Sie sind auf Seite 1von 158

A CONCISE

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR
OF THE
SANSKRIT LANGUAGE
WITH EXERCISES, READING SELECTIONS,
AND A GLOSSARY
BY
JAN GONDA
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN
BY
GORDON B. FORD JR.
LEIDEN
E.J.BRILL
1966
Copyright 1966 by E. ,. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced
or translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm or
any other means without written permission from the publisher
PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS
Translator's Preface
The Script
Reading Exercise.
Phonology .
Declension
Conjugation
Composition
CONTENTS
Some Remarks on Syntax.
Exercises ....
Reading Selections
Glossary
VII
I
7
9
20
43
80
85
97
III
I29
TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE
I have translated the fourth edition of Professor Jan
Gonda's excellent textbook, Kurze Elementar-Grammatik der
Sanskrit-Sprache (Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1963), for use in my
elementary Sanskrit course at N orthwestem University,
which is designed primarily for linguists who wish to acquire
a knowledge of Sanskrit grammar as rapidly as possible.
Professor Gonda's book is ideal for this purpose. The grammar
is presented in a clear and thorough way and is accompanied
by twenty useful translation exercises. In addition, there are
thirteen well chosen reading selections and a Sanskrit-
English glossary containing every word which occurs in the
translation exercises and reading selections.
I should like to express my thanks to Professor Gonda for
his kindness in reading the manuscript of my translation in
its entirety. In addition, I am extremely grateful to Professor
Frithjof A. Raven for many helpful suggestions.
Evanston, February 1966. GORDON B. FORD, JR.
THE SCRIPT
The most common of the Indic alphabets is the devanagari
script, in which the individual signs as a rule express not
only a vowel or only a consonant but a consonant with fol-
lowing vowel. The vowel which follows is a if it is not specially
designated. The devanagari alphabet is thus a syllabic script.
Consonant Signs with Following a
Velars
Cii ~ :IT ~ ?i
ka kha ga gha ila
Palatals
~
~
Sf
ij)
Of
ca cha ja jha fia
Linguals
1: 6 :r 6' lIT
ta
tha qa qha l).a
Dentals
fT ~
?\
ij
PT
ta tha da dha na
Labials
q
Ql
;sf
~ ~
pa pha ba bha ma
Semivowels
f.f
t
~ or
ya ra la va
Sibilants
!IT
!Sf tf
sa
!?a
sa
Aspirate
if:
ha
GONDA, Elementair-Grammar
I
2 THE SCRIPT
The visarga l). is designated by a colon after the preceding
= sal).; the anusvara rp by a dot over the preceding
letter: r:r = tarp. rp and l). stand before k in the alphabet or,
if they represent a nasal or sibilant, in the place of these
symbols.
If the vowels stand in initial position and are not joined
with the preceding consonant, then they are designated by the
following signs:
r
3.)1' a, 3.)I'T a, i, i, 3 u, U, ;fl r. :t{ r. !.
e, V ai, ID 0, m au.
If vowels other than a are joined to the above symbols, then
they are represented in the following way:
T
a
e.g. :.tT ka, f:lT dha, QT ya
f
i e.g.
f.erci frr ti ftT yi
T
i e.g. PfT ni, m bhi, tTl yi
0
u e.g.
!i ku, ru,
m or 8U
-..!> ...:.
c-..
u
e.g.
ru, hu,
m or 91 8U
c-... e-
t. r
e.g.
q dhr,
hr
t. t.
r
e.g. ;r. kr, rr tr,
hr
'to
..... .....
"'
"'
e e.g. ke, r:r te, tT ye
THE SCRIPT
3
,...
ai eg ~ kai, rt tai, 'et
~ a i
T 0
e.g. ;it ko, T.fT co, ~ T bho
l' au
e.g. fft tau, ;ft nau, tft yau
.... l
e.g.
~ kt,
iJ: ml
....
The omission of an initial a is designated by the avagraha
" ~
.s, e.g.: rr .srq te 'pi.
If a consonant without vowel is to be designated, then this
is done by means of a stroke "', called a virama; e.g.: F;fi k,
.....
q p,;r m.
"' ......
If in a word or sentence two or more consonants immediately
follow one another, then the above signs are joined in one
group (ligature).
If the first of the consonants to be joined ends on the right
with a vertical stroke, then it is placed first with loss of
this stroke: ;::r n + rr ta: ~ nta .
......
If the first consonant does not end with the vertical stroke,
then the following consonant is joined under the preceding one
with loss of its horizontal stroke: ::fi k + or va: err kva .
......
Exceptions: ;::r na and fff la as the second members of a
ligature are usually placed underneath with loss of their
horizontal stroke; q ma and q ya are in this case written
after the first sign and in a more shortened form (s. below).
Note also kta, ktha, k!?a, chya, jfia, fiea, nja, t:lt:la, tta, dda,
ddha, dna, dbha, pta,hna, hva.
4
THE SCRIPT
r before a cons. and before f is designated by a hook placed
r
above ( r); the latter stands completely to the right: rka: c:n.
r after a cons. is represented by a stroke placed under it: pra:
t:r. Especially to be noted: tra: 51". More than two consonants
are joined according to the same rules; s. below.
LIST OF THE MOST COMMON LIGATURES:
kka, kkha, m kta, Of?l ktya, (ll ktra, Cf?3I' ktva,
...
0fQ' ktha, ifi kna, OR kma, Cfij kya, Pli' kra, kla, m kva,
if - khya, t9r khra -
gda, gdha, if gna, nr gbha, P:r gma, nr gya, Q' gra,
tQ' grya, rtc=r gla, rot' gva - jt ghna, Eq ghma, 9:f ghya,
ghra - ;f nka, l -:a nga, "ngha, nma.
:fl cca, ccha, cchra, cchva, 3i ciia, cma,
q
ur cya - U chya, chra - $Sf jja, ss:or jjva, jjha,
ft' jiia. jiiya, $+I' jma, SQ' jya, a- jra, sor jva - lJ iica,

f tka, f ttha, or tya - (U thya, thra - q.ga,
SI q.ya - 'if Q.hma, fQJ Q.hya - tn: I,lta, 1J6 I,ltha, lE" I,lq.a,
1]6' I,lQ.ha: 1JI' or tI1JT I,lI,la, w:r I,lma, tP.:r I,lya, 1]Of I,lva.
THE SCRIPT
5
?=F tka, rr tta, fQ' ttya, ttra, ttva, ttha,
($f tna, rq tpa, ?:r tma, f+Q' tmya, ?::r tya, 51' tra, ttra,
;q trya, ror tva, ffi tsa, rf,f tsna, rtQ' tsya - m thya -
dga, 7J dgya, ?; dgra, ( dda, J: ddra, {ddva, ddha,
i' ddhna, 3T ddhya, dna, dba, dbha, i'J dbhya,
4f dma, tiT dya, ?:' dra, drya, ?; dva, i[f dvya - iT dhna,
t:z:r dhma, t.'1.f dhya, dhra, dhva - nta, ,,(Q' ntya,
ntra, ntha, nda, nddhya, nddra, ndha,
ndhra, ;:r nna, :::J:f nma, ;::q nya, ;r nra, ;::cr nva, nsa.
ff pta, pt ptya, pna, cz:r pma, !:tf pya, t:r pra, pIa,
I:ff psa - ql:f phya - ;;sr bja, bda, bdha, ;;;:r bna,
bba, G4f bbha, bra - bhya, bhra - mna,
Rt mpa, mba, a+f mbha, mya, ;;r mra, fiT mla.
r- r- r-
f1f yya, &31' yva - Cfi rka, Sf rja, tT rdha - Ika,
Iya, ffllla, lva - OtT vya, 61' vra.
if or sea, W sna, or sya, !$J sra,
!tQ' srya, a- sla, 1 sva, m svya - IY.fi
'2' 'l tT.T W' l?tva, '8 '[f
A A et
6
THE SCRIPT
~ l?l}.a, ~ m . r l?l}.ya, &r l?pa, fStr l?pra, ~ l?ma, ~ l?ya,
IY.5l" l?va - ~ ska, ~ skha, ffi sta, fRl stya, ~ stra,
f?Sf stva, fP.J stha, f,i sna, Fl spa, fQ\ spha, f'=f sma,
~ smya, tQ' sya, sra, tor sva,.
~ hl}.a, "iF hna, t(fI' hma, ~ hya, ~ bra, ~ hla,
~ or CS hva.
SYMBOLS FOR THE NUMERAL::;
, ~ ~ 8 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0
I 2 345 6 7 890
WORD DIVISION. Within a sentence word division occurs
if a word ends in a vowel, anusvara or visarga and the fol-
lowing word begins with a cons., just as according to 7-9;
IS. Otherwise either phonetic fusion or union into one syllabic
sign occurs with observance of the pertinent sandhi rules.
PUNCTUATION. This script depends solely on , for the
designation of a minor sentence segment or the end of a half
strophe, and on n to designate a large segment or the end
of a strophe.
READING EXERCISE
,........ ('
Cf?\ -Q1lI" 1-
asmakaf]1 mudral.1a1a ye veda-vedanta-dharmasastra-prayoga-
-fJftm -Stitm -J:f;J.m1;r-
yoga-sarpkhya-
kosa-kavya-campii-natakalaf]1kara-sarpgita-niti-kathagrarpthal).,
ti'm:
bahaval). stril.1arp copayukta grarpthal).,
bahuvicitracitrito 'yam apiirvagranthal).. sarpskrtabha!?aya
(' ('
... Iqrerm;Ur:r"PTJ1Sfltl ... 1(Illt)
hi ndimarvaQ.yanyatarabha!?agranthastattacchastradyarthanu-
vadakal). citral;1i pustakamudral.1opayoginyo yavatyassa-
magryal). svasvalaukikavyavaharopayogicitracitritali-
8
READING EXERCISE
khitapatravatpustakani ca mudrayitva prakasante sulabhena
I 1t'lf
e--.. -...>
miilyena vikrayaya. yatrabhirucistattatpustakadyu-
palabdhaya evarp navyataya svasvapustakani mumudrayi-

sulabhayogyamaulyena svacchotta-
mUdritatatpustakanarp svasvasamayanusare-
OI1Wl!!f.jQ- tlqtJftqT -rR+f u
1)opalabdhaye ca patrikadvaratail:t 'smi
PHONOLOGY
I. VOWELS. a a i i u it r r !
e ai 0 au
ii i it r are long, also the monophthongized diphthongs e
(from ai) and 0 (from au), likewise ai and au, which continue
iii and iiu.
CONSONANTS:
Voiceless Voiced
Stops Stops Nasals
Unaspir. Aspir. Unaspir. Aspir. (voiced)
/Velars k kh g gh 1i
Palatals c ch j jh it
Cerebrals (Linguals)
t
th
rf, rf,h t}
Dentals t th d dh n
Labials p
Ph
b bh m
Semivowels (voiced) y r 1 v
Sibilants (voiceless) S (palat.) (cerebr.) s (dent.)
Aspirate (voiced) h
(Secondary Symbols)
It 1ft
\!J
2. PRONUNCIATION. If not otherwise noted, the sounds
are so pronounced as they are reproduced here in Latin
transcription.
r r ! are syllabic, r ! are pronounced like er, et in German
Vater, Engel, with a slight i as an off-glide. The aspirates are
pronounced with a clearly audible aspiration following
quickly afterward; ph thus does not equal/! The 1i is English
10
PHONOLOGY
ng in sing. The c is pronounced like English ch in church, j as
in English justice, it like the French palatalized n (written gn).
The cerebrals are pronounced like the dentals, but with a
reflexed tip of the tongue, thus like English t, etc. The semi-
vowels y and v are to be pronounced like German j and w
(somewhat more like English w). s is approximately German
ch in ich; it lies between P in beipen and sch in SchaU; is a
cerebral sch, approximately French ch without lip rounding;
s is always sharp dental s, never z! The visarga (b) is a light
voiceless aspirate; at the end of a sentence the preceding
vowel occurs as an off-glide. The anusvara '/ft, a nasalleng-
thening of the vowel, can be pronounced before semivowels,
sibilants, and h like final n in French (e.g. Jean); otherwise
it is pronounced internally in words like the nasal of the same
class (thus before kg like ?i, etc.); in word-final position it is
usually m. The anunasika (\.!I or -) occurs only in combination
with I, in order to express nasalized t.
ACCENTUATION. In the contemporary pronunciation the
rule of accentuation valid for Latin is extended to the last
four syllables of a word. A certain stress thus rests on the
penultimate syllable if this is long by nature or by position
(two consonants following the vowel), on the antepenultimate
syllable if the penultimate is short and it itself is long, other-
wise-thus if the penultimate and antepenultimate syllables
are short-on the fourth-to-last syllable. Examples:
'lId-nara, murkhe-t)a, ##ibh/i (bh is a single cons.), ud'llcjayati,
dbhihitab. In compounds each component usually retains its
own accentuation.
3. CHANGES OF VOWELS BY GRADATION (ABLAUT).
Vowels are subject to a double gradation in inflection and
word formation.
PHONOLOGY II
Weak grade
u (14) r ff)
Full grade, GUl}a a
Lengthened grade,
i (i)
e (fromai) o (from au) ar
J
at
Vrddhi a ai (from ai) au (from au) ar
Examples: 1'a-Pt-ima "we fell"; 1'at-ati "he falls": 1'at-ayati
"he causes to fall".
dis- 1) "direction, region": deS-a- "place, region":
dais-ika- "local, acquainted with a locality".
tul-a "scales" : tol-ana- "weighing" : taul-in-
"weigher" .
kr-ta- "made" : ka1'-tr- "doer" : ka1'-ya- "business".
kltP-ta- "being in order": kat1'-ate "be in order".
Root vowels which occur in long closed syllables are practi-
cally excluded from this gradation; thus: nindati "he re-
proves" always remains nind-, jiv-ati "he lives": jiv-.
4. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS IN ABSOLUTE FINAL
POSITION.
I. As a rule there remains only the first of two or more
consonants which should end a word: bha1'an "bearing"
has arisen from *bha1'ant-s 11). The combinations rk, rl,rt,
1'1' nevertheless occur in final position.
H. In the final position of a word at the end of a sentence
or verse occur only: vowels and diphthongs (except
r, r, and (), the voiceless, non-aspirated stops (except c),
the nasals (except it), b, and l. The remainder, if they
originally or according to 4 I are supposed to occur in
final position, undergo the following changes:
1) Word stems and roots are distinguished by an added -.
B) * designates a form not attested but reconstructed.
12
PHONOLOGY
Ill. The voiced stops and aspirates, exeept the palatals,
change to the corresponding voiceless stops: tat "this"
from tat},; pat "foot" from *pad-s, "name of a
prosodic meter" from
IV. The palatal stops change to k, j sometimes to #; n be-
comes 1i: 'Oak "voice" from *'Oac-s, srak "garland" from
*sraj-s, de'IJara# "king of the gods" from *de'IJaraj-s.
V. S shifts to k or #, and h become #, more rarely k: dik
"region" stands for "'dis-s, to the stem madhuZih- "bee"
belongs the nom. sg. madhul#
VI. r and s become /J after vowels: de'IJa/J "god" from de'IJas,
puna/J "again" from punar.
Note: If root syllables which begin with a voiced stop (g, d, b) and
end in a voiced aspirate (thus gh, dh, bh) or h change the final c0nso-
nant, then the original aspiration of the initial sound appears: budh-
"awakening": n. sg. bhut from *bhudh-s; likewise bhotsyate "he will
awaken" from *bhodh-, root in Old Ind. budh-, originally bh(a)udh; but
bodh-ate "he awakens".
5-17. PHONETIC CHANGE IN THE SENTENCE (SANDHI).
In the connection of sentences and in the formation of
compounds the final sound of a preceding word and the
initial sound of the following word undergo the following
changes: 1)
5. CONTACT OF FINAL AND INITIAL VOWELS.
I. Simple similar 11) vowels coalesce to form the corres-
ponding long vowel:
1) In the following rules the form of the words in absolute final
position is generally taken as the starting point. They are thus practi-
cal rules, not rules of historical development.
S) Similar vowels are vowels which are not distinguished or are
distinguished only by their quantity.
PHONOLOGY
13
a or a + a or a becomes a: na asti > 1) nisti "is not",
na aste > naste, "does
not sit".
i or i + i or i becomes i: nadi iva > nadiva "like
a river", yadi isval'ah >
yadiSvarab "if the lord".
u or u + u or u becomes u: saahu uktam > saanuk-
tam "well spoken".
11. a and a merge with simple dissimilar vowels to produce
their full grade (cf. 3): thus:
a or a + i or i becomes e: ca ihi > ceha "and here",
tva iSval'a > tveSval'a
"you, 0 lord".
a or a + u or u becomes 0: ca uktam > coktam "and
said", sa uvaca > sO'lJaca
"she said".
a or a + r or r becomes al': kva >
"where the yatna
> "like a

Ill. a and a merge with diphthongs to produce their leng-
thened grade:
a or a + e or ai becomes ai: a eti > aiti comes here",
ca + aiti > caiti "and
comes".
a or a + 0 or au becomes au: sa >
"the medicinal herb",
tada + aughaft, > ta-
1) > means "becomes"; < means "derives from".
PHONOLOGY
daughaft, "then the
flood".
6. THE VOWELS i, u, r, i, U, r before dissimilar vowels
shift to the corresponding semivowel, thus to y, v, 1': yadi etat
> yady etat "if this", astu evam > astv evam "be it so".
7. Before vowels other than a final e and 0 become a with
hiatus: vane liste > vana liste "he sits in the forest", prabho
ehi > prabha ehi "0 lord, come".
e and 0 remain unchanged before initial a, but the a is
elided: te at1'a > te 'tra "these (pI.) here", so api > so 'Pi "he
also" (s. also 48).
8. ai before vowels as a rule changes to li, au to liv:
asmai adlit > asmli adlit "to this one he gave", put1'au ubhau >
put1'liv ubhau "the two sons".
9. EXCEPTIONS TO 5-8. The endings i, U, e of dual
forms remain unchanged before vowels and effect no elision.
10. FINAL VOICELESS STOPS. The voiceless stop as in
absolute final position ( 4) remains only before voiceless
consonants. Betore a voiced initial sound (thus also before a
vowel or semivowel) a voiced stop appears instead of the
voiceless stop, before an initial nasal the final voiceless or
voiced stop is changed into the nasal of its class: pattanlit
ligacchati > pattanlid ligacchati "he comes from the city"; dik-
+ jaya- > digjaya- "conquest of all regions"; vlik me > vlin
me "my speech"; tat namas "the respect" > tan namas
(sometimes also tad namas).
II. Final t of the form in absolute final position is
assimilated to the initial palatal, cerebral, and t: tat ca > tac ca
"and this", tat janma > taj janma "this birth", tat lebhe > tal
lebhe "I obtain this". Final t and d with initial s go to cch: tat
Srutvli > tac ch1'utvli "having heard this".
PHONOLOGY
15
12. FINAL NASALS.
1. Final n before j changes to n: tan janan > tan janan
"these people (ace.)", before 4- before s to n, in which
case the s usually becomes ch: tan srutva > tan srutva or
tan chrutva "having heard them". Before l it becomes 1'f'tl
or '-.!It: balavan loke > balava'-.!llloke (balavalloke) "mighty
in the world".
Il. Before a following c, I, t either an original s has been
preserved after the final n of the form in absolute final
position or an s is inserted analogically; this s is assimi-
lated to s before c, to before I; the n becomes tfI- (anus-
vara): *bharant-s ca > bharatfl-s ca "and bearing",
*asvans tada > asvatfl-s tada "then horses"; kasmin cin
nagare > kasmi1Jts cin (or kasmitfl-scin) nagare "in some
town or other". ,. . " ' I
\ .
Ill. Final m which remains unchanged before vowels becomes
anusvara before consonants: krtam ca > krtatfl- ca "and
made", sam + gacchanti > sa1'f'tgacchanti "they come
together". We also find sandhi- beside satfl-dhi-, etc.
IV. Final nasals except m are doubled after a short vowel
before an initial vowel: san atra > sann atra "being
here", pratyan aste > pratyann aste "he is sitting toward
the west".
13-16. FINAL r, s, b.
13. Instead of sand r is found the b of the form in
absolute final position ( 4 VI) also before k, kh, p, ph, s, s:
tisrab kanyab "3 girls", punab "he goes away
again", pujitab Sivab "Siva is revered"; muktab syat "let him
be freed".
PHONOLOGY
Note. Sometimes final s is assimilated before S, ~ , or s: Indf'aS siif'a/J
"Indra the hero"; muMas s1at.
Before c and ch appears instead of s, " (form in absolute
final position iJ) : s; before 1 and Ih: ~ ; before t and th s remains
unchanged and s appears instead of ,,: aevas ca > aevaS ca
"and the god" ; punar ca > punaS ca "and again"; aevas tatra
"the god there"; puna" tatra > punas tatra "again there".
14. Before initial voiced sounds" stands instead of s, "
after vowels except a and a: a'IJis mama > am" mama "my
sheep", ahenus i'IJa > ahenu" i'IJa "like a cow", gur,tais yuktaiJ >
gur,tai" yuktaiJ "provided with virtues".
Note. The particle blao/J becomes bho before all voiced sounds.
IS. as becomes 0 before voiced consonants and before a
(which disappears) ; thus aevas gacchati > aevo gacchati "a god
is coming", aevas api > aevo 'pi "also a god" ; form in absolute
final position devaiJ ( 4, VI).
Before vowels other than a, as in this case becomes a with
hiatus, thus as'lJas i'IJa > as'lJa i'IJa "like a horse", aevas u'IJaca >
aeva u'IJaca "the god spoke".
Note. sas and 8 ~ a s ( 48) lose their s before every consonant:
8a si1tJha/J "this lion".
as becomes a before all voiced sounds, before vowels with
hiatus: as'iJas 'Oahanti > as'lJa 'lJahanti "the horses travel",
Damayantya ni'IJeSanam "the dwelling of D.", aeva UcuiJ "the
gods spoke".
16. " disappears before initial r with compensatory
lengthening of the preceding short vowel: puna" "ajati >
puna "ajati "he distinguishes himself again"; also an " origi-
nating from s ( I4): nrpatis ramate > nrpati "amate "the king
enjoys himself". Cf. also: sanakai "aja ... abra'Oit "the king
PHONOLOGY
17
spoke very calmly" (sanakai instead of sanakais, form in
absolute final position sanakaiM.
17. INITIAL CONSONANTS. The combination: final voice-
less stop and initial h results in voiced stop and voiced
aspirate: etat hi > etad dhi "for this", srak hi > srag ghi "for a
garland".
Initial ch becomes cch after a short vowel, after ma "not",
and after the preposition a "to": bhavati chaya > bhavati
cchaya "it is shade".
Note. Internally in words after vowels we find instead of ch: cch:
chid- "split": cicclteda.
18-zo. SOUND CHANGES IN THE INTERIOR OF A WORD.
The rules 5-17 also apply to the contact of the final
sound of a root with the initial sound of a suffix, of the
final sound of a stem with the initial sound of a personal
ending or of a case ending, etc. But there are some exceptions;
the most important are:
18. CHANGES OF VOWELS.
1. In some cases, namely m monosyllabic words and after
a double consonant, we find instead of i and i: iy, and
instead of u and u: uv: dhi- "thought": dhiyam (ace.
sg.), bhu- "earth": bhuva (instr. sg.).
H. Before a following vowel and y appears instead of e: ay,
instead of ai: ay, instead of 0: av, instead of au: av:
e-mi "I go": ay-ani "I want to go" ( 3), go-bhis
(instr. pI.) "with the cattle": gavam (gen. pI.) "of the
cattle", nau-s (n. sg.) "ship": nav-am (acc. sg.).
HI. Before radical r + cons. and v + cons. i and u are
usually lengthened: pur- "city": dat. pI. pur-bhyas.
GONDA, Elementary-Grammar
18
PHONOLOGY
19. I. CONSONANTS remain unchanged before suffixes
and endings which begin with vowel, semivowel, or
nasal: tapas-e dat. sg. of tapas- "asceticism", tapas-
vin- "ascetic", but tapo-nidhi- "ascetic" (from tapas-
nidhi-), since this is a compound.
H. Before other (lonsonants the final consonant is treated
according to the rules of the form in absolute final
position ( 4), and further according to IO ff., with
which it should be noted that before a voiceless stop
voiced stops become voiceless, aspirated stops shift to
the unaspirated voiceless stops; before a voiced stop
the aspirated stops become unaspirated voiced stops.
Examples: manas- "mind": loco pI. manab-su according
to 13; instr. pI. mano-bhis according to 15; sraj-
"garland": loco pI.
HI. If a root or a stem ends in a voiced aspirate and a
suffix or an ending begins with t or th, then this is
changed to d and receives the aspiration: labh-ta- >
lab-dha- "obtained". From the roots beginning with d
and ending in h forms with -gdh- are formed: duh-
"milk": dugdha- "milked"; likewise from snih- "love":
snigdha-; but cf. VII.
IV. Dentals become cerebral after cerebrals: "hate":
> "he hates".
V. c, j, s are treated as in final position ( 4 IV, V); but
before t or th j is often changed to and s always is:
drs-ta- > "seen", but yuj-ta > yukta- "bound".
'.
VI. According to 4 V and 20 H + s becomes
s + s is also represented by
PHONOLOGY
I9
VII. Instead of k with following t, tk, dk we find if,k, with
which a preceding short vowel except r is lengthened in
Uk + tka > liif,ka "you lick" (:md pI. pres. ind., 64
IV), etc.
VIII. Before sibilants n and m become anusvara, m before
other consonants except y becomes n: han + si >
katftsi "you kill" ; gam + tum > gantum "to go".
IX. n becomes it after c andj: raj-na > rajita ( 39); yaj-
na- > yajita- "sacrifice".
20. I. An n which a vowel or n m y v follows is changed to
if r r r immediately precede in the same word or
no palatal, cerebral, or dental stands in between:
> "he steals"; karma11ra >
"by the deed", but ratkena "by the chariot" ;
"obedience", "flowing", but darsana- "seeing",
grasana- "swallowing".
H. An s is changed to if k r or a vowel other than a a
precedes immediately or is separated only by b or tft
and a sound other than r r follows: stka- "stand":
"he stands"; dkenu- "cow": loco pI.;
but tisras "three (fem.)".
DECLENSION
PRELIMINARY REMARKS. Sanskrit has three genders:
masculine, feminine, neuter; three numbers: singular, dual
(expressing the number two), plural; eight cases: nominative,
vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive,
locative (cf. 114).
The case endings of the neuters deviate from the mascu-
lines only in the nom., voc., and acc. of the three numbers.
The endings are given below. One distinguishes: a) the
vocalic declension; here the stem ends in a vowel; b) the
consonantal declension: the stem ends in a consonant.
VOCALIC DECLENSION
21. STEMS IN a; masculines and neuters.
Masculines. Paradigm: asva- "horse".
Singular Dual Plural
Nom. aSvas
!
~
asvas
Voc. asva asvau
Ace. asvam asvan
Instr. aSvena
!
asvais
Dat. aSvaya asvabhyam
}
asvebhyas
Abl. asvat
Gen. aSvasya
~ asvayos
asvanam
Loc. asve a s v e ~ u ( 20 II)
N.
V.
A.
DECLENSION 2!
Neuters. Paradigm: dana- "gift". Like the masculines, only
nom. aec. sg. danam, n.a.v. du. dane, n.a.v. pl. danani.
22. STEMS IN a; feminines.
Paradigm: sena- "army".
sene
Aec. senam
Instr. senaya seniibhis
Dat. seniiyai
Abl.
seniiyiis
Gen. seniinam
senayos
Loe. seniiyiim seniisu
seniibhyiim
sentibhyas
Like 21, 22 also the adjeetives in a, fem. ii; e.g. nava-
"new": mase. navas, neutr. navam, fem. navii. Severa! ad-
jeetives, however, form the feminine stem with the suffix
i ( 27).
Note. The acc. sing. neutr. of an adj. is frequently used with adver-
bial meaning: sighra- "quick", adverb sighram.
STEMS IN i AND u; mase., fem., and neuters.
23.
MAscuLINES. Paradigms: ali- "bee", pasu- "cattle".
Sg. Du. Pl. Sg. Du. PI.
olis aZayas
pasus

pa5avas
ale ali paso
alim alin pasum pa5n
l. olinii
alibhis pa5unii
pasubhyiim
pa5ubhis
D. alaye alibhyiim
alibhyas
pasave
pa5ubhyas
ales l

aliniim
pasvos
pasniim
al y os
L. ala u pasa u
22
DECLENSION
One should note: a) pati- "lord, master": sing. n. patis, v. pate, a.
patim, i. paty, d. patye, ab. g. patyus (patyur, 14), l. patyau; at the
end of a compound it is inflected like ali-: bhpataye (dat.) "to the
lord of the earth".
b) sakhi- "friend": smg. n. sakh, v. sakhe, a. sakhi'lyam, i. sakhy, d.
sakhye, ab. g. sakhyus (sakkyur, as above), l. sakkyau, du. sakkyau,
sakhibhym, sakhyos, pi. sakkyas, sakhin, etc. like ali-.
24. NEUTERs. Paradigm.s: vari-"water",madhu- "honey".
NV A vii:ri vam;tt viiritti madhu madhuni madhni
l. viirinii viiribhis madhunii
D. viiritte viiribhyiim viiribhyas madhune
Ab. viirittas } _ _ _ madhunas
G. ( _ . vartnam
L
_ . . vartnos _ : adh .
. vart.ttt
1
m um
l madhubhis
madhubhyas
(
dh
madhniim
ma unos adh
m
25. FEMININES. Paradigms: gati- "going", dhenu-
"cow"; cf. also 23 and 27.
Sg. PI. Sg. PI.
N. gatis
gatayas
dhenus
dMnavas
V. gate dheno
A. gatim gatis dhenum dhens
l. gatyii gatibhis dhenvii dhenubhis
D. gataye, gatyai
1 gaUbhyas
dhenave, dhenvai
dhenubhyas
Ab. at t -
G. g es, gayas
gatiniim
dhenos, dhenviis dh _ _
enunam
L. gatau, gatyiim dhenau, dhenviim
The dual like ali- and pasu-, 23.
DECLENSION
23
26. THE ADJECTIVES IN i AND U are declined like the
substantives, except that the n. can also have the forms of
the mase. in the d. ab. g. l. sg. and in the g. l. du. : suci- "pure":
g. sg. n. sucinas and suces; tanu- "thin": d. sg. n. tanune and
tanave. Adjectives in u can also form their feminine with or
by addition of the suffix -i- (inflected according to 27); sorne
feminines have two or all three of these forms, e.g., tanu: f.
tanu-, tanu-, tanvi-.
27. STEMS IN i AND ; feminines.
Polysyllabic stems. Paradigms: nadi- "river", vadhU-
"woman".
Sg. Du. PI. Sg. Du. PI.
V. nadi nadyau ~ nadyas vadhu vadhvau ~ vadhvas
N. nadi ! ~ vadhus ~
A. nadim nadis vadhm vadhs
l. nadyii ! nadibhis vadhvii vadhbhis
D. nadyai nadibhyiim ~ nadibhyas vadhvai vadhbhyam ~ vadhbhyas
Ab. ~ d - ~ ~ dh )
G. ~ na yas nadiniim ~ va vs l vadhniim
L d
_ l nadyos d" dh _ { vadhvos adh _
. na yam ~ na ~ ~ u va vam 1 v u ~ u
Note. The word lakmi- "luck" and name of a goddess, and some
Gther words ha ve is in the n. sg.: Zakmis.-The feminmes of the stems
ending in consonants follow this inflection: balin- "strong": fem.
balini-, mahat- "great": fem. mahati-, as do the fem. beside a pa.rt of
the stems in a: deva- "god": devi- "goddess" (cf. 22), optionally the
adjectives in u: tanu- "thin": tanv- (s. 26), the stems of the nouns
of agent in tr (s. 29): datr- "giver": fem. diitri-.
DECLENSION
28. MONOSYLLABIC FEMININES. Paradigms: dhi-
"thought", bh- earth".
a
PI.
dhis dmyas bhs
A. dhiyam bhuvam
bhwvas
1. dmyii dhibhis bhuvii bhbhis
D. dhiye, dhiyai dhibhyas bhuve, bhuvai bhbhyas
Ab. dhiyas dhiyiis bhuvas, bhuvas
G. ' dhiyiim, dhiniim ) bhuviim, bhnam
L. dhiyi, dhiyiim bhuvi, bhuvam
du. dhiyau, dhibhyam, dhiyos; bhuvau, bhbhyiim, bhuvos.
Note. The word stri- "woman" is inflected: sg n. stri, v. str, a.
striyam, strim, d. striyai, ab. g. striys, l. striym; pi. n. acc. striyas,
st'fis, g. otherwise like dhi-.
zg. STEMS IN r; nouns of agent (mase. and n.); words for
relationship (mase. and fem.); ef. the preliminary remark to
36-45
Nouns of agent in tr. Paradigm: datr- "giver".
Sg. Du. PI.
N. diitii
l
dataras
V. datar diitiirau
A. diitaram dtn
l. datrii
( 4 VI) 1
dtrbhis
D. diitre datrbhyiim
dtrbhyas
Ab.

