitya, or in the recita tion of books; he should not make a mandala, or praise the best of the three diamonds. O n the preceding, Pradipoddyotana in Mchan hgrel edition says (P T T , Vol. 1">8, p. UiO-3) : This refers to the great yogin (Mchan : belonging to the Stage of Com pletion'). Regarding his sccret body, speech, and mind : . . . he should not engage in the rite of caitya (e.g. circum am bulation), including (pre paration of) the site and (removal of) gravel, etc., bccause it is not right (Mchan : for a person on the Stage of Completion who himself is all T athagatas) to have craving for caitya-wor ship; he should not recitc books, brrausc it is not right for one who has aroused the spontaneous diamond recitation to lend his voice to a different (recitation); he should not make an external mandala, because when the mandala is ones own body, it is not a case of the (stationary) earth-wiM</a/a ; he should not worship the best of diamonds, namely, the Srdvakas, pratyekabuddhas (concretely or their images), or the (image of) Samyaksambuddha, bccause it violates himself being all Tathagatas (in the steady state of comprehending bliss-void);.. .. In this phase there is also the practice called vidyd-vrata* (defined in Appendix III). The authoritative passage is in the Guhyasamdjatantra, Chaptcr XVI : (Mchan hgrel, p. 147-2, 3): kayavdkcittavajrdndm kdyavdkcittabhdvanam j svarupenaiva tatkdryam evam siddhir avdpyate jj 89 jj tairedatji svak&yavdkcittavidyavratam f

ja(drunk ufadharam bimbam sitavarnanibbam mahat f karayet vidhivat sarvam man t rasama rasamvrlam // 90 11 kandamutaphalaih sarvam bhojyam bhaksyam samacaret / 94A// T h e task is the contem plation of a body, speech. and mind belonging to (i.e. issuing from ) the Body-. Speech-, and M ind-diam onds and precisely like one's own ap pearance. J u s t so is the siddhi (of M a h a -m u d ra ) attain ed . H erein is the 'vidyavrafa' o f o n e s ow n body, speech, and mind. T h e G reat O ne, w hite in color, his (divine) form (of V airocana) b eatin g a crown o f m atted locks, practises everything in ritual m an n er, restrained by the mantra-vow. By means o f bulbs an d fruits, he subsists on all lood a n d drink. In T sori-kha-pas com m entary on the Paiicakramo (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 74-3, 4, 5 ), there is a lengthy discussion of w hat is m eant by the phrase precisely like o n e s own a p p e a ra n c e . T h is is frequently alluded to in Buddhist T a n tr a sadhanas by the term svabha (like oneself). T h e solution ap p e a rs to be th at the consort is one o f the goddesses L ocana, ctc. having the sam e dress as oneself as the yogin of one or a n o th e r B u d d h a. T h e consort is described in th a t C h a p te r X V I , verse 91, as the sixteen-yeared g irl. T h e m ean in g a p p a re n tly is th a t th e yogin is accom panied by a goddess-consort who has issued from his own body, spccch, an d m ind w hich have b een identified w ith the Body, Spccch, and M in d o f the T a th a g a ta s . T sonkha-pa explains th e phase as w ith o u t p r a p a n c a (nifprapanca). T u rn in g to the separate tre a tm e n t of k ay a, v a k , an d citta, according to previous indications the a rc a n e body as pratydhara and dhyana am ong the six m em bers o f yoga, is treated un d er the *Kaya verses (see Sri L a k sim s com m ent under YA). In th a t sam e Pahcakrama c o m m e n ta ry (the Gsal ba>ii sgron m e ), P T T , Vol. 158, p. 205-4, T son-khap a continues his discussion o f the h u n d re d lineages of arcane b ody to show how to condense them in to elem ents. A mong them, the 20 lineages belonging to the V airo can a-k u la, th a t is, from the lineage o i' rRpa-skatidha u p to the lineage of the tangible diam ond goddess, arc condensed into the elem ent of earth. Similarly the 20 parts of R a tn a sa m b h a v a lineage are condensed into the elem ent of w ater; the 20 of A m ita b h a lineage, into

fire; the 20 of Amoghasiddhi, into w ind; and the 20 of Aksobhya lineage into the element of vijiidna. Tsori-kha-pa mentions that the classification into five groups is further rcduced into three secret' families by the method of including Ratnasam bhava in the kdya-vajra family of V airoeana; Amoghasiddhi in the vdg-vajra family of A m itabha; and the sixth T a th a g a ta V ajradhara in the citta-vajra family of Aksobhya. T he three families considered as three vajras when taken as indivisible, yield the sixth adhideva V ajradhara, which is the ultim ate of kayaviveka (arcane body). T h e arcane speech' as pranayama, third of the six members, is included in VAK.\ N agarjuna starts his five stages here, with diam ond m uttering (vojrajdpa). T he praxis which begins with VAK is stated succinctly by Tsori-kha-pa in his com m entary on the Vajrajnanasamuccaya, Vol. 160, p. 159-3: T he generality in that regard is that the means of generating the three knowledges (jiidna) has the inner (subjective) condi tion of contemplating pranayama and the outer (objective) condition of resort to a mudra (seal', p a rtn e r). He explains the first as tlu: three kinds of pranayama based on three differently located bindus (see under V A R ), and the second as the genera tion of the four joys (sec under VA, verse 30). Therefore, the goddess companion previously mentioned in connection with vidyavrata has the function of helping the yogin generate the four joys. T he arcane m ind as dharana, the fourth member, is included in C IT -T A . N agarjunas system is more explicit, because it allows a whole krama, the purification of consciousness (icittaviSuddhi), for C IT the three light stages; and another whole krama, the personal blessing (svadhif thana), for TA entrance of the illusory body into the Clear Light. // AVI // kdyairayam samuddiflaqi prthagbhavena tdyina f ckdkdram punar yati nifpannakramayogatah // 22 II T he Protector (i.e. the Buddha) well taught the three Bodies as being different. Moreover, their unity occurs through the yoga of nifpatma-krama. Mchan : (When the three bodies are taught to be different, they are:) (I ) Dharmakaya associated in the Clear Light (of D eath) with a goddess; (2) Sambhogakaya generated from the five abhisambodhi as the primeval lord (adinatha);

(3) the latter converted into the Nirmanakaya. I his is taught in the Stage of Generation. Mchan: In the basic time, the unity occurs through) accom p lishing the primordial body ddideha Irom w ind-and-m indonlv belonging to the Clear Light ol death. Accordingly, in the time of the path, there is the secret ol sauKrti-mdyd a to n n p lishing the illusorv b*>dy Irom wind-and-mind-only belonging to the Svml)oIic Clear Light dpt'hi hod gsah. Mchan : In the case of the first krama the Stage of Generation, , there is only a mental orientation to conviction, but the path is lacking because there is no yoga of the three bodies. In the case of the second kravui. by yoga imiiying the three bodies it is not a m atter of figments of imagination. I hese remarks apply respectively to the two foregoing passages ol Mthan annotation). This nidana \rrs e (K .V ) and the next one (* \A ) continue and conclude the arcane body' J:d:mneka of the toregoing Stage of Generation. According to the Pradipoddyotana on X II, 60-G4, and its Mthan hgrel (D ocum ents,, the kind of arcane body is called purification afterwards o b tain ed . This, then, is the reflex in the Stage of Com pletion o f the pre ceding praxis. Hence the com m entators are allowed the latitude of using the verse K.V and VA to com pare the two stages in the m atter of the innate body, which is the basis o f the present praxis rather than the coarse body seen by the eye of flesh. KA* can be understood as pratydhdra (W ith d ra w a l), the first m em lxr. T o show the continuity of the Stage of Generation into the Stage of C om pletion, Pahcakrama, 2nd krama, 48*50; Sri Laksmi, Vol. 63, p. 27-j , IT., has the following: cittam evam srayant paiyet Siam eva Saiibimbai at atha candram sanidlambia vajracihnam prakalpmtt upayasucakarn hy clad vajrddyutpattiyogindm candravajrddisamyogdc cittacaitasasamgamah prajnopdyasamdyogdj jdyate dcvatdkrtih caturmndrabhir dmudrya devatdgarvam udiahan He should so regard his own mind as itself like a moon-reflection; then, he should imagine the ca/m-sign taking its support on the moon. I he (live)-pronged upd\a belongs to the )ogins of (th e Stage of) Generation ot the vajta, etc. From the G eneration union

of the vajra, ctc. and the moon there (results) the Comple tion combination of citta ( =~prajnd) and caitasa ( * updya). = From the union of prajnd and updya there arises the configuration of deity,scaling with four seals, con veying divine pride. T he meaning of vajra^ etc. is shown under niddna verse 18, referring back to the six signs listed in the Akfobhya-mm^lala. Hence the above verses show the continuation of the M aha sadhana phase of the Stage of Generation into the outset of the Stage of Completion. It is this union of prajnd and updya that unifies the three Bodies, according to Guhvasamdjatantra, IX , p. 36; Pradipoddrotana and Afchan hgrely P T T . Vol. 158, p. 68-1 : dvavendriyaprayogena sarvdms tan upabhuhjayet / idam tat sarvavajrdnam trikdydbhedyabhdvanam f! By the union of the two organs (that o f vajra and of padma)y he would enjoy all those (goddesses). This contempla tion of the inseparable three Bodies (Dharma-, Sambhoga-, and N irm ana-kaya) belongs to all * vajras* (sddhakas of Buddhahood). Furthermore, the Pradipoddyotana explanation of pratydhdra (Docu m ents) brings in the three kinds of each sense object, and so in turn, according to earlier explanations, is consistent with Pahcakrama. 2nd krama, verse 37; r! Laksml, Vol. 63, p. 26-5 : rdgaS caiva virdgaS ca dvayor antar iti trayam / dvindriyasya samdpattyd vajrapadmasamdganidt // Desire (* the middle knowledge), aversion ( the first knowledge), and between the two (the combination of the prior tw o)are the three, (as symbolized) by union of the two organs and by combination of vajra and padma. But w hat is the meaning of having a mudra or partner in this ease ? Tson-kha-pa writes in his commentary on the Caturdevipariprcchd (Lhasa cd., Vol. Ca, B iis Uis, f. 25a-6) : / dgons pa lun ston las j f hdu Ses can dan hdu Ses med { j sems can du b(r)togs hdi gnas pa / de rnams rlun las byuh ba ste j I rlun las slar yan hgag pa yin / ies gsutls so / gnis pa ni j f rlun dan sems kyis mo hi gzugs dari phohi gzugs sprul nas gnas pahi thabs Ses miiam par sbyor bahi rnal hbyor pa rnams la ni phyag rgya de nid bbe ba chen pohi go hphafi mchog hthob pahi gnas su hgyur te j

It is expressed in (lie Samdhivydkatana in tael. C.haptei II, p. 236-1): Those with this alx.de who arc imagined as ideational and non-idcational sentient b e i n g s , arise from wind and again pass away in ilie w ind. Second : the yogins who by wind and mind -only) materialize the form of female and the form oi male, and unite the means (updya) and insight (prajnd) with abode, have as the abode that very mudtd whit h athieves the best station of great ecstasy (mahdsukha). Also, the resort to a partner points to a celebrated verse ol the Pancakramdf 2nd krama, verse 3b; &ri l.aktm i, \ ol. b.i, p. 2l>-.i,4: sarvasdm cva mdydndm strimdyaiva ciii\yatt' jhdnatraxaprabhedo 'yam sfditi (am a I m ini lakyyate i j O f all illusions (wij'tf), the illusion ol w oman is suprem e; just here the variety of three gnoses is difler'entialed clearly. According to Sri Laksmi, the verse concerns differentiation of the three gnoses by sequence o f 'p a r t n e r (mudtd) [phyag rgyahi rim pas) as contrasted with the differentiation by sequence of 'incantation* (mantra) (snags kyi lim pas). According to Sri Laksmi, just here (atraiia) means, according to the precepts (man nag) in the time of the Secret Initiation (guhya-abhi}cka)t when the disciple is conferred the ptajiid by the guru ies rab kyi dban gi dus su bla mas ses rab sbyin pahi slob m a . . . . ). First, the bodhicitta drips down from the brahmararidhra a p ertu re in crown of the h e a d ); and, with non-apperception o f the thirty-three prakrtis, there is an instant of the gnosis of Light, pure like moon-rays. Next, that bodhuitta pervades the elements (dhatu) of all the limbs ; and with non-apperception o f the forty prakrtis, there arises the gnosis Spread-of-Light, like sunrays. Then, that bodhuitta, spreads to the tip', the te n te r of the tajra (rdo rjehi dbus ma rise mor. . .) it) the male, the loot of the penis); and with non-apperception of the seven prakrtis, there arises the gnosis C ulm ination-of-Light. like twilight. Hence the word clearly (spfui(am) in the verse line, **.|tist here the variety of three gnoses is differentiated d e a t h . " This graphic description by &ii Laksmi clarities the Initiation in the conventional bodhicitta-man^ala. A ccording to the discussion under nidana verse 15 ol the subtle contem plation of the lower orifice , when the bodhuitta arrives at the tip of the injra' it is

in tin* lotus ot tlu* w om an, which is the w om an always in that spot of the yogin. However, according to Sri Laksmi, it is precisely here that arises the androgyne Gulminationof-Light, which is the dark light. W hen the bodhicitta is in th a t spot, presumably that place is what is callcd the place of androgynes. And if the preceding is not sufficiently mysterious, note the Guhyasamajatantra, X V II, p. 141: dvayendriyaprayogena svaSuktadiparigrahaih / pujayet rid hirat sarrdn buddhabodhim avapnuydi // By the union of the two organs, and by conceiving their Sukra, etc. (etc.1 rakta, etc.), one should worship all (the Buddhas) according to the rules, and may attain the enlightenm ent of the Buddhas. O n the preceding, Pradipoddyotana, Mchan-hgrd ed., Vol. 158, p. 159-4, explains: This is the secret worship of the Body, Speech, and M ind of all the T athagatas (sarvatathdgatakdyavdhittapujdrahasya). The verse says, by the union of the two organs, meaning, by the union of diamond (vajra) and lotus (padma) (Mchan : through the realm of deific brightness of Father-M other, yab yum g\is lhar gsal bahi nan nas). T he verse says, by conceiving their sukra, etc., means that one conceives his own semen and the partner's (vidya s) menstrual blood (rakta) becoming transformed into the (intrauterine) states mer-mer-po, ctc. (Mchan: the five states of the womb, which are the five progenitors Tathagatas, and then giving birth to a son. nephew, etc., which one protects, nourishes, and so on, according to the rules. Thereby one worships and obtains.) Having been brought into existence, they (the T athagatas) arc made to lose their individual life. They arc said to have been engendered by sexual union and finally killed. This is the message of C hapter V II, context of verse 33, here translated from corrected Sanskrit with the help of Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrely p. 59. tatra katham samaydnusmrtibhaiana ? samayat kfarenduiidhina vidhivat phalakamkfinah / ' marayet tathdgatam vyuham sutardm stddhim apnuyat jf And what is the contemplation with recollection of the union? In the manner of the rite of overflowing drop from the

union, after desiring the fruit according to the rules, one should kill the T ath ag ata array and obtain the highest siddhi. According to the Pradipoddyotana, the diverse deities by the sequence of re-unification arc draw n into the P aram arth am andala. But that union of prajnd and updya is not the union of the two sex organs. In drabhuti writes in his Jnanasiddhi ((JOS ed., p. 57): sukham dvindriyajam kecit tattvam ahttr narddhamdh j tac capi mahdsukham naivam pravadanti jinnttamdh // pratityotpadasambh utam na tattvam jayate kvacit j Some vile men say that the pleasure born from the two (sex) organs is reality (tattva). But the B uddhas deny that it is M ahasukha. N othing engendered in D ependent O rigination is reality. Along the same lines, it is said in the Hevajratantra (I, x, 40c-d; 4 1 a -c ): ftasmat saukhyam na tattvdkhyam mahdbhutam yatah sukham / I sahajdtydm yad utpannam sahajam tat prakirtitam j I svabhavam sahajam proktam... W henever pleasure is of the M a h a b h u ta sort (i.e. derived from the four elem ents), then the pleasure is not called reality. W hatever (pleasure) arises in to g eth er-b irth , th a t is called together-born. T h e self-existent kind is said to be together-born. T h e Snags rim chen mo, f. 288a-2., quotes the fifth manjart of A bha y akarag uptas Amndya-manjari : T hus, the reality arising from the together-born (pleasure)is the bodhicitta that is the insepa rability ot voidness (Sunyata) and compassion (karurid)'* (/de Itar lhan cig skycs pa las byuri bahi dc kho na nid byan c h u b kyi sems ston pa Aid dan sftin rje dbycr med paho ;). T h a t terminology which seems to im ply a n external con sort of a woman, and vet which is denied to so intend, is partially explained by Tson-kha-pa in his PaiicakramQ com m entary Gsal bahi sgron m e (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 77-4) : I phyag rgyahi khyad par ni spyod bsdus las / do bas na phyi rol gyi bud med spans nas siiiri k h ar gnas pahi ye ses kyi phyag rgya dan lha cig sftotm p a r hjug nas sin tu m yur bar rdo rje hchari thob p a r ^byaho snani du dm igs

te / gcig pn kho nar spyod pa bva bar gsuns pahi yc ics kyi p h \a g rgyaho I hr superior mudtd is th e jiidttatnudrd (knowledge consort) re (erred to in the Carydmrldpaka (-pnidipa), when il says : Therefore, lie bears in mind, that spurning an external woman ami entering into union with the Jrtauamudra lotatcd in the heart, he will speedily attain (the rank of) Y ajradliara: so he is to practise in complete solitude. Mthan: Concerning that (unifying) path, the phase in which it occurs is now stated : "TA f{ yat satyam samvrtih proktam buddhanam kdyaltikfanam j sa tfo ni^pannnyoga (//) sydt prabhdsvaraiiSuddhth 23,7 Whatever body characteristic of the Buddhas has been stated to be conventional truth' (sami'/fisalya), the ni\ptwntiyog<t would be it through purification in the Clear I.ight. Mthan: Whatever bodv characteristic m e a n s:bodv ornamettled with the major characteristics and minor marks of Y ajradhara. S ta n d t o 1m* conventional tru th means: stated as the illusory bodv m<ha-dtha). T hat * ni$panna\oga means: that yoga unifving the three bodies, of the Stage of Completion (sampanna-ktama ni'panna~ktama . There are two kinds of n u h d to Ije considered in this case. T he following passage tlaiifics that nidana verse 23 refers to the first kind of mm a. Pamakrama* 3rd v e r s e s 2*>-2~ with em endations); Sri Laksmi, Vol. t>3, p. 38-4, 5 : iyam tia hi samlaktyd md\dnirdeialak>and f mayair a samvrtch safyam ka\ah sambhogasydpi ca // saiva gandhanasattiah sydd vajrakmah sa eva hi j iajrasattiah s;a\am tasmdt stasya pujdm pravartayet For the characteristic describing maya is precisely a thing to be differentiated : that very mayd as the truth of con vention, and as the Body ot Sambhoga. That very maya could be a gandhanasattia% as well as the diamond ImkIv' (tajra-kdya . Therefore, Yajrasattva prompts by himself his own worship. Sri Laksmi pp. 38-5 to 39-1): Yajrasattva, being all the

Buddhas, worships himself when those Buddhas honor him. T h e worship {puja) is to be conducted with pratyahara and dhyanat and not with any other stages (mchod pa ni yan so sor sdud pa dan / bsam gtan dag gis bya ba yin te I rim pa g2an gyis bya ni m a yin no). Tsori-kha-pa discusses the differentiation of these two kinds of Wl&ya in his Mthah gcod on C h ap ter O n e (P T T , Vol. 156, p. 26-4, 5 ) ; and to get the point one should refer back to the table an our section T h e T w o S tages,..,. O n the line Interm ediate State under T im e of the Path* there is Illusory Body and Y uganaddha-deha. T h e Illusory Body as th e tru th o f convention (samvrti-satya) is that g a n d h a rv a sa ttv a ; a n d the Y uganaddha-deha as the Sam bhogakaya is th a t diam ond body. In the first case, the state of m a y a lacks the precepts o f skill in the m eans (thabs la mkhas pahi man nag) a n d so in the condition o f gandharvasattva is headed for reb irth , i.e. reoccupa tion of five personality aggregates in the ordinary w ay. In the second case, the m ay a is attended w ith the preccpts o f skill in the means involving the winds a n d m ind-only, an d so the diam ond body can ap p ear in the world as a N irm an ak ay a. A n im portant point about the terminology is th a t th e illusory body can be called the diam ond body w hen there is present the precepts o f skill in m an ag in g the situ atio n . Concerning the m ajor characteristics a n d m in o r marks, I abstract these, w ith the latter com m enting on the form er draw n originally from Sakyam itras Kosaldlamkara as present ed in my articlc T hirty-tw o Characteristics of the G reat Person, in most cases om itting the presum ed original Sanskrit terms in the following: Associated w ith the characteristics (lakfana) each hair of the head curled to the right* (ekaikakeia pradakfinavarta) an d having a proof of authority on the h e a d Siraskata) are the twelve secondary distinctions (anuvyanjana): head um brellashaped, curly tips on the head hair, hair of head thick, hair o f head black, hair of head fragrant, hair o f h ead not disorder ed, hair o f head not shaggy, hair of head lovely, hair o f head soft, hair of head glossy, hair of head regular, hair of head a p p e a r ing like bees. Associated w ith the characteristic treasure of h a ir (urnakoSa) are the eight secondary distinctions: forehead large,

forehead unwrinkled, cyc-brows black, eye-brows like Ixnvs, eye-brows long, eye-brows ol uniform hair, cyc-brows o f equal w id th '? ). nose prominent. Associated with thr characteristics 'eyes d.irk blue and eye-lashes bovine', are the live secondary distinctions : eyes as though smiling, eyes large, eyes clear, eves long, eyes pure. Associated with the characteristic jaws leonine arc the secondary distinctions : ears uniform, ear flaps thick and long. Associated with the seven characteristics tongue long and slender, voice pure, teeth very w h ite, teeth without gaps, teeth 40 in n u m b er, teeth equal in size, and taste perfect are the six secondary distinctions : face sweet-smelling, face leonine, lips red like the Bimba fruit, eye-teeth regular, eyeteeth sharp, disk o f face circular and broad. Associated with the characteristic shoulders gently cur v e d is the secondary distinction : throat like the neck o f a flask. Associated with the eight characteristics standing, not bending h im s e lf, 'hands which hang low, skin delicate, skin o f golden hue', 'upper part o f body leonine, broad-shouldered, rounded like a lt.mvan tree, and seven mounds on his body, are the eighteen secondary distinctions : veins not showing, joints not showing, joints as strong as those o f Narayana, body clean, body not crooked, body regular, body well-rounded, body smooth, members and limbs well-proportioned, body wellcontrolled, body soft, whose signs arc consummated, aIxlomen well-rounded, abdom en without folds, belly slender, abdomen as though polished, body devoid o f freckles or dark spots, ever beautiful. Associated with the characteristic secrct o f privities drawn into a recess' are the three secondary distinctions: navel deep, navel well-rounded, recess ot navel filled-up. Associated with the characteristic legs like those o f an a n telop e is the secondary distinction, knee-caps well-rounded and beautiful. Associated with the characteristic each hair o f body turn ing to the right side is the secondary distinction, each hair pore em itting delightful perfume.

Associated with the characteristic fimjers and tors long* arc the six secondary distinctions: nails elevated, nails coppercoloured, nails smooth, finders and toes well-rounded, fingers and toes full, fingers and toes regular. Associated with the six characteristics 'h an d s and feet marked by a wheel rim , feet well-planted', 'h an d s and feet soft and tender', webs joining (the fingers and toes on his hands and feet, heels broad', and 'ankle joints inconspicuous*, arc the seventeen sccondarv distinctions : lines in the hands non-intcrmittcnt, lines in the hands alike, lines in the hands deep, lines in the hands not crookcd, lines in the hands glossy, palms and soles red like copper; on his hands, the lion's seat (,simhasana), fish (mina), banner of victory (dhvaja), th u n d e r bolt (vajra), the hook (atiAuSa), the flask (kaia.ui), the X andvavartta, the Srlvatsa, the couch shell (Sankha), the lotus padma), and the Svastika. It is obvious that the characteristics and secondary distinc tions (minor marks) as presented by Sakyam itra are ordered by starting from the top of the head and proceeding down to the legs, and showing last of all the pores, hands and leet. His minor marks go with a static figure and appear to suit the B uddha as a great yogin. Ifl'A K y vakpathasyaiva vifayah kayo jnanam'iyah prabhuh sarvasattvahitac capa driyate sakracdparat 24ft T he speech-paths topic, (nam ely) the Lord the body made of knowledge is seen like a rainbow, as well as apart from the benefit of all sentient beings. Mchan : T he speech-paths topic* means : the topics of illusion (widva), etc. conveyed to the disciple. . . .Those rem arks teach the illusory body* (mdyd-dcha) to be the body of V a jra d h ara, a rainbow body the body of knowledge born from windand-m ind-only of the C lear light. In regard to the words as well as a p a r t (ca-apa), which were not translated into Tibetan, cf. Guhymamdja, C h ap tcr X V II , p. 134; Mchan hgrel, p. l 5 3 o : svabhdvaiuddhanairatmyc dhatmadhafuniraUnc } kalpand vajrasanibhutd giyate na ca giyate ff T he im agination arisen from the vajra (of liodv, Speech, and M in d ) expresses in the case o f t h e selflessness ( ^ C lear Light) of the intrinsically pure (moving and stationary

life), and also does not express in the case of the full womb of dharmadhatu (with the vajra of bodhicitta). Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrel'. expresses because it can appear like a rainbow, then teach the dharma; does not express* bccause discursive analysis docs not reach reality. T h e above appears to explain the two alternatives of verse 24, to wit: (1) seen like a rainbow,* and (2) apart from the benefit*. Furthermore, since the illusory body* when purified in the Clear Light is the Sambhoga-kaya located in, or m ade to correspond to, the speech center* of the throat, verse 24 alludes to this by saying the speech-paths topic> (namely) the L ord. T he Guhyasamajatantra> C hapter III, has two celebrated m antras which point to the rainbow body of V ajradhara. The first (I II, p. 14) begins the chapter : a th a bhagavan kayavakcittavajras tathagatah sarvatathagata-spharanam eghavyuharn nam a samadhim samapadyedam vajravyuham nam a sam adhipatalam udajahara / _ // O M SC \\ r . l T . l J X . l \ A IA J R A SI ABH A VA TM A K O H A \ I H T h en the Bhagavat, Diamond of Body, Speech, and M in d , the T athagata, immersing himself in the samadhi called array of clouds with the vibration of all the T a th a gatas, proclaimed this samadhi-mass named diamond array*: Om . I am the intrinsic nature of the knowledge diam ond of void ness ! T h e second (II, p. 15) runs as follows : atha bhagavan kayavakcittavajras tathagatah dharm adhatusvabhavavajram nam a samadhim samapadyedam kayavakcittadhisthanam antram udajahara / // O M D H ARM AD H ATL'SVABH AVATM AK O 'H A M // T hen, the Bhagavat, Diamond of Body, Speech, and M in d , the T athagata, immersing himself in the samadhi named intrinsic-naturc diamond of the dharmadhatu ( = Clear Light)' proclaimed this m antra which blesses the body, speech, and mind : O m . I am the intrinsic nature of the D harm adhatu !* In the evident meaning (nitartha) interpretation of the Pradipo-

ddyotana, both m antras incorporate the live T a th a g a ta s a n d a sixth Buddha; in the former ease, identified with the five winds by name, and the sixth (A ham ) identified with \ ajrasattva, who is the incessant bindu of the heart (.Mchan hgrel p. 35-4); in the latter ease, identified with the five winds by the colors, constituting the rainbow ol the verse. \ AK , and the sixth, (Aham) identified with V ajradhara, as the gnosis of the Suprem e Entity. In illustration let me translate the second m antra, according to nitartha (Piadipoddyatnnn^ .Mchan hgrel edition P T T , Vol. 158, p. 3f>-2 .: T hen the Bhagavai. Diamond of body, Speech and M ind ( = V a jra d h a ra ), the T a th a g a ta, immersing, liimscll in the samadhi (gazing at the Clear l.ight) nam ed 'intrinsic nature diam ond of the dhatmtidhiitu (^ t lear L ig h t) proclaimed this nuintta which blesses the body, speech, and mind : O M (Vairoeana as a b lu c-ra\ed wind serving as the m ount of the gnosis of the t lear Light of the [A bsolute] O bject). D H A R M A (R ainasam bhava, as a yellow-vayed wind . D H A T U (A m itabha, as a red-rayed w in d ). SVABHAVA (Amoghasiddhi, as a green-rayed w ind). A T M A K O (Aksobhya, as a w hite-rayed w in d ). A H A M (V ajradhara, that gnosis itself ol the C lear Light of the [A bsolute] O b je c t). Mchan hgrel on the preceding : " T h is m a n tra expresses both the gnosis of the Clear Light o f the Absolute O bject and the five rays of wind which are its m o u n t. Sincc VAK* refers in the praxis to the d iam o n d m u tte r ing a brief indication is given now ab o u t that. M ihan hgrel, p. 51-4-1, on C h ap ter Six ('D ocum ents), m entions th at verses 15-18 concern the subtle yoga of the Stage of C om pletion, of which verse 15 is here repeated with Sanskrit : nilotpaladaldkaram pancaSulam ; iJe.uitah i yaramatram prayatnena nasikagrc licintayet H e should imagine with perseverance at the tip of fiis nose a five-pronged (th u n d erb o lt) ap p earin g like a blue lotus petal and in the advanced degree the size of a tinv barley grain. T h e Piadipoddyotana and .Mettan hgrel clarify that the tip of the

nose (among the three possible' ones in the Stage of Comple tion) here meant is the one in the surra! place, now identified as the tip ol the gem, i.e. the root of the penis (the svadhisthana-cakra o f the Hindu tautras). And in the advanced degree (vifrfatafi), he reduces the lotus to the size of a tiny barley grain. According to verse lfi, the yogin then imagines the red oight-pctallrd lotus of that cakra, no bigger than achickpca, which is the lotus of the yogins woman, his own dharmodaya (source of dharm as). Verse 17 mentions the still more subtle contemplation of a wheel therein. Finally (verse 18), the yogin can draw forth the Dharma word marked with body, speech, and m ind, consistent with the nidana verse V A K \ The theory that the yogin's w oman is found at the basc#of the penis seems parallel with the woinb in the woman found at the end of the vaginal tube. The Buddhist Anuttarayogatantra seems concerned with the symbolism of that base in the male and that womb in the woman rather than with what res pectively leads up to them. IlCFTij cittam caitasikavidyu prajnopdyopalabdhtkan. / iunyatiiunyamahasunyam iti cdpi pragiyate //25// Thought (citta), thought derivative (caitasika), and ncscicnce (aiidya) are also called respectively, Insight 'j>rajfid)t Means (upaya), Culmination (upalabdhika); as well as Void (ii/wy/i), Further Void (atifBnya), and Great Void (mahiiSunya). Paiicakrama, 2nd krama. 7 : alokai Sun,am prajnii ca cittam ca paratantrakam I Light is Void, is Insight, is thought, is dependence (paratantta). Ibid., 2nd krama, 15 : alohabhauim it) uktam atiS unyam upayakam purikalpitarri t<*tha proktam proktam caitasikam tathfi // Spread-of-Light is Further Void, is Means, also called imagination (pankaipita) and called thoughtdeiivati\e . Ibid., 2nd krama, 23 : alukasyopaIabdhii ca upaiabdham tathaiva ca f par in ifpannak am caiia aiidya caiia ndmatah fj The Culminaiion-of-Liglit, likewise the culminated also named perfection (parintfpannaka) as well as ncscicnce (avidya).