diitur
G.
diitros
datfrtm
L. diitari dtnu
The paradigm of the infrequent neuters corresponds exactly to the
neuter i- and u-stems: sg. dty, datt'f), daty'f)e, etc., du. datrtti, etc,
pi. dat'ftti, diierbkis, etc. Concerning the em.: 27.
DECLENSION
25
The words for relationship naptr- "grandson", bhartr- "husband",
svasr- f. "sister" are inflected like alttr-, thus e g., svasa, svasiJram,
svasriJ, etc., pI. acc. svasrs.
30. THE REMAINING WORDS FOR RELATIONSHIP have a
instead of a in the acc. sg., in the n.v. acc. duo and in the n. pI.,
thus: pita, pitar, pitaram, etc., pitarau, etc., pitaras, etc.;
matr- "mother" has matjs in the acc. pI.
Of nr- "man" only the n. na is in use in the sg.; tne re-
maining cases are formed from the a-stem nara-; in the g. pI.
nrttam is also found beside nrttam.
31. STEMS IN DIPHTHONGS.
Only the words nau- "ship" and go- "cow" occur frequently.
Inflection: sg. n.v. naus, a. navam, i. nava, d. nave, ab. g.
navas, 1. navi; duo navau, naubhyam, navos; pI. n.v.a. navas, i.
naubhis, d. ab. naubhyas, g. navam, 1. sg. gaus, gam,
gava, gave, gos, gavi; duo gavau, gobhyam, gavos; pI. n.v.
gavas,
div- f. "sky" runs: sg. n. v. dyaus, a. divam, dyam, i. diva,
d. dive, ab. g. divas, I. divi; pI. n.v.a. divas, dyubhis, dyubhyas,
divam,
CONSONANTAL DECLENSION
32. PRELIMINARY REMARKS. In the n. sg. masc. and
fern. the ending -s always disappears ( 4 I). Before an ending
beginning with a vowel the final sound of the stem remains
unchanged ( 19 I); in the n. sg. and before endings be-
ginning with consonants 4 and 19 apply. It should be
noted that the neuters insert a nasal in the n.a.v. pI. before the
final consonant unless it is a nasal; in the stems in s the pre-
ceding vowel is lengthened in such a case.
26
DECLENSION
33. ROOT STEMS and the nouns similarly inflected (of
one stem in the sg.) ; masc., n., and fem.
Masc. and tem. Paradigms: 'Uac- f. "voice", mar. m.
"wind", dis- f. "region", m. "enemy".
Sg.
NV. 'Oak ( 4) marut ( 4) dik ( 4) d'Uil ( 4)
A. 'Uacam marutam disam
I. 'Uaca maruta disa
D. 'Uace marute dise
Ab.G. 'Uacas marutas disas
L. 'Uaci maruti diSi
d'Ui#
Du.
NVA. 'Uacau marutau disau
IDAb. 'Uagbhyam marudbhyam digbhyam d'Ui4bhyam
( 19)
GL. 'Uacos marutos disos
PI.
NVA. 'Uacas marutas disas
I. 'Uagbhis ( 19) marudbhis digbhis d'Ui4bhis
D.Ab. 'Uagbhyas marudbhyas digbhyas d'Ui4bhyas
G. 'Uacam marutam disam d'Uilam
L. ( 19) marutsu ct'UilsU
Some additional examples: "doctor" :
bh#ajam, bhilagbhis, samraj- "sovereign": samrali
samrajam, samri4bhis, samralsu; 'Uf'dh- 1) "increasing": 0'0#,
'Uf'dham, 'Uf'dbhis, vrtsu; budh- "awakening": bhut, bu-
dham, bhudbhis, bhutsu; duh- "milking": dhuk, duham,
1) i.e., vrdh- at the end of a compound.
DECLENSION
dhugbhis, lih- "licking": t#, liham, li;,bhis,
U,#u.
The neuter jagat- "world" like ma,ut, only n.a.v. sg. jagat,
duo jagati, pt jaganti.
34. STEMS IN as is us.
I. NEUTERS. Paradigms: manas- "mind", havis- "offer-
ing", "eye".
NVA.
I.
D.
Ab.G.
L.
manas
manasa
manase
manasas
manasi
NVA. manasi
IDAb. manobhyam
( 19 11)
GL.
NVA.
I.
D.Ah.
G.
L.
manasos
mana",m
manobhis
( 19 11)
manobhyas
manasam
manabsu
(or manassu)
Sg.
havis
( 20 11)


havi#
Du.

havi,bhyam
PI.
ha'lJitMi
havi,bhis
( 19 11; 14)
havi,bhyas

haviMu
(or












(or
11. MASCULINES AND FEMININES. Like the neuters
( 34 I) ; only in the nom. sg. the a in the suffix -as is leng-
28
DECLENSION
thened: Angiras- m.: n. sg. Angiras, a. sg. Angirasam, i. Angi-
rasa, etc., n. pI. Angirasas, etc.; Apsaras- f.: n. sg. Apsaras,
a. sg. Apsarasam, n. pI. Apsarasas. Most masc. and fern.
belonging here are adjectives and, in fact, compounds.
Paradigms: sumanas- "well-disposed, cheerful", dirghiiyus-
"long-lived" .
M.F. N.
Sg.
N. sumanas
V.
A.
sumanas l sumanas
sumanasam)
Du.
NV A. sumanasau sumanasi
PI.
M.F. N.
dirghiiyus \
) dirghayus


NV A. sumanasas sumana1J1-si
Further as above.
35. STEMS IN r; here 18, III finds application. Para-
digm: gir- f. "speech". Sg. n.v. gir, acc. giram, i. gira, etc.;
duo n.a.v. girau, i.d.ab. girbhyam, g.I. giros; pI. n.a.v. giras, i.
girbhis, d.ab. g'irbhyas, g. giram, 1. Likewise e.g., pur- f.
"city": pur, puram, pura; purau, purbhyam, puros; puras,
purbhis, etc. In the n. sg. and before bh and s "good
wish, benediction" shifts to this inflection: asirbhilt.
36-45. MULTIPLE-STEM NOUNS.
PRELIMINARY REMARK. The multiple-stem nouns or those
with stem gradation have the strong stem with the masc.
and fern. in the n.aN. sg. and duo and in the n.v. pI., with the
DECLENSION
29
neuter in the n.a. v. pI. In the remaining cases the weak stem
appears, but with several stem classes in a double form,
depending on whether the ending begins with a consonant
or with a vowel. (Exception: 4I). In the strong stem the
full grade appears, in the weak stem the weak grade. -
These nouns are cited in the weak stem.
36. STEMS IN at (weak stem at, strong stem ant). These
stems are almost all pres. or fut. act. participles (cf. 101, I).
Paradigm: tudat- "striking". (Concerning the fern., tudati or
also -anti-, see 27).
Sg. PI.
M. N. M. N.
NV. tudan
l mdm
A. tudantam
tudantas
l
NV.
tudanti
tudatas A.
I. tudatii
D. tudate
Ab. G. tudatas
L. tudati
M.
NV A. tudantau
IDAb.
GL.
Du.
tudadbhyiim
tudatos
iudadbhis I.
tudadbhyas D. Ab.
tut!atiim G.
tudatsu L.
N.
tudati (also -anti)
Note. In the n.a.v. duo neuter as well as in the feminine stem verbs
of the 1st, 4th, 10th classes and the derivative conjugations have the
strong participial stem in ant: bhavanti, corayanti; the verbs of the
athematic conjugation (2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th classes) have
the weak stem: dvi$ati, sati, juhvati, kurvati; the verbs of the 6th
class, the iut. part. and the pres. part. of the verbs of the 2nd class
3
0
DECLENSION
in IJ have optionally the strong or weak stem: tudati: tudanti; dIJsyati:
d1Jsyanti (fut. part. diJ-. "give"), yIJti: yIJnti (from yIJ- 2nd class "go").
37. REDUPLICATED STEMS form all cases (except n.a.v.
pI. n., where the strong form also occurs) from the weak stem.
Paradigm: dadat- "giving" (part. of da-, 3rd or reduplicating
class). Sg. m. n.Ylaadat, acc. dadatam, i. dadata, etc., n. n.a.v.
dadat; duo mln.a.v. dadatau, n. dadati; pI. m. n.a.v. dadatas, n.
n.a.v. dadati (or dadanti).
The word mahat- "great" has the strong stem mahiint-.
Thus: sg. m. n. mahan, acc. mahantam, i. mahata, etc.; n. n.a.v.
mahat; duo m. n.a.v. mahiintau, n. mahati; pI. m. n.v. mahiin-
tas, acc. mahatas, n. n.a.v. mahiinti. Continues like tudat-.
38. STEMS IN vat AND mat. Possessive adjectives. They
are inflected just like the participles in at ( 36), but form
the n. sg. m. in van and man, thus from balavat- "strong"
(bala- "strength"): balavan, V. balavan, balavantam, balavata,
etc., duo balavantau, pI. n. balavantas, acc. balavatas, etc.;
from dhimat- "intelligent" (dhi- "thought") : dhiman, dhiman,
dhimantam, dhimata, etc.; from krtavat- "having done"
( 103): krtavan, etc. - bhavat- as a polite pronoun of the
2nd person (with the 3rd person of the verb) is inflected
likewise: bhavan, bhavantam, bhavata.
39. STEMS IN an, man, van. Almost only masc. and
neuters; a fem. like siman- "boundary", and an adj. m. like
pivan- (f. pivari-) "fat" are declined like rajan- (only pivan-
n. sg. m. also pivan). The stems formed with man and van have
an, not n in the weak forms before voc.alic ending if a con-
sonant precedes the m or V. Paradigms: raja,]1-- m. "king",
naman- n. "name", atman- m. "soul, self".
DECLENSION
31
Sg.
N. raja
!-
itma
V. rajan atman
A. rajanam atmanam
I. rajiui namna atmana
D. rajiie namne itmane
Ab. G. rajiias namnas itmanas
L. rajiii, rajani namni, namani atmani
Du.
NVA. rajanau namni, namani itmanau
IDAb. rajabhyam namabhyam atmabhyam
G.L. rajiios namnos atmanos
PI.
NV.
-' -
~ n a m a n i
iitmanas ra1anas
A. rajiias itmanas
I. rajabhis namabhis itmabhis
DAb. rajabhyas namabhyas itmabhyas
G. rajiiam namnam atmanam
L. rajasu namasu atmasu
The word brahman- n. "fundamental principle, Brahman"
runs thus: brahma, brahmafJ,a ( 20 I), brahmafJ,e, etc.
Note. voc. sg. n. is also naman.
40. The word svan- m. "dog" is inflected: sva, &Van, svanam,
suna, suns, sunas, .suni; sviZnau, svabh'YiZm, sunos; pI. n.v. tviZnas,
acc. sunas, svabhis, svabh'Yas, sunlZm, svasu; 'Yuvan- adj. and m.
"young, youth": ,,"viS, ,,"van, ,,"vanam, "una, "uns, etc.; 'YuviZnau,
,,"vabh'Yilm, "unos; 'YuviZnas, "unas, ,,"vabhis, etc.
DECLENSION
41. STEMS IN in; mostly possessive adjectives. Para-
digm: balin- "having power (bala-) , powerful". Concerning
the fern. (balini-) see 27.
Sg. Du. PI.
M. N. M. N. M. N.
N. bali
bati !
balin;!
V. balin bali(n) balinau balinas balini
A. balinam bali
I. balina
!
balibhis
D. baline balibhyam
~
balibhyas
Ab.
~
balinas
G.
~
balinos
balinam
L. balini bali$u
42. THE PERFECT PARTICIPLES IN vas. Paradigm:
vidvas- "knowing". Concerning the fern. (vidu$i-) see 27.
aLto
Sg. Du. PI.
M. N. M. N. M. N.
N.
vidvan !! vidvamsas l
V. v ~ d v ~ n vidvat vidva1Jtsau vidu$i . vtdvii1JtS2
A. vtdva1Jtsam vtdu$as
I. vidu$a
!
vidvadbhis
D. vidu$e vidvadbhyam
~
vidvadbhyas
Ab.
~ vidu$as
G.
~
vidu$am
L. vidu$i
vidu$oS
vidvatsu
DECLENSION
33
43. THE COMPARATIVES IN (i)yas. Paradigms: Sreyas-
"better"; gariyas- "heavier". Concerning the fem. (Sreyasi-,
gariyasi-), see 27.
N.
V.
A.
I.
NVA.
I.
NV.
A.
I.
M. N. M. N.
Sg.
Sreyan l gariyan l
beyas gariyas
Sreyasa, etc. (like 34) gariyasa, etc.
Du.
Sreya1JZSau Sreyasi
Sreyobhyam, etc.
PI.
Srey
a
1JZS
as
Sre amsi
Sreyasas y.
Sreyobhis, etc.
gariyasi
gariyobhyam, etc.
gariyamsas .
_.
y.
gariyobhis, etc.
44. THE ADJECTIVES IN ae. They are originally com-
pounds of the root ae- (strong form ane-) "turn, go" with
prepositions and with some other words. There are two types:
prae- "easterly" (really "turned forwards") and pratyac-
"westerly" (really "turned backwards, situated behind").
The fern. is also formed here by addition of i to the weak
stem (in prevocalic form): praei, pratiei- ( 27). Like prae- run
e.g., apae- "situated backward, behind", avae- "directed
downwards", parae- "turned away", arvae- "coming hither";
like pratyae- e.g., nyae- "directed downwards", samyae-
"united, common", udae- "directed upward, northerly";
fern. apaei-, etc., niei-, udiei-.
GONDA, Elementair-Grammar 3
34
NV.
A.
I.
D.
Ab. G.
L.
NVA
IDAb.
G.L.
NV.
A.
I.
D.Ab.
G.
L.
M.
pran ( 4 IV)
praneam
DECLENSION
N.
Sg.
prak
praea
praee
praeas
praei
Du.
prancau praei
pragbhyam ( 19; 10)
praeos
praneas
praeas
PI.
pranei
pragbhis
pragbhyas
praeam
M. N.
pratyak
pratyaneam
pratiea
pratiee
pratieas
pratiei
pratyancau pratiei
pratyagbhyam
pratieos
pratyaneas p t -'
P
t
- ra yanet
ra teas
pratyagbhis
pratyagbhyas
( 19 II; 4 IV)
pratieam

The word tiryac- "horizontal" has tiraSC- in the prevoca1ic form
of the weak stem, thus tiryan, tiryancam, tiraSca, etc., fern. tiraSci-;
vi$vac- "going asunder, turned in both directions" runs vi$van,
vi$vancam, vi$ilca, etc., fern. vi$Uci-.
45. STEMS CONTAINING PECULIARITIES.
1. The word ahan- n. "day" is inflected: sg. n.v.a. ahar
(ahaf/" 4 VI), i. ahna, d. ahne, ab. g. ahnas, 1. ahni,
ahani; duo n.v.a. ahni, ahani, i.d.ab. ahobhyam, g.1.
ahnos; pI. n.v.a. aMni, i. ahobhis, d.ab. ahobhyas, g.
ahnam, 1. ahaf/,su, ahassu.
n. The neuters "eye", asthan- "bone", dadhan-
DECLENSION
35
"sour milk", and sakthan- "thigh" form only the weak
prevocalic forms of the stem: etc.,
asthna, etc., dadhna, etc., sakthna, g. sakthnas, duo
sakthni, sakthnos; the remaining cases are formed from
the i-stems ak#-, asthi-, dadhi-, sakthi-, thus:
ak#bhyam, asthibhis, dadhi, sakthibhyam, etc.
Ill. The word path- "way" runs: sg. n.v. panthas, a. pan-
thanam, i. patha, 1. pathi, etc. ; duo panthanau, pathibhyam,
pathos; pI. panthanas, pathas, pathibhis, patMm, etc.
IV. putfts- m. "man": sg. puman, puman, pumatftSam, putftSa,
etc.; duo pumatftsau, pumbhyam (putftbhyam, I2 Ill),
PUtftSos; pI. pumatftsas, PUtftSas, pumbhis (PUtftbhis),
putftsam, etc.
V. ap- f. "water" occurs only in the plur.: n.v. apas, a. apas,
adbhis, adbhyas, apam, apsu.
VI. At the end of compounds han- "killing" has the
stem han: n. sg. OM, n.v.a. pI. hani, the weak prevocalic
stem ghn-, thus i. sg. of brahmahan- "murderer of
Brahmans": brahmaghna beside acc. sg. brahmahar.tam,
i. pI. brahmahabhis ( 39).
COMPARISON
46. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE can be formed in a
twofold way. In the first place, the comp. is formed by
addition of tara, the sup. by addition of lama to the masculine
stem of the adjective: pur.tya- "pure": pur.tyatara- "purer",
pur.tyatama- "purest"; balin- ( 4I): balitara-, balitama-;
vidvas- ( 42): vidvattara-, vidvattama-. Adjectives with a
twofold stem thus have the weak preconsonantal form. The
inflection is as above ( 22).
DECLENSION
Secondly, with a number of adjectives iyas is joined in the
comp., in the sup. (inflection like 2I; 22) to the root
underlying the adj. which is usually a gUl)a (full grade)
formation; the suffix characteristic of the positive of the adj.
is thus lacking to the comp. and sup. Examples:
"small" (root "trample"): c. s.
lagh-u- "light": laghiyas-, gur-u- "heavy": gariyas-,
Prth-u- "wide" (root prath- "extend"): prathiyas-,
du-ra- "far": daviyas-, bhu-ri- "abun-
dant, much, numerous" (root bhu- "grow"): bhuyas- "more",
Sometimes the positive of the same root is lacking:
(alpa- "small":) kaniyas- "smaller, younger",
sreyas- "better", "best"; jyiiyas- "older",
" oldest" .
Note. Occasionally forms like Sres/hatara-, sre$/hatama- with both
suffixes are found.
PRONOUNS
PRELIMINARY REMARK. The paradigms of the pronominal
inflection have generally originated from the union of several
stems. They lack the vocative.
47. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Preliminary remarks. Singu-
lar, dual, and plural are of different stems; natural gender is
not designated; in addition to several stressed forms are
found enclitic forms 1). The forms for the 1st person sg. mad-,
pI. asmad-, for the 2nd person sg. tvad-, pI. appearing
in the first member of a compound are used as stems; mad-
grha- "my house".
1) These are enclosed in parentht>ses in the paradigms.
DECLENSION
37
First person "I, we two, we".
Sg. Du. PI.
N. aham avam vayam
A. mam (ma) avam (nau) asman (nas)
1. maya avabhyam asmabhis
D. mahyam (me) avabhyam (nau) asmabhyam (nas)
Ab. mat avabhyam asmat
G. mama (me) avayos (nau) asmakam (nas)
L. mayi avayos asmiisu
Second person "you, you two, you (pI.)" .
Sg. Du. PI.
N. tvam yuvam yuyam
A. tvam (tva) yuviim (vam) (vas)
I. tvaya yuvabhyam
D. tubhyam (te) yuviibhyam (vam) (vas)
Ab. tvat yuvabhyam
G. tava (te) yuvayos (vam) (vas)
L. tvayi yuvayos
Note I. The ablatives can also be expressed mattas, tvattas, etc.
Note 2. The infrequent possessive pronouns are: madiya- or
mltmaka- "my", tvadiya- (tavaka-) "your"; asmadiya- "our", yU$ma-
diya- "your (p1.) " ; bhavadiya- "your" (polite); sva-, svaka-, svakiya-
"one's own, his, her", etc.
48-50. THE REMAINING, SO-CALLED "GENDER-BEARING"
PRONOUNS. Preliminary remarks. The form of the n. sg.
neutr. is used as stem in 48-50; the latter also appears at
the beginning of a compound. The endings deviating re-
peatedly from those of the nouns should be noted. The
adverbs in -tra which designate place are also used instead of
a locative: tatra vane = tasmin vane "in that forest".
48-49. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
DECLENSION
48. The stem tad- is also used instead of a personal
pronoun of the third person "he, she, it".
Paradigm:
N.
A.
I.
D.
Ab.
G.
L.
Sg.
M. N.
sas
tam
tat
tena
tasmai
F.
sa
tam
taya
tasyai
M.
Du.
N. F. M. N.
PI.
F.
tau
te te
te . t-
tan _m as
l
tais tabhis
tabhyam tebhyas tabhyas
tasmiit
tasyas
tasya tasam
t
t - tayos t t-
asyam asu
Likewise etad- "this": n. sg. f. n. etat. The forms
occur only in absolute final position and before
vowe1c;, before which 15 is applied. Within the sentence sa,
appear before consonants.
The stem enad- "he" (enclit.) occurs only in the ace. of the
three numbers, in the i. sg. and g. 1. duo The inflection is like
that of the stem tad-, thus enam, enat, enam, enena, etc.
49
Stem idam- "this".
Sg. Du. PI.
M. F. M. F. M. F.
N. ayam iyam

imau ime
ime

imris
A. imam imam imiin
I. anena anaya
!
ebhis abhis
D. asmai asyai abhyam
ebhyas
abhyas
Ab.
asmat _
G.
asyas

asam
asya
L. asmin asyam
anayos

asu
DECLENSION
39
Neutr. n. a. sg. idam, duo ime, pI. imani. Otherwise like
masc.
Stem adas- "that".
Sg. Du. PI.
M. F. M.N.F. M. F.
w _ amus
N. asau asau am,{i ami
A. amum amum amun
1. amuna amuya ! amibhis amubhis
D. amusmai amusyai amubhyam -bl. -bl.
Ab
. -t . ,.yas amu ,.yas
. amusma _
. amusyas
G. .
L. amuyos
Neutr. n. a. sg. adas, pI. amuni. Otherwise like masc.
50. RELATIVE PRONOUN. The stem is yad- "which"; it
is declined like tad-. Thus sg. n. m. yas, n. yat, f. yii, acc. yam,
yat, yiim; duo n. a. m. yau, n. ye, f. ye; pI. n.m. ye, n. yani, f.
yas, acc. yan, yiini, yas, etc.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. Stem kim, dec1ensional stem ka-.
This pronoun, apart from the n. and a. sg. n. (him), is declined
like tad-. sg. n. m. kas, n. him, f. ka, acc. kam, him, kiim;
duo n. a. m. kau, n. ke, f. ke; pI. n.m. ke, n. kani, f. kas, acc.
kan, kiini, kas, etc. Indefinites are formed by addition of api,
cid, cana to the interrogative pronoun, e.g., kalJ, "who?": ko 'pi,
kaScit, kascana "anyone"; kva "where?" kvapi, etc. "any-
where"; mm api "anything at all", na hi""cid "nothing", etc.
51. PRONOMINALS (pronominally inflected adjectives).
I. A number of adjectives are declined like yad- ( 50):
kata1'a- "whicn of two?", katama- "which (of several)",
itara- "other", anya- "other", etc.
DECLENSION
H. The words saroa- and msva- "all, every", eka- "one",
ekatara- "one of two" are likewise declined pronominally,
only in the n. acc. sg. n. they have the adjectival ending:
msvam, ekam.
HI. Other words are treated like saroa-, etc., but can also be
declined according to the nominal declension in the ab. 1.
sg. m. n. and in the n. pI. m.: adhara- "situated below,
lower", antara- "inner", apara- "other", avara- "poster-
ior, western", uttara- "situated above, northern",
"to the right, southern", para- "later, other",
paScima- "western", puroa- "earlier", sva- "one's own".
- Also ubhaya- "both kinds", which has ubhayi- in
the fern.
52. NOUNS USED INSTEAD OF PRONOUNS. It is worth
noting that atman- "soul, self" is used instead of a reflexive
pronoun: Viisavadatta ... iitmiinam Udayaniiya priiyacchat
"V ... gave herself to U."; it represents all three persons,
and the sg. is also used when the word refers to a duo or pI.
sva- serves for all persons as a reflexive with a predomi-
nantly possessive meaning; thus it is usually to be translated
by "one's own" or Lat. suus. The designation of the refl. is,
however, not obligatory.
In polite address bhavat- (no sg. m. bhaviin, f. bhavati, n. pI.
m. bhavantas, etc., 38) is used as a pronoun of the 2nd
person (with the 3rd person of the verb).
NUMERALS
53. CARDINALS.
I eka-, 2 dm-, 3 tri-, 4 catur-, 5 paiica-, 6 7 sapta-,
8 9 nava-, IO dasa-, II ekiidaSa-, I2 dviidaSa-, I3 trayo-
DECLENSION
dasa-, I4 caturdaSa-, IS pancadaSa-, I6 I7 saptailaSa-,
I8 Ig navadaSa-, or
20 21 22 23
24 caturv., 26 28 2g na'l1av. or 30
31 32 dviit., 33 trayast., 40 catviiri1J"sat-,
50 pancasat-, 60 62 or 63 or
70 saptati-, 80 aSiti-, 81 ekiisiti-, 82 dvyasiti-, 88 go
navati-, 100 sata-, 200 dve sate or dvisata-, 300 tri1J.i satiini or
triSata-, 1000 sahasra-, 10,000 ayuta-, IOO,OOO I,OOO,OOO
prayuta-, 10,000,000 koji-.
The numbers 2, 3, 8 with 20 and 30 run dVii, trayas,
with 80 dvi, tri, with 40-70, go both forms occur.
The cardinal numbers between the hundreds are usually expressed
with addition of adhika- "more": 101 eklldhika1ft satam, 105 pa&lldhi-
ka1ft satam (or palSclldhikaSatam).
54. DECLENSION OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS. eka- I is
inflected according to SI U, the pI. eke means "some"; in
epic and in later literature the sg. is also encountered with the
meaning "a certain, a". dvi- 2 is inflected as a dual of dva-
(thus 21; 22): m. dvau, n. dve, f. dve, etc., tri- and catur- as
follows:
M. N. F.
NV. trayas t - . t'
A. trin r$1J.$ $sras
I. eribhis tisrbhis
DAb. tribhyas tisrbhyas
G. trayii1}iim tisr1J.iim
L.
M. N.
catviiras
catviiri
cu,v""ras
caturbhis
caturbhyas
catur1}iim

F.
catasras
catasrbhis
catasrbhyas
catasr1J.am

The numerals 5, 7, 8, g, 10, and II-Ig are inflected for all
genders: n.a.v. panca, i. pancabhis, d.ab. pancabhyas, g.
DECLENSION
pancanam, 1. pancasu; only 8 runs also:
6: The
numbers 1-19 are usually used adjectivally: pancabhir viraib
"with 5 men".
The numbers 20 to 99 are feminine substantives in the sg. ;
lOO, 1000, etc. are neuter subst. in the sg.; they have the
numbered things either as appositives in the same case of the
plur. or in the gen. plur.; they can also be joined with them in
a compound: aSvab, avanam "20 horses",
vi1'!tsatya virais or viratt-am "with 20 men", "100
years".
55. ORDINALS.
1st prathama- (f. -ma), 2nd dvitiya-, 3rd trtiya-, 4th caturtha-
(f. -thi) or turiya- (f. -ya), 5th pancama- (f. -mi), 6th
7th saptama-, 8th 9th navama-, 10th daSama-, IIth
ekadaSa-, 12th dvadaSa-, 20th (f. -i) or vi1'!tsa- (f.
-i), or 40th cawari1'!tsattama- or cat'Ua-
50th pancasattama- or pancasa-, 60th only
but 61st or etc.
56. NUMERAL ADVERBS. Numeral adverbs are sakrt
I x, dvib 2 X, trib 3 x, catub 4 X, pancakftvab 5 X, etc. The
adverbs in -dha: ekadha, etc. form expressions for "singly, at
one time, etc.", those in -sas: pancasas, etc. for "in fives, etc.".
ekaSas "individually".
CONJUGATION
57. PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
I. There are three voices in Sanskrit, the active (parasmai-
padam) , the middle (atmanepadam), and the passive.
Some verbs occur only in the active (e.g., asti "be"),
some only in the middle (e.g., liste "sit"). Of the passive
almost only a present exists; in the non-present forms the
middle is also used with passive meaning. The middle in
general expresses actions which the agent carries out
"for himself, in his own interest": yajati "he sacrifices
(for another)": yajate "he sacrifices (for himself)". This
original distinction is frequently preserved in Vedic and
is not completely lost in classical Sanskrit either: we
often find a quite significant use' of the middle; yet the
forms of these two types are used promiscuously, e.g.,
for metrical reasons or even optionally.
H. The moods are: indicative, optative, imperative; only the
present has three moods, the remaining tenses only the
indicative; the infrequent precative is, however, a kind of
aorist optative.
The tenses are: present and imperfect, which form the
present system with opt. and pres. imp., future, the rare
conditional, aorist, perfect. The three latter groups
are called the general forms of the verb; they, as also the
passive, are formed from the root: the verbs of the aya-
class, however, form fut. and perf. from the present stem.
The whole present system is formed from the so-called
present stem.
44
CONJUGATION
Ill. Sanskrit distinguishes also with respect to the verb:
singular, dual (the number two: we two, etc.), and plural.
IV. The personal endings are of two kinds: primary (in the
pres., fut. indic.) and secondary (in the imperf., aor., opt.,
and condit.), disregarding the endings deviating in several
persons of the imperative and perfect.
The primary endings are in general:
In the active: sing. Ist -mi, 2nd -si, 3rd -ti; duo Ist -vas,
2nd -thas, 3rd -tas; pI. Ist -mas, 2nd -tha, 3rd -anti
(-nti) ;
in the middle: -e, -se, -te; -vahe, -lithe, -lite; -make, -dkve,
-ate (-nte).
The endings are:
in the active: -am (-m), -s, -t; -va, -tam, -tlim; -ma, -ta,
-an (-n);
in the middle: -i, -tkiis, -ta; -vaki, -litkiim, -iitlim; -maki,
-dkvam, -ata (-nta).
The optative has in the Ist sg. act. the ending -m or -am;
mid. -a, in the 2nd duo mid. -iitklim, 3rd duo mid. -litlim,
in the 3rd pI. act. -ur, mid. -ran.
The endings of the imperative are:
in the active: -lini, -dki or without ending, -tu; -liva,
-tam, -Mm; -lima, -ta, -antu (-ntu);
in the middle: -ai, -sva, -Mm; -livahai, -iitklim, -litlim;
-limakai, -dkvam, -antlim (-ntlim).
The endings of the perfect are given in 84. Cf. also the
paradigms.
V. In the impf., aor., and condit. the augment, i.e., an a-
placed before the verbal stem, appears: tudati "he
pushes": a-tudat "he pushed". "Roots with
CONJUGATION
45
vowels havevrddhi instead of this a: asya# "he throws":
impf. asyat: "he wets": impf. In the case
of roots compounded with prepositions the augment
appears between prep. and verb: nir-a-gacchat, 3rd sg.
impf. of nile + gdcchati. In epic Skr. the augment is
sometimes lacking: uddharam ( 17) = udaharam (1st sg.
impf. act., root n!-, narati "take"); pravartata = pravar-
tata (pra + avartata, 3rd sg. impf. mid. root vrt- + pra
"arise"). Aorist forms without augment are used after
the prohibitive ma: ma gas ("do not go", gas 2nd sg. aor.
act. without augment, root ga- "go"), cf. 82.
VI. RULES FOR REDUPLICATION. There are a number of
reduplicated verbal forms. The reduplication consists
in the fact that a part of the root, as a rule the first
consonant with a vowel, is prefixed to the root, e.g.,
"flourish". The following rules apply:
I. The aspirates are reduplicated by the corresponding
non-aspirates: bhi .. : bi-bhi-; dnav-: da-dnav-.
2. Velars are reduplicated by the corresponding palatals:
khan-: cakhan-; g!-: jagar-; n is reduplicated by j: nu-:
junu-.
3. Of two initial consonants only the first is reduplicated:
svap-: ( 20 II), tvar-: tatvar-, Sru-: suSru-.
Roots which begin with velar + cons. form the re-
duplication syllable with the corresponding palatal here
also: kram-: cakram-, gran-: jagrah-, nri-: jinri-. But if
the first of the initial consonants is a sibilant and the
second is voiceless, the latter or its representative is
reduplicated: stna-: skand-: caskand-; but sm!-:
sasmar-.
CONJUGATION
The vowel of the reduplication syllable is given with the
respective paradigms.
PRESENT STEMS
58. The present of Sanskrit is divided into ten classes
according to the structure of the present stem. These classes
are divided into two groups, into the thematic and the
athematic conjugation. In the thematic conj. the present
stem ends in a and always remains constant. In the athematic
conjugation the stem is variable: it has strong and weak
f ~ r m s . The 1st, 4th, 6th, loth classes belong to the thematic
conjugation, the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th classes belong to
the athematic conjugation. This enumeration, which follows
the native grammar, is a well-established one which should
not be changed arbitrarily. These class distinctions relate
only to the present, act. and mid., not to the remaining ten-
ses (concerning the passive and the derived conjugations, s.
95 ff.). In several cases two or more than two presents have
existed for one root.
THEMATIC CONJUGATION
59. Common to the four thematic present classes are:
I. The stem ends in a (s. 58). This a becomes a before the
endings beginning with m and 'lJ and coalesces with the middle
ending e. The dual endings of the mid. are -et(h)e, -et(h)am.
2. The 2nd sg. imperat. act. is identical to the stem.
3. The optative suffix is i, before vowels iy, which contracts
with the a of the stem to e (ey). The ending of the 1st sg. act.
is -am in the opt.
CONJUGATION
47
The inflection is the same in the four classes. Only the
formation of the stem is different.
In the Ist class a is added to the strong (gul).ated) root:
bhu-: bhav-ati 1), bhr-: bhar-ati, ruh-: roh-ati, ji-: jay-ati, ni-:
nay-ati, pat-: pat-ati. Exceptions are (s. 3): nind-: nind-ati,
kriif--: kriif--ati.
In the 6th class a is added to the weak root: tud-: tud-ati,
vis-: vis-ati. Final r of the root becomes ir before the thematic
vowel (before the a) : ft-: tir-ati. To the root prach- belongs the
present '/>rcchati (sicl; 61 I).
In the 4th ya is added to the unchanged root: pas-:
paS-yati, as-: as-yati.
In the IOth class and with the causatives aya is added to
the root: bhu-: bhiiv-ayati;
Further 97.98.
60. FIRST CLASS. Paradigm: Mr- "bear".
Sg. Du. PI.
Indicative
Act.
Ist bharami bhariivas bhariimas
2nd bharasi bharathas bharatha
3rd bharati bharatas bharanti
Mid.
Ist bhare bhariivahe bhariimahe
2nd bharase bharethe bharadhve
3rd bharate bharete bharante
1) The verbs are usually cited either by the root or by the 3rd sing.
pres. act. ind.
4
8
CONJUGATION
Sg. Du. PI.
Imperfect
Act.
1st abharam abharava abharama
2nd abharas abharatam abharata
srd abharat abharatam abharan
Mid.
1St abhare abharavahi abharamahi
2nd abharathas abharethiim abharadhvam
srd abharata abharetam abharanta
Optative
Act.
1st bhareyam bhareva bharema
2nd bhares bharetam bhareta
3rd bharet bharetam bhareyur
Mid.
1st bhareya bharevahi bharemahi
2nd bharethiis bhareyathiim bharedhvam
srd bhareta bhareyatam bhareran
Imperative
Act.
1st bharatti ( 20 I) bharava bharama
2nd bhara bharatam bharata
srd
bharatu bharatam bharantu
Mid.
1st bharai bharavahai bharamahai
2nd bharasva bharethiim bharadhvam
3rd bharatam bharetam bhar(l,ntam
CONJUGATION
49
In the same way: tud- "push": tudati VI, as- "throw":
asyati IV, etc.
61. I. Some verbs of the thematic classes form the present
stem with the suffix ccha: gam- "go": pres. gacchati I,
yam- "stretch": yacchati I, "wish": icchati VI, vas-
"become bright": ucchati VI, r- "go": rcchati VI. To the
root prach- "ask": Prcchati VI.
II. Some roots have the long vowel: tam- "be benumbed":
tamyati, dam- "tame": damyati, bhram- "wander" :
bhramyati, mad- "be excited, rejoice": madyati, sam-
"become quiet": samyati, Sram- "become tired": sram-
yati, div- "play, throw divyati, guh- "hide":
guhati; a-cam- "sip" has usually acamati; kram- "step"
forms in the act. kramati, in the middle kramate.
The root jan- "be born" has the present jayate IV.
III. Some roots which have a penultimate nasal lose this:
da1fl-s- "bite": dasati I, sanj- "hang": sajati I, bhra1fts-
"fall": bhrasyate, bhrasyati IV, ranj- "redden": rajyati
IV; svanj- "embrace": svajate, svajati.
IV. A number of roots insert a nasal before the final conso-
nant of the root: krt- "cut": krntati VI, lip- "besmear":
limpati VI, lup- "break in pieces": tumpati VI, muc-
"let loose": muncati VI, sic- "sprinkle": sincati VI, vid-
"find": vindati VI.
V. Some roots are reduplicated: sthii- "stand": I,
ghra- "smell": jighrati I, with dissimilation: pa- "drink":
pibati I, with loss of the s and lengthening of the vowel:
sad- "sit": sidati (*si-sda-ti).
VI. The root vyadh- "bore through" forms the present
vidhyati; sa- "whet": syati (IV), ava-sa- "unyoke, etc.":
syati.
GONDA, Elementary Grammar 4
50
CONJUGATION
VII. For drs- "see" pasyati is substituted as a present.
The 10th class will be discussed in 98.
ATHEMATIC CONJUGATION
62. GENERAL PRELIMINARY REMARKS. I. Stem gra-
dation exists in all classes. The strong form of the stem is
found in I3 persons, namely:
I. in the three persons of the sing. indic. active;
2. in the three persons of the sing. impf. active;
3. in all first persons of the imper. active and middle;
4. in the third person sing. of the imper. active.
2. It should be noted that some personal endings differ
from those of the thematic conj.; cf. the paradigms. The 2nd
sg. imper. act. has the ending -dhi, after a vowel-hi.
3. As an optative suffix -ya- (before -ur of the 3rd plo only
y-) is added to the weak stem in the act., -i- (before vowels
-iy-) in the mid.
4. When the final sound of a stem is a consonant, the
following phonetic rules apply: The endings -s and -t of the
2nd and 3rd sg. impf. act. disappear ( 4 I), the final sound is
treated according to 4 III ff., cf. also the paradigm, 63 ..
For endings beginning with a consonant the rules in I9
apply, before the endings beginning with s I9 VI, 20 11
apply. In the 3rd sg. imp. act. final dentals and s of the
present stem after loss of the ending (s. above) become t, in
the 2nd sg. impf. act. they become t or ft.: bhid- "split" VII:
abhinat a-bhinad-t) and abhinat or abhinaft. abhinad-s);
sas- II " order": asiit and asiit or asaft..
63-64. SECOND (ROOT-) CLASS.
CONJUGATION
5
I
63. The present stem is equal to the root; thus to this the
personal endings are added, e.g., vid- "know": pres. st. strong:
ved-, Ist sg. ind. act. ved-mi; weak vid-, Ist pI. ind. act. vid-mas.
Paradigm: "hate".
Sg. Du. PI.
Ist
2nd dvek# ( I9 VI)
3rd ( I9 IV)
Ist
2nd ( I9 VI)
3Td ( I9 IV)
Indicative
Act.



Mid.



Imperfect
Act.
Ist
2nd advet ( 4 I; V)
3rd advet ( 4 I; V)
Ist advi#
2nd
3rd
Ist
2nd
3rd
Mid.



Optative
Act.







dvir/4hve (from





advir/4hvam




52
CONJUGATION
Sg. Du. PI.
1St
2nd
3rd
Mid.




dvi#dhvam

1st
2nd dvirJ4hi
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
Imperative
Act.



Mid.







dvi44hvam

64. I. From the root vid- "know" thus ind. act. vedmi, vetsi, vetti,
vidmas, vittha, vidanti; in the 3rd pl. impf. act. always avidur;
dvi$- and the.roots in a can also have -ur: advi$ur, ayur (from
ya "go" without the a of the root).
11. Reduplicated roots of this class, e.g., caklis- "shine", have in
'the 3rd pI. ind. impf. imp. act. -ati, -ur, -atu: cakasati "they
shine"; in this way also slis- "order".
Ill. Paradigm of the root i- "go".
Act. ind. emi, eti, ivas, ithas, itas, imas, itha, yanti.
Impf. ( 57 V) iiyam, ais, ait, aiva, aitam, aitiim, aima,
aita, iiyan.
Imp. ayiini, ihi, etu, ayiiva, itam, itiim, ayiima, ita,
yantu.
Opt. iyiim, etc. The mid. with the preverb adhi-
"study": adhiye, adhite, etc.
IV. To the root duh- "milk" belong: dohmi, dhok$i ( 4 note),
dogdhi, duhmas, dugdha, duhanti; lih- "lick": lehmi, lek$i, leq,hi
CONJUGATION
53
( 19 VII), lihmas, li4ka ( 19 VII), likanti; as-, only mid.
"sit": ase, asset asle, asmake, adhve, asate.
V. Paradigm of the root as- "be"; almost only in the
active:
lnd. asmi, asi, asti, svas, sthas, stas, smas, stha, santi.
lmpf. iisam, iisis, iisit, iisva, iistam, iistiim, iisma, asta,
asan.
Opt. syiim, syiis, syiit, syiiva, syiitam, syiitiim, syiima,
syiita, syur.
Imp. asiini, edhi, astu, asiiva, stam, stiim, asiima, sta,
santu.
VI. The roots an- "breathe", 1'ud- "cry", svas- "sigh",
svap- "sleep", "eat" have i before the endings
beginning with a consonant other than y, i or a before
the ending of the 2nd and 3rd sg. impf. act.; e.g.,
ind. 1'odimi, 1'oditi, 1'udimas, 1'uditha, 1'udanti;
impf. a1'odam. a1'odas, or arodis; opt. 1'udyiim. These
roots are se#- roots, s. 7I.
VII. The root b1'iir "speak" has i in the strong forms before
endings beginning with consonants: b1'avimi,
b1'aviti, brumas. brUtha, bruvanti; ab1'avam, ab1'avit,
ab1'uvan; bruyiim; b1'avii1J.i, bruhi, bravitu; mid. b1'uve,
brUte, etc.; cf. also 18 I.
VIII. The roots ending in u have lengthened grade in the
strong forms before endings beginning with consonants,
thus stu- "praise": staumi, stauti; impf. astavam
(av = 0, 18 II), astaus, astaut, 3rd pI. impf. astuvan;
imp. staviini. stum, stautu.
IX. The root han- "kill" forms the weak stem han- before m,
'0, y, ha- before endings beginning with other conso-
54
CONJUGATION
nants, ghn- before vowels: hanmi, ha1'ftsi ( I9 VIII),
hanti, hanmas, hatha, ghnanti; ahanam, ahan, ahan,
ahanma, ahata, aghnan; hanyam; 2nd sg. imp. jahi.
X. To the root si- "lie" belong: saye, se$e, sete, semahe, sedhve.
serate; a.sayi, asethiis, 3rd pI aserata.
XI. The root siis- "order" forms the weak formsi$-: sasmi, si$mas,
3rd pI. sasati; opt. si$yam, 2nd sg. imp. sadhi. The root mrj-
"rub off, clean" forms marjmi, mar$/i.
65-66. THIRD (REDUPLICATING) CLASS.
65. The root is reduplicated; for the initial consonant,
see 57 VI; the vowel of the reduplication is the short form
of the root vowel; rand r are, however, reduplicated by i:
Thus: bhi- "be afraid": bibhe- strong pr. st., bibhi- weak pr.
st.; bhr- "bear": bibhar-, bibhr-; hu- "sacrifice": juho-, juhu-.
To be noted are the endings ati, ur, atu in the 3rd pI. act. of
the ind., impf., imp.; before ur a final vowel has the full grade.
Paradigm: hu- "pour into the fire, sacrifice".
Sg. Du. PI.
Ist juhomi
2nd ( 2I 11)
3rd juhoti
Ist juhve
2nd
3rd jUhute
Ist ajuhavam
2nd ajuhos
3rd ajuhot
Indicative
juhuvas
juhuthas
juhutas
Mid.
juhuvahe
juhvathe
juhvate
Imperfect
Act.
ajuhuva
ajuhutam
ajuhutam
juhumas
jUhutha
jUhvati ( 6)
juhumahe
juhudhve
juhvate
ajuhuma
ajuhuta
ajuhavur
CONJUGATION
55
Sg Du. PI.
Mid.
Ist ajuhvi
ajuhuvahi ajuhumahi
2nd ajuhuthas
ajuhvatham ajuhudhvam
3rd ajuhuta
ajuhvatam ajuhvata
Imperative
Act.
Ist juhavani
juhavava juhavama
2nd juhudhi (exception I) juhutam juhuta
3rd juhotu juhutam juhvatu
Mid.
Ist juhavai juhavavahai juhavamahai
2nd j u h u ~ v a juhvatham juhudhvam
3
r
d jUhutam juhvatam juhvatam
Opt. act. jUhuyam, etc.; mid. juhviya, etc.
66. The roots da- "give" and dha- "put" lose their root
vowel in the weak forms: dad- and dadh-; with following t and
th the final dh of dadh- becomes tt and tth, the initial sound
is dh in these cases as well as in the forms with endings which
begin with s, h, and dh (cf. 4 note). Thus: da: dadami,
dadasi, dadmas, dattha, dadati, etc.; 2nd sg. imp. dehi (in all
forms like dha-, only d instead of dh); dhd-: dadhami, dadhmas,
dhattha, dadhati; mid. dadhe, dhatse, dhatte, dadhmahe,
dhaddhve, dadhate; impf. adadham, etc.; opt. dadhyam, mid.
dadhiya, etc.; imp. dadhani, dhehi, 2nd pI. dhatta, 2nd sg. mid.
dhatsva, 2nd pI. dhaddhvam.
A few roots in a have i in the reduplication syllable and in
the weak forms change the a into i, which disappears before
CONJUGATION
endings having initial vowels: mii- "measure" (only mid.):
mimi-, mim-: ind. mime, mimite, 3rd pI. mimate;
impf. amimi. hii- "leave" has as its weak stem jahi- or jahi-
before endings beginning with consonants, jah- before endings
beginning with vowels and in the opt.: ind. jahiiti, jahimas,
3rd pI. jahati; impf. ajahiim; opt. jahyiim; 2nd imp. jahiihi,
jahihi, or jahihi.
67. FIFTH CLASS.
In the weak forms -nu- is joined to the root, in the strong
forms -no-: su- "press out": sunu- suno-. Before the endings
beginning with v and m roots ending in a vowel can eliminate
the u of the nu: sunumas or sunmas, but only iipnumas.
These roots form the 2nd sg. imp. act. without hi: sunu; but
iipnuhi. Roots with terminal consonants change nu into nuv
before endings hay-ing initial vowels.
Paradigm: su- "press out".
;Sg.
Ist sunomi
2nd suno#
3rd sunoti
Ist sunve
2nd
3rd sunute
Du.
Indicative
Act.
sunuvas (sunvas)
sunuthas
sunutas
Mid.
sunuvahe (sunvahe)
sunviithe
sunviite
PI.
sunumas (sunmas)
sunutha
sunvanti ( 6)
sunumahe (sunmahe)
sunudhve
sunvate
CONJUGATION
Sg. Du.
Imperfect
Act.
1St asunavam asunuva (asunva)
( IS II)
2nd asunos asunutam
3rd asunot asunutam
Mid.
PI.
asunuma (asunma)
asunuta
asunvan
57
1St asunvi asunuvahi (asunvahi) asunumahi (asunmahi)
2nd asunuthas asunvatnam asunudhvam
3rd asunuta
1st sunavani
2nd sunu
3
r
d
sunotu
1st sunavai
2nd
3rd sunutam
asunvatam
Imperative
Act.
sunavava
sunutam
sunutam
Mid.
sunavavahai
sunvatnam
sunvatam
asunvata
sunavama
sunuta
sunvantu
sunavamahai
sunudhvam
sunvatam
Opt. act. sunuyam, etc.; mid. sunviya, etc.
To ap- "obtain" belong: apnomi, 1St pI. apnumas, 3rd pI.
apnuvanti. The Indians take the root Sru- "hear" as the basis
of the pr. st. s,tJu-, strong s,tJo-: s,tJomi, s,1jIumas
(s,1jImas) , s,1jIV(lnti.
6S. SEVENTH CLASS. In the strong forms before the
final consonant of the root na- (or -tJa- 20 I) is inserted, in
the weak forms the nasal homorganic with this final con-
CONJUGATION
sonant: rudh- "obstruct": rU1Jadh-, rundh-, yuj- "join":
yunaj-, yunj-; before sibilants and h the inserted nasal is 1'j't:
pi$- "crush": pinas-, Pi1'j't$-; in hi1'j'ts- "hurt" the 1'j't belongs to
the root: strong hinas-, weak hi1'j'ts-.
Paradigm: bhid- "split".
Sg. Du. PI.
1st bhinadmi
2nd bhinatsi ( 19 II)
3rd bhinatti ( 19 II)
Ist bhinde
2nd bhintse
3rd bhintte
1st abhinadam
2nd abhinat (abhinas)
3rd abhinat
1st abhindi
2nd abhintthas
3rd abhintta
1st bhinadani
2nd bhinddhi
3rd bhinattu
Indicative
Act.
bhindvas
bhintthas
bhinttas
Mid.
bhindvahe
bhindathe
bhindate
Imperfect
Act.
abhindva
abhinttam
abhinttam
Mid.
abhindvahi
abhindatham
abhindatam
Imperative
Act.
bhinadava
bhinttam
bhi-nttam
bhindmas
bhinttha
bhindanti
bhindmahe
bhinddhve
bhindate
abhindma
abhintta
abhindan
abhindmahi
abhinddhvam
abhindata
bhinadama
bhintta
bhindantu
CONJUGATION
Sg. Du. PI.
Mid.
1st bhinadai bhinadavahai bhinadamahai
2nd bhintsva bhindatham bhinddhvam
3rd bhinttam bhindatam bhindatam
Opt. act. bhindyam, etc.; mid. bhindiya, etc.
Thus: yuj-: yunakti, yunkte;
59
69. EIGHTH CLASS. u is added to some roots in n in the
weak stem, 0 in the strong stem: tan- "stretch": tanu- tano-.
The inflection is like 67 (sunoti). The root kr- "make" is
irregular: weak st. kuru- (kur- before the ending'> beginning
with m, v, y), strong st. karo-.
Paradigm kr- "make".
Ind. act. karomi, karo#, karoti, kurvas, kuruthas, kurutas,
kurmas, kurutha, kurvanti; mid. kurve, kurute, kurvahe,
kurvathe, kurvate, kurmahe, kurudhve, kurvate.
Impf. act. akaravam, akaros, akarot, akurva, akurutam,
akurutam, akurma, akuruta, akurvan; mid. akurvi, akuruthas,
akuruta, akurvahi, akurvatham, akurvatam, akurmahi, aku-
rudhvam, akurvata.
Imp. act. karava'}Ji, kuru, karotu, karavava, kurutam,
kurutam, karavama, kuruta, kurvantu; mid. karavai,
kurutam, karavavahai, kurvatham, kurvatam, karavamahai,
kurudhvam, kurvatam.
Opt. act. kuryam, etc.; mid. kurviya, etc.
70. NINTH CLASS. In the strong stem -na- is added to
the root (with '}J instead of n according to 20 I), in the weak
stem -ni- (n before an ending beginning with a vowel).
Paradigm kri- "buy": ind. act. kri'}Jami, etc., kri'}Jimas,
60 CONJUGATION
kri1Jitha, kri1Janti; mid. kri1Je, etc. ; impf. act. akri1Jam,
etc., akri1Jima; imp. act. kri1Jani, kri1Jihi, kri1Jatu, etc.; jfui-
"know": ind. janami, imp. janihi.
From roots which end in a consonant the 2nd sg. imp. act.
in ana is formed: grah- "take": grha1Ja (ind. grh1Jati) ; thus the
suffix disappears.
Paradigm: as- "eat".
Sg. Du. PI.
Ist asnami
2nd asnasi
3rd asnati
Ist asne
2nd
3rd asnite
Ist asnam
2nd asnas
3rd asnat
Ist asni
2nd asnithas
3rd asnita
Ist asnani
Indicative
Act.
asnivas
asnithas
asnitas
Mid.
asnivahe
asnathe
asnate
Imperfect
Act.
asniva
asnitam
asnitam
Mid.
asnivahi,
asnatham
asnatam
Imperative
Act.
asnava
asnimas
asnitha
aSnanti
asnimahe
asnidhve
asnate
asnima
asnita
asnan
asnimahi
asnidhvam
asnata
asnama
CONJUGATION 61
Sg. Du. PI.
2nd asana asnitam amita
3
rd
aSnatu asnittim asnantu
Mid.
1St aSnai aSnavahai amamahai
2nd asntithtim asnidhvam
3rd asnitam asnatam aSnatam
Opt. act.: aSniyam, etc.; mid. asniya, etc.
The root jna- "recognize" forms the present janati (janimas,
3rd sg. ind. mid. janite). Roots in u have the short vowel in the
present: pu- "purify": punati (punimas, etc.). The root
bandh- "bind" forms badhnati (so also other stems with a nasal
in the penult).
GENERAL TENSES
71. PRELIMINARY REMARKS. Indic grammar distin-
guishes between anit I)-roots, i.e., roots with which in the
general tenses (i.e., the tenses outside of the present) and in
the formation of verbal nouns the endings beginning with
consonants eXGept Y are added directly to the root, and
set I)-roots, which are formed with the "connecting vowel"
i between the final sound of the root and the ending. The verb
grah- "take" often has i as the "connecting vowel".
A number of roots (in which y, v, or r precedes the vowel)
are in imitation of the native grammarians not given in the
weak grade as is usual (e.g., "hate", bhid- "split"), but
in the full grade: svap- "sleep", vyadh- "bore through", vac-
1)' an-i-J means "without i", seJ < sa-i-J means "with i".
62 CONJUGATION
"speak"; the weak grade of these roots: sup-, vidh-, uc-, was
called sarpprasaral).a.
There are roots which form only certain tenses: from as-
"be" only pres. and perf. are found, in the remaining tenses
bhu- "become, etc." appears; ga- "go" forms the aorist of i-
"go", for drs- "see" pas- IV is used as the present stem, etc.
FUTURE
72. THE SIMPLE FUTURE. To the strong root sya is
joined (according to 20 11 to set-roots Almost
only forms of the indicative are encountered. The inflection
is the same as in the present. Paradigm: da- "give": act.
dasyami, dasyasi, dasyati, dasyamas, dasyatha, dasyanti; mid.
dasye, dasyase, dasyate, dasyamahe, dasyadhve, dasyante.
Paradigm: kr- "make": act. etc.; mid.
etc. Further examples: ni- "lead":
bhu- "become": sak- "be able": labh-
"take": lapsyate, tyaj- "leave": vas- "dwell":
vatsyati, bhid- "split": bhetsyati, budh- "awaken, recognize":
bhotsyate ( 4 note), vis- "enter": ( 19 VI), drs-
"see": (sicl), gai- "sing": gasyati, grah- "take":
"forgive": ( 12 HI). The verbs
of the loth class and the causatives ( 97; 98) keep the ay
and add to it: patayati "fell":
Note. The conditional, which is formed from the future st.em by
prefixing the augment and with the endings of the imperfect, occurs
only rarely: da-: adasyat.
73. THE PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE consists of the nom. sg.
of a tr-stem (noun of agent, 29), to which in the 1st and 2nd
CONJUGATION 63
person the forms of the ind. act. and mid. of as- "be" are
added (there are, however, exceptions).
Paradigm: da- "give".
Sg. Du. PI.
Act. (du. and pI. rare)
Ist datasmi (from datasvas datasmas
data + asmi)
2nd datasi datasthas datastha
3rd data datarau dataras
Mid. (rare)
Ist datahe datasvahe datasmahe
2nd datase datasathe datadhve
3rd data datarau dataras
Thus: drs- "see": grah- "take": grahitasmi, jiv-
"live": jivitasmi, bhU- "become": bhavitasmi. - Cf. also II5.
Note. The masculine forms of the 3rd pers. are usually used for
all genders. '
AORIST
74. There are in Sanskrit seven forms of the aorist,
which are all formed by augmentation of the root and addition
of the personal endings of the imperfect. The(seven forms fall
into simple and s-aorists. In post-Vedic texts the aorist, apart
from some often used forms like abhii,t "he was", etc., is used
only little in the simple types of style; in the older language
it is very frequent. In post-Vedic times one finds almost only
indicative forms except the "injunctive" ( 82).
75-77. SIMPLE AORISTS.
75. THE ROOT AORIST. This aorist is formed only from
CONJUGATION
some roots in -ii and diphthongs and from bhU-. The 3rd pI.
loses the final vowel before the ending ur; bhu- becomes bhuv-
before endings beginning with vowels and has an in the 3rd pI.
Paradigm: dii- "give": adiim, adiis, adiit, adiiva, adiitam,
adiitiim, adiima, adiita, aduf; bhu- "become, etc.": abhUvam,
abhUs, abhUt, abhUma, abhuta, abhUvan.
Note. The middle of the roots in -ii is inflected according to 78.
76. THE THEMATIC AORIST. After the augmented weak
root (only roots which end in r or r have full grade) follows the
"thematic vowel" a; the inflection is that of the impf. of the
1st class ( 60). This aorist exists beside many presents of the
4th class and beside some of the 1st and 6th classes; the
middle is very rare. Paradigm: sic- "sprinkle": asicam, asicas,
asicat, asiciima, asicata, asican; 'krudh- "be angry": akrudhat;
exceptions: drs- "see": adafsat; gam- "go": agamat.
77. THE REDUPLICATED AORIST. The consonants are
doubled according lo 57 VI; the inflection is in the act.
and mid. that of the impf. of the 1st present class. The 3rd
pI. act. has the ending ur. The root is weak. Final i and u go
to iy and uv.
Examples: pat- "fall": apaptam, etc.; dru- "run": adudru-
vam; vac- "speak": a'IJocam (from a-va-uc-a-m); nas- "pass
away" has anesam. This aorist is used especially beside pres.
in aya and caus. ( 97; 98); aya does not occur in the aorist
stem; the redupI. vowel is i or i, with roots with u usually
u or u; the vowel of the reduplication has as a rule another
quantity than that of the root syllable (- v): drs- "see":
darsayati: aor. adidrsat, jan-, caus. janayati "beget": aor.
ajijanat; budh-, caus. bodhayati "awaken, instrnct": aor.
abubudhat. A long root vowel is often shortened: dip- "kindle",
CONJUGATION
dipayati: aor. adidipat. The p of the causative ( 97) also
stands in the aorist: jna-, caus. jnapayati "instruct":
ajijnapat.
78-8I. SIGMATIC AORISTS.
78. THE ATHEMATIC S-AORlST. Thi..c:; aorist is formed by
adding s to the augmented root (according to 20 II the
root vowel in the active is usually in the lengthened grade,
in the middle with roots ending in i, i, u u in the full grade,
but remains otherwise unchanged; only roots in a and diph-
thongs which form the aor. mid. according to this form change
a into i. The endings are those of the imperfect; that of the
3rd pI. is ur in the act., ata in the mid. ; the 2nd and 3rd sg. act.
have the endings is, it. The sign of the aorist s is lost before the
endings beginning with t and th after cons. except nasals and r,
and always before dhvam, which becomes rf,hvam after all
vowels except a and a and after,. There are also forms without
s which stem from the root aorist: a-kr-ta, a-di-ta (root da-),
3rd sg. mid. This is the usual aorist of the anit-roots ( 7I).
Paradigm: ji- "conquer"; tud- "push".