Tsori-kha-pas comm entary on Paiicakrama, Vol. 159, p- 31-2 Synonymous terms lor the Throe. Lights: ... those three (i.e. prajnd, updya, and avidya); the three citta, manas, vijnana; the three, parikalpita, paratantra, parinifpanna; the three, hatred, lust, delusion; and the three wabhdvas. Among those, updya is Sprcad-oF-Light, prajnd is Light, the com bination o f those two as h e rm ap h ro d ite (or a n d rogyne) is Culm ination-of-Light. A m ong the. two, ecs tasy and void, L ight is the p rep o n d eran ce o f void m en tality (buddhi); Sprcad-of-L ight the reverse thereof; C ulm ination-ol-L ight those two (ecstasy an d void) in equal parts, tfsori-kha-pas com m entary on the Paiicakrama called Gsal bahi sgron m e (P T T , Vol. 199, p. 31-4) faces the p ro b lem of why the three lights have as synonyms the terms parikalpita, paratantra, and parinifpanna (which arc the well-known three svabhdvas or three lakfanas of Y ogacara term inology). T h e following explanation m ay have been developed in T ib e ta u traditions : / rim lria las / snan b a g an dbari dari / inched p a kun brtags dari / rier thob la yoris g ru b tu gsuns la / dc Itar bsad pa ni gzuri hdzin gnis rgyaris d ie d d u snan bahi snan gi ni gan dbari dari / de Itar snan b a la b rte n nas gsuri hdzin rjes th a d ad p a r sgro btags p a k u n brtags dari / hgyur ba m ed pahi yoris g ru b mrion d u byas pahi dor j kun brtags dari g riis snan gnis kas d b e n p a bitin d u ston pa rnam s kyi thog m ahi gi snail b a dari / de la brten nas mehed p a hbyuri ba dari / fier th o b kyi tsho sria m a gnis ka log nas thobs ses gnis ka log nas thabs Ses gftis ka log nas thabs ges m iiam p a r h ju g p ah i chos m th u n la brten nas yin n am sriam ste d p y ad p a r byaho / T h e Paiicakrama says (respectively a t II , 7; II , 15; and II, 23) th a t Light is paratantra (d e p e n d e n t ), Spread-ofLight is parikalpita (im ag in ary ), an d C ulm inationof-Light is parinhpannaka (perfect ). O n e should ponder w hether this is the explanation: T h e basic L ight which shines when severing the distance between the thing per ceived and the perceiver is d e p e n d e n t. H a v in g in that way taken recourse to L ight, the subsequent difference between, and affirmation of thing perceived a n d perceiver,

is imaginary*. T he casting away of the two lights im aginary and the other lighthas incessant perfect immediacy. Therefore, according to the particular secret state: Light is the initial basis of the voids; on that basis Sprcad-of-Light arises; and at the time of Culmination-of-Light, having averted the former two i.e. having averted both 'm eans and insight, one takes rccoursc to the common dharma of uniting means and insight. The three lights constitute the fourth of the five signs pre sented in the Guhyasamtijay Chapter X V II I and included in C andrakirtis comments (Documents, PART O N E ). T he first sign, a mirage, manifests through dissolution of earth into water. The second, smoke, through dissolution of water into fire. T he third, fire-flies, through dissolution of fire into wind. T he fourth, a changeable lamp, through dissolution of wind into the three lights. Through sequential dissolution of the three lights, there is the fifth sign, the Clear Light like a cloudless sky. V itapada, in his commentary Sukusuma-nama-di'ikrama-taUvabhavand-mukhagamn-irtti (PTT, Vol. 65, p. ">8-4, 5) explains the signs in accordance with the preceding ptanayama involving the bindu: Now, what happens at first when that yogin turns back his discursive thought (likatpa) ? He should know that at first there is thr sign which is a manifestation like a mirage. Oik; should understand that phase this way: tho ravs from that bindu have a pattern both bright and not bright, appearing like a mirage. This is an illusory appearance allowed in one's stream of consciousness that should be warded off, becausr one is attached to it if he has the pride of thinking that he knows the sign. The same applies to the others. It is like smoke when brighter than the mirage, while lacking colors such as green, white, and so on. The fireflies or lights in space, are brighter than the smoke and of different type. The sign shining like a lamp is superior to the fireflies and of different type. Those are seen in the manner of rays, with each one brighter than the preceding one. Concerning the phrase, like the meaning of non-duality of the profound and the bright, the body is considered to be like smoke,

becausc it is not genuine. M oreover, w hat is the m ani festation ? Bright like a cloudless sky means a cloud less sky that manifests with spccial brilliancc. T he above shows the difference between the A n a and the *Buddhajftanapada schools o f the Guhyasamaja. T h e Arva* tradition understands the mystic signs to be related to sequential dissolution o f the elements, and takes the fourth sign shining like a lamp, to stand for three light stages. T h e other tradition explains the signs as resulting from contem plation of the bindu, does not relate them to the elements, and docs not subdivide the sign shining like a lam p . A rem arkable ability to describe the praxis is found in Arvadevas Caryamelapaka-pradipa (quoted in T so h -k h a-p as Snags rim chen moy f. 456b-4), w here we read a most lucid statem ent of the sequence: / spvod bsdus las / /de nas skye ba gcig nas gcig tu goms pas bdag med pahi chos la bslabs pas rn a m p a r d a g pahi sbyor ba khori d u chud nas rah b in gyi snah ba d an gcig tu hdre b a r bya stc rim pa hdis don d a m p ah i bden p a la dmigs p a r byaho / dchi rim pa hdi yin tc phuri po la sogs p a ni khams p h ra b a la g i u g go / kham s p h ra ba ni yah scms la g2ug go / scms ni yah sems p a la g i u g go / sems pa ni yah m a rig pa la gug ste de ltar spy ad nas gftid log p a r byed do / de la dus h d ir ni scms d a n scms pa m a rig p a la rab tu 2ugs p ah i skad cig la d ra n p a brjod paho / phyis ni brjod pa yah m ed pahi yc ses kyi ho bo fiid ni hod gsal baho / yah grol ba n a rlu n gi r a h b i i n rfied de gan gi tshe rm i lam g2an d a g hbyuii b a n a ji arid d u rnam p a r Ses pa mi gYo ba de srid d u gftid log nas hod gsal ba la blta ste / de ni so sor rah g is rig p a lus d an hag d an bral bahi don d a m pahi bden p a n a n gi mnon p a r byan chub pa 2cs bvaho / ges gsuns tc... T hen, by m editative repetition from one life to the next, and by training in the sclf*less natures, he conics to fully understand the right praxis: how to mix together with the Light o f intrinsic n a tu re ; how to visualize the Suprem e T ru th (paramdrtha-satya) by this sequence. T h e sequence of it, is as follows : T h e personality aggregates (skandha) and so on, should be merged into th e subtle clement (*sukfma-dhatu) (i.e. w in d ); the subtle elem ent, in turn,

merged into consciousncss (citta); consciousncss, in turn, merged into mentals (caitta); mentals, ip turn, merged into nescience (arirfytf); and so practising he creates deep sleep (sufupti). Now, in this life, he expresses the truth at the instant when citta and caitta are absorbed in avidyd. At the next instant there is the Clear Light with the intrinsic nature of the inexpressible gnosis. Even when it is released, he has attained the intrinsic nature of wind; and at whatever time other dreams occur, then as long as his perception (vijnana) is immobile (acala) i.e. onepointed, in samadhi, the deep sleep (sufupti) (is also pre sent) and he sees the Clear Light. T h a t introspection is called inner revelation of the Supreme T ru th that is free from Body and Speech. T h e meaning of this remarkable passage is exposed in Tsorikha-pas commentary on the Six Laws o f N aro-pa (PTT, Vol. 161, pp. 7-8 and p. 12). Here we learn a distinction between the Clear Light of the waking state (jagrat-prabhasvara) and the Clear Light of deep sleep (sufupti-prabhasvara). The waking state Clear Light is also distinguished as subjective (vifayin), the Jnana-D harm akaya, and the objective (nVqya), the tinconstructed (asamskrta) Dharmakaya. T he subjective type I understand by former terminology as Clear Light of True M ind or Symbolic Clear Light of three gnoses or Jftana lights, namely, Light, Spread of Light, and Culmination of Light, referred to by A n adeva as, respectively, citta, caitta, and avidyd). T he objective type is tlx Clear Light of the Absolute Entity. T h e Clear Light of deep sleep is similarly distinguished into the subjective deep sleep which is heavy (hthugpo) or light (srab mo), lost5 (iiams) (to memory) or comprehended (rtogs pa), and the objective ground (gii) Clear Light of death. In the waking state category is the son Clear Light contemplated with praxis of bliss-void (sukha-Sunya) (bde ston sbyor yin bsgoms pahi buhi hod gsal) which is the Clear Light of the path. In the deep sleep category is the mother Clear Light* which is the ground Clear Light of death {gHhi hchi bahi hod gsal ni mahi hod gsal). As I understand this yoga praxis, the intention is to make the son Clear Light break through to subjective waking state, and to make the m other Clear Light break through to sub jective deep sleep (sufupti) as a samadhi. T hen the yogin should

be capable of mixing tlu* 'm o th e r and son C lear Lights (hod gsal ma bu his bsrc /huh pa). All the prcccding appears to be intended in A ryadeva's passage. F u rth er details of the process are sketched in C. ( .. C hang s Teachings o f Tibetan Toga. pp. 94-104. A luller treatm ent is found in Tsori-kha-pa's Mlhah gcod on chapter seven F I I , Vol. 156, p. 4 5 )an d in his Don gsal ba on the 6 uh',asamaja F I I Vol. 160, pp. 146 and 147). This exposition by lsoh-kha-pa, of the dharana-aiiga is based on the Samdh in ok arana and Piadipoddyotana on C h ap ter \ II, the I ajtanutla and its com m entary by Alamkakalasa, and A rvadevas Canamclahaka-prndipa. Pre viously, under nidana verse 4. a passage was quoted irom N ag arju n as Pindikrta-sadhana 43-44A , w hich in fact stems from the Vajramala. T h e theory is to d raw the 5 x 5 2.) entities into the Clear Light as the pararnarthn-mandala. T h e re are five each of skandhas, dhatus, indtijas. tisayas. and jnanas. I he first group to dissolve is of course the one with earth elem ent (dhatu) since this gives rise to the first sign, a mirage. W ith dissolution of the earth element, the entire body is desiccated {i.e. thirsts for w ater). Individual explanations are given for dissolution of the form-skandha (r upa-skandha) %m irror-like knowledge, eyeorgan (tndrija), form-objcct (vifaya). T he second group includes the clem ent of w ater, the dissolu tion of which, yielding the sign of smoke, involves the dry in g u p in ones body of spittle, perspiration, urine, m enstrual blood, semen, and so on. Besides, the skandha of feeling, equality knowledge, ear organ, and sense object o f sound, are dissolved. T he third group includes the elem ent o f fire, the dissolution o f which, yielding the sign o f fire-flies, involves loss of ability to eat, drink, and digest. Besides, the skandha of ideas, discrim i native knowledge, sense o f smell, a n d odors, are dissolved. T he fourth group includes the elem ent o f w ind, the dissolu tion of which, Welding the sign o f a changeable lam p, involves the transfer from their individual places o f the ten winds, the prdna, etc. Besides, the skandha o f m otivations, the procedureof-duty knowledge, organ o f taste, and tastes, arc dissolved. Also, as Is o n -k h a -p a points o u t, at the time o f dissolution o f each group, the deities of the corresponding T a th a g a ta family are draw n into the C lear Light together w ith the o th er m em bers o f the group. T hus, the Fury K ings (nidana verse 17) an d

other members o f the family (nidana verse 18) are sequentially so draw n into the Clear Light o f Death. In the. case of the first group, Y airocanns family; second group, R atnasam bhavas family; third group, A m itabhas family; fourth group, Amoghasiddhi's family. Finally, there is the dissolution indicated by that passage of the Pindikrta-sddhana. i.e. of the upper and lower Fury Kings, o f t h e twice-cighty prakrtis, and of Aksobhyas family; where upon perception (vijhdna) passes to the. Clear Light, also called universal void with nirvanaf and D harm akaya. U TAj! tatakarydm prakurvita prakriyabhasabhedavit } karmakayam parityajya vajradehatvam dptiuydt //26// Then, knowing the differences of the prakrtis and the Lights, one should engage in the carya, (namely), abandon ing the body of works (kannakdya), he would obtain the diam ond body (vajradeha). Mchan : Knowing the differences of the eighty prakrtis and the three Lights (=*three gnoses), the time has come for one to engage in the caryd (praxis) part of the Stages of Completion. H e takes recourse to contemplation of the profound means of piercing the centers in the body. T hen he takes recourse to experiencing the generation of the voids by the dissolution sequence of the winds. Thus he has certainty in the methods of arousing the three Lights and the (eighty) vikaipa-s. How ever, the verse takes for granted that one has achieved the Lights o f arcane m ind (cittavireka), then alludes to the subse quent (1) caryd for the aim of accomplishing the Illusory Body (mayd-deha), as well as to the (2) caryd for the aim of Jaikfayuganaddha after attaining the characteristics of the Illusory Body; but the verse does not allude to the (3) third caryd for the pur pose of aSaiksa-yuganaddha after attaining the Saikfa-yuganaddha. (1) Thus the sadhaka engaged in the caryd, abandoning the m aturation (vipaka) body propelled by former deeds (karma), obtains the illusory body called 'diamond body. (2) Having obtained that, he attains the iaikfa-yuganaddha, wherein the diamond body is uninterruptedly affiliated (rigs hdra rgyun mi hchad par rdo rje sku). This illusory body is a topic of the third kram a of the Paiicakrama called Svadhiffhana-krama. T he Pradipoddyotana on Chapter VI (Mchan hgrel, p. 53) quotes the Vajrahrdaydlamkdra-tantra :

evam samddhiyuktcna nirvikalpcna mantrinah j kalavadhini parityajya prdpyate nut taram padam // W hen otic thus abandons the lim itation of time by nondiscursiveness joined to the sam adhi o f a m an trin , he attains the incom parable rank. H ere the expression limitation of tim e (kaldvadhi) seems to refer to the m aturation body. A bout th a t non-discursiveness, there is the im p o rta n t verse 3 in C h ap ter II of the Guhyasamdjatantra'. abhdve bhdvandbhavo bhdvana naira bhdvana / iti bhavo na bhdvah sydd bhdvana mpalabhyate // W hen there is an absence, there is no contem plation (becausc there is nothing to c o n tem p late). (But also,) a contem plation is not a contem plation (of re a lity ). T h a t being so, w hether it be a presence (for c o n te m p la tion) or an abscnce (for no c o n te m p la tio n ), the co n tem plation is not perceptively reached. From the various interpretations in the Pradipoddyotana (Mchan fcgrcl, pp. 31 and 3 2 ), we present here the p re g n a n t sense : When there is an absence (because o f dissolution in the central ch a n n e l), there is no contem plation. T h e con tem plation (of the im pure illusory body = samirti-satya) is not a contem plation (of the C lear L ig h t). T h a t being so, w hether it be a presence (the illusory b ody) or an absence (disappearance in the central c h a n n e l) , the contem plation (of the two truths, samvrti an d paramartha) is not perceptively reached (in cither case). Tsori-kha-pa quotes the above niddna verse 26 in his Paticakrama com m entary. Vol. 159, p. 51-5, to em phasize th a t this caryd is indispensable for becom ing a B uddha in this present life. I f there is this aim , one m ust apply him self to th e caryd of the two dhydnas called c o n tra c tio n (pbufagrdha) an d expansion (anubheda), set forth in Paiicakrama, A bhisam bodhi-k., IV ,25-27: prdptop add aka h Jit yo dvidhd yoga athdbhyasct / \ pintfagrdhakramcnaiva tathd caivdnubhedatah //2 5 // iirasah pddato vdpi ydvad dhrdayam dgatatj j bhutakotirfi viSed yogi pintjagrdha iti smrtah if 2t , sthdvaram jangamam caiva pur vam krtvd prabhasvaram } p a kd t kurydt tathdtmdnam anubhidakramo hy ayam ,, 27 ff T h e disciplc w ho has secured the precepts then applies

himself unrem ittingly Xoyoga of two sorts : by the sequence of contraction as well as by expansion. Drawing (the winds) Irom head down, and from feet up, into the heart, the yogi enters bhiitakofi (the true lim it): this is callcd contraction*. Having first rendered the stationary and the moving life into the Clear Light, he then renders that into h im se lf: this is the stage of expansion. Again, Tsori-kha-pas Paiicakrama commentary, Vol. 159, p. 52-1 and p. 53-5, explains th a t those are com parable to the (M other T a n tra term inology) [yogas of transfer (hpho ba = S. samkrdnti) and entrance to the city (gron hjug, S. puravatara)*. Hence the praxis proceeds along two lines : the first involves the m anipulation of winds to separate the five basic winds from the five secondary winds; the second involves a separation of mind-based perception (manovij/idna) from the five outersense based perceptions. Thus, the separation of the intrinsic b o d y from the body of m aturation has the aspects of wind and m ind, aimed at separating the subtle from the coarse, to yield the body formed of wind and mind only. Paiicahama, Svadhisthana-krama, III, 19 : tad cva vdyusamyiiktaifi vijiidnatritayar}i punah j jdyate yogind murtir mdyddehas tad ucyate // Precisely that vijfiana-triad joined to the winds then arises as a body by a yogin. T h a t is called illusory body. Pahcakrama, 3rd krama, 23 : darpaimptatibimbcna mdyddeham ca lakfayet / varndn indrdyttdhcnaiva vydpitvam itdakcndund // One characterizes the Illusory Body by the image in a mirror, the colors by a rainbow, the spread by the moon in the waters (Cf. Sri Laksmis commentary, p. 35- 3: the rainbow body means having the five colors). T h e Vajrajndnasamuccaya contains twelve similes of illusion con cerning that body:-(1) phantom (j^vw )), (2) moon in the waters (chu zla), (3) shade (migyor), (4) mirage (smig rgyu), (5) dream (rmi lam), (6) echo (brag cha), (7) cloud (dri zahi groti khyer), (8) hallucination (mig hphrul), (9) rainbow (hjah tshon), (10) lightning (glog), (11) water bubble (chuhi chu bur), (12) image in a mirror (me ion gi gzugs briian). Tsori-kha-pas commentary on that T antra, Vol. 160, p. 160-4, 5, is in this

ease apparently based on the Caryamrlapaka-pradipa : I. 11 is like a phantom (illusory m a n ) because, although it has a lull com ple ment o f m ain and secondary limbs when generated as the body o f V ajradhara from wind and mind-only, it is nothing but w ind and mind-only. 2. It is like the moon in the w aters w herever it is spread. 3. It is like a shade, i.e. the shadow body of a m an, becausc it lacks flesh, bone, and so on. 4. It is like a mirage, because it shifts by the instant. 5. It is like a dream body bccause, as a body accomplished from wind and m indonlv, it is (similar to) a body in a d ream w hich is im puted distinctions that differ from w hat it properly is. 6. It is like an echo, because, although it belongs to the same stream ol consciousness as the m atu ratio n body' (v ipd ka-kaya) . it appears elsewhere. 7. It is like a cloud, because that body possesses the m andala o f residence (adhdra) an d of residents (adhey a ) . 8. It is like a hallucination, bccause being single it appears multiple. 9. It is like a rainbow, or In d ia 's bow , since that body appears with five colors that are unim peded a n d unm ixed. 10. It is like the lightning bursting from the cloud, from its location within the personality aggregates of the m a tu ra tio n body. 11. It is like a w ater bubble in very clear w ater when it suddenly emerges from the realm of the void. 12. It is like the image of V a jra d h a ra in a m irror, because of sim ultaneous completion of all the m ajor and m inor limbs. O ne of the problems o f the com m cntarial trad itio n is to relate the theory o f the two dhydnas known from the Paiicakrama back to the basic Guhyasamajatantra. Tsori-kha-pa, Paiicakrama comm entary, Vol. 159, p. 57-1, If., points out that regarding the contem plation (or cultivation) of the two dh\anas by way of the illusory body (sgyu lus pas bsam gtan gnis sginn pa la ), the M ar-pa school docs not explain it in term s of piling u p the three sattvas ol the three vajras. Tsori-kha-pa goes on to highlv approve the precept handed dow n from Hgos hgos lugs), that the carya of both dhyAnas is indicated in Guhyasamajatantra, c h a p te r eleven, verses 40-44 (with e m en d atio n s): buddhaman4alamadhyastham kaye vairocamvn nxaset ! Onikaram hrdayt dhyatva mantiavijnanam bhavavet jj nirodhavajragatam citu yada tasya prajAvate sa bhavtc cintamanih iriman sarvabuddha^iasadhakah buddhamandalamadhyastham vajrak \obhyam prabhaiayct

Iliitnkiiram hrdaye dhrfitnl cittam bindugatam nyaset / buddiuimmdolamadhyastham amitabham prabhavavet jj A/ikilmm hrdaye dliyatid vajram bindugatam nyaset [j idam tut santayagragiyatn trivajrabhedyabhavanavi / nirodhasamayaj tubuiin buddhasiddhim samavahet // H r should place in (Ins own) body the Vairocana abiding in (he middle of the Buddha-mandala. Having medi tated on tlu* Om in his heart, h<5 should contemplate the vijnana in the mantra. At the time lie engenders the state of cessation~iajra in his cittn, he becomes the wishing gem , glorious one, best sfidhaka of all the Buddhas. He should contemplate a diam ond Aksobhya in the middle ot the Buddha-mandala. Having m editated on the Hum in his heart, he should place the citta in the form of a bittdu. He should contemplate A m itabha stationed in the middle o f the Buddha-mandala. Having meditated on the Ah in his heart, lie should place the vajra in the form of a bindu. This, the chief of best pledges, the contem plation of the inseparable three rajms (of ones own body, speech, and m ind), the knowledge of the cessation-pledge, brings the success of the Buddhas. Tson-kha-pa also mentions that some persons claimed that the above verses portray the dhyana o f contraction' while the subse quent (itthytisnmdja verses (X I, 45-47) portray the expansion*. Tsoh-kha-pa denies iliis theory and states that b o th dhyanas are portrayed in the above verses, and that the following verses 45-47 simply expand on the same topic. In preparation for this airya* according to the indication of Alkftti>grub ijr's Fundamentals of the Buddhist Tantras, the candidate is conferred t h e IVajna-jnana Initiation. This is the initiation concerned with Ihe caktas or bhagas. These bhagas become the centers of associating four voids (the four lights) with four ecsta sies. A bhayakaraguptapada's ( (>adeJamaiijari~ndma (PTT, Vol. 87, p. 82) associates the lights with ecstasies as follows ; Light (aloka) with ecstasy (ananda)-, Spread-of-Light (alokabhasa) with high ccstasy (partintatuttuht) ; Culmination-of-Light (alokopalabdhi) with extraordinary ecstasy (viramauanda) ; Clear Light (prabhasvara) with consubstautial ecstasy (sahajananda). T he

same identification is m ade in the Mahamudrdtilaka-tantra, C h ap ter Five, according to q u otation in Snags rtm, f. 408a-5. Tsori-kha-pas Pancakrama com m entary Gsal bahi sgron m e {PTT, Vol. 159, p. 2, 3, discusses this association o f voids ( = lights) with ecstasies (ananda), an d ibid, p. 2-4, citcs the Vajramdld for the direct order (rjes lugs hbyun) a n d reverse order (lugs Idog rim pa) of the four ecstasies. In the direct order Snanda starts a t the M ahasukha-cakra o f the h ead , dow n to the Sam bhoga-cakra of the throat, where starts paramananda; th a t dow n to the D harm a-cak ra o f the h eart, w here starts viramdnanda; th a t down to the Nirmana-cakra o f the navel, w here starts sahajdnanda (continuing dow n to the tip o f the th u n d e rb o lt gem , already identified as the root of the penis, acco rd in g to the Prajfta-jriana initiation as p ortrayed in M khas g ru b rje sw ork). In the reverse order, there is ananda u p to the N irm a n a cak ra; paramananda u p to the D h a rm a -c a k ra ; viramdnanda u p to the Sam bhoga-cakra; and sahajdnanda u p to the M a h a su k h acakra. Again, according to M khas g ru b rjes in itiation section, this reverse order is p re p a re d for by the F o u rth In itiatio n . F. Hrdayavajrayof id o f the Heart) (The Diamond Ladies

In terms o f six-m em bered yoga this is 5. anusmrti (recollec tion*) and in the Pancakrama system, it is A b h isam b o d h i-k ram a, the fourth. Besides, according to the Pradipoddyotana it is in cluded in yuganaddha, and therefore is the in itial saiksa-yuganaddha* (the p air-u n ited w here there is le a rn in g ). I t is th e ability to come forth from the C le a r L ight (e q u iv alen t to going th rough the portals o f d e a th ) as a yogin in c o m m a n d o f th e situation. W hen the Illusory Body has been purified in the C le a r L ight an d emerges to pass in reverse o rd e r th ro u g h the th ree lights, it is treated by the simile o f a fish, in Pancakrama, 4 th k ra m a (A bhisam bodhi), verse 31: yathd nadijaldt svacchdn mina utpatilo drulam j sarvafunydt tathd svacchdn mdydjalam udiryate jf Like a fish quickly springing u p from a clear stream , so the net of illusion emerges from the clear universal void. For this phase there is the F o u rth In itia tio n (there is n o further o n e ), which the Guhyasamdjatantra, C h a p te r X V I I I , describes

as just like the Prajha-jhana initiation. This is because here the yogin experiences thr reverse order of the vervsamc combi nation of voids with ecstasies. T he activities and symbolism arc centered about the heart. Three nidana verses are devoted to this : H R , the placc of aim and creativity; DA, the yield or accomplishment; YA, theafterrealiz.it ion. Both the diamond (vajra) and the lady (rofit) symbolism are associated with the heart in Indrabhiiti's Jiianasiddhi: hrdayam jftanam lad eva vajrayosit (the Diamond Lady is just that heart gnosis'). T he diam ond (or thundcbolt) has two aspects according to Guhyasamaja, Chap. X V II I, 39 (with considerable em endation suggested by X agarjunas commentary, F I T , Vol. <>0, p. 7-."), which mentions the two syllables a V and J r a ), that is, a destructive aspect of VA and a holding or positive aspect of JR A , paiicahetiS c/i vrliti vajram ity abhidhiyate / jrakdro dhrgiti kfiydto vij mutant vajradhrimanah (j V ajra is defined as V a \ namely the five prongs, and as J r a , explained as holding. V ijn an a is the mind which holds the vajra. T he lady also has two aspects, YO, the automatic union taking placc through recollection; and SII), the othcrworldlincss of the act. T he first or de>iructivc meaning of vajra is that found in Alamkakalasas commentary on the Sri-Vajramala (PTT, Vol. 61, p. 182-4), while expounding the unshared sense of the T a n tra : So as to explain the word * a j i a it is said The vajra r and also the vikalpas,' because it destroys the set of natures, (prakrti) am ounting to one-hundred-sixty (- twice 80 vikalpas) (rdo rjehi sgra bsad pahi phyir / / rdo rjc de yah rnam rtog m ains 2es gsuns ic rah b2in gyi tshogs brgya d ru g c u po rnams Ik*om pa hid kvi phyir ro). Tsoh-kha-pas Rdor bzfas (Lhasa Collected Works, Cha, f. 24b-4, 5, 6)starts with the first meaning and then passes to the second or positive meaning of vajra : When the wind-mind* dissolves there untying the knot of the heart na</i, it is the sublime placc with cessation of the 160 ( twice 80) vikalpm. Because it is not perturbed by discursive thought (vihatpa), it is explained as field of the (Buddha) Aksobhya (the im perturbable); therefore, one may also under stand it as the narrow space laid in the heart of Aksobhya. T h a t

essential place is also called Sukhavatl, sincc it is the suprem e place for generating great ecstasy' (mahasukha). T h e bodhi citta (there), through cessation of death, is (the B uddha) Ainitayus; and becausc the infinite light ol prajiid arises theretroni, it is also called field o f A m ita b h a . ( sriiri gahi rtsa m dud grol bahi gnas der rluri sems thim pa ni rn am rtog b rg y a rtsa dari brgya cu [jjV. for drug cu] hgog pahi gnas dam p a yin pas / rnam rtog gis mi bskyod pas mi bskyod pahi iri du bsad tie mi bskyod pa thug kar hgod pahi dog pahari des ses par byaho / gnad de bde ba can gyi tin duhari brjod de bde ba rh c n po skye bahi gnas kyi mchog dan / byau ch u b kyi sems ni hchi ba tgog pas tshe dpag mod yin la / de las byuh bahi ses ra b kyi Jiod inthah yas pahi phyir ro / hod d p a g med kyi tin duhari gsuris so I ). T h e positive m eaning of vajra is involved in the frequent discussions of the JtV inapada school a b o u t the invio lable d ro p ( *ak?ata-bindu; T . mi Sigs pahi thig It) of the heart, for example, in V ita p a d a s com m entary on the M uktitilaka (PT T , Vol. 65, p. 135-2), where the form o f the inviolable d ro p in the heart is said to lie, for exam ple, like a " ra in of m ustard seed; and to be the non-prapanca o f any dharma chos thams cad kyi ma spros pa), V ita p a d a also m entions in the same place a theory about the three kinds o f bindu th a t they are identi fied with the three kinds of masters (dcdrya), the causal m a ste r (* hetu-acdiya), the conditional m a ste r (*pratyaya-dcdrya)t and *co-natal m aster (* sahaja-dcdrya); and th at the inviolable d r o p is t h e co-natal m aster. ( V ita p a d a s passage is given in full and explained in A. W aym an, The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 49- 50). T h e recollection (anusmrti) takes place th ro u g h the goddess (yofit) or perfection of insight (prajna-pdramitd). T h e Guhyasamdja tantra, C h ap tcr V I I , treats this recollection w ith various examples. Perhaps the most im p o rta n t illustration involves verse 34 (translated iu Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrel c o n te x t): tatra katham prajndpaiamitdisamaydnusmrtibhdvand / prakrtiprabhdsvardh sarve anutpannd nirdsravah j na bodhir ndbhisamayo na dhdtuh na ca sambhavah // And w hat is the contem plation w ith recollection of the Perfection-of-Insight pledge ? All those w ith (entrance into, praveSa) the C lear Light and its (accom panying) prakrtis (num b erin g 160 by day and n ig h t), are u nborn (because the body taken is illusory)

and w ithout flux (because not mere appcarance, nirdbhd* satvdt) when there is no (i.e. no attention to) enlighten ment, no understanding, no realm (i.e. receptacle, ddhdra), and no emergence (of phenomenal abodes). T h e Pradipoddyotana at this point cites the Vajrof^atantra (trans lated here w ith help of Mchan fjgrcl, p. 60-2): j mrtyund *tv avikalpena prajndpdramitd nayd / I prajiidparamild jatih prnjfulpdramiId smrtih // / prajiidparamild bodhih prajndpdramitd layd f j prajiidparamild muktih sarvaidparipuraka ff T he Perfection of Insight has the method ( the means, updya) by reason of non-discursive death ( the Clear Light of D e ath ). T h e Perfection of Insight has the birth ( = the Illusory Body emerging from the Clear Light) and the recollcction (smrti anusmrti-a/iga; for becoming a B uddha in the Interm ediate State). T he Perfection of Insight has the enlightenm ent ( yuganaddha) and the merger (with the Clear Light). T he Perfection of Insight has the liberation (from the two hindrances, of defilement and the knowable). (For those reasons) it fulfills all hopes. I i H R j! hrdi krtvdrthdcarydm vai laukikim sa tathagatah f nirmdya samvrlam kdyam kdmdmi cared yathayatkam //27// T h e worldling praxis of aim having been formed in the h e a rt, he the T athagata, creating a conventional body, practises desires exactly as he cares. Mchan: T h e praxis of aim on behalf of worldly beings having been posited in the heart of the sadhakathe T athagata, namely V airocana, etc., transforming himself in appcarance, i.e. creat ing a conventional body, practises in desire fields ( = the five sense objects) exactly in T ath ag ata correspondence (i.e. V airo cana in forms, etc.). T he verse shows the engagement in the time of praxis. PrakdSikd on H r: Creating a conventional body* means em anat ing the mantfala-cakra with the nature of Tathagatas, goddesses, Bodhisattvas, and krodhas. Bu-ston {BSad sbyar, Vol. Ta, f. 57a-b) on H r cites Aryadeva: T he one dwelling in the circle of yo?its, with a single mudrd> or w ith four mitdrds, should recollect the Svadhisthana. Even after the yogin has dwelt on the level of highest bliss, he should

always enjoy pleasant forms, sounds, odors, tastes, and tangibles* (/ phyag rgya gcig dan Ulan paham van na phyag rgya bi dan ldan / /btsun mohi likhor na b2ugs pas kyari / / b d a g byin brlab pa rjes dran bya I / gzugs dan sgra d a n de b ii n dri / / ro dan reg bya sdug pa rnains ' bde mcho.g go hphari gnas nas kvan / / m a l hbyor pa vis n a g tu myari ies so /). Concerning those lour mudids, i.e. the four goddesses, Locana, etc., thev arc referred to as his enjoym ents' in Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. X V I I 1, p. 157 : tasya bhogdJ catur jntyah siddhiythdnadibhis tathii / virdndm ekavaktrdnarn ekaikam murdhni sccanam // His four enjoyments arc to be known by m eans of the Svadhisthana, etc. Accordingly there is the an o in tm en t one-by-onc on the h ead (s) o f the one-faced heroes. I n partial explanation o f the passage ju st cited, X a g a rju n a s Affddafa-patala-i'istara-iydkhyd (P T T , Vol. 60, p. 10-2) states: His four enjoym ents are the four goddesses, I,ocana e tc . (Ions spyod bzi ni spyan la sogs p a bzi ste). F u rth erm o re, wc read in Guhyasamajatantra, C h a p , X V I I I , p. 166 (translation aided by N ag arju n as vyakhya, p. 16-4-6): vidyardjniti vikhydtd caturbhood mahdrdhikd f sarvakdmeti vijiieyd vajradhipatayns tathd fj W hen the four enjoym ents ( = four goddesses, L o can a, e tc .) have the great m agical powers (<= five T a t h a g a t a s ), they are called Q ueen of V id y a ( = R u p a v a jra , e tc .). In th e same circumstances, the D iam ond Lords ( = th e B odhisattvas) are known as All desire ( = Y am an tak a, e tc .). T h e m a n ^ a la which the PrakdSikd refers to has an a lte rn a te form according to T so n -k h a-p as Paticakrama co m m en tary (P T T , Vol. 159, p. 74-5 to 75-1) called a 1 gana-cakra' (tshogs kyi dkyil bkhor). In its middle is the yogin skilled in the praxis. T h e first series is the four yosits w hich he places in the sequence o f E, S, W, N, namely Bde mchog sgyu m a, L -m a-ho bde ba. Sgron m a, and asi. I hose arc consorts (sahacari, wives) (lhan cig spyod pahi bud m e d ), presum ably to be identified with the four goddesses, Locana, etc. O th e r sets o f four goddesses, totalling sixteen, are disposed in o u ter circles an d called female attendants (anucari; T . rjes su spyod pahi bud m e d ) . T h e names of those deities belong to M o th er T a n tr a ra th e r than Cuhyasamdja tradition.

Kurthermore, ihe phrase creating a conventional body' can be illustrated in the case of Sakvamuui with tantric reinter pretation (see the theory o fth e W ay ornament in the introduc tory treatm ent of T he seven ornaments and subdivisions). T he Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgnl, p. 12-5 to 13-1) has this passage: ' uktam evaitad bhagavata / asadharanaguhvamahayogatantre / ath ap aram sarvajnaparivarasanipatti(ni) pravaksyami ! tadvatha jm ddhodanamaharajornaujusrl bhavati/ m aham ayadcvl lokcsvarn bhavati / yasodhara sridevl rahulo vajrasattvah saradvatTputrah sarvanivaranaviskambhi bhavati / aryanandah sthaviras sam antabhadro bhavati / clevadattas sthaviro devendras srlsakyamunis sam yaksambuddho m ahavairocauo bhavati / anena nvayena sangltikara iti ' parsad iti adikarmikasattvavataran ay a bud d h an atak o Vam pradarsitah ! This was said by the Lord in the unshared Guhyamahdyogatantra [possibly the Yoga-tantra catalogued as the Vajrakkhara-mahaguhyayogatantra]'. Xow I shall also reveal the perfection of the retinue of omniscience, as follows: M anjusri became th r great king &uddhodana. Lokcsvara became the. queen M aham aya. Sridevl became Yaso d h a ra ; V ajrasattva, R.ihula; Sarvanivaranaviskambhin, &ariputra; S am antabhadra became the elder Aryiinanda. Devendra (i.e. In d ra) became the elder Dcvadatta, ami M ahavairoeana, the Perfected Buddha ri-akyam u u i . According to that interpretation, w hat is callcd the com piler and what is called the retinue is revealed as this dram a of the Buddha for introducing the beginner sentient beings (into the Doctrine). D A I dadati priirthitam sarvam cintamanir tvaparam f luiffia(x) cdhrtya kttruic buddhanam api santpadam //28// Like the best wish-granting jewel, hatha grants everything desired, and seizing (by force) enacts even the success ol the Buddhas. Mchan ; G rants everything desired means ; grants all mundane siddhis, And even the success ol the Buddhas means ; even grants the supram undane siddhi, which is Buddhahood. Mchan hgtfl, Vol. 138, p. I-N o : 'the wish-granting jewel (cintamani) grants youth, health, and happiness.

The term hatha (fierce yoga) occurs in the Guhyasamiijatantra, Chap. W i l l , verse lf>2: darianam tu krte 'px evam sadhakanya na jayatr i yada na sidhyate bodhir hnfhayo^cna sadhayct If W hen nnc has performed that wav and still th r siidhaka s vision does not occur, nor is bndhi achieved, then lv hathryo*a it is achieved. According to X ag arju n as A^tiidaia-patala-vistara-iyakhya P T 1 ,. Vol. 60, p. 15-4, 5 and p. 1 6 -1 .2 '. thi* i n v o l v e a fiercer practicc with success in fewer days. Explaining the six m onths (7/im<i.tfl) of verse 161, he says (p. 16-1-5) " I f it is not achieved in six months, two months, one, or a h alf m onth, then one should try to achicve it in seven days (gari gi tshe zla ba d n ig d a n zla ba gnis dan gcig d a n zla ba phyed kvis hgrub par mi hgyur ni I dehi tshe ag bdun gyis bsgrub p a brtsam p a r bya ste ). T h e comments show that if success is not reached through the usual procedure of the three sattvas (samaya~sattva, jniina-sattva, and samadhi-sat tva) in six m onths', then one applies the procedure through the jnana-sattva with evocation o f the krndha deity Sumbharaja for success in seven (lays. T h e explanation o f hathayoga in X aro p as Sekoddciatika, p. 45 involves d raw in g the prana into the m iddle vein (hathcna pranam madhyamayam vahayitva). T he general procedure of obtaining siddhis is thro u g h the burnt offering, as in the Guhyasamajatantra} X V I , p. 117 (Mchan hgrel, p. 139-2): homam kurvita mantrajnah sanasiddhiphaliirthinah / vinmutramamsatailadyair ahutim pratipddayct / T he know n of m antras desiring as fruit all (m u n d a n e and supram undatic) siddhis, should perform a b u rn t offering (homa). He should accomplish the evocation bv (an inner burnt offering, to w it: ) excrem ent, urine, flesh, oil, and so forth. Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrel (Vol. 158, p. 141-5): (The offerings of) excrement and u rin e m ean the live ambrosias (amrta); (of) flesh m ean the five kinds. Ibid., p. 142-1): G reat flesh means the five kinds o f lamps, (fbid., p. 142-1): All siddhis means of m u n d an e ones, the m inor ones ol iantika, ctc., and the eight great ones of ri-lu, etc., called mahtisamaya (Gufoasamaja, X \ I, p. 117, line 1 / ) . T h e reference to five

ambrosias* is based on a passage in the Mahamudratilaka, cited in my essay, Totcmic beliefs in the Buddhist T antras, p. 91: Ratnasam bhava is blood, A m itabha is semen; Amoghasiddhi is hum an flesh, Aksobhya is urine; Vairoeana is excrement. These arc the five best ambrosias. For the five kinds of flesh, D harm aklrtis commentary on the Hevajra-tantra called Spyan hbyed (P T T , Vol. 54, p. 135-3) contains the Sanskrit words in T ibetan transcription : \ a means hum an flesh (nara); Ga means ox flesh (gaum); Ha means elephant flesh (hasti); final va means horse flesh (fliio); initial $va means dog flesh (Svan). The list appeasing (iantika), etc. is the four previously described (nidana verse 15) as the jurisdictional activity of the four goddesses, Locana, etc.; and they yield inferior mundane siddhis. The great m undane siddhis arc eight in number, refer red to as etc., where ri-lu ('little ball) is a contraction of rit-bu. T he list of eight siddhis is somewhat explained in the annotation to Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras. Here we need only list them : 1. To walk in the sky (khecara), 2. T o be swift of foot (janghakari), 3. To be invisible (antardhana), 4. T o shape into a little ball fpindarupa, T . ril-bu), 5. T o remove, blindness (T. mig $man)> 6. To have the elixir of youth (rasana), 7. T o be invincible in battle (khadga), 8. T o have dominion over the entities of the underworld [patala). T he following passage ol the Guhyasamdjatantra, X V I, p. 124 (Pradipoddyotana and Mchan hgrel, p. I4G-4, ff.) differentiates between superior and inferior mundane siddhi: kayaiakcittasamsiddhu buddhar upadharaprabha / jamb unadaprabhdkdrd hinasiddhisamdiritah // antardhdnddisamsiddhau bhaiet vajradharah prabkuh / yakfarajtidisams iddhau bhavet vidyddharah prabhuh // She ( = Vajra(.lakini) who shines with a form like the (respective) Buddha is the (superior) occult success of body (grasping various forms), speech (grasping various sounds), and mind (gaining as desired). They ( mun dane fairies, fokini) who glisten on the Jam bu river are the resorts of inferior siddhi. The lord Vajradhara would be in the (superior )occult success o f invisibility( united with the Vajra<.lakini, a 'together-bom female). The lord Vidyadhara would be in the (inferior) occult success

of Yaksaraja. etc. ( = united with the m u n d an e fairies, the field-born females ). Besides the distinction ot inferior an d superior kinds am ong the m undane siddhis, these siddhis themselves contrast with the supram undane siddhi, as differentiated in the Guhyasamajatantra, X V I, p. 117 (Mchan hgrel. Vol. 15, p. 142-1): antardhanam balam viryam vajrdkar<anam uttamnm / siddhyate manhole sarvam kayavajravaco yathd Everything is brought to succcss in the mantfala, as irom the word of the diam ond o f body" (-= V a iro c a n a ), nam ely: disappearance, stren g th , 'striving, an d the ultim ate diam ond a ttra c tio n . Mchan hgrel: Strength (bala)y means m astery o f vidyadhara; striving (virya) m eans the pow er of the five abhijna-s; in the mantfala' means initiation, g u ard in g o f vows, an d co n tem p la tion o f the p ath in the man<jala\ d iam o n d a ttra c tio n m eans attraction of things difficult to attra c t. T h e last n a m e d can be compared with the su p ram u n d an e siddhi ol Guhyasamaja, X I I , verse 37 (D ocum ents): the suprem e B u d d h a a ttra c tio n (buddhakarsanam uttamam). T h e five abhijiia-s of this tradition were previously detailed u n d e r n id a n a verse 20. Sec also Chaps. V I and X I I (D o cu m en ts). Finally, su p ram u n d an e siddhi, here called su p re m e can be given interpretive levels th rough C a n d ra k ir tis classifying terminology. T hus, Guhyasamajatantra, X I I I , p. 62 (Praaipoddyotana in Derge T a n ju r, R gyud, Vol. H a , f. 104a-4, ff.; Mchan hgrel, P T T , Vol. 158, p. 94-4, IT.): mohasamayasambhiita vidyarajano vajrinah , napumsakapade siddhan dadanti siddhim uttamam // A. T ranslation w i t h invariant sense (aksardrtha): T h e vidyarajas and diamond-posscssors, arisen from the Delusion-Symbol (vioha-samaya) confer the suprem e siddhi upon the adepts (siddha) a t the place o f androgynes. B- T ranslation with hinted m ea n in g (ncyartha): T h e (krodhas) U snlsacakravartin, etc. (cf. n id a n a verse 17) an d (Bodhisattvas) K sitigarbha, etc. (cf. nidana verse 16) arisen Irom (the B u d d h a ) V airo c a n a (as pro genitor of the M oha fam ily), confer E nglightenm ent upon the adepts at (their reciting) the three syllables O m , All, H u m (in die C lear Light an d in yuganaddha).

Translation with evident m eaning (nitdrtha): T he m en and women who have taken an aggregate of indulgence (upaddna-skandha) ( = a body), arisen from nescience (avidya), confer the extraordinary siddhi of mahamudta upon the adepts realizing at the Clear Light and at the Culmination-of-Light (having attained the Clear Light and yuganaddha), V I / /yad yad icchati yogendras tat tat kuryad andvrtah / asamdhitayogcna nityam eva samdhitah //29// W hatever the powerful one of yoga wishes, just that he would do without hindrance; and by means of the yoga of after-stability, is continually stabilized. Mchan : The powerful one of yoga the practitioner of the Sam pannakram awhatever he may wish to practise of his own strand of desire (kdmaguna)just that he would enjoy unhinder ed ; and by the yoga of such sporting in a strand of desire* in the time of after-attainm ent the aftcr-stability, he is conti nually stabilized in the sense of inseparable ecstasy-void. Guhyasamdjatantra, XYTII, p. 156: asamdhitayogcna nityam eva samdhitah I sariacittesu yd caryd mantracarycti kathyate // By the yoga o f after-stability' one is ever stabilized. T h at practicc in all thoughts is called practice of mantras. Pancakrama, 3rd krama, verse 3f> (with emendations): yad yad indriyarndrgatiam dyas tat tat svabhdvatah j asamdhitayogcna sanam buddhasamam lahet jj W hatever the sense basis and whatever its path ( sense object), precisely that approach in its own-being leads to all Buddha-rquality by the yoga of aftcr-stability. Sri Laksml's Paiicakrama comm., Vol. <33, p. 50-5: Among them, the samdhita is the contemplation of as many as 38 samddhis starting from initial training' and going up to the division into the hundred lineages. Accordingly, the asamdhita is the place in the intervals by means o f divine pride (devata-garva). The two of them do not exist separately in the yuQanaddha-krama because there is a single own-being of profound concentration (samadhi) and stra\ing of mind' (vikypa)1* ( / dc la mfiam par b ia g pa ni dari po sbyor ba la sogs pa nas / rig brgyahi dbyc bahi bar du ji srid tin n rh d /in sum cu rtsa brgyad sgom paho/ de bin du mfiam par ma b2ag pa ni lhahi na rgyal gyis bar

C.

mtshams rnams la gnas pa ste I grtis po hdi dag zuri lijug gi rim pa la yod pa m a yin tc I tin nc hdzin dan / rnam p a r gYch ba dag rah b iin gcig vin pahi phvir ro ). T he Sri-Paramadya-tantras last chapter has some relevant verses (PT T , Yol.*5, p. 172-4): / dbafi po gan dan gar) lam gym j j de dan de yi no bn> bya I mham par giag nai trial hbyor gyis f ran gi Ikag pahi lha sbyor bya '/ / de nid rnal hbyor hdiyis ni j thams cad Aid ni bsgrub par bye f saris rgyas kun dnos thorns cad ni I rtag tu mtho'i tin grub par hgyur jj W hatever the sense basis and w hatever its p ath, he should act in the own-being o f the former and the latter. By yoga after stability, he will unite with his own presiding lord (adhideva). By this very yoga he will accomplish everything. H e will always sec and perfect all the B uddha natures. fjV A fj vajrapadmasamayogaj jhanatrayavibkagavit f liptdliptamatis tatra sukhena vihatet sada // 30// K nowing the portions of the three knowledges, th ro u g h union of thunderbolt a n d lotus, the defiled an d the undefiled intelligence would dwell therein w ith bliss for ever. Aichan: K now ing well the portions o f three knowledgesthe three (Lights called) Light, Spread-of-Light, an d C ulm inationof-Light arising through the (sequential) dissolution of the winds, by the sddhaka's taking recourse to union o f vajra an d padrna both the defiled and the undcfiled intelligence w ould for ever be stabilized therein with ecstasy com bined w ith void. T his refers to w hat is done by the possessor of discrim inative intelli gence distinguishing between (a) the stream o f consciousness defiled by the trouble of defilement (klcsa) w hen un itin g w ith a partn er (mudrd) and acting th a t way, and (b ) the stream o f consciousness undefiled by the trouble of o perating in the defiled path (in like circum stances). T h e Vajramdld has a brief chapter, no. 14 (P T T , Vol. 3, pp. 209 and 210), entitled, C h a p te r R elating the M arriag e o f the D iamond and the Lotus (rdo rjc p ad m a yah dag p a r sbyor ba

bsad pahi lrhu). This coutaim two verses citcd here and iransli'tcd with the* help of Alamkakalasas comments (PT T Vol. <)!. p. 210-1, fi and 211-1). The. first verse at Vol. 3, p. 2(W-5, brings in the non-iantric terminology of calming (iamatha 1 and discerning (vipaSyana), the two which should he combined in Buddhist mm-tamric yuganaddha: ' pad-ma de y i grids dc la ! r/f y i shyor bahat) mchog tu gsal j ! ii gnas pad-ma res gsuns la j dr la lhag mthon rdo rjeho (i And his union in that place of the padma is most d e a r when (the master) explains that the padma is calming and that the vajra there is discerning. T h e next verse al Vo!. 3, p. 210-1, introduces the tantric termi nology of male organ (lingo) and female organ (bhaga): j bio Idan rnam rtog hrat ba y i / I rdo rje Hn-ga fcs ni bSad / mam rtog hral bahi bio (dan gyis j / hha-ga pad-ma ces ni brjod If T h e linga possessing intelligence (mati) and lacking dis cursive thought vitarka) is called vajra. The bhaga lack ing intelligence and possessing discursive thought is called padma. O n the latter. Alamkakalasa comments (PT T , Vol. 61, p. 211-1): Possessing intelligence' means: has the perfection of distin guished insight (prajrla): lacking discursive thought means free from all (eighty) vikalpas/ (bio Idan ies bya ba la sogs pas gsuns te khvad par can gyi ses rab phun sum tshogs pa dari Idan pa laho / rnam rtog bral bahi zes bya ba ni ' rnam par rtog pa thams cad dari bral baho). When we add to this his comments on the former verse PTT, Vol. 61, p. 210-4, 5), it becomes possible to explain the two verses this way: Samatha, or one-pointedness of mind, temporarily clears the mind of defilements but does not destroy them, since they remain in the periphery of consciousness. So it is like the lotus (padma) which is not adhered to by the muddy water but is still surrounded by the muddy water (here the 80 vikalpas). Vipasyana, or dis criminative analysis, is free from the defilements but is with out location. So it is like the vajra which is the intelligence free from the 80 vikalpas, but not localized in a particular mind.

T h e lotus and the diam ond intuit th at they com plem ent each other: the lotus will prepare the pure spot such as the m a n ^ a la o f residence, and the diam ond will introduce the divine intelli gence such as the m an d ala of the residents. T h e ir nuptials are celebrated; otherwise stated, the yogin (w hether m ale or fem ale)brings about their inseparable union w ith bliss for ever. IjJ R A jf jpnbhate sarvabhavatmd mdyopamasamadhina / karoti buddhakrtyam sarnpradayapadasthitah //31 // T he universal self of entities sports by m eans o f the illu sory samadhi. It performs the deeds of a B u d d h a while stationed a t the traditional post. Mchan : T h e universal self o f inner-and-outer entities sports by means o f itself staying in the Illusory S am ad h i: F o rm er tea chers opined this to be the application to g enerating the gnosis (jh&na) o f arcane mind* (cittavivcka) in m editative a tta in m e n t (samdpatti) through reliance on a p a rtn e r (mudra); b u t th at is n o t all it is ! O ne should understand it also to b e the generating o f arcane mind* in m editative atta in m e n t thro u g h continuous line by arcane body (Ins dben gyis rgyud nas) and concretely by arcane speech5 dben gvis dfws jw); an d we h a v e a lre a d y explained the m ethod of contem plation a t th e tim e o f em erging from the m editative attain m en t. By this is to b e understood the pregnant exposition o f the doctrine of lust, n ot only in the phase of the two carya-s (i.e. the first two, th e prapahca~carya an d the ni$prapanca-carya, explained u n d e r n id a n a verse 2 6 ), b u t also the reliance on a p a rtn e r (mudra). In th eir phase the m ultiple occurrence of the three jndnas is num erous in these phases o f the C lear Light o f the Suprem e E ntity an d is th e way o f in corporating the universal void o f the Symbolic C lear L ight into the third void, the C ulm ination (-o f-L ig h t); hence, if one counts separately the Symbolic C lear Light, th ere are four voids. // O n e secs like that, itself ap p earin g in the Illusory Body, as stated in the Paiicakrama (3rd, 2 0 b ): Stationed in the Illusory Sam adhi one secs everything th a t w ay . // It perform s the deeds of a Buddha, i.e. perform ing the aim o f sentient beings by various means, and so doing by m eans o f this Illusory Body; while stationed in the C lear Light w hich is the trad itio n al post*, i.e. the Suprem e Entity. Prakdiika on J r a (P T T , Vol. GO, p. 296-1) : Deeds o f a B u d d h a m eans th a t he perform s teaching, m aturation, and liberation (of the sentient b ein g s); the tra d i

tional post is the siddhiinta (consummate end), the post becausc it docs not shilt; stationed means resting there, (saris rgyas kyi bya ba ni bstan pa dari / / yoris su smin pa dari /rnam par grol ba la sogs pa byed pa ni mdzad paho / f gtan la dbab pafoi g ii ni grub pahi m thah ste / dc* ftid mi hpho bahi phyir gnas paho j ! dc las gnas pa ni rial so baho). Paiicakrama, 1st krama, 2B : mdyopamasamddhistho bh utakofyam samavikt f Stationed in the Illusory Samadhi he enters the true limit. Ibid., 1st krama, 58 : anena vajrajdpeita sevdm krtva yathavidhi / sadhayet sarvakdryani mayopamasamadhina // H aving done the service by that diam ond muttering according to the rite, he would accomplish all deeds by the Illusory Samadhi. Ibid., 3rd krama, 20 : tasmdd eva jagat sarvam mayopamam ibocyate f mayopamasamadhiffhah sarvam pa.(yati tadrSam fj Accordingly, all the world is here said to be illusory. Stationed in the Illusory Samadhi one sees everything that way. Ibid., 3rd kram a (Svadhisthana), 29-30 : mantramudraprayogam ca mantfaladwikalpatiam j balihomakriyam sarvam kuryan mayopamam sada // Sdntikam pauftikam capi tathd vaiyabhicarakam ( akarfanddi ya t sarvam kuryad indrayudhopamam // H e should engage in the training of mantra and mudra, in the imagining of mandala, etc., in the rites of bait and homa; and in each case, ever illusory-like*. H e should engage in appeasing (deities), increasing (prosperity), dom inating (the elementary spiritis), overcoming (ini mical elements), and in whatever attracting (of dakini-%), and in each case, rainbow-like. Tsori-kha-pa, Comm, on Pancakrama, p. 71-1, 2, in illustration of non-prapatica praxis (nifprapaiica-caryd) cites Anarigavajras Prajnopilyavinifcayasiddhi (V, last line of verse 45, and verses 46-47) : cittam cdropya bodhau vifayasukharatah sidhyatihaiva janmani fj avdspadnh kalpanaya vimuktdh svabhdvatak iuddhatamah samastdh /

anatmasamjiidvisayahprakitydsuaftnctiarajdlapratibhdsatulydh 46// yadatabuddhu nirQiarah<tm cittcna sadbhir vipuldiayais tu / tadabhibh iitdh sahaja: a<zat)ii na bddhandjdlamalibhavanti !/4 7 // Having elevated the mind to enlightenm ent, he, enjoying ccstasy in sense objects, is succcsslul in the present life. T h e sense objec ts, called n o n -s e lf. by n a tu re like dream s, rainbows, and reflected images, are all intrinsicalh im m a culate, free from discursive thought a n d w ithout abode. W hen illustrious persons of w ide aspiration fully u n d e r stand them with a n o n -ap p reh en d in g mincl, then those (sense objects) are overcome by together-born co m p re hension and no longer tra p (those persons) in their net. I! ) '0H yogaf caivdtiyogai ca mahdxogah svayam bhavet I vajri ca dakini caiva tayor yogas ca yah svayam \ 32 /7 Yoga, atiyoga, and mahayoga occur by themselves; also vajrin, dakini, as well as any union (r"rt) o f b oth, by themselves. Mchan Yoga implies both yoga an d anttyoga, a n d they plus atiyoga and mahayoga the pratham a-fa yoga of four yogasoccur by themselves for mdyadehin. Alsu vajrin, who is c h ie f of th e vijaya-mandala, plus the dakini, plus an y yoga (of b o th ) occur themselves for mdyadehin. T h e two lines refer to the two samddhis o f mdyadehin (possessor of Illusory B ody). Prakdsika on Yo (Vol. 60, p. 295-2 : T hose arc the lour yogas of the Stage o f G en eratio n , w hereby one accom plishes the samddhis o f Initial Praxis, etc. In the ptesent case, yoga is means (updya), anuyoga is insight (prajnd), atiyoga is e n tra n c e into their union; mahayoga is the a tta in m e n t of g reat bliss (mahdsukha) from their union, (bskyed pahi tim p ah i trial hbyor bi ste I gan gis daii pohi sbyor ba zes bya ba la sogs pahi tin he hdzin hgrub p a r hgvur ro / hclir rn al hby o r ni th.ibs s o / / rjes su rnal hbyor ni ses rab bo / / sin tu rnal hbyor ni de d a g gi sfioms par sugs paho / /rnal hbvor cheu po ni snoms p a r sugs p a las bde ba chen po thob p a h o ). Besides, wc may interpret th a t the term s y o g a, atiy o g a, and m ahayoga of n id an a verse 32, refer to the yoga m astery of the three lights, as is suggested by the synonym s o f the lights in verse 25, sfmya, alisunya, and m ahasfm ya. T h u s the yogin with such mastery can evoke autom atically the dakini of su n y a (=* prajfia), the vajrin o f a tiiu n y a ( u p a y a ) , or their

androgynous union. Xoticc also the series of terms in the full title ol the Guhyasamdjatantra : rahasya, atirahasya, mahaguhya, in which m ahaguhya is understood to includc both rahasya and atirahasya. T he Guhyasamajatantra, Chap. X V III, verse 32, defines yoga as follows : prajnopdyasamdpattit yoga ity abhidhiyate i )Y ni (ft) siabhdia.s) tah prajnd updyo bhdvalakfanam f/ > Yoga* is defined as the equipoise of insight and means. W hatever is devoid of intrinsic nature, is insight. M eans' is the characteristic of modes. N agarjim a's commentary, p. .V2, 3, 4, 5, illustrates insight, means, and their equipoise, first for each of his five stages {the pancakrama); then for the terms cause, action, and fruit; next, for each of the six members of the fatfanva-yoga. In the ease of the six members, the explanations go as follows : 1. Insight is the sense organs and means is the sense objccts. T h e yoga of their equipoise and enjoyment, is pratyahara. 2. Insight is the sense organs and means is the T a th a gatas. T h r yoga as their equipoise, is dhydna. 3. Insight is paramdrtha-bodhicitta and means is samvrtibodhicitta. T h e yoga as their equipoise, involving the emanation and reunification of them in upper and lower sequence, is prdna-dyama. 4. When insight and means aie as previous, the yoga of their equipoise, holding the bindu the size of a mustard grain in (r a t) the three tips of nose, is dharana. 5. When insight and means are the Tathagatas embraced by the goddesses, the yoga of emanating into the sky, as their equipoise, is anusmrti. 6. When insight and means arc the Dharmakaya and the Sambhogakaya, the yoga of joining them with the Nir manakaya as their equipoise, is samadhi. Now, although the nidana verse speaks of those yoga states as occurring by themselves for the possessor of the Illusory Body, the Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. X V II, pp. 145-6, employs mytho logical language representing the four goddesses as imploring the lord in the Clear Light to come forth and make love to them. The order of the goddesses is that in which they superintend

the four rites (of appeasing, e tc .). T h e translation is some w hat expanded by the Pradipoddyotana an d .Mchan hqrcl (p. 162): atha tc sarie bodhisattvdh tufnim lyavasthita abhuian / atha bhagavantah sanatathagatah sarvatathagatakdyatdkcittavajrayofidbhagffu vijahara f T h e n all those Bodhisattvas (their doubts dispelled) l>ecame completely silent. T h ereu p o n the B hagavat who is all (five) T a th a g a ta (families) took abode in the bhaga-s (the B uddhadharm odaya = the C lear L ight) of the (four) diam ond ladies belonging to (Y ajrad h ara, w ho is) the vajra of the Body, Speech, an d M ind of all the T ath ag atas. T h e n M am aki, the wife of the m ind of all the T a th a g a ta s ( - A k s o b h y a ) , implored M a h a v a jra d h a ra in these passionate term s : *Tvam vajracitta bhuvanelvaia sattvadhato trdydhi mam ratimanojila maharthakdmaih f kdmdhi mam janaka sattvamahdgrabandho yadicchase jivitam maiijunathah / / M ay you of ad am an tin e m ind, lord o f the w orld, realm of sentient beings, save m e with love of g reat purpose, O thou the gratifier of passion! O father, m ay the great supreme kin of sentient beings love me, if you, the mild lord, wish th a t I live. T hen Buddhalocana, the wife o f the body of all the T athagatas* ( V a i r o c a n a ) , im plored M a h a v a jra d h a ra endearingly : Tvam vajrakdya bahusattvapriydnkacakra buddharthabodhiparamirthahitanudari i f r&gena ragasamayam mama kamayasva yadicchase jivitam maiijundtha ff* M ay you, the diam ond body, the revolving wheel (afika~ cakra) that delights m any beings, the revealcr o f the benefit o f the B uddha aim an d the suprem e-enlightcnm cnt aim, love me w ith passion a t the time for passion, if you, the mild lord, wish that I live. T h e n the diam ond eye o f body, specch, and m in d ( - P an tfara), the wife o f Lokesvara ( A m ita b h a ), suffused w ith passion toward M ah av ajrad h ara, pleaded w ith him : Tvatft vajraidca sakalasya hitanukampi lok&rthakiryakarane sadd sampravrttah j kdmdhi mam suratacarya samantabhadra yadicchase jivitam maiijundtha //