Act. Mid.
Sg.
Ist atautsam atutsi
2nd ajai#s atautsis atutthas
3rd ajai#t atautsit atutta
Du.
Ist atautsva atutsvahi
2nd atauttam atutsatham
3rd atauttam atutsatam
GONDA, Elementary-Grammar
5
66
Act.
1St
2nd
3rd
CONJUGATION
atautsma
atautta
atautsur
PI.

aje4hvam

Mid.
atutsmahi
atuddhvam
atutsata
Other examples: /q- "do, make": act. mid. akr#,
(3rd sg. akrta, s. above); Sru- "hear": drs- "see":
srj- "let loose": asrk#; da- "give": mid.
adi#. )
79. THE ATHEM. is added to the aug-
mented root whose vowel appears in the full grade and, in
the active with final vowel, in the lengthened grade. Of the
roots with a before a simple consonant some have lengthened
grade in the active, others optionally lengthened grade, still
others full grade. The endings are the same as with the
s-aorist. It is the regular aorist of the set-roots ( 71). Para-
digm: Zu- "cut off": act. atavis, aZavit,
mid. atavi#,
aZavidhvam, Some examples: budh- "awaken, etc.":
kram- "step": grah- "seize":

80. THE is added to the augmented root in
full grade. It is found only with some roots in a, diphthongs,
and am; only in the active; in the middle these roots have the
Examples: ya- "go": ayas#am, ayasit; nam- "bend":

8I. THE sa-AORIST. This aorist occurs only with roots
which end in s, h (which always produce with the sign
of the aorist s according to 19 VI; 4 V) with a vowel other
CON J UGATION
than a or ii. The inflection is the same as with the imperfect
of the 1st cl., only the 1St sg. mid. ends in i, the 2nd and 3rd
duo in iithiim and iitiim.Paradigm: diS- "show, give": act.
mid.
adik#, adi-

82. INJUNCTIVE. There are aorist forms without aug-
ment which expre..<;s prohibitions with the prohibitive mii
"not": mii giis "do not go," mii mii bhais "do not
fear", mii mii krthiis "do not m.ake".
83. PRECATIVE. The rare precative is formed by adding
in the active to the weak form of the root the mood-sign yiis
with athematic inflection; the root shows the changes
mentioned 'with the passive ( 95), only final ii is usually
changed to e: dii- "give": deyiisam. Other examples: bandh-
"bind": badhyiisam, bhu- "become" : bhuyiisam, bhuyiis. bhuyiit,
bhuyiisma, bhUyiista, bhuyiisur. Example of a middle form:
bhavi#ya, etc. from bhu-.
PERFECT
Sanskrit distinguishes the reduplicated and the periphrastic
perfect. The non-derived verbs (cf. 97 ff.) follow as a rule
the reduplicating formation.
84-93. THE REDUPLICATED PERFECT.
84. PREUMINARY REMARKS. The perfect stem is formed
by reduplication, and in fact with the roots beginning with
consonants according to 57 VI. The vowel of the redupli-
cation syllable is the short or weak root vowel. The r and the
r are, however, represented by a; likewise final diphthongs.
Thus: dii- "give": dadii-, kr- "do, make": cakr, "nourish":
68 CONJUGATION
tap- "heat": tatap-. With roots beginning with vowels
initial a is lengthened to a before simple consonants, e.g., ad-
"eat": ad-; initial a before two consonants and initial r
prefix the syllable an to themselves: anj- "besmear": ananj-;
rdh- "develop": anrdh- (there are only few cases); initial a
remains a: ap- "obtain": ap-. Initial i and u become i and u
in the weak perfect stem; in the strong stem iy and uv appear
before the strong root vowel e or 0: e.g., "wish": weak Bf.
st. ih strong pf. st. U$- "burn": and
THE PERSONAL ENDINGS of the perfect are in the active: -a,
-tha, -a; -va, -athur, -atur; -ma, -a, -ur; in the middle: -e, -se, I
-e; -vahe, -athe, -ate; -mahe, -dhve, -re. The 3rd pI. mid. always
has the vowel i before itself, the remaining endings beginning
with cons. have it for most roots.
The three persons of the sg. act. are in general strong, all
the rest are weak.
85 PARADIGM OF THE ROOTS WITH i, U, OR r before
simple consonants; in the strong forms full grade of the vowel
appears: "nourish", drs- "see", bhid- "split".
Act. Mid.
Sg.
1st dadarsa bibhide dadrse
2nd pupo#tha dadarsitha
3rd dadarsa bibhide dadrse
Du.
1st pupu$iva dadrsiva bibhidivahe dadrsivahe
2nd pupu$athur dadrsathur bibhidathe dadrsathe
3rd pupu$atur dadrsatur bibhidate dadrsate
CONJUGATION
Act.
1st pupu#ma
2nd
srd
dadrsima
dadrsa
dadrsur
PI.
Mid.
bibhidimahe dadrsimahe
bibhididhve dadrsidhve
bibhidire dadrSire
86. ROOTS WITH a BEFORE SIMPLE CONSONANTS have
lengthened grade optionally in the 1st sg. act., always in the
srd sg., full grade in the 2nd sg.: tap- heat, etc." 1st sg.
tatapa or tatapa, srd sg. tatapa; kram- step": cakrama or
cakrama, cakramitha, cakrama; cf. 90.
87. ROOTS WITH a BETWEEN CONSONANTS (thus type
pac- cook"), of which the initial one is reduplicated with
itself (thus not has- "laugh", for h has the representative j in
the reduplication: jahas-) form the weak stem by the un-
reduplicated root with e instead of a. If in the 2nd sg. act. the
ending is added by means of i, then the weak stem appears
with these verbs. Roots which begin with two consonants
remain unchanged in the weak stem. Paradigm: pac- "cook".
Sg. Du. PI.
Act.
1st papaca or papaca peciva pecima
2nd pecitha or papaktha pecathur peca
srd papaca pecatur pecur
Mid.
1st pece pecivahe pecimahe
2nd pecathe pecidhve
srd pece pecate pecire
From the root kram- step" are derived however the act.
7
0
CONJUGATION
cakrama, etc.; mid. cakrame; from gam- "go": act. jagama,
etc., jagmima, jagma, jagmur; mid. jagme, etc. ; jan- "be born" :
jajne. Exceptions: bhaj- "distribute, allot" has bheje; from
raj- "shine" is found rejur, etc.
88. SOME ROOTS WITH NON-INITIAL Y OR V BEFORE VOWEL
run as follows: svap- "sleep": act. etc., mid.
20 H) ; vyadh- "pierce": vivyadha, 3rd pI. vividhur; grah-
"seize" forms jagraha, jagrhe.
89. I. SOME ROOTS BEGINNING WITH va have uva in the
strong stem and u instead of va in the weak stem. Para-
digm: vac- "speak":
Sg.
1st uvaca or uvaca
2nd uvacitha or uvaktlJa
3
rd
uviica
1st -ace
2nd
3rd -ace
Du.
Act.
uciva
-acathur
ueatur
Mid.
Ucivahe
-acathe
ueate
PI.
ucima
uca
ueur
ueimahe
ueidhve
Ucire
H. In the same way is conjugated yaj- "sacrifice": iyaja,
etc.; ije, etc.
IH. The root "wish" has i#ma; ( 84).
90. OF ROOTS IN i, i, U, u, r, r the strong stem has option-
ally full or lengthened grade in the 1st sg. act., full grade in the
2nd sg., lengthened grade in the 3rd sg.: stu- "praise":
or
( 18 I); ni- "lead": ninaya, ninyur ( 6); ji- "conquer" forms
jigaya.
CONJUGATION
7
I
In the weak stem the roots in r after several consonants and
most in r have full grade: smr- "remember": 3rd pI. act.
sasmarur.
The root i- "go" forms iyaya, iyur.
9I. _-' ROOTS IN a AND DIPHTHONGS have the ending au in
the 1st and 3rd sg. act.; in the weak forms (and optionally
in the 2nd sg. act.) they have the vowel i before an ending
beginning with a cons., no root vowel before an ending
beginning with a vowel. Paradigm: da- "give".
Sg. Du. PI.
Act.
1st dadau dadiva dadima
2nd dadatha or daditha dadathur dada
3rd dadau dadatur dadur
Mid.
1st dade dadivahe dadimahe
2nd d a d i ~ e dadathe dadidhve
3rd dade dadate dadire
92. ROOTS BEGINNING AND ENDING WITH A CONSONANT
AND SIMULTANEOUSLY PROSODICALLY LONG have no gradation:
nind- "blame" has in all forms ninind-, jiv- "live" jijiv-
( 3 end).
93. THE ROOT vid- has no reduplication in the meaning
"know": veda "I know", vettha, veda, vidma, vida, vidur.
The perfect of the root bhil- "become, etc." is irregular:
babhUva, babhuvitha, babhuva, babhUvima, babhuva, babhuvur.
The forms of the root ah- "say" are incomplete only in the
act.: sg. 2nd attha, 3rd aha, duo ahathur, ahatur, pI. ahur.
94. THE PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT. This construction is
7
2
CONJUGATION
used principally with the derived verbs, especially with the
causative; also roots which begin with a prosodically long
vowel except a and a and as- "sit" form this perfect. It is
formed by adding the invariable am to the present stem; this
form is combined with the perfect forms of kr- "make" (act.
and mid.), as- "be" or bhit- "become, etc." (only act.).
Examples: caus. ( 97) "satisfy":
"see": ik$a1'J'tcakre; as- "sit": asa1'J'tcakre; ma- "measure"
(Ill mimite) , mapayati "cause to be measured, cause to be
built": mapaya1'J'tcakre.
THE PASSIVE
95. THE PRESENT.
I The syllable ya is added to the root with the personal
endings of the mjddle; the inflection is that of the 1st
pres. class, e.g., dvi$- "hate": dvi$-ya-te; yuj- "yoke, join":
yujyate.
The passive stem has the weak grade of the root:
bandh- "bind" : badhyate; vac- "speak" : ucyate, vas-
"dwell": u$yate, grah- "seize": grhyate; nind- "blame":
nindyate. Final vowels are changed and in fact as follows:
final a and diphthongs usually go to i: da- "give": diyate;
gai- "sing": giyate; but jiia- "know": jiiayate; dhyai-
"consider": dhyayate; final i and u become i and it: ci-
"gather": ciyate, sru- "hear": sruyate; r becomes ri after
simple COllS., ar after two cons.: kr- "do": kriyate, smr-
"remember": smaryate; r becomes ir, after labials itr: Sf-
"break" : Siryate; Pr- "fill": puryate. Passive of hve- "call" :
huyate. The present of the root jan- "be born", jayate is
intrans. mid. of the 4th pr. cl. Several passives are origi-
nally intransitives; they frequently have intrans. meaning.
CONJUGATION
73
H. The belonging to the presents of the lOth class
and caus. ( 97) is formed without the syllable ay:
"notice": vadayati "cause to be spoken,
cause to be sounded (from vad- "speak"): vadyate. It
should be noted that the root vowel of the caus. remains.
96. GENERAL TENSES. Here the middle also has the
meaning of a passive. Only a 3rd sg. aor. pass. in i is found:
la- "cut off": alavi, pac- "cook": apaci, dis- "show": adeSi,
d,s- "see": adarsi, jan- "be born": ajani, dhii- "put": adhiiyi
(likewise the other roots in a).
THE DERIVED VERBAL STEMS
97. CAUSATIVES. In general every verb can form a
present with causative meaning beside its present class: aya
is added to the root whose vowel, if it is final, shows as a rule
lengthened grade (often also if it is a before a cons.), but if it
occurs medially before a cons., it has the full grade. The
inflection is that of the 1st present class. Examples: kr-
"make": karayati "cause to be made", ni- "lead": nayayati
"cause to be led", pat- "fall": patayati "cause to fall, fell",
"be pleased": "satisfy". There are, however, a
number of roots with internal a before a cons. which do not
lengthen the a: jan- "be born": janayati "beget", etc. Most
roots ending in a have paya as a causative sign: da- "give":
dapayati "cause to be given"; some run like jM- "know":
jMpayati or jnapayati "inform". Also ,- "go" forms arpayati
"fasten, offer"; ruh- "grow, climb" has ropayati beside
rohayati, adhi-i- "learn" : adhyapayati "instruct" ;
"destroy" has and The root sidh- "suc-
ceed" forms sadhayati "accomplish".
74
CONJUGATION
Irregular are e.g., "damage" and purayati "fill".
98. TENTH PRESENT CLASS. There are a number of
verbs which form the present without causative meaning
according to the aya- conjugation; many are denominatives.
Examples: amitrayati "be hostile" (from amitra- "hostile"),
'Oar1')ayati "describe" (from vartta- "color"), corayati "steal".
The future of the aya-verbs has ay + #ya: from kr-:
Concerning aor., pert., and pass. one should refer
to 77; 94; 95 II.
99. DESIDERATIVES. sa, sometimes is added to the
reduplicated root. The reduplication syllable has i as a vowel,
but u if the root syllable contains u or u or gets u according to
the following rule. Examples: pa- "drink": pipasati "wish to
drink", ji'O- "live": "wish to live", drs- "see":
( 19 VI) "wish to see". Final i goes to i, final u to u,
finalr and; go to ir, after labials to ur: sru- "hear": sUSru$ati,
kr- "make": pres. part. mid. mr- "die":
The root grak- "seize" forms cit-
"observe", cikitsati "heal", han- "kill" jighii'IfJsati. Some
desideratives have obtained greater independence: "beg"
(wish to get)" from bhaj- "obtain", etc. Cf. also II6 Ill.
100. INTENSIVES. The intensive stem has a redu-
plication strengthened by full grade, lengthening, or in
another way, and the suffix ya. The inflection is that of the
middle of the Ist class. The treatment of final root vowels
is the same as with the passive. Examples: diP- "shine":
dedipyate; ru- "cry": roruyate "cry repeatedly or very much";
mrj- "rub off": marmrjyate.
There are also other intensive formations, e.g., 'Oid- "know":
'Oevetti; kram- "step": cankramiti.
CONJUGATION
75
VERBAL NOUNS
101. PARTICIPLES OF THE TENSE STEMS.
I. IN THE PRES. AND FUT. OF THE ACT. the suffix is at in the
weak participial stem, ant in the strong stem; in the
future and thematic present stems only a stands instead
of a of the suffix with the thematic vowel a. Inflection,
s. 36. Thus: in the pres. of the thematic conjugation
bhr- I bharati "bear": strong bharant-, weak bharat-;
IV "be pleased": strong weak
in the pres. of the athematic conj. the suffix is added
to the weak present stem: II "hate":
bhid- VII bhinatti "split": bhindant-, bhindat-;
as- IX asnati "eat"; asnant-, asnat-. Reduplicated stems
have only the weak stem: hu- III juhoti "sacrifice": cf.
37. Part. fut. act. bhu- "become, etc."