O diamond spccch, have compassion for everyones benefit, arc always engaged in doing the needful for the worlds aim. Love me, O entirely good one (Samantabbadra) with the praxis of ecstasy, if you, the mild lord, wish that I live. Then the wife ( A rya-T ara) of the Samayavajra (-A m o g h asid d h i) of the Body, Spccch, and Mind of all the Tathagatas, exhorted M aha vajradhara to make love to her: *Tvam vajrakama samayagra mahahitdrtha sambuddhavrvnialiIaka h samatanukampi f kdmiihi mam gunanidhim bahuratnabhutam yadicchasc jivitam manjutiaiha / / O Diamond love, the pinnacle of the Samaya (family), whose aim is the great benefit; you have the mark of the Complete B uddhas family and arc compassionate with equality. Love me who is the treasure of virtues made of many jewels, if you, the mild lord, wish that I live. T hereupon, the Bhagavat, V ajiapant T athagata, immersing himself in the samadhi called diamond glory partaking of all desires, remained silent, while making love to the wives of all the T athagatas by means of the samoyacakra (atha bhagavan vajrapanis tathagatah sarvakamo-pabhogavajrasriyaip nama samiidhim samapannas tam sarvatathagatadayitam samayacakrcna kamayan lusnim abhut / ). T he Pradipoddyotana (PTT, Vol. 158, p. 163-4, 5) explains that the four goddesses, respectively representing the four Brahmaviharas, which arc friendliness (maitri), compassion (karuria), sympathetic joy (anumodana), impartiality (upekfd), succeeded in their love petitions because the Bhagavat, by virtue of the continuity of his previous vow (srion gyi smon lam gyi rgyun gi sugs kyis)cmerged from the voidness-yo^a ( the Clear Light) and entering the above-named samadhi, engaged in love with those goddesses by means of the samaya-cakra, which is the 8 x B 64 katna-kald, or love techniques. The tich symbolism of the Guhyasamdja account emphasizes the exhorting by the female clement, the winds, elements, Nature herself, for the Lord to emerge from the absolute plane as the compassionate teacher to show the path to others. For
Y o u ,

this he must embrace N ature, the wife ol others. And yet this takes place by itself. ff SID ff nifiddham apt krtva vai krtydkrtya-vivarjitah / na lipyatc svabhdvajnah padmapatram iidmbhasd ff 33 ff Having done even the prohibited, he renounces both the proper and the im proper act. I he one knowing the intrinsic n atu re is not adhered to (by sin), any more th an is a lotus leaf by water. Mchan : I f one practises in the strands ol desire' (kdmaguna = the five sensory objects) of the vidya (rig ma), is this in conflict with the saying, Desires are like poisonous le a v e s " ? ( I h e verse) disputes this. Prohibited : this is the label which the other vehicle applies to desire for the strands of desire. H aving done even the p rohibited with the skilful m eans {updyakauSalya) of this (our) vehicle, he renounces the dis cursive thinking (vikatpa) o f both the proper an d the im proper act. H e is not adhered to in his stream of consciousness by the trouble o f com m itted desires, etc., which lead to an evil destiny (durgati)y because he is one knowing the inii insic n a tu re of the dharmas. According to the texts of H phags pa yab sras (i.e. the tantrics N agarjuna and A ry ad ev a) there is also such a viewpoint in the lower vehicle (H iu a y a n a ), hence in both (vehicles) it reduces to the greatest absurdity th a t there is (unethical) permissiveness to take recourse to the strands of desire (form, sound, ctc.) of the vidya. But. w hile the c o m prehension of reality is the m ain thing, it is necessary to fulfill the frequently-mentioned characteristic o f both firmness in *yoga of the deity (dnatd-yoga) and non-regression (avaivartika) o f the Bodhisattva (on the 8th to 10th stages, or Stage of C o m pletion). Because, while the lack o f fault refutes the *j>crmissiveness*, there is a diflerencr in the respective candidates of the two (vehicles). T h e scriptural citation Do>ires are like poisonous leaves is presumably taken by lso n -k h a-p a from liu-stons M ad sbyar o n $id (Ta, f. 57b-4) : M do las / lulod pa rnam s ni d u g gi lo m a Ita buho ies hdod yon la sogs spyod bkag p aho / tc na / . So far I only find a reference to the poisonous flowers, as in the passage like the flower on the poison tree (vi,%avrky yathd pufpani), in Dharma-Samuccaya, 2 P a n ic (C hap. I X ) , p. 280. Also, in the Udayanavatsardjapariprcchd ol the K atn ak u ta collec

tion (Dcrge, Kaiijur, Dkon brtsegs, Ca, f. 215a-4) there is the half-verse. : ha la ha lahi dug hdra bahi ' hdod chags kyis ni de yah hkhrugs , He is agitated by passion which is like the halakala poison. But this poison is produced from the roots of the plant of that name, and is also the poison churned from the ocean according to the P arana legend. Prakdiika on Sid (Vol. f>0. p. 295-2): Prohibited means action in violation of the world. For example, to harm those who do injury to the T hree Jewels (Buddha, Doctrine, and Congrega tio n ); to steal the goods o f the miser; to deprive the lustful person of a family; to cut the pride of the proud; to speak harshly to the envious. When one docs such acts as those in violation of the world, and under control o f skill in the means, he is not defiled, for by doing it under control of great compassion (mahdkaruitd), (here is no obscuration (aiaratta). (dgag pa ni hjig rten dan bahi las so ' dper na dkon mchog gsum la gnod pa can rnams la rnam par htshe ba dan 1 scr sna can la rdzas hphrogs pa dan / hdod chags can bu sniad hphrog pa dan / ha rgyal can la ha rgyal gcod pa dan ' phrag dog can la rtsub mo smra ba dan ! de la sogs pahi hjig rtcn dan hgal bahi las rnams thabs la mkhas pahi dbah gis byas tc gos par mi hgyur tc / shin rje chen pohi dbah gis byas par gyur na sgrib par mi hgyur ro/). In accord with the second half of the nidana verse, Aryadeva writes in his Cittaiisuddhiprakarana, verse 115: pankajdtam yathd padmam pankadofair na lipyatt f tikalpavasanadosais tatha yogi na lipyate jf Ju st as a lotus sprung from mud is not adhered to by the faults of mud, so is the yogi not adhered to by the faults of discursive thought and habit energy. T he phrase knowing the intrinsic nature, or a similar expression, especially occurs in the commentarial interpreta tions of Guhyasamdja passages. Let us begin with the lady (yofit) as portrayed in the last three verses (emended) of Guhya samajatantra, Chap. IV: fodaZdbdikdm samprdpya y o fita m kdntisuprabham f
gattdhapu^pam alamkrtva tasya madhye tu kamayet

// /

adhisthapya ca tam prajiiah mdmakim gunamtkhaldm srjed buddhapadam saumyam akasadhatialamkrtam vinmutraSukraraktddin dnatdndm nivedayet evamtufyanti sarnbttddhdh bodhisattva

jf
//

mahayaSdh

H aving obtained a lady, 16-ycarcd, lovely in ap p earan ce, having prepared a fragrant llowrr, one should love (her) in its center. T h e wise m an, em pow ering th at M am aki girdled with merits, goes out to the calm B uddha plane adorned w ith the realm of space. H e should offer to the gods excrcment, urine, semen, and blood. In th a t way, the Complete Buddhas and the renow ned Bodhi sattvas are pleased. T h e Pradipoddyotana quotes tin* Samdhivydkarana expansion o f those verses (Mchan hgrel, p. 11-2, 3, 1) : kfanddikdlahhalcna samjna sydt t\oda.\dbdikd j anutpddofitd Santi (r) yo\itd iti niScitd // Santadhanndnapetdkh jv/ k dntisufnabhnditd ; pratityavasandgatidfmm pu^pam jiidnavikdsanam ff nihsvabhavakulc jneyam sarvajndjudnamadhyamam / kdmayed idrSitn prdjiio ytnitam dhaimadhdtukam fj na cddhydtmam na bdhydtntam nobhaye 'nyatra samsthitd i asthdnasthitiyogah sydd ato mamaki matd ,7 tat svabhdvaikayogam tv adhit\{hdnam tad ucyate / dkdSaikatvasamvdsah saumyam buddhapadam bhavct atah samharandn l it sydd vi$aydh parikalpitdh miitram jndnendriyam samstham Sukram visuddhidhannata ff raktam sarvajiiatdjndnam ye dkarma h parikalpitdh ; ta eva devat ah khydtd nihsvabhdvo nivedanam evam tu.yanti te buddhd jinaurasd viSe^atah f laukiki kalpand yefdm lefdm eva yathoditam ff T h e peace abiding in the u n b o rn , whose nam e w ould be 16-yeared by differentiation o f tim e starting w ith a m o ment, is determ ined as the i a d y ? (y o fit). Possessing a calm n ature, she is said to be lovely in ap p earan ce. T h e flower has the perfum e of habit-energy in d ependence and is full-blown with gnosis. T h e knowable in the tamily devoid o f intrinsic n atu re is centered in om niscient knowledge. ^ lh ere) the wise m an should love such a ladv belonging to the D h arm ad h atu . She who dwells neither w ithin nor w ithout, nor in both or elsewhere, would be the yoga whose station is w ithout location. Accordingly is M am aki understood. T h e singleness of intrinsic n a tu re is w hat is referred to

as the empowerment. T he cohabitation of oneness with spacc is the calm Buddha plane. Thus, the excrement is the amassings as the imagined sense objects. T h e urine is the formation with sense organs (jiianendtiya). T h e srmen is the true nature of purity. (M enstrual) blood is the knowledge of all knovvables. Those imagined natures (personality aggre gates, and so on) are the deities. T he offering is the lack of intrinsic nature. In that way, those Buddhas and their spiritual sons are especially pleased. Whoever have mundane imagina tion, for them it lias been told as (above). T he expression who knows the intrinsic nature occurs in the interesting comment by Pradipoddyotana on Guhyasamaja tantra., Chap. V, verses 7-8: matrbhaginiputrimi ca kamayed yas tu sadhakah / sa siddhirn vipul fun gacchct mahayandgradharrnatam jf miitaram buddhasya vibhoh kamayan na ca lipyate j sidhyate tasya buddhatvam nirvikalpasya dhimatah 1 1 T h e performer who loves the m other, 'sister, and daughterachieves the extensive siddhi at the true nature of the M ahayana summit. Loving the M other of the Buddha, who is the pervading lord, one is not adhered to (by sin). Buddhahood is accomplished for that wise man, devoid of discursive thought. T he Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrel, pp. 43-44) comments : buddhasya matatn prajiViparamitam svahrdisthitam niscarya taya sahasamapattim kuryat / hrdayastha inahadcvi yogi no yogavahinl / jananl sarvabuddhanam vajradhatvisvari smtteti vacanat ' kamayann id matrbhaginiduhitrvaddhitaisinibhih ' samavajnabhih / jiianamudraya ca paiainanandasukham anubhavah/ na ca lipvata iti ragadiklcsair naiva sprsyate / na kevalam ragadidosair na lipyate / api tu sarvasampatlim apadyata iiv aha I sidhyata ityadi / tasya sadhakasya dhih susiksita mudra / yasya tasya dhim atah / nirvikalpasya svabhavajftasya / buddhatvam mahavajradhara tvam sidhyate svayam cva nispadyatc / neyarthah // punar arya-vyakhyanam ucyatc / prajnaparamilam prajnam dharmakayaikainatrkani ; kam aye(n) ni (h)svabhavakhyam

tathatadvayayogatah sam bhogatulyatam jatam tam eva bhaginim m atam / kamayen m a n tra m u rty a tu svadhidaivatayogavan j! sadhako bhavayet tam tu putrim nirm anarupinim / kam ayann ldrsah yogi bhaginim atrputrikarn ( sa siddhim vipulam gacchcn m ahayanagradharm a (ta ) m //m ta r th a h " Having draw n forth the (lady) P rajn ap aram ita (from the Clear Light) dwelling in his own h eart w ho is the mother of the Buddha, he should engage in union w ith her, becausc it is said (in the Sarvarahasyatantra, verse 4 6 ): T he great goddess dwelling in the heart, causing the yoga of the yogin, the m other of all the Buddhas, is called Q ueen of the D iam ond R ealm . ^Loving me:ms by those aw are of the pledge, well-wishing, for such as m other, sister, daughter. Experiencing the ecstasy of supreme bliss w ith the knowledge seal, one is not ad h ered to (by s in ), i.e. is not contacted by the defilements of lust and so on. Not only is one not adhered to by the faults (bad destiny) of lust and so on, b ut also one attains all perfection, for which reason (the verse) says (B u d d h a h o o d ) is accom pli shed an d so on. T h e wisdom (dhi = prajnd) o f th a t perform er is the well-trained mudra. For th a t wise m an , wlio is devoid o f discursive th o u g h t, i.e. knows the intrinsic n atu re, B u d d h a hood) i.c, the state of M a h a v a jra d h a ra , is accom plished just by itself, i.e. completed. Hinted meaning. Also, it is said in the *Arya-iyakhvana (the Samdhiiyakarana): H e should love by the non-dual yoga of thusness the PrajAa-woman, who is the Perfection of Insight called devoid o f intrinsic n a tu r e , the M o th e r (the C lear L ight) identical to the D h arm ak ay a. H e, equipped with the o f his own presiding divinity (o f the Stage o f C om pletion) should love ju s t th at one referred to as sister, engendred equal to the Sam bhogakaya (which has emerged as the y u g a n a d d h a -d e h a from the w ind an d mind-only oi the C lear L ig h t). But, by (his) incantation body (which has rc|>eatedly contem plated the C lear performer should contemplate, th at d a u g h te r w ith the form of the N irm a n a (k a y a ) (of the various T a th a g a tas ).

T he yogin of this kind, loving the m other, sister, dau g h te r / attains the extensive siddhiy i.e. the supreme dharm a-nature of M ahayana. Evident meaning. It should be mentioned that the Mchan hgrel identified both the Sarvarahasyat antra (the verses of which I have numbered) and the Samdhiryakarana citations. Besides, the translation has been influcnccd by the expression iidra>applied to the yogin. In order th at he be of this kind there should be a relevant statement in each of the three cases, i.e. for the m other by the non-dual yoga of thusness ; for the sister equipped with the^o/ja of his own presiding divinity ; and for the daughter* by (his) incantation body . This consideration justifies taking the Sanskrit expression mantramurtyd (by his incantation body) with the suggestion of/?/. . . tu, to apply to the daughter of the next verse. Otherwise, the yogin would be of two such kinds for the sister and of no such kind for the daughter*. This also suggests the solution that the consort of the yogin in the Mahiisadhana phase of the Stage of Generation is the daughter ; while his consorts during the Stage of Completion are the sister and the m other. (M u c h information about this d aughter,etc. symbolism is in my article Female E nergy... reprinted with collections in 7 he Buddhist Tantras). But also, the Guhyasamajatantra, Chap. V', after those verses 7-8, portrayed the astonishment of the Bodhisattvas. So the Lord pronounccd verse 9 : iyam sa dharmatd iudaha buddhanam sdrajiianinam J saradharmarthasambhuta e,ul bodhicaripadam jj This is the pure true nature of the Buddhas who know the essential (the Nirvana of no fixed abode). T hat, having arisen from the nature of the essential (supreme tru th ) and the entity (conventional truth), is the plane of enlightenment-coursing (M ahavajradhara). Thereupon, according to Chapter V, the Bodhisattvas fainted. T h e Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrel, p. 44-4, 5 to p. 45-1 ) quotes again the Samdhivyakarana on this chapter: punar aryavydkhydnam ucyate j aspan (d)akajn idatu guhyam santaikam sukham uttamam f sandhyaya kathitatu cedatp samyaksambodhiprdpakah If... dkdSanantatayogad rupddinam anaiitald /

te vai tathdgatdh proktd bodhisattvas tathaiva ca jf... tat tu samgraham ivedatn mandalam ya t svakdyatah f kalpayantiha satkdydh bodhisattva hi murchitdh // na jananti tadityantc sukhcnonmadacoditah / bodhisattidn mahdsattvdn uktdn tc murchitdn Further, the \-\i ya-V yakhyana is d i e d (for the evident m eaning): Motionless is this secret (place.), peaceful, unique, the suprem e ecstasy. A nd this a tta in e r of perfect enlightenm ent is stated iu the m a n n e r o f twilight. By the yoga (the two d h y a n a s) ol space ( siinya) and infinity ( = m ah asiin y a), there is infinity o f form, etc. (the skandhas, the elements, the sense bases). Those are indeed the T a th a g a ta s as well as the Bodhisattvas. Now, th at is this comprisal, which is the mandala as the (yogins) body. T h e Bodhisattvas im agine it in this world as their transitory bodies, so they swoon. Since they do not know th at (tru th , the intrinsic n a tu r e ) , when exhorted by ecstasys frenzy, the Bodhisattva G re a t Beings are said to swoon. Some oth er explanation* o f the seem ingly im m oral injunctions are m ade w ithout resort to such in terp retatio n s, as above, o f knowing the intrinsic n atu re. F or exam ple, the Guhyasamdjatantra. C hap. X V I , p. 120, has a verse which stipulates conduct precisely the reverse o f the B uddhist la y m a n s vows: prdninas ca tvayd ghdtyd vaktavyam ca mtsa vacah / adattam ca tvayd grdhyam sevanam yofitdm api jf You should kill living beings, speak lying words, take things not given, an d resort to the ladies. T h e Pradipoddyotana (.Mchan hgrel e d itio n ) docs n ot com m ent on this verse, presum ably because the subject alread y w as tre a t ed in C h ap ter I X s co m m en tary . So, Guhyasamdja, IX , p. 35: H e should kill all sentient beings w ith this secrct th u n d erb o lt : (anena guhyavajrena sarvasattvam v ig h a ta y e t) ; Pradipoddyo tana, P T T , Vol. 158, j). G6-5 : H e should destroy all sentient beings by rendering them into the Void (ii/wva) (sems can tham s cad bsad cin stori p a r byas pas rn a m p a r g i i g p ar byah o ). Tantra p. 36: H e should con tem p late th e stealing of all m aterials w ith the triple th u n d e r b o lt (h a ra n a m sarvadravyanam trivajrena v ib h a v a v e t); P I T , Vol. 158, p. 67-2:

* stealing means he summons the substance of all the T a th a * gatas (phrogs p a ni de b iin gsegs pa thams cad kyi rdzas dgug Paho) Tantra, p. 36 : T here he should contemplate the conjunction of all of them to the aspect of a lady (yosidakarasamyogam sarvesam ta tr a b h a v a v c t) ; PTT, Vol. 158, p. 67-4, 5: there, in that man^ala, he should contemplate the conjunc tion with i.e. the transformation (of all other male deities) into, the appearance of goddesses (dkyil hkhor d c r . . . bud nied kyi rnam pa Ita bur yohs su gyur paho). Tantra, p. 36 : He should contemplate all forms as the diam ond expressions which are lying words'* (m rsavadam vajrapadam sarvabimban vibhavayet); PT T , \ ol. 158, p. 68-2: He should contemplate all forms of sentient beings as lying words, since all dharmas are like illusions (thams cad gzugs tc sems can thams cad...rdo rjohi tshig gi rdztm smra bas 2cs bya ba ni i chos thams cad sgyu ma Ita bu yin pas). O f coursc, it is not such a terrible doctrine after all, if killing of living beings means only seeing them as void; telling lies, the working with dharmas that arc seen as illusions; stealing, the drawing into oneself o f the divine sub stance of the T athagatas; and uniting freely with the ladies, the imaginative transformation of mandala deities into goddesses. T he (iuhyasamdja in one place suggests th at this renouncing the proper and the improper a c t of the nidana verse is from the absolute standpoint while in conventional terms we must still make these value judgm ents. Thus, Chapter IX, p. 38: mahadbhutefu dharmefu akasasadrfefu ca / nirvikalpefu iuddhefu samvrtis tu pragiyate // While the dharmas ate marvellous and like the sky, are free from imagination and purea convention is expressed. Another solution is to take sin as merit*, according to Pancakrama, V, 34-35 : yathd saukhyam tathd duhkham yathd dustas tat ha sula/i f yathdvicis tathd svargas tathd punyam tu pdpakam // evatfi jhatvd cared yogi nirviSatikas tu sarvakrt / pracchannavratam dsadya sidhyante sarvasampadah // Having known suffering to be as happiness, the son as the despised person, heaven as the Avici hell, sin as merit, the yogin should do all deeds without fear. By his recourse to the private asceticism, all perfections are fulfilled.

G.

Bhage-fit vijahara (W as dwelling in the bhagas)

In the six-mcmbercd voga, this is the Inst m em ber, Sam adhi j and in the Pancakrama system, it is the List kram a, \ u g a n a d d h a , in fact continuing the iaik^a-yuganaddha and ending with aiaikfayuganaddha. BHA portrays the yogin as a B uddha in one or another of the five B uddha families: while <>L portrays his hom e, where he is, being the female elem ent ol the world. T h e syllable SL is understood as the l o c a t i v e indication govern ed by the verb Vijahara. Therefore, the a u th o r of these verses starts his final aSaikja topic with SL'. T h e V a jra sa ttv a yogin continues bv dwelling anvwhere SL \ I-JA -H A -R A ) to instruct the advanced Bodhisattvas. W hat is the m eaning o f the word 1 bhaga' * The I ajramdld Explanatory T a n tra , ('h a p . 41 P T T , Vol. 3. p. 219-3) states : / chos dbyins bha-ga Zes ni brjod / j bha-ga tin chen ,'ji ma tog I gan phyir dban phyitg sog% yon tan ( Idan pa de phyir bha-ga bijad jj I bha-ga chos mamv su yati bind f j dbyins ni byaii chub sems su gsuns j j khams gsum pa y i hgro ba y i / j rgyu ni bha-ga ;es byar blad T h e D h a rm a d h a tu is called 'bhaga' . T h e bhaga is a jewelled basket (karanda). Because it possesses the m erits o f lordliness* a n d so on, it is called 'bhaga'. T h e bhaga is also explained as the dharmas. T h e dhatu is said to be the bodhicitta. T he cause of m ovem ent of the three realm s is explained as bhaga\ T h e explanation by the Sandhiiydkarana E xplanatory T a n tra is cited by the Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrel, p. 21-2) : yathoktam bhagavatd sandhydiydkarana-tantre f sarvabuddhnfitd yd I'd bhutnih sydt sd trayodaSi sd ca yo,\it samdKhydta saddharttio bhava ucyate As it was said by the Lord in the Sandhivydkaranatantra : I he Stage resorted to by all the B uddhas is the T hirteenth, and it is called the lady. T h e D h arm a of illustrious persons is said to be the bhaga. (Mchan hgrel explains that the 1 enth Stage has the three lights. T h e Illusory Body is the Eleventh Stage. T h e C lear Light is

ihr Twellth Stage. T h e Thirteenth Stage is the *Adhimukticaiva-bhmni (tnos spyod kyi sa ) [hence Anusinrti in the sixm rm U icil yag<i or Abhisambodhi of the Pancakratiut]. Accord ingly, a fourteenth Stage is allotted lo Yuganaddha.) ( landi akii ti's Pradipoddyotnim on Chapter Seven, verse 21, devoted to remembrance of the Buddha* (buddhanusmrti), eoim nrnu on the words dvayendrivasamapatiya buddhabiinbam viblia vayet* (With union of the two organs one should contempt.it<: an image of the B uddha"), as follows : / bhagah paratnariliasatyani / tasmin Ifyata iti lirigarn / kim tat samvrtisatvam pratistliapya prabhasvare pravesya buddhabimbam mah.'ivajradliaram vibhavayet param arthasatyad vyutlhapayed iiy arthah T he bhaa is supreme truth. About the litit'fl, it is said, It lies therein'. And what is it ? Conventional truih. 1*1.icing it', i.e. introducing it into the Clear Light, one should contemplate an image of the Buddha, i.e. M aha vajradhara. O ne should make it emerge from Supreme truth. T hai is the m eaning." Mchan hgrd p. 58-1, 2) comments on the Iin oa in the sense of Conventional truth that it is the Illusory Bodv sg\u mahi sku .w hich ibid. p. 21 - I -7 is golden. Earlier, in Pradip ddyotana $ comments on Chapter O ne (.\fchan hgrd, p. 21-3, 4 . the same topic was set lorth as follows: ' atha prabhasvarapravesad anantaram bhagavan niahavajradharah sarvatathagatakay.ivakcittadhipatih sarvakulatmakatn atmanam param arthasatyad vyutthaya bhavauit vanaikatasasvabhavena sarvatathfigatam ahasamayamandalam.idhyepratisth;ipayamasa/ Immediately after the entrance of the Illusory Body) in to the Clear Light, the Lord M ahavajradhara, master of the Bodv. Speech, and Mind of all the Tathagatas, arousing himself, who is all the families, from Absolute T ruth (pammarthasatya), by the intrinsic nature of single essence* (inseparability) of the phenomenal world the Illusory Body as samvrti~sotya) and Nirvana the Clear Lii;ht gnosis as ftnimntirtha-saiya) established himself in the ccnter of the Great Pledge niaridala of all the T athagatas." This is the four-cornered dustless mindala. Those passages clarify the usage of the word * bhaga as Supremo T ruth, the Clear Light, in the sense of what is entered, lienee, mystically, the word for female organ is employed for this arcanum, which therefore can represent any cakra of the body with the stipulation that the yogin enters (with a subtle