n. IN THE PRES. MID. of the thematic conjugation and in the
pres. of the passive miina (according to 20 I ma1Ja) is
added to the pres. stem: bhara-mii1Ja-; pass. tud-ya-miina.
In the athematic conj. ana (a1Ja, 20 I) is added to the
weak pres. stem: bhid- VII: bhindana-; hu- Ill: juhvana-,
bru- II: bruvii1Ja-, Si- II "lie": sayiina-, kr- VIII: kur-
va1Ja-. Irregular is as- Il "sit": iisina-. Part. fut. mid.:
da-: dasyamana-.
Ill. IN THE PERF. PART. OF THE ACT. vas ( 42) is added to the
weak perf. stem; it is added to monosyllabic ped. stems
with the vowel i except in the weak prevocalic de-
clension stem. Thus kr-: cakrvas-, jan- "be born":
jajnivas-, weak prevocalic stem pac- "cook":
pecivas-, but vid-: vidvas-.
,
\
CONJUGATION
IV. IN THE PERF. PART. OF THE MIDDLE ana (atta) is added to
the Vl?-eak stem: kr-: cakra'l!-a-, pac-: pecana-.
I02'J ADJECTIVES FROM THE ROOT OR THE
DERIVED VERBAL STEM. There are verbal adjectives (also
called participles) in ta and na; for intransitive verbs they
have preterital meaning, whereas in the case of transitive
verbs the meaning is usually pret. and passive, sometimes
active also.
Examples: cira1fl- supto 'smi "I have slept long"; raja
grka1fl- gatatJ "the king has gone home"; gka'lJ-la maya datta
"the bell has been given by me, I have given the bell".
The suffixes -ta- and -na- are added to the weak root (note
I9 Ill-V; VII): bhr- I bharati: bkrta-, yuj- VII "yoke":
yukta-, svap- "sleep": supta-, vat- "speak": ukta-, yaj-
"honor the gods by a s'acrifice": Set-roots ending in a
consonant have the vowel i before ta, not before na: pat-
"fall": patita-, but dak- "burn": dagdka- ( 19 Ill), grak-
( 7I): grkita-, guk- "hide": gUif,ka-, etc., 'Oak- "lead": urlka-.
One should note: instead of fjnal a and ai of some roots we
find i: pa- "drink": pita-, with other roots i: stha- "stand":
stkita-; dka- "put" forms kita-; jna- "know", ya- "go", kkya-
"name", etc. retain the a: kkyata-. The suffix ta is always
added with the vowel i to the stems of the loth cl. and the
caus. after loss of aya: caus. "satisfy":
Note a-jna- X "order": ajnapta-.
If a root ends in a and a nasal, then a appears: gam- "go":
gata-, man- "think, consider": mata-; but they frequently
have long vowel + n: kram- "step": kranta-; some have only
a: kkan- "dig": kkiita-; jan- "be born": jata-. But da1fl-s-
"bite": ( 19 V).
CONJUGATION
77
The root da- "give" torms datta-; prach- "ask":
ghas- "eat": jagdha-
Some torms form the verbal adj. optionally with ta or na:
tvar- "hasten": tvarita- and tur1Ja-.
The rarer na (1Ja) is added to the roots in r: tr- "step over":
tir1f,a-, p"j- "fill": purt}a-; to most in d: pad- "get into":
panna-; to some roots ending in a vowel: hii- "leave": hina-,
etc ; to some roots in g and j (j goes to g before na): lag-
"hang": lagna-; vij- "be frightened": vigna, bhanj- "break":
bhagna-, majj- "sink under": magna-.
103. There is a VERBAL ADJECTIVE WITH ACTIVE PRE-
TERITAL MEANING which is often used in the sense of a finite
verb: it is formed by addition of vat (declension: 38) to the
just mentioned perf. pass. part.: ukta-vat- "having said",
<..
uktavan (nom. sg. m.): "(he) said". Per;phrastic construction:
krtava1}'ts tva1}'t "you will have made".
104. GERUNDIVE (cf. II6 VII). There are three for-
mations:
a) tavya to the full grade of the root, with set-roots together
with i: kr-: kartavya-; bhu-: bhavitavya- ("what should
be"); the ay a-stems retain the ay: budh- caus.: bodhayi-
tavya-.
b) aniya (a1Jiya 20 I), usually to the root in the full grade:
kr-: kara1Jiya-; the aya-stems lose the ay: cint- X "think":
cintaniya-.
c) ya: da-: deya-; bhu-: bhavya- or bhiivya- "what should
happen"; kr- "do": Mrya-; vadh- "kill": vadhya-, labh-
"obtain": labhya-; cint- X: cintya-; sthii- caus. sthiipayati:
sthiipya-. After some roots in i u r also tya: krtya-.
105. INFINITIVE. tum is added to the full grade ot the
CONJUGATION
root, with set-roots together with i: kr- "make": llartum, yuj-
"yoke" VII: yoktum, drs- "see": (sic!); jiv- "live":
jivitum, sah- "bear": grah- "take": grahitum; ji-
"conquer": jetum; bhu- "become": bhavitum; gam- "go":
gantum; tt- "cross over": taritum or taritum. The aya-verbs
retain the ay and add i; budh- caus.: bodhayitum.
I06. GERUNDS. Besides the rare formation with am
(kr-: kiiram) Old Indic has two gerunds which are used as
indeclinable participles and designate an action which
precedes the action expressed by the principal verb of the
sentence; the grammatical or logical subject of the sentence
is the agent of the gerund.
The gerund I in tvii is that of the uncompounded verbs.
With regard to the root form and the i before tvii the same
rules apply as with ta; roots in r are treated as with the
passive. kr-: krtvii; vac- "speak": uktvii, drs- "see":
svap- "sleep": suptvii, grah-: grhitvii, han- "kill": hatvii. sthii-:
sthitvii, kram- "step": kriintvii. The aya-stems retain ay:
budh-: bodhayitvii "having drawn one's attention".
The gerund n in ya is added to verbs which are compounded
with preverbs (prepositions); in epic now and then also to
simple verbs. The rules given above ( 95) for the passive
concerning the form of the root are applicable: vi-muc-
"free": vimucya; pra-vas- "set out": (from
Final ii remains unchanged: pra-dii- "give": pradiiya. Roots
in a short vowel have tya: abhi-dru- "run towards": abhi-
drutya. The roots in am and an, as they have a instead of am
or an in the weak grade, can likewise add tya: ii-gam- "come":
iigatya beside iigamya; some always have it: ni-han- "strike
down": nihatya; jan- "be born" and khan- "dig" form -jiiya
CONJUGATION
79
and -khaya beside -janya and -khanya. The aya-verbs lose ay:
vi-bhavayati "disclose": vibhavya; they retain it only if the
preceding root syllable is prosodicaUy short: sam-gamayati
"bring together": satJ1-gamayya.
COMPOSITION
107. VERBAL COMPOSITION.
I. By compounding with one or more preverbs the meaning
of verbs often is modified:
ati "over, beyond, past": carati "go": aticarati "go past,
pass over".
adhi "over, on": adhikaroti "put over something".
anu "along, after": eti (i- 64 Ill) "go": anveti "go after,
follow".
antar (rare) "in between, etc.": antardadhiiti (dhii- 66)
"put jn between".
apa "away, off": apanayati (ni- I) "lead away".
api "near to, at, op": apidadhati ( 66) "cover up, close".
abhi "to, unto, toward": abhidravati (dru- I) "run towards,
draw near".
ava "down, from, away": avatarati (tf-) "climb down".
a "hither, unto": gacchati ( 61 I) "go": agacchati "come";
dadati ( 66) "give": adatte "take"; ni-, nayati "lead":
anayati "bring near, take along".
ud "up, up forth, forth; out": udeti "go up, go out, arise".
upa "to, unto": upaiti (upa + eti, 5 11) "arrive at".
ni "down, into": nipatati "fall down".
nis "out, away from": "go out".
para "away, off, aside, etc.": paravartate "turn back,
return".
pari "around": k#pati VI "throw" : parik#pati "surround,
enclose"; also jntensive meaning: parijayati (ji- I)
"conquer (completely)".
COMPOSITION 81
pra "before, forward": pravahati "travel farther", also
initial stage: prahasati "burst out laughing".
prati "against, back" : "speak" :
"answer" .
vi "asunder, away": yunakti "joip": viyunakti "separate".
sam "together"; sa1'J1-gacchati "come together, unite with";
also intensive meaning: sa1'J1-yacchati (yam-, 61 I)
"bridle" .
Some adverbs can be compounded with a limited number
of verbs: ata1'J1-karoti "decorate", etc.
H. Nouns can be compounded with the 'auxiliary verbs kr-
"make", bhU- "become", as- "be"; final a and an of the
nominal sterns go to i, i goes to i, u to 14, etc.; the meaning
is "turn into something, become, be" : bahulibhavati
"multiply", ekibhavati "unite".
lO8-II3. NOMINAL COMPOSITION.
I08. PRELIMINARY REMARKS. Nominal compounds are
very frequent in Sanskrit. With exception of the dvandvas
(s. 109) they always consist of only two members; but they
can themselves again become members o.f a new compound.
With exception of the final member all members in general
assume the stem form; nominal stems with gradation have
weak grade in their preconsonantal form. Pronouns have
the forms of their stems mentioned in 47 ff. Instead of
mahat- "great" we find maha in the first member of a kar-
madharaya or bahuvrilii ( II I; II2); final members some-
times become a-stems: maharaja- "a great king" instead of
mahat- + rajan- "king". The rules of sentence sandhi (above
5 ff.) with some easily understandable exceptions apply to
compounds.
GONDA, Elementary Grammar
6
COMPOSITION
109. DVANDVA (COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS). In these com-
pounds two or more members are coordinated; they can
u')ually be decomposed into their constituent elements and
then connected by "and". The compound is either:
a} dual or plural, according as two or more persons or things
are designated: kastyaSvau "an elephant (hastin-) and a
horse (aSva-}"; hastyaSvaft, "elephants and horses"; suta-
bha,ye "son (suta-) and wife (bha,ya-}"; such a dvandva
thus has the gender of the last member; vrka-si11'ha-
vyagh,aft" "wolves, lions, and tigen-''',
"with exhaling, inhaling, breathing again", or:
b) a collective neuter in the singular, often two abstracts like
sukhaduft,kham "joy and pain"; aharnisam "day (ahan-)
and night {nisa-)".
Adjectival dvandva compounds also occur: vrttapina-
"round and fat".
no. TATPURU!?A (DETERMINATIVE COMPOUNDS). A tat-
compound is subst. or adj., according as the final
member is subst. or adj. The last member is defined more
exactly by the first member. The first member can represent
every oblique case: p,tkivi-pata- "lord of the earth" (gen.
sg.), aSva-kovida- "skilled in horses" (gen. pl.), svarga-gati-
"ascension to heaven" (acc.), deva-gupta- "protected by the
god or by the gods" (instr.), svarga-patita- "fallen from
heaven" (abl.). It should be noted that a root can occur in the
final member with the meaning of a participle: brahma-vid-
"knowing divine knowledge"; roots in a short vowel get
final t: sarva-ji-t- "conquering the universe"; roots in a
frequently shorten this: veda-jita- "knowing the Veda" (iita-);
roots in a nasal often go over to the a-class: grama-ja- "born
COMPOSITION
(jan-) in a village". There are also tatp. comp. with a case
form in the first member: divas-pati- (d. 31) "lord ot
heaven", "living in heaven".
II!. KARMADHARAYA (APPOSITIONALLY DEFINED COM-
POUNDS). Here the final member is defined more exactly by
the first member as an attribute, apposition, or comparison,
or the first member designates the species, the second the
genus. There are four types: adj. (adv.) + subst. nilotpala-
"blue (nila-) lotus {u)"; su-yajna- "beautiful sacrifice";
subst. + adj. megha-syama- "black like a cloud"; subst. +
subst. (raja- + "a seer who is a king"; kanya-
ratna- "a girl like a jewel"; "mango tree". Native
grammar considers under the determ. comp. also: adj. + adj.
"scarcely seen, already vanished", pita-rakta-
"yellowish red". -If the first member is a numeral, then the
comp. is called dvigu: tri-loka- "three worlds".
II2. BAHuvRiJ.n (POSSESSIVE COMPOUNDS). These comp.
are always adj., but their final member is always a subst. The
subst. to which they are joined determines their gender. The
first member is:
a) an adj. (part., numeral): bahu-vrihi- "he whose rice is
much" (vrihir bahur yasya, salt); gatayus- "he from whom
life (ayus-) has gone; dead";
b) a subst.: tapo-dhana "he whose wealth is asceticism";
c) an indeclinable: dur-bala- "he whose strength is bad;
weak"; a-bala- "without strength" (balo yasya nasti,
salt); sa-bhiirya- (thus -a-I) "accompanied by the wife
(bharyii) " .
Sometimes ka is added: sagnika- (sa-agni-ka-) "accompanied
by Agni". - Expressions which mean "hand" (also other
COMPOSITION
parts of the body) stand in last place: dattq,a-pii:lJi- "having a
stick in the hand" (dattq,afi, piittau yasya, safi, or dattq,ena pii'IJir
yasya, sa!&); the comp. then designates that one who holds or
has attached at this part of the body the entity mentioned in
the first member. - Bah. comp. with an infinitive stem as the
first member, manas- or kiima- as the final member are fre-
quent: vaktumanas- "intending to say": aha1ft
"I am intending to say"; tyaktukiima- "wishing to leave".
II3. AVYAYiBHAVA (ADVERBIAL COMPOUNDS). A. are
indeclina ble, adverbially used compounds whose first member
is an indeclinable and whose second member is a noun which
takes the ending of the acc. sg. neutr. (often -am): sa-kopam
(kopa- m. "anger") "angrily", praty-aham (ahan- 45 I)
"daily", yatheccham (yathii "as" + icchii "wish") "according
to desire".
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
A few important characteristics only are mentioned.
II4. CASE AND NUMBER.
I. THE COPULA as- "be" is usually omitted if the predicate
is a noun: yathii tatkii phalam "as the tree (is), so
(is) the fruit".
Il. THE ACCUSATIVE designates not only the \ object of a
transitive verb but also the destination of a motion:
pratastke "he departed for T.", and the
extent of space and time: kiilam,
"wait some time". The acc. of an abstract in tii or tva
can occur with verbs of motion in the sense of "be-
come something": vrddhatiitp, gacchati "he is becoming
old". After verbs of speaking, asking, teaching, etc. a
double acc. is possible: deviin papracchur enatp, Kurupu-
triifi, "the sons of Kuru made inquiries of him about the
gods". The Latin acc. with infinitive does not exist in
Sanskrit; but we frequently find the acc. with a parti-
ciple after verbs of sensual and mental perception: tam
iigacchantam apasyam "I saw him coming", or a double
acc.: tatp, balinam apasyam "I saw that he was strong".
The sg. cognate acc. is frequently found: tapas tapate
"he practices asceticism". The acc. is dependent on the
preposition in Damayantim anu-vratafi, "devoted to D.".
Ill. THE INSTRUMENTAL designates means, instrument:
channaIJ "covered with a dress"; reason or
cause: lajjayii na kitp,cid "due to modesty she
86 SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
said nothing"; the agent with the passive: tena ka-
tnanaka"" prii:rabdham "by him a story was begun"; the
accompanying or associated person or thing: aka""
tvayii vanam "1 shall go with you to the
forest" (very often, especially in post-Vedic prose with
saka, sii1'dham, sahita-, etc. "with"); also with of
separation: sa1'i1'etf,a viyujyate "he frees himself from
the body"; for the designation of equality and simi-
larity: tena tulyafJ "equal to him" ; of the value or price:
tad bahumUlyena kritam "this has been bought for a
large sum of money"; of characteristic (distinguishing
mark, attributes, manner and way, etc.): kesaifJ sitaifJ
"with white hair"; of criterion: audii1'yetta "on the
basis of (his) magnanimity (I conclude)"; of respect:
kiittafJ "blind jn one eye"; of space within which,
or of the way over or through which a movement takes
place: mii1'getf,a prayayau "he went away by
the designated route" or of the time within which
something happens and is brought to conclusion:
miiseniinuviiko ' dhitafJ "the section was learned in a
month", or also of the time during which an action
happens: tena kiilena "at this time".
IV. THE DATIVE is the "to- and for-case": mahya"" pus-
taka"" dehi "give me the book"; vaniiya "he
sets out for the forest", thus is used especially with
verbs of giving, etc., of telling, promising, etc., of
wishing, etc., further with verbs denoting anger,
acquiescence, etc. The final dative designates the
object of striving, purpose, and intention: phalebhyo
gacchati "he goes out after fruits", kutt4-aliiya hirattyam
"gold for a ring"; laghuniim api sa'f{tSrayo
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
bhavati "even association with the weak is conducive to
protection" .
Y. THE ABLATIVE designates the point of departure; it is
the "whence" case: vanad agacchati "he is coming from
the forest", mac chrutva (from mat Srutva) "having
heard from me", tad yacita1'J1- blvUpat "this is requested
by the prince", lobhat krodhalJ, prabhavati "anger arises
from greed"; also with verbs of desistance, cessation,
etc.: virama karmar.to 'smat "refrain from this action";
of deprivation: cyutalJ, svarajyiit "having been deprived
of his wealth"; likewise that from which one refrains,
against which one defends himself, of which one is
afraid, etc.: caurebhyo "protected against
thieves". This case also designates origin: brahmar.taj
jiitab "he was born of a Brahman", reason or cause:
bhayad idam abravit "he said this from fear"; fre-
quently of abstracts in tva, where we use a clause
with "because": sarva1'J1- nitya1'J1- prameyatvat "every-
thing is eternal because it can be imagined". Further-
more, in the abl. is expressed the point from which a
distance is reckoned: tasmat trtiyalJ, "the third from
him"; with comparatives and with words with the
meaning "other, different, better (than)" and with
other comparative expressions: dhanyataras tasmad
"more fortunate than he", mitrad anyalJ, "other than a
friend"; all adjectives can even stand also in the
positive with this abl. of comparison: bharya sarvatokad
api "the wife is dearer than the whole world".
VI. GENITIYJi:. Possessive genitive: nrpasya senfi "the
army of the prince", partitive genitive: dura1'J1- pathalJ,
"a wide stretch of road", objective genitive: kanyayab
88 SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
sokaft, "grief for a maiden", etc. The genitive of the
personal pronoun is used where we a..<; a rule use a
possessive pronoun: mama pita "my father"; but there
are also poss. pronouns: madiya- "mine",. etc.; they
are not very frequent. It is used with verbs of giving
and imparting, of rejoicing in, with "remember",
etc. ; very often the genitive is used with verbs where we
should expect the dative: de}# valkala1ft mama "give
me a garment made of bast", tasya 'bruyat sada priyam
"let him always speak kindly to him"; hita1ft tasya
"good for him". Gerundives and the verbal adjectives
in ta and na are often combined with a SUbjective
genitive: bharta tava neyaft, "your husband should be
carried off by you". Many adjectives take this case:
full, skilled, able, etc.: dhanasya pUY1Jam "full of
treasures", tava priyaft, "dear to you". There is a
genitive absolute (cf. the locative absolute, s below),
which is less frequent than the locative absolute; it is
very often concessive: pasyatas te "although
you see it (i.e., before your eyes), I shall die"; the
subject is almost always a person, the predicate very
often a pres. part. A semi-absolute genitive is also
frequently found: eva1ft tu vartamanasya tasya ...
agamat kalaft, "for him who acted in this way, the time
came" or "while he ... ".
VII. LOCATIVE. This case can be translated in English by
"in, at, by, under, on"; it designates place and time,
and is used in the real and figurative sense: padayoft,
patati "he falls at the feet of", "in the
sixth year"; msvasan "putting his trust in his
servant" ; it is employed with verbs of giving, sending,
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
89
etc. often as the "whither" case: briihmanesu dattam "it
is given to Brahmans" ; it 'in which
respect": adhiko bale "superior in strength", "in regard
to which purpose": carma1J,i dvipina1'fl- hanti "he kills
the panther for the sake of its skin"; it is used with adj.
which mean "experienced, etc." : yuddhe kusalafi,
"experienced in war". The i.e., a
locative of a noun connected with that of a participle,
which designates an external circumstance preceding or
accompanying the action of the sentence, is very
frequent. This construction can be translated in
English by temporal, causal, concessive, and con-
ditional dependent clauses: mUle hate hata1'fl- sarvam
"if the root is killed, then everything is killed"; na
riijiina1'fl- vinii riijya1'fl- balavatsv api "a king-
dom does not exist without a king even if (or: although)
the ministers are powerful"; pur1J,e munifi,
Sagariiya vara1'fl- priidiit "when the century was com-
plete, the ascetic granted a wish to Sagara". Sometimes
the subject remains undesignated: "if it rains",
"when such had happened".
VIII. THE PLURAL of the name of a people designates coun-
tries and regions: M adriifi, "the land of the Madra".
II5. TENSES AND MOODS.
I. THE PRES. INDICATIVE designates actions which take
in the present, ever-valid events, continuing, not
completed actions. To presents of duration sma can be
added; in older times such pres. with sma designated
duration in the past: tatra sma riijate Bhaimi "there
was resplendent Bhima's daughter (and indeed as was
9
0
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
her custom)"; later careless use is encountered also:
pres. with sma can also indicate the past in general:
kasmi'f{tcin nagare brahmatf,a/l prativasati sma "in a city
there lived a Brahman". The present without sma can
designate duration in the past if misunderstanding is
precluded. The near future can also be expressed by the
present: katha1ft kathayami "I want to tell a story". as-
"sit", stha- "stand", and other verbs can express an
action in progress especially ""ith a pres. part.
11. Tenses of the past. The AORIST in Vedic designates the
current past, the imperfect events which have lost their
currentness: "Yama died, (then the gods came and
asked his sister Y ami; she answered) : he has died today":
yamo va amriyata (impf.) ... abramd adyamrteti (amrta
aor. + iti). The PERFECT designates in the oldest texts the
action which has come to a conclusion in the present.
In Sanskrit the impf. always has historical meaning, the
perf. almost always has it, and the aorist. which is not
frequent in all types of literature, is often simply a tense
of the past. Very often PRETERITAL PARTICIPLES ( 102)
are also used as finite verbs of the past: raja mrta/l "the
king died", Y ama/l praytita/l "Y. set out on the road";
vaya1ft ( I03) "we have seen
a form of bhu- "become". etc. can also be
added: gatabhut "she has, had gone"; also passive:
tena . .. ayatam ( II4 Ill) "he came". In post-Vedic
times the ta- and na- verbal adjectives often continue
to fulfill the function of the aorist.
Ill. THE OPTATIVE expresses a) a wish or request: tasya
rudhira1ft pibeyam "I should like to drink her blood"
(often with api), gacche/l "please go", b) a possibility:
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
9
1
kadacid gosabdena budhyeta "he should perhaps awaken
owing to the lowing of the cows" ; katha1f!, vidya1f!, N alam ?
"how would I be able to recognize Nala?"; doubt: ta1f!,
hanyad bii1Jafl, "will the arrow (be able to) kill him ?" c)
an hypothesis: yadi syat pavakafl, Sitafl, "if fire were
cold ... "; it stands d) in final and consecutive clauses:
tathii prayatnam a t i ~ t h e d yathiitmana1f!, na piif,ayet "may
he take pains so that he may not worry". e) in relative
clauses of general content: yo + opt., "if anyone ... "
and in other cases; in several texts it is as a rule pre-
scriptive: siidra1f!, kiirayed dasyam "may he let a Siidra
be subservient", especially in later texts (but already
in the epics and earlier) it is frequently to be translated
by a pres. indic. with or even without "perhaps".
IV. In post-Vedic texts the PERIPHRASTIC FUTURE as a rule
designates actions which may be expected at a definite
moment, oiten in curses, promises, etc.
V. IMPERATIVE. This mood can also express a wish: imar(l
mahir(l raja prasastu nafl, "may our king rule over this
earth"; cira1f!, jiva "live long"; it often has (especially
in the 1st person) dubitative or potential meaning:
kathar(l mocyamahai "how can we be saved ?". The
passive imperative is often used as a polite form: gamya-
tam "one should depart; go, please". A frequent polite
form is also arhati + inf.: ma1f!, tyaktum arhasi "they
should, are to leave me". Although ma + imp. also
occurs (polite na + arhasi: na ma1f!, tyaktum arhasi), as a
rule the augmentless aorist with ma ( 82) is expression
of a prohibition: ma bhaifl, "do not be afraid".
II6. OTHER VERBAL FORMS.
9
2
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
I. PASSIVE. In the post-Vedic language the use of the
passive expression evel increases: tulii mU$ikair bhak#tii
"the balance is eaten up by the mice", i.e., "the mice
have eaten up the balance"; ca "the
master of the guild asked him". The passive is frequently
intransitive: drsyate "he appears", yavaft, pacyate "the
barley becomes ripe".
H. CAUSATIVE. This form expresses the causing, ordering,
effecting of an action: Devadattaft, svapiti "D. sleeps",
Devadattattt sviiPayiimi "I put D. to sleep"; viir.tijyattt
nrpaft, kiirayed vaiSyam "the prince should let a VaiSya
carry on trade"; in the passive: vaiSyo nrper.ta viittijyattt
kiiryate.
IH. DESlDERATIVE. The desiderative designates the action
as desired, intended: jijiiiisate (-ti) "he wishes to become
acquainted with", also as imminent: "he is
about to die, on the point of dying, faces death". Beside
the d. an adj. in u can stand from the d.-stem:
"desiring to die, on the point of dying, about to die",
and likewise a subst. in ii: "the desire to die,
etc.". Some very common d. have almost become in-
dependent verbs: pipiisati "be thirsty" from Pii- (pibati)
"drink".
IV. INTENSIVE. The into expresses that the action happens
emphatically or often: pepiyate (cf. 100) "drink greedily
or repeatedly" from Pii- "drink".
V. VERBAL AD]. IN -ta AND -na (per!. pass. part.) and the
tavant- forms s. above 102 and 103. Periphrastic
construction: Srutattt tena tad abhUt "that had been heard
by him". The pres. part. with iis- "sit", stha- "stand",
and other verbs is used to express an uninterrupted
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
93
action in progress: 'naya kri4ann ( I2 Ill) asta Eng.
"he was sporting with her".
VI. THE INFINITIVE is dependent on verbs and adjectives
which express a beginning, striving, or undertaking; a
capability or ability; a going, wishing, desiring, having
to, deserving, etc. It designates the objective or purpose
of an action. Examples: sat}1khyatum arabdhaJ; "having
begun to count", pratyakhyatut}1 na miirhasi "do not
reject me". The infinitive is in itself neither active nor
passive. It can be made dependent on a passive verb or
verbal adjective or on an adjective with passive meaning;
we translate by means of the passive infinitive with an
active finite verb: nahartut}1 sakyate "it cannot be
produced"; pita te marayitut}1 niyate "your father is
led there in order to be killed". An inf. is often dependent
on the gerundive sakya-: a) sakya- is adj.: na durvrttai1;
sakyo mahesvara1; "the great lord (god) cannot
be seen by villains", b) sakyam is indeclinable: na
sakyam ativartitum "(he) cannot escape from thi., infir-
mity" ; cf. also yukta parit;tetut}1 mama "she is suited to be
married by me".
VII. THE GERUNDIVES (participles of necessity) express a
necessity, possibility, obligation, etc. They can be used
as predicate and as attribute to a subst. and have the
same case, gender, and number as the subst. The agent
stands in the instrumental or genitive. They can also be
used impersonally and then appear in the nom. sg. of the
neuter. Examples: kasmai kanya deya "to whom should
the girl be given?"; tvayatra bhojanatp kiiryam "here you
should prepare the food", bharta le mayii muktas, tava neyaJ;
"your husband is freed by me, you can take him along" ;
94
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
atra bhavitavyam anayii "here she must stay"; na
bhetavyam "do not be afraid". In addition to the agent
of an impers. grdv. an attribute of the agent defining the
sentence predicate can occur: tvayii prahnjayii blzavyam
"you should be happy".
II7. THE ABSOLUTIVE (GERUND) has the character of an
indeclinable aorist participle; it stands almost always in
conjunction with a noun or pronoun in the sentence, which
can be treated as subject of the gerund; this is as a rule the
logical or also the grammatical subject of the whole sentence:
tam abravit prahasyendrafl, "Indra spoke to him after he (I).
had burst out laughing (bursting out laughing)"; gatva
sighram "after you have gone, report quickly", i.e.,
"go and report ... "; sandhyam anvasta Nato 'krtva padayofl,
saucam "Nala performed vespers without having washed his
feet"; mantribhir mititvii Damayanti vijiiapta "after the
ministers had assembled, D. was informed by them"; pijhikiim
aruif,ho d!i>tvaiva dasibhir asu pravivesa
"after he had climbed onto the little bench, he was pulled
up with the rope by the female servants as soon as they had
seen him, and stepped in through the window". The gerund
with api is concessjve. Some gerunds have the value of
prepositions: uddiSya approximately = prati, muktva (muc-),
vihiiya (hii-), etc. "without", adaya "with".
!l8. SENTENCE STRUCTURE. A very frequent con-
junction is yad (yat). It introduces a clause of content, i.e., a
clause which explains or paraphrases the contents of a part
of the main sentence: itafl, ki1f1- tu yad vaya1f1-
gahane vane gantu1f1- na saknumafl, "what is worse than this,
that we cannot walk in the impenetrable forest". After a verb
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
95
of saying, thinking, etc. yad often introduces a dependent
clause to paraphrase the object: veami yat prat}o brahma "I
know that the breath is the Brahma". yad can mean "inas-
much as, as" and even have the meaning of the causal "be-
cause"; tasmad, tena, etc. are correlative with it: yat tvaya
pajito 'smi, tatab prito 'smi "because you have honored me,
therefore I am satisfied". yad can also have final and other
meanings.
Yavat, combined with na "not", means "before": yavat tava
vinaso na bhavati, tdvad gaccha "before your destruction
occurs, go".
II9. DIRECT DISCOURSE; iti. Direct discourse is very
common in Sanskrit; it is as a rule designated by addition
of the particle iti: sa brahiti pitra sa'lf'codita "she was incited by
her father with the word 'speak' ". iti can also stand alone
without verb at the end of a quoted speech; one must here add
a verb of saying, judging, thinking, promising, etc.; iti is to