body) that cakra and realizes the Clear Light. T h e com m cnt on bhaga as destruction of defilement* (cf. the introductory section on the niddna) refers to the purifying function of the C lear Light, which is credited with converting the im pure Illusory Body into the pure gnostic body as the Sam bhogakaya. T h e explanation of Y uganaddha consistent with the above remarks is treated as follows in the Paiicakrama, 5th kram a (Y u g an ad d h a), verse 18 (Sri Laksmi, Vol. 63, p. 51-1, 2) : rdgdrdgavinirmuktah paramdnandamurtimdn dsamsaram slhilim kttrjdd yuganaddha: ibhai aka h ,, Possessing the (Illusory) Body in suprem e ecstasy ( - the Clear L ight), which is free from desire' and aversion ( the prakrtis associated with Spread-of-Light and L ig h t), he should rem ain as long as does samsdra, co ntem plating yuganaddha. Sri Laksmi further explains that this verse portrays the state called N irvana w ithout fixed a b o d e (apratifthita-nirvdrui). T his is referred to in Paiicakrama, 5til kram a, verses 2, 25 : samsaro nirvrtif ceii kalpanddvayavarjondt j ekibhavo bhaved yatra yuganaddham tad ucyatc // < tad ev&dvayajiidnam apratiffhitanirvrtih , buddhatvam vajrasattvatvam sarvaiSvaryam tathaiva ca (; H aving eliminated the two im aginations samsdra an d 'nirvana then wherein unification occurs, is callcd 'yuganaddha (the p air u n ite d ). J u s t th a t is the non*dual knowledge, the N irvana w ithout fixed abode, Buddha* hood, the state of V ajrasattva, as well as universal sovereignty. But the hum an m ind prefers that a dwelling be localized somewhere. T h e Guhyasamdjatantia, C h ap . X V I I , p. 139, has the passage : / ath a te sarvc m ah ab o d h isattv ah tan sa rv ata th a g a ta n evam ah u h / sarvatathagatakayavakcittasiddhini bhagavantah kutra sthitam kva va sam b h u tau i sarv atath ag ata^i p rah u h / trikayaguhyam sarv atath ag atak ay av ak cit tain vajracaryasya kayavakcittavajre sthitam m ahabodhisattva ahuh , kayavakcittaguhyavajram k u tra sthi tam I sarv atath ag atah p ra h u h j akase sthitam maha* bodhisattvah p rahuh j akasam ku tra sthitam , sarvata thagatah p rahuh / na kvacit / a th a tc m ahabodhisattva

ascaryaprapta adbhutapraptah tusnim sthita abhuvan / T hen all those great Bodhisattvas spoke as follows to all the T athagatas : Lords, where dwell the occult powers (siddhi) ot the Body, Spccch, and Mind of all the T a th a gatas ? Where have they arisen ? All the Tathagatas replied : T he sccret of three bodiesthe Body, Spccch, and Mind ol all the T athagatas dwells in the diamond of Body, Speech, and Mind of the diamond hierophant." l'he great Bodhisattvas asked : Where dwells the secret diam ond of his Body, Spccch, and Mind ? All the T athagatas rep lied : " I t dwells in the sky, The great Bodhisattvas asked: "W here dwells the sky? All the Tathagatas replied: Nowhere. Then those great Bodhisattvas in wonderment and amazement became silent. Another interpretation o fth e word bhaga is found inCclup a s Iiatnaitk^a~tidina~rahas\a-samdja-trtti(PTT., Vol. 63, p. 174-1) It is said : Because it makes known everything, the m ind(citta) is called "bhaga o fth e lady , fr o m that is born the Teacher. ( j ji skad du thams ta d ses par byed pahi phyir / thugs ni bud med bha-galio es so de las bvun ba tii ston paho / ). However, the citta to which Celu-pa refers is actually the bodhi citta. T here is a celebrated verse about this, which w'as pro nounced by Vairoeana in the Guhyasamdja, Chap. Two : san abhu: m igatam skandhadhati iiyatanagrdhyagrtihakararjitam / dharmanaitntnnasomattnd si acittam ddyanutpannam Sunyatabhdi am If My citta is free from all modes-of-being; avoids the per sonality aggregates, i calms, and sense bases, as well as subject and object; is primordiallv unborn, the intrinsic nature of voidness through the sameness of dharmanairdtmya There are also some other explanations of yuganaddha. Thus, Pancakrama, 5th kiam a, verse 12, associates yuganaddha with the central vein* of the body : pindagrdhdnubheddbhydtft pravesas tathatalaye j utthdnani ca tato yatra samatdd yuganaddhakam jj By means of contraction \pindagrdha) and expansion (anubheda) the entrance, so in the abiding, and then

wherein the risingthrough equality (of the tw o), th ere is uganaddha'. y T h e Subhdfifa-samgraha (Part II, p. 42) quotes the Samvaratantra about yuganaddha: cxa svdbhavikah kayah Sunyatakarunddiayah / napumsaka iti khyato yuganaddha iti kvacit jj T his Svabhavika Body, the non-duality ot voidness an d compassion, called the A ndrogyne, is sometimes said to be yuganaddha. Finally, Pancakrama, 5th kram a, verse 20 (6ti Laksmi. p. 52-2,3) defines yuganaddha in term s ol samadhi: Dajropamasamadhis tu nifpannakrama evn ca I mayopamasamadhii copy advayam tac ca kathyatc If For the D iam ond-like Sam adhi is precisely the nifpannakrama; and the Illusory S am adhi is the non-dual (know ledge ). At this point, Sri Laksm i quotes a verse w ithout n am in g the source : W ith insight (prajha) one docs not stay in samstira; w ith compassion (karund) one does not stay in (the quiescent) nirvdna: For a long tim e with not the m eans (upaya) a n d for the same long tim e w ith the m eans ( / ses r a b kyis ni srid mi gnas / / siiin rjes m va n a n hdas mi gnas ! ' thabs m ed pa vis yun rin d an I ( thabs kyis kyah ni vun rin fiid ! ). H ere insight* is not the m eans a n d compassion is. fjB H A If bhauaty affagunaiS caryair upetah sarvavit svayam j vicarej jhanadehena lokadhator aie>atah / ^ 34// E quipped w ith the eight gunas to be practised, an omni* scient being arises, and by himself w anders all over the worldly realm by m eans of the knowledge body. Mchan : Eight gunas are subtle form, etc. (sukfrnarupiidi) ; hunselP the yogin. Pradipoddyotana on Guhyasamtlja, C hap. X V , verse 51 ; Mrhn bgret edition, p. 124-4 : Because he has the eight guna-aiiiana he has glory (irfnw/) ( / yon tan gyi d b ah phy u g brgyad dan Idan pas n a / de ni d p al Idan paho / ). O n this rem ark, Mchan bgrel comments in p art that it is the Saikfa-yuganaddha. Prakdiikd on Bha (Vol. 60, p. 295-2): E quipped with the gunas* means he has the lordliness o f eight gunas of the subtle, etc. or has the lordliness of body, e tc .; an omniscient 1x*ing arises* means that he knows the m ental m ake-up of all sentient beings

of past, present, and future, and knows their death, transmigra tion, and reb irth ; also, for the sake of sentient beings he by hiimrlt wanders by means of the jnana-drha', that is to say, he wai ulers all over the lokadhatu by the illusory aspect as well as through all the Buddha fields {yon tan 2es bya ba la sogs pa s m o s le phra ba la sogs pa yon tan brgyad kyi dban phyug gam skuhi dban phyug la jogs pa dc dan Idan paho ; / sems can thams cad rig hgyur . ^es pa ni hdas pa la sogs pahi dus gsum gyi nan na gnas pahi sems can thams cad kyi sems kyi spyod pa dan hchi hplio ba dan skye ba la sogs pa ses par hgyur re / de b^in du yah veins can gyi don bya ba phyir bdag nid ye ses lus k\ i spyod ces pa ni sgyu ma ha buhi rnam pas hjig rten gyi k h a m s ma lus pa ste / sans rgyas kvi iii rnams yoris su spyod do ' ). Pradipoddyotana on (iuhyasamaja, Chap. X V II, p. 135 and verse 3); Me ban ftgif I edition, p. 15t-3: (a) Pradipoddyotana comment on the words trivajrah paiamciraitih : The three vajras are the diamond Bodv, Speech, and M ind; and he is 'supreme' {paramo) among them. Further more. the eight are : I lordliness aikarya) of bodv, (2) lordliness of speech, (3 , Imdliness ol mind, (-1) of magical prowess rddhi . 5'. omnipresent lordliness (sarvazataikarya) (6) of wish iccha . 7 ot creating kartr)%(8) lordliness of the gittias guna ." ;b) Mchan hgrel : The eight aie :) (1) abilitv lo simultaneously display innumerable cor poreal manifestation*. 2) abilitv to simultaneously teach the dharma to the different classes of sentient beings in their own language. {3) unsullied omniscience. 4) display of innumerable magical feats. (5) omnipresence iu all realms ), times (kala)t and states (asastka). (0) abilitv to fulfil wishes as soon as wished. !") creation of various forms, stationary or moving, exactly as desired. (JJ) having the gttnat of the ten powers, etc. B\ ten powers, etc. the reference is made to the len powers (daia-bala) and other attributes ot the 1alhagata, such as the

four confidences. According to the Mahdiyutpatti, Nos. 120-129, the ten powers are : 1. power to know the possible an d the impossible (sthdndsthana), 2. power to know the m atu ratio n of karma, 3. power to know the various convictions (adhimukti), 4. power to know the various elements (dhatu), 5. power to dis tinguish between a superior and inferior sensory power (indriya), 6. power to know the paths going everywhere (sarvatra-qdmini* pratipad), 7. power to know all accom paniincnt of m editation (dhy&na), liberation (vimokfa), profound concentration (samadhi), m editative attainm ent (samdpatti), defilement (samklela) an d purification (vyavadana), 8. power to recollcct former lives (pHrvanivisa), 9. power to know transm igration an d reb irth (cyuty-utpatti), 10. power to know the destruction of the fluxes (dsraua-kfaya). Also, th e yogin w ho wanders by him self in verse BHA despite the mysterious m aidens (kanyd) m entioned u n d e r G E and in Guhyasamdja, C hap. X V is in th a t c h a p te r classified by different families, according to Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrd> p. 120-4, 5 and 122-2). So, in the Sanskrit text, p. 94, the phrase, H e would shine like a B u d d h a (bhaved buddhasamaprabhah) refers to the yogin belonging to V airocana. T h e king who holds all dharmas5 (sarvadharmadharo rdja) is the yogin of A m itabha. By the praxis o f V a jrasattv a (vajrasattiaprajogatah) means A ksobhyas yogin. Shining like V a jra s a ttv a (oajrosattvasamaprabhah) refers to R a tn a sa m b h a v a s yogin. A nd the one accomplishing the desire an d the liberation' (kamamokfa~ prasadhakah) is the yogin o f A m oghasiddhis family. Besides, text, p. 95, the one o f diam ond n a tu re (vajradhami&tman) is the superior yogin belonging to A m itabha. Gmkjfasamdjatantra, X V , 11, places this a ttain m en t on the T e n th Stage : H e would be V a jra d h a rm a tm a n , dwelling on the T e n th Stage, the king w ho holds the V aksatnaya, the P aram eivara who is suprem e. (sa bhaved v a jra d h a rm a tm a da4abhunuprati?thitah / vaksam ayadharo raja sarvagrah param esvarati). IfGEjj geharfi tasydmbarai caiia yatra sa carati prabhuh j tatraha ramate nityam mah&sukhasamadhind //3 5 // His home is the sky w herever he th e Lord docs roam . By the sam adhi of great ecstasy he forever rejoices in th a t very place.

Mchan : * samadhi of great ecstasy means the consuhstantial bliss (sahajanattda) . That very place is the sky and is explained as pa rama i (ha-sa / ya. S arahas Doha-kofa (verses 03, 96 in Shahidullahs num bering) as I translate from the Prakrit (given here) and the T ibetan texts reproduced in M. Shahidullah, Les Chants Mysti ques dc hiinha et de Saraha, was suggested for inclusion here by the citation iu Tsori-kha-pas (Gsal bahi sgron nu commentary nn the Pamaktama (1MT, Vol. 159, p. 70-5 to p. 71-1): 9!i. ruane saala bi jo nau gahal, kumluru-khanai mahasuha sahaT ? jim a tisia tisittanc dhabai m ara sose nabhajjalu kahi pabal. >f). kamala-kulisa bebi majjha thiu jo so suraa-bilasa, ko tahi ramai na tihuane kassa na puria iisa ? At the moment of resin (kunduru is twilight language tor indefinable union), does he gain the great ccstasy (mahasukha) who docs not know completely th r true nature (ruana* *rtlf>ana, taken equivalent to svarupa) ? As one with avid thirst races for the water of a mirage and dies of thirsthow can he obtain the water of the skv ? T h a t sport by pleasure located between the lotus and the diamond, if anyone could not take pleasure there, in the three worlds, whose hope could he fulfil ? PraktKika on ( Je (Vol. 60, p. ) : The sky* means the realm of space (dkasa-dhatu or kha-dhdtu) ; the Lord who roams wherever is f'Jri Vajrasattva, the Lord of the five who are Aksobhya, etc.;. . . By the mahdsukhasamadhi he forever rejoices i n t h a t very place lias as external m e a n i n g that by producing in immediacy t h e reality of the Clear Light he rejoices by re joicing in emanating and reunification; . . . as to wherever the l . o i < d o e s r o a m ' , h e roams i n whatever lotus of mudrd 1 by the form of upper and lower bodhicitta of Sri Vajradhara, because the Tantra says, Whatever the sky within the bhaga, it is o r n a m e n t e d with f i v e skies ; . . . this abiding in his own form of introspection is the inner meaning. 'Those remarks of the Prakaiika introduce a number of difficulties, but also suggest the research to be brought up now. The nidana verse has the phrase his home is the sky. Guhya samaja, X I 1, verse 2 (Documents) speaks of a spot of a great

forest and in a sccludcd m ountain. T h e Pradipoddyotana on this verse first explains the verst* according to its literal lorm in terms of a beautiful placc for meditation, labelling this explana tion t h e hinted m eaning (neyartha). 'I lien, to show the evident m eaning' (nitartko), it cites some verses from the Arya-\\dkhyd n a \ in fact from the Samdhivyakarana (P IT , Vol. 3, p. 242), translated with some remarks from Mchan hgrel, p. 83-2, 3 : ak&Sakalpana\ogaih skandha mahatavi matah asthanasthitiyogena pradcSe mahaildlaye sembhogakalpavrk'C smitt vividht siddhiputpit? nirmanaphalasamlobhe samyaksambttdhipanate , abhdvavijane ramye sddhyam tad vajrasamjiiakatn By procedures o f considering ihcir sky ( the C lear L ight), the personality aggregates are claim ed to be 'ho great forest. By the yoga of the place of no location (ap>ati\fhitanin atia)t there are those flowers of the various (su p ram im d an c) siddhis on the wishing tree of Sam hhoga (the illusory body) in a spot which is a great placc. W hen there is the decoration of N irm an a fru it on the joyous m o u n tain (D h arm ak ay a) of lig h t com pleted enlightenm ent that is secluded by lack o f states, w hat is to be accomplished has the nam e v ajra (i.e. V a jra d h a ra ) . R atn ak arasan tis Pin^jikrta-sadhanopdyikd-VTtti-tatndvali-ndma P T T , Vol. 62, pp. 69-5 to 70-1) concerns itself with the sam e verse of C hap. X I I , and adds further levels of in terp retatio n following C andrakirtis classifying terms. H ere, his Y a th a r u ta interpretation is most helpful : T h e great forest is the sky o f she who is loves u m b re lla . T he spot? is the sky o f *I)evadatt.\. A dorned with flowers, fruit, and so o n is the sky of the M oon Lady. T he m o u n tain is the sky of the Tortoise Lady. Seclu d e d is the sky of D hanavijaya (N or rgyal m a ) . Because it is said : W hatever the: sky w ithin the bhaga, it is ornam ented w ith five skies, beautified with eight petals and a nave with filaments. I he am brosia w ith the form of Sukra, thrre located, ever d rip s. T h e description of eight petals indicates either the hcart-azAra, or the cakra which in the male is a t the root of the penisj the latter seems m eant here. Previously we took note th a t the

latter cakra constitutes the yogin's w om an. On the other hand, the remark in the PrakaSika on Gc, by the form of upper and lower bodhicitta" suggests both cakras. T he Prakaiika on Gc also says, whatever lotus of mudrti, which refers to the families of goddesses respectively going with the five yogins mentioned under BHA, who, according to the Prakd.iika, abide in their own form of introspection. According to Klon-rdol-bla-ma, as cited in my Female Energy p. 94, the butcher maiden belongs to Aksobhyas family; the washerman maiden to V airocana's; the necklacc-stringcr maiden to R a tn a sa m b h a v a s; the dancer maiden to A m itabhas; the artisan maiden to Amoghasiddhis. Also, there are ages ascribed to various ones of those maidens. According to the Guhyasamajatantra, Chapter Four, verse 19 (Mchan hgrel, p. 40), and C hapter Sixteen verse 91 (Mchan hgrel, p. 147), the maiden belonging to Aksobhyas family is aged 12; the one of V airocanas 16. The article Female Energy. . . shows that this is consistent with the sizes ascribed to m andalas of Body, Speech and M ind in the Guhyasamajatantra . Its C hapter Four mentions (Aksobhyas) m andala of Mind to have twelve hastas; its C hapter Sixteen mentions V airocana's mandala of Body to have sixteen hastas, and A m itabhas m andala <1 Speech to have twenty hastas. > O n this principle, the maiden ol A m itabhas family is aged 20. In that article, p. 103, I cited a passage from Saraha setting forth five ages, the eight-yeared Kumari, the twelveyear-old Salika, the sixteen-yearcd one called Siddha, the twentv-vear-old *Balika, and the twentv-five-veared *Bhadra4 kapalini. By implication, Ratnasam bhava's and Amoghasiddhi's maidens, in whatever order, have the ages of 8 and 25. T h e Guhyasamajatantra (Chap. 8, verse 7) mentions the age 25, but no age 8. Since this T an tra regularly has a four-fold correspondence in terms of the four goddesses, and hence to four Tathagatas, the basic three plus Amoghasiddhi (the tkarmanathd'), it follows that Amoghasiddhis maiden is aged 25, but so far 1 find no passage to confirm this. In that article, p, 108, I included a ((notation from the Alahamudratilaka : If one does not obtain a twelve-ycared, or sixteen-yeared female, adorned with good features, long eyes, attractive figure and youth, then a twenty-ycared one is proper. O ther seals
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(mudra) above twenty put the occult power far ofl\ O n e should offer his sister, daughter, or wife to the m aster (guru).' This passage is one evidence th at the ages refer to the length of time it takes the yogin to reach the siddhi. O th e r in te rp re tations o f the ages' presented in th at article were, for the sixteenyearcd m aiden, the sixteen voidnesses as well as sixteen vowels, the sixteen transits of winds a n d th e sixteen digits o f the moon. T h e twclve-yeared m aiden can be interp reted as the twelve vowels by leaving out the two n eu ters (r, }, ], and () from the 16-vowel group, or as twelve transits by leaving out the last four transits. Besides, according to Guhyasamajatantra, C h a p .X V , verse 51, the maidens can belong to eithert he realm o f desire (kdmadhdtu) or the realm of form (rupadhdilt). A ccording to th e Pradipoddyo tana on this, the ones in the realm of desire can be th e d a u g h ters of the six passion families (the T u s ita gods, ctc., a s ta n d a rd category of non-tantric B uddhism ), the ones called surabhogd are the daughters o f the C ak rav artin s; an d the kuiavratd* m eans they can belong to the families o f gods, asuras, a n d so o n . T h e ones in the realm of form have superior capacity (for sid d h i). II II evabhasabhedefu sandhya-ratrl-dinesu ca { vyavahdrah krto loke jmnatrayanidariandt // 36 // A conventional illustration is m ad e in the w orld re g ard in g just these distinctions o f lights as the tw ilight, the night, and the d a y so as to see the three gnoses (jhdna). Both Mchan and the Prakdiikd have little to ad d here. These illustrations are m ade to the disciple by a revered guru by way o f Initiation (abhifeka). T h e Mani-mdld co m m en tary on the Pancakrama states (P T T , Vol. 62, p. 208-1) : T h e exalted dcdrya, by rem oval o f the eye-veil (tim ira), reveals to the disciple the o u ter abhisanibodhis (slob d p o n m chog ni rab rib spans pas slob m a la ni phyi rol byari c h u b bstati). T h ere fore, in his A bhisam bodhi-kram a o f the Paiicakramat X a g arju n a precedes the actual delineation of the abhisanibodhis w ith verses showing the disciples exhortation to the guru to reveal those cbhisatftbodhis. tatsamdradhamim krtva variant mdsarji athdpi vd j tasmai tuffdya gurave pujdm kurydt tu Saktitah // 3 // tatas tusfo mahdyogi pahcakdmopabhogatah j diokasyodayam kurydt samdpattividhdnatah jj 5 //

kalaiadau susamsthdpya bodhicittam prayatnatah j ardharatre cdbhisiiicet suit ^yam krpayd guruh jj 6 jj abhifckam tu samprdpya pratyufasamayc punah j samp ujydrddhayct stotrair gururn Sifyah krtdnjalih // 7 jj dra,\tukdmo bhisambodhim sarvaSunyasvabhavikdm j stutvd krtaiijalih fiy o gurum samcodayct punah / 12 fj / pravaccha me mahdndtha abhisambodhiclarianam J kannajanmavinirmuktam dbhdsatrayavarjitam fj 13 jj evam drddhito yogi sadbhutagunak tanaih j n Sifye kdrunyam ntpadya kramam evam atharabhet jj 16 jj Having propitiated (the hierophant) for a month or even lor a year, he should make offering as he is able to that pleased guru . . . . T hen the mahayogi, delighted through enjoyment of the five pleasures, should arouse light by a rite of equipoise (samdpatti). By engaging the mind of enlightenm ent he well disposes the flask and so on; and at m idnight the guru kindly initiates the good disciple. H aving received initiation, the disciple at the time of dawn respectfully bows to the guru and pleases him with wor shipful verses of praise . . . . When that disciple, desirous of seeing the abhisambodhi which is the intrinsic nature of universal void, had praised, then respectfully bowing to the guru, he should exhort him further : Oh, great lord, pray offer me the glimpse of abhisambodhi, liberated ironi karma and rebirth, and iree ot the three lights !* . .. .T h e yogi> thus gratified by the recital of holy quali ties, feeling compassion toward the disciple, then begins the steps this way : Paiicakrama, 2nd krama, verse 30 : sanwitlimdtrakam jiianam akfisauad aiakfanam j kirn tu tasya prabhedo 'sti somdhyaratridivatmanah jj The gnosis (jfidna) which is purely introspective is chara cterless like the sky. But it has a division going with the twilight, the night, the day. Paiicakrama, 4th krama, 17 : dloko rSiribhdgah sphufaravikiramh sydd aivalokdbhdsah satfidhyalokopalabdhah prakrtibhir asakrd yujyate svdbhir etal j Light is the (moon-risc) part of night. The day with its spreading rays of the bright sun is Sprcad-of-Light.

Twilight is Culm ination-of-Light. T h e y work again and again by their own prakrtis. Therefore, the C lear Light, or universal void, is free o f day, night, and twilight. These conventional illustrations also involve the distinction o f inner an d o u ter Abhisarnbodhis, as are explained by A ryadeva in his Carya-melapaka-pradipa (P T T , Vol. 61, p. 308-2), w here we should observe th a t he employs th e word nescience (avidya) as in n id a n a verse 3 : / de la mrion p a r byah chub pahi rim p a ni rn a m pa gftis te j hdi Ita ste phyi d a n nan giho j I d e la d a n p o r phyilii bstan par bya ste / tho raris kyi th u n m tsham s su m a rig pahi snari ba hdas na ji srid ni m a gsal b a r m a gyur p a ste / hdi la ni hod gsal b a dri m a m ed p ah i rn a m p a gsal JEiri lus d an hag d a n yid d a n b ral b a tham s cad ston pahi m tshan hid can no j j hi m a sar b a ni snah b a mched p aho / / hi m a n ub pahi th u n m tsham s su m a rig p aho / / zla b a sar b ah i tshe ni snan b a h o / / d e ltar stoh p a hid rn a m p a b2i phyi rol hes p ar b stan p a b sad nas / d a ni n an gi m n o n p ar byah ch u b pa so so r a h gis rig p a h i m tshan nid can rim p a hdis bstan p a r b y a ste I d a n p o r smig rgyu Ita b u la hod zer lnahi tshogs d a n ld an p a r m thon ho / / gftis p a snah b a ste / zla b ah i hod zer Ita buho I I gsum p a ni snah b a m ched p a ste / hi m ah i hod zer Ita b u h o / / b ii p a ni snah b a th o b p a ste ( m u n p a Jta b u h o f l de nas m u n p a d a n bral b ah i skad cig la hod gsal b a ste sin tu gsal b rta g tu snah bahi m tsh an hid c a n don dam pahi bden pahi rah gi m tsh a n h id ye ses kyi. mig gis m th o n ho / H ere, there are two kinds of A bhisam bodhi sequences, nam ely, o u ter an d inner. O f those, I shall first explain the o u te r kind. In the m orning tw ilight, w hen th e nesciencc light has passed aw ay b u t still the sun is not b rig h t this characterizes the C lear L ight, clear, of im m a c u la te aspect, th e universal void free from body, spccch, a n d m ind. T h e rising o f the sun is Spread-of-L ight. T h e twilight of sunset is nescience. T h e tim e o f mootirise is Light. H aving in th a t way related th e external illustra tions of the four kinds of voidncss, I shall teach the in n er Abhisarnbodhis by this sequence c h aracterized by in tro spection : O n e sees first a m irage a p p e a ra n c e w ith a

mass of five light rays. Sccond is Light, like moon-rays. T hird is Spread-of-Light, like sun-rays. Fourth is Culmination-of-Light like darkness. Then, in an instant free from darkness, there is Clear Light, characterized by a very bright lasting light, the individual characteristic of Param artha-satya, which one sees with the Eye of Knowledge. In that passage, Aryadeva presents four outer abhkambodhts (revelations), namely, natural phenomena revealing the voids or lights; and five inner abhisanibodhis (also, revelations), namely, psychological states that are actually the voids or lights. T he revealed source for the Abhisambodhi illustrations is Guhyasamajatantra, Chap. X V p. 95 : astamitc tu vajrdrke sadhanam tu samdiabhet / arunodgamavetayam sidhyate bhavanottamaih // When the diam ond sun is setting, he should begin the sddhana. At the initial appearancc of dawrn he will succced with the supreme contemplation. T h e Pradipoddyotana, Mchan hgrel edition, on this ( P I T , Vol. 158, p. 121-2), explains that the diamond sun (vajrarka) is characterized by the attainm ent of the means gnosis (upaya kind of jiidna), hcnce Spread-of-Light. When this sets, there is the form of insight [prajnd). hence Light. Then before the Clear Light can em erge, that Light must pass into Cul mination-of-Light, which is tlu: initial appearancc of dawn, or nescience (aiidyd). Then, on the basis of the three gnoses, namely, voidness, further voidness, and great voidncss (Light, Spread-of-Light, and Culmination-of-Light), riding on the winds, ihe_)'?giw soars to the Clear Light and perfects the mahamudra (great seal). The success in the practice is indicated in the Guhyasamdjatantra, Chap. X V II I, p. 1C2 : vajrapadmasamdyogdj jvdlya santapya yogind / udyate sphatikdkdram jhdnasuryam iidparam // Through union of vajra and padma by the yogin, blazing, burning,-----T he incomparable sun of knowledge rises with crystalline appearance. T h a t description clearly points to the mystical experiences of G autam a Buddha under the Tree of Enlightenment during the

night inaugurated by defeat o f the M a r a host a t dusk, and finally Full E nlightenm ent a t the flush of d aw n in the joy-faced night (nandimukhayam rajanyam ) , or night becom ing rosy-colored, quoted from the Mahavastu in my Notes on the Sanskrit T erm J iia n a p. 265. T h e follow-up to th a t early study is th a t the color o f the sky represented the three lights by three n atu ral features, the blackness ol' night (C u lm in atio n of-Light), the red glow of the sun wishing to rise (Spread-ofL ight), the setting full moon (L ig h t), a sort of th ree-'n -o n e , the revelation of the C lear L ig h tin A ry ad ev as language : free from body, speech, and m in d . jj V I jj vicitravvavahdrds ca laukikaih parikalpitdh { pathatrayavibhdgcna jvdmitrayasamndbhavdh ft 37 // Worldlings im agine the m ultiform conventions, w hich divided into three paths, originate the three knowledges. Mchan : T h e m ultiform conventions' are : m ale, female, n eu ter; right, left, m iddle; harsh, mild, m ed iu m ; ctc. T h re e paths means those leading to the C lear Light. T h e three p ath s are probably the Body, Speech, a n d M ind referred to in the Prakdsika on Y i. I collected a n u m b e r o f these 'm u ltifo rm conventions in the article Female E n e r g y . . . , from w hich its T a b le 2 headed T h e G reat T im e is here reproduced : IX . T H E G R E A T T I M E Om 1 Ah Hum Prajna, the form C paya, the form A ndrogyne of w om an o f m an 8-petalled lotus 5-pronged th u n d e r bolt Moonlight Sunlight Fire Night Day J u n c tu r e of day an d night Left Right M iddle W aking D ream Dreamless sleep Void F urther Void G reat Void Light Sprcad-of-Light C ulm ination-of-light Body Speech M ind V airoeana A m itab h a A ksobhya Birth Intel m ediate State D eath N irm anakaya Sam bhogakaya D h a rm a k a y a Tamtis Rajas Sattia H ead Neck H e art Inspiration R etention E xpiration