be translated in a literary translation by our quotation marks:
samidhab kU'Y'IJata ( 7) edho 'siti "one prepares for himself
pieces of firewood (reciting the formula): 'you are firewood' ".
In this way is paraphrased the object which depends on words
expressing a mental or sensual activity, etc.: devo 'yam iti
manyamanab "believing, this is a god", i.e., "believing that
this is a god". In the same use we also find iti alone: vane
toyam iti pradhavat "in the belief that there was water in the
forest, he ran away". Elsewhere one can translate iti by "so
that": ma bhad asramaPir!eti parimeya-pural;tsarau "they had
only a small retinue so that the hermitage would not be
disturbed", or by: "because, for this reason" (iti lqtva):
sakheti krtva aha'lf' tvaya "since you are my
SOME REMARKS ON SYNTAX
friend, I shall say what was asked by you"; or by "like":
tvam ambaya putra iti pratigrhital;t "you have been received
by my mother like a son". The word also serves to designate
individual words, mainly proper names as predicative des-
ignations of another noun in the sentence. The word before
iti is then in the nominative: Savitriti namasyas cakruJ:t "they
called her S.", r a j a r ~ i r iti ma1'f't vidul;t "one knows that I am a
r i i j a r ~ i " ; bubudhe vikrteti tam "he observed that she had
changed". Dilipa iti raja means "a king named Dilipa".
EXERCISES
I
21
I. asin piirthivo 2. iiciiral). pradhano dhar-
mal).. 3 yatra yatra dhiimas, tatra tatra pavakal).. 4. yatra
vanarp tatra 5. yatha tatha phalam. 6. brah-
maI)al:}. Sagaraya vararp pradat. 7. kaccid vane daruI).e
Nalal)? 8. dul:}.kharpkadacitsukhasya miilam. 9. vyaghro vyii-
dhasya biil).ena hatal).. 10. upadeso miirkhiiI)iim asakrt prakopii-
ya. 11. nagararp Ramasya putreI)a jitam. 12. nrpo mudital).
svam 'eva bhavanarp yayau. 13. aputrasya grhalp. siinyam. I4.
nara1;t sarpeI)a na jivati. 15. anviccha briihmaI)arp gUl).air
upetam. 16. deva pviica Madriil).iirp parthivam i;;tatp vacanam.
17. syenEma bhak;;itii1;l. 18. silalp. narasya
19. piirthiva brahmaQ.asya putriiwyaghreQ.a hatiil:}.. 20. gramiin
nagaralp. jagiima. 21. na tathii svagrhe, mitra, yathii tava
grhe sadii.
1- asin = asit ( IO) "(he) was". 1I4, VII. parthivo:
15; 4 VI.
3 - yatra yatra "wherever".
6 - pradat: 3rd sg. aor. act. pra + da- "give".
10 - prakopaya: II4 IV; n: 20 1.
II - putrena: 20 I
12 - yayau: 3rd sg. perf. ya- "go".
14 - na jivati "does not live", i.e. "will die"
15 - anviccha: 2nd sg. pres. act. imper. "seek".
16 - uvaca' 3rd sg perf. act. vac- "speak" II4 n.
20 - jagama: 3rd sg. perf act. gam- "go".
2I - sva-grhe "own house"; tava, 47. gen. sg. tvam "you".
GONDA, Elementary Grammar 7
9
8
EXERCISES
Il
22
I. Bhimas)'a suta dina bhavati. 2. sarpe1).a kanya
mrta. 3 bhadre, nrpasya senaya ripu-sena jita. 4. lajjaya
kanya na 5. Sitaya rahito Ramo 'tidulJ.khito
'bhavat. 6. kanyabhil). phalani dattani. 7. kanyayai phalarp
pradat. 8. bhadre, saIayarp sidanti. 9. krpaya dhanarp
pradat. 10. kanyayol). sruarp jagama. II. Sitaya
kanyayai phalarp dattam. 12. bharyaya sahito Ramo jagama.
I - bhavati 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. bhii- "become, be".
2 - mrta: lI5 II.
3 - ripu-sena "army of the enemy". jita: II5 II.
4 - pratyabh.1.a: 3rd sg. impf. mid. "answer".
5 - 'bhavat: 3rd sg. impf. act. bhU- s. 1; 7.
8 - sIdauti "they sit": 61 V.
III
23
I. paSor dul).khena sadhur dul).khito bhavati. 2. satrau
santvaIP pratikaral).. 3. dharmeI)a paSubhil). samana1;t.
4. patyul). sakhye paSiin dehi. 5. agnir evagner
6. guror grharp jagama. 7. satro ma jahi bhupatim. 8. arm jahi
sakhe. 9. Harel). kanyaIp Ramal). pariI)ayati. 10.
5ivasya ca bharye gate. II. chayayam avayas
12. guru krudhyata1;t. 13. paraSuna krntati.
14 baIo gurave phalarp pradat.
1-bhavati: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. bhii- "become".
4 - dem: 2nd sg. pres act. imperative da- "give".
7 - zna "not" (with the imperative). jaW: 2nd sg. pres. act. imp.
han- "IalI".
9 - pa.riQayati: 3rd sg. pres act. ind. pari-nr- "marries".
II - 3rd pI. pres. act. ind. stha- "stand".
12 - krudhyata.l}.: 3rd duo pres. act. ind. krudh- "be augry".
13 - kpltati: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. krt- "cut".
EXERCISES
99
IV
24-26
I. upadeSo na santaye. 2. dhenvai sadvalatp
dehi. 3. variI;la sucina p8.z}i 4. sarva gatir jagama.
5. vrtha samudrasya. 6. dhenu:rp ma jaW. 7. madhu
variI).o madhutaram. 8. vfu'iI}.i hatpsa.J.:t plavante. 9. dheno
dehi. 10. dheniir dehi munaye.
1-santaye: II4 IV.
3 - 2nd sg. pres. act. imp. ksal- with pra "wash off".
4 - sarv.: ace pI. fern.
5 - samudrasya: gen. instead of dat.
7 - madhutara- "sweeter": 46; Il4 V.
8 - plavante "they swim".
V
27-28
I na naryo 2. striyo nisargad eva paJJc;1ita.J.:t. 3.
nadyii.:rp hatpsal]. plavate. 4. strltp paSya. 5. vadhvai mahatim
ajatp dehi. 6. bhuvo matsya.J.:t santi. 7. dasibhya:rp
dehi. 8. vadhva balo dhatryai datta1;t. 9. stri balini
dhatribhya:rp dn>ta. 10. nadyos vadhva asate. II.
nrpatir nagaritp senayajayat. 12. devir devfups ca piijayati.
13. matsyan apasyama. 14. nagarya dhenavo na
15. patnibhil;l sahita nagarim agacchan.
3 - 3rd sg. pres act. ind plu- "swim" .
... - paSya: 2nd sg pres. act. imper. paS- "see".
6 - santi "they are".
10 - asate "they sit".
II - 5 1. ajayat: 3Id sg. act. impf ji- "triumph, conquer".
12 - pujayati: 3rd sg pr. act. ind. ( 98) "revere".
I3 - apayiima: Ist pI. impf act. PaS- "see".
14 - tif!lthanti, S. exercise HI, Il.
IS - agacchan: 3rd pI. impf. act. gam- "go".
roo EXERCISES
VI
23-30
I. bharta para11l narya 2. nagarya11l
vatya11l mama svasa Srutasenasya bhratra pari1J,ita. 3. nari
bhartul,l samipam agacchat. 4. amrtalll durlabha11l nr1J,am.
5. sa11lpattes ca vipattes ca daivam eva kara1J,am. 6. satror
api gU1J,an vaded ca guror api. 7. kanya sakhibhil,l
sardha11l kri<;lanti prasuptam ahiQ1 napasyat; ahina
bhuvi papata. 8. kauliko ratrau samayato rajaputryoktal,l:
tvayi jamatari sthite satrubhir jito me pita.
9. arthatura1J,a11l na sukha11l na bandhul,l
kamatura1J,a11l na bhayalll na lajja
vidyatura1J,a11l na sukha11l na nidra
na rucir na pakvam.
Z - mama: gen sg. of aham "I". pariI.lita: perf. pass. part. of ni-
with the prep. pari ( zo I).
3 - agacchat: 3rd sg. impf. act. gam- "go".
6 - vaded: 3rd sg. opt. act. vad- "say": "one should say".
IZ II. .
7 - krl<;lantI: pres. act. part. fem. kri<;l- "play" napa.Syat: 5 I:
3rd sg. impf. act. "see". papata: 3rd sg. perf. act. pat-
"fall" .
8 - samayata- "come (together)". putrya + ukta1;l, 5 n, uktal.t
"addressed". tvayi j. sthite: loco abs. II4 VII. tvayi: loc. of
"you": 47. me "of me" (gen. sg.).
9 - arthaturanalll: IIO.
VII
32-35
r. na bhi!?ak prabhur 2. vayur ambhasi nava11l
Z - navam 31. harati: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. hr- "steal, overpower,
take away".
EXERCISES 101
harati. 3. dhani va1).iIi. nirdhanasya duhitaralJl
pari1).ayati. 4. tatra nadya:\:l pUQyal). pU1).yani ca saralJlsi. 5. na
jalaukasam ange jalauka lagati. 6. Damayanti tu riipeQa
ca yasa:\:l prapa. 7. marud ambhasi
harati. 8. yatha cittalJl tatha vaca:\:l. 9. svargo brahmavidbhyas
trQam. 10. devebhyo II. vaQijal). suta vipady
apanna. 12. vrddho vaQig duhitararp paryaQayat. 13.
nara:\:l 5umana apasyat. 14. cakl?ul?a pasyati
3 - dhani: nom. sg. ( 41). va1J.in: 10. parit;layati (ni-): "he
marries".
5 - jalauka: 34 n. lagati: "he adheres to".
6 - prapa: 3rd sg. perf. act. ap- with pra "attain".
12 - paryal,layat "he married"
13 - apaSyat: "(he) saw", cf 14.
14 - pasyati: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. pas- "see".
VIII
36-41
1. rajovaca duhitaralJl ca vrddharps ca mantriQa:\:l: kuto
gata bhavanta:\:l? 2. ajagama punar vesma Savitri saha
mantribhi:\:l. 3. dvipinarp baQena hanti. 4. asid raja Nalo nama.
5. piirvarp hi sakha me 'si salJlbandhi ca. 6. tasya rajiial). putro
Virasena ity asit. 7. yogi rajiiaQ phalalJl dadau. 8. Nalo davalJl
dahyantalJl mahantarp dadarsa. 9. vidvadbhir balibhi:\:l
1-gaUi: II5 n. uvaca "he spoke".
2 - ajagama punar "(he, she) came back". vesma: acc. of desti-
nation 114 lI.
3 - hanti: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. han- "kill".
4 - asid: No. I, I.
5 - sakha-, s. sakhi-. 'si: 2nd sg. pres. ind. as- "be".
6 - iti: II9, tasya: 48.
7 - rajiial;t: gen. instead of dat. dadau: "(he) gave".
8 - dahyantatp. "burning"; dadarsa "(he) saw".
9- 1+
102 EXERCISES
sumanobhi rajabhi].l prajal) 10. rajiio grhe
asit. II. va1,1ijal} suta rajiia pari1,1ita. 12 tyago gul).O vittavatam.
13. dul)sparsal} p.Q.ina sikhi. 14. na rajana:ql vina ralYa:ql
balavatsv api mantri!?u. IS. balavate rajfte dhimantau man-
tri1,1au dehi.
16. v.Q.i sarasvati yasya bharya riipavati sati
Lak!?mir danavati yasya, saphala:ql tasya jivitam.
10 - islt "he was".
II - pariJfitii. "(was) married".
16 - yasya ( 50): gen. instead of dat sat!: nom sg. fern. pr. part.
as- "be", also "good". tasya: gen. instead of dat.
IX
47-49
I. anayor aSvayol) svamy ayarp naral) 2. mahyam e!?a gaur
datta, na tubhyam. 3. ime nara dhaninal) santi. 4. dinad dinaIJI.
gacchaty asmakarp yauvanam. 5. avabhya:ql dhanatp dehi.
6. yuvayor mitre1,1asmad gaur hrta. 7. yu!?madbhrata dhani.
8. asmatsvasa nari sundari. 9. tasu naril?v etena nare1,1emani
v3.(::aTPSY uktani. 10. asyarp purya:ql baha vo naral) santi.
II. asyai vadhvai grharp dehi. 12. matpita vrddho 'sti.
3 - santi "they are" .
..,. - gacchati: 3rd sg. pres. act. ind. "go (away)".
6- 5 I.
7 - IIO
12 - 'sti: 3rd sg. pres. ind. "be".
X
53-56
I. vitpSatir nan1,1atp mrta. 2. idaIJl grharp rupakEi1,1.IJl
Satena grhitam. 3. prathame vaf!?e raja mrtal). 4. va1,1ijo
2 - grhItam: i.e. "bought" .
..,. - samagatatl "(they have) come (together)".
EXERCISES
103
duhitur arthe catvaro varal). samagatal).. 5. trtiye varl?e yud-
dham abhavat. 6. saptame loke Brahma vasati. 7. l?aQ. dOl?al).
purul?eI)a hatavyal}.. 8. dvabhyam asvabhyarp l?al?the divase
dasame muhurte jagama. 9. trayo 'SVa5 caturbhyo brahma-
I)ebhyo dattal).. 10. al?tabhir virais catasrbhyo vadhubhyas
triI)i sahasraI).i phalanarp dattani.
XI
46-56
I. kasmirpscin nagare dvau brahmaI).au vasatal:t. 2. ka sa
nari? 3. svamin, vaficita vayam anena durjanena. 4. tasminn
antarhite nage prayayau Nalal}.. 5. kasya nariyam asH? 6. na
bhavati tvad dhanyataral:t. 7. ete trayal}. puru!?asya garif?tha
bhavanti: acaryal). pita mata ca. 8. siddhal). sarve YUf?makarp
manorathal).. 9. kail?a puri? 10. asminn eva grhe so 'bhavat.
II. kel?u grhef?u tvam abhaval).? 12. sarvasyatithir gurul}.. 13.
yasya grhe bharya nasti, tenaraI)yarp gantavyam. 14. bho
bhavantal}. sarve murkhatamal}.. 15. tena miirkheI).a nareI).a
khaQ.go grhital).. 16. aho kenopayenaitel?arp dhanarp labhe?
17. etan maya parijiiatam.
18. mitradrohi krtaghnas ca yas ca viSvasaghatakal:t
te nara narakarp yanti yavac candradivakarau.
-----
I - kasmirpscin: 10. vasatal;t "they (dual) dwell".
4 - tasminn: 12. prayayau "(he) went away".
5-5I.
6 - bhavati "there is ... " tvad: II4 V (abl. comp.).
10 - asminn: 12 IV. 'bhavat: 7.
II - abhaval;t: 2nd sg. impf. bhii- "become, be".
12 - sarvasya: gen. instead of dat.
13 - tena gantavyam "he should go".
16 - 5 n. labhe "I get".
17 - etan: 10.
18 - viSv.: no. yanti "they go". candrad.: 109.
10
4
EXERCISES
XII
59-61
I. gardabho na gayati. 2. mataraql 3. dina\l
gacchanti. 4. sarvarp. lokam apasya\l. 5.
ayacetam. 6. KaIidasaIp kaviql sevamahe. 7. nica\l
kalaham icchanti. 8. kanya Gangayas tire 'kriQan. 9. kirtiql
labhante kavaya\l. 10. srgaIau vanad adhavatam. II. silaql
bharatam. 12. rajanarp. sevevahi. 13. hastena sHam
sainika\l. 14. siIpha vanaIp dhavantu. 15. bahiini phalani
labhadhvam. 16. HimaIayaql gacchava. 17. grhaIp gacchatu.
18. Kasyam ajayatha1;l. 19. vadhiiIplabhamahai. 20. bhararp.
bhareyatham. 21. pasya svanam: tava putram adasat. 22.
brahmal,lo jalam apibat. 23. bhavanta\l. 24. atra
25. kena jivama\l?
21 - 40.
25 - jIv- with instr. "live on".
XIII
59-61
I. tatra taIp rajanim avasamahi. 2. putra me bahavo devi
bhaveyu\l. 3. anviccha bhartararp. gUl).avantam. 4. naditire
tapasvi 5. tad enaIp prcchava\l. 6. Jahnu\l kruddho
jalaIp sarvaIp Gangaya apibat. 7. yasmiii jivati jivanti
bahava\l so 'tra jivatu. 8. nocchritaIp sahate kaScit. 9. sri\l
kirtis ceha vasetam. 10. sasyani mahitale roheyu\l. II. dhiro
3 - anviccha: with anu, 61 I.
4 - 61 V.
6 - GaIigaya: 15. apibat: 61 V.
7 - y. j.: loco abs.: 114 VII.
S - 5 II.
9 - 5 II.
EXERCISES !Os
sajate. 12. nadhigacchfuni nirdha-
nasyavarasya ca.
13. te dhanyas te vivekaj:nas te sabhya iha bhiitale,
agacchanti grhe karyartharp suhrdo janal)..
14. gandhena gaval). pasyanti vedail). pasyanti vai dvijal)
carail) pasyanti rajanas itare janal)..
IS. atiriipad gata Sita atigarvel).a RavaQal)
atidanad Balir baddhal) sarvatratisayarp tyaiet.
16. gitena yuvatinarp ca lilaya
yasya na dravati svantarp, sa vai mugdho 'thava pasul).
----
12 - 5 I.
13 - ag. g. y.: y. g. ag.
15 - gata. "feU".
16 - word order: yasya sv. s. g. y. ca 1. na dr., sa, etc.
XIV
62-64
I. pitararp ma 2. stri rajfial). samipam eti. 3.
brahmal).arp ma 4. satyarp briihi. 5. kirp ma
rudihi. 6. Gangam ital).. 7. asava dhirau. 8. Himalayam aima.
g. asvarp hanyul). 10. Sival) patu tvam. II. udeti savita. 12.
sirpharp jahi. 13. bahavo brahmal).a vane 'sminn asan. 14. edhi
dharmavan. IS. Kasim ayani. 16. raj anal) prthivirp sasati.
17. garp dugdha. 18. devam astaul).. Ig. bhiimau serate. 20.
Vedam adhite. 2I. satrum 22. Gangayas tire 'sayi.
23. sirpham aghnan. 24. grha asmahe. 25. balo 'rodat.
XV
62-70
I. deval). sarma dadatu. 2. tvarp na jahimal).. 3. paran
vroite svan 4. brahmal).o na pak!?imarpsarp bhufijita.
3 - subject: one.
106 EXERCISES
5. mitraya dehi dhanam. 6. brahmat:tal}. pustakalp kril).ati.
7. at:tcJani bibhrati svani na bhindanti pipilikal}.. 8. Ayodhyfun
imal}.. 9. Rudraya dadhyan manal}.. 10. kathalJl
tvadrSal}.? II. nasvalJl na rathalJl jirt:to bhunkte na ca
striyam. 12. sa Sabdal,1 sarva disal) samavroot. 13. deva
bruvanti: varalJl 14. asyalJl nady8.lJl snatva sighralJl
punite bra.hma.J.lal}.. IS. Durgalp kamam ipsitam avap-
noti. 16. etasminn agnau brahmat:ta annalJl juhvati. 17.
bravitu me bhavan. r8. vat:likputraS cifalJl kalalJl bhrantva
punal}. svapuram agatya talp abravit: bhol].
dehi me t8.lJl tulam. 19. atimatilJl tv8.IJ1 hi vakyair
anumimimahe. 20. man8.IJ1si dadhmal].. 21. na
kiitair ayudhair hany8.IJ1 ripiin. 22. vyaghralJl jahi. 23. yam
haste siv8.IJ1 t8.lJl kuru. 24. phalarp svadv
atti. 25. Rudro no buddhya subhaya satpyunaktu.
26. grhalJl Satrum api praptatp visvastam akutobhayam
yo hanyat, tasya paparp syac chatabrahmat:taghatajam.
27. sprSann api gajo hanti jighrann api bhujalJlgamal].
hasann api IlfPo hanti manayann api durjanal]..
----
9 - dadhyan: IO.
14 - snitva. "after he has bathed" ( I06).
IS - I06.
18 - brii.ntva. "after he has roamed about". igatya "after he had
come (back)".
19 - viikyair anum. "from the reports ... that you are of high
intelligence".
XVI
71-83; 107
I. yaSal}. prapsyase. 2. tatra na 3.
raja talp 4. tada tvatp sapat. 5. gurave
phalalJl datasmi. 6. yal]. slokatp yo va tau
EXERCISES
10
7
muktau 7. patnirp 8. raja
upagat. 9. raja vakturp najiiasit. 10. striyai phalany adama.
II. nagarim agal).. 12. balo na vyararpsit. 13. tarp pustaka1l1
tapaso 'grahit. 14. nagaram
9 - vaktum: inf. vac- "speak".
XVII
84-96
I. mantri bharyarp jagada. 2. Ramo bharyarp tatyaja. 3.
nrpo navam aruroha. 4. yuvati grharp gantum 5. nrpaQ
savarp skandhe jagraha. 6. suro ral}.e sirarpsi sainikanarp
jahara. 7. sainiko jailgha.s cicchedasvanam. 8. raja gramall1
vivesa. 9. Nalo bharyam upajagama. 10. suro na sokena-
vasasada. n. parartho yena sadhyate, sa mahasattva ucyate.
12. nityall1 caurai ratrau ratrau prabho,
te ca nasmabhiQ. 13. vihagaQ pasair badhyante. 14. janair
nagarall1 gamyate. 15. kavibhir nrpal). stuyante. 16. asvena
jalall1 piyate. 17. sarpel}.a dasyete narau. r8. narail} katal).
kriyante. 19. kanyabhyall1 gitarp giyate. 20. nrpel}.a
dharmarp PTcchyate. 21. val}.iil mataram abhiviidayarpcakre.
22. he bharye pakvall1 23. yogino mrgan na vividhuQ.
24. druman 25. nrpati ratharp pure bhra-
mayamasa. 26. ghatau jalena puryete. 27. he gurul}.a-
huyadhve. 28. phalall1 pitre diyate. 29. nagari nrpel}.a jiyata
iti sruyate. 30. tarp desarp mapayamasathuQ.
4 - gantum: inf. gam- "go".
I2 - ra.trau ra.trau: iterative or distributive doubling.
29 - iti: II9.
loB EXERCISES
XVIII
71-96; 106
I. briihi kva yasyasi? 2. tan devan uvacedatp vacal:l: na
tatra 3. pita saha kanyaya vanatp prayayau. 4.
cauro iimratarum; yadi tasya phalani,
5. tav atamanau nadim upeyatu1,l. 6. Damayanti
mahitale. 7. gajas taro1,l sakh8.Il1 pu!?karet;la babhaiija.
B. bhik!?ur annatp khaditva jayaya ajahara; sa tan
nidadhau. 9. vat;lijo dadrSur vanatp ramyam. 10. vyayame-
nasya sirasi vedana jajfie. H. gamyatam iti mantrit;lal,l
I2. rajandho babhiiva. 13. rajarat;lyarp gatas
tapas tepe. I4. sakrt kanya pradiyate. 15. raja caurarp mo-
I6. nrpav udvaharp karayamasatu1,l. I7. vidvan
sarvatra piijyate. rB. sa tatra tapasa vart;larp manoharatp
lebhe. I9. trt;lair vidhiyate rajjur yaya nago 'pi badhyate.
20. sa sarpvatsararp paryetyovaca: katham asakatarte
maj jivitum iti. 2I. cauret;loktam: avarp nagararp mo!?i!?yava1,l.
22. vrk!?all1s chittva paSiin hatva krtva rudhirakardamam
yady evatp gamyate svarge, narakall1 kena gamyate ?
23. ko 'rtha1,l putret;la jatena yo na vidvan na dharmika1,l?
taya gava kiI}1 kriyate ya na dogdhri na garbhit;li?
----
2 - 5 I, II9.
5 - 101 n.
6 - 20 11.
8 - khaditva "after he ... (khad-}", gerund, 106
10 - 5 I.
12 - 5 I.
15 - 72 ; 97.
20 - 106. paryetya: i- "go", with. pari and a; 106.
aakata rte 5 n. maj: n.
22 - svarge: loco as "whither" case.
23 - putro jatal;t, the construction of Lat. urbs condita: "the birth
of a son".
EXERCISES
XIX
97-106
10
9
I. Savitri priyavadena bhartararp 2. vayus
tp)ani nonmiilayet. 3. pradhanaJ:l pari-
4. dhairyarp na tyajyam. 5. tv.rp Sitarp
yamy aharp. puna1;l. 6. raja senarp samudrarp. 7.
mii<;lho 'socyani karyat;li socati. 8. sainika astr8.t;ii
9. devan yajfiena bhavayata, te deva bhavayantu vaI:t. 10.
asvan vahane yojayantu. If. hitam atmanaI:t 12.
papan nivarayate yojayate hitaya. 13. yajfiair devan vardha-
yeI:t. 14. brahmat;larp. me pitavasayat. IS. agnir bhiitani
trasayann ayati drumaml1elihana1;l. 16. dadarsa Damayantirp.
dedipyamanarp.
2 - 5 11.
3 - sarvay. = sarvair yatnail}..
5 - constr. with 2 acc., 114 lI.
8 - srj-.
14 - 51.
XX
lo7-II3
I. Pramadvara gandharvapsarasoI:t sutasit. 2. martyasya
lJ.ayur asti 3. adrisamipe vanam asti. 4. sarpo
dasanan nijaputrya ailge nyapatayat. S. dvija-
vara vanavasinas cajagmul) krpanvit.l:t. 6. tatrasit saraI:t
sumanoharam. 7. Pramadvarayarp. mrtayarp.
ca Rurur abravic: chete sa bhuvi tanvailgi mama sokavi-
vardhiniti. 8. sa raja prthivipalaI:t sarvaSastrabhrt.rp varo
I - P.: proper name.
7 - P., etc.: loco abs. chete: IX. tanvangi: zz at the end.
lIO EXERCISES
babhuva. 9. raja mrgasahasral)i hatva sabalavahano vanan
nirjagama. 10. suryo disam Antakasevitam agacchat. lI.
kasmirpscid vane catakadarppati tamalatarukrtanilayau pra-
tivasata\! sma. 12. hemante Himalayo girir yatharthanama
himavan asti. 13. brahmal)a\! phalamUlasano
svargarp gataQ. 14. putro gUl)anvito matapitror hite sada
rata\!. IS. putrapautran bahfin pasfin
hastihiral)yam asvan. 16. kamarp mUlarp
durjanasalpgatiQ. 17. val)ikputra\! sukhavi-
smrtadurgati\! svadesarp gantukamo 'bhfit. 18. abharyarp
sunyalp grhapater grham. 19. tac chrutva sva-
bhrtyan sat yam avetya tat sa raja talp vrddhaval)ijarp
muktavan. 20. nrpaQ sasutabharyo gramarp prapa. 21. tarp
munirp sfiryakarasalptapaklantarp val)ig dr;;tva kutas tvam
iti
22. yasya cittarp dravibhutalp krpaya
tasya jfianalp ca ca; killl jatabhasmacivarai\!?
23. nasti kamasamo vyadhir nasti mohasamo ripuQ
nasti krodhasamo vahnir nasti jfianasamal1l sukham ..
24. pravrtkale yatra yauvanakale
prathamasnehe tril)Y api dul)khany atigurul)i.
25. uttama\! svadhanail) khyatal) pitrdravyel)a
adhama matulail) khyataQ svasurais cadhamadhamii"l).
26. na svalpasya krte bhfiri nasayen matiman naral),
etad evatipal)Q.ityalp yat svalpad bhfirinasanam.
9 - vanan: 10.
10 - d A : the south
14 - rataJ:l -I- locative.
IS - ca "and" can be omitted
22 - kim with instr. "what is the benefit" or "for what purpose".
24 - = (for the sake of the meter).
READING SELECTIONS
I
Hitop. 2,5
Asti Sriparvatamadhye Brahmapurabhidhanarp nagaram.
tacchailaSikhare 1) Gha:t:ltakaI1)O nama prativasa-
titi 11) janapavadal). sada sruyate. ekada ghaJ:liam ada}a 5)
palayamanal). kaScic cauro vyaghreJ:la vyapadital). khaditas
ca. tatpaJ:lipatita ghal.lta vanarail). prapta. te ca vanaras tatp
ghal.ltarp sarvadaiva vadayanti. tatas tannagarajanail) sa
khadito dp;tal).. ca ghal.ltavadal). srii-
yate. anantararp GhaJ:ltakaI1)al). kupito manu!?yan khadati
ghaJ:ltaIJl ca vadayatity 3) uktva janal). sarve nagarat palayi-
tal).. tatal). kuttanya vimp;ya markaia ghal.ltarp vadayantiti
svayatp parijiiaya 4) raja vijiiapital).: deva yadi dhanopa-
kriyate, tadaham enaIJl Ghal.ltakaTJ:latp sadhayami. tato
rajiia dhanarp dattam. kuttanya ca svayarp vanarapriyapha-
lany adaya 5) vanarp pravisya phalany akirJ:lani. tato ghal)tarp
parityajya vanaral). phalasakta babhiivul).. kuitani ghal.ltarp
grhitva samayata sakalalokapiijyabhavat.
1) sandhi Il.
2) II9.
3) Il9.
4) IJ7.
5) 106 and Il7 end.
II2 READING SELECTIONS
II
Hitop. 3, 3
Asti Hastinapure Visruo na.ma rajaka.1;l. tasya gardabho
'tivahad durbalo mumiiI1lur 1) abhavat. tatas tena rajakena-
sau vyaghracarmaI,la pracchadyaraI,lyasaIp.nidhanasasyamadh-
ye muktal;t. tato durad vyaghrabuddhya tam avalokya
satvaraIp. palayante. atha kenapi
keI,la dhiisarakambalakrtatanutral,lena dhanul;t sajjilqtyana-
takayenaikante 2) sthitam 3). taIJ1 cadiire sa gardabha.1;l
pUl?tango jatabalo gardabhiyam ') iti jiiatva sabdaIp. kurv8.l,las
tadabhimukhaIp. dhavital;t. tatas tena gardabho
'yam iti sabdan niscitya lilaya vyapadita1;t.
1) u6 Ill.
I) 5 Ill.
B) i.e., ko 'pi ... tasthau.
') 5 I.
III
Paftcatantra 5, 9
KasmirpScin nagare kaScit Svabhavakrpal,lo nama brah-
maI,la1;t prativasati sma. tasya saktubhir bhuk-
torvaritair ghatal,t paripiirital,t. tarp ca ghatarp nagadante
'valambya tasyadhastat khatv8.rp. nidhaya satatam
tam avalokayati. atha kadacid ratrau suptas cintayamasa: yat
paripiirI,lo 'yarp ghatas tavat saktubhir vartate, tad yadi
durbhikl?aIp. bhavati tad anena riipak8.l,l8.IJ1 satam utpadyate.
tatas tena mayajadvayaIp. grahitavyam. tata.1;l
prasavavaSat tabhyarp yiithaIp. bhavil?yati. tato 'jabhi1;t pra-
bhiita ga gobhir mahil?ir, mahil?ibhir vac;1.aval,t.
READING SELECTIONS
II3
vac;1avaprasavatal;l1) prabhiita asva vi-
krayat prabhuta:ql suvarl)a:ql suvarl)ena catul;l-
sala:ql grha:ql sa:qlpadyate. tatal). kascid brahmal)o mama
grham agatya praptavayaska:ql2) riipa<;lhyarp kanyarp dasya-
ti. tatsakasat putro me tasyaharp Somasarmeti 3)
nama tat tasmifi janucalanayogye sarpjate 'ha:ql
pustakarp grhitvasvasa.layal;>. tad ava-
atrantare Somasarma ma:ql jananyut-
sailgaj janupracalanaparo 'svakhurasannavarti matsamipam
tato 'ha:ql brahmal)i:ql 'bhidhasyami:
grhal)a tavad balakam. sapi grhakarmavyagratayasmadvaca-
na:ql na tato 'harp samutthaya ta:ql padapraharel)a
evarp tena dhyanasthitena tathaiva padapraharo
datto, yatha sa ghato bhagnal;l. saktubhil;l pal)<;luratarp gatal;l.
1) I I4 v; -tas forms an abl. sg from all stems.
2) H2.
3) II9.
IV
Paficatantra I, 2
Kascic chrgaJal;l itas tatal). 1) paribhraman
vane sainyadvayasa:qlgramabhiimim apasyat. tasya:ql ca dun-
dubhel;l patitasya vayuvasad vallisakhagrair hanyamanasya
sabdam aSfl)ot. atha k1?ubhitahrdayas cintayamasa: aho
'smt. tad yavan nasya proccaritasabdasya
gacchami, tavad anyato vrajamiti. athava naitad yujyate
sahasaiva pitrpaitamaharp vanaJ1l tyaktum. uktarp ca:
bhaye va yadi va sa:qlprapte yo vimarsayet 2)
krtyarp na kurute vegan, na sa sarptapam apnuyat.
1) itas tataJ:t "here and there".
2) yadi ... yo "if anyone".
GONDA, Elementary Grammar
8
II4
READING SELECTIONS
tat tavaj janami kasyayarp sabdal,l. dhairyam alambya
vimarsayan yavan mandarp mandarp pratigacchati, tavad
dundubhim apasyat. yavac chiikhagrair vayuvasad dhan-
yate
2
), tiivac chabdarp karoti, anyatha aste
3
). tatas ca
samyak parijfiaya samiparp gatva svayam eva kautukiid
ataq.ayad bhuyas ca acintayat: aho ciriid etad asma-
karp mahad bhojanam apatitam. tan nunam etan marpsame-
do'srgbhil,l puritarp tatal,l
tarp tat katham api vidaryaikadese chidrarp krtva
manal,l pararp carma vidarayato
sarpjatal,l. atha tad alokya niriiSibhutal,l
slokam enam apathat:
purvam eva maya jfiatarp purI).am etad dhi medasa;
yavat praviSya pasyiimi tavac carma ca daru ca.
B) sandhi! 17.
3) aste, cf. 115 1.
v
Paficatantra I, 13
Asti kasmirpscij jaliiSaye Kamhugrivo nama kacchapal,l.
tasya Sarpkata-Vikata-namni mitre 1) harpsajatlye parama-
sneham iiSrite. tau ca harpsau sarastiram asadya tena sahane-
kathal,l krtviistamanavelayarp svaniq.asarpsra-
yarp kurutal,l2). atha gacchati kale saral). sanail).
sanail). agamat. tatas taddul).khadul).khitau 3) tav uca-
tul).: bho mitra 4) etat saral,l sarpjatarp. tat
1) i.e., mitre bhavatal;!.
2) sa:tp.sraya:tp. kr- "go ... ".
3) = tasya duQ.khena du1;lkhitau.
4) bahuvnhi, 112.
READING SELECTIONS
IIS
katha:qJ. bhavan 5) vyakulatva:qJ. nau 6) hrdi
vartate. tac chrutva Kambugriva aha: bhoJ.l sa:qJ.prata:qJ. nasty
asmaka:qJ. jivitavya:qJ. jalabhavat. tathapy upayas cintyatam
iti. ukta:qJ. ca:
tyajya:qJ. na dhairya:qJ. vidhure 'pi kale,
dhairyat kadacid gatim apnuyat sal)., 7)
yatha samudre 'pi ca potabhange
sa:qJ.yatriko vafichati tartum 8) eva.
apara:qJ. ca:
mitrarthe bandhavarthe ca buddhiman yatate sada
jatasv apatsu yatnena, jagadeda:qJ. vaco ManuJ.l.
tad 9) aniyatarp kacid drc;1harajj.ur laghu vanvi!?ya-
tarn ca prabhiitajalasanatha:qJ. saro, yena 10) maya madhya-
pradese dantair grhite sati 11) yuvarp kotibhagayos 12) tat
maya sahita:qJ. sa:qJ.grhya 13) tat saro nayataJ.l. tav
iicatul).: bho mitraiva:qJ. para:qJ. bhavata mauna-
vratena bhavya:qJ. 14), no cet tava pato bhavi!?yati.
tathanu!?thite gacchata Kambugrivel).adhobbagavyavasthita:qJ.
ki:qJ.cit puram alokitam. tatra ye pauras te tatha niyamana:qJ.
vilokya savismayam idam ucuJ.l: aho cakrakara:qJ. kimapi
pak!?ibhyii:qJ. niyate. pasyata pasyata. atha te!?a:qJ. kolahalam
5) 119.
6) 47
7) Le, the man who follows the advice given in line I.
8) = taritum, inf. of tr-, object the sea; he does not remain quietly
at home.
9) therefore.
10) so that.
11) maya with grhite; loc abs.
12) loco dual.
13) to yuvam.
14) 112.
II6 READING SELECTIONS
akarx;tya Kambugriva aha: bho1;t kim e:;;a kolahala iti vaktu-
m.ana ardhokte patitaQ. paurai1;t khax;tQ.asaQ. krtaS ca.
VI
VetaIap.; The Four Suitors
Asti Dharmasthalaql nama nagaram. tatra raja Gux;tadhipo
nama, tatraiva ca Kesavo nama brahmax;to 'sti. tasya duhita
Mandaravati nama riipex;tativa vikhyata. sa ca varayogyabha-
vat. tasya arthe catvaro vara1;t samagata1;t, catvaro 'pi samana-
gux;ta brahmax;tal}. KeSavaS cintdq'l prapanno babhiiva 1): eka
kanya, catvaro varal}! kasmai deya? kasmai na deya? etas-
minn eva prastave Kesavasya duhita kalasarpex;ta tad-
arthe mantravadinaJ:t samanital). tair mantravadibhis tdq'l
vilokya bhax;titam: kalada.!?ta B) na jivati 3) kanyeyam. mantri-
vacanaql srutva tadanantaraql brahmax;taQ. Kesavo naditire
gatva tasyal) saqlskaraql cakara. catvaro 'pi varal} smaSane
sama)1ata1;t. madnya 4) ekas citayarp pravisya mrtal).
dvitiyena tasya asthini tadbhasma ca smasane kutirakrup.
lqiva trtiyas tapasvi bhiitva desantaraql gataQ..
caturtho nijabhavanarp gata1;t.
yo desantaraql gatas tena deSantare kasyacid brahmaI}.asya
grhe gatva madhyahne bhojanaql prarthitam. grhasthena
brahmax;tena bbaI}.itam: bhos tapasvin, tvayatraiva bbojanaql
karyam. yavad brahmax;tya bhojanaxp. ni!?paditam asaIlaxp. ca
dattvopavesital) sa, tavat tasya baIakena grhe roditum arab-
dham. grhasthaya brahmaI}.)1a sa balo jvalitagnau prak!?iptaQ..
1) c p.b. "he got the thought", i.e., "he reflected".
B) kalasarpada.5ta.
8) na jIvati "wiU not remain in life".
4) t.m. "among them, of them", a. common paraphrase of the par-
titive genitive.
READING SELECTIONS
tad dp?tva tena bhik!?ul,la calitarp, tena brahmal).ena sa tu
nivadtal). tena bhal).itam: tad darul,larp karma dr!?tva saha-
bhojanarp na karomi. yasya srha idrSarp rak!?asarp karma
drSyate, tasya grhe katharp bhojanarp karal,liyam? tac
chrutva tena grhasthena brahmal,lena srhamadhye pravisya
pustakam anitam. tad udghatya mantram ekarp japitva
balako bhaslU10hiito 6) jivapital) 6). tapasvina bratunal,lasya
kautukarp dn;tva c.intitam: yadidarp pustakarp mama haste
ghaiati, tadaharp tarp priyarp jivapayami. iti sarpdntya
tatraiva nibhrto bhiitva 7) sthital) 8). nisithe srhamadhye pra-
visya tat pustakam apahrtya tatraiva smasane samayatat).
yat) smasane ti!?thati, tena bho mitra, deSantare gat-
va kacid vidya samajiiata? tenoktam: mrtasarpjivani vidya
maya samajfiata. dvitiyenoktam: tarhimarp priyarp jivapaya.
tac chrutva tena pustakam udghatya 9) mantram ekarp japit-
va jalena siktva jivapita kanya. yal;t sahaiva mrtal}, so 'pi
jivital}. yo grhe gatas, tena srutvayatam api 10). tasya arthe
krodhandhalocanac 11) catviiro 'pi pravivadarp kurvanti. -
kasya bhiirya bhavati? sruyatam:
yena jivapita kanya, sa pita jivadayakal);
yat) sahaiva mrtat), so 'pi bhrata jatal} sahaiva yat;
bhasmanarp sarpgraharp krtva smasane yena sarpsthitam,
nicakarma 12) sa dasal) syat; sa bharta, yo grhe gatat).
5) 107 11.
8) perf. pass part. of the caus. of jiv- "live".
7) "after he had lndden".
8) cf. II5 II.
I) 106.
10) II5 II: tena ayitam: sa ayayau.
11) i.e., krodhad andhani locanani te
11) i.e, nica.rp karma yasya
lI8 READING SELECTIONS
VII
Sukasapt. 31
Gurjarajanapade nagaram. tatraiko
brabmaIJa:Q. sa tu vaidheyasakala evativa daivavirahita:Q. sa
tu devanaya pravartata. tadanu sanais taskaramatam anva-
bhavat. tada kutrapi khatapatitabhittivibhage dasyur asau
vidhrta:Q 1). rajiia:Q samipe ninyus tam. raja
corasya daIJQo bhavati yas, tam etasya kurvantu. yata iicu:Q:
coradaIJQa:Q siraScheda:Q. ityabhidhaya tarp marayitum ana-
yat. tada taskaro rajanarp vyajijiiapat: deva vijiiaptir eka..<;ti.
aharp kimapi ciiQamaQisamahitarp jiianam avikalam akala-
yami. tarhi samayasya kamapi jiianaprakaram