Indrabhuti presents .mother list of synonyms and corres pondences in his commentary on the; $ri-sampu{a-tilaka calk'd fikd-smtti-samdariandloka (PTT, Vol. 55, p. 77-2): , stiiri stobs dan snan ba dan lus dan scms dan ston pa dan zla ba dan 2c.s rab dan mtshan mo dan g iandbari dan orp dan ah ho dc bzin du rdul dan snan ba mehed pa dan nag dan scms las byuri ba dan / sin tu ston pa dan / ni ma dan / thabs dan nin mo dan , kun brtags dan / a dan hri ho d r bjEin du mun pa dan snan ba thob pa dan \ id dan ma rig pa dan stoh pa chen po dan sgra gcan dan van dag par sbyor ba dan mtshams dan yoris su grub pa dan hum dan phat ho / Sattva (-guna). Light, Body, citta. Void, Moon, Insight ptajfid), Night, paratantra, O m and Ah. Likewise, rajas (-guna), Sprrad-of-Light, Speech, caitta, Further Void, Sun, Means updya), Day, parikalpita, A and Hri. Like wise, tamas(mina), (*u!mination-of-Light, Mind, avidya, Great Void, Kahu, samyoga (m arriage), twilight, parinispanna, Hum and Pliat, A little further in the same work, Indrabhuti says (p. 77-5): Here, inferior* (hina) means that by O m = e n tra n c e (of the wind), he generates the fairies located in patdla. Likewise, m edium (madhya) means that by Ah = staying (of ditto), he generates those loeated over bhumi. And, best* (pranitn) means that by H um rising (of ditto), he generates those ranging in the sky (khecari). Likewise, in respective order, then; arc innumerable sets, including three matujalas, three paths, three eyes, three bodies (/:>), three liberations limokta), three worlds (loka), three gestations bhaia), three realities (tattva), three limes, three samdhyd (lawn, noon, and dusk), three firma ments (? g4afui . three creature worlds (jagat), the triple fortificaton (fripata < three germ syllables (bija), triangle , (trikona), three places (possibly - three scats, pifha), three gunas, three letters (akyara). three lights (dloka). three characters (svabhdia), three realms (dhdtu)> three faccs (mukha), three hearths, three kinds of form (rupa). ,J A janma ca sthitibhaiigena antaidbhavasamsthitih / ydvantjah kalpand lokt cittaid)u~iijnnbhitah //38// (Namely) birth, and by loss of abodeformation of the

interm ediate state. T o the extent there is discursive thought in the world, so is there phenom enal projection o f mind and (its vehicular) winds. M chan: T he verse refers to birth, d eath, an d the state betw een those two (the antartibhava). J u s t as in the case o f the tw o p re ceding verses, this one presents synonym s ol th e three "noses. So also earlier (nidana verse 25) citta. caitta. avid\ii\ and s o o n . T h e synonym' are collected in the 2nd kram a san< dmigs h i rim pa) of the Pancakrama. In the case of the interm ediate state, this generates the Illusory Body maya-deha ' . The ultim ate root is the extremely subtle wind and the m ind m ounted upon it. Discursive thinking (kalpami) phenomenalizes that wind and its mounted consciousness. Ptakdiikii on J a ( P I T , Vol. 60, p. 295-4, 5) : T o the extent there; is discursive thought in the w orld means the discursive thought going w ith the twelve-mcmbercd D ependent O rigination (ji sfted hjig rtcn gyis brtags pa 1 t c s pa ni rtcn ciri hbrel bar hbyuri ba yan lag bcu gnis la sogs pahi rnam par rtog pah o ). In my articlc Buddhist Genesis a n d the T a n tr ic T radition , there are various passages from th e works o f T sori-kha-pa to show th a t he laid g re a t stress u p o n th e c o n c o rd a n c e w ith the three things, b irth , d e a th an d th e in te rm e d ia te state. A cco rd ing to Tsori-kha-pa, co n tem p latio n o f th e D h a rm a k a y a purifies d e a th ; of th e S am bhogakay a, th e in te rm e d ia te s ta te ; o f the N irm anakaya, birth. Such co n tem p latio n takes place b o th in the Stage o f G eneration a n d in th e Stage o f C om pletion. IIH A fl hasyaldsyakriyai caiva navanatyarasdmitah I mudramantravikalpai ca vajrasattvaviceftitam 1391 Both the acts of laughter and accom panied d an ce with the nine sentiments of d ram atic art. as well as m u d ra, m antra, an d m ental formation, are enacted by V ajrasattva (the tantric h ie ro p h a n t). Mchan : L a u g h te r and the m u tu al gaze at the tim e of the caryd (i.e. steps in divine courtship). A ccom panied d a n c e : a dance (lasya) accom panied with singing and instrum ental music. T h e nine sentim ents of d ram atic a r t : this refers to accomplishing the Illusory Body from the w ind-and-m ind-only belonging to the sadhaka's innate body (ttija~deha). Mudra* o f body; m a n tra of speech; m ental formation* of binding (fychih ba). Enacted by Vajrasattva* : this furnishes the reason

lor the earlier statement that the one who knows the intrinsic nature is not adhered to by sin. lUakmihA on Ha (Vol. <10, p. 205-5) : Mental formation* means the various mentals, such as onc-pointedness; cnactcd by V ajrasattva means that all those (acts) are enacted through the Illusory Samadhi (mayopama-samadhi) (rnam par rtog pa ni sems l.is bvmi ba rtse gcig pa la sogs paho ' rdo rje sems dpahi rnam liplmil ^es pa ni de dag (hams cad sgyu ma Ita buhi tin he lul/.iu las rnam par tiphrul pa sic). M udra, m antra, and menial formal ion {in samadhi) arc coordinated i espectively w ith the three mysteries of the Buddha his Body, Speech, and Mind. T he first two are especially, credit ed with attracting the deities (the mental formation is also rc(]iiir<*d lor binding them ), as iu the Cuhyasamdjatantray Chap. X IV . p. 87 (Mchan h^rel, p. 115-5): mudrabhedena saneyim mantrabhedcna sarvathii j dkat .uotapadam pmktnm na ccn ntlSam avapnuyat // vajuiuittvo maharaja codaniyo mtthur muhith !) sa era sariamatiiidndtii raja pdtama'ahalah j f Bv division of maha- mudr'i into mantra-deha and jnanadeha > of all the gmls . and by division of (diamond-) incantation into two kinds in every case the way of attracting is explained. If it were not so, that (way of attracting) would be unsuccessful. Vajrasattva (the latter, the sixth, as the basis o fth e former five) is the Great King to l>e exhorted kept in mind) again ajid again. For.) just he is the ever-supremc king of all incantations. Vajrasattva's activities are sum m ari/rd in Panckrama, 3rd krama, verse 31 : 6ti I.aksmi, Vol (vt. p. 30-2, 3: $TRaiadYupabh'>*am ca s;itaiad\ddtsfianam 1 kalaut ca pra:rttim ca kuryad uiakacandraiat // He should practise the experience of (he erotic, etc. (the nine sentiment ), the reco'irs" to (the three adamantine) * songs and instrumental nvisic (the four beginning with \in a i, and so on, as well as engagement in the (sixtvfour) kala or / ainal.ald in each case' in the manner of the moon in the water (i.e. while in the Illusory-like Samadhi (mdyi>pama-sarp<h/hi). In Indian dramatic theorv, blna is ;hc sweet, graceful, and feminine dance. The nine sentiments are : erotic (srndia)y

heroic (vira), furiors (raudra)t humorous (hasya), w ondeiful (adbhuta), compassionate (kimmya), disgusting (bibhatsa ), fright ful (bhayanaka)\ plus the ninth, tranquil w ith indificrence to worldly objects and pleasures. T w o passages should clarify their tantric interpretation. T h e first is from Sri R a h u g u p ta p a d a s Prakaia-nama-frihevajrasadhana (P T T , Vol, 56, p. 132-1): Among those (nine sentim ents), the single taste (ekarasa) together w ith (the goddess) X airatm y a is the erotic; the staying at the burning g ro u n d is the heroic; the furried brow and bared fangs is the d isgusting; the blazing light is the furious; the en h an cem en t (exagge ration) of facc is the hum orous ; the g a rla n d o f d rip p in g heads is the 'frightful'; the consciousness ol assisting sentient beings is the com passionate; the illusory form is the 4 onderful; the defilem ent of lust, etc. is the tr a n q u il. w T h e second is from Sri Laksmi, Vol. 63, p. 39-2 : (They arc) union w ith the p a rtn e r (mudra) (erotic ), staying in the b u r r in g g ro u n d , etc. (heroic)., enjoying the am brosia (furious ), rite of revived corpsc (vct&lavidhi) (disgusting), holding o f various em blem s (h u m o rous*), drastic rites \abhicara) (frightful), e m p a th y w ith the great suffering of all sentient beings (com passionate), accomplishing enlightenm ent by the five g reat pledges, (samaya) in conflict with the w orld (i.e. the five th at op pose the five laym an vows) ('tra n q u il), an d the c h a ra c te r istic of having the C lear L ight in im m ediacy (w onderful). T h e goddess N airatm ya o f the formei passage belongs to the M other T a n tr a tra d itio n ; outside o f this fact, th t passag. is appropriate an d helps explain &ri L ak sm is text, siucr she leaves out the titles erotic, etc. T he three ad am an tin e songs are very likely the g ro u p o f three songs discusscd in the Snags rim c/un mo (f. 2-12b2, H \): T h e three songs arc the song of reality (tattvagita), song of true n a tu re (dharmatagita), and song of m u d r a (mudragita)" (glu gsum ni de kho n a Aid kyi glu d an chos nid kyi glu d a n phyag rgyahi glufoo). By songs are m ean t verses that a n sung, namely, song of reality m eans a verse for reality o f intrinsic natu re (*svabhava-tattva, I \ ran bin gyi de kho na n id ), one for reality ol mystic a tta in m e n t (* v ib h u ti-tattv u , hkhor ba^ti de kho n a Aid), and one for reality o f p u rity (visuddhi-

tattva, rnam p.u* dag pahi dc kho na ft id). Then, a verse each Jor song o f true natu rereferring to the pure dharmadhatu, and sons; of mudra ~ referring to the pride (garra) of body, make five verses in all, as presented and explained in Snags rim chert mo. I'he four kinds of musical instruments are personified as goddesses in the man<;lalas of the M other T antras Sampufatantra and Herajratantra (Raghu Vira and Lokesh C handra. A jVVw Tibcfo-Mongol Pantheon, Part 12), to wit: Vamsa, Vina, Mu* kunda, Mu raja. Jalan d h arip ad a's Hcvajrasadha nasya - (ippaniiuddhi~vajrapradipa(\r YT, Vol. 36, p. 121-5) assigns colors to these goddesses as follows: the yellow goddess Vina, the red goddess Vamsa (bamboo Hute), the smokv-colorcd goddess M uraja (barrel d rum ), the white goddess Mukunda (round drum ) (/pi wan ma ser mo // glin bu ma dmar mo / / rdza rna ma du bahi mdog can ma j j rna zlum m a dkar mo /). For the sixty-four kald, it should be observed that the list of ha mas ftha begins with gita-vddya, so gitavadyadi ir the above Paiicaktama verse III, 31, ran refer to the kalas in the ordinary meaning of the sixty-four worldly arts. However, Sri Laksmis Commentary also permits the interpretation ol kald as kamakatd. O n p. 39-3, she states this paiticuiar list as l>cginning with embrac ing (dlingamirn, hkhjud pa) and 'kissing (cumbana, ho byed), expressions which occur among the forty male natures (cf. under nidana verse 2), but here obviously relate to kdmaidstia terminology of caluftfa<(i. Klori idol Bla ma, Vol. I, Section Ma, presents two versions of arriving at the number sixty-four (catuh,u>.\fi) ; the kiss (ho byed pa), the embrace (hkhyud pa), the bite (so hdebs pff), the fore-play (yan dag par bskyed pa), erotic cries (sid kyi sgra sgrogs pa), the male posture in coitus [skyes pahi bja ba), the woman's) getting on top (sten na hdug pa), (the eighth one not printed somehow, perhaps the oral intercourse' of Admasitira) ; each one divided into eight varieties, viclding sixtv*four. The alternate list amounts to eight varieties of the embrace, eight ol the kiss, eight of the male posture in coitus, eight of the bite, eight of the scratch, eight of the foreplay, eight of erotic cries, (and again, the eight of an omitted eighth one, perhaps the oral intercourse), making sixtyfour in all. Neither solution actually names the respective eightfold subdivisions, so this hdma-hald terminology' remains lexical as far as these tantric texts are concerned, but creates

mythologically salacious reading out of the four respective movements o f the goddesses as elements (upwards, at acutc angles, forward, and dow nw ard). IfR A fl ratnam anyam na castiha svadhifthanad Tie mahat j prabhdsvaraviSuddham ced vahnifuddho rrtanir yathd , -10 / T h ere is no jewel in this world so great as the Svadhi sthana, if purified by the C lear L ight like a gem cleansed by fire. Mchan : Svadhisthana = Illusory Body. No jewel in this world so g reat because it can confer in this very life the goal o f Buddhahood. No jew el : no secret state. Purified by the Clear L ight : bv entering the Clear Light. Prakasika on R a (Vol. 60, p. 296-1): By fire', etc. means : if the Svadhisthanabody is purified by the C lear Light attained by the fourth stage, then, like gold cleansed by fire, it becomes im m aculate an d devoid of phenom enalization. Therefore, it is only know n through contem plation o f the fourth stage (mes 2cs bya ba la sogs p a smos te ( rim p a b2i pas thob pahi hod gsal bas gal tc / bdag byin gyis rlob pahi sku d ag p a r hgyur r a I dehi tshe mes ibyaris pahi gser b2in du rn a m p a r d a g p a dri m a m ed ciri spros pa med par hgyur ro / / dehi p hyir rim pa b;$i pa yari sgom p a r byed p ar rig pa kho n a h o ). Following are some passages a b o u t the S v a d h is th a n a . Paiicakran.a, 3rd kram a, 12 : svddhisffUSnakramam labdhvd sarvabuddhemayah prabhuh f janmamhatva buudhatvam nihsamdeham prapadyate jj H e the lord, composed o f all the B uddhas, having arrived a t the stage o f Svadhisthana, w ithout d o u b t attains Buddhahood in this very life. Paiicakrama, 3rd kram a, 25 : sarvdk&r&varopeto asecanakavigrahah j darSayet tant svfifyaya svddhiffhanam tad ucyate jj Endowed with the best o f all aspects is the bodv which onr never tires of seeing. (H e) teveals th a t to the good disciple. T h a t is called Svadhisthana*. Finally, $ri Laksmi, Vol. 63, p. 10-5 to 11-1, has this to say : / yan dag pahi m th ah don d am pahi bden p a de vis rnam par sbyari ba ni sgyu m a Ita buhi tin rie hdzin mi snan bar byaho / / de la d p er na phvihi mrion p a r byaii chub pahi rim pa ham / nari gi mrion p a r bvari c h u b pahi rim p a ham I ril por hdzin pahi tin rie hdzin nam / rjes su

g^ig pahi tin rie hdzin gyis sgyu mahi sku hod gsal bahi bskal pahi me vis mi snari bar byas na rnam par dag par hgyur ro / / ji skad du / bdag la bvin rlabs ma gtogs pahi / 1 rin chcn g^.an ni vod pa min / /gal te hod gsal dag hgyur na ' me yis dag pahi nor bu b iin / /fcs bya ba hbyuri bahi phyir ro /. T he purification by that Paramartha-satya which is the true end (hhutakofi), would make disappear the Illusory Samadhi. New, for example, the Illusory Body becomes purified when made to disappear by the fire of the aeon of the Clear Light through the sequence of outer abhisambodhis, the sequence of inner abhisambodhis, the samadhi o f contraction* (pindagrdha), or the samadhi o t expansion* (anubhtda) ; because the text states : Theie is no jewel in this world so great as the Svadhisthana, if purified by the Clear Light like a gem cleansed by fire.

T H E L A X K . \ \ A lA K A -S L l'RA A M ) G U H VASA.N I A) A I A N I RA

I'UK

H ere we shall treat some rem arkable transitional yoga experiences that even promise to clarity the Buddhist non-sell theory. T he learned a u th o r R a tn a k a ia ^ m ti makes a fascinating tieu p between the Lafikdiatdta and the Guhyasamaja in his Prajndpdramitopadeia (P T T , Vol. 114. p. 2 1*-3, 4. 5 to p. 250-1 .. In illustration of his preceding exposition ol yoga iu four stages, he cites the Lankdvatdra (S.igathakam, verse s 256-258), b u t the verses in T ibetan reflect some m inor variants (indicated here by underlining) o f the Sanskrit text as presently ed ited by Bunyiu Nanjio : cittamdtram samdruhya bdhyam aitham na ka Ipay it , tathatdlambanc sthitid cittamdtram atikramct cittamdtram atikramya nirdbhdsam atikramct nirdbhdsasthito yogi mahdydnam sa paSyati anabhogagatih Santa pranidhdnab viSodhita jiidnam andtmakam in? (ham mahdydnena paiyati // T he following translation incorporates some of R a tn a k a ra sa n ti's comm ents : 256. W hen he relies on m ind-onlv' he doc's not im agine the external entity [2nd stage of yoga]. Being stationed in the m editative support of thusness, he g<es beyond mind-onlv [3rd stage ol yoga]. 257. Going beyond m ind-only, he goes beyond the non-appearance [ol the sign-M>urccs nimitta) of the external entity] Stationed in the non-appearance [of the sign-sources of both dh arm as and d h a r m a ta ] [4 th stage of yoga] the yogin sees by tin- M ah ay an a. 258. His effortless going (andbhngagati) [the efTortless revelation of the s u p ra n m n d a n r stages] is peaceful [ b e cam e these stages are undctilcd an d non-discursivo | and purified by his vows | that are not not aim ed at the lower enlightenments, i.e.ol sravaka and p raty e k a b u d d h a ].

By mf.ms of the M ahayana, he sees the knowledge that is selfless [because utterly nonmanifest] and best [because free from defilements and habit-cnergv]. T he author claims that the same is stated by the Guhyasamdja in one verse (in Chap. XV, p. 109 in Bhattacharyvas edition): svacittam cittanidhyaptau sarvadharmdh pratiffhitdh f khavajrasthd hy ami dharma na dharma na ca dharmatd \\ When one examircs the mind [with insight], [one con cludes] that all dharmas arc loeated in ones own mind. [2nd stac:c of yoga]. These dharmas are located in the diamond of sky [3rd stage of yoga]. There is no dharma and no dharmata [4th stage of yoga]. R atnakarasantis discussion of the four stages can be sum marized as follows: 1st stage of yoga: The meditative object on the pheno menal limit of the entity. This is a kind o f waking state. 2nd stage of yoga : All dharmas are mind-only; still the phenomenal limit. This is a kind of dream state, because if aU dharmas are mind-onlv* they are all in the mind and not out* side, a feature of the dream state. 3rd stage of yoga : Goes beyond mind-only; the thusness end of the entity, or the non-appearance of phenomenal dharmas. This is a kind of dreamless sleep. 4th stage of yoga : Having gone beyond the sign-sources of natures (dharma) , now goes beyond those of underlying nature (dharmata). This ushers in the M ahayana, i.e. the first bhumi called Pramudita. In further explanation, the four stages are referred to else where as the four parts of nirvedha-bhdgiyo constituting in the Prajiiaparamita scriptures and Abhisamayalamkdra digest, the Stage of Action in Faith (adhimukl't-carya-bhumi) of the Bodhisattva. Obermiller, who so far has the best description,* points out that the four are given in the .Mahdydna-Sutralamkaraf within X IV , 23-26 and the Sanskrit commentary thereon. In summary :
E, O berm iller, The Doctrine of Prajfiu-param itft as exposed in the Abhiiamajd-tariikara o f M aitre ya, A ila Orifntolia, Vol. X I, 1932. At p. 37, he cites H arib h ad ra's Atoka com m entary, including the term tatttdfthatkadtiapravif (a .

1. 2. 3.

T h e state of w arm th T he state of summits T he state o f forbearance

T h e state of supreme m undane natures {laukikdgradharma-avasthd) T h e expression sam adhi w ithout interval m eans th a t this state, while still m undane, leads directly to the; su p ram u n d an e state, namely the first Bodhisattva Stage of the M ah ay an a. Now, it is striking that non-tantric M ahayana, B uddhism allots to these states the terminology light ctc. th a t rem inds us o f the tantric vocabulary so im portant to the G u h y asam aja tradition about the three lights that lead up to the C lear Light. In our earlier section on the two stages (Stage ol G en eratio n a n d Stage o f C om pletion) the Paiicakrama was cited with trans lation, By yoga of a beginner, he attains the Kighth Stage, an d seeing the three lights he is settled in the T e n th S tag e. T h is shows th at the tantric theory o f the mysterious lights leading up to Buddhahood should not be confused w ith this P rajftaparamita theory of lights leading u p to the Bodhisattva career. However, there m ay have been an intention to establish a p a r a llel of mystical experiences; an d such parallels are consistent with my tentative dating of the Guhyasamdjatantia a n d E x p la n a tory T an tras in the 4th and 5th centuries, A.D. Besides, my discussion earlier in this book shows th at the lights also occur in m undane conditions. Now, returning to that verse of the Guhyasamdja, C hap. X V , the basic ta n tra already shows the context as d ream ex am in a tion. Besides, W may consult the Pradipoddyotana com m entary C an d its annotation (the Mthan-hgrel) for further inform ation about the verse in question. In the Pradipoddyotana (P T T , Vol. 158, p. 132-2, 3, 4 ), the parts of the verse can be understood as answering questions. Question 1: W here arc the dharmas ? T h e verse, alluding to the dream state, replies : all d h a rm a s are localcd within o n es mind. Question 2: W here is th a t m ind ? T h e verse, alluding to

4.

light (aloka) spread ol light (aloka vivrddhi) [directed only to th ern ean ing o f reality (tattvdrthaekadesapravista) \ sam adhi w ithout interval (,titiantarya-samadhi)

dreamless sleep, replies: It is in the diamond of sky, to wit, the Clear Light. [Rccall in this connection Table III of this book, T he Clear Lights, indicating the Clear Light of dream less sleep. ] Questions 3 and 4: Suppose it be asked if there is a presence separate from the mind. The verse replies : There is no dharma, to wit : there is no self-nature of the entities. Suppose it be asked if there is sometimes (kada cit) an underlyinig nature (dhatmutii). The verse replies : There is no underlying nature. Here the Pradipoddyotana cites two verses without identifying the source (which the Mchan-hgrcl traccs to a citation in Spyod bsdus, i.e. the Caryiimeliipakapradipa, and states to he consistent with the Vajramald) : talhaiva dfulti ayatavendriyadatt jnanadvaye tatra svsatfihatc tasmin j Sunye mahad-viiati yah prasuptah siapncun prapaiyct khalu vdtam samfray&t \\ uiptc prabuddhe cana ca namatcdam samkalpayet svapnaphalabhilafi / svapnopamds te sauadhartm mrfdmr,<aS rapt tayor abhavah // In like manner, one is in deep sleep when he enters great in that void Culmination of Light) wherein the pair of gnoses Light and Sprcad-ol-Light) arc gathered, in the elements four, i.e. earth, etc.), the sense bases (four objects), the sense organs four, eye, etc.), and so on (the personality aggregates, i.e. the first tour). Should one lake recourse to the w i n d s , surely he will sec a dream. T he one wishing tin- fruit of dream (i.e. good fruit from a good dream ), should examine this non-difference, not even in sleeping and waking. All dharmas arc like a dream. Moreover, falsehood and truth arc not present in the two sleeping and waking). Apparently, the first verse is intended to amplify the answers to the first two questions, referring to the states of dream and dreamle.ss sleep. The second verse should therefore be construed to amplify the answers to the third and fourth questions, explaining the denial of a dharma or dhannatd. The logical distinction of truth and falsehood is not present. And yet there is no denial of the fruit of dream. If one compares this Pradipoddyotana explanation of the

Guhyasamdja verse with what R atn ak arasan ti said a b o u t it, there does not ap p ear any essential disagreem ent, even though the discussion proceeds som ewhat differently. Indeed, there is no disagreem ent as yet with those verses cited from the iM/'tkdvatara-sutia, where in the fourth stage the yogin sees the M a h a yan a; bccause in the second of the two verses edited and tran s lated above, one realizes that "all dharmas arc like a d r e a m , which is a frequent teaching ot the M ah ay an a. Now, it is a striking feature of those stages of yoga, as R a tn a karasanti understands the Lafikavatnra verses, w ith the further corresponding statem ents draw n out above, th a t certain state ments seem to conflict w ith others. T h a t is to sav. iu the 2nd stage, it is said th at all dharmas are m ind-only. I f th a t is w hat they are, then why in the 3rd stage docs one go beyond m in d only to reach reality ? A nd if one has reach ed reality , why should he go to a further stale said to deny b o th the dharma and the dharmata ? It seems to be the ease t h a t th e individual statem ents constitute the m ottos for a given level of yoga cxpericnce a n d for the yogi us w ith th a t experience. But if this be granted, it denies th a t the sam e p recep t is given to all yogins. Now, it appears th a t this is the identical p ro c e d u re o f state m ent found in the old Buddhist classic, the Dhammapada (X X , 5, 6, 7), All constructions are im p e rm a n e n t (sabbc sankhdrd anicca), All constructions are sulTering (sabbe sankhdrd, dukkha), All dhammas are non-self (sabbe dhamma anal Id), In illustration, the first statem ent, All constructions are im p e r m a n e n t, is convincing on the intellectual level, an d so is addressed to laym en, monks, and anyone else w ho will listen. But, having said this, the B uddha said som ething else a b o u t the constructed things, All constructions are sulTering, a n d this statem ent is not convincing on the intellectual level; it tu rn s out to be the precept to the an'as, or iravakas, the disciples of the B uddha who are told to look upon suffering as suffering a n d upon happiness as sulTering because it entails suffering or will lead to sulTering. Furtherm ore, the B u d d h a said, "A ll dhammas (S. dharmah) are non-self, bringing into the discussion the celebrated teaching of Buddhism , the non-self (an-atman) theory th a t has always been characteristic o f Buddhism . T h is state m ent is not convincing on the intellectual level, because dharmas

sueli as love and hate arc understood ly thr intellect to rrqiiire a sc'lt that loves and hatrs. Therefore, thr statement cannot be made intelligently to everyone, but also it is not just the way thr disciples should look upon constructed things, bccause in Buddhism the dhatmas arc not only in the constructed cate gory but also there is the unc.onstructed kind, lor example, Nirvana. Nirvana is the goal o l'th r path, lor whicli it is neces sary to follow the procedures of Meditation as a yogin. There fore, it may be concluded along the same lines that the state ment, All dhamma* are non-sell*' is the precept for the yogins. , Then the question naturally arises, if the statement, All dhamma* are non-self, is a yoga precept, can it be placed among the stages of yoga that have been set forth above on the basis of the I.aiikt ataia verses anti Guhyasamaja verse ? This prccept u is immediately identifiable with the 2nd yuga stage, which is the stage th.it takes the sell out of all dharmas." In explanation, the statement, All dharmas are mind-only refers to the dream state. In this slate, the object (the world of dhatmas' is param ount and the self is in abryancc; hencc, All dharmat are non-self" cl. the quotation of Anarigavajra under the Nidana v e r s e )K \ . A<ordiiiglv, one may also conclude that the /)hammaf>ada precept. All constructions are sutFrring," applies to the Ut stage of yoga, the meditative object on the phenomenal limit of the entity, involving the phenomenal sell that sulfeis. In agreement the Buddha said (Dhammapada. N X I. -12 . * Ihe disciples of Gautama are always well awake fuihujjhant't)." Certainly yoga begins in the waking state. The above help1 us irgarding the 3rd stage of yoga. This is said to go hevond mind-onlv the dream state) and to refer to dreamless sleep, with the non-appearance of phenomenal dharmas. It follows that this is the stage when the subject is paramount and the object is in abeyance, and so one sees no dream. This conc lusion forces the word dharmata (underlying nature) to apph to the subject. Having concluded tli.it much, it is also possible to appreciate the meaning of the 4th stage, when there is no dhatma but also no dharmata. In shoit, "there is no dharma" denies a dream; and there is no dharmata" denies a dreamless sleep - thus deny ing both subject and object. This turns out, according to the

foregoing treatments, to be a climactic transitional statein one ease, leading immediately to the onset of the M a h a y a n a ; and in another cast*, to complete Buddhahood. Sincc this com parison o f the Lankdvalttra verses w ith the- single Guhyasamaja verse has h ern sufficiently exposed on its own terminological side, il should be o f interest to see to \vhat extent this dovetails with Guhyasamaja yoga stages previously presented in this work. My subsection T h e six mcm lw rs o f yoga and the five kramas in the Stage o f C o m p letio n presented the com m cntarial exegesis of certain verses in the Guhyasamaja, C hap. V I, including verse 4 : H e should accomplish the selflessness of citta being visua lized (ciflanidhyaptinairatmyam), (th e n ) the contem plation o f speech (vaca) an d body, (th en ) the triple conjunction, (finally) the abode equal to space. I f one wishes to m atch these u p with the stages already discussed in this appendix, it follows im m ediately th a t the selflessness o f citta being visualized is the 2 n d stage o f yoga : all dharmas are located within o n e s m in d and this is the non-self of dharmas. Tnerefore, the preceding contem plation (body as the m a n tra visualized ) corresponds to the 1st stage o f yoga. I t follows, th a t this treatm ent does not allow the m ore generalized in te r pretation o f yoga stages, as previously, to lead u p to either the beginning of the bodhisattva p a th ( M a h a y a n a ) or to C om plete Buddhahood. Indeed, the context shows th a t the in te rp re tation is fully w ithin the M a h a y a n a scope, just as the four nirvedha-bkagiya were within the p re -M a h a y a n a scope. In the present case, the body as the m a n tra visualized is th e accom plishment of the Stage o f G eneration ( - the first seven B odhi sattva stages), an d selflessness o f cilia being visualized is the beginning of the Stage of C om pletion ( = the last three Bodhi sattva stages). T h e n , the com parison continues along the same lines, th a t the contem plation o f speech and b o d y is the M ah ay&na version of the 3rd stage o f yoga, the S v a d h isth a n a , or initial M ah am u d ra, as the thusness end, or the n o n -ap p earan ce of phenom enal dharm as. Finally the triple co n ju n ctio n , or divine body m ade o f m in d , is eq uivalent to the transitional 4th stage o f yoga, which goes beyond the sign-sources o f dharmas and dhamalil presum ably to be purified by the C lear Light like a gem cleansed by fire (N id an a verse R A ).