abhidhasyami. tadanu bhiipalo 'py avadat: vyaharasveti. tato
'sau jagada: deva etat tvarp janihi 2). ekasmat praharad upari
samasto 'pi sargo 'nyathaiva bhavi!?yati. andhakara:Q pravar-
ti!?yate mahabhayanaka:Q. tarhy evarpvidhasyatigariyaso jaga-
dupadravasya santikaraI.laya tvayy vartate yadi,
tadanirp kuru tat. itarathaitat sarvam api parisamaptam
evety aharp pasyami. tadanu medininatho giram asrjat. tarhy
etasyopadravasya katharp santir bhavatity uvaca. tada
rajajiiam asadya so 'py uvaca: tvam eva tasyopadravasya
santirp etadarthe mahyam atmana1;t satyavaca
narp prayaccha, pascad abhidhasyami. tada raja tasmai
satyavacanarp prayacchat. tato 'sau tacchantikarp rajanam
asravayat: kartavyam, etavata tacchantir
avagaccha. rajapy avocat: anyadrSi bha-
tat kim? 3) so 'bravit: avadhatsva mahimahendra:
1) lIS 11.
I) jlia-.
B) iti tat kim: "then what does your assertion mean?"
READING SELECTIONS
II9
atmani praSamite sarvapi samaptarlipaiva. yadahatp
Illftas, tada samasto 'pi sargo 'nyatha jata eva. mametare-
lilam apekiiiaya kirp nama prayojanam? tada raja tadvacanam
apahasya tatp niramocayat.
VIII
Mahabharata 1, 3 beginning
janamejayaI:t PariklilitaI:t saha bhratrbhiI:t dir-
ghasattram upaste sma 1). ta.. .. ya bhrataras traya1;l
Ugraseno Bhimasena iti 2). teiiiu tat sattram 3)
agacchat Sarameya1;l. janamejayasya bhratrbhir abhihato
4) matuI:t samipam upagacchat. tatp mat. roroya-
uvaca: kitp kenasy abhihata iti. sa evam ukto
mataratp pratyuvaca: janamejaya:sya bhratrbhir abbihato
'smiti. tarp mata pratyuvaca: vyaktarp tvaya tatraparaddhatp
yenasyabhihata iti. sa tarp punar uvaca: naparadhyami kitp-
cin havitp!?i navaliha 6) it;' tac chrutva 8) tasya mata
Sarama putraduI:tkharta tat sattram upagacchad, yatra sa
JanamejayaI:t saha bhratrbhir dirghasattram upaste. sa taya
kruddhaya tatroktal;l.: ayatp me putro na kirpcid aparadhyati
navek!?ate havirp!?i navalec;lhi, kimartham abhihata iti. na
kitpcid uktavantas 7) te. sa tan uvaca: yasmad ayam abbihato
'napakarl, tasmad tvarp bhayam agami!?yatiti.
]anamejaya evam ukto devasunya Saramaya bhrSarp sarp-
bhranto vi!?aJ;lJ;laS casit.
1) IIS I.
I) II9.
3) loco abs., II4 VII; 101 !I.
t) 100, ru-.
5) 7, lih-.
8) lI.
7) IIS 11.
120 READING SELECTIONS
IX
Mbh. 3, 167,9 ff. (3, II943 if.)
Arjuna uvaca:
sp;lU hanta maharaja vidhina yena
Satakratum aharp. devaIp bhagavantarp. ca Sankaram.
vidyam. adhitya blIp rajarp.s tvayoktam. arimardana
bhavata ca tapase prasthito vanam.
Bhrgutungam atho gatva Kam.yakad asthitas tapa.l;t
kaIpcid apaSyaIp braIuna.:t:tarp. pathi.
sa mam. aprcchat: Kaunteya 1), kvasi ganta bravihi 2) me.
tasma avitathaIp sarvam abruvaIp Kurunandana.
sa tathyaIp mama tac chrutva brahma:t:to rajasattama
apiijayata maQ1 rajan pritimaIps cabhavan mayi.
tato mam. abravit pritas: tapa Bharata 3),
tapasyan na cire:t:ta tvaQ1 vibudhadhipam.
tato 'harp. vacanat tasya girim aruhya Saisiram ')
tapo 'tapaIp maharaja masaQ1 miilaphalasana.l;t.
dvitiyaS capi me maso jalaQ1 gata.l;t,
niraharas trtiye 'tha mase P3.:t:ic;lavanandana.
iirdhvabahus caturtharp. tu masam asmi sthitas tada
na ca me hiyate prdI)as tad adbhutam ivabhavat 5).
paficame tv atha saIpprapte prathame divase gate
varahasarp.sthitarp. bhiitarp. matsamiparp. sa.magamat
nighnan prothena prthiviIp. vilikh.a.rp.S cara:t:tair api
saIpmarjafi jathare:t:torviIp vivartarp.s ca muhur muhuI:t.
1) = Arjuna.
8) = bliihi.
8) = Arjuna.
') = Him8.laya.
&) It was like a miracle that me na hlyate.
READING SELECTIONS
anu tasyaparatp bhiitarp mahat kairatasatpsthitam
dhanurbiil}.asimat praptarp strlgal)iinugatarp tada.
tato 'harp dhanur adaya
atii,Qayatp sarel)atha tad bhiitarp
yugapat tatp kiratas tu vikRlya balavad dhanuQ
abhyajaghne dr<;lhatararp kampayann iva me manaQ.
sa tu mam abravid rajan: mama piirvaparigrahaQ
mrgayadharmam utsriya kirnartharp ta<;litas tvaya?
8) te nisitair bal)air darparp hanmi, sthiro bhava.
sa mahiikayas tato mam abhyadhavata,
tato girim ivatyartham avroon miitp mahiiSaraiQ ;
tarp caharp saravar1?eI).a mahata. samaviikiram.
tataQ Sarair diptamukhair yantritair anumantritaiQ
pratyavidhyam aharp tarp tu vajrair iva siloccayam.
tasya tac chatadha 7) riipam abhavac ca sahasradha,
tani ciisya saririil}.i salair aham ata<;layam.
punas tani Saririil}.i ekibhiitiini 8) Bharata
121
adfSyanta maharaja, tiiny ahatp vyadhamarp punaQ.
aI).ur brhacchira bhiitva brhac ciil}.usirii,Q punaQ
ekibhiitas tadii rajan so 'bhyavartata marp yudhi.
yadabhibhaviturp biil)air na ca saknomi tarp TaI).e
tato mahiistram ati1?tharp vayavyarp BharataT1?abha.
na cainam asakarp hanturp tad adbhutam ivabhavat.
tasmin pratihate ciistre vismayo me mahiin abhiit.
bhiiya eva maharaja aharp tataQ
astrapiigena mahata raI).e bhiitam aviikiram.
tato 'harp dhanur adaya tathak!?ayye mahe!?udhi
') = a.ha.m.
1} sancihi, n.
S) 107.
I22 READING SELECTIONS
sahasabhyahanarp bhiitarp tany apy astraI).y
hate!?v astre!?u sarve!?u bhak!?ite!?v ayudhe!?u ca
mama tasya ca bhiitasya bahuyuddham avartata.
vyayiimarp mu!?tibhil) krtva talair api samagatail),
aparayarps ca tad bhiitarp agamarp mahim.
tatal) prahasya tad bhiitarp tatraivantaradhiyata
saha stribhir maharaja pasyato me 'dbhutopamam.
cvarp krtva sa bhagavaTfls tato 'nyad riipam asthital)
divyam eva maharaja vasiino 'dbhutam ambaram.
hitva kiratariiparp ca bhagavarps tridasesvaral)
svariipaTfl divyam asthaya tasthau tatra mahesvaral).
adfsyata tatal) sak!?iid bhagavan GOVf!?adhvajal) 9)
Umasahayo vyaIadhrg bahuriipal) pinakadhrk.
sa mam abhyetya samare tathaivabhimukharp sthitam
siilapaI).ir athovaca: tU!?to 'smiti parantapa,
amaratvarn apahaya briihi yat te manogatam.
tatal) prafijalir evaham astre!?u gatamanasal) 10)
praI).amya manasa SarvaTfl tato vacanam adade:
bhagavan me prasannas ced, ipsito 'yarp varo mama,
astraI).icchamy aharp jfiatuTfl yani deve!?u kanicit.
dadanity eva bhagavan abravit Tryambakas ca mam,
raudram astrarp madiya1']111) tvam upasthasyati PaI).qava.
pradadau ca mama prital) so 'straTfl pasupatarp mahat,
uvaca ca mahadevo dattva, me 'strarp sanatanam:
na prayojyarp bhaved etan manu!?e!?u katharpcana,
jagad vinirdahed evam alpatejasi patitam;
9) = Siva.
10) astrei?u to be joined with gata
0
; gatamanasal). is a bahuvrihi
comp., astrei?u. weapons (Le., to be obtained).
11) 114 VI.
READING SELECTIONS
123
pi<;lyamanena 12) balavat 13) prayojyarp. syad Dhanafijaya.
murtiman me sthitarp. parsve prasanne
utsadanam amitra1).atp parasenanikartanam.
anujfiatas tv ahatp tena tatraiva samupaviSam
caiva 14) me devas tatraivantaradhiyata.
1S) i e, tvaya
13) adverb.
14) gen abs., 114 VI.
X
Mbh. 12, 9, 4 ff. (I2, 246 if )
uvaca:
hitva gramyasukhacararp. tapyamano mahat tapal).
ara1).ye phalamUlasi mrgail). saha.
juhvano 'gnirp yathakalam ubhau kalav upasprsan
krsal). parimitaharas carmacira jatadharal).
sitavatatapasahal).
tapasa sariram
manal).kar1).asukha nityarp s!'1).vann uccavaca giral).
muditanam vasatarp.
ajighran pesalan gandhan phullanarp.
nanarupan vane pasyan rama1).iyan vanaukasal;t,
ekantasilo vimrSan pakvapakvena vartayan
pitfn devarps ca vanyena vagbhir adbhis ca tarpayan.
evam ara1).yasastra1).am ugram ugrataratp vidhim
sevamanal). dehasyasya samapanam.
athavaiko 'ham ekaham ekaikasmin vanaspatau
caran munir mu:t;l<;lal). kalevaram
parpsubhil;t samabhicchannal;t sunyagarapratisrayal).
va tyaktasarvapriyapriyal)..
124
READING SELECTIONS
XI
RamayaJ).a 3, II, 55 if.
Ihaikada kila kriiro Vatapir api celvalal). 1)
bhratarau sahitav astalll brahmaJ).aghnau mahasurau.
dharayan brahmaJ).alll riipam Ilvalal) Salllskrtalll vadan 2)
amantrayati vipran sa sraddham uddiSya 3) nirghfJ).al)..
bhrataralll salllskrtalll krtva tatas talll
tan dvijan bhojayamasa 4) karmaJ).a.
tato bhuktavatalll vipraJ).am Ilvalo 'bravit:
Vatape svareJ).a mahata vadan.
tato bhratur vacal). srutva Vatapir nadan
bhittva bhittva 5) sariral).i brahmaJ).analll 6).
brahmaJ).analll sahasraJ).i tair evalll kamariipibhil).
vinasitani salllhatya nityasal). piSitasanail)..
Agastyena 7) tada devail) prarthitena 8)
anubhiiya kila sraddhe 9) sa mahasural). 10).
tatal). salllpannam ity uktva dattva haste 'vanejanam
bhrataralll Ilvalal).
sa tada tu bhrataralll vipraghatinam
abravit prahasan dhiman Agastyo munisattamal).:
1) Le., ca Ilvalal;1..
D) like Brahmans speaking the correct standard speech.
3) Il7. .
4) which one considers as a funeral gift and the funeral feast
connected with it.
6) The duplication expresses the repetition.
6) 57 V.
7) a p}i.
8) i.e., prarlhitasuradvayasatpharel).a "whom one asked for the
destruction of the two Asuras".
9) after he had celebrated and enjoyed the raddha.
10) i.e., VatapL
READING SELECTIONS
kuto ni;;kramitull1 saktir maya j i r ~ a s y a rak;;asal).
bhratus tu me;;arupasya gatasya Yamasadanam.
atha tasya vacal). srutva bhratur nidhanasarpsritam
pradhar;;ayitum arebhe munill1 krodha.n nisacaral:,l..
so 'bhyadravad dvijendrall1 tall1, munina diptatejasa
cak;;u;;analakalpena nirdagdho nidhanarp gatal)..
XII
Ram. I, 45, 15 ff.
Purvall1 krtayuge Rama 1) Ditel). 2) putTa mahabalal).
Adites 2) ca mahabhaga. viryavantal). sudhiirmikal). 3).
tatas te!?iiq1 naravyaghra 4) buddhir [sin mah<ltmanam
amara vijaras caiva katharp syamo niramayal:,l.?
te;;arp cintayatarp tatra buddhir asid vipascitam
k!?irodamathanall1 krtva rasall1 prapsyama tatra vai.
12
5
tato niscitya mathanall1 yoktrarp krtva ca Vasukim 5)
manthanall1 Mandararp 6) krtva mamanthur amitaujasal)..
atha var!?asahasret;la yoktrasarpasirarpsi ca
vamanto 7) 'tivi!?arp 8) tatra dadall1sur dasanail:,l. siliiQ..
utpapatagnisall1kasall19) halahalamahavi!?am.
tena dagdhall1 jagat sarvall1 sadevasuramanU!?am.
1) This eplsode is told to the lea.ding character of the Ramaya.t;la,
Rama.
2) Diti and Aditi were two sisters, A. the mother of the gods, D.
the mother of the enemies of the gods, i.e., the Daityas belonging to
the Asuras.
3) 1 e, asan
') i.e., Rama.
5) prince of serpents
6) name of a sacred mountain.
7) the neutr. pl. is expected.
8) unusually effective poison.
9) i.e., siladaSanat.
126
READING SELECTIONS
atha devii mahadevarp Sankararp 10) sarat).iirthinal)
jagmul) Pasupatirp Rudrarp. triihi triihiti
evam uktas tato devair devadevesvaral) prabhuJ:t.
pradur iisit tato 'traiva sankhacakradharo HariJ:t.
uViicainarp smitarp krtva Rudrarp siiladhararp. Haril;t:
daivatair mathyamiine tu yat piirvarp samupasthitam
tat tvadiyarp suriit;liim agrato hi yat.
agrapiijiim iha sthitvii grhiit).edarp prabho.
ity uktvii ca 11) tatraivantaradhiyata.
devatiiniirp bhayarp srutvii viikyarp tu Siirngit;lal;t
hiiliihalarp. ghorarp sarp.jagriihamrtopamam 12).
deviin visrjya deveso jagiima bhagavan HaraJ:t.
tato devasural;t sarve mamanthii 13) Raghunandana.
pravivesatha patiilarp. manthanal;t parvatottamal;t 14).
tato deviil;t sagandharviis Madhusiidanam 15) :
tvarp gatil;t sarvabhiitiiniirp divaukasiim.
palayiismiin mahiibiiho, girim uddhartum arhasi.
iti srutvii kiimatharp riipam iisthital;t
parvatarp krtvii siSye 16) tatrodadhau Haril;t.
parvatiigrarp tu lokiitmii hasteniikramya KesavaJ:t 15)
deviiniirp. madhyatal;t sthitvii mamantha 15).
atha iiyurvedamayal;t pumiin
sudharmatmii sadaQ.Qal;t sakamat).QaluJ:t.
atha Dhanvantarir 17) nama, apsaras ca suvarcasal;t;
10) 114 u.
11) Vil?1J.U.
12) amrtopamaxp yatha bhavati tatha saxpjagraha.
13) I6.
14) MandaraI:t
15) Vil?1J.U.
16) perf. of si- "lie there".
17) i.e., udatil?tbat.
READING SELECTIONS 127
apsu nirmathanad eva rasat tasmad varastriyal).
utpetur tasmad apsaraso 'bhavan.
kotyo 'bhavalJ1s tasam apsara1).alJ1 suvarcasam,
asalJ1khyeyas tu Kiikutstha yas tiisarp paricarikaQ..
Uccail;lsrava ma1).iratnalJ1 ca Kaustubham
tathaivamrtam uttamam.
atha tasya krte Rama mahan iisit
Adites tu tatal). putra Ditiputran ayodhayan.
ekatam agaman sarve asura saha,
yuddham asin mahaghorarp vira trailokyamohanam
yada gatarp sarvarp, tada mahabalal;l
amrtalJ1 so 'harat tiirI)arp mayam asthaya mohinim.
ye gata 'bhimukhalJ1
te tada yuddhe
Aditer atmaja vira Ditel) putnin nijaghnire
asmin ghore mahayuddhe Daiteyadityayor bhrsam.
nihatya Ditiputrarps tu rajyalJ1 prapya Purarpdaral)
sasasa mudito lokan sacara1).an.
XIII
Ram. 2, 27 1)
Evam ukta tu Vaidehi priyarha priyavadini
pra1).ayad eva sarpkruddha bhartaram idam abravit:
kim idalJ1 Rima vakyarplaghutaya dhruvam,
tvaya 2) yad apahasyalJ1 me srutva naravarottama.
viraI)iilJ1 rajaputraI)arp nrpa
anarham 3) ayasasyarp ca na srotavyarp tvayeritam.
1) Rama, who goes into exile, has exhorted his wife Sitii. to remain
at the court of his father She answers him that she wants to follow
him into the forest.
2) tvaya yad uktarp. tac chrutvapaha.syaI!l me.
3) + gen.
128 READING SELECTIONS
aryaputra pita mata bhrata putras tatha
svani pUI).yani 4) bhufijanaJ:t svarp. svarp. bhagyam upiisate.
bhartur bhagyarp. tu nary eka prapnoti
atas caivaham vane vastavyam ity api.
na pit a natmajo natma na mata na sakhijanaI:t
iha pretya ca nariI).arp. patir eko gatiI:t sada.
yadi tvarp. prasthito durgarp. vanam adyaiva Raghava
agratas te mrdnanti kusakaI).takan.
naya marp. vira visrabdhal), paparp. mayi na vidyate.
prasadagre vimanair va vaihayasagatena va
sarvavasthagata bhartul) padacchaya
aharp. durgarp. vanarp.
nanamrgagaI).iikirI).arp. sardG.1agaI).asevitam.
sukharp. vane nivatsyami 5) yathaiva bhavane pituI:t
te nityarp. niyata brahmacariI).i.
saha rarp.sye tvaya vira
tvarp. hi karturp. vane sakto Rama sarp.paripalanam.
saharp. 6) tvaya vanam adya na sarp.sayaI:t 7),
na te duI:tkharp. kad;;yami nivasanti tvaya sada.
agratas te bhuktavati tvayi;
icchami parataI:t sailiin palvalani sararp.si ca
sarvatra nirbhita tvaya nathena dhimata.
saha tvaya rarp.sye paramanandini
evarp. satarp. vapi tvaya saha.
4) = karmaphalani.
5) 72
6) The sa which continues the discourse often has the significance
of a conjunction; with aham, tvam, etc. it is frequently conclusive.
7) n. s. "without doubt", without grammatical connection with the
sentence.
GLOSSARY
aO, before vowels ana, un- (nega-
tive).
akutobhaya-, a., not being afraid,
not fearing.
a., inexhaustible.
a., immortal, imperish-
able
agni-, s. m, fire.
agra-, s. n., point, surface area;
beginning; first born
agratas, before, ahead of.
agrapuja-, s f. donation
anga-, s. n., member, part, body.
aja-, s f. goat.
a/-, I, wander about.
a, very small
s. n., egg
atas, then, for this reason.
atiO, extremely, highly
atigariyas-, s. ati and guru-.
atithi-, s. m, guest.
ativaha-, s. n excessive suffering
or bearing.
a, extremely poisonous.
atisaya-, s m., excess.
ativa, extremely, exceedingly,
very.
atyartha-, a, excessive, extreme.
atra, here, then
atrlintare, meanwhile.
atraiva, s. atra and eva.
atha, thereupon, then, further-
more, thus, yet; atha va, or.
atho, = atha -\- u.
ad-, n, eat.
adura-, a., not far; s, nearness.
GONDA, Elementary Grammar
adr$!a-, a , invisible; s., poisonous
animal eluding the eye, ver-
min, ... danger.
adbhuta-, a, amazing; s n, mar-
vel.
adya, today, now
adri-, s m., mountain, hill.
adhama-, a, low.
adhastlit, below.
adhipa-, s ID, lord
adhobhiiga-, s. m., the lower or in-
ferior part.
anantara-, a, the nearest; adv.,
immediately afterwards.
anapakiirin-, a., not doing harm.
anarha-, a, unworthy.
anala-, s. m, fire.
anavrsji-, s. f, lack of rain.
anu, with gen., (immediately)
afterwards; tadanu, hereupon
anumantrita-, a, consecrated by
a formula
aneka-, a., several, many.
A ntaka-, name of the god of
death.
antarhita-, a. (p.p.p. of dha_) ,
disappeared.
andha-, a., blind
andhaklira-, s m darkness.
anna-, s. n. food.
anyatas, elsewhere
anyatha, otherwise.
anylidrs-, looking otherwise
anvita-, a. (verb. adj. of i-), pro-
vided with.
ap-, s. f. pI. 45 V, water.
9
I30
GLOSSARY
apara-, a., the posterior, follow-
ing, a different person, foreig-
ner; aparam, further, besides.
aparlldna-, s. m., mistake, of-
fense.
apavllaa-, s. m. rumor.
apanllsya-, a , to be laughed at.
apllhllya (hll-), with disregard,
exception of.
api, also, even; (after numerals)
all
aputra-, a., without son.
apekll-, s. f., consideration, re-
spect.
apsaras-, apsarll-, s. f , air nymph
abkllva-, s. m, absence
abkidMlna-, s. n., title, naming,
name.
abhimukkam, turned towards.
abkyantara-, s. n., the interior.
amara-, a., immortal
amaratva-, s n, immortality.
amita-, R., immense, immeasur-
able.
amitra-, s. m., enemy
amrta-, s n., the potion of itJutlor-
tallty.
ambara-, s. n., clothing.
ambkas-, s n., water.
ayam, dem pron, 49.
aYaSasya-, a., inglorious.
Ayodkyll-, s. f., name of a city.
aratJya-, s. n., forest, desert
ari-, s m., enemy.
arjita-, s rj-.
arlka-, s. m, objective; thing,
possession; arthe, -am, for the
purpose of, on account of, for,
for the sake of (aCter gen.); ko
'rthall + instr, what is the
benefit of the ... , a ...
arlna-, X arthayati, ask for; with
pra, approach someone with a
request; wish.
arthin-, a., desiring.
ardha-, a, half; s. m. n., half
arh-, I, earn, 2. p. arhasi takes
the place of a polite imper.,
1I5 V.
arka-, a., deserving, worthy, fit.
alpa-, a, small, little
avanejana-, s. n., washing, ablu-
tion.
avara-, a , low, inferior, trifling.
avastkll-, s. f , condition, situation.
avi-, s., sheep.
avikala-, a., oC which nothing is
lacking.
avitatna-, a., true.
aSana-, s. n, food, meal.
aSman-, s m., stone
aSru-, s. n, tear
aSva-, s. m, horse.
as-, 1I, be.
asa""khyeya-, R., countless
asakyt, often.
asi-, s. m., sword.
asura-, s m., demon.
asrj-, s. n, blood.
asau, that.
astamana-, s. n., sunset.
astra-, s. n., missile, arrow.
astki-, s. n., 45 1I, bone.
asmllkam, 47.
aki-, srn, snake, serpent.
aka, interj. (astonishment, joy,
mourning).
llkatikll-, s. f., wish.
llkllra-, s. m., form, figure, con-
figuration.
IlkiYtJa-, a, covered, full; s. ll-kr-.
GLOSSARY
I3!
agal'a-, s n, house
a&lil'a-, s m, (good) conduct.
{i.(;al'ya-, s. m, teacher (esp of
the Veda).
ajM-, s. f., command.
aijhya-, a, rich
atapa-, s. m., heat of the SUD.
iitura-, a., sick, Oil, sick on ac-
count of. "
atmaja-, s. ut, son
atman-, s. m., self, breath, soul;
also as refl. pron
Aditya-, s. m, sons of Aditi,
name of a class of gods.
anata-, s nam-.
iip-, V, obtain, reach, attain;
with ava, pra, the same, with
sa'l'ft-Pra, come, arrive at.
apad-, s f., misfort.une.
apanna-, a.; fallen (into misfor-
tune).
amra-, s. m., mango tree
ayudka-, s n, weapon.
ayurvedamaya-, a , containing the
science of medicine in itself
ayus-, s n, life.
aratl:JIa-, a, pertaining to the
wilderness.
al'abdha-, s., raM-
al'ta-, a, depressed, grieved.
al'ya-, s. m, Aryan.
aryaputl'a-, honorable. mode of
address of the husband.
iJSin-, a, eating
fJsnta- (sri- with a), a , present at,
having reached for something.
as- 11, mid sit, remain in a state,
etc.; with upa, apply oneself to
a thing, take part in something.
asakJa-, s sa'ilj-.
asana-, s n, seat.
asanna-, s. n., vicinity, proxim-
ity.
asit, s. as- n.
aka, (be) spoke
akara-, s m., nourishment.
i-, Il, go; with adki, mid., study,
learn; with ava, comprehend,
become acquainted with; with
ii, come; with aMi-a, come
near; with pari-a, return; with
ud, rise, with upa, approach;
with pra, die.
icchati, s. I is-
ital'a-, a, other.
itarathil, in another way, other-
wise.
iti, IJ9.
indra-, s. m, the first, chief
indl'iya-, s n, sense.
iva, as, just as; as if
I i$-, icchati ( 61) wish, with anu,
seek.
H i$-, with pra, X, send.
s m. f, arrow
i$udhi-, s. m. f, quiver
iSJa- (verb. adj. of I i$-), desired,
dear.
iha, here
ikh ik$ate, with ava, look at,
perceive; keep in view; with
pl'a, catch sight of; with prati,
wait for, await; with vi, catch
sight of, recognize.
idrsa-, a, such
ips- I, wish
irita- (p.p p ir- X), uttered, pro-
nounced.
il'sya-, s. f, jealousy
iSa-, s. m, lord.
s. m., lord.
132
GLOSSARY
u, slightly emphat. part.
ukta-, a., said.
ugra- a, mighty.
uooaya-, s. m., quantity, s. Siloo-
oaya-.
uocavaca-, a., multifarious, vari-
ous.
uoohrita-, a., high.
uttama-, superl., highest, most
excellent.
utsanga-, s. n., lap, haunch.
utsiidana-, s. n., annihilating.
udaka-, s n, water.
udadhi-, s m., sea.
uddiSya (ger , diS-), on account of,
for, according to; cf II7.
udvliha-, s. m, wedding.
upak$aya-, s.m, disappearance,
exhaustion, expense.
upadesa-, s. m, instruction.
upadrava-, s. m. misforiune.
upama-, a., similar.
upari, prep, with abl, after, ac-
cording to.
upalipta-, a , smeared, anoint.ed
upaya-, s. m., means, remedy.
upeta-, a. (p p.p. upa-i-), with
instr, provided with.
ubha-, both
Uma, the wife of Siva.
urvarita-, a, left over.
urvi-, sf, earth.
uvaca, s vac-.
u$ita-, a., s vas-, dwell.
urdhva-, a, upright.
rj-, I and arjayati, obtain.
fte, without, except (with abl.).
s. m, bull.
ni-, s. m., wise man, holy man.
eka-, one, alone; also indef. ar-
ticle
ekatli-, s. f., union
ekada, one day.
s. f., a glance directed
at an object
ekadesa-, s m, a place.
ekaratra-, s n., the duration of a
night.
eklinta-, s. m , solitary place.
ekaham, for an entire day.
ekaika-, a, each one
eta!, 48
etlivat-, (only) so much, such.
eva, just, already, quit.e, only.
evarj'lVidha-, a., such.
evam, so, thus
ojas-, s n., strength, power.
kaccid, interrogative part. , per-
haps.
kacchapa-, s. m, tortoise
ka!a-, s m., mat.
ka1Jlaka-, s. m, thorn.
kanlha-, s. m, neck, throat.
katham, how?; katham api, with
effort; na k. cana, in no way
whatsoever
kathli-, s f., narration, conver-
sation.
kadli, when'; kadacid, once upon
a time, in days past; na kadli-
cid, never.
kanya-, s. f., maiden, girl
kaman4alu-, s m. n, water-jar.
kamp-, I mid., tremble, caus.,
cause t.o tremble
kambala-, s m. n., a woolen gar-
ment, gown.
kara-, s. m., hand, ray.
GLOSSARY
133
kara1J,a-, s. n., the doing, the ac-
tion.
karapatra-, s. n., saw.
karna-, s. m., ear; akarnayati,
hear.
kardama-, s. m., dirt.
karman-, s. n., deed, action, work,
business.
kal-, with a, akalayaii, grasp, pos-
sess.
kalaha-, s. m., strife, contention.
kalevara-, s. m. n., body.
kalpa-, s. m., manner and way.
kavi-, s. m., poet.
Kakutstha-, Rama.
kama-, s m., love; object of de-
sire; kamam, adv., gladly, cer-
tainly.
kamalha-, a, peculiar to a tor-
toise.
kamarupin-, a., assuming a form
at will.
Kamyaka-, name of a forest.
kaya-, s. m., body.
kayastha-, s. m., writer, scribe.
kara1J,a-, s. n, cause.
karya-, a., to be done; s. n, mat-
ter.
kala-, s. m., time; also personif.
of time, of death.
kalasarpa-, s. m., a certain poi-
sonous snake.
KiUi-, s. f., Benares.
s. n., wood, piece of
wood.
ki1'J'lcid, 50.
kim, how?, why?
kimartham, why?
kiyat-, a., small, slight.
kirata-, s. m, member of a moun-
tain tribe.
kila, certainly, namely.
kirti-, s. f., fame.
kilaka-, s. m., wedge, peg.
ku/iraka-, s. m., cottage, hut.
kullani-, s. f., procuress.
kutas, whence?
kutra, where? whither?
kutrapi, somewhere, to some
place.
kupita-, a., angry.
Kuru-, name of a people and of
an ancestor.
s. n, name of a
country.
kula-, s. n., race, family.
kuSa-, s. m., Kusa grass.
kUla-, a., cunning, deceitful.
kr-, VIII, make, do, carry out,
act, etc.; caus., cause io be
done; ki1fl- kriyate -I- instr.,
what should one do with ...
krtaghna-, a., ungrateful.
krtayuga-, s. n., the first or "gold-
en" age.
krte (kr-), on account of, for
(+ gen.).
krtya-, a. (grdv of kr-), to be
done; s. n., obligation, busi-
ness.
krpa-, s. f., sympathy, compas-
sion.
krsa-, a., lean, emaciated.
I, pull; with a, draw on,
tense, stretch; with vi, .bend (a
bow).
kr-, VI kirati, scatter; with a,
strew; with ava, strew, spill;
with sam-ava, overflow.
kairatar, a., concerning the Ki-
rata- (a despised mountain
tribe).
I34
GLOSSARY
ko/i-, s. f , utmost point, bent end;
ten million.
kopa-, s. m., anger.
kolahala-, s m., shouting.
kautuka-, s. n., curiosity, what
arouses curiosity, festivity, sol-
emn ceremony.
kaulika-, s. m, weaver.
kYam-, I ( 6r 11), step; with a,
approach, come near, ascend,
step into something, come into
force, begin; with nis, go out.
kri-, IX, buy.
krirj-, I, kri4ati, play.
kf-irjana-, s. n., play, ga:tp.e.
krudh-, IV, be angry.
kruddha-, a., angry.
krura-, a., cruel.
krodha-, s. m., anger.
klanta-, a, tired.
kva, where?, whither?
a., bearing, suited for
something.
ksaya-, s. m., decline.
with pra,
wa.'1h.
a., dried up, dessicated.
X, destroy, annihilate.
k#P-, VI, throw; with pra, throw
into.
a., quick.
s. m. n., milk.
s. m., sea of milk
s. f., s. f hunger.
a., in excitement.
s. m., razor.
s. n , field.
khaJvIJ-, s. f., bedstead.
kharjga-, s. m., sword.
khat'aa-, s. m. n., gap, lacuna,
piece; khat'rjaSas, into pieces.
kkata-, a , dug up, rooted up.
kkaa-, I, eat, devour.
khura-, s. m., hoof.
khyata-, a., famous.
Ganga-, s. f, Ganges.
gaja-, s. m., elephant.
gat'a-, s m., troop, crowd.
gala- (verb. adj. of gam-), gone,
s. n., going, walk, pace.
gati-, s. f., path, way, way out,
refuge, condition
gad-, gaaati, speak, say.
gantavya- grdv. ( n6 VII), (one)
should go.
gandha-, s m., smell, odor
gandkarva-, name of a class of
mythol. beings.
gandkin-, a , having a smell.
gam-, I gacckati, go, go away,
pass (time). With adki, find
out; with anu, follow; with
ava, recognize; with a, come;
with upa-a, approach, come
near; with sam-a, come togeth-
er, coalesce, with nis, set out;
with prati, return.
gar4lka-, sup. of guru-.
gardabha-, s. m., ass.
gardabhi-, s. f., she-ass.
garbhin-, a., f. -i, pregnant.
garva-, s. m., conceit.
gIJ-, go.
ga(y)-, I, gayati, sing.
gir-, s. f., voice.
giri-, s. m., mountain, hill.
gita-, s. n., song
gut'a-, s. m, virtue.
gunavat-, a., excellent.
gunJh- with ava, cover, coat.
guvu-, a., heavy; s. authority,
GLOSSARY
135
person of respect, teacher,
father.
Gurjara-, name of a country.
grha-, s. n, house.
grhastba-, s. m., the married
Brahman in charge of his own
household; also adj.
grkita-, p p.p. of grab-.
grMtva, ger. of gran-.
go-, s. ( 31), ox, cow
goeara,-, s. m, domain, range.
govra-, s. m., bull.
graM-, = grah-.
gran-, IX, take, buy; with prati,
assume; with sam, seize.
grilma-, s. m., village.
gyilmya-, pertaining to the village.
gha}-, ghajati, get into; with ud,
X, open.
ghala-, s. m., pot
gha1.'Ja-, s. f., bell.
ghata-, s. m., blow, homicide.
-gnataka-, a., destroying
ghiitin-, a., killing.
ghora-, a., terrible.
ghna_, a., killing.
ghra-, I jighrati, smell; with a,
smell.
ea, and.
eakra-, s. n., wheel, circle, discus.
eakUS-, s. n., eye.
ea?lt;alata-, s f., mobility, moodi-
ness.
eaJa,ka-, s. m., sparrow.
eatur-, 54, four.
eaturlha-, a., fourth.
eatvaras, 54, four.
eandra-, s. m., moon.
ear-, I, go; with pra-14a, caus,
cause to sound.
eara1.'a-, s. m. n, foot.
earman-, s. n., skin, hide
cal-, calati, move, go.
ealana-, s. n, movement, creep-
ing.
eara-, s. m., scout.
earana-, s. m, heavenly singer.
d-, with nis, determine, decide.
dtii-, s f., funeral pile, pyre.
eilla-, s. n, mind.
dnt-, X, think, consider; with
sam, reflect, consider.
cintii-, s. f., thought, idea, worry.
dra-, long (of time); na eir81;la,
after not a long time.
drat, after a long time, finally.
cira-, s. n , a thin and long piece
of bark.
civara-, s.n., dress of rags.
euq,ama.",i-, s m., jewel.
eiir.",ita-, a, shattered.
eea, if
,e01'a-, s m, thief.
eaura-, s. m., thief.
chad-, ehildayati, cover; with
sam-abhi and pra, cover.
ehaya-, sf, shadow.
ehid-, VII, split, cut off.
chidra-, s. -n., hole.
eheda-, s. m., cutting off
0ja-, arisen from ...
jagat-, s. n., world.
janghfi-, s. f., leg.
j a ~ , s. f., plait.
jajhara-, s. n., belly.
jan-, jayate, be born, arise, be-
come; with sam, be born, arise,
become.
jana-, s. m., human being, pI.
people.
GLOSSARY
janapada-, s. m., people, land.
janani-, s. f., mother.
janamejaya-, name of a king.
jantu-, s. m., creature.
jap-, I, mutter to oneself.
jambiila-, s m., mud.
jala-, s. n., water.
jataSaya-, s. m., pond.
jalaukas-, s. f., leech.
jiita-, p.p.p. of jan-.
jiitiya-, a, belonging to the
class ... , family ...
janami, s. jria-.
janu-, s. n., knee.
jamiltr-, s. m., son-in-law.
jayli-, s. f., Wife.
ji-, I, defeat, conquer.
jighrat-, s. ghrii-.
jita-, (p.p.p. of ji-), defeated,
conquered.
ji1"f}a-, a., old, dilapidated.
jiv-, jivati, live, caus. jivapayati,
make living, animate, vivify.
jiva-, s. n., life.
jivita-, a., revived; s. n., life.
jfla-, a., knowing, acquainted
with.
jM-, IX, janati, know; with anu,
dismiss; with sam + ll, learn;
with pari, recognize, know
exactly; with vi, caus., cause
someone to know.
jflana-, s. n, knowledge, in-
sight.
jvalita-, a., blazing.
tatas, from there, there, there-
uPon, then.
talfa, there, therein; + eva, ibid.,
just there, at the very same
place.
tatM, so, likewise, and; tatM +
api (eva) , nevertheless.
tathya-, a., true, s n., truth.
tad, adv, there; at that time;
therefore.
ladanantaram, s. anantal'a-
tadanu, s. anu.
tadIJ, then, thereupon.
tadllnim, at that time.
tanu-, sf, body.
tanu-, a., thin, fine.
tap-, I, be warm, heat up.
tapas tap-, practice asceticism.
tapas-, s. n., heat; asceticism;
tapasyati, practice asceticism.
tapasvin-, a., ascetic; s. m, as-
cetic.
tamala-, s. m., name of a tree.
tal'U-, s. m, tree.
tal'hi, then, therefore.
tala-, s. m. n., surface, palm of
the hand.
laskal'a-, s. m, robber.
tasmad (abl. s. n.) therefore.
tlJt/,-, X, strike.
tllpasa-, s. m., ascetic.
tavat, a, so much; adv. so long,
first, meanwhile, immediately.
til'a-, s. n, bank, shore.
tu, but.
tulll-, s. f., balance.
t ~ - , IV, be pleased, caus., satisfy;
with pari, caus., satisfy com-
pletely.
t ~ / a - , a, satisfied, content.
tUl'tmm, adv., quickly.
til1')im, adv., silently.
trna-, s. n., grass, straw.
trtiya-, a., third.
trP-, IV, be satisfied; X, satisfy,
satiate, please, appease.
GLOSSARY
I37
Ir-, I and VI, inf. lar(i)/um, cross
over, overcome.
tejas-, s. n., sharpness, fervor,
passion, power, energy, moral
and magic power.
tyaj-, I, leave, abandon, desert;
pari, leave, give up.
tyaga-, s. m., liberality.
traya(l" 54, three
tras-, I, tremble; caus , frighten.
tra-, lI, protect.
Iratta-, s. n., protection.
tridaSa-, the 33 gods.
trailokya-, s. n , the three worlds.
Tryambaka-, = Siva.
tvadiya-, a., your, yours.
tvam, 47, you (fam. and polite).
tvadrsa-, a , one such as you, one
like you.
daytzpati-, duo -ti-, married couple.
daYfiS-, I ( 61 Ill), daSati, bite.
S. i., pointed tooth,
fang. /
a., able.
dagdha-, p.p p. S. dah-.
dattif,a-, S. m. n., stick, staff, pow-
er, punishment.
datta-, p.p p. of da-, given.
danta-, S. m., tooth.
Damayanti, name of a queen.
darpa-, S. m, insolence.
dasana-, S. m, tooth.
(verb. adj. of daYfiS-) ,
bitten.
dasyu-, S. m., an evil or hostile
man.
dah-, I, burn, consume by flre;
with nis and vi-nis, burn.
dahyat-, a. (part.), burning.
da-, Ill, give; with a, take, a-dll-
vacanam, begin to speak; with
pra, lend, give; give in mar-
riage.
dana-, S. n., liberality.
danavat-, a., generous.
dayaka-, a, giving.
daridrya-, S. n., poverty.
daru-, S. n., wood.
darutta-, a, terrible, rough.
dava-, S. m., forest fire.
diisa-, S. m., servant.
dasi-, S. f, slave girl.
dina-, S. m., day.
divasa-, s m., day.
divakara-, S. m., sun.
divaukas-, S. m, inhabitant of
heaven.
divya-, a., heavenly, divine.
diS-, S. f., region of the heavens.
diS-, VI, show, point out, etc.;
with a, prati-a and sam-a, or-
der.
dina-, a., sad.
diP-, dipyale, blaze; into blaze
strongly, illuminate brightly.
4ipta-, a, blazing, radiant.
dirghasattra-, S. n., a protracted
Soma celebration.
dU(l,kha-, a., unpleasant; S. n.,
misfortune, suffering.
dU(l,khita-, a., concerned.
dU(l,sparsa-, a., harq to touch.
dundubhi-, S. m, d1:jlm, kettle-
drum.
durga-, a., impassable.
durgati-, S. f, misery.
Durga-, S. f., name of a goddess.
durjana-, s. m., a bad man.
durbala-, a., weak.
S. n., famine.
durlabha-, a., hard to attain.
GLOSSARY
duh-, II, milk.
duhitr-, s. f., daughter.
dura-, a, far; s. n., distance.
dr-, IX, burst; vi-darayati, burst,
split.
driJha-, a., firm, strong, violent.
drs-, see.
dr!a- (verb. adj. of drs-), seen;
established.
dr#-, s. f., perceiving.
deya-, grdv. of dii-.
tleva-, s. m., god; voc. deva, also
sire.
devana-, s. n., game of dice.
devi-, s. f., goddess.
desa-. s. m, place, spot, region,
land.
deslintara-, s., foreign country.
deha-, s. m. n., body.
daiva-, s. n., fate
daivata-, s. n., divinity.
dogdhri-, giving milk.
doa-, s. m., mistake, guilt, sin.
drava-, a., fluid.
dravya-, s n., property, wealth.
dru-, I, run, melt; with aMi,
hasten towards, approach vig-
orously, set to with a will.
druma-, s. m., tree.
drohin-, a., betraying.
dvaya-, s. n., pair.
dvija-, s. m., Brahman.
dvitiya-, a, second
dvih 11, hate.
dvi-, s. m., enemy.
dvipin-, s. m., panther.
dhana-, s. n., possession, wealth,
money.
Dhana'itjaya-, = Arjuna.
dhanin-, a., rich (esp. in land),
opulent.
dhanus-, s. n., bow.
dhan1,lmat-, a., provided with a
bow.
dhanya-, a., fortunate.
Dhanvantari-, the doctor of the
gods.
dham-, I, blow; with fJi-, cause to
disperse.
dhara-, a, bearing.
dharma-, s. m., law, precept, duty,
etc.
dharmavat-, a, just.
dhii-, Ill, put, place; (+ dat.)
direct toward; with antar,
pass.,disappear; with aMi, ad-
dress; with ava, mid., pay at-
tention; with ni, place, set
down, place, place into; with
vi, make, fabricate.
dhiitri-, s f., wet nurse.
dharmika-, a., virtuous.
dhliv-, dhiivati, run; with abhi,
run straight at or toward a
thing.
dhimat-, a., intelligent, wise.
dhira-, a., resolute; wise.
dhuma-, s. m., smoke.
dhilsara-, a., gray.
dhr-, X, dhiirayati, bear, hold;
obtain, possess; with ava-, X,
get acquainted with; with vi,
detain, arrest.
dhrk-, bearing.
dhr-, with pra, X, offend some-
one, overcome.
dhenu-, s. f., cow.
dhairya-, s. n., steadfastness,
firmness.
dhyiina-, s. n., meditation.
dhruva-, a., fixed, constant.
dhvaja-, s. m., flag.
GLOSSARY
I39
na, not.
nagara-, s n., town, city.
nagari-, s. f., town, city.
nad-, I, cry, sound, roar, bellow.
nadi-, s. f, river.
nandana-, s. m, son.
nandin-, a, having joy in.
nam-, I, humble oneself, with a,
stoop, bow; with pra, bow be-
fore
nara-, s. m., man.
naraka-, s. m., hell.
nas-, IV, get lost, perish; with vi,
get lost, perish; caus., destroy.
naga-, s. m., elephant, snake,
serpent.
niltha-, s. m, protector, ruler.
nilnao, various, manifold.
naman-, s. n., name; acc. s. niima,
by name; namely.
nari-, s. f., woman, wife.
nasana-, s. n., destroying, anni-
hilation.
nikartana-, s n., massacre, slaugh-
ter
niketa-, s. m., dwelling.
nija-, a , own, native or inherent
to
nit yam, always.
nityasa[t, always
nidra-, s. f., sleep.
nidhana-, s. m. n., death
nibkrta-, a., hidden, concealed.
niyata-, s. yam-.
niramaya-, a., healthy, sound.
nirasibkuta-, a , who has given up
hope.
nirlthltra-, a, refraining from
food.
nirghrna-, a., cruel, inhuman,
bloodthirsty.
nirdagdha-, s dah-.
nirdhana-, a, poor.
nirbhita-, a., fearless.
nirmathana-, s. n , churning.
nilaya-, s. m., nest.
nisacara-, s m, (nocturnal) mon-
ster.
niSita-, a., sharp.
nisitha-, s. m., night.
niscesla-, a, motionless
nisarga-, s. m., nature
ni-, I, lead, take along; with It,
bring; with sam-a, bring to-
gether, bring up (to the speak-
er), bring home; with pari,
marry.
nica-, a., low, common.
nif/,a-, s. n., nest
nunam, certainly.
nr-, s m., man, human being
nrpa-, s. m., prince.
nrpati-, s. m., prince
no eet, if not-.
nau-, s. f., ship
pakva-, s. n., food
s. m., bird.
pac-, I, cook.
pancatva-, s. n., death.
pancama-, a., fifth.
palh-, palhati, recite aloud.
pa'f,l,f/,ita-, a.., intelligent, learned.
pat-, I, fall, fall into; p p.p. pa-
tita-; with ii, unexpectedly fall
to a person's lot; with ut, rise,
arise; with ni, caus., cause to
fall, cast or hurl down; with
vi, caus., fell, slay; with vinis,
come forth.
path s. m., lord.
patni-, s. f., lady, wife.
14
0
GLOSSARY
path-, s. m., 45 Ill, path, road.
Pad-, IV mid., fall away, go to;
with vi-il, caus., destroy; with
ut, arise; with nis caus.,
prepare; with pya, come to,
go to; with sam, fall to one's
lot..
pa1'a-, a., further, later; foreign;
best, highest; s. m., enemy; at
the end of a comp., intent on.
pa1'atas, further, abl. of pa1'a-.
pa1'antapa-, a., tormenting the
enemy.
pa1'am, thereupon; nevertheless.
pa1'ama-, a, highest, best.; _0,
extremely, very
pa1'aSu-, s. m., axe.
pa1'iJ1'tha-, s. m , the advantage of
others.
pa1'ig1'aha-, s. m, attainment,
possession.
pa1'i&iirikii-, s. i., servant girl or
woman.
pa1'ijMta-, a., recognized.
pa1'if>Urita-, s. I.
parif>U1'1Ja- (s. I P;-), entirely
filled.
pa1'imita-, a, limited, small
pa1'isamiipta- (iip-), a., completely
ended
pa1'U$a-, a., rough, uneven.
paruata-, s. m, mountain, hill.
paliJy-, paliJyate, flee.
palvala-, s. n., pond.
PaS-, IV, see
PaSu-, s m., cattle; also a single
head.
PaSupati-, = Siva.
paSeiJt, afterward, later.
pa-, I, pibati, drink.
Pil-, 11, protect.
pamsu-, s. m., dust, sand.
pani-, s. m., hand
pa1J4itya-, s. n., learning, eru-
dition.
pa1J4uratii-, s. f., white color.
pata-, s. m., fall.
patiila-, s. n., nether world.
piida-, s. m., foot
papa-, s. n., evil, sin, harm.
son of
piJ.rthiva-, s. m., prince.
parsva-, s. m n., side, vicinity.
plJla-, s. m, guard, keeper; pa-
layati, guard, save, rescue.
plJvaka-, s. m., fire.
plJSa-, s. m., noose, fetter.
plJSupata-, a., consecrated to
Siva-Pa.Supati, concerning Si-
va-PaSupati.
pitr-, s. m, father.
pitrpaitamaka-, a., inherited.
pinaka-, s. m. n., the club and
bow of Siva
pipiJsa-, s f., thirst
pipilika-, s. m, ant.
pibati, s pa-
piSita-, s. n., flesh.
pis-, VII, with sam, crush.
pid-, X, press, torture.
punya-, a., favorable, fortunate,
fair, handsome
putra-, s. m., son.
putri-, s. f, daughter.
punar, again, back; in contrast
puma'f'S-, s. m., 45 IV, man.
pura-, s. n., town, city.
Pura1ftdara-, = the god Indra.
puri-, s. f., stronghold, town.
PU1'U$a-, s. m, man.
purusottama-, s. m, the highest
spirit,
GLOSSARY
pU$kara-, s. n., tip of the ele-
phant's trunk.
pU$la-, a., well nourished.
pustaka-, s. m., book.
pu-, IX, purify. cleanse.
puga-, s. m, quantity.
puj-, X, honor.
puja-. s. f., honoring. ,
pujya- (grdv. of puj-). to be hon-
ored
purita-. a., filled (p p.p. of i.
Pr- X).
pur1Ja- (to 1. Pr-), full, filled. re-
plete.
purva-, a., earlier; adv. formerly,
earlier
purusa-, = puru$a-
Prthivi-. s. f., earth.
Pr$ta-. p.p.p. of prach-.
Pr$/ha-, s n .. back, posterior side;
Prs/hatas. from, toward the rear
or back
I P'f-, IX, fill. with pari. caus.
(p.p p. paripurita-) make full
II pr-. parayati. with acc., resist.
pesala-, a., agreeable, charming.
paitamaha-, a, pertaining to a
grandfather, grandfatherly.
potabhanga-, s. m., shipwreck.
pautra-, s. m., grandson.
paura-, s. m., citizen.
prahara-, s. m., manner, way.
prakopa-, s. m., anger.
pracalana-, s. n., creeping.
prach-, Prcchati. 6r I, ask.
praja-, s. f. pI, subjects, vas-
sals.
pra1jaya-, s. m., familiarity, con-
fidence; ab!.. frankly.
pratik$anam, continually, each
moment
pratisraya-, s. m., refuge; dwell-
ing.
pratikiira-, s. m., remedy, anti-
dote.
prathama-, a., first.
pradesa-, s. m., place, region.
pradhana-, a., most excellent.
prapanna-, p.p.p. of pad- with
pra.
praMavi$nu-, a . mighty; s. m.,
lord
prabhu-, s m., lord.
prabMUa-, a., much, copious.
prayatna-, s. m, effort.
prayojana-, s n, purpose, bene-
fit.
pravivada-, s. m, strife, quarrel.
prasanna-, a., merciful
prasava-, s m, procreation.
prasupta-, a, fallen asleep.
prastava-, s. m., opportunity.
prahara-, s. m., a time lap.,e of
about 3 hours
prahara-, s m., blow.
prllfijali-, a., extending the hands
(as sign of respect)
prana-, s m .. breath of life.
pradur as-, appear.
prapta-, s. ap-.
prarthita-, s. arthayati with pra.
praVr$-, s. t, rainy season
prasada-, s. m, palace.
priya-, a., dear; priya-, the be-
loved.
priyavada-, s. m., friendly words.
priyavadin-, a., saying pleasant
things
prita-. a., delighted, pleased.
prUimat-, a., delighted, content.
pretya, s. i-.
prerita-, s. ir-.
GLOSSARY
s. f, servant.
proC(;lirita-, a., p p.p. s. car- with
pra-ud.
protha-, s. m n., snout.
ptu-, I, swim.
phala-, s n., fruit.
phulta-, a., blooming.
baddka- (p.p p. of bandh-) , bound.
bandn-, IX, bind.
bandnu-, s. m., relative, friend
bala-, s m., power; army.
balavat-, balin-, a, powerful
bahiskr-, VIII, exclude.
baku-, a., much.
blitta-, s. m., arrow.
bandnava-, s m., relative
Mla-, s., child
balaka-, s., small child.
blihu, s m., arm.
buddni-, s. f., understanding, in-
tellect, mind, opinion
buddhimat-, a., understanding.
budk-, I, awaken; recognize.
brhat-, a., great.
brahmaclirin-, a., practicing chas-
tity.
brahmavid-, s. m , one who knows
piety or divine knowledge, wise
man.
brlihma1.'la-, a., belonging to a
Brahman; s. m., Brahman.
brlihmani-, s. f , a Brahman wom-
an.
bru-, II braviti, speak.
I and X, eat
p.p p of Maks-.
Magavat-, a., noble, venerable
Magna-, s. Manj-
bhanga-, s m, a breaking, frac-
ture.
bhanj-, VII, verb. adj. Magna-,
break off, shatter.
Man-, speak.
Madra-, fortunate, favorable,
good; voc. f. Madre my good
lady.
Maya-, s n, danger, fear.
Maylinaka-, a, terrible, sinister.
bhartr-, s m., husband
bhavat-, nom. bhavan with the 3rd
pers. of the verb, polite pron.
of the 2nd pers
bhavana-, s n, dwelling.
bhasman-, s. n., ash.
bhliga-, s. m., part.
bhagya-, a, fortunate, s n., luck,
fortune.
bhara-, s. m, burden.
bMryli-, s. f , wife.
Ma$-, I, speak, with sam, speak,
with prati, answer
bhiksa-, s. f , alms.
s m, beggar, mendi-
cant friar
bhitti-, s. f, wall
Mid-, VII, split, break.
s m., doctor
bhukta-, a, eaten (lit. enjoyed);
s n., food
bhuj-, VII mid., eat, enjoy
bhujatJ'lgama-, s m, snake.
bhu-, s. f, earth
Mu-, 1., flourish, become, be;
caus., promote, cause to devel-
op, nurture; with anu, feel,
enjoy, suffer; with aMi, be
superior, overpower; with pra,
prevail, be able.
Muta-, s n, being, sinister being.
bkapati-, s m, prince.
bhupala-, s m, prince.
GLOSSARY
I43
bkumi-, s. f., earth.
bkuyas, adv., mor", very, besides,
further.
bhu.ri-, a., much, significant.
s. n., adornment, orna-
ment, jewelry.
bkr- I and Ill, bear, carry.
Bkrgututiga-, name of a sacred
mountain
bhrt-, bearing, possessing, bring-
ing.
bkrtya-, s m., servant
bhrsam, very.
s n., remedy, antidote.
s. n., begging; begged
food.
bho([s) , 01
bhojana-, s. n., food, meal
bkram-, bhramati, bhramyati, roam
about; with pari, roam about.
bhriltr-, s. m., brother
matli-, s. m., jewel.
mata-, verb. adj. of man-; s. n.,
opmion.
mati-, s. f., understanding, reason.
matimat-, a, intelligent.
matsya-, s. m., fish.
math-, I and IX, whirl.
matkana-, s. n., churning.
madiya-, a., my, mine.
madhu, s. n., honey; a, sweet.
MadhusUdana-,
madhya-, s. n., middle; a., in the
middle; madkyatas, adv. in the
middle.
madhyama-, a., middle, midmost.
madkyahna-, s. m, noon.
manas-, s. n., mind, intellect,
feeling
Manu, father and lord of men.
manuja-, s. m, human being,
man.
s. m., human being,
man.
manogata-, s. n., thought, desire,
longing.
manoratka-, s m., wish.
manokara-, a, charming.
mantra-, s. m., sacred text, for-
mula, mantrayati, advise; with
a, X, invite
mantravadin-, s. m, reciter of
spells or incantations.
mantrin-, s. m, adviser, minister.
mantkana-, s. m., churn staff.
manda". mandam; quite slowly.
Mandara-, s. m., name of a sacred
mountain
mamt-, s. m., wind.
markaja-, s. m., ape.
marlya-, s. m, mortal
mardana-, a, torturing, crushing.
mahat-, a, great fem makati.
maka-, at the beginning of comp.,
great.
makatman-, a, noble, eminent,
mighty.
mahiibkiiga-, a., verydistinguisbed,
prominent
makaraja-, a great king, prince,
ruler.
makilsattva-, a., noble; s. m, a
noble creature.
mah4i-, s. f., female buffalo.
maki-, s. I., earth
mahendra-, s. m., great chief.
ma, not (prohibitive).
mil-, Ill, mimite, measure; with
anu, conclude.
s. n., flesh
I44
GLOSSARY
miitula-, a., belonging to the moth-
er's brother
mat1'-, s. f., mother.
mana-, s m., honor; manayati,
honor
manasa-, s. n, mind, int.ellect
s. m., human being,
man.
mayii-, s. f., illusion, deception.
miisa-, s. m., month
miisika-, a., monthly, mensual.
mit1'a-, s. n, friend; drokin-, a.,
betraying a friend.
mukta-, s. muc-.
mukka-, s n, mouth, face, head.
mugdka-, a , stupid, simple.
mUG-, VI muncati, X, loosen, Hber-
ate; with nis, X, set free.
muttda-, a., shaved, bald, having
the head shaved
mudita-, a., glad.
muni-, s. m., a (silent) seer and
wise m:an.
s. mr-.
IX, steal, rob
s. m. f., fist.
mulfus, mukur, mukulJ, repeated-
ly.
mukurta-, s. m n., hour.
mU4kf1-, a., foolish.
mU1'kha-, a., stupid; s. m., fool.
mU1'timat-, a., incarnate.
mula-, s. n., root, unmulayati,
root out, eradicate. .
mUsika-, s. m., mouse.
mr-, m1'iyate, die.
mrga-, s. m., wild animal, gazelle,
stag.
mrgaya-, s f., hunt.
mrj-, ma1'jati, rub off;
with sam, rub, sweep.
mrta- (mr-) , a., dead.
mrd-, IX, crush, destroy.
mrs- with vi, VI and X, consider
(frequently written with
medas-, s. n., fat.
medini-, s. f., earth.
s. m., ram.
s. m., release.
moka-, s. m , insanity, deception,
delusion.
mohana-, a., deluding.
mohin-, a, confusing.
maunaV1'ata-, a., who observes
the vow of silence.
ya-, ret pron., who, which.
s m., (name of a
class of mytholog. beings).
yajfla-, s m., sacrifice.
yat-, yatate, strive for.
yatas, whence; in consequence of
which; where; since, because.
yatna-, s. m., exertion
yatra, where, whither (relat.).
yatha, as, that, so that
yathakalam, adv. ( II3), at the
right time, opportunely.
yatha1'tha-, a., right., appropriate.
yad, pron. 50; conj. that; be-
cause.
yada, when, if.
yadi, if, in case.
yantrita-, a., shot by a tightly
tensed bow.
yam, YaGGhati, with ni, restrain,
hold back, strengthen, hold
fast, with pya, lend, bestow.
Yama-, s. m., the god of the king-
dom of the dead
yasas-, s. n., reputation, dignity,
fame.
GLOSSARY
145
yasmiid (abl. s. n 50), since,
because.
ya-, n, go; with ii, come to; with
sam-ii, come hither (together);
with pra, depart, set out, jour-
ney to.
yac-, I, request.
yatra-, s. f., journey.
yavat-, a., as great, adv, so long
as, so far as, as long, as soon as,
while; yavan na, before.
yugapad, adv., simultaneously.
yuj-, VII, X, yoke; yujyate, it is
right, fitting; with pra, X,
discharge, shoot; with sam,
provide with
yuddka-, s. n, battle.
yudk-, s f., battle, combat.
yudh-, yudkyate, fight; X, cause
to fight, fight against.
yuvati-, s. t, young woman.
yutka-, s. m., troop, herd.
yoktra-, s. n., cord, rope.
yogin-, a., s m., devoted to Yoga,
Yogin.
yogya-, a., fitting.
yauvana-, s. n., youth.
rakati, p.p.p raksita-, pro-
tect; with pari, protect.
s. m., guard.
s. n., protecting, pre-
serving.
s. n., (nocturnal) demon.
rajaka-, s. m., washerman.
rajani-, s. f., night.
rajju-, s f., cord, rope.
ra1Ja-, s. n., battle.
rata-, a., finding pleasure in (1).
ratna-, s. n., jewel.
ratha-, s. m., war-chariot.
GONDA, Elementary Grammar
rabk-, I, with a, begin, undertake.
ram-, IV mid., take pleasure in;
with vi, stop, calm down.
ramya-, a., graceful, charming,
beauteous.
ramattiya-, a., delightful.
rasa-, s. m, juice, fluid.
rakita-, a., deserted by (+ instr.).
a., devilish; s.m., mon-
ster, demon.
rajan-, s. m., king.
rajaputri-, s. f., princess.
riijya-, s. n., dominion, rule
riitri-, s. f., night.
riidk-, with apa, IV, transgress,
guilty
ripu-, s. m., enemy.
ru-, n, roar, bellow, howl.
ruci-, s. f., taste.
rud-, II ( 64 VI), roditi, cry,
weep, shed tears.
Rudra-, = Siva, name of a god.
rudhira-, s. n , blood.
ruh-, I, climb up, grow; with a,
climb.
rupa-, s. n., figure, beauty.
rupaka-, s. m., rupee.
rupavat-, rupii4kya-, a., beautiful.
rupin-, having the figure ...
s. m., anger.
raudra-, a., frightful.
lak$-, X, perceive, notice, ob-
serve.
Lak$mi-, s. f., the goddess of
fortune.
lag-, I, attach oneself to.
lagku-, a., light.
lagkutii-, s. f., insignificance, fri-
volity, small repute.
lajjii-, s. f., modesty, shame.
10
14
6
GLOSSARY
labh-, I mid., get.
lamb-, lambate, hang down, hang
upon; with ava, caus., hang;
with a, seize, submit
likh-, VI, scratch; with vi,
scratch, tear up.
tih, II kif-hi, lick, intens. con-
stantly lick; with ava, lick on.
li-, I, cling to, snuggle up to, at-
tach oneself to
lila-, s. f., play; lilaya, without
any effort.
lok-, X, look; with ava, look (at);
with a, regard; with vi, look at,
consider, catch sight of.
loka-, s. m, world, people.
loiatman-, s. m., the soul of the
world.
loeana-, s. n., eye.
lomahar$ana-, a., causing the
hair to raise
vaktumanas-, a., intending to say
vae-, say, name; with prati, an-
swer.
vacana-, s. n., word.
vacas-, s. n., word.
vajra-, s m., thunderbolt
vaife-, X, deceive; p. p. part.
va1feita-.
vaif,ava-, s f., mare.
va1J.ij-, s. m, merchant.
vat, adv suffix, like, as.
vad-, vadati, speak, say; caus,
cause to sound; with abhi, X,
address, greet.
vadhu.., s. f., woman.
vana-, s. n., forest.
vanaspati-, s. m, tree
vanaukas-, s. m., inhabitant of
the forest, anchorite.
vanya-, a , living in the forest,
growing in the forest.
vapus-, s. n., figure, body.
vam-, I, spit, spew out.
vayas-, s. n., (youthful) age
vara-, a, most excellent, best.
I vara-, s. m., wish.
11 vara-, s. m , suitor, husband.
varalla-, s. m., wild boar.
varjita-, a., to whom something is
lacking, free from, without.
va1'1J.a-, s. m, color.
vartin-, a., present, existent, CUT-
rent.
var$a-, s. m. n., rain; year.
valli-, s. f., climbing plant.
vaSa-, s. m., will, wish; vasat, in
consequence .. , by virtue of
I vas-, vaste, dress, clothe
II vas-, I, dwell, lodge; cans,
shelter; with ni, tarry, live;
with pra, set out, with prati,
dwell.
vasudha-, s. f., earth, land.
vallni-, s m., fire.
va, or.
vii.kya-, s. n., speech, words.
vik-, s f., word, speech.
vil:Keh-, wish.
vani-, s. f., speech
vata-, s m., wind.
vi/.da-, s m., expression; sound,
call, ring.
vanara-, s. m., ape
vayavya-, a., pertaining to the
wind or to the god of the wind.
vii.yu-, s. m., wind.
van-, s. n, water.
vlisin-, a, dwelling.
Vlisuki-, s m, a prince of ser-
pents.
GLOSSARY
147
vahana-, s. n, cbariot.
vikl'aya-, s. m, sale
vikilyiita-, a., famous.
vi jara-, a., not aging.
vijitapti-, s. f, the address of an
inferior to a superior, request.
vittavat-, a., rich.
vid-, vindati, find; vidyate, there is
(are).
viaya-, s. f , knowledge, teaching,
science.
vidvat- (p.p. act of via-), know-
ing.
vidki-, s. tU, method, way, rule,
fate.
'Oidkura-, a, disagreeable, unla-
vorable.
p.p.p. of naS- + vi.
vina, without (with acc. and
instr.)
vipatti-, s. f., misfortune.
vipaa-, s. f., misfortune.
vipascit-, a., wise.
'Oipra-, s. m., Brahman.
vibudha-, s. m, god.
vibkaga-, s. m., part
vimana-, s. m.-n, palace; a char-
iot travelfng through the air.
'Oil'aha-, s. m, separation.
vil'ahita-, a., abandoned, deprived
'Oivardhin-, a, increasing
viveka-, s m, correct discrimi-
nation, judgment
vis-, VI, go into; with a, p.p.p.,
filled with; with upa, sit down;
caus., seat someone; witb sam-
upa, sit down; with pra, enter.
viSalaksa-, a, great-eyed.
s m., distinction, manner;_
- 0, a definite. .;
especially.
'Oisrabdha-, a., trusting, without
besitation.
viSvasta-, a., full of confidence.
viSvasa-, s. m, confidence
s n, poison.
vi$anna-, a., disconcerted
vismaya-, s. n., astonishment
vihaga-, s m., bird.
vihal'a-, s. m n, monastery.
vira-, s. m, bero.
'Oil'udk-, s. I., herb, plant.
vil'yavat-, a , mighty, able.
I 'OY-, V, cover, with sam-a, cover;
with ni, X, hold back; restrain
II vy-, IX, vrf&ite, choose, wisb;
'Oa1'am vr-, wish a wish
vrk$a-, s. m., tree.
vrt-, I, vartate, become, be; X,
live by (with instr ) , with abM,
set about or upon; with pra,
arise, begin; set a:bout, pro-
ceed; (with dat.), submit, with
vi, roll.
vrtka, indecl., nselessly, vainly
vrddha-, a., old.
vrah-, I, increase, flourisb.
vr$#1.-, s. f., rain.
vega-, s m., impetuosity, baste,
rashness
veda-, s. m, knowledge, Veda.
vedana-, s f., pain
vela-, s. f, moment, period of
time.
vesman-, s n., house.
vai, particle of asseveration.
vaidhcya-, a., stupid; s., block-
head.
vaikayasa-, a, standing in the
air; s. n., air, open space.
vyakta-, a., obvious, manifest.
s. f., occupation.
GLOSSARY
vyadk-, vidkyati, pierce; with
prati, shoot (at).
vyasana-, s. n, passionate de-
votion, vice.
vyllkulatva-, s. n., alarm, excite-
ment.
vyllgkra-, s. m., tiger.
vylldka-, s. m., hunter.
vylldki-, s. m, illness
vyllyllma-, s. m., bodily exertion;
battle
vyltla-, s. m , beast of prey; snake.
vraj-, I, go.
vrata-, s. n., vow.
sak-, V, be able.
sakala-, s. m. n., chip, splinter,
small piece.
sakta-, a., being able.
sakti-, s. f., power, ability.
Sankara-, = Rudra-Siva.
sankka-, s m, sea shell.
sata-, s. n., hundred.
Satakratu-, = Indra.
satadkll, hundredfold.
satru-, s. m., enemy.
sanai[e ,(sanaiM, slowly, gradu-
ally.
sabda-, s. m., tone, sound, word,
speech.
sam-, with pra: prasamita-, anni-
hilated, killed.
sara-, s. m., arrow.
saratta-, s. n., shelter, refuge.
sarira-, s. n., body.
sarman-, s. n., protection, rescue,
preservation.
Sarva- = Rudra-Siva.
sava-, s. m. n., corpse.
sastra-, s, n., sword, knife.
sllkkll-, s. f., branch, bough.
slldvala-, s. n, lawn.
sllnti-, s. f., rest, peace of mind;
the absence of an evil effect
and the ceremony directed
thereto.
sltntika-, s. n., preventive agent.
sllpa-, s. m., curse.
Sarngin-, = V i ~ 1 ) . u .
sardula-, s. m., tiger.
salii-, s. f , hall, room, stable.
sas-, 11, prevail over, master.
sastra-, s. n., science, textbook
sikkara-, s. n., peak, summit.
sikkin-, s. m., fire.
siras-, s. n., head.
sUa-, s. f., stone, crag.
siloccaya-, s. m., mountain, hill.
siva-, a., friendly, blessed.
Si$-, VII, leave remaining; with
vi: viSi$yate, be worth more
(than: instr.).
si$ya-, s. m., pupil.
si-, 11, mid., lie, recline.
sigkra-, a., quick, rapid.
sita-, a., cold.
sila-, $. n., (noble) character; haQ-
it (frequently as the 2nd
member of a comp., with that
which has become habit for
one, for which one possesses a
special inclination or ability, in
the 1st member).
sue-, I, mourn.
suci-, a., pure, clean.
suni-, s. f., bitch.
subka-, a., beautiful, good, favor-
able.
su$-, X, with upa, dry up, dessi-
cate.
sunya-, a" empty.
sula-, s. n., spit, spike, spear.
GLOSSARY
I49
sQra-, s. m., hero.
ugala-, s. m., jackal.
s. m. n , rest; 0_, a., of which
only ... is left.
saila-, s. m., crag, mountain.
soka-, s. m, grief.
s. m., drying up.
gam-, become dry.
smaSlJna-, s. n., cemetery.
syena-, s. m., falcon.
Svama-, s. m., trouble.
sriJddha-, s. n., funeral feast and
gifts.
sri-, s. f., beauty, success.
Sru-, V utloti, hear; caus., inform;
des. obey.
ue$lha-, super!., most excellent.
sre$lhin-, s. m., guild master.
sloka-, s. m., strophe.
svan-, s. m., dog.
sviJSura-, a., belonging to the
father-iD-Iaw.
$al-, six.
s. f., sixty.
sao, with ...
safJ$kiJSa-, resembling ...
safJ$kruddha-, a, angered, irri-
tated.
satpgati-, s. f., meeting.
safJ$graha-, s. m., gathering.
safJSCriJma-, s m., combat, battle.
safJ$jlJta-, s. jan-.
safJ$jivana-, a., vivifying, ani-
mating.
safJ$ti1pa-, s. m., heat; pain, re-
morse, repentance.
safJ$nidhiJna-, s. n., nearness.
safJ$nihita-, a., situated in the
vicinity.
safJ$paffi-, s. f., success.
safJ$panna-, (pad-) a., finished,
provided with.
safJ$paripiJlana-, s. n., protection,
protecting.
s.
safJ$priJPta-, s. iJP-.
safJ$bandhin-, s. m., relative.
safJ$bhriJnta-, a., confused, excit-
ed.
safJ$miJrjat-, s. mrj-.
s4fJ$vtltsara-, s. m., year.
S4fJ$saya-, s. m., doubt; na s.
without doubt.
s. m., refuge, place of
-residence.
S4fJ$Snta-, a., resting on, with ref-
erence to.
safJ$skiJra-, s. m., consummation
of a sacrament, e.g., the burn-
ing of a corpse.
safJ$skrta-, a., prepared; correct.
safJ$sthita- (sthiJ-), a., baving the
shape of ... ; s. n., form, fig-
ure.
a., glad.
sakala-, a., all, entire, whole.
sakMa-, s. m, presence; abl.
from ...
sakrt, once.
saktu-, s. m., grits, groats.
sakki-, n. sing. sakhil, s. m., friend.
sakhi-, s. f., female friend.
sangha-, s. m., troop, crowd.
sajjikr-, provide with a (bow)
string.
safJj-, sajati, sajyate, sajjate, be
attached to; with iJ: p.p.p.
lJsakta-, attached to, occupied
with.
sat-, pr. part. of as-, be; also:
good.
150
GLOSSARY
satatam, continuously.
sattama-, s. sat-
sattra-, s. n., a Soma celebration.
satya-, a., true; s. n , truth
satyavacana_, s. n., promise
satvaram, quickly, most hastily.
sad-, I, sidati, sit; with ava,
despair; with a, X,
at. Something; asadya,
wIth for, in ac-
cordance wIth.
sada, always.
a., eternal, everlasting.
sanatha-, a., provided with.
saphala-, a, sUccessful.
sabhya-, a., suited for sOciety
sama-, a., equal.
samaya-, s. m., point of time,
period of time.
samara-, s. m. n., combat.
samasta-, a, whole.
samagata-, a., s gam- with sam-a.
samana-, a., equal.
samapana_, s. n, finish, end.
samapta- (ap-), a., s. n.; fiuished.
samahita- (dha- with sam-a) , a.,
brought forth.
samipa-, s. n., nearness proxim-
ity. '
samudra-, s.m., sea.
samyak, adv, quite, properly,
correctly.
Sarama-, s. f., name of the bitch
of the gods.
saras-, s. n., pool, lake.
sarga-, s. m., creation, world,
cosmos.
sarpa-, s. m., snake, serpent.
sarva-, a., whole, all, every.
sarvatra, everywhere.
sarvada, always.
savitr-, s. m., sun.
quite exactly, prefer-
ably, excellently.
sasya-, s. n., farm produce, crop.
sah-, I endure (be able).
saha, with.
saha- a., enduring.
a., inborn, to.
sahabhojana-, s. n, eatmg to-
gether.
sahas-, s. n., power .
sahasa, suddenly, immedIately.
sahasra-, s n.,
sahaya-, s. m, compamon
sahasradha, thousaudfold.
sahita-, a., united (with instr.),
together.
satftpratam, now .
satftyatrika-, s m., seafarer, sail-
or .
siiksat, adv., before the eyes, mam-
festly; in person.
siidana-, s. n., seat, dwelling.
siidh- X accomplish, settle, car-
ry bring into one's power.
siidhu-, a., good, right.
santva-, s. n , reconciliation.
Sarameya-, s. m., name of a dog;
metron of Sarama-.
siirasvata-, a., pertaining to :he
goddess of speech (SarasvatI).
sardham, together with (i.).
simha-, s. m., lion.
siiicati, sprinkle.
siddha-, a, attained.
suo, well, quite
sukha-, a., pleasant; s n, joy.
suta- s f., daughter.
a., quite virtuous.
sudhlirmika-, a., fulfilling one's
duties exactly.
GLOSSARY
151
sundara-, a., beautiful.
supta-, s. svap-.
suMiisita-, s. n., a fine utterance.
sumanas-, a., intel1igent.
sura-, s m., god
suvarcas-, a., full of vigor.
suvar1tla-, s n, gold.
suhrd-, s. m., friend
surya-, s m, sun
srj-, VI, let loose, hurl, utter;
with ud, give up, disregard;
with vi, discharge. let loose,
utter.
sf, universe, world, cos-
mos.
sena-, sf, army.
sev-, I, inhabit; serve; honor;
cherish, practice, devote one-
self to.
sainika-, s. m, soldier.
sainya-, s n., army.
skandka-, s m., shoulder.
stambha-, s. m., post, column.
stu-, II 64 VIII, praise.
stf'i-, s. f., woman
stklZ-, I, stand; with ace., carry
out something; with anu, pur-
sue, be engaged in, carry out
something; with vi-ava, stop,
be settled, be; with il, resort to,
take up; indulge in; with ud,
arise; with sam-ud, rise up;
with upa, be available or at
one's disposal; with sam-upa,
fall to one's Jot; with pra, set
out, depart; with sam, tarry.
stkita-, s. stklZ-; also: present.
sthif'a-, a., firm, resistant.
snil- H, bathe
s. i., daughter-in-Jaw.
sneka-, s. m., friendship, love
sPrs-, VI, touch; with upa, bathe.
sPka/-, X, tear up; p.p.p. burst,
sprung.
sma, slightly asseverative parti-
cle; cf. IIS I.
smita-, s. n., smiling, smile.
smr-, I, remember; with vi, for-
get.
sva-, a, own, inherent.
svap-, H, svapiti, sleep; verb adj.
supta.
svayam, self.
svara-, s. m, sound, voice.
svarga-, s. m, heaven
svasy-, s. f., sister
svildu-, a., sweet.
svanta-, s. n, the heart (as seat of
the emotions).
svamin-, s. m, lord, master
ha1'ftsa-, s. m., goose, gander
hata- (verb adj. of kan-), killed,
slain.
han-, Il, strike, hit, kill; with
aMi, strike, hit, afflict; with
aMi-a, strike; with ni, strike,
attack; WIth prati, strike back,
kill; with sam, destroy, ger.,
together
hanta, come on' go to it!
kaya-, s. m, horse.
Hara-, = Siva
Haf'i-, =
hara-, m, joy
havis-, s. n., 34, sacrificial of-
fering.
kas-, hasati, Jaugh; with apa, X,
laugh about something; with
pra, laugh out
hasta-, s. m, hand.
hastin-, s. m., elephant.
152
GLOSSARY
s. n., name of a town
or city.
hlJ.., Ill, leave; hiyate, vanish,
lose; with apa-a, s apahiiYQ.
hiitavya- grdv. ( II6 VII), what
should be avoided.
hiiliihala-, s. n, a very strong
poison.
hi, for, surely.
hita-, verb. adj. of dhii-, good,
excellent; s. n., welfare.
hitva (to hlJ..), II7, also: with
omission of.
himavat-, a., (very) snowy.
hirav.ya-, s. n., gold.
hiyate, s. hii-.
hu-, Ill, pour into the fire, sacri-
fice.
hr-, I, take, steal; with apa, take
away; with il, bring, give; with
vi-a, speak; with ud, remove
eliminate, delete.
hrta-, a., stolen, robbed.
hra-, s. n., heart.
hraaya-, s. n, heart.
Hr#kesa-, =
he, vocative interj., hi!
hemanta-, s m., winter.
hina-, a, free of, lacking (with
instr.).
Iwe- I, huayati, call.