Finally, the abode equal lo space which generates the body of M ahavajradhara has no equivalent in the four stages of yoga. Nevertheless, it is analogous to the further statement in the Lankavatara verses : His effortless going is peaceful and purifird by his vows, except that now it applies to the Buddha stage rather than to the Bodhisattva stages. T he foregoing rather neatly demonstrates a tie-up between the Lonkavat&rasutra and the Guhyasamdjatantra; and in the latter case, the consistency between the stages of yoga in its C hapter VI and the stages in that verse of Chapter XV. Be sides, the material in this appendix will serve as an introduc tion to both the second and third appendixes.

T H E A R C A N E - B O D Y ( ( )NTR< ) Y E R S Y NIy u s e o f the word a r c a n e a n d solution o f the forty verses into two groups going with (hr Stage ot G e n e r a t i o n a n d Stage o f C om ple tio n can he finally justified by co n sid era ti on ol what I term t h r Arcane-Body Controvcisv It is true that I have a lr e a d y precepted some m a te r ia l a b o u t this m a t t e r in my I n tr o d u c t io n to the Yoga o f the G u h y a s a m a j a tantra. But this is an exciting topic a b o u t a Tibetan c o n t r o versy that reaches back to i m p o r t a n t I n d i a n theories ol the fruits o f yoga; as such it deserves a special t r e a t m e n t . \ a rio u s forms of I n d ian philosophy take a c c o u n t < i a subtle b o d \ > iarira). How ever, it is only in such T a n t r i c c u r r e n t s av the one presented in the foregoing work that a whole u p w a r d <a r e e r is worked o u t for this subtle bodv. T h i s kind o f b o d y is o f * otirse denied i m m e d ia te ly by the m aterialistic person. I l e r e I a m not a rg u in g for the existence o f such a m y sterio us b od y , b u t simply r e po rtin g the facts of the Guhyasamdja system, w h i c h speaks o f a n a rc a n c b o d y which on (he Stage o f C o m p l e t i o n is called the illusory b o d y or i m p u r e illusory b o d y , th at can emerge from the o r d i n a r y body. In fact, the theory is by 1 1 0 m e a n s origin al w ith the Guhyosamdjatantra because ancient B u d dh ism a l r e a d y referred to it with the terminology o f m e n ta l b o d y " or " b o d y m a d e o f m i n d (viaunmaya-kdya), to whicli 1 h a v e previous ly a ll u d e d . H e r e I should add th at the Laukai'itdrasfitra m e n tio n s t h ree kinds o f mental body, which c o m b in e well w i t h the theory in the A ry a school ol the tan tric N a g a r j u n a a n d A r y a d e v a t h a t (he Stage ol Com ple tio n begins with tin* E ighth B o dh isa ttva Stage. T h e first men tal body, with stabilization in the plea sure tA samadhi ( samailhnuUiasamaftalli-tnaiiimtaya), which a c c o r d i n g to that scripture is developed in the course ol' the first seven Bod hi-* sattva stages, therefore, belongs to (he Sta g e of G e n e r a t i o n . I h e second kind, w t m h completely c o m p r e h e n d s the intrinsic natu re ol ihr dhatnun dhaitiuisvahhdidi'ahndha~tnannma\'a) a n d whit li is said to proceed to all the B u d d h a rea lm s necessarily would be placed in the Stage ol C o m p le t io n as the "arcane b o d v ol that Stage. Accord in g to the Guhyasamaja t r a d itio n , that

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arcane hotly" is succeeded ly, or next subjected to, the arcane speech and then the arcane m in d ." It is only at the phase ol arcane mind th at this mental or spiritual body completely comprehends the intrinsic nature of the dhat m as which means in Pancakrama terminology that it completely u nder stands the eighty prakrtis associated with the three Light stages, as experienced on the Tenth Bodhisattva Stage. T h e t h u d kind of mental body, which performs the instigations natural to its class (uikayasahajasamskaraktiya-tnanomaya)%i.e. natural to the class of Buddhas, is the yuganaddha-deha of this Tan tric tradition. At first glance, a certain verse of the Guhyasamajatantra does not seem related to the above, b u t I shall demonstrate the relevance of C h a p te r X V , verse 22, of that T a n t r a , as follows, which is almost the same as the last verse of C h apte r X I I ( Documents ) :
buddho dharmadharo vapi vajrasattva pi i'd yadi / atikiam ed y a d i tmhiitmii Uid antam tasya jivita m If

If someone would go beyond whether as a Buddha, a holder ol D harm a, or as a Vajrasattva; and it lie is delud ed, he would lose his life. C a n d r a k l i t i s Ptadiptddyvtana M ch an cd., p. 122-2,3) repeats substuuiiallv its com m ent on the C h a p te r X I I verse, to wit, that the expression B u d d h a " means "yogin of Vairocana, an d so on. In this case. Celu-pa's Uatnavrkui comm entary oil Ch a pte r X V 1*1 1, Vol. 63, p. 211-5. is more helpful. It explains that " B u d d h a " is the Diamond o f Body ; holder of D h a r m a is the Diamond of Speech; and Vajrasattva is the Diamond of M ind (sans rgyas ni sku rdo rjeho / chos hdzin pa ni gsuri rdo rjeho / rdo rje sems d p ah ni thugs rdo rjeho / ) . This comment immediately associates this verse with the ex pressions Body, Speech, and Mind that have such an important role throughout the Guhyasamajatantra as well as in ccrtain nidana verses. In consideration that this Chapter X V has previously in its verse i I referred to the T enth Stage (of the Bodhisattva), one may recall in this connection the rather remarkable statements about the last three Bodhisattva Stages (Kiglitli through T e n t h ) in the manual of the Tathagatagai bha theory, the katnagotravibhaga (ed. of Johnston, pp. 3.21-4.G): I t a n a yato .staniyain bodhisattvabhiitnau vartaniailuh

sa r v a d h a r m a - v a s i t a p r a p t o b h a v a t i las m a t sa b o d h i m a n d a v a ra g a ta h s a r v a d h a n n a s a m a t a b h i s a t n b u d d h a ity u c y a t c / y a to n a vam y an i btKlhisaitvabhfnnau v a r t a m a n o n u t t a r a d h a r m a b h a n a k a t v a s a i n p a n n a h sa rv as attv as ay a su v id h ijfia i n d r i y a p a r a m a p a r a m i t a p r a p t a h sa r v a s a t t v a k l e s a v a s a n a n u s a m d h i s a m u d g h a t a n a k u s a l o b ha vati t.isniat so bhisarnbuddhabodhih supravartitadharm acakra ity u c y atc / yato d a s a m y a m b h u i n a v a n u t t a r a t a t h a g a t a d h a r m a y a u v a rajyabhisekapraptyanantaram an ab h o g a b u d d h ak a ry ap ra t i p r a s r a b d b o b h a v a t i lasm a t sa s u p r a v a r t i t a d h a r m a c a k r o n a n ta s i s y a g a n a s u v i n i ta ity u c y a t c / A m o n g those, for the reason that his a tta in m e n t of power over all dharmns takes place on tin* Eighth Bodhisattva Stage, it is said (in the Dhaianisiaraiajasutra), He, having proceeded to the best terrace of E nlightenm ent ( = the T ree o f E n lig h ten m en t), was enlightened on the equality of all dharmas'. l;>r the reason th a t his endow m ent of preaching the incom parable D h a rm a , his know ing of the good rules for the hopes of all sentient beings, his a ttainm ent o f the highest perfection o f faculties, and his virtue o f annihilating the co ntinuance o f defilem ent habit-energy in all sentient beings, take place on the N inth Bodhisattva Stage, it is said, 'H e , w ith e n lig h te n m ent fully aw akened, has well set into m otion the Wheel of the D h a rm a . For the reason th a t im m ediately alter receiving, on the T e n th Stage, the C row n-P rincc consec ration for the incom parable T a th a g a la - D h a r m a he is roused {apratiprairabdha) to the effortless B u d d h a d u ties it is said, H e who well set into m otion the W heel ol the D h arm a has well train ed the in n u m erab le host of disciples. T h a t is to say, in this particu lar trad itio n , it is the Body of the Buddha sitting under the Bodhi T ree that occurs on the E ighth Stage, his Speech as the W heel o f Due trine th a t is on the N inth, his M ind roused to B uddha duties th a t is on the Tenth. In T antrism , this Body, Speech, a n d M ind arc called the three mysteries of the B u d d h a. T his plausible explanation o f the sequence B u d d h a , D harm a holder, and V a jra sa ttv a ol the Uuhyasamaja verse, still leaves unexplained the mysterious rem ark th a t the one who would go beyond in such status would lose lus life if he be d e

luded. However, thin is a reasonable remark in the light of the Ijjiikavatara's second kind of mental body," prevalent oil the Eighth through T enth Bodhisattva Stages, l>ecausc the Lahkarafara's claim that this body visits all the Buddha realms is a way of saying that ii has emerged by yoga praxis from the ordinary body. If the yogin does not have, skill in guiding his movements in these Buddha realmswhatever wc may think them to behr con Iti lose his lile, bccausc the separation of the mental body would be tantamount to deaths separation. This points to the importance of the first kind of mental body, that immersed in samadhi, l>ecause presumably this is a necessary preparation for the dangerous trips of the subsequent second kind. If this sort of teaching has been derived from the life of the Buddha, one can promptly think of G autam as celebrated austerities by the Xairanjana River when his body eventually became so wasted that viewers could not decide whether he was dead or alive. This extreme mortification immediately preceded G au tam as passage to the Bodhi Tree where, accord ing to the tradition of the above T athagatagarbha literature, he represented a Bodhisattva of the Kighth Stage. Indeed, the premise ol such a mental body or illusory body as the arcane body of the Stage ol Completion makes it clear why the great commentators on this Tantra, e.g. the Indian tantrirs .\ai;aijuna and Aryadeva, and Tsoii-kha-pa in Tibet, again and again emphasized that the Stage ol Gene ration must precede the Stage ol Completion. Any lantric who would try to practise the Stage ol Completion without first having the Stage o l ( ieiieration, would Ik : relying on instruc tion and precepts which demand that the body be an arcanc body in the sense- of that advanced Stage, while in lact the person enterprising that Stage would only be starting with his ordinary human body that is not even a sanctified body ill the worldly sense o f withdrawal from certain f o o d s , the opposite sex, anti society gcnerall\ In alone arcane in any way. All the above is necessary to appreciate Tsoii-kha-pas insistence on an arcane body in both the Stage of (ieiieration and Stage of Completion. His solution, as I have come to understand it, is easy to stale: the arcane hotly of the Stage of Generation is the "hundred lineat'cs in (he Aliyoga phase; and the arcane body ol the Stage of Completion is the first

two members o f the six-membered yoga, namely pratyahara and dhyana. But while he expressly identified the second kind of arcane body" in that m anner, I never found him stating the first kind in such a simple m anner : he always w rapped the m a tte r in com plicated discussions, because ot the controversy. In accordance with Tsori-kha-pa's an n o tatio n of the Forty Verses an d my grouping of those verses, 1 placed the m inute correspondences called the h u n d ie d lineages (T. rigs brgya) in the first group of verses concerning the Stage ol G eneration, in fact beginning with the set whicli I associated w ith the division o f vajra called Atiyoga. T h en , m ore recently to m y surprise, I could find no m ention o f these h u n d re d lineages in a work by T sori-kha-pas faithful disciple M khas-grub-rje devoted to the topic of the Stage of G en eratio n , nam ely the latters work Rgyud thams cad kyi rgyal po dpal gsah ba hdus pahi bskyed rim dnos grub rgy a mtsho iesb ya ba . ( T h e 'O c c a n of Siddhis a b o u t the Stage o f G en eratio n in the K in g of all T a n tra s , the Sri-Guhyasamdja ), w herein I find im p o rta n t points o f Tsori-kha-pas position amplified a n d defended by M khasgrub-rje. H is silence oil the m a tte r was confirm ed w hen I perused a work by Blo-bzari-chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan, the First Pan chcn L am a, nam ely his Gsari hdus gdams nag rim liia gsal sgron gyi siiin pohi gnad kun bsdus pa ( Concise statem en t o f the essential points, clarifying the Paiicakrama precepts o f the Guhyasamaja ). T h is work expressly states th a t the h u n d re d lineages belong to the Stage of C om pletion, w ith the rem ark, T he contem plation in w hich there is the arising as the body of a deity involved w ith the illustrious h u n d re d lineages an d so forth, is the arcane body o f the Stage o f C o m p letio n (dam p a rigs brgya la sogs p a h i lha skur sar bar bsgom p a ni rdzogs p a rim pahi lus d ben yin tc). Accordingly, the a u th o r treats these hundred lineages iu his work devoted to the Stage o f Completion. O f course, I again referred to T sori-kha-pa's elab o rate discussions o f the arcane body problem to see if, after all I m ight have misunderstood his position. I could find no reason to change my conclusion. Besides, T sori-kha-pa, in his sadhana o f the Guhyasamaja entitled Rnal hbyor dag pahi iirn pa ( the pure stages o f yoga ) ( P I T , Vol. 160, p. W>-4) s t a t e s : After generating in th at way the thirty-tw o gods, he should

respectively contemplate them in sequence as the nature of the five personality aggregates, the lour clemeits, thr eignl consist ing ot eye, etc., (he five sense objects starting with form, and the set o f t e n beginning with right arm ; this is Atiyoga (de/ Itar lha sum cu so gnis po hskyed pahi hog tu re re nas rim pa b/in phun po lna dan / khams bzi dan mig la sogs pa brgyad dan . gzugs la sogs pa lna dan / lag pa gYas pa la sogs pa bcuhi lit) boi* bsam par bya ste j sin tu rnal hbyor ro /). O ur earlier discussions show that Atiyoga is the thiid of the four yogas in the Stage of ( irncraiion, called Yoga, Anuyoga, Ati yoga. anti Mahayoga. T sou-kha-pas lemark fuiiher coi.firms mv division of the verses in which I assign Atiyoga to the third group ol verses ^Bhagavan Sarva), because it is precisely iu these verses that Tson-kha-pa begins his arcane body comments, stalling with the vers*' about ihe five personality aggregates. Besides, Tson-kha-pa, when explaining the four teen fundamental lalls ol the Vajrayana in his Dnos grub kyi site ma and grouping those lalls ( P I T . Vol. INI, p. 70-1,2) classifies a.s a fall ir ihe Stage of Generation the fall No. 8, lo abuse the live shtmdhas, lor their nature belongs to the five Buddhas. Pursuant to the given reason "their nature belongs lo thr live Buddhas ' , om: <<mld extend this remark about the pcrsoiialil\ augirgales ^Laudha to ihe sense bases and so on, with which deity is identified in the Atiyoga stage. Doubt less, I son-kha-pa lollous a tiadition whit h places the hundred lineages in the Stage ol Geuei.ilion; and I need not speculate tin the particular reasons lor later luminaries of his school to have understood ihe m atter diffcM n th . Still, it is possible to set forth the chief controversial aspect in the following manner. Tson-kha-pa has his inosi <omplicaled discussion of the arcane b o th " contioversy iu his l ancakraina commentary, starting Vol. I >8, p. 2D I and toiiiiuuing for a number of pages in the photographic edition (each page with live folio sides). It so happens that Tson-klia-pa repeats much of the same discussion about the "arcane body" in a later work, his Mthah gcod ("Deciding the alternatives ) on the individual chapters of the Guhyasamajatantm, namely, in his mthah geed of Chapter VI (PTT, Vol. pp. 3t anti 10). I have presented this Chapter iu Documents and also treated the relevant verses (nos. 3-(i) in my section The six members til yoga and the

five kramas in the Stage of C om pletion. Since Iso ri-k h a-p a s discussion here shows that the argum ent devolves about the expression in verse 3, tin* one who has body as the m a n tra visualized (mantramdhyaptikayena), it is well to present C an d rakirtis comment on that verse 3, as 1 edit from the Pradipoddyotana manuscript and accordingly translate in Mchan h%rel context : / m antranidhyapti ityadi m an tra alikalijah / sarpadisvabhavas tesain stripum napum sakatvena try ak sarad h ar [a b h u tja inantrah tryaksarani / tesain pravcsasthitivyutthanasvabhavena p arijn an am m a n tra n id h y a p tih / tatra purvakam kavena vajrajapasya sa d h a n a b h u te n a nirm anasarirena vaca v ajrajap en o p alak sitah / m anasi hrdi hrdisthito vajrasattvah c o d ita h /y a th a b h u ta p a rijn a n e n a visayikttah / bhavayed iti / yogisantanasya vakyam anakarn catasro vastha nisp ad ay et / kas ta ity a h a / p ra v a ra ityadi /p r a v a ra m u tk rs ta in cittavivekalaksanam v a jra ja p a d adhikatvat siddhim iti / svad h isth an alak san ain m ahA m udra m anah sam tosayatlti m au ah sam to san am m a h a m u d ra viSuddhi karat vat / priyam isjam bhavasaina-ekalaksa* nam m ah av ajrad h aram u rtim n isp a d a y e t / As to the verse T h e one w ho has body as the m a n tra visualized... , m a n tra s arise from the (sixteen) vowels and the (thirty-three or th irty -fo u r) consonants an d are constituted by su rh expressions as SA RPA . Among them , when m an tras have as basis three syllables by way o f female (A h ), male ( O m ) , a n d andro g y n e (H u m ), they arc the three syllables. T h e thorough knowledge o f those (th ree) by way o f in h a la tio n (O m ) , holding of b reath (A h ), and exhalation (H u m ) is the m a n tra visualized'. H ere, the one who previously has the (arcane) body, that is, the body ol hypostasis (by the live T a th a g a ta s an d so o n ) w hich arose th ro u g h a sadhantt or diam ond m u tterin g , should accom plish, i.e. intensely contem plate, exhorted by speech, i.e. by D iam ond M uttering, in the m ind, i.e. in (ones ow n) heart, th a t is, (exhorted) m ean in g distinguished while the V ajrasattva dwelling in the h eart (w ithin the central vein of the dhanmcakra) is m ade the object (of cons ciousness) by that thorough knowledge (of tlu* three phases o f the w ind) as they really are, that is (should

accomplish) lour states to l>c explained of the yogins stream of consciousness. What arc those ? (The text) says: the surpassing one, and so on, namely ( I ) the surpassing one, i.e. outstanding one, with the character o f Arcane M ind, because it outlasts Diamond Muttering; (2) succcssful one, with the character of Personal Blessing, namely the M aham udra; (3) one satisfying the mind*, that is. It brings satisfaction to the mind,** because, it purifies the M aham udra; (4) beloved one, i.e. wished lor. that is, he accomplishes the body of M ahavajradhaia with the single character of the pheno menal world and the realm of quiescence. With that passage before us, it is easier to sec how those who took C andrakirti's commentary as the most authoritative one on the Guhyasamajatantra, would be troubled to determine by this passage which of tin- two Stages to assign the arcane body . C andrakirti's subsequent commentary on Chapter VI shows that the contemplation of the winds by means of the three syllables can be understood cither in the form appropriate to the Stage of Generation or to that appropriate to the Stage of Completion. Some persons could maintain that this verse of the Guhyasamdjatantra refers to the five stages which Nagarjuna systematized in his Paiicakrama, beginning with Diamond M uttering; for, as well known, the Pancakrama deals only with the Stage of Completion. On the other hand, some persons could point lo the word ftunakam' in Candrakirti's commentary lo suggest that ihe body as the m antra visualized is a prior accomplishment, already at hand when the yogin is exhorted by Diamond Muttering of the Stage of Completion variety. Besides, Candraklrti did not help matters when, iu his commen tary on Chapter N i l , (see Documents ), lie explained the Stage of Completion, not with this terminology from Chaptcr VI, verse 3, but rather w ith the terminology of six-membered yoga from Chapter X V III. In the case of the six members, Diamond M uttering would have to be assigned to pranayama, the tliiicl memljcr, leaving the first two members, pralydhdta and dhyana, to be argued about. No wonder there were dis agreements over this arcane body ! As I understand Tsoii-kha-pa's solution, it allows for both interpretations of the expression body as the mantra

visualized . This am ounts to .in admission that the lw stages called Stage of G eneration ami Stage- ol I .ointdetion aie dis tinctions imposed upon the basit I autra. Il we det id< upon the Stage ot (veneration, we can consult ( . a u d i a r . i i ti s t ommcntarv on C hapter X I I , *><)->!. to >ee at once that in the rase oi the lour steps, he mentions that the three syllables ol ( )m, etc. arc deposited in the both in the second step. I pasadhana Anuyoga. This agrees with our p latin g in the M*cond group of verses the material on m uttering by means ol the three syllables, allotting lour set ouds to each nidana veise 12, " K). S This is held 10 geneiate the primeval lord adinatha). H ow ever, in Tsoii-kha-pa's position, this body ol the second step is still not the arcane bodv". 1'or tin: latter attain m en t the yogin must pass to the third step, the Atiyoga. in which there is the hypostasis of divinit\ into the body by such m eans as the correspondences established in the hu n d red lineages . This body becomes called in the fourth step the m an trapurusa , seen with three heads, etc. T h e n , it the same line of C hapter V I, verse 3, is understood to reler to the Stage of Completion, the bodv as the m an tra visuaii/etl is the arcane body of the Stage of C om pletion. ii.mieK f>iat\aiiani and dhyana, to which the two nidana verses ( K A - \A are devoted. In such a case, the rem aining lour mc.m'neis, fndtjih'ama. etc.. of the six-membcrcd yoga, have to be equated with the five steps ol the Paiicakrama. Because the above is its* If so involved and technical, I have decided to lorcgo any more ol 1 so n -k b a -p a s portrayal of vaiving positions alxtut this a n ane bodv *. In sum m ary, the arcane body ol the Stage ol G eneration becomes th at wav because imagined to be invested with denies, lint according to the theory ol steps, the >ogiu should Inst pass, through a kind ol symbolic d eath through attainm ent ot the v o id ; then imagine himself in an intei m ediate state bv three-syllabled breathing; now he can pass to a symbolic b irth w herein his body is inhabited by deities; and finally return to the world with transfigured consciousness. T he yogin is now readv to embark upon the dangerous Stage ol C om pletion, w ith the drawing forth of an advanced arcane hotly," tin: Illusory Body. This Illusory body ihe arcane body o f the Stage of Completion is the reenactmeiii ol the piim eyal androgyne.

T H E PRAX IS A CC O RD IN G T O ARYADEVA There are many ways of setting forth the indications of practice that w crr touched upon in the foregoing introductions and annotation of the nidana verses. Perhaps the clearest statement of the practice in the Stage, of Completion is that found in Aryadevas Catyamrlapakapradipay a work which has already contributed considerably (for example, the hundred lineages' stem from here). Aryadeva's passage happens to be extant in Sanskrit in Kendall's edition of the Subhafita-samgraha, Part II, pp. 33-3.r>; but liendall did not trace the Aryadeva work. The Sanskrit passage is toimd in the Tibetan translation in bits and snatches, and one section could not be traced at all. Unless the Suhhayita compiler had a completely different recen sion of the Aryadeva text, he must have skipped around to piecc together a running account; and my study of the context shows that he is faithful to Aryadevas intention. The exact Tibetan equivalent begins in PTT, Vol. 61, p. 312-3, line 7, but the liiNt words of the Aryadeva citation may be a para phrase of p. 311-2. In the following reproduction of IiendalPs edited Sanskrit, I shall insert the places of the Tibetan transla tion; ar.d follow the text with my English translation and comments. pustake /TrjWrtYi-pad.iir bhavanopadcsah spastaksaren o k t a h / (Possibly paraphrase of p. 311-2 :) udyanc vijane sravakadi-uktam sa-rahite (p. 312-3, line 7:) paramarthasalyalamhanapurvakain svadhisthana kratnrna vajrasattvarfipam atmanam nispadva (p. 312-5, line 4:) pr.ithamariipadi-trividhavisayam asvadya tad anu sodhanadividliina sarvaharam abhisamskrti-siddham adhyatma-kundam anusmrtyatmaki tim samadhisattvasya inukhc trisikhagnitn juhomity ahamkaram utpadyabhyavaharati I tatah sukhena parinamati rasayanam ca bhavati / evam kayavajram samtarpya (portion not traced in Tibetan :) vain kamcit svabhaprajflarupena sarvalamkrtagalra trivali-tararigabhangabhirama atyan-

takrsam adhyarom arajjv (sit. for rajy)-antai itavipulagam bhiranabhidesa j a g h a u a - g h a n a - n i t a m b a - s l a b d h a s r n g a ra-lalita-kam alagaii-sasnm a-vadana sauinyadrstya mahasukhanurAganataya (]>. 3 lj-.r>, lino J I : ) nkc vyavasthita lalo m.'ihjsiilflhtrn itispadayaini ti dvdhaham karam inpadvaliriganacum banat usana- (p. 314-4, line 3 :) k m ag rah an a-p id ak aiad an a-d asan an ak liad an am ardana- (p. 313-1, hue 1 :) sitkara-kokila-bhtnganadanadisamrfKlan.idikam kilva (p. 314-4, line 4 :) suclkurparadikarana-pram odanataya p racalitan m k tah aravalaya-kaiaka-kcyiiraiiiipiira-fp. 313-1, line 2 :) vajrapadm asam gharsanat prajn<paya-samapattya skandhadi* svabhavat sarvatathagatanam m firdhanam a ra b h y a dvasaptati-nadisahasrani n irjh a ra d h a ra k aie n -a lik a lid ra / vibhuva raga-virag a-m ad h y arag a-k ram rn a tatah p rajnaparam itadi-svarupan p raty atm av ed y an karoti t evam sri-M ahasukhasam adhim abhyasya p rap to tk arso yogi tatraiva gan am an d alc u ig ra h a n u g ra h c n a sativ an paripacayet / (p. 314-1, line 8 :) evam p u n ah p u n a r bhutakotim pravisya punah p im ar by u tth a y a p au ca ta th a g a ta ru p a n pauca k am ag u n an asv ad ay ali yatba na m layate m anah / (p. 314-2, lino .*>:) lato nitvikalpn m ahayogl sviitm anah sarvabhavasvabhava-pratipadanaya loke g a rb ita m visodhya pracchannc pradeSc sthitva b h v a v a h a ra ti / tatha ca m u d ra b a n d h o n a m an d alam n a caityam na ca pustakavacanam na kayaklesam na p a ta k a s tb a p a sa n a pratim am pranam ati na & ravaka-Pratyckalm ddbam na tithinaksatrainuhurtakalapcksanarn karoti ' sarvam clad adhyatnicnaiva sam padayaii / / (p. 314-5, line 8 :) vane bhikfam hhiamen nityam sddhako didhaniScayah j dadit (n)ti hhayasamtrasld bhojanam daivyamanditam f f atikrarnef triiajrdtmd naJam vajrakfaram bhaiet f surim ndrini (sir, fo r nd"hn) mahdyakfim asurim mdnufitn api f f pr&pya vidydvratam kdnam trivajrajtidmseiitnm ifi (p. 313-4, line 1;) evam latikikadhyanam a p an iy a manora jyam apahaya sa d a p ra ru d ita m a n a yoginibbih saha ram am ano vatha raja Indrabhutis tadvat kalevaram p.irivarlya vajrakayo bhutva n i a h p u u n a sa b a n ta rd h a y a sta gunaisvaryagunanvito budd h ak sctrad b u d d h a k sc it am gacchati / yathoktam M u h sS tre /

satvadfvopabhngais tu wyamano(sk fnr-manair) yathdsukham f svadhidaivatayogma svam utnuiuam (sic. for paratmanau) prapujayct f l (Tibetan ends at p. 313-4, lint- 4). Translation In a book of Aryadeva the precepts of the contemplation are stated in lucid words: In a solitary glade, free as well from the words of ravakas, (theyogin contemplates this w ay: ) Having first taken Supreme T ru th as the meditative objcct, by the Stage of Personal Blessing (Svadhisthana-kram a) he abides with himself as the body of Vajrasattva. First he experiences the three kinds of form and of the other sensory objects. After that, for the rites of purification and so on, upon all food he recalls the inner hearth, whose shape is real, and arouses the pride, I make a burnt offering in the three-tongued flame which is the configuration of the self on the fare of the Samadhi Being, and partakes ot food. T hen it blissfully rhanges and becomes elixir (rasayana). Thus (the performer having satiated the diam ond of body (with elixir), (takes) some (consoit. mudra), by way of form, a prajria like himself (or: his own light, srabha). She has a body with all ornaments, gratifying through the restless break ing of the three folds (at her navel), the place of her wide and deep navel hidden by (he- sireak of hair across her narrow waist; her massive hips with firm buttocks; her gait amorous, playful, and sweet; her lace with smiles; pleasant to sec, and stationed in (the yogin's) proximity through the attraction of great ecstasy (mahasukha ). T hen he confirms his pride, thinking, I shall accomplish the siddhi of Maha (m u d ra)." Having done the embracing, kissing, sucking, holding of breast, l>eatiiig with bristling hair; the bite, the scratch, the bruise; erotic cries, cooing, humming of bees, calling through a tubular stalk ((/i), and so on because she is thrilled by his (yogi) postures of Suci, kurpara. and so on, sin- shakes her string of pearls, armlet, bracelet of lower and of upper arm, and anklet. Then, through the friction of the diamond and the lotus, by union of prajnA and upaya, starting at the head since the intrinsic nature of skandhas

belongs to all Tathagatas, the* 72.000 uadis bc.ronic a lluid (d ra vib h u ya ) o f vowels and consonants in the m an ner o f a tor rent, in the sequence o f d esire, aversion , and indifference*. T h u s hr introspects the true forms ol Prajnaparam ita and so o n . In this w ay the yogin. practising the gloriou s M ah asuk h asaniadhi, reaches em in en ce, and m atures the sentient beings by hindering and assisting in the (3 2 -d e ity ) "vtni\'>-mtindala.

In that way, again and again he enters the true limit (b h u t a k o fi) ; and having emerged again an d again he experiences the five strands of desire as the five T a th a g a ta forms, so the (sublime) m ind docs not fade. Then, the great yogin, discursive th o u g h t lacking in himself, so as to teach the intrinsic n a tu re of all entities, cleansing w hat is forbidden in the world, stays in a private place arid enjoys, to wit : he makes no mudras, mandalas, or caitvas, n o r recites texts, nor mortifies the body, nor bows to im ages of cloth, w ood, or stone, nor (takes refuge) in Sravakas or P ra ty e k a b u d d h a s, nor depends on time in terms of lunar days, astcrisms, or muhurtas. All that fulfils solely the inner n atu re. (Guhyasamaja, X V I, p. 126:) T h e sadhaka w ith firm resolve, always seeks alms in the glade. T re m b lin g w ith fear they give food divinely prepared. Should the triple-diam ond one go l>eyond, thcro w ould be loss an d (th e n ) the diam ond syllable. O b ta in in g either a goddess, a rnlgalady, great yakfi, demi-goddess, or h u m a n w om an, lie should engage in vidydvrata, relying on the knowledge of the three diam onds. In th a t way dispelling the w orldly m editations, a n d a b a n doning the realm o f fancy, with ever-ecstatic m ind he rejoices in the midst of th e yoginis, like K ing In d ra b h u ti, w ho tra n sm u te d his physical body (kalrrara) an d becam e a d iam o n d body, w hereupon he disappeared from the midst o f his queens; an d endowed with the merits o f the eight gitna-aiharya, w andered from B uddha field to B uddha field. As said in the M ulasutra (i.e. Guhyasamaja, V I I , 2, w ith variant readings) : By recourses that enjoy all desires ( deities) according to pleasure; and by the praxis of o n e s presiding lord one (respectively) worships others and oneself. So ends the Subhdfita-samgraha citation o f A ry a d e v a s lucid w o r d s . Fortunately, A ryadeva includes two passages from

the Guhyasamaja, one near the beginning of Chaptcr Seven and the other near the end of Chapter Sixteen, which enable me to bring in some of th r commrntaridl tradition. Besides, Sakyamitras Catydnieldpakapradipa-fikd iu Columbia Universitys X arthang edition was consulted in the relevant section near the end, but proved of little value. In order to explain Aryadevas account in the terminology already draw n from the Guhyasamajatantra and associated commcntarial literature, it is necessary to observe that he says, Having first taken Supreme T ru th as the meditative object... and says in the next sentence in further explanation, First he experiences the three kinds of f o r m .. . . One can refer to the three kinds of each sense object (as in Guhyasamdja, Chap. V I I ) by desire, aversion, and indifference, as does Aryadeva. ) oga Stages 1 and 2 Body as the .Mantra I isuali^ed Selflessness oj the .Mind Visualized T he account begins with the yogin located in a solitary glade. In this connection Aryadeva cites Guhyasamdja, X V I, p. 12fi, The sadhaka with firm resolve, always seeks alms in the glade. Trem bling with fear they give food divinely pre p a r e d . . . . * The Pradipoddyotana (Mchan hgrel, p. 148-1) mentions the unshared food but does not clarify who does the giving or why they arc frightened. It converts the yogins glade, to the great forest (vane mahdfavyam). Celu-pas com mentary, Ratnavrksa-ndma-rahasya-samdja-vrtti (PTT, Vol, 63, p. 227-2), is more helpful, bccause it explains, food not shared with men and having the hundred flavors* (mi dan thun mon ma yin pahi 2al zas ro brgya dan Idan p a ) ; and those tree divinities frightened by the fiery nimbus (tejas) of his evocation power, give (it) (sin la gnas pahi lha de dag sgrub dban dehi gzi brjid kyis skrag nas stcr bar hgyur ro). This explanation immediately associates those Guhyasamdja verses with the episode
The verse is corrcctly given in Bhattacharyyas edition to begin with
vant , the sccond line to begin with dadanti\ while Bagchis edition incorrectly auigns the vant line to verse D8B, and starts verse 99 with dadanli. The Pradipoddyotana manuscript supports Bhattacharyya here with the words cane-itjrddi.

o f the B uddhas enlightenm ent u n d er the T ree, w hich is called terrace of enlightenm ent (bodhimarula) and has four divinities o f enlightenm ent (bodhidevata) (cf. my Buddhist Tantrasy p. 186). I t is obviously a developm ent from the early Buddhist legend of the girl S u jata, who brought food in a golden bowl to the m editating G a u ta m a who, after six years o f fruitless austerity, decided on a m iddle course (cf. Kdward J . T hom as, The Life o f Buddha, pp. 70-71). As to who are those tree d iv i nities, Tsori-kha-pa (com m entary on Paiicakrama, P T T , Vol. 159, p. 77-3) states the com panion for accom plishing the food (kha zas sgrub pahi grogs) to be the Yaksi, the K u n k a ra (ser v a n t) , etc. (g n o d sbyin m o m nag gzug m a sogs) as the best. T h is explanation is consistent with the sta n d a rd ex p lan atio n o f the female figure on the SanchT g ate as a Yaks! o r Yaksini. Also, earlier in Guhyasamaja, C hap. X V I an d its com m entary, there are several mentions o f the Yak si lady; for exam ple, Mchan hgrel, p. 146-2, identifies these yaksj-s as Y ajradakini-s. A ryadevas account starts with the vogin ta n ta m o u n t to th e Body of the B uddha silting u n d er the Bod hi tree. H ence the solitary glade is the yogins ow n body as th e mandala. It is the arcane b o d y o f the Stage o f C om pletion, discussed u n d e r the N id an a verses KA-YA, an d is eq u iv alen t to the Eighth Stage of the Bodhisattva. Now, o u r earlier discussions have gone into the m a tte r o f how this arcan e b o d y is actu ally the accomplishment of the previous Stage o f G en era tio n an d is brought forward into the Stage o f C om pletion. T h is is now com bined with a new stage o f yoga; an d as the first a p p e n d ix showed, the new stage has been referred to as the selflessness o f citta being visualized, a yoga state o f d ream . T h e two stages are suggested by the two celeb rated gestures o f the seated B uddharight h a n d in the e a rth -to u c h in g gesture (body as the m a n tra visualized), and left h a n d level at the h e a rt in the equipoise (samdpatti) gesture ( selflessness of the m in d visualized). Yoga Stage 3 The Svidhi}fhana, or initial Mahamudra Aryadeva has taken the first two yoga stages for g ran ted and goes im m ediately to the 3rd stage, saying, H av in g first

taken Supreme T ru th as the meditative object, by the Stage of Personal Blessing (svadhisfhdm-krama) he abides with himself as the body of V ajrasattva. Under Nidana verse C IT , A ryadevas same work was already cited in a remarkable passage on how to visualize the Supreme T ruth, in a process that leads to the yoga condition of deep sleep and the revelation o f t h e Clear Light. In the present passage, observe that Aryadcvas expression dtntdkrfi (configuration of the self) is consistent with the conclusion in Appendix No. 1 that in the 3rd stage of yoga, referring to dreamless sleep, the subject is param ount and the object is in abeyancethe subject now being indicated as configuration of the self . Despite this condition of pure subjectivity devoid of dream object, the description emphasizes the extreme bliss, since the yogin dwells in the circle of the goddesses. O ne may refer to Nidana verse H R (no. 27) for more information; cf. there, liu-stons citation of Aryadeva. T h e present passage continues with the union of the male and female energies, and Aryadeva summarizes, Thus he intro spects the true forms of Prajnaparam ita and so on. Tsorikha-pas commentary on Paiicakrama (PTT, Vol. 159, p. 75-5) treats this part of the account as illustrative of nifprapancacaryd. Concerning the inner hearth, Tsori-kha-pa (ibid., p. 75-3) states that the yogin 'Vats while contemplating a bu rn t offering offered to the face of the Samadhi-sattva (tin rie hdzin sems dpahi 2al du sreg rd/.as dbul pahi bsam pas bsah ste). Presumably, what the yogin now eats is the food divinely prepared which ihe tree divinities offered earlier. Furthermore, it is in this same connection that Aryadeva cites the Miifasuirit.* O n the verse as identified, the
T here is no doubt lli.it A ryadeva means the Cufiyasamdjatantra (first seventeen chapters) by lii.s citation iroin the .l/i/a ju fra . The verse has some variant reading* *>l Chapter Seven, verse 2, as well as some corruptions; but also the edited Sanskrit ol the T antra lias a corrupt reading in this verse. The Bendall verse has the reading 'svam atm anam where the published T antra has par.tiigais ca. Tinmanuscript (5B-3-4) ex pands: Svatni.~mai|i param s ca. Tin* Prmlipo'tityouimx suggests that the original reading is svam paraips ca . J lowever, by iny correcting principle o f adopt ing a reading as close as possible lo the edited Sanskrit when it is corrupt, I decided lo correct the reading pararigais c a to paratm anau. The stan dard lor in of the verse should therefore read; ia ria k A m o p tib h o g a is tu s e iy a n w u a ir y a t/u c e h a la h / j i Adit iJ u im lt n ugena p tiitilin a tio u p r a p u ja y tt f j

pradipoddyotana explains how one worships oneself by the praxis of ones presiding lord, namely by the arduous ascetic practices called the twelve qualities of a purified m an (dhutaguna). However, as the next Guhyasamaja verse ( V II. 3) clarifies, it is by the worship and satisfaction of others, i.e. by ollerings of the five deified sense objects (ka>mguna)y that one speedily attains Buddhahood. Aryadeva thus points to this worship of others as the way in which K ing In d rab h u ti transm uted his physical body. T his is also the message of C h a p te r \ I, 2 (D ocum ents ). A bout the vowels and the consonants in the m/</ totalling 72,000, the Silags rim chrn mo shows the way o f conceiving them in the body. T h e placem ent of these vowels an d consonants of course is done in the phase called the Stage o f G eneration, with the achievem ent of m a n tra b o d y (rnantramurti). T h e fruition of this letter placem ent occurs in the Stage o f C om ple tion; a n d this constitutes an o th e r reason for req u irin g the two Stages in the given order. A t f. 380b-6, T sori-kha-pa repeats the citation of some T a n ju r au th o rity , an d m entions th a t the Saiflvarodayatantra a n d o th er T a n tra s are consistent re g a rd in g the placem ent of the sixteen vowels : T h e Lord said : T h e wise person should co n tem p late this way : A a t the root of the th u m b , A a t the c a lf o f the leg, I a t the thigh jo in t, I a t the p riv ate p a rt (i.e. g en itals), U a t the root of the navel, U a t the stom ach, R at the m iddle of the breast, R a t the han d , L at the neck, L a t the lip, E at the cheek, A1 a t the eye, O at the root of the ear, AU at the head, A M an d A H in the body a t the crown of the head. Such is the disposition on the white side (left), so also on the b lack (rig h t) in reverse. T his V ajrasattva is in w om en a n d also in m en a t alt times. Notice th a t the nam e V ajrasattv a is em ployed for a sexless (or else, androgyne) body th a t is the sam e for m en an d w om en, and is explained as a /miw/r<z-body. H ence, w hen A ryadeva
The B endill version substitute* </nu for kam a, w h ich in this ease am ount* to the sam e m eaning, because all desire* m eans a ll sense o b jects' and these are identified w ith deities A gain the su bstitu tio n o f xathdsukham ^ Jtotfuechalah h ard ly departs from the inten tio n. H owever, the Bciuiall reading stiya m d w ought to be corrected to seiyamdnair. T he verse w ith these modifications accounts for the tran slatio n adopted previously.

said, he abides with himself as the body of Vajrasattva, the remark can apply to either a yogin or yoginl. So also it is possible to bring in the explanation presented in Appendix II that on the Bodhisattvas Ninth Stage he sets into motion the wheel of the dharma; that is to say, in the fruitional Stage of Completion the yogin sets into motion the wheel of mantras. T o continue with Tsori-kha-pas exposition of letter placement: T he explanation of white side as left and black side as right (side of body), in the case A at the left thum b or right thumb, stems from the commentary on the Samvarodava-tantra according to Stings rim, f. 3 8 la-4. T h e Snags rim, f. 38lb-6, mentions that the consonants arc grouped under the elements, with certain consonants repeated according to the following break down : dkdSa : ka, ria, ria, na, na, ma, ha, ksa 8 wind : gha, jh a, dha, dha (2), bha, y a(2 ), Sa 9 fire : ga, ja, tfa(2), da, ba, r a ( 2 ) , sa 9 water : kha, cha, tha, tha, pha, va(2) 7 earth : ca, ta, ta, pa, la (2), sa 7 40 Those syllables arc held in this tantric tradition to give rise to the thirty-two characteristics and eighty minor marks of the B uddha?s body (cf. N idana verse 23, YA). The Snags rim, f. 380a-6, cites in this connection Diparikarabhadras Sriguhyasamdjamandatavidhi (known in Tibetan tradition as the Four H undred and Fifty Verses, BZi brgya lna bcu pa) for a half-Z/oA'tf translated by indications in the commentary by R atnakarasanti, the .^riguhyasamdjamandolovidhi-tikd : dbya/is yig mtshan dan yari dag Idan j ka sogs dpc byad hod zcr can T he (16) vowels arc ihe source of the (32) characteristics ((akfana). The (34) consonants radiate the (80) minor marks (anmyanjana). Snags rim. f. 380b-2, identifies the vowels as white in color, the consonants as red. The white vowels arc mystically called moon; the red consonants, second moon or 4 sun. Ibid, f. 380b-1, by dividing the vowels into two, ore makes a right* group (for the male updya) of sixteen, and a left* group (for the female prajnd), to yield the total of 32 for the characteristics.

Likewise*, the consonants, classified as above with scries adding up to 40, are divided iolo two for upd)G and prajmi to yield the total of 80 for the minor marks. T he above d a ta on the vowels requires some further clari fication. T he statem ent that the vowels on the black (right) sid** are in reverse means, according to that above-cited com m entary on the- Samvarodaya-tantra. that for that side one co n templates the vowel placem ent in the reverse order, i.e. starting from the A M ar.d AH at the crown o f the head. The vowel depositing constitutes the sixteen parts ol the bodhuitta byah chub kyi scms kyi cha bat drug). At this point the Snags tim cites the H evajra-tantra. Part I, C hap. viii Snellgrove e d .) : sukrakaro bhaved bhagavan tatsukharp kam ini sm ttam ;."0A) : T h e Lotd is the aspect of Suha\ K am ini i* the ecstasy ol th at > (bodhuitta) . T hus, the Lord, or Y ajrasattv a, w ho is in both men and women, is the Si>/:ra ' semen* ^ w hite aspect, while the Goddess K am ini, presum ably also in both men an d women, is the ecstasy (sttkha' red aspect o f the sixteen p m s o f bodhicitia, vielding a tot.il of 32 for the characteristics. Yoga Stage 4 The divine body made o f mind T h e next problem is to determ ine who is the triplc-diainond one. T h e verse ju st preceding those cited by A ryadeva m ust be considered (Guhyasamaja, X V I, 97 :) : svamudram vd thava cinted dhydnatryakfaraiajrindm ; pancabuddhdi ca sarvajiidh prinante natra samsa\ah t , O r he should contem plate his own mudra belonging to the three-syllable vajrin* of m editation. T h e om niscient Buddhas will be pleased; there is no d o u b t o f it. Th<Pradipoddyotana com m ents : / sv am u d ram ity ad in a jftanam udraya sahacaryam darsayati / svam udram IwdayaSthain vajradhatvisvarim try aksaravajrinam vairocanadiyoginam bahyarigananhapeksinam d a d y a t / By the words his ow'n rrudrd and so on, (the verse) shows the praxis together with the Jfian am u d ra. H e should give (in m a rria g e ) his own mudra , the Q ueen ol the D iam ond Realm* dw elling in the heart, belonging to the tlnee-syllable vajrins, i.e. the yogi os o f \ airocana and so on, who have no eve to external

women." Earlier in his commentary on Chapter X II, 76, ("Documents ), CaiKirakirti explained the terms Iluddha, *\ ajradharm a , and \ ajrasattva' as rcspcclively the yogin of V a in u an a, \ogin of Amitabha, and yogin of Aksobhya. Regarding those females or miuhd-s of the verse cited by A r\adeva, namely, the goddess, niiga lady, and so on, Mchan hgrt'l, p. MU-2, mentions that she is the respective goddess of the tluee lamilics, thus Locana for Vairocana's vogin; Pandara for Amitabha's yogin; and Mamaki foi Aksobhyas yogin. Knowledge of the three diam onds means knowledge of the tliamond of Hodv, of Speech, and of Mind. Hut then, why are five females mentioned in the verse ? The Pradipoddyotana does not help here. Possibly they stand for the mudrd-% of five different ages, usually 16-ycared; that is, I presume that they are pseudonyms of the five, the 'butcher maiden ctc., listed under Nidana verse CE (no. 35). What is meant by his going beyond ? The Pradipoddyotana ma:uis( i ipt explains: atikramed ity adina caryaphalam aha / trivajratma yogi alikramet manusyabhavam abhibhavati ( nasyati I iiasatn prakrtam saiiram tatparavrttya vajravad abhedvam ak^aram avinasvaram bhavet By the words Should he go bevond* the verse states the fruit of the praxis. Should the 'triple-diamond* yogin go beyond, he would over power the human condition. The vulgar body with 'loss is lost, by its transmutation, the syllable' inseparable like a tliamond' would not be susceptible ol destruction." The going Ix-'vond of the tiiple-diaimmd vogin' contrasts with the going beyond of the 'deluded self*, which is the topic of the last verse in Chapter X II and with Chaptcr XV, verse 22 (see Appendix II . Regatding the i-idySitata. left in the original Sanskrit above as well as previously iu my citation of verses from Chapter XVI in the opening material t o r the set iA' niddna ve.ses on Kayavakcitta Iiody, Speech, a n d Mind . the term is well explained by Buddhaguhya in his Dhyanottara'patala-fikd (PTT, Vol. 78. p. 8 0-4 .5 and p. 81-1 . '1'iaydvrata' (rite ol the vidya) means deiatd~yoga (union with divinity), especially at the samdhis. Therefore, the Pradipoddyotana comments (Mchan hgrel, p. 147-4) : vidvavrati tabliih sardham guhyapujam samapattim caiuhsamdhyam kuryat ( The vidyavratin should

engage in the secret-offering kind oi equipoise together w ith those [goddesses] at th r four ju n ctu res. ) These arc of course the m orning, noon, sunset, and m idnight observances.* It is well to point out one feature ol A rvadevas account th a t was not brought forward in our previous discussions of the Guhyasamaja yoga. He says, " I n th a t way, again an d again he enters the true limit (bhutakofi); an d having em erged again and again he experiences the five 'strands o f desire as the five T a th a g a ta forms, so the (sublim e) m ind does not fade. &akyamitra says (X arthang ed., f. 345b-7) : T h e true limit is the Clear L ight {yah dag pahi m th ah ni hod gsal ba ste . T his shows that the ultim ate fruit promised lor this yoga is not achieved simply by doing it once; but ra th e r by repetition of entering into the yoga state of artificial dream less sleep w ith revelation of the C lear Light, until the " d ia m o n d b o d y or purified illusory body achieves the independence to w an d er from B uddha field to Iiuddha field. T h e n , as Mkhas grub rjes Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras suggests, the yogin is the Bodhisattva o f the T e n th Stage, in the retinue of the Samfchoga-kaya. Still, perhaps the most significant finding o f this appendix is the clear indication from A ry ad ev as account th a t it is in the yoga artificial dreamless sleep th at occurs the reinteg ration ot male an d female energies frequently referred to as yjganaddha. Hence, this is the intim ation o f w h a t has been earlier referred to in this work as the D h a rm a k a y a union w ith the goddess along with the C lear L ight (of d e a th V T his su?f?csts as well, that in this theory the ordinary state o f d re a m less sleep (occurring everv night or in each period o f norm al sleep) is such a reunion o f male and female mysticallv, d e a th from which comes the new life, the birth, i.e. the reaw akening (see T able I I I , T h e Clear L ights). T h e yogin, by artificially evoking this state, seeks to capture, strengthen, an d restore the androgyne.

* R a tn jk a r a ijii[ i't PirnjikiUi-'ddhopdyHti-iiUi-riitntjiati (PT T , V ol. t>2, p. G8-5) mentions three kinds o f i-rata, (1 ) ivijratrata, nam ely o f ih r diam ond, the mind o f e n ligh te n m e n t"; (2 ) ra n d ira ta , nam ely o f three kinds o f en gage m ent; and (3 ) tidydvrata.

AIM K N D I X I V

Previously (p. lf>3) it was noted from the Snags rim that Tor accomplishing the tour su ps of yoga there is a lesser, a middling and a great. Let us therclore, without introducing new material attempt a grading by way of this suggestion. A. The lesser four steps

'I'he lesser would certainly l>e the four-stage yoga pointed out by Ratnakarasanti (see Appendix I) to be shared between the iMiikaiatarasutia and the Guhyasamajatantra. He referred to a verse of Guhyasamaja, chap. XV, and I found it to be con sistent with one way of understanding the stages of Guhyasamaja, Chap. VI. In this interpretation, the four-stage yoga is equiva lent to the four ninedhabhagiyas that lead to the First Bodhisattva Stage. B. The middling four steps The middling would be the four stages that go with the Stage of Generation. These steps are clearly stated in Guhyasamdja, Chap. X II, and are well explained in Candrakirtis commentary (see Documents*). The steps of Guhyasamaja, Chap. VI, can be understi>od this way; and the four steps, considered as subjective yoga can lx" correlated with steps of external ritual, as was shown. Besides, the explanation of the four steps with the terminology of three samddhis is used to correlate the class of Yoga T antra with the Stage of Generation of the Anuttarayogatantra. C- The great four steps The great would be the interpretation of four stages as equi valent to the fadafigayoga ol the Stage of Completion, also ex pressible in terms of five stages (Nagarjunas Paitiakrama). This is also one way of understanding the stages of Guhyasamdja, Chap. VI in association with the Explanatory Tantra Yajramdld.

T h e basic T a n tra itself showed the higher interpretation of the four stages by identifying them, in chap. X V , with the four goddesses, L ocana, etc., who confer enlightenm ent. O n the terminological level, one m ay further interpret the four steps o f yoga o f Guhyasamaja, chap. X II, as applicable to the Stage of Completion. Using C andrakirtis classifying terminology, the lesser is shared with non-tantric Buddhism, the m iddling is shared by the A nuttarayogatantra with the three lower T antras, an d th e great is unshared.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y

A. Abbreviations. ed.-edited G .O .S .Gaekwads Oriental Scries, Oriental Institute, Baroda. P I T Peking Tibetan Tripitaka. This is The Tibetan 7 lipitaka; Peking Edition. Reprinted under the Supervision of the O tani University. Kyoto. T ibetan Tripitaka Research Institute, TokyoKyoto, 1956. Toh. N o. A Complete Catalogue o j the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, cd. by Hakuju Ui, ct al, Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Jap an , 1934, for numbers 1-I.*>69. A Catalogue o f the Tohoku University Collection o f Tibetan I Yorks on Buddhism, ed. by Yensho K anakura, et al, Tohoku University, Sendai, 1953, for numbers 5001-7083. tr. translated B. Bibliography. A bhayakaragupta (pada). Amndva-tnanjari, commentary on the $ri-Sainpu{a-tantra, PTT, Vol. 55. ,, Xitpannayogdialt, ed. by B. Bhatta charyya," G.O.S. CIX, 1949. ,, Upadria-manjari, FFT, Vol. 87. Yajtdvali-nama'manfjalasadhana, Toh. No. 3140. Advayasamatdvijaya, PTT, \'ol. 3 (the last work). Alamkakalasa. Sri-1 ajraindtd-mahdyogatantra-1tka-gambhirarthadipikd-ndma, PTT, Vol. 61. Amnaya-manjari. See Abhayakaragupta. $ri-Guhyasamdja-mahdtantiardja-tika, (PTT, Anandagarbha. Vol. 84.) Ari-Paramadva-fikd, (P T T , Vol. 73.) Prajiiopdyariniicayasiddhi, ed. by B. Bhatta Anangavajra. charyya in Two Vajrayana Works, G.O.S. XLIV, 1929.

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Aryadeva. ,,

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Rcfcrcnces to B hattacharyya's edition arc shown by page and to Bagchis edition by verse numbers in a given chapter. number*,

H ad a no, H akuyu. H u m an Existence in T a n tric B uddhism , Tohoku Daigaku Bungaku-bu Aaikyu-ntmpo, No. 9, 195& Hevajra-tantrn, cd. and tr. by D.L. Snellgrove, L ondon, 1959, two vols. In d rab h u ti (or In d rab o d h i). Jhdnasiddhi, ed. by B. B h a tta charyya in Two Vajrayana Works, G .O .S. XL1V , 1929. it ri-samputa-tilaka . . . tikd~smrlisamdarSandloka P T T , Vol. 55. Ja g a n n a th a m , Y. Divine Lore and Amorous Sentiment, publ. by au th o r, E luru, 1956. J a la n d h a rip a d a . Hevajrasddhanasya-tippanisuddhi-tajrapradipay P FT Vol. 56. J in a d a tta . Sri-Guhjasamdja-tantra-paiijikd-ndma, P T T . Vol. 63. JiUbiavajrasamuccaya. See Sri-Vajrajhanasamuccaya. Kilaeakra-tantra, T o h . Nos. 361-365; also its exegesis, the Vimalaprabhd, T oh. 845, is ta n ta m o u n t to revealed scripture. (First) Bhdvanakrama, in G. T u c c is M inor Buddhist TextSy II (R om e, 1958). KSma-sUtra o f V atsyayana, w ith the co m m en tary Jayamangala o f Y ashodhara. Ed. by Sri G osvam i D a m o d a r Shastri, Benares City, 1929. Collected Works, Vol. I, Section M a, cd. by Ven. D alam a, Mussoori, 1963. fyfnayamdri-tantra. Probably the Sarvatathdgatakdyavdkcitta-krsnayamdri-nama-tantra, T o h . No. 467. K u m ara. Pradlpadipa-tippanihrdayadarSa (com m entary on Pradipoddyotana)y P T T , Vol. 60. K un-dgah-don-grub. M an nag rim gnis gter mdzod. In d ia n reprint. Lakfm lipkara. Pradipoddyotana~vifamapadapaniikd-ndma, No. 1792. Toh. K lon-rdol bla-m a. K am alasila.

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Guhyasamaja-tanlra-nidana-gurfipaaeSa-bhdjya, PT T Vol. 66 ,, Sri-guhyagarbha-mahatantraraja-fikd-nama, PTT. \'o l. 82. Madhyantavibhaga, and Madhydntavibhdga~bhdfya) ed. by Gadjin M. Nagao, Tokyo, 1964. Mahamahaydnaratnarajasutm. As quoted in Candrakirtis Pradi. poddyotana. Mahdmudrdtilaka-tantra, Toh. No. 420. Mahavairocaiia-sulra or I 'airocatmbhisambndhi, Toh. No. 494. Mafunyutpatti, ed. by R. Sakaki. .Mahaydna-Siitralanikdra. See Asariga. Maitri L paniyad, in S. Radhakrishnau, The Principal Vpanifads. Mmiimala. See Bhavvakirti. M atsuuaga, Vukei. A Doubt to Authority of the Guhyasam aja-A khyana-tantra,' Journal o f Indian and Buddhist Studies, X II :2, March, 1964. ,, "O n the Saptalarikara, Journal o f Indian and Buddhist Studies, XI :2, March, 1963. see Guhyasamaja-tantra. Mkhas-grub-rjc, .Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals o f the Buddhist Tantras, tr. by Ferdinand D. Lessing and Alex Wayman, Indo-lranian .Monographs, Vol. V III, The Hague, 1968. Mulasutra (as quoted in Aryadeva's Caryamclapaka). Stands lor Guh',asamaja-tantra. (as quoted in Pradipoddyotana) . Stands for Tattvasamgraha. Nagabodhi. Sfi-Guhyasamoja-jnatidaldpayika-iimiaii-vidhi-nama, PTT, Vol. 62. Nagabuddhi. haiindntn-iibhanga-ndma, PTT, \ ol. 62. $amaja-jddhana-i\avasthali, PTT, Vol. 62. N agarjuna (tantric). Affddaia-patala-vistara-ijdkhya, P I T , Vol. 60. Pancakrama, ed. by Louis de La Vallcc Poussin, Gaud, 1896. Pindktta-<ddhana ( = Pintfikrama-sadhana), P T T , i Vol. 61, and Sanskrit cd. by Poussin in preceding (Gand, 1896). J} Sa<langnyoga-ndma, PTr, \'ol. 83. ,, Scka-catun-prakarana, P I T , Vol. 61. ,, &ri-Guhyasamdja-mahdjogatantrotpattikrama

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Analysis o f the Sriivakahhtimi Manuscript, Barkclcy, Calif., 1961. Analysis of the T a n tric Scction of the K an ju r C orrelated to T a n ju r Fxegesis, Indo-Asian Studies, P art 1, New Delhi, ] >02ti Buddhist Genesis an d the 'Iantrie T r a d i tion, Orient Extranus 9:1, Feb. 1962. Female F n rrg y and Symbolism in th e Buddhist T a n tra s , History o f Religion* 2:1, Sum m er 1962. T he Five-fold R itual Symbolism of Passion, Studies o f Esoteric Buddhism and Tantiism , Koyasan, J a p a n , 1965. Notes on the Sanskrit T e rm J u a n a , Journal o f the American Oriental Society 75:4, 1955. C ontributions reg ard in g the thirty-tw o characteristics o f the G reat Person, I.iebenthal Festschrift, Y isvabharati, 1957. T h e rules ol d eb ate according to A saiiga, Journal o f the American Oriental Society, 78:1, 1950. C oncerning sain d h a-b h asa ' sam d h ib h asa ' sam dhya b h a sa , Melanges d'iiutianisme a la mtmoire du Ix>uis Remit, Paris, 1968. , T otcm ic Beliefs in the B uddhist T a n tr a s ," History o f Religions 1:1, 1961. The Buddhist Tantras; Light on lndo-1 ibrtan Esotericism, New York, 1973. See M khas-grub-rje. W hitney, W illiam Dwight. Sanskrit Grammar, ('.amhridge, Mass., 1941. Woodroffc, J o h n . Introduction to Tantra Shastra, M a d ia s, 1952. Yoga Upanhads, The, tr. by T .R . Srinivasa A yyangar and ed. by G. Srinivasa M u rti, A dyar, 1952.

